WorldWideScience

Sample records for high biodiesel project

  1. The State High Biodiesel Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heasley, Paul L.; Van Der Sluys, William G.

    2009-01-01

    Through a collaborative project in Pennsylvania, high school students developed a method for converting batches of their cafeteria's waste fryer oil into biodiesel using a 190 L (50 gal) reactor. While the biodiesel is used to supplement the school district's heating and transportation energy needs, the byproduct--glycerol--is used to make hand…

  2. Snohomish County Biodiesel Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Terrill; Carveth, Deanna

    2010-02-01

    Snohomish County in western Washington State began converting its vehicle fleet to use a blend of biodiesel and petroleum diesel in 2005. As prices for biodiesel rose due to increased demand for this cleaner-burning fuel, Snohomish County looked to its farmers to grow this fuel locally. Suitable seed crops that can be crushed to extract oil for use as biodiesel feedstock include canola, mustard, and camelina. The residue, or mash, has high value as an animal feed. County farmers began with 52 acres of canola and mustard crops in 2006, increasing to 250 acres and 356 tons in 2008. In 2009, this number decreased to about 150 acres and 300 tons due to increased price for mustard seed.

  3. Costilla County Biodiesel Pilot Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doon, Ben; Quintana, Dan

    2011-08-25

    The Costilla County Biodiesel Pilot Project has demonstrated the compatibility of biodiesel technology and economics on a local scale. The project has been committed to making homegrown biodiesel a viable form of community economic development. The project has benefited by reducing risks by building the facility gradually and avoiding large initial outlays of money for facilities and technologies. A primary advantage of this type of community-scale biodiesel production is that it allows for a relatively independent, local solution to fuel production. Successfully using locally sourced feedstocks and putting the fuel into local use emphasizes the feasibility of different business models under the biodiesel tent and that there is more than just a one size fits all template for successful biodiesel production.

  4. Mississippi State Biodiesel Production Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafael Hernandez; Todd French; Sandun Fernando; Tingyu Li; Dwane Braasch; Juan Silva; Brian Baldwin

    2008-03-20

    tallow tree and tung tree. High seed yields from these species are possible because, there stature allows for a third dimension in yield (up). Harvest regimes have already been worked out with tung, and the large seed makes shedding of the seed with tree shakers possible. While tallow tree seed yields can be mind boggling (12,000 kg seed/ha at 40% oil), genotypes that shed seed easily are currently not known. Efficient methods were developed to isolate polyunsaturated fatty acid methyl esters from bio-diesel. The hypothesis to isolate this class of fatty acids, which are used as popular dietary supplements and prescription medicine (OMACOR), was that they bind transition metal ions much stronger than their harmful saturated analogs. AgBF4 has the highest extraction ability among all the metal ions tested. Glycerol is a key product from the production of biodiesel. It is produced during the transesterification process by cleaving the fatty acids from the glycerol backbone (the fatty acids are used as part of the biodiesel, which is a fatty acid methyl ester). Glycerol is a non-toxic compound with many uses; however, if a surplus exists in the future, more uses for the produced glycerol needs to be found. Another phase of the project was to find an add-on process to the biodiesel production process that will convert the glycerol by-product into more valuable substances for end uses other than food or cosmetics, focusing at present on 1,3-propanediol and lactic acid.All three MSU cultures produced products at concentrations below that of the benchmark microorganisms. There was one notable isolate the caught the eye of the investigators and that was culture J6 due to the ability of this microorganism to co-produce both products and one in particularly high concentrations. This culture with more understanding of its metabolic pathways could prove a useful biological agent for the conversion of glycerol. Heterogeneous catalysis was examined as an alternative to overcome the

  5. Mississippi State Biodiesel Production Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafael Hernandez; Todd French; Sandun Fernando; Tingyu Li; Dwane Braasch; Juan Silva; Brian Baldwin

    2008-03-20

    tallow tree and tung tree. High seed yields from these species are possible because, there stature allows for a third dimension in yield (up). Harvest regimes have already been worked out with tung, and the large seed makes shedding of the seed with tree shakers possible. While tallow tree seed yields can be mind boggling (12,000 kg seed/ha at 40% oil), genotypes that shed seed easily are currently not known. Efficient methods were developed to isolate polyunsaturated fatty acid methyl esters from bio-diesel. The hypothesis to isolate this class of fatty acids, which are used as popular dietary supplements and prescription medicine (OMACOR), was that they bind transition metal ions much stronger than their harmful saturated analogs. AgBF4 has the highest extraction ability among all the metal ions tested. Glycerol is a key product from the production of biodiesel. It is produced during the transesterification process by cleaving the fatty acids from the glycerol backbone (the fatty acids are used as part of the biodiesel, which is a fatty acid methyl ester). Glycerol is a non-toxic compound with many uses; however, if a surplus exists in the future, more uses for the produced glycerol needs to be found. Another phase of the project was to find an add-on process to the biodiesel production process that will convert the glycerol by-product into more valuable substances for end uses other than food or cosmetics, focusing at present on 1,3-propanediol and lactic acid.All three MSU cultures produced products at concentrations below that of the benchmark microorganisms. There was one notable isolate the caught the eye of the investigators and that was culture J6 due to the ability of this microorganism to co-produce both products and one in particularly high concentrations. This culture with more understanding of its metabolic pathways could prove a useful biological agent for the conversion of glycerol. Heterogeneous catalysis was examined as an alternative to overcome the

  6. WSF Biodiesel Demonstration Project Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington State University; University of Idaho; The Glosten Associates, Inc.; Imperium Renewables, Inc.

    2009-04-30

    In 2004, WSF canceled a biodiesel fuel test because of “product quality issues” that caused the fuel purifiers to clog. The cancelation of this test and the poor results negatively impacted the use of biodiesel in marine application in the Pacific Northwest. In 2006, The U.S. Department of Energy awarded the Puget Sound Clean Air Agency a grant to manage a scientific study investigating appropriate fuel specifications for biodiesel, fuel handling procedures and to conduct a fuel test using biodiesel fuels in WSF operations. The Agency put together a project team comprised of experts in fields of biodiesel research and analysis, biodiesel production, marine engineering and WSF personnel. The team reviewed biodiesel technical papers, reviewed the 2004 fuel test results, designed a fuel test plan and provided technical assistance during the test. The research reviewed the available information on the 2004 fuel test and conducted mock laboratory experiments, but was not able to determine why the fuel filters clogged. The team then conducted a literature review and designed a fuel test plan. The team implemented a controlled introduction of biodiesel fuels to the test vessels while monitoring the environmental conditions on the vessels and checking fuel quality throughout the fuel distribution system. The fuel test was conducted on the same three vessels that participated in the canceled 2004 test using the same ferry routes. Each vessel used biodiesel produced from a different feedstock (i.e. soy, canola and yellow grease). The vessels all ran on ultra low sulfur diesel blended with biodiesel. The percentage of biodiesel was incrementally raised form from 5 to 20 percent. Once the vessels reached the 20 percent level, they continued at this blend ratio for the remainder of the test. Fuel samples were taken from the fuel manufacturer, during fueling operations and at several points onboard each vessel. WSF Engineers monitored the performance of the fuel systems and

  7. A Decision Support System (DSS) for Project Management in the Bio-diesel Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Alin Paul OLTEANU

    2011-01-01

    The European biodiesel industry is currently facing several challenges affecting the profitability of investment projects in the industry. Among these challenges are higher prices for oilseeds, which are the main input for biodiesel production, lower fiscal support by national governments for biodiesel producers and high price volatility of oil markets. Thus identifying all opportunities for optimizing the value chain and lower the production cost of biodiesel is a main requirement for an eff...

  8. Biodiesel/Aquatic Species Project report, FY 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L.; Jarvis, E.; Dunahay, T.; Roessler, P.; Zeiler, K. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Sprague, S. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-05-01

    The primary goal of the Biodiesel/Aquatic Species Project is to develop the technology for growing microalgae as a renewable biomass feedstock for the production of a diesel fuel substitute (biodiesel), thereby reducing the need for imported petroleum. Microalgae are of interest as a feedstock because of their high growth rates and tolerance to varying environmental conditions, and because the oils (lipids) they produce can be extracted and converted to substitute petroleum fuels such as biodiesel. Microalgae can be grown in arid and semi-arid regions with poor soil quality, and saline water from aquifers or the ocean can be used for growing microalgae. Biodiesel is an extremely attractive candidate to fulfill the need for a diesel fuel substitute. Biodiesel is a cleaner fuel than petroleum diesel; it is virtually free of sulfur, and emissions of hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and particulates during combustion are significantly reduced in comparison to emissions from petroleum diesel. Biodiesel provides essentially the same energy content and power output as petroleum-based diesel fuel.

  9. Brown Grease to Biodiesel Demonstration Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Francisco Public Utilities Commission; URS Corporation; Biofuels, Blackgold; Carollo Engineers

    2013-01-30

    Municipal wastewater treatment facilities have typically been limited to the role of accepting wastewater, treating it to required levels, and disposing of its treatment residuals. However, a new view is emerging which includes wastewater treatment facilities as regional resource recovery centers. This view is a direct result of increasingly stringent regulations, concerns over energy use, carbon footprint, and worldwide depletion of fossil fuel resources. Resources in wastewater include chemical and thermal energy, as well as nutrients, and water. A waste stream such as residual grease, which concentrates in the drainage from restaurants (referred to as Trap Waste), is a good example of a resource with an energy content that can be recovered for beneficial reuse. If left in wastewater, grease accumulates inside of the wastewater collection system and can lead to increased corrosion and pipe blockages that can cause wastewater overflows. Also, grease in wastewater that arrives at the treatment facility can impair the operation of preliminary treatment equipment and is only partly removed in the primary treatment process. In addition, residual grease increases the demand in treatment materials such as oxygen in the secondary treatment process. When disposed of in landfills, grease is likely to undergo anaerobic decay prior to landfill capping, resulting in the atmospheric release of methane, a greenhouse gas (GHG). This research project was therefore conceptualized and implemented by the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission (SFPUC) to test the feasibility of energy recovery from Trap Waste in the form of Biodiesel or Methane gas. The research goals are given below: To validate technology performance; To determine the costs and benefits [including economic, socioeconomic, and GHG emissions reduction] associated with co-locating this type of operation at a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP); To develop a business case or model for replication of the

  10. Biodiesel Projects Helpful to Ease Energy Shortage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Nearly 7,000 hectares of biodiesel forest will take shape in the northern province of Hebei in 2008, part of a national campaign to fuel the fast growing economy in a green way. In no more than five years, the Pistacia chinensis Bunge, whose seeds have an oil content of up to 40 percent, will yield five tons of fruit and contribute about two tons of high-quality biological diesel oil,according to the provincial forestry administration.

  11. Connecticut Biodiesel Power Generation Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grannis, Lee [Greater New Haven Clean Cities Coalition, Bethany, CT (United States); York, Carla R. [Greater New Haven Clean Cities Coalition, Bethany, CT (United States)

    2010-10-31

    Sabre will continue support of the emissions equipment and VARS issues to ensure all are resolved and the system is functioning as expected. The remote data collection to become more automated. Final project reports for data collection and system performance to be generated. Sabre continued to support the emissions equipment and VARS issues to ensure all are resolved and the system is functioning as expected. The remote data collection became more automated. Final project reports for data collection and system performance were generated and are part of this final report. Some Systems Sensors were replaced due to a lightning strike. Sample data charts are shown at the end of the report. During the project, Sabre Engineering provided support to the project team with regarding to troubleshooting technical issues and system integration with the local power utility company. The resulting lessons learned through Sabre’s participation in the project have been valuable to the integrity of the data collected as well as in providing BioPur Light & Power valuable insights into future operations and planning for possible expansion. The system monitoring and data collection system has been operating as designed and continues to provide relevant information to the system operators. The information routinely gathered automatically by the system also contributes to the REN and REC validations which are required to secure credit for these items. During the quarter, the remaining work on the operations and safety manual were completed and released for publication after screen shots were verified. The goal of this effort to provide an accurate set of precautions and procedures for the technology system that can be replicated to other similar system.

  12. Messiah College Biodiesel Fuel Generation Project Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zummo, Michael M; Munson, J; Derr, A; Zemple, T; Bray, S; Studer, B; Miller, J; Beckler, J; Hahn, A; Martinez, P; Herndon, B; Lee, T; Newswanger, T; Wassall, M

    2012-03-30

    Many obvious and significant concerns arise when considering the concept of small-scale biodiesel production. Does the fuel produced meet the stringent requirements set by the commercial biodiesel industry? Is the process safe? How are small-scale producers collecting and transporting waste vegetable oil? How is waste from the biodiesel production process handled by small-scale producers? These concerns and many others were the focus of the research preformed in the Messiah College Biodiesel Fuel Generation project over the last three years. This project was a unique research program in which undergraduate engineering students at Messiah College set out to research the feasibility of small-biodiesel production for application on a campus of approximately 3000 students. This Department of Energy (DOE) funded research program developed out of almost a decade of small-scale biodiesel research and development work performed by students at Messiah College. Over the course of the last three years the research team focused on four key areas related to small-scale biodiesel production: Quality Testing and Assurance, Process and Processor Research, Process and Processor Development, and Community Education. The objectives for the Messiah College Biodiesel Fuel Generation Project included the following: 1. Preparing a laboratory facility for the development and optimization of processors and processes, ASTM quality assurance, and performance testing of biodiesel fuels. 2. Developing scalable processor and process designs suitable for ASTM certifiable small-scale biodiesel production, with the goals of cost reduction and increased quality. 3. Conduct research into biodiesel process improvement and cost optimization using various biodiesel feedstocks and production ingredients.

  13. Western Kentucky University Research Foundation Biodiesel Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Wei-Ping [Principal Investigator; Cao, Yan [Co-Principal Investigator

    2013-03-15

    Petroleum-based liquid hydrocarbons is exclusively major energy source in the transportation sector. Thus, it is the major CO{sub 2} source which is the associated with greenhouse effect. In the United States alone, petroleum consumption in the transportation sector approaches 13.8 million barrels per day (Mbbl/d). It is corresponding to a release of 0.53 gigatons of carbon per year (GtC/yr), which accounts for approximate 7.6 % of the current global release of CO{sub 2} from all of the fossil fuel usage (7 GtC/yr). For the long term, the conventional petroleum production is predicted to peak in as little as the next 10 years to as high as the next 50 years. Negative environmental consequences, the frequently roaring petroleum prices, increasing petroleum utilization and concerns about competitive supplies of petroleum have driven dramatic interest in producing alternative transportation fuels, such as electricity-based, hydrogen-based and bio-based transportation alternative fuels. Use of either of electricity-based or hydrogen-based alternative energy in the transportation sector is currently laden with technical and economical challenges. The current energy density of commercial batteries is 175 Wh/kg of battery. At a storage pressure of 680 atm, the lower heating value (LHV) of H{sub 2} is 1.32 kWh/liter. In contrast, the corresponding energy density for gasoline can reach as high as 8.88 kWh/liter. Furthermore, the convenience of using a liquid hydrocarbon fuel through the existing infrastructures is a big deterrent to replacement by both batteries and hydrogen. Biomass-derived ethanol and bio-diesel (biofuels) can be two promising and predominant U.S. alternative transportation fuels. Both their energy densities and physical properties are comparable to their relatives of petroleum-based gasoline and diesel, however, biofuels are significantly environmental-benign. Ethanol can be made from the sugar-based or starch-based biomass materials, which is easily

  14. Brown Grease to Biodiesel Demonstration Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Francisco Public Utilities Commission; URS Corporation; Biofuels, Blackgold; Carollo Engineers

    2013-01-30

    Municipal wastewater treatment facilities have typically been limited to the role of accepting wastewater, treating it to required levels, and disposing of its treatment residuals. However, a new view is emerging which includes wastewater treatment facilities as regional resource recovery centers. This view is a direct result of increasingly stringent regulations, concerns over energy use, carbon footprint, and worldwide depletion of fossil fuel resources. Resources in wastewater include chemical and thermal energy, as well as nutrients, and water. A waste stream such as residual grease, which concentrates in the drainage from restaurants (referred to as Trap Waste), is a good example of a resource with an energy content that can be recovered for beneficial reuse. If left in wastewater, grease accumulates inside of the wastewater collection system and can lead to increased corrosion and pipe blockages that can cause wastewater overflows. Also, grease in wastewater that arrives at the treatment facility can impair the operation of preliminary treatment equipment and is only partly removed in the primary treatment process. In addition, residual grease increases the demand in treatment materials such as oxygen in the secondary treatment process. When disposed of in landfills, grease is likely to undergo anaerobic decay prior to landfill capping, resulting in the atmospheric release of methane, a greenhouse gas (GHG). This research project was therefore conceptualized and implemented by the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission (SFPUC) to test the feasibility of energy recovery from Trap Waste in the form of Biodiesel or Methane gas. The research goals are given below: To validate technology performance; To determine the costs and benefits [including economic, socioeconomic, and GHG emissions reduction] associated with co-locating this type of operation at a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP); To develop a business case or model for replication of the

  15. Mont-Tremblant biodiesel project : feasibility study; Projet biodiesel Mont-Tremblant : etude de faisabilite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagace, C. [Groupe Sine Nomine, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Lamy, V.; Lapointe, L.; Pilon, B. [CEGEP de Saint-Jerome, Saint-Jerome, PQ (Canada). Inst. du transport avance du Quebec, ITAQ

    2008-08-15

    The growing interest in biodiesel can be attributed to concerns regarding climate change, environmental protection and sustainable development. Biodiesel produced from biomass is a renewable energy source that can replace fossil fuels and help reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The City of Mont-Tremblant commissioned a pilot study to determine the feasibility of integrating 20 per cent biodiesel (B20) in city fleet vehicles and school buses. The study focused on the use of biodiesel fuel under winter conditions. The fleet vehicles were analyzed and various strategies for integrating biodiesel mixtures by type and concentration were proposed. The feasibility study also investigated different types of petrodiesel such as Nordic type, seasonal type and kerosene. The effects of an electrical thermal management system were also investigated along with the use of additives. Various laboratory tests were performed in a controlled climate chamber to validate potential solutions. Finally, the study measured the impacts of likely solutions, and proposed 4 different scenarios for the use of biodiesel for the region of Mont-Tremblant. The study showed that it is possible to use B20 year-round, provided that certain conditions are met. The pilot project will also evaluate changes to storage infrastructure that may be needed for storing B20 in winter. 5 tabs., 10 figs., 2 appendices.

  16. Western Kentucky University Research Foundation Biodiesel Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Wei-Ping [Principal Investigator; Cao, Yan [Co-Principal Investigator

    2013-03-15

    Petroleum-based liquid hydrocarbons is exclusively major energy source in the transportation sector. Thus, it is the major CO{sub 2} source which is the associated with greenhouse effect. In the United States alone, petroleum consumption in the transportation sector approaches 13.8 million barrels per day (Mbbl/d). It is corresponding to a release of 0.53 gigatons of carbon per year (GtC/yr), which accounts for approximate 7.6 % of the current global release of CO{sub 2} from all of the fossil fuel usage (7 GtC/yr). For the long term, the conventional petroleum production is predicted to peak in as little as the next 10 years to as high as the next 50 years. Negative environmental consequences, the frequently roaring petroleum prices, increasing petroleum utilization and concerns about competitive supplies of petroleum have driven dramatic interest in producing alternative transportation fuels, such as electricity-based, hydrogen-based and bio-based transportation alternative fuels. Use of either of electricity-based or hydrogen-based alternative energy in the transportation sector is currently laden with technical and economical challenges. The current energy density of commercial batteries is 175 Wh/kg of battery. At a storage pressure of 680 atm, the lower heating value (LHV) of H{sub 2} is 1.32 kWh/liter. In contrast, the corresponding energy density for gasoline can reach as high as 8.88 kWh/liter. Furthermore, the convenience of using a liquid hydrocarbon fuel through the existing infrastructures is a big deterrent to replacement by both batteries and hydrogen. Biomass-derived ethanol and bio-diesel (biofuels) can be two promising and predominant U.S. alternative transportation fuels. Both their energy densities and physical properties are comparable to their relatives of petroleum-based gasoline and diesel, however, biofuels are significantly environmental-benign. Ethanol can be made from the sugar-based or starch-based biomass materials, which is easily

  17. Alabama Institute for Deaf and Blind Biodiesel Project Green

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edmiston, Jessica L

    2012-09-28

    Through extensive collaboration, Alabama Institute for Deaf and Blind (AIDB) is Alabama's first educational entity to initiate a biodiesel public education, student training and production program, Project Green. With state and national replication potential, Project Green benefits local businesses and city infrastructures within a 120-mile radius; provides alternative education to Alabama school systems and to schools for the deaf and blind in Appalachian States; trains students with sensory and/or multiple disabilities in the acquisition and production of biodiesel; and educates the external public on alternative fuels benefits.

  18. Landfill gas, canola, and biodiesel. Working towards a sustainable system [Snohomish County Biodiesel Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Terrill; Carveth, Deanna

    2010-02-01

    Snohomish County in western Washington State began converting its vehicle fleet to use a blend of biodiesel and petroleum diesel in 2005. As prices for biodiesel rose due to increased demand for this cleaner-burning fuel, Snohomish County looked to its farmers to grow this fuel locally. Suitable seed crops that can be crushed to extract oil for use as biodiesel feedstock include canola, mustard, and camelina. The residue, or mash, has high value as an animal feed. County farmers began with 52 acres of canola and mustard crops in 2006, increasing to 250 acres and 356 tons in 2008. In 2009, this number decreased to about 150 acres and 300 tons due to increased price for mustard seed.

  19. Biodiesel from aquatic species. Project report: FY 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L.M.; Sprague, S.; Jarvis, E.E.; Dunahay, T.G.; Roessler, P.G.; Zeiler, K.G.

    1994-01-01

    Researchers in the Biodiesel/Aquatic Species Project focus on the use of microalgae as a feedstock for producing renewable, high-energy liquid fuels. The program`s basic premise is that microalgae, which have been called the most productive biochemical factories in the world, can produce up to 30 times more oil per unit of growth area than land plants. It is estimated that 150 to 400 barrels of oil per acre per year (0.06 to 0.16 million liters/hectar) could be produced with microalgal oil technology. Initial commercialization of this technology is envisioned for the desert Southwest because this area provides high solar radiation and offers flat land that has few competing uses (hence low land costs). Similarly, there are large saline aquifers with few competing uses in the region. This water source could provide a suitable, low-cost medium for the growth of many microalgae. The primary area of research during FY 1993 was the effort to genetically improve microalgae in order to control the timing and magnitude of lipid accumulation. Increased lipid content will have a direct effect on fuel price, and the control of lipid content is a major project goal. The paper describes progress on the following: culture collection; molecular biology of lipid biosynthesis; microalgal transformation; and environmental, safety, and health and quality assurance.

  20. Missouri Soybean Association Biodiesel Demonstration Project: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, Dale [Missouri Soybean Association, Jefferson City, MO (United States); Hamilton, Jill [Sustainable Energy Strategies, Inc., Fairfax, VA (United States)

    2011-10-27

    The Missouri Soybean Association (MSA) and the National Biodiesel Board (NBB) partnered together to implement the MSA Biodiesel Demonstration project under a United States Department of Energy (DOE) grant. The goal of this project was to provide decision makers and fleet managers with information that could lead to the increased use of domestically produced renewable fuels and could reduce the harmful impacts of school bus diesel exhaust on children. This project was initiated in September 2004 and completed in April 2011. The project carried out a broad range of activities organized under four areas: 1. Petroleum and related industry education program for fuel suppliers; 2. Fleet evaluation program using B20 with a Missouri school district; 3. Outreach and awareness campaign for school district fleet managers; and 4. Support of ongoing B20 Fleet Evaluation Team (FET) data collection efforts with existing school districts. Technical support to the biodiesel industry was also provided through NBB’s Troubleshooting Hotline. The hotline program was established in 2008 to troubleshoot fuel quality issues and help facilitate smooth implementation of the RFS and is described in greater detail under Milestone A.1 - Promote Instruction and Guidance on Best Practices. As a result of this project’s efforts, MSA and NBB were able to successfully reach out to and support a broad spectrum of biodiesel users in Missouri and New England. The MSA Biodiesel Demonstration was funded through a FY2004 Renewable Energy Resources Congressional earmark. The initial focus of this project was to test and evaluate biodiesel blends coupled with diesel oxidation catalysts as an emissions reduction technology for school bus fleets in the United States. The project was designed to verify emissions reductions using Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) protocols, then document – with school bus fleet experience – the viability of utilizing B20 blends. The fleet experience was expected to

  1. High-level expression and characterization of a chimeric lipase from Rhizopus oryzae for biodiesel production

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Xiao-Wei; Sha, Chong; Guo, Yong-Liang; Xiao, Rong; Xu, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Background Production of biodiesel from non-edible oils is receiving increasing attention. Tung oil, called “China wood oil” is one kind of promising non-edible biodiesel oil in China. To our knowledge, tung oil has not been used to produce biodiesel by enzymatic method. The enzymatic production of biodiesel has been investigated extensively by using Rhizopus oryzae lipase as catalyst. However, the high cost of R. oryzae lipase remains a barrier for its industrial applications. Through differ...

  2. Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of High Injection Pressure Blended Biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Amir; Jaat, Norrizam; Faisal Hushim, Mohd; Manshoor, Bukhari; Zaman, Izzuddin; Sapit, Azwan; Razali, Azahari

    2017-08-01

    Biodiesel have great potential for substitution with petrol fuel for the purpose of achieving clean energy production and emission reduction. Among the methods that can control the combustion properties, controlling of the fuel injection conditions is one of the successful methods. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of high injection pressure of biodiesel blends on spray characteristics using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Injection pressure was observed at 220 MPa, 250 MPa and 280 MPa. The ambient temperature was kept held at 1050 K and ambient pressure 8 MPa in order to simulate the effect of boost pressure or turbo charger during combustion process. Computational Fluid Dynamics were used to investigate the spray characteristics of biodiesel blends such as spray penetration length, spray angle and mixture formation of fuel-air mixing. The results shows that increases of injection pressure, wider spray angle is produced by biodiesel blends and diesel fuel. The injection pressure strongly affects the mixture formation, characteristics of fuel spray, longer spray penetration length thus promotes the fuel and air mixing.

  3. High Lipid Induction in Microalgae for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peer M. Schenk

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Oil-accumulating microalgae have the potential to enable large-scale biodiesel production without competing for arable land or biodiverse natural landscapes. High lipid productivity of dominant, fast-growing algae is a major prerequisite for commercial production of microalgal oil-derived biodiesel. However, under optimal growth conditions, large amounts of algal biomass are produced, but with relatively low lipid contents, while species with high lipid contents are typically slow growing. Major advances in this area can be made through the induction of lipid biosynthesis, e.g., by environmental stresses. Lipids, in the form of triacylglycerides typically provide a storage function in the cell that enables microalgae to endure adverse environmental conditions. Essentially algal biomass and triacylglycerides compete for photosynthetic assimilate and a reprogramming of physiological pathways is required to stimulate lipid biosynthesis. There has been a wide range of studies carried out to identify and develop efficient lipid induction techniques in microalgae such as nutrients stress (e.g., nitrogen and/or phosphorus starvation, osmotic stress, radiation, pH, temperature, heavy metals and other chemicals. In addition, several genetic strategies for increased triacylglycerides production and inducibility are currently being developed. In this review, we discuss the potential of lipid induction techniques in microalgae and also their application at commercial scale for the production of biodiesel.

  4. Biodiesel and Integrated STEM: Vertical Alignment of High School Biology/Biochemistry and Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Andrea C.; Breiner, Jonathan M.; Keiner, Jennifer; Behm, Chris

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the vertical alignment of two high school classes, biology and chemistry, around the core concept of biodiesel fuel production. High school teachers and university faculty members investigated biodiesel as it relates to societal impact through a National Science Foundation Research Experience for Teachers. Using an action…

  5. A NOVEL OLEAGINOUS YEAST STRAIN WITH HIGH LIPID PRODUCTIVITY AND ITS APPLICATION TO ALTERNATIVE BIODIESEL PRODUCTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areesirisuk, A; Chiu, C H; Yen, T B; Liu, C H; Guo, J H

    2015-01-01

    Five lipid-producing yeast strains, CHC08, CHC11, CHC28, CHC34, and CHC35, were revealed by Sudan Black B staining to contain lipid droplets within cells. Molecular analysis demonstrated that they were 2 strains of Candida parapsilosis, Pseudozyma parantarctica, Pichia manshurica, and Pichia occidentalis. Following batch fermentation, P. parantarctica CHC28 was found to have the highest biomass concentration, total lipids and lipid content levels. The major fatty acids in the lipids of this yeast strain were C16 and C18. Predictions of the properties of yeast biodiesel using linear equations resulted in values similar to biodiesel made from plant oils. Preliminary production of yeast biodiesel from P. parantarctica CHC28 was accomplished through esterification and transesterification reactions. It was found that yeast lipids with high acid value are easily converted to biodiesel at an approximately 90% yield. Therefore, it is possible to use crude lipids as alternative raw materials for biodiesel production.

  6. Final report on LDRD project : biodiesel production from vegetable oils using slit-channel reactors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalu, E. Eric (FAMU-FSU College of Engineering, Tallahassee, FL); Chen, Ken Shuang

    2008-01-01

    This report documents work done for a late-start LDRD project, which was carried out during the last quarter of FY07. The objective of this project was to experimentally explore the feasibility of converting vegetable (e.g., soybean) oils to biodiesel by employing slit-channel reactors and solid catalysts. We first designed and fabricated several slit-channel reactors with varying channel depths, and employed them to investigate the improved performance of slit-channel reactors over traditional batch reactors using a NaOH liquid catalyst. We then evaluated the effectiveness of several solid catalysts, including CaO, ZnO, MgO, ZrO{sub 2}, calcium gluconate, and heteropolyacid or HPA (Cs{sub 2.5}H{sub 0.5}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}), for catalyzing the soybean oil-to-biodiesel transesterification reaction. We found that the slit-channel reactor performance improves as channel depth decreases, as expected; and the conversion efficiency of a slit-channel reactor is significantly higher when its channel is very shallow. We further confirmed CaO as having the highest catalytic activity among the solid catalysts tested, and we demonstrated for the first time calcium gluconate as a promising solid catalyst for converting soybean oil to biodiesel, based on our preliminary batch-mode conversion experiments.

  7. Biodiesel production from algae oil high in free fatty acids by two-step catalytic conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Liu, Tianzhong; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Xiaolin; Wang, Junfeng

    2012-05-01

    The effect of storage temperature and time on lipid composition of Scenedesmus sp. was studied. When stored at 4°C or higher, the free fatty acid content in the wet biomass increased from a trace to 62.0% by day 4. Using two-step catalytic conversion, algae oil with a high free fatty acid content was converted to biodiesel by pre-esterification and transesterification. The conversion rate of triacylglycerols reached 100% under the methanol to oil molar ratio of 12:1 during catalysis with 2% potassium hydroxide at 65°C for 30 min. This process was scaled up to produce biodiesel from Scenedesmus sp. and Nannochloropsis sp. oil. The crude biodiesel was purified using bleaching earth. Except for moisture content, the biodiesel conformed to Chinese National Standards.

  8. Synthesis of High-Quality Biodiesel Using Feedstock and Catalyst Derived from Fish Wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhu, Devarapaga; Arora, Rajan; Sahani, Shalini; Singh, Veena; Sharma, Yogesh Chandra

    2017-03-15

    A low-cost and high-purity calcium oxide (CaO) was prepared from waste crab shells, which were extracted from the dead crabs, was used as an efficient solid base catalyst in the synthesis of biodiesel. Raw fish oil was extracted from waste parts of fish through mechanical expeller followed by solvent extraction. Physical as well as chemical properties of raw fish oil were studied, and its free fatty acid composition was analyzed with GC-MS. Stable and high-purity CaO was obtained when the material was calcined at 800 °C for 4 h. Prepared catalyst was characterized by XRD, FT-IR, and TGA/DTA. The surface structure of the catalyst was analyzed with SEM, and elemental composition was determined by EDX spectra. Esterification followed by transesterification reactions were conducted for the synthesis of biodiesel. The effect of cosolvent on biodiesel yield was studied in each experiment using different solvents such as toluene, diethyl ether, hexane, tetrahydrofuran, and acetone. High-quality and pure biodiesel was synthesized and characterized by (1)H NMR and FT-IR. Biodiesel yield was affected by parameters such as reaction temperature, reaction time, molar ratio (methanol:oil), and catalyst loading. Properties of synthesized biodiesel such as density, kinematic viscosity, and cloud point were determined according to ASTM standards. Reusability of prepared CaO catalyst was checked, and the catalyst was found to be stable up to five runs without significant loss of catalytic activity.

  9. Screening analysis of biodiesel feedstock using UV-vis, NIR and synchronous fluorescence spectrometries and the successive projections algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insausti, Matías; Gomes, Adriano A; Cruz, Fernanda V; Pistonesi, Marcelo F; Araujo, Mario C U; Galvão, Roberto K H; Pereira, Claudete F; Band, Beatriz S F

    2012-08-15

    This paper investigates the use of UV-vis, near infrared (NIR) and synchronous fluorescence (SF) spectrometries coupled with multivariate classification methods to discriminate biodiesel samples with respect to the base oil employed in their production. More specifically, the present work extends previous studies by investigating the discrimination of corn-based biodiesel from two other biodiesel types (sunflower and soybean). Two classification methods are compared, namely full-spectrum SIMCA (soft independent modelling of class analogies) and SPA-LDA (linear discriminant analysis with variables selected by the successive projections algorithm). Regardless of the spectrometric technique employed, full-spectrum SIMCA did not provide an appropriate discrimination of the three biodiesel types. In contrast, all samples were correctly classified on the basis of a reduced number of wavelengths selected by SPA-LDA. It can be concluded that UV-vis, NIR and SF spectrometries can be successfully employed to discriminate corn-based biodiesel from the two other biodiesel types, but wavelength selection by SPA-LDA is key to the proper separation of the classes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Producing biodiesel from yellow greases with high free fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrani Mahacine

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is a diesel replacement fuel that is manufactured from vegetable oils recycled cooking greases and oils or animal fats. Biodiesel offers many advantages because it is renewable, nontoxic, biodegradable, and suitable for sensitive environments. It can also be used in most diesel equipments with no or only minor modifications. These yellow greases contain great quantities of free fatty acids which form soaps in the presence of alkaline catalyst. Pretreatments of the raw material with acid catalysts are necessary to avoid the soap formation. The transesterification of yellow greases is supplemented in the presence of an alkaline catalyst. The greatest production of biodiesel corresponds to molar flows of 4.985 kmol.hr-1 of methyl oleate, and 4.658 kmol.hr-1 of methyl butyrate.

  11. High performance catalytic distillation using CNTs-based holistic catalyst for production of high quality biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongdong; Wei, Dali; Li, Qi; Ge, Xin; Guo, Xuefeng; Xie, Zaiku; Ding, Weiping

    2014-01-01

    For production of biodiesel from bio oils by heterogeneous catalysis, high performance catalysts of transesterification and the further utilization of glycerol have been the two points of research. The process seemed easy, however, has never been well established. Here we report a novel design of catalytic distillation using hierachically integrated CNTs-based holistic catalyst to figure out the two points in one process, which shows high performance both for the conversion of bio oils to biodiesel and, unexpectedly, for the conversion of glycerol to more valuable chemicals at the same time. The method, with integration of nano, meso to macro reactor, has overwhelming advantages over common technologies using liquid acids or bases to catalyze the reactions, which suffer from the high cost of separation and unsolved utilization of glycerol. PMID:24503897

  12. High performance catalytic distillation using CNTs-based holistic catalyst for production of high quality biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongdong; Wei, Dali; Li, Qi; Ge, Xin; Guo, Xuefeng; Xie, Zaiku; Ding, Weiping

    2014-02-01

    For production of biodiesel from bio oils by heterogeneous catalysis, high performance catalysts of transesterification and the further utilization of glycerol have been the two points of research. The process seemed easy, however, has never been well established. Here we report a novel design of catalytic distillation using hierachically integrated CNTs-based holistic catalyst to figure out the two points in one process, which shows high performance both for the conversion of bio oils to biodiesel and, unexpectedly, for the conversion of glycerol to more valuable chemicals at the same time. The method, with integration of nano, meso to macro reactor, has overwhelming advantages over common technologies using liquid acids or bases to catalyze the reactions, which suffer from the high cost of separation and unsolved utilization of glycerol.

  13. Soybean Oil: Powering a High School Investigation of Biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Rosa, Paul; Azurin, Katherine A.; Page, Michael F. Z.

    2014-01-01

    This laboratory investigation challenges students to synthesize, analyze, and compare viable alternative fuels to Diesel No. 2 using a renewable resource, as well as readily available reagents and supplies. During the experiment, students synthesized biodiesel from soybean oil in an average percent yield of 83.8 ± 6.3%. They then prepared fuel…

  14. One-step production of biodiesel from oils with high acid value by activated Mg-Al hydrotalcite nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Tong; Fang, Zhen; Zhang, Fan; Xue, Bao-Jin

    2015-10-01

    Activated Mg-Al hydrotalcite (HT-Ca) nanoparticles (86%). It was further found that it can resist free fatty acids, and biodiesel yield reached 92.9% from soybean oil with high AV of 12.1. HT-Ca catalyst showed a potential practical application for direct production of biodiesel from oils with high AV without pretreatment.

  15. High oleic sunflower biodiesel: quality control and different purification methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pighinelli, Anna L.M.T.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work is to evaluate the production of biodiesel using ethanol and sunflower oil. The extraction of the sunflower oil was evaluated first. An experimental design was used to estimate the influence of the independent variables grain temperature (25º to 110ºC and expeller rotation (85 to 119rpm on the crude oil. The best result obtained was 68.38%, achieved with a rotation from 100 to 115rpm, grain temperature ranging from 25º to 30ºC and moisture content of around 7%. The next study consisted of transesterification, evaluating the influence of the ethanol, oil molar ratio and the catalyst concentration (sodium methylate on the ester-rich phase yield. The highest yield was 98.39% obtained with a molar ratio of 9:1 and 3% catalyst. An experiment was then carried out on a small reactor and the biodiesel produced was purified by three different methods: acidified water, silica and distillation. The quality aspects of the purified biodiesel samples were evaluated according to the Brazilian specifications for biodiesel, and distillation was shown to be the best method of purification.

    El objetivo del presente trabajo es evaluar la producción de biodiesel usando etanol y aceite de girasol. La extracción del aceite de girasol fue evaluada primero. Un diseño experimental fue usado para estimar la influencia de las variables independientes: temperatura del grano (25º a 110ºC y rotación del expeller (85 a 119 rpm en la obtención del aceite crudo. El mejor resultado obtenido fue un 68,38%, conseguido con una rotación de 100 a 115 rpm, una temperatura del grano de 25º a 30ºC y un contenido de humedad de alrededor del 7%. El siguiente estudio mediante transesterificación, evaluó la influencia de la relación molar etanol: aceite y concentración de catalizador (metilato sódico en el rendimiento de la fase rica en esteres. El rendimiento más alto fue 98,39% obtenido con una relación molar de 9.1 y 3% de

  16. Fast Synthesis of High Quality Biodiesel from ‘Waste Fish Oil’ by Single Step Transesterification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogesh C. Sharma

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A large volume of fish wastes is produced on a daily basis in the Indian sub-continent. This abundant waste source could serve as an economic feedstock for bioenergy generation. In the present study, oil extracted from discarded fish parts was used for high quality biodiesel production. More specifically, a single step transesterification of ‘waste fishoil’ with methanol using sodium methoxide (CH3ONa as homogeneous catalyst under moderate operational conditions resulted in highly pure biodiesel of > 98% of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME content. Characterization was performed by Fourier Transform-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (FT-NMR.

  17. Soot measurements for diesel and biodiesel spray combustion under high temperature highly diluted ambient conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ji

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents the soot temperature and KL factor for biodiesel, namely fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) and diesel fuel combustion in a constant volume chamber using a two-color technique. The KL factor is a parameter for soot concentration, where K is an absorption coefficient and proportional to the number density of soot particles, L is the geometric thickness of the flame along the optical detection axis, and KL factor is proportional to soot volume fraction. The main objective is to explore a combustion regime called high-temperature and highly-diluted combustion (HTHDC) and compare it with the conventional and low-temperature combustion (LTC) modes. The three different combustion regimes are implemented under different ambient temperatures (800 K, 1000 K, and 1400 K) and ambient oxygen concentrations (10%, 15%, and 21%). Results are presented in terms of soot temperature and KL factor images, time-resolved pixel-averaged soot temperature, KL factor, and spatially integrated KL factor over the soot area. The time-averaged results for these three regimes are compared for both diesel and biodiesel fuels. Results show complex combined effects of the ambient temperature and oxygen concentration, and that two-color temperature for the HTHDC mode at the 10% oxygen level can actually be lower than the conventional mode. Increasing ambient oxygen and temperature increases soot temperature. Diesel fuel results in higher soot temperature than biodiesel for all three regimes. Results also show that diesel and biodiesel fuels have very different burning and sooting behavior under the three different combustion regimes. For diesel fuel, the HTHDC regime offers better results in terms of lower soot than the conventional and LTC regimes, and the 10% O2, 1400 K ambient condition shows the lowest soot concentration while maintaining a moderate two-color temperature. For biodiesel, the 15% O2, 800 K ambient condition shows some advantages in terms of reducing soot

  18. Biodiesel Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putzig, Mollie [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-04

    This fact sheet (updated for 2017) provides a brief introduction to biodiesel, including a discussion of biodiesel blends, which blends are best for which vehicles, where to buy biodiesel, how biodiesel compares to diesel fuel in terms of performance, the difference between biodiesel and renewable diesel, how biodiesel performs in cold weather, whether biodiesel use will plug vehicle filters, how long-term biodiesel use may affect engines, biodiesel fuel standards, and whether biodiesel burns cleaner than diesel fuel. The fact sheet also dismisses the use of vegetable oil as a motor fuel.

  19. Effect of High Injection Pressure of Algae and Jatropha Derived Biodiesel on Ignition Delay and Combustion Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Nurdin; Khalid, Amir; Manshoor, Bukhari; Jaat, Norrizam; Zaman, Izzuddin; Sunar, Norshuhaila

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents the investigation of the effect of high injection pressure on the ignition delay period and emission characteristics. Few experiments were conducted in a rapid compression machine (RCM). Four types of fuels were tested inside a RCM which are standard diesel (SD), Algae biodiesel (A2), Palm Oil biodiesel (B5, B10, and B15) and Jatropha biodiesel (J5, J10, J15). The experiments were conducted at high injection pressure of 130 MPa. The ambient temperature of constant volume chamber at the time of fuel injection was set at 850 K. The results indicate that the combined factors of specific of ambient temperature and higher injection pressure produces shorter ignition delay time. B5 has the shortest ignition delay with 1.5 ms. Biodiesel has the shorter ignition delay which is prolonged with increasing biodiesel content in the blends. In terms of emissions, Carbon dioxide (CO2), Carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC) and smoke emissions decreased with all biodiesel-diesel blends. However, oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emission of the biodiesel was relatively higher than those of the diesel under all test conditions. In addition, the increase of blends in terms of biodiesel ratio was found to be significant in enhancing the combustion process.

  20. Fuel Characteristics of Biodiesel Produced from a High-Acid Oil from Soybean Soapstock by Supercritical-Methanol Transesterification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Wei Lin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A supercritical methanol transesterification method was applied to produce biodiesel from the high-acid oil of soybean soapstock. The fuel properties of biodiesel produced with various molar ratios of methanol to raw oil were analyzed and compared in this experimental study. Oleic acid (C18:1, linoleic acid (C18:2, and palmitic acid (C16:0 were the three main compounds in the high-acid oil-biodiesel. The saturated fatty acid content of the high-acid oil increased significantly due to the supercritical-methanol transesterification reaction. The fuel characteristics of the resulting high-acid oil, including the specific gravity and kinematic viscosity, were also greatly improved. The saturated fatty acid content of the biodiesel produced from the high-acid oil was higher than that of biodiesel from waste cooking oil produced by the subcritical transesterification using a strongly alkaline catalyst. The high-acid oil-biodiesel that was produced with a molar ratio of methanol to raw oil of 42 had the best fuel properties, including a higher distillation temperature and cetane index and a lower kinematic viscosity and water content, among the biodiesels with different molar ratios.

  1. Biodiesel production potential of wastewater treatment high rate algal pond biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrabadi, Abbas; Craggs, Rupert; Farid, Mohammed M

    2016-12-01

    This study investigates the year-round production potential and quality of biodiesel from wastewater treatment high rate algal pond (WWT HRAP) biomass and how it is affected by CO2 addition to the culture. The mean monthly pond biomass and lipid productivities varied between 2.0±0.3 and 11.1±2.5gVSS/m(2)/d, and between 0.5±0.1 and 2.6±1.1g/m(2)/d, respectively. The biomass fatty acid methyl esters were highly complex which led to produce low-quality biodiesel so that it cannot be used directly as a transportation fuel. Overall, 0.9±0.1g/m(2)/d (3.2±0.5ton/ha/year) low-quality biodiesel could be produced from WWT HRAP biomass which could be further increased to 1.1±0.1g/m(2)/d (4.0ton/ha/year) by lowering culture pH to 6-7 during warm summer months. CO2 addition, had little effect on both the biomass lipid content and profile and consequently did not change the quality of biodiesel.

  2. Biodiesel Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-07-01

    This fact sheet provides a brief introduction to biodiesel, including a discussion of biodiesel blends and specifications. It also covers how biodiesel compares to diesel fuel in terms of performance (including in cold weather) and whether there are adverse effects on engines or other systems. Finally, it discusses biodiesel fuel quality and standards, and compares biodiesel emissions to those of diesel fuel.

  3. Biodiesel from the seed oil of Treculia africana with high free fatty acid content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adewuyi, Adewale [Redeemer' s University, Department of Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Redemption City, Ogun State (Nigeria); Oderinde, Rotimi A.; Ojo, David F.K. [University of Ibadan, Industrial Unit, Department of Chemistry, Ibadan, Oyo State (Nigeria)

    2012-12-15

    Oil was extracted from the seed of Treculia africana using hexane. The oil was characterized and used in the production of biodiesel. Biodiesel was produced from the seed oil of T. africana using a two-step reaction system. The first step was a pretreatment which involved the use of 2 % sulfuric acid in methanol, and secondly, transesterification reaction using KOH as catalyst. Saponification value of the oil was 201.70 {+-} 0.20 mg KOH/g, free fatty acid was 8.20 {+-} 0.50 %, while iodine value was 118.20 {+-} 0.50 g iodine/100 g. The most dominant fatty acid was C18:2 (44 %). The result of the method applied showed a conversion which has ester content above 98 %, flash point of 131 {+-} 1.30 C, and phosphorus content below 1 ppm in the biodiesel. The biodiesel produced exhibited properties that were in agreement with the European standard (EN 14214). This study showed that the high free fatty acid content of T. africana seed oil can be reduced in a one-step pretreatment of esterification reaction using H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} as catalyst. (orig.)

  4. 2013 DOE Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) Project Peer Review—Biodiesel Cellulosic Ethanol Research Project (Hendry County Sustainable Biofuels Center)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capece, John [Intelligentsia International Inc., LaBelle, FL (United States)

    2013-05-22

    The presentation provides an overview of the Biodiesel Cellulosic Ethanol Research Project (Hendry County Sustainable Biofuels Center). It summarizes the project history, timeline, budget, partners, objectives, goals, future plans and in closer detail reviews the used approaches and technical accomplishments. The main project goals were (1) developing strategies and tools that assist in the creation of economically and environmentally sustainable bioenergy industries within ecologically-sensitive regions such as South Florida and, in particular, the greater Everglades, (2) using these bioenergy strategies and tools in evolving the existing agricultural, urban, and ecological sectors towards more sustainable structures and practices and (3) using bioenergy as a focal point in the larger effort to mitigate climate change and sea level rise, realities with particularly catastrophic consequences for South Florida. The project started on Oct 1, 2010 and ended on Feb 28, 2013. It yearly average budget was $369,770, with the Dept. of Energy annual cost share of $317,167. The main project partners were Hendry County, University of Florida - Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Intelligentsia International, Inc., Edison State College and University of South Florida. Used approaches, main accomplishments and results in the categories of (1) technical research, (2) education and (3) business development are presented in detail. The project uniqueness is mainly related to the use of system approaches and integrating several systems analyses. Relevance of the project applicable to sustainability of bioenergy, food production, & restoration is explained, critical success factors are challenges are outlined and future work drafted. Finally, the main publications and presentations catalogue list is presented.

  5. Biodiesel at TRANSPETRO; Biodiesel na TRANSPETRO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Antonio Carlos C. da; Machado, Tupinamba da Conceicao S. [TRANSPETRO, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    TRANSPETRO took the challenge, in early 2007, to design and install in less than one year, the systems of injection of Biodiesel in its Distribution Bases with loading truck. The basics premises, adopted for the development of the project, were based on the criteria of safety, operational reliability and to complying with legal deadline. These points guided the actions of Coordinating with two goals: Ensure the injection of Biodiesel according to time by law and the future flexibility of the system. Two to three sets were installed in each Distribution Base, respecting the characteristics of the market and the distance from centers producers of Biodiesel. TRANSPETRO was one of the first companies in Brazil using cutting-edge technology in injection of this product through the use of digital valves in the control of flow of the product. Sum up the storage capacity of Biodiesel the first and second phase of the project, TRANSPETRO will provide 8 to 10 days' stock of Biodiesel to its customers based on the injection of 5% to Diesel Oil. The Project Biodiesel at TRANSPETRO was differentiated by working in teams, the strategy for deployment and the modular aspect with focus on future demand. (author)

  6. Montana BioDiesel Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peyton, Brent [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States)

    2017-01-29

    This initiative funding helped put Montana State University (MSU) in a position to help lead in the development of biodiesel production strategies. Recent shortages in electrical power and rising gasoline prices have focused much attention on the development of alternative energy sources that will end our dependence on fossil fuels. In addition, as the concern for environmental impact of utilizing fossil fuels increases, effective strategies must be implemented to reduce emissions or the increased regulations imposed on fossil fuel production will cause economic barriers for their use to continue to increase. Biodiesel has been repeatedly promoted as a more environmentally sound and renewable source of fuel and may prove to be a highly viable solution to provide, at the least, a proportion of our energy needs. Currently there are both practical and economic barriers to the implementation of alternative energy however the advent of these technologies is inevitable. Since many of the same strategies for the storage, transport, and utilization of biodiesel are common with that of fossil fuels, the practical barriers for biodiesel are comparatively minimal. Strategies were developed to harness the CO2 as feedstock to support the growth of biodiesel producing algae. The initiative funding led to the successful funding of highly rated projects in competitive national grant programs in the National Science Foundation and the Department of Energy. This funding put MSU in a key position to develop technologies to utilize the CO2 rich emissions produced in fossil fuel utilization and assembled world experts concerning the growth characteristics of photosynthetic microorganisms capable of producing biodiesel.

  7. Supercritical Synthesis of Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Vaultier

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of biodiesel fuel from lipids (vegetable oils and animal fats has gained in importance as a possible source of renewable non-fossil energy in an attempt to reduce our dependence on petroleum-based fuels. The catalytic processes commonly used for the production of biodiesel fuel present a series of limitations and drawbacks, among them the high energy consumption required for complex purification operations and undesirable side reactions. Supercritical fluid (SCF technologies offer an interesting alternative to conventional processes for preparing biodiesel. This review highlights the advances, advantages, drawbacks and new tendencies involved in the use of supercritical fluids (SCFs for biodiesel synthesis.

  8. Biodiesel from microalgae

    OpenAIRE

    Aullón Alcaine, Anna

    2010-01-01

    In this project we will travel back in time to the nineteenth century to discover the inventor of the diesel engine, Rudolf Diesel, and his renewable fuel vision that is only now being realized. Biodiesel has received considerable attention in recent years as it is biodegradable, renewable and non-toxic fuel. It emits less gaseous pollutants than conventional diesel fuel, and can work directly in diesel engines with no required modifications. The most common way to produce biodiesel is by tra...

  9. Study on Carbonyl Emissions of Diesel Engine Fueled with Biodiesel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ruina Li; Zhong Wang; Guangju Xu

    2017-01-01

      Biodiesel is a kind of high-quality alternative fuel of diesel engine. In this study, biodiesel and biodiesel/diesel blend were used in a single cylinder diesel engine to study the carbonyl emissions...

  10. Highly effective ionic liquids for biodiesel production from waste vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathy A. Yassin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available As conventional energy sources deplete, the need for developing alternative energy resources which are environment friendly becomes more imperative. Vegetable oils are attracting increased interest in this purpose. The methanolysis of vegetable oil to produce a fatty acid methyl ester (FAME, i.e., biodiesel fuel was catalyzed by commercial ionic liquid and its chloride modification. The imidazolium chloride ionic liquid was frequently chosen for the synthesis of biodiesel. The dual-functionalized’ ionic liquid is prepared by a direct combination reaction between imidazolium cation and various metal chlorides such as CoCl2, CuCl2, NiCl2, FeCl3 and AlCl3. Imidazolium tetrachloroferrate was proved to be a selective catalyst for the methanolysis reaction at a yield of 97% when used at 1:10, catalyst: oil ratio for 8 h at 55 °C. Operational simplicity, reusability of the used catalyst for 8 times at least, high yields and no saponification are the key features of this methodology. The dynamic viscosity and density of the upgraded vegetable oil decreased from 32.1 cP and 0.9227 g/cm3 to 10.2 cP and 0.9044 g/cm3 respectively, compared to those of the base vegetable oil. The objective of this study was the synthesis and characterization of biodiesel using commercial ionic liquid and its chloride modification. The ionic liquid catalysts were characterized using FTIR, Raman spectroscopy, DSC, TG and UV.

  11. Phase equilibrium data and thermodynamic modeling of the system (CO{sub 2} + biodiesel + methanol) at high pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Leandro F.; Segalen da Silva, Diogo Italo [Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of Parana, CEP 81531-990, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Rosa da Silva, Fabiano; Ramos, Luiz P. [Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Parana, CEP 81531-990, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Ndiaye, Papa M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of Parana, CEP 81531-990, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Corazza, Marcos L., E-mail: corazza@ufpr.br [Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of Parana, CEP 81531-990, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: > We measured phase behavior for the system involving {l_brace}CO{sub 2} + biodiesel + methanol{r_brace}. > The saturation pressures were obtained using a variable-volume view cell. > The experimental data were modeled using PR-vdW2 and PR-WS equations of state. - Abstract: The main objective of this work was to investigate the high pressure phase behavior of the binary systems {l_brace}CO{sub 2}(1) + methanol(2){r_brace} and {l_brace}CO{sub 2}(1) + soybean methyl esters (biodiesel)(2){r_brace} and the ternary system {l_brace}CO{sub 2}(1) + biodiesel(2) + methanol(3){r_brace} were determined. Biodiesel was produced from soybean oil, purified, characterized and used in this work. The static synthetic method, using a variable-volume view cell, was employed to obtain the experimental data in the temperature range of (303.15 to 343.15) K and pressures up to 21 MPa. The mole fractions of carbon dioxide were varied according to the systems as follows: (0.2383 to 0.8666) for the binary system {l_brace}CO{sub 2}(1) + methanol(2){r_brace}; (0.4201 to 0.9931) for the binary system {l_brace}CO{sub 2}(1) + biodiesel(2){r_brace}; (0.4864 to 0.9767) for the ternary system {l_brace}CO{sub 2}(1) + biodiesel(2) + methanol(3){r_brace} with a biodiesel to methanol molar ratio of (1:3); and (0.3732 to 0.9630) for the system {l_brace}CO{sub 2} + biodiesel + methanol{r_brace} with a biodiesel to methanol molar ratio of (8:1). For these systems, (vapor + liquid), (liquid + liquid), (vapor + liquid + liquid) transitions were observed. The phase equilibrium data obtained for the systems were modeled using the Peng-Robinson equation of state with the classical van der Waals (PR-vdW2) and Wong-Sandler (PR-WS) mixing rules. Both thermodynamic models were able to satisfactorily correlate the phase behavior of the systems investigated and the PR-WS presented the best performance.

  12. Simultaneous production of high quality biodiesel and glycerin from Jatropha oil using ion-exchange resins as catalysts and adsorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibasaki-Kitakawa, Naomi; Kanagawa, Keiichi; Nakashima, Kazunori; Yonemoto, Toshikuni

    2013-08-01

    The simultaneous production of high quality biodiesel and glycerin was realized by a bench-scale process using expanded-bed reactors packed with cation- and anion-exchange resins. The mixed-solution of crude Jatropha oil and methanol at a stoichiometric molar ratio was supplied to the process. The free fatty acid as well as triglyceride was completely converted to biodiesel. All by-products were adsorbed on the resin and the effluent from the process was free from them. The effluent fully met the international biodiesel standard specifications without any downstream purification processes except for removing methanol. The glycerin adsorbed on the resin was completely recovered as a transparent methanol solution during regeneration of the resin.

  13. High protein- and high lipid-producing microalgae from Outback Australia as potential feedstock for animal feed and biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Thang eDuong

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Microalgal biomass can be used for biodiesel, feed and food production. Collection and identification of local microalgal strains in the Northern Territory – Australia was conducted to identify strains with high protein and lipid contents as potential feedstock for animal feed and biodiesel production, respectively. A total of 36 strains were isolated from 13 samples collected from a variety of freshwater locations, such as dams, ponds and streams and subsequently classified by 18S rDNA sequencing. All of the strains were green microalgae and predominantly belong to Chlorella sp., Scenedesmus sp., Desmodesmus sp., Chlamydomonas sp., Pseudomuriella sp., Tetraedron caudatum, Graesiella emersonii and Mychonastes timauensis. Among the fastest growing strains, Scenedesmus sp. NT1d possessed the highest content of protein; reaching up to 33% of its dry weight. In terms of lipid production, Chlorella sp. NT8a and Scenedesmus dimorphus NT8e produced the highest triglyceride contents of 116.9 µg mL-1 culture and 99.13 µg mL-1, respectively, as measured by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs. These strains may present suitable candidates for biodiesel production after further optimization of culturing conditions, while their protein-rich biomass could be used for animal feed.

  14. High protein- and high lipid-producing microalgae from northern australia as potential feedstock for animal feed and biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Van Thang; Ahmed, Faruq; Thomas-Hall, Skye R; Quigley, Simon; Nowak, Ekaterina; Schenk, Peer M

    2015-01-01

    Microalgal biomass can be used for biodiesel, feed, and food production. Collection and identification of local microalgal strains in the Northern Territory, Australia was conducted to identify strains with high protein and lipid contents as potential feedstock for animal feed and biodiesel production, respectively. A total of 36 strains were isolated from 13 samples collected from a variety of freshwater locations, such as dams, ponds, and streams and subsequently classified by 18S rDNA sequencing. All of the strains were green microalgae and predominantly belong to Chlorella sp., Scenedesmus sp., Desmodesmus sp., Chlamydomonas sp., Pseudomuriella sp., Tetraedron caudatum, Graesiella emersonii, and Mychonastes timauensis. Among the fastest growing strains, Scenedesmus sp. NT1d possessed the highest content of protein; reaching up to 33% of its dry weight. In terms of lipid production, Chlorella sp. NT8a and Scenedesmus dimorphus NT8e produced the highest triglyceride contents of 116.9 and 99.13 μg mL(-1) culture, respectively, as measured by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy of fatty acid methyl esters. These strains may present suitable candidates for biodiesel production after further optimization of culturing conditions, while their protein-rich biomass could be used for animal feed.

