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Sample records for high bile duct

  1. Bile Duct Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Departments Home / Health Library / Articles / Bile Duct Exploration Bile Duct Exploration The CBD is a tube connecting the ... liver and gallbladder to the intestine. When is bile duct exploration performed? If something is blocking the bile ...

  2. Bile Duct Cancer (Cholangiocarcinoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Types of Cancer > Bile Duct Cancer (Cholangiocarcinoma) Bile Duct Cancer (Cholangiocarcinoma) This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Bile Duct Cancer (Cholangiocarcinoma). Use the menu below to choose ...

  3. Bile Duct Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your gallbladder pushes the bile into tubes called bile ducts. They carry the bile to your small intestine. ... the liver get rid of toxins and wastes. Bile duct cancer is rare. It can happen in the ...

  4. Bile Duct Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your gallbladder pushes the bile into tubes called bile ducts. They carry the bile to your small intestine. ... toxins and wastes. Different diseases can block the bile ducts and cause a problem with the flow of ...

  5. Bile duct obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to the biliary system Liver and bile duct worms (flukes) The risk factors include: History of gallstones, ... In: Walker BR, Colledge NR, Ralston SH, Perman ID, eds. Davidson's Principles and Practice of Medicine. 22nd ...

  6. Bile Duct Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 223.2273 Request an Appointment Contact Us Share Facebook Twitter Linkedin Email Bile Duct Exploration Menu Print Full Article Overview Test Details Results and Follow-Up Cleveland Clinic is a non-profit academic medical center. Advertising on our site helps support our mission. We ...

  7. Bile Duct Diseases - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Bile Duct Diseases URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/bileductdiseases.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  8. Gallbladder and Bile Duct Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cholesterol) and by-products of drugs from the body. The biliary tract consists of small tubes (ducts) that carry bile from the liver to the gallbladder and then to the small intestine. The gallbladder is a small, pear-shaped sac located beneath the liver. It stores bile. ...

  9. Molecular Mechanisms of Bile Duct Development

    OpenAIRE

    Zong, Yiwei; Stanger, Ben Z.

    2010-01-01

    The mammalian biliary system, consisting of the intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts, is responsible for transporting bile from the liver to the intestine. Bile duct dysfunction, as is seen in some congenital biliary diseases such as Alagille syndrome and biliary atresia, can lead to the accumulation of bile in the liver, preventing the excretion of detoxification products and ultimately leading to liver damage. Bile duct formation requires coordinated cell-cell interactions, resulting in...

  10. High expression of L-type amino acid transporter 1 as a prognostic marker in bile duct adenocarcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagisawa, Nobuyuki; Hana, Kiyomi; Nakada, Norihiro; Ichinoe, Masaaki; Koizumi, Wasaburo; Endou, Hitoshi; Okayasu, Isao; Murakumo, Yoshiki

    2014-10-01

    Oncocytic L-type amino acid transporter (LAT) 1 may be a prognostic indicator and target of new molecular therapeutic agents against malignancies. To investigate whether LAT1 expression influence the outcomes of patients with bile duct cancer, the expression of LAT1, LAT2, CD98, and Ki-67 was investigated immunohistochemically in 134 surgically resected bile duct adenocarcinomas, including 84 distal extrahepatic bile duct adenocarcinomas, 21 hilar cholangiocarcinomas, 15 intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas, and 14 ampullary adenocarcinomas. LAT1 expression was weakly correlated with CD98 expression and Ki-67 labeling index (LI). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a significant difference in prognosis between patients with bile duct adenocarcinomas having LAT1-high and -low scores, whereas LAT2 and CD98 expression and Ki-67 LI were not predictive of poor prognosis. Prognosis tended to be worse in patients having tumors with LAT1-high/LAT2-low than LAT1-low/LAT2-high scores (P = 0.0686). Multivariable analyses revealed that LAT1 expression, surgical margin, pT stage were independent prognostic factors. In conclusion, aberrant overexpression of LAT1 in bile duct adenocarcinoma predicts poor prognosis, suggesting that LAT1 may be a potential target of anticancer therapy. © 2014 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Metastatic leiomyosarcoma of the intrapancreatic bile duct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perysinakis, Iraklis; Katopodi, Aggeliki; Avlonitis, Spyridon; Georgiadou, Despoina; Choreftaki, Theodosia; Christopoulos, George; Margaris, Ilias

    2013-01-01

    We report the case of a patient with a history of surgically treated pulmonary leiomyosarcoma, presenting with recurrent acute cholangitis and metastatic leiomyosarcoma of the common bile duct. Preoperative examinations had revealed a high grade malignant neoplasm and bilateral lung metastases. The patient underwent pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy and survived for 5.5 years after the first diagnosis.

  12. Pathological spectrum of bile duct lesions from chronic bile duct injury to invasive cholangiocarcinoma corresponding to bile duct imaging findings of occupational cholangiocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Masahiko; Kubo, Shoji; Nakanuma, Yasuni; Sato, Yasunori; Takemura, Shigekazu; Tanaka, Shogo; Hamano, Genya; Ito, Tokuji; Terajima, Hiroaki; Yamada, Terumasa; Nakamori, Shoji; Arimoto, Akira; Fujikawa, Masahiro; Sugawara, Yasuhiko; Yamamoto, Takatsugu; Abue, Makoto; Nakagawa, Kei; Unno, Michiaki; Mizuguchi, Toru; Takenaka, Kenji; Shirabe, Ken; Shibata, Toshihiko

    2016-02-01

    We aimed to identify the pathological characteristics of occupational cholangiocarcinoma. We examined the location and distribution of the carcinomas: atypical epithelium including biliary intraepithelial neoplasia (BilIN) and intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPNB); and chronic bile duct injuries in operative or autopsy liver specimens from 16 patients. We examined the detailed pathological findings and diagnostic imaging of three patients. Immunohistochemical analysis using primary antibodies against γH2AX and S100P was performed. BilIN and chronic bile duct injury were observed in 16 patients, and IPNB or invasive IPNB was observed in 11 patients. BilIN, IPNB, and/or chronic bile duct injury were observed in almost all the large bile ducts. Regional dilatation of the bile ducts without tumor-induced obstruction revealed such pathological changes. Highly positive results for the γH2AX and S100P markers were noted in invasive carcinoma, BilIN, and IPNB, whereas positive results for γH2AX and negative results for S100P were noted in non-neoplastic biliary epithelium. The carcinogenic process of occupational cholangiocarcinoma comprised chronic bile duct injury and DNA damage in almost all the large bile ducts, along with induction of precancerous lesions and development of invasive carcinoma. Such pathological findings reflected radiological changes on diagnostic imaging. © 2015 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

  13. Oblique bile duct predisposes to the recurrence of bile duct stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strnad, Pavel; von Figura, Guido; Gruss, Regina; Jareis, Katja-Marlen; Stiehl, Adolf; Kulaksiz, Hasan

    2013-01-01

    Bile stones represent a highly prevalent condition and abnormalities of the biliary tree predispose to stone recurrence due to development of biliary stasis. In our study, we assessed the importance of an altered bile duct course for stone formation. 1,307 patients with choledocholithiasis in the absence of any associated hepatobiliary disease who underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) between 2002 and 2009 were analysed. The angle enclosed between the horizontal portion of the common bile duct (CBD) and the horizontal plane was measured (angle α). Oblique common bile duct (OCBD) was defined as a CBD with angle α < 45°. 103 patients (7.9%) were found to harbour OCBD and these were compared to 104 randomly selected control subjects. Compared to controls, OCBD patients were (i) significantly older (72 ± 13 vs. 67 ± 13, p<0.00001); (ii) more frequently underwent a cholecystectomy (p = 0.02) and biliary surgery (p = 0.003) prior to the diagnosis and (iii) more often developed chronic pancreatitis (p = 0.04) as well as biliary fistulae (p = 0.03). Prior to and after ERCP, OCBD subjects displayed significantly elevated cholestatic parameters and angle α negatively correlated with common bile duct diameter (r = -0.29, p = 0.003). OCBD subjects more often required multiple back-to-back ERCP sessions to remove bile stones (p = 0.005) as well as more ERCPs later on due to recurrent stone formation (p<0.05). OCBD defines a novel variant of the biliary tree, which is associated with chronic cholestasis, hampers an efficient stone removal and predisposes to recurrence of bile duct stones.

  14. Oblique bile duct predisposes to the recurrence of bile duct stones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Strnad

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Bile stones represent a highly prevalent condition and abnormalities of the biliary tree predispose to stone recurrence due to development of biliary stasis. In our study, we assessed the importance of an altered bile duct course for stone formation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 1,307 patients with choledocholithiasis in the absence of any associated hepatobiliary disease who underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP between 2002 and 2009 were analysed. The angle enclosed between the horizontal portion of the common bile duct (CBD and the horizontal plane was measured (angle α. Oblique common bile duct (OCBD was defined as a CBD with angle α < 45°. RESULTS: 103 patients (7.9% were found to harbour OCBD and these were compared to 104 randomly selected control subjects. Compared to controls, OCBD patients were (i significantly older (72 ± 13 vs. 67 ± 13, p<0.00001; (ii more frequently underwent a cholecystectomy (p = 0.02 and biliary surgery (p = 0.003 prior to the diagnosis and (iii more often developed chronic pancreatitis (p = 0.04 as well as biliary fistulae (p = 0.03. Prior to and after ERCP, OCBD subjects displayed significantly elevated cholestatic parameters and angle α negatively correlated with common bile duct diameter (r = -0.29, p = 0.003. OCBD subjects more often required multiple back-to-back ERCP sessions to remove bile stones (p = 0.005 as well as more ERCPs later on due to recurrent stone formation (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: OCBD defines a novel variant of the biliary tree, which is associated with chronic cholestasis, hampers an efficient stone removal and predisposes to recurrence of bile duct stones.

  15. Diffuse bile duct tumors: guidelines for management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, K; Longmire, W; Tompkins, R; Chavez, M; Cates, J; Roslyn, J

    1991-12-01

    The majority of patients with bile duct cancer have small focal adenocarcinomas localized to the upper, middle, or lower third of the bile duct. In contrast, a small subgroup of patients have been identified with bile duct tumors that are diffuse, involving multiple segments of the extrahepatic biliary tract. Among 186 patients with documented bile duct cancer treated at the UCLA Medical Center between 1954 and 1988, 13 patients (7%) had diffuse lesions. Patients with diffuse tumors had markedly poorer survival rates than did those with focal lesions. As diffuse tumors are not amenable to resection, surgical management consists primarily of establishing suitable biliary drainage. All patients with bile duct cancer should undergo careful intraoperative evaluation to exclude a diffuse lesion before tumor resection.

  16. Advantages of laparoscopic common bile duct exploration in common bile duct stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke-Yue; Shi, Cheng-Xian; Tang, Ke-Li; Huang, Jian-Zhao; Zhang, De-Lin

    2017-07-31

    To compare the efficacy, safety, and surgical outcomes of laparoscopic common bile duct exploration, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, and open common bile duct exploration for treatment of common bile duct stones. In total, 210 patients were prospectively randomized into 3 groups: laparoscopic common bile duct exploration, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, and open common bile duct exploration. The primary outcome measures were the common bile duct stone clearance rate and the complication rate. The secondary outcome measures were mortality, total costs, and length of hospital stay. The success rates in the laparoscopic common bile duct exploration group (97.14%, 68 out of 70) and open common bile duct exploration group (98.57%, 69/70) were significantly higher than that in the endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography group (85.71%, 60/70, both p  0.05). Laparoscopic common bile duct exploration provides an alternative therapeutic approach that was safer and more reliable, allowed for earlier recovery, and provided more cost-effective treatment of common bile duct stones.

  17. Factors affecting common bile duct diameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daradkeh, Salam; Tarawneh, Emad; Al-Hadidy, Azmy

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to see the effect of age, sex, body mass index, previous cholecystectomy, hepatomegaly and fasting status on the common bile duct diameter. A series of 463 patients, 283 females and 180 males, with no hepatobiliary or pancreatic pathology were included in this study, the mean age was 45 +/- 16 years. Their age, sex, weight, height, fasting status and previous cholecystectomy was assessed and recorded by a physician prior to ultrasound examination. All patients were examined by real-time ultrasound to see if there was any pathology in the hepatobiliary and pancreatic area. Those with history of common bile duct exploration, endoscopic sphincterotomy or with previous history of cholecystectomy of less than 6 months and patients with common bile duct pathology were excluded from the study. The midportion of the common bile duct was taken as a fixed measurement for all patients and the size of the liver was also recorded. Analysis of variance as part of SPSS statistical package was used where common bile duct was considered a dependent variable, while sex, fasting status, hepatomegaly and previous cholecystectomy were considered to be independent variables, age and sex were considered as co-variants. The factors found to be significantly affecting the diameter of the common bile duct (P<0.05) were age, previous cholecystectomy and body mass index. If the CBD dilatation can not be explained by age, previous cholecystectomy and BMI, a pathology causing obstruction should be ruled out.

  18. Endoscopic treatment of bile duct post-traumatic and post-operative lesions in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Radan; Drabek, Jiri; Lochmannova, Jindra; Stovicek, Jan; Rygl, Michal; Snajdauf, Jiri; Hlava, Stepan

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the significance and safety of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in diagnosing and treating bile duct injuries in children. Fourteen pediatric patients, with traumatic or postoperative bile duct injury, in which ERCP was performed, were retrospectively evaluated. We performed 46 ERCP and 12 endoscopic papillotomies in children with suspected bile duct injuries. A bile stent was primarily inserted in 13 patients and there were 20 replacements. Endoscopic treatment of bile leakage without need for bile duct sutures or reconstruction was successful in 85.7%. Post ERCP complications included cholangitis and recurrent bleeding, which occurred only in two patients each. ERCP and endoscopic bile stent insertion is a highly effective, minimally-invasive treatment for bile duct injury and should be included as part of the therapeutic procedures in pediatric patients with suspected bile duct injury.

  19. Simple resection of the lesion bile duct branch for treatment of regional hepatic bile duct stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enliang, Li; Rongshou, Wu; Shidai, Shi; Jingling, Zhang; Qian, Feng; Wenjun, Liao; Linquan, Wu

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of simple resections of bile duct branch lesions for the treatment of regional hepatic bile duct stones.A retrospective analysis of the clinical data from patients in our hospital from November 2008 to November 2015, who only underwent a simple resection of the lesion bile duct branch. The patients' clinical characteristics, surgical features, postoperative complications, stone clear rate, residual stone rate, and recurrence stone rate were analyzed.This study of 32 patients included 13 males and 19 females with intrahepatic bile duct stones confined to the right hepatic bile duct branch. The intraoperative blood loss, operation time, and postoperative hospital stay were 478.0 ± 86.5, 210.7 ± 6.6, and 10.8 ± 3.5, respectively. Postoperative complications occurred in 6 patients (18.8%), all of whom recovered with conservative management. There were no deaths during hospitalization. The intraoperative stone clearance rate was 95.8%. Three patients had a recurrence of stones at a mean of 22 months of follow-up (range, 4-36 months).Simple resection of bile duct branch lesions is safe and feasible for patients who have regional hepatic bile duct stones limited to the right hepatic bile duct branches.

  20. Intraductal papillary neoplasm originating from an anomalous bile duct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Harufumi; Aoki, Taku; Ishizawa, Takeaki; Tanaka, Mariko; Sakatani, Takashi; Beck, Yoshifumi; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Sakamoto, Yoshihiro; Kokudo, Norihiro

    2017-04-01

    An 82-year-old woman who had been suffering from repeated obstructive jaundice for 7 years was referred to our hospital. Although endoscopic aspiration of the mucin in the common bile duct had been temporally effective, origin of the mucin production had not been detectable. The patient thus had been forced to be on long-term follow-up without curative resection. Endoscopic retrograde cholangioscopy on admission revealed massive mucin in the common bile duct. In addition, an anomalous bile duct located proximal to the gallbladder was identified. Since the lumen of the anomalous duct was irregular and the rest of biliary tree was completely free of suspicious lesions, the anomalous duct was judged to be the primary site. Surgical resection of the segment 4 and 5 of the liver combined with the extrahepatic biliary tract was performed. Pathological diagnosis was compatible to intraductal papillary neoplasm with high-grade intraepithelial dysplasia of the anomalous bile duct. The patient has been free from the disease for 6.5 years after resection. This is the first case of intraductal papillary neoplasm derived from an anomalous bile duct, which was resected after long-term conservative treatment. The present case suggested the slow growing character of natural history of the neoplasm.

  1. Laser-Guided Repair of Complex Bile Duct Strictures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gulik, Thomas; Beek, Johan; de Reuver, Philip; Aronson, Daniel; van Delden, Otto; Busch, Olivier; Gouma, Dirk

    2009-01-01

    Background: The repair of bile duct strictures (BDS) requires identification of healthy bile duct proximal to the stenosis. Identification may be difficult in complex bile duct injuries after cholecystectomy or partial liver resection. Aim: We describe a technique to identify the prestenotic bile

  2. Laser-guided repair of complex bile duct strictures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gulik, T. van; Beek, J.; Reuver, P. de; Aronson, D.C.; Delden, O. van; Busch, O.; Gouma, D.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The repair of bile duct strictures (BDS) requires identification of healthy bile duct proximal to the stenosis. Identification may be difficult in complex bile duct injuries after cholecystectomy or partial liver resection. AIM: We describe a technique to identify the prestenotic bile

  3. Classification and management of bile duct injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, Miguel Angel; Domínguez, Ismael

    2011-04-27

    To review the classification and general guidelines for treatment of bile duct injury patients and their long term results. In a 20-year period, 510 complex circumferential injuries have been referred to our team for repair at the Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición "Salvador Zubirán" hospital in Mexico City and 198 elsewhere (private practice). The records at the third level Academic University Hospital were analyzed and divided into three periods of time: GI-1990-99 (33 cases), GII- 2000-2004 (139 cases) and GIII- 2004-2008 (140 cases). All patients were treated with a Roux en Y hepatojejunostomy. A decrease in using transanastomotic stents was observed (78% vs 2%, P = 0.0001). Partial segment IV and V resection was more frequently carried out (45% vs 75%, P = 0.2) (to obtain a high bilioenteric anastomosis). Operative mortality (3% vs 0.7%, P = 0.09), postoperative cholangitis (54% vs 13%, P = 0.0001), anastomosis strictures (30% vs 5%, P = 0.0001), short and long term complications and need for reoperation (surgical or radiological) (45% vs 11%, P = 0.0001) were significantly less in the last period. The authors concluded that transition to a high volume center has improved long term results for bile duct injury repair. Even interested and tertiary care centers have a learning curve.

  4. Rare bile duct anomaly: B3 duct draining to gallbladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Eun Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 10-year-old girl presented with recurrent right upper abdominal pain and dyspepsia. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography revealed a dilated common channel of intrahepatic bile duct of segment 3 (B3 and segment 4 (B4 drained into the gallbladder directly. The patient underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy and Roux-en Y hepaticojejunostomy (B3-jejunostomy. Among the anatomical variability of the biliary system, the cholecystohepatic ducts are controversial in existence and incidence. We report a very rare variant of a cholecystohepatic duct in which the B3 duct drained into gallbladder directly and to the best of our knowledge this is the first report.

  5. Drug-induced bile duct injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visentin, Michele; Lenggenhager, Daniela; Gai, Zhibo; Kullak-Ublick, Gerd A

    2017-09-04

    Drug-induced liver injury includes a spectrum of pathologies, some related to the mode of injury, some to the cell type primarily damaged. Among these, drug-induced bile duct injury is characterized by the destruction of the biliary epithelium following exposure to a drug. Most of the drugs associated with bile duct injury cause immune-mediated lesions to the epithelium of interlobular ducts. These share common histopathological features with primary biliary cholangitis, such as inflammation and necrosis at the expense of cholangiocytes and, if the insult persists, bile duct loss and biliary cirrhosis. Some drugs selectively target larger ducts. Such injury is often dose-dependent and thought to be the result of intrinsic drug toxicity. The histological changes resemble those seen in primary sclerosing cholangitis. This overview focuses on the clinical and pathological features of bile duct injury associated with drug treatment and on the immunological and biochemical effects that drugs exert on the biliary epithelium. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cholangiocytes in Health and Disease edited by Jesus Banales, Marco Marzioni, Nicholas LaRusso and Peter Jansen. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The "flying" bile duct: avulsion of the common bile duct in a plane crash survivor.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mohan, H

    2012-02-01

    Blunt trauma is an unusual cause of extrahepatic bile duct injury. This is a case of a 51-year-old gentleman who sustained a significant seatbelt injury in a plane crash. Laparotomy, performed due to persistent abdominal pain, revealed that the common bile duct (CBD) was completely avulsed from the duodenum. Following insertion of drains and transfer to a hepatobiliary centre, the devascularised CBD was excised and replaced with a roux-en-y hepaticojejunostomy. Necrotic tissue was debrided from the pancreatic head. A persistent bile leak developed from the sub-hepatic drain. Repeat laparotomy revealed a bile leak from small ducts on the liver surface. Ligation of the ducts and bioglue sealing of the area were successfully performed. Subsequent to this a pancreatic fistula developed from the main pancreatic duct, which has since resolved. This unusual case illustrates the need for prompt recognition and early repair to optimise outcomes in traumatic CBD injury.

  7. Mechanisms of Lower Bile Duct Stricture in Autoimmune Pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, Takayuki; Maruyama, Masahiro; Ito, Tetsuya; Maruyama, Masafumi; Muraki, Takashi; Hamano, Hideaki; Arakura, Norikazu; Hasebe, Osamu; Kawa, Shigeyuki

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We attempted to clarify the mechanism underlying lower bile duct stricture in autoimmune pancreatitis. Methods Imaging and histologic finding of the bile duct were assessed for 73 patients with autoimmune pancreatitis to clarify whether IgG4-related biliary inflammation or pancreatic head swelling is associated with lower bile duct stricture. Results Lower bile duct stricture was found in 59 (81%) patients. Pancreatic head swelling was significantly more frequent among patients wit...

  8. Mechanism of dynamic near-infrared fluorescence cholangiography of extrahepatic bile ducts and applications in detecting bile duct injuries using indocyanine green in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Li, Min; Song, Zi-Fang; Cui, Le; Wang, Bi-Rong; Lou, Xiao-Ding; Zhou, Tao; Zhang, Yong; Zheng, Qi-Chang

    2017-02-01

    Fluorescence intraoperative cholangiography (IOC) is a potential alternative for identifying anatomical variation and preventing iatrogenic bile duct injuries by using the near-infrared probe indocyanine green (ICG). However, the dynamic process and mechanism of fluorescence IOC have not been elucidated in previous publications. Herein, the optical properties of the complex of ICG and bile, dynamic fluorescence cholangiography and iatrogenic bile duct injuries were investigated. The emission spectrum of ICG in bile peaked at 844 nm and ICG had higher tissue penetration. Extrahepatic bile ducts could fluoresce 2 min after intravenous injection, and the fluorescence intensity reached a peak at 8 min. In addition, biliary dynamics were observed owing to ICG excretion from the bile ducts into the duodenum. Quantitative analysis indicated that ICG-guided fluorescence IOC possessed a high signal to noise ratio compared to the surrounding peripheral tissue and the portal vein. Fluorescence IOC was based on rapid uptake of circulating ICG in plasma by hepatic cells, excretion of ICG into the bile and then its interaction with protein molecules in the bile. Moreover, fluorescence IOC was sensitive to detect bile duct ligation and acute bile duct perforation using ICG in rat models. All of the results indicated that fluorescence IOC using ICG is a valid alternative for the cholangiography of extrahepatic bile ducts and has potential for measurement of biliary dynamics.

  9. Surgical management for bile duct injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaobin; Dong, Jiahong

    2017-09-12

    The management of bile duct injury (BDI) remains a considerable challenge in hepatobiliary surgery. BDI is mainly iatrogenic, and mostly occurs in cholecystectomy. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) has been performed widely, however, the incidence of BDI associated with LC increases 2-3 times compared to that in open cholecystectomy (OC). BDI also occurs in robotic cholecystectomy. In China, the evidence-based Practice Guideline for Diagnosis and Treatment of BDI was published by the Biliary Surgery Group of Surgery Branch of Chinese Medical Association, with the purpose of reducing the incidence of BDI as well as promoting its optimal diagnosis and treatment. Surgery remains the mainstay of treatment for BDI and traumatic bile duct stricture. The definitive repair involves a series of procedures including exposing the proximal and distal bile duct, anastomotic bile duct tissue preparation, minimally invasive tissue anastomoses, and so on. Successful management is a surgical challenge requiring great specialized experience and precise surgical skill. The application of precision biliary surgery is recommended for promoting standardized management of BDI.

  10. Percutaneous treatment of benign bile duct strictures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koecher, Martin [Department of Radiology, University Hospital, I.P.Pavlova 6, 775 20 Olomouc (Czech Republic)]. E-mail: martin.kocher@seznam.cz; Cerna, Marie [Department of Radiology, University Hospital, I.P.Pavlova 6, 775 20 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Havlik, Roman [Department of Surgery, University Hospital, I.P.Pavlova 6, 775 20 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Kral, Vladimir [Department of Surgery, University Hospital, I.P.Pavlova 6, 775 20 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Gryga, Adolf [Department of Surgery, University Hospital, I.P.Pavlova 6, 775 20 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Duda, Miloslav [Department of Surgery, University Hospital, I.P.Pavlova 6, 775 20 Olomouc (Czech Republic)

    2007-05-15

    Purpose: To evaluate long-term results of treatment of benign bile duct strictures. Materials and methods: From February 1994 to November 2005, 21 patients (9 men, 12 women) with median age of 50.6 years (range 27-77 years) were indicated to percutaneous treatment of benign bile duct stricture. Stricture of hepatic ducts junction resulting from thermic injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy was indication for treatment in one patient, stricture of hepaticojejunostomy was indication for treatment in all other patients. Clinical symptoms (obstructive jaundice, anicteric cholestasis, cholangitis or biliary cirrhosis) have appeared from 3 months to 12 years after surgery. Results: Initial internal/external biliary drainage was successful in 20 patients out of 21. These 20 patients after successful initial drainage were treated by balloon dilatation and long-term internal/external drainage. Sixteen patients were symptoms free during the follow-up. The relapse of clinical symptoms has appeared in four patients 9, 12, 14 and 24 months after treatment. One year primary clinical success rate of treatment for benign bile duct stricture was 94%. Additional two patients are symptoms free after redilatation (15 and 45 months). One patient is still in treatment, one patient died during secondary treatment period without interrelation with biliary intervention. The secondary clinical success rate is 100%. Conclusion: Benign bile duct strictures of hepatic ducts junction or biliary-enteric anastomosis are difficult to treat surgically and endoscopically inaccessible. Percutaneous treatment by balloon dilatation and long-term internal/external drainage is feasible in the majority of these patients. It is minimally invasive, safe and effective.

  11. Surgical strategy for bile duct cancer: Advances and current limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akamatsu, Nobuhisa; Sugawara, Yasuhiko; Hashimoto, Daijo

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this review is to describe recent advances and topics in the surgical management of bile duct cancer. Radical resection with a microscopically negative margin (R0) is the only way to cure cholangiocarcinoma and is associated with marked survival advantages compared to margin-positive resections. Complete resection of the tumor is the surgeon’s ultimate aim, and several advances in the surgical treatment for bile duct cancer have been made within the last two decades. Multidetector row computed tomography has emerged as an indispensable diagnostic modality for the precise preoperative evaluation of bile duct cancer, in terms of both longitudinal and vertical tumor invasion. Many meticulous operative procedures have been established, especially extended hepatectomy for hilar cholangiocarcinoma, to achieve a negative resection margin, which is the only prognostic factor under the control of the surgeon. A complete caudate lobectomy and resection of the inferior part of Couinaud’s segment IV coupled with right or left hemihepatectomy has become the standard surgical procedure for hilar cholangiocarcinoma, and pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy is the first choice for distal bile duct cancer. Limited resection for middle bile duct cancer is indicated for only strictly selected cases. Preoperative treatments including biliary drainage and portal vein embolization are also indicated for only selected patients, especially jaundiced patients anticipating major hepatectomy. Liver transplantation seems ideal for complete resection of bile duct cancer, but the high recurrence rate and decreased patient survival after liver transplant preclude it from being considered standard treatment. Adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy have a potentially crucial role in prolonging survival and controlling local recurrence, but no definite regimen has been established to date. Further evidence is needed to fully define the role of liver transplantation and adjuvant

  12. Common bile duct stones: analysis of the videolaparoscopic surgical treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurelio Santo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: About 9% of the Brazilian population has gallstones and the incidence increases significantly with aging. The choledocholithiasis is found around 15% of these patients, and a third to half of these cases presented as asymptomatic. Once the lithiasis in the common bile duct is characterized through intraoperative cholangiography, the laparoscopic surgical exploration can be done through the transcystic way or directly through choledochotomy. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the results and outcomes of the laparoscopic treatment of common bile duct lithiasis. METHODS: Seventy consecutive patients were evaluated. They prospectively underwent the treatment of the lithiasis in the common bile duct and the exploration ways were compared according to the following parameters: criteria on their indication, success in the clearance, surgical complications. It was verified that about ½ of the choledocholithiasis carriers did not show any expression of predictive factors (clinical antecedents of jaundice and/or acute pancreatitis, compatible sonographic data and the pertaining lab tests. The laparoscopic exploration through the transcystic way is favored when there are no criteria for the practice of primary choledochotomy, which are: lithiasis in the proximal bile duct, large (over 8 mm or numerous calculi (multiple calculosis. RESULTS: The transcystic way was employed in about 50% of the casuistic and the choledochotomy in about 30%. A high success rate (around 80% was achieved in the clearance of the common bile duct stones through laparoscopic exploration. The transcystic way, performed without fluoroscopy or choledochoscopy, attained a low rate of success (around 45%, being 10% of those by transpapilar pushing of calculi less than 3 mm. The exploration through choledochotomy, either primary or secondary, if the latter was performed after the transcystic route failure, showed high success rate (around 95%. When the indication to choledochotomy was

  13. Duplicated common bile duct: a recipe for biliary injury. Report of a new variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuamah, Nabil M; Ibis, Cem; Gok, Ali F K; Ekiz, Feza; Acunas, Bulent

    2017-02-01

    Duplicated common bile duct, often associated with conditions like lithiasis, biliary cysts and pancreatobiliary maljunction, could result in highly morbid and potentially fatal biliary injuries. Precise preoperative diagnosis and classification still remain a challenge. A female patient undergoing emergency laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute calculous cholecystitis sustained iatrogenic bile duct injury. A drainage tube was placed into the injured duct for post-operative conservative management. Post-operative tube cholangiogram revealed a double common bile duct with cystic duct opening distally. This was identified as a new variant not previously reported or classified. However rare, duplicated common bile duct could result in serious iatrogenic bile duct injury if unidentified during surgery. Knowledge of its existence is essential to avoid such injuries as preoperative diagnosis still remains a challenge. A thorough clinical and morphological study of previously reported variants is needed for a comprehensive classification to encompass newly discovered variants.

  14. Granular Cell Tumour of the Bile Duct in Association with Intrahepatic Bile Duct Adenomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Schweiger

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Granular cell tumour of the extrahepatic biliary tract is a rare benign lesion likely of neurogenic origin. Review of the previously reported cases indicates that almost all patients are female, and the majority is Black. Symptoms usually are those of biliary obstruction or cholecystitis. Surgical resection of the tumour is curative. Intrahepatic bile duct adenoma is another rare benign biliary neoplasm that does not manifest clinically but can be confused with metastatic carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma or other focal liver lesions at laparotomy or autopsy. The authors report the case of an asymptomatic Caucasian woman with biochemical evidence of liver disease who had a granular cell tumour of the bile duct as well as several intrahepatic bile duct adenomas.

  15. Changes in cholangiocyte bile salt transporter expression and bile duct injury after orthotopic liver transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, H.; Op Den Dries, S.; Buis, C.I.; Khan, A.A.; Gouw, A.S.H.; Groothuis, G.M.M.; Lisman, T.; Porte, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Bile salts have been shown to contribute to bile duct injury after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Cholangiocytes modify bile composition by reabsorption of bile salts (cholehepatic shunt) and contribute to bile flow by active secretion of sodium and water via cystic fibrosis

  16. The importance of cognitive map placement in bile duct injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Francis; Dixon, Elijah

    2017-12-01

    Bile duct injuries often occur because of surgeon spatial disorientation. The psychological concept of cognitive map misplacement is a useful explanation of how this disorientation and injury occurs. Surgeons may find that using a "bile duct time out" is a helpful way to orient. Based on the mnemonic B-SAFE, they can use 5 subhepatic landmarks (B, bile duct; S, sulcus of Rouviere; A, hepatic artery; F, umbilical fissure; E, enteric/duodenum) to correctly place their cognitive map.

  17. Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Distal Common Bile Duct

    OpenAIRE

    Jain A; Juneja M; Naik S; Sharma S; Kapoor S; Sewkani A; Varshney S

    2005-01-01

    CONTEXT: Squamous cell carcinoma of the biliary tree is rare. Although few cases of squamous cell carcinoma of the intrahepatic bile-duct and gallbladder have been reported, until today, only four cases of squamous cell carcinoma of the extrahepatic bile duct have been reported in the literature. CASE REPORT: We present a case of squamous cell carcinoma of the distal common bile duct presenting with obstructive jaundice in a 60-year-old male which was successfully managed by a Whipple's pancr...

  18. Effect of ursodeoxycholic acid administration on bile duct proliferation and cholestasis in bile duct ligated rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frezza, E E; Gerunda, G E; Plebani, M; Galligioni, A; Giacomini, A; Neri, D; Faccioli, A M; Tiribelli, C

    1993-07-01

    The origin, mechanism, and significance of the bile duct proliferation (BDP) associated with cholestasis remain unexplained. This study examined the effect of oral administration of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) on both BDP and cholestasis in the rat. After bile duct ligation, male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated for 30 days with either UDCA (5 mg/day) (group A) or saline solution (group B). Animals were sacrificed at day 30. The serum activity of aminotransferase (ALT, AST), alkaline phosphatase, and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) was significantly lower (P acids were lower (P animals (33 +/- 11 vs 64 +/- 22 per 1000 cells; P acid and lithocolate and increase periductular bile acid recirculation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Relationship between the risk of bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy and the types of preoperative magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatiocography (MRCP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yun Ho; Kim, Doo Jin; Kim, In-Gyu; Kim, Han Jun; Chon, Seong Eun; Jeon, Jang Yong; Jung, Jae Pil; Jeong, Jin Cheol; Yun, Eun Joo

    2012-01-01

    Backgrounds/Aims Bile duct injury is one of the potential severe complications that can occur during laparoscopic cholecystectomy, which can be cause by anatomic variations in the confluence of the bile duct. Recently magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatiocography (MRCP) has become a helpful tool to detect bile duct variation on a preoperative basis and to prevent bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy, as well other hepatic surgeries. This study aimed to clarify the types of bile duct on MRCP and to search for a method of avoiding injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods Between January 2009 and December 2010, 277 patients underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy with preoperative MRCP in our institution. On a retrospective basis, the bile ducts were categorized into 5 types according to the Couinaud classification system. Results The proportion of types was revealed type A (70.4%), type B (8.7%), type C (19.5%), type D (0.7%), type E (0%), and type F (0.7%), respectively. Bile duct injury occurred in 4 cases (1.4%) during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. In particular, the possibility of aberrant extrahepatic confluence (Type C and F) represented the highest risk of duct injury (OR=11.89 [CI: 1.21-116.53]). Conclusions Preoperative evaluation of the bile duct anatomy is important to avoid injury of duct during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Specific types of bile duct variation should be considered as a high risk group for bile duct injury. PMID:26388901

  20. Bile duct epithelial tight junctions and barrier function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, R.K.; Samak, G.