  15. DOE - GM Partnership for a joint U.S.-India Jatropha biodiesel research project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, Candace [General Motors LLC, Detroit, MI (United States); Ghosh, Arup [General Motors LLC, Detroit, MI (United States); Chikara, Jitendra [General Motors LLC, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Ever since it was demonstrated that Jatropha seed oil could be converted into a world class biodiesel and could run in unmodified stationary and mobile diesel engines with simultaneous reduction in emissions, it caught the attention of the world. The capability to grow this crop on wastelands added to its attractiveness. However, the single biggest challenge came in the form of the availability of adequate feed stock in the form of the Jatropha fruit. Adequacy of feed stock can only be possible if large plantations are cultivated and produce enough fruit. The people, world over, jumped into Jatropha cultivation without heeding to the need to first ensure quality germplasm and understand the agronomic requirements of the plants. As a result many plantations failed to give the required yield. CSIR-CSMCRI had been researching Jatropha and had an end-to-end approach, i.e., it developed the best technology to prepare biodiesel and also worked towards the practical problems that it envisaged to be important for raising Jatropha productivity. It focused only on cultivation on wastelands as this was the only practical strategy, given the limited arable land India has and the risk of food security for the burgeoning population. While working in this direction, the Institute zeroed-in on a few germplasm, which gave consistently higher seed yield over several years. These germplasm were clonally propagated in large numbers to be raised in experimental plantations at different geographical locations in India. Many agronomic practices were developed as a part of these different projects. It was at this juncture that General Motors and the U.S. Department of Energy joined hands with CSIR-CSMCRI to further the work on Jatropha. A center of expertise for Jatropha was established and work was initiated to further refine the understanding regarding the best practices. Efforts were to be made to generate primary data, hitherto unavailable for wastelands, on which life cycle

  16. Highly efficient enzymatic biodiesel production promoted by particle-induced emulsification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangas-Sánchez, Juan; Adlercreutz, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    At present, the conversion of oils to biodiesel is predominantly carried out using chemical catalysts. However, the corresponding lipase-catalysed process has important advantages, which include mild reaction conditions and the possibility of using cheap, low quality feedstocks with a high free fatty acid content. Further increases in the efficiency of the enzymatic process are desired to make it even more attractive and suitable for large-scale applications. Herein, we present a simple and efficient two-phase lipase-catalysed system for the preparation of biodiesel in which different parameters (biocatalyst composition, ethanol concentration and the presence of additives) were optimised in order to obtain the maximum productivity starting from triolein with a high free oleic acid content. In the two-phase system, the enzyme tolerated high-ethanol concentrations, which made it possible to reach high conversions. The addition of silica particles increased the reaction rate substantially. It was suggested that such particles can catalyse acyl migration as a step to the full conversion to glycerol and biodiesel. However, in the system studied here, the effect of the particles was shown to be due to the formation of smaller and more uniform emulsion droplets leading to better mass transfer between the two phases. Particles of widely different size had positive effects, and the highest rate was obtained with silica particles derivatised with phenyl groups. The optimal conditions were applied to the solvent-free ethanolysis of rapeseed oil, and a yield of 96% was reached in 5 h. Under the mild conditions used, chemical catalysts were inefficient. Triacylglycerol oils with a high free fatty acid content can be efficiently converted to ethyl esters using Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase as the catalyst in an aqueous/organic two-phase system. Fast mass transfer can be achieved using silica particles, which helped to decrease the size of the emulsion droplets and thus led to

  17. Preparation of fatty acid methyl esters from hazelnut, high-oleic peanut and walnut oils and evaluation as biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazelnut, walnut and high-oleic peanut oils were converted into fatty acid methyl esters using catalytic sodium methoxide and evaluated as potential biodiesel fuels. These feedstocks were of interest due to their adaptability to marginal lands and their lipid production potentials (780-1780 L ha-1 y...

  18. KF-loaded mesoporous Mg-Fe bi-metal oxides: high performance transesterification catalysts for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Guiju; Hua, Zile; Gao, Zhe; Zhu, Yan; Zhu, Yan; Chen, Yu; Shu, Zhu; Zhang, Lingxia; Shi, Jianlin

    2013-09-21

    Using newly developed mesoporous Mg-Fe bi-metal oxides as supports, a novel kind of high performance transesterification catalysts for biodiesel production has been synthesized. More importantly, the impregnation solvent was for the first time found to substantially affect the structures and catalytic performances of the resultant transesterification catalysts.

  19. Direct production of biodiesel from high-acid value Jatropha oil with solid acid catalyst derived from lignin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pua Fei-ling

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Solid acid catalyst was prepared from Kraft lignin by chemical activation with phosphoric acid, pyrolysis and sulfuric acid. This catalyst had high acid density as characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM, energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDX and Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET method analyses. It was further used to catalyze the esterification of oleic acid and one-step conversion of non-pretreated Jatropha oil to biodiesel. The effects of catalyst loading, reaction temperature and oil-to-methanol molar ratio, on the catalytic activity of the esterification were investigated. Results The highest catalytic activity was achieved with a 96.1% esterification rate, and the catalyst can be reused three times with little deactivation under optimized conditions. Biodiesel production from Jatropha oil was studied under such conditions. It was found that 96.3% biodiesel yield from non-pretreated Jatropha oil with high-acid value (12.7 mg KOH/g could be achieved. Conclusions The catalyst can be easily separated for reuse. This single-step process could be a potential route for biodiesel production from high-acid value oil by simplifying the procedure and reducing costs.

  20. Lipases as biocatalyst for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiaohu; Niehus, Xochitl; Sandoval, Georgina

    2012-01-01

    The global shortages of fossil fuels, significant increase in the price of crude oil, and increased environmental concerns have stimulated the rapid growth in biodiesel production. Biodiesel is generally produced through transesterification reaction catalyzed either chemically or enzymatically. Enzymatic transesterification draws high attention because that process shows certain advantages over the chemical catalysis of transesterification and it is "greener." This paper reviews the current status of biodiesel production with lipase-biocatalysis approach, including sources of lipases, kinetics, and reaction mechanism of biodiesel production using lipases, and lipase immobilization techniques. Factors affecting biodiesel production and economic feasibility of biodiesel production using lipases are also covered.

  1. Production of Biodiesel from High Acid Value Waste Cooking Oil Using an Optimized Lipase Enzyme/Acid-Catalyzed Hybrid Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Saifuddin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is aimed at developing an enzymatic/acid-catalyzed hybrid process for biodiesel production using waste cooking oil with high acid value (poor quality as feedstock. Tuned enzyme was prepared using a rapid drying technique of microwave dehydration (time required around 15 minutes. Further enhancement was achieved by three phase partitioning (TPP method. The results on the lipase enzyme which was subjected to pH tuning and TPP, indicated remarkable increase in the initial rate of transesterification by 3.8 times. Microwave irradiation was found to increase the initial reaction rates by further 1.6 times, hence giving a combined increase in activity of about 5.4 times. The optimized enzyme was used for hydrolysis and 88% of the oil taken initially was hydrolyzed by the lipase. The hydrolysate was further used in acid-catalyzed esterification for biodiesel production. By using a feedstock to methanol molar ratio of 1:15 and a sulphuric acid concentration of 2.5%, a biodiesel conversion of 88% was obtained at 50 °C for an hour reaction time. This hybrid process may open a way for biodiesel production using unrefined and used oil with high acid value as feedstock.

  2. Homogeneous, heterogeneous and enzymatic catalysis for transesterification of high free fatty acid oil (waste cooking oil) to biodiesel: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Man Kee; Lee, Keat Teong; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman

    2010-01-01

    In the last few years, biodiesel has emerged as one of the most potential renewable energy to replace current petrol-derived diesel. It is a renewable, biodegradable and non-toxic fuel which can be easily produced through transesterification reaction. However, current commercial usage of refined vegetable oils for biodiesel production is impractical and uneconomical due to high feedstock cost and priority as food resources. Low-grade oil, typically waste cooking oil can be a better alternative; however, the high free fatty acids (FFA) content in waste cooking oil has become the main drawback for this potential feedstock. Therefore, this review paper is aimed to give an overview on the current status of biodiesel production and the potential of waste cooking oil as an alternative feedstock. Advantages and limitations of using homogeneous, heterogeneous and enzymatic transesterification on oil with high FFA (mostly waste cooking oil) are discussed in detail. It was found that using heterogeneous acid catalyst and enzyme are the best option to produce biodiesel from oil with high FFA as compared to the current commercial homogeneous base-catalyzed process. However, these heterogeneous acid and enzyme catalyze system still suffers from serious mass transfer limitation problems and therefore are not favorable for industrial application. Nevertheless, towards the end of this review paper, a few latest technological developments that have the potential to overcome the mass transfer limitation problem such as oscillatory flow reactor (OFR), ultrasonication, microwave reactor and co-solvent are reviewed. With proper research focus and development, waste cooking oil can indeed become the next ideal feedstock for biodiesel.

  3. An evaluation of marine based biodiesel using GHGenius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-11-25

    A project was conducted to add the commercial harvesting of fish and its reduction to proteins and oils to GHGenius, a model developed to analyze the emissions of contaminants associated with the production and use of traditional and alternative transportation fuels. The project also added the generic production of biodiesel from marine oils to GHGenius to compare results to a specific Canadian operation, Ocean Nutrition, which produces marine oil biodiesel. A biodiesel pathway was added to the model, utilizing marine oils as feedstock. The GHGenius was modified and expanded to allow the use of ethanol rather than methanol in the biodiesel production system. Another objective of the project was to address allocation issues raised by the co-production of biodiesel and the high value Omega-3 oils produced in the Ocean Nutrition process. A new pathway was fully integrated and used to analyze a number of cases including: a generic marine biodiesel case; the ocean nutrition case with system boundary conditions; and a more narrow interpretation of the Ocean Nutrition situation, treating oil from Omega 3 production as a by-product. Results indicated that emission benefits from the specific Ocean Nutrition case were about 65 per cent of the benefits of soy biodiesel because of the reduced co-product credit and the use of ethanol rather than methanol. The narrower view of the system boundary for the Ocean Nutrition process resulted in GHG emission reductions similar to soy biodiesel. Challenges to the development of marine biodiesel include the wide variations in harvesting practices and efficiencies of fisheries; different oil yields; and difficulties in arriving at a case that models the global fishery. It was concluded that governments should be careful about encouraging the development of marine based biodiesel. There was little net gain in the availability of diesel fuel as a result of the production and use of marine based biodiesel. Other considerations were that

  4. Purification of crude biodiesel using dry washing and membrane technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Atadashi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purification of crude biodiesel is mandatory for the fuel to meet the strict international standard specifications for biodiesel. Therefore, this paper carefully analyzed recently published literatures which deal with the purification of biodiesel. As such, dry washing technologies and the most recent membrane biodiesel purification process have been thoroughly examined. Although purification of biodiesel using dry washing process involving magnesol and ion exchange resins provides high-quality biodiesel fuel, considerable amount of spent absorbents is recorded, besides the skeletal knowledge on its operating process. Further, recent findings have shown that biodiesel purification using membrane technique could offer high-quality biodiesel fuel with less wastewater discharges. Thus, both researchers and industries are expected to benefit from the development of membrane technique in purifying crude biodiesel. As well biodiesel purification via membranes has been shown to be environmentally friendly. For these reasons, it is important to explore and exploit membrane technology to purify crude biodiesel.

  5. High free fatty acid coconut oil as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakpong, Piyanuch; Wootthikanokkhan, Sasiwimol [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, Rajamangala University of Technology Krungthep, 2 Nanglinchee Road, Sathorn, Bangkok 10120 (Thailand)

    2010-08-15

    Coconut oil having 12.8% free fatty acid (FFA) was used as a feedstock to produce biodiesel by a two-step process. In the first step, FFA level of the coconut oil was reduced to 0.6% by acid-catalyzed esterification. In the second step, triglycerides in product from the first step were transesterified with methanol by using an alkaline catalyst to produce methyl esters and glycerol. Effect of parameters related to these processes was studied and optimized, including methanol-to-oil ratio, catalyst concentration, reaction temperature, and reaction time. Methyl ester content of the coconut biodiesel was determined by GC to be 98.4% under the optimum condition. The viscosity of coconut biodiesel product was very close to that of Thai petroleum diesel and other measured properties met the Thai biodiesel (B100) specification. (author)

  6. Biodiesel research progress 1992-1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyson, K.S. [ed.

    1998-04-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fuels Development began evaluating the potential of various alternative fuels, including biodiesel, as replacement fuels for traditional transportation fuels. Biodiesel is derived from a variety of biological materials from waste vegetable grease to soybean oil. This alkyl ester could be used as a replacement, blend, or additive to diesel fuel. This document is a comprehensive summary of relevant biodiesel and biodiesel-related research, development demonstration, and commercialization projects completed and/or started in the US between 1992 and 1997. It was designed for use as a reference tool to the evaluating biodiesel`s potential as a clean-burning alternative motor fuel. It encompasses, federally, academically, and privately funded projects. Research projects are presented under the following topical sections: Production; Fuel characteristics; Engine data; Regulatory and legislative activities; Commercialization activities; Economics and environment; and Outreach and education.

  7. Production of biodiesel from microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilović Bojana R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, more attention has been paid to the use of third generation feedstocs for the production of biodiesel. One of the most promising sources of oil for biodiesel production are microalgae. They are unicellular or colonial photosynthetic organisms, with permanently increasing industrial application in the production of not only chemicals and nutritional supplements but also biodiesel. Biodiesel productivity per hectare of cultivation area can be up to 100 times higher for microalgae than for oil crops. Also, microalgae can grow in a variety of environments that are often unsuitable for agricultural purposes. Microalgae oil content varies in different species and can reach up to 77% of dry biomass, while the oil productivity by the phototrophic cultivation of microalgae is up to 122 mg/l/d. Variations of the growth conditions and the implementation of the genetic engineering can induce the changes in the composition and productivity of microalgal oil. Biodiesel from microalgae can be produced in two ways: by transesterification of oil extracted from biomass or by direct transesterification of algal biomass (so called in situ transesterification. This paper reviews the curent status of microalgae used for the production of biodiesel including their isolation, cultivation, harvesting and conversion to biodiesel. Because of high oil productivity, microalgae will play a significant role in future biodiesel production. The advantages of using microalgae as a source for biofuel production are increased efficiency and reduced cost of production. Also, microalgae do not require a lot of space for growing and do not have a negative impact on the global food and water supplies. Disadvantages of using microalgae are more difficult separation of biomass and the need for further research to develop standardized methods for microalgae cultivation and biodiesel production. Currently, microalgae are not yet sustainable option for the commercial

  8. Fatty acids composition as a means to estimate the high heating value (HHV) of vegetable oils and biodiesel fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fassinou, Wanignon Ferdinand; Koua, Kamenan Blaise; Toure, Siaka [Laboratoire d' Energie Solaire, UFR-SSMT, Universite de Cocody (Cote d' Ivoire), 22BP582 Abidjan 22 (Ivory Coast); Sako, Aboubakar; Fofana, Alhassane [Laboratoire de Physique de l' Atmosphere et de Mecanique des Fluides, UFR-SSMT, Universite de Cocody (Cote d' Ivoire), 22BP582 Abidjan 22 (Ivory Coast)

    2010-12-15

    High heating value (HHV) is an important property which characterises the energy content of a fuel such as solid, liquid and gaseous fuels. The previous assertion is particularly important for vegetable oils and biodiesels fuels which are expected to replace fossil oils. Estimation of the HHV of vegetable oils and biodiesels by using their fatty acid composition is the aim of this paper. The comparison between the HHVs predicted by the method and those obtained experimentally gives an average bias error of -0.84% and an average absolute error of 1.71%. These values show the utility, the validity and the applicability of the method to vegetable oils and their derivatives. (author)

  9. Biodiesel from wastewater: lipid production in high rate algal pond receiving disinfected effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assemany, Paula Peixoto; Calijuri, Maria Lucia; do Couto, Eduardo de Aguiar; Santiago, Aníbal Fonseca; Dos Reis, Alberto José Delgado

    2015-01-01

    The production of different species of microalgae in consortium with other micro-organisms from wastewaters may represent an alternative process, to reduce the costs, for obtaining biofuels. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of pre-ultraviolet disinfection (UV) in the production of lipids from biomass produced in high rate ponds. Two high rate algal ponds were evaluated: a pond that received domestic sewage without disinfection and the other receiving domestic sewage previously disinfected by UV radiation (uvHRAP). The UV disinfection did not lead to significant differences in fatty acid profile and total lipid productivities, although it increased algal biomass concentration and productivity as well as lipid content. Moreover, the overall biomass concentrations and productivities decreased with the UV disinfection, mostly as a consequence of a loss in bacterial load. We thus conclude that uvHRAP disinfection may represent a potential strategy to promote the cleaner and safer growth of algal biomass when cultivated in consortium with other micro-organisms. Mainly regarding the use of wastewater as culture medium, together with a cheaper production of lipids for biodiesel, pre-disinfection may represent an advance since extraction costs could be significantly trimmed due to the increase in lipid content.

  10. High-purity biodiesel production from microalgae and added-value lipid extraction: a new process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veillette, M; Giroir-Fendler, A; Faucheux, N; Heitz, M

    2015-01-01

    A new process was tested in order to produce and purify biodiesel from microalgae lipids and to recover unsaponifiable (added-value) lipids. This process is a two-step biodiesel production including a saponification reaction step followed by an esterification reaction step. The process includes a recovery of the unsaponified lipids between both reaction steps. Among the conditions tested, the following conditions were found to be the best: temperature for both steps (90 °C), saponification time (30 min), esterification time (30 min), sulfuric acid/potassium hydroxide (1.21, w/w), and methanol-lipid ratio (13.3 mL/g). Under these conditions, the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) yield and the biodiesel purity were, respectively, 32% (g FAME/g lipid) and 77% (g FAME/g biodiesel). This study also showed that the two-step biodiesel process allows a FAME mass composition rich in palmitate (27.9-29.4 wt%), palmitoleate (24.9-26.0 wt%), elaidate (14.8-15.2 wt%), and myristate (12.1-13.0 wt%).

  11. Cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris on wastewater containing high levels of ammonia for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, P J; Mao, B; Shen, C M; Shao, L M; Lee, D J; Chang, J S

    2013-02-01

    The feasibility of cultivating Chlorella vulgaris with wastewater containing high ammonia nitrogen concentrations was examined. The average specific growth rate of C. vulgaris was 0.92 d(-1) at 17 mg L(-1) NH4+-N, but declined to 0.33 d(-1) at NH4+-N concentrations of 39-143 mg L(-1). At 39 mg L(-1) NH4+-N, lipid productivity reached a maximum value (23.3 mg L(-1)d(-1)) and dropped sharply at higher NH4+-N levels, which demonstrated NH4+-N should be controlled for biodiesel production. C16 and C18 fatty acids accounted for 80% of total fatty acids. Increasing NH4+-N from 17 to 207 mg L(-1) yielded additional short-chain and saturated fatty acids. Protein content was in positive correlation with NH4+-N content from 17 mg L(-1) (12%) to 207 mg L(-1) (42%). Carbohydrate in the dried algae cell was in the range of 14-45%, with a peak value occurring at 143 mg L(-1) NH4+-N. The results demonstrate that product quality can be manipulated by NH4+-N concentrations of the initial feeds. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Intensification of biodiesel production from soybean oil and waste cooking oil in the presence of heterogeneous catalyst using high speed homogenizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Saurabh; Gogate, Parag R; Moreira, Paulo F; Giudici, Reinaldo

    2017-11-01

    In the present work, high speed homogenizer has been used for the intensification of biodiesel synthesis from soybean oil and waste cooking oil (WCO) used as a sustainable feedstock. High acid value waste cooking oil (27mg of KOH/g of oil) was first esterified with methanol using sulphuric acid as catalyst in two stages to bring the acid value to desired value of 1.5mg of KOH/g of oil. Transesterification of soybean oil (directly due to lower acid value) and esterified waste cooking oil was performed in the presence of heterogeneous catalyst (CaO) for the production of biodiesel. Various experiments were performed for understanding the effect of operating parameters viz. molar ratio, catalyst loading, reaction temperature and speed of rotation of the homogenizer. For soybean oil, the maximum biodiesel yield as 84% was obtained with catalyst loading of 3wt% and molar ratio of oil to methanol of 1:10 at 50°C with 12,000rpm as the speed of rotation in 30min. Similarly biodiesel yield of 88% was obtained from waste cooking oil under identical operating conditions except for the catalyst loading which was 1wt%. Significant increase in the rate of biodiesel production with yields from soybean oil as 84% (in 30min) and from WCO as 88% (30min) was established due to the use of high speed homogenizer as compared to the conventional stirring method (requiring 2-3h for obtaining similar biodiesel yield). The observed intensification was attributed to the turbulence caused at microscale and generation of fine emulsions due to the cavitational effects. Overall it can be concluded from this study that high speed homogenizer can be used as an alternate cavitating device to efficiently produce biodiesel in the presence of heterogeneous catalysts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Novel highly integrated biodiesel production technology in a centrifugal contactor separator device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraai, G. N.; Schuur, B.; van Zwol, F.; van de Bovenkamp, H. H.; Heeres, H. J.

    2009-01-01

    The base catalyzed production of biodiesel (FAME) from sunflower oil and methanol in a continuous centrifugal contactor separator (CCS) with integrated reaction and phase separation was studied. The effect of catalyst loading (sodium methoxide), temperature, rotational frequency and flow rates of th

  14. Biodiesel fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mono-alkyl esters, most commonly the methyl esters, of vegetable oils, animal fats or other materials consisting mainly of triacylglycerols, often referred to as biodiesel, are an alternative to conventional petrodiesel for use in compression-ignition engines. The fatty acid esters that thus com...

  15. Synthesis of zinc aluminate with high surface area by microwave hydrothermal method applied in the transesterification of soybean oil (biodiesel)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quirino, M.R. [Chemistry Laboratory of Federal University of Paraiba (LABQUIM), Campus III, 58200-000 Bananeiras, PB (Brazil); Oliveira, M.J.C. [Academic Unit of Materials Engineering, UFCG, Campina Grande Campus I, 58429-900 Campina Grande, PB (Brazil); Keyson, D. [Laboratory of study in Science, DME, Federal University of Paraíba, Campus I, 58051-900 João Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Lucena, G.L., E-mail: guilherme_leo1@yahoo.com.br [Chemistry Laboratory of Federal University of Paraiba (LABQUIM), Campus III, 58200-000 Bananeiras, PB (Brazil); Oliveira, J.B.L. [Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, UFRN, Campus I, 59078-970 Natal, RN (Brazil); Gama, L. [Academic Unit of Materials Engineering, UFCG, Campina Grande Campus I, 58429-900 Campina Grande, PB (Brazil)

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel was synthesized by the microwave hydrothermal method in only 15 or 30 min. • The powders show high specific surface area. • ZAT{sub b}15 showed activity of 52.22% for the conversion of soybean oil into biodiesel. - Abstract: Zinc aluminate is a material with high thermal stability and high mechanical strength that, owing to these properties, is used as a catalyst or support. In this work, zinc aluminate spinel was synthesized by the microwave hydrothermal method in only 15 or 30 min at a low temperature (150 °C) without templates, using only Al(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}·9H{sub 2}O, Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·6H{sub 2}O, and urea as precursors and applied in the transesterification of soybean oil. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} had a cubic structure without secondary phases. The nitrogen adsorption measurements (BET) revealed a high surface area (266.57 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}) for the nanopowder synthesized in 15 min. This powder showed activity of 52.22% for the catalytic conversion of soybean oil into biodiesel by transesterification.

  16. Application of high-content image analysis for quantitatively estimating lipid accumulation in oleaginous yeasts with potential for use in biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capus, Aurélie; Monnerat, Marianne; Ribeiro, Luiz Carlos; de Souza, Wanderley; Martins, Juliana Lopes; Sant'Anna, Celso

    2016-03-01

    Biodiesel from oleaginous microorganisms is a viable substitute for a fossil fuel. Current methods for microorganism lipid productivity evaluation do not analyze lipid dynamics in single cells. Here, we described a high-content image analysis (HCA) as a promising strategy for screening oleaginous microorganisms for biodiesel production, while generating single-cell lipid dynamics data in large cell density. Rhodotorula slooffiae yeast were grown in standard (CTL) or lipid trigger medium (LTM), and lipid droplet (LD) accumulation was analyzed in deconvolved confocal microscopy images of cells stained with the lipophilic fluorescent Nile red (NR) dye using automated cell and LD segmentation. The 'vesicle segmentation' method yielded valid morphometric results for limited lipid accumulation in smaller LDs (CTL samples) and for high lipid accumulation in larger LDs (LTM samples), and detected LD localization changes. Thus, HCA can be used to analyze the lipid accumulation patterns likely to be encountered in screens for biodiesel production.

  17. Impact of a Diesel High Pressure Common Rail Fuel System and Onboard Vehicle Storage on B20 Biodiesel Blend Stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, Earl; McCormick, Robert L.; Sigelko, Jenny; Johnson, Stuart; Zickmann, Stefan; Lopes, Shailesh; Gault, Roger; Slade, David

    2016-04-01

    Adoption of high-pressure common-rail (HPCR) fuel systems, which subject diesel fuels to higher temperatures and pressures, has brought into question the efficacy of ASTM International specifications for biodiesel and biodiesel blend oxidation stability, as well as the lack of any stability parameter for diesel fuel. A controlled experiment was developed to investigate the impact of a light-duty diesel HPCR fuel system on the stability of 20% biodiesel (B20) blends under conditions of intermittent use and long-term storage in a relatively hot and dry climate. B20 samples with Rancimat induction periods (IPs) near the current 6.0-hour minimum specification (6.5 hr) and roughly double the ASTM specification (13.5 hr) were prepared from a conventional diesel and a highly unsaturated biodiesel. Four 2011 model year Volkswagen Passats equipped with HPCR fuel injection systems were utilized: one on B0, two on B20-6.5 hr, and one on B20-13.5 hr. Each vehicle was operated over a one-hour drive cycle in a hot running loss test cell to initially stress the fuel. The cars were then kept at Volkswagen's Arizona Proving Ground for two (35 degrees C average daily maximum) to six months (26 degrees C average daily maximum). The fuel was then stressed again by running a portion of the one-hour dynamometer drive cycle (limited by the amount of fuel in the tank). Fuel rail and fuel tank samples were analyzed for IP, acid number, peroxide content, polymer content, and ester profile. The HPCR fuel pumps were removed, dismantled, and inspected for deposits or abnormal wear. Analysis of fuels collected during initial dynamometer tests showed no impact of exposure to HPCR conditions. Long-term storage with intermittent use showed that IP remained above 3 hours, acid number below 0.3 mg KOH/g, peroxides low, no change in ester profile, and no production of polymers. Final dynamometer tests produced only small changes in fuel properties. Inspection of the HPCR fuel pumps revealed no

  18. Study on the lubrication properties of biodiesel as fuel lubricity enhancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jianbo Hu; Zexue Du; Changxiu Li; Enze Min [Research Institute of Petroleum Processing, SINOPEC, Beijing (China)

    2005-09-01

    Unrefined biodiesels containing small quantities of monoglycerides, diglycerides, and triglycerides, and refined biodiesels not containing these glycerides were added to diesel fuel and the resulting lubricity was measured using the High Frequency Reciprocating Rig (HFRR) method. The unrefined biodiesels showed higher lubricity properties than refined biodiesels. The chemical factors influencing the lubricity properties of biodiesels were investigated. Methyl esters and monoglycerides are the main compositions that determine the lubricity of biodiesels that meet international standards. Free fatty acids and diglycerides can also affect the lubricity of biodiesel, but not so much as monoglycerides. Triglycerides almost have no effects on the lubricity of biodiesel. 18 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Sustainable Biocatalytic Biodiesel Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Güzel, Günduz

    and chemical equilibria as part of his main sustainable biodiesel project. The transesterification reaction of vegetable oils or fats with an aliphatic alcohol – in most cases methanol or ethanol – yields biodiesel (long-chain fatty acid alkyl esters – FAAE) as the main product in the presence of alkaline....../acid catalysts or biocatalysts (free or immobilised lipase enzymes). The reaction by-product glycerol is immiscible with the ester products (FAAE and oils/fats) in addition to the partial miscibility problem of methanol or ethanol with oils/fats. The insoluble parts of alcohol feeds or by-products form emulsion...... droplets within the reaction media, where continuous stirring operations are applied to improve mass transfer and thus reaction rates. In all other cases, there is a heterogeneous alcohol phase in equilibrium with the ester phase under equilibrium conditions. The immiscibility and/or miscibility drawbacks...

  20. IDAHO BIODIESEL INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECT DOE'S INITIATIVE ON COOPERATIVE PROGRAMS WITH STATES FOR RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT AND DEMONSTRATION GRANT NO. DE-FC36-02GO12021. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CROCKETT, JOHN

    2006-12-31

    The Idaho Energy Division issued a Request for Proposal (RFP) on March 14, 2006, inviting qualified licensed fuel wholesalers, fuel retailers, and vehicle fleet operators to provide proposals to construct and/or install infrastructure for biodiesel utilization in Idaho. The intent was to improve the ability of private and/or non-Federal public entities in Idaho to store, transport, or offer for sale biodiesel within the state. The RFP provided up $100,000 for co-funding the projects with a minimum 50% cash cost match. Four contracts were subsequetnly awarded that resulted in three new bidodiesel storage facilities immediately serving about 45 fueling stations from Sandpoint to Boise. The project also attracted considerable media attention and Idaho became more knowledgeable about biodiesel.

  1. Oxidation stability and risk evaluation of biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoshino Takashi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This review describes oxidation and thermal stability and hazardous possibility of biodiesel by auto-oxidation. As it can be distributed using today’s infrastructure biodisel production has increased especially in the European Union. Biodiesel has many surpassing properties as an automotive fuel. Biodiesel is considered safer than diesel fuel because of the high flash point, but it has oxygen and double bond(s. Fatty acid methyl esters are more sensitive to oxidative degradation than fossil diesel fuel. The ability of producing peroxides is rather high, therefore we should care of handling of biodiesel.

  2. Genetic engineering of microorganisms for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui; Wang, Qun; Shen, Qi; Zhan, Jumei; Zhao, Yuhua

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel, as one type of renewable energy, is an ideal substitute for petroleum-based diesel fuel and is usually made from triacylglycerides by transesterification with alcohols. Biodiesel production based on microbial fermentation aiming to establish more efficient, less-cost and sustainable biodiesel production strategies is under current investigation by various start-up biotechnology companies and research centers. Genetic engineering plays a key role in the transformation of microbes into the desired cell factories with high efficiency of biodiesel production. Here, we present an overview of principal microorganisms used in the microbial biodiesel production and recent advances in metabolic engineering for the modification required. Overexpression or deletion of the related enzymes for de novo synthesis of biodiesel is highlighted with relevant examples.

  3. Biodiesel from waste cooking oil in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheinbaum, Claudia; Balam, Marco V; Robles, Guillermo; Lelo de Larrea, Sebastian; Mendoza, Roberto

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this article is to evaluate the potential use of biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil in Mexico City. The study is divided in two main areas: the analysis of a waste cooking oil collection pilot project conducted in food markets of a Mexico City region; and the exhaust emissions performance of biodiesel blends measured in buses of the Mexico City public bus transportation network (RTP). Results from the waste cooking oil collection pilot project show that oil quantities disposed depend upon the type of food served and the operational practices in a cuisine establishment. Food markets' waste cooking oil disposal rate from fresh oil is around 10%, but with a very high standard deviation. Emission tests were conducted using the Ride-Along-Vehicle-Emissions-Measuring System in two different types of buses while travelling a regular route. Results shows that the use of biodiesel blends reduces emissions only for buses that have exhaust gas recirculation systems, as analysed by repeated measure analysis of variance. The potential use in Mexico City of waste cooking oil for biodiesel is estimated to cover 2175 buses using a B10 blend. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Biodiesel: an economic and socio-environmental sustainability project for Brazil; Biodiesel: um projeto de sustentabilidade economica e socio-ambiental para o Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Luiz Pereira; Kucek, Karla Thomas; Domingos, Anderson Kurunczi [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: lramos@quimica.ufpr.br; k.kucek@hotmail.com; anderson@quimica.ufpr.br; Wilhelm, Helena Maria [Instituto de Tecnologia para o Desenvolvimento (LACTEC), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Unidade Tecnologica de Quimica Aplicada]. E-mail: helenaw@lactec.org.br

    2003-12-01

    This paper describes an economic and socio-environmental sustainability project for Brazil on bio diesel, which can result in a significant reduction of emissions of particulates, sulfur oxides and gases contributing for the greenhouse effects. The paper also describes the PROBIODIESEL program developed for using trans esterified vegetable oils in the Brazilian energy matrix.

  5. Sweet almond (Prunus amygdalus “dulcis” seeds as a potential feedstock for Nigerian Biodiesel Automotive Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Giwa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents sweet almond (Prunus amygdalus “dulcis” seed oil (SASO as a non-conventional feedstock for the preparation of biodiesel in Nigeria, rather than the traditional oils of palm, groundnut and palm kernel. SASO was extracted via the solvent method, pretreated to reduce the acid value, and transesterified using methanol (solvent and sodium hydroxide (catalyst. The oil content and acid value of SASO were 51.45 ± 3.92% and 1.07 mg KOH/g, respectively. The fatty acid composition of SASO reveals the predominance of oleic acid (69.7%, linoleic acid (18.2% and palmitic acid (9.3%. Specific fuel properties of sweet almond oil methyl esters (SAOME were determined using standard test methods and were found to satisfy both EN 14214 and ASTM D6751 biodiesel standards; the cold flow properties were particularly outstanding (cloud point; -3ºC and pour point; -9ºC. SASO appears to offer great promise as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production in Nigeria.

  6. Highly-efficient enzymatic conversion of crude algal oils into biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yao; Liu, Jin; Gerken, Henri; Zhang, Chengwu; Hu, Qiang; Li, Yantao

    2014-11-01

    Energy-intensive chemical conversion of crude algal oils into biodiesel is a major barrier for cost-effective algal biofuel production. To overcome this problem, we developed an enzyme-based platform for conversion of crude algal oils into fatty acid methyl esters. Crude algal oils were extracted from the oleaginous microalga Nannochloropsis oceanica IMET1 and converted by an immobilized lipase from Candida antarctica. The effects of different acyl acceptors, t-butanol as a co-solvent, oil to t-butanol ratio, oil to methanol ratio, temperature and reaction time on biodiesel conversion efficiency were studied. The conversion efficiency reached 99.1% when the conversion conditions were optimized, i.e., an oil to t-butanol weight ratio of 1:1, an oil to methanol molar ratio of 1:12, and a reaction time of 4h at 25°C. The enzymatic conversion process developed in this study may hold a promise for low energy consumption, low wastewater-discharge biochemical conversion of algal feedstocks into biofuels.

  7. The High Luminosity LHC Project

    CERN Document Server

    Bruning, O

    2015-01-01

    This presentation reviews the status of the high luminosity LHC project, and highlights the main challenges from the technology and beam physics point of view. It will mention the outcome of the 2015 Cost and Schedule review for the HL-LHC project and summarizes the status of the high field quadrupole and crab cavity development.

  8. Characterization of beef tallow biodiesel and their mixtures with soybean biodiesel and mineral diesel fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Leonardo S.G. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Campus Universitario de Ondina, 40.170-280, Salvador, Bahia (Brazil); INCT de Energia e Ambiente, Universidade Federal da Bahia, 40.170-280, Salvador, Bahia (Brazil); Couto, Marcelo B.; Filho, Miguel Andrade; Assis, Julio C.R.; Guimaraes, Paulo R.B.; Pontes, Luiz A.M.; Almeida, Selmo Q. [Departamento de Engenharia e Arquitetura, Universidade Salvador - UNIFACS, Av. Cardeal da Silva 132, 40.220-141, Salvador, Bahia (Brazil); Souza, Giancarlos S. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Campus Universitario de Ondina, 40.170-280, Salvador, Bahia (Brazil); Teixeira, Josanaide S.R. [Instituto Federal de Educacao Ciencia e Tecnologica da Bahia - IFBAHIA, Rua Emidio de Morais S/N, 40.625-650, Salvador, Bahia (Brazil)

    2010-04-15

    Tallow is a raw material for biodiesel production that, due to their highly centralized generation in slaughter/processing facilities and historically low prices, may have energy, environmental, and economic advantages that could be exploited. However beef tallow biodiesel have unfavorable properties due the presence of high concentration of saturated fatty esters. One way to overcome these inconveniences is using blending procedures. In this way, blends of beef tallow biodiesel with soybean biodiesel and with conventional mineral diesel fuel were prepared and the quality of the mixtures was monitored with the purpose to study ideal proportions of the fuels. By measurement of the viscosity, density, cold filter plugging point, and flash point, it was demonstrated that tallow biodiesel can be blended with both mineral diesel and soybean biodiesel to improve the characteristics of the blend fuels, over that of the tallow. (author)

  9. Highly active CaO for the transesterification to biodiesel production from rapeseed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Tang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic performance of commercial CaO modified by trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS for transesterification of rapeseed oil and methanol to biodiesel production was studied. It was found that the fatty acid methyl esters (FAME yield of the modified CaO was greatly enhanced from 85.4% to 94.6% under 65 oC with 15:1 molar ratios of methanol/oil by using 5 wt.% catalyst (weight to oil. The possible reason lies on promoting the absorption of grease to modified CaO surface. Both the characterization of the catalyst and the effects of various factors such as mass ratio of catalyst to oil, reaction temperature and molar ratio of methanol to oil were investigated.

  10. Optimization for producing biodiesel from ethanol and waste frying oil with a high concentration of ester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Beatriz Lobo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Considerando que la transesterificación del aceite residual como resultado de la cocción de alimentos con la presencia de etanol no permite obtener biodiesel con concentración de etil éster superior a 96,5%, esta investigación muestra cómo se optimizaron las condiciones de la reacción con la adición de ácido oxálico. Con la ayuda de un diseño factorial fueron estudiados los efectos de la relación molar de etanol y aceite, así como la concentración del catalizador hidróxido de sodio en la presencia de ácido oxálico como activador del carbonilo en la fase aceite. El aceite usado se deshidrató y se filtró. La reacción fue realizada mediante la agitación mecánica durante un período de dos horas a 70° C. Los datos fueron modelados mediante la aplicación de la metodología de superficie de respuesta, encontrando las condiciones óptimas de la reacción. El camino propuesto demostró ser factible para la producción de biodiesel a partir de etanol y aceite residual con contenido de éster dentro de la concentración especificada por EN 14103 (superior a 96,5%. La metodología de superficie de respuesta mostró las condiciones ideales con la relación molar etanol:aceite de 6:1 y contenido de hidróxido de sodio de 1% respecto a la masa del aceite.

  11. Comparative characterization of Jatropha, soybean and commercial biodiesel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sylvain-Didier B. Kouame

    2011-01-01

    Oil was extracted from seeds of Jatropha Curcas, in high yields (up to 40% by weight). The extracted Jatropha oil was converted in a laboratory reactor to biodiesel by transesterification. Analysis of Jatropha oil and Jatropha biodiesel by GC/MS and GC/SIMDIS showed that Jatropha oil could be readily converted to a biodiesel product through NaOH catalyzed transesterification.The resulting biodiesel has desirable properties such as high cetane number and low flash point, which are major improvements over the properties of commercial biodiesel fuels.

  12. Impacts of biodiesel production on Croatian economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulisic, Biljana [Energy Institute Hrvoje Pozar, Zagreb (Croatia). Department for Renewable Energy Sources and Energy Efficiency; Mediterranean Agronomic Institute Chania - MAICh, CIHEAM - International Centre for Advanced Mediterranean Agronomic Studies (Greece); Loizou, Efstratios [Technological Education Institute (TEI) of Western Macedonia (Greece). Department of Agricultural Products Marketing and Quality Control; Rozakis, Stelios [Agricultural University of Athens (Greece). Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Development; Segon, Velimir [Energy Institute Hrvoje Pozar, Zagreb (Croatia). Department for Renewable Energy Sources and Energy Efficiency

    2007-12-15

    The aim of this paper is to assess the direct and indirect impacts on a national economy from biodiesel (rapeseed methyl ester (RME)) production using input-output (I-O) analysis. Biodiesel development in Croatia is used as a case study. For Croatia, as for many other countries in Europe, biodiesel is a new activity not included in the existing I-O sectoral accounts. For this reason the I-O table has to be modified accordingly before being able to quantify the effect of an exogenous demand for biodiesel. Impacts in terms of output, income and employment lead to the conclusion that biodiesel production could have significant positive net impact on the Croatian economy despite the high level of subsidies for rapeseed growing. (author)

  13. Progress and Challenges in Microalgal Biodiesel Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, Nirupama; Bagchi, Sourav K.; Koley, Shankha; Singh, Akhilesh K.

    2016-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed a tremendous impetus on biofuel research due to the irreversible diminution of fossil fuel reserves for enormous demands of transportation vis-a-vis escalating emissions of green house gasses (GHGs) into the atmosphere. With an imperative need of CO2 reduction and considering the declining status of crude oil, governments in various countries have not only diverted substantial funds for biofuel projects but also have introduced incentives to vendors that produce biofuels. Currently, biodiesel production from microalgal biomass has drawn an immense importance with the potential to exclude high-quality agricultural land use and food safe-keeping issues. Moreover, microalgae can grow in seawater or wastewater and microalgal oil can exceed 50–60% (dry cell weight) as compared with some best agricultural oil crops of only 5–10% oil content. Globally, microalgae are the highest biomass producers and neutral lipid accumulators contending any other terrestrial oil crops. However, there remain many hurdles in each and every step, starting from strain selection and lipid accumulation/yield, algae mass cultivation followed by the downstream processes such as harvesting, drying, oil extraction, and biodiesel conversion (transesterification), and overall, the cost of production. Isolation and screening of oleaginous microalgae is one pivotal important upstream factor which should be addressed according to the need of freshwater or marine algae with a consideration that wild-type indigenous isolate can be the best suited for the laboratory to large scale exploitation. Nowadays, a large number of literature on microalgal biodiesel production are available, but none of those illustrate a detailed step-wise description with the pros and cons of the upstream and downstream processes of biodiesel production from microalgae. Specifically, harvesting and drying constitute more than 50% of the total production costs; however, there are quite a less

  14. Progress and Challenges in Microalgal Biodiesel Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, Nirupama; Bagchi, Sourav K; Koley, Shankha; Singh, Akhilesh K

    2016-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed a tremendous impetus on biofuel research due to the irreversible diminution of fossil fuel reserves for enormous demands of transportation vis-a-vis escalating emissions of green house gasses (GHGs) into the atmosphere. With an imperative need of CO2 reduction and considering the declining status of crude oil, governments in various countries have not only diverted substantial funds for biofuel projects but also have introduced incentives to vendors that produce biofuels. Currently, biodiesel production from microalgal biomass has drawn an immense importance with the potential to exclude high-quality agricultural land use and food safe-keeping issues. Moreover, microalgae can grow in seawater or wastewater and microalgal oil can exceed 50-60% (dry cell weight) as compared with some best agricultural oil crops of only 5-10% oil content. Globally, microalgae are the highest biomass producers and neutral lipid accumulators contending any other terrestrial oil crops. However, there remain many hurdles in each and every step, starting from strain selection and lipid accumulation/yield, algae mass cultivation followed by the downstream processes such as harvesting, drying, oil extraction, and biodiesel conversion (transesterification), and overall, the cost of production. Isolation and screening of oleaginous microalgae is one pivotal important upstream factor which should be addressed according to the need of freshwater or marine algae with a consideration that wild-type indigenous isolate can be the best suited for the laboratory to large scale exploitation. Nowadays, a large number of literature on microalgal biodiesel production are available, but none of those illustrate a detailed step-wise description with the pros and cons of the upstream and downstream processes of biodiesel production from microalgae. Specifically, harvesting and drying constitute more than 50% of the total production costs; however, there are quite a less number

  15. Gene cloning and characterization of a novel highly organic solvent tolerant lipase from Proteus sp. SW1 and its application for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whangsuk, Wirongrong; Sungkeeree, Pareenart; Thiengmag, Sirinthra; Kerdwong, Jarunee; Sallabhan, Ratiboot; Mongkolsuk, Skorn; Loprasert, Suvit

    2013-01-01

    Proteus sp. SW1 was found to produce an extracellular solvent tolerant lipase. The gene, lipA, encoding a bacterial lipase, was cloned from total Proteus sp. SW1 DNA. lipA was predicted to encode a 287 amino acid protein of 31.2 kDa belonging to the Group I proteobacterial lipases. Purified His-tagged LipA exhibited optimal activity at pH 10.0 and 55°C. It was highly stable in organic solvents retaining 112% of its activity in 100% isopropanol after 24 h, and exhibited more than 200% of its initial activity upon exposure to 60% acetone, ethanol, and hexane for 18 h. Biodiesel synthesis reactions, using a single step addition of 13% an acyl acceptor ethanol, showed that LipA was highly effective at converting palm oil into biodiesel.

  16. Biodiesel and its properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel is a bio-based alternative to conventional diesel fuel derived from petroleum. It consists mainly of the fatty acid esters of vegetable oils or other triacylglycerol feedstocks. This chapter provides a background on biodiesel as well as an overview of biodiesel production, analysis, and pr...

  17. Impacts of production and use of biodiesel of the Sergipe state, Brazil; Impactos da producao e uso de biodiesel no estado de Sergipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vital Brazil, Osiris Ashton; Silva, Maria Susana; Souza, Angela Maria de [Sergipe Parque Tecnologico (SergipeTec), Aracaju, SE (Brazil); Vaz, Vitor Hugo Silva [Faculdade Sao Luis de Franca, Aracaju, SE (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The law 11.097/05, establishes that from January 2008 is binding the mixture of 2% biodiesel in diesel (B2) and the same law provides that in 2013 makes it mandatory to blend diesel with 5% biodiesel (B5). This article is motivated by actions that have been developed in the state of Sergipe for the production and use of biodiesel as established by law. The objective of the article is to discuss the impacts of the production and use of biodiesel in Sergipe, specifically seeks to examine the economic impacts in agricultural production and energy matrix state. The discussion of the impacts of biodiesel in the state of Sergipe, is dealt with in this Arctic addresses the demand for oil for the state to become high enough to B2 and B5 in the coming years, the impact of this oil in the energy matrix of the state. This initial discussion projected targets of protection both for agriculture and for the Industrialization of the state. (author)

  18. Current status of biodiesel development in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Luiz Pereira; Wilhelm, Helena Maria

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, the concept of producing biodiesel from renewable lipid sources has regained international attention. In Brazil, a national program was launched in 2002 to evaluate the technical, economic, and environmental competitiveness of biodiesel in relation to the commercially available diesel oil. Several research projects were initiated nationwide to investigate and/or optimize biodiesel production from renewable lipid sources and ethanol derived from sugarcane (ethyl esters). Once implemented, this program will not only decrease our dependence on petroleum derivatives but also create new market opportunities for agribusiness, opening new jobs in the countryside, improving the sustainability of our energy matrix, and helping the Brazilian government to support important actions against poverty. This article discusses the efforts to develop the Brazilian biodiesel program in the context of technical specifications as well as potential oilseed sources.

  19. Innovative Canadian Process Technology For Biodiesel Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johar, Sangat; Norton, Kevin

    2010-09-15

    The need for increasing renewable and alternative energy in the global energy mix has been well recognized by Governments and major scientific forums to reduce climate change impact for this living planet. Biodiesel has very high potential for GHG emission reduction. An innovative process developed in Canada provides solution to mitigate the feedstock, yield and quality issues impacting the industry. The Biox process uses a continuous process which reduces reaction times, provides > 99% yield of high quality biodiesel product. The process is feedstock flexible and can use cheaper higher FFA feedstock providing a sustainable approach for biodiesel production.

  20. Market penetration of biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth R. Szulczyk, Bruce A. McCarl

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This research examines in detail the technology and economics of substituting biodiesel for diesel #2. This endeavor examines three areas. First, the benefits of biodiesel are examined, and the technical problems of large-scale implementation. Second, the biodiesel production possibilities are examined for soybean oil, corn oil, tallow, and yellow grease, which are the largest sources of feedstocks for the United States. Examining in detail the production possibilities allows to identity the extent of technological change, production costs, byproducts, and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. Finally, a U.S. agricultural model, FASOMGHG was used to predict market penetration of biodiesel, given technological progress, variety of technologies and feedstocks, market interactions, energy prices, and carbon dioxide equivalent prices. FASOMGHG has several interesting results. First, diesel fuel prices have an expansionary impact on the biodiesel industry. The higher the diesel fuel prices, the more biodiesel is produced. However, given the most favorable circumstances, the maximum biodiesel market penetration is 9% in 2030 with a wholesale diesel price of $4 per gallon. Second, the two dominant sources of biodiesel are from corn and soybeans. Sources like tallow and yellow grease are more limited, because they are byproducts of other industries. Third, GHG prices have an expansionary impact on the biodiesel prices, because biodiesel is quite GHG efficient. Finally, U.S. government subsidies on biofuels have an expansionary impact on biodiesel production, and increase market penetration at least an additional 3%.

  1. Market penetration of biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szulczyk, Kenneth R. [Department of Economics, Orbita 3, Suleyman Demirel University, Almaty, 050043 (Kazakhstan); McCarl, Bruce A. [Department of Agricultural Economics, 2124 TAMU, Texas A& amp; M University, College Station, Texas, 77843 (United States)

    2010-07-01

    This research examines in detail the technology and economics of substituting biodiesel for diesel number 2. This endeavor examines three areas. First, the benefits of biodiesel are examined, and the technical problems of large-scale implementation. Second, the biodiesel production possibilities are examined for soybean oil, corn oil, tallow, and yellow grease, which are the largest sources of feedstocks for the United States. Examining in detail the production possibilities allows to identity the extent of technological change, production costs, byproducts, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Finally, a U.S. agricultural model, FASOMGHG was used to predict market penetration of biodiesel, given technological progress, variety of technologies and feedstocks, market interactions, energy prices, and carbon dioxide equivalent prices. FASOMGHG has several interesting results. First, diesel fuel prices have an expansionary impact on the biodiesel industry. The higher the diesel fuel prices, the more biodiesel is produced. However, given the most favorable circumstances, the maximum biodiesel market penetration is 9% in 2030 with a wholesale diesel price of $4 per gallon. Second, the two dominant sources of biodiesel are from corn and soybeans. Sources like tallow and yellow grease are more limited, because they are byproducts of other industries. Third, GHG prices have an expansionary impact on the biodiesel prices, because biodiesel is quite GHG efficient. Finally, U.S. government subsidies on biofuels have an expansionary impact on biodiesel production, and increase market penetration at least an additional 3%.

  2. Viability of biofuel use in CDM (Clean Development Mechanisms) projects; Viabilidade do uso do biodiesel para projetos de MDL (Mecanismo de Desenvolvimento Limpo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortes, Julio; Lima, Luciana Santana de [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Biodiesel, renewable energy source, has been adopted by several countries as a possible substitute for fossil fuels. Brazil, by its own, included oil and fat derived biofuel in its energetic matrix through National Politics for Biofuel Use and Production (NPBUP), issue in Law n. 11.097 of 01/13/2005. Many studies demonstrate the contribution of biofuel for Greenhouse Gases reduction, what turns projects using it into possible candidates for Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), instrument described in Kyoto Protocol. With purpose of studying the Brazilian potentiality of the insertion of biofuel into CDM projects, this report approaches many aspects related to CDM, as well the terms for being accepted as so. Through bibliographic review were listed the possibilities and the restraints for including biofuel in carbon market resulted, principally, by the obligation of its use; what goes against the principle of voluntary, for seen in the Protocol. I concluded analyzing the advantages of biofuel comparatively to environmental issues, emphasizing the necessity of making viable its entrance into carbon credits market. (author)

  3. The Current Status of Biodiesel Production Technology: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizal Alamsyah

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is addressed to the name of fuel which consist of mono-alkyl ester that made from renewable and biodegradable resources, such as oils from plants (vegetable oils, waste or used cooking oil, and animal fats. Such oils or fats are chemically reacted with alcohols or methanol In producing chernical compounds called fatty acid methyl ester (FAME and these reactions are called transesterification and esterification. Glycerol, used in the pharmaceutical and cosmetics industry is produced from biodiesel production as a by-product. Researches on biodiesel as an alternative petroleum diesel have been done for more than 20 years. Transesterification reaction can be acid-catalyzed, alkali-catatyzed, or enzyme-catalyzed. Commercially biodiesel is processed by transesterification with alkali catalyst. This process, however, requires refining of products and recovery of catalysts, Such biodiesel production accelerates researches on biodiesel to obtain simpler methods, better quality. and minimum production cost. Besides the catalytic production for biodiesel, there is a method for biodiesel production namely non-catalytic production. Non-catalytic transesterification method was developed since catalytic tranestertfification still has two main problems assoclated With long reaction time and complicated purification. The first problem occurres because of the two phase nature of vegetable oil/methanol mixture, and the last problem is due to purification of catalyst and glycerol. The application of catalytic tranestertfication method leads to condition of high biodiesel production cost and high energy consumption. This paper provides information of biodiesel production progress namely catalytic tranestertfification (acid, alkali, and enzymatic tranesterfification, and non-catalytic tranesterification (at sub-critical­-supercritical temperature under pressurized conditions. It was found that every method of biodiesel production still has advantages and

  4. Biodiesel production using heterogenous catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    The current transesterification of triacylglycerides (TAG) to produce biodiesel is based on the homogenous catalyst method using strong base such as hydroxides or methoxides. However, this method results in a number of problems: (1) acid pre-treatment is required of feedstocks high in free fatty ac...

  5. Two-Stage Conversion of High Free Fatty Acid Jatropha curcas Oil to Biodiesel Using Brønsted Acidic Ionic Liquid and KOH as Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subrata Das

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel was produced from high free fatty acid (FFA Jatropha curcas oil (JCO by two-stage process in which esterification was performed by Brønsted acidic ionic liquid 1-(1-butylsulfonic-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([BSMIM]Cl followed by KOH catalyzed transesterification. Maximum FFA conversion of 93.9% was achieved and it reduced from 8.15 wt% to 0.49 wt% under the optimum reaction conditions of methanol oil molar ratio 12 : 1 and 10 wt% of ionic liquid catalyst at 70°C in 6 h. The ionic liquid catalyst was reusable up to four times of consecutive runs under the optimum reaction conditions. At the second stage, the esterified JCO was transesterified by using 1.3 wt% KOH and methanol oil molar ratio of 6 : 1 in 20 min at 64°C. The yield of the final biodiesel was found to be 98.6% as analyzed by NMR spectroscopy. Chemical composition of the final biodiesel was also determined by GC-MS analysis.

  6. One-pot process combining transesterification and selective hydrogenation for biodiesel production from starting material of high degree of unsaturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ru; Su, Mengxing; Li, Min; Zhang, Jianchun; Hao, Xinmin; Zhang, Hua

    2010-08-01

    A one-pot process combining transesterification and selective hydrogenation was established to produce biodiesel from hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seed oil which is eliminated as a potential feedstock by a specification of iodine value (IV; 120 g I(2)/100g maximum) contained in EN 14214. A series of alkaline earth metal oxides and alkaline earth metal supported copper oxide were prepared and tested as catalysts. SrO supported 10 wt.% CuO showed the superior catalytic activity for transesterification with a biodiesel yield of 96% and hydrogenation with a reduced iodine value of 113 and also exhibited a promising selectivity for eliminating methyl linolenate and increasing methyl oleate without rising methyl stearate in the selective hydrogenation. The fuel properties of the selective hydrogenated methyl esters are within biodiesel specifications. Furthermore, cetane numbers and iodine values were well correlated with the compositions of the hydrogenated methyl esters according to degrees of unsaturation.

  7. Biodiesel production by transesterification using immobilized lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narwal, Sunil Kumar; Gupta, Reena

    2013-04-01

    Biodiesel can be produced by transesterification of vegetable or waste oil catalysed by lipases. Biodiesel is an alternative energy source to conventional fuel. It combines environmental friendliness with biodegradability, low toxicity and renewability. Biodiesel transesterification reactions can be broadly classified into two categories: chemical and enzymatic. The production of biodiesel using the enzymatic route eliminates the reactions catalysed under acid or alkali conditions by yielding product of very high purity. The modification of lipases can improve their stability, activity and tolerance to alcohol. The cost of lipases and the relatively slower reaction rate remain the major obstacles for enzymatic production of biodiesel. However, this problem can be solved by immobilizing the enzyme on a suitable matrix or support, which increases the chances of re-usability. The main factors affecting biodiesel production are composition of fatty acids, catalyst, solvents, molar ratio of alcohol and oil, temperature, water content, type of alcohol and reactor configuration. Optimization of these parameters is necessary to reduce the cost of biodiesel production.

  8. A validated near-infrared spectroscopic method for methanol detection in biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Andrea; Bräuer, Bastian; Nieuwenkamp, Gerard; Ent, Hugo; Bremser, Wolfram

    2016-06-01

    Biodiesel quality control is a relevant issue as biodiesel properties influence diesel engine performance and integrity. Within the European metrology research program (EMRP) ENG09 project ‘Metrology for Biofuels’, an on-line/at-site suitable near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) method has been developed in parallel with an improved EN14110 headspace gas chromatography (GC) analysis method for methanol in biodiesel. Both methods have been optimized for a methanol content of 0.2 mass% as this represents the maximum limit of methanol content in FAME according to EN 14214:2009. The NIRS method is based on a mobile NIR spectrometer equipped with a fiber-optic coupled probe. Due to the high volatility of methanol, a tailored air-tight adaptor was constructed to prevent methanol evaporation during measurement. The methanol content of biodiesel was determined from evaluation of NIRS spectra by partial least squares regression (PLS). Both GC analysis and NIRS exhibited a significant dependence on biodiesel feedstock. The NIRS method is applicable to a content range of 0.1% (m/m) to 0.4% (m/m) of methanol with uncertainties at around 6% relative for the different feedstocks. A direct comparison of headspace GC and NIRS for samples of FAMEs yielded that the results of both methods are fully compatible within their stated uncertainties.

  9. High Luminosity LHC Project Description

    CERN Document Server

    Apollinari, Giorgio; Rossi, Lucio

    2014-01-01

    The High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) is a novel configuration of the Large Hadron Collider, aiming at increasing the luminosity by a factor five or more above the nominal LHC design, to allow increasing the integrated luminosity, in the high luminosity experiments ATLAS and CMS, from the 300 fb-1 of the LHC original design up to 3000 fb-1 or more. This paper contains a short description of the main machine parameters and of the main equipment that need to be developed and installed. The preliminary cost evaluation and the time plan are presented, too. Finally, the international collaboration that is supporting the project, the governance and the project structure are discussed, too.

  10. Aqueous solubility, dispersibility and toxicity of biodiesels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollebone, B.P.; Fieldhouse, B.; Lumley, T.C.; Landriault, M. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). ; Doe, K.; Jackman, P. [Environment Canada, Moncton, NB (Canada). Toxicology Laboratory, Environmental Science Centre

    2007-07-01

    The renewed interest in the use of biological fuels can be attributed to that fact that feedstocks for fatty-acid ester biodiesels are renewable and can be reclaimed from waste. Although there are significant benefits to using biodiesels, their increased use leaves potential for accidental release to the environment. Therefore, their environmental behaviours and impacts must be evaluated along with the risk associated with their use. Biodiesel fuels may be made from soy oil, canola oil, reclaimed restaurant grease, fish oil and animal fat. The toxicological fate of biofuel depends on the variability of its chemical composition. This study provided an initial assessment of the aqueous fate and effects of biodiesel from a broad range of commonly available feedstocks and their blends with petroleum diesels. The study focused primarily on the fate and impact of these fuels in fresh-water. The use of chemical dispersion as a countermeasure for saltwater was also investigated. The exposure of aquatic ecosystems to biodiesels and petroleum diesel occurs via the transfer of material from the non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) into the aqueous phase, as both soluble and dispersed components. The aqueous solubilities of the fuels were determined from the equilibrium water-accommodated fraction concentrations. The acute toxicities of many biodiesels were reported for 3 test species used by Environment Canada for toxicological evaluation, namely rainbow trout, the water flea and a luminescent bacterium. This study also evaluated the natural potential for dispersion of the fuels in the water column in both low and high-energy wave conditions. Chemical dispersion as a potential countermeasure for biodiesel spills was also evaluated using solubility testing, acute toxicity testing, and dispersibility testing. It was shown that biodiesels have much different fates and impacts from petroleum diesels. The compounds partitioning into the water column are also very different for each

  11. Profitability and sustainability of small - medium scale palm biodiesel plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solikhah, Maharani Dewi; Kismanto, Agus; Raksodewanto, Agus; Peryoga, Yoga

    2017-06-01

    The mandatory of biodiesel application at 20% blending (B20) has been started since January 2016. It creates huge market for biodiesel industry. To build large-scale biodiesel plant (> 100,000 tons/year) is most favorable for biodiesel producers since it can give lower production cost. This cost becomes a challenge for small - medium scale biodiesel plants. However, current biodiesel plants in Indonesia are located mainly in Java and Sumatra, which then distribute biodiesel around Indonesia so that there is an additional cost for transportation from area to area. This factor becomes an opportunity for the small - medium scale biodiesel plants to compete with the large one. This paper discusses the profitability of small - medium scale biodiesel plants conducted on a capacity of 50 tons/day using CPO and its derivatives. The study was conducted by performing economic analysis between scenarios of biodiesel plant that using raw material of stearin, PFAD, and multi feedstock. Comparison on the feasibility of scenarios was also conducted on the effect of transportation cost and selling price. The economic assessment shows that profitability is highly affected by raw material price so that it is important to secure the source of raw materials and consider a multi-feedstock type for small - medium scale biodiesel plants to become a sustainable plant. It was concluded that the small - medium scale biodiesel plants will be profitable and sustainable if they are connected to palm oil mill, have a captive market, and are located minimally 200 km from other biodiesel plants. The use of multi feedstock could increase IRR from 18.68 % to 56.52 %.

  12. Biodiesel production with special emphasis on lipase-catalyzed transesterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisen, Prakash S; Sanodiya, Bhagwan S; Thakur, Gulab S; Baghel, Rakesh K; Prasad, G B K S

    2010-08-01

    The production of biodiesel by transesterification employing acid or base catalyst has been industrially accepted for its high conversion and reaction rates. Downstream processing costs and environmental problems associated with biodiesel production and byproducts recovery have led to the search for alternative production methods. Recently, enzymatic transesterification involving lipases has attracted attention for biodiesel production as it produces high purity product and enables easy separation from the byproduct, glycerol. The use of immobilized lipases and immobilized whole cells may lower the overall cost, while presenting less downstream processing problems, to biodiesel production. The present review gives an overview on biodiesel production technology and analyzes the factors/methods of enzymatic approach reported in the literature and also suggests suitable method on the basis of evidence for industrial production of biodiesel.

  13. Performance characteristics of mix oil biodiesel blends with smoke emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjay Mohite; Sudhir Kumar; Sagar Maji

    2016-01-01

    Fossil fuel resources are being depleted day by day and its use affects the environment adversely. Renewable energy is one of the alternate for sustainable development and biodiesel is one of the suitable alternate which can replace the diesel. The major hurdles in the successful commercialization of biodiesel are high feedstock cost and conversion technology to reduce viscosity. The choice of raw material and biodiesel production method must depend upon techno-economical view. There are some...

  14. Biodiesel production with immobilized lipase: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tianwei; Lu, Jike; Nie, Kaili; Deng, Li; Wang, Fang

    2010-01-01

    Fatty acid alkyl esters, also called biodiesel, are environmentally friendly and show great potential as an alternative liquid fuel. Biodiesel is produced by transesterification of oils or fats with chemical catalysts or lipase. Immobilized lipase as the biocatalyst draws high attention because that process is "greener". This article reviews the current status of biodiesel production with immobilized lipase, including various lipases, immobilization methods, various feedstocks, lipase inactivation caused by short chain alcohols and large scale industrialization. Adsorption is still the most widely employed method for lipase immobilization. There are two kinds of lipase used most frequently especially for large scale industrialization. One is Candida antartica lipase immobilized on acrylic resin, and the other is Candida sp. 99-125 lipase immobilized on inexpensive textile membranes. However, to further reduce the cost of biodiesel production, new immobilization techniques with higher activity and stability still need to be explored.

  15. Project materials [Commercial High Performance Buildings Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-01-01

    The Consortium for High Performance Buildings (ChiPB) is an outgrowth of DOE'S Commercial Whole Buildings Roadmapping initiatives. It is a team-driven public/private partnership that seeks to enable and demonstrate the benefit of buildings that are designed, built and operated to be energy efficient, environmentally sustainable, superior quality, and cost effective.

  16. Catalysis in biodiesel processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    A substantial industry has grown in recent years to achieve the industrial scale production of biodiesel, a renewable replacement for petroleum-derived diesel fuel. The prevalent technology for biodiesel production at this time involves use of the long known single-use catalysts sodium hydroxide (o...

  17. Calorific value for compositions with biodiesel of fat chicken and diesel oil; Valor calorifico para composicoes com biodiesel da gordura de frango e oleo diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Marcelo Jose da [Universidade de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola], email: marcelo.jose@feagri.unicamp.br; Souza, Samuel N.M. de; Souza, Abel A. de; Martins, Gislaine I. [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (CCET/UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas], emails: ssouza@unioeste.br, abel.sza@hotmail.com, iastiaque@yahoo.com.br

    2011-07-01

    The biodiesel fuel is a renewable source of alternative fuel used in diesel cycle engines. The production of biodiesel involves the reaction of methanol with fatty acids of animal or vegetable. The production of biodiesel from chicken fat can be very attractive for some regions from Brazil with high poultry production, as in the Parana West and Santa Catarina West. In this study , the goal was the lower calorific value of the compositions between biodiesel and diesel oil: 100% Diesel oil (B0), 20% biodiesel (B20), 40% biodiesel (B40), 60% biodiesel (B60), 80% biodiesel (B80 ), 100% biodiesel (B100). The biodiesel used was acquired in the Centre for Development and Diffusion of technologies on the Assis Gurgacz College, in Cascavel city. The nominal production capacity of the unit is 900 liters on period of 8 hours. The model of the calorimeter used, was the E2K. The lower calorific value of B100 composition was 35.388 MJ kg-1 and the diesel oil was 41.299 MJ kg-1. With the measuring of the caloric value of six samples mix of diesel oil and biodiesel, was obtained a linear function decrease of the calorific value when increased it the proportion of biodiesel from chicken fat into fuel. (author)

  18. Biodiesel from conventional feedstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wei; Liu, De-Hua

    2012-01-01

    At present, traditional fossil fuels are used predominantly in China, presenting the country with challenges that include sustainable energy supply, energy efficiency improvement, and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. In 2007, China issued The Strategic Plan of the Mid-and-Long Term Development of Renewable Energy, which aims to increase the share of clean energy in the country's energy consumption to 15% by 2020 from only 7.5% in 2005. Biodiesel, an important renewable fuel with significant advantages over fossil diesel, has attracted great attention in the USA and European countries. However, biodiesel is still in its infancy in China, although its future is promising. This chapter reviews biodiesel production from conventional feedstocks in the country, including feedstock supply and state of the art technologies for the transesterification reaction through which biodiesel is made, particularly the enzymatic catalytic process developed by Chinese scientists. Finally, the constraints and perspectives for China's biodiesel development are highlighted.

  19. Biodiesel classification by base stock type (vegetable oil) using near infrared spectroscopy data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balabin, Roman M., E-mail: balabin@org.chem.ethz.ch [Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Safieva, Ravilya Z. [Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-03-18

    The use of biofuels, such as bioethanol or biodiesel, has rapidly increased in the last few years. Near infrared (near-IR, NIR, or NIRS) spectroscopy (>4000 cm{sup -1}) has previously been reported as a cheap and fast alternative for biodiesel quality control when compared with infrared, Raman, or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods; in addition, NIR can easily be done in real time (on-line). In this proof-of-principle paper, we attempt to find a correlation between the near infrared spectrum of a biodiesel sample and its base stock. This correlation is used to classify fuel samples into 10 groups according to their origin (vegetable oil): sunflower, coconut, palm, soy/soya, cottonseed, castor, Jatropha, etc. Principal component analysis (PCA) is used for outlier detection and dimensionality reduction of the NIR spectral data. Four different multivariate data analysis techniques are used to solve the classification problem, including regularized discriminant analysis (RDA), partial least squares method/projection on latent structures (PLS-DA), K-nearest neighbors (KNN) technique, and support vector machines (SVMs). Classifying biodiesel by feedstock (base stock) type can be successfully solved with modern machine learning techniques and NIR spectroscopy data. KNN and SVM methods were found to be highly effective for biodiesel classification by feedstock oil type. A classification error (E) of less than 5% can be reached using an SVM-based approach. If computational time is an important consideration, the KNN technique (E = 6.2%) can be recommended for practical (industrial) implementation. Comparison with gasoline and motor oil data shows the relative simplicity of this methodology for biodiesel classification.

  20. Biodiesel production from waste frying oils and its quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabudak, T; Yildiz, M

    2010-05-01

    The use of biodiesel as fuel from alternative sources has increased considerably over recent years, affording numerous environmental benefits. Biodiesel an alternative fuel for diesel engines is produced from renewable sources such as vegetable oils or animal fats. However, the high costs implicated in marketing biodiesel constitute a major obstacle. To this regard therefore, the use of waste frying oils (WFO) should produce a marked reduction in the cost of biodiesel due to the ready availability of WFO at a relatively low price. In the present study waste frying oils collected from several McDonald's restaurants in Istanbul, were used to produce biodiesel. Biodiesel from WFO was prepared by means of three different transesterification processes: a one-step base-catalyzed, a two-step base-catalyzed and a two-step acid-catalyzed transesterification followed by base transesterification. No detailed previous studies providing information for a two-step acid-catalyzed transesterification followed by a base (CH(3)ONa) transesterification are present in literature. Each reaction was allowed to take place with and without tetrahydrofuran added as a co-solvent. Following production, three different procedures; washing with distilled water, dry wash with magnesol and using ion-exchange resin were applied to purify biodiesel and the best outcome determined. The biodiesel obtained to verify compliance with the European Standard 14214 (EN 14214), which also corresponds to Turkish Biodiesel Standards.

  1. Effect of biodiesel addition on microbial community structure in a simulated fuel storage system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo-Flórez, Juan-Manuel; Bassi, Amarjeet; Rehmann, Lars; Thompson, Michael R

    2013-11-01

    Understanding changes in microbial structure due to biodiesel storage is important both for protecting integrity of storage systems and fuel quality management. In this work a simulated storage system was used to study the effect of biodiesel (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%) on a microbial population, which was followed by community level physiological profiling (CLPP), 16s rDNA analysis and plating in selective media. Results proved that structure and functionality were affected by biodiesel. CLPP showed at least three populations: one corresponding to diesel, one to biodiesel and one to blends of diesel and biodiesel. Analysis of 16s rDNA revealed that microbial composition was different for populations growing in diesel and biodiesel. Genera identified are known for degradation of hydrocarbons and emulsifier production. Maximum growth was obtained in biodiesel; however, microbial counts in standard media were lower for this samples. Acidification of culture media was observed at high biodiesel concentration.

  2. Influence of corn oil recovery on life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of corn ethanol and corn oil biodiesel

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zhichao; Dunn, Jennifer B.; Han, Jeongwoo; Wang, Michael Q.

    2015-01-01

    Background Corn oil recovery and conversion to biodiesel has been widely adopted at corn ethanol plants recently. The US EPA has projected 2.6 billion liters of biodiesel will be produced from corn oil in 2022. Corn oil biodiesel may qualify for federal renewable identification number (RIN) credits under the Renewable Fuel Standard, as well as for low greenhouse gas (GHG) emission intensity credits under California’s Low Carbon Fuel Standard. Because multiple products [ethanol, biodiesel, and...

  3. Encapsulated heterogeneous base catalysts onto SBA-15 nanoporous material as highly active catalysts in the transesterification of sunflower oil to biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albayati, Talib M., E-mail: talib-albyati@yahoo.com [University of Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering (Iraq); Doyle, Aidan M., E-mail: a.m.doyle@mmu.ac.uk [Manchester Metropolitan University, Division of Chemistry and Environmental Science (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-15

    Alkali metals and their hydroxides, Na, NaOH, Li, and LiOH, were encapsulated onto SBA-15 nanoporous material as highly active catalysts for the production of biodiesel fuel from sunflower oil. The incipient wetness impregnation method was adopted for the prepared catalysts. The characterization properties of the catalysts and unmodified SBA-15 were determined using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, EDAX, nitrogen adsorption–desorption porosimetry (Brunauer–Emmett–Teller), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Transesterification was conducted in a batch reactor at atmospheric pressure and 65 °C. The catalysts were highly active with yields of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) in the range 96–99 %. Na/SBA-15 catalyst was reused for seven consecutive cycles under the same reaction conditions; the yield to FAME on the final cycle was 96 %. This study shows that the alkali metals and their hydroxides supported on SBA-15-based catalyst are excellent catalysts for the biodiesel reaction.

  4. Encapsulated heterogeneous base catalysts onto SBA-15 nanoporous material as highly active catalysts in the transesterification of sunflower oil to biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albayati, Talib M.; Doyle, Aidan M.

    2015-02-01

    Alkali metals and their hydroxides, Na, NaOH, Li, and LiOH, were encapsulated onto SBA-15 nanoporous material as highly active catalysts for the production of biodiesel fuel from sunflower oil. The incipient wetness impregnation method was adopted for the prepared catalysts. The characterization properties of the catalysts and unmodified SBA-15 were determined using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, EDAX, nitrogen adsorption-desorption porosimetry (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Transesterification was conducted in a batch reactor at atmospheric pressure and 65 °C. The catalysts were highly active with yields of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) in the range 96-99 %. Na/SBA-15 catalyst was reused for seven consecutive cycles under the same reaction conditions; the yield to FAME on the final cycle was 96 %. This study shows that the alkali metals and their hydroxides supported on SBA-15-based catalyst are excellent catalysts for the biodiesel reaction.

  5. Final Technical Report on Development of an Economic and Efficient Biodiesel production Process (NC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tirla, Cornelia [Univ. of North Carolina, Pembroke, NC (United States); Dooling, Thomas A. [Univ. of North Carolina, Pembroke, NC (United States); Smith, Rachel B. [Univ. of North Carolina, Pembroke, NC (United States); Shi, Xinyan [Univ. of North Carolina, Pembroke, NC (United States); Shahbazi, Abolghasem [North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State Univ., Greensboro, NC (United States)

    2014-03-19

    The Biofuels Team at The University of North Carolina at Pembroke and North Carolina A&T State University carried out a joint research project aimed at developing an efficient process to produce biodiesel. In this project, the team developed and tested various types of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts which could replace the conventionally used soluble potassium hydroxide catalyst which, traditionally, must be separated and disposed of at the end of the process. As a result of this screening, the homogeneous catalyst choline hydroxide was identified as a potential replacement for the traditional catalyst used in this process, potassium hydroxide, due to its decreased corrosiveness and toxicity. A large number of heterogeneous catalysts were produced and tested in order to determine the scaffold, ion type and ion concentration which would produce optimum yield of biodiesel. The catalyst with 12% calcium on Zeolite β was identified as being highly effective and optimal reaction conditions were identified. Furthermore, a packed bed reactor utilizing this type of catalyst was designed, constructed and tested in order to further optimize the process. An economic analysis of the viability of the project showed that the cost of an independent farmer to produce the fuelstock required to produce biodiesel exceeds the cost of petroleum diesel under current conditions and that therefore without incentives, farmers would not be able to benefit economically from producing their own fuel. An educational website on biodiesel production and analysis was produced and a laboratory experiment demonstrating the production of biodiesel was developed and implemented into the Organic Chemistry II laboratory curriculum at UNCP. Five workshops for local farmers and agricultural agents were held in order to inform the broader community about the various fuelstock available, their cultivation and the process and advantages of biodiesel use and production. This project fits both

  6. Two-step in situ biodiesel production from microalgae with high free fatty acid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Tao; Wang, Jun; Miao, Chao; Zheng, Yubin; Chen, Shulin

    2013-05-01

    The yield of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) from microalgae biomass is generally low via traditional extraction-conversion route due to the deficient solvent extraction. In this study a two-step in situ process was investigated to obtain a high FAME yield from microalgae biomass that had high free fatty acids (FFA) content. This was accomplished with a pre-esterification process using heterogeneous catalyst to reduce FFA content prior to the base-catalyzed transesterification. The two-step in situ process resulted in a total FAME recovery up to 94.87±0.86%, which was much higher than that obtained by a one-step acid or base catalytic in situ process. The heterogeneous catalyst, Amberlyst-15, could be used for 8 cycles without significant loss in activity. This process have the potential to reduce the production cost of microalgae-derived FAME and be more environmental compatible due to the higher FAME yield with reduced catalyst consumption.

  7. Preparation of Biodiesel by Methanolysis of Crude Moringa Oleifera Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel was prepared from the unconventional crude oil of Moringa oleifera by transesterification with methanol and alkali catalyst. Moringa oleifera oil is reported for the first time as potential feedstock for biodiesel. Moringa oleifera oil contains a high amount of oleic acid (>70%) with sat...

  8. Production of biodiesel from plant oil hydrolysates using an Aspergillus oryzae whole-cell biocatalyst highly expressing Candida antarctica lipase B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Daisuke; Hama, Shinji; Nakashima, Kazunori; Bogaki, Takayuki; Ogino, Chiaki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2013-05-01

    For enzymatic biodiesel production from plant oil hydrolysates, an Aspergillus oryzae whole-cell biocatalyst that expresses Candida antarctica lipase B (r-CALB) with high esterification activity was developed. Each of soybean and palm oils was hydrolyzed using Candida rugosa lipase, and the resultant hydrolysates were subjected to esterification where immobilized r-CALB was used as a catalyst. In esterification, r-CALB afforded a methyl ester content of more than 90% after 6 h with the addition of 1.5 M equivalents of methanol. Favorably, stepwise additions of methanol and a little water were unnecessary for maintaining the lipase stability of r-CALB during esterification. During long-term esterification in a rotator, r-CALB can be recycled for 20 cycles without a significant loss of lipase activity, resulting in a methyl ester content of more than 90% even after the 20th batch. Therefore, the presented reaction system using r-CALB shows promise for biodiesel production from plant oil hydrolysates.

  9. Market penetration of biodiesel and ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szulczyk, Kenneth Ray

    This dissertation examines the influence that economic and technological factors have on the penetration of biodiesel and ethanol into the transportation fuels market. This dissertation focuses on four aspects. The first involves the influence of fossil fuel prices, because biofuels are substitutes and have to compete in price. The second involves biofuel manufacturing technology, principally the feedstock-to-biofuel conversion rates, and the biofuel manufacturing costs. The third involves prices for greenhouse gas offsets. The fourth involves the agricultural commodity markets for feedstocks, and biofuel byproducts. This dissertation uses the Forest and Agricultural Sector Optimization Model-Greenhouse Gas (FASOM-GHG) to quantitatively examine these issues and calculates equilibrium prices and quantities, given market interactions, fossil fuel prices, carbon dioxide equivalent prices, government biofuel subsidies, technological improvement, and crop yield gains. The results indicate that for the ranges studied, gasoline prices have a major impact on aggregate ethanol production but only at low prices. At higher prices, one runs into a capacity constraint that limits expansion on the capacity of ethanol production. Aggregate biodiesel production is highly responsive to gasoline prices and increases over time. (Diesel fuel price is proportional to the gasoline price). Carbon dioxide equivalent prices expand the biodiesel industry, but have no impact on ethanol aggregate production when gasoline prices are high again because of refinery capacity expansion. Improvement of crop yields shows a similar pattern, expanding ethanol production when the gasoline price is low and expanding biodiesel. Technological improvement, where biorefinery production costs decrease over time, had minimal impact on aggregate ethanol and biodiesel production. Finally, U.S. government subsidies have a large expansionary impact on aggregate biodiesel production. Finally, U.S. government

  10. Biodiesel from Specified Risk Material Tallow: An Appraisal of TSE Risks and their Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baribeau, A.; Bradley, R.; Brown, P.; Goodwin, J.; Kihm, U.; Lotero, E.; O' Connor, D.; Schuppers, M.; Taylor, D.

    2007-03-15

    This document presents a systematic survey of current knowledge about the risk to human and animal health posed by the processing of tissues from animals potentially infected with transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE, or 'prion disease') into biodiesel. It is organised into an introductory background section on TSE, followed by chapters treating the sequential stages of biodiesel production. The principal conclusions are: Animal tissue sources. The choice of geographic origin, based on published scientific evaluations of the risk of TSE to be present in a given country, can largely reduce or even eliminate the entry of contaminated tissue into the biodiesel feedstock. Further safeguards can be provided by selection of animal species not susceptible to TSE, and of tissues without any detectable infectivity even in susceptible species. None of these measures, however, would be applied to the biodiesel projects under consideration, which have the specific aim of using animals and tissues (including specified risk material, or SRM) considered to have sufficient potential risk to be unacceptable for use in food, feed, fertilisers, or pharmaceuticals (including biologicals and medical devices) and therefore are designated for other approved uses, or destruction. Tissue rendering to produce tallow. Experiments to test the survival of TSE infectivity in the products of rendering failed to detect any infectivity in the crude tallow fraction, even following processing methods that allowed survival of infectivity in the co-produced meat and bone meal fraction. It is therefore extremely unlikely that pure tallow originating from diseased animals would be infectious; however, lower grade tallow might contain infectious impurities. A requirement that tallow derived from SRM for use in biodiesel contain no detectable protein would reduce this possibility. Transesterification of tallow to biodiesel. Several steps in the manufacturing process have at least the

  11. Cottonseed oil for biodiesel production; Oleo de algodao para a producao de biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pighinelli, Anna L.M.T.; Park, Kil J. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)], E-mail: annalets@feagri.unicamp.br; Ferrari, Roseli A.; Miguel, Ana M.R.O. [Instituto de Tecnologia de Alimentos (ITAL), Campinas, SP (Brazil)], Emails: roseliferrari@ital.sp.gov.br, anarauen@ital.sp.gov.br, kil@feagri.unicamp.br

    2009-07-01

    Crude cottonseed oil is an alternative for biodiesel production, mostly in Mato Grosso State, where its production is the biggest of Brazil. Even being an acid oil, esterification reaction, followed by transesterification, could make possible the biodiesel production. In this study, crude cottonseed oil obtained from expelled process was reacted to evaluate molar ration and catalyst concentration effects in biodiesel yield. Molar ratio varied from 3 to 15 moles of ethanol to 1 mol of oil, and catalyst, from 1 to 5% by oil mass. Statistic analysis showed that none of studied variables was significant, for the values range. Biodiesel yield had a maximum of 88%, for molar ratio of 4.7 and 4.42% of catalyst concentration. A combination of oil with high free fatty acid content and ethanol as alcohol, affected the separation between esters and glycerol. (author)

  12. Effect of Biodiesel on Diesel Engine Nitrogen Oxide and Other Regulated Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    process of base - catalyzed transesterification at low temperature (150°F), low pressure (20 pounds per sq in [psi]) and with a high conversion...4 LIST OF TABLES Page Table 1. Emission impacts of B20 for Soybean- Based Biodiesel Added to an Average Base ...Camp Pendleton Marine Corps Base for making the arrangements to supply most of the diesel engines tested in this project. Camp Pendleton was able

  13. [FTIR detection of unregulated emissions from a diesel engine with biodiesel fuel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Pi-qiang; Hu, Zhi-yuan; Lou, Di-ming

    2012-02-01

    Biodiesel, as one of the most promising alternative fuels, has received more attention because of limited fossil fuels. A comparison of biodiesel and petroleum diesel fuel is discussed as regards engine unregulated exhaust emissions. A diesel fuel, a pure biodiesel fuel, and fuel with 20% V/V biodiesel blend ratio were tested without engine modification The present study examines six typical unregulated emissions by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) method: formaldehyde (HCHO), acetaldehyde (C2 H4 O), acetone (C3 H6 O), toluene (C7 H8), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and carbon dioxide (CO2). The results show addition of biodiesel fuel increases the formaldehyde emission, and B20 fuel has little change, but the formaldehyde emission of pure biodiesel shows a clear trend of addition. Compared with the pure diesel fuel, the acetaldehyde of B20 fuel has a distinct decrease, and the acetaldehyde emission of pure biodiesel is lower than that of the pure diesel fuel at low and middle engine loads, but higher at high engine load. The acetone emission is very low, and increases for B20 and pure biodiesel fuels as compared to diesel fuel. Compared with the diesel fuel, the toluene and sulfur dioxide values of the engine show a distinct decrease with biodiesel blend ratio increasing. It is clear that the biodiesel could reduce aromatic compounds and emissions of diesel engines. The carbon dioxide emission of pure biodiesel has a little lower value than diesel, showing that the biodiesel benefits control of greenhouse gas.

  14. Biodiesel Fuel Quality and the ASTM Biodiesel Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel is usually produced from vegetable oils, animal fats and used cooking oils with alternative feedstocks such as algae receiving increasing interest. The transesterification reaction which produces biodiesel also produces glycerol and proceeds stepwise via mono- and diacylglycerol intermedi...

  15. Biodiesel production from castor oil in Brazil: A difficult reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Cesar, Aldara da, E-mail: aldara@dep.ufscar.b [Federal University of Sao Carlos, Gepai - Grupo de Estudos e Pesquisas Agroindustriais, Departamento de Engenharia de Producao - UFSCar, Rodovia Washington Luis, km 235 - CEP 13565-905 - Sao Carlos - SP (Brazil); Otavio Batalha, Mario [Federal University of Sao Carlos, Gepai - Grupo de Estudos e Pesquisas Agroindustriais, Departamento de Engenharia de Producao - UFSCar, Rodovia Washington Luis, km 235 - CEP 13565-905 - Sao Carlos - SP (Brazil)

    2010-08-15

    The Brazilian National Program for Production and Use of Biodiesel (PNPB in Portuguese) has created a huge demand for biodiesel in Brazil. The PNPB is strongly based on social development through the inclusion of family farmers in projects integrated with biodiesel power plants. Among the various oilseeds, castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) was identified as the ideal one to promote social development in the semi-arid region. However, although promising, the mechanisms of the federal program are still insufficient to promote the effective participation of family farmers. This research shows that companies are facing huge problems in implementing contracts with family farmers. It describes and analyzes the functioning dynamics of this agro-production chain. This paper addresses the identification and the discussion of these obstacles, in order to increase the competitiveness of the biodiesel agribusiness chain, based on castor oil social projects in Brazil.

  16. Biodiesel production from castor oil in Brazil. A difficult reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Cesar, Aldara da; Otavio Batalha, Mario [Federal University of Sao Carlos, Gepai - Grupo de Estudos e Pesquisas Agroindustriais, Departamento de Engenharia de Producao - UFSCar, Rodovia Washington Luis, km 235 - CEP 13565-905 - Sao Carlos (Brazil)

    2010-08-15

    The Brazilian National Program for Production and Use of Biodiesel (PNPB in Portuguese) has created a huge demand for biodiesel in Brazil. The PNPB is strongly based on social development through the inclusion of family farmers in projects integrated with biodiesel power plants. Among the various oilseeds, castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) was identified as the ideal one to promote social development in the semi-arid region. However, although promising, the mechanisms of the federal program are still insufficient to promote the effective participation of family farmers. This research shows that companies are facing huge problems in implementing contracts with family farmers. It describes and analyzes the functioning dynamics of this agro-production chain. This paper addresses the identification and the discussion of these obstacles, in order to increase the competitiveness of the biodiesel agribusiness chain, based on castor oil social projects in Brazil. (author)

  17. High-cell-density cultivation of oleaginous yeast Cryptococcus curvatus for biodiesel production using organic waste from the brewery industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Byung-Gon; Kim, Jungmin; Kim, Kyochan; Choi, Yoon-E; Han, Jong-In; Yang, Ji-Won

    2013-05-01

    Waste spent yeast from brewery industry was used as a sole growth substrate to grow an oleaginous yeast Cryptococcus curvatus for the purpose of biodiesel production. Approximately 7 g/l/d of biomass productivity was obtained using only spent yeast (30 g/l) without additional nutrients and pretreatment of any kind. To make best use of available nutrients in the spent yeast, stepwise cultivation was carried out in a batch culture mode and the highest biomass and lipid content, which were 50.4 g/l and 37.7%, respectively, were obtained at 35:1 of C/N ratio. Lipid from C. curvatus was found to be a quality-sufficient source of oil as a transportation fuel in terms of cetane, iodine values, and oxidation stability, although the values of cold filter plugging point were less desirable. Economic evaluation revealed that the use of the spent yeast could significantly reduce the unit cost of yeast-based biodiesel production.

  18. A Comprehensive Review of Effect of Biodiesel Additives on Properties, Performance, and Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madiwale, S.; Karthikeyan, A.; Bhojwani, V.

    2017-05-01

    Objectives:- To presents the literature review on effect of biodiesel additives on properties, performance and on emission. Method:-In the current paper reviews are taken from previous years paper which necessitates the need of addition of additives in the blends of biodiesel and studied the its effect on properties, performance and emissions. Emissions from the diesel powered vehicles mostly damaged the earth’s environment and also increased the overall earth’s temperature. This attracts the need of alternative fuels in the field of transportation sector. Past inventions and research showed that Biodiesel can be used as an alternative fuel for the diesel engine. Biodiesel have good combustion characteristics because of their long chain hydrocarbon structure. However biodiesel possesses few disadvantages such as lower heating value, higher flow ability, much high density and not able to flow at low temperature. Higher rate of fuel consumption is identified and higher level of NOx emissions when biodiesel used in an engine as an alternative fuels. Findings:-Different additives such as antioxidants, improvers for cetane number, cold flow properties improver, etc were investigated by the many researcher and scientists and added in the different feedstock of biodiesel or blends of biodiesel with diesel in different proportions. Directly or indirectly fuel additives can improve the reduction in the emissions, improve the fuel economy, and reduce the dependency of the one’s nation on other. Performances of biodiesel vehicles were drastically improved because of additioninthe blends of biodiesel with diesel fuel in specific percentages to meet the international emission standards. Addition of additives in the biodiesel or in the blends of biodiesel basically changes the high temperature and low temperature flow properties of blends of biodiesel. Current paper finds and compares properties of different additives and its effect on blends of biodiesel properties

  19. The effect of economic variables over a biodiesel production plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchetti, J.M., E-mail: jmarchetti@plapiqui.edu.ar [Planta Piloto de Ingenieria Quimica (UNS-CONICET), Camino La Carrindanga km 7, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} Influence of the mayor economic parameters for biodiesel production. {yields} Variations of profitability of a biodiesel plant due to changes in the market scenarios. {yields} Comparison of economic indicators of a biodiesel production facility when market variables are modified. - Abstract: Biodiesel appears as one of the possible alternative renewable fuels to substitute diesel fuel derived from petroleum. Several researches have been done on the technical aspects of biodiesel production in an attempt to develop a better and cleaner alternative to the conventional process. Economic studies have been carried out to have a better understanding of the high costs and benefits of different technologies in the biodiesel industry. In this work it is studied the effect of the most important economic variables of a biodiesel production process over the general economy of a conventional plant which employs sodium methoxide as catalyst. It has been analyzed the effect of the oil price, the amount of free fatty acid, the biodiesel price, the cost of the glycerin, the effect due to the modification on the methanol price, the washing water price, and several others. Small variations on some of the major market variables would produce significant effects over the global economy of the plant, making it non profitable in some cases.

  20. Study on Carbonyl Emissions of Diesel Engine Fueled with Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruina Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is a kind of high-quality alternative fuel of diesel engine. In this study, biodiesel and biodiesel/diesel blend were used in a single cylinder diesel engine to study the carbonyl emissions. The result shows that carbonyl pollutants of biodiesel and biodiesel/diesel blend are mainly aldehyde and ketone compounds with 1–3 carbon atoms, and formaldehyde concentration is higher than 80% of the total carbonyl pollutants for biodiesel. The formaldehyde concentration peak is reduced with the increase of intake temperature (T, intake pressure (P, and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR ratio and increased with the increase of compression ratio (ε. When excess air coefficient (λ is lower than 1.7, the formaldehyde concentration is increased with the increase of excess air ratio. When λ is higher than 1.7, the formaldehyde concentration is reduced with the increase of excess air ratio. The dilution of air can reduce formaldehyde concentration in the premixed flame of diesel effectively; however, it has less effect on biodiesel. Among the fuel pretreatment measures of adding hydrogen, CO, and methane, the addition of hydrogen shows the best effect on reducing formaldehyde of biodiesel.

  1. A Comparative Characteristic Study of Jatropha and Cardanol Biodiesel Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugazhenthi, R.; Chandrasekaran, M.; Muthuraman, R. K.; Vivek, P.; Parthiban, A.

    2017-03-01

    The demand in fuel needs and the depleting fossil fuels raised the need towards bio-fuels. The emerging trend in research field is highly focused on biodiesel production and their characteristic analysis. Since pollution is a major threat to the environment, emission parameter analyses are much important to be concentrated. As the entire world contains plenty of biofuels, it is necessary to explore them for its efficiency and analyze their parameters. In this experimental work jatropha and cashew nut shell biodiesel (Cardanol) was extracted and they were blended with diesel. The characteristics of jatropha and cardanol biodiesel were studied in the DI diesel engine by varying the load at the same speed. In brief, this experimental analysis is carried out to compare the emission characteristics between Jatropha biodiesel at 20% (B20) and 40% (B40) and Cardanol biodiesel blends at 20% (C20) and 40% (C40).

  2. The feasibility of converting Cannabis sativa L. oil into biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Si-Yu; Stuart, James D; Li, Yi; Parnas, Richard S

    2010-11-01

    Cannabis sativa Linn, known as industrial hemp, was utilized for biodiesel production in this study. Oil from hemp seed was converted to biodiesel through base-catalyzed transesterification. The conversion is greater than 99.5% while the product yield is 97%. Several ASTM tests for biodiesel quality were implemented on the biodiesel product, including acid number, sulfur content, flash point, kinematic viscosity, and free and total glycerin content. In addition, the biodiesel has a low cloud point (-5 degrees C) and kinematic viscosity (3.48mm(2)/s). This may be attributed to the high content of poly-unsaturated fatty acid of hemp seed oil and its unique 3:1 ratio of linoleic to alpha-linolenic acid.

  3. Process simulation and economical evaluation of enzymatic biodiesel production plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotoft, Lene Fjerbaek; Rong, Ben-Guang; Christensen, Knud V; Norddahl, Birgir

    2010-07-01

    Process simulation and economical evaluation of an enzymatic biodiesel production plant has been carried out. Enzymatic biodiesel production from high quality rapeseed oil and methanol has been investigated for solvent free and cosolvent production processes. Several scenarios have been investigated with different production scales (8 and 200 mio. kg biodiesel/year) and enzyme price. The cosolvent production process is found to be most expensive and is not a viable choice, while the solvent free process is viable for the larger scale production of 200 mio. kg biodiesel/year with the current enzyme price. With the suggested enzyme price of the future, both the small and large scale solvent free production proved viable. The product price was estimated to be 0.73-1.49 euro/kg biodiesel with the current enzyme price and 0.05-0.75 euro/kg with the enzyme price of the future for solvent free process.

  4. Process for biodiesel production from Cryptococcus curvatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiru, Meikandhan; Sankh, Santosh; Rangaswamy, Vidhya

    2011-11-01

    The objective of the current report is process optimization for economical production of lipids by the well known oleaginous yeast Cryptococcus curvatus and conversion of the lipids to biodiesel. A high cell density fed-batch cultivation on low cost substrate viz. crude glycerol resulted in a dry biomass and oil yield of up to 69 g/L and 48% (w/w), respectively. The process was scaled up easily to 26 L. The oil extraction process was also optimized using environmentally safe solvents. The oil profile indicated a high oleic acid content followed by palmitic acid, stearic acid and linoleic acid. The oil was trans-esterified to biodiesel and thoroughly characterized. This is the first end to end report on production of biodiesel from the C. curvatus oil.

  5. Business management for biodiesel producers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerpen, Jon Van [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2004-07-01

    The material in this book is intended to provide the reader with information about the biodiesel and liquid fuels industry, biodiesel start-up issues, legal and regulatory issues, and operational concerns.

  6. Technical aspects of production and analysis of biodiesel from used cooking oil. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enweremadu, C.C.; Mbarawa, M.M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag X680, Pretoria 001 (South Africa)

    2009-12-15

    The increasing awareness of the depletion of fossil fuel resources and the environmental benefits of biodiesel fuel has made it more attractive in recent times. The cost of biodiesel, however, is the major hurdle to its commercialization in comparison to petroleum-based diesel fuel. The high cost is primarily due to the raw material, mostly neat vegetable oil. Used cooking oil is one of the economical sources for biodiesel production. However, the products formed during frying, can affect the transesterification reaction and the biodiesel properties. This paper attempts to review various technological methods of biodiesel production from used cooking oil. The analytical methods for high quality biodiesel fuel from used cooking oil like GC, TLC, HPLC, GPC and TGA have also been summarized in this paper. In addition, the specifications provided by different countries are presented. The fuel properties of biodiesel fuel from used cooking oil were also reviewed and compared with those of conventional diesel fuel. (author)

  7. Astronomy Education Project for Guangdong High Schools

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    F. P. Pi; K. Y. Guan; J. Wang; H. G. Wang; Y. Liu; J. H. Fan

    2014-09-01

    Guangdong province is an active area in China for astronomy education and popularization. The current status and problems of astronomy education in high schools are reviewed. To tackle these problems, an astronomy education project for high school teachers and students was initiated by Guangzhou University in 2013. The purpose and key points of the projects are introduced in this paper.

  8. Microtox aquatic toxicity of petrodiesel and biodiesel blends: the role of biodiesel's autoxidation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassine, Mohamad H; Wu, Shuyun; Suidan, Makram T; Venosa, Albert D

    2012-12-01

    The acute Microtox toxicity of the water accommodated fraction (WAF) of six commercial soybean biodiesel/petrodiesel blends was investigated at different oil loads. We analyzed five fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), C10-C24 n-alkanes, four aromatics, methanol, and total organic carbon (TOC) content. At high oil loads, the WAFs' toxicity was significantly higher for blends containing biodiesel. At the lowest load, the WAFs' toxicity decreased almost linearly with decreasing biodiesel in the blend. At intermediate loads, the WAFs of all the blends appeared to have a similar toxicity. Analysis of WAFs confirmed the presence of autoxidation byproducts of FAMEs at high oil loads. Pure unsaturated FAMEs and n-alkanes were nontoxic when present in water at their reported solubility limits. However, 24-h equilibrated WAFs of pure FAMEs were highly toxic for C18:1 and C18:3, but not for C18:2. The authors concluded that at high oil loads, the acute toxicity of the WAFs was caused by FAMEs' autoxidation byproducts, whereas at low oil loads, the toxicity appeared to be caused primarily by the aromatic compounds present in petrodiesel. The addition of a synthetic antioxidant in biodiesel did not appear to affect the concentration of autoxidation byproducts in the WAF but resulted in a slight decrease in its toxicity. The major autoxidation byproducts identified in the WAF of commercial biodiesel were present neither in the WAFs of pure unsaturated FAMEs nor in the WAF of a different soybean biodiesel that was transesterified in our laboratory, which was nontoxic. We concluded that the process of transesterification of biodiesel might be a more critical factor in determining the aquatic toxicity of the fuel than the source of feedstock itself. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  9. High Temperature Electrostrictive Ceramics Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TRS Technologies proposes to develop high temperature electrostrictors from bismuth-based ferroelectrics. These materials will exhibit high strain and low loss in...

  10. High Energy Density Capacitors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA?s future space science missions cannot be realized without the state of the art energy storage devices which require high energy density, high reliability, and...

  11. High Performance Space Pump Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — PDT is proposing a High Performance Space Pump based upon an innovative design using several technologies. The design will use a two-stage impeller, high temperature...

  12. High Efficency Lightweight Radiators Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — XC Associates proposes to build on prior work to develop and characterize a very high efficiency, lightweight radiator constructed from high thermal conductivity...

  13. Jatropha bio-diesel production and use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achten, W.M.J.; Aerts, R.; Muys, B. [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Division Forest, Nature and Landscape, Celestijnenlaan 200 E Box 2411, BE-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Verchot, L. [World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) Head Quarters, United Nations Avenue, P.O. Box 30677, Nairobi (Kenya); Franken, Y.J. [FACT Foundation, Horsten 1, 5612 AX Eindhoven (Netherlands); Mathijs, E. [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Division Agricultural and Food Economics, Willem de Croylaan 42 Box 2424, BE-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Singh, V.P. [World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) Regional Office for South Asia, CG Block, 1st Floor, National Agricultural Science Centre, Dev Prakash Shastri Marg, Pusa, New Delhi 110 012 (India)

    2008-12-15

    The interest in using Jatropha curcas L. (JCL) as a feedstock for the production of bio-diesel is rapidly growing. The properties of the crop and its oil have persuaded investors, policy makers and clean development mechanism (CDM) project developers to consider JCL as a substitute for fossil fuels to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, JCL is still a wild plant of which basic agronomic properties are not thoroughly understood and the environmental effects have not been investigated yet. Gray literature reports are very optimistic on simultaneous wasteland reclamation capability and oil yields, further fueling the Jatropha bio-diesel hype. In this paper, we give an overview of the currently available information on the different process steps of the production process of bio-diesel from JCL, being cultivation and production of seeds, extraction of the oil, conversion to and the use of the bio-diesel and the by-products. Based on this collection of data and information the best available practice, the shortcomings and the potential environmental risks and benefits are discussed for each production step. The review concludes with a call for general precaution and for science to be applied. (author)

  14. WI Biodiesel Blending Progream Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redmond, Maria E; Levy, Megan M

    2013-04-01

    The Wisconsin State Energy Office's (SEO) primary mission is to implement cost effective, reliable, balanced, and environmentally friendly clean energy projects. To support this mission the Wisconsin Biodiesel Blending Program was created to financially support the installation infrastructure necessary to directly sustain biodiesel blending and distribution at petroleum terminal facilities throughout Wisconsin. The SEO secured a federal directed award of $600,000 over 2.25 years. With these funds, the SEO supported the construction of inline biodiesel blending facilities at two petroleum terminals in Wisconsin. The Federal funding provided through the state provided a little less than half of the necessary investment to construct the terminals, with the balance put forth by the partners. Wisconsin is now home to two new biodiesel blending terminals. Fusion Renewables on Jones Island (in the City of Milwaukee) will offer a B100 blend to both bulk and retail customers. CITGO is currently providing a B5 blend to all customers at their Granville, WI terminal north of the City of Milwaukee.

  15. Biodiesel Handling and Use Guide (Fifth Edition)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alleman, Teresa L.; McCormick, Robert L.; Christensen, Earl D.; Fioroni, Gina; Moriarty, Kristi; Yanowitz, Janet

    2016-11-08

    This document is a guide for those who blend, distribute, and use biodiesel and biodiesel blends. It provides basic information on the proper and safe use of biodiesel and biodiesel blends in engines and boilers, and is intended to help fleets, individual users, blenders, distributors, and those involved in related activities understand procedures for handling and using biodiesel fuels.

  16. [Progress on biodiesel production with enzymatic catalysis in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tianwei; Lu, Jike; Nie, Kaili; Zhang, Haixia; Deng, Li; Wang, Fang

    2010-07-01

    This paper reports the progress of biodiesel production with enzymatic catalysis in Beijing University of Chemical Technology, one of the leaders in biodiesel R & D in China, which includes screening of high-yield lipase production strains, optimization and scale-up of the lipase fermentation process, lipase immobilization, bioreactor development and scale-up, biodiesel separation and purification and the by-product glycerol utilization. Firstly, lipase fermentation was carried out at industrial scale with the 5 m3 stirred tank bioreactor, and the enzyme activity as high as 8 000 IU/mL was achieved by the species Candida sp. 99-125. Then, the lipase was purified and immobilized on textile membranes. Furthermore, biodiesel production was performed in the 5 m3 stirred tank bioreactor with an enzyme dosage as low as 0.42%, and biodiesel that met the German biodiesel standard was produced. And in the meantime, the byproduct glycerol was used for the production of 1,3-propanediol to partly offset the production cost of biodiesel, and 76.1 g/L 1,3-propanediol was obtained in 30 L fermentor with the species Klebsiella pneumoniae.

  17. Current Status and Prospects of Biodiesel Production from Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhuan Liu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae represent a sustainable energy source because of their high biomass productivity and ability to remove air and water born pollutants. This paper reviews the current status of production and conversion of microalgae, including the advantages of microalgae biodiesel, high density cultivation of microalgae, high-lipid content microalgae selection and metabolic control, and innovative harvesting and processing technologies. The key barriers to commercial production of microalgae biodiesel and future perspective of the technologies are also discussed.

  18. High Temperature Bell Motor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The National Research Council (NRC) has identified the need for motors and actuators that can operate in extreme high and low temperature environments as a technical...

  19. High Energy Density Capacitors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Capacitor size and reliability are often limiting factors in pulse power, high speed switching, and power management and distribution (PMAD) systems. T/J...

  20. High Power Betavoltaic Technology Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation will dramatically improve the performance of tritium-powered betavoltaic batteries through the development of a high-aspect ratio, expanded...

  1. Genotoxic potential of diesel exhaust particles from the combustion of first- and second-generation biodiesel fuels-the FuelHealth project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, Magdalena; Wegierek-Ciuk, Aneta; Brzoska, Kamil; Wojewodzka, Maria; Meczynska-Wielgosz, Sylwia; Gromadzka-Ostrowska, Joanna; Mruk, Remigiusz; Øvrevik, Johan; Kruszewski, Marcin; Lankoff, Anna

    2017-09-09

    Epidemiological data indicate that exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) from traffic emissions is associated with higher risk of morbidity and mortality related to cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases, accelerated progression of atherosclerotic plaques, and possible lung cancer. While the impact of DEPs from combustion of fossil diesel fuel on human health has been extensively studied, current knowledge of DEPs from combustion of biofuels provides limited and inconsistent information about its mutagenicity and genotoxicity, as well as possible adverse health risks. The objective of the present work was to compare the genotoxicity of DEPs from combustion of two first-generation fuels, 7% fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) (B7) and 20% FAME (B20), and a second-generation 20% FAME/hydrotreated vegetable oil (SHB: synthetic hydrocarbon biofuel) fuel. Our results revealed that particulate engine emissions from each type of biodiesel fuel induced genotoxic effects in BEAS-2B and A549 cells, manifested as the increased levels of single-strand breaks, the increased frequencies of micronuclei, or the deregulated expression of genes involved in DNA damage signaling pathways. We also found that none of the tested DEPs showed the induction of oxidative DNA damage and the gamma-H2AX-detectable double-strand breaks. The most pronounced differences concerning the tested particles were observed for the induction of single-strand breaks, with the greatest genotoxicity being associated with the B7-derived DEPs. The differences in other effects between DEPs from the different biodiesel blend percentage and biodiesel feedstock were also observed, but the magnitude of these variations was limited.

  2. High Altitude Clear Air Turbulence Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory conducted the High Altitude Clear Air Turbulence Project in the mid 1960s with the intention of better understanding air...

  3. 1570 nm High Energy Fiber Laser Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR phase I project proposes a single frequency high energy fiber laser for remote sensing. Current state-of-art technologies can not provide all features of...

  4. High Energy Single Frequency Resonant Amplifier Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR phase I project proposes a single frequency high energy resonant amplifier for remote sensing. Current state-of-art technologies can not provide all...

  5. Prospective of biodiesel production utilizing microalgae as the cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-08

    Mar 8, 2010 ... light intensity, CO2 concentration, nutritional balance, etc, in closed reactors remain controlled. On the .... High photosynthesis yields, that is, about 3 – 8% of ... transesterification reaction to obtain biodiesel (Figure 3).

  6. Development of a biodiesel activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vermeersch Georges

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional values of fatty acid classes are normally discussed on the basis of their saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated structures with implicit understanding that they are straight-chain. Here we focus on chlorophyll-derived phytanic and pristanic acids that are minor isoprenoid branched-chain lipid constituents in food, but of unknown nutritional value. After describing the enzyme machinery that degrades these nutrient fatty acids in the peroxisome, we show by the criteria of a mouse model and of a human cell culture model that they induce with high potency expression of enzymes responsible for beta-oxidation of straight-chain fatty acids in the peroxisome. We summarize present mechanistic knowledge on fatty acid signaling to the nucleus, which involves protein/protein contacts between peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR and fatty acid binding protein (FABP. In this signaling event the branched-chain fatty acids are the most effective ones. Finally, on the basis of this nutrient-gene interaction we discuss nutritional opportunities and therapeutic aspects of the chlorophyll-derived fatty acids. The circumstances that led to the significant French biodiesel activity will be examined: the oilseed producers and transformers actions, the partnership with the oil refiners, the government support - regulation and detaxation... The French production units will be described, followed by update scientific results highlighting the advantages of biodiesel: functionality and friendly environmentally impact. The current usage of biodiesel by oil refiners will be described and its future in the oncoming context (fuel specifications, HDI engines and post-treatment discussed.

  7. Optimisation of biodiesel production by sunflower oil transesterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolín, G; Tinaut, F V; Briceño, Y; Castaño, V; Pérez, C; Ramírez, A I

    2002-06-01

    In this work the transformation process of sunflower oil in order to obtain biodiesel by means of transesterification was studied. Taguchi's methodology was chosen for the optimisation of the most important variables (temperature conditions, reactants proportion and methods of purification), with the purpose of obtaining a high quality biodiesel that fulfils the European pre-legislation with the maximum process yield. Finally, sunflower methyl esters were characterised to test their properties as fuels in diesel engines, such as viscosity, flash point, cold filter plugging point and acid value. Results showed that biodiesel obtained under the optimum conditions is an excellent substitute for fossil fuels.

  8. Highly efficient biodiesel production by a whole-cell biocatalyst employing a system with high lipase expression in Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaya, Tomohiro; Koda, Risa; Adachi, Daisuke; Nakashima, Kazunori; Wada, Junpei; Bogaki, Takayuki; Ogino, Chiaki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2011-05-01

    In the present study, a system with high lipase expression in Aspergillus oryzae was developed using an improved enolase promoter (P-enoA124) and the 5' untranslated region of a heat-shock protein (Hsp-UTR). P-enoA142 enhanced the transcriptional level of a heterologous lipase gene and Hsp-UTR improved its translational efficiency. Fusarium heterosporum lipase (FHL) was inserted into a pSENSU-FHL expression vector harboring P-enoA142 and Hsp-UTR and was transformed into an A. oryzae NS4 strain. Transformants possessing pSENSU-FHL in single (pSENSU-FHL#1) and double copies (pSENSU-FHL#2) were selected to evaluate the lipase activity of the whole-cell biocatalyst. The two strains, pSENSU-FHL#1 and #2, showed excellent lipase activity in hydrolysis compared with the strain transformed with conventional expression vector pNAN8142-FHL. Furthermore, by using pSENSU-FHL#2, methanolysis could proceed much more effectively without deactivation, which allowed a swift addition of methanol to the reaction mixture, thereby reducing reaction time.

  9. Highly efficient biodiesel production by a whole-cell biocatalyst employing a system with high lipase expression in Aspergillus oryzae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takaya, Tomohiro; Koda, Risa; Adachi, Daisuke; Ogino, Chiaki; Kondo, Akihiko [Kobe Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Science and Engineering; Nakashima, Kazunori [Kobe Univ. (Japan). Organization of Advanced Science and Technology; Wada, Junpei; Bogaki, Takayuki [Ozeki Co., Nishinomiya-shi, Hyogo (Japan)

    2011-05-15

    In the present study, a system with high lipase expression in Aspergillus oryzae was developed using an improved enolase promoter (P-enoA124) and the 5{sup '} untranslated region of a heat-shock protein (Hsp-UTR). P-enoA142 enhanced the transcriptional level of a heterologous lipase gene and Hsp-UTR improved its translational efficiency. Fusarium heterosporum lipase (FHL) was inserted into a pSENSU-FHL expression vector harboring P-enoA142 and Hsp-UTR and was transformed into an A. oryzae NS4 strain. Transformants possessing pSENSU-FHL in single (pSENSU-FHL1) and double copies (pSENSU-FHL2) were selected to evaluate the lipase activity of the whole-cell biocatalyst. The two strains, pSENSU-FHL1 and 2, showed excellent lipase activity in hydrolysis compared with the strain transformed with conventional expression vector pNAN8142-FHL. Furthermore, by using pSENSU-FHL2, methanolysis could proceed much more effectively without deactivation, which allowed a swift addition of methanol to the reaction mixture, thereby reducing reaction time. (orig.)

  10. A comprehensive review on biodiesel purification and upgrading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Bateni

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Serious environmental concerns regarding the use of fossil-based fuels have raised awareness regarding the necessity of alternative clean fuels and energy carriers. Biodiesel is considered a clean, biodegradable, and non-toxic diesel substitute produced via the transesterification of triglycerides with an alcohol in the presence of a proper catalyst. After initial separation of the by-product (glycerol, the crude biodiesel needs to be purified to meet the standard specifications prior to marketing. The presence of impurities in the biodiesel not only significantly affects its engine performance but also complicates its handling and storage. Therefore, biodiesel purification is an essential step prior to marketing. Biodiesel purification methods can be classified based on the nature of the process into equilibrium-based, affinity-based, membrane-based, reaction-based, and solid-liquid separation processes. The main adverse properties of biodiesel – namely moisture absorption, corrosiveness, and high viscosity – primarily arise from the presence of oxygen. To address these issues, several upgrading techniques have been proposed, among which catalytic (hydrodeoxygenation using conventional hydrotreating catalysts, supported metallic materials, and most recently transition metals in various forms appear promising. Nevertheless, catalyst deactivation (via coking and/or inadequacy of product yields necessitate further research. This paper provides a comprehensive overview on the techniques and methods used for biodiesel purification and upgrading.

  11. Esterification with ethanol to produce biodiesel from high acidity raw materials. Kinetic studies and analysis of secondary reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pisarello, M.L.; Dalla Costa, B.; Mendow, G.; Querini, C.A. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Catalisis y Petroquimica (INCAPE)-(FIQ-UNL, CONICET), Santiago del Estero 2654-Santa Fe, S3000AOJ (Argentina)

    2010-09-15

    In this work, the esterification reaction of free fatty acids (FFA) in sunflower oil, coconut oil and concentrated FFA, with ethanol, methanol and ethanol 96%, using homogeneous acid catalysts to produce biodiesel is studied. Kinetic parameters are estimated with a simplified model, and then used to predict the reaction behavior. Reactions other than the reversible esterification are considered to explain the behavior that this system displays. Such reactions are the triglycerides conversion by acid catalyzed transesterification and hydrolysis. In addition, we include kinetic studies of the reaction that occur between the sulphuric acid and methanol (or ethanol), forming mono and dialkylsulphates. This reaction produces water and consumes methanol (or ethanol), and consequently has a direct impact in the esterification reaction rate and equilibrium conversion. The concentration of sulphuric acid decreases to less than 50% of the initial value due to the reaction with the alcohol. A minimum in the acidity due to the free fatty acids as a function of time was clearly observed during the reaction, which has not been reported earlier. This behavior is related to the consecutive reactions that take place during the esterification of FFA in the presence of triglycerides. The phase separation due to the presence of water, which is generated during the reaction, is also studied. (author)

  12. High Temperature Heat Exchanger Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony E. Hechanova, Ph.D.

    2008-09-30

    The UNLV Research Foundation assembled a research consortium for high temperature heat exchanger design and materials compatibility and performance comprised of university and private industry partners under the auspices of the US DOE-NE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative in October 2003. The objectives of the consortium were to conduct investigations of candidate materials for high temperature heat exchanger componets in hydrogen production processes and design and perform prototypical testing of heat exchangers. The initial research of the consortium focused on the intermediate heat exchanger (located between the nuclear reactor and hydrogen production plan) and the components for the hydrogen iodine decomposition process and sulfuric acid decomposition process. These heat exchanger components were deemed the most challenging from a materials performance and compatibility perspective

  13. Why Teach about Biodiesel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Proposes that study of biodiesel as a healthier alternative to petroleum diesel be included in the curriculum. Suggests that teachers will play a critical role during the transition away from fossil fuel technologies. Provides background information and web-based resources. (DLH)

  14. Analysis of biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel is a biogenic alternative to diesel fuel derived from petroleum. It is produced by a transesterification reaction from materials consisting largely of triacylglycerols such as vegetable and other plant oils, animal fats, used cooking oils, and “alternative” feedstocks such as algal oils. T...

  15. PRELIMINARY DESIGN OF OSCILLATORY FLOW BIODIESEL REACTOR FOR CONTINUOUS BIODIESEL PRODUCTION FROM JATROPHA TRIGLYCERIDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AZHARI T. I. MOHD. GHAZI

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The concept of a continuous process in producing biodiesel from jatropha oil by using an Oscillatory Flow Biodiesel Reactor (OFBR is discussed in this paper. It has been recognized that the batch stirred reactor is a primary mode used in the synthesis of biodiesel. However, pulsatile flow has been extensively researcehed and the fundamental principles have been successfully developed upon which its hydrodynamics are based. Oscillatory flow biodiesel reactor offers precise control of mixing by means of the baffle geometry and pulsation which facilitates to continuous operation, giving plug flow residence time distribution with high turbulence and enhanced mass and heat transfer. In conjunction with the concept of reactor design, parameters such as reactor dimensions, the hydrodynamic studies and physical properties of reactants must be considered prior to the design work initiated recently. The OFBR reactor design involves the use of simulation software, ASPEN PLUS and the reactor design fundamentals. Following this, the design parameters shall be applied in fabricating the OFBR for laboratory scale biodiesel production.