    2013-01-01

    Bile ducts play a crucial role in the formation and secretion of bile as well as excretion of circulating xenobiotic substances. In addition to its secretory and excretory functions, bile duct epithelium plays an important role in the formation of a barrier to the diffusion of toxic substances from bile into the hepatic interstitial tissue. Disruption of barrier function and toxic injury to liver cells appear to be involved in the pathogenesis of a variety of liver diseases such as primary sclerosing cholangitis, primary biliary cirrhosis and cholangiocarcinoma. Although the investigations into understanding the structure and regulation of tight junctions in gut, renal and endothelial tissues have expanded rapidly, very little is known about the structure and regulation of tight junctions in the bile duct epithelium. In this article we summarize the current understanding of physiology and pathophysiology of bile duct epithelium, the structure and regulation of tight junctions in canaliculi and bile duct epithelia and different mechanisms involved in the regulation of disruption and protection of bile duct epithelial tight junctions. This article will make a case for the need of future investigations toward our understanding of molecular organization and regulation of canalicular and bile duct epithelial tight junctions. PMID:24665411

  1. CLINICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL DIAGNOSTIC INTRAHEPATIC BILE DUCTS PAUCITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. E. Iryshkin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the clinica-morphological features of syndromatic and nonsyndromatic paucity of intrahepatic bile ducts in pediatric liver transplant recipients. Methods and results. The clinical records were analyzed and histological studies of native livers of 20 children, who had suffered from paucity of intrahepatic bile ducts and to whom liver transplantation were made, were completed. The obtained data indicate higher levels of AST in patients with nonsyndromatic paucity of intrahepaticbile ducts (p = 0,023. Ductopenia was the more frequent indication of syndromatic form of paucity of intrahepatic bile ducts (p = 0,01, while ductular proliferations, which form «ductular structure», were discovered more often in nonsyndromatic paucity of intrahepaticbile ducts (p = 0,03. The extent of inflammatory-destructive changes was more expressed in nonsyndromatic pauci- ty of intrahepatic bile ducts (p = 0,01. Fibrosis or cirrhosis was formed more often in nonsyndromatic paucity of intrahepatic bile ducts (p = 0,008. Conclusion. Our results indicate more severe clinical and morphological manifestations in nonsyndromatic paucity of intrahepatic bile ducts. These findings may suggest about heavier liver condition in patient with nonsyndromatic form of paucity of intrahepatic bile ducts

  2. Mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma of the distal bile duct: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komo, Toshiaki; Kohashi, Toshihiko; Nakashima, Akira; Ohmori, Ichiro; Hihara, Jun; Mukaida, Hidenori; Kaneko, Mayumi; Hirabayashi, Naoki

    2017-01-01

    Mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinomas (MANECs) of the distal bile duct are extremely rare, and only a few cases have been reported in the English literature. An 82-year-old man was referred to our hospital for increasing biliary enzymes. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) showed enlargement of the intrahepatic bile ducts and stenosis of the distal bile duct. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography showed stenosis of the distal bile duct and a high-density signal at the same site on diffusion weighted imaging. PET-CT showed increased FDG accumulation (SUVmax: 4.5) at the distal bile duct stenosis. Biopsy specimens obtained by endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration revealed adenocarcinoma. The patient was diagnosed with adenocarcinoma of the distal bile duct and underwent subtotal stomach-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy with regional lymph node dissection. The resected distal bile duct tumor was 18×14×12mm in diameter. Hematoxylin and eosin staining revealed a composite carcinoma with adenocarcinoma and non-adenocarcinoma elements. The non-adenocarcinoma component stained positive for synaptophysin and chromogranin A. The Ki-67 labeling index was 37%. The non-adenocarcinoma component was therefore diagnosed as a neuroendocrine carcinoma. The two composite carcinoma was diagnosed as MANEC of the distal bile duct. The patient was treated with surgery alone and he remained disease-free for 7 months after the surgery. The treatment of MANECs of the bile duct remains controversial and the prognosis is poor. There is no standard treatment for MANECs of the bile duct. Larger studies are required to establish standard treatment regimens. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Radiological spectrum of intraductal papillary tumors of the bile ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jae Hoon; Yi, Chin A; Lim, Hyo Keun; Lee, Won Jae; Lee, Soon Jin; Kim, Seung Hoon [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-01-01

    Papillary tumor of the bile duct is characterized by the presence of an intraductal tumor with a papillary surface comprising innumerable frondlike infoldings of proliferated columnar epithelial cells surrounding slender fibrovascular stalks. There may be multiple tumors along the bile ducts (papillomatosis or papillary carcinomatosis), which are dilated due to obstruction by a tumor per se, by sloughed tumor debris, or by excessive mucin. Radiologically, the biliary tree is diffusely dilated, either in a lobar or segmental fashion, or aneurysmally, depending on the location of the tumor, the debris, and the amount of mucin production. A tumor can be depicted by imaging as an intraductal mass with a thickened and irregular bile duct wall. Sloughed tumor debris and mucin plugs should be differentiated from bile duct stones. Cystically or aneurysmally, dilated bile ducts in mucin-hypersecreting variants (intraductal papillary mucinous tumors) should be differentiated from cystadenoma, cystadenocarcinoma and liver abscess.

  4. Risk factors for central bile duct injury complicating partial liver resection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, E. A.; de Boer, M. T.; Sieders, E.; Peeters, P. M. J. G.; de Jong, K. P.; Slooff, M. J. H.; Porte, R. J.

    Background: Bile duct injury is a serious complication following liver resection. Few studies have differentiated between leakage from small peripheral bile ducts and central bile duct injury (CBDI), defined as an injury leading to leakage or stenosis of the common bile duct, common hepatic duct,

  5. Granular Cell Tumour of the Bile Duct in Association with Intrahepatic Bile Duct Adenomas

    OpenAIRE

    Schweiger, F; Radhi, J; Coop, FW; Murphy, RW

    1994-01-01

    Granular cell tumour of the extrahepatic biliary tract is a rare benign lesion likely of neurogenic origin. Review of the previously reported cases indicates that almost all patients are female, and the majority is Black. Symptoms usually are those of biliary obstruction or cholecystitis. Surgical resection of the tumour is curative. Intrahepatic bile duct adenoma is another rare benign biliary neoplasm that does not manifest clinically but can be confused with metastatic carcinoma, cholangio...

  6. Causes and Prevention of Laparoscopic Bile Duct Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Way, Lawrence W.; Stewart, Lygia; Gantert, Walter; Liu, Kingsway; Lee, Crystine M.; Whang, Karen; Hunter, John G.

    2003-01-01

    Objective To apply human performance concepts in an attempt to understand the causes of and prevent laparoscopic bile duct injury. Summary Background Data Powerful conceptual advances have been made in understanding the nature and limits of human performance. Applying these findings in high-risk activities, such as commercial aviation, has allowed the work environment to be restructured to substantially reduce human error. Methods The authors analyzed 252 laparoscopic bile duct injuries according to the principles of the cognitive science of visual perception, judgment, and human error. The injury distribution was class I, 7%; class II, 22%; class III, 61%; and class IV, 10%. The data included operative radiographs, clinical records, and 22 videotapes of original operations. Results The primary cause of error in 97% of cases was a visual perceptual illusion. Faults in technical skill were present in only 3% of injuries. Knowledge and judgment errors were contributory but not primary. Sixty-four injuries (25%) were recognized at the index operation; the surgeon identified the problem early enough to limit the injury in only 15 (6%). In class III injuries the common duct, erroneously believed to be the cystic duct, was deliberately cut. This stemmed from an illusion of object form due to a specific uncommon configuration of the structures and the heuristic nature (unconscious assumptions) of human visual perception. The videotapes showed the persuasiveness of the illusion, and many operative reports described the operation as routine. Class II injuries resulted from a dissection too close to the common hepatic duct. Fundamentally an illusion, it was contributed to in some instances by working too deep in the triangle of Calot. Conclusions These data show that errors leading to laparoscopic bile duct injuries stem principally from misperception, not errors of skill, knowledge, or judgment. The misperception was so compelling that in most cases the surgeon did not

  7. [Clinicopathologic features of drug-induced vanishing bile duct syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, L H; Wang, C K; Zhang, H C; Liu, Z Q; Zheng, H W

    2017-04-20

    Vanishing bile duct syndrome (VBDS) manifests as progressive destruction and disappearance of the intrahepatic bile duct caused by various factors and cholestasis. VBDS associated with drug-induced liver injury (D-VBDS) is an important etiology of VBDS, and immune disorder or immune imbalance may be the main pathogenesis. According to its clinical symptoms, serological markers, and course of the disease, D-VBDS is classified into major form and minor form, and its clinical features are based on various pathomorphological findings. Its prognosis is associated various factors including regeneration of bile duct cells, number of bile duct injuries, level and range of bile duct injury, bile duct proliferation, and compensatory shunt of bile duct branches. This disease has various clinical outcomes; most patients have good prognosis after drug withdrawal, and some patients may experience cholestatic cirrhosis, liver failure, and even death. Due to the clinical manifestation and biochemical changes are similar to the primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), it need to identify by clinical physician.

  8. Ceruloplasmin as a prognostic marker in patients with bile duct cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, In Woong; Jang, Jin-Young; Kwon, Wooil; Park, Taesung; Kim, Yongkang; Lee, Kyoung Bun; Kim, Sun-Whe

    2017-04-25

    Bile duct cancer is one of the lethal cancers, presenting difficulties in early diagnosis and limited treatment modalities. Despite current advances in biomarker research, most studies have been performed in Western populations. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine a prognostic marker for bile duct cancer, especially in Korean patients, whose incidence of bile duct cancer is high. Comparing cancer and normal bile duct tissue, we identified 29091 differentially expressed genes. CP, SCEL, and MUC16 had positive coefficients with a log2 ratio >1 for advanced T, N stage and perineural invasion cancer tissue. Strong immunohistochemical expression of ceruloplasmin was dominant in tumors with advanced T stage (p>0.999) and perineural invasion (p=0.316). We performed tissue microarray experiment with 79 bile duct cancer tissue samples and 21 normal bile duct tissue samples. Candidate genes that has positive correlation with T, N stage and perineural invasion were drawn with multivariate analysis. Tissue expression of the genes was evaluated with an immunohistochemical study. Ceruloplasmin is supposed to be related with advanced T stage and perineural invasion, having a possibility as a candidate prognostic marker for bile duct cancer.

  9. Bile Duct Cancer (Cholangiocarcinoma) Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bile duct cancer (also called cholangiocarcinoma) can occur in the bile ducts in the liver (intrahepatic) or outside the liver (perihilar or distal extrahepatic). Learn about the types of bile duct cancer, risk factors, clinical features, staging, and treatment for bile duct cancer in this expert-reviewed summary.

  10. A case of double common bile duct in a deceased donor for transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Hajime; Eguchi, Susumu; Shapiro, A M James; Kin, Tatsuya

    2017-12-01

    A double common bile duct is extremely rare among the anatomical variations in the biliary tract system. We report an incidentally encountered case of the double common bile duct and discuss the novel anatomical findings of the accessory common bile duct from the viewpoint of embryology. A unique point of our case is that the accessory common bile duct bifurcated at the level of the intrapancreatic bile duct. There is no similar case in the previous literature among type II double common bile duct in the viewpoint of anatomical findings of the accessory common bile duct. We assume that this asymptomatic anatomical variation may be present more commonly, but not diagnosed.

  11. Minimally invasive treatment of extrahepatic bile duct stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAN Wurijile

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available With the continuous improvement of endoscopic technology and equipment, minimally invasive treatment of bile duct stones becomes increasingly diversified. In this paper, the concept of minimally invasive treatment of bile duct stones, surgical indications and contraindications, surgical methods, and the advantages and disadvantages of surgical methods are introduced. It is shown that the application of laparoscope has laid the foundation for the minimally invasive treatment of bile duct stones, and the combined application of choledochoscope and endoscope has brought new ideas for minimally invasive treatment of bile duct stones. The combination of three endoscopes avoids the disadvantages of traditional open surgery: large trauma and long operation time, and reduces the patient′s pain and complications. In the near future, the combination of three endoscopes still has much room for growth. As long as the indications for several surgeries are mastered and the safety and efficacy are evaluated objectively, the combination of three endoscopes will play the biggest role.

  12. Surgical versus endoscopic treatment of bile duct stones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, D J; Vernon, D R; Toouli, J

    2006-01-01

    10% to 18% of patients undergoing cholecystectomy for gallstones have common bile duct (CBD) stones. Treatment options for these stones include pre- or post-operative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) or open or laparoscopic surgery.......10% to 18% of patients undergoing cholecystectomy for gallstones have common bile duct (CBD) stones. Treatment options for these stones include pre- or post-operative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) or open or laparoscopic surgery....

  13. Symptomatic pancreatic duct stones in the disconnected bile duct: A case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ende, Alexander R; Irani, Shayan; Kozarek, Richard A

    Pancreaticobiliary maljunction (PBM) refers to the union of the pancreatic and biliary ducts outside of the duodenal wall. Patients are at increased risk of bile duct and gallbladder cancer, likely secondary to pancreatic juice refluxing into the biliary tree, and it is recommended that they undergo biliary diversion. This is a case series of all patients in our institution with PBM and bilioenteric anastomosis who presented with symptomatic pancreatic duct stones in a disconnected bile duct. IRB approval was obtained prior to the initiation of the study. We describe eight cases of this finding. All patients underwent ERCP, with stones successfully removed from the disconnected bile duct in seven patients and from the pancreatic duct in one patient. This novel finding has not been described in the medical literature, and may become more prevalent as more patients with PBM undergo bilioenteric anastomosis. Copyright © 2016 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Transcription factors SOX4 and SOX9 cooperatively control development of bile ducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poncy, Alexis; Antoniou, Aline; Cordi, Sabine; Pierreux, Christophe E; Jacquemin, Patrick; Lemaigre, Frédéric P

    2015-08-15

    In developing liver, cholangiocytes derive from the hepatoblasts and organize to form the bile ducts. Earlier work has shown that the SRY-related High Mobility Group box transcription factor 9 (SOX9) is transiently required for bile duct development, raising the question of the potential involvement of other SOX family members in biliary morphogenesis. Here we identify SOX4 as a new regulator of cholangiocyte development. Liver-specific inactivation of SOX4, combined or not with inactivation of SOX9, affects cholangiocyte differentiation, apico-basal polarity and bile duct formation. Both factors cooperate to control the expression of mediators of the Transforming Growth Factor-β, Notch, and Hippo-Yap signaling pathways, which are required for normal development of the bile ducts. In addition, SOX4 and SOX9 control formation of primary cilia, which are known signaling regulators. The two factors also stimulate secretion of laminin α5, an extracellular matrix component promoting bile duct maturation. We conclude that SOX4 is a new regulator of liver development and that it exerts a pleiotropic control on bile duct development in cooperation with SOX9. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Trastuzumab in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced or Metastatic Gallbladder Cancer or Bile Duct Cancer That Cannot Be Removed by Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Adenocarcinoma of the Extrahepatic Bile Duct; Adenocarcinoma of the Gallbladder; Malignant Neoplasm; Recurrent Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Recurrent Gallbladder Cancer; Unresectable Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Unresectable Gallbladder Cancer

  16. Bile duct basement membrane thickening in primary sclerosing cholangitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colling, Richard; Verrill, Clare; Fryer, Eve; Kartsonaki, Christiana; Wang, Lai M; Chapman, Roger; Rajabally, Naayil; Fleming, Kenneth

    2016-05-01

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is characterized histologically by portal inflammation, bile duct injury and regeneration and concentric periductal fibrosis. Although seen commonly in our experience, the significance of histological thickening of the bile duct basement membrane on periodic acid Schiff (PAS)-positive, diastase-resistant (DPAS) staining has never been analysed formally. In this paper we provide an evidence-based assessment of basement membrane thickening (BMT) reproducibility and diagnostic accuracy. A total of 128 archived medical liver core biopsies were retrieved and blinded for review by two independent histopathologists. BMT was assessed and designated as absent or present with a grade (G) of G1-G3. The sensitivity of any BMT for PSC was good at 77%, with moderate specificity at 61%. When only G3 BMT was considered positive, the specificity was high at 95% but the sensitivity was poor at 16%. The interobserver agreement (0.69) and consistency (0.72) were good. Basement membrane thickening is a reproducible predictor for PSC with good sensitivity and specificity. The presence of G2 and especially G3 BMT showed high specificity and could be regarded as highly predictive of PSC. The presence of more than G1 BMT should be reported and the possibility of PSC should be raised in the differential diagnosis. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Endoscopic treatment of extrahepatic bile duct strictures in patients with portal biliopathy carries a high risk of haemobilia: report of 3 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutignani, M; Shah, S K; Bruni, A; Perri, V; Costamagna, G

    2002-08-01

    Extrahepatic portal venous obstruction can be associated with bile duct abnormalities, the entity being called portal biliopathy. Three cases are reported of extrahepatic bile duct strictures in patients with portal biliopathy who developed haemobilia during endotherapy. Although endoscopic therapy with stent placement can be successful in patients with portal biliopathy and could also lead to permanent stricture resolution, procedure-related haemobilia is not as uncommon as previously held. Shunt surgery could be a better option in fit patients, since it could provide definitive treatment in a young patient with an otherwise normal life expectancy.

  18. Recurrence of choledocholithiasis following endoscopic bile duct clearance: Long term results and factors associated with recurrent bile duct stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantakis, Christos; Triantos, Christos; Theopistos, Vasileios; Theocharis, Georgios; Maroulis, Ioannis; Diamantopoulou, Georgia; Thomopoulos, Konstantinos

    2017-01-16

    To evaluate the rate of recurrence of symptomatic choledocholithiasis and identify factors associated with the recurrence of bile duct stones in patients who underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) for bile duct stone disease. All patients who underwent ERCP and EST for bile duct stone disease and had their bile duct cleared from 1/1/2005 until 31/12/2008 was enrolled. All symptomatic recurrences during the study period (until 31/12/2015) were recorded. Clinical and laboratory data potentially associated with common bile duct (CBD) stone recurrence were retrospectively retrieved from patients' files. A total of 495 patients were included. Sixty seven (67) out of 495 patients (13.5%) presented with recurrent symptomatic choledocholithiasis after 35.28 ± 16.9 mo while twenty two (22) of these patients (32.8%) experienced a second recurrence after 35.19 ± 23.2 mo. Factors associated with recurrence were size (diameter) of the largest CBD stone found at first presentation (10.2 ± 6.9 mm vs 7.2 ± 4.1 mm, P = 0.024), diameter of the CBD at the first examination (15.5 ± 6.3 mm vs 12.0 ± 4.6 mm, P = 0.005), use of mechanical lithotripsy (ML) (P = 0.04) and presence of difficult lithiasis (P = 0.04). Periampullary diverticula showed a trend towards significance (P = 0.066). On the contrary, number of stones, angulation of the CBD, number of ERCP sessions required to clear the CBD at first presentation, more than one ERCP session needed to clear the bile duct initially and a gallbladder in situ did not influence recurrence. Bile duct stone recurrence is a possible late complication following endoscopic stone extraction and CBD clearance. It appears to be associated with anatomical parameters (CBD diameter) and stone characteristics (stone size, use of ML, difficult lithiasis) at first presentation.

  19. Technical knacks and outcomes of extended extrahepatic bile duct resection in patients with mid bile duct cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Jae; Ha, Tae-Yong; Kim, Ki-Hun; Ahn, Chul-Soo; Moon, Deok-Bog; Song, Gi-Won; Jung, Dong-Hwan; Park, Gil-Chun; Lee, Sung-Gyu

    2013-01-01

    Backgrounds/Aims Mid bile duct cancers often involve the proximal intrapancreatic bile duct, and resection of the extrahepatic bile duct (EHBD) can result in a tumor-positive distal resection margin (RM). We attempted a customized surgical procedure to obtain a tumor-free distal RM during EHBD resection, so that R0 resection can be achieved without performing pancreaticoduodenectomy through extended EHBD resection. Methods We previously reported the surgical procedures of extended EHBD resection, in which the intrapancreatic duct excavation resembles a ≥2 cm-long funnel. This unique procedure was performed in 11 cases of mid bile duct cancer occurring in elderly patients between the ages of 70 and 83 years. Results The tumor involved the intrapancreatic duct in all cases. Deep pancreatic excavation per se required about 30-60 minutes. Cancer-free hepatic duct RM was obtained in 10 patients. Prolonged leakage of pancreatic juice occurred in 2 patients, but all were controlled with supportive care. Adjuvant therapies were primarily applied to RM-positive or lymph node-positive patients. Their 1-year and 3-year survival rates were 90.9% and 60.6%, respectively. Conclusions We suggest that extended EHBD resection can be performed as a beneficial option to achieve R0 resection in cases in which pancreaticoduodenectomy should be avoided due to various causes including old age and expectation of a poor outcome. PMID:26155223

  20. Does the bile duct angulation affect recurrence of choledocholithiasis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong Beom; Bang, Byoung Wook; Jeong, Seok; Lee, Don Haeng; Park, Shin Goo; Jeon, Yong Sun; Lee, Jung Il; Lee, Jin-Woo

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether bile duct angulation and T-tube choledochostomy influence the recurrence of choledocholithiasis. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study inclu-ding 259 patients who underwent endoscopic sphincterotomy and cholecystectomy for choledocholithiasis between 2000 and 2007. The imaginary line was drawn along the center of the bile duct and each internal angle was measured at the two angulation sites of the bile duct respectively. The values of both angles were added together. We then tested our hypothesis by examining whether T-tube choledochostomy was performed and stone recurrence occurred by reviewing each subject’s medical records. RESULTS: The overall recurrence rate was 9.3% (24 of 259 patients). The mean value of sums of angles in the recurrence group was 268.3° ± 29.6°, while that in the non-recurrence group was 314.8° ± 19.9° (P bile duct angulation and T-tube choledochostomy may be risk factors of recurrence of bile duct stones. PMID:22039327

  1. Endoscopic management of difficult common bile duct stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trikudanathan, Guru; Navaneethan, Udayakumar; Parsi, Mansour A

    2013-01-01

    Endoscopy is widely accepted as the first treatment option in the management of bile duct stones. In this review we focus on the alternative endoscopic modalities for the management of difficult common bile duct stones. Most biliary stones can be removed with an extraction balloon, extraction basket or mechanical lithotripsy after endoscopic sphincterotomy. Endoscopic papillary balloon dilation with or without endoscopic sphincterotomy or mechanical lithotripsy has been shown to be effective for management of difficult to remove bile duct stones in selected patients. Ductal clearance can be safely achieved with peroral cholangioscopy guided laser or electrohydraulic lithotripsy in most cases where other endoscopic treatment modalities have failed. Biliary stenting may be an alternative treatment option for frail and elderly patients or those with serious co morbidities. PMID:23345939

  2. Diverticular bile duct lesion in chronic active hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vyberg, M

    1989-01-01

    of a not previously described diverticular type were revealed. The diverticuli were of varying shape with a diameter of 30 to 110 microns and a length of 75 to 150 microns budding from small (12 to 25 microns), slightly ectatic bile ducts. The diverticular epithelium was disordered. Some cells appeared as bile duct...... cells, but most were larger, with rounded nuclei, prominent nucleoli and abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm, sometimes with periodic acid-Schiff-positive, diastase-resistant granules. The lesions were only partly surrounded by a basement membrane. They were all embedded in a tight mononuclear inflammatory...

  3. Congenital double bile duct presenting as recurrent cholangitis in a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.D. Chakravarty

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Double common bile duct (DCBD is a rare congenital anomaly. Most of these bile duct anomalies are associated with bile duct stones, anomalous pancreaticobiliary junction (APBJ, pancreatitis and bile duct or gastric cancers. Early detection and treatment is important to avoid long term complications. Surgical resection of the anomalous bile duct and reconstruction of the biliary enteric anastomosis is the treatment of choice. We report a rare case of DCBD anomaly in a girl, who presented with recurrent cholangitis. She had type Va DCBD anomaly. She underwent successful resection of the bile duct and reconstruction of the biliary enteric anastomosis. Preoperative imaging and diagnosis of the congenital biliary anomaly is very important to avoid intraoperative bile duct injury. Review of the literature shows very few cases of type Va DCBD, presenting with either bile duct stones or APBJ.

  4. Chemo Drug May Buy Time for Those with Bile Duct Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chemo Drug May Buy Time for Those With Bile Duct Cancer For patients with the rare disease, survival ... system cancer, a new study finds. People with bile duct cancer who received the medication lived for an ...

  5. Effect of intended intraoperative cholangiography and early detection of bile duct injury on survival after cholecystectomy: population based cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strömberg, Cecilia; Persson, Gunnar; Nilsson, Magnus

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether the routine use of intraoperative cholangiography can improve survival from complications related to bile duct injuries. Design Population based cohort study. Setting Prospectively collected data from the Swedish national registry of gallstone surgery and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, GallRiks. Multivariate analysis done by Cox regression. Population All cholecystectomies recorded in GallRiks between 1 May 2005 and 31 December 2010. Main outcome measures Evidence of bile duct injury, rate of intended use of intraoperative cholangiography, and rate of survival after cholecytectomy. Results During the study, 51 041 cholecystectomies were registered in GallRiks and 747 (1.5%) iatrogenic bile duct injuries identified. Patients with bile duct injuries had an impaired survival compared with those without injury (mortality at one year 3.9% v 1.1%). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that early detection of a bile duct injury, during the primary operation, improved survival. The intention to use intraoperative cholangiography reduced the risk of death after cholecystectomy by 62% (hazard ratio 0.38 (95% confidence interval 0.31 to 0.46)). Conclusions The high incidence of bile duct injury recorded is probably from GallRiks’ ability to detect the entire range of injury severities, from minor ductal lesions to complete transections of major ducts. Patients with bile duct injury during cholecystectomy had impaired survival, and early detection of the injury improved survival. The intention to perform an intraoperative cholangiography reduced the risk of death after cholecystectomy. PMID:23060654

  6. Reconstruction of major bile duct injuries after laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holte, Kathrine; Bardram, Linda; Wettergren, André

    2010-01-01

    Bile duct injury (BDI) after cholecystectomy remains a serious complication with major implications for patient outcome. For most major BDIs, the recommended method of repair is a hepaticojejunostomy (HJ). We conducted a retrospective review aiming to examine the perioperative and the long...

  7. Clear cell carcinoid tumor of the distal common bile duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsukada Katsuhiko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carcinoid tumors rarely arise in the extrahepatic bile duct and can be difficult to distinguish from carcinoma. There are no reports of clear cell carcinoid (CCC tumors in the distal bile duct (DBD to the best of our knowledge. Herein, we report a CCC tumor in the DBD and review the literature concerning extrahepatic bile duct carcinoid tumors. Case presentation A 73-old man presented with fever and occult obstructive jaundice. Ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreaticography (MRCP demonstrated a nodular tumor projection in the DBD without regional lymph node swelling. Under suspicion of carcinoma, we resected the head of the pancreas along with 2nd portion duodenectomy and a lymph node dissection. The surgical specimen showed a golden yellow polypoid tumor in the DBD (0.8 × 0.6 × 0.5 cm in size. The lesion was composed of clear polygonal cells arranged in nests and a trabecular pattern. The tumor invaded through the wall into the fibromuscular layer. Immunohistochemical stains showed that neoplastic cells were positive for neuron-specific enolase (NSE, chromogranin A, synaptophysin, and pancreatic polypeptide and negative for inhibin, keratin, CD56, serotonin, gastrin and somatostatin. The postoperative course was uneventful and he is living well without relapse 12 months after surgery. Conclusion Given the preoperative difficulty in differentiating carcinoid from carcinoma, the pancreaticoduodenectomy is an appropriate treatment choice for carcinoid tumors located within the intra-pancreatic bile duct.

  8. Laparoscopic managment of common bile duct stones: our initial experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroori, S.; Bell, J. C.

    2002-01-01

    The management of choledocholithiasis has changed radically since the introduction of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. However, perceived technical difficulties have deterred many surgeons from treating common bile duct stones laparoscopically at the time of cholecystectomy. This has lead to reliance on endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography followed by endoscopic sphincterotomy to deal with common bile duct stones. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of patients who had laparoscopic common bile duct exploration at Downe Hospital between December 1999 and August 2001. Among 149 laparoscopic cholecystectomies done by our group in this period, 10 patients (6.7%) underwent laparoscopic CBD exploration, three by the transcystic technique and seven by choledochotomy. Three patients (2%) had unsuspected stones found on routine per- operative cholangiogram. The mean operative time was 2.34hrs (range 1.50-3.30hrs). The mean hospital post- operative stay was 3 days (range 1-6 days). Post-operative morbidity was zero. Stone clearance was achieved in all cases. We conclude, laparoscopic exploration of the common bile duct is relatively safe and straightforward method. The key skill required is the ability to perform laparoscopic suturing with confidence. PMID:12137159

  9. Reference values of MRI measurements of the common bile duct and pancreatic duct in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwal, Kriti; Bedoya, Maria A.; Patel, Neal; Darge, Kassa; Anupindi, Sudha A. [University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Rambhatla, Siri J. [Beth Israel Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, Newark, NJ (United States); Sreedharan, Ram R. [University of Pennsylvania, Departments of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging/cholangiopancreatography (MRI/MRCP) is now an essential imaging modality for the evaluation of biliary and pancreatic pathology in children, but there are no data depicting the normal diameters of the common bile duct (CBD) and pancreatic duct. Recognition of abnormal duct size is important and the increasing use of MRCP necessitates normal MRI measurements. To present normal MRI measurements for the common bile duct and pancreatic duct in children. In this retrospective study we searched all children ages birth to 10 years in our MR urography (MRU) database from 2006 until 2013. We excluded children with a history of hepatobiliary or pancreatic surgery. We stratified 204 children into five age groups and retrospectively measured the CBD and the pancreatic duct on 2-D axial and 3-D coronal T2-weighted sequences. We performed statistical analysis, using logistic and linear regressions to detect the age association of the visibility and size of the duct measurements. We used non-parametric tests to detect gender and imaging plane differences. Our study included 204 children, 106 (52%) boys and 98 (48%) girls, with a median age of 33 months (range 0-119 months). The children were distributed into five age groups. The common bile duct was visible in all children in all age groups. The pancreatic duct was significantly less visible in the youngest children, group 1 (54/67, 80.5%; P = 0.003) than in the oldest children, group 5 (22/22, 100%). In group 2 the pancreatic duct was seen in 19/21 (90.4%), in group 3 52/55 (94.5%), and in group 4 39/39 (100%). All duct measurements increased with age (P < 0.001; r-value > 0.423), and the incremental differences between ages were significant. The measurement variations between the axial and coronal planes were statistically significant (P < 0.001); however these differences were fractions of millimeters. For example, in group 1 the mean coronal measurement of the CBD was 2.1 mm and the axial

  10. Secretin empties bile duct cell cytoplasm of vesicles when it initiates ductular HCO3- secretion in the pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buanes, T; Grotmol, T; Landsverk, T; Raeder, M G

    1988-08-01

    To determine whether secretin has any effect on bile duct cell ultrastructure, bile duct cells from liver biopsy specimens of pigs were analyzed morphometrically. During secretory rest, bile duct cell cytoplasmic vesicles totaled 96 (84-103) arbitrary units per cell volume (U). Secretin increased bile HCO3- secretion from 9 mumol/min (range 6-15) to 131 mumol/min (range 118-200) and lowered the bile duct cell vesicles to 5 U (range 3-9). Acute elevation of arterial PCO2 to 10.9 kPa (range 10.2-11.1) doubled vesicle number in resting duct cells and augmented the secretory response to secretin. At high arterial PCO2, secretin cleared the duct cell cytoplasm of vesicles and more than doubled the basolateral plasma membrane surface area. Taurocholate-induced canalicular choleresis, in contrast, did not alter duct cell morphology. It is concluded that secretin clears the bile duct cell cytoplasm of vesicles as it initiates ductular HCO3- secretion, possibly through causing exocytotic insertion of vesicle material into the basolateral plasma membrane.

  11. Combined extrahepatic bile duct resection for locally advanced gallbladder carcinoma: does it work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igami, Tsuyoshi; Ebata, Tomoki; Yokoyama, Yukihiro; Sugawara, Gen; Mizuno, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Junpei; Shimoyama, Yoshie; Nagino, Masato

    2015-07-01

    Prophylactic combined extrahepatic bile duct resection remains controversial for locally advanced gallbladder carcinoma without extrahepatic bile duct invasion. The aim of this study is to resolve this issue and establish an appropriate surgery for locally advanced gallbladder carcinoma. A total of 52 patients underwent surgical resection combined with extrahepatic bile duct resection for locally advanced gallbladder carcinoma without extrahepatic bile duct invasion, and their medical records were retrospectively reviewed for microvessel invasion (MVI), including lymphatic, venous, and/or perineural invasions, around the extrahepatic bile duct. Of the 52 patients, 8 (15 %) had MVI around the extrahepatic bile duct. All of the 8 patients had Stage IV disease. According to a survival analysis of the 50 patients who tolerated surgery, MVIs around the extrahepatic bile duct and distant metastasis were identified as independent prognostic factors. Survival for patients with MVI around the extrahepatic bile duct was dismal, with a lack of 2-year survivors. MVI around the extrahepatic bile duct is a sign of extremely locally advanced gallbladder carcinoma; therefore, prophylactic combined bile duct resection has no survival impact for patients without extrahepatic bile duct invasion.

  12. A Case of Intraductal Papillary Neoplasm of the Bile Duct with Stromal Invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Nanashima

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPNB represents biliary papillary tumors mainly growing and is considered to be of relatively low-grade malignancy. Here we report a case of IPNB in whom the poorly differentiated component deeply infiltrated the bile duct wall. A 77-year-old male had an invasive carcinoma of the bile duct 3 cm in size. He underwent right hemihepatectomy with combined resection of the extrahepatic bile duct. Papillary growing tumor was observed in the common bile duct and the right posterior Glisson’s pedicle was invaded. Histologic finding showed papillary adenocarcinoma in the surface layer superficially extending to the epithelium of the surrounding bile duct. In the subserosal layer, the tumor represented poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. The tumor was diagnosed as invasive bile duct carcinoma arising from IPNB.

  13. Common bile duct villous adenoma: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čekas, Karolis; Rudaitis, Vilius; Beiša, Virgilijus; Jotautas, Valdemaras; Rutkauskaitė, Dileta; Meškauskas, Raimundas; Stratilatovas, Eugenijus

    2016-01-21

    According to the literature, benign bile duct tumors are exceedingly uncommon. To the best of our knowledge, we report the largest extrahepatic bile duct villous adenoma described in the literature. We present a case of a 77-year-old Caucasian woman with obstructive jaundice. Laboratory tests revealed that she had elevated bilirubin and liver enzyme levels. A computed tomographic scan showed a homogeneous 5 × 3-cm mass obstructing the common bile duct. The results of brush cytology were consistent with a bile duct villous papilloma. However, on the basis of the tumor's radiological features, a preliminary diagnosis of extrahepatic bile duct malignant tumor was made. After discussion among the multidisciplinary team, a surgical resection of the bile duct tumor was performed. Histopathological examination confirmed a villous adenoma. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful. In patients with bulky extrahepatic bile duct tumors, surgical resection alone may be safe and curative.

  14. Absorbable bioprosthesis for the treatment of bile duct injury in an experimental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalvo-Javé, Eduardo E; Mendoza Barrera, Germán E; Valderrama Treviño, Alan I; Piña Barba, María C; Montalvo-Arenas, César; Rojas Mendoza, Fernando; León Mancilla, Benjamin; García Pineda, Manuel A; Jaime Limón, Álvaro; Albores Saavedra, Jorge; Tapia-Jurado, Jesús

    2015-08-01

    Cholecystectomy is a common surgical procedure in which complications may occur, such as injury to the biliary tract, which are associated with high morbidity. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the efficacy of a polymer-based absorbable bioprosthesis with bone scaffold for the treatment of bile duct injury in an animal model. An absorbable bioprosthesis was used to replace the common bile duct in 15 pigs which were divided into 3 groups with different follow-ups at 1, 3 and 6 months. The animals were anesthetized at these time points and laboratory tests, Magnetic Resonance Cholangiopancreatogram [MRCP], Choledochoscopy using Spyglass and Endoscopic retrograde Cholangiopancreatogram [ERCP] were performed. After radiological evaluation was complete, the animals were euthanized and histological and immunohistochemical analyses were performed. Liver function tests at different time points demonstrated no significant changes. No mortality or postoperative complications were found in any of the experimental models. Imaging studies ([MRCP], [ERCP] and Choledochoscopy with SpyGlass(™)) showed absence of stenosis or obstruction in all the experimental models. Histological and immunohistochemical staining (CK19 and MUC5+) revealed the presence of biliary epithelium with intramural biliary glands in all the experimental models. There was no stenosis or obstruction in the bile duct. The bioprosthesis served as scaffolding for tissue regeneration. There was no postoperative complication at 6 months follow-up. This bioprosthesis could be used to replace the bile duct in cancer or bile duct injury. The bioprosthesis may allow different modeling depending on the type of bile duct injury. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. CPI-613 in Treating Patients With Advanced or Metastatic Bile Duct Cancer That Cannot Be Removed By Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-14

    Adult Primary Cholangiocellular Carcinoma; Advanced Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Cholangiocarcinoma of the Extrahepatic Bile Duct; Cholangiocarcinoma of the Gallbladder; Localized Unresectable Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Metastatic Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Recurrent Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Recurrent Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Unresectable Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer

  16. Primary sclerosing cholangitis – The arteriosclerosis of the bile duct?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fickert, Peter; Moustafa, Tarek; Trauner, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic inflammatory disease of unknown aetiology affecting the large bile ducts and characterized by periductal fibrosis and stricture formation, which ultimately result in biliary cirrhosis and liver failure. Arteriosclerosis involves the accumulation of altered lipids and lipoproteins in large arteries; this drives inflammation and fibrosis and ultimately leads to narrowing of the arteries and hypoperfusion of dependent organs and tissues. Knowledge of the causative factors is crucial to the understanding of disease mechanisms and the development of specific treatment. Based on pathogenetic similarities between PSC and arteriosclerosis, we hypothesize that PSC represents "arteriosclerosis of the bile duct" initiated by toxic biliary lipids. This hypothesis is based on common molecular, cellular, and morphological features providing the conceptual framework for a deeper understanding of their pathogenesis. This hypothesis should stimulate translational research to facilitate the search for novel treatment strategies for both diseases. PMID:17254334

  17. Lower Rate of Major Bile Duct Injury and Increased Intraoperative Management of Common Bile Duct Stones after Implementation of Routine Intraoperative Cholangiography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buddingh, K. Tim; Weersma, Rinse K.; Savenije, Rolf A. J.; van Dam, Gooitzen M.; Nieuwenhuijs, Vincent B.