  16. AGRIFIS - simulator prospecting scenarios and evaluation of projects for production of seeds, in nature oil and castor oil biodiesel; AGRIFIS - simulador de prospeccao de cenarios e avaliacao de projetos de producao de sementes, oleo in natura e biodiesel de mamona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polizel, L.H.; Tahan, C.M.V.; Pelegrini, M. A.; Soares, B.F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (ENERQ/USP), SP (Brazil). Centro de Estudos em Regulacao e Qualidade de Energia], Email: cmvtahan@pea.usp.br; Takeno, H.K. [Companhia Energetica de Petrolina (CEP), PE (Brazil); Silva, O.C. da; Monteiro, B.; Velazquez, S.M.S.G. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (CENBIO/USP), SP (Brazil). Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa; Drumond, M.A.; Anjos, J.B. dos [EMBRAPA Semi-Arido - Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria (EMBRAPA), Petrolina, PE (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents a model conceived for scenario prospection and project evaluation of small scale castor bean farming, oil extraction and bio diesel production (transesterification) integrated chain. To evaluate the performance of each project the model adopts financial, social and environmental index such as NPV, IRR, SPB, DPB, production costs, family income, number of settled families and employment. The model was implemented in a computational environment, allowing its use as a decision support tool for investments on the castor bean production chain; it calculates the cash flow of the entire project and of each family, including earnings, debts, taxes, interest and amortization. (author)

  17. Direct Biodiesel Production from Wet Microalgae Biomass of Chlorella pyrenoidosa through In Situ Transesterification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hechun Cao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A one-step process was applied to directly converting wet oil-bearing microalgae biomass of Chlorella pyrenoidosa containing about 90% of water into biodiesel. In order to investigate the effects of water content on biodiesel production, distilled water was added to dried microalgae biomass to form wet biomass used to produce biodiesel. The results showed that at lower temperature of 90°C, water had a negative effect on biodiesel production. The biodiesel yield decreased from 91.4% to 10.3% as water content increased from 0% to 90%. Higher temperature could compensate the negative effect. When temperature reached 150°C, there was no negative effect, and biodiesel yield was over 100%. Based on the above research, wet microalgae biomass was directly applied to biodiesel production, and the optimal conditions were investigated. Under the optimal conditions of 100 mg dry weight equivalent wet microalgae biomass, 4 mL methanol, 8 mL n-hexane, 0.5 M H2SO4, 120°C, and 180 min reaction time, the biodiesel yield reached as high as 92.5% and the FAME content was 93.2%. The results suggested that biodiesel could be effectively produced directly from wet microalgae biomass and this effort may offer the benefits of energy requirements for biodiesel production.

  18. Direct Biodiesel Production from Wet Microalgae Biomass of Chlorella pyrenoidosa through In Situ Transesterification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hechun; Zhang, Zhiling; Wu, Xuwen; Miao, Xiaoling

    2013-01-01

    A one-step process was applied to directly converting wet oil-bearing microalgae biomass of Chlorella pyrenoidosa containing about 90% of water into biodiesel. In order to investigate the effects of water content on biodiesel production, distilled water was added to dried microalgae biomass to form wet biomass used to produce biodiesel. The results showed that at lower temperature of 90°C, water had a negative effect on biodiesel production. The biodiesel yield decreased from 91.4% to 10.3% as water content increased from 0% to 90%. Higher temperature could compensate the negative effect. When temperature reached 150°C, there was no negative effect, and biodiesel yield was over 100%. Based on the above research, wet microalgae biomass was directly applied to biodiesel production, and the optimal conditions were investigated. Under the optimal conditions of 100 mg dry weight equivalent wet microalgae biomass, 4 mL methanol, 8 mL n-hexane, 0.5 M H2SO4, 120°C, and 180 min reaction time, the biodiesel yield reached as high as 92.5% and the FAME content was 93.2%. The results suggested that biodiesel could be effectively produced directly from wet microalgae biomass and this effort may offer the benefits of energy requirements for biodiesel production. PMID:24195081

  19. Direct biodiesel production from wet microalgae biomass of Chlorella pyrenoidosa through in situ transesterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hechun; Zhang, Zhiling; Wu, Xuwen; Miao, Xiaoling

    2013-01-01

    A one-step process was applied to directly converting wet oil-bearing microalgae biomass of Chlorella pyrenoidosa containing about 90% of water into biodiesel. In order to investigate the effects of water content on biodiesel production, distilled water was added to dried microalgae biomass to form wet biomass used to produce biodiesel. The results showed that at lower temperature of 90°C, water had a negative effect on biodiesel production. The biodiesel yield decreased from 91.4% to 10.3% as water content increased from 0% to 90%. Higher temperature could compensate the negative effect. When temperature reached 150°C, there was no negative effect, and biodiesel yield was over 100%. Based on the above research, wet microalgae biomass was directly applied to biodiesel production, and the optimal conditions were investigated. Under the optimal conditions of 100 mg dry weight equivalent wet microalgae biomass, 4 mL methanol, 8 mL n-hexane, 0.5 M H2SO4, 120°C, and 180 min reaction time, the biodiesel yield reached as high as 92.5% and the FAME content was 93.2%. The results suggested that biodiesel could be effectively produced directly from wet microalgae biomass and this effort may offer the benefits of energy requirements for biodiesel production.

  20. Production of biodiesel using lipase encapsulated in κ-carrageenan

    CERN Document Server

    Ravindra, Pogaku

    2015-01-01

    This book explores a novel technique for processing biodiesel using lipase immobilization by encapsulation and its physical properties, stability characteristics, and application in stirred tank and re-circulated packed bed immobilized reactors for biodiesel production. The enzymatic processing of biodiesel addresses many of the problems associated with chemical processing. It requires only moderate operating conditions and yields a high-quality product with a high level of conversion and the life cycle assessment of enzymatic biodiesel production has more favourable environmental consequences. The chemical processing problems of waste water treatment are lessened and soap formation is not an issue, meaning that waste oil with higher FFA can be used as the feedstock. The by product glycerol does not require any purification and it can be sold at higher price. However, soluble enzymatic processing is not perfect. It is costly, the enzyme cannot be recycled and its removal from the product is difficult. For...

  1. Biodiesel production using heterogeneous catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semwal, Surbhi; Arora, Ajay K; Badoni, Rajendra P; Tuli, Deepak K

    2011-02-01

    The production and use of biodiesel has seen a quantum jump in the recent past due to benefits associated with its ability to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG). There are large number of commercial plants producing biodiesel by transesterification of vegetable oils and fats based on base catalyzed (caustic) homogeneous transesterification of oils. However, homogeneous process needs steps of glycerol separation, washings, very stringent and extremely low limits of Na, K, glycerides and moisture limits in biodiesel. Heterogeneous catalyzed production of biodiesel has emerged as a preferred route as it is environmentally benign needs no water washing and product separation is much easier. The present report is review of the progress made in development of heterogeneous catalysts suitable for biodiesel production. This review shall help in selection of suitable catalysts and the optimum conditions for biodiesel production.

  2. Recent trends, opportunities and challenges of biodiesel in Malaysia: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Steven; Teong, Lee Keat [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Seberang Perai Selatan, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2010-04-15

    Energy supply and its security issues have been the topic of interest lately. With growing environmental awareness about the negative implications brought by excessive usage of fossil fuels, the race for finding alternative energy as their substitutions is getting heated up. For now, renewable energy from biodiesel has been touted as one of the most promising substitutions for petroleum-derived diesel. Combustion of biodiesel as fuel is more environment-friendly while retaining most of the positive engine properties of petroleum-derived diesel. Production of biodiesel is also a proven technology with established commercialization activities. The huge potential of biodiesel coupled with the abundance of palm oil which is one of the most cost-effective feedstocks for biodiesel is responsible for the pledging of Malaysia to become the leading producer of high quality biodiesel in the region. Currently, total approved installed capacity of biodiesel production in Malaysia equals to almost 92% of the world biodiesel production output in 2008. While Malaysia does indeed possessed materials, technologies and marketing superiority to vie for that position, many more challenges are still awaiting. The price restriction, provisions controversy, escalating non-tariff trade barriers and negligible public support need to be addressed appropriately. In this review, Malaysia's previous and current position in global biodiesel market, its future potential towards the prominent leading biodiesel status and major disrupting obstacles are being discussed. The feasibility of utilizing algae as the up-and-coming biodiesel feedstock in Malaysia is also under scrutiny. Lastly, several recommendations on the roles played by three major forces in Malaysia's biodiesel industry are presented to tackle the shortcomings in achieving the coveted status by Malaysia. It is hope that Malaysia's progress in biodiesel industry will not only benefit itself but rather as the role model

  3. Heterogeneous base catalysts for edible palm and non-edible Jatropha-based biodiesel production

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hwei Voon; Juan, Joon Ching; Binti Abdullah, Nurul Fitriyah; Nizah MF, Rabiah; Taufiq-Yap, Yun Hin

    2014-01-01

    Background Transesterification catalyzed by solid base catalyst is a brilliant technology for the noble process featuring the fast reaction under mild reacting condition in biodiesel production. Heterogeneous base catalysts are generally more reactive than solid acid catalysts which require extreme operating condition for high conversion and biodiesel yield. In the present study, synthesis of biodiesel was studied by using edible (palm) or non-edible (Jatropha) feedstock catalyzed by heteroge...

  4. Biodiesel Production from Rubber Seed Oil via Esterification Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Widayat

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available One promise source of alternative energy is biodiesel from rubber seed oil, because the raw materials available in plentiful quantities and can be renewed. In addition, the rubber seed is still lack of utilization, and Indonesia is one of the largest rubbers producing country in the world. The objective of this research is to studied on biodiesel production by esterification process. Parameters used in this study are the ratio of catalyst and temperature and its influence on the characteristics of the resulting biodiesel product. Characterization of rubber seed include acid content number analysis, saponification numbers, density, viscosity, iodine number, type of free fatty acids and triglyceride oils. The results of analysis showed that rubber seed oil content obtained is 50.5%. The results of the GCMS analysis showed that a free fatty acid level in rubber seed is very high. Conversion into bio-diesel oil is obtained by at most 59.91% and lowest 48.24%.

  5. Biodiesel Production from Microalgae by Extraction – Transesterification Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Thi Phuong Thao

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The environmental impact of using petroleum fuels has led to a quest to find a suitable alternative fuel source. In this study, microalgae were explored as a highly potential feedstock to produce biodiesel fuel. Firstly, algal oil is extracted from algal biomass by using organic solvents (n–hexan.  Lipid is contained in microalgae up to 60% of their weight. Then, Biodiesel is created through a chemical reaction known as transesterification between algal oil and alcohol (methanol with strong acid (such as H2SO4 as the catalyst. The extraction – transesterification method resulted in a high biodiesel yield (10 % of algal biomass and high FAMEs content (5.2 % of algal biomass. Biodiesel production from microalgae was studied through experimental investigation of transesterification conditions such as reaction time, methanol to oil ration and catalyst dosage which are deemed to have main impact on reaction conversion efficiency. All the parameters which were characterized for purified biodiesel such as free glycerin, total glycerin, flash point, sulfur content were analyzed according to ASTM standardDoi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/wastech.1.1.6-9Citation:  Thao, N.T.P., Tin, N.T., and Thanh, B.X. 2013. Biodiesel Production from Microalgae by Extraction – Transesterification Method. Waste Technology 1(1:6-9. Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/wastech.1.1.6-9

  6. A novel microalgal lipid extraction method using biodiesel (fatty acid methyl esters) as an extractant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen-Can; Park, Chan Woo; Kim, Jong-Duk

    2017-02-01

    Although microalgae are considered promising renewable sources of biodiesel, the high cost of the downstream process is a significant obstacle in large-scale biodiesel production. In this study, a novel approach for microalgal biodiesel production was developed by using the biodiesel as an extractant. First, wet microalgae with 70% water content were incubated with a mixture of biodiesel/methanol and penetration of the mixture through the cell membrane and swelling of the lipids contained in microalgae was confirmed. Significant increases of lipid droplets were observed by confocal microscopy. Second, the swelled lipid droplets in microalgae were squeezed out using mechanical stress across the cell membrane and washed with methanol. The lipid extraction efficiency reached 68%. This process does not require drying of microalgae or solvent recovery, which the most energy-intensive step in solvent-based biodiesel production.

  7. Stabilization of Neem Oil Biodiesel with Corn Silk Extract during Long-term Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Rehab Farouk M; El-Anany, Ayman M

    2017-02-01

    The current study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant efficiency of different extracts of corn silk. In addition, the impact of corn silk extract on oxidative stability of neem biodiesel during storage was studied. The highest phenolics, DPPH radical scavenging and reducing power activities were recorded for methanol-water extract. The longest oxidation stability (10 h) was observed for biodiesel samples blended with 1000 ppm of corn silk extract (CSE). At the end of storage period the induction time of biodiesel samples mixed with 1000 ppm of CSE or butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) were about 6.72 and 5.63 times as high as in biodiesel samples without antioxidants. Biodiesel samples blended with 1000 ppm of CSE had the lowest acidity at the end of storage period. Peroxide value of biodiesel samples containing 1000 ppm of CSE was about 4.28 times as low as in control sample without antioxidants.

  8. A comparative analysis of in vitro toxicity of diesel exhaust particles from combustion of 1st- and 2nd-generation biodiesel fuels in relation to their physicochemical properties-the FuelHealth project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankoff, Anna; Brzoska, Kamil; Czarnocka, Joanna; Kowalska, Magdalena; Lisowska, Halina; Mruk, Remigiusz; Øvrevik, Johan; Wegierek-Ciuk, Aneta; Zuberek, Mariusz; Kruszewski, Marcin

    2017-07-03

    Biodiesels represent more carbon-neutral fuels and are introduced at an increasing extent to reduce emission of greenhouse gases. However, the potential impact of different types and blend concentrations of biodiesel on the toxicity of diesel engine emissions are still relatively scarce and to some extent contradictory. The objective of the present work was to compare the toxicity of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) from combustion of two 1st-generation fuels: 7% fatty acid methyl esters (FAME; B7) and 20% FAME (B20) and a 2nd-generation 20% FAME/HVO (synthetic hydrocarbon biofuel (SHB)) fuel. Our findings indicate that particulate emissions of each type of biodiesel fuel induce cytotoxic effects in BEAS-2B and A549 cells, manifested as cell death (apoptosis or necrosis), decreased protein concentrations, intracellular ROS production, as well as increased expression of antioxidant genes and genes coding for DNA damage-response proteins. The different biodiesel blend percentages and biodiesel feedstocks led to marked differences in chemical composition of the emitted DEP. The different DEPs also displayed statistically significant differences in cytotoxicity in A549 and BEAS-2B cells, but the magnitude of these variations was limited. Overall, it seems that increasing biodiesel blend concentrations from the current 7 to 20% FAME, or substituting 1st-generation FAME biodiesel with 2nd-generation HVO biodiesel (at least below 20% blends), affects the in vitro toxicity of the emitted DEP to some extent, but the biological significance of this may be moderate.

  9. Variability in sunflower oil quality for biodiesel production: A simulation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereyra-Irujo, Gustavo A.; Izquierdo, Natalia G.; Quiroz, Facundo; Aguirrezabal, Luis A.N. [Unidad Integrada Balcarce, Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria, CC 276, 7620 Balcarce, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Covi, Mauro [Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Intendente Gueiraldes 2160, Ciudad Universitaria, C1428EGA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Nolasco, Susana M. [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional del Centro de la Provincia de Buenos Aires, Avda. del Valle 7537, B7400JWI, Olavarria (Argentina)

    2009-03-15

    Biodiesel is an alternative fuel made from vegetable oils or animal fats. The fatty acid composition of the feedstock, which varies among and within species, is the main determinant of biodiesel quality. In this work we analyze the variability in biodiesel quality (density, kinematic viscosity, heating value, cetane number and iodine value) obtained from sunflower oil, by means of a validated crop model that predicts the fatty acid composition of one high-oleic, and three traditional (high-linoleic) sunflower hybrids. The model was run with a 10-year average weather data from 56 weather stations in Argentina, and simulation results were compared to the biodiesel standards of Argentina, USA and Europe. We show that biodiesel produced from sunflower oil does not have one fixed quality, but different qualities depending on weather conditions and agricultural practices, and that intraspecific variation in biodiesel quality can be larger than interspecific differences. Our results suggest that (a) sunflower oil from high-oleic hybrids is suitable for biodiesel production (within limits of all analyzed standards), regardless of growing conditions and (b) sunflower oil from traditional hybrids is suitable for biodiesel production under the standards of Argentina and USA, while only certain hybrids grown in warm regions (e.g., Northern Argentina, Southern USA, China, India, Pakistan) are suitable for biodiesel production according to the European standard. (author)

  10. Biodiesel Test Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    toxic replacement is most often made from soybean oil through a process called transesterfication, whereby it is mixed with methanol to produce both soy...vegeta b le oils or animal fats , for use in compression-ignition (diesel) engines. This specification is For pure (100%) biodiesel prior to use or...field testing, provided no safety concerns or major issues are discovered. The BUSL engines and fuel system will be prepared and modified to ensure

  11. The HESP (High Energy Solar Physics) project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, K.

    1986-01-01

    A project for space observations of solar flares for the coming solar maximum phase is briefly described. The main objective is to make a comprehensive study of high energy phenomena of flares through simultaneous imagings in both hard and soft X-rays. The project will be performed with collaboration from US scientists. The HESP (High Energy Solar Physics) WG of ISAS (Institute of Space and Astronautical Sciences) has extensively discussed future aspects of space observations of high energy phenomena of solar flares based on successful results of the Hinotori mission, and proposed a comprehensive research program for the next solar maximum, called the HESP (SOLAR-A) project. The objective of the HESP project is to make a comprehensive study of both high energy phenomena of flares and quiet structures including pre-flare states, which have been left uncovered by SMM and Hinotori. For such a study simultaneous imagings with better resolutions in space and time in a wide range of energy will be extremely important.

  12. Project Laboratory in a High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluck, Paul

    2010-01-01

    We describe our experience in guiding a physics laboratory in the eleventh grade of a high school, in which regular laboratory classes are replaced by an experimental project carried out throughout the year. Some didactic suggestions and hints are given for those wishing to adopt such an undertaking. Outlines are given for a few of the recent…

  13. Production of biodiesel from sunflower oil and ethanol by base catalyzed transesterification

    OpenAIRE

    Sales, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    Biodiesel is an attractive alternative fuel for diesel engines.The feedstock for biodiesel production is usually vegetable oil, pure oil or waste cooking oil, or animal fats The most common way today to produce biodiesel is by transesterification of the oils with an alcohol in the presence of an alkaline catalyst. It is a low temperature and low-pressure reaction. It yields high conversion (96%-98%) with minimal side reactions and short reaction time. It is a direct conversion to biodiesel wi...

  14. Application of red mud as a basic catalyst for biodiesel production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang Liu; Ruirui Xin; Chengcheng Li; Chunli Xu; Jun Yang

    2013-01-01

    Red mud was investigated in triglyceride transesterification with a view to determine its viability as a basic catalyst for use in biodiesel synthesis.The effect of calcination temperature on the structure and activity of red mud catalysts was investigated.It was found that highly active catalyst was obtained by simply drying red mud at 200℃.Utilization of red mud as a catalyst for biodiesel production not only provides a cost-effective and environmentally friendly way of recycling this solid red mud waste,significantly reducing its environmental effects,but also reduces the price of biodiesel to make biodiesel competitive with petroleum diesel.

  15. Application of red mud as a basic catalyst for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiang; Xin, Ruirui; Li, Chengcheng; Xu, Chunli; Yang, Jun

    2013-04-01

    Red mud was investigated in triglyceride transesterification with a view to determine its viability as a basic catalyst for use in biodiesel synthesis. The effect of calcination temperature on the structure and activity of red mud catalysts was investigated. It was found that highly active catalyst was obtained by simply drying red mud at 200 degrees C. Utilization of red mud as a catalyst for biodiesel production not only provides a cost-effective and environmentally friendly way of recycling this solid red mud waste, significantly reducing its environmental effects, but also reduces the price of biodiesel to make biodiesel competitive with petroleum diesel.

  16. Characterization of ionic liquid‐based biocatalytic two‐phase reaction system for production of biodiesel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prabhavathi Devi, Bethala Lakshmi Anu; Guo, Zheng; Xu, Xuebing

    2011-01-01

    /IL biphasic reaction system by mixing with substrates, which is highly effective for the production of biodiesel with more than 98% biodiesel yield and nearly 100% conversion of oil. Conductor‐like screening model for real solvent (COSMO‐RS) in silico prediction of substrate solubility and simulation...... a large chemical potential to move reaction equilibrium for maximum oil conversion and yield of target biodiesel. The reaction behavior and specificity of oil/IL biphasic system for enzymatic production of biodiesel were theoretically delineated through COSMO‐RS computation with experimental validation...

  17. EFFECT OF COMPRESSION RATIO ON ENERGY AND EMISSION OF VCR DIESEL ENGINE FUELLED WITH DUAL BLENDS OF BIODIESEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. EKNATH

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent 10 years biodiesel fuel was studied extensively as an alternative fuel. Most of researchers reported performance and emission of biodiesel and their blends with constant compression ratio. Also all the research was conducted with use of single biodiesel and its blend. Few reports are observed with the use of variable compression ratio and blends of more than one biodiesel. Main aim of the present study is to analyse the effect of compression ratio on the performance and emission of dual blends of biodiesel. In the present study Blends of Jatropha and Karanja with Diesel fuel was tested on single cylinder VCR DI diesel engine for compression ratio 16 and 18. High density of biodiesel fuel causes longer delay period for Jatropha fuel was observed compare with Karanja fuel. However blending of two biodiesel K20J40D results in to low mean gas temperature which is the main reason for low NOx emission.

  18. Predicting various biodiesel fuel properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several essential fuel properties of biodiesel are largely determined by the properties of the fatty esters which are its main components. These include cetane number, kinematic viscosity, oxidative stability, and cold flow which are contained in almost all biodiesel standards but also other propert...

  19. Biodiesel lubricity and other properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel, defined as the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils or animal fats, is an “alternative” diesel fuel that is becoming accepted in a steadily growing number of countries worldwide. Since the source of biodiesel varies with the location, and other sources such as recycled oils are continuousl...

  20. Techno-Economic Evaluation of Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil—A Case Study of Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjib Kumar Karmee

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fossil fuel shortage is a major challenge worldwide. Therefore, research is currently underway to investigate potential renewable energy sources. Biodiesel is one of the major renewable energy sources that can be obtained from oils and fats by transesterification. However, biodiesel obtained from vegetable oils as feedstock is expensive. Thus, an alternative and inexpensive feedstock such as waste cooking oil (WCO can be used as feedstock for biodiesel production. In this project, techno-economic analyses were performed on the biodiesel production in Hong Kong using WCO as a feedstock. Three different catalysts such as acid, base, and lipase were evaluated for the biodiesel production from WCO. These economic analyses were then compared to determine the most cost-effective method for the biodiesel production. The internal rate of return (IRR sensitivity analyses on the WCO price and biodiesel price variation are performed. Acid was found to be the most cost-effective catalyst for the biodiesel production; whereas, lipase was the most expensive catalyst for biodiesel production. In the IRR sensitivity analyses, the acid catalyst can also acquire acceptable IRR despite the variation of the WCO and biodiesel prices.

  1. Techno-economic evaluation of biodiesel production from waste cooking oil--a case study of Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmee, Sanjib Kumar; Patria, Raffel Dharma; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2015-02-18

    Fossil fuel shortage is a major challenge worldwide. Therefore, research is currently underway to investigate potential renewable energy sources. Biodiesel is one of the major renewable energy sources that can be obtained from oils and fats by transesterification. However, biodiesel obtained from vegetable oils as feedstock is expensive. Thus, an alternative and inexpensive feedstock such as waste cooking oil (WCO) can be used as feedstock for biodiesel production. In this project, techno-economic analyses were performed on the biodiesel production in Hong Kong using WCO as a feedstock. Three different catalysts such as acid, base, and lipase were evaluated for the biodiesel production from WCO. These economic analyses were then compared to determine the most cost-effective method for the biodiesel production. The internal rate of return (IRR) sensitivity analyses on the WCO price and biodiesel price variation are performed. Acid was found to be the most cost-effective catalyst for the biodiesel production; whereas, lipase was the most expensive catalyst for biodiesel production. In the IRR sensitivity analyses, the acid catalyst can also acquire acceptable IRR despite the variation of the WCO and biodiesel prices.

  2. Techno-Economic Evaluation of Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil—A Case Study of Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmee, Sanjib Kumar; Patria, Raffel Dharma; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2015-01-01

    Fossil fuel shortage is a major challenge worldwide. Therefore, research is currently underway to investigate potential renewable energy sources. Biodiesel is one of the major renewable energy sources that can be obtained from oils and fats by transesterification. However, biodiesel obtained from vegetable oils as feedstock is expensive. Thus, an alternative and inexpensive feedstock such as waste cooking oil (WCO) can be used as feedstock for biodiesel production. In this project, techno-economic analyses were performed on the biodiesel production in Hong Kong using WCO as a feedstock. Three different catalysts such as acid, base, and lipase were evaluated for the biodiesel production from WCO. These economic analyses were then compared to determine the most cost-effective method for the biodiesel production. The internal rate of return (IRR) sensitivity analyses on the WCO price and biodiesel price variation are performed. Acid was found to be the most cost-effective catalyst for the biodiesel production; whereas, lipase was the most expensive catalyst for biodiesel production. In the IRR sensitivity analyses, the acid catalyst can also acquire acceptable IRR despite the variation of the WCO and biodiesel prices. PMID:25809602

  3. Sustaining Biodiesel Production via Value-Added Applications of Glycerol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omotola Babajide

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of biofuels worldwide has been significant lately due to the shift from obtaining energy from nonrenewable energy (fossil fuels to renewable sources (biofuels. This energy shift arose as a result of the disturbing crude petroleum price fluctuations, uncertainties about fossil fuel reserves, and greenhouse gas (GHG concerns. With the production of biofuels increasing considerably and the current global biodiesel production from different feedstock, reaching about 6 billion liters per year, biodiesel production costs have been highly dependent on feedstock prices, ranging from 70 to 25; of total production costs, and in comparison with the conventional diesel fuel, the biodiesel is currently noncompetitive. An efficient production process is, therefore, crucial to lowering biodiesel production costs. The question of sustainability, however, arises, taking into account the African diverse conditions and how vital concerns need to be addressed. The major concern about biodiesel production costs can be reduced by finding value-added applications for its glycerol byproduct. This paper, thus, provides an overview of current research trends that could overcome the major hurdles towards profitable commercialization of biodiesel and also proposes areas of opportunity probable to capitalize the surplus glycerol obtained, for numerous applications.

  4. Sustainable Energy Production from Jatropha Bio-Diesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Amit Kumar; Krishna, Vijai

    2012-10-01

    The demand for petroleum has risen rapidly due to increasing industrialization and modernization of the world. This economic development has led to a huge demand for energy, where the major part of that energy is derived from fossil sources such as petroleum, coal and natural gas. Continued use of petroleum sourced fuels is now widely recognized as unsustainable because of depleting supplies. There is a growing interest in using Jatropha curcas L. oil as the feedstock for biodiesel production because it is non-edible and thus does not compromise the edible oils, which are mainly used for food consumption. Further, J. curcas L. seed has a high content of free fatty acids that is converted in to biodiesel by trans esterification with alcohol in the presence of a catalyst. The biodiesel produced has similar properties to that of petroleum-based diesel. Biodiesel fuel has better properties than petro diesel fuel; it is renewable, biodegradable, non-toxic, and essentially free of sulfur and aromatics. Biodiesel seems to be a realistic fuel for future. Biodiesel has the potential to economically, socially, and environmentally benefit communities as well as countries, and to contribute toward their sustainable development.

  5. Properties and quality verification of biodiesel produced from tobacco seed oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usta, N., E-mail: n_usta@pau.edu.t [Pamukkale University, Mechanical Engineering Department, 20070 Denizli (Turkey); Aydogan, B. [Pamukkale University, Mechanical Engineering Department, 20070 Denizli (Turkey); Con, A.H. [Pamukkale University, Food Engineering Department, 20070 Denizli (Turkey); Uguzdogan, E. [Pamukkale University, Chemical Engineering Department, 20070 Denizli (Turkey); Ozkal, S.G. [Pamukkale University, Food Engineering Department, 20070 Denizli (Turkey)

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: {yields} High quality biodiesel fuel can be produced from tobacco seed oil. {yields} Pyrogallol was found to be effective antioxidant improving the oxidation stability. {yields} The iodine number was reduced with a biodiesel including more saturated fatty acids. {yields} Octadecene-1-maleic anhydride copolymer was an effective cold flow improver. {yields} The appropriate amounts of the additives do not affect the properties negatively. -- Abstract: Tobacco seed oil has been evaluated as a feedstock for biodiesel production. In this study, all properties of the biodiesel that was produced from tobacco seed oil were examined and some solutions were derived to bring all properties of the biodiesel within European Biodiesel Standard EN14214 to verify biodiesel quality. Among the properties, only oxidation stability and iodine number of the biodiesel, which mainly depend on fatty acid composition of the oil, were not within the limits of the standard. Six different antioxidants that are tert-butylhydroquinone, butylated hydroxytoluene, propyl gallate, pyrogallol, {alpha}-tocopherol and butylated hydroxyanisole were used to improve the oxidation stability. Among them, pyrogallol was found to be the most effective antioxidant. The iodine number was improved with blending the biodiesel produced from tobacco seed oil with a biodiesel that contains more saturated fatty acids. However, the blending caused increasing the cold filter plugging point. Therefore, four different cold flow improvers, which are ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer, octadecene-1-maleic anhydride copolymer and two commercial cold flow improvers, were used to decrease cold filter plugging point of the biodiesel and the blends. Among the improvers, the best improver is said to be octadecene-1-maleic anhydride copolymer. In addition, effects of temperature on the density and the viscosity of the biodiesel were investigated.

  6. Particle emissions from microalgae biodiesel combustion and their relative oxidative potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M M; Stevanovic, S; Islam, M A; Heimann, K; Nabi, M N; Thomas, G; Feng, B; Brown, R J; Ristovski, Z D

    2015-09-01

    Microalgae are considered to be one of the most viable biodiesel feedstocks for the future due to their potential for providing economical, sustainable and cleaner alternatives to petroleum diesel. This study investigated the particle emissions from a commercially cultured microalgae and higher plant biodiesels at different blending ratios. With a high amount of long carbon chain lengths fatty acid methyl esters (C20 to C22), the microalgal biodiesel used had a vastly different average carbon chain length and level of unsaturation to conventional biodiesel, which significantly influenced particle emissions. Smaller blend percentages showed a larger reduction in particle emission than blend percentages of over 20%. This was due to the formation of a significant nucleation mode for the higher blends. In addition measurements of reactive oxygen species (ROS), showed that the oxidative potential of particles emitted from the microalgal biodiesel combustion were lower than that of regular diesel. Biodiesel oxygen content was less effective in suppressing particle emissions for biodiesels containing a high amount of polyunsaturated C20-C22 fatty acid methyl esters and generated significantly increased nucleation mode particle emissions. The observed increase in nucleation mode particle emission is postulated to be caused by very low volatility, high boiling point and high density, viscosity and surface tension of the microalgal biodiesel tested here. Therefore, in order to achieve similar PM (particulate matter) emission benefits for microalgal biodiesel likewise to conventional biodiesel, fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) with high amounts of polyunsaturated long-chain fatty acids (≥C20) may not be desirable in microalgal biodiesel composition.

  7. The Use of Artificial Neural Networks for Identifying Sustainable Biodiesel Feedstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran D. Ristovski

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few decades, biodiesel produced from oilseed crops and animal fat is receiving much attention as a renewable and sustainable alternative for automobile engine fuels, and particularly petroleum diesel. However, current biodiesel production is heavily dependent on edible oil feedstocks which are unlikely to be sustainable in the longer term due to the rising food prices and the concerns about automobile engine durability. Therefore, there is an urgent need for researchers to identify and develop sustainable biodiesel feedstocks which overcome the disadvantages of current ones. On the other hand, artificial neural network (ANN modeling has been successfully used in recent years to gain new knowledge in various disciplines. The main goal of this article is to review recent literatures and assess the state of the art on the use of ANN as a modeling tool for future generation biodiesel feedstocks. Biodiesel feedstocks, production processes, chemical compositions, standards, physio-chemical properties and in-use performance are discussed. Limitations of current biodiesel feedstocks over future generation biodiesel feedstock have been identified. The application of ANN in modeling key biodiesel quality parameters and combustion performance in automobile engines is also discussed. This review has determined that ANN modeling has a high potential to contribute to the development of renewable energy systems by accelerating biodiesel research.

  8. Conceptual design and selection of a biodiesel fuel processor for a vehicle fuel cell auxiliary power unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specchia, S.; Tillemans, F. W. A.; van den Oosterkamp, P. F.; Saracco, G.

    Within the European project BIOFEAT (biodiesel fuel processor for a fuel cell auxiliary power unit for a vehicle), a complete modular 10 kW e biodiesel fuel processor capable of feeding a PEMFC will be developed, built and tested to generate electricity for a vehicle auxiliary power unit (APU). Tail pipe emissions reduction, increased use of renewable fuels, increase of hydrogen-fuel economy and efficient supply of present and future APU for road vehicles are the main project goals. Biodiesel is the chosen feedstock because it is a completely natural and thus renewable fuel. Three fuel processing options were taken into account at a conceptual design level and compared for hydrogen production: (i) autothermal reformer (ATR) with high and low temperature shift (HTS/LTS) reactors; (ii) autothermal reformer (ATR) with a single medium temperature shift (MTS) reactor; (iii) thermal cracker (TC) with high and low temperature shift (HTS/LTS) reactors. Based on a number of simulations (with the AspenPlus® software), the best operating conditions were determined (steam-to-carbon and O 2/C ratios, operating temperatures and pressures) for each process alternative. The selection of the preferential fuel processing option was consequently carried out, based on a number of criteria (efficiency, complexity, compactness, safety, controllability, emissions, etc.); the ATR with both HTS and LTS reactors shows the most promising results, with a net electrical efficiency of 29% (LHV).

  9. Emissions characteristics of a diesel engine operating on biodiesel and biodiesel blended with ethanol and methanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lei; Cheung, C S; Zhang, W G; Huang, Zhen

    2010-01-15

    Euro V diesel fuel, pure biodiesel and biodiesel blended with 5%, 10% and 15% of ethanol or methanol were tested on a 4-cylinder naturally-aspirated direct-injection diesel engine. Experiments were conducted under five engine loads at a steady speed of 1800 r/min. The study aims to investigate the effects of the blended fuels on reducing NO(x) and particulate. On the whole, compared with Euro V diesel fuel, the blended fuels could lead to reduction of both NO(x) and PM of a diesel engine, with the biodiesel-methanol blends being more effective than the biodiesel-ethanol blends. The effectiveness of NO(x) and particulate reductions is more effective with increase of alcohol in the blends. With high percentage of alcohol in the blends, the HC, CO emissions could increase and the brake thermal efficiency might be slightly reduced but the use of 5% blends could reduce the HC and CO emissions as well. With the diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), the HC, CO and particulate emissions can be further reduced.

  10. Economic and environmental performance of oilseed cropping systems for biodiesel production : existing cultivation practices in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conijn, J.G.; Corre, W.J.; Ruijter, de F.J.

    2011-01-01

    The Ecodiesel project aims at a drastic improvement of the GHG emission of current biodiesel production in the EU. If the biodiesel is produced from crops, the way the crop is cultivated at the farm is very important because calculations have shown that the emission from crop cultivation have a

  11. Economic and environmental performance of oilseed cropping systems for biodiesel production : existing cultivation practices in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conijn, J.G.; Corre, W.J.; Ruijter, de F.J.

    2011-01-01

    The Ecodiesel project aims at a drastic improvement of the GHG emission of current biodiesel production in the EU. If the biodiesel is produced from crops, the way the crop is cultivated at the farm is very important because calculations have shown that the emission from crop cultivation have a larg

  12. Engineering an Escherichia coli platform to synthesize designer biodiesels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzbicki, Michael; Niraula, Narayan; Yarrabothula, Akshitha; Layton, Donovan S; Trinh, Cong T

    2016-04-20

    Biodiesels, fatty acid esters (FAEs), can be synthesized by condensation of fatty acid acyl CoAs and alcohols via a wax ester synthase in living cells. Biodiesels have advantageous characteristics over petrodiesels such as biodegradability, a higher flash point, and less emission. Controlling fatty acid and alcohol moieties are critical to produce designer biodiesels with desirable physiochemical properties (e.g., high cetane number, low kinematic viscosity, high oxidative stability, and low cloud point). Here, we developed a flexible framework to engineer Escherichia coli cell factories to synthesize designer biodiesels directly from fermentable sugars. In this framework, we designed each FAE pathway as a biodiesel exchangeable production module consisting of acyl CoA, alcohol, and wax ester synthase submodules. By inserting the FAE modules in an engineered E. coli modular chassis cell, we generated E. coli cell factories to produce targeted biodiesels (e.g., fatty acid ethyl (FAEE) and isobutyl (FAIbE) esters) with tunable and controllable short-chain alcohol moieties. The engineered E. coli chassis carrying the FAIbE production module produced 54mg/L FAIbEs with high specificity, accounting for>90% of the total synthesized FAEs and ∼4.7 fold increase in FAIbE production compared to the wildtype. Fed-batch cultures further improved FAIbE production up to 165mg/L. By mixing ethanol and isobutanol submodules, we demonstrated controllable production of mixed FAEEs and FAIbEs. We envision the developed framework offers a flexible, alternative route to engineer designer biodiesels with tunable and controllable properties using biomass-derived fermentable sugars. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Controls and measurements of KU engine test cells for biodiesel, SynGas, and assisted biodiesel combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecrle, Eric Daniel

    This thesis is comprised of three unique data acquisition and controls (CDAQ) projects. Each of these projects differs from each other; however, they all include the concept of testing renewable or future fuel sources. The projects were the following: University of Kansas's Feedstock-to-Tailpipe Initiative's Synthesis Gas Reforming rig, Feedstock-to-Tailpipe Initiative's Biodiesel Single Cylinder Test Stand, and a unique Reformate Assisted Biodiesel Combustion architecture. The main responsibility of the author was to implement, develop and test CDAQ systems for the projects. For the Synthesis Gas Reforming rig, this thesis includes a report that summarizes the analysis and solution of building a controls and data acquisition system for this setup. It describes the purpose of the sensors selected along with their placement throughout the system. Moreover, it includes an explanation of the planned data collection system, along with two models describing the reforming process useful for system control. For the Biodiesel Single Cylinder Test Stand, the responsibility was to implement the CDAQ system for data collection. This project comprised a variety of different sensors that are being used collect the combustion characteristics of different biodiesel formulations. This project is currently being used by other graduates in order to complete their projects for subsequent publication. For the Reformate Assisted Biodiesel Combustion architecture, the author developed a reformate injection system to test different hydrogen and carbon monoxide mixtures as combustion augmentation. Hydrogen combustion has certain limiting factors, such as pre-ignition in spark ignition engines and inability to work as a singular fuel in compression ignition engines. To offset these issues, a dual-fuel methodology is utilized by injecting a hydrogen/carbon monoxide mixture into the intake stream of a diesel engine operating on biodiesel. While carbon monoxide does degrade some of the

  14. Using near-infrared overtone regions to determine biodiesel content and adulteration of diesel/biodiesel blends with vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vasconcelos, Fernanda Vera Cruz; de Souza, Paulo Fernandes Barbosa; Pimentel, Maria Fernanda; Pontes, Márcio José Coelho; Pereira, Claudete Fernandes

    2012-02-24

    This work evaluates the use of near-infrared (NIR) overtone regions to determine biodiesel content, as well potential adulteration with vegetable oil, in diesel/biodiesel blends. For this purpose, NIR spectra (12,000-6300 cm(-1)) were obtained using three different optical path lengths: 10 mm, 20 mm and 50 mm. Two strategies of regression with variable selection were evaluated: partial least squares (PLS) with significant regression coefficients selected by Jack-Knife algorithm (PLS/JK) and multiple linear regression (MLR) with wavenumber selection by successive projections algorithm (MLR/SPA). For comparison, the results obtained by using PLS full-spectrum models are also presented. In addition, the performance of models using NIR (1.0 mm optical path length, 9000-4000 cm(-1)) and MIR (UATR - universal attenuated total reflectance, 4000-650 cm(-1)) spectral regions was also investigated. The results demonstrated the potential of overtone regions with MLR/SPA regression strategy to determine biodiesel content in diesel/biodiesel blends, considering the possible presence of raw oil as a contaminant. This strategy is simple, fast and uses a fewer number of spectral variables. Considering this, the overtone regions can be useful to develop low cost instruments for quality control of diesel/biodiesel blends, considering the lower cost of optical components for this spectral region.

  15. Valorisation of crude glycerol through biological conversion into bioplastics and biofuels in the frame of an FP7 project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varrone, Cristiano; Gavala, Hariklia N.

    for 2011 was over 8.6 million metric tons, but to date an effective use for the glycerol derived from biodiesel production does not exist on the market. In fact, even though high purity glycerol can be used in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry, crude glycerol derived from biodiesel production has...... is the valorisation of glycerol streams generated during the biodiesel production process, using microbial mixed culture (MMC) technology. The use of bioconversion into high-value products represents a promising route to achieve economic viability in the biofuel industry. Until now there have been several studies...... of a broader European strategy, in good synergy with other on-going FP7 projects, which can contribute to achieve new solutions for a knowledge-based economy, increasing the economic viability of the biodiesel industry, and developing new international collaborations....

  16. Synthesis and analysis of an alkenone-free biodiesel from Isochrysis sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some marine microalgae, such as Isochrysis sp., produce high-melting (~70 ºC) lipids known as long-chain alkenones that detrimentally affect biodiesel fuel quality. A method has been developed for the production of an alkenone-free Isochrysis biodiesel. This material was prepared on sufficient scale...

  17. Spacecraft design project: High latitude communications satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josefson, Carl; Myers, Jack; Cloutier, Mike; Paluszek, Steve; Michael, Gerry; Hunter, Dan; Sakoda, Dan; Walters, Wes; Johnson, Dennis; Bauer, Terry

    1989-01-01

    The spacecraft design project was part of AE-4871, Advanced Spacecraft Design. The project was intended to provide experience in the design of all major components of a satellite. Each member of the class was given primary responsibility for a subsystem or design support function. Support was requested from the Naval Research Laboratory to augment the Naval Postgraduate School faculty. Analysis and design of each subsystem was done to the extent possible within the constraints of an eleven week quarter and the design facilities (hardware and software) available. The project team chose to evaluate the design of a high latitude communications satellite as representative of the design issues and tradeoffs necessary for a wide range of satellites. The High-Latitude Communications Satellite (HILACS) will provide a continuous UHF communications link between stations located north of the region covered by geosynchronous communications satellites, i.e., the area above approximately 60 N latitude. HILACS will also provide a communications link to stations below 60 N via a relay Net Control Station (NCS), which is located with access to both the HILACS and geosynchronous communications satellites. The communications payload will operate only for that portion of the orbit necessary to provide specified coverage.

  18. Er biodiesel en god ide?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jannick

    2007-01-01

    Biodiesel opfattes som en grøn miljøvenlig teknologi. Men har dette 'grønne' alternativ til konventionel diesel en skjult bagside af medaljen? Og kan det være, at man i stedet for at få et bedre miljø, medvirker til øgede miljøpåvirkninger i form af emissioner og naturødelæggelse, når man skifter...... til biodiesel? I artiklen belyses nogle af de mest sejlivede myter omkring biodiesel. Udgivelsesdato: Januar...

  19. Performance characteristics of mix oil biodiesel blends with smoke emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Mohite

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Fossil fuel resources are being depleted day by day and its use affects the environment adversely. Renewable energy is one of the alternate for sustainable development and biodiesel is one of the suitable alternate which can replace the diesel. The major hurdles in the successful commercialization of biodiesel are high feedstock cost and conversion technology to reduce viscosity. The choice of raw material and biodiesel production method must depend upon techno-economical view. There are some specific regions for different types of oil availability. It is therefore required to produce biodiesel from the mixture of oils to fulfill the requirements of energy demand in a particular country according to its suitability and availability of feedstock. Karanja and Linseed crops  are abundantly available in India. Biodiesel was produced from a mixture of Karanja and Linseed oils by alkaline transesterification. In this experimental study, biodiesel blends of 10%, 20% and 30% were used with diesel in a diesel engine at a constant speed of 1500 rpm with varying brake powers (loads from 0.5 kW to 3.5kW to evaluate brake thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption,  brake specific energy consumption, exhaust gas temperature, mechanical efficiency, volumetric efficiency, air fuel ratio and smoke opacity. They were compared with diesel and found satisfactory. BTE was found to be  28.76% for B10 at 3.5kW load.  Smoke opacity was also found to be reduced with all blends. Smoke opacity was found to be reduced up to 10.23% for B10 biodiesel blend as compared to that of diesel at 3.5kW. Experimental investigation  has revealed that  biodiesel produced from a mixture of Karanja and Linseed oils can be successfully used in diesel engines without any engine modification  and B10 was found to be an optimum biodiesel blend in terms of brake thermal efficiency. Article History: Received April 14th 2016; Received in revised form June 25th 2016; Accepted

  20. A review on biodiesel production using catalyzed transesterification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, Dennis Y.C.; Wu, Xuan; Leung, M.K.H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China)

    2010-04-15

    Biodiesel is a low-emissions diesel substitute fuel made from renewable resources and waste lipid. The most common way to produce biodiesel is through transesterification, especially alkali-catalyzed transesterification. When the raw materials (oils or fats) have a high percentage of free fatty acids or water, the alkali catalyst will react with the free fatty acids to form soaps. The water can hydrolyze the triglycerides into diglycerides and form more free fatty acids. Both of the above reactions are undesirable and reduce the yield of the biodiesel product. In this situation, the acidic materials should be pre-treated to inhibit the saponification reaction. This paper reviews the different approaches of reducing free fatty acids in the raw oil and refinement of crude biodiesel that are adopted in the industry. The main factors affecting the yield of biodiesel, i.e. alcohol quantity, reaction time, reaction temperature and catalyst concentration, are discussed. This paper also described other new processes of biodiesel production. For instance, the Biox co-solvent process converts triglycerides to esters through the selection of inert co-solvents that generates a one-phase oil-rich system. The non-catalytic supercritical methanol process is advantageous in terms of shorter reaction time and lesser purification steps but requires high temperature and pressure. For the in situ biodiesel process, the oilseeds are treated directly with methanol in which the catalyst has been preciously dissolved at ambient temperatures and pressure to perform the transesterification of oils in the oilseeds. This process, however, cannot handle waste cooking oils and animal fats. (author)

  1. Biodiesel from lignocellulosic biomass--prospects and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousuf, Abu

    2012-11-01

    Biodiesel can be a potential alternative to petroleum diesel, but its high production cost has impeded its commercialization in most parts of the world. One of the main drivers for the generation and use of biodiesel is energy security, because this fuel can be produced from locally available resources, thereby reducing the dependence on imported oil. Many countries are now trying to produce biodiesel from plant or vegetable oils. However, the consumption of large amounts of vegetable oils for biodiesel production could result in a shortage in edible oils and cause food prices to soar. Alternatively, the use of animal fat, used frying oils, and waste oils from restaurants as feedstock could be a good strategy to reduce the cost. However, these limited resources might not meet the increasing demand for clean, renewable fuels. Therefore, recent research has been focused the use of residual materials as renewable feedstock in order to lower the cost of producing biodiesel. Microbial oils or single cell oils (SCOs), produced by oleaginous microorganisms have been studied as promising alternatives to vegetable or seed oils. Various types of agro-industrial residues have been suggested as prospective nutritional sources for microbial cultures. Since the most abundant residue from agricultural crops is lignocellulosic biomass (LCB), this byproduct has been given top-priority consideration as a source of biomass for producing biodiesel. But the biological transformation of lignocellulosic materials is complicated due to their crystalline structure. So, pretreatment is required before they can be converted into fermentable sugar. This article compares and scrutinizes the extent to which various microbes can accumulate high levels of lipids as functions of the starting materials and the fermentation conditions. Also, the obstacles associated with the use of LCB are described, along with a potentially viable approach for overcoming the obstacles that currently preclude the

  2. PAH emissions and energy efficiency of palm-biodiesel blends fueled on diesel generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuan-Chung; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Hou, Hsiao-Chung

    This study investigated the emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), carcinogenic potencies (BaP eq) and particulate matter (PM), fuel consumption and energy efficiency from the generator under steady state for seven test fuels: P0 (Premium Diesel Fuel), P10 (10% palm biodiesel+90% P0), P20, P30, P50, P75 and P100. Experimental results indicated that PAH emission decreased with increasing palm-biodiesel blends due to small PAH content in biodiesel. The mean reduction fraction of total PAHs emission factor (P0=1110 μg L -1) from the exhaust of diesel generator were 13.2%, 28.0%, 40.6%, 54.4%, 61.89% and 98.8% for P10, P20, P30, P50, P75 and P100, respectively, compared with P0. The mean reduction fraction of total BaP eq (P0=1.65 μg L -1) from the exhaust of diesel generator were 15.2%, 29.1%, 43.3%, 56.4%, 58.2% and 97.6% for P10, P20, P30, P50, P75 and P100, respectively, compared with P0. PM emission decreased as the palm-biodiesel blends increased from 0% to 10%, and increased as the palm-biodiesel blends increased from 10% to 100% because the soluble organic fraction of PM emission was high in blends with high palm-biodiesel content. The brake specific fuel consumption rose with rising palm-biodiesel blends due to the low gross heat value of palm-biodiesel. The increasing fraction of BSFC of palm-biodiesel was lower than those of soy-, soapstock-, brassica-carinate and rapeseed-biodiesel. Palm-biodiesel seems to be the most feasible biodiesel. The best energy efficiency occurred between P10 and P20, close to P15. The curve dropped as the palm-biodiesel content rose above P20. Above results revealed that palm-biodiesel was an oxygenated fuel appropriate for use in diesel engines to promote combustion efficiency and decrease PAH emission. However, adding an excess of palm-biodiesel to P0 leaded to incomplete combustion in the diesel-engine generator and inhibited the release of energy in the fuel.

  3. Biodiesel II: A new concept of biodiesel production - transesterification with supercritical methanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skala Dejan U.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is defined as a fuel that might be used as a pure biofuel or at high concentration in mineral oil derivatives, in accordance with specific quality standards for transport applications. The main raw material used for biodiesel production is rapeseed, which contains mono-unsaturated (about 60% and also, in a lower quantity, poly-unsaturated fatty acids (C 18:1 and C 18:3, as well as some amounts of undesired saturated fatty acids (palmitic and stearic acids. Other raw materials have also been used in the research and industrial production of biodiesel (palm-oil, sunflower-oil, soybean-oil, waste plant oil, animal fats, etc. The historical background of the biodiesel production, installed industrial capacities, as well as Directives of the European Parliament and of the Council (May 2003 regarding the promotion of the use of biofuels or other renewable fuels for transport are discussed in the first part of this article (Chem. Ind. 58 (2004. The second part focused on some new concepts and the future development of technology for biodiesel production based on the use of non-catalytic transesterification under supercritical conditions. A literature review, as well as original results based on the transesterification of animal fats, plant oil and used plant oil were discussed. Obtained results were compared with the traditional concept of transesterification based on base or acid catalysis. Experimental investigations of transesterification with supercritical methanol were performed in a 2 dm3 autoclave at 140 bar pressure and at 300°C with molar ratio of methanol to triglycerides of about 41. The degree of esterification strongly depends on the density of supercritical methanol and on the possibility of reaction occurring in one phase.

  4. Effect of Algae-Derived Biodiesel on Ignition Delay, Combustion Process and Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaran, Mahendran; Khalid, Amir; Salleh, Hamidon; Razali, Azahari; Sapit, Azwan; Jaat, Norrizam; Sunar, Norshuhaila

    2016-11-01

    Algae oil methyl esters produced from algae oil were blended with diesel at various volumetric percentages to evaluate the variations in the fuel properties. Microalgae biodiesel production has received much interest in an effort for sustainable development as the microalgae seem to be an attractive way to produce the biodiesel due to their ability to accumulate lipids and their very high actual photosynthetic yields. Correlations between fuel properties, including the calorific heat, density, kinematic viscosity, and oxidation stability of the Algae oil-diesel blends, and the blending ratio of the algae biodiesel have been established. As a result, low blending ratio of the Algae oil with diesel was recommended up to 2vol % in comparison with other type of biodiesel-diesel blends. The objective of this research is to investigate effect of biodiesel blending ratio on ignition delay, combustion process and emission for different type of biodiesel. The combustion tests of the Algae-Derived biodiesel blends were performed in a Rapid Compression Machine (RCM). The combustion tests were carried out at injection pressure of 130 MPa and ambient temperature were varied between 750 K and 1100 K. The result from the experiment is compared with Palm-Oil biodiesel which are varied in biodiesel percentage from 5vol% to 15vol% and jatropha biodiesel. Higher ignition delay period were clearly observed with higher blending ratio. It seems that increasing blending ratio exhibits relatively weakens in fuel ignitibility and therefore prolongs the ignition delay of algae biodiesel. A2 had the lowest ignition delay period when compared with J2, B5, B10 and B15 due to lower density that present in A2 molecules.The concentration of carbon dioxide and nitrogen monoxide in the exhaust gas increased with higher blending ratio while the concentration of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon decreased.

  5. Obtention and characterization of biodiesel; Obtencao e caracterizacao do biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Leonidas B.O. dos; Caitano, Moises; Aranda, Donato A.G.; Mothe, Cheila G. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Biodiesel is an ester resulting from the transesterification reaction of an alcohol and an oil obtained from biomass. The products of the transesterification are an ester and the glycerol. The biodiesel and the petroleum commercial diesel have similar properties, and they can be mixed and used in diesel motors. The use of biodiesel will allow a better exploration of the energetic potential of our cultures. The biodiesel has some advantages compared to others combustibles, such as adaptability to usual diesel motors and non-generation of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} compounds. Many experiments with biodiesel have been made in Brazil since the 70's. This work made samples of biodiesel by transesterification batch reactions to many blends of soybean oil and residual fry oil, at room temperature, using mechanical mixture or magnetic agitation by a magnetic stirrer, using as catalysts sodium methoxide and potassium hydroxide. For each obtained sample tests to determine the Acidity Index (ABNT-MB-74), Saponification Index (ABNT-MB-75), Iodine Wijz Index (ABNT-MB- 77), thermal analysis by DTA and TG (TA Instruments SDT 2960, 30 to 800 deg C, 10 deg C/min at nitrogen atmosphere) and rheological test (Haake RS 150 Rheo Stress rheometer) were done. (author)

  6. Biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Siddharth; Sharma, M.P. [Alternate Hydro Energy Centre, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, Uttarakhand 247667 (India)

    2010-12-15

    In view of the fast depletion of fossil fuel, the search for alternative fuels has become inevitable, looking at huge demand of diesel for transportation sector, captive power generation and agricultural sector, the biodiesel is being viewed a substitute of diesel. The vegetable oils, fats, grease are the source of feedstocks for the production of biodiesel. Significant work has been reported on the kinetics of transesterification of edible vegetable oils but little work is reported on non-edible oils. Out of various non-edible oil resources, Jatropha curcas oil (JCO) is considered as future feedstocks for biodiesel production in India and limited work is reported on the kinetics of transesterification of high FFA containing oil. The present study reports a review of kinetics of biodiesel production. The paper also reveals the results of kinetics study of two-step acid-base catalyzed transesterification process carried out at pre-determined optimum temperature of 65 and 50 C for esterification and transesterification process, respectively, under the optimum condition of methanol to oil ratio of 3:7 (v/v), catalyst concentration 1% (w/w) for H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and NaOH and 400 rpm of stirring. The yield of methyl ester (ME) has been used to study the effect of different parameters. The maximum yield of 21.2% of ME during esterification and 90.1% from transesterification of pretreated JCO has been obtained. This is the first study of its kind dealing with simplified kinetics of two-step acid-base catalyzed transesterification process carried at optimum temperature of both the steps which took about 6 h for complete conversion of TG to ME. (author)

  7. Use of waste materials for biodiesel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitiello, R.; Tesser, R.; Di Serio, M.; Santacesaria, E. [Napoli Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze Chimiche; Buonerba, A.; Grassi, A. [Salerno Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica e Biologia

    2012-07-01

    Waste raw materials obtained by several sources of both food and agro industries could be considered for biofuel production. In the last years, this topic has growing in interest. At this purpose, our research, has been focused on the development of new technologies to obtain biodiesel from the mentioned wastes feedstock. In particular from oleins, that are mixtures of free fatty acids (FFAs) and triglycerides. Therefore, we are studying the way to produce biodiesel in two steps: an esterification reaction of FFAs with glycerol and a transesterification with methanol of the whole mixture. The esterification of FFAs with glycerol has the advantage of using a relatively high temperature favouring the stripping of water formed during the esterification. In this way esterification equilibrium is shifted to the right. Then, the mixture of mono-, di- and triglycerides, obtained by esterification with glycerol, can be submitted to transesterification with methanol, in the usual way, to produce biodiesel Catalysts promoting esterification, normally, are mineral acids or heterogeneous Bronsted acid catalysts. At this purpose, the classical sulphonated polystyrene acid resins cannot be used at temperature greater than 120 C. Therefore, a new class of sulfonated polymers, with enhanced temperature resistance, has been developed by selective and quantitative sulfonation of olefinic butadiene units in multiblock copolymers syndiotactic polystyrene-co-1,4-cis-polybutadiene. This catalytic system has been successfully tested in the above mentioned esterification reaction and compared to classic commercial strong acid catalysts like Amberlyst {sup registered}, Nafion {sup registered} and sulfuric acid. (orig.)

  8. Designing a new MSA biodiesel technology MBT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingendoh, Axel [Lanxess Deutschland GmbH, Leverkusen (Germany)

    2013-06-01

    The new MBT Technology was developed at Lanxess and eliminates all these constraints of the alkaline transesterification technology. The acidic transesterification uses Methane sulfonic acid catalysis. Due to the acidic nature of the MBT process formation of soaps is made impossible, sterylglycosides are completely cleaved into soluble product, free fatty acids up to 10% are tolerated, higher alcohols like ethanol and butanol do react equally well and waxes are completely converted into biodiesel. Phase separation of biodiesel and glycerol is dramatically enhanced due to the lack of methanol in this stage. Surprisingly, even water up to 5% does not affect the overall yield and product quality of the MBT Process. Cost savings in biodiesel production may be achieved by using low quality oils with high free fatty acids, use of algae oil, and cost savings at oil raffination due to no need of drying. The Technology is lean and requires less apparatus and less operational steps. The catalyst may be completely recycled by recovering it from the glycerol phase using Lewatit ion exchange technology of Lanxess. (orig.)

  9. Understanding the implication of investing in biodiesel production in South Africa: a system dynamics approach

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Musango, JK

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available , is projected to increase over the simulation period reaching 213 persons in 2010. 400 M 300 M 200 M 100 M 0 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 Time (Year) Li tre /y ea r Biodiesel production : Baseline 0 -500 M -1 B -1.5 B -2 B 2005 2010... 2015 2020 2025 2030 Time (Year) R an d/ ye ar Biodiesel profitability : Baseline 400,000 300,000 200,000 100,000 0 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 Time (Year) H a Biodiesel crop land : Baseline 300 225 150 75 0 2005 2010 2015...

  10. Prospects of biodiesel from Jatropha in India: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Siddharth; Sharma, M.P. [Alternate Hydro Energy Centre, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247667, Uttarakhand (India)

    2010-02-15

    The increasing industrialization and modernization of the world has to a steep rise for the demand of petroleum products. Economic development in developing countries has led to huge increase in the energy demand. In India, the energy demand is increasing at a rate of 6.5% per annum. The crude oil demand of the country is met by import of about 80%. Thus the energy security has become a key issue for the nation as a whole. Petroleum-based fuels are limited. The finite reserves are highly concentrated in certain regions of the world. Therefore, those countries not having these reserves are facing foreign exchange crises, mainly due to the import of crude oil. Hence it is necessary to look forward for alternative fuels, which can be produced from feedstocks available within the country. Biodiesel, an ecofriendly and renewable fuel substitute for diesel has been getting the attention of researchers/scientists of all over the world. The R and D has indicated that up to B20, there is no need of modification and little work is available related to suitability and sustainability of biodiesel production from Jatropha as non-edible oil sources. In addition, the use of vegetable oil as fuel is less polluting than petroleum fuels. The basic problem with biodiesel is that it is more prone to oxidation resulting in the increase in viscosity of biodiesel with respect to time which in turn leads to piston sticking, gum formation and fuel atomization problems. The report is an attempt to present the prevailing fossil fuel scenario with respect to petroleum diesel, fuel properties of biodiesel resources for biodiesel production, processes for its production, purification, etc. Lastly, an introduction of stability of biodiesel will also be presented. (author)

  11. A novel process for low-sulfur biodiesel production from scum waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Huan; Addy, Min M; Anderson, Erik; Liu, Weiwei; Liu, Yuhuan; Nie, Yong; Chen, Paul; Cheng, Beijiu; Lei, Hanwu; Ruan, Roger

    2016-08-01

    Scum is an oil-rich waste from the wastewater treatment plants with a high-sulfur level. In this work, a novel process was developed to convert scum to high quality and low sulfur content biodiesel. A combination of solvent extraction and acid washing as pretreatment was developed to lower the sulfur content in the scum feedstock and hence improve biodiesel conversion yield and quality. Glycerin esterification was then employed to convert free fatty acids to glycerides. Moreover, a new distillation process integrating the traditional reflux distillation and adsorptive desulfurization was developed to further remove sulfur from the crude biodiesel. As a result, 70% of the filtered and dried scum was converted to biodiesel with sulfur content lower than 15ppm. The fatty acid methyl ester profiles showed that the refined biodiesel from the new process exhibited a higher quality and better properties than that from traditional process reported in previous studies.

  12. Effects of different chemical additives on biodiesel fuel properties and engine performance. A comparison review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Obed Majeed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel fuel can be used as an alternative to mineral diesel, its blend up to 20% used as a commercial fuel for the existing diesel engine in many countries. However, at high blending ratio, the fuel properties are worsening. The feasibility of pure biodiesel and blended fuel at high blending ratio using different chemical additives has been reviewed in this study. The results obtained by different researchers were analysed to evaluate the fuel properties trend and engine performance and emissions with different chemical additives. It found that, variety of chemical additives can be utilised with biodiesel fuel to improve the fuel properties. Furthermore, the chemical additives usage in biodiesel is inseparable both for improving the cold flow properties and for better engine performance and emission control. Therefore, research is needed to develop biodiesel specific additives that can be adopted to improve the fuel properties and achieve best engine performance at lower exhaust emission effects.

  13. Towards high-level theoretical studies of large biodiesel molecules: an ONIOM [QCISD(T)/CBS:DFT] study of hydrogen abstraction reactions of C(n)H(2n+1)COOC(m)H(2m+1) + H.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lidong; Zhang, Peng

    2015-01-07

    Recent interest in biodiesel combustion urges the need for the theoretical chemical kinetics of large alkyl ester molecules. This is, however, computationally challenging for prevalent high-level electronic structure theory based methods. The hydrogen abstraction reactions of alky esters CnH2n+1COOCmH2m+1 (n = 1-5, 9, 15; m = 1, 2) by a hydrogen radical were investigated by a computational technique based on a two-layer ONIOM method, employing a QCISD(T)/CBS method for the high layer and a DFT method for the low layer. The calculated energy barriers and heats of reaction, using the ONIOM method with a minimum of the required chemically active portion, are in very good agreement with those obtained using the widely accepted high-level QCISD(T)/CBS theory because the computational errors were less than 0.1 kcal mol(-1) for all the tested cases. The ONIOM[QCISD(T)/CBS:DFT] method provides a computationally accurate and affordable approach to the high-level theoretical chemical kinetics of large biodiesel molecules.

  14. Verf en biodiesel uit algen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooibroek, H.

    2009-01-01

    Met algen kun je niet alleen biodiesel en groene coatings produceren, maar ook iets doen aan het mestoverschot en de uitstoot van kooldioxide. In Delfzijl zijn kweekvijvers geopend om de technologie hiervoor te ontwikkelen

  15. Toxicology of Biodiesel Combustion products

    Science.gov (United States)

    1. Introduction The toxicology of combusted biodiesel is an emerging field. Much of the current knowledge about biological responses and health effects stems from studies of exposures to other fuel sources (typically petroleum diesel, gasoline, and wood) incompletely combusted. ...

  16. The National program of the production and use of biodiesel and strategic environmental assessment; O Programa nacional de producao e uso de biodiesel e a avaliacao ambiental estrategica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Victor Rafael Fernandes [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    This work analyzes the use of biodiesel in Brazil under the applied perspective of this renewable fuel in the environmental assessment in the productive chain. It inwards the appearance of biodiesel, its evolution in Brazil and in the world, the structured regulatory framework, beyond these points this work also gives a main focus on the advent of National Program of Production and Usage of Biodiesel (NPPUB - originally PNPUB) and on the defined productive arrangement. It scrutinizes the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and the Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA), and delimits the pivotal hindrances to the development of biodiesel production sector, claiming to point out all the possible and viable scenarios, profiting the economic development of this activity in harmony with the urgent need to implement Environmentally Safe projects. (author)

  17. Variation of diesel soot characteristics by different types and blends of biodiesel in a laboratory combustion chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omidvarborna, Hamid; Kumar, Ashok [Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Kim, Dong-Shik, E-mail: dong.kim@utoledo.edu [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Very little information is available on the physical and chemical properties of soot particles produced in the combustion of different types and blends of biodiesel fuels. A variety of feedstock can be used to produce biodiesel, and it is necessary to better understand the effects of feedstock-specific characteristics on soot particle emissions. Characteristics of soot particles, collected from a laboratory combustion chamber, are investigated from the blends of ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and biodiesel with various proportions. Biodiesel samples were derived from three different feedstocks, soybean methyl ester (SME), tallow oil (TO), and waste cooking oil (WCO). Experimental results showed a significant reduction in soot particle emissions when using biodiesel compared with ULSD. For the pure biodiesel, no soot particles were observed from the combustion regardless of their feedstock origins. The overall morphology of soot particles showed that the average diameter of ULSD soot particles is greater than the average soot particles from the biodiesel blends. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of oxidized soot particles are presented to investigate how the addition of biodiesel fuels may affect structures of soot particles. In addition, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were conducted for characterization of soot particles. Unsaturated methyl esters and high oxygen content of biodiesel are thought to be the major factors that help reduce the formation of soot particles in a laboratory combustion chamber. - Highlights: • The unsaturation of biodiesel fuel was correlated with soot characteristics. • Average diameters of biodiesel soot were smaller than that of ULSD. • Eight elements were detected as the marker metals in biodiesel soot particles. • As the degree of unsaturation increased, the oxygen content in FAMEs increased. • Biodiesel

  18. An experimental study on thermal stability of biodiesel fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yiying

    Biodiesel fuel, as renewable energy, has been used in conventional diesel engines in pure form or as biodiesel/diesel blends for many years. However, thermal stability of biodiesel and biodiesel/diesel blends has been minimally explored. Aimed to shorten this gap, thermal stability of biodiesel is investigated at high temperatures. In this study, batch thermal stressing experiments of biodiesel fuel were performed in stainless steel coils at specific temperature and residence time range from 250 to 425 °C and 3 to 63 minutes, respectively. Evidence of different pathways of biodiesel fuel degradation is demonstrated chromatographically. It was found that biodiesel was stable at 275 °C for a residence time of 8 minutes or below, but the cis-trans isomerization reaction was observed at 28 minutes. Along with isomerization, polymerization also took place at 300 °C at 63 minutes. Small molecular weight products were detected at 350 °C at 33 minutes resulting from pyrolysis reactions and at 360 °C for 33 minutes or above, gaseous products were produced. The formed isomers and dimers were not stable, further decomposition of these compounds was observed at high temperatures. These three main reactions and the temperature ranges in which they occurred are: isomerization, 275--400 °C; polymerization (Diels-Alder reaction), 300--425 °C; pyrolysis reaction, ≥350 °C. The longer residence time and higher temperature resulted in greater decomposition. As the temperature increased to 425 °C, the colorless biodiesel became brownish. After 8 minutes, almost 84% of the original fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) disappeared, indicating significant fuel decomposition. A kinetic study was also carried out subsequently to gain better insight into the biodiesel thermal decomposition. A three-lump model was proposed to describe the decomposition mechanism. Based on this mechanism, a reversible first-order reaction kinetic model for the global biodiesel decomposition was shown to

  19. High-dose neutron detector project update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menlove, Howard Olsen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Henzlova, Daniela [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-10

    These are the slides for a progress review meeting by the sponsor. This is an update on the high-dose neutron detector project. In summary, improvements in both boron coating and signal amplification have been achieved; improved boron coating materials and procedures have increase efficiency by ~ 30-40% without the corresponding increase in the detector plate area; low dead-time via thin cell design (~ 4 mm gas gaps) and fast amplifiers; prototype PDT 8” pod has been received and testing is in progress; significant improvements in efficiency and stability have been verified; use commercial PDT 10B design and fabrication to obtain a faster path from the research to practical high-dose neutron detector.

  20. High-dose neutron detector project update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menlove, Howard Olsen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Henzlova, Daniela [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-10

    These are the slides for a progress review meeting by the sponsor. This is an update on the high-dose neutron detector project. In summary, improvements in both boron coating and signal amplification have been achieved; improved boron coating materials and procedures have increased efficiency by ~ 30-40% without the corresponding increase in the detector plate area; low dead-time via thin cell design (~ 4 mm gas gaps) and fast amplifiers; prototype PDT 8” pod has been received and testing is in progress; significant improvements in efficiency and stability have been verified; use commercial PDT 10B design and fabrication to obtain a faster path from the research to practical high-dose neutron detector.

  1. Performance and Emission Characteristics of Low Heat Rejection Diesel Engine Fueled with Biodiesel and High Speed Diesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Gopinathan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Depleting petroleum reserves on the earth and increasing concerns about the environment leads to the question for fuels which are eco-friendly safer for human beings. The objective of present study was to investigate the effect of coating on cylinder head of a Diesel engine on the performance and emission characteristics of exhaust gases using Bio Diesel and High Speed Diesel (HSD as a fuel. In this study the effect of Tin and Hard Chrome coating on the performance and emission characteristics of diesel engine was investigated using Bio Diesel and High Speed Diesel as a fuel. For this purpose the cylinder head of the test engine were coated with a Tin and Hard Chrome of 100 µ thick by the Electroplating method. For comparing the performance of the engine with coated components with the base engine, readings were taken before and after coating. To make the diesel engine to work with Bio Diesel and High Speed Diesel a modification was done. The engine’s performance was studied for both Bio Diesel and High Speed Diesel with and without Tin, Hard Chrome coating. Also the emissions values are recorded to study the engine’s behavior on emissions. Satisfactory performance was obtained with Tin and Hard Chrome coating compared with a standard diesel engine. The brake thermal efficiency was increased up to 2.08% for High Speed Diesel with Tin coating and there was a significant reduction in the specific fuel consumption. The CO emission in the engine exhaust decreases with coating. Using Bio Diesel and High Speed Diesel fuel for a LHR diesel engine causes an improvement in the performance characteristics and significant reduction in exhaust emissions.

  2. Digital image-based classification of biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Gean Bezerra; Fernandes, David Douglas Sousa; Almeida, Valber Elias; Araújo, Thomas Souto Policarpo; Melo, Jessica Priscila; Diniz, Paulo Henrique Gonçalves Dias; Véras, Germano

    2015-07-01

    This work proposes a simple, rapid, inexpensive, and non-destructive methodology based on digital images and pattern recognition techniques for classification of biodiesel according to oil type (cottonseed, sunflower, corn, or soybean). For this, differing color histograms in RGB (extracted from digital images), HSI, Grayscale channels, and their combinations were used as analytical information, which was then statistically evaluated using Soft Independent Modeling by Class Analogy (SIMCA), Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA), and variable selection using the Successive Projections Algorithm associated with Linear Discriminant Analysis (SPA-LDA). Despite good performances by the SIMCA and PLS-DA classification models, SPA-LDA provided better results (up to 95% for all approaches) in terms of accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity for both the training and test sets. The variables selected Successive Projections Algorithm clearly contained the information necessary for biodiesel type classification. This is important since a product may exhibit different properties, depending on the feedstock used. Such variations directly influence the quality, and consequently the price. Moreover, intrinsic advantages such as quick analysis, requiring no reagents, and a noteworthy reduction (the avoidance of chemical characterization) of waste generation, all contribute towards the primary objective of green chemistry.

  3. Lipase coated clusters of iron oxide nanoparticles for biodiesel synthesis in a solvent free medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Joyeeta; Gupta, Munishwar Nath

    2016-06-01

    Methyl or ethyl esters of long chain fatty acids are called biodiesel. Biodiesel is synthesized by the alcoholysis of oils/fats. In this work, lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus was precipitated over the clusters of Fe3O4 nanoparticles. This biocatalyst preparation was used for obtaining biodiesel from soybean oil. After optimization of both immobilization conditions and process parameters, complete conversion to biodiesel was obtained in 3h and on lowering the enzyme amount, as little as 1.7U of lipase gave 96% conversion in 7h. The solvent free media with oil:ethanol (w/w) of 1:4 and 40°C with 2% (w/w) water along with 20% (w/w) silica (for facilitating acyl migration) were employed for reaching this high % of conversion. The biocatalyst design enables one to use a rather small amount of lipase. This should help in switching over to a biobased production of biodiesel.

  4. Scale-up and economic analysis of biodiesel production from municipal primary sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olkiewicz, Magdalena; Torres, Carmen M; Jiménez, Laureano; Font, Josep; Bengoa, Christophe

    2016-08-01

    Municipal wastewater sludge is a promising lipid feedstock for biodiesel production, but the need to eliminate the high water content before lipid extraction is the main limitation for scaling up. This study evaluates the economic feasibility of biodiesel production directly from liquid primary sludge based on experimental data at laboratory scale. Computational tools were used for the modelling of the process scale-up and the different configurations of lipid extraction to optimise this step, as it is the most expensive. The operational variables with a major influence in the cost were the extraction time and the amount of solvent. The optimised extraction process had a break-even price of biodiesel of 1232 $/t, being economically competitive with the current cost of fossil diesel. The proposed biodiesel production process from waste sludge eliminates the expensive step of sludge drying, lowering the biodiesel price.

  5. Side-stream products of edible oil refining as feedstocks in biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Bojan S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel, a diesel fuel alternative, is produced from vegetable oils and animal fats by the transesterification reaction of triacylglycerols and lower aliphatic alcohols. Beside number advantages related to fossil fuels, the main barrier to biodiesel wider commercial use is the high price of edible oils. Recently, the special attention was given to side-stream products of edible oil refining as low-cost triacylglycerol sources for biodiesel production because of their positive economic and ecological effects. In this paper, the different procedures for biodiesel production from side-stream refining products such as soapstock, spent bleaching earth and deodorizer distillate were analyzed. The main goal of this paper is to analyze the possibilities for reusing the by-products of edible oil refinement in the biodiesel production.

  6. Fueling Chemical Engineering Concepts with Biodiesel Production: A Professional Development Experience for High School Pre-Service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Anju

    2015-01-01

    This one-day workshop for pre-service teachers was aimed at implementing a uniquely designed and ready-to-implement chemical engineering curriculum in high school coursework. This educational and professional development opportunity introduced: 1) chemical engineering curriculum and career opportunities, 2) basic industrial processes and flow…

  7. Fueling Chemical Engineering Concepts with Biodiesel Production: A Professional Development Experience for High School Pre-Service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Anju

    2015-01-01

    This one-day workshop for pre-service teachers was aimed at implementing a uniquely designed and ready-to-implement chemical engineering curriculum in high school coursework. This educational and professional development opportunity introduced: 1) chemical engineering curriculum and career opportunities, 2) basic industrial processes and flow…

  8. Biodiesel Fuel Quality and the ASTM Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel is usually produced from vegetable oils, animal fats and used cooking oils with alternative feedstocks such as algae receiving increasing interest. The transesterification reaction which produces biodiesel also produces glycerol and proceeds stepwise via mono- and diacylglycerol intermedia...

  9. Direct numerical simulations of the ignition of a lean biodiesel/air mixture with temperature and composition inhomogeneities at high pressure and intermediate temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Luong, Minhbau

    2014-11-01

    The effects of the stratifications of temperature, T, and equivalence ratio, φ{symbol}, on the ignition characteristics of a lean homogeneous biodiesel/air mixture at high pressure and intermediate temperature are investigated using direct numerical simulations (DNSs). 2-D DNSs are performed at a constant volume with the variance of temperature and equivalence ratio (T′ and φ{symbol}′) together with a 2-D isotropic velocity spectrum superimposed on the initial scalar fields. In addition, three different T s(-) φ{symbol} correlations are investigated: (1) baseline cases with T′ only or φ{symbol}′ only, (2) uncorrelated T s(-) φ{symbol} distribution, and (3) negatively-correlated T s(-) φ{symbol} distribution. It is found that the overall combustion is more advanced and the mean heat release rate is more distributed over time with increasing T′ and/or φ{symbol}′ for the baseline and uncorrelated T s(-) φ{symbol} cases. However, the temporal advancement and distribution of the overall combustion caused by T′ or φ{symbol}′ only are nearly annihilated by the negatively-correlated T s(-) φ{symbol} fields. The chemical explosive mode and Damköhler number analyses verify that for the baseline and uncorrelated T s(-) φ{symbol} cases, the deflagration mode is predominant at the reaction fronts for large T′ and/or φ{symbol}′. On the contrary, the spontaneous ignition mode prevails for cases with small T′ or φ{symbol}′, especially for cases with negative T s(-) φ{symbol} correlations, and hence, simultaneous auto-ignition occurs throughout the entire domain, resulting in an excessive rate of heat release. It is also found that turbulence with large intensity, u′, and a short time scale can effectively smooth out initial thermal and compositional fluctuations such that the overall combustion is induced primarily by spontaneous ignition. Based on the present DNS results, the generalization of the effects of T′, φ{symbol}′, and u

  10. Conversion of lipid from food waste to biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmee, Sanjib Kumar; Linardi, Darwin; Lee, Jisoo; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2015-07-01

    Depletion of fossil fuels and environmental problems are encouraging research on alternative fuels of renewable sources. Biodiesel is a promising alternative fuel to be used as a substitute to the petroleum based diesel fuels. However, the cost of biodiesel production is high and is attributed mainly to the feedstock used which leads to the investigation of low cost feedstocks that are economically feasible. In this paper, we report on the utilization of lipid obtained from food waste as a low-cost feedstock for biodiesel production. Lipid from food waste was transesterified with methanol using base and lipase as catalysts. The maximum biodiesel yield was 100% for the base (KOH) catalyzed transesterification at 1:10M ratio of lipid to methanol in 2h at 60°C. Novozyme-435 yielded a 90% FAME conversion at 40°C and 1:5 lipid to methanol molar ratio in 24h. Lipid obtained from fungal hydrolysis of food waste is found to be a suitable feedstock for biodiesel production.

  11. Ionic liquid supported acid/base-catalyzed production of biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapis, Alexandre A M; de Oliveira, Luciane F; Neto, Brenno A D; Dupont, Jairton

    2008-01-01

    The transesterification (alcoholysis) reaction was successfully applied to synthesize biodiesel from vegetable oils using imidazolium-based ionic liquids under multiphase acidic and basic conditions. Under basic conditions, the combination of the ionic liquid 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (BMINTf2), alcohols, and K2CO3 (40 mol %) results in the production of biodiesel from soybean oil in high yields (>98%) and purity. H2SO4 immobilized in BMINTf2 efficiently promotes the transesterification reaction of soybean oil and various primary and secondary alcohols. In this multiphase process the acid is almost completely retained in the ionic liquid phase, while the biodiesel forms a separate phase. The recovered ionic liquid containing the acid could be reused at least six times without any significant loss in the biodiesel yield or selectivity. In both catalytic processes (acid and base), the reactions proceed as typical multiphasic systems in which the formed biodiesel accumulates as the upper phase and the glycerol by-product is selectively captured by the alcohol-ionic liquid-acid/base phase. Classical ionic liquids such as 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate and hexafluorophosphate are not stable under these acidic or basic conditions and decompose.

  12. Noncatalytic biodiesel fuel production from croton megalocarpus oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kafuku, G.; Mbarawa, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria (South Africa); Tan, K.T.; Lee, K.T. [School of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, Seri Ampangan, Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2011-11-15

    Biodiesel is currently considered as the most promising substitute for diesel fuel because of its similar properties to diesel. This study presents the use of the supercritical methanol method in the production of biodiesel from Croton megalocarpus oil. The reaction parameters such as methanol-to-oil ratio, reaction temperature and reaction time were varied to obtain the optimal reaction conditions by design of experiment, specifically, response surface methodology based on three-variable central composite design with {alpha}=2. It has been shown that it is possible to achieve methyl ester yields as high as 74.91 % with reaction conditions such as 50:1 methanol-to-oil molar ratio, 330 C reaction temperature and a reaction period of 20 min. However, Croton-based biodiesel did not sustain higher temperatures due to decomposition of polyunsaturated methyl linoleate, which is dominant in biodiesel. Lower yields were observed when higher temperatures were used during the optimization process. The supercritical methanol method showed competitive biodiesel yields when compared with catalytic methods. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Solid Catalysts and theirs Application in Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramli Mat

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of oil resources and increasing petroleum price has led to the search for alternative fuel from renewable resources such as biodiesel. Currently biodiesel is produced from vegetable oil using liquid catalysts. Replacement of liquid catalysts with solid catalysts would greatly solve the problems associated with expensive separation methods and corrosion problems, yielding to a cleaner product and greatly decreasing the cost of biodiesel production. In this paper, the development of solid catalysts and its catalytic activity are reviewed. Solid catalysts are able to perform trans-esterification and esterification reactions simultaneously and able to convert low quality oils with high amount of Free Fatty Acids. The parameters that effect the production of biodiesel are discussed in this paper. Copyright © 2012 by BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 6th April 2012, Revised: 24th October 2012, Accepted: 24th October 2012[How to Cite: R. Mat, R.A. Samsudin, M. Mohamed, A. Johari, (2012. Solid Catalysts and Their Application in Biodiesel Production. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 7(2: 142-149. doi:10.9767/bcrec.7.2.3047.142-149] [How to Link / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.7.2.3047.142-149 ] | View in 

  14. Ultrasound Assisted Esterification of Rubber Seed Oil for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berkah Fajar Tamtomo Kiono

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available roduction of biodiesel is currently shifting from the first to the second generation in which the raw materials are mostly from non-edible type oils and fats. Biodiesel production is commonly conducted under batch operation using mechanical agitation to accelerate mass transfers. The main drawback of oil esterification is the high content of free fatty acids (FFA which may reduce the yield of biodiesel and prolong the production time (2-5 hours. Ultrasonification has been used in many applications such as component extraction due to its ability to produce cavitation under certain frequency. This research is aimed to facilitate ultrasound system for improving biodiesel production process particularly rubber seed oil. An ultrasound unit was used under constant temperature (40oC and frequency of 40 Hz. The result showed that ultrasound can reduces the processing time and increases the biodiesel yield significantly. A model to describe correlation of yield and its independent variables is yield (Y = 43,4894 – 0,6926 X1 + 1,1807 X2 – 7,1042 X3 + 2,6451 X1X2 – 1,6557 X1X3 + 5,7586 X2X3 - 10,5145 X1X2X3, where X1 is mesh sizes, X2 ratio oil: methanol and X3 type of catalyst.

  15. Determination of antioxidant content in biodiesel by fluorescence spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magalhaes, Keurison F.; Caires, Anderson R.L. [Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados, MS (Brazil). Grupo de Optica Aplicada; Oliveira, Samuel L. [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), MS (Brazil). Grupo de Optica e Fotonica

    2011-07-01

    Full text. Biodiesel is an alternative fuel composed by mono-alkyl esters obtained from vegetable oils or animal fats. Due to its chemical structure, biodiesel is highly susceptible to oxidation which leads to formation of insoluble gums and sediments that can block the filter system of fuel injection. Biodiesel made from vegetable oils typically has a small amount of natural antioxidants so that it is necessary to add synthetic antioxidants to enhance its stability and retain their properties for a longer period. The main antioxidants are synthetic phenolic compounds such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ) as well as natural antioxidants as tocopherols. The fluorescence spectroscopy has been applied for determination of phenolic compounds in oils. Here, a method based on fluorescence is proposed to quantify the BHA and TBHQ antioxidant concentration in biodiesel produced from sunflower and soybean oils. Soybean and sunflower biodiesel were obtained by transesterification of fatty alcohol in the presence of NaOH as catalyst. The reactions were carried out in the molar ratio of 6:1 methanol/oil. After the production and purification, biodiesel samples were stored. Biodiesel samples with BHA and TBHQ concentrations from 1000 to 8000 ppm (m/m) were pre- pared. These samples were diluted in ethanol (95%) in order to measure the fluorescence spectra. Fluorescence and excitation spectra of the solutions were recorded at room temperature using a spectrofluorimeter. The emission spectra were obtained under excitation at about 310nm and fluorescence in the 320-800nm range was evaluated. Biodiesel samples without BHA and TBHQ showed fluorescence band at about 420nm, which can be attributed to tocopherols inherent to the vegetable oils used in the biodiesel production. The addition of BHA and/or TBHQ is responsible for the appearance of a fluorescence band around 330nm. It was verified that the fluorescence

  16. Correlation for the estimation of the density of fatty acid esters fuels and its implications. A proposed Biodiesel Cetane Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapuerta, Magín; Rodríguez-Fernández, José; Armas, Octavio

    2010-09-01

    Biodiesel fuels (methyl or ethyl esters derived from vegetables oils and animal fats) are currently being used as a means to diminish the crude oil dependency and to limit the greenhouse gas emissions of the transportation sector. However, their physical properties are different from traditional fossil fuels, this making uncertain their effect on new, electronically controlled vehicles. Density is one of those properties, and its implications go even further. First, because governments are expected to boost the use of high-biodiesel content blends, but biodiesel fuels are denser than fossil ones. In consequence, their blending proportion is indirectly restricted in order not to exceed the maximum density limit established in fuel quality standards. Second, because an accurate knowledge of biodiesel density permits the estimation of other properties such as the Cetane Number, whose direct measurement is complex and presents low repeatability and low reproducibility. In this study we compile densities of methyl and ethyl esters published in literature, and proposed equations to convert them to 15 degrees C and to predict the biodiesel density based on its chain length and unsaturation degree. Both expressions were validated for a wide range of commercial biodiesel fuels. Using the latter, we define a term called Biodiesel Cetane Index, which predicts with high accuracy the Biodiesel Cetane Number. Finally, simple calculations prove that the introduction of high-biodiesel content blends in the fuel market would force the refineries to reduce the density of their fossil fuels.

  17. Performance and emission characteristics of double biodiesel blends with diesel

    OpenAIRE

    Kuthalingam Arun Balasubramanian; Asokan Guruprasath; Marta Vivar; Skryabin Igor; Karuppian Srithar

    2013-01-01

    Recent research on biodiesel focused on performance of single biodiesel and its blends with diesel. The present work aims to investigate the possibilities of the application of mixtures of two biodiesel and its blends with diesel as a fuel for diesel engines. The combinations of Pongamia pinnata biodiesel, Mustard oil biodiesel along with diesel (PMD) and combinations of Cotton seed biodiesel, Pongamia pinnata biodiesel along with diesel (CPD) are taken for the experimental analysis. Ex...

  18. Highly efficient extraction and lipase-catalyzed transesterification of triglycerides from Chlorella sp. KR-1 for production of biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ok Kyung; Kim, Young Hyun; Na, Jeong-Geol; Oh, You-Kwan; Lee, Eun Yeol

    2013-11-01

    We developed a method for the highly efficient lipid extraction and lipase-catalyzed transesterification of triglyceride from Chlorella sp. KR-1 using dimethyl carbonate (DMC). Almost all of the total lipids, approximately 38.9% (w/w) of microalgae dry weight, were extracted from the dried microalgae biomass using a DMC and methanol mixture (7:3 (v/v)). The extracted triglycerides were transesterified into fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) using Novozyme 435 as the biocatalyst in DMC. Herein, DMC was used as the reaction medium and acyl acceptor. The reaction conditions were optimized and the FAMEs yield was 293.82 mg FAMEs/g biomass in 6 h of reaction time at 60 °C in the presence of 0.2% (v/v) water. Novozyme 435 was reused more than ten times while maintaining relative FAMEs conversion that was greater than 90% of the initial FAMEs conversion.

  19. LIFE CYCLE COSTING DAN EKSTERNALITAS BIODIESEL DARI MINYAK SAWIT DAN MINYAK ALGA DI INDONESIA (Life Cycle Costing and Externities of Palm and Algal Biodiesel in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Dwi Santoso

    2014-10-01

    perannya dalam mitigasi GRK yang turut memperbesar peluang sebagai bahan utama biodiesel di masa depan.   ABSTRACT The high cost of biodiesel production was to be an obstacle conversion to biodiesel fuel including Indonesia due to anticipate the energy crisis. The high cost of production due to the variable cost of production has not fully comparable reflect the overall potential contained in biodiesel. Potential biodiesel belonging to the commodity nature of the environment such as renewable biomass, low in land use, and environmentally friendly should be included in the calculation in order to obtain an objective comparison of the calculations.This study aimed to evaluate the effect of adding commodities to the structure of the production cost of biodiesel between palm oil and algal oil. Estimated value of the commodity by the method of benefit transfer method shows the value used is the approach gains willingness to pay (WTP. Environmental commodity values referenced from the calculation software Environmental Priority Strategy (EPS version 2000. For the case of Indonesia, the commodity value of the elasticity was infered EPS basis of comparison of income per capita of Sweden and Indonesia.The results stated that the analysis of life cycle costing (LCC applied by adding variable externalities can provide detailed information about the composition of biodiesel production costs and can be used as a method to get a total picture of the most competitive production costs from several sources. The analysis also concluded that the externality variables also affect the total cost of biodiesel production by up to 14%. Profitability analysis stated that the algal biomass for biodiesel production more secure and sustainable than palm biomass due to technical and non-technical constraints on the production of algal biomass more easier to treat but it also advantages role in GHG mitigation that helped widen the opportunities as the main ingredient of biodiesel in the futur

  20. Whole-cell biocatalysts for biodiesel fuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, H; Hama, S; Tamalampudi, S; Noda, H

    2008-12-01

    Biodiesel fuel (BDF), which refers to fatty acid alkyl esters, has attracted considerable attention as an environmentally friendly alternative fuel for diesel engines. Alkali catalysis is widely applied for the commercial production of BDF. However, enzymatic transesterification offers considerable advantages, including reducing process operations in biodiesel fuel production and an easy separation of the glycerol byproduct. The high cost of the lipase enzyme is the main obstacle for a commercially feasible enzymatic production of biodiesel fuels. To reduce enzyme associated process costs, the immobilization of fungal mycelium within biomass support particles (BSPs) as well as expression of the lipase enzyme on the surface of yeast cells has been developed to generate whole-cell biocatalysts for industrial applications.

  1. Coagulation-flocculation of marine Chlorella sp. for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyano, Naruetsawan; Chetpattananondh, Pakamas; Chongkhong, Sininart

    2013-11-01

    Harvesting of marine Chlorella sp. by autoflocculation and flocculation by addition of coagulant with pH adjustment was investigated in this study. Autoflocculation provided low efficiency. Response surface methodology was employed to optimize the coagulant dosage and pH for flocculation. Aluminium sulfate and ferric chloride were investigated coagulants. The empirical models from RSM are in a good agreement with the experimental results. The optimum flocculation was achieved at ferric chloride dosage 143 mg/L, pH 8.1 and settling time 40 min. Biomass concentration also presented the significant effect on harvesting efficiency. Lipid extracted from marine Chlorella sp. cultivated in urea fertilizer medium with hexane as a solvent is suitable to produce biodiesel according to it contains high proportion of saturated fatty acids. The crude lipid should be purified to remove some impurities before making biodiesel. As the free fatty acid content was higher than 1% a two-step biodiesel production is recommended.

  2. Extraction of oil from microalgae for biodiesel production: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Ronald; Danquah, Michael K; Webley, Paul A

    2012-01-01

    The rapid increase of CO(2) concentration in the atmosphere combined with depleted supplies of fossil fuels has led to an increased commercial interest in renewable fuels. Due to their high biomass productivity, rapid lipid accumulation, and ability to survive in saline water, microalgae have been identified as promising feedstocks for industrial-scale production of carbon-neutral biodiesel. This study examines the principles involved in lipid extraction from microalgal cells, a crucial downstream processing step in the production of microalgal biodiesel. We analyze the different technological options currently available for laboratory-scale microalgal lipid extraction, with a primary focus on the prospect of organic solvent and supercritical fluid extraction. The study also provides an assessment of recent breakthroughs in this rapidly developing field and reports on the suitability of microalgal lipid compositions for biodiesel conversion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Moving towards a Competitive Fully Enzymatic Biodiesel Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Cesarini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic biodiesel synthesis can solve several problems posed by the alkaline-catalyzed transesterification but it has the drawback of being too expensive to be considered competitive. Costs can be reduced by lipase improvement, use of unrefined oils, evaluation of soluble/immobilized lipase preparations, and by combination of phospholipases with a soluble lipase for biodiesel production in a single step. As shown here, convenient natural tools have been developed that allow synthesis of high quality FAMEs (EN14214 from unrefined oils in a completely enzymatic single-step process, making it fully competitive.

  4. Technological research on alternative energy sources in Brazil: the case of biodiesel; Pesquisas tecnologicas sobre fontes alternativas de energia no Brasil: o caso do biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Marcia Franca; Souza, Cristina Gomes de; Peixoto, Jose Antonio Assuncao [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica Celso Suckow da Fonseca (CEFET/RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This article aims to map the main characteristics of research projects promoted in Brazil on biodiesel, as part of the National Program for Production and Use of Biodiesel (PNPB), aiming to identify issues, such as: what are the types of plants studied, which is being searched and what the different partners involved. The survey was made on the basis of data available on the web site of the government www.biodiesel.gov.br, and showed the existence of 118 searches registered on the subject. The contents of the study addresses initially some relevant information on biodiesel and its peculiarities in Brazil. In the following sections are identified actions taken by the Brazilian government to create an environment to encourage technological development related to biodiesel, with emphasis on the PNPB and its lines of research. Finally, the results obtained from the database found are presented and discussed. Among other information, the study reveals that: the plants most studied are castor bean, soybeans and cotton, and the research on the biodiesel has focused on improvements in its characterization and quality control as well as in the production of the fuel itself. (author)

  5. Proinflammatory effects of diesel exhaust particles from moderate blend concentrations of 1st and 2nd generation biodiesel in BEAS-2B bronchial epithelial cells-The FuelHealth project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skuland, Tonje S; Refsnes, Magne; Magnusson, Pål; Oczkowski, Michał; Gromadzka-Ostrowska, Joanna; Kruszewski, Marcin; Mruk, Remigiusz; Myhre, Oddvar; Lankoff, Anna; Øvrevik, Johan

    2017-06-01

    Biodiesel fuel fuels are introduced at an increasing extent as a more carbon-neutral alternative to reduce CO2-emissions, compared to conventional diesel fuel. In the present study we have investigated the impact of increasing the use of 1st generation fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) biodiesel from current 7% blend (B7) to 20% blend (B20), or by increasing the biodiesel content by adding 2nd generation hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) based biodiesel (SHB; Synthetic Hydrocarbon Biofuel) on toxicity of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) in an in vitro system. Human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells were exposed for 4 and 20h to DEP from B7, B20 and SHB at different concentrations, and examined for effects on gene expression of interleukin 6 (IL-6), CXCL8 (IL-8), CYP1A1 and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). The results show that both B20 and SHB were more potent inducers of IL-6 expression compared to B7. Only B20 induced statistically significant increases in CXCL8 expression. By comparison the rank order of potency to induce CYP1A1 was SHB>B7>B20. No statistically significant difference were observed form HO-1 expression, suggesting that the differences in cytokine responses were not due to oxidative stress. The results show that even moderate increases in biodiesel blends, from 7% to 20%, may increase the proinflammatory potential of emitted DEP in BEAS-2B cells. This effect was observed for both addition of 1st generation FAME and 2nd generation HVO biodiesel. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Biodiesel Production from Spent Coffee Grounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinová, Lenka; Bartošová, Alica; Sirotiak, Maroš

    2017-06-01

    The residue after brewing the spent coffee grounds is an oil-containing waste material having a potential of being used as biodiesel feedstock. Biodiesel production from the waste coffee grounds oil involves collection and transportation of coffee residue, drying, oil extraction, and finally production of biodiesel. Different methods of oil extraction with organic solvents under different conditions show significant differences in the extraction yields. In the manufacturing of biodiesel from coffee oil, the level of reaction completion strongly depends on the quality of the feedstock oil. This paper presents an overview of oil extraction and a method of biodiesel production from spent coffee grounds.

  7. Particulate morphology of waste cooking oil biodiesel and diesel in a heavy duty diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Joonsik; Jung, Yongjin; Bae, Choongsik

    2014-08-01

    The effect of biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil (WCO) on the particulate matters (PM) of a direct injection (DI) diesel engine was experimentally investigated and compared with commercial diesel fuel. Soot agglomerates were collected with a thermophoretic sampling device installed in the exhaust pipe of the engine. The morphology of soot particles was analyzed using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The elemental and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were also conducted to study chemical composition of soot particles. Based on the TEM images, it was revealed that the soot derived from WCO biodiesel has a highly graphitic shell-core arrangement compared to diesel soot. The mean size was measured from averaging 400 primary particles for WCO biodiesel and diesel respectively. The values for WCO biodiesel indicated 19.9 nm which was smaller than diesel's 23.7 nm. From the TGA results, WCO biodiesel showed faster oxidation process. While the oxidation of soot particles from diesel continued until 660°C, WCO biodiesel soot oxidation terminated at 560°C. Elemental analysis results showed that the diesel soot was mainly composed of carbon and hydrogen. On the other hand, WCO biodiesel soot contained high amount of oxygen species.

  8. Life cycle energy and CO2 analysis of microalgae-to-biodiesel: preliminary results and comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, H H; Sharratt, P N; Das, P; Balasubramanian, R K; Naraharisetti, P K; Shaik, S

    2011-05-01

    Despite claims that microalgal biofuels are environmentally friendlier alternatives to conventional fuels, debate surrounding its ecological benefits or drawbacks still exists. LCA is used to analyze various biofuel production technologies from 'cradle to gate'. Energy and CO(2) balances are carried out for a hypothetical integrated PBR-raceway microalgae-to-biodiesel production in Singapore. Based on a functional unit of 1 MJ biofuel, the total energy demands are 4.44 MJ with 13% from biomass production, 85% from lipid extraction, and 2% from biodiesel production. Sensitivity analysis was carried out for adjustments in energy requirements, percentage lipid contents, and lower/higher heating product value. An 'Optimistic Case' was projected with estimates of: 45% lipid content; reduced energy needs for lipid extraction (1.3 MJ per MJ biodiesel); and heating value of biodiesel (42 MJ/kg). The life cycle energy requirements dropped significantly by about 60%. The results are compared with other published case studies from other countries.

  9. Analysis of the potential use of palm oil biodiesel for power generation in Amazonian remote systems; Analise do potencial do biodiesel de dende para geracao eletrica em sistemas isolados da Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Anamelia Medeiros

    2008-07-01

    This paper aims to analyze the potential of palm-oil biodiesel production and consumption in remote Amazonian systems (not connected to the national grid), taking into account economic, social and environmental impacts of this biofuel alternative. Through a detailed analysis of remote systems and in particular the examination of the national subside called 'Combustible Consumption Account', the study presents potential scenarios of biodiesel demand for electricity generation in the region, considering also the generation and grid connections projects in forthcoming years. Definition of current and future quantities of biodiesel needed to maintain thermal production in this system defines the Biodiesel investment necessities in remote Amazonian states (Acre, Amapa, Amazonas, Para, Rondonia, Roraima). Possibility of using biodiesel made progress with the launch of the National Program of Production and Use of Biodiesel (PNPB) in 2004. Although African Palm-oil trees adapt very well Amazonian soil, wide adoption of this specie as raw material for biodiesel production shows some barriers, like raise of palm oil price in global market, palm tree long maturation time and attractive price for conventional diesel in the region. Even if using palmoil biodiesel result in obvious significant social and environmental benefits, these benefits tend not to compensate the inefficiency of the market and, thus, expand the biofuel production in the Northern Region. (author)

  10. Towards continuous enzyme-catalysed processes for the production of biodiesel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordblad, Mathias; Pedersen, Anders Kristian; Meyland, Lene Have

    The application of lipases in the production of biodiesel can find several roles: in pretreating high FFA oils via esterification, transesterification for converting oil to biodiesel and polishing via esterification to ensure the product is within specification. In all these cases the potential...... size of the process plants, suggest that continuous operation would be highly beneficial due to the economies of scale. To investigate this, we have examined both oil pretreatment via esterification and biodiesel production via transesterification in batch stirred tank reactors (BSTRs), continuous...

  11. Towards continuous enzyme-catalysed processes for the production of biodiesel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordblad, Mathias; Pedersen, Anders Kristian; Meyland, Lene Have

    The application of lipases in the production of biodiesel can find several roles: in pretreating high FFA oils via esterification, transesterification for converting oil to biodiesel and polishing via esterification to ensure the product is within specification. In all these cases the potential...... size of the process plants, suggest that continuous operation would be highly beneficial due to the economies of scale. To investigate this, we have examined both oil pretreatment via esterification and biodiesel production via transesterification in batch stirred tank reactors (BSTRs), continuous...

  12. Microbial growth in Acrocomia aculeata pulp oil, Jatropha curcas oil, and their respective biodiesels under simulated storage conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juciana Clarice Cazarolli

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available With increasing demands for biodiesel in Brazil, diverse oil feedstocks have been investigated for their potentials for biodiesel production. Due to the high biodegradability of natural oils and their respective biodiesels, microbial growths and consequent deterioration of final product quality are generally observed during storage. This study was aimed at evaluating the susceptibility of Acrocomia aculeata pulp oil and Jatropha curcas oil as well as their respective biodiesels to biodeterioration during a simulated storage period. The experiment was conducted in microcosms containing oil/biodiesel and an aqueous phase over 30 d. The levels of microbial contamination included biodiesel and oil as received, inoculated with fungi, and sterile. Samples were collected every 7 d to measure pH, surface tension, acidity index, and microbial biomass. The initial and final ester contents of the biodiesels were also determined by gas chromatography. The major microbial biomass was detected in A. aculeata pulp and J. curcas biodiesels. Significant reductions in pH values were observed for treatments with A. aculeata pulp biodiesel as a carbon source (p

  13. Variation of diesel soot characteristics by different types and blends of biodiesel in a laboratory combustion chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidvarborna, Hamid; Kumar, Ashok; Kim, Dong-Shik

    2016-02-15

    Very little information is available on the physical and chemical properties of soot particles produced in the combustion of different types and blends of biodiesel fuels. A variety of feedstock can be used to produce biodiesel, and it is necessary to better understand the effects of feedstock-specific characteristics on soot particle emissions. Characteristics of soot particles, collected from a laboratory combustion chamber, are investigated from the blends of ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and biodiesel with various proportions. Biodiesel samples were derived from three different feedstocks, soybean methyl ester (SME), tallow oil (TO), and waste cooking oil (WCO). Experimental results showed a significant reduction in soot particle emissions when using biodiesel compared with ULSD. For the pure biodiesel, no soot particles were observed from the combustion regardless of their feedstock origins. The overall morphology of soot particles showed that the average diameter of ULSD soot particles is greater than the average soot particles from the biodiesel blends. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of oxidized soot particles are presented to investigate how the addition of biodiesel fuels may affect structures of soot particles. In addition, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were conducted for characterization of soot particles. Unsaturated methyl esters and high oxygen content of biodiesel are thought to be the major factors that help reduce the formation of soot particles in a laboratory combustion chamber. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Performance and emission parameters of single cylinder diesel engine using castor oil bio-diesel blended fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, A.; Ghobadian, B.; Najafi, G.; Jaliliantabar, F.; Mamat, R.

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the performance and emission parameters of a CI single cylinder diesel engine operating on biodiesel-diesel blends (B0, B5, B10, B15 and E20: 20% biodiesel and 80% diesel by volume). A reactor was designed, fabricated and evaluated for biodiesel production. The results showed that increasing the biodiesel content in the blend fuel will increase the performance parameters and decrease the emission parameters. Maximum power was detected for B0 at 2650 rpm and maximum torque was belonged to B20 at 1600 rpm. The experimental results revealed that using biodiesel-diesel blended fuels increased the power and torque output of the engine. For biodiesel blends it was found that the specific fuel consumption (sfc) was decreased. B10 had the minimum amount for sfc. The concentration of CO2 and HC emissions in the exhaust pipe were measured and found to be decreased when biodiesel blends were introduced. This was due to the high oxygen percentage in the biodiesel compared to the net diesel fuel. In contrast, the concentration of CO and NOx was found to be increased when biodiesel is introduced.

  15. Recent trends in biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meisam Tabatabaei

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article fully discusses the recent trends in the production of one the most attractive types of biofuels, i.e., biodiesel.with a focus on the existing obstacles for its large scale production. Moreover, recent innovations/improvements under three categories of upstream, mainstream, and downstream processes are also presented. Upstream strategies are mainly focused on seeking more sustainable oil feedstocks and/or enhancing the quality of waste-oriented ones. The mainstream strategies section highlights the numerous attempts made to enhance agitation efficiency including chemical and/or mechanical strategies. Finally, the innovative downstream strategies basically dealing with 1 separation of biodiesel and glycerin, 2 purification of biodiesel and glycerin, and 3 improving the characteristics of the produced fuel, are comprehensively reviewed.

  16. Biodiesel production : process and characterization

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Resumo: O biodiesel (ésteres) é um combustível que pode ser produzido a partir de óleos vegetais, gorduras animais e óleo de origem microbiana (algas, fungos e bactérias). As matérias-primas são convertidas em biodiesel por meio de uma reação química envolvendo álcool e catalisador. Esta reação é chamada de transesterificação ou etanólise, caso o álcool for o etanol. Neste trabalho, foi realizada a produção de biodiesel utilizando os seguintes sistemas: reator em batelada, processo de destila...

  17. HIGH PRESSURE COAL COMBUSTON KINETICS PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefano Orsino

    2005-03-30

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) initiative to improve the efficiency of coal-fired power plants and reduce the pollution generated by these facilities, DOE has funded the High-Pressure Coal Combustion Kinetics (HPCCK) Projects. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted on selected pulverized coals at elevated pressures with the specific goals to provide new data for pressurized coal combustion that will help extend to high pressure and validate models for burnout, pollutant formation, and generate samples of solid combustion products for analyses to fill crucial gaps in knowledge of char morphology and fly ash formation. Two series of high-pressure coal combustion experiments were performed using SRI's pressurized radiant coal flow reactor. The first series of tests characterized the near burner flame zone (NBFZ). Three coals were tested, two high volatile bituminous (Pittsburgh No.8 and Illinois No.6), and one sub-bituminous (Powder River Basin), at pressures of 1, 2, and 3 MPa (10, 20, and 30 atm). The second series of experiments, which covered high-pressure burnout (HPBO) conditions, utilized a range of substantially longer combustion residence times to produce char burnout levels from 50% to 100%. The same three coals were tested at 1, 2, and 3 MPa, as well as at 0.2 MPa. Tests were also conducted on Pittsburgh No.8 coal in CO2 entrainment gas at 0.2, 1, and 2 MPa to begin establishing a database of experiments relevant to carbon sequestration techniques. The HPBO test series included use of an impactor-type particle sampler to measure the particle size distribution of fly ash produced under complete burnout conditions. The collected data have been interpreted with the help of CFD and detailed kinetics simulation to extend and validate devolatilization, char combustion and pollutant model at elevated pressure. A global NOX production sub-model has been proposed. The submodel reproduces the performance of the detailed chemical

  18. High temperature bacterial leaching: HIOX project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morin, D.; D' Hugues, P.; Bonney, C. F.; Norris, P.; Shwab, W.; Sundkvist, J-E.; Bridges, P. [Bureau de Recherhes Geologiques et Minieres, Orleans (France)

    2001-07-01

    The HIOX project was designed to investigate the use of thermophilic bacterial cultures for the leaching of chalcopyrite (CuFeS{sub 2}, the natural source of copper). Beyond bacterial leaching, the study also encompassed the downstream processing steps in an effort to develop a new method for the recovery of copper in an economical and environmentally-friendly process. Using the HIOX process copper recovery was increased to better than 90 per cent within 5 days with a 12 per cent solids culture, although some potentially limiting factors such as foam generation, nutrient concentrations and mixing/aeration efficiency were also identified. The study resulted in the establishment of a mass balance based on a simplified flowsheet of the process. Techno-economic evaluation carried out at three sites indicated technical feasibility using relatively conventional equipment and capital and operating costs in ranges that suggest that bioleaching with high temperature bacteria is an attractive alternative for the treatment of chalcopyrite concentrate. 5 tabs.

  19. Emission Characteristics of CI Engine by using Palm BioDiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S.shai sundaram

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Environmental concerns and energy crisis of the world has led to the search of alternate to the fossil fuel. FAME (Fatty Acid Methyl Ester is environment friendly, alternative, and non-toxic, safe; biodegradable has a high flash point and is also termed as Bio-Diesel. The growing economic risk of relying primarily on fossil fuels with limited reserves and Increasing prices has increased the interest on alternative energy sources. Clean and renewable biofuels have been touted as the answer to the issue of diminishing fossil fuels. INDIA the largest producer of palm oil has committed to focus interest on biofuels, namely palm biodiesel. Since palm oil has a high fossil energy balance, it is a key source of raw material for biodiesel production. This paper presents palm biodiesel as an alternative source of green renewable energy through a survey conducted from previously researched findings. In this experimental study testing of emission characteristics and performances test of palm Bio-diesel at various ratios form (B25%, B 50%, B75%, B100% of Bio-diesel. As we compared with fossil fuel (diesel and palm bio-diesel on base of various emission elements (CO, CO2, NOx, O2, and HC.

  20. A Complementary Biodiesel Blend from Soapnut Oil and Free Fatty Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu-Yen Chen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Blends of biodiesels produced from soapnut oil and high-oleic free fatty acids (FFAs, which are potential non-edible oil feedstocks, were investigated with respect to their fuel properties. The soapnut oil methyl esters (SNME had satisfactory fuel properties with the exception of its high cold filter plugging point. In contrast, the biodiesel from the FFAs had favorable fuel properties such as a low cold filter plugging point of −6 °C; however, it exhibits poor oxidation stability with an induction period (IP of 0.2 h. The complementary blend of the SNME and the FFA-based biodiesel at various weight ratios was studied to improve the fuel properties. As a result, the biodiesel blend at a weight ratio of 70:30 can successfully meet all the biodiesel specifications, except the marginal oxidation stability. Furthermore, the effectiveness of N,N’-di-sec-butyl-p-phenylenediamine at the concentration between 100 and 500 ppm on the improvement in the oxidation stability of the biodiesel blend was examined. The relationship between the IP values associated with the consumption of antioxidants in the biodiesel blends was described by first-order reaction rate kinetics. In addition, the natural logarithm of IP (ln IP at various concentrations of antioxidant presented a linear relation with the test temperature. The IP at ambient temperature can be predicted based on the extrapolation of the temperature dependence relation.

  1. Ultrasonic transesterification of Jatrophacurcas L. oil to biodiesel by a two-step process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Xin; Fang, Zhen; Liu, Yun-hu [Biomass Group, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 88 Xuefulu, Kunming, Yunnan Province 650223 (China)

    2010-12-15

    Transesterification of high free fatty acid content Jatropha oil with methanol to biodiesel catalyzed directly by NaOH and high-concentrated H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} or by two-step process were studied in an ultrasonic reactor at 60 C. If NaOH was used as catalyst, biodiesel yield was only 47.2% with saponification problem. With H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} as catalyst, biodiesel yield was increased to 92.8%. However, longer reaction time (4 h) was needed and the biodiesel was not stable. A two-step, acid-esterification and base-transesterification process was further used for biodiesel production. It was found that after the first-step pretreatment with H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} for 1 h, the acid value of Jatropha oil was reduced from 10.45 to 1.2 mg KOH/g, and subsequently, NaOH was used for the second-step transesterification. Stable and clear yellowish biodiesel was obtained with 96.4% yield after reaction for 0.5 h. The total production time was only 1.5 h that is just half of the previous reported. The two-step process with ultrasonic radiation is effective and time-saving for biodiesel production from Jatropha oil. (author)

  2. Ultrasonic transesterification of Jatrophacurcas L. oil to biodiesel by a two-step process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng Xin [Biomass Group, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 88 Xuefulu, Kunming, Yunnan Province 650223 (China); Fang Zhen, E-mail: zhenfang@xtbg.ac.c [Biomass Group, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 88 Xuefulu, Kunming, Yunnan Province 650223 (China); Liu Yunhu [Biomass Group, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 88 Xuefulu, Kunming, Yunnan Province 650223 (China)

    2010-12-15

    Transesterification of high free fatty acid content Jatropha oil with methanol to biodiesel catalyzed directly by NaOH and high-concentrated H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} or by two-step process were studied in an ultrasonic reactor at 60 deg. C. If NaOH was used as catalyst, biodiesel yield was only 47.2% with saponification problem. With H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} as catalyst, biodiesel yield was increased to 92.8%. However, longer reaction time (4 h) was needed and the biodiesel was not stable. A two-step, acid-esterification and base-transesterification process was further used for biodiesel production. It was found that after the first-step pretreatment with H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} for 1 h, the acid value of Jatropha oil was reduced from 10.45 to 1.2 mg KOH/g, and subsequently, NaOH was used for the second-step transesterification. Stable and clear yellowish biodiesel was obtained with 96.4% yield after reaction for 0.5 h. The total production time was only 1.5 h that is just half of the previous reported. The two-step process with ultrasonic radiation is effective and time-saving for biodiesel production from Jatropha oil.

  3. A review of chromatographic characterization techniques for biodiesel and biodiesel blends.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pauls, R. E. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division)

    2011-05-01

    This review surveys chromatographic technology that has been applied to the characterization of biodiesel and its blends. Typically, biodiesel consists of fatty acid methyl esters produced by transesterification of plant or animal derived triacylglycerols. Primary attention is given to the determination of trace impurities in biodiesel, such as methanol, glycerol, mono-, di-, and triacylglycerols, and sterol glucosides. The determination of the fatty acid methyl esters, trace impurities in biodiesel, and the determination of the biodiesel content of commercial blends of biodiesel in conventional diesel are also addressed.

  4. Enzymatic pretreatment of low-grade oils for biodiesel production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordblad, Mathias; Pedersen, Anders K.; Rancke-Madsen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    The alkaline process for making biodiesel (fatty acidmethyl esters, or FAME) is highly efficient at the transesterification of glycerides. However, its performance is poor when it comes to using oil that contain significant amounts of free fatty acids (FFA).The traditional approach to such feed s...

  5. Biodiesel production with microalgae as feedstock: from strains to biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yangmin; Jiang, Mulan

    2011-07-01

    Due to negative environmental influence and limited availability, petroleum-derived fuels need to be replaced by renewable biofuels. Biodiesel has attracted intensive attention as an important biofuel. Microalgae have numerous advantages for biodiesel production over many terrestrial plants. There are a series of consecutive processes for biodiesel production with microalgae as feedstock, including selection of adequate microalgal strains, mass culture, cell harvesting, oil extraction and transesterification. To reduce the overall production cost, technology development and process optimization are necessary. Genetic engineering also plays an important role in manipulating lipid biosynthesis in microalgae. Many approaches, such as sequestering carbon dioxide from industrial plants for the carbon source, using wastewater for the nutrient supply, and maximizing the values of by-products, have shown a potential for cost reduction. This review provides a brief overview of the process of biodiesel production with microalgae as feedstock. The methods associated with this process (e.g. lipid determination, mass culture, oil extraction) are also compared and discussed.

  6. Transesterification Reactor High-pressure Hydrothermal State and Microalgae Biodiesel Experiment%酯交换反应釜高压水热状态与微藻生物柴油实验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹宁; 王勇; 杜畅; 张贵芝; 李坤

    2013-01-01

    以间歇式酯交换反应釜为对象,探讨了本底压力和温度等参数对釜内水热平衡状态的影响.通过建立三维温度-压力场分析模型,确定了釜内高压水热状态控制方程并实现超临界状态反应条件优化.在此基础上进行了以规模化养殖微藻为原料制备生物柴油的实验研究和油品分析.结果表明,以小球藻为原料的生物柴油产出率明显高于其他藻种.超临界反应条件的引入可使直接酯交换反应生物柴油产率提高近一倍.油品具有与0号柴油几乎相同的碳氢质量比、热值和密度等理化性能.%Taking intermittent high-pressure transesterification reactor as object, the influence of background pressure and temperature on thermal equilibrium state of the water were discussed. Through establishing 3-D temperature - pressure field analysis model, the high-pressure hydrothermal state control equation was determined and supercritical state reaction condition was optimized. On this basis, the experimental study on biodiesel prepared with large-scale aquaculture microalgae as raw materials was carried out and the oil quality was analyzed. The results indicated that the output rate of biodiesel prepared with chlorella was evidently higher than that of other types of algae. The introduction of supercritical state reaction condition almost doubled the output rate of biodiesel and the oil quality had nearly the same carbon/hydrogen mass ratio, calorific value and density with the 0# diesel.