    BACKGROUND: Our university medical center is the only center in The Netherlands that has adopted a policy of routine intraoperative cholangiography (IOC) during cholecystectomy. This study aimed to describe the rate of bile duct injury (BDI) and management of common bile duct (CBD) stones before and

  18. Reconstruction of Bile Duct Injury and Defect with the Round Ligament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokmak, Safi; Aussilhou, Béatrice; Ragot, Emilia; Tantardini, Camille; Cauchy, François; Ponsot, Philippe; Belghiti, Jacques; Sauvanet, Alain; Soubrane, Olivier

    2017-07-10

    Lateral injury of the bile duct can occur after cholecystectomy, bile duct dissection, or exploration. If direct repair is not possible, conversion to bilioenteric anastomosis can be needed with the risk of long-term bile duct infections and associated complications. We developed a new surgical technique which consist of reconstructing the bile duct with the round ligament. The vascularized round ligament is completely mobilized until its origin and used for lateral reconstruction of the bile duct to cover the defect. T tube was inserted and removed after few months. Patency of the bile duct was assessed by cholangiography, the liver function test and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Two patients aged 33 and 59 years old underwent lateral reconstruction of the bile duct for defects secondary to choledocotomy for stone extraction or during dissection for Mirizzi syndrome. The defects measured 2 and 3 cm and occupied half of the bile duct circumference. The postoperative course was marked by low output biliary fistula resolved spontaneously. In one patient, the T tube was removed at 3 months after surgery and MRI at 9 months showed strictly normal aspect of the bile duct with normal liver function test. The second patient is going very well 2 months after surgery and the T tube is closed. Lateral reconstruction of the bile duct can be safely achieved with the vascularized round ligament. We will extend our indications to tubular reconstruction.

  19. Routine extra-hepatic bile duct resection in gallbladder cancer patients without bile duct infiltration: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigri, Giuseppe; Berardi, Giammauro; Mattana, Chiara; Mangogna, Livia; Petrucciani, Niccolò; Sagnotta, Andrea; Aurello, Paolo; D'Angelo, Francesco; Ramacciato, Giovanni

    2016-12-01

    The optimal treatment for advanced gallbladder cancer, in particular T2 stage cancer, is unclear. The use of "radical cholecystectomy" or more extended procedures with extra-hepatic bile duct resection are matter of debate. Due to the lack of consensus regarding the oncological significance of routine extra-hepatic bile duct (EBD) resection for gallbladder carcinoma, we decided to perform a systematic review investigating the real benefit of this procedure focusing on the primary outcomes of overall survival and disease-free survival. A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus and the Cochrane Library Central according to the PRISMA statement guidelines for conducting and reporting systematic reviews. Multiple primary and secondary outcomes were analyzed. The selected articles included 424 patients who underwent routine EBD resection without bile duct infiltration. Only two papers discussed the number of dissected lymph nodes during EBD resection for gallbladder carcinoma. Four of the seven included papers reported on tumor involvement in lymph nodes at rates ranging between 39% and 83%. All of the studies included in this systematic review reported on results of overall survival. In general, 5-years OS rate of the EBD-resected patients was not significantly different than that of the EBD-preservation group, while the mobility was significantly higher in the EBD resection group. Routine EBD resection in gallbladder cancer patients without bile duct infiltration is not associated with improved overall survival, improved lymph-node harvesting or with minor recurrence rate, but it is associated with higher morbidity rates. Copyright © 2016 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Prevalence of Hjortsjo Crook Sign of Right Posterior Sectional Bile Duct and Bile Duct Anatomy in ERCP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghamdi, Hanan M; Almuhanna, Afnan F; Aldhafery, Bander F; AlSulaiman, Raed M; Almarhabi, Ahmed; AlQurain, Abdulaziz

    2017-01-01

    The frequency of the Right Posterior Sectional Bile Duct (RPSBD) hump sign in cholangiogram when it crosses over the right portal vein known as Hjortsjo Crook Sign and the bile duct anatomy are studied. Knowledge of the implication of positive sign can facilitate safe resection for both bile duct and portal vein. Prospectively, we included 237 patients with indicated ERCP during a period from March 2010 to January 2015. The mean age (±SD) and male to female ratio were 38.8 (±19.20) and 1 : 1.28, respectively. All patients are Arab from Middle Eastern origin, had biliary stone disease, and underwent diagnostic and therapeutic ERCP. Positive Hjortsjo Crook Sign was found in 17.7% (42) of patients. The sign was found to be equally more frequent in Nakamura's RPSBD anatomical variant types I, II, and IV in 8.4% (20), 6.8% (16), and 2.1% (5), respectively, while rare anatomical variant type III showed no positive sign. Hjortsjo Crook Sign frequently presents in RPSBD variation types I, II, and IV in our patients.

  1. The Prevalence of Hjortsjo Crook Sign of Right Posterior Sectional Bile Duct and Bile Duct Anatomy in ERCP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan M. Alghamdi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The frequency of the Right Posterior Sectional Bile Duct (RPSBD hump sign in cholangiogram when it crosses over the right portal vein known as Hjortsjo Crook Sign and the bile duct anatomy are studied. Knowledge of the implication of positive sign can facilitate safe resection for both bile duct and portal vein. Methods. Prospectively, we included 237 patients with indicated ERCP during a period from March 2010 to January 2015. Results. The mean age (±SD and male to female ratio were 38.8 (±19.20 and 1 : 1.28, respectively. All patients are Arab from Middle Eastern origin, had biliary stone disease, and underwent diagnostic and therapeutic ERCP. Positive Hjortsjo Crook Sign was found in 17.7% (42 of patients. The sign was found to be equally more frequent in Nakamura’s RPSBD anatomical variant types I, II, and IV in 8.4% (20, 6.8% (16, and 2.1% (5, respectively, while rare anatomical variant type III showed no positive sign. Conclusion. Hjortsjo Crook Sign frequently presents in RPSBD variation types I, II, and IV in our patients.

  2. Calpain system protein expression in carcinomas of the pancreas, bile duct and ampulla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storr, Sarah J; Zaitoun, Abed M; Arora, Arvind; Durrant, Lindy G; Lobo, Dileep N; Madhusudan, Srinivasan; Martin, Stewart G

    2012-11-09

    Pancreatic cancer, including cancer of the ampulla of Vater and bile duct, is very aggressive and has a poor five year survival rate; improved methods of patient stratification are required. We assessed the expression of calpain-1, calpain-2 and calpastatin in two patient cohorts using immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays. The first cohort was composed of 68 pancreatic adenocarcinomas and the second cohort was composed of 120 cancers of the bile duct and ampulla. In bile duct and ampullary carcinomas an association was observed between cytoplasmic calpastatin expression and patient age (P = 0.036), and between nuclear calpastatin expression and increased tumour stage (P = 0.026) and the presence of vascular invasion (P = 0.043). In pancreatic cancer, high calpain-2 expression was significantly associated with improved overall survival (P = 0.036), which remained significant in multivariate Cox-regression analysis (hazard ratio = 0.342; 95% confidence interva l = 0.157-0.741; P = 0.007). In cancers of the bile duct and ampulla, low cytoplasmic expression of calpastatin was significantly associated with poor overall survival (P = 0.012), which remained significant in multivariate Cox-regression analysis (hazard ratio = 0.595; 95% confidence interval = 0.365-0.968; P = 0.037). The results suggest that calpain-2 and calpastatin expression is important in pancreatic cancers, influencing disease progression. The findings of this study warrant a larger follow-up study.

  3. Calpain system protein expression in carcinomas of the pancreas, bile duct and ampulla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Storr Sarah J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pancreatic cancer, including cancer of the ampulla of Vater and bile duct, is very aggressive and has a poor five year survival rate; improved methods of patient stratification are required. Methods We assessed the expression of calpain-1, calpain-2 and calpastatin in two patient cohorts using immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays. The first cohort was composed of 68 pancreatic adenocarcinomas and the second cohort was composed of 120 cancers of the bile duct and ampulla. Results In bile duct and ampullary carcinomas an association was observed between cytoplasmic calpastatin expression and patient age (P = 0.036, and between nuclear calpastatin expression and increased tumour stage (P = 0.026 and the presence of vascular invasion (P = 0.043. In pancreatic cancer, high calpain-2 expression was significantly associated with improved overall survival (P = 0.036, which remained significant in multivariate Cox-regression analysis (hazard ratio = 0.342; 95% confidence interva l = 0.157-0.741; P = 0.007. In cancers of the bile duct and ampulla, low cytoplasmic expression of calpastatin was significantly associated with poor overall survival (P = 0.012, which remained significant in multivariate Cox-regression analysis (hazard ratio = 0.595; 95% confidence interval = 0.365-0.968; P = 0.037. Conclusion The results suggest that calpain-2 and calpastatin expression is important in pancreatic cancers, influencing disease progression. The findings of this study warrant a larger follow-up study.

  4. Efficacy of Adjuvant Chemotherapy and Prognostic Factors for Patients with Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee Seung; Lee, Sang Hoon; Roh, Yun Ho; Chung, Moon Jae; Park, Jeong Youp; Park, Seung Woo; Song, Si Young; Chung, Jae Bok; Bang, Seungmin

    2016-01-01

    Surgical resection is the only curative treatment for extrahepatic bile duct cancer. Additionally, the recurrence rate after curative surgery is relatively high, requiring adjuvant therapy. However, the efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy compared with surgery alone has not yet been clarified. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy and identify prognostic factors influencing survival in extrahepatic bile duct cancer patients who underwent curative surgical resection. Ninety-seven patients with extrahepatic bile duct cancer who underwent curative resection between January 2005 and December 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. Among the 97 patients, 31 underwent adjuvant chemotherapy and 66 did not. The 5-year overall survival rate was 34% for patients who underwent adjuvant chemotherapy. There was no significant difference for overall survival between patients who underwent adjuvant chemotherapy and those who did not (p = 0.228). On multivariate analysis, postoperative carbohydrate antigen 19-9 levels and histologic grade were independent prognostic factors related to long-term survival (p chemotherapy did not improve survival after surgical resection for extrahepatic bile duct cancer. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Novel Approach to Bile Duct Damage in Primary Biliary Cirrhosis: Participation of Cellular Senescence and Autophagy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoko Sasaki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC is characterized by antimitochondrial autoantibodies (AMAs in patients' sera and histologically by chronic nonsuppurative destructive cholangitis in small bile ducts, eventually followed by extensive bile duct loss and biliary cirrhosis. The autoimmune-mediated pathogenesis of bile duct lesions, including the significance of AMAs, triggers of the autoimmune process, and so on remain unclear. We have reported that cellular senescence in biliary epithelial cells (BECs may be involved in bile duct lesions and that autophagy may precede the process of biliary epithelial senescence in PBC. Interestingly, BECs in damaged bile ducts show characteristicsof cellular senescence and autophagy in PBC. A suspected causative factor of biliary epithelial senescence is oxidative stress. Furthermore, senescent BECs may modulate the microenvironment around bile ducts by expressing various chemokines and cytokines called senescence-associated secretory phenotypes and contribute to the pathogenesis in PBC.

  6. The Preliminary Study on Procurement Biliary Convergence from Donors with Complicated Bile Duct Variant in Emergency Right Lobe Living Donor Liver Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Sheng; Dong, Jia-Hong; Duan, Wei-Dong; Ji, Wen-Bing; Liang, Yu-Rong

    2017-03-01

    The incidence of biliary complications after living donor adult liver transplantation (LDALT) is still high due to the bile duct variation and necessity reconstruction of multiple small bile ducts. The current surgical management of the biliary variants is unsatisfactory. We evaluated the role of a new surgical approach in a complicated hilar bile duct variant (Nakamura type IV and Nakamura type II) under emergent right lobe LDALT for high model for end-stage liver disease score patients. The common hepatic duct (CHD) and the left hepatic duct (LHD) of the donor were transected in a right-graft including short common trunks with right posterior and anterior bile ducts, whereas the LHD of the donor was anastomosed to the CHD and the common trunks of a right-graft bile duct and the recipient CHD was end-to-end anastomosed. Ten of 13 grafts (Nakamura types II, III, and IV) had two or more biliary orifices after right graft lobectomy; seven patients had biliary complications (53.8%). Later, the surgical innovation was carried out in five donors with variant bile duct (four Nakamura type IV and one type II), and, consequently, no biliary or other complications were observed in donors and recipients during 47-53 months of follow-up; significant differences ( P  right hepatic ducts in a complicated donor bile duct variant may facilitate biliary reconstruction and reduce long-term biliary complications.

  7. Spindle and Giant Cell Type Undifferentiated Carcinoma of the Proximal Bile Duct

    OpenAIRE

    Ide, Takao; Miyoshi, Atsushi; Kitahara, Kenji; Kai, Keita; Noshiro, Hirokazu

    2012-01-01

    Undifferentiated spindle and giant cell carcinoma is an extremely rare malignant neoplasm arising in the extrahepatic bile duct. We herein present the case of a 67-year-old male who developed an undifferentiated spindle and giant cell carcinoma of the proximal bile duct. A nodular infiltrating tumor was located at the proximal bile duct, resulting in obstructive jaundice. Histologically, the tumor was composed of mainly spindle-shaped and giant cells and showed positive immunoreactivity for b...

  8. Cellular and Humoral Autoimmunity Directed at Bile Duct Epithelia in Murine Biliary Atresia

    OpenAIRE

    Mack, Cara L.; Tucker, Rebecca M.; Lu, Brandy R.; Sokol, Ronald J.; Fontenot, Andrew P.; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Gill, Ronald G.

    2006-01-01

    Biliary atresia is an inflammatory fibrosclerosing lesion of the bile ducts that leads to biliary cirrhosis and is the most frequent indication for liver transplantation in children. The pathogenesis of biliary atresia is not known; one theory is that of a virus-induced, subsequent autoimmune-mediated injury of bile ducts. The aim of this study was to determine whether autoreactive T cells and autoantibodies specific to bile duct epithelia are present in the rotavirus (RRV)- induced murine mo...

  9. Surgical treatments for patients with recurrent bile duct stones and Oddis sphincter laxity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Boxuan; Hu, Jinxiong; Zhong, Yuesi

    2017-01-01

    Summary Recurrent bile duct stones is the most common complication after gallstone surgery and the incidence is about 4–24%. Sphincter of Oddi laxity will lead to duodenal content flow into the bile or pancreatic duct. Patients with recurrent bile duct stones and Oddis sphincter laxity were intractable. Here we sought to present the possible and helpful surgical treatments for such patients. Prospective randomized clinical trial are needed for evaluating the outcome of surgical treatments. PMID:28944138

  10. Intraductal papillary neoplasms of the bile duct: stepwise progression to carcinoma involves common molecular pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlitter, Anna Melissa; Born, Diana; Bettstetter, Marcus; Specht, Katja; Kim-Fuchs, Corina; Riener, Marc-Oliver; Jeliazkova, Petia; Sipos, Bence; Siveke, Jens T; Terris, Benoit; Zen, Yoh; Schuster, Tibor; Höfler, Heinz; Perren, Aurel; Klöppel, Günter; Esposito, Irene

    2014-01-01

    Intraductal papillary neoplasms of the bile duct are still poorly characterized regarding (1) their molecular alterations during the development to invasive carcinomas, (2) their subtype stratification and (3) their biological behavior. We performed a multicenter study that analyzed these issues in a large European cohort. Intraductal papillary neoplasms of the bile duct from 45 patients were graded and subtyped using mucin markers and CDX2. In addition, tumors were analyzed for common oncogenic pathways, and the findings were correlated with subtype and grade. Data were compared with those from 22 extra- and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas. Intraductal papillary neoplasms showed a development from preinvasive low- to high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia to invasive carcinoma. Molecular and immunohistochemical analysis revealed mutated KRAS, overexpression of TP53 and loss of p16 in low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia, whereas loss of SMAD4 was found in late phases of tumor development. Alterations of HER2, EGFR, β-catenin and GNAS were rare events. Among the subtypes, pancreato-biliary (36%) and intestinal (29%) were the most common, followed by gastric (18%) and oncocytic (13%) subtypes. Patients with intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct showed a slightly better overall survival than patients with cholangiocarcinoma (hazard ratio (cholangiocarcinoma versus intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct): 1.40; 95% confidence interval: 0.46-4.30; P=0.552). The development of biliary intraductal papillary neoplasms of the bile duct follows an adenoma-carcinoma sequence that correlates with the stepwise activation of common oncogenic pathways. Further large trials are needed to investigate and verify the finding of a better prognosis of intraductal papillary neoplasms compared with conventional cholangiocarcinoma.

  11. Comparison of thymidine phosphorylase expression and prognostic factors in gallbladder and bile duct cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Young

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biliary tract cancers have limitations in information about different location-related pathogenesis and clinico-pathological characteristics. The goal of this study was to investigate anatomical site-related similarities and differences in biliary tract cancers and to assess the expression and clinical significance of functional proteins such as p53, cyclin D1, survivin, thymidine phosphorylase, and ERCC1. Methods One hundred and sixty-one patients with biliary tract adenocarcinomas, who underwent curative or palliative surgery in a single institution between October 1994 and December 2003 were evaluated, retrospectively. The level of protein expression of p53, cyclin D1, survivin, thymidine phosphorylase, and ERCC1 was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Results With respect to clinico-pathological characteristics, gallbladder cancer was more frequent in women, and bile duct cancer was more common in men. Perineural invasion was more common in bile duct cancer. Recurrence as a distant metastasis was more common in gallbladder cancer. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that thymidine phosphorylase expression was significantly higher in gallbladder cancer than in bile duct cancer. Positive thymidine phosphorylase and p53 staining were associated with an advanced stage. Differentiation, vascular invasion, perineural invasion, lymphatic invasion, lymph node metastasis, and TNM stage independently predicted poor prognosis in biliary tract cancer. These correlations were seen more clearly in gallbladder cancer. The immunohistochemical staining patterns of p53, cyclin D1, survivin, thymidine phosphorylase, and ERCC1 showed no prognostic significance in biliary tract cancers. Conclusions We concluded that gallbladder and bile duct cancers are considered to be separate diseases with different clinico-pathological characteristics and prognostic factors. In addition, we hypothesize that high expression of thymidine phosphorylase by

  12. [Image of tumorous obstructions of the extrahepatic bile ducts in computer tomography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrup, W; Schlüter, B; Wedell, J

    1983-06-01

    Basing on a patient material consisting of 28 patients with tumours in the region of the extrahepatic bile ducts, the following criteria are examined which govern the demonstration of tumour obstructions by means of the computer tomogram: Extent of widening of the bile ducts, assessment of stenosis or complete obstruction of the bile ducts and demonstration of the structure of the tumorous tissue and of the tumorous infiltration into the adjacent tissues. Computerized tomography of this region can achieve a narrowing-down of the indications for an endoscopic or percutaneous visualization of the bile ducts, these being more severely invasive methods.

  13. Signet ring cell carcinoma of the extrahepatic bile duct diagnosed by preoperative biopsy: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kita, Emiri; Tsujimoto, Akiko; Nakamura, Kazuyoshi; Sudo, Kentaro; Hara, Taro; Kainuma, Osamu; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Itami, Makiko; Yamaguchi, Y

    2014-09-01

    A 73-year-old woman was admitted because of obstructive jaundice. Computed tomography revealed a stricture in the lower bile duct with enhanced bile duct wall. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) revealed a tapering stenosis at the lower bile duct. Transpapillary histological biopsy using biopsy forceps through ERCP was performed; the diagnosis of signet ring cell carcinoma (SRCC) of the bile duct was established. Regional lymph node enlargement and distant metastases were not detected on diagnostic imaging. Pancreaticoduodenectomy with pylorus preservation was performed. Histological examination of the resected specimen confirmed SRCC of the extrahepatic bile duct coexisting with adenocarcinoma (ADC) of the extrahepatic bile duct with negative resection margins. However, tumor cells directly invaded the pancreatic parenchyma and the muscle layer of the duodenum, prompting us to administer adjuvant chemotherapy to the patient, with no sign of tumor recurrence at 1-year follow-up. Almost all tumors originating from the extrahepatic bile duct are ADC and other histological variants are rare. Of these, SRCC is extremely rare and only four cases have been reported. Furthermore, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report regarding the preoperative diagnosis of SRCC of the bile duct. Current reports indicate that younger age and Asian ethnicity are the clinical features of SRCC of the extrahepatic bile duct. Immunohistochemical staining of CK7, CK20 and MUC2 may be useful for predicting prognosis. Chemotherapy has not resulted in increased survival rates and only surgical resection currently serves as a curative treatment.

  14. Bile duct invasion can be an independent prognostic factor in early stage hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Ye-Rang; Lee, Kwang-Woong; Kim, Hyeyoung; Lee, Jeong-Moo; Yi, Nam-Joon; Suh, Kyung-Suk

    2015-11-01

    In hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), bile duct invasion occurs far more rarely than vascular invasion and is not well characterized. In addition, the pathologic finding of bile duct invasion is not considered an independent prognostic factor for HCC following surgery. In this study, we determined the characteristics of HCC with bile duct invasion, and assessed the clinical significance of bile duct invasion. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 363 patients who underwent hepatic resection for HCC at Seoul National University Hospital (SNUH) from January 2009 to December 2011. Preoperative, operative, and pathological data were collected. The risk factors for recurrence and survival were analyzed. Subsequently, the patients were divided into 2 groups according to disease stage (American Joint Committee on Cancer/International Union Against Cancer 7(th) edition): early stage (T1 and 2) and advanced stage (T3 and 4) group; and risk factors in the sub-groups were analyzed. Among 363 patients, 13 showed bile duct invasion on pathology. Patients with bile duct invasion had higher preoperative total bilirubin levels, greater microvascular invasion, and a higher death rate than those without bile duct invasion. In multivariate analysis, bile duct invasion was not an independent prognostic factor for survival for the entire cohort, but, was an independent prognostic factor for early stage. Bile duct invasion accompanied microvascular invasion in most cases, and could be used as an independent prognostic factor for survival especially in early stage HCC (T1 and T2).

  15. Histological Changes in the Bile Duct after Long-Term Placement of a Fully Covered Self-Expandable Metal Stent within a Common Bile Duct: A Canine Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Tae Jun; Joo, Mee; Park, Do Hyun; Seo, Dong Wan; Lee, Sung Koo; Kim, Myung-Hwan

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims To date, it has been difficult to determine the optimal stenting duration of a fully covered self-expandable metal stent (FCSEMS) in a benign biliary stricture. The purpose of this study was to identify the histopathological changes in a bile duct resulting from long-term placement of a FCSEMS. Methods An FCSEMS was inserted into the common bile duct of 12 canines, and the animals were divided into four groups. Posteuthanasia, necropsy was performed to examine the histopathological changes in the bile ducts after 1, 3, 6, and 9 months. Results The results of necropsy showed that the covered membranes of the FCSEMSs were intact and easily removed from the bile ducts in 11 of the canines. Severe epithelial hyperplasia of the stented bile duct and epithelial ingrowth into the stent occurred in one animal (from the 3-month group). On histopathological examination, mild inflammatory changes were observed in the stented bile ducts, and there was no significant difference between the four groups. Among the 12 animals, five had de novo stricture. Conclusions An FCSEMS can be inserted into the bile duct without severe histopathological changes up until 9 months. However, a de novo stricture and severe epithelial hyperplasia relating to the stent insertion might occur. PMID:24570888

  16. Spontaneous perforation of the bile duct in a neonate: Drainage or resection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Te-Zhung Chen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous perforation of the bile duct is a rare disease, and delayed diagnosis without optimal treatment can be fatal. Abdominal drainage with or without repair of perforation seems to be adequate in most case series. We report on a 10-day-old female neonate with spontaneous perforation of the bile duct over the junction of cystic duct and common hepatic duct, who recovered uneventfully with follow-up for 3 years after receiving a single-stage operation of cholecystectomy and biliary reconstruction. Drainage only or resection of the gall bladder or bile duct should depend on the patient's clinical conditions and intraoperative findings.

  17. Total rupture of hydatid cyst of liver in to common bile duct: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robleh, Hassan; Yassine, Fahmi; Driss, Khaiz; Khalid, Elhattabi; Fatima-Zahra, Bensardi; Saad, Berrada; Rachid, Lefriyekh; Abdalaziz, Fadil; Najib, Zerouali Ouariti

    2014-01-01

    Rupture of hydatid liver cyst into biliary tree is frequent complications that involve the common hepatic duct, lobar biliary branches, the small intrahepatic bile ducts,but rarely rupture into common bile duct. The rupture of hydatid cyst is serious life threating event. The authors are reporting a case of total rupture of hydatid cyst of liver into common bile duct. A 50-year-old male patient who presented with acute cholangitis was diagnosed as a case of totally rupture of hydatid cyst on Abdominal CT Scan. Rupture of hydatid cyst of liver into common bile duct and the gallbladder was confirmed on surgery. Treated by cholecystectomy and T-tube drainage of Common bile duct.

  18. The role of bile salt toxicity in the pathogenesis of bile duct injury after non-heart-beating porcine liver transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yska, Marit J.; Buis, Carlijn I.; Monbaliu, Diethard; Schuurs, Theo A.; Gouw, Annette S. H.; Kahmann, Olivier N. H.; Visser, Dorien S.; Pirenne, Jacques; Porte, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Background. Intrahepatic bile duct strictures are a serious complication after non-heart-beating (NHB) liver transplantation. Bile salt toxicity has been identified as an important factor in the pathogenesis of bile duct injury and cholangiopathies. The role of bile salt toxicity in the development

  19. Brachytherapy in the treatment of bile duct cancer – a tough challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Skowronek

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The majority of patients with bile duct cancer are diagnosed with clinically advanced disease. Most of these patients have a short life expectancy and are treated with palliative aim. Most patients present with locally advanced or metastatic disease, which is not amenable to surgical resection, resulting in poor survival. Adjuvant or definitive radiotherapy, with or without chemotherapy, is therefore used in many centers worldwide for better local control, and with the expectation that it will have a favorable effect on survival. However, the lack of appropriate prospective trials, as well as the small size of the published series and their retrospective nature, has produced insufficient evidence for the best treatment for these patients. Intraluminal brachytherapy is an important component in the multimodality approach to bile duct cancers. The objective of this treatment is to deliver a high local dose of radiation to the tumor while sparing surrounding healthy tissues. The treatment can be safely adapted for right and left hepatic duct, and for common bile duct lesions. Brachytherapy plays a limited but specific role in definitive treatment with curative intent in selected cases of early disease, as well as in the postoperative treatment of small residual disease. Depending on the location of the lesion, in some cases, brachytherapy is a treatment of choice. Clinical indications, different techniques, results, and complications are discussed in this work.

  20. Effect of bile pigments on the compromised gut barrier function in a rat model of bile duct ligation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kangkang Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that the absence of bile in the gut lumen, either by bile duct ligation or bile diversion, induces mucosal injury. However, the mechanism remains elusive. In this study, the role of bile pigments in gut barrier function was investigated in a rat model of bile duct ligation. METHODS: Male Sprague Dawley (SD rats were used in this study. After ligation of bile duct, the animals were administrated with free bilirubin, bilirubin ditaurate, or biliverdin by intragastric gavage. 1, 2, or 3 days later, the animals were sacrificed and the damage of mucosa was assessed by histological staining as well as biochemical parameters such as changes of diamine oxidase (DAO and D-lactate (D-Lac in the blood. Trypsin and chymotrypsin of the gut were also measured to determine how these digestive proteases may relate to the observed effects of bile pigments. RESULTS: Bile duct ligation (BDL caused significant increases in gut trypsin and chymotrypsin along with damage of the mucosa as demonstrated by the histological findings under microscope, the reduced expression of tight junction molecules like occludin, and significant changes in DAO and D-lac in the blood. Free bilirubin but not bilirubin ditaurate or biliverdin showed significant inhibitions on trypsin and chymotrypsin as well as alleviated changes of histological and biochemical parameters related to gut barrier disruption. CONCLUSION: Bile may protect the gut from damage through inhibiting digestive proteases like trypsin and chymotrypsin by free bilirubin.

  1. Management of bile duct strictures. An evolving strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millis, J M; Tompkins, R K; Zinner, M J; Longmire, W P; Roslyn, J J

    1992-09-01

    In an effort to determine the role of interventional radiologic and endoscopic techniques in the management of benign biliary strictures, a retrospective analysis was carried out on 194 consecutive patients with bile duct strictures treated at UCLA between 1955 and 1990. Patients were classified as group 1 (1955 through 1979; n = 138) or group 2 (1980 through 1989; n = 56). Follow-up was for a minimum of 24 months and was in excess of 3 years in 179 patients (92%). Although the incidence of recurrent strictures was similar in the two groups (21% and 23%), the reoperation rate was significantly lower (P less than .02) in group 2 (6%) than in group 1 (21%). Percutaneous transhepatic biliary dilatation, used in 20 patients in group 2, was successful in 13 (93%) of 14 patients with anastomotic strictures and three (50%) of six patients with primary strictures (P less than .05). We conclude that surgical reconstruction remains the standard therapy for patients with primary bile duct strictures. Percutaneous transhepatic biliary dilatation has limited usefulness for these patients, but may be more appropriate for those with anastomotic strictures.

  2. Bile duct-specific lectins, Dolichos biflorus agglutinin and peanut agglutinin, as probes in mouse hepatocarcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, K; Viviano, C J; Elwell, M R; Bakewell, W E; Kuwahara, M; Nakashima, N; Blackwell, B N; Maronpot, R R

    1995-09-01

    It is well established that alterations in the expression of cell surface glycoproteins occur during the course of tumorigenesis and can be detected immunohistochemically. However, no consistent markers of malignancy in mouse hepatocellular tumors have yet been identified. Lectin histochemistry, using three bile duct-specific lectins, Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA), peanut agglutinin (PNA) and soybean agglutinin (SBA), and anti-epidermal keratin immunohistochemistry, was conducted on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues of a spectrum of benign and malignant hepatocellular proliferative lesions of mice, including hepatocholangiocarcinomas. DBA- and PNA-binding glycoproteins in normal livers and in bile and liver tumors of mice were verified by SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis. Normal bile duct cells stained strongly with DBA but minimally to moderately with PNA and SBA. DBA-positive tumor cells were present in 96% of hepatocholangiocarcinomas, 89% of hepatocellular carcinomas, and 35% of hepatocellular adenomas. In comparison, 43% of hepatocholangiocarcinomas, 37% of hepatocellular carcinomas, and 24% of hepatocellular adenomas exhibited PNA staining. SBA did not specifically stain tumor cells. Normal hepatocytes and those in altered foci were consistently negative for these three lectins. Keratin-positive staining was found only in normal bile ductular cells and ductal elements in 70% of hepatocholangiocarcinomas. Electrophoresis and Western blot analysis demonstrated that, in normal livers, DBA and PNA bound to the 13- to 16-kDa and 27- to 30-kDa glycoproteins believed to be of bile duct cell origin and commonly present in hepatocellular adenomas, hepatocellular carcinomas, and hepatocholangiocarcinomas, with strongest expression in the last. In addition, hepatocholangiocarcinomas had the same high molecular mass glycoprotein (> 200 kDa) labeled with DBA as detected in bile. Our results suggest that some malignant hepatocytes, especially in mouse

  3. Trolox mitigates fibrosis in a bile duct ligation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galicia-Moreno, Marina; Favari, Liliana; Muriel, Pablo

    2013-06-01

    Several studies suggest that free radicals may play a role in cholestatic liver injury. The aim of this work was to evaluate the role of trolox in chronic bile duct ligation (BDL). Liver injury was induced by 28-day BDL to male Wistar rats. Animals were divided in four groups of six rats. Trolox was administered daily (50 mg/kg, p.o.). Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was quantified in serum. Fibrosis was assessed measuring liver hydroxyproline content. Reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione, lipid peroxidation, catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were measured in liver. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-10 (IL-10) were determined by western blot and quantified densitometrically. Our results show that trolox treatment in BDL rats prevented the increase in ALT. Collagen was increased by chronic BDL, but trolox administration preserved the normal collagen concentration. BDL produced high levels of the cytokine TGF-β1, IL-6, and IL-10 levels. Trolox administration was effective to partially prevent the increase of TGF-β1 and IL-6, and it was able to further augment the levels of IL-10. Oxidative stress (assessed by lipid peroxidation and liver glutathione content) was increased by BDL; this process was normalized by trolox. The activities of CAT and GPx were altered by BDL, and trolox prevented these events. We found that there is a close relationship between cholestatic liver damage and oxidative stress generation, and this was effectively prevented by trolox. Our study shows that the beneficial effects of trolox are because of its important antioxidant and immunomodulatory properties. © 2011 The Authors Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology © 2011 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Clinical presentations and outcomes of bile duct loss caused by drugs and herbal and dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonkovsky, Herbert L; Kleiner, David E; Gu, Jiezhun; Odin, Joseph A; Russo, Mark W; Navarro, Victor M; Fontana, Robert J; Ghabril, Marwan S; Barnhart, Huiman; Hoofnagle, Jay H

    2017-04-01

    Bile duct loss during the course of drug-induced liver injury is uncommon, but can be an indication of vanishing bile duct syndrome (VBDS). In this work, we assess the frequency, causes, clinical features, and outcomes of cases of drug-induced liver injury with histologically proven bile duct loss. All cases of drug-induced liver injury enrolled into a prospective database over a 10-year period that had undergone liver biopsies (n = 363) were scored for the presence of bile duct loss and assessed for clinical and laboratory features, causes, and outcomes. Twenty-six of the 363 patients (7%) with drug-, herbal-, or dietary-supplement-associated liver injury had bile duct loss on liver biopsy, which was moderate to severe (bile duct loss were more likely to develop chronic liver injury (94% vs. 47%), which was usually cholestatic and sometimes severe. Five patients died and 2 others underwent liver transplantation for progressive cholestasis despite treatment with corticosteroids and ursodiol. The most predictive factor of poor outcome was the degree of bile duct loss on liver biopsy. Bile duct loss during acute cholestatic hepatitis is an ominous early indicator of possible VBDS, for which at present there are no known means of prevention or therapy. (Hepatology 2017;65:1267-1277). © 2016 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  5. Multiple bile duct stones: Comparison of two surgical techniques done at laparotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daldoul, Sami; Mabrouk, Aymen; Messoudi, Ikram; Ben Dhaou, Anis; Sayari, Sofiène; Baccari, Aymen; Souai, Faten; Ben Moussa, Mounir

    2016-11-01

    Biliary lithiasis is the most common surgical disease in Tunisia. Multiple bile duct stones are one of his most rare complications.It poses real problems with the best therapeutic approach. To analyze the results of conventional surgery for multiple bile duct stones by comparing two techniques: The choledochotomy for stoneextraction followed by external biliary drainage and biliary-enteric anastomosis, to identify and to analyze the factors influencing the therapeuticchoice. During study period spanning 16 years, 137 choledochotomy were made for multiple bile duct stones. These patients had either acholedochotomy with stone extraction and then drained through a T-tube or a biliary-enteric anastomosis. Preoperative diagnosis of multiple bile duct stones has been made in 32.1 % of patients. Cholangiography was found in all casesmultiple bile duct stones and had demonstrated an association with intrahepatic stones in 18.2 %. External drainage by a Kehr drain wasperformed in 39.4 % and biliary-enteric anastomosis in 60.6 %. Univariate and multivariate analysis had identified three factors significantlyassociated with external drainage: age ≤ 65 years, bile duct diameter biliary drainagewith a T-tube in young people under 65 years who have a little dilated bile duct, not exceeding 15mm. In patients aged over 65 years or thosewith a CBD dilated more than 15 mm, even with intrahepatic stones, in cases of distal bile duct stricture or periampullary diverticulum, biliaryentericanastomosis seems to be the safest technique.

  6. Age and Obesity are Independent Predictors of Bile Duct Injuries in Patients Undergoing Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Hassan; Pandit, Viraj; Joseph, Bellal; Jie, Tun; Ong, Evan

    2015-07-01

    Iatrogenic bile duct injury is a serious complication of cholecystectomy. The aim of this study was to assess predictors of bile duct injury using a national database. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample (2010-2012) was queried for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We used a) diagnoses for bile duct injury and b) bile duct injury repair procedure codes as a surrogate marker for bile duct injuries. A total of 1,015 patients had bile duct injury. The mean age was 58.2 ± 19.7 years, 53.5 % were males, and median Charlson co-morbidity score was 2 [2, 3]. Multivariate analysis revealed morbid obesity [2.8 (2.1-4.3); p = 0.03] and age >65 [1.5 (1.05-2.1); p = 0.01] as the independent predictors for bile duct injury in patients undergoing cholecystectomy. Our study finds a new association between obesity, aging, and bile duct injuries which has never been reported in literature before.