  7. 高酸值废弃油脂加压制备生物柴油的研究%Preparation of biodiesel from high acid value waste oil under pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘巧云; 石昌富; 俞建君; 杨锦梁

    2014-01-01

    研究以高酸值废弃油脂为原料,在加压下制备生物柴油的技术。先在强酸浓 H2 SO4催化下,将游离脂肪酸进行酯化处理,再在强碱 NaOH 催化下,对甘油三酯进行酯交换制备生物柴油。结果表明,酯化的最佳工艺条件为:醇油摩尔比3:1、压力1.5 MPa、催化剂用量0.5%(以废弃油脂质量计)、反应时间30 min,在此条件下,废弃油脂酸值(KOH)可从120 mg / g 降至2.0 mg / g 以下;酯交换的最佳工艺条件为:醇油摩尔比2:1、压力0.8 MPa、催化剂用量0.5%(以粗甲酯质量计)、反应时间30 min,在此条件下,高酸值废弃油脂转化为生物柴油的产率可达98%以上,产品技术指标达到 GB / T 20828-2007标准限值。%The production technology of biodiesel from high acid value waste oil under pressure was stud-ied. Free fatty acid was esterified by concentrated sulfuric acid catalysis firstly, then transesterification of triglyceride to prepare biodiesel was catalyzed by sodium hydroxide. The results showed that the optimal esterification conditions were obtained as follows: molar ratio of methanol to oil 3: 1,pressure 1. 5 MPa, catalyst dosage 0. 5% (based on the mass of waste oil),reaction time 30 min,under these conditions, the acid value of waste oil reduced from 120 mgKOH/ g to 2. 0 mgKOH/ g;the optimal transesterification con-ditions were obtained as follows: molar ratio of methanol to oil 2: 1,pressure 0. 8 MPa,catalyst dosage 0. 5% (based on the mass of crude methyl ester),reaction time 30 min,under these conditions,the yield of biodiesel from high acid value waste oil reached 98% ,and the qualification of the product met the standard GB / T 20828-2007.

  8. LCD Projection Display System with High Brightness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A new compact XGA projection is designed with three 0.99" liquid crystal panels. By using 275W UHP lamp, above 3000 ANSI lumens could be achieved with the uniformity of 85%. The color temperature is 6742K.

  9. Extreme Environment High Temperature Communication Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this project is to develop and demonstrate a communications system capable of operation at extreme temperatures and pressures in hostile and corrosive...

  10. Novel Lithium Ion High Energy Battery Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Under this SBIR project a new chemistry for Li-ion cells will be developed that will enable a major advance in secondary battery gravimetric and volumetric energy...

  11. Fatty acid composition as a tool for screening alternative feedstocks for production of biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatty acid (FA) composition was used as a screening tool for the selection of feedstocks high in monounsaturated content for evaluation as biodiesel. The feedstocks were ailanthus (Ailanthus altissima), anise (Pimpinella anisum), arugula (Eruca vesicaria), camelina (Camelina sativa), coriander (Cori...

  12. Fatty acid profile as a basis for screening feedstocks for biodiesel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatty acid (FA) profile was used as a screening tool for the selection of feedstocks high in monounsaturated content for evaluation as biodiesel. The feedstocks were ailanthus (Ailanthus altissima), anise (Pimpinella anisum), arugula (Eruca vesicaria), camelina (Camelina sativa), coriander (Coriandr...

  13. Biodiesel B30: maatschappelijke context ; vereisten voor toepassingen in dagelijks gebruik

    OpenAIRE

    Anthonis, Tom

    2011-01-01

    This report covers all relative items for implementing the use of high blend of biodiesel use in captive fleets. In this particular case the use of B30 biodiesel, a mixture of 30% FAME with 70% fossil diesel. The report covers the sustainable and social aspects of the use of biofuels : greenhouse gas saving, an insight in the debate of food versus fuel, the impact on farmland. The report gives a detail overview of all the technical aspects of the use of biodiesel in a car fleet : quality s...

  14. Lipase-catalyzed process for biodiesel production: protein engineering and lipase production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Hyun Tae; Qi, Feng; Yuan, Chongli; Zhao, Xuebing; Ramkrishna, Doraiswami; Liu, Dehua; Varma, Arvind

    2014-04-01

    Biodiesel is an environment-friendly and renewable fuel produced by transesterification of various feedstocks. Although the lipase-catalyzed biodiesel production has many advantages over the conventional alkali catalyzed process, its industrial applications have been limited by high-cost and low-stability of lipase enzymes. This review provides a general overview of the recent advances in lipase engineering, including both protein modification and production. Recent advances in biotechnology such as in protein engineering, recombinant methods and metabolic engineering have been employed but are yet to impact lipase engineering for cost-effective production of biodiesel. A summary of the current challenges and perspectives for potential solutions are also provided.

  15. Experimental investigations on mixing of two biodiesels blended with diesel as alternative fuel for diesel engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Srithar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The world faces the crises of energy demand, rising petroleum prices and depletion of fossil fuel resources. Biodiesel has obtained from vegetable oils that have been considered as a promising alternate fuel. The researches regarding blend of diesel and single biodiesel have been done already. Very few works have been done with the combination of two different biodiesel blends with diesel and left a lot of scope in this area. The present study brings out an experiment of two biodiesels from pongamia pinnata oil and mustard oil and they are blended with diesel at various mixing ratios. The effects of dual biodiesel works in engine and exhaust emissions were examined in a single cylinder, direct injection, air cooled and high speed diesel engine at various engine loads with constant engine speed of 3000 rpm. The influences of blends on CO, CO2, HC, NOx and smoke opacity were investigated by emission tests. The brake thermal efficiency of blend A was found higher than diesel. The emissions of smoke, hydro carbon and nitrogen oxides of dual biodiesel blends were higher than that of diesel. But the exhaust gas temperature for dual biodiesel blends was lower than diesel.

  16. Artificial Neural Network Approach to Predict Biodiesel Production in Supercritical tert-Butyl Methyl Ether

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obie Farobie

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, for the first time artificial neural network was used to predict biodiesel yield in supercritical tert-butyl methyl ether (MTBE. The experimental data of biodiesel yield conducted by varying four input factors (i.e. temperature, pressure, oil-to-MTBE molar ratio, and reaction time were used to elucidate artificial neural network model in order to predict biodiesel yield. The main goal of this study was to assess how accurately this artificial neural network model to predict biodiesel yield conducted under supercritical MTBE condition. The result shows that artificial neural network is a powerful tool for modeling and predicting biodiesel yield conducted under supercritical MTBE condition that was proven by a high value of coefficient of determination (R of 0.9969, 0.9899, and 0.9658 for training, validation, and testing, respectively. Using this approach, the highest biodiesel yield was determined of 0.93 mol/mol (corresponding to the actual biodiesel yield of 0.94 mol/mol that was achieved at 400 °C, under the reactor pressure of 10 MPa, oil-to-MTBE molar ratio of 1:40 within 15 min of reaction time.

  17. Biodiesel Production by Enzymatic Transesterification of Papaya Seed Oil and Rambutan Seed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Wong

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel production from vegetable oil has gained attention as an alternative fuel to minimize the usage of fossil fuels and reduce greenhouse gases pollution. In Malaysia, oils from local fruit seeds of papaya and rambutan are potential feedstock for biodiesel production due to their high lipid contents and easily available. In the present study, papaya and rambutan seed oils were extracted via soxhlet apparatus using n-hexane and the oil yields were in between 34–40%. The extracted oils were subjected to enzymatic transesterification by the immobilized Candida rugosa lipase as a catalyst under room temperature with varies molar ratios of methanol to oil. The highest biodiesel yield for papaya seed oil and rambutan seed oil was found to be 96% and 89% at methanol-to-oil ratios of 6:1 and 8:1, respectively. Results also showed a higher biodiesel yield using lipase immobilized on the magnetic particles as the heterogeneous catalyst compared to the yield obtained using free enzyme as the homogeneous catalyst. The properties of biodiesel such as density, acid value, iodine value and cetane number were analyzed and found to meet the European Standard of Biodiesel. The study shows that papaya and rambutan seed oils have the potential to be used as alternative feedstock for biodiesel production than the full dependence on palm oil in Malaysia.

  18. Impact of policy on greenhouse gas emissions and economics of biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivetti, Elsa; Gülşen, Ece; Malça, João; Castanheira, Erica; Freire, Fausto; Dias, Luis; Kirchain, Randolph

    2014-07-01

    As an alternative transportation fuel to petrodiesel, biodiesel has been promoted within national energy portfolio targets across the world. Early estimations of low lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of biodiesel were a driver behind extensive government support in the form of financial incentives for the industry. However, studies consistently report a high degree of uncertainty in these emissions estimates, raising questions concerning the carbon benefits of biodiesel. Furthermore, the implications of feedstock blending on GHG emissions uncertainty have not been explicitly addressed despite broad practice by the industry to meet fuel quality standards and to control costs. This work investigated the impact of feedstock blending on the characteristics of biodiesel by using a chance-constrained (CC) blend optimization method. The objective of the optimization is minimization of feedstock costs subject to fuel standards and emissions constraints. Results indicate that blending can be used to manage GHG emissions uncertainty characteristics of biodiesel, and to achieve cost reductions through feedstock diversification. Simulations suggest that emissions control policies that restrict the use of certain feedstocks based on their GHG estimates overlook blending practices and benefits, increasing the cost of biodiesel. In contrast, emissions control policies which recognize the multifeedstock nature of biodiesel provide producers with feedstock selection flexibility, enabling them to manage their blend portfolios cost effectively, potentially without compromising fuel quality or emissions reductions.

  19. Membrane technology as a promising alternative in biodiesel production: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuit, Siew Hoong; Ong, Yit Thai; Lee, Keat Teong; Subhash, Bhatia; Tan, Soon Huat

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, environmental problems caused by the use of fossil fuels and the depletion of petroleum reserves have driven the world to adopt biodiesel as an alternative energy source to replace conventional petroleum-derived fuels because of biodiesel's clean and renewable nature. Biodiesel is conventionally produced in homogeneous, heterogeneous, and enzymatic catalysed processes, as well as by supercritical technology. All of these processes have their own limitations, such as wastewater generation and high energy consumption. In this context, the membrane reactor appears to be the perfect candidate to produce biodiesel because of its ability to overcome the limitations encountered by conventional production methods. Thus, the aim of this paper is to review the production of biodiesel with a membrane reactor by examining the fundamental concepts of the membrane reactor, its operating principles and the combination of membrane and catalyst in the catalytic membrane. In addition, the potential of functionalised carbon nanotubes to serve as catalysts while being incorporated into the membrane for transesterification is discussed. Furthermore, this paper will also discuss the effects of process parameters for transesterification in a membrane reactor and the advantages offered by membrane reactors for biodiesel production. This discussion is followed by some limitations faced in membrane technology. Nevertheless, based on the findings presented in this review, it is clear that the membrane reactor has the potential to be a breakthrough technology for the biodiesel industry. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Progress and prospect of biodiesel industry in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Zeng, Jing; Du, Wei; Liu, Dehua

    2015-06-01

    The development of biodiesel and production feedstock in China was introduced, and the biodiesel production technologies as well as corresponding representative enterprises were reviewed. In addition, the development prospect of biodiesel industry in China was addressed.

  1. Demonstration of Biodiesel in Non-deployed Ground Tactical Vehicles/Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    tactical vehicles in their March 2006 Position Statement – Stability of the biodiesel – Accelerated deterioration in high temperature environments...Concerns – Stability of the biodiesel – All sites – Accelerated deterioration in high temperature environments – Moody AFB (hot/humid) and MCAGCC 29... Palms (hot/dry) – Vehicle operation and fuel properties in low temperatures – NSWC Crane – Water affinity and microbial degradation – All sites

  2. Direct liquid-liquid extraction of lipid from municipal sewage sludge for biodiesel production

    OpenAIRE

    Olkiewicz, Magdalena; Caporgno, Martin Pablo; Fortuny Sanromá, Agustín; Stüber, Frank Erich; Fabregat Llagostera, Azael; Font Capafons, Josep; Bengoa, Christophe José

    2014-01-01

    Municipal sludge from wastewater treatment plants is a promising lipid feedstock for biodiesel production as it contains a significant amount of lipids. However, the energy necessary to remove its high water content is a major inconvenience for scaling up because of the high associated cost. In addition, the expensive conventional sludge drying methods are not effective enough for lipid recovery, thus reducing the potential biodiesel production. This study explores an alternative method, the ...

  3. Social and environmental advantages of palm oil biodiesel in Brazil; Vantagens socioambientais do biodiesel de palma no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Lucas Rueda [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The production of biodiesel has seen a fast growth in Brazil during the last years, making the country one of the top producers in the world. This growth is explained by the mandatory blendings of biodiesel in conventional diesel. This article is about how the biodiesel industry developed having soy oil as the main feedstock and how the big oilseed crushers have taken the main role in the industry, with family farmers, the original beneficiaries of the program, having a marginal role. If the scenario of B10 or B20 in 2020 is verified, then it is going to use so much soy oil that it will interfere in another uses of soy, like exportation. Besides that, the article criticizes the failure of the social aspect of the program, arguing that the objective of integration of family farmers has failed, and that the numbers are not worse only because the action of the government, through PETROBRAS. Then it is presented the palm oil as a alternative to share the role of main feedstock with the soy oil, because palm has a bigger production of vegetal oil per hectare than most oilseeds, is capable of a bigger reduction in green house gas emissions than soy oil, the fact that Brazil has plenty of land available to plant palm, without the necessity of deforestation and that this process can bring development to family farmers in the north of the country. The article ends with the summary of the main projects of palm production for biodiesel, like the ones from PETROBRAS, Vale and Oleoplan, and how these are going to be the main determinants of the success or failure of the palm oil as an alternative to the biodiesel sector. (author)

  4. Success in large high-technology projects: What really works?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, P.

    2014-08-01

    Despite a plethora of tools, technologies and management systems, successful execution of big science and engineering projects remains problematic. The sheer scale of globally funded projects such as the Large Hadron Collider and the Square Kilometre Array telescope means that lack of project success can impact both on national budgets, and collaborative reputations. In this paper, I explore data from contemporary literature alongside field research from several current high-technology projects in Europe and Australia, and reveal common `pressure points' that are shown to be key influencers of project control and success. I discuss the how mega-science projects sit between being merely complicated, and chaotic, and explain the importance of understanding multiple dimensions of project complexity. Project manager/leader traits are briefly discussed, including capability to govern and control such enterprises. Project structures are examined, including the challenge of collaborations. I show that early attention to building project resilience, curbing optimism, and risk alertness can help prepare large high-tech projects against threats, and why project managers need to understand aspects of `the silent power of time'. Mission assurance is advanced as a critical success function, alongside the deployment of task forces and new combinations of contingency plans. I argue for increased project control through industrial-style project reviews, and show how post-project reviews are an under-used, yet invaluable avenue of personal and organisational improvement. Lastly, I discuss the avoidance of project amnesia through effective capture of project knowledge, and transfer of lessons-learned to subsequent programs and projects.

  5. Biodiesel via hydrotreating of fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Theilgaard; Ahmed, El Hadi; Christensen, Claus Hviid

    Biodiesel production via transesterification to fatty acid alkyl esters is rising rapidly worldwide due to the limited availability of fossil resources and the problems of global warming. Often, however, the use of 2nd-generation feedstock like animal waste fat and trap greases etc. is made...

  6. Biodiesel presence in the source zone hinders aromatic hydrocarbons attenuation in a B20-contaminated groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Débora Toledo; Lazzarin, Helen Simone Chiaranda; Alvarez, Pedro J. J.; Vogel, Timothy M.; Fernandes, Marilda; do Rosário, Mário; Corseuil, Henry Xavier

    2016-10-01

    The behavior of biodiesel blend spills have received limited attention in spite of the increasing and widespread introduction of biodiesel to the transportation fuel matrix. In this work, a controlled field release of biodiesel B20 (100 L of 20:80 v/v soybean biodiesel and diesel) was monitored over 6.2 years to assess the behavior and natural attenuation of constituents of major concern (e.g., BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene and xylenes) and PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons)) in a sandy aquifer material. Biodiesel was preferentially biodegraded compared to diesel aromatic compounds with a concomitant increase in acetate, methane (near saturation limit (≈ 22 mg L- 1)) and dissolved BTEX and PAH concentrations in the source zone during the first 1.5 to 2.0 years after the release. Benzene and benzo(a)pyrene concentrations remained above regulatory limits in the source zone until the end of the experiment (6.2 years after the release). Compared to a previous adjacent 100-L release of ethanol-amended gasoline, biodiesel/diesel blend release resulted in a shorter BTEX plume, but with higher residual dissolved hydrocarbon concentrations near the source zone. This was attributed to greater persistence of viscous (and less mobile) biodiesel than the highly-soluble and mobile ethanol in the source zone. This persistence of biodiesel/diesel NAPL at the source zone slowed BTEX and PAH biodegradation (by the establishment of an anaerobic zone) but reduced the plume length by reducing mobility. This is the first field study to assess biodiesel/diesel blend (B20) behavior in groundwater and its effects on the biodegradation and plume length of priority groundwater pollutants.

  7. Catalyst-free ethyl biodiesel production from rice bran under subcritical condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zullaikah, Siti; Afifudin, Riza; Amalia, Rizky

    2015-12-01

    In-situ ethyl biodiesel production from rice bran under subcritical water and ethanol with no catalyst was employed. This process is environmentally friendly and is very flexible in term of feedstock utilization since it can handle relatively high moisture and free fatty acids (FFAs) contents. In addition, the alcohol, i.e. bioethanol, is a non-toxic, biodegradable, and green raw material when produced from non-edible biomass residues, leading to a 100% renewable biodiesel. The fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs, ethyl biodiesel) are better than fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs, methyl biodiesel) in terms of fuel properties, including cetane number, oxidation stability and cold flow properties. The influences of the operating variables such as reaction time (1 - 10 h), ethanol concentration (12.5 - 87.5%), and pressurizing gas (N2 and CO2) on the ethyl biodiesel yield and purity have been investigated systematically while the temperature and pressure were kept constant at 200 °C and 40 bar. The optimum results were obtained at 5 h reaction time and 75% ethanol concentration using CO2 as compressing gas. Ethyl biodiesel yield and purity of 58.78% and 61.35%, respectively, were obtained using rice bran with initial FFAs content of 37.64%. FFAs level was reduced to 14.22% with crude ethyl biodiesel recovery of 95.98%. Increasing the reaction time up to 10 h only increased the yield and purity by only about 3%. Under N2 atmosphere and at the same operating conditions (5h and 75% ethanol), ethyl biodiesel yield and purity decreased to 54.63% and 58.07%, respectively, while FFAs level was increased to 17.93% and crude ethyl biodiesel recovery decreased to 87.32%.

  8. High power couplers for Project X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazakov, S.; Champion, M.S.; Yakovlev, V.P.; Kramp, M.; Pronitchev, O.; Orlov, Y.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    Project X, a multi-megawatt proton source under development at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The key element of the project is a superconducting (SC) 3GV continuous wave (CW) proton linac. The linac includes 5 types of SC accelerating cavities of two frequencies.(325 and 650MHz) The cavities consume up to 30 kW average RF power and need proper main couplers. Requirements and approach to the coupler design are discussed in the report. New cost effective schemes are described. Results of electrodynamics and thermal simulations are presented.

  9. Synthesis of biodiesel from waste cooking oil using immobilized lipase in fixed bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yingming [School of Environment and Urban Construction, Wuhan University of Science and Engineering, Wuhan 430073 (China)]|[Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Xiao, Bo [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Chang, Jie; Fu, Yan [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Lv, Pengmei; Wang, Xuewei [Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2009-03-15

    Waste cooking oil (WCO) is the residue from the kitchen, restaurants, food factories and even human and animal waste which not only harm people's health but also causes environmental pollution. The production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil to partially substitute petroleum diesel is one of the measures for solving the twin problems of environment pollution and energy shortage. In this project, synthesis of biodiesel was catalyzed by immobilized Candida lipase in a three-step fixed bed reactor. The reaction solution was a mixture of WCO, water, methanol and solvent (hexane). The main product was biodiesel consisted of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME), of which methyl oleate was the main component. Effects of lipase, solvent, water, and temperature and flow of the reaction mixture on the synthesis of biodiesel were analyzed. The results indicate that a 91.08% of FAME can be achieved in the end product under optimum conditions. Most of the chemical and physical characters of the biodiesel were superior to the standards for 0diesel (GB/T 19147) and biodiesel (DIN V51606 and ASTM D-6751). (author)

  10. Synthesis of biodiesel from waste cooking oil using immobilized lipase in fixed bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Yingming [School of Environment and Urban Construction, Wuhan University of Science and Engineering, Wuhan 430073 (China); Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Xiao Bo [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Chang Jie [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China)], E-mail: changjie@scut.edu.cn; Fu Yan [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Lv Pengmei; Wang Xuewei [Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2009-03-15

    Waste cooking oil (WCO) is the residue from the kitchen, restaurants, food factories and even human and animal waste which not only harm people's health but also causes environmental pollution. The production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil to partially substitute petroleum diesel is one of the measures for solving the twin problems of environment pollution and energy shortage. In this project, synthesis of biodiesel was catalyzed by immobilized Candida lipase in a three-step fixed bed reactor. The reaction solution was a mixture of WCO, water, methanol and solvent (hexane). The main product was biodiesel consisted of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME), of which methyl oleate was the main component. Effects of lipase, solvent, water, and temperature and flow of the reaction mixture on the synthesis of biodiesel were analyzed. The results indicate that a 91.08% of FAME can be achieved in the end product under optimum conditions. Most of the chemical and physical characters of the biodiesel were superior to the standards for 0 diesel (GB/T 19147) and biodiesel (DIN V51606 and ASTM D-6751)

  11. New regulatory landmark for biodiesel use; Novo marco regulatorio para usos de biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Rosangela Moreira de [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The Brazilian Biodiesel Production and Use of Biodiesel - PNPB, made possible the insert of Biodiesel in the Brazilian energy matrix. The National Agency of the Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels - ANP was responsible to create the outline regulatory that established the rules for entrance and commercialization of this new fuel in the country. This work seeks to present the effects of the implantation of the new relative rules to the biodiesel use. (author)

  12. Chemical alternative to the energetic use of biodiesel; Chemische Alternativen zur energetischen Nutzung von Biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warwel, S; Ruesch genannt Klaas, M.; Harperscheid, M. [Bundesanstalt fuer Getreide-, Kartoffel- und Fettforschung, Muenster (Germany). Inst. fuer Biochemie und Technologie der Fette - H.P. Kaufmann-Inst.

    1996-12-31

    Biodiesel is environment-friendly, but much more costly to produce than `normal` diesel fuel. Higher economic efficiency can be achieved by using biodiesel as a chemical feedstock instead. Tenside and polymers offer a wide range of applications. (orig) [Deutsch] Biodiesel ist ein umweltfreundlicher Kraftstoff, jedoch in der Herstellung deutlich teurer als Mineraloel-Dieselkraftstoff. Eine signifikant hoehere Wertschoepfung koennte errreicht werden, wenn Biodiesel nicht im Kraftstoffsektor, sondern als chemischer Rohstoff verwendet wird. Tenside und Polymere sind hierbei grossvolumige Einsatzbereiche. (orig)

  13. Physical-chemistry characterization of oil and biodiesel from Crambe abyssinica Hochst; Caracterizacao fisico-quimica do oleo e do biodiesel de DE Crambe abyssinica Hochst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasper, Samir Paulo; Biaggioni, Marco Antonio Martin; Silva, Paulo Roberto Arbex; Seki, Andre Satoshi; Saath, Reni [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas], E-mail: jasper@fca.unesp.br

    2010-07-01

    Currently, the production of biodiesel in the world is growing so rapidly, this interest and demand for biodiesel promote an increase in demand for raw materials, or lipids. Biodiesel is a substitute for diesel oil obtained by transesterification, acid or base, of the lipids present in oils and fats. The Crambe abyssinica Hochst is species plant that has attracted interest of Brazilian producers due to oil content, rusticity and mechanized cultivation, mainly as a crop of winter it becomes an option for most farmers in this period. This study aimed to characterize physical-chemical oil and biodiesel from Crambe abyssinica Hochst, in accordance with Resolution n. 42 of the ANP. The analysis of fatty acids of oil crambe showed high concentration of unsaturated fatty acids, which may not be suitable for the use of biodiesel in very cold regions, where it is used pure or in mixtures with diesel in large proportions. The biodiesel produced from Crambe abyssinica Hochst be revealed within the standards established by the National Agency of Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels. (author)

  14. Microalgae-based biodiesel: economic analysis of downstream process realistic scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos, Sergio D; Torres, Carmen M; Torras, Carles; Salvadó, Joan; Mateo-Sanz, Josep M; Jiménez, Laureano

    2013-05-01

    Microalgae oil has been identified as a reliable resource for biodiesel production due to its high lipid productivity and potential cultivation in non-fertile locations. However, high scale production of microalgae based biodiesel depends on the optimization of the entire process to be economically feasible. The selected strain, medium, harvesting methods, etc., sorely affects the ash content in the dry biomass which have a direct effect in the lipid content. Moreover, the suitable lipids for biodiesel production, some of the neutral/saponifiable, are only a fraction of the total ones (around 30% dry base biomass in the best case). The present work uses computational tools for the modeling of different scenarios of the harvesting, oil extraction and transesterification. This rigorous modeling approach detects process bottlenecks that could have led to an overestimation of the potentiality of the microalgae lipids as a resource for the biodiesel production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The future viability of algae-derived biodiesel under economic and technical uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownbridge, George; Azadi, Pooya; Smallbone, Andrew; Bhave, Amit; Taylor, Benjamin; Kraft, Markus

    2014-01-01

    This study presents a techno-economic assessment of algae-derived biodiesel under economic and technical uncertainties associated with the development of algal biorefineries. A global sensitivity analysis was performed using a High Dimensional Model Representation (HDMR) method. It was found that, considering reasonable ranges over which each parameter can vary, the sensitivity of the biodiesel production cost to the key input parameters decreases in the following order: algae oil content>algae annual productivity per unit area>plant production capacity>carbon price increase rate. It was also found that the Return on Investment (ROI) is highly sensitive to the algae oil content, and to a lesser extent to the algae annual productivity, crude oil price and price increase rate, plant production capacity, and carbon price increase rate. For a large scale plant (100,000 tonnes of biodiesel per year) the production cost of biodiesel is likely to be £0.8-1.6 per kg.

  16. Thermoanalytical characterization of castor oil biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conceicao, Marta M.; Fernandes, Valter J. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Departamento de Quimica, Laboratorio de Combustiveis, Natal, RN, Lagoa Nova, CEP 59072970 (Brazil); Candeia, Roberlucia A.; Bezerra, Aline F.; Souza, Antonio G. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento Quimica, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Silva, Fernando C. [Universidade Federal do Maranhao, Sao Luis, Maranhao (Brazil)

    2007-06-15

    The castor oil seed has 47-49% of oil. Biodiesel obtained from castor oil has a lower cost compared to the ones obtained from other oils, as due its solvability in alcohol transesterification occurs without heating. The use of biodiesel will allow a reduction on the consumption of petroleum-derived fuels minimizing the harmful effects on the environment. This work wants to provide a thermoanalytical and physical-chemistry characterization of castor oil and biodiesel. Biodiesel was obtained with methyl alcohol and characterized through several techniques. Gas chromatography indicated methyl ester content of 97.7%. The volatilization of biodiesel starts and finishes under inferior temperatures than the beginning and final volatilization temperatures of castor oil. Biodiesel data are very close to the volatilization temperatures of conventional diesel. (author)

  17. Detailed chemical kinetic oxidation mechanism for a biodiesel surrogate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbinet, O; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

    2007-09-20

    A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism has been developed and used to study the oxidation of methyl decanoate, a surrogate for biodiesel fuels. This model has been built by following the rules established by Curran et al. for the oxidation of n-heptane and it includes all the reactions known to be pertinent to both low and high temperatures. Computed results have been compared with methyl decanoate experiments in an engine and oxidation of rapeseed oil methyl esters in a jet stirred reactor. An important feature of this mechanism is its ability to reproduce the early formation of carbon dioxide that is unique to biofuels and due to the presence of the ester group in the reactant. The model also predicts ignition delay times and OH profiles very close to observed values in shock tube experiments fueled by n-decane. These model capabilities indicate that large n-alkanes can be good surrogates for large methyl esters and biodiesel fuels to predict overall reactivity, but some kinetic details, including early CO{sub 2} production from biodiesel fuels, can be predicted only by a detailed kinetic mechanism for a true methyl ester fuel. The present methyl decanoate mechanism provides a realistic kinetic tool for simulation of biodiesel fuels.

  18. Detailed chemical kinetic oxidation mechanism for a biodiesel surrogate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbinet, O; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

    2007-09-17

    A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism has been developed and used to study the oxidation of methyl decanoate, a surrogate for biodiesel fuels. This model has been built by following the rules established by Curran et al. for the oxidation of n-heptane and it includes all the reactions known to be pertinent to both low and high temperatures. Computed results have been compared with methyl decanoate experiments in an engine and oxidation of rapeseed oil methyl esters in a jet stirred reactor. An important feature of this mechanism is its ability to reproduce the early formation of carbon dioxide that is unique to biofuels and due to the presence of the ester group in the reactant. The model also predicts ignition delay times and OH profiles very close to observed values in shock tube experiments fueled by n-decane. These model capabilities indicate that large n-alkanes can be good surrogates for large methyl esters and biodiesel fuels to predict overall reactivity, but some kinetic details, including early CO2 production from biodiesel fuels, can be predicted only by a detailed kinetic mechanism for a true methyl ester fuel. The present methyl decanoate mechanism provides a realistic kinetic tool for simulation of biodiesel fuels.

  19. Dual bioimprinting of Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase for synthesis of biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyeeta Mukherjee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Use of biodiesel as an alternative to non-renewable sources of energy has become an attractive option in recent years. The enzymatic synthesis of biodiesel by transesterification of fats/oils with an alcohol is a much more sustainable route than the chemical method. However, cost effectiveness of the enzymatic route is a major barrier in its commercialization. In this work, a high activity biocatalyst design of Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase is made by dually bioimprinting it with substrate and a surfactant (which is believed to open up the lid covering the active site of the lipase during precipitation of the lipase in organic solvent. When the lipase was bioimprinted with only the surfactants, 28 U of the enzyme/g of oil could yield 99% biodiesel from soybean oil in about 4 h. However, when dually bioimprinted even very low enzyme load 1.4 U/g of oil, yielded 99% biodiesel within 48 h.

  20. Artificial Intelligent Control for a Novel Advanced Microwave Biodiesel Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wali, W A; Hassan, K H; Cullen, J D; Al-Shamma' a, A I; Shaw, A; Wylie, S R, E-mail: w.wali@2009.ljmu.ac.uk [Built Environment and Sustainable Technologies Institute (BEST), School of the Built Environment, Faculty of Technology and Environment Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street, Liverpool L3 3AF (United Kingdom)

    2011-08-17

    Biodiesel, an alternative diesel fuel made from a renewable source, is produced by the transesterification of vegetable oil or fat with methanol or ethanol. In order to control and monitor the progress of this chemical reaction with complex and highly nonlinear dynamics, the controller must be able to overcome the challenges due to the difficulty in obtaining a mathematical model, as there are many uncertain factors and disturbances during the actual operation of biodiesel reactors. Classical controllers show significant difficulties when trying to control the system automatically. In this paper we propose a comparison of artificial intelligent controllers, Fuzzy logic and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System(ANFIS) for real time control of a novel advanced biodiesel microwave reactor for biodiesel production from waste cooking oil. Fuzzy logic can incorporate expert human judgment to define the system variables and their relationships which cannot be defined by mathematical relationships. The Neuro-fuzzy system consists of components of a fuzzy system except that computations at each stage are performed by a layer of hidden neurons and the neural network's learning capability is provided to enhance the system knowledge. The controllers are used to automatically and continuously adjust the applied power supplied to the microwave reactor under different perturbations. A Labview based software tool will be presented that is used for measurement and control of the full system, with real time monitoring.

  1. Artificial Intelligent Control for a Novel Advanced Microwave Biodiesel Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wali, W. A.; Hassan, K. H.; Cullen, J. D.; Al-Shamma'a, A. I.; Shaw, A.; Wylie, S. R.

    2011-08-01

    Biodiesel, an alternative diesel fuel made from a renewable source, is produced by the transesterification of vegetable oil or fat with methanol or ethanol. In order to control and monitor the progress of this chemical reaction with complex and highly nonlinear dynamics, the controller must be able to overcome the challenges due to the difficulty in obtaining a mathematical model, as there are many uncertain factors and disturbances during the actual operation of biodiesel reactors. Classical controllers show significant difficulties when trying to control the system automatically. In this paper we propose a comparison of artificial intelligent controllers, Fuzzy logic and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System(ANFIS) for real time control of a novel advanced biodiesel microwave reactor for biodiesel production from waste cooking oil. Fuzzy logic can incorporate expert human judgment to define the system variables and their relationships which cannot be defined by mathematical relationships. The Neuro-fuzzy system consists of components of a fuzzy system except that computations at each stage are performed by a layer of hidden neurons and the neural network's learning capability is provided to enhance the system knowledge. The controllers are used to automatically and continuously adjust the applied power supplied to the microwave reactor under different perturbations. A Labview based software tool will be presented that is used for measurement and control of the full system, with real time monitoring.

  2. AN EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON OXIDATIVE STABILITY OF BIODIESEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa ÇANAKÇI

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is an alternative fuel for diesel engines that can be produced from renewable feed stocks such as vegetable oil and animal fats. These feed stocks are reacted with an alcohol to produce alkyl monoesters. The obtained ester can be used in conventional diesel engines with little or no modification. Biodiesel, especially if produced from highly unsaturated oils, oxidizes more rapidly than diesel fuel. This paper reports the results of accelerated oxidation tests on biodiesel. These tests show the impact of time, oxygen flow rate, temperature, metals, and feedstock type on the rate of oxidation. Blending with diesel fuel and the addition of antioxidants are also explored. The data indicate that without antioxidants, biodiesel will oxidize very quickly at temperatures typical of diesel engines. This oxidation results in increases in peroxide value, acid value, and viscosity. While the peroxide value generally reaches a plateau of about 350 meq O2/kg, the acid value and viscosity increase monotonically as oxidation proceeds.

  3. Detailed chemical kinetic oxidation mechanism for a biodiesel surrogate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbinet, O; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

    2007-09-20

    A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism has been developed and used to study the oxidation of methyl decanoate, a surrogate for biodiesel fuels. This model has been built by following the rules established by Curran et al. for the oxidation of n-heptane and it includes all the reactions known to be pertinent to both low and high temperatures. Computed results have been compared with methyl decanoate experiments in an engine and oxidation of rapeseed oil methyl esters in a jet stirred reactor. An important feature of this mechanism is its ability to reproduce the early formation of carbon dioxide that is unique to biofuels and due to the presence of the ester group in the reactant. The model also predicts ignition delay times and OH profiles very close to observed values in shock tube experiments fueled by n-decane. These model capabilities indicate that large n-alkanes can be good surrogates for large methyl esters and biodiesel fuels to predict overall reactivity, but some kinetic details, including early CO{sub 2} production from biodiesel fuels, can be predicted only by a detailed kinetic mechanism for a true methyl ester fuel. The present methyl decanoate mechanism provides a realistic kinetic tool for simulation of biodiesel fuels.

  4. Detailed chemical kinetic oxidation mechanism for a biodiesel surrogate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbinet, O; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

    2007-09-17

    A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism has been developed and used to study the oxidation of methyl decanoate, a surrogate for biodiesel fuels. This model has been built by following the rules established by Curran et al. for the oxidation of n-heptane and it includes all the reactions known to be pertinent to both low and high temperatures. Computed results have been compared with methyl decanoate experiments in an engine and oxidation of rapeseed oil methyl esters in a jet stirred reactor. An important feature of this mechanism is its ability to reproduce the early formation of carbon dioxide that is unique to biofuels and due to the presence of the ester group in the reactant. The model also predicts ignition delay times and OH profiles very close to observed values in shock tube experiments fueled by n-decane. These model capabilities indicate that large n-alkanes can be good surrogates for large methyl esters and biodiesel fuels to predict overall reactivity, but some kinetic details, including early CO2 production from biodiesel fuels, can be predicted only by a detailed kinetic mechanism for a true methyl ester fuel. The present methyl decanoate mechanism provides a realistic kinetic tool for simulation of biodiesel fuels.

  5. Production of Biodiesel Using Ethanol Way and Alkaline Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Aparecido da Silva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The potential inputs to promote the supply of the demand for power generation has become the aim of several scientific researches to mitigate environmental impacts. The biodiesel is the highlight solution that can be obtained through the transesterification process. The aim this present work was the biodiesel production using ethanol and crude oil sunflower as inputs and potassium ethoxide such as catalyst for the rection. Were produced seven samples using different parameters. The product with high rate of ethyl ester was the one with catalyst and reaction time optimized. However, it has showed the presence of glycerol, suggesting the use of other unit operations such as cooling and centrifugation to improve the purity of the biodiesel formed is necessary. The parameters used in this experiment (oil, catalyst and water washing contents, reaction time, temperature and agitation speed showed critical endpoints to be monitored during the production of biodiesel due interfering the quality and yield to the final product. In addition, the inappropriate speed of agitation in the reactor for ethanol way in the presence of an alkaline catalyst can gelatinize the mixture of reactants due the emulsion formed.

  6. Life-cycle assessment of biodiesel production from microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardon, Laurent; Hélias, Arnaud; Sialve, Bruno; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Bernard, Olivier

    2009-09-01

    This paper provides an analysis of the potential environmental impacts of biodiesel production from microalgae. High production yields of microalgae have called forth interest of economic and scientific actors but it is still unclear whether the production of biodiesel is environmentally interesting and which transformation steps need further adjustment and optimization. A comparative LCA study of a virtual facility has been undertaken to assessthe energetic balance and the potential environmental impacts of the whole process chain, from the biomass production to the biodiesel combustion. Two different culture conditions, nominal fertilizing or nitrogen starvation, as well as two different extraction options, dry or wet extraction, have been tested. The best scenario has been compared to first generation biodiesel and oil diesel. The outcome confirms the potential of microalgae as an energy source but highlights the imperative necessity of decreasing the energy and fertilizer consumption. Therefore control of nitrogen stress during the culture and optimization of wet extraction seem to be valuable options. This study also emphasizes the potential of anaerobic digestion of oilcakes as a way to reduce external energy demand and to recycle a part of the mineral fertilizers.

  7. Preparation of biodiesel from soybean oil by using heterogeneous catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaniz Ferdous, M. Rakib Uddin, Maksudur R. Khan, M. A. Islam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The predicted shortage of fossil fuels and related environmental concerns has recently attracted significant attention to search alternative fuel. Biodiesel is one of the alternatives to fossil fuel. Now-a-days, most biodiesel is produced by the transesterification of oils using methanol and a homogeneous base catalyst. The use of homogeneous catalysts is normally limited to batch mode processing followed by a catalyst separation step. The immiscible glycerol phase, which accumulates during the course of the reaction, solubilizes the homogeneous base catalyst and therefore, withdraws from the reaction medium. Moreover, other difficulties of using homogeneous base catalysts relate to their sensitivity to free fatty acid (FFA and water and resulting saponification phenomenon. High energy consumption and costly separation of the catalyst from the reaction mixture have inspired the use of heterogeneous catalyst. The use of heterogeneous catalysts does not lead to the formation of soaps through neutralization of FFA and saponification of oil. In the present paper, biodiesel was prepared from crude (soybean oil by transesterification reaction using heterogeneous base catalyst name calcium oxide (CaO. Various reaction parameters were optimized and the biodiesel properties were evaluated.

  8. Preparation of biodiesel from soybean oil by using heterogeneous catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferdous, Kaniz; Rakib Uddin, M.; Islam, M.A. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Polymer Science, Shah Jalal University of Science and Technology, Sylhet 3114 (Bangladesh); Khan, Maksudur R. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Polymer Science, Shah Jalal University of Science and Technology, Sylhet 3114 (Bangladesh); Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering, University Malaysia Pahang, 26300 Gambang, Kuantan, Pahang (Malaysia)

    2013-07-01

    The predicted shortage of fossil fuels and related environmental concerns has recently attracted significant attention to search alternative fuel. Biodiesel is one of the alternatives to fossil fuel. Now-a-days, most biodiesel is produced by the transesterification of oils using methanol and a homogeneous base catalyst. The use of homogeneous catalysts is normally limited to batch mode processing followed by a catalyst separation step. The immiscible glycerol phase, which accumulates during the course of the reaction, solubilizes the homogeneous base catalyst and therefore, withdraws from the reaction medium. Moreover, other difficulties of using homogeneous base catalysts relate to their sensitivity to free fatty acid (FFA) and water and resulting saponification phenomenon. High energy consumption and costly separation of the catalyst from the reaction mixture have inspired the use of heterogeneous catalyst. The use of heterogeneous catalysts does not lead to the formation of soaps through neutralization of FFA and saponification of oil. In the present paper, biodiesel was prepared from crude (soybean) oil by transesterification reaction using heterogeneous base catalyst name calcium oxide (CaO). Various reaction parameters were optimized and the biodiesel properties were evaluated.

  9. Spatial augmented reality based high accuracy human face projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Xie, Jinghui; Li, Yufeng; Weng, Dongdong; Liu, Yue

    2015-08-01

    This paper discusses the imaging principles and the technical difficulties of spatial augmented reality based human face projection. A novel geometry correction method is proposed to realize fast, high-accuracy face model projection. Using a depth camera to reconstruct the projected object, the relative position from the rendered model to the projector can be accessed and the initial projection image is generated. Then the projected image is distorted by using Bezier interpolation to guarantee that the projected texture matches with the object surface. The proposed method is under a simple process flow and can achieve high perception registration of virtual and real object. In addition, this method has a good performance in the condition that the reconstructed model is not exactly same with the rendered virtual model which extends its application area in the spatial augmented reality based human face projection.

  10. SINTESIS BIODIESEL DARI MINYAK MIKROALGA Chlorella vulgaris DENGAN REAKSI TRANSESTERIFIKASI MENGGUNAKAN KATALIS KOH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catur Rini Widyastuti

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel merupakan salah satu energi alternatif yang dianggap mampu menjawab permasalahan kelangkaan bahan bakar minyak. Biodiesel dapat disintesis dari minyak nabati melalui reaksi transesterifikasi. Sumber minyak nabati yang potensial adalah mikroalga yang memiliki produktifitas minyak yang lebih tinggi per satuan luas lahan yang digunakan jika dibandingkan dengan tanaman darat. Mikroalga jenis Chlorella sp diketahui mengandung komponen lipid cukup tinggi yaitu sebesar 14-22%. Langkah-langkah penelitian yang dilakukan meliputi ekstraksi minyak mikroalga dengan n-heksana, reaksi transesterifikasi minyak mikroalga dan metanol dengan katalis KOH, dilanjutkan dengan filtrasi untuk memisahkan produk biodiesel dengan gliserol yang terbentuk. Untuk mengetahui kandungan kimia dalam bahan baku dan produk, minyak hasil ekstraksi mikroalga dan biodiesel yang dihasilkan dianalisis dengan GC-MS. Dari hasil uji GC-MS diketahui dua kandungan asam lemak terbesar dalam minyak mikroalga, yaitu Dodecanoic acid sebesar 59.52% dan n-Decanoic acid sebesar 12.64%. Dari proses transesterifikasi, yield biodiesel yang diperoleh sebesar 59.85% dengan densitas 0.88 g/cm3. Kandungan kimia biodiesel diketahui terdiri dari senyawa Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME sebesar 15.4% dan Fatty Acid Ethyl Ester (FAEE sebesar 21.14%.Biodiesel is one of the alternative energy which expected to provide a solution towards our dependence of fossil fuel. Biodiesel could be synthesized from vegetable oil through transesterification process. One of the most potential sources of vegetable oil is microalgae which is more productive than a land-based plant. One of the species of microalgae which is Chlorella sp is known for containing high lipid content from 14 to 22%. The steps of the research including extraction of microalgae oil using n-hexane, transesterification reaction between microalgae and methanol using KOH as a catalyst, and continued by filtration to separate the biodiesel product

  11. Correlating Engine NOx Emission with Biodiesel Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyaseelan, Thangaraja; Mehta, Pramod Shankar

    2016-06-01

    Biodiesel composition comprising of saturated and unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters has a significant influence on its properties and hence the engine performance and emission characteristics. This paper proposes a comprehensive approach for composition-property-NOx emission analysis for biodiesel fuels and highlights the pathways responsible for such a relationship. Finally, a procedure and a predictor equation are developed for the assessment of biodiesel NOx emission from its composition details.

  12. A new approach to cost effective projects: High performance project teams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambers, N.C. [Brown and Root Energy Services (United Kingdom)

    1994-12-31

    In low oil price environment in which environmental conditions are more challenging, reservoir characteristics less favourable and political risk increasing, successful projects are required in such cases. The present paper deals with the visionary process of establishing high performance project teams. According to the author, such project teams embody dynamic recognition of holism. Holism is achieved as an output from the process of establishing the drivers and enablers for success on a project. They are given birth during the unfolding of the operators development plans and contracting strategy. The paper discusses the main drivers of project teams comprising purpose and performance goals, selection, common approach, commitment and accountability, and financial alignment

  13. Biodiesel Obtaining from Ricinus Seed. Academical Proyect For Promoting Biofuels Use in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Daza, O.; Amador Ramirez, P.; Reyes Ortega, Y.; Rosas Mendoza, S.; Cervantes de la Rosa, A.; Pineda Gonzalez, A.A.

    2007-07-01

    Mexico shares a strong responsibility into Latin-America and with the rest of the world as GHG emitter. At present, this responsibility has not a minimum of response on education, economy, politics, science and technology. One of the most important contamination source in Mexico is transport which, additionally, undergoes a slow modernization process. Brazil and European Union experiences and an abundant scientific literature have shown the economical and technological feasibility for substituting fossil fuels by other renewable and clean fuels as bioethanol and biodiesel. Authors consider as fundamental objective to promote production and use of biofuels in Mexico. They are working on the investigation project which is developed in Puebla State searching to take advantage of regional row materials. Ricinus seed cultivation could stimulate regional socioeconomic conditions because of water demand is modest, currently the seed grows wildly and some land extension in the region is not active due to high emigration towards USA. Knowledge about biodiesel obtaining from diverse materials is abundant and international companies market industrial equipment and technology for producing it, nevertheless, the authors consider important to develop in Mexico adequate technology to the specific socioeconomic and natural conditions working the own raw materials. (auth)

  14. Waste cooking oil as an alternate feedstock for biodiesel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chhetri, A. B.; Rafiqul Islam, M. [Civil and Resources Engineering Dalhousie University, Room D510, 1360 Barrington St., Box 1000, Halifax, N.S. B3J 2X4 (Canada); Watts, K. Ch. [Process Engineering, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Box 1000, Halifax, N.S. B3J 2X4 (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    As crude oil price reach a new high, the need for developing alternate fuels has become acute. Alternate fuels should be economically attractive in order to compete with currently used fossil fuels. In this work, biodiesel (ethyl ester) was prepared from waste cooking oil collected from a local restaurant in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. Ethyl alcohol with sodium hydroxide as a catalyst was used for the transesterification process. The fatty acid composition of the final biodiesel esters was determined by gas chromatography. The biodiesel was characterized by its physical and fuel properties including density, viscosity, acid value, flash point, cloud point, pour point, cetane index, water and sediment content, total and free glycerin content, diglycerides and monoglycerides, phosphorus content and sulfur content according to ASTM standards. The viscosity of the biodiesel ethyl ester was found to be 5.03 mm{sup 2}/sec at 40 {sup o}C. The viscosity of waste cooking oil measured in room temperature (at 21 {sup o}C) was 72 mm{sup 2}/sec. From the tests, the flash point was found to be 164 {sup o}C, the phosphorous content was 2 ppm, those of calcium and magnesium were 1 ppm combined, water and sediment was 0 %, sulfur content was 2 ppm, total acid number was 0.29 mg KOH/g, cetane index was 61, cloud point was -1 {sup o}C and pour point was -16 {sup o}C. Production of biodiesel from waste cooking oils for diesel substitute is particularly important because of the decreasing trend of economical oil reserves, environmental problems caused due to fossil fuel use and the high price of petroleum products in the international market. (author)

  15. Waste Cooking Oil as an Alternate Feedstock for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rafiqul Islam

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available As crude oil price reach a new high, the need for developing alternate fuels has become acute. Alternate fuels should be economically attractive in order to compete with currently used fossil fuels. In this work, biodiesel (ethyl ester was prepared from waste cooking oil collected from a local restaurant in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. Ethyl alcohol with sodium hydroxide as a catalyst was used for the transesterification process. The fatty acid composition of the final biodiesel esters was determined by gas chromatography. The biodiesel was characterized by its physical and fuel properties including density, viscosity, acid value, flash point, cloud point, pour point, cetane index, water and sediment content, total and free glycerin content, diglycerides and monoglycerides, phosphorus content and sulfur content according to ASTM standards. The viscosity of the biodiesel ethyl ester was found to be 5.03 mm2/sec at 40oC. The viscosity of waste cooking oil measured in room temperature (at 21° C was 72 mm2/sec. From the tests, the flash point was found to be 164oC, the phosphorous content was 2 ppm, those of calcium and magnesium were 1 ppm combined, water and sediment was 0 %, sulfur content was 2 ppm, total acid number was 0.29 mgKOH/g, cetane index was 61, cloud point was -1oC and pour point was -16oC. Production of biodiesel from waste cooking oils for diesel substitute is particularly important because of the decreasing trend of economical oil reserves, environmental problems caused due to fossil fuel use and the high price of petroleum products in the international market.

  16. Very High Temperature Sound Absorption Coating Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Phase I demonstrated experimentally a very high temperature acoustically absorbing coating for ducted acoustics applications. High temperature survivability at 3500...

  17. Effects of pre-treatments on the lipid extraction and biodiesel production from municipal WWTP sludge

    OpenAIRE

    Olkiewicz, Magdalena; Fortuny Sanromá, Agustín; Stüber, Frank Erich; Fabregat Llagostera, Azael; Font Capafons, Josep; Bengoa, Christophe José

    2015-01-01

    Biodiesel production is currently limited due to high raw material costs. The potential of using sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plants as an alternative lipid feedstock was investigated. Four different types of sludge (primary, secondary, blended and stabilised) were tested in lipid extraction by Soxhlet using hexane, and biodiesel production by acid catalysis. To improve the extraction efficiency, the influence of pre-treatment methods (ultrasonic and mechanical disintegration) a...

  18. InGaN High Temperature Photovoltaic Cells Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objectives of this Phase II project are to develop InGaN photovoltaic cells for high temperature and/or high radiation environments to TRL 4 and to define the...

  19. Genetic Engineering Strategies for Enhanced Biodiesel Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Krishnamoorthy; Chandra, Niharika; Sarma, Saurabh Jyoti; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Veeranki, Venkata Dasu

    2015-07-01

    The focus on biodiesel research has shown a tremendous growth over the last few years. Several microbial and plant sources are being explored for the sustainable biodiesel production to replace the petroleum diesel. Conventional methods of biodiesel production have several limitations related to yield and quality, which led to development of new engineering strategies to improve the biodiesel production in plants, and microorganisms. Substantial progress in utilizing algae, yeast, and Escherichia coli for the renewable production of biodiesel feedstock via genetic engineering of fatty acid metabolic pathways has been reported in the past few years. However, in most of the cases, the successful commercialization of such engineering strategies for sustainable biodiesel production is yet to be seen. This paper systematically presents the drawbacks in the conventional methods for biodiesel production and an exhaustive review on the present status of research in genetic engineering strategies for production of biodiesel in plants, and microorganisms. Further, we summarize the technical challenges need to be tackled to make genetic engineering technology economically sustainable. Finally, the need and prospects of genetic engineering technology for the sustainable biodiesel production and the recommendations for the future research are discussed.

  20. Comparison of energy production with diesel and biodiesel analyzing all costs involved; Comparacao da producao de energia com diesel e biodiesel analisando todos os custos envolvidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Udaeta, Miguel Edgar Morales; Baitelo, Ricardo Lacerda; Burani, Geraldo Francisco; Grimoni, Jose Aquiles Baesso [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Energia e Automacao Eletricas. Grupo de Energia], e-mail: udaeta@pea.usp.br

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents the result of a study comparing two energy resources: diesel and bio-diesel. For the comparative analysis, the full cost accounting is used, a tool that encompasses all the factors involved in a specific project, including not only technical or economical aspects, but also environmental and social aspects. According to the results, it is pointed that both fuels are comparable, since both of them obtained similar scores. However, diesel fuel has more technical and economical advantages, whereas biodiesel proves to be superior in terms of social and environmental areas. (author)

  1. Stability of biodiesel and its blends: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Siddharth; Sharma, M.P. [Alternate Hydro Energy Centre, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, Uttarakhand 247667 (India)

    2010-02-15

    Biodiesel consists of long chain fatty acid esters derived from feed stocks such as vegetable oils, animal fats and used frying oil, etc. which may contain more or less unsaturated fatty acids which are prone to oxidation accelerated by exposure to air during storage and at high temperature may yield polymerized compounds. Auto oxidation of biodiesel can cause degradation of fuel quality by affecting the stability parameters. Biodiesel stability includes oxidation, storage and thermal stability. Oxidation instability can led to the formation of oxidation products like aldehydes, alcohols, shorter chain carboxylic acids, insolubles, gum and sediment in the biodiesel. Thermal instability is concerned with the increased rate of oxidation at higher temperature which in turn, increases the weight of oil and fat due to the formation of insolubles. Storage stability is the ability of liquid fuel to resist change in its physical and chemical characteristics brought about by its interaction with its environment and may be affected by interaction with contaminants, light, factors causing sediment formation, changes in color and other changes that reduce the clarity of the fuel. These fuel instabilities give rise to formation of undesirable substances in biodiesel and its blends beyond acceptable quantities as per specifications and when such fuel is used in engine, it impairs the engine performance due to fuel filter plugging, injector fouling, deposit formation in engine combustion chamber and various components of the fuel system. The present review attempts to cover the different types of fuel stabilities, mechanism of occurrence and correlations/equations developed to investigate the impact of various stability parameters on the stability of the fuel. A review of the use of different types of natural and synthetic antioxidants has also been presented which indicates that natural antioxidants, being very sensitive to biodiesel production techniques and the distillation

  2. Current Status and Prospects of Biodiesel Production from Microalgae

    OpenAIRE

    Yuhuan Liu; Rongsheng Ruan; Zhenyi Du; Xiaodan Wu

    2012-01-01

    Microalgae represent a sustainable energy source because of their high biomass productivity and ability to remove air and water born pollutants. This paper reviews the current status of production and conversion of microalgae, including the advantages of microalgae biodiesel, high density cultivation of microalgae, high-lipid content microalgae selection and metabolic control, and innovative harvesting and processing technologies. The key barriers to commercial production of microalgae biodie...

  3. Current Status and Prospects of Biodiesel Production from Microalgae

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Microalgae represent a sustainable energy source because of their high biomass productivity and ability to remove air and water born pollutants. This paper reviews the current status of production and conversion of microalgae, including the advantages of microalgae biodiesel, high density cultivation of microalgae, high-lipid content microalgae selection and metabolic control, and innovative harvesting and processing technologies. The key barriers to commercial production of microalgae biodie...

  4. Effect of commercial metals (Al, Cu, carbon steel, and Zn) on the oxidation of soy-biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Ballote, L.; Castillo-Atoche, A.; Maldonado, L.; Ruiz-Gómez, M. A.; Hernández, E.

    2016-09-01

    The effect of aluminum, copper, low carbon steel and zinc on the oxidation of biodiesel derived from soybean oil is studied using residual mass curves from thermogravimetry. Biodiesel is oxidized in the presence and absence of each metal in static conditions and exposed to ambient air. Oxidized biodiesel parameters are confirmed by viscosity measurements, nuclear magnetic resonance and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results showed that the metals do not negatively influence the oxidative stability of biodiesel and it can even be considered that they slightly inhibit the oxidation process. This behavior was ascribed to a depletion of dissolved oxygen in biodiesel due to oxidation of the metal and the low solubility of oxygen at high temperature.

  5. The joint project for high-intensity proton accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) agreed to promote the joint project integrating both the Neutron Science Project (NSP) of JAERI and the Japan Hadron Facility Project (JHF) of KEK for comprehensive studies on basic science and technology using high-intensity proton accelerator. This document describes the joint proposal prepared by the Joint Project Team of JAERI and KEK to construct accelerators and research facilities necessary both for the NSP and the JHF at the site of JAERI Tokai Establishment. (author)

  6. Biodiesel production using tetramethyl- and benzyltrimethyl ammonium hydroxides as strong base catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karavalakis, Georgios; Anastopoulos, Georgios; Karonis, Dimitrios; Stournas, Stamos [Laboratory of Fuels and Lubricants Technology, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, 9 Iroon Polytechniou Str., Zografou Campus, 157 80, Athens (Greece)

    2010-11-15

    In recent years, the acceptance of fatty acid methyl esters (biodiesel) as an alternative fuel has rapidly grown in EU. The most common method for biodiesel production is based on triglyceride transesterification to methyl esters with dissolved sodium hydroxide in methanol as catalyst. In this study, cottonseed oil and used frying oil were subjected to the transesterification reaction with tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide and benzyltrimethyl ammonium hydroxide as strong base catalysts. This work investigates the optimum conditions for biodiesel production using amine-based liquid catalysts. Biodiesel ester content was strongly related with the type of feedstock and the reaction variables, such as those of the catalyst concentration, methanol to oil molar ratio, and reaction time. The overall results suggested that the transesterification of cottonseed oil achieved high conversion rates with both catalysts, while the use of waste oil resulted in lower yields of methyl esters due to the possible formation of amides. (author)

  7. Aproveitamento de co-produtos da cadeia produtiva do biodiesel de mamona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Susana Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In virtue of the National Program for Biodiesel Production and Use (NPBPU, the commercial scale production in Brazilian semi-arid areas of crops used for biodiesel production has increased and one consequence is the generation of waste that need to target economic and ecologically viable. The main byproducts of biodiesel production chain are the cake and / or meal and glycerin. The present work aims at studying the possibilities to use these surpluses for biodiesel production in value-added products. The conclusions of this work demonstrate that the potential exists for use of castor bean meal in animal feed, such as fertilizer that has the ability to recover degraded areas and to control soil nematodes. Furthermore, it was found that glycerin can be used as fuel with high heat.