  7. Dose-related effects of dexamethasone on liver damage due to bile duct ligation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eken, Halil; Ozturk, Hayrettin; Ozturk, Hulya; Buyukbayram, Huseyin

    2006-09-07

    To evaluate the effects of dexamethasone on liver damage in rats with bile duct ligation. A total of 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 165-205 g, were used in this study. Group 1 (sham-control, n = 10) rats underwent laparotomy alone and the bile duct was just dissected from the surrounding tissue. Group 2 rats (untreated, n = 10) were subjected to bile duct ligation (BDL) and no drug was applied. Group 3 rats (low-dose dexa, n = 10) received a daily dose of dexamethasone by orogastric tube for 14 d after BDL. Group 4 rats (high-dose dexa, n = 10) received a daily dose of dexamethasone by orogastric tube for 14 d after BDL. At the end of the two-week period, biochemical and histological evaluations were processed. The mean serum bilirubin and liver enzyme levels significantly decreased, and superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) values were significantly increased in low-dose dexa and high-dose dexa groups when compared to the untreated group. The histopathological score was significantly less in the low-dose and high-dose dexa groups compared to the untreated rats. In the low-dose dexa group, moderate liver damage was seen, while mild liver damage was observed in the high-dose dexa group. Corticosteroids reduced liver damage produced by bile duct obstruction. However, the histopathological score was not significantly lower in the high-dose corticosteroid group as compared to the low-dose group. Thus, low-dose corticosteroid provides a significant reduction of liver damage without increased side effects, while high dose is associated not with lower fibrosis but with increased side effects.

  8. Intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct: A biliary equivalent to intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rocha, Flavio G; Lee, Hwajeong; Katabi, Nora; DeMatteo, Ronald P; Fong, Yuman; D'Angelica, Michael I; Allen, Peter J; Klimstra, David S; Jarnagin, William R

    2012-01-01

    Intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPNB) is a variant of bile duct carcinoma characterized by intraductal growth and better outcome compared with the more common nodular‐sclerosing type...

  9. Risk Factors for Bile Duct Injury After Percutaneous Thermal Ablation of Malignant Liver Tumors: A Retrospective Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Man-Xia; Ye, Jie-Yi; Tian, Wen-Shuo; Xu, Ming; Zhuang, Bo-Wen; Lu, Ming-De; Xie, Xiao-Yan; Kuang, Ming

    2017-04-01

    Bile duct injury after ablation of malignant liver tumors (MLTs) was not unusual and should be avoided. However, few studies have focused on evaluating the risk factors for intrahepatic bile duct injury. To evaluate the risk factors for intrahepatic bile duct injury after ablation of MLTs and to evaluate the minimum safe distance for ablating tumors abutting bile ducts. Sixty-five patients with intrahepatic bile duct injury after ablation of MLTs, and 65 controls were recruited. Risk factors for intrahepatic bile duct injury were analyzed. Tumor location was recorded as ≤5 mm (group A), 5-10 mm (group B), and >10 mm (group C) from the right/left main duct or segmental bile duct. Ascites history (P bile duct dilatation before ablation (P bile duct injury. Significant differences in the risk of intrahepatic bile duct injury were found between groups B and C (P = 0.000), but not between groups A and B (P = 0.751). Ascites history (P = 0.002) and tumor location (P Bile duct injury after ablation of MLTs was the result of local treatment-related factors combined with the patients' general condition. The minimum safe distance for ablation of tumor abutting a bile duct was 10 mm.

  10. Hepatocellular carcinoma with bile duct tumor thrombi: Correlation of magnetic resonance imaging features to histopathologic manifestations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Qingyu, E-mail: liu.qingyu@163.co [Department of Radiology, Second Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, 107 Yan Jiang Xi Road, Guangzhou, 510120, Guangdong Province (China); Chen Jianyu, E-mail: chenjianyu5562@sina.co [Department of Radiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, 107 Yan Jiang Xi Road, Guangzhou, 510120, Guangdong Province (China); Li Haigang, E-mail: lhg00433@yahoo.com.c [Department of Pathology, Second Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province (China); Liang Biling, E-mail: liangbl@163.ne [Department of Radiology, Second Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, 107 Yan Jiang Xi Road, Guangzhou, 510120, Guangdong Province (China); Zhang Lei, E-mail: zhanglei646@126.co [Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Second Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province (China); Hu Tao, E-mail: htwuaini@hotmail.co [Department of Radiology, Second Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, 107 Yan Jiang Xi Road, Guangzhou, 510120, Guangdong Province (China)

    2010-10-15

    Purpose: This study was to analyze the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with bile duct tumor thrombi, and explore their correlations to histopathology to improve the accuracy of diagnosis. Materials and methods: 21 patients with pathologically confirmed HCC with bile duct tumor thrombi was performed with a superconducting 1.5-T MR imager within two weeks before operation. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) was performed on 18 patients. Images were retrospectively assessed for the size, location and MRI manifestations of HCC lesions and associated bile duct tumor thrombi. The differentiation of HCC lesions and the pathologic changes of bile duct tumor thrombi were retrospectively analyzed under microscope. Results: The average diameter of HCC lesions was 5.8 {+-} 2.8 cm, and {<=}5.0 cm in nine cases. Capsule formation was observed on MRI or pathology in 4 cases of HCC (19%). Of the 21 cases with bile duct tumor thrombi, 20 were clearly presented on MRI as cord-like or columnar masses in the bile duct with proximal cholangiectasis. The tumor thrombi showed slightly hypointense on T1WI and slightly hyperintense on T2WI. On enhanced scan, three cases of tumor thrombi, which were mainly consisted of necrotic tissue, did not show enhancement; 17 cases, which were mainly consisted of cancer cells, showed mild or moderate enhancement. On magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatogram (MRCP), 14 cases of tumor thrombi presented as filling defect in the bile duct, abrupt obstruction of the bile duct, and cholangiectasis above the obstruction; four presented as dilated intra-hepatic bile ducts with missing common bile duct. Of the 21 patients, 16 had biliary hemorrhage; three also had tumor thrombi in the portal vein. Seventeen of the 21 HCC with biliary thrombi were poorly differentiated, unencapsulated and with an invasive growth. Nineteen of 21 bile duct tumor thrombi did not invade the bile duct wall and could be

  11. Ultrasound versus liver function tests for diagnosis of common bile duct stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan; Giljaca, Vanja; Takwoingi, Yemisi; Higgie, David; Poropat, Goran; Štimac, Davor; Davidson, Brian R

    2015-02-26

    .84). No study reported the diagnostic accuracy of a combination of bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase, or combinations with ultrasound. Many people may have common bile duct stones in spite of having a negative ultrasound or liver function test. Such people may have to be re-tested with other modalities if the clinical suspicion of common bile duct stones is very high because of their symptoms. False-positive results are also possible and further non-invasive testing is recommended to confirm common bile duct stones to avoid the risks of invasive testing.It should be noted that these results were based on few studies of poor methodological quality and the results for ultrasound varied considerably between studies. Therefore, the results should be interpreted with caution. Further studies of high methodological quality are necessary to determine the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound and liver function tests.

  12. Bortezomib in Treating Patients With Unresectable Locally Advanced or Metastatic Adenocarcinoma of the Bile Duct or Gallbladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-13

    Adenocarcinoma of the Extrahepatic Bile Duct; Adenocarcinoma of the Gallbladder; Advanced Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Gastrointestinal Cancer; Localized Unresectable Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Recurrent Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Recurrent Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Recurrent Gallbladder Cancer; Unresectable Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Unresectable Gallbladder Cancer

  13. Strategies of minimally invasive treatment for intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile duct stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zongming; Liu, Zhuo; Liu, Limin; Song, Mengmeng; Zhang, Chong; Yu, Hongwei; Wan, Baijiang; Zhu, Mingwen; Liu, Zixu; Deng, Hai; Yuan, Haiming; Yang, Haiyan; Wei, Wenping; Zhao, Yue

    2017-08-12

    Cholelithiasis is a kind of common and multiple diseases. In recent years, traditional laparotomy has been challenged by a minimally invasive surgery. Through literature review, the therapeutic method, effect, and complications of minimally invasive treatment of intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile duct stones by combining our practical experience were summarized as follows. (1) For intrahepatic bile duct stones, the operation may be selected by laparoscopic liver resection, laparoscopic common bile duct exploration (LCBDE), or percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopy. (2) For concomitant gallstones and common bile duct stones, the surgical approach can be selected as follows: laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) combined with endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) or endoscopic papillary balloon dilatation, LC plus laparoscopic transcystic common bile duct exploration, LC plus LCBDE, and T-tube drainage or primary suture. (3) For concomitant intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile duct stones, laparoscopic liver resection, choledochoscopy through the hepatic duct orifice on the hepatectomy cross section, LCBDE, EST, and percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopic lithotripsy could be used. According to the abovementioned principle, the minimally invasive treatment approach combined with the surgical technique and equipment condition will be significant in improving the therapeutic effect and avoiding the postoperative complications or hidden dangers of intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile duct stones.

  14. Intraductal tubulopapillary neoplasm of the bile duct: A case report and review of the published work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Takashi; Arisaka, Yoshifumi; Ajiki, Tetsuo; Fujikura, Kohei; Masuda, Atsuhiro; Takenaka, Mamoru; Shiomi, Hideyuki; Okabe, Yoshihiro; Fukumoto, Takumi; Ku, Yonson; Azuma, Takeshi; Zen, Yoh

    2016-06-01

    Recent studies have suggested that a peculiar tumor mimicking intraductal tubulopapillary neoplasms (ITPN) of the pancreas can develop in the bile duct. Here, we present a similar case and review the published work on the newly proposed biliary neoplasm. A 68-year-old woman was referred to us for further evaluation of a liver mass. On imaging, the tumor was 40 mm in size and intraductal in location, and was enhanced slightly on the contrast-enhanced computed tomography. No mucin overproduction was found. She underwent right hepatectomy for suspected intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct. The tumor histologically consisted of the biliary-type epithelium arranged in a tubular architecture within the dilated bile duct. Tumor cells had features of high-grade dysplasia but no stroma invasion. No expressions of MUC2 and MUC5AC were noted. On molecular studies, KRAS and GNAS appeared to be wild-type genotypes. These features were in keeping with ITPN. In the published work review, "biliary ITPN" described in four manuscripts were characterized by predominantly intrahepatic/hilar in location, histological tubular architecture, negative expressions of MUC2 and MUC5AC, and uncommon alterations of KRAS, GNAS and BRAF. Although invasive malignancy was present in 71%, the outcome was favorable with the 5-year survival expected to be approximately 90%. Biliary ITPN are supposedly uncommon, but a greater awareness of this condition may give more chance to diagnose the underrecognized neoplasm. © 2015 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  15. BRAF V600E mutational status in bile duct adenomas and hamartomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujals, Anaïs; Bioulac-Sage, Paulette; Castain, Claire; Charpy, Cécile; Zafrani, Elie Serge; Calderaro, Julien

    2015-10-01

    Bile duct adenomas (BDA) and bile duct hamartomas (BDH) are benign bile duct lesions considered neoplastic or secondary to ductal plate malformation, respectively. We have reported previously a high prevalence of BRAF V600E mutations detected by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction assay in BDA, and suggested that BDA may be precursors to a subset of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas harbouring V600E mutations. The aim of the present study was to assess the existence of BRAF V600E mutations, using immunohistochemical methods, in additional BDA as well as in BDH. Fifteen BDA and 35 BDH were retrieved from the archives of the pathology departments of two French university hospitals. All cases were reviewed by two pathologists specialized in liver diseases. BRAF V600E mutational status was investigated by immunohistochemistry. Mutated BRAF mutant protein was detected in 53% of the BDA and in none of the cases of BDH. Our findings suggest that BDA and BDH are different processes, and that BDA represent true benign neoplasms. They also support the hypothesis that mutated BDA might precede the development of the subset of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas harbouring BRAF V600E mutations. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Endoscopic diagnosis of extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma: Advances and current limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamada, Kiichi; Ushio, Jun; Sugano, Kentaro

    2011-01-01

    The accurate diagnosis of extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma is difficult, even now. When ultrasonography (US) shows dilatation of the bile duct, magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography followed by endoscopic US (EUS) is the next step. When US or EUS shows localized bile duct wall thickening, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography should be conducted with intraductal US (IDUS) and forceps biopsy. Fluorescence in situ hybridization increases the sensitivity of brush cytology with similar specificity. In patients with papillary type bile duct carcinoma, three biopsies are sufficient. In patients with nodular or infiltrating-type bile duct carcinoma, multiple biopsies are warranted, and IDUS can compensate for the limitations of biopsies. In preoperative staging, the combination of dynamic multi-detector low computed tomography (MDCT) and IDUS is useful for evaluating vascular invasion and cancer depth infiltration. However, assessment of lymph nodes metastases is difficult. In resectable cases, assessment of longitudinal cancer spread is important. The combination of IDUS and MDCT is useful for revealing submucosal cancer extension, which is common in hilar cholangiocarcinoma. To estimate the mucosal extension, which is common in extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma, the combination of IDUS and cholangioscopy is required. The utility of current peroral cholangioscopy is limited by the maneuverability of the “baby scope”. A new baby scope (10 Fr), called “SpyGlass” has potential, if the image quality can be improved. Since extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma is common in the Far East, many researchers in Japan and Korea contributed these studies, especially, in the evaluation of longitudinal cancer extension. PMID:21611097

  17. Angiogenesis and proliferation of bile duct enhances ischemic tolerance in rats with cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiqiang; Li, Zhennan; Zou, Chen; Zhang, Jingjing; Zhu, Yi; Miao, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), an autoimmune disease of the liver, is marked by slow progressive destruction of bile ducts. These patients with PBC often undergo orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Ischemic bile duct lesion (IBDL) is a major source of morbidity and even mortality after OLT. Cirrhosis of the liver has a higher tolerance to ischemia than a normal liver, but the mechanism remains unknown. Angiogenesis and proliferation of bile duct often responses in bile duct ischemia, which may enhance ischemic tolerance in patients with cirrhosis. To test the hypothesis, a rat model with cirrhosis was established. Biochemical indexes of ischemic severity were measured including total bilirubin (TBIL) and direct bilirubin (DBIL). Immunohistochemical assay was performed for Ki67 (a biomarker for the proliferation of bile duct) and CD34 (a biomarker of angiogenesis). The levels were lower for TBIL and DBIL in the bile duct from rat model with cirrhosis than that from a normal rat after ischemic surgery (P bile duct enhances ischemic tolerance in rats with cirrhosis. More research on the pathogenesis of IBDLs is needed for developing more specific preventive or therapeutic strategies.

  18. Three-dimensional imaging identified the accessory bile duct in a patient with cholangiocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Ryoichi; Oshiro, Yukio; Hashimoto, Shinji; Kohno, Keisuke; Fukunaga, Kiyoshi; Oda, Tatsuya; Ohkohchi, Nobuhiro

    2014-08-28

    The development of diagnostic imaging technology, such as multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP), has made it possible to obtain detailed images of the bile duct. Recent reports have indicated that a 3-dimensional (3D) reconstructed imaging system would be useful for understanding the liver anatomy before surgery. We have investigated a novel method that fuses MDCT and MRCP images. This novel system easily made it possible to detect the anatomical relationship between the vessels and bile duct in the portal hepatis. In this report, we describe a very rare case of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma associated with an accessory bile duct from the caudate lobe connecting with the intrapancreatic bile duct. We were unable to preoperatively detect this accessory bile duct using MDCT and MRCP. However, prior to the second operation, we were able to clearly visualise the injured accessory bile duct using our novel 3D imaging modality. In this report, we suggest that this imaging technique can be considered a novel and useful modality for understanding the anatomy of the portal hepatis, including the hilar bile duct.

  19. Common Bile Duct Obstruction Secondary to a Periampullary Diverticulum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasios J. Karayiannakis

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Periampullary duodenal diverticula are not uncommon and are usually asymptomatic although complications may occasionally occur. Here, we report the case of a 72-year-old woman who presented with painless obstructive jaundice. Laboratory tests showed abnormally elevated serum concentrations of total and direct bilirubin, of alkaline phosphatase, of γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, and of aspartate and alanine aminotransferases. Serum concentrations of the tumor markers carbohydrate antigen 19-9 and carcinoembryonic antigen were normal. Abdominal ultrasonography showed dilatation of the common bile duct (CBD, but no gallstones were found either in the gallbladder or in the CBD. The gallbladder wall was normal. Computed tomography failed to detect the cause of CBD obstruction. Magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography revealed a periampullary diverticulum measuring 2 cm in diameter and compressing the CBD. The pancreatic duct was normal. Hypotonic duodenography demonstrated a periampullary diverticulum with a filling defect corresponding to the papilla. CBD compression by the diverticulum was considered as the cause of jaundice. The patient was successfully treated by surgical excision of the diverticulum. In conclusion, the presence of a periampullary diverticulum should be considered in elderly patients presenting with obstructive jaundice in the absence of CBD gallstones or of a tumor mass. Non-interventional imaging studies should be preferred for diagnosis of this condition, and surgical or endoscopic interventions should be used judiciously for the effective and safe treatment of these patients.

  20. Origin, pattern, and mechanism of bile duct proliferation following biliary obstruction in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slott, P A; Liu, M H; Tavoloni, N

    1990-08-01

    Proliferation of bile duct-like structures is a hepatic cellular reaction observed in most forms of human liver disease and in a variety of experimental conditions associated with liver injury. Yet the origin, means of initiation, and significance of this hyperplasia are unknown. To clarify these issues we induced bile duct proliferation in rats by ligating the common bile duct and studied (a) hepatic incorporation of [3H]thymidine by histoautoradiography, (b) hepatic morphometry, (c) biliary tree volume using [3H]taurocholate as a marker of biliary transit time, (d) immunohistochemical expression of cytokeratin no. 19, (e) the effect of indomethacin, and (f) the role of increased biliary pressure, in the absence of physiological and biochemical evidence of cholestasis, on [3H]thymidine incorporation by the bile-duct cells. The results have demonstrated that (a) the proliferating bile duct-like cells are products of the extant biliary epithelium and retain its characteristics; (b) bile duct cells divide irrespective of the size of the duct in which they are located and form a system with a lumen continuous with the preexisting one; (c) bile duct proliferation results mainly in elongation, not in circumferential enlargement or sprouting of side branches; (d) portal macrophage infiltration does not play a role in the hyperplastic reaction, and (e) increased biliary pressure is the initiating factor in bile duct cell division. Our results provide evidence that under the present conditions, ductular metaplasia of hepatocytes does not occur and there is no functioning stem cell for biliary epithelial growth segregated in any particular duct size or within the portal connective tissue.

  1. Proteomics-based analysis of lung injury-induced proteins in a mouse model of common bile duct ligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaue, Tomohisa; Shikata, Fumiaki; Utsunomiya, Kaho; Fukae, Shunya; Kurata, Mie; Nakaoka, Hirotomo; Okazaki, Mikio; Kawanishi, Yujiro; Kojima, Ai; Higashiyama, Shigeki; Izutani, Hironori

    2017-06-01

    Lung injury is a life-threatening complication in patients with liver dysfunction. We recently provided an experimental lung injury model in mouse with common bile duct ligation. In this study, we aimed to characterize the pathologic and biochemical features of lung tissues in common bile duct ligation mice using a proteomic approach. Common bile ducts of BALB/c mice, 8 weeks of age, were ligated operatively. CD31-expressing pulmonary cells were sorted with immunomagnetic microbeads, and protein profiles were examined by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Based on the results of protein identification, immunohistochemistry and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction were carried out in pulmonary and hepatic tissues. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis revealed 3 major inflammation-associated proteins exhibiting considerable increases in the number of CD31-positive pulmonary cells after common bile duct ligation. Mass spectrometry analysis identified these proteins as SerpinB1a (48 kDa), ANXA1 (46 kDa), and S100A9 (16 kDa). Furthermore, the 3 proteins were more highly expressed in dilated pulmonary blood vessels of common bile duct ligation mice, in which neutrophils and monocytes were prominent, as shown by immunohistochemistry. More importantly, SerpinB1a mRNA and protein were significantly upregulated in the liver, whereas S100A9 and ANXA1 mRNA and protein were upregulated in the lungs, as shown by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. We identified 3 proteins that were highly expressed in the lung after common bile duct ligation using a proteomics-based approach. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Postoperative Biliary Leak Treated with Chemical Bile Duct Ablation Using Absolute Ethanol: A Report of Two Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Maho; Hori, Tomohide; Furuyama, Hiroaki; Machimoto, Takafumi; Hata, Toshiyuki; Kadokawa, Yoshio; Ito, Tatsuo; Kato, Shigeru; Yasukawa, Daiki; Aisu, Yuki; Kimura, Yusuke; Takamatsu, Yuichi; Kitano, Taku; Yoshimura, Tsunehiro

    2017-08-08

    BACKGROUND Postoperative bile duct leak following hepatobiliary and pancreatic surgery can be intractable, and the postoperative course can be prolonged. However, if the site of the leak is in the distal bile duct in the main biliary tract, the therapeutic options may be limited. Injection of absolute ethanol into the bile duct requires correct identification of the bile duct, and balloon occlusion is useful to avoid damage to the surrounding tissues, even in cases with non-communicating biliary fistula and bile leak. CASE REPORT Two cases of non-communicating biliary fistula and bile leak are presented; one case following pancreaticoduodenectomy (Whipple's procedure), and one case following laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Both cases were successfully managed by chemical bile duct ablation with absolute ethanol. In the first case, the biliary leak occurred from a fistula of the right posterior biliary tract following pancreaticoduodenectomy. Cannulation of the leaking bile duct and balloon occlusion were achieved via a percutaneous route, and seven ablation sessions using absolute ethanol were required. In the second case, perforation of the bile duct branch draining hepatic segment V occurred following laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Cannulation of the bile duct and balloon occlusion were achieved via a transhepatic route, and seven ablation sessions using absolute ethanol were required. CONCLUSIONS Chemical ablation of the bile duct using absolute ethanol is an effective treatment for biliary leak following hepatobiliary and pancreatic surgery, even in cases with non-communicating biliary fistula. Identification of the bile duct leak is required before ethanol injection to avoid damage to the surrounding tissues.

  3. Study of Relationship Between the Blood Supply of the Extrahepatic Bile Duct and Duct Supply Branches from Gastroduodenal Artery on Imaging and Anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Dai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Liver transplantation has become the treatment of choice for patients with end-stage acute or chronic hepatic disease. Bile duct complications are common events after liver transplantation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the blood supply of the human bile duct and identify the underlying mechanisms of bile duct complications after liver transplantation. Methods: The duct supply branches from gastroduodenal artery and blood supply of extrahepatic bile duct system were re-evaluated through selective hepatic angiography from 600 patients. In addition, 33 cadavers were injected with latex casting material into the common hepatic artery, then the extrahepatic bile duct and the branches from the common hepatic artery were carefully dissected to visualize the gastroduodenal artery and its branching to the extrahepatic bile duct. Results: The bile duct artery arose from the branch of the gastroduodenal artery in 8.1% (49/600. Of these 49 individuals, the bile duct artery was supplied by the gastroduodenal artery (61.22%, 30/49, the proper hepatic artery (14.29%, 7/49, or both the gastroduodenal artery and the proper hepatic artery (24.49%, 12/49. In our study of 33 cadavers, the percentage that the bile duct artery arose from the gastroduodenal artery was 27.27%. The blood supply to the bile extrahepatic bile ducts was divided into different segments and formed longitudinal and arterial network anastomosed on the walls of the duct. Conclusions: There is a close relationship between the duct supply branches from gastroduodenal artery and the blood supplying patterns of the extrahepatic bile duct system. In liver transplant surgery, the initial part of the gastroduodenal artery is preferred to be preserved in the donor liver. It is of great significance to improve the success rate of operation and reduce complications.

  4. Study of Relationship Between the Blood Supply of the Extrahepatic Bile Duct and Duct Supply Branches from Gastroduodenal Artery on Imaging and Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jie; Wu, Xiao-Feng; Yang, Chun; Li, Hong-Jun; Chen, Ya-Liang; Liu, Guo-Zhen; Song, Yi-Zhi; Wu, Huan-Huan; Ding, Jin-Li; Li, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Background: Liver transplantation has become the treatment of choice for patients with end-stage acute or chronic hepatic disease. Bile duct complications are common events after liver transplantation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the blood supply of the human bile duct and identify the underlying mechanisms of bile duct complications after liver transplantation. Methods: The duct supply branches from gastroduodenal artery and blood supply of extrahepatic bile duct system were re-evaluated through selective hepatic angiography from 600 patients. In addition, 33 cadavers were injected with latex casting material into the common hepatic artery, then the extrahepatic bile duct and the branches from the common hepatic artery were carefully dissected to visualize the gastroduodenal artery and its branching to the extrahepatic bile duct. Results: The bile duct artery arose from the branch of the gastroduodenal artery in 8.1% (49/600). Of these 49 individuals, the bile duct artery was supplied by the gastroduodenal artery (61.22%, 30/49), the proper hepatic artery (14.29%, 7/49), or both the gastroduodenal artery and the proper hepatic artery (24.49%, 12/49). In our study of 33 cadavers, the percentage that the bile duct artery arose from the gastroduodenal artery was 27.27%. The blood supply to the bile extrahepatic bile ducts was divided into different segments and formed longitudinal and arterial network anastomosed on the walls of the duct. Conclusions: There is a close relationship between the duct supply branches from gastroduodenal artery and the blood supplying patterns of the extrahepatic bile duct system. In liver transplant surgery, the initial part of the gastroduodenal artery is preferred to be preserved in the donor liver. It is of great significance to improve the success rate of operation and reduce complications. PMID:25635427

  5. Postoperative radiotherapy appeared to improve the disease free survival rate of patients with extrahepatic bile duct cancer at high risk of loco-regional recurrence

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    Kim, Mi Young; Kim, Jin Hee; Kim, Yong Hoon [Keimyung University Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Sang Jun [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    To investigate the outcomes of postoperative radiotherapy (RT), in patients with extrahepatic bile duct (EHBD) cancer by comparing the survival rate between patients undergoing surgery alone or surgery plus postoperative RT, and to identify the prognostic factors affecting survival. Between 2000 and 2013, 52 patients with EHBD cancer underwent surgical resection. Of these, 33 patients did not receive postoperative RT (group I), and 19 patients did (group II). R1 resection was significantly more frequent in group II. The median radiation dose was 5,040 cGy. The 3-year overall survival (OS) rate for group I and group II was 38% and 56%, respectively (p = 0.274). The 3-year disease free survival (DFS) rate for group I and group II was 20% and 31%, respectively (p = 0.049), and the 3-year loco-regional recurrence free survival (LRFS) rates were 19% and 58%, respectively (p = 0.002). Multivariate analyses showed that postoperative RT and lymphovascular invasion were independent prognostic factors for DFS and LRFS. Overall, 42 patients (80%) experienced treatment failure. Distant metastasis was the predominant pattern of failure in group II. Postoperative RT after surgical resection appeared to improve the loco-regional control and DFS rate. More effort is needed to reduce distant metastasis, the major pattern of failure, in patients who receive postoperative RT.

  6. Postoperative radiotherapy appeared to improve the disease free survival rate of patients with extrahepatic bile duct cancer at high risk of loco-regional recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Young; Kim, Jin Hee; Kim, Yonghoon; Byun, Sang Jun

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the outcomes of postoperative radiotherapy (RT), in patients with extrahepatic bile duct (EHBD) cancer by comparing the survival rate between patients undergoing surgery alone or surgery plus postoperative RT, and to identify the prognostic factors affecting survival. Between 2000 and 2013, 52 patients with EHBD cancer underwent surgical resection. Of these, 33 patients did not receive postoperative RT (group I), and 19 patients did (group II). R1 resection was significantly more frequent in group II. The median radiation dose was 5,040 cGy. The 3-year overall survival (OS) rate for group I and group II was 38% and 56%, respectively (p = 0.274). The 3-year disease free survival (DFS) rate for group I and group II was 20% and 31%, respectively (p = 0.049), and the 3-year loco-regional recurrence free survival (LRFS) rates were 19% and 58%, respectively (p = 0.002). Multivariate analyses showed that postoperative RT and lymphovascular invasion were independent prognostic factors for DFS and LRFS. Overall, 42 patients (80%) experienced treatment failure. Distant metastasis was the predominant pattern of failure in group II. Postoperative RT after surgical resection appeared to improve the loco-regional control and DFS rate. More effort is needed to reduce distant metastasis, the major pattern of failure, in patients who receive postoperative RT.

  7. Bile duct cell apoptosis is a rare event in primary biliary cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballardini, G; Guidi, M; Susca, M; Ghetti, S; Grassi, A; Lari, F; Fusconi, M; Zauli, D; Bianchi, F B

    2001-03-01

    The frequency of apoptosis in bile duct cells of primary biliary cirrhosis is still unclear spanning from rare to 50% in the various reports. To study bile duct cell apoptosis in stage I primary biliary cirrhosis lesions. Nine stage I-II biopsies with a total number of 26 bile ducts of different sizes, selected from a larger series on the basis of the expression on serial frozen sections of HLA-DR and Fas antigens. Apoptosis was evaluated by a DNA fragmentation assay on frozen sections, according to the manufacturer's protocol and by expression of apoptosis related cytokeratin neoepitopes. Bile duct cell proliferation was assessed by MIB1 (Ki-67) expression. Apoptosis was frequently found in inflammatory cells of portal tracts and sinusoids. Apoptosis of hepatocytes was also systematically observed. Only 4 positive bile duct cells were found in 3 bile ducts from 3 biopsies. Quantitative evaluation was not attempted. Cholangiocyte proliferation was observed in the same ducts and occasionally in other biopsies. These data suggest that cholangiocyte death by apoptosis at the level of typical primary biliary cirrhosis lesions is a rare event, at least in early stages of the disease. The observed rate of proliferation was consistent with the rate of apoptosis.

  8. Histogenesis of bile duct-like cells proliferating during ethionine hepatocarcinogenesis. Evidence for a biliary epithelial nature of oval cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzi, R; Liu, M H; Tarsetti, F; Slott, P A; Alpini, G; Zhai, W R; Paronetto, F; Lenzen, R; Tavoloni, N

    1992-03-01

    The origin of bile duct-like cells (oval cells) proliferating during chemical hepatocarcinogenesis is highly controversial. To illuminate this issue, we induced oval cell proliferation by feeding rats a choline-devoid diet containing 0.1% ethionine (CDE), a hepatocarcinogenic diet, for up to 60 days. At various times we studied 1) oval cell morphology by light and electron microscopy, 2) the immunohistochemical expression of albumin and intermediate filament proteins by the various hepatic cells, 3) hepatic incorporation of [3H]thymidine by histoautoradiography, 4) the fractional area occupied by duct-like structures in liver cross sections, 5) the biliary tree volume in vivo to establish the possible continuity of the proliferated structures to the existing biliary lumina, and 6) spontaneous bile flow rate and the choleretic responsiveness to the hormone secretin, which stimulates ductular secretory activity. The results demonstrated the following: 1) oval cells resemble bile duct cells with respect to their histologic and ultrastructural appearance and their formation of duct-like structures; 2) as normal and hyperplastic bile duct cells induced by bile duct ligation, oval cells are positive for cytokeratins 7 and 19 (markers of glandular epithelia) and 8 and 18 (markers of simple epithelia) and are negative for vimentin and desmin, markers of mesenchymal and muscular differentiation, respectively; 3) in general, oval cells are negative for albumin, which is expressive of hepatocyte lineage, even though a few are positive for this protein, particularly those morphologically resembling small hepatocytes; 4) after initiation of the CDE diet, DNA synthesis begins in biliary epithelial cells; and 5) the degree of oval cell proliferation parallels the increase in biliary tree volume, spontaneous bile flow rate, and responsiveness to secretin choleresis, as in bile duct cell hyperplasia induced by biliary obstruction. Although the involvement of a periductular

  9. Long-term observation and treatment of a widespread intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct extending from the intrapancreatic bile duct to the bilateral intrahepatic bile duct: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hokuto, Daisuke; Nomi, Takeo; Yasuda, Satoshi; Yoshikawa, Takahiro; Ishioka, Kohei; Yamada, Takatsugu; Akahori, Takahiro; Nakagawa, Kenji; Nagai, Minako; Nakamura, Kota; Obara, Shinsaku; Kanehiro, Hiromichi; Sho, Masayuki

    2017-01-01

    Few studies have reported the long-term outcomes of surgical resected intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPNB). Here, we describe the long-term observation and treatment of a case of widespread IPNB. A 57-year-old male was referred to our hospital due to jaundice and dilation of the intrahepatic bile duct. Computed tomography showed dilation and irregularities of the right intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts together with a 3cm nodule in the common hepatic duct. Peroral cholangioscopy revealed mucinous discharge from the ampulla of Vater, which resulted in a diagnosis of IPNB. A biopsy of the nodule and the bile duct revealed papillary adenoma in all of them. Right hepatectomy, caudate lobectomy, extrahepatic bile duct resection, and left hepaticojejunostomy were performed. The nodule was histologically diagnosed as papillary carcinoma in situ, and R0 resection was performed. However, mucus production from the papillary adenoma in the B3 and B4 was observed. We carefully managed the patient's biliary tract by inserting a biliary drainage tube into the segment 2, and he has survived for more than 7 years since the initial treatment. Mucus might be produced after the surgical resection of IPNB even if s surgical margin was benign. Five-year survival rate of benign IPNB was reported from 85% to 100%. That might be caused by difference of the postoperative management of the biliary tract. Careful management of the biliary tract should be performed after surgical resection of IPNB. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. The effect of prostanoids on hepatic bile flow in dogs with normal liver and bile duct cell hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, H; Contis, J; Li, A P; Kaminski, D L

    1996-04-01

    Bile flow rates and composition are subject to a wide variety of neural, endocrine and paracrine influences. The effects of these multiple factors may be different in the diseased liver compared to the response produced in the normal liver. As prostanoids may have a therapeutic role in liver disease it was intended to evaluate the effects of two principal therapeutic prostanoids, prostaglandin E2 and prostacyclin, on bile flow in dogs with a normal liver and in dogs with hepatotoxin-induced liver injury. Initially, in awake animals with chronic biliary and gastric fistulas the bile flow response to prostaglandin E2 and prostacyclin was evaluated and compared to the response produced by bile salt infusion alone and to that produced by the standard choleretic hormones, secretin and glucagon. The animals were then fed alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT) and the studies repeated. ANIT is a hepatoxin that produces bile duct cell hyperplasia which was confirmed in dogs by demonstrating that ANIT increased [3H]thymidine incorporation by isolated canine bile duct cells. In normal dogs, the prostanoids, secretin, and glucagon increased hepatic bile flow. 10 days of ANIT feeding produced a hypercholeresis. While secretin was able to stimulate the hyperplastic biliary epithelium and increase bile flow over values produced by the hyperplastic biliary epithelium alone, neither prostaglandin E2, prostacyclin, or glucagon appeared to stimulate the hyperplastic biliary epithelium. As ANIT produced evidence of cholestasis and hepatocellular damage, only secretin would seem to have a potential therapeutic role in increasing bile flow in cholestatic liver disorders associated with bile duct cell hyperplasia.

  11. Bile duct carcinoma in the elderly. A rationale for surgical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, K; Tompkins, R; Longmire, W; Roslyn, J

    1991-10-01

    Recent studies have advocated the nonoperative treatment of elderly patients with bile duct cancer using biliary endoprostheses. In addition to a 30-day mortality rate of 9%, disadvantages with this approach include lack of a definitive diagnosis and the inability to assess resectability. For comparison, we reviewed 42 consecutive cases of bile duct cancer managed surgically at UCLA (from 1954 to 1988) among patients age 70 years or older. Histologic confirmation of bile duct cancer was obtained for 40 surgical patients (95%) in the series. The 30-day mortality rate was 10%. There was a trend to more aggressive surgical management during the study, with a concomitant doubling in survival rates (from 21% among patients treated between 1954 and 1978 to 53% among patients treated between 1979 and 1988 at 1 year after surgery.) We conclude that elderly patients should not be denied surgical evaluation of malignant neoplasms of the bile duct simply on the basis of age.

  12. Prediction of common bile duct stones in the earliest stages of acute biliary pancreatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Santvoort, H. C.; Bakker, O. J.; Besselink, M. G.; Bollen, T. L.; Fischer, K.; Nieuwenhuijs, V. B.; Gooszen, H. G.; Erpecum, K. J.

    Background and study aims: Accurate prediction of common bile duct (CBD) stones in acute biliary pancreatitis is warranted to select patients for early therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). We evaluated commonly used biochemical and radiological predictors of CBD stones

  13. Prediction of common bile duct stones in the earliest stages of acute biliary pancreatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santvoort, H.C. van; Bakker, O.J.; Besselink, M.G.; Bollen, T.L.; Fischer, K.; Nieuwenhuijs, V.B.; Gooszen, H.G.; Erpecum, K.J. van

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Accurate prediction of common bile duct (CBD) stones in acute biliary pancreatitis is warranted to select patients for early therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). We evaluated commonly used biochemical and radiological predictors of CBD stones

  14. Postoperative follow-up studies in congenital dilatation of the common bile duct using hepatobiliary scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirobe, Seiichi; Ishida, Haruo; Hayashi, Akira; Kamagata, Shoichiro; Fuchimoto, Yasufumi; Mizuno, Dai; Yano, Tsunehiro [Tokyo Metropolitan Kiyose Children`s Hospital (Japan); Ishii, Katsumi

    1995-03-01

    Follow-up studies in congenital dilatation of the common bile duct were done in 20 cases ranging 3 to 20 years after operation. Operative cholangiography had shown dilatation of the intrahepatic bile ducts in 15 patients (75%), of these, 7 patients had cystic dilatation. Five cases of these 7 patients showed prolonged stasis of the nuclide in the cystic dilated intrahepatic bile ducts by {sup 99m}Tc-PMT hepatobiliary scintigraphy in the follow-up studies even at 10 years after operation. But none of 20 cases had complication such as intrahepatic lithiasis, cholangitis, and liver dysfunction. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy could provide moderate anatomic and excellent functional information which were useful for these follow-up studies and careful follow-up should be done in the case of cystic dilatation of the intrahepatic bile ducts. (author).

  15. Computer analysis of three-dimensional morphological characteristics of the bile duct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jinyuan; Chen, Houjin; Peng, Yahui; Shang, Hua

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a computer image-processing algorithm for analyzing the morphological characteristics of bile ducts in Magnetic Resonance Cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) images was proposed. The algorithm consisted of mathematical morphology methods including erosion, closing and skeletonization, and a spline curve fitting method to obtain the length and curvature of the center line of the bile duct. Of 10 cases, the average length of the bile duct was 14.56 cm. The maximum curvature was in the range of 0.111 2.339. These experimental results show that using the computer image-processing algorithm to assess the morphological characteristics of the bile duct is feasible and further research is needed to evaluate its potential clinical values.

  16. One case that developed bile duct cancer all over the progress of repeated cholangitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Yugo; Makiyama, Hiroaki; Nakata, Takao; Ishii, Shigeaki; Kokubu, Shigehiro; Imawari, Michio; Fukunaga, Masaharu

    2017-01-01

    A 65-year-old man was referred to our department due to repeated episodes of cholangitis in the past five years. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was performed, and a stricture of the lower bile duct was detected. At a later date, an irregular mucosa of the bile duct was confirmed using nasal endoscopy. Based on the biopsy results, the patient was diagnosed with bile duct cancer and subsequently underwent surgery. Postoperative histopathology did not show lymph node metastasis, and the condition was determined to be early-stage bile duct cancer. In the present case, it was presumed that the cancer had developed due to chronic cholangitis. Therefore, in patients with repeated episodes of cholangitis, attention should be focused on the possible and concomitant development of cancer.

  17. Bile duct adenoma and von Meyenburg complex-like duct arising in hepatitis and cirrhosis: pathogenesis and histological characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aishima, Shinichi; Tanaka, Yuki; Kubo, Yuichiro; Shirabe, Ken; Maehara, Yoshihiko; Oda, Yoshinao

    2014-11-01

    Morphologic features and neoplastic potentials of bile duct adenoma (BDA) and von Meyenburg complex (VMC)-like duct arising in chronic liver disease were unknown. Thirty-five BDAs and 12 VMC-like duct lesions were observed in 39 cases with chronic liver disease. BDAs were divided into the EMA-cytoplasmic type (n = 14) and EMA-luminal type (n = 21). EMA-cytoplasmic BDA composed of a proliferation of cuboidal to low-columnar cells forming an open lumen with NCAM(+)/MUC6(-), resembling an interlobular bile duct. EMA-luminal BDA showed uniform cuboidal cells with narrow lumen, and NCAM(++)/MUC6(++), resembling a ductular reaction. VMC-like duct showed positive MUC1 expression and negative MUC6. The expression of S100P, glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1) and insulin-like growth factor II mRNA-binding protein 3 (IMP-3) were not detected in three lesions. p16 expression was higher than those of the ductular reaction, and the Ki67 and p53 indexes were very low (bile duct type; BDA, ductular/peribiliary gland type; and VMC-like duct. They may be reactive proliferation rather than neoplastic lesions. © 2014 Japanese Society of Pathology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  18. Role of hepatocytes and bile duct cells in preservation-reperfusion injury of liver grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukan, M; Haddad, P S

    2001-05-01

    In liver transplantation, it is currently hypothesized that nonparenchymal cell damage and/or activation is the major cause of preservation-related graft injury. Because parenchymal cells (hepatocytes) appear morphologically well preserved even after extended cold preservation, their injury after warm reperfusion is ascribed to the consequences of nonparenchymal cell damage and/or activation. However, accumulating evidence over the past decade indicated that the current hypothesis cannot fully explain preservation-related liver graft injury. We review data obtained in animal and human liver transplantation and isolated perfused animal livers, as well as isolated cell models to highlight growing evidence of the importance of hepatocyte disturbances in the pathogenesis of normal and fatty graft injury. Particular attention is given to preservation time-dependent decreases in high-energy adenine nucleotide levels in liver cells, a circumstance that (1) sensitizes hepatocytes to various stimuli and insults, (2) correlates well with graft function after liver transplantation, and (3) may also underlie the preservation time-dependent increase in endothelial cell damage. We also review damage to bile duct cells, which is increasingly being recognized as important in the long-lasting phase of reperfusion injury. The role of hydrophobic bile salts in that context is particularly assessed. Finally, a number of avenues aimed at preserving hepatocyte and bile duct cell integrity are discussed in the context of liver transplantation therapy as a complement to reducing nonparenchymal cell damage and/or activation.

  19. Risk factors for recurrence of common bile duct stones after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Chunqiu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the clinical features of patients with recurrence after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP and cholecystolithotomy and related risk factors. MethodsA retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of patients with common bile duct stones who visited our hospital from January 2013 to June 2015 and underwent ERCP and cholecystolithotomy. A total of 292 patients were enrolled, and according to the presence or absence of recurrence of common bile duct stones, these patients were divided into recurrence group with 31 patients and non-recurrence group with 261 patients. The clinical data including age, sex, body mass index (BMI, and the conditions of the biliary tract and bile duct stones were compared between the two groups. The chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between groups, and the binary logistic regression was used for the analysis of factors that were screened out. ResultsThere were significant differences in the proportions of patients with a number of stones ≥2 or bile duct diameter ≥14 mm between the two groups (χ2=4.80 and 5.61, both P<0.05. A previous history of cholecystectomy was an independent risk factor for the recurrence of common bile duct stones (OR=20.10, 95%CI: 4.11-98.25, P<0.05. ConclusionA previous history of cholecystectomy increases the risk of recurrence of common bile duct stones after ERCP.

  20. Repair of a common bile duct defect with a decellularized ureteral graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yao; Xiong, Xian-Ze; Zhou, Rong-Xing; Deng, Yi-Lei; Jin, Yan-Wen; Lu, Jiong; Li, Fu-Yu; Cheng, Nan-Sheng

    2016-12-28

    To evaluate the feasibility of repairing a common bile duct defect with a decellularized ureteral graft in a porcine model. Eighteen pigs were randomly divided into three groups. An approximately 1 cm segment of the common bile duct was excised from all the pigs. The defect was repaired using a 2 cm long decellularized ureteral graft over a T-tube (T-tube group, n = 6) or a silicone stent (stent group, n = 6). Six pigs underwent bile duct reconstruction with a graft alone (stentless group). The surviving animals were euthanized at 3 mo. Specimens of the common bile ducts were obtained for histological analysis. The animals in the T-tube and stent groups survived until sacrifice. The blood test results were normal in both groups. The histology results showed a biliary epithelial layer covering the neo-bile duct. In contrast, all the animals in the stentless group died due to biliary peritonitis and cholangitis within two months post-surgery. Neither biliary epithelial cells nor accessory glands were observed at the graft sites in the stentless group. Repair of a common bile duct defect with a decellularized ureteral graft appears to be feasible. A T-tube or intraluminal stent was necessary to reduce postoperative complications.

  1. Endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation for removal of bile duct stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Yuji; Tsuyuguchi, Toshio; Kawaguchi, Yoshiaki; Hirata, Nobuto; Nakaji, So; Kitamura, Katsuya; Mikami, Shigeru; Fujimoto, Tatsuya; Ijima, Masashi; Kurihara, Eishin; Oana, Shuhei; Nishino, Takayoshi; Tamura, Ryo; Sakamoto, Dai; Nakamura, Masato; Nishikawa, Takao; Sugiyama, Harutoshi; Yoshida, Hitoshi; Mine, Tetsuya; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2014-12-07

    To investigate the efficacy and outcomes of endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation (EPLBD) for bile duct stones in a multicenter prospective study. Lithotomy by EPLBD was conducted in 124 patients with bile duct stones ≥ 13 mm in size or with three or more bile duct stones ≥ 10 mm. After endoscopic sphincterotomy, the papilla was dilated using balloons 12-20 mm in diameter fitting the bile duct diameter. The success rate of first-time lithotomy was 86.3% (107/124) and the final lithotomy success rate was 100% (124/124). Lithotripsy was needed in 10 of the 124 (13.6%) patients. Adverse events due to the treatment procedure occurred in 6 (4.8%) patients, all of which were mild. Performing large balloon dilation after endoscopic sphincterotomy in patients with large stones or multiple stones in the bile duct is considered to ensure the safety of treatment and to reduce the need for lithotripsy. It is suggested that treatment by EPLBD for large bile duct stones may be safe and useful.

  2. Galactosylated iodine-based small molecule I.V. CT contrast agent for bile duct imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yeonjin; Hwang, Hee Sook; Na, Kun

    2018-04-01

    Computed tomography (CT) with contrast plays an important role as a clinical diagnostic tool but still has a limited diagnostic range. In this work, we developed a novel injectable iodine-based small molecule CT contrast agent, even can be used for bile duct diagnostics. The bile duct diagnosable CT contrast agent (BDICA) is synthesized with 5-amino-2,4,6-triiodoisophthaloyl dichloride (ATIPC), tromethamine and lactobionic acid (LBA) for asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR) targeted delivery via receptor-mediated endocytosis and transport to the bile canaliculi. Specific binding to the ASGPRs was confirmed by in vitro cellular uptake in HepG2 cells (ASGPR positive) and HCT 116 cells (ASGPR negative). Compared to iohexol, BDICA has equal in vivo distribution and a 13-fold iodine increase in content was observed in bile juice after BDICA injection. The radiopaque contrast effect in the bile duct has been clearly shown in in vivo CT scans. Furthermore, within 36 h, 91.3% of the BDICA was eliminated without organ damage, which verified the overall safety of the contrast agent. BDICA not only provides sufficient contrast images similar to iohexol, but also provides superior images of the bile duct. Based on recent studies, it has been shown that BDICA is a promising, safe and effective contrast agent for CT imaging of the organs and soft tissues, including the bile duct. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. An end-to-end anastomosis model of guinea pig bile duct: A 6-mo observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Qing; Tian, Yuan-Hu; Xu, Zhi; Wang, Li-Xin; Hou, Chun-Sheng; Ling, Xiao-Feng; Zhou, Xiao-Si

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To establish the end-to-end anastomosis (EEA) model of guinea pig bile duct and evaluate the healing process of bile duct. METHODS: Thirty-two male guinea pigs were randomly divided into control group, 2-, 3-, and 6-mo groups after establishment of EEA model. Histological, immunohistochemical and serologic tests as well as measurement of bile contents were performed. The bile duct diameter and the diameter ratio (DR) were measured to assess the formation of relative stricture. RESULTS: Acute and chronic inflammatory reactions occurred throughout the healing process of bile duct. Serology test and bile content measurement showed no formation of persistent stricture in 6-mo group. The DR revealed a transient formation of relative stricture in 2-mo group in comparation to control group (2.94 ± 0.17 vs 1.89 ± 0.27, P = 0.004). However, this relative stricture was released in 6-mo group (2.14 ± 0.18, P = 0.440). CONCLUSION: A simple and reliable EEA model of guinea pig bile duct can be established with a good reproducibility and a satisfactory survival rate. PMID:21390151

  4. Sarcomatoid carcinoma of the common bile duct: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuisheng; Jia, Jia; Bi, Xiaoning; Jiang, Qinglong; Zhao, Yajie; Chen, Yingtai; Xu, Quan; Lan, Zhongmin; Zhang, Jianwei; Zhang, Zhihui; Wang, Chengfeng

    2017-01-01

    Sarcomatoid carcinoma is an extremely rare lesion in the common bile duct (CBD). We present a case of sarcomatoid carcinoma of the distal CBD in a 51-year-old woman who presented with jaundice and abdominal pain. Whipple's operation was performed successfully. Microscopically, the tumor was a poorly differentiated carcinoma containing a component of sarcoma-like differentiation. The tumor cells displayed spindle-shaped nuclei with occasional mitotic figures. Cytokeratin (CK) 7, CK19, CK18, and pan-CK (AE1/AE3) staining was positive on immunohistochemistry. Vimentin and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) staining were also positive. Sarcomatoid carcinoma of the distal CBD. The patient received three cycles of chemotherapy after surgery. The patient has experienced no adverse events in the 3 years post-surgery. We present here a case report of sarcomatoid carcinoma of the distal CBD. The patient received chemotherapy after surgery, and was event-free for 3 years post-surgery, suggesting a relatively better prognosis, despite the infiltrative pattern of the tumor.

  5. Clonal chromosomal abnormalities in congenital bile duct dilatation (Caroli's disease).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parada, L A; Hallén, M; Hägerstrand, I; Tranberg, K G; Johansson, B

    1999-11-01

    Caroli's disease is a rare congenital disorder characterised by cystic dilatation of the intrahepatic bile ducts and an increased risk of cholangiocellular carcinoma. The cause is unknown, but occasional familial clustering suggests that some cases are inherited, in particular when occurring in association with polycystic kidney disease and germline PKD1 gene mutations. To date, no gene responsible for familial isolated Caroli's disease has been identified, and no genetic investigations of liver tissue from patients with Caroli's disease have been reported. A liver biopsy specimen from a patient with isolated Caroli's disease, without any signs of cholangiocellular carcinoma, was short term cultured and cytogenetically investigated after G banding with Wright's stain. Cytogenetic analysis disclosed the karyotype 45-47,XX,der(3)t(3;8)(p23;q13), +2mar[cp6]/46,XX[18]. The finding of an unbalanced translocation between chromosomes 3 and 8 suggests that loss of distal 3p and/or gain of 8q is of pathogenetic importance in Caroli's disease. Alternatively, structural rearrangements of genes located in 3p23 and 8q13 may be of the essence. These chromosomal breakpoints may also pinpoint the location of genes involved in inherited forms of Caroli's disease not associated with polycystic kidney disease.

  6. Intraoperative ultrasonography of liver, bile ducts and pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Mendes de Oliveira Cerri

    Full Text Available The use of intraoperative ultrasonography (IOUS to evaluate liver, bile ducts and pancreatic disease, as compared to the results of preoperative ultrasonography and CT, is discussed. Forty-two patients who underwent abdominal surgery for suspected hepatobiliary and/or pancreatic disease were studied. The intraoperative study was carried out with a portable apparatus (Aloka 500, Japan, using 5.0 MHz and 7.5 MHz linear sterile transducers. The main indications for IOUS were the search for and/or evaluation of primary hepatic masses,hepatic abscesses or metastases, obstructive jaundice, or neuroendocrine tumors. In 15 cases (38.5 percent from the hepatobiliary group and in 7 cases (58.3 percent from the pancreatic group, a difference between preoperative and intraoperative findings was observed. The main difference was observed in relation to the number and size of hepatic and pancreatic lesions. The relationship between the lesions and the vascular structures was evaluated through IOUS. The method was also used to guide surgical procedures such as biopsies, the alcoholization of nodules, and the drainage of abscesses. IOUS plays an important role in detecting small hepatic and pancreatic nodules, in the assessment of anatomical relationships between the lesions and the vascular structures, and in the performance of interventionist procedures.

  7. REVERSIBILITY OF CHOLESTATIC CHANGES FOLLOWING EXPERIMENTAL COMMON BILE-DUCT OBSTRUCTION - FACT OR FANTASY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ARONSON, DC; CHAMULEAU, RAFM; FREDERIKS, WM; GOOSZEN, HG; HEIJMANS, HSA; JAMES, J

    In 36 male Wistar rats extrahepatic cholestasis was induced by ligation and transsection of the common bile duct. After 1, 2 and 3 weeks of cholestasis the bile flow was restored by means of a Roux-en-Y choledochojejunostomy. Plasma levels of bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, GOT and clotting factor

  8. Iatrogenic injury of an aberrant right posterior sectoral bile duct: case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Case history. A 34-year-old woman presented with a history of a previous laparoscopic cholecystectomy, followed within a few days by a formal laparotomy for a suspected bile duct injury. Approximately one week after the laparotomy, she developed a sinus on the anterior abdominal wall that was draining bile. She was ...

  9. Use of LigaSure™ on bile duct in rats: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marte, Antonio; Pintozzi, Lucia

    2017-08-01

    The closure of a cystic duct during cholecystectomy by means of radiofrequency is still controversial. We report our preliminary experimental results with the use of LigaSure™ on common bile duct in rats. Thirty Wistar rats weighing 70 to 120 g were employed for this study. The animals were all anesthetized with intraperitoneal ketamine and then divided into three groups. The first group (10 rats, Group C) underwent only laparotomy and isolation of the common bile duct. The second (10 rats, Group M) underwent laparotomy and closure of the common bile duct (CBD) with monopolar coagulation. The third group (10 rats, Group L) underwent laparotomy and sealing of the common bile duct with two application of LigaSureTM. Afterwards, all rats were kept in comfortable cages and were administered dibenzamine for five days. They were all sacrificed on day 20. Through a laparotomy, the liver and bile duct were removed for histological examination. Blood samples were obtained to dose bilirubin, amylase and transaminase levels. Mortality rate was 0 in the control group (C), 3/10 rats in group M and 0 in group L. In group L, the macroscopic examination showed a large choledochocele (3-3.5 × 1.5 cm) with few adhesions. At the histological examination there was optimal sealing of the common bile duct in 9/10 rats. In group M, 2/10 rats had liver abscesses, 3/10 rats had choledochocele and 5/10 rats, biliary peritonitis. There was intense tissue inflammation and the dissection was difficult. Analyses of blood samples showed an increase in total bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in groups M and L. The preliminary results of our study confirm that radiofrequency can be safely used for the closure of the common bile duct. The choledochocele obtained with this technique could represent a good experimental model. These results could be a further step for using the LigaSureTM in clipless cholecystectomy.

  10. CPT-11 for bile-duct and gallbladder carcinoma: a phase II North Central Cancer Treatment Group (NCCTG) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberts, Steven R; Fishkin, Paul A; Burgart, Lawrence J; Cera, Peter J; Mahoney, Michelle R; Morton, Roscoe F; Johnson, Patricia A; Nair, Suresh; Goldberg, Richard M

    2002-01-01

    Bile-duct and gallbladder carcinomas are rare cancers. Once they have spread beyond the point of surgical resectability, no therapies have shown meaningful long-term benefit. These cancers are typically refractory to standard chemotherapy agents. Based on preclinical work showing activity of CPT-11, we performed a phase II trial to assess its activity in patients with bile-duct or gallbladder carcinomas. Patients with histologic or cytologic evidence of locally advanced or metastatic bile-duct or gallbladder carcinoma were potentially eligible for this study. Patients meeting study eligibility and who signed an informed consent were given CPT-11 125 mg/m2 weekly for 4 wk followed by a 2-wk break from therapy. The starting dose of CPT-11 was later reduced to 100 mg/m2 grade IV toxicity. Patients continued on treatment if they showed evidence of benefit and tolerated therapy. A total of 39 patients were enrolled, and 36 were evaluable. The overall confirmed response rate was 8%. One CR and two PRs were seen. A high frequency of toxicity was seen. However, no unusual or unexpected toxicities occurred. CPT-11 is ineffective therapy for patients with locally advanced or metastatic bile-duct or gallbladder carcinoma.

  11. Feasibility of Endoscopic Papillary Large Balloon Dilation in Patients with Difficult Bile Duct Stones without Dilatation of the Lower Part of the Extrahepatic Bile Duct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Yuji; Iwasaki, Akito; Sato, Takamitsu; Fujisawa, Toshio; Sekino, Yusuke; Hosono, Kunihiro; Matsuhashi, Nobuyuki; Sakamaki, Kentaro; Nakajima, Atsushi; Kubota, Kensuke

    2017-01-15

    There is no consensus for using endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation (EPLBD) in patients without dilatation of the lower part of the bile duct (DLBD). We evaluated the feasibility and safety of EPLBD for the removal of difficult bile duct stones (diameter ≥10 mm) in patients without DLBD. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 209 patients who underwent EPLBD for the removal of bile duct stones from October 2009 to July 2014. Primary outcomes were the clearance rate and additional mechanical lithotripsy. Secondary outcomes were the incidence of complications and recurrence rate. Fiftyseven patients had DLBD (27.3%), and 152 did not have DLBD (72.7%). There were no significant differences in the overall success rate or the use of mechanical lithotripsy. Success rate during the first session and procedure time were better in the DLBD than the without-DLBD group (75.7% vs 66.7%, 48.1±23.0 minutes vs 58.4±31.7 minutes, respectively). As for complications, there were no significant differences in the incidence of pancreatitis, perforation or bleeding after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. The recurrence rate did not differ significantly between the two groups. EPLBD is a useful and safe method for common bile duct stone removal in patients without DLBD.

  12. Laparoscopic hepatectomy combined with endoscopic papillary balloon dilation for complex bile duct stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian; Zhang, Fabiao; Du, Xuefeng; Wang, Aidong; Lv, Shangdong; Fang, Zheping

    2017-08-13

    We evaluated the feasibility and efficacy of laparoscopic hepatectomy (LH) combined with endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) for removing intra- and extrahepatic bile duct stones. A total of 26 patients with intra- and extrahepatic bile duct stones underwent LH and EPBD. Selective hemi-hepatic vascular occlusion was used to complete the LH. EPBD was performed under the guidance of a guidewire, and stones were removed with a stone basket or balloon. A one-stage LH with EPBD lithotomy was successfully performed in 26 cases. No residual bile duct stones, intestinal or bile duct perforations were found. In addition, no severe post-operative bleeding, severe pancreatitis or mortality occurred. Post-operative hyperamylasemia was observed in five cases and bile leakage in one case. Post-operative hospital stays lasted 7-11 days. LH combined with EPBD applied to intra- and extrahepatic bile duct stones was feasible, effective and safe, resulting in rapid recovery and few post-operative complications. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  13. Endoscopic transpancreatic septotomy as a precutting technique for difficult bile duct cannulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Lin; Li, Quan-Peng; Zhu, Ming-Hui; Ge, Xian-Xiu; Yu, Hong; Wang, Fei; Ji, Guo-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the technique of transpancreatic septotomy (TS) for cannulating inaccessible common bile ducts in endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). METHODS: Between May 2012 and April 2013, 1074 patients were referred to our department for ERCP. We excluded 15 patients with previous Billroth II gastrectomy, Roux-en-Y anastomosis, duodenal stenosis, or duodenal papilla tumor. Among 1059 patients who underwent ERCP, there were 163 patients with difficult bile duct cannulation. Pancreatic guidewire or pancreatic duct plastic stent assistance allowed for successful ERCP completion in 94 patients. We retrospectively analyzed clinical data from 69 failed patients (36 transpancreatic septotomies and 33 needle-knife sphincterotomies). RESULTS: Of the 69 patients who underwent precut papillotomy, common bile duct cannulation was successfully achieved in 67. The success rates in the TS and needle knife sphincterotomy (NKS) groups were 97.2% (35/36) and 96.9% (32/33), respectively, which were not significantly different (P > 0.05). Complications occurred in 11 cases, including acute pancreatitis (n = 6), bleeding (n = 2), and cholangitis (n = 3). The total frequency of complications in the TS group was lower than that in the NKS group (8.3% vs 24.2%, P bile duct cannulation in ERCP. TS and NKS markedly improve the success rate of selective bile duct cannulation in ERCP. TS precut is safer as compared with NKS. PMID:25852284

  14. Complete remission of paraneoplastic vanishing bile duct syndrome after the successful treatment of Hodgkin's lymphoma: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rota Scalabrini, Delia; Caravelli, Daniela; Carnevale Schianca, Fabrizio; D'Ambrosio, Lorenzo; Tolomeo, Francesco; Boccone, Paola; Manca, Antonio; De Rosa, Giovanni; Nuzzo, Annamaria; Aglietta, Massimo; Grignani, Giovanni

    2014-08-14

    Vanishing bile duct syndrome has been associated with different pathologic conditions (adverse drug reactions, autoimmune diseases, graft versus host disease, and cancer). Though its causes are unknown, an immune-related pathogenesis is the most likely one. Vanishing bile duct syndrome can evolve to hepatic failure and, eventually, to death. The treatment is uncertain, but it needs the resolution of the underlying pathologic condition. We describe the association of Hodgkin's lymphoma with a syndrome characterized by cholestasis, aminotransferase elevation and an histological picture of bile duct loss. All other causes of hepatic function impairment were excluded (in particular, drugs, viral and autoimmune related diseases) eventually leading to the diagnosis of vanishing bile duct syndrome. Despite the fact that the dysfunction is not caused by hepatic Hodgkin's lymphoma involvement, liver impairment can limit the optimal therapy of Hodgkin's lymphoma. A treatment consisting of ursodeoxycholic acid, prednisone, and full dose chemotherapy restored hepatic function and achieved complete and long-lasting remission of Hodgkin's lymphoma. We reviewed all case reports showing that vanishing bile duct syndrome is a dismal paraneoplastic syndrome being fatal in a high proportion of patients if not adequately treated. Indeed, this syndrome requires both an early recognition and an appropriate aggressive treatment consisting of full dose upfront chemotherapy which is the only way to achieve a resolution of the vanishing bile duct syndrome. Delayed or reduced intensity treatments unfavorably correlate with survival.

  15. Spontaneous Perforation of Common Bile Duct: A Rare Presentation of Gall Stones Disease

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    Duminda Subasinghe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Spontaneous perforation of the extrahepatic biliary system is a rare presentation of gall stones. Very few cases of bile duct perforation have been reported in adults. It is rarely suspected or correctly diagnosed preoperatively. Case Presentation. A 66-year-old female presented at the surgical emergency with 3 days’ history of severe upper abdominal pain with distension and repeated episodes of vomiting, as she had evidence of generalized peritonitis and underwent an exploratory laparotomy. A single 0.5 cm × 0.5 cm free perforation was present on the anterolateral surface of the common bile duct at the junction of cystic duct. A cholecystectomy and the CBD exploration were performed. Conclusion. Spontaneous perforation of the extrahepatic bile duct is a rare but important presentation of gall stones in adults. Therefore, awareness of the clinical presentation, expert ultrasound examination, and surgery are important aspects in the management.

  16. Histochemical studies of the common bile duct in reindeer

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    Timo Rahko

    1990-08-01

    Full Text Available Histochemical characteristics of bile duct mucosubstances, mast cells and globule leucocytes have not previously been described in the reindeer. Therefore various staining methods were applied on 1 to 6 specimens cut from formaline or Bouin-fixed histological blocks of the ductus hepaticus communis from 20 reindeer. The present study showed that bile duct mucins include neutral, carboxy- and sulphomucins located chiefly in goblet cells and in the deep glands and as a thin superficial layer covering the surface epithelium. PAS-reactivity was diastase resistant, indicating that glycogen was not demonstrable in the epithelial layer of reindeer, contrary to previous studies e.g., on carnivores. Furthermore, carboxymucins were sialidase-resistant, as sialic acid could not be identified in the present material. Certain differences were noted in the appearance and composition of intracytoplasmic granules and globules of mast cells and globule leucocytes, respectively. The mucosubstances of the mast cell contained sulphate groups indicative of sulphomucins while both neutral, carboxy- and sulphomucins were identifiable in globule leucocytes. However, due to the sensitivity of mast cells and globule leucocytes to postmortal changes the above interpretations need to be confirmed by further studies.Histokemiallinen tutkimus yhteisen sappikaytavan rakenteesta porolla.Abstract in Finnish / Yhteenveto: Yhteisen sappikaytavan (ductus hepaticus communis seinaman epiteelisolukon ja syotto- ja kerassolujen lima-aineiden koostumusta porolla ei ole aikaisemmin kuvattu. Sen vuoksi katsottiin aiheelliseksi suorit-taa histokemiallinen tutkimus formaliini- ja Bouin-kovetetusta histologisesta aineistosta, jonka kirjoittajat ovat julkaisseet aikaisemmin. Aineisto on peraisin 20 porosta. Erilaisia histokemiallisia varjayksia sovellettiin 1-6:een valikoituun leikkeeseen tarkoituksella analysoida nimenomaan lima-aineiden koostumusta. Tutkimuksissa ilmeni, etta

  17. Cytopathologic, Histopathologic, and Immunohistochemical Features of Intrahepatic Clear Cell Bile Duct Adenoma: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

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    William W. Wu; Mai Gu; Di Lu

    2014-01-01

    Intrahepatic clear cell bile duct adenoma is extremely rare, with only 3 previous cases reported in the literature. The cause of cytoplasmic clearing in clear cell bile duct adenoma has not been previously investigated. Distinguishing clear cell bile duct adenoma from other clear cell tumors, particularly clear cell cholangiocarcinoma, can be challenging. Previous studies have shown loss of CD10 expression and focal CD56 expression in cholangiocarcinoma. Expressions of CD10 and CD56 have not...

  18. Respiratory variation of the extrahepatic bile duct: evaluation with deep inspiratory and expiratory MRCP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Katsuyoshi; Shimizu, Ayame; Tanabe, Masahiro; Matsunaga, Naofumi

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the respiratory variation of the extrahepatic bile duct in morphology including shape, length and duct diameter on the breath-hold magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) obtained during deep inspiration and deep expiration in patients with or without biliary diseases. This study included 102 patients with or without biliary diseases. Breath-hold MRCP was obtained twice during the end-inspiration and the end-expiration. MRCP images were evaluated for the length, maximal diameter and "bowing" of the extrahepatic bile duct. In the normal group, the mean maximal diameter of the extrahepatic bile duct was significantly larger on the end-inspiratory MRCP (8.0 ± 2.0 mm) than on the end-expiratory MRCP (7.3 ± 1.8 mm) (P<.0001), while it was not significantly different in the dilated group. In the normal group, 25 (39%) of 65 patients had an increase in the mean maximal diameter of more than 1 mm at the end-inspiration, whereas 4 (11%) of 37 patients in the dilated group had it. The bowing of the extrahepatic bile duct on the end-inspiratory MRCP was observed in 60 (92%) of 65 normal patients, while it was seen in 22 (60%) of 37 patients with biliary dilatation (P<.0001). Deep inspiratory and expiratory MRCP demonstrated the respiratory variations of the extrahepatic bile duct in the shape (bowing), length and maximal duct diameter in patients with nondilated bile ducts. Awareness of this normal phenomenon will be important for the correct interpretation of MRCP in patients with or without biliary diseases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Techniques of Fluorescence Cholangiography During Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy for Better Delineation of the Bile Duct Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Yoshiharu; Ishizawa, Takeaki; Tani, Keigo; Harada, Nobuhiro; Kaneko, Junichi; Saiura, Akio; Bandai, Yasutsugu; Kokudo, Norihiro

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To evaluate the clinical and technical factors affecting the ability of fluorescence cholangiography (FC) using indocyanine green (ICG) to delineate the bile duct anatomy during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). Application of FC during LC began after laparoscopic fluorescence imaging systems became commercially available. In 108 patients undergoing LC, FC was performed by preoperative intravenous injection of ICG (2.5 mg) during dissection of Calot's triangle, and clinical factors affecting the ability of FC to delineate the extrahepatic bile ducts were evaluated. Equipment-related factors associated with bile duct detectability were also assessed among 5 laparoscopic systems and 1 open fluorescence imaging system in ex vivo studies. FC delineated the confluence between the cystic duct and common hepatic duct (CyD–CHD) before and after dissection of Calot's triangle in 80 patients (74%) and 99 patients (92%), respectively. The interval between ICG injection and FC before dissection of Calot's triangle was significantly longer in the 80 patients in whom the CyD–CHD confluence was detected by fluorescence imaging before dissection (median, 90 min; range, 15–165 min) than in the remaining 28 patients in whom the confluence was undetectable (median, 47 min; range, 21–205 min; P bile duct samples was significantly different among the laparoscopic imaging systems and tended to decrease more steeply than those of the open imaging system as the target-laparoscope distance increased and porcine tissues covering the samples became thicker. FC is a simple navigation tool for obtaining a biliary roadmap to reach the “critical view of safety” during LC. Key factors for better bile duct identification by FC are administration of ICG as far in advance as possible before surgery, sufficient extension of connective tissues around the bile ducts, and placement of the tip of laparoscope close and vertically to Calot's triangle. PMID:26107666

  20. Electron microscopical studies of the common bile duct in reindeer

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    Timo Rahko

    1990-08-01

    Full Text Available In a previous publication the authors have described some ultrastructural characteristics of granulated cells in the common bile duct of the reindeer. On the basis of the same material, electron microscopic observations on other tissue elements of bile duct wall are now reported. The surface and glandular epithelium were composed of tall columnar epithelial cells with villous structures on the luminal surfaces. The parietal cytoplasmic membranes of epithelial cells were equipped with intercellular desmosomes while intraepithelial globule leucocytes did not form any junctional complex with other cells. Apical cytoplasmic areas of superficial epithelial cells showed electron-dense small bodies possibly consisting of mucinous substances. The goblet and deep glandular cells, on the other hand, contained numerous large mucin granules with less electron-dense matrices. It appears that their secretions are more abundant than those in superficial epithelial cells which obviously are absorptive as their main function. The nuclei and other cytoplasmic organelles showed profiles similar to those in epithelial cells generally. The lumen of the bile ducts was usually empty or contained fine-granular or amorphous material. An unusual feature was the presence of parts of globule leucocytes or even almost whole cells occurring freely in ductal secretions.Elektronimikroskooppinen tutkimus yhteisen sappikäytävän rakenteesta porolla.Abstract in Finnish / Yhteenveto: Aikaisemmassa julkaisussa tekijät kuvasivat poron yhteisen sappikäytävän (ductus hepaticus communis seinämän jyväsellisten solujen hienorakennetta. Tässä artikkelissa selostetaan saman aineiston perusteella (6 tervettä teurasporoa elektronimikroskooppisia havaintoja sappikäytäväseinämän muista kudosrakenteista. Sappikäytäväseinämän pinta- ja rauhasepiteeli koostuu korkeista epiteelisoluista. Pinnallisia epiteelisoluja kattavat säännölliset mikrovillukset, ja niillä on vain v

  1. Bile duct complications of hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy evaluated by helical CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phongkitkarun, S. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)]. E-mail: rasih@mahidol.ac.th; Kobayashi, S. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Varavithya, V. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Huang, X. [Department of Biostatistics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Curley, S.A. [Department of Surgical Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Charnsangavej, C. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2005-06-01

    AIM: To describe the imaging findings of bile duct complications of hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy (HAIC) using helical CT, to set diagnostic criteria, to develop a CT grading system, and to correlate these with clinical findings and laboratory data. METHODS: Follow-up helical CT of the abdomen was performed every 3 months for 60 patients receiving HAIC. Three radiologists reviewed all CT studies before and after treatment, using either the picture archiving and communication system or hard copies. The findings of bile duct abnormalities were correlated with findings from other imaging techniques, clinical symptoms and laboratory data. RESULTS: Bile duct abnormalities developed in 34 (57%) of cases either during HAIC or 1 to 12 months after treatment. In 14 (41%) of these 34 patients, enhancement of the hepatic parenchyma along the dilated bile duct or in the segmental or lobar distribution was observed. In 43 cases (72%), normal or abnormal alkaline phosphatase levels were consistent with normal or abnormal CT findings, respectively. Increasing alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin levels were related to CT grade. CONCLUSION: Imaging findings of bile duct complications of HAIC are similar to those of primary sclerosing cholangitis, and correlate well with abnormal clinical and laboratory data. In the presence of such clinical abnormalities, thin-section helical CT with careful review of the imaging studies helps to determine the correct diagnosis, monitor the changes and guide appropriate treatment.

  2. Abnormal distribution of collagen type IV in extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y; Sasatomi, E; Satoh, T; Miyazaki, K; Tokunaga, O

    2000-11-01

    The present study investigated the pathogenesis of desmoplastic stroma formation, which is characteristic of most bile duct carcinomas and other scirrhous carcinomas. Using immunohistochemical analysis, the expression of collagen types I and IV, laminin and TGF-beta1 was examined in human extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma and compared with gastric and colon carcinoma. In addition to delineating the basement membranes of carcinoma nests and blood vessels, collagen type IV was present along the thick bundles of collagenous fibers in the stroma of extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma and scirrhous gastric carcinoma. The immunoreactivity of collagen type IV was strong in the adjacent or surrounding interstitium of tumor cell nests, but was absent or weak in older, more central portions of the tumor that contained sclerotic collagen. In situ hybridization demonstrated active expression of collagen alpha1(IV) mRNA in extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma and scirrhous gastric carcinoma cells. These results suggest that, although collagen type IV is typically a component of the basement membrane, it is expressed in the interstitial stroma of extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma and scirrhous gastric carcinoma where it may play a role in desmoplastic stroma formation.