  8. Production of algae-based biodiesel using the continuous catalytic Mcgyan process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohn, Brian J; McNeff, Clayton V; Yan, Bingwen; Nowlan, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    This study demonstrates the production of algal biodiesel from Dunaliella tertiolecta, Nannochloropsis oculata, wild freshwater microalgae, and macroalgae lipids using a highly efficient continuous catalytic process. The heterogeneous catalytic process uses supercritical methanol and porous titania microspheres in a fixed bed reactor to catalyze the simultaneous transesterification and esterification of triacylglycerides and free fatty acids, respectively, to fatty acid methyl esters (biodiesel). Triacylglycerides and free fatty acids were converted to alkyl esters with up to 85% efficiency as measured by 300 MHz (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The lipid composition of the different algae was studied gravimetrically and by gas chromatography. The analysis showed that even though total lipids comprised upwards of 19% of algal dry weight the saponifiable lipids, and resulting biodiesel, comprised only 1% of dry weight. Thus highlighting the need to determine the triacylglyceride and free fatty acid content when considering microalgae for biodiesel production. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The modification of ion exchange heterogeneous catalysts for biodiesel synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartono, R.; Mulia, B.; Sahlan, M.; Utami, T. S.; Wijanarko, Anondho; Hermansyah, Heri

    2017-03-01

    Conventionally, biodiesel is produced by using the homogeneous catalyst which has difficulty in high cost of the separation process. The heterogeneous catalysts ion exchange resin by its Solid phase can make an easier separation process, able to be reactivated and used repeatedly. In this research, the heterogeneous catalyst from various source such as Lewatit macro porous resin, Amberlite gel resin and natural zeolite bayah was investigated their performance to produced biodiesel from used cooking oil. Initially, the preparation of the ion exchange process with variations in time, temperature, the concentration of HCl and NaOH solution was investigated. Then, the activity of heterogeneous catalyst to produced biodiesel under the variation of stirring rate, zeolite particle size, and comparison of different ion exchange catalysts were also investigated. Finally, the stability test and regeneration treatment were also investigated. The optimum operating conditions of biodiesel synthesis process is at the temperature of 60 °C for 2 h with a stirring speed of 700 rpm. Natural zeolite Bayah with 6 M of NaOH solution produced 16.19%, Amberlite gel with 6 M HCL produced 65.22% of biodiesel yield and material Lewatit macro porous with 6 M of NaOH solution produced 85.94% as the maximum result. As the best result, Material Lewatit macro porous selected as the material which was used in the variation of stirring speed, temperature, and reaction time, the concentration of base and stability test. According to the results of analysis, calculations yield methyl oleic HPLC produced by Lewatit macro porous with 6 M NaOH at 62.95%.

  10. High Resolution Silicon Deformable Mirrors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal describes a plan to build a prototype small stroke, high precision deformable mirror suitable for space-based operation in systems for high-resolution...

  11. High Temperature Rechargeable Battery Development Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This small business innovation research is intended to develop and proof the concept of a highly efficient, high temperature rechargeable battery for supporting...

  12. High Thrust Efficiency MPD Thruster Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters can provide the high-specific impulse, high-power propulsion required to support human and robotic exploration missions to the...

  13. High Reliability Oscillators for Terahertz Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To develop reliable THz sources with high power and high DC-RF efficiency, Virginia Diodes, Inc. will develop a thorough understanding of the complex interactions...

  14. Compact, Lightweight, High Voltage Propellant Isolators Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TA&T, Inc. proposes an enabling fabrication process for high voltage isolators required in high power solar electric and nuclear electric propulsion (SEP and...

  15. Compact, Lightweight, High Voltage Propellant Isolators Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TA&T, Inc. proposes an enabling fabrication process for high voltage isolators required in high power solar electric and nuclear electric propulsion (SEP and...

  16. Lightweight, High-Temperature Radiator Panels Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lightweight, high-temperature radiators are needed for future, high-efficiency power conversion systems for Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP). Creare has developed...

  17. High Temperature Solid State Lithium Battery Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Reliable energy systems with high energy density capable of operating at high temperatures, pressures and radiation levels are needed for certain NASA missions....

  18. Lightweight, High-Temperature Radiator Panels Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lightweight, high-temperature radiators are needed for future, high-efficiency power conversion systems for Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP). Creare has developed...

  19. Deep Trek High Temperature Electronics Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce Ohme

    2007-07-31

    This report summarizes technical progress achieved during the cooperative research agreement between Honeywell and U.S. Department of Energy to develop high-temperature electronics. Objects of this development included Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) wafer process development for high temperature, supporting design tools and libraries, and high temperature integrated circuit component development including FPGA, EEPROM, high-resolution A-to-D converter, and a precision amplifier.

  20. Biodiesel Performance with Modern Engines. Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-05-153

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-01-29

    NREL and the National Biodiesel Board (NBB) will work cooperatively to assess the effects of biodiesel blends on the performance of modern diesel engines and emissions control systems meeting increasingly strict emissions standards. This work will include research to understand the impact of biodiesel blends on the operation and durability of particle filters and NOx control sorbents/catalysts, to quantify the effect on emission control systems performance, and to understand effects on engine component durability. Work to assess the impact of biodiesel blends on real world fleet operations will be performed. Also, research to develop appropriate ASTM standards for biodiesel quality and stability will be conducted. The cooperative project will involve engine testing and fleet evaluation studies at NREL using biodiesel from a variety of sources. In addition, NREL will work with NBB to set up an Industrial Steering Committee to design the scope for the various projects and to provide technical oversight to these projects. NREL and NBB will cooperatively communicate the study results to as broad an audience as possible.

  1. Biodiesel/Cummins CRADA Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    nitrile rubber , natural rubber ) that are commonly used for hoses, seals and gaskets, and may degrade them to the point where they fail. Failure can...cloud point (33.5°F for the test fuel). Gelling can be prevented through fuel management (e.g., fuel additives, shifting to a diesel/biodiesel blend ...Engineering CG Coast Guard CNG Compressed Natural Gas CO Carbon monoxide CO2 Carbon dioxide COG Course over ground CRADA Cooperative Research and

  2. Preparation of Biodiesel from Soybean Catalyzed by Basic Ionic Liquids [Hnmm]OH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinggong Ren

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A morpholine alkaline basic ionic liquid (IL 1-butyl-3-methyl morpholine hydroxide ([Hnmm]OH was synthesized and characterized by 1H NMR and FT-IR. [Hnmm]OH is highly active in catalyzing the synthesis of biodiesel from the reaction of methanol with soybean oil. The influence of the reaction conditions, including the [Hnmm]OH catalyst amount, the molar ratio of methanol to soybean oil, reaction temperature and time, was investigated. Moreover, the pH and thermal stability of the catalyst was studied. The catalytic activity was affected by its alkalinity. The optimum reaction conditions were found as [Hnmm]OH amount of 4% (mass fraction, the methanol to soybean oil molar ratio of 8, temperature 70 °C and reaction time 1.5 h, the yield of Biodiesel reached 97.0%, and exhibits high stability upon recycling, the yield of Biodiesel is still more than 90% even after being reused for five times. A great advantage of using ILs is that it is very easy to separate the final products. After the reaction, a biphasic system was obtained. The top phase contains biodiesel and a little bit of methanol. Pure biodiesel can be isolated by vacuum evacuating the methanol. The bottom phase contains methanol, glycerol and ILs. Pure glycerol can be obtained simply by distillation. After distillation, pure ILs was obtained, which can be used directly for another reaction. The as prepared biodiesel shows very appealing properties.

  3. Biodiesel production from vegetable oil and waste animal fats in a pilot plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alptekin, Ertan; Canakci, Mustafa; Sanli, Huseyin

    2014-11-01

    In this study, corn oil as vegetable oil, chicken fat and fleshing oil as animal fats were used to produce methyl ester in a biodiesel pilot plant. The FFA level of the corn oil was below 1% while those of animal fats were too high to produce biodiesel via base catalyst. Therefore, it was needed to perform pretreatment reaction for the animal fats. For this aim, sulfuric acid was used as catalyst and methanol was used as alcohol in the pretreatment reactions. After reducing the FFA level of the animal fats to less than 1%, the transesterification reaction was completed with alkaline catalyst. Due to low FFA content of corn oil, it was directly subjected to transesterification. Potassium hydroxide was used as catalyst and methanol was used as alcohol for transesterification reactions. The fuel properties of methyl esters produced in the biodiesel pilot plant were characterized and compared to EN 14214 and ASTM D6751 biodiesel standards. According to the results, ester yield values of animal fat methyl esters were slightly lower than that of the corn oil methyl ester (COME). The production cost of COME was higher than those of animal fat methyl esters due to being high cost biodiesel feedstock. The fuel properties of produced methyl esters were close to each other. Especially, the sulfur content and cold flow properties of the COME were lower than those of animal fat methyl esters. The measured fuel properties of all produced methyl esters met ASTM D6751 (S500) biodiesel fuel standards.

  4. High Reliability Cryogenic Piezoelectric Valve Actuator Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cryogenic fluid valves are subject to harsh exposure and actuators to drive these valves require robust performance and high reliability. DSM's piezoelectric...

  5. High Performance Spaceflight Computing (HPSC) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In 2012, the NASA Game Changing Development Program (GCDP), residing in the NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD), commissioned a High Performance...

  6. Aspirated Compressors for High Altitude Engines Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aurora Flight Sciences proposes to incorporate aspirated compressor technology into a high altitude, long endurance (HALE) concept engine. Aspiration has been proven...

  7. High Temperature Capacitors for Venus Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this SBIR program, TRS Technologies has developed several new dielectrics for high temperature applications including signal conditioning, filtering and energy...

  8. 大肠杆菌高水平表达脂肪酶BTL2及其催化油脂制备生物柴油%High-level expression of lipase from Bacillus thermocatenulatus BTL2 in E.coli and its application in biodiesel production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    茅羽佳; 欧先金; 杜伟; 刘德华

    2012-01-01

    For the high specific activity, thermo-stability and soluble expression of Bacillus thermocatenulatus lipase BTL2, this paper is focused on the fermentation of lipase BTL2 used for the enzymatic preparation of biodiesel as the main purpose, using E.coli expression system. Recombinant plasmid of BTL2 was constructed under the T7 promoter control after removal of its signal sequence and codon optimization. The voluminal activity of the codon-optimization recombinant strain improved significantly with respect to a control strain. Lipase activity of 12583 U · ml-1 (tributyrin) was obtained in the 5 L fermentor experiment in 15 hours (8 hours induction), with high-level lipase productivity of 839 U o ml-1 · h-1. BTL2 produced by E. coli showed the capability for the preparation of biodiesel with methyl ester yield of 94. 8% in 48 h.

  9. Soot temperature and KL factor for biodiesel and diesel spray combustion in a constant volume combustion chamber

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ji

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents measurements of the soot temperature and KL factor for biodiesel and diesel combustion in a constant volume chamber using a two-color technique. This technique uses a high-speed camera coupled with two narrowband filters (550. nm and 650. nm, 10. nm FWHM). After calibration, statistical analysis shows that the uncertainty of the two-color temperature is less than 5%, while it is about 50% for the KL factor. This technique is then applied to the spray combustion of biodiesel and diesel fuels under an ambient oxygen concentration of 21% and ambient temperatures of 800, 1000 and 1200. K. The heat release result shows higher energy utilization efficiency for biodiesel compared to diesel under all conditions; meanwhile, diesel shows a higher pressure increase due to its higher heating value. Biodiesel yields a lower temperature inside the flame area, a longer soot lift-off length, and a smaller soot area compared to diesel. Both the KL factor and the total soot with biodiesel are lower than with diesel throughout the entire combustion process, and this difference becomes larger as the ambient temperature decreases. Biodiesel shows approximately 50-100. K lower temperatures than diesel at the quasi-steady stage for 1000 and 1200. K ambient temperature, while diesel shows a lower temperature than biodiesel at 800. K ambient. This result may raise the question of how important the flame temperature is in explaining the higher NO. x emissions often observed during biodiesel combustion. Other factors may also play an important role in controlling NO. x emissions. Both biodiesel and diesel temperature measurements show a monotonic dependence on the ambient temperature. However, the ambient temperature appears to have a more significant effect on the soot formation and oxidation in diesel combustion, while biodiesel combustion soot characteristics shows relative insensitivity to the ambient temperature. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  10. High Torque, Direct Drive Electric Motor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Bear Engineering proposes to advance the development of an innovative high torque, low speed, direct drive motor in order to meet NASA's requirements for such...

  11. High Torque, Direct Drive Electric Motor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Bear Engineering proposes to develop an innovative high torque, low speed, direct drive motor in order to meet NASA's requirements for such devices. Fundamentally,...

  12. High Performance Methane Thrust Chamber (HPMTC) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC proposes to develop a High-Performance Methane Thrust Chamber (HPMRE) to meet the demands of advanced chemical propulsion systems for deep-space mission...

  13. High Temperature Fiberoptic Thermal Imaging System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed Phase 1 program will fabricate and demonstrate a small diameter single fiber endoscope that can perform high temperature thermal imaging in a jet engine...

  14. High Efficiency Regenerative Helium Compressor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Helium plays several critical rolls in spacecraft propulsion. High pressure helium is commonly used to pressurize propellant fuel tanks. Helium cryocoolers can be...

  15. High Efficiency Low Scatter Echelle Grating Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A high efficiency low scatter echelle grating will be developed using a novel technique of multiple diamond shaving cuts. The grating will have mirror surfaces on...

  16. High Resolution Silicon Deformable Mirrors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this proposal we describe a plan to build a deformable mirror suitable for space-based operation in systems for high-resolution imaging. The prototype DM will be...

  17. High Temperature Superconductor Resonator Detectors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There is a well-established need for more sensitive detectors in the 10 - 200 um wavelength range with high detectivity, D*>1010 cm-Hz1/2/W to increase the...

  18. High Power Helicon Plasma Propulsion Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed work seeks to develop and optimize an electrode-less plasma propulsion system that is based on a high power helicon (HPH) that is being developed...

  19. Compact, High Accuracy CO2 Monitor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovative Research Phase II proposal seeks to develop a low cost, robust, highly precise and accurate CO2 monitoring system. This system will...

  20. High Power Helicon Plasma Propulsion Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A new thruster has been conceived and tested that is based on a high power helicon (HPH) plasma wave. In this new method of propulsion, an antenna generates and...

  1. High Temperature Capacitors for Venus Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High temperature power electronics have become a vital aspect of future designs for power converters in spacecraft, battle zone electric power, satellite power...

  2. Advanced High Efficiency Durable DACS Thruster Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Systima is developing a high performance 25 lbf DACS thruster that operates with a novel non-toxic monopropellant. The monopropellant has a 30% higher...

  3. High-Bandwidth Hybrid Sensor (HYSENS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ATA has demonstrated the primary innovation of combining a precision MEMS gyro (BAE SiRRS01) with a high bandwidth angular rate sensor, ATA's ARS-14 resulting in a...

  4. Compact, High Accuracy CO2 Monitor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovative Research Phase I proposal seeks to develop a low cost, robust, highly precise and accurate CO2 monitoring system. This system will...

  5. Radiation Hard High Performance Optoelectronic Devices Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High-performance, radiation-hard, widely-tunable integrated laser/modulator chip and large-area avalanche photodetectors (APDs) are key components of optical...

  6. Hybrid High-Fidelity Auscultation Scope Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address the NASA Johnson Space Center's need for a space auscultation capability, Physical Optics Corporation proposes to develop a Hybrid High-Fidelity...

  7. High-Rate Receiver Design Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose an initial architectural and preliminary hardware design study for a high-rate receiver capable of decoding modulation suites specified by CCSDS 413.0-G-1...

  8. High Efficiency Solar Furnace Core Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — It is proposed to develop a high efficiency solar furnace core that greatly lessens the heat losses from the furnace core, either greatly reducing the amount of...

  9. Novel High Temperature Strain Gauge Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced high-temperature sensor technology and bonding methods are of great interests in designing and developing advanced future aircraft. Current state-of-the-art...

  10. Review of the stability of biodiesel produced from less common vegetable oils of African origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kivevele

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The stability of biodiesel is dependent on storage conditions such as contact with ambient air and metals, exposure to sunlight and high temperature conditions which accelerate oxidation reactions. In addition, biodiesels are more susceptible to degradation when compared to fossil diesel because of the presence of unsaturated fatty acid chains which are prone to oxidation. The stability of biodiesel is categorised according to oxidation stability, storage stability and thermal stability. Oxidation instability can led to the formation of oxidation products such as aldehydes, alcohols, shorter chain carboxylic acids, insolubles, gums and sediments in the biodiesel. Thermal instability is concerned with the increased rate of oxidation at higher temperature, which in turn increases the weight of oil and fat due to the formation of insolubles. Storage stability is the ability of liquid fuel to resist change to its physical and chemical characteristics brought about by its interaction with its storage environment, such as contamination with metals. These fuel instabilities give rise to the formation of undesirable substances in biodiesel beyond acceptable limits as per global biodiesel standards such as those of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM D6751 and European Standards (EN 14214. When such fuel is used in the engine, it impairs engine performance through fuel filter plugging, injector fouling, and deposit formation in the engine combustion chamber and various components of the fuel system. We review the stability of biodiesel made from less common vegetable oils of African origin and synthetic antioxidants used in improving the stability of produced biodiesels.

  11. A study on production of biodiesel using a novel solid oxide catalyst derived from waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majhi, Samrat; Ray, Srimanta

    2016-05-01

    The issues of energy security, dwindling supply and inflating price of fossil fuel have shifted the global focus towards fuel of renewable origin. Biodiesel, having renewable origin, has exhibited great potential as substitute for fossil fuels. The most common route of biodiesel production is through transesterification of vegetable oil in presence of homogeneous acid or base or solid oxide catalyst. But, the economics of biodiesel is not competitive with respect to fossil fuel due to high cost of production. The vegetable oil waste is a potential alternative for biodiesel production, particularly when disposal of used vegetable oil has been restricted in several countries. The present study evaluates the efficacy of a low-cost solid oxide catalyst derived from eggshell (a food waste) in transesterification of vegetable oil and simulated waste vegetable oil (SWVO). The impact of thermal treatment of vegetable oil (to simulate frying operation) on transesterification using eggshell-derived solid oxide catalyst (ESSO catalyst) was also evaluated along with the effect of varying reaction parameters. The study reported that around 90 % biodiesel yield was obtained with vegetable oil at methanol/oil molar ratio of 18:1 in 3 h reaction time using 10 % ESSO catalyst. The biodiesel produced with ESSO catalyst from SWVO, thermally treated at 150 °C for 24 h, was found to conform with the biodiesel standard, but the yield was 5 % lower compared to that of the untreated oil. The utilization of waste vegetable oil along with waste eggshell as catalyst is significant for improving the overall economics of the biodiesel in the current market. The utilization of waste for societal benefit with the essence of sustainable development is the novelty of this work.

  12. Promoting Scientific and Technological Literacy: Teaching Biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilks, Ingo

    2000-01-01

    Describes a unit on biodiesel from a socio-critical chemistry teaching approach aimed at improving student participation and decision making. Explores the use of biodiesel (chemically changed vegetable oils), especially in Europe. The unit proved to be successful as students participated enthusiastically and social and scientific goals were…

  13. Comparative toxicity and mutagenicity of biodiesel exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel (BD) is commercially made from the transesterification of plant and animal derived oils. The composition of biodiesel exhaust (BE) depends on the type of fuel, the blend ratio and the engine and operating conditions. While numerous studies have characterized the health ...

  14. Comparative toxicity and mutagenicity of biodiesel exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel (BD) is commercially made from the transesterification of plant and animal derived oils. The composition of biodiesel exhaust (BE) depends on the type of fuel, the blend ratio and the engine and operating conditions. While numerous studies have characterized the health ...

  15. Algal biodiesel economy and competition among bio-fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D H

    2011-01-01

    This investigation examines the possible results of policy support in developed and developing economies for developing algal biodiesel through to 2040. This investigation adopts the Taiwan General Equilibrium Model-Energy for Bio-fuels (TAIGEM-EB) to predict competition among the development of algal biodiesel, bioethanol and conventional crop-based biodiesel. Analytical results show that algal biodiesel will not be the major energy source in 2040 without strong support in developed economies. In contrast, bioethanol enjoys a development advantage relative to both forms of biodiesel. Finally, algal biodiesel will almost completely replace conventional biodiesel. CO(2) reduction benefits the development of the bio-fuels industry.

  16. Process Optimization for Biodiesel Production from Corn Oil and Its Oxidative Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. El Boulifi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Response surface methodology (RSM based on central composite design (CCD was used to optimize biodiesel production process from corn oil. The process variables, temperature and catalyst concentration were found to have significant influence on biodiesel yield. The optimum combination derived via RSM for high corn oil methyl ester yield (99.48% was found to be 1.18% wt catalyst concentration at a reaction temperature of 55.6∘C. To determine how long biodiesel can safely be stored, it is desirable to have a measurement for the stability of the biodiesel against such oxidation. Storage time and oxygen availability have been considered as possible factors influencing oxidative instability. Biodiesel from corn oil was stored for a period of 30 months, and the physico-chemical parameters of samples were measured at regular interval of time. Results show that the acid value (AV, peroxide value (PV, and viscosity (ν increased while the iodine value (IV decreased. These parameters changed very significantly when the sample was stored under normal oxygen atmosphere. However, the ν, AV, and IV of the biodiesel sample which was stored under argon atmosphere were within the limit by the European specifications (EN 14214.

  17. Lipase-catalyzed biodiesel production with methyl acetate as acyl acceptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Ying; Yan Yunjun [School of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong Univ. of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China)

    2008-03-15

    Biodiesel is an alternative diesel fuel made from renewable biological resources. During the process of biodiesel production, lipase-catalyzed transesterification is a crucial step. However, current techniques using methanol as acyl acceptor have lower enzymatic activity; this limits the application of such techniques in large-scale biodiesel production. Furthermore, the lipid feedstock of currently available techniques is limited. In this paper, the technique of lipase-catalyzed transesterification of five different oils for biodiesel production with methyl acetate as acyl acceptor was investigated, and the transesterification reaction conditions were optimized. The operation stability of lipase under the obtained optimal conditions was further examined. The results showed that under optimal transesterification conditions, both plant oils and animal fats led to high yields of methyl ester: cotton-seed oil, 98%; rape-seed oil, 95%; soybean oil, 91%; tea-seed oil, 92%; and lard, 95%. Crude and refined cotton-seed oil or lard made no significant difference in yields of methyl ester. No loss of enzymatic activity was detected for lipase after being repeatedly used for 40 cycles (ca. 800 h), which indicates that the operational stability of lipase was fairly good under these conditions. Our results suggest that cotton-seed oil, rape-seed oil and lard might substitute soybean oil as suitable lipid feedstock for biodiesel production. Our results also show that our technique is fit for various lipid feedstocks both from plants and animals, and presents a very promising way for the large-scale biodiesel production. (orig.)

  18. Potential plant oil feedstock for lipase-catalyzed biodiesel production in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winayanuwattikun, Pakorn; Kaewpiboon, Chutima; Piriyakananon, Kingkaew; Tantong, Supalak; Thakernkarnkit, Weerasak; Yongvanich, Tikamporn [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Biofuel Production by Biocatalyst Research Unit, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Chulalaksananukul, Warawut [Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Biofuel Production by Biocatalyst Research Unit, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

    2008-12-15

    Twenty-seven types of plants found to contain more than 25% of oil (w/w) were selectively examined from 44 species. Saponification number (SN), iodine value (IV), cetane number (CN) and viscosity ({eta}) of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) of oils were empirically determined, and they varied from 182 to 262, 3.60 to 142.70, 39.32 to 65.80 and 2.29 to 3.95, respectively. Fatty acid compositions, IV, CN and {eta} were used to predict the quality of FAMEs for use as biodiesel. FAMEs of plant oils of 15 species were found to be most suitable for use as biodiesel by meeting the major specification of biodiesel standards of Thailand, USA and European Standard Organization. The oils from these 15 species were further investigated for the conversion efficiency of biodiesel in lipase-catalyzed transesterification reaction with Novozyme 435 and Lipozyme RM IM. Oils of four species, palm (Elaeis guineensis), physic nut (Jatropha curcas), papaya (Carica papaya) and rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum), can be highly converted to biodiesel by transesterification using Novozyme 435- or Lipozyme RM IM-immobilized lipase as catalyst. Therefore, these selected plants would be economically considered as the feedstock for biodiesel production by biocatalyst. (author)

  19. The Preparation of Bioimprinted Whole-cell Biocatalyst and Its Application in Bioconversion of Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiling Chen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel has attracted considerable attention as an environmentally friendly alternative fuel. Lipase is the most popular enzyme for biodiesel production and immobilization has been deployed to improve enzyme stability and reusability. Exploitation of high activity lipase is the key point for biodiesel production. Whole-cell biocatalysts have been applied in the biosynthesis of biodiesel and bioimprinting is a promising approach for enzyme performances improvement. In this study, based on the S. cerevisiae cell-surface display system with &alpha-agglutinin as anchor, a whole-cell biocatalyst of codon-optimized Rhizopus oryzae lipase was constructed and bioimprinted with oleic acid, gaining 5-fold increase on enzymatic activity in the alcoholysis of soybean oil to biodiesel. Moreover, the conversion of FAME was up to 95.45±2.73% after a 27-h reaction at 60°C. Our results indicated that combining bioimprinting with yeast display technique to prepare whole-cell biocatalyst could result in potential enzymes for bioconversion of biodiesel in organic solvents.

  20. Eucalyptus biodiesel as an alternative to diesel fuel: preparation and tests on DI diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarabet, Lyes; Loubar, Khaled; Lounici, Mohand Said; Hanchi, Samir; Tazerout, Mohand

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, the increasing oil consumption throughout the world induces crucial economical, security, and environmental problems. As a result, intensive researches are undertaken to find appropriate substitution to fossil fuels. In view of the large amount of eucalyptus trees present in arid areas, we focus in this study on the investigation of using eucalyptus biodiesel as fuel in diesel engine. Eucalyptus oil is converted by transesterification into biodiesel. Eucalyptus biodiesel characterization shows that the physicochemical properties are comparable to those of diesel fuel. In the second phase, a single cylinder air-cooled, DI diesel engine was used to test neat eucalyptus biodiesel and its blends with diesel fuel in various ratios (75, 50, and 25 by v%) at several engine loads. The engine combustion parameters such as peak pressure, rate of pressure rise, and heat release rate are determined. Performances and exhaust emissions are also evaluated at all operating conditions. Results show that neat eucalyptus biodiesel and its blends present significant improvements of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbon, and particulates emissions especially at high loads with equivalent performances to those of diesel fuel. However, the NOx emissions are slightly increased when the biodiesel content is increased in the blend.

  1. Improvement of the cold flow characteristics of biodiesel containing dissolved polymer wastes using acetone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouya Mohammadi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the fast fossil fuel depletion and at the same time global warming phenomenon anticipated for the next coming years, the necessity of developing alternative fuels e.g. biofuels (i.e. bioethanol, biodiesel, biogas and etc. has turned into an important concern. Recently, the application of the bio-solvency properties of biodiesel for recycling waste polymers has been highlighted. However, the impact of polymer dissolution on cold flow characteristics of biodiesel was never investigated. The present study was set to explore the impact of different solvents in stabilizing biodiesel-polymer solution. Among them, acetone was proved to be the best fuel stabilizer. Subsequently, cold flow characteristic i.e. cloud point, of the biodiesel-polymer-acetone fuel was found to have improved (decreased due to the inclusion of acetone. Finally, flash point analysis of the fuel blends containing acetone was done to ensured high safety of the fuel blend by dramatically increasing the flash point values of biodiesel-polymer fuel blends.

  2. Eucalyptus Biodiesel as an Alternative to Diesel Fuel: Preparation and Tests on DI Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyes Tarabet

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the increasing oil consumption throughout the world induces crucial economical, security, and environmental problems. As a result, intensive researches are undertaken to find appropriate substitution to fossil fuels. In view of the large amount of eucalyptus trees present in arid areas, we focus in this study on the investigation of using eucalyptus biodiesel as fuel in diesel engine. Eucalyptus oil is converted by transesterification into biodiesel. Eucalyptus biodiesel characterization shows that the physicochemical properties are comparable to those of diesel fuel. In the second phase, a single cylinder air-cooled, DI diesel engine was used to test neat eucalyptus biodiesel and its blends with diesel fuel in various ratios (75, 50, and 25 by v% at several engine loads. The engine combustion parameters such as peak pressure, rate of pressure rise, and heat release rate are determined. Performances and exhaust emissions are also evaluated at all operating conditions. Results show that neat eucalyptus biodiesel and its blends present significant improvements of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbon, and particulates emissions especially at high loads with equivalent performances to those of diesel fuel. However, the NOx emissions are slightly increased when the biodiesel content is increased in the blend.

  3. Exhaust emissions from a diesel power generator fuelled by waste cooking oil biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Osmano Souza; Pasa, Vanya Márcia Duarte; Belchior, Carlos Rodrigues Pereira; Sodré, José Ricardo

    2012-08-01

    The exhaust emissions from a diesel power generator operating with waste cooking oil biodiesel blends have been studied. Fuel blends with 25%, 50% and 75% of biodiesel concentration in diesel oil were tested, varying engine load from 0 to 25 kW. The original engine settings for diesel oil operation were kept the same during the experiments with the biodiesel blends. The main physical-chemical characteristics of the fuel blends used were measured to help with the analysis of the emission results. The results show that the addition of biodiesel to the fuel increases oxides of nitrogen (NO(X)), carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions. Carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and exhaust gas opacity were also increased with the use of biodiesel. Major increase of NO(X) was observed at low loads, while CO and HC were mainly increased at high loads. Using 50% of biodiesel in diesel oil, the average increase of CO(2), CO, HC and NO(X) throughout the load range investigated was 8.5%, 20.1%, 23.5% and 4.8%, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Green Biodiesel Synthesis Using Waste Shells as Sustainable Catalysts with Camelina sativa Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelda Hangun-Balkir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste utilization is an essential component of sustainable development and waste shells are rarely used to generate practical products and processes. Most waste shells are CaCO3 rich, which are converted to CaO once calcined and can be employed as inexpensive and green catalysts for the synthesis of biodiesel. Herein, we utilized lobster and eggshells as green catalysts for the transesterification of Camelina sativa oil as feedstock into biodiesel. Camelina sativa oil is an appealing crop option as feedstock for biodiesel production because it has high tolerance of cold weather, drought, and low-quality soils and contains approximately 40% oil content. The catalysts from waste shells were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, and Scanning Electron Microscope. The product, biodiesel, was studied by 1H NMR and FTIR spectroscopy. The effects of methanol to oil ratio, reaction time, reaction temperature, and catalyst concentration were investigated. Optimum biodiesel yields were attained at a 12 : 1 (alcohol : oil molar ratio with 1 wt.% heterogeneous catalysts in 3 hours at 65°C. The experimental results exhibited a first-order kinetics and rate constants and activation energy were calculated for the transesterification reaction at different temperatures. The fuel properties of the biodiesel produced from Camelina sativa oil and waste shells were compared with those of the petroleum-based diesel by using American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM standards.

  5. Biodiesel production from municipal secondary sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manish; Ghosh, Pooja; Khosla, Khushboo; Thakur, Indu Shekhar

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, feasibility of biodiesel production from freeze dried sewage sludge was studied and its yield was enhanced by optimization of the in situ transesterification conditions (temperature, catalyst and concentration of sludge solids). Optimized conditions (45°C, 5% catalyst and 0.16g/mL sludge solids) resulted in a 20.76±0.04% biodiesel yield. The purity of biodiesel was ascertained by GC-MS, FT-IR and NMR ((1)H and (13)C) spectroscopy. The biodiesel profile obtained revealed the predominance of methyl esters of fatty acids such as oleic, palmitic, myristic, stearic, lauric, palmitoleic and linoleic acids indicating potential use of sludge as a biodiesel feedstock.

  6. Microbial recycling of glycerol to biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liu; Zhu, Zhi; Wang, Weihua; Lu, Xuefeng

    2013-12-01

    The sustainable supply of lipids is the bottleneck for current biodiesel production. Here microbial recycling of glycerol, byproduct of biodiesel production to biodiesel in engineered Escherichia coli strains was reported. The KC3 strain with capability of producing fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) from glucose was used as a starting strain to optimize fermentation conditions when using glycerol as sole carbon source. The YL15 strain overexpressing double copies of atfA gene displayed 1.7-fold increase of FAEE productivity compared to the KC3 strain. The titer of FAEE in YL15 strain reached to 813 mg L(-1) in minimum medium using glycerol as sole carbon source under optimized fermentation conditions. The titer of glycerol-based FAEE production can be significantly increased by both genetic modifications and fermentation optimization. Microbial recycling of glycerol to biodiesel expands carbon sources for biodiesel production.

  7. Process development for scum to biodiesel conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Chong-hao; Min, Min; Nie, Yong; Xie, Qing-long; Lu, Qian; Deng, Xiang-yuan; Anderson, Erik; Li, Dong; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2015-06-01

    A novel process was developed for converting scum, a waste material from wastewater treatment facilities, to biodiesel. Scum is an oily waste that was skimmed from the surface of primary and secondary settling tanks in wastewater treatment plants. Currently scum is treated either by anaerobic digestion or landfilling which raised several environmental issues. The newly developed process used a six-step method to convert scum to biodiesel, a higher value product. A combination of acid washing and acid catalyzed esterification was developed to remove soap and impurities while converting free fatty acids to methyl esters. A glycerol washing was used to facilitate the separation of biodiesel and glycerin after base catalyzed transesterification. As a result, 70% of dried and filtered scum was converted to biodiesel which is equivalent to about 134,000 gallon biodiesel per year for the Saint Paul waste water treatment plant in Minnesota.

  8. High Performance Nitrous Oxide Analyzer for Atmospheric Research Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project targets the development of a highly sensitive gas sensor to monitor atmospheric nitrous oxide. Nitrous oxide is an important species in Earth science...

  9. High Efficiency Lighting with Integrated Adaptive Control (HELIAC) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed project is the continued development of the High Efficiency Lighting with Integrated Adaptive Control (HELIAC) system. Solar radiation is not a viable...

  10. Inorganic Nanostructured High-Temperature Magnet Wires Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will develop a high-temperature tolerant electrically-insulating coating for magnet wires. The Phase I program will result in a flexible, inorganic...

  11. Radiation Shielding Utilizing A High Temperature Superconducting Magnet Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project aims to leverage near-term high-temperature superconducting technologies to assess applicability of magnetic shielding for protecting against exposure...

  12. InGaN High Temperature Photovoltaic Cells Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this Phase I project is to demonstrate InGaN materials are appropriate for high operating temperature single junction solar cells. Single junction...

  13. High Performance Low Mass Nanowire Enabled Heatpipe Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Illuminex Corporation proposes a NASA Phase I SBIR project to develop high performance, lightweight, low-profile heat pipes with enhanced thermal transfer properties...

  14. High Efficiency Lighting with Integrated Adaptive Control (HELIAC) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation of the proposed project is the development of High Efficiency Lighting with Integrated Adaptive Control (HELIAC) systems to drive plant growth. Solar...

  15. Radiation Tolerant, High Capacity Non-Volatile Memory Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The need for reliable, high capacity, radiation tolerant nonvolatile memory exists in many Human space flight applications. Most projects rely on COTS hardware for a...

  16. Cor ASTM: um método simples e rápido para determinar a qualidade do biodiesel produzido a partir de óleos residuais de fritura ASTM color: a simple and fast method for determining quality of biodiesel produced from used cooking oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verônica Santos de Morais

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 23 biodiesel samples were produced, 20 from used cooking oil and the remaining 3 from refined soybean oil. The following properties were determined in all of the samples (oil and its respective biodiesel: density; viscosity; total acid number and ASTM color. The results indicated high correlation (R > 0.6 between ASTM color of used cooking oil and total acid number of its resultant biodiesel. This high correlation allows prediction of the quality of the biodiesel produced using a simple and fast procedure such as ASTM color.

  17. Experiences in the construction and operation of a biodiesel pilot plant in Tabasco; Experiencias en la construccion y operacion de una planta piloto de biodiesel en Tabasco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Custodio Garcia, E; Cordova Gomez, Jose F.; Irineo Mijangos, Jose A.; Montiel Reyes, W.; Gutierrez Leon, Gustavo M. [Universidad Tecnologica de Tabasco, Tecnologia Ambiental (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    Initiating the development of a project that has as final goal the construction of a plant at pilot level to produce bio combustible, represent always a challenge. First, for the little experience that we could have in the construction, and another one, related to the selection of the equipment or materials for its construction, since one must have quality standards in the materials and it tends to happen that in occasions they are not in the market because of its specialization. In this work the authors present their experiences in the design and construction of the first pilot plant for production of biodiesel in the state of Tabasco, as well as in the use of the bio-fuel in the buses and emergency generating units where the biodiesel has tried on. The pilot plant for biodiesel is designed to produce 400 liters per hour, each batch, has a storage capacity of 2400 liters and counts with a system of filters and washing tank with water to eliminate water and solid matters that are contaminating the process. For the biodiesel production the methoxide is used, that is a mixture of sodium hydroxide and methanol alcohol so that it reacts with the oil and forms the biodiesel. The plant is working with used vegetal oil as raw material, same that is collected from the hotels and restaurants of the zone. The critics have served to improve the process, because sometimes not everything has been written on the biodiesel. This work is a joint project between the union of the private initiative (DG Group) and the Universidad Tecnologica de Tabasco. [Spanish] El iniciarse en el desarrollo de un proyecto que tenga como final la construccion de una planta a nivel piloto para fabricar biocombustible, siempre representa un reto. Primero, por la poca experiencia que pudieramos tener en la construccion, y otra, en lo que es la seleccion del equipo o material para su construccion, ya que se debe contar con estandares de calidad en los materiales y suele suceder que en ocasiones no se

  18. Emission Characteristics of High-pressure Common Rail Diesel Engine Fuelled with Biodiesel%高压共轨柴油机燃用生物柴油的排放特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛功平; 王忠; 吴婧; 李志越

    2013-01-01

    开展了共轨柴油机燃用柴油、餐饮废油制生物柴油及其混合燃料的试验,采用ESC稳态排放测试,对比分析了添加比例为0%,5%,10%的调合生物柴油(B0,B5,B10)对柴油机性能和排放特性的影响规律。结果表明:与原机相比,燃用B5,B10后,柴油机功率平均降幅分别为3.1%,5.3%,扭矩平均降幅分别为1.5%,2.3%;燃油消耗率平均增幅分别为1.1%,1.6%,而能量消耗率平均降幅分别为3.5%,6.8%;CO,HC和PM 比排放量、加权比排放量和加权平均比排放量均逐渐减少,NOx 则逐渐增加,CO ,HC和PM的加权平均比排放量的最大降幅分别为9.1%,9.7%和7.4%,NOx 最大增幅为4.9%;CO ,PM ,NOx 排放分担率在高负荷工况较大,HC分担率在低负荷较大,燃用调合生物柴油时排放污染物的分担率分布较原机平均。%The experiments of common rail diesel engine fueled with diesel ,waste cooking oil biodiesel and their blended fuel were carried out ,the power and emission performance of diesel mixed with 0% ,5% and 10% biodiesel (referred to as B0 ,B5 and B10) was compared and analyzed with ESC driving cycle .The results show that the engine power and torque decreases re-spectively by 3 .1% ,1 .5% for B5 and by 5 .3% ,2 .3% for B10 .The brake specific fuel consumption of B5 and B10 increases by 1 .1% and 1 .6% and the energy consumption decreases by 3 .5% and 6 .8% respectively .The brake specific emissions (BSE) ,weighted BSE and weighted average BSE of CO ,HC and PM decrease ,but the trend is opposite to NOx .The largest reduction of weighted average BSE for CO ,HC and PM are 9 .1% ,9 .7% and 7 .4% and the largest increase for NO x is 4 .9% . The contribution rate of CO ,PM and NOx are great at high loads and that of HC is high at low loads .Compared with the origi-nal engine ,the contribution rates between pollutants for biodiesel engine

  19. Characterization of crude glycerol from biodiesel plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shengjun; Luo, Xiaolan; Wan, Caixia; Li, Yebo

    2012-06-13

    Characterization of crude glycerol is very important to its value-added conversion. In this study, the physical and chemical properties of five biodiesel-derived crude glycerol samples were determined. Three methods, including iodometric-periodic acid method, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and gas chromatography (GC), were shown to be suitable for the determination of glycerol content in crude glycerol. The compositional analysis of crude glycerol was successfully achieved by crude glycerol fractionation and characterization of the obtained fractions (aqueous and organic) using titrimetric, HPLC, and GC analyses. The aqueous fraction consisted mainly of glycerol, methanol, and water, while the organic fraction contained fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), free fatty acids (FFAs), and glycerides. Despite the wide variations in the proportion of their components, all raw crude glycerol samples were shown to contain glycerol, soap, methanol, FAMEs, water, glycerides, FFAs, and ash.

  20. 4个生物柴油树种燃料特性的评价%Assessment-on Fuel Properties of Four Woody Biodiesel Plants Species in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王利兵; 于海燕; 贺晓辉

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we studied oil contents of the fruits or seed kernels, fatty acid composition and biodiesel fuel properties of four major potential woody biodiesel plant species ( Pistacia chinensis, Xanthoceras sorbifolia, Armeniaca sibirica and Armeniaca mandshurica) in the northern region of China. The evaluated biodiesel fuel properties include the density, kinematic viscosity, cetane number, cold filter plugging point and oxidation stability. The results showed that fruits or seed kernels of the four woody plants had high oil content ( 35. 0% , 58. 9% , 50. 2% and 47. 2% , respectively). The Fatty acid composition of their oils accorded with the ideal biodiesel feedstock standard. The four woody plants had good biodiesel fuel properties, especially the cetane number that was conformed to ASTM D6751 standards (P. chinensis met the specification from the EN 14214 biodiesel standard) , and the cold fluidity of A. sibirica and A. mandshurica were excellent (cold filter plugging point of -14℃) . In conclusion, the four woody biodiesel plants have been identified as the promising biodiesel feedstock, which result would provide references for the exploitation and utilization of biodiesel plants in the northern region of China.

  1. Laser safety at high profile projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barat, K.

    2011-03-01

    Laser Safety at high profile laser facilities tends to be more controlled than in the standard laser lab found at a research institution. The reason for this is the potential consequences for such facilities from incidents. This ranges from construction accidents, to equipment damage to personnel injuries. No laser user wants to sustain a laser eye injury. Unfortunately, many laser users, most commonly experienced researchers and inexperienced graduate students, do receive laser eye injuries during their careers. . More unforgiveable is the general acceptance of this scenario, as part of the research & development experience. How do senior researchers, safety personnel and management stop this trend? The answer lies in a cultural change that involves institutional training, user mentoring, hazard awareness by users and administrative controls. None of these would inhibit research activities. As a matter of fact, proper implementation of these controls would increase research productivity. This presentation will review and explain the steps needed to steer an institution, research division, group or individual lab towards a culture that should nearly eliminate laser accidents. As well as how high profile facilities try to avoid laser injuries. Using the definition of high profile facility as one who's funding in the million to billions of dollars or Euros and derives form government funding.

  2. High Test Peroxide High Sealing Conical Seal Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High Test Peroxide (HTP) Highly Compatible High Sealing Conical Seals are necessary for ground test operations and space based applications. Current conical seals...

  3. Biodiesel Production from Waste Coconut Oil in Coconut Milk Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujinna KARNNASUTA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to develop a 3 step biodiesel production from waste coconut oil taken from a wastewater pond in a coconut milk manufacturing plant. Special attention was paid to optimizing the first step, acid catalyzed hydrolysis, to convert the waste coconut oil into high free fatty acid oil, 83.32 wt%. The first step was the acid hydrolysis, in order to produce high free fatty acid oil. The optimum condition in acid hydrolysis was 5 % by mass of hydrochloric acid, in order to produce high free fatty acid oil that could be used as raw material for biodiesel production. The second step was the acid esterification, in order to reduce the FFA and convert FFA to methyl ester. The reduction of the FFA from 83.32 % in high free fatty acid oil to less than 2 % required 3 % by mass of hydrochloric acid, a molar ratio of methanol to oil of 10: 1, and a reaction time of 60 min. The alkaline transesterification in the third step was used triglyceride at 1.0wt% of KOH for catalysis, a molar ratio of methanol to oil of 6:1, and a reaction time of 60 min. The waste coconut oil biodiesel was further evaluated by determining its fuel quality, and most of the properties were well within ASTM and EN standards.

  4. Biodiesel production over supported nano-magnesium oxide particles

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    M.Tech. (Chemical Engineering) There are a number of processes for the production of biodiesel. Homogenous catalysed processes are the most popular in large scale production due to short reaction times and less extreme reaction conditions. Despite this, homogenous catalysts have a number of disadvantages which include: high probability of soap formation in the presence of water and free fatty acids; they cannot be re-used since some of the catalyst is consumed during the reaction and the s...

  5. Biodiesel forming reactions using heterogeneous catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yijun

    Biodiesel synthesis from biomass provides a means for utilizing effectively renewable resources, a way to convert waste vegetable oils and animal fats to a useful product, a way to recycle carbon dioxide for a combustion fuel, and production of a fuel that is biodegradable, non-toxic, and has a lower emission profile than petroleum-diesel. Free fatty acid (FFA) esterification and triglyceride (TG) transesterification with low molecular weight alcohols constitute the synthetic routes to prepare biodiesel from lipid feedstocks. This project was aimed at developing a better understanding of important fundamental issues involved in heterogeneous catalyzed biodiesel forming reactions using mainly model compounds, representing part of on-going efforts to build up a rational base for assay, design, and performance optimization of solid acids/bases in biodiesel synthesis. As FFA esterification proceeds, water is continuously formed as a byproduct and affects reaction rates in a negative manner. Using sulfuric acid (as a catalyst) and acetic acid (as a model compound for FFA), the impact of increasing concentrations of water on acid catalysis was investigated. The order of the water effect on reaction rate was determined to be -0.83. Sulfuric acid lost up to 90% activity as the amount of water present increased. The nature of the negative effect of water on esterification was found to go beyond the scope of reverse hydrolysis and was associated with the diminished acid strength of sulfuric acid as a result of the preferential solvation by water molecules of its catalytic protons. The results indicate that as esterification progresses and byproduct water is produced, deactivation of a Bronsted acid catalyst like H2SO4 occurs. Using a solid composite acid (SAC-13) as an example of heterogeneous catalysts and sulfuric acid as a homogeneous reference, similar reaction inhibition by water was demonstrated for homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis. This similarity together with

  6. Analysis of used frying fats for biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobarganes, M. C.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Used frying fats and oils with highly variable and uncontrolled quality are used for the production of biodiesel . The objective of this study was to define the analytical methods useful to obtaining information on the quality of the used frying oils as raw material for biodiesels as well as for the characterization of the biodiesels obtained from them. Twentyfour used frying oils from restaurants and domestic fryers were analyzed before and after transesterification to fatty acid methyl esters (FAME. From a detailed analysis of the samples by means of a combination of adsorption and size exclusion chromatography, the quantitative importance of polymeric compounds was deduced both from the direct analysis of the oils and from their FAME. Excellent linear correlation between polar compounds and polar FAME (R=0.9768 was found. The possibilities of interferences from polar fatty acid in the standard method to determine the ester content are defined. Finally, determination of non-polar FAME by silica column is proposed as a good alternative to the gas chromatography method.Los aceites y grasas de fritura, que se caracterizan por tener una calidad muy variable, se utilizan como material prima para la producción de biodiesel. El objetivo de este estudio es definir la utilidad de los métodos analíticos desarrollados para los aceites y grasas de fritura para caracterizar el biodiesel obtenido. Veinticuatro aceites de fritura procedentes del sector de restauración y de fritura doméstica fueron analizados antes y después de su transesterificación a ésteres metílicos de ácidos grasos. A partir de un análisis detallado mediante cromatografías de adsorción y exclusión, se deduce la importancia cuantitativa de los compuestos de polimerización tanto en el análisis directo de los aceites como en el análisis de los ésteres metílicos. Se encontró una excelente correlación lineal entre los compuestos polares y los ésteres metílicos polares

  7. Determination of the biodiesel content in diesel/biodiesel blends: a method based on fluorescence spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Marisa D; Oliveira, Samuel L; Lima, Sandro M; Andrade, Luis H C; Caires, Anderson R L

    2011-05-01

    Blends of biodiesel and diesel are being used increasingly worldwide because of environmental, economic, and social considerations. Several countries use biodiesel blends with different blending limits. Therefore, it is necessary to develop or improve methods to quantify the biodiesel level in a diesel/biodiesel blend, to ensure compliance with legislation. The optical technique based on the absorption of light in the mid-infrared has been successful for this application. However, this method presents some challenges that must be overcome. In this paper, we propose a novel method, based on fluorescence spectroscopy, to determine the biodiesel content in the diesel/biodiesel blend, which allows in loco measurements by using portable systems. The results showed that this method is both practical and more sensitive than the standard optical method. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

  8. High-tech buildings - Market transformation project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Applications Team

    2001-10-01

    Facility managers and designers know their buildings are energy intensive yet have few techniques to quantify cleanroom energy performance. Benchmarking identifies the energy end uses in a cleanroom. As expected, besides the process loads, which are often very intense, the mechanical systems are the most energy intensive in these buildings. Benchmarking the mechanical systems and components can provide useful information on system and component performance and provide a basis to identify energy-saving opportunities in cleanrooms. HVAC systems in cleanrooms are dramatically different from their counterparts in commercial buildings in terms of reliability, safety requirements, and scale. The design of cleanroom HVAC systems is a specialty area requiring unique understanding of cleanliness guidelines, airflow quantities, room pressurization, code requirements, specialty equipment, tight control, and many more details. The HVAC systems must also operate reliably and safely. Since recirculation air systems use large amounts of fan power in moving large amounts of conditioned air through HEPA filters, the cleanroom, and return pathways they represent one of the largest energy end uses in a cleanroom. In addition, many processes requiring cleanrooms also have large make-up and exhaust airflow needs requiring huge amounts of energy to move and condition the displaced air. Energy intensity for mechanical systems in cleanrooms ranges between 4 to 100 times that of commercial buildings. There is, however, a lack of comparative data on the performance of cleanroom mechanical systems. To better understand existing cleanroom systems in high technology industries, and to better enable building owners, operators, and designers to compare energy use for a given cleanroom to others, it is necessary to benchmark energy performance in such facilities.

  9. Highly Accurate Sensor for High-Purity Oxygen Determination Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this STTR effort, Los Gatos Research (LGR) and the University of Wisconsin (UW) propose to develop a highly-accurate sensor for high-purity oxygen determination....

  10. High regression rate, high density hybrid fuels Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR program will investigate high energy density novel nanofuels combined with high density binders for use with an N2O oxidizer. Terves has developed...

  11. KINETIKA TRANSESTERIFIKASI BIODIESEL JARAK PAGAR

    OpenAIRE

    Buchori Luqman; Budi Sasongko Setia

    2012-01-01

    Biodiesel were produced by trans-etherification of castor oil with alcohol in the presence of NaOH catalyst. Thereaction mechanism and model of castor oil trans-etherification isA + 3B C + 3 DA, B, C, and D were castor oil, alcohol, glycerol, and ester. The reaction rate equation was r=-dCA/dt =k1(CA)(CB)3–k2(CC)(CD)3. In this study was used two measurement method of free fat acid as the rest content ofcastor oil with SNI 01-3555-1998 and AOAC (Association of Analytical Chemist). It found tha...

  12. Synthesis and Tribological Studies of Branched Alcohol Derived Epoxidized Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinggong Ren

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The optimization and kinetics of the ring-opening reaction of an epoxidized biodiesel (epoxidized rapeseed oil methyl ester (EBD with 2-ethyl hexanol (2-EH were studied. The determined optimum conditions were 4:1 2-EH/oil molar ratio, 90 °C, 18 h, and 7 wt % of Amberlyst D001 (dry catalyst; the product’s oxirane oxygen content was 0.081% with 38.32 mm2/s viscosity at 40 °C. The catalyst retained its high catalytic power after recycling five times. Furthermore, the determined non-catalyzed activation energy was 76 kJ·mol−1 and 54 kJ·mol−1 with the D001 resin catalyst. The product’s chemical structure was investigated through FT-IR and 1H NMR. The viscosity, flash point, pour point, and anti-wear properties of the product were improved compared with those of epoxidized biodiesel.

  13. Hydrogen production from biodiesel byproduct by immobilized Enterobacter aerogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jinmi; Lee, Dohoon; Cho, Jinku; Lee, Jeewon; Kim, Sangyong

    2012-01-01

    The recent rapid growth of the biodiesel industry has generated a significant amount of glycerol as a byproduct. As a result, the price of glycerol is currently relatively low, making it an attractive starting material for the production of chemicals with higher values. Crude glycerol can be directly converted through microbial fermentation into various chemicals such as hydrogen. In this study, we optimized immobilization of a facultative hydrogen producing microorganism, Enterobacter aerogenes, with the goal of developing biocatalysts that was appropriate for the continuous hydrogen production from glycerol. Several carriers were tested and agar was found to be the most effective. In addition, it was clearly shown that variables such as the carrier content and cell loading should be controlled for the immobilization of biocatalysts with high hydrogen productivity, stability, and reusability. After optimization of these variables, we were able to obtain reusable biocatalysts that could directly convert the byproduct stream from biodiesel processes into hydrogen in continuous processes.

  14. Microalgae: a new alternative raw material for biodiesel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gouveia, L.; Rosa, F. [Instituto Nacional de Engenharia, Tecnologia e Inovacao -INETI-DER- Unidade Biomassa. Estrada do Paco do Lumiar, 1649-038 Lisboa (Portugal); Melo, A. [Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade de Lisboa, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Medeiros, R. [Universidade Lusofona de Humanidades e Tecnologias, Campo Grande, n. 376, Lisboa (Portugal); Oliveira, A. [Extensao da Escola Superior de Biotecnologia em Caldas da Rainha, Universidade Catolica Portuguesa, Rua Mestre Mateus Fernandes, 2500-237 Caldas da Rainha (Portugal)

    2008-07-01

    Biofuels will play an increasingly important role in diversifying energy supplies to meet the world's growing energy needs. Algae are considered a promising potential feedstock for next-generation biofuels because certain species contain high amounts of oil, which could be extracted, processed and refined into transportation fuels using currently available technology. Other benefits of algae as a potential feedstock are their abundance and fast growth rates. Key technical challenges include identifying the strains with the highest oil content and growth rates and developing cost-effective growing and harvesting methods. In this work, a microalgae screening in terms of oil quantity and composition were done in order to choose the best one as oil source for biodiesel production. Oil extraction procedure was optimized and the oil obtained from each microalgae analyzed in terms of fatty acid profile and of some parameters that can influenced the biodiesel production process and the final product quality.

  15. Bioinformatics projects supporting life-sciences learning in high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Isabel; Almeida, Paulo; Alves, Renato; Dias, Maria João; Godinho, Ana; Pereira-Leal, José B

    2014-01-01

    The interdisciplinary nature of bioinformatics makes it an ideal framework to develop activities enabling enquiry-based learning. We describe here the development and implementation of a pilot project to use bioinformatics-based research activities in high schools, called "Bioinformatics@school." It includes web-based research projects that students can pursue alone or under teacher supervision and a teacher training program. The project is organized so as to enable discussion of key results between students and teachers. After successful trials in two high schools, as measured by questionnaires, interviews, and assessment of knowledge acquisition, the project is expanding by the action of the teachers involved, who are helping us develop more content and are recruiting more teachers and schools.

  16. Bioinformatics projects supporting life-sciences learning in high schools.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Marques

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The interdisciplinary nature of bioinformatics makes it an ideal framework to develop activities enabling enquiry-based learning. We describe here the development and implementation of a pilot project to use bioinformatics-based research activities in high schools, called "Bioinformatics@school." It includes web-based research projects that students can pursue alone or under teacher supervision and a teacher training program. The project is organized so as to enable discussion of key results between students and teachers. After successful trials in two high schools, as measured by questionnaires, interviews, and assessment of knowledge acquisition, the project is expanding by the action of the teachers involved, who are helping us develop more content and are recruiting more teachers and schools.

  17. Evaluating Clustering in Subspace Projections of High Dimensional Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Emmanuel; Günnemann, Stephan; Assent, Ira

    2009-01-01

    Clustering high dimensional data is an emerging research field. Subspace clustering or projected clustering group similar objects in subspaces, i.e. projections, of the full space. In the past decade, several clustering paradigms have been developed in parallel, without thorough evaluation and co...... and create a common baseline for future developments and comparable evaluations in the field. For repeatability, all implementations, data sets and evaluation measures are available on our website....

  18. Portable High Sensitivity and High Resolution Sensor to Determine Oxygen Purity Levels Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this Phase I STTR project is to develop a highly sensitive oxygen (O2) sensor, with high accuracy and precision, to determine purity levels of high...

  19. Process optimization and kinetics of biodiesel production from neem oil using copper doped zinc oxide heterogeneous nanocatalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurunathan, Baskar; Ravi, Aiswarya

    2015-08-01

    Heterogeneous nanocatalyst has become the choice of researchers for better transesterification of vegetable oils to biodiesel. In the present study, transesterification reaction was optimized and kinetics was studied for biodiesel production from neem oil using CZO nanocatalyst. The highly porous and non-uniform surface of the CZO nanocatalyst was confirmed by AFM analysis, which leads to the aggregation of CZO nanoparticles in the form of multi layered nanostructures. The 97.18% biodiesel yield was obtained in 60min reaction time at 55°C using 10% (w/w) CZO nanocatalyst and 1:10 (v:v) oil:methanol ratio. Biodiesel yield of 73.95% was obtained using recycled nanocatalyst in sixth cycle. The obtained biodiesel was confirmed using GC-MS and (1)H NMR analysis. Reaction kinetic models were tested on biodiesel production, first order kinetic model was found fit with experimental data (R(2)=0.9452). The activation energy of 233.88kJ/mol was required for transesterification of neem oil into biodiesel using CZO nanocatalyst. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Biodiesel Production from Residual Palm Oil Contained in Spent Bleaching Earth by In Situ Trans-Esterification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A S Fahmil QRM

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Spent Bleaching Earth (SBE is an industrial solid waste of vegetable oil industry that has a high residual oil to be potentialy converted to biodiesel. This study aims at developing a biodiesel production process technology by utilizing residual palm oil contained in SBE and to test the use of hexane in the trans-esterification process. Optimization process was done by using the Response Surface Method (RSM. The variables studied included catalyst concentration and reaction time. On the other hand, the deoiled SBE resulted from biodiesel production was tested as an adsorbent on biodiesel purification after being reactivated. The method used in the biodiesel production included an in situ acid catalysed esterification followed by in situ base catalysed trans-esterification. The results of RSM showed that the optimum process was obtained at NaOH concentration of 1.8% and reaction time of 104.73 minutes, with a predicted response rate of 97.18% and 95.63% for validation results. The use of hexane could also increase the yield of biodiesel which was obtained on the ratio of hexane to methanol of 0.4:1 (volume of hexane: volume of methanol. On the other hand, the reactivated bleaching earth was effective as an adsorbent in biodiesel production, which was still conform with the Indonesian National Standard.