  3. Latest advances in diagnosis and treatment of occult common bile duct stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Chao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Occult common bile duct stones have no clinical symptoms and if it is not diagnosed or treated in time, it can cause unexplained abdominal pain after cholecystectomy or serious complications such as biliary pancreatitis and acute cholangitis, which may threaten patients′ lives. Proper diagnosis and treatment modalities can reduce postoperative complications, save medical resources, and reduce medical disputes. This article introduces the latest advances in the diagnosis and treatment of occult common bile duct stones, including the features and diagnostic efficacy of imaging examinations (abdominal ultrasound, computed tomography, magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP, endoscopic ultrasonography, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP, intraoperative cholangiography, intraoperative laparoscopic ultrasonography, intraductal ultrasonography, and intraoperative choledochoscopy, as well as the effect of treatment modalities (endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST, laparoscopic common bile duct exploration (LCBDE, open common bile duct exploration, endoscopic papillary balloon dilatation, electrohydaulic lithotripsy, extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy, litholysis, and laser lithotripsy. It is pointed out that the diagnosis and treatment of occult common bile duct stones should be treated differently according to risk stratification. Endoscopic ultrasonography or MRCP should be performed for patients with moderate risks or above, and their results are critical to the choice of surgical procedure. For treatment modality, LCBDE or ERCP/EST should be selected according to patients′ actual conditions.

  4. Retained Common Bile Duct Lithiasis at a Pacient with Periampullary Duodenal Diverticulum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coman, Ionuţ Simion; Radu, Elena-Violeta; Șandru, Vasile; Bârsan, Ionuţ Cristinel; Badiu, Cristinel Dumitru; Constantinescu, Gabriel; Grigorean, Valentin Titus

    2016-01-01

    Periampullary duodenal diverticula are associated with the presence of common bile duct stones, being encountered more frequently with the increase of age. We present the case of a 76 years old female patient, who underwents emergency surgery for a perforated lithiasic gangrenous acute cholecystitis and for whom we perform a cholecystectomy and an external biliary drainage using a transcystic tube. Both preoperative and postoperative imaging and endoscopic examinations certify the presence of a periampullary duodenal diverticulum. Postoperative cholangiography performed on the transcystic tube raises the suspicion of retained common bile duct lithiasis. An endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography is performed, initially failing to cannulate the common bile duct. A precut sphincterotomy fistula technnique is performed, using as reference a guide inserted on the transcystic tube, with the extraction of biliay sludge from the common bile duct, and with subsequently favorable development. Association between common bile duct lithiasis and a periampullary duodenal diverticulum may represent a therapeutic challenge because of the increased risk of failure of the endoscopic treatment. Celsius.

  5. BILE DUCT INJURIES FOLLOWING LAPAROSCOPIC CHOLECYSTECTOMY- A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY AT GOVERNMENT GENERAL HOSPITAL, KAKINADA

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    Ravichandra Matcha

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND This study aimed at assessing the outcome of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC by determining the frequency of complications, especially of bile duct injuries. MATERIALS AND METHODS The case files of all patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy between January 2008 and December 2016 at Government General Hospital, Kakinada were retrospectively analysed. We evaluated the data according to outcome measures, such as bile duct injury, morbidity, mortality and numbers of patients whose resections had to be converted from laparoscopic to open. RESULTS During the eight years (January 2008 and December 2016, 336 patients underwent LC for chronic cholecystitis (CC, of whom 22 (6.5% developed complications. Among those who developed complications, two patients had major bile duct injuries (0.4%; 43 other patients (12.8% had planned laparoscopic operations converted to open cholecystectomy intra-operatively. None of the patients in this study died as a result of LC. CONCLUSION Bile duct injury is a major complication of LC. Anatomical anomalies, local pathology, and poor surgical techniques are the main factors responsible. The two patients who had severe common bile duct injury in this study had major anatomical anomalies that were only recognized during surgery.

  6. [Reconstruction of the Bile Duct with the Umbilical Vein after Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, H; Neser, F; Berger, M; Boese-Landgraf, J

    2016-12-01

    Background: Roux-Y hepaticojejunostomy is currently the standard surgical procedure for the reconstruction of the bile duct after iatrogenic transection in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. However, about 30 % of all hepaticojejunostomies develop a stenosis after some time and in 7 % a cholangiocellular carcinoma occurs. Therefore, alternative procedures have been investigated. Patients: Between September 2009 and October 2013 an iatrogenic bile duct lesion was treated in 6 consecutive patients by using the pedicled umbilical vein. The median follow-up period was 16 months. Methods: In 3 cases, the bile duct lesion was detected during cholecystectomy and reconstructed in the same session. In the other 3 cases, the reconstruction was performed between the fourth and the seventh day after cholecystectomy. The pedicled umbilical vein was used as a patch in 4 cases and as an interposition graft in the other 2 cases. Results: Two out of 6 patients suffered from cholangitis after bile duct reconstruction, which was brought to complete remission by temporary endoscopic dilatation treatment. Conclusion: The use of the pedicled umbilical vein is a new surgical option for the treatment of iatrogenic bile duct lesions and seems to provide advantages over hepaticojejunostomy regarding the development and treatment of anastomotic stenosis and the risk of cholangiocellular carcinoma. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Classifying extrahepatic bile duct metachronous carcinoma by de novo neoplasia site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyung Jun; Kim, Sang Geol; Chun, Jae Min; Hwang, Yoon Jin

    2014-01-01

    Extrahepatic bile duct (EHBD) cancer may occur metachronously, and these cancers are resectable with a favorable prognosis. We aimed to identify the pattern of metachronous EHBD cancer. We classified the cases of metachronous EHBD cancer reported in the literature thus far and investigated two new cases of metachronous EHBD cancer. A 70-year-old female underwent R0 bile duct resection for a type 1 Klatskin tumor (pT1N0M0). A 70-year-old male patient underwent R0 bile duct resection for a middle bile duct cancer (pT2N1M0). Imaging studies of both patients taken at 14 and 24 mo after first surgery respectively revealed a metachronous cholangiocarcinoma that required pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). Histopathology of the both tumors after PD revealed cholangiocarcinoma invading the pancreas (pT3N0M0). Both patients have been free from recurrence for 6 years and 16 mo respectively after the second surgery. Through a review of the literature on these cases, we classified the pattern of metachronous EHBD cancer according to the site of de novo neoplasia. The proximal remnant bile duct was most commonly involved. Metachronous EHBD cancer should be distinguished from an unresectable recurrent tumor. Classifying metachronous EHBD cancer may be helpful in identifying rare metachronous tumors. PMID:24659897

  8. Expression and Significance of COX-2 and Ki-67 in Hepatolithiasis with Bile Duct Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; He, Yu; Ma, Xiaodong; Sun, Beiwang; Huang, Binyuan; Zhu, Canhua; Liu, Yanmin

    2015-10-01

    As an induced enzyme, COX-2 expression is elevated under stimuli from inflammatory mediator or growth factor product. Ki-67, a cell cycle-related proliferative antigen, reflects the tissue proliferative activity. This study analyzed the expressional profile of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and Ki-67 in hepatolithiasis and bile duct carcinoma tissues, in an attempt to provide evidence for diagnosis and prognosis prediction of disease. A cohort of tissue samples from hepatolithiasis with bile duct carcinoma (N=47) patients were analyzed using immunohistochemical (IHC) staining method for the expression of COX-2 and Ki-67, in parallel with hepatolithiasis (N=44) and normal bile duct tissues (N=30). The relationship between expression pattern of COX-2 and Ki-67 and pathological conditions was also analyzed, in addition to the correlation with positive expression in hepatolithiasis samples. The positive expression rate of COX-2 and Ki-67 in bile duct carcinoma was 76.6% and 80.9%, respectively, and was significantly higher than those in the hepatolithiasis group, which was also higher than the control group. Expression of both COX-2 and Ki-67 is closely related to TNM staging, lymph node metastasis, and differentiation stage. They were also correlated with the mortality rate of patients. Both COX-2 and Ki-67 are abundantly expressed in hepatolithiasis and bile duct carcinoma tissues and may play an important role in the disease occurrence, progression, and metastasis.

  9. Colon cancer metastasis mimicking intraductal papillary neoplasm of the extra-hepatic bile duct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamao, Takanobu; Hayashi, Hiromitsu; Higashi, Takaaki; Takeyama, Hideyuki; Kaida, Takayoshi; Nitta, Hidetoshi; Hashimoto, Daisuke; Chikamoto, Akira; Beppu, Toru; Baba, Hideo

    2015-01-01

    An accurate diagnosis of the primary cancer in cases with metastatic lesions is quite important because misdiagnosis may lead to the selection of incorrect adjuvant therapy and worse long-term outcomes after surgery. The metastatic sites associated with the dissemination of colon cancer are well known and normally predictable, which includes the lymphatic, haematogenous, or peritoneal regions, while other locations are quite rare. In this report, we present a case of colon cancer with an unusual metastatic pattern mimicking an intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPNB) present in the extra-hepatic bile duct with a cytokeratin (CK)-7-negative and CK-20-positive profile (intestinal type). In the case of this patient who had a history of colon cancer, immunohistochemical staining for the CKs was useful for distinguishing between primary IPNB and colon cancer metastases. We suspect that the metastatic pattern of this case of colon cancer that mimicked IPNB at the extra-hepatic bile duct developed incidentally via the bile stream. This is a rare case of colon cancer metastasis mimicking IPNB at the extra-hepatic bile duct. Our findings also suggest that there may be an incidental 4th metastatic route via the bile stream. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Serum gamma glutamyl transferase as a specific indicator of bile duct lesions in the rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, T B; Neptun, D A; Popp, J A

    1984-08-01

    Serum gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), a marker of hepatic injury used extensively in humans, has been used rarely in rats because its specificity has not been previously defined. Studies were designed for investigation of the specificity of serum GGT activity with the use of cell type specific hepatotoxicants in Fischer 344 rats. Single necrogenic doses of CCl4, allyl alcohol (AA), and alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT) were used to produce cell specific injury in centrilobular hepatocytes, periportal hepatocytes, and bile duct cells, respectively. Administration of CCl4 markedly increased serum activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (AP), and serum bile acid concentrations within 24 hours but had no effect on serum GGT activity. ANIT treatment increased serum GGT and AP activities and bile acid concentration 24 hours following administration. Allyl alcohol administration increased serum ALT activity but had no effect on GGT activity. Administration of ANIT in the diet at 0.01%, 0.022%, 0.047%, and 0.1% for 2, 4, and 6 weeks produced dose- and time-dependent increases in serum GGT activity which strongly correlated with quantitative increases in hepatic bile duct volume, which was determined morphometrically. These observations support the use of serum GGT activity in the rat as diagnostic of bile duct cell necrosis when increases are detected shortly after the insult and as an indicator of possible bile duct hyperplasia.

  11. Clinical Application of Six Current Classification Systems for Iatrogenic Bile Duct Injuries after Cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velidedeoglu, Mehmet; Arikan, Akif Enes; Uludag, Sezgin Server; Olgun, Deniz Cebi; Kilic, Fahrettin; Kapan, Metin

    2015-05-01

    Due to being a severe complication, iatrogenic bile duct injury is still a challenging issue for surgeons in gallbladder surgery. However, a commonly accepted classification describing the type of injury has not been available yet. This study aims to evaluate ability of six current classification systems to discriminate bile duct injury patterns. Twelve patients, who were referred to our clinic because of iatrogenic bile duct injury after laparoscopic cholecystectomy were reviewed retrospectively. We described type of injury for each patient according to current six different classifications. 9 patients underwent definitive biliary reconstruction. Bismuth, Strasberg-Bismuth, Stewart-Way and Neuhaus classifications do not consider vascular involvement, Siewert system does, but only for the tangential lesions without structural loss of duct and lesion with a structural defect of hepatic or common bile duct. Siewert, Neuhaus and Stewart-Way systems do not discriminate between lesions at or above bifurcation of the hepatic duct. The Hannover classification may resolve the missing aspects of other systems by describing additional vascular involvement and location of the lesion at or above bifurcation.

  12. Detection of common bile duct stones before laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Evaluation with MR cholangiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boraschi, P.; Gigoni, R.; Falaschi, F. [Pisa Univ. Hospital (Italy). Second Dept. of Radiology; Braccini, G. [Pontedera Hospital, Pisa (Italy). Dept. of Radiology; Lamacchia, M.; Rossi, M. [Pisa Univ. Hospital (Italy). Fourth Dept. of Surgery

    2002-11-01

    Purpose: To assess the diagnostic value of MR cholangiography (MRC) for detecting common bile duct (CBD) stones in candidates for laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). Material and Methods: A series of 95 selected patients with gallstones and suspected CBD lithiasis (abnormal serum liver tests and/or CBD size 6.5 mm at US) were referred to our institution for MRC, before LC. MRC was performed on a 0.5 T magnet through a non-breath-hold, respiratory-triggered, fat-suppressed, thin-slab, heavily T2-weighted fast spin-echo sequence and through a breath-hold, thick-slab, single-shot T2-weighted sequence in the coronal plane. Axial T1- and T2-weighted sequences were first obtained. Two observers in conference reviewed source images and maximum intensity projections to determine the presence or absence of choledocholithiasis. MR findings were compared with endoscopic retrograde cholangiography and intraoperative cholangiography (IOC); IOC was always performed during LC. Results: CBD calculi (single or multiple) were identified in 41 out of 95 patients (43%). Two false-positive and 4 false-negative cases were found on MRC. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of MRC for choledocholithiasis were 90%, 96%, 94%, 95%, and 93%, respectively. Conclusion: MRC is a highly effective diagnostic modality for evaluation of patients with risk factors for CBD stones prior to LC Bile ducts gallbladder calculi stenosis or obstruction MR imaging.

  13. Research Advances in Clinical and Imaging Characteristics of Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasm of the Bile Duct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Meng-Na; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Qing; Lv, Ke; Jiang, Yu-Xin

    2017-06-20

    Understanding on the intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas (IPMN-P) has dramatically improved in the past three decades. A new disease named intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the bile duct (IPMN-B) reported in recent years shares several similar clinical features with IPMN-P. The clinical manifestations and imaging characteristics of IPMN-B have been gradually recognized. This review summarizes some of the typical cases reported since 2000 and find that clinical manifestations of IPMN-B include epigastric discomfort,biliary colic,jaundice,intermittent fever,sometimes without any symptoms; imaging triads for IPMN-B are mucobilia,dilated bile duct,and bile duct mural nodule.

  14. Extrahepatic bile duct ligation in broiler chickens: ultrastructural study of Ito cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekowati Handharyani

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The Ito cell (fat-storing cell is a cell lying in perisinusoidal space of liver. The function of Ito cell is expanding from a site of fat-storing site to a center of extracellular matrix metabolism and mediator production in the liver. This study was performed in order to evaluate the Ito cells in cholestatic condition. The artificial cholestatic was conducted by ligation of extrahepatic bile ducts (bile duct ligation = BDL in broilers. The results showed that BDL induced bile congestion, fibrosis, proliferation of Ito cells and intrahepatic bile ductules. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that Ito cells were scattered throughout the fibrotic areas, and larger in size with more extensive immunoreactivity than those in normal livers. Ultrastructural study demonstrated that Ito cells were closely associated with the production of extracellular collagen fibers. Ito cells actively react against hepatocytic injuries, especially in fibrogenesis of cholestatic livers.

  15. Common bile duct injury by fibrin glue: report of a rare complication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu-Long; Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Hong-Wei; Wu, Ping; Ma, Yue-Feng; Lin, Mei-Ju; Shi, Li-Jun; Li, Jing-Yi; Zhao, Mu

    2015-03-07

    Fibrin glue is widely used in clinical practice and plays an important role in reducing postoperative complications. We report a case of a 65-year-old man, whose common bile duct was injured by fibrin glue, with a history of failed laparoscopic cholecystectomy and open operation for uncontrolled laparoscopic bleeding. In view of the persistent liver dysfunction, xanthochromia and skin itching, the patient was admitted to us for further management. Ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) revealed multiple stones in the common bile duct, and liver function tests confirmed the presence of obstructive jaundice and liver damage. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was unsuccessfully performed to remove choledocholithiasis, but a small amount of tissue was removed and pathologically confirmed as calcified biliary mucosa. This was followed by open surgery for suspicious cholangiocarcinoma. There was no evidence of cholangiocarcinoma, but the common bile duct wall had a defect of 8 mm × 10 mm at Calot's triangle. A hard, grid-like foreign body was removed, which proved to be solid fibrin glue. Subsequently, the residual choledocholithiasis was removed by a choledochoscopic procedure, and the common bile duct deletion was repaired by liver round ligament with T-tube drainage. Six months later, endoscopy was performed through the T-tube fistula and showed a well-repaired bile duct wall. Eight months later, MRCP confirmed no bile duct stenosis. A review of reported cases showed that fibrin glue is widely used in surgery, but it can also cause organ damage. Its mechanism may be related to discharge reactions.

  16. Ultrasonographic Measurement of the Diameter of a Normal Bile Duct, Hepatic Artery and Portal Vein in Infants Younger Than 3 Months

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    Kim, Sang Yoon; Lee, Young Seok [Dankook University Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-09-15

    This study focused on measuring the diameter of the normal bile duct, hepatic artery and portal vein with high resolution US in infants younger than 3 months, and we wanted to determine the relative ratio of these diameters. Fifty US examinations were performed on infants younger than 3 months and who did not have any clinical or laboratory abnormality associated with the hepatobiliary system. We measured the diameter of the bile duct, hepatic artery and portal vein at the level of the portal vein bifurcation with using 17-5 MHz US and we determined the relative ratios of these diameters. To evaluate the statistical difference in the diameter of the bile duct, hepatic artery and portal vein, we performed one-way ANOVA and Scheffe's multiple comparison test. To determine the relative ratio of these diameters, the ratio of the bile duct to the hepatic artery was defined as the hepatic artery/bile duct, the ratio of the hepatic artery to the portal vein was defined as the portal vein/hepatic artery and the ratio of the bile duct to the portal vein was defined as the portal vein/bile duct. We calculated the averages {+-} standard deviations of this data (minimum {approx} maximum). In all fifty infants, the bile duct, hepatic artery and portal vein were detectable and measurable. The average diameter of a bile duct was 0.85 {+-} 0.19 mm (0.56 {approx} 1.47 mm), it was 1.33 {+-} 0.31 mm (0.90 {approx} 2.37 mm) for the hepatic artery and 3.32 {+-} 0.68 mm (2.06 {approx} 5.08 mm) for the portal vein. The diameter of these structures was significantly different from each other according to one-way ANOVA (p < 0.001). The average diameter of the hepatic artery was significantly larger than that of the bile duct and the average diameter of the portal vein was significantly larger than that of bile duct and hepatic artery on Scheffe's multiple comparison test. The relative ratio of the bile duct to the hepatic artery was 1.60 {+-} 0.41 (0.77 {approx} 2.66), that of

  17. Immunoglobulin A stimulates growth of the extrahepatic bile duct in BALB/c mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Fallon-Friedlander, S; Boscamp, J R; Morecki, R; Lilly, F; Horwitz, M S; Glaser, J H

    1987-01-01

    BALB/c mice injected with seven 0.15-ml samples of whole rabbit serum over a 2-week period developed nonneoplastic proliferation of the extrahepatic bile duct epithelium and glandular components. Sera from other animals, including bovines, humans, pigs, goats, and chickens as well as non-serum-containing secretions such as human breast milk and bile also produced this effect. Partial purification utilizing gel filtration and affinity chromatography of the active 33-65% saturated ammonium sulf...

  18. Ultrasonographic and clinicopathologic features of segmental dilatations of the common bile duct in four cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather N Spain

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Case series summary This case series documents ultrasonographic and clinicopathologic features of four cats with marked segmental dilatations of the common bile duct (CBD. All cats had additional ultrasonographic changes to the hepatobiliary system, including hepatomegaly, tubular to saccular intra/extrahepatic biliary duct dilatation and biliary debris accumulation. Based on all available data the presence of extrahepatic biliary duct obstruction (EHBDO was ruled out in 3/4 cases and was equivocal in one case. One cat underwent re-routing surgery to address the CBD dilatation after multiple recurrent infections, one cat was euthanized and had a post-mortem examination and two cats were medically managed with antibiotics, liver protectants, gastroprotectants and cholerectics. Relevance and novel information The ultrasonographic features of the CBD in this population of cats were supportive of choledochal cysts (CCs. The maximal diameter of the CBD dilatations exceeded 5 mm in all cases, a sign that has been previously reported to be consistent with EHBDO. In our study, dilatations were segmental rather than diffuse. Given the high morbidity and mortality associated with hepatobiliary surgery in cats, segmental dilatation of the CBD should not prompt emergency surgery. Some cats may respond to medical management. Careful planning for cyst resection was beneficial in one cat. Evaluation of CC morphology (eg, size, location, concurrent intrahepatic anomalies may assist in selecting cats that could benefit from surgical intervention.

  19. Effect of Right Posterior Bile Duct Anatomy on Biliary Complications in Patients Undergoing Right Lobe Living Donor Liver Transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezcaner, Tugan; Dinç, Nadire; Y Karakayalı, Feza; Kırnap, Mahir; Coşkun, Mehmet; Moray, Gökhan; Haberal, Mehmet

    2017-01-27

    Our aim was to evaluate the influence of the localization of right posterior bile duct anatomy relative to portal vein of the donors on posttransplant bile duct complications. We retrospectively investigated 141 patients who had undergone living donor liver transplant using right hemiliver grafts. The patients were classified based on the pattern of the right posterior bile duct and divided into infraportal and supraportal types. Clinical donor and recipient risk factors and surgical outcomes were compared for their relationship with biliary complications using logistic regression analyses. The 2 groups were similar according to demographic and clinical features. The biliary complication rate was 23.7% (9/38) in the infraportal group and 47.4% (37/78) in the supraportal group (P = .014). An analysis of risk factors for the development of anastomotic bile leak using logistic regression showed that a supraportal right posterior bile duct anatomy was a statistically significant positive predictor, with odds ratio of 18.905 (P = .012; confidence interval, 1.922-185.967). The distance of the right posterior bile duct from confluence was significantly lower in patients with biliary complications than in those without (mean of 7.66 vs 0.40 mm; P = .044). According to receiver operating characteristic analyses, the cut-off point for the length of right bile duct to right posterior bile duct from the hepatic confluence was 9.5 mm regarding presence of complications. Factors influencing bile duct anastomosis leakage were supraportal-type donor bile duct anatomy and length of the right main bile duct from biliary confluence. Hepatic arterial complications were similarly a risk factor for biliary strictures. Because of the multiple factors leading to complications in living donor liver transplant, it is challenging to group these patients by operative risk; however, establishing risk models may facilitate the prediction of complications.

  20. Intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct, gastric type, arising in the intrapancreatic common bile duct could progress to colloid carcinoma: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, Shogo; Ohata, Akihiko; Koda, Kenji; Maruyama, Yasuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPNB) exists in a pathway of multistep-carcinogenesis toward cholangiocarcinoma. Four subtypes are observed in IPNB, pancreatobiliary type, intestinal type, gastric type, and oncocytic type, similarly to the corresponding disease in the pancreas, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN). IPNB can present with or without macroscopically visible mucin secretion. IPNB usually progresses to tubular adenocarcinoma. However, there are a limited number of well-described cases of gastric-type IPNB progressing not to tubular adenocarcinoma but to colloid carcinoma. Herein, we present a case of an 82-year-old female patient with gastric-type IPNB in the intrapancreatic common bile duct without macroscopically visible mucin secretion, which progressed to colloid carcinoma. As IPNB, especially without visible mucin secretion, is considered to be a heterogeneous group of diseases, such an unexpected association could occur.

  1. Intraoperative assessment of biliary anatomy for prevention of bile duct injury : a review of current and future patient safety interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buddingh, K. Tim; Nieuwenhuijs, Vincent B.; van Buuren, Lianne; Hulscher, Jan B. F.; de Jong, Johannes S.; van Dam, Gooitzen M.

    Background Bile duct injury (BDI) is a dreaded complication of cholecystectomy, often caused by misinterpretation of biliary anatomy. To prevent BDI, techniques have been developed for intraoperative assessment of bile duct anatomy. This article reviews the evidence for the different techniques and

  2. Successful removal of an internal pancreatic stent that migrated into the bile duct using double-balloon enteroscopy after pancreaticoduodenectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirono, Seiko; Kawai, Manabu; Yamashita, Yasunobu; Okada, Ken-Ichi; Miyazawa, Motoki; Ueno, Masaki; Maeda, Yoshimasa; Itonaga, Masahiro; Kitano, Masayuki; Yamaue, Hiroki

    2017-07-08

    Internal stents used during pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) are generally spontaneously passed through the rectum by defecation. However, we encountered six patients with internal stents that migrated into the bile duct after PD. We herein report the outcomes of these six patients and the usefulness of double-balloon enteroscopy (DBE) for removal of such stents from the bile duct. An internal stent was placed across pancreaticojejunostomy in 416 (68.8%) of 605 consecutive patients undergoing PD between 2005 and 2015. This study evaluated the characteristics and outcomes of the six patients whose internal stent migrated into the bile duct. Migration of an internal stent into the bile duct was found during follow-up computed tomography (CT) in 6 (1.4%) of 416 patients who had an internal stent placed during PD. Three patients developed stent-induced cholangitis, and two had bile duct stones. Excluding one patient whose internal stent spontaneously slipped out and disappeared from the bile duct, all patients underwent successful removal of a stent from the bile duct by a single instance of biliary intervention involving DBE. Removal of a stent from the bile duct using DBE is a feasible and useful procedure that should be considered if an internal stent is detected during follow-up CT after PD.

  3. Extrahepatic bile duct hepatocellular carcinoma due to recurrence of hematogenous metastasis 50 months after hepatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumata, Hiroyuki; Miyagi, Shigehito; Murakami, Keigo; Fujio, Atsushi; Hara, Yasuyuki; Nakanishi, Chikashi; Kawagishi, Naoki; Sasano, Hironobu; Kamei, Takashi; Ouchi, Noriaki

    2017-12-01

    Recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the extrahepatic bile duct is rare with most cases diagnosed after manifesting sudden obstructive jaundice. Here, we report an extremely rare case of recurrent HCC in the common bile duct due to hematogenous metastasis. A 66-year-old man underwent an extended left hepatectomy for HCC in the medial segment of the liver. Fifty months later, he presented with sudden obstructive jaundice. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography showed a space-occupying lesion in the common bile duct, which was suspected as cholangiocarcinoma. Therefore, he underwent extrahepatic bile duct resection and choledochojejunostomy with lymph node dissection. Macroscopically, a polypoid tumor and several nodular tumors were found in the common bile duct, which was obstructed by a tumor thrombus. Histopathologically, the tumors were diagnosed as metastases from the HCC resected 50 months before. Several distinct, nodular tumors were observed in the subepithelium of the common bile duct and had invaded some blood vessels. These findings support the conclusion that the HCC metastasized hematogenously to the extrahepatic bile duct. Recurrent HCC in the extrahepatic bile duct due to hematogenous metastasis is rare, and it is difficult to diagnose. Further similar cases should be accumulated for clarifying the pathological mechanism.

  4. [Effect of bile duct ligation and recanalization on rat hepatocyte epithelial-mesenchymal phenotype and NOX4 protein expression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, An-Ni; Pan, Chun-Qiu; Li, Yang; Yang, Ren-Qiang; Li, Xu

    2015-10-01

    To observe epithelial-mesenchymal phenotypes and oxidative stress related protein expressions of the liver cells in a rat model of liver fibrosis induced by bile duct ligation and recanalization. Twenty-four male Wistar rats were randomized into 4 groups, including a sham-operated group, two bile duct ligation groups with ligation for 2 and 4 weeks, and a bile duct ligation group with a 2-week ligation followed by a 2-week recanalization. HE staining and Masson staining were used to assess liver fibrosis in the rats, and immunohistochemistry and Western blotting were employed to detect expressions of the epithelial and mesenchymal marker proteins and oxidative stress-related proteins. Compared with the sham-operated group, the rats with bile duct ligation showed obvious liver fibrosis, which worsened as the ligation time extended, accompanied by significantly increased expression of α-SMA, collagen I, NOX(4) and vimetin and reduced E-cadherin expression. Compared with the rats with bile duct ligation for 4 weeks, the rats in bile duct ligation-recanalization group showed obviously lessened liver fibrosis, significantly lowered expressions of NOX(4) and mesenchymal cell maker proteins, and enhanced expressions of epithelial cell marker proteins. Bile duct ligation up-regulates mesenchymal phenotype-related proteins and NOX(4) protein expression and down-regulates the expression of epithelial phenotype-related proteins, and these changes can be reversed by subsequent bile duct recanalization.

  5. GNAS and KRAS mutations are common in intraductal papillary neoplasms of the bile duct.

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    Motoko Sasaki

    Full Text Available Intraductal papillary neoplasms of the bile duct (IPNB shows favorable prognosis and is regarded as a biliary counterpart of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN of the pancreas. Although activating point mutations of GNAS at codon 201 have been detected in approximately two thirds of IPMNs of the pancreas, there have been few studies on GNAS mutations in IPNBs. This study investigates the status of GNAS and KRAS mutations and their association with clinicopathological factors in IPNBs. We examined the status of GNAS mutation at codon 201 and KRAS mutation at codon 12&13, degree of mucin production and immunohistochemical expressions of MUC mucin core proteins in 29 patients (M/F = 15/14 with IPNB in intrahepatic and perihilar bile ducts (perihilar IPNB and 6 patients (M/F = 5/1 with IPNB in distal bile ducts (distal IPNB. GNAS mutations and KRAS mutations were detected in 50% and 46.2% of IPNBs, respectively. There was no significant correlation between the status of GNAS mutation and clinicopathological factors in IPNBs, whereas, the status of KRAS mutation was significantly inversely correlated with the degree of MUC2 expression in IPNBs (p<0.05. All IPNBs with GNAS mutation only showed high-mucin production. Degree of mucin production was significantly higher in perihilar IPNBs than distal IPNBs (p<0.05. MUC2 and MUC5AC expression was significantly higher in IPNBs with high-mucin production than those with low-mucin production (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively. In conclusions, this study firstly disclosed frequent GNAS mutations in IPNBs, similarly to IPMNs. This may suggest a common histopathogenesis of IPNBs and IPMNs. The status of KRAS mutations was inversely correlated to MUC2 expression and this may suggest heterogeneous properties of IPNBs. IPNBs with high-mucin production are characterized by perihilar location and high expression of MUC2 and MUC5AC, irrespective of the status of GNAS and KRAS mutations.

  6. Clinical experience in treatment of complex intrahepatic bile duct stones by regular hepatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WU Xiao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the clinical effect of regular hepatectomy in patients with complex intrahepatic bile duct stones. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 98 patients with complex intrahepatic bile duct stones who were treated in our hospital from January to December, 2013. The distribution characteristics of intrahepatic bile duct stones, clinical manifestations, extent of operation, time of operation, complications, and surgical outcome were analyzed. Results All the 98 patients completed regular hepatectomy. Of all patients, 37 underwent choledocholithotomy with T-tube drainage and segmental hepatectomy, 6 underwent resection of the left lateral lobe of the liver, 1 underwent left hemihepatectomy, 7 underwent resection of a single hepatic segment in the right lobe of the liver combined with segmental hepatectomy, 45 underwent combined segmental hepatectomy of the left and right lobes of the liver, and 2 underwent biliary-enteric basin anastomosis after hilar bile duct reconstruction. No patients died during the perioperative period. The mean time of operation was 65.0±5.0 min, and the mean intraoperative blood loss was 83.0±6.2 ml. No patients experienced residual stones after surgery. Of all patients, 5 (5.1% experienced complications, among whom 3 experienced bile leakage and 2 experienced blood exudation on the surface of the wound in the liver; 3 patients were diagnosed with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma by postoperative pathological examination. All the patients for followed up for 5 years, and 11 (11.2% experienced recurrence of stones after surgery. Conclusion Regular hepatectomy is safe and effective in the treatment of complex intrahepatic bile duct stones, with few complications and a low recurrence rate of stones. Therefore, it holds promise for wide clinical application.

  7. Clinicopathological characterization of so-called “cholangiocarcinoma with intraductal papillary growth” with respect to “intraductal papillary neoplasm of bile duct (IPNB)”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanuma, Yasuni; Sato, Yasunori; Ojima, Hidenori; Kanai, Yae; Aishima, Shinichi; Yamamoto, Masakazu; Ariizumi, Shun-ichi; Furukawa, Toru; Hayashi, Hiroki; Unno, Michiaki; Ohta, Tetsuo

    2014-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CC) of the biliary tract occasionally presents a predominant intraductal papillary growth in the bile ducts, called as biliary tract carcinoma (BTC) of papillary growth (PG) and intrahepatic CC (ICC) of intraductal growth (IG) type. Recently, intraductal papillary neoplasm of bile duct (IPNB) has been proposed as a pre-invasive biliary neoplasm. This study was performed to characterize pathologically BTC of PG type and ICC of IG type with respect to IPNB. It was found that 126 of such 154 CCs (81.8%) fulfilled the criteria of IPNB, while the remaining 28 cases showed different histologies, such as tubular adenocarcinoma and carcinosarcoma. These IPNBs occurred in old aged patients with a male predominance, and the left lobe was rather frequently affected in the liver. A majority of these cases were high grade IPNB (43 cases) and invasive IPNB (77 cases), while low grade IPNB was rare (6 cases). Pancreatobiliary type was predominant (48 cases) followed by gastric (30 cases), intestinal (29 cases) and oncocytic (19 cases) types. Mucus hypersecretion was found in 45 cases, and this was frequent in IPNB at the intrahepatic large bile duct and hilar bile ducts but rare at the extrahepatic bile ducts. Interestingly, 36 cases of high grade and invasive IPNBs contained foci of moderately differentiated adenocacinoma within the intraductal papillary tumor. In conclusion, a majority of ICC of IG type and BTC of PG type could be regarded as a IPNB lineage, and clinically detectable IPNBs were already a malignant papillary lesion. PMID:25031730

  8. Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for bile duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Shi-Hong; Teng, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Zhao-Ming; Wang, Qi-Dong; Zhao, Yi-Lei; Chen, Feng; Xiao, Wen-Bo

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the bile duct (IPMN-B). METHODS: The imaging findings of five cases of IPMN-B which were pathologically confirmed at our hospital between March 2012 and May 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. Three of these cases were diagnosed by duodenal endoscopy and biopsy pathology, and two cases were diagnosed by surgical pathology. All five patients underwent enhanced and non-enhanced computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography, and Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI; one case underwent both Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI and positron emission tomography-CT. The clinical data and imaging results for these cases were compared and are presented. RESULTS: Conventional imaging showed diffuse dilatation of bile ducts and multiple intraductal polypoid and papillary neoplasms or serrated changes along the bile ducts. In two cases, Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI revealed dilated biliary ducts and intraductal tumors, as well as filling defects caused by mucin in the dilated bile ducts in the hepatobiliary phase. Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI in one case clearly showed a low-signal tumor in the hepatobiliary phase, similar to what was seen by positron emission tomography-CT. In two patients, routine inspection was unable to discern whether the lesions were inflammation or tumors. However, Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI revealed a pattern of gradual enhancement during the hepatobiliary phase, and the signal intensity of the lesions was lower than the surrounding liver parenchyma, suggesting tissue inflammation in both cases, which were confirmed by surgical pathology. CONCLUSION: Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI reveals the intraductal mucin component of IPMN-B in some cases and the extent of tumor infiltration beyond the bile ducts in invasive cases. PMID:26167082

  9. Cystic tumor of the liver without ovarian-like stroma or bile duct communication: two case reports and a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishida, Norihiro; Shinoda, Masahiro; Masugi, Yohei; Itano, Osamu; Fujii-Nishimura, Yoko; Ueno, Akihisa; Kitago, Minoru; Hibi, Taizo; Abe, Yuta; Yagi, Hiroshi; Tanimoto, Akihiro; Tanabe, Minoru; Sakamaoto, Michiie; Kitagawa, Yuko

    2014-07-21

    We report two cases of cystic neoplasm of the liver with mucinous epithelium in which both ovarian-like stroma and bile duct communication were absent. The first case was a 41-year-old woman. She underwent right trisegmentectomy due to a multilocular cystic lesion, 15 cm in diameter, with papillary nodular components in the medial segment and right lobe. Histologically, arborizing papillae were seen in the papillary lesion. The constituent neoplastic cells had sufficient cytoarchitectural atypia to be classified as high-grade dysplasia. The second case was a 60-year-old woman. She underwent left lobectomy due to a unilocular cystic lesion, 17 cm in diameter, in the left lobe. Histologically, the cyst wall was lined by low columnar epithelia with slight cellular atypia. In both cases, neither ovarian-like stroma nor bile duct communications were found throughout the resected specimen. According to the most recent World Health Organization (WHO) classification in 2010, cystic tumors of the liver with mucinous epithelium are classified as mucinous cystic neoplasms when ovarian-like stromata are found, and as intraductal papillary neoplasm of bile duct when bile duct communication exists. Therefore, we diagnosed the cystic tumors as 'biliary cystadenoma' according to the past WHO classification scheme from 2000. We believe that the combined absence of both ovarian-like stroma and bile duct communication is possible in mucinous cystic tumors of the liver. Herein, we have described the clinicopathologic features of the two cases and reviewed past cases in the literature.

  10. Biliary drainage of the common bile duct with an enteral metal stent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dek, I.M.; van den Elzen, B.D.J.; Fockens, P.; Rauws, E.A.J.

    2009-01-01

    In this case report we present an elderly patient who was referred to our hospital with recurrent episodes of cholangitis that persisted after placement of five metal stents for a distal common bile duct (CBD) stenosis. All metal stents were endoscopically removed from the CBD by forceps after

  11. Normothermic Machine Perfusion Reduces Bile Duct Injury and Improves Biliary Epithelial Function in Rat Donor Livers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Op den Dries, Sanna; Karimian, Negin; Westerkamp, Andrie C; Sutton, Michael E; Kuipers, Michiel; Wiersema-Buist, Janneke; Ottens, Petra J; Kuipers, Jeroen; Giepmans, Ben N; Leuvenink, Henri G D; Lisman, Ton; Porte, Robert J

    BACKGROUND: Bile duct injury may occur during liver procurement and transplantation, especially in livers donated after circulatory death (DCD). Normothermic machine perfusion (NMP) has been shown to reduce hepatic injury, compared to static cold storage (SCS). However, it is unknown whether NMP

  12. Intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct accompanying biliary mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Ichiro; Kitagawa, Hirohisa; Harada, Kenichi; Maruzen, Syogo; Sakai, Seisyo; Makino, Isamu; Hayashi, Hironori; Nakagawara, Hisatoshi; Tajima, Hidehiro; Takamura, Hiroyuki; Tani, Takashi; Kayahara, Masato; Ikeda, Hiroko; Ohta, Tetsuo; Nakanuma, Yasuni

    2013-01-01

    We present the first case of an intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPNB) accompanying a mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma (MANEC). A 74-year-old woman presented with fever of unknown cause. Laboratory data revealed jaundice and liver injury. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed a 20 mm polypoid tumor in the dilated distal bile duct, which exhibited early enhancement and papillary growth. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed mucus production from the papilla of Vater, characterized by its protruding and dilated orifice. Endoscopic ultrasonography visualized the polypoid tumor in the distal bile duct, but no invasive region was suggested by diagnostic imaging. Therefore, the initial diagnosis was IPNB. After endoscopic nasobiliary drainage, a pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy was performed. Pathological examination of the resected bile duct revealed papillary proliferation of biliary-type cells with nuclear atypia, indicating pancreaticobiliary-type IPNB. In addition, solid portions comprised of tumor cells with characteristic salt-and-pepper nuclei were evident. Immunohistochemistry revealed expression of the neuroendocrine marker synaptophysin in this solid component, diagnosing it as a neuroendocrine tumor (NET). Furthermore, the MIB-1 proliferation index of NET was higher than that of IPNB, and microinvasion of the NET component was found, indicating neuroendocrine carcinoma (NET G3). This unique case of MANEC, comprising IPNB and NET, provides insight into the pathogenesis of biliary NET. PMID:23716999

  13. Long-term fate of the bile duct cells proliferated during chronic thioacetamide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malvaldi, G; Pollera, M

    1982-01-01

    The cell composition of the biliary proliferations induced by thioacetamide administration was investigated. At the end of the intoxication period the main cell types identified among the neoformed bile duct cells were as follows: i) poorly differentiated cells (oval cells) usually arranged in clusters or tiny cords, provided with a great amount of free ribosomes; ii) cells arranged in bile ducts of normal appearance; iii) cells arranged in bile ducts and showing intestinal metaplasia. After withdrawal of TAA most of the biliary proliferations disappeared; in the remaining ones, where the incorporation of 3H-thymidine was still appreciable, significant changes in the bile duct cell composition were evident; in fact whereas the oval cells were no longer identifiable, those suggesting an intestinal metaplasia underwent a relative increment as well as those displaying butyrocholinesterase activity; cells devoid of junctional apparatus and filled with free ribosomes were also seen. Some of the reported finding could support the hypothesis that the biological meaning of the different cell types arisen during intoxication is different; some of them could be due to a reactive hyperplasia, while other could be considered as representing a preneoplastic step.

  14. Clinical features and outcomes of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma complicated with bile duct invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihyun An

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims Little is known about the treatment or outcomes of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC complicated with bile duct invasion. Methods A total of 247 consecutive HCC patients with bile duct invasion at initial diagnosis were retrospectively included. Results The majority of patients had Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC stage C HCC (66.8%. Portal vein tumor thrombosis was present in 166 (67.2% patients. Median survival was 4.1 months. Various modalities of treatment were initially employed including surgical resection (10.9%, repeated transarterial chemoembolization (TACE (42.5%, and conservative management (42.9%. Among the patients with obstructive jaundice (n=88, successful biliary drainage was associated with better overall survival rate. Among the patients with BCLC stage C, overall survival differed depending on the initial treatment for HCC; surgical resection, TACE, systemic chemotherapy, and conservative management showed overall survival rates of 11.5, 6.0 ,2.4, and 1.6 months, respectively. After adjusting for confounders, surgical resection and repeated TACE were significant prognostic factors for HCC patients with bile duct invasion (hazard ratios 0.47 and 0.39, Ps <0.001, respectively. Conclusions The survival of HCC patients with bile duct invasion at initial diagnosis is generally poor. However, aggressive treatments for HCC such as resection or biliary drainage may be beneficial therapeutic options for patients with preserved liver function.

  15. TOP1 gene copy numbers are increased in cancers of the bile duct and pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunnet, Mie; Calatayud, Dan; Schultz, Nicolai Aa.

    2015-01-01

    ) poison. Top1 protein, TOP1 gene copy number and mRNA expression, respectively, have been proposed as predictive biomarkers of response to irinotecan in other cancers. Here we investigate the occurrence of TOP1 gene aberrations in cancers of the bile ducts and pancreas. Material and methods. TOP1...

  16. Chronic Extrahepatic Bile Duct Dilatation: Sonographic Screening in the Patients with Opioid Addiction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farahmand, H.; PourGholami, M.; Fathollah, Sheikh [Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2007-06-15

    One of the best known side effects of using opium is spasm of the sphincter of Oddi, which may increase the diameter of the extrahepatic bile ducts. Ultrasound is the first imaging modality used for evaluating the biliary system because it is commonly available and noninvasive. The principal objective of this study was to measure the common bile duct (CBD) diameter via ultrasonography in opium addicts and to evaluate the relation between the CBD diameter and the period of addiction. This research was an analytical-cross sectional study that was done on 110 opium addicts that were admitted to a drug treatment center. The diameter of the CBD in these cases was measured by ultrasonography and the results were analyzed with other factors like age, the period of addiction and the laboratory findings. According to the findings, there is a significant increase in the range of the CBD diameter in comparison with normal bile ducts. Also, the mean diameter of the CBD in the different age groups showed a significant difference (p < 0.0001) and there was a significant relation between the CBD diameter and the period of addiction (p < 0.001, r = 0.74); so, with the increased length of the addiction period, the mean CBD diameter increases. Opium addiction is one of the factors that causes extrahepatic bile duct dilatation, so in these cases, if no obstructing lesion was found on ultrasound examination and the serum bilirobine and alkaline phosphatase levels are normal, then further evaluation is not needed.

  17. Vanishing bile duct syndrome in Hodgkin's lymphoma: A case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhit, Mena; McCarty, Thomas R; Park, Sunhee; Njei, Basile; Cho, Margaret; Karagozian, Raffi; Liapakis, AnnMarie

    2017-01-14

    Vanishing bile duct syndrome (VBDS) has been described in different pathologic conditions including infection, ischemia, adverse drug reactions, autoimmune diseases, allograft rejection, and humoral factors associated with malignancy. It is an acquired condition characterized by progressive destruction and loss of the intra-hepatic bile ducts leading to cholestasis. Prognosis is variable and partially dependent upon the etiology of bile duct injury. Irreversible bile duct loss leads to significant ductopenia, biliary cirrhosis, liver failure, and death. If biliary epithelial regeneration occurs, clinical recovery may occur over a period of months to years. VBDS has been described in a number of cases of patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) where it is thought to be a paraneoplastic phenomenon. This case describes a 25-year-old man found on liver biopsy to have VBDS. Given poor response to medical treatment, the patient underwent transplant evaluation at that time and was found to have classical stage IIB HL. Early recognition of this underlying cause or association of VBDS, including laboratory screening, and physical exam for lymphadenopathy are paramount to identifying potential underlying VBDS-associated malignancy. Here we review the literature of HL-associated VBDS and report a case of diagnosed HL with biopsy proven VBDS.

  18. Karnofsky Performance Score Is Predictive of Survival After Palliative Irradiation of Metastatic Bile Duct Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rades, Dirk; Bolm, Louisa; Kaesmann, Lukas; Bartscht, Tobias

    2017-02-01

    Palliative irradiation is effective in alleviating symptoms in patients with metastatic cancer in general. However, little data exist regarding irradiation of metastatic bile duct cancer. Selection of the best regimen for such a patient should be based on their survival prognosis. This study included five patients irradiated for metastatic bile duct cancer and aimed to identify predictors of survival by analyzing six factors: age, gender, general condition (Karnofsky performance score), metastatic site receiving palliative irradiation, metastases outside irradiated sites and time between diagnosis of bile duct cancer and palliative irradiation. In the whole series, median survival was 3 months. Survival rates at 3 and 6 months were 40% and 40%, respectively. A Karnofsky performance score >70% had a borderline significant association with better survival (p=0.05). Karnofsky performance score was identified as predictor of survival and should be considered when assigning the radiation regimen to patients with metastatic bile duct cancer. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  19. Benign giant-cell tumor of the common bile duct: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan-Dan; Zheng, Ya-Min; Teng, Liang-Hong; Sun, Yan-Ni; Gao, Wei; Wang, Lei-Ming; Wang, Yue-Hua; Li, Fei; Lu, De-Hong

    2014-11-07

    Primary giant-cell tumors rarely arise in the common bile duct. We herein report a case of primary giant-cell tumor of the common bile duct. The patient was an 81-year-old male who was diagnosed with a well-defined 1.2-cm mass projecting into the lumen of the middle common bile duct. Excision of the gallbladder and extrahepatic bile duct and a Roux-en-Y cholangiojejunostomy were performed. Histologically, the tumor had no association with carcinomas of epithelial origin and was similar to giant-cell tumors of the bone. The tumor consisted of a mixture of mononuclear and multinucleated osteoclast-like giant cells. The mononuclear cells showed no atypical features, and their nuclei were similar to those of the multinucleated giant cells. CD68 was expressed on the mononuclear and multinucleated osteoclast-like giant cells, whereas CD163 immunoreactivity was restricted to the mononuclear cells. Six months after the operation, the patient was still alive and had no recurrence. The interest of this case lies in the rarity of this entity, the difficulty of preoperative diagnosis, and this tumor's possible confusion with other malignant tumors.

  20. Percutaneous treatment of bile duct stones in patients treated unsuccessfully with endoscopic retrograde procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velden, JJ; Berger, MY; Bonjer, HJ; Brakel, K; Lameris, JS

    Background: The preferred treatment for stones in the bile duct is endoscopic sphincterotomy followed by stone extraction. When this fails, percutaneous treatment is an alternative to surgery. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the success and complication rate of percutaneous treatment.

  1. Clinical features and outcomes of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma complicated with bile duct invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jihyun; Lee, Kwang Sun; Park, Do Hyun; Lee, Sang Soo; Lee, Danbi; Shim, Ju Hyun; Lim, Young-Suk; Lee, Han Chu; Chung, Young-Hwa; Lee, Yung Sang

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims Little is known about the treatment or outcomes of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) complicated with bile duct invasion. Methods A total of 247 consecutive HCC patients with bile duct invasion at initial diagnosis were retrospectively included. Results The majority of patients had Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage C HCC (66.8%). Portal vein tumor thrombosis was present in 166 (67.2%) patients. Median survival was 4.1 months. Various modalities of treatment were initially employed including surgical resection (10.9%), repeated transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) (42.5%), and conservative management (42.9%). Among the patients with obstructive jaundice (n=88), successful biliary drainage was associated with better overall survival rate. Among the patients with BCLC stage C, overall survival differed depending on the initial treatment for HCC; surgical resection, TACE, systemic chemotherapy, and conservative management showed overall survival rates of 11.5, 6.0 ,2.4, and 1.6 months, respectively. After adjusting for confounders, surgical resection and repeated TACE were significant prognostic factors for HCC patients with bile duct invasion (hazard ratios 0.47 and 0.39, Ps bile duct invasion at initial diagnosis is generally poor. However, aggressive treatments for HCC such as resection or biliary drainage may be beneficial therapeutic options for patients with preserved liver function. PMID:28506055

  2. Endopancreatic Bile Duct Cholangiocarcinoma in a Patient with Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandros K. Charalabopoulos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Peutz-Jeghers syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant inherited disease characterized by a special type of hamartomatous gastrointestinal polyps combined with mucocutaneous melanin pigmentations. Patients with the syndrome have a high risk of developing neoplasia, with colon, small bowel, and stomach being the most common gastrointestinal sites. Herein, we present the occurrence of a rare tumor in patients with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome; a cholangiocarcinoma of the endopancreatic bile duct. A minireview is also presented. It can be concluded that cholangiocarcinoma remains a possible diagnosis in PJS patients, as in others that present with biliary obstruction. PJS patients may be at higher risk than others in view of their propensity for malignancy.

  3. Effect of glutamine synthetase inhibition on brain and interorgan ammonia metabolism in bile duct ligated rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fries, Andreas W; Dadsetan, Sherry; Keiding, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Ammonia has a key role in the development of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). In the brain, glutamine synthetase (GS) rapidly converts blood-borne ammonia into glutamine which in high concentrations may cause mitochondrial dysfunction and osmolytic brain edema. In astrocyte-neuron cocultures and brains...... of healthy rats, inhibition of GS by methionine sulfoximine (MSO) reduced glutamine synthesis and increased alanine synthesis. Here, we investigate effects of MSO on brain and interorgan ammonia metabolism in sham and bile duct ligated (BDL) rats. Concentrations of glutamine, glutamate, alanine......, and aspartate and incorporation of (15)NH4(+) into these amino acids in brain, liver, muscle, kidney, and plasma were similar in sham and BDL rats treated with saline. Methionine sulfoximine reduced glutamine concentrations in liver, kidney, and plasma but not in brain and muscle; MSO reduced incorporation...

  4. [The videolaparoscopic treatment of cholecystic common bile duct lithiasis: review of 827 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavone, A; Scarone, P C; Berselli, R; Guaitoli, S; Neri, S; Gibertini, G

    2003-02-01

    The aim of this retrospective study is to verify the progress of the results in 827 patients submitted to videolaparoscopic treatment for cholecysto-choledochus lithiasis during the period >March 1994 - September 2000. All the patients had recurring biliary colic, dyspepsia and pain in the upper abdominal quadrants. All clinical forms of cholecystitis were treated. The laparotomic conversions in the case of lithiasis of the gallbladder alone were 8 (0.9%) and 13 (1.5%) as it occured simultaneously with lithiasis of the common bile duct. Mortality was null and morbidity was found in 4 cases, equal to 0.4%. On the basis of the results obtained cholecystectomy can be implemented on a large scale to include patients of all ages and those in the high risk groups provided that the operating team include expert and skilled surgeons in the laparoscopic method as well as the conventional methods.

  5. [Neoplasms of the extrahepatic bile ducts. A clinical study of 44 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimpén Ruiz, V; Sánchez Navarro, J; Queizan Hernández, J A; Mateos Rodríguez, M C; Olmedo Cruz, O; Mejía Molina, P

    1989-07-01

    44 clinical cases, histologically diagnosed as suffering from extrahepatic bile duct neoplasia, admitted at the "Hospital Foral de Navarra" during the years 1976 to 1985 and at the "Hospital Clinico Universitario de Salamanca" during the period from 1981 to 1987, were analysed. Our results showed a higher incidence in the female sex. The most important antecedent was biliary stone lithiasis (45.45%). Jaundice and abdominal pain were the most frequent symptoms and liver enlargement accompanied by jaundice were the most frequent clinical signs on physical examination. The data obtained did not show specificity at the diagnosis. The ERCP showed a high rate of diagnosis (71.43%) followed by CT scanning (70%) and percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (52.63%). The types of surgery most frequently performed were cholecystectomy and choledochoduodenostomy, and the diagnosis of well-differentiated carcinoma was found in 63.64% of the cases. Any therapy performed (surgery, radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy) improved the survival rate.

  6. Ultrasonographic measurement of normal common bile duct diameter and its correlation with age, sex and anthropometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Nidhi; Mehra, Simmi; Lal, Vivek

    2014-12-01

    Ultrasonography is the diagnostic method of choice for visualization and rational work-up of abdominal organs. The dilatation of the common bile duct helps distinguish obstructive from non-obstructive causes of jaundice. Availability of normal measurements of the common bile duct is therefore important. There exists significant variations in the anthropometric features of various populations, regions and races. Study was conducted to obtain data on sonographically measured diameters of common bile duct in a series of normal Rajasthani population and to measure its correlation with age, sex and anthropometry. Cross-sectional hospital-based study conducted at Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Hospital, Jaipur, India. Study included 200 participants with equal proportion belonging to either sex. Common bile duct was measured at three locations- at the porta hepatis, in the most distal aspect of head of pancreas and mid-way between these points. Anthropometric measurements including height, weight, chest circumference, circumference at transpyloric plane, circumference at umbilicus and circumference at hip were obtained using standard procedures. Univariable analysis with measures of frequency and standard deviation and bivariable analysis using correlation. Mean age of study subjects was 34.5 years (Range 18-85 years). Mean diameters of the common bile duct in the three locations were: proximal, 4.0 mm (SD 1.02 mm); middle, 4.1 mm (SD 1.01 mm); and distal, 4.2 mm (SD 1.01 mm) and overall mean for all measures 4.1 mm (SD 1.01 mm). Average diameter ranged from 2.0 mm to 7.9 mm, with 95 percent of the subjects having a diameter of less than 6 mm. We observed a statistically significant relation of common bile duct with age, along with a linear trend. There was no statistically significant difference in common bile duct diameter between male and female subjects. The diameter did not show any statistically significant correlation with any of the anthropometric

  7. Claudin-18 coupled with EGFR/ERK signaling contributes to the malignant potentials of bile duct cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasawa, Kumi; Takasawa, Akira; Osanai, Makoto; Aoyama, Tomoyuki; Ono, Yusuke; Kono, Tsuyoshi; Hirohashi, Yoshihiko; Murata, Masaki; Sawada, Norimasa

    2017-09-10

    Our recent work revealed that elevated expression of claudin-18 is involved in bile duct neoplasia. In the present study, we found that wound generation of a cell sheet de novo induced claudin-18 expression in its leading edge, coincident with high mitotic activity. We also found that the suppression of claudin-18 expression significantly reduced cell growth and invasiveness of bile duct cancer cell lines and tumorigenicity in vivo. In addition, an antibody specific to an extracellular loop of claudin-18 showed similar effects on the cells such as cell proliferation. Interestingly, treatment with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and overexpression of RAS oncogene induced claudin-18 expression by activation of extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK)1/2. Furthermore, enhanced claudin-18 expression activated ERK1/2. These findings provide evidence for an oncogenic property of claudin-18 in bile duct carcinoma cells via modulation of EGFR/ERK signaling, indicating that claudin-18 is a possible therapeutic target for this malignancy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Salvage radiotherapy for locoregionally recurrent extrahepatic bile duct cancer after radical surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunji; Kim, Yi-Jun; Kim, Kyubo; Song, Changhoon; Kim, Jae-Sung; Oh, Do-Youn; Nam, Eun Mi; Chie, Eui Kyu

    2017-12-01

    This study evaluated the outcome of salvage radiotherapy for locoregionally recurrent extrahepatic bile duct cancer. We performed a retrospective review of 23 extrahepatic bile duct cancer patients who underwent radiotherapy with or without concomitant chemotherapy for isolated locoregional recurrence after radical surgery between August 2001 and September 2013. The median disease-free interval was 11.8 months. Salvage radiotherapy was delivered to the recurrent tumour with or without initial operation bed up to a median dose of 54 Gy (range, 45-60). 18 patients received concomitant chemotherapy. The median follow-up period was 14.2 months for all patients, and 48.8 months for survivors. The median overall survival and progression-free survival (PFS) were 18.4 (range, 4.4-114.6) and 15.5 months (range, 1.6-114.6), respectively. On multivariate analysis, the use of concomitant chemotherapy was a favourable prognostic factor for PFS (p = 0.027), and prolonged disease-free interval (≥1 year) was associated with a significantly poor overall survival (p = 0.047). Grade 3 or higher toxicities did not occur in follow-up period. Salvage radiotherapy showed promising survival outcomes in locoregional recurrence of extrahepatic bile duct cancer. Our results indicated that concomitant chemotherapy was associated with improved PFS. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy can be a viable salvage treatment option in selected patients. Advances in knowledge: Locoregional recurrence is the most common pattern of failure after radical resection in extrahepatic bile duct cancer. In this study, salvage radiotherapy showed favourable survival outcomes without severe complications in locoregionally recurrent extrahepatic bile duct cancer patients.

  9. Congenital anomalies and variations of the bile and pancreatic ducts: magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography findings, epidemiology and clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Filippo, M; Calabrese, M; Quinto, S; Rastelli, A; Bertellini, A; Martora, R; Sverzellati, N; Corradi, D; Vitale, M; Crialesi, G; Sarli, L; Roncoroni, L; Garlaschi, G; Zompatori, M

    2008-09-01

    The objective of this paper is to document the magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) findings and the epidemiology of congenital anomalies and variations of the bile and pancreatic ducts and to discuss their clinical significance. Three-hundred and fifty patients of both sexes (150 females, 200 males, age range 0-76 years, average age 38 years) underwent MRCP for clinically suspected lithiasic, neoplastic or inflammatory disease of the bile and pancreatic ducts. Patients were imaged with a 1.5-T superconductive magnet (Magnetom Vision, Siemens, Erlangen, Germany), a four-channel phased-array body coil, breath-hold technique, with multislice T2-weighted half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo spin echo (HASTE), MIP reconstructions, and a single-shot T2-weighted turbo-spin-echo sequence rapid acquisition with relaxation enhancement (RARE) with different slice thicknesses. Studies in oncological patients were completed with fat saturation 3D T1 gradient-echo sequences during the intravenous injection of gadolinium diethylene triamine pentaacetate acid (DTPA) (0.2 ml/kg). MRCP demonstrated recurrent and therefore normal bile and pancreatic ducts in 57% of patients. In the remaining 42.3%, it documented anatomical variants (41%) and congenital anomalies (1.3%). Variants of the intrahepatic bile duct were seen in 21% of cases: crossover anomaly (6.7%), anterior branch of the right hepatic duct draining the IV and VII segments that flow together with the left bile duct (3.1%) and anterior and posterior branches of the right hepatic duct that flow together with the common hepatic duct (3.3%). Variants of the extrahepatic bile ducts were present in 8.8% of patients: low insertion of the cystic duct into the common hepatic duct (4.5%), emptying of the cystic duct into the right hepatic duct (2.7%) and a second-order large branch draining into the cystic duct (1.6%). MRCP identified a double gall bladder in 3% of patients and anatomical variants of the

  10. Identifying Patients Most Likely to Have a Common Bile Duct Stone After a Positive Intraoperative Cholangiogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Jason; Mishra, Girish; Baillie, John; Gilliam, John; Fernandez, Adolfo; Evans, John

    2014-01-01

    The false-positive rates of a positive intraoperative cholangiogram (IOC) are as high as 60%. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for stone removal is required after a positive IOC. It is unclear which clinical factors identify patients most likely to have a stone after a positive IOC. This study was conducted to identify factors predictive of common bile duct (CBD) stone(s) on ERCP after a positive IOC. A retrospective review of our endoscopic database identified all ERCP and/or endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) procedures performed for a positive IOC between August 2003 and August 2009. Collected data included patient demographics; indication for cholecystectomy; IOC findings; blood tests before and after cholecystectomy, including liver function tests, complete blood count, and amylase and lipase measurements; and ERCP and/or EUS results. Patients who had a negative EUS for CBD stones and no subsequent ERCP were contacted by phone to see if they eventually required an ERCP. Univariate and multi-variable analyses were performed. A total of 114 patients were included in the study. IOC findings included a single stone, multiple stones, nonpassage of contrast into the duodenum, dilated CBD, and poor visualization of the bile duct. Eighty-four percent of patients had ERCP only, 9% had EUS only, and 7% had EUS followed by ERCP. Sixty-five patients (57%) had CBD stones on ERCP or EUS. Older age, multiple stones, dilated CBD on IOC, and elevated postcholecystectomy bilirubin levels were the clinical variables with statistically significant differences on univariate analysis. On multivariable analysis, older age and elevated postcholecystectomy total bilirubin levels correlated with the presence of CBD stones on ERCP. Fifty-seven percent of patients referred for endoscopic evaluation after a positive IOC had CBD stones on ERCP. Patients with CBD stones after a positive IOC were more likely to be older with elevated post-cholecystectomy total serum bilirubin

  11. Applied 3-D anatomy of liver bile ducts in injection-corrosion casts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurković Dragica M.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available On the 20 post-autopsy adult isolated liver specimens of patients of both sexes (17 male and 3 female aged 29-88, the injection-corrosion method was used. Colored acrylate was injected into the biliary system, and uncolored acrylate into the portal vein. A total of 17 acrylate casts were of proper quality. Within the 9 portal segments, both the anatomical determination and quantity and the mode of confluence of intrahepatic bile ducts were established. Different modes of biliary tract confluence up to the sectors and hepatics were found. Besides the most frequent findings of convention­ally confluence bile ducts, there were aberrant modalities of biliary drainage in eight cases. Among them 5 cases had confluence of posterior and anterior sector ducts in the left hepatic duct and 1 case had confluence at first of anterior and then posterior sector ducts in the left hepatic duct. Also, extrahilar connection of the right posterior with left lateral into common hepatic duct, where the latter entered the medial and anterior sectors ducts in 1 case was found. There was a subsequent confluence of ducts from the 8th and 5th segments in 1 case, and from the lateral and medial sectors with or without caudate lobe in 3 cases. A common (4 or separate (2 confluence of left and right portions ducts in the left drainage system were in 6 cases, whereas in both, the left and right drainage system in 7 cases was found. Rare, there was an aberrant single channel from the right portion in 1 case, as well as the presence and biliary drainage only of the left portion of 1st segment was found. Segment 9 bile ducts drained all three subsegments (b, c and d in 10 cases, and only two (c and d in 3 cases, as well as only two (c and b of present three subsegments in 3 cases. Also, there was even one case with present 9d subsegment and without 9th segment duct. Those modalities are of interest in an applying and accurate interpretation and performance of diagnostic and

  12. Can bile duct injuries be prevented? "A new technique in laparoscopic cholecystectomy"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güneyİ Ayhan

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the last decade, laparoscopic cholecystectomy has gained worldwide acceptance and considered to be as "gold standard" in the surgical management of symptomatic cholecystolithiasis. However, the incidence of bile duct injury in laparoscopic cholecystectomy is still two times greater compared to classic open surgery. The development of bile duct injury may result in biliary cirrhosis and increase in mortality rates. The mostly blamed causitive factor is the misidentification of the anatomy, especially by a surgeon who is at the beginning of his learning curve. Biliary tree injuries may be decreased by direct coloration of the cystic duct, ductus choledochus and even the gall bladder. Methods gall bladder fundus was punctured by Veress needle and all the bile was aspirated. The same amount of fifty percent methylene blue diluted by saline solution was injected into the gall bladder for coloration of biliary tree. The dissection of Calot triangle was much more safely performed after obtention of coloration of the gall bladder, cystic duct and choledocus. Results Between October 2003 and December 2004, overall 46 patients (of which 9 males with a mean age of 47 (between 24 and 74 underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy with methylene blue injection technique. The diagnosis of chronic cholecystitis (the thickness of the gall bladder wall was normal confirmed by pre-operative abdominal ultrasonography in all patients. The diameters of the stones were greater than 1 centimeter in 32 patients and calcula of various sizes being smaller than 1 cm. were documented in 13 cases. One patient was operated for gall bladder polyp (our first case. Successful coloration of the gall bladder, cystic duct and ductus choledochus was possible in 43 patients, whereas only the gall bladder and proximal cystic duct were visualised in 3 cases. In these cases, ductus choledochus visibility was not possible. None of the patients developed bile duct

  13. Can bile duct injuries be prevented? "A new technique in laparoscopic cholecystectomy"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Yavuz Selim; Tunali, Vahit; Tomaoglu, Kamer; Karagöz, Binnur; Güneyİ, Ayhan; KaragöZ, İbrahim

    2005-01-01

    Background Over the last decade, laparoscopic cholecystectomy has gained worldwide acceptance and considered to be as "gold standard" in the surgical management of symptomatic cholecystolithiasis. However, the incidence of bile duct injury in laparoscopic cholecystectomy is still two times greater compared to classic open surgery. The development of bile duct injury may result in biliary cirrhosis and increase in mortality rates. The mostly blamed causitive factor is the misidentification of the anatomy, especially by a surgeon who is at the beginning of his learning curve. Biliary tree injuries may be decreased by direct coloration of the cystic duct, ductus choledochus and even the gall bladder. Methods gall bladder fundus was punctured by Veress needle and all the bile was aspirated. The same amount of fifty percent methylene blue diluted by saline solution was injected into the gall bladder for coloration of biliary tree. The dissection of Calot triangle was much more safely performed after obtention of coloration of the gall bladder, cystic duct and choledocus. Results Between October 2003 and December 2004, overall 46 patients (of which 9 males) with a mean age of 47 (between 24 and 74) underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy with methylene blue injection technique. The diagnosis of chronic cholecystitis (the thickness of the gall bladder wall was normal) confirmed by pre-operative abdominal ultrasonography in all patients. The diameters of the stones were greater than 1 centimeter in 32 patients and calcula of various sizes being smaller than 1 cm. were documented in 13 cases. One patient was operated for gall bladder polyp (our first case). Successful coloration of the gall bladder, cystic duct and ductus choledochus was possible in 43 patients, whereas only the gall bladder and proximal cystic duct were visualised in 3 cases. In these cases, ductus choledochus visibility was not possible. None of the patients developed bile duct injury. Conclusion The

  14. Immunoglobulin A stimulates growth of the extrahepatic bile duct in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon-Friedlander, S; Boscamp, J R; Morecki, R; Lilly, F; Horwitz, M S; Glaser, J H

    1987-05-01

    BALB/c mice injected with seven 0.15-ml samples of whole rabbit serum over a 2-week period developed nonneoplastic proliferation of the extrahepatic bile duct epithelium and glandular components. Sera from other animals, including bovines, humans, pigs, goats, and chickens as well as non-serum-containing secretions such as human breast milk and bile also produced this effect. Partial purification utilizing gel filtration and affinity chromatography of the active 33-65% saturated ammonium sulfate precipitate of whole serum indicated that the distribution and characteristics of this glycoprotein showed some similarities with those of IgA. Chromatographically purified human IgA was administered to BALB/c mice and was found to induce bile duct proliferation identical to that seen with whole human serum. Purified human IgG and IgM had no activity. Since IgA-containing serum from BALB/c mice was inactive, it appears that heterologous IgA functions as a specific extrahepatic bile duct growth factor (BDGF) in BALB/c mice. Murine susceptibility to the growth-stimulating effect of serum was strain specific; genetic studies utilizing crosses of susceptible (BALB/c) and resistant (C57BL/10) strains of mice revealed that the ability to respond to the infusion of BDGF is inherited in a polygenic fashion.

  15. Synchronous double primary squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma of the extrahepatic bile duct: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Youngsun; Mun, Seongpyo

    2015-05-19

    Synchronous double cancers of the bile duct are exceptionally rare. We here report a case of synchronous squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma of the extrahepatic bile duct. A 67-year-old Asian man visited our clinic complaining of jaundice and dark urine. Direct hyperbilirubinemia and an elevated cancer antigen 19-9 level were detected. Preoperative abdominal computed tomography and positron emission tomography showed two masses at the bifurcation of the common hepatic duct and at the distal common bile duct. After biliary drainage, we performed radical pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy, without resection margin involvement. Pathological findings revealed that the proximal lesion was a squamous cell carcinoma and that the distal lesion was an adenocarcinoma. Both cholangiocarcinomas were confined to the fibromuscular layer, and there was no communication between the two tumors. Multiple conglomerated metastatic tumors were detected in his liver 3 months after surgery. He died 8 months after diagnosis. The disease displayed very aggressive behavior and a very poor prognosis. The only chance for long-term survival is treatment with radical resection. Preoperative positron emission tomography-computed tomography is useful in detecting occult cancer.

  16. [Can common bile duct lithiasis be removed laparoscopically without external biliary drainage?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perniceni, T; Alves, A; Levard, H; Boudet, M J; Denet, C; Gayet, B

    2001-02-01

    To evaluate the indications, feasibility and results of laparoscopic treatment of common bile duct stones without biliary drainage. Between 1992 and 1999, laparoscopic procedures were performed in 70 consecutive patients, mean age 60 +/- 15 years (range: 18-82). Stone removal was attempted via the cystic duct (n=25) or choledocotomy (n=45). The emptiness of the common bile duct was checked by intraoperative cholangiography or endoscopy. After choledocotomy, closure was performed by interrupted or non-interrupted suture with slowly resorbable thread. Transcystic drainage was used whenever necessary. Nine conversions to laparotomy were necessary (12.8%). Among the 61 patients who had an exclusively laparoscopic procedure, 21 were treated via the transcystic route and 40 through choledocotomy. Biliary endoscopy was possible in only 10 of the 21 patients (47.6%) treated via the transcystic route and in all with choledocotomy. No biliary drainage was used in 16 of the 21 patients treated via the transcystic route and in 39 of the 40 treated through choledocotomy. The 30-day mortality was 1/61 (1.6%). Morbidity was 9.8% and 2 patients underwent a second laparoscopic procedure (one fistula on a choledocotomy suture, one hemoperitoneum of unknown origin). An endoscopic sphincterotomy for residual stone was necessary in 4 patients (4/61, 6.5%), 2 after choledocotomy for an unrecognized stone without biliary drainage. These results confirm the feasibility of laparoscopic treatment of common bile duct stones and suggest it can be performed without biliary drainage in most cases.

  17. Patterns of failure and prognostic factors in resected extrahepatic bile duct cancer: implication for adjuvant radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Tae Ryool; Eom, Keun Yong; Kim, In Ah; Cho, Jai Young; Yoon, Yoo Seok; Hwang, Dae Wook; Han, Ho Seong; Kim, Jae Sung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    To find the applicability of adjuvant radiotherapy for extrahepatic bile duct cancer (EBDC), we analyzed the pattern of failure and evaluate prognostic factors of locoregional failure after curative resection without adjuvant treatment. In 97 patients with resected EBDC, the location of tumor was classified as proximal (n = 26) and distal (n = 71), using the junction of the cystic duct and common hepatic duct as the dividing point. Locoregional failure sites were categorized as follows: the hepatoduodenal ligament and tumor bed, the celiac artery and superior mesenteric artery, and other sites. The median follow-up time was 29 months for surviving patients. Three-year locoregional progression-free survival, progression-free survival, and overall survival rates were 50%, 42%, and 52%, respectively. Regarding initial failures, 79% and 81% were locoregional failures in proximal and distal EBDC patients, respectively. The most common site was the hepatoduodenal ligament and tumor bed. In the multivariate analysis, perineural invasion was associated with poor locoregional progression-free survival (p = 0.023) and progression-free survival (p = 0.012); and elevated postoperative CA19-9 (> or =37 U/mL) did with poor locoregional progression-free survival (p = 0.002), progression-free survival (p < 0.001) and overall survival (p < 0.001). Both proximal and distal EBDC showed remarkable proportion of locoregional failure. Perineural invasion and elevated postoperative CA19-9 were risk factors of locoregional failure. In these patients with high risk of locoregional failure, adjuvant radiotherapy could be considered to improve locoregional control.

  18. Percutaneous Transhepatic Removal of Bile Duct Stones: Results of 261 Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozcan, Nevzat, E-mail: nevzatcan@yahoo.com; Kahriman, Guven, E-mail: guvenkahriman@hotmail.com; Mavili, Ertugrul, E-mail: ertmavili@yahoo.com [Erciyes University, Department of Radiology, Medical Faculty (Turkey)

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: To determine the effectiveness of percutaneous transhepatic removal of bile duct stones when the procedure of endoscopic therapy fails for reasons of anatomical anomalies or is rejected by the patient. Methods: Between April 2001 and May 2010, 261 patients (138 male patients and 123 female patients; age range, 14-92 years; mean age, 64.6 years) with bile duct stones (common bile duct [CBD] stones = 248 patients and hepatolithiasis = 13 patients) were included in the study. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography was performed, and stones were identified. Percutaneous transhepatic balloon dilation of the papilla of Vater was performed. Then stones were pushed out into the duodenum with a Fogarty balloon catheter. If the stone diameter was larger than 15 mm, then basket lithotripsy was performed before balloon dilation. Results: Overall success rate was 95.7%. The procedure was successful in 97.5% of patients with CBD stones and in 61.5% of patients with hepatolithiasis. A total of 18 major complications (6.8%), including cholangitis (n = 7), subcapsular biloma (n = 4), subcapsular hematoma (n = 1), subcapsular abscess (n = 1), bile peritonitis (n = 1), duodenal perforation (n = 1), CBD perforation (n = 1), gastroduodenal artery pseudoaneurysm (n = 1), and right hepatic artery transection (n = 1), were observed after the procedure. There was no mortality. Conclusion: Our experience suggests that percutaneous transhepatic stone expulsion into the duodenum through the papilla is an effective and safe approach in the nonoperative management of the bile duct stones. It is a feasible alternative to surgery when endoscopic extraction fails or is rejected by the patient.