  1. Improving the economics of biodiesel production through the use of low value lipids as feedstocks. Vegetable oil soapstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, Michael J. [U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Eastern Regional Research Center, 600 East Mermaid Lane, Wyndmoor, PA 19038 (United States)

    2005-06-25

    Semirefined and refined vegetable oils are the predominant feedstocks for the production of biodiesel. However, their relatively high costs render the resulting fuels unable to compete with petroleum-derived fuel. We have investigated the production of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME; biodiesel) from soapstock (SS), a byproduct of edible oil refining that is substantially less expensive than edible-grade refined oils. Multiple approaches were taken in search of a route to the production of fatty acid methyl esters from soybean soapstock. The most effective method involved the complete saponification of the soapstock followed by acidulation using methods similar to those presently employed in industry. This resulted in an acid oil with a free fatty acid (FFA) content greater than 90%. These fatty acids were efficiently converted to methyl esters by acid-catalyzed esterification. The fatty acid composition of the resulting ester product reflected that of soy soapstock and was largely similar to that of soybean oil. Following a simple washing protocol, this preparation met the established specifications for biodiesel of the American Society for Testing and Materials. Engine emissions and performance during operation on soy soapstock biodiesel were comparable to those on biodiesel from soy oil. An economic analysis suggested that the production cost of soapstock biodiesel would be approximately US$ 0.41/l, a 25% reduction relative to the estimated cost of biodiesel produced from soy oil. (author)

  2. Topography improvements in MEMS DMs for high-contrast, high-resolution imaging Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will develop and demonstrate an innovative microfabrication process to substantially improve the surface quality achievable in high-resolution...

  3. Process Simulation of enzymatic biodiesel production -at what cost can biodiesel be made with enzymes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjerbæk Søtoft, Lene; Christensen, Knud Villy; Rong, Benguang

    The industrial production of biodiesel has had a very turbulent lifetime due to drastic changes in prices of raw materials and fossil fuels as well as regulatory changes and produced amounts of biodiesel. Biodiesel production is carried out by various forms of catalysts, but industrially only...... as well as environmental impacts of the alternative process must be evaluated towards the conventional process. With process simulation tools, an evaluation will be carried out looking at what it will cost to produce biodiesel with enzymes. Different scenarios will be taken into account with variations...

  4. Element pollution of exhaust aftertreatment systems by using biodiesel; Elementbelastungen von Abgasnachbehandlungssystemen durch Biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, Hendrik; Wilharm, Thomas [ASG Analytik-Service Gesellschaft mbH, Neusaess (Germany); Winkler, Markus [DEUTZ AG, Koeln (Germany); Knuth, Hans-Walter

    2012-06-15

    Biodiesel is a particularly attractive fuel for agricultural machinery. However, the introduction of new emission standards has made the use of exhaust gas treatment systems in agricultural vehicles essential. The combination of biodiesel and exhaust gas treatment causes problems, because the biodiesel contains traces of inorganic elements. These turn into ash during the combustion process in the engine, which can result in permanent damage to the components of the exhaust gas treatment system. Deutz and ASG have investigated the impact of current grades of biodiesel on the systems in real-life operation. (orig.)

  5. Optimization of biodiesel production process using recycled vegetable oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo, Yarely

    Petro diesel toxic emissions and its limited resources have created an interest for the development of new energy resources, such as biodiesel. Biodiesel is traditionally produced by a transesterification reaction between vegetable oil and an alcohol in the presence of a catalyst. However, this process is slow and expensive due to the high cost of raw materials. Low costs feedstock oils such as recycled and animal fats are available but they cannot be transesterified with alkaline catalysts due to high content of free fatty acids, which can lead to undesirable reactions such as saponification. In this study, we reduce free fatty acids content by using an acid pre-treatment. We compare sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid and ptoluenesulfonic acid (PTSA) to pre-treat recycled vegetable oil. PTSA removes water after 60 minutes of treatment at room temperature or within 15 minutes at 50°C. The pretreatment was followed by a transesterification reaction using alkaline catalyst. To minimize costs and accelerate reaction, the pretreatment and transesterification reaction of recycle vegetable oil was conducted at atmospheric pressure in a microwave oven. Biodiesel was characterized using a GC-MS method.

  6. Oil palm for biodiesel in Brazil—risks and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englund, Oskar; Berndes, Göran; Persson, U. Martin; Sparovek, Gerd

    2015-04-01

    Although mainly used for other purposes, and historically mainly established at the expense of tropical forests, oil palm can be the most land efficient feedstock for biodiesel. Large parts of Brazil are suitable for oil palm cultivation and a series of policy initiatives have recently been launched to promote oil palm production. These initiatives are however highly debated both in the parliament and in academia. Here we present results of a high resolution modelling study of opportunities and risks associated with oil palm production for biodiesel in Brazil, under different energy, policy, and infrastructure scenarios. Oil palm was found to be profitable on extensive areas, including areas under native vegetation where establishment would cause large land use change (LUC) emissions. However, some 40-60 Mha could support profitable biodiesel production corresponding to approximately 10% of the global diesel demand, without causing direct LUC emissions or impinging on protected areas. Pricing of LUC emissions could make oil palm production unprofitable on most lands where conversion would impact on native ecosystems and carbon stocks, if the carbon price is at the level 125/tC, or higher.

  7. High-Efficiency Klystron Design for the CLIC Project

    CERN Document Server

    Mollard, Antoine; Peauger, Franck; Plouin, Juliette; Beunas, Armel; Marchesin, Rodolphe

    2017-01-01

    The CLIC project requests new type of RF sources for the high power conditioning of the accelerating cavities. We are working on the development of a new kind of high-efficiency klystron to fulfill this need. This work is performed under the EuCARD-2 European program and involves theoretical and experimental study of a brand new klystron concept.

  8. Prediction of cold flow properties of Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parag Saxena

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel being environmentally friendly is fast gaining acceptance in the market as an alternate diesel fuel. But compared to petroleum diesel it has certain limitations and thus it requires further development on economic viability and improvement in its properties to use it as a commercial fuel. The cold flow properties play a major role in the usage of biodiesel commercially as it freezes at cold climatic conditions. In the present study, cold flow properties of various types of biodiesel were estimated by using correlations available in literature. The correlations were evaluated based on the deviation between the predicted value and experimental values of cold flow properties.

  9. Biodiesel and Other Renewable Diesel Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2006-11-01

    Present federal tax incentives apply to certain types of biomass-derived diesel fuels, which in energy policy and tax laws are described either as renewable diesel or biodiesel. To understand the distinctions between these diesel types it is necessary to understand the technologies used to produce them and the properties of the resulting products. This fact sheet contains definitions of renewable and biodiesel and discusses the processes used to convert biomass to diesel fuel and the properties of biodiesel and renewable diesel fuels.

  10. In-situ biodiesel and sugar production from rice bran under subcritical condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zullaikah, Siti; Rahkadima, Yulia Tri

    2015-12-01

    An integrated method of producing biodiesel and sugar using subcritical water and methanol has been employed as a potential way to reduce the high cost of single biofuel production from rice bran. The effects of temperature, methanol to water ratio and reaction time on the biodiesel yield and purity, and the concentration of sugar in hydrolysate were investigated systematically. Biodiesel with yield and purity of 65.21%and 73.53%, respectively, was obtained from rice bran with initial free fatty acid (FFA) content of 37.64% under the following conditions: T= 200 oC, P= 4.0 MPa (using CO2 as pressurizing gas), ratio of rice bran/water/methanol of 1/2/6 (g/mL/mL), and 3 h of reaction time. FFAs level was reduced to 10.00% with crude biodiesel recovery of 88.69%. However, the highest biodiesel yield (67.39%) and crude biodiesel recovery (100.00%) were obtained by decreasing the amount of methanol so that the ratio of rice bran/water/methanol became 1/4/4, g/mL/mL. In addition, the highest sugar concentration of 0.98 g/L was obtained at 180 oC and 4.0 MPa with ratio of rice bran/water/methanol of 1/4/4 (g/mL/mL) and reaction time of 3 h. Since no catalyst was employed and the biodiesel and reducing sugar were produced directly from rice bran with high water and FFA contents, the process was simple and environmentally friendly, which would make the production of biofuel more economical and sustainable.

  11. The use of tucuma of Aamazonas kernel oil in the biodiesel production; Aproveitamento do oleo das amendoas de tucuma do Amazonas na producao de biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Banny Silva; Koolen, Hector Henrique Ferreira; Barreto, Andreza Cruz [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil)], e-mail: banny_barbosa@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: hector_ferreira86@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: andrezacb@yahoo.com.br; Silva, Joao Domingos da; Figliuolo, Roberto; Nunomura, Sergio Massayoshi [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA), Manaus, AM (Brazil)], e-mail: jdomingo@inpa.gov.br, e-mail: robfigli@inpa.gov.br, e-mail: smnunomu@inpa.gov.br

    2009-06-15

    The shortage of electricity is a major reason for the low Human Development Index of isolated communities located in the Amazon basin. The biodiesel produced from vegetable oils extracted from oil seeds native species, in a sustainable way, is one of the best alternative energy for the region. The 'tucuma of Amazonas', Astrocaryum aculeatum, is an Amazon palm tree that produces a much appreciated fruit in the region, from which it obtains kernels that have high content in oil. In this study, we evaluated the production of ethyl biodiesel, from different batches of oil obtained from 'tucuma of Amazonas' kernels with high and low acidity by the transesterification process acidic and basic catalysis, respectively. Different acid catalysts (HCl and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) and concentrations of each acid (from 0.0625 to 1.000 M) were tested, with ethanol at molar ratio of 1:6 at 90 deg C for 24 h. In the basic catalysis, NaOH and KOH were tested at the concentration range of 0.5 to 2.0 % with anhydrous ethanol with molar ratio 1:12 and the reactions took place at 80 deg C for 2 h. The conversion into biodiesel and its quality was analyzed by means reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and specific gravity. Chromatographic analysis indicated that the best conversions were achieved by samples of biodiesel with lowest specific gravity (0.87 g.cm-1). The samples of biodiesel with best quality were obtained with acid catalysis at 1.0 M with yield above 90 %. In the basic catalysis, it could be obtained biodiesel with good quality with NaOH at 2.0 %, but at lower yields. However in both types of catalysis, it was possible to identify an excellent potential for the production of this important biofuel from tucuma kernel oil. (author)

  12. Biodiesel production by two-stage transesterification with ethanol by washing with neutral water and water saturated with carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendow, G; Veizaga, N S; Sánchez, B S; Querini, C A

    2012-08-01

    Industrial production of ethyl esters is impeded by difficulties in purifying the product due to high amounts of soap formed during transesterification. A simple biodiesel wash process was developed that allows successful purification of samples containing high amounts of soap. The key step was a first washing with neutral water, which removed the soaps without increasing the acidity or affecting the process yield. Afterward, the biodiesel was washed with water saturated with CO(2), a mild acid that neutralized the remaining soaps and extracted impurities. The acidity, free-glycerine, methanol and soaps concentrations were reduced to very low levels with high efficiency, and using non-corrosive acids. Independently of the initial acidity, it was possible to obtain biodiesel within EN14214 specifications. The process included the recovery of soaps by hydrolysis and esterification, making it possible to obtain the theoretical maximum amount of biodiesel.

  13. Biodiesel production from microalgal isolates of southern Pakistan and quantification of FAMEs by GC-MS/MS analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musharraf Syed

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microalgae have attracted major interest as a sustainable source for biodiesel production on commercial scale. This paper describes the screening of six microalgal species, Scenedesmus quadricauda, Scenedesmus acuminatus, Nannochloropsis sp., Anabaena sp., Chlorella sp. and Oscillatoria sp., isolated from fresh and marine water resources of southern Pakistan for biodiesel production and the GC-MS/MS analysis of their fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs. Results Growth rate, biomass productivity and oil content of each algal species have been investigated under autotrophic condition. Biodiesel was produced from algal oil by acid catalyzed transesterification reaction and resulting fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs content was analyzed by GC/MS. Fatty acid profiling of the biodiesel, obtained from various microalgal oils showed high content of C-16:0, C-18:0, cis-Δ9C-18:1, cis-Δ11C-18:1 (except Scenedesmus quadricauda and 10-hydroxyoctadecanoic (except Scenedesmus acuminatus. Absolute amount of C-14:0, C-16:0 and C-18:0 by a validated GC-MS/MS method were found to be 1.5-1.7, 15.0-42.5 and 4.2-18.4 mg/g, respectively, in biodiesel obtained from various microalgal oils. Biodiesel was also characterized in terms of cetane number, kinematic viscosity, density and higher heating value and compared with the standard values. Conclusion Six microalgae of local origin were screened for biodiesel production. A method for absolute quantification of three important saturated fatty acid methyl esters (C-14, C-16 and C-18 by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS, using multiple reactions monitoring (MRM mode, was employed for the identification and quantification of biodiesels obtained from various microalgal oils. The results suggested that locally found microalgae can be sustainably harvested for the production of biodiesel. This offers the tremendous economic opportunity for an energy-deficient nation.

  14. High Temperature, High Frequency Fuel Metering Valve Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Active Signal Technologies and its subcontractor Moog propose to develop a high-frequency actuator driven valve intended to achieve TRL 6 by the end of Phase II....

  15. Very-High Efficiency, High Power Laser Diodes Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AdTech Photonics, in collaboration with the Center for Advanced Studies in Photonics Research (CASPR) at UMBC, is pleased to submit this proposal entitled ?Very-High...

  16. High Accuracy, Miniature Pressure Sensor for Very High Temperatures Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SiWave proposes to develop a compact, low-cost MEMS-based pressure sensor for very high temperatures and low pressures in hypersonic wind tunnels. Most currently...

  17. Technical difficulties and solutions of direct transesterification process of microbial oil for biodiesel synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousuf, Abu; Khan, Maksudur Rahman; Islam, M Amirul; Wahid, Zularisam Ab; Pirozzi, Domenico

    2017-01-01

    Microbial oils are considered as alternative to vegetable oils or animal fats as biodiesel feedstock. Microalgae and oleaginous yeast are the main candidates of microbial oil producers' community. However, biodiesel synthesis from these sources is associated with high cost and process complexity. The traditional transesterification method includes several steps such as biomass drying, cell disruption, oil extraction and solvent recovery. Therefore, direct transesterification or in situ transesterification, which combines all the steps in a single reactor, has been suggested to make the process cost effective. Nevertheless, the process is not applicable for large-scale biodiesel production having some difficulties such as high water content of biomass that makes the reaction rate slower and hurdles of cell disruption makes the efficiency of oil extraction lower. Additionally, it requires high heating energy in the solvent extraction and recovery stage. To resolve these difficulties, this review suggests the application of antimicrobial peptides and high electric fields to foster the microbial cell wall disruption.

  18. Metodologia analítica para quantificar o teor de biodiesel na mistura biodiesel: diesel utilizando espectroscopia na região do infravermelho Determination of biodiesel percentage in biodiesel: diesel mixtures using mid-infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian Lefol Nani Guarieiro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Considered the best substitute for diesel, biodiesel can be blended with diesel in any ratio, bringing lots of environmental, economic and social advantages. Brazilian law Nº 11097/2005, proposes the introduction of biodiesel in to the Brazilian energy matrix, mixed with diesel at a minimum percentage of 2%. For consumers and sellers to be sure that the commercialized mixture of biodiesel:diesel contains the correct percentage, it is necessary to develop analytical methodologies to quantify the amount of biodiesel added. This work presents a fast, low-cost and simple methodology to determine the biodiesel proportion in mixtures of biodiesel:diesel, based on infrared spectroscopy.

  19. Calcium oxide based catalysts for biodiesel production: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesić Željka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable oils are mainly esters of fatty acids and glycerol, which can be converted to fatty acid methyl esters (FAME, also known as biodiesel, by the transesterification reaction with methanol. In order to attain environmental benignity, a large attention has been focused in the last decades on utilizing heterogeneous catalysts for biodiesel production instead the homogenously catalyzed transesterification of vegetable oil. The pure CaO or CaO mixed with some other metal oxide due to its low solubility in methanol, FAME and glycerol, low cost and availability is one of the most promising among the proposed heterogeneous catalysts. Solid catalysts which contain CaO usually fulfill a number of important requirements, such as high activity at mild temperature, marginal leaching of Ca cations, long life activity, reusability in transesterification of vegetable oil and easy recovery from the final products of transesterification (FAME and glycerol. This review is focused to the recent application of pure CaO or CaO in complex catalyst structure and their use as heterogeneous base catalysts for biodiesel synthesis and suitability for industrial application. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 45001

  20. MCFC integrated system in a biodiesel production process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbani, F.; Freni, S.; Galvagno, A.; Chiodo, V.

    2011-03-01

    The continuous increasing in biodiesel production by transesterification process is leading to an excess of glycerol production as a byproduct. The utilization of this huge amount of glycerol appears as a not easy solvable problem and thus several authors have proposed alternative ways. The integration of the main production process with a glycerol feed molten carbonate fuel cells bottoming cycle, to satisfy plant energy requirements, seems to be one of the most promising one. The proposed paper reports the main results obtained by authors in the framework of an investigation on a possible use of glycerol as energy sources for a real pilot plant for biodiesel production. An overall evaluation of worldwide biodiesel production plants was made and especially about the production capacity in European Union in the last decade. To make a more detailed study, authors were taken into account a real production plant. After a preliminary step, purported to plant mass and energy flows determination, authors considered the integration of a bottoming cycle based on: (i) steam reforming of glycerol for syn-gas production; (ii) molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) system supplied by syn-gas for heat and electricity production. A mathematical model, based on experimental data, has been developed to calculate mass and energy balances for the proposed plant lay-out as well as plant energy efficiency enhancement has been determined. Results have evidenced the feasibility of this process and demonstrated that plant integrated with bottoming cycle can reach a very high level of energy self-production.

  1. Preparation of Biodiesel from Microalgae and Palm Oil by Direct Transesterification in a Batch Microwave Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwan; Suhendrayatna; Indarti, E.

    2015-06-01

    The present work was aimed to study the so-called direct transesterification of microalgae lipids to biodiesel in a batch microwave reactor. As a comparison, preparation of palm oil to biodiesel by alkaline catalyzed ethanolysis was also carried out. Palm oil biodiesel was recovered close to an equilibrium conversion (94-96% yield) under microwave heating for at least 6 min, while the conventional method required more than 45 minutes reaching the same yield. A very short reaction time suggests the benefit of microwave effect over conventional heating method in making biodiesel. FTIR analysis revealed the presence of fatty acid ethyl esters with no undesired chemical groups or compounds formed due to local heat generated by microwave effect, thus the conversion only followed transesterification route. Oil containing microalgae of Chlorella sp. isolated from the local brackish water pond was used as a potential source of biodiesel. High yield of biodiesel (above 0.6 g/g of dried algae) was also attainable for the direct transesterification of microalgae in the microwave reactor. Effect of water content of the algae biomass became insignificant at 11.9%(w/w) or less, related to the algae biomass dried for longer than 6 h. Fast transesterification of the algal oil towards equilibrium conversion was obtained at reaction time of 6 min, and at longer times the biodiesel yield remains unchanged. FAME profile indicates unsaturated fatty acids as major constituents. It was shown that microwave irradiation contributes not only to enhance the transeseterification, but also to assist effective release of fatty acid containing molecules (e.g. triacylglycerol, free fatty acids and phospholipids) from algal cells.

  2. From the Cover: Environmental, economic, and energetic costs and benefits of biodiesel and ethanol biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Jason; Nelson, Erik; Tilman, David; Polasky, Stephen; Tiffany, Douglas

    2006-07-01

    Negative environmental consequences of fossil fuels and concerns about petroleum supplies have spurred the search for renewable transportation biofuels. To be a viable alternative, a biofuel should provide a net energy gain, have environmental benefits, be economically competitive, and be producible in large quantities without reducing food supplies. We use these criteria to evaluate, through life-cycle accounting, ethanol from corn grain and biodiesel from soybeans. Ethanol yields 25% more energy than the energy invested in its production, whereas biodiesel yields 93% more. Compared with ethanol, biodiesel releases just 1.0%, 8.3%, and 13% of the agricultural nitrogen, phosphorus, and pesticide pollutants, respectively, per net energy gain. Relative to the fossil fuels they displace, greenhouse gas emissions are reduced 12% by the production and combustion of ethanol and 41% by biodiesel. Biodiesel also releases less air pollutants per net energy gain than ethanol. These advantages of biodiesel over ethanol come from lower agricultural inputs and more efficient conversion of feedstocks to fuel. Neither biofuel can replace much petroleum without impacting food supplies. Even dedicating all U.S. corn and soybean production to biofuels would meet only 12% of gasoline demand and 6% of diesel demand. Until recent increases in petroleum prices, high production costs made biofuels unprofitable without subsidies. Biodiesel provides sufficient environmental advantages to merit subsidy. Transportation biofuels such as synfuel hydrocarbons or cellulosic ethanol, if produced from low-input biomass grown on agriculturally marginal land or from waste biomass, could provide much greater supplies and environmental benefits than food-based biofuels. corn | soybean | life-cycle accounting | agriculture | fossil fuel

  3. Environmental, economic, and energetic costs and benefits of biodiesel and ethanol biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Jason; Nelson, Erik; Tilman, David; Polasky, Stephen; Tiffany, Douglas

    2006-07-25

    Negative environmental consequences of fossil fuels and concerns about petroleum supplies have spurred the search for renewable transportation biofuels. To be a viable alternative, a biofuel should provide a net energy gain, have environmental benefits, be economically competitive, and be producible in large quantities without reducing food supplies. We use these criteria to evaluate, through life-cycle accounting, ethanol from corn grain and biodiesel from soybeans. Ethanol yields 25% more energy than the energy invested in its production, whereas biodiesel yields 93% more. Compared with ethanol, biodiesel releases just 1.0%, 8.3%, and 13% of the agricultural nitrogen, phosphorus, and pesticide pollutants, respectively, per net energy gain. Relative to the fossil fuels they displace, greenhouse gas emissions are reduced 12% by the production and combustion of ethanol and 41% by biodiesel. Biodiesel also releases less air pollutants per net energy gain than ethanol. These advantages of biodiesel over ethanol come from lower agricultural inputs and more efficient conversion of feedstocks to fuel. Neither biofuel can replace much petroleum without impacting food supplies. Even dedicating all U.S. corn and soybean production to biofuels would meet only 12% of gasoline demand and 6% of diesel demand. Until recent increases in petroleum prices, high production costs made biofuels unprofitable without subsidies. Biodiesel provides sufficient environmental advantages to merit subsidy. Transportation biofuels such as synfuel hydrocarbons or cellulosic ethanol, if produced from low-input biomass grown on agriculturally marginal land or from waste biomass, could provide much greater supplies and environmental benefits than food-based biofuels.

  4. Enzymatic biodiesel production: Technical and economical considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk Nielsen, Per; Brask, Jesper; Fjerbæk, Lene

    2008-01-01

    It is well documented in the literature that enzymatic processing of oils and fats for biodiesel is technically feasible. However, with very few exceptions, enzyme technology is not currently used in commercial-scale biodiesel production. This is mainly due to non-optimized process design...... and a lack of available costeffective enzymes. The technology to re-use enzymes has typically proven insufficient for the processes to be competitive. However, literature data documenting the productivity of enzymatic biodiesel together with the development of new immobilization technology indicates...... that enzyme catalysts can become cost effective compared to chemical processing. This work reviews the enzymatic processing of oils and fats into biodiesel with focus on process design and economy....

  5. Sustainable Future for Biodiesel in Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Maria Amélia de Paula

    This thesis aims to study alternatives to biodiesel industry in Brazil, for 2030, taking in account the sustainability dimensions, namely economic, environmental, ecological, social, national and international politics, territorial, cultural, and technological, through the development of scenarios...... for agriculture and pasture. Thus, a simulation, using linear programming models, was made in order to verify the alternatives of feedstock to produce biodiesel. It was observed that it is possible to decentralize the market, reduce land use, and regionalize production, making better use of the availability...... to identify the driving forces to develop the scenario storylines. This proposition was tested in an in-depth interview with the biodiesel market stakeholders. Based on the findings of the two approaches, the simulations and the interviews, it was possible to obtain future alternatives, where the biodiesel...

  6. ANALYSIS OF COCONUT ETHYL ESTER (BIODIESEL) AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ANALYSIS OF COCONUT ETHYL ESTER (BIODIESEL) AND FOSSIL DIESEL BLENDING: PROPERTIES AND CORROSION CHARACTERISTICS. ... resulting coconut oil ethyl ester (COEE) was blended with fossil diesel (B0). ... Article Metrics.

  7. Survey of alternative feedstocks for biodiesel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summarized will be results obtained from the production of biodiesel from several alternative feedstocks with promising agronomic characteristics. Such feedstocks include camelina (Camelina sativa L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.), and meadowfoam (Limnanth...

  8. HALLIBURTON SPERRY-SUN DOE HIGH TEMPERATURE LWD PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald L. Spross

    2005-03-15

    The objective of this project was to build a high temperature, cost-effective, logging while drilling (HT-LWD) system with the ability to operate at 175 C with more than 100 hours mean time between failures (MTBF). Such a commercial real-time formation evaluation (FE) system would help operators to drill and produce hydrocarbon resources from moderately deep, hot reservoirs which otherwise might be uneconomic to drill. The project plan was to combine the existing Sperry-Sun high temperature directional and gamma logging system with lower temperature FE sensors which were upgraded to higher temperature operation as part of the project. The project was to be completed in two phases. Phase I included the development of the HT system, building two complete systems, demonstrating operational capability at 175 C and survivability at 200 C in the laboratory, and successfully testing the system in two low temperature field tests. Phase II was to test the system in a well with a bottom hole temperature of 175 C. The high temperature FE sensors developed as part of this project include gamma ray (DGR), resistivity (EWR-Phase 4), neutron (CTN), and density (SLD). The existing high temperature pulser and telemetry system was upgraded to accommodate the data and bandwidth requirements of the additional sensors. Environmental and lifetime testing of system components and modules indicates that system life and reliability goals will be substantially exceeded. The system has performed well in domestic and international high temperature wells (to 175 C). In addition to the sensor modules specified in the project contract, Sperry has now upgraded other system components to higher temperature as well. These include a LWD sonic sensor (BAT), pressure while drilling sensor (PWD), and a more powerful central system controller (CIM).

  9. Biodiesel production and Environmental CO2 cleanup using Oleaginous Microorganisms from Al-Hassa area in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sinawi, Abdulaziz; Shathele, Mohammad

    2014-12-01

    Biodiesel production is rapidly moving towards the mainstream as an alternative source of energy. Algae oil is one of the viable feed stocks among others to produce Biodiesel. However the difficulties in efficient biodiesel production from algae lie not in the extraction of the oil, but in finding an algal strain with a high lipid content and fast growth rate. This paper presents an experimental work performed to study the production of biodiesel from local algae strains in Al-Hassa territory of the eastern province in Saudi Arabia which was found to contain high lipid contents and show rapid growth. The collected results predict that those types of desert algae are promising and are considered to be a potential feedstock for biofuels.

  10. A case study of real-world tailpipe emissions for school buses using a 20% biodiesel blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoleni, Claudio; Kuhns, Hampden D; Moosmüller, Hans; Witt, Jay; Nussbaum, Nicholas J; Oliver Chang, M-C; Parthasarathy, Gayathri; Nathagoundenpalayam, Suresh Kumar K; Nikolich, George; Watson, John G

    2007-10-15

    Numerous laboratory studies report carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter emission reductions with a slight nitrogen oxides emission increase from engines operating with biodiesel and biodiesel blends as compared to using petroleum diesel. We conducted a field study on a fleet of school buses to evaluate the effects of biodiesel use on gaseous and particulate matter fuel-based emission factors under real-world conditions. The field experiment was carried out in two phases during winter 2004. In January (phase I), emissions from approximately 200 school buses operating on petroleum diesel were measured. Immediately after the end of the first phase measurement period, the buses were switched to a 20% biodiesel blend. Emission factors were measured again in March 2004 (phase II) and compared with the January emission factors. To measure gaseous emission factors we used a commercial gaseous remote sensor. Particulate matter emission factors were determined with a combination of the gaseous remote sensor, a Lidar (light detection and ranging), and transmissometer system developed at the Desert Research Institute of Reno, NV, U.S.A. Particulate matter emissions from school buses significantly increased (up to a factor of 1.8) after the switch from petroleum diesel to a 20% biodiesel blend. The fuel used during this campaign was provided by a local distributor and was independently analyzed at the end of the on-road experiment. The analysis found high concentrations of free glycerin and reduced flash points in the B 100 parent fuel. Both measures indicate improper separation and processing of the biodiesel product during production. The biodiesel fuels used in the school buses were not in compliance with the U.S.A. ASTM D6751 biodiesel standard that was finalized in December of 2001. The U.S.A. National Biodiesel Board has formed a voluntary National Biodiesel Accreditation Program for producers and marketers of biodiesel to ensure product quality and

  11. Production of Biodiesel by Enzymatic Transesterification: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel E. Ghaly

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: The research on the production of biodiesel has increased significantly in recent years because of the need for an alternative fuel which endows with biodegradability, low toxicity and renewability. Plant oils, animal fats, microalgal oils and waste products such as animal rendering, fish processing waste and cooking oils have been employed as feedstocks for biodiesel production. In order to design an economically and environmentally sustainable biodiesel production process, a proper understanding of the factors affecting the process and their relative importance is necessary. Approach: A comprehensive review of the literature on the subject of biodiesel production was carried out. Traditionally biodiesel has been produced using either acid or base catalysts. The multi-step purification of end products, wastewater treatment and energy demand of the conventional process has lead to search for alternative option for production of biodiesel. The use the enzyme lipase as a biocatalyst for the transesterification reaction step in biodiesel production has been extensively investigated. Lipase is produced by all living organisms and can be used intracellularly or extracellularly. Conclusion: To date, the most popular microbes used for their lipases have been filamentous fungi and recombinant bacteria. A summary of lipases used in transesterification and their optimum operating conditions is provided. In addition to the choice of lipase employed, factors which make the transesterification process feasible and ready for commercialization are: enzyme modification, the selection of feedstock and alcohol, use of common solvents, pretreatment of the lipase, alcohol to oil molar ratio, water activity/content and reaction temperature. Optimization of these parameters is necessary in order to reduce the cost of biodiesel production. Use of no/low cost waste materials as feedstocks will have double environmental benefits by reducing the

  12. Microbial degradation of palm (Elaeis guineensis) biodiesel

    OpenAIRE

    Giselle Lutz; Max Chavarría; María Laura Arias; Mata-Segreda, Julio F.

    2014-01-01

    The kinetics of biodegradation of palm-derived fatty methyl and ethyl esters (Elaeis guineensis biodiesel) by a wild-type aerobic bacterial population was measured at 20 °C, as the rate of oxygen uptake by a manometric technique. The methyl and ethyl biodiesels were obtained by potassium-hydroxide catalysed transesterification of palm oil, respectively. The bacterial flora included the genera Bacillus, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Citrobacter and Enterobacter. The rate of oxygen uptake for palm biod...

  13. VERTICAL LINEAR PROJECT SCHEDULING FOR HIGH-RISE BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlker ÖZDEMİR

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an application to high-rise buildings of VPM (Vertical Production Method and an example will be given which is composition of two distinct and preferable methods are CPM (Critical Path Method that is prefering against traditional Bar-Charts or schedules especially in big and costly investments and LOB (Line of Balance technique that is suitable for using in linear project planning. Thus, it could be expected that to show the way of the method to designer and manufacturer about subjects which are activity, priority and sequencing of high-rise project, speeds of activity and construction, completion times, to add or take out some terms to schedule at the state of project changing.

  14. St. Louis Metro Biodiesel (B20) Transit Bus Evaluation: 12-Month Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnitt, R.; McCormick, R. L.; Lammert, M.

    2008-07-01

    The St. Louis Metro Bodiesel Transit Bus Evaluation project is being conducted under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement between NREL and the National Biodiesel Board to evaluate the extended in-use performance of buses operating on B20 fuel. The objective of this research project is to compare B20 and ultra-low sulfur diesel buses in terms of fuel economy, veicles maintenance, engine performance, component wear, and lube oil performance.

  15. Evaluation of the potential of 9 Nannochloropsis strains for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yubin; Wang, Zhiyao; Yu, Changjiang; Yin, Yehu; Zhou, Gongke

    2014-09-01

    Nannochloropsis have attracted sustained interest from algal biodiesel researchers due to their high biomass accumulation rate and high lipid content. There are six recognized species in the Nannochloropsis genus that are phylogenetically divided into Nannochloropsis gaditana, Nannochloropsis salina, Nannochloropsis granulata, Nannochloropsis limnetica, Nannochloropsis oceanica and Nannochloropsis oculata. In this study, the potential of 9 Nannochloropsis species from the 6 genus for biodiesel production was evaluated by determining their growth rate, biomass accumulation, lipid productivity, lipid composition, fatty acid profiles and biodiesel properties. The results showed that the best strain was N. oceanica IMET1, with lipid productivity of 158.76 ± 13.83 mg L(-1)day(-1), TAG production of 1.67 ± 0.20 g/L, favorable fatty acid profiles of C16-C18 (56.62 ± 1.96%) as well as suitable biodiesel properties of higher cetane number (54.61 ± 0.25), lower iodine number (104.85 ± 2.80 g I2/100g) and relative low cloud point (3.45 ± 0.50°C). N. oceanica IMET1 could be consider as valuable feedstock for microalgal biodiesel production.

  16. A packed bed membrane reactor for production of biodiesel using activated carbon supported catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroutian, Saeid; Aroua, Mohamed K; Raman, Abdul Aziz A; Sulaiman, Nik M N

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a novel continuous reactor has been developed to produce high quality methyl esters (biodiesel) from palm oil. A microporous TiO2/Al2O3 membrane was packed with potassium hydroxide catalyst supported on palm shell activated carbon. The central composite design (CCD) of response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to investigate the effects of reaction temperature, catalyst amount and cross flow circulation velocity on the production of biodiesel in the packed bed membrane reactor. The highest conversion of palm oil to biodiesel in the reactor was obtained at 70 °C employing 157.04 g catalyst per unit volume of the reactor and 0.21 cm/s cross flow circulation velocity. The physical and chemical properties of the produced biodiesel were determined and compared with the standard specifications. High quality palm oil biodiesel was produced by combination of heterogeneous alkali transesterification and separation processes in the packed bed membrane reactor. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Pilot-scale production of biodiesel from waste fats and oils using tetramethylammonium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šánek, Lubomír; Pecha, Jiří; Kolomazník, Karel; Bařinová, Michaela

    2016-02-01

    Annually, a great amount of waste fats and oils not suitable for human consumption or which cannot be further treated are produced around the world. A potential way of utilizing this low-cost feedstock is its conversion into biodiesel. The majority of biodiesel production processes today are based on the utilization of inorganic alkali catalysts. However, it has been proved that an organic base - tetramethylammonium hydroxide - can be used as a very efficient transesterification catalyst. Furthermore, it can be employed for the esterification of free fatty acids - reducing even high free fatty acid contents to the required level in just one step. The work presented herein, is focused on biodiesel production from waste frying oils and animal fats using tetramethylammonium hydroxide at the pilot-plant level. The results showed that the process performance in the pilot unit - using methanol and TMAH as a catalyst, is comparable to the laboratory procedure, even when the biodiesel is produced from waste vegetable oils or animal fats with high free fatty acid content. The reaction conditions were set at: 1.5% w/w of TMAH, reaction temperature 65°C, the feedstock to methanol molar ratio to 1:6, and the reaction time to 120min. The conversion of triglycerides to FAME was approximately 98%. The cloud point of the biodiesel obtained from waste animal fat was also determined.

  18. Perspectives of microbial oils for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Du, Wei; Liu, Dehua

    2008-10-01

    Biodiesel has become more attractive recently because of its environmental benefits, and the fact that it is made from renewable resources. Generally speaking, biodiesel is prepared through transesterification of vegetable oils or animal fats with short chain alcohols. However, the lack of oil feedstocks limits the large-scale development of biodiesel to some extent. Recently, much attention has been paid to the development of microbial, oils and it has been found that many microorganisms, such as algae, yeast, bacteria, and fungi, have the ability to accumulate oils under some special cultivation conditions. Compared to other plant oils, microbial oils have many advantages, such as short life cycle, less labor required, less affection by venue, season and climate, and easier to scale up. With the rapid expansion of biodiesel, microbial oils might become one of potential oil feedstocks for biodiesel production in the future, though there are many works associated with microorganisms producing oils need to be carried out further. This review is covering the related research about different oleaginous microorganisms producing oils, and the prospects of such microbial oils used for biodiesel production are also discussed.

  19. Butter as a feedstock for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Michael J; Adawi, Nadia; Berry, William W; Feldman, Elaine; Kasprzyk, Stephen; Ratigan, Brian; Scott, Karen; Landsburg, Emily Bockian

    2010-07-14

    Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) were produced from cow's milk (Bostaurus) butter by esterification/transesterification in the presence of methanol. The product was assayed according to the Standard Specification for Biodiesel Fuel Blend Stock (B100) for Middle Distillate Fuels (ASTM D 6751). The preparation failed to meet the specifications for flash point, free and total glycerin contents, total sulfur, and oxidation stability. Failures to meet the flash point and free/total glycerin specifications were determined to be due to interference with standard assays for these parameters by short-chain-length fatty acid esters. The oxidation stability of the butterfat FAME was improved by supplementation with a commercial antioxidant formulation. Approximately 725 ppm of antioxidant was required to meet the ASTM-specified stability value for biodiesel. This work indicates that, without further purification to reduce a slightly excessive sulfur content, fatty acid ester preparations produced from butter are unacceptable as sole components of a biodiesel fuel. However, it is possible that even without further purification a butter-based ester preparation could be mixed with biodiesel from other feedstocks to produce a blend that meets the current quality standards for biodiesel. The results presented here also illustrate some potential weaknesses in the accepted methods for biodiesel characterization when employed in the analysis of FAME preparations containing mid- and short-chain fatty acid esters.

  20. Oxidative stability of biodiesel from soybean oil fatty acid ethyl esters Estabilidade oxidativa de biodiesel de ésteres etílicos de ácidos graxos de soja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseli Ap. Ferrari

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel consists of long-chain fatty acid esters, derived from renewable sources such as vegetable oils, and its utilization is associated to the substitution of the diesel oil in engines. Depending on the raw material, biodiesel can contain more or less unsaturated fatty acids in its composition, which are susceptible to oxidation reactions accelerated by exposition to oxygen and high temperatures, being able to change into polymerized compounds. The objective of this work was to determine the oxidative stability of biodiesel produced by ethanolysis of neutralized, refined, soybean frying oil waste, and partially hydrogenated soybean frying oil waste. The evaluation was conducted by means of the Rancimat® equipment, at temperatures of 100 and 105ºC, with an air flow of 20 L h-1. The fatty acid composition was determined by GC and the iodine value was calculated. It was observed that even though the neutralized, refined and waste frying soybean oils presented close comparable iodine values, biodiesel presented different oxidative stabilities. The biodiesel from neutralized soybean oil presented greater stability, followed by the refined and the frying waste. Due to the natural antioxidants in its composition, the neutralized soybean oil promoted a larger oxidative stability of the produced biodiesel. During the deodorization process, the vegetable oils lose part of these antioxidants, therefore the biodiesel from refined soybean oil presented a reduced stability. The thermal process degrades the antioxidants, thus the biodiesel from frying waste oil resulted in lower stability, the same occuring with the biodiesel from partially hydrogenated waste oil, even though having lower iodine values than the other.Biodiesel consiste em ésteres de ácidos graxos de cadeia longa, proveniente de fontes renováveis como óleos vegetais, e sua utilização está associada à substituição do diesel em motores. Dependendo da matéria-prima, o biodiesel

  1. The effect of biodiesel policies on world biodiesel and oilseed prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drabik, D.; Gorter, de H.; Timilsina, G.R.

    2014-01-01

    A theoretical and empirical model is developed to analyze the effect of a biodiesel mandate, a tax exemption (tax credit) and an exogenous diesel price shock on world soybean and canola markets. The jointness in crushing oil and meal from the oilseed reduces the size of the link between biodiesel

  2. The effect of biodiesel policies on world biodiesel and oilseed prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drabik, D.; Gorter, de H.; Timilsina, G.R.

    2014-01-01

    A theoretical and empirical model is developed to analyze the effect of a biodiesel mandate, a tax exemption (tax credit) and an exogenous diesel price shock on world soybean and canola markets. The jointness in crushing oil and meal from the oilseed reduces the size of the link between biodiesel an

  3. Optimisation of integrated biodiesel production. Part I. A study of the biodiesel purity and yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Gemma; Martínez, Mercedes; Aracil, José

    2007-07-01

    This study consists of the development and optimisation of the potassium hydroxide-catalysed synthesis of fatty acid methyl esters (biodiesel) from sunflower oil. A factorial design of experiments and a central composite design have been used. The variables chosen were temperature, initial catalyst concentration by weight of sunflower oil and the methanol:vegetable oil molar ratio, while the responses were biodiesel purity and yield. The initial catalyst concentration is the most important factor, having a positive influence on biodiesel purity, but a negative one on biodiesel yield. Temperature has a significant positive effect on biodiesel purity and a significant negative influence on biodiesel yield. The methanol:vegetable oil molar ratio is only significant for the biodiesel purity, having a positive influence. Second-order models were obtained to predict biodiesel purity and yield as a function of these variables. The best conditions are 25 degrees C, a 1.3%wt for the catalyst concentration and a 6:1 methanol:sunflower oil molar ratio.

  4. High Performance Computing tools for the Integrated Tokamak Modelling project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillerminet, B., E-mail: bernard.guillerminet@cea.f [Association Euratom-CEA sur la Fusion, IRFM, DSM, CEA Cadarache (France); Plasencia, I. Campos [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria (IFCA), CSIC, Santander (Spain); Haefele, M. [Universite Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg (France); Iannone, F. [EURATOM/ENEA Fusion Association, Frascati (Italy); Jackson, A. [University of Edinburgh (EPCC) (United Kingdom); Manduchi, G. [EURATOM/ENEA Fusion Association, Padova (Italy); Plociennik, M. [Poznan Supercomputing and Networking Center (PSNC) (Poland); Sonnendrucker, E. [Universite Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg (France); Strand, P. [Chalmers University of Technology (Sweden); Owsiak, M. [Poznan Supercomputing and Networking Center (PSNC) (Poland)

    2010-07-15

    Fusion Modelling and Simulation are very challenging and the High Performance Computing issues are addressed here. Toolset for jobs launching and scheduling, data communication and visualization have been developed by the EUFORIA project and used with a plasma edge simulation code.

  5. Extremely high-power tongue projection in plethodontid salamanders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deban, S.M.; O'Reilly, J.C.; Dicke, U.; Leeuwen, van J.L.

    2007-01-01

    Many plethodontid salamanders project their tongues ballistically at high speed and for relatively great distances. Capturing evasive prey relies on the tongue reaching the target in minimum time, therefore it is expected that power production, or the rate of energy release, is maximized during tong

  6. High Resolution Digital Imaging of Paintings: The Vasari Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Kirk

    1991-01-01

    Describes VASARI (the Visual Art System for Archiving and Retrieval of Images), a project funded by the European Community to show the feasibility of high resolution colormetric imaging directly from paintings. The hardware and software used in the system are explained, storage on optical disks is described, and initial results are reported. (five…

  7. The influence of temperature on the rheology of biodiesel and on the biodiesel-glycerin-ethanol blend - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v34i1.8067

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés José Cocato Steluti

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available After transesterification reaction, biodiesel and glycerin (the resulting co-product, coupled to reaction excesses and impurities, make up two distinct phases that must be separated. The use of ethanol as a transesterificating agent impairs the above-mentioned separation due to the greater affinity of ethyl esters (biodiesel from ethanol to glycerin. Current research provides an analysis of the influence of temperature on the rheology of biodiesel and the bio-diesel-glycerin-ethanol blend. Rheology behavior is highly important not merely in issues involving, for instance, discharging and pumping, but also as a factor that should be evaluated within the process of separation of the biodiesel-glycerin phases by decantation and centrifugation.

  8. Radio Synthesis Imaging - A High Performance Computing and Communications Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutcher, Richard M.

    The National Science Foundation has funded a five-year High Performance Computing and Communications project at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) for the direct implementation of several of the computing recommendations of the Astronomy and Astrophysics Survey Committee (the "Bahcall report"). This paper is a summary of the project goals and a progress report. The project will implement a prototype of the next generation of astronomical telescope systems - remotely located telescopes connected by high-speed networks to very high performance, scalable architecture computers and on-line data archives, which are accessed by astronomers over Gbit/sec networks. Specifically, a data link has been installed between the BIMA millimeter-wave synthesis array at Hat Creek, California and NCSA at Urbana, Illinois for real-time transmission of data to NCSA. Data are automatically archived, and may be browsed and retrieved by astronomers using the NCSA Mosaic software. In addition, an on-line digital library of processed images will be established. BIMA data will be processed on a very high performance distributed computing system, with I/O, user interface, and most of the software system running on the NCSA Convex C3880 supercomputer or Silicon Graphics Onyx workstations connected by HiPPI to the high performance, massively parallel Thinking Machines Corporation CM-5. The very computationally intensive algorithms for calibration and imaging of radio synthesis array observations will be optimized for the CM-5 and new algorithms which utilize the massively parallel architecture will be developed. Code running simultaneously on the distributed computers will communicate using the Data Transport Mechanism developed by NCSA. The project will also use the BLANCA Gbit/s testbed network between Urbana and Madison, Wisconsin to connect an Onyx workstation in the University of Wisconsin Astronomy Department to the NCSA CM-5, for development of long

  9. Class separation of lipids and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in normal phase high performance liquid chromatography - a prospect for analysis of aromatics in edible vegetable oils and biodiesel exhaust particulates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Petter; Sadiktsis, Ioannis; Holmbäck, Jan; Westerholm, Roger

    2014-09-19

    The retention characteristics of the major lipid components in biodiesels and edible oils as well as representative polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAHs) have been investigated on five different normal phase HPLC stationary phases, in order to optimize class separation for an automatized online HPLC cleanup of PAHs prior GC-MS analysis. By stepwise comparison of different hexane/MTBE compositions as mobile phases on cyano-, phenyl-, pentabromobenzyl-, nitrophenyl- and amino-modified silica columns, the capacity and selectivity factors for each analyte and column could be calculated. It was concluded that the most suitable column for backflush isolation of PAHs in biodiesel and edible oil matrices was the pentabromobenzyl-modified silica (PBB). A previously described online HPLC-GC-MS system using the PBB column was then evaluated by qualitative and quantitative analysis of a biodiesel exhaust particulate extract and a vegetable oil reference material. The GC-MS full scan analysis of the biodiesel particulate extract showed that the lipids had been removed from the sample and a fraction containing PAHs and oxygenated derivatives thereof had been isolated. Quantified mass fractions of PAHs of the reference material BCR-458 agreed well for most of the certified PAH mass fractions in the spiked coconut oil reference material.

  10. Communication in high technology product development projects:project personnel’s viewpoint for improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Väänänen, M. (Mirja)

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Product development plays a crucial role in the survival of high technology companies. High technology product development projects typically are multi-technical, multicultural, geographically dispersed, inter-connected and organized in a network of companies. These settings pose extra challenges for communication. In this qualitative multiple-case study, communication challenges and possible solutions for developing communication were studied. The empirical data were collect...

  11. Performance and emission characteristics of double biodiesel blends with diesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuthalingam Arun Balasubramanian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research on biodiesel focused on performance of single biodiesel and its blends with diesel. The present work aims to investigate the possibilities of the application of mixtures of two biodiesel and its blends with diesel as a fuel for diesel engines. The combinations of Pongamia pinnata biodiesel, Mustard oil biodiesel along with diesel (PMD and combinations of Cotton seed biodiesel, Pongamia pinnata biodiesel along with diesel (CPD are taken for the experimental analysis. Experiments are conducted using a single cylinder direct-injection diesel engine with different loads at rated 3000 rpm. The engine characteristics of the two sets of double biodiesel blends are compared. For the maximum load, the value of Specific Fuel consumption and thermal efficiency of CPD-1 blend (10:10:80 is close to the diesel values. CPD blends give better engine characteristics than PMD blends. The blends of CPD are suitable alternative fuel for diesel in stationary/agricultural diesel engines.

  12. Evaluation of hydrolysis-esterification biodiesel production from wet microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chunfeng; Liu, Qingling; Ji, Na; Deng, Shuai; Zhao, Jun; Li, Shuhong; Kitamura, Yutaka

    2016-08-01

    Wet microalgae hydrolysis-esterification route has the advantage to avoid the energy-intensive units (e.g. drying and lipid extraction) in the biodiesel production process. In this study, techno-economic evaluation of hydrolysis-esterification biodiesel production process was carried out and compared with conventional (usually including drying, lipid extraction, esterification and transesterification) biodiesel production process. Energy and material balance of the conventional and hydrolysis-esterification processes was evaluated by Aspen Plus. The simulation results indicated that drying (2.36MJ/L biodiesel) and triolein transesterification (1.89MJ/L biodiesel) are the dominant energy-intensive stages in the conventional route (5.42MJ/L biodiesel). By contrast, the total energy consumption of hydrolysis-esterification route can be reduced to 1.81MJ/L biodiesel, and approximately 3.61MJ can be saved to produce per liter biodiesel.

  13. Plant latex lipase as biocatalysts for biodiesel production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MAZOU Mouaïmine

    2016-07-13

    Jul 13, 2016 ... Bio-fuel or biodiesel is ... 1998), the European standard EN14214 (FAME, 2003) and the ... biodiesel and industrial detergent industries (Alonso et al., 2005). ...... product, alkaline wastewater requires treatment, and free.

  14. Biodiesel production from marine cyanobacteria cultured in plate and tubular photobioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvan, B Karpanai; Revathi, M; Piriya, P Sobana; Vasan, P Thirumalai; Prabhu, D Immuanual Gilwax; Vennison, S John

    2013-03-01

    Carbon (neutral) based renewable liquid biofuels are alternative to petroleum derived transport fuels that contribute to global warming and are of a limited availability. Microalgae based biofuels are considered as promising source of energy. Lyngbya sp. and Synechococcus sp. were studied for the possibility of biodiesel production in different media such as ASNIII, sea water enrichment medium and BG11. The sea water enrichment medium was found superior in enhancing the growth rate of these microalgae. Nitrogen depletion has less effect in total chlorophyll a content, at the same time the lipid content was increased in both Lyngbya sp. and Synechococcus sp. by 1.4 and 1.2 % respectively. Increase in salinity from 0.5-1.0 M also showed an increase in the lipid content to 2.0 and 0.8 % in these strains; but a salinity of 1.5 M has a total inhibitory effect in the growth. The total biomass yield was comparatively higher in tubular LED photobioreactor than the fluorescent flat plated photobioreactor. Lipid extraction was obtained maximum at 60 degrees C in 1:10 sample: solvent ratio. GC-MS analysis of biodiesel showed high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA; 4.86 %) than saturated fatty acid (SFA; 4.10 %). Biodiesel production was found maximum in Synechococcus sp. than Lyngbya sp. The viscosity of the biodiesel was closely related to conventional diesel. The results strongly suggest that marine microalgae could be used as a renewable energy source for biodiesel production.

  15. Alkaline catalyzed biodiesel production from moringa oleifera oil with optimized production parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kafuku, G.; Mbarawa, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag X680, 0001 Pretoria (South Africa)

    2010-08-15

    The utilization of non-edible feedstock such as moringa oleifera for biodiesel production attracts much attention owing to the issue with regards to avoiding a threat to food supplies. In this study, the optimization of biodiesel production parameters for moringa oleifera oil was carried out. The free fatty acid value of moringa oil was found to be 0.6%, rendering the one step alkaline transesterification method for converting moringa fatty acids to their methyl esters possible. The optimum production parameters: catalyst amount, alcohol amount, temperature, agitation speed and reaction time were determined experimentally and found to be: 1.0 wt% catalyst amount, 30 wt% methanol amount, 60 C reaction temperature, 400 rpm agitation rate and 60 min reaction time. With these optimal conditions the conversion efficiency was 82%. The properties of the moringa biodiesel that was produced were observed to fall within the recommended international biodiesel standards. However, moringa biodiesel showed high values of cloud and pour points of 10 C and 3 C respectively, which present a problem as regards use in cold temperatures. (author)

  16. Feasibility of edible oil vs. non-edible oil vs. waste edible oil as biodiesel feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gui, M.M.; Lee, K.T.; Bhatia, S. [School of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, Seri Ampangan, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2008-11-15

    Biodiesel has high potential as a new and renewable energy source in the future, as a substitution fuel for petroleum-derived diesel and can be used in existing diesel engine without modification. Currently, more than 95% of the world biodiesel is produced from edible oil which is easily available on large scale from the agricultural industry. However, continuous and large-scale production of biodiesel from edible oil without proper planning may cause negative impact to the world, such as depletion of food supply leading to economic imbalance. A possible solution to overcome this problem is to use non-edible oil or waste edible oil (WEO). In this context, the next question that comes in mind would be if the use of non-edible oil overcomes the short-comings of using edible oil. Apart from that, if WEO were to be used, is it sufficient to meet the demand of biodiesel. All these issues will be addressed in this paper by discussing the advantages and disadvantages of using edible oil vs. non-edible vs. WEO as feedstock for biodiesel production. The discussion will cover various aspects ranging from oil composition, oil yield, economics, cultivation requirements, land availability and also the resources availability. Finally, a proposed solution will be presented. (author)

  17. Production and analysis of bio-diesel from non-edible oils. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murugesan, A.; Chinnusamy, T.R.; Krishnan, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, K.S. Rangasamy College of Technology, Tiruchengode 637215, Tamil Nadu (India); Umarani, C. [Department of Chemistry, Government Arts College, Salem (India); Subramanian, R. [Department of Automobile Engineering, Institute of Road and Transport Technology, Erode, Tamil Nadu (India); Neduzchezhain, N. [Sabbatical, Department of Mechanical Engineering, BITS, Pilani, Dubai (United Arab Emirates)

    2009-05-15

    Bio-diesel has become more attractive recently because of its environmental benefits and it is derived from renewable resources, bio degradable and non-toxic in nature. Several bio-diesel production methods have been developed, among which transesterification using alkali catalyst gives high level of conversion of triglycerides to their corresponding methyl ester in short reaction time. The process of transesterification is affected by the reaction condition, molar ratio of alcohol to oil, type of alcohol, type and amount of catalysts, reaction time and temperature, purity of reactants free fatty acids and water content of oils or fats. In this work, an attempt has been made on review of bio-diesel production, methods of analyzing, bio-diesel standard, resources available, process developed performance in internal combustion engines, teardown analysis of bio-diesel B20 operated vehicle, recommendation for development of bio-fuels, environmental considerations, economic aspects and advantages. The technical tools and process for monitoring the transesterification reaction like TLC, GC, HPLC, GPC, {sup 1}H NMR and NIR have also been summarized in this paper. (author)

  18. Artificial Neural Network Analysis of Immobilized Lipase Catalyzed Synthesis of Biodiesel from Rapeseed Soapstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Yanjie; Shao, Ping; Jiang, Shaotong; Sun, Peilong

    Refined vegetable oils are the predominant feedstocks for the production of biodiesel. However, their relatively high costs render the resulting fuels unable to compete with petroleum-derived fuel. Artificial neural network (ANN) analysis of immobilized Candida rugosa lipase (CRL) on chitosan catalyzed preparation of biodiesel from rapeseed soapstock with methanol was carried out. Methanol substrate molar ratio, enzyme amount, water content and reaction temperature were four important parameters employed. Back-Propagation algorithm with momentous factor was adopted to train the neural network. The momentous factor and learning rate were selected as 0.95 and 0.8. ANN analysis showed good correspondence between experimental and predicted values. The coefficient of determination (R2) between experimental and predicted values was 99.20%. Biodiesel conversion of 75.4% was obtained when optimum conditions of immobilized lipase catalysed for biodiesel production were methanol substrate molar ratio of 4.4:1, enzyme amount of 11.6%, water content of 4% and reaction temperature of 45°. Methyl ester content was above 95% after short path distillation process. Biodiesel conversion was increased markedly by neural network analysis.

  19. Production and optimization of biodiesel using mixed immobilized biocatalysts in packed bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakkiyaraj, S; Syed, Mahin Basha; Devanesan, M G; Thangavelu, Viruthagiri

    2016-05-01

    Vegetable oils are used as raw materials for biodiesel production using transesterification reaction. Several methods for the production of biodiesel were developed using chemical (alkali and acidic compounds) and biological catalysts (lipases). Biodiesel production catalyzed by lipases is energy and cost-saving processes and is carried out at normal temperature and pressure. The need for an efficient method for screening larger number of variables has led to the adoption of statistical experimental design. In the present study, packed bed reactor was designed to study with mixed immobilized biocatalysts to have higher productivity under optimum conditions. Contrary to the single-step acyl migration mechanism, a two-step stepwise reaction mechanism involving immobilized Candida rugosa lipase and immobilized Rhizopus oryzae cells was employed for the present work. This method was chosen because enzymatic hydrolysis followed by esterification can tolerate high free fatty acid containing oils. The effects of flow rate and bed height on biodiesel yield were studied using two factors five-level central composite design (CCD) and response surface methodology (RSM). Maximum biodiesel yield of 85 and 81 % was obtained for jatropha oil and karanja oil with the optimum bed height and optimum flow rate of 32.6 cm and 1.35 L/h, and 32.6 cm and 1.36 L/h, respectively.

  20. Application of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy: A phase behavior study of babassu biodiesel-based microemulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Thulio C.; Conceição, Carlos A. F.; Khan, Alamgir; Fernandes, Raquel M. T.; Ferreira, Maira S.; Marques, Edmar P.; Marques, Aldaléa L. B.

    2016-11-01

    Microemulsions are thermodynamically stable systems of two immiscible liquids, one aqueous and the other of organic nature, with a surfactant and/or co-surfactant adsorbed in the interface between the two phases. Biodiesel-based microemulsions, consisting of alkyl esters of fatty acids, open a new means of analysis for the application of electroanalytical techniques, and is advantageous as it eliminates the required pre-treatment of a sample. In this work, the phase behaviours of biodiesel-based microemulsions were investigated through the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique. We observed thatan increase in the amount of biodiesel in the microemulsion formulation increases the resistance to charge transfer at the interface. Also, the electrical conductivity measurements revealed that a decrease or increase in electrical properties depends on the amount of biodiesel. EIS studies of the biodiesel-based microemulsion samples showed the presence of two capacitive arcs: one high-frequency and the other low-frequency. Thus, the formulation of microemulsions plays an important role in estimating the electrical properties through the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technique.