  19. [Eosinophilic cholangitis from almost normal appearance to the bile duct sclerosis similar to primary sclerosing cholangitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yoshito; Yamashita, Yukimasa; Mikami, Sakae; Ono, Hiroshi; Itai, Ryosuke; Matsumoto, Yoshihide; Yamada, Satoshi; Takada, Mariko; Sumitomo, Yasuhiko

    2013-02-01

    A 48-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of eosinophilia and liver dysfunction. Initial abdominal CT and MRI (MRCP) finding showed almost normal liver and bile duct. Liver biopsy demonstrated mild portal infiltration of lymphocytes and eosinophils. Definitive diagnosis was difficult, but we suspected autoimmune disease. Oral steroid administration was started, which led to a rapid improvement of eosinophilia and liver dysfunction. Dose reduction of steroid administration resulted in exacerbation of eosinophilia and liver dysfunction. Follow-up MRCP and ERCP study revealed biliary strictures similar to primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). A second liver biopsy revealed dense infiltration composed of lymphocytes and eosinophils in the portal area. Therefore we diagnosed eosinophilic cholangitis. This is the first case of eosinophilic cholangitis, observed after changes of the bile duct from an almost normal appearance to diffuse sclerosing and narrowing similar to PSC by imaging and pathological studies.

  20. Transpapillary iridium-192 wire in the treatment of malignant bile duct obstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levitt, M.D.; Laurence, B.H.; Cameron, F.; Klemp, P.F.B.

    1988-02-01

    Twenty four patients with malignant bile duct obstruction were treated with intraluminal radiotherapy using iridium-192 wire inserted through an endoscopically placed nasobiliary catheter. Biliary drainage after treatment was maintained by an endoprosthesis. The median dose of intraluminal radiotherapy was 6000 cGy; two patients with cholangiocarcinoma were given a second course because of disease extension; four patients with pancreatic carcinoma received additional external irradiation (3000 cGy). There was one early death from a cerebrovascular accident (30 day mortality, 4.2%). Cholangitis (30%) was the major early complication and stent blockage (40%) the major late complication; there were no complications directly attributable to radiotherapy. The median survival for patients with pancreatic carcinoma was 250 days and for cholangiocarcinoma, 300 days. This method is technically feasible and may prove safer than the transhepatic technique. The ability of intraluminal irradiation to improve palliation or lengthen survival in patients with malignant bile duct obstruction remains uncertain.

  1. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound examination of the gallbladder and bile ducts: A pictorial essay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cokkinos, Demosthenes D; Antypa, Eleni G; Tsolaki, Sofia; Skylakaki, Maria; Skoura, Alkmini; Mellou, Vassiliki; Kalogeropoulos, Ioannis

    2018-01-01

    The gallbladder and bile ducts are usually assessed initially with conventional gray-scale ultrasound (US). Contrast enhanced US (CEUS) is used when a diagnosis cannot be reached with conventional US. CEUS is easy to learn and perform. US contrast agents can be safely administered in patients with renal function impairment. In this pictorial essay the physics, examination technique and indications of CEUS for examining the gallbladder and bile ducts are reviewed. Gallbladder indications include elucidating normal variants, differentiating sludge from neoplastic lesions, benign and malignant pathology, infection, wall rupture and hemobilia. In the biliary tree CEUS is used for studying benign and malignant tumors, including metastases and cholangiocarcinoma, as well as intrabiliary injection. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Diagnostic Imaging of Carcinomas of the Gallbladder and the Bile Ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oikarinen, H. [Oulu Univ. Hospital (Finland). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology

    2006-07-15

    Early diagnosis and accurate staging of carcinomas of the gallbladder and the bile ducts are helpful in improving the prognosis. Ultrasonography (US), a useful initial modality when exploring the background of jaundice or non-specific gastrointestinal complaints, sensitively reveals bile duct obstruction in particular. In unclear cases, or if US suggests a resectable biliary malignancy, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRC) and/or traditional cholangiography often provide additional information, and imaging-guided fine-needle biopsy or an endoscopic brush sample may verify the malignant nature of the tumor. Complementary modalities are usually needed for accurate staging, and traditional cholangiography is often performed for therapeutic purposes as well. Comparative studies of MRI with MRC and multidetector CT in biliary cancers would be welcome.

  3. Three-dimensional reconstructions of intrahepatic bile duct tubulogenesis in human liver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestentoft, Peter S; Jelnes, Peter; Hopkinson, Branden M

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: During liver development, intrahepatic bile ducts are thought to arise by a unique asymmetric mode of cholangiocyte tubulogenesis characterized by a series of remodeling stages. Moreover, in liver diseases, cells lining the Canals of Hering can proliferate and generate new hepatic...... tissue. The aim of this study was to develop protocols for three-dimensional visualization of protein expression, hepatic portal structures and human hepatic cholangiocyte tubulogenesis. RESULTS: Protocols were developed to digitally visualize portal vessel branching and protein expression of hepatic...... in normal liver and in the extensive ductular reactions originating from intrahepatic bile ducts and branching into the parenchyma of the acetaminophen intoxicated liver. In the developing human liver, three-dimensional reconstructions using multiple marker proteins confirmed that the human intrahepatic...

  4. Clues to the Etiology of Bile Duct Injury in Biliary Atresia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Cara L.; Feldman, Amy G.; Sokol, Ronald J.

    2013-01-01

    Biliary atresia (BA) is an infantile obstructive cholangiopathy of unknown etiology with suboptimal therapy, which is responsible for 40 to 50% of all pediatric liver transplants. Although the etiology of bile duct injury in BA in unknown, it is postulated that a pre- or perinatal viral infection initiates cholangiocyte apoptosis and release of antigens that trigger a Th1 immune response that leads to further bile duct injury, inflammation, and obstructive fibrosis. Humoral immunity and activation of the innate immune system may also play key roles in this process. Moreover, recent investigations from the murine BA model and human data suggest that regulatory T cells and genetic susceptibility factors may orchestrate autoimmune mechanisms. What controls the coordination of these events, why the disease only occurs in the first few months of life, and why a minority of infants with perinatal viral infections develop BA are remaining questions to be answered. PMID:23397531

  5. Standards of the Polish Ultrasound Society – update. The liver, gallbladder and bile ducts examinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Krystyna Walas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonography, which usually constitutes an initial imaging method of the gallbladder, liver and bile ducts diseases, allows for final diagnosis or determines another diagnostic step. The continuously progressing technological advancement forces to broaden the indications for ultrasound diagnostics and enables easier and more precise imaging of the tested structures. Performing the examination in accordance with current standards allows for the optimization of the sensitivity and specificity parameters of ultrasound examinations in the diagnosis of the liver, gallbladder and bile ducts pathologies as well as minimizes the probability of error-making. This article presents a recommended liver, gallbladder and bile ducts ultrasound technique which indicates an optimal positioning of the patient for the exam as well as the sites of the ultrasound transducer application. Minimum technical parameters of the apparatus have been specified with respect to the requirements of modern ultrasound techniques which enable imaging with the use of contrast agents and elastography. Furthermore, the article proposes a standard exam description containing essential patient-related data and provides required ultrasound evaluation parameters for the tested organs. Attention has been drawn to the appropriate manner of preparing the patient for the examination and the features of the tested structures have been presented. The article also contains a brief description of the liver, gallbladder and bile ducts diseases which are most often diagnosed by ultrasound examinations. Moreover, the use of elastography as well as contrast-enhanced examinations in the diagnostics of fibrosis and focal changes in the liver have been discussed. This article has been prepared on the basis of the Ultrasound Examination Standards of the Polish Ultrasound Society (2011 and updated with reference to the latest findings in pertinent literature.

  6. Metastatic Breast Cancer to the Common Bile Duct Presenting as Obstructive Jaundice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Cochrane

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic breast cancer is typically identified in the bones, lymph nodes, lungs and liver. Rarely does metastatic breast cancer involve the common bile duct (CBD without direct extension from liver metastasis into the CBD. We present a woman diagnosed with metastatic breast cancer in the CBD after presenting with obstructive jaundice. Patients with a history of primary breast cancer who present with obstructive jaundice secondary to CBD mass need identification of the mass in order to provide appropriate treatment.

  7. Restoration of Completely Transected Common Bile Duct Continuity Using Single Operator Cholangioscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emhmed Ali, Saad; Mardini, Houssam; Salih, Mohsin; Krohmer, Steven J; Frandah, Wesam M

    2017-01-01

    Common bile duct (CBD) injury, ranging from a partial tear to a complete transection, is a major surgical complication of cholecystectomy with significant morbidity and mortality. Proper management of these complex injuries depends on the type and extent of injury and time of recognition. Identifying and repairing injuries during cholecystectomy can prevent development of complications, but this only occurs in about one-third of cases. We report a novel technique to reconnect a transected CBD with assistance of single-operator cholangioscopy.

  8. Caroli's disease misdiagnosed as intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Dae Hoe; Park, Min Seon; Jung, Chang Ho; Yoo, Yang Jae; Cho, Jae Young; Lee, Yun Ho; Seo, Yeon Seok; Yim, Hyung Joon; Um, Soon Ho; Ryu, Ho Sang

    2015-06-01

    Caroli's disease is a rare autosomal-recessive disorder caused by malformation of the ductal plate during embryonic development. Although it is present at birth, Caroli's disease is typically not diagnosed until between the second and fourth decades of life, as it was in the present patient. Here we report a rare case of Caroli's disease limited to one liver segment, which was initially misdiagnosed as an intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct. The asymptomatic patient was treated with liver segmentectomy.

  9. Impairment of the organization of locomotor and exploratory behaviors in bile duct-ligated rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leke, Renata; de Oliveira, Diogo L; Mussulini, Ben Hur M.

    2012-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) arises from acute or chronic liver diseases and leads to several problems, including motor impairment. Animal models of chronic liver disease have extensively investigated the mechanisms of this disease. Impairment of locomotor activity has been described in different ...... from the control rats for the elevated plus-maze and foot-fault tasks. Therefore, the BDL rats demonstrated disturbed spontaneous locomotor and exploratory activities as a consequence of altered spatio-temporal organization of behavior....... rat models. However, these studies are controversial and the majority has primarily analyzed activity parameters. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate locomotor and exploratory behavior in bile duct-ligated (BDL) rats to explore the spatial and temporal structure of behavior. Adult...... female Wistar rats underwent common bile duct ligation (BDL rats) or the manipulation of common bile duct without ligation (control rats). Six weeks after surgery, control and BDL rats underwent open-field, plus-maze and foot-fault behavioral tasks. The BDL rats developed chronic liver failure...

  10. Migration of Surgical Clips into the Common Bile Duct after Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishn Kant Rawal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC is currently the treatment of choice for symptomatic gallstones. Associated complications include bile duct injury, retained common bile duct (CBD stones, and migration of surgical clips. Clip migration into the CBD can present with recurrent cholangitis over a period of time. Retained CBD stones can be another cause of recurrent cholangitis. A case of two surgical clips migrating into the common bile duct with few retained stones following LC is reported here. The patient had repeated episodes of fever, pain at epigastrium, jaundice, and pruritus 3 months after LC. Liver function tests revealed features of obstructive jaundice. Ultrasonography of the abdomen showed dilated CBD with few stones. In view of acute cholangitis, an urgent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was done, which demonstrated few filling defects and 2 linear metallic densities in the CBD. A few retained stones along with 2 surgical clips were removed successfully from the CBD by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography after papillotomy using a Dormia basket. The patient improved dramatically following the procedure.

  11. Primary liver tumour of intermediate (hepatocyte-bile duct cell) phenotype: a progenitor cell tumour?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robrechts, C; De Vos, R; Van den Heuvel, M; Van Cutsem, E; Van Damme, B; Desmet, V; Roskams, T

    1998-08-01

    A 57-year-old female patient presented with painless obstructive jaundice and mild mesogastric pain; she was in good general condition on admission. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed diffuse tumoral invasion of the liver, suggesting diffuse metastases. A liver biopsy showed a tumour with a trabecular growth pattern, composed of uniform relatively small cells, very suggestive of an endocrine carcinoma. Additional immunohistochemical stains, however, did not show any endocrine differentiation, but showed positivity for both hepatocyte-type cytokeratins (cytokeratin 8 and 18) and bile duct-type cytokeratins (cytokeratin 7 and 19). In addition, parathyroid hormone-related peptide, shown to be a good marker for cholangiocarcinoma, was immunoreactive. Electron microscopy revealed tumour cells with an intermediate phenotype: the cells clearly showed hepatocyte features on one hand and bile duct cell features on the other hand. Nine days after admission, the patient died due to liver failure and hepatic encephalopathy. Autopsy excluded another primary tumour site. Overall, this tumour was a primary liver tumour with an intermediate phenotype and with a very rapid clinical course. The intermediate (between hepatocyte and bile duct cell) phenotype suggests an immature progenitor cell origin, which is concordant with a rapid clinical course. This type of tumour has not been described previously and provides additional evidence for the existence of progenitor cells in human liver.

  12. Bile duct stone formation around a nylon suture after gastrectomy: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Chiyo; Yokoyama, Naoyuki; Otani, Tetsuya; Katada, Tomohiro; Sudo, Natsuru; Ikeno, Yoshinobu; Matsuura, Fumiaki; Iwaya, Akira; Yamazaki, Toshiyuki; Kuwabara, Shirou; Katayanagi, Norio

    2013-03-22

    Many cases of choledocholiths formed around sutures and clips used during cholecystectomy have been reported. We describe a case of gallstone formation around a nylon suture after non-biliary surgery. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of such a case. A 75-year-old Japanese man, who had undergone distal gastrectomy for gastric cancer and reconstruction with the Billroth II method 8 years earlier, presented with gastric discomfort. Abdominal ultrasonography was conducted and we diagnosed cholecysto-choledocholithiasis with dilatation of the intrahepatic bile duct. He underwent cholecystectomy and cholangioduodenostomy for choledocholith removal. Gallstones, which had formed around a nylon suture used during the previous gastrectomy, were found in the bile duct. Sutures of the same material had also been placed on the duodenum. Chemical analysis revealed that the stones were composed of calcium bilirubinate. The patient was discharged on postoperative day 19, and choledocholithiasis has not recurred thus far. The findings from this case suggest that standard, non-resorbable sutures used in gastrectomy may be associated with the formation of bile duct stones; therefore, absorbable suture material may be required to avert gallstone formation even in the case of gastrectomy.

  13. Diagnostic value of maspin in distinguishing adenocarcinoma from benign biliary epithelium on endoscopic bile duct biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lihong; Huang, Kevin; Himmelfarb, Eric A; Zhai, Jing; Lai, Jin-Ping; Lin, Fan; Wang, Hanlin L

    2015-11-01

    Histopathologic distinction between benign and malignant epithelia on endoscopic bile duct biopsy can be extremely challenging due to small sample size, crush artifact, and a propensity for marked inflammatory and reactive changes after stent placement. Our previous studies have shown that the insulin-like growth factor II mRNA-binding protein 3, S100P, and the von Hippel-Lindau gene product (pVHL) can help the distinction. This study analyzed 134 endoscopic bile duct biopsy specimens (adenocarcinoma 45, atypical 31, and benign 58) by immunohistochemistry for the expression of maspin, a serine protease inhibitor. The results demonstrated that (1) maspin expression was more frequently detected in malignant than in benign biopsies; (2) malignant biopsies frequently showed diffuse, strong/intermediate, and combined nuclear/cytoplasmic staining patterns for maspin, which were much less commonly seen in benign biopsies; (3) the malignant staining patterns for maspin observed in atypical biopsies were consistent with follow-up data showing that 67% of these patients were subsequently diagnosed with adenocarcinoma; (4) a maspin+/S100P+/pVHL- staining profile was seen in 75% of malignant biopsies but in none of the benign cases. These observations demonstrate that maspin is a useful addition to the diagnostic immunohistochemical panel (S100P, pVHL, and insulin-like growth factor II mRNA-binding protein 3) to help distinguish malignant from benign epithelia on challenging bile duct biopsies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Outcomes After Radio(chemo)therapy for Non-Metastatic Bile Duct Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolm, Louisa; Kaesmann, Lukas; Bartscht, Tobias; Schild, Steven E; Rades, Dirk

    2017-01-02

    The role of radio(chemo) therapy for non-metastatic bile duct cancer is not well defined. This study provides additional data for this rare situation. Data of eight patients receiving radio(chemo)therapy for non-metastatic bile duct cancer were retrospectively analyzed regarding local control, metastases-free survival and overall survival. In addition to the entire cohort, five tumor- or treatment-related factors were investigated: tumor stage, histologic grading, point in time of radio(chemo)therapy, upfront surgery and concurrent chemotherapy. Median overall survival was 37 months. Overall survival rates at 3 and 5 years were 56% and 38%, respectively. Lower histologic grading was significantly associated with better overall survival (p=0.042). Metastases-free survival rates at 3 and 5 years were 38% and 19%, while local control rates were 43% and 21%, respectively. Concurrent radiochemotherapy (vs. radiotherapy alone) resulted in significantly improved local control (p=0.014). Radiochemotherapy can achieve promising results in selected patients with non-metastatic bile duct cancer. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  15. Caliber of the common bile duct: effect of cholecystectomy and other factors in a ultrasonographic study of 8534 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzer, W; Wahl, S; Vonend, C; Schmidt, S A; Öztürk, S; Hänle, M M; Mason, R A; Seufferlein, T; Gräter, T

    2015-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to analyze the effects of different factors impacting the caliber of the common bile duct (CBD) and a comparison of maximum extrahepatic bile duct caliber in patients with and without a history of cholecystectomy. A retrospective data analysis was undertaken of 8534 patients (4480 females; 4054 males; average age: 59.2±18.0 years) with sonographic documentation of bile duct caliber. Maximum intra- and extrahepatic bile duct diameters were studied. The normal maximum diameter of the extrahepatic bile duct was defined as 7 mm. In patients who had undergone prior cholecystectomy, a maximum bile duct diametermaximum diameter of the CBD amounted to 5.3±3.0 mm for the overall collective. In patients who had undergone prior cholecystectomy, maximum CBD diameters in the normal range (7 mm) were observed in 45%. In the collective of patients without prior cholecystectomy, CBD diameters in the normal range (7 mm (for those with prior cholecystectomy, p=0.0485; without prior cholecystectomy, p<0.001). Our data show a positive correlation between age and CBD diameter. There was no statistically significant relationship between CBD diameter and prior cholecystectomy, postoperative interval and BMI. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Mucin-hypersecreting bile duct neoplasm characterized by clinicopathological resemblance to intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN of the pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harimoto Norifumi

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN of the pancreas is acceptable as a distinct disease entity, the concept of mucin-secreting biliary tumors has not been fully established. Case presentation We describe herein a case of mucin secreting biliary neoplasm. Imaging revealed a cystic lesion 2 cm in diameter at the left lateral segment of the liver. Duodenal endoscopy revealed mucin secretion through an enlarged papilla of Vater. On the cholangiogram, the cystic lesion communicated with bile duct, and large filling defects caused by mucin were observed in the dilated common bile duct. This lesion was diagnosed as a mucin-secreting bile duct tumor. Left and caudate lobectomy of the liver with extrahepatic bile duct resection and reconstruction was performed according to the possibility of the tumor's malignant behavior. Histological examination of the specimen revealed biliary cystic wall was covered by micropapillary neoplastic epithelium with mucin secretion lacking stromal invasion nor ovarian-like stroma. The patient has remained well with no evidence of recurrence for 38 months since her operation. Conclusion It is only recently that the term "intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN," which is accepted as a distinct disease entity of the pancreas, has begun to be used for mucin-secreting bile duct tumor. This case also seemed to be intraductal papillary neoplasm with prominent cystic dilatation of the bile duct.

  17. Primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the common bile duct: A case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Zakaria

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatobiliary involvement by malignant lymphoma is usually a secondary manifestation of systemic disease, whereas primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the extrahepatic biliary ducts is an extremely rare entity. We describe the case of a 57-year-old man who presented with an acute onset of obstructive jaundice and severe itching. Abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography revealed intrahepatic and common hepatic ducts dilatation. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography showed a mid-common bile duct stricture. The patient was presumed to have cholangiocarcinoma of the common bile duct, and an en bloc resection of the tumor with Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy and porta-hepatis lymph nodes dissection was performed. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry revealed a large B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The patient received six cycles of combination chemotherapy using cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisone, and rituximab (CVP-R protocol, and after a 5-year follow-up he is still in complete remission. We also reviewed the cases published from 1982 to 2012, highlighting the challenges in reaching a correct preoperative diagnosis and the treatment modalities used in each case.

  18. Primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the common bile duct: A case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Ali; Al-Obeidi, Salwan; Daradkeh, Salam

    2017-01-01

    Hepatobiliary involvement by malignant lymphoma is usually a secondary manifestation of systemic disease, whereas primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the extrahepatic biliary ducts is an extremely rare entity. We describe the case of a 57-year-old man who presented with an acute onset of obstructive jaundice and severe itching. Abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography revealed intrahepatic and common hepatic ducts dilatation. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography showed a mid-common bile duct stricture. The patient was presumed to have cholangiocarcinoma of the common bile duct, and an en bloc resection of the tumor with Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy and porta-hepatis lymph nodes dissection was performed. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry revealed a large B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The patient received six cycles of combination chemotherapy using cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisone, and rituximab (CVP-R) protocol, and after a 5-year follow-up he is still in complete remission. We also reviewed the cases published from 1982 to 2012, highlighting the challenges in reaching a correct preoperative diagnosis and the treatment modalities used in each case. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  19. Fluorescent Imaging With Indocyanine Green During Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy in Patients at Increased Risk of Bile Duct Injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ankersmit, M.; Dam, D.A. van; Rijswijk, A.S. van; Tuynman, J.B.; Meijerink, W.J.H.J.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although rare, injury to the common bile duct (CBD) during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) can be reduced by better intraoperative visualization of the cystic duct (CD) and CBD. The aim of this study was to establish the efficacy of early visualization of the CD and the added value of

  20. [Our experience with reparative and derivative operations for non-cancerous lesions in the extrahepatic bile ducts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaioli, N; Balbo, G; Villata, E; Fausone, G; Segre, D

    1976-03-31

    17 reparative operations on the bile ducts, 7 of which were immediate (5 for peroperative lesions and 2 for "spontaneous" lesions) and 10 reoperations to deal with sclero-cicatricial lesions, were studied. 7 reconstructive operations (plastic or end-to-end anastomosis) and 10 derivative operations with a preference for hepato- or choledocho-jejunostomy on defunctionalized loop were carried out. The former were reserved for lesions without or with minimum loss of substance, the latter for extensive lesions. Operative mortality is high and higher still in immediate interventions. Long term results were good in all cases but one.

  1. Single-operator cholangioscopy in patients requiring evaluation of bile duct disease or therapy of biliary stones (with videos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang K; Parsi, Mansour A; Binmoeller, Kenneth F; Hawes, Robert H; Pleskow, Douglas K; Slivka, Adam; Haluszka, Oleh; Petersen, Bret T; Sherman, Stuart; Devière, Jacques; Meisner, Søren; Stevens, Peter D; Costamagna, Guido; Ponchon, Thierry; Peetermans, Joyce A; Neuhaus, Horst

    2011-10-01

    The feasibility of single-operator cholangioscopy (SOC) for biliary diagnostic and therapeutic procedures was previously reported. To confirm the utility of SOC in more widespread clinical use. Prospective clinical cohort study. Fifteen endoscopy referral centers in the United States and Europe. Two hundred ninety-seven patients requiring evaluation of bile duct disease or biliary stone therapy. SOC examination and, as indicated, SOC-directed stone therapy or forceps biopsy. Procedural success defined as ability to (1) visualize target lesions and, if indicated, collect biopsy specimens adequate for histological evaluation or (2) visualize biliary stones and initiate fragmentation and removal. The overall procedure success rate was 89% (95% CI, 84%-92%). Adequate tissue for histological examination was secured in 88% of 140 patients who underwent biopsy. Overall sensitivity in diagnosing malignancy was 78% for SOC visual impression and 49% for SOC-directed biopsy. Sensitivity was higher (84% and 66%, respectively) for intrinsic bile duct malignancies. Diagnostic SOC procedures altered clinical management in 64% of patients. Procedure success was achieved in 92% of 66 patients with stones and complete stone clearance during the study SOC session in 71%. The incidence of serious procedure-related adverse events was 7.5% for diagnostic SOC and 6.1% for SOC-directed stone therapy. The study was observational in design with no control group. Evaluation of bile duct disease and biliary stone therapy can be safely performed with a high success rate by using the SOC system. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Risk of bile duct cancer among printing workers exposed to 1,2-dichloropropane and/or dichloromethane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobue, Tomotaka; Utada, Mai; Makiuchi, Takeshi; Ohno, Yuko; Uehara, Shinichiro; Hayashi, Tomoshige; Sato, Kyoko Kogawa; Endo, Ginji

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a retrospective cohort study to examine the risk of bile duct cancer among current and former workers in the offset color proof printing department at a printing company in Osaka, Japan. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) between January 1, 1985, and December 31, 2012, were estimated for the cumulative years of exposure to two chemicals, dichloromethane (DCM) and 1,2-dichloropropane (1,2-DCP), using the national incidence level as a reference. In addition, we examined risk patterns by the calendar year in which observation started. Among 106 workers with a total of 1,452.4 person-years of exposure, 17 bile duct cancer cases were observed, resulting in an estimated overall SIR of 1,132.5 (95% confidence interval (CI): 659.7-1,813.2). The SIR was 1,319.9 (95% CI: 658.9-2,361.7) for those who were exposed to both DCM and 1,2-DCP, and it was 1,002.8 (95% CI: 368.0-2,182.8) for those exposed to 1,2-DCP only. SIRs tended to increase according to years of exposure to 1,2-DCP but not DCM when a 5-year lag time was assumed. The SIRs were higher for the cohorts in which observation started in 1993-2000, particularly in cohorts in which it started in 1996-1999, compared with those in which it started before or after 1993-2000. We observed an extraordinarily high risk of bile duct cancer among the offset color proof printing workers. Elevated risk may be related to cumulative exposure to 1,2-DCP, but there remains some possibility that a portion of the risk is due to other unidentified substances.

  3. Gallbladder papillary neoplasms share pathological features with intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xueshuai; Shi, Jie; Wang, Anqiang; Xie, Yuan; Yang, Xiaobo; Zhu, Chengpei; Zhang, Haohai; Wu, Liangcai; Wang, Shanshan; Huang, Hanchun; Lin, Jianzhen; Zheng, Yongchang; Liang, Zhiyong; Sang, Xinting; Zhao, Haitao

    2017-05-09

    Intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPNB) has been widely recognized. However, the knowledge of intracystic papillary neoplasm of the gallbladder (IPNG) including papillary adenoma and adenocarcinoma is not well defined. In this study, we compared the clinicopathological and immunohistochemical features between 32 IPNG cases and 32 IPNB cases. IPNG-1 (low-high grade dysplasia) exhibited an earlier onset age, smaller tumor size and lower level of CK20 expression compared to IPNG-2 (invasive carcinoma). Histologically, pancreaticobiliary and intestinal subtype accounted for nearly half of IPNG or IPNB (44.4% and 48.1% vs. 44.0% and 44.0%), respectively. Immunohistochemically, 88.9% of IPNG and 92.0% of IPNB cases were positive for MUC1, and 96.3% and 92.0% for CK7, respectively. CDX2 and MUC2 were more highly expressed in the intestinal subtype than in other subtypes. CK20 expression increased in parallel with tumor progression. In addition, 53.1% of IPNG cases and 68.6% of IPNB cases exhibited invasive carcinoma, and showed significant survival advantages to conventional gallbladder adenocarcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma, respectively. In conclusion, papillary adenoma and adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder can be recognized as different pathological stages of IPNG, and they share pathological features with IPNB.

  4. 3D-MRCP for evaluation of intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts: comparison of different acquisition and reconstruction planes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringe, Kristina Imeen; Hartung, Dagmar; von Falck, Christian; Wacker, Frank; Raatschen, Hans-Jürgen

    2014-05-19

    Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is an established technique for the evaluation of intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts in patients with known or suspected hepatobiliary disease. However, the ideal acquisition and reconstruction plane for optimal bile duct evaluation with 3D technique has not been evaluated. The purpose of our study was to compare different acquisition and reconstruction planes of 3D-MRCP for bile duct assessment. 34 patients (17f/17 m, mean age 41y) referred for MRCP were included in this prospective IRB-approved study. Respiratory-triggered 3D-T2w-MRCP sequences were acquired in coronal and axial plane. Coronal and axial MIP were reconstructed based on each dataset (resulting in two coronal and two axial MIP, respectively). Three readers in two sessions independently assessed the MIP, regarding visualization of bile ducts and image quality. Results were compared (Wilcoxon test). Intra- and interobserver variability were calculated (kappa-statistic). In case of coronal data acquisition, visualization of bile duct segments was significantly better on coronal reconstructed MIP images as compared to axial reconstructed MIP (p 0.05). Image quality of coronal and axial datasets did not differ significantly. Intra- and interobserver agreement regarding bile duct visualization were moderate to excellent (κ-range 0.55-1.00 and 0.42-0.85, respectively). The results of our study suggest that for visualization and evaluation of intra- and extrahepatic bile duct segments reconstructed images in coronal orientation are preferable. The orientation of the primary dataset (coronal or axial) is negligible.

  5. Protective effect of gadolinium chloride on early warm ischemia/reperfusion injury in rat bile duct during liver transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biao Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Activation of Kupffer cell (KC is acknowledged as a key event in the initiation and perpetuation of bile duct warm ischemia/reperfusion injury. The inhibitory effect of gadolinium chloride (GdCl(3 on KC activation shows potential as a protective intervention in liver injury, but there is less research with regard to bile duct injury. METHODS: Sixty-five male Sprague-Dawley rats (200-250 g were randomly divided into three experimental groups: a sham group (n = 15, a control group (n = 25, and a GdCl(3 group (n = 25. Specimen was collected at 0.5, 2, 6, 12 and 24 h after operation. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and total bilirubin (TBIL of serum were measured. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, Capase-3 activity and soluble Fas (sFas were detected. The pathologic changes of bile duct were observed. Immunochemistry for bile duct Fas was performed. Apoptosis of bile duct cells was evaluated by the terminal UDP nick end labeling assay. RESULTS: GdCl(3 significantly decreased the levels of ALT, ALP and TBIL at 2, 6, 12, and 24 h, and increased serum sFas at 2, 6 and 12 h (P<0.05. TNF-α was lower in the GdCl(3 group than in the control group at 2, 6, 12 and 24 h (P<0.05. Preadministration of GdCl(3 significantly reduced the Caspase-3 activity and bile duct cell apoptosis at 2, 6, 12 and 24 h. After operation for 2, 6 and 12 h, the expression of Fas protein was lower in the GdCl(3 group than in the control group (P<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: GdCl(3 plays an important role in suppressing bile duct cell apoptosis, including decreasing ALT, ALP, TBIL and TNF-α; suppressing Fas-FasL-Caspase signal transduction during transplantation.

  6. Retrospective study minimally invasive management of postoperative lithiasis of the common bile duct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safta, B A; Grigoriu, M; Palade, R; Ion, D; Păduraru, D N; Bolocan, A

    2014-01-01

    Postoperative common bile duct (CBD) lithiasis holds a significant place in the bilio-pancreatic pathology, both due to its high frequency as well as to the diagnostic and treatment issues it triggers. Based on a 5-year experience (2008-2012), assessed retrospectively, totalling 51 patients with postoperative lithiasis of CBD, we tried to elaborate on several recommendations for the treatment of this pathology. The recommendations were guided by the existing alternative therapeutic options and by the ideas in the literature regarding the results achieved by every manner of treatment. The rate of clearance of the CBD was of 93.6%,the morbidity rate was of 10.65% and the mortality rate was of 0%, which entitles us to deem the effectiveness of the minimally invasive treatment as maximum in the treatment of this pathology. The endoscopic treatment of postoperative lithiasis of the CBD proved to be possible, efficient and we believe it good to be used as a principle; open surgery should be the solution in case of failures or of contraindications to minimally invasive treatment. Celsius.

  7. Dilation-assisted stone extraction: an alternative method for removal of common bile duct stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guodong; Pang, Qiuping; Zhang, Xiujuan; Dong, Haiyan; Guo, Rong; Zhai, Hailan; Dong, Yanchun; Jia, Xinyong

    2014-04-01

    Dilation-assisted stone extraction, also termed small endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) plus endoscopic papillary balloon dilatation, is more efficient than EST alone for removal of large common bile duct (CBD) stones. However, whether this technique can be used for all stones is unclear. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and complications of dilation-assisted stone extraction for CBD stones. A total of 462 patients with CBD stones were randomized to undergo either dilation-assisted stone extraction (group A) or EST (group B). The efficacy and complications of the two techniques were compared. Groups A and B showed similar outcomes in terms of stone removal. The short-term and 1-year complication rates were also similar between the two groups. However, the first-session stone removal rate in group A was significantly higher than that in group B. Mechanical lithotripsy was required significantly more often in group B than in group A. The total procedure time and total fluoroscopy time in group A were significantly shorter than those in group B. Dilation-assisted stone extraction and EST are safe and effective techniques for the treatment of CBD stones. Dilation-assisted stone extraction has high efficiency. This technique is an alternative method for removal of CBD stones.

  8. Chemoradiotherapy for extrahepatic bile duct cancer with gross residual disease after surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hae Jin; Kim, Kyubo; Chie, Eui Kyu; Jang, Jin-Young; Kim, Sun Whe; Han, Sae-Won; Oh, Do-Youn; Im, Seock-Ah; Kim, Tae-You; Bang, Yung-Jue; Ha, Sung W

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to analyze the outcome of chemoradiotherapy for extrahepatic bile duct (EHBD) cancer patients with gross residual disease after surgical resection. We retrospectively analyzed 30 patients with EHBD adenocarcinoma who underwent chemoradiotherapy after palliative resection (R2 resection). Postoperative radiotherapy was delivered to the tumor bed including residual tumor and regional lymph nodes (range=40-55.8 Gy). Most patients underwent chemoradiotherapy concurrently with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) or gemcitabine. The 2-year locoregional progression-free, distant metastasis-free and overall survival rates were 33.3%, 42.4% and 44.5%, respectively. High radiation dose≥50 Gy had a marginally significant impact on superior locoregional progression-free survival compared to 40 Gy (p=0.081). One patient developed grade 3 late gastrointestinal toxicity. Adjuvant chemoradiotherapy for EHBD cancer patients with gross residual disease after surgery was well-tolerated. There could be a chance for durable locoregional control and even long-term survival in selected patients. Copyright© 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  9. [Endo-Lap method in the management of biliary lithiasis (gallbladder and common bile duct)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filip, V; Georgescu, St; Stanciu, C; Bălan, Gh; Târcoveanu, E; Neacşu, C N; Cîrdei, C; Drug, V L

    2004-01-01

    To present the results of the biliary endoscopic approach (ERCP) followed by laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) in the management of biliary lithiasis (gallbladder and common bile duct--CBD). From 1997 to March 2003 37 patients with biliary lithiasis were treated by endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) with stone extraction, followed after 24-48 hours by LC. The indications for ERCP were presence of an obstructive jaundice (n=32) and a dilated CBD at the ultrasound examination (n=5). Selective biliary cannulation was obtained in 35 (94.6%) cases, in all of them with successful papillotomy. Stones were found in all patients. CBD clearances for calculi (from 1 to 8) was obtained in 33 of 35 patients (94.3%), the rest of 2 being managed by open laparotomy. Antibiotics were administrated in all patients. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed after 24-48 hours, with one conversion (3%). Postoperative morbidity was 12.1%: 2 transitory pancreatic reactions and 2 wound infections. Endo-Lap method is a useful management alternative for combined gallbladder and CBD lithiasis. It has all the advantages of the two mini-invasive procedures (fast recovery, short hospitalization, low costs) and a less postoperative morbidity in patients with high risk.

  10. Balloon catheter versus basket catheter for endoscopic bile duct stone extraction: a multicenter randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiwatari, Hirotoshi; Kawakami, Hiroshi; Hisai, Hiroyuki; Yane, Kei; Onodera, Manabu; Eto, Kazunori; Haba, Shin; Okuda, Toshinori; Ihara, Hideyuki; Kukitsu, Takehiro; Matsumoto, Ryusuke; Kitaoka, Keisuke; Sonoda, Tomoko; Hayashi, Tsuyoshi

    2016-04-01

    Endoscopic bile duct stone (BDS) removal is a well-established treatment; however, the preference for basket or balloon catheters for extraction is operator-dependent. We therefore conducted a multicenter prospective randomized trial to compare catheter performance. We enrolled patients with a BDS diameter ≤ 10 mm and common bile duct diameter ≤ 15 mm. Participants were randomly assigned to groups that were treated with basket or balloon catheters between October 2013 and September 2014. The primary endpoint was the rate of complete clearance of the duct; the secondary endpoints were the rate and time to complete clearance in one endoscopic session. We initially enrolled 172 consecutive patients; 14 were excluded after randomization. The complete clearance rates were 92.3 % (72/78) in the balloon group and 80.0 % (64 /80) in the basket group. The difference in the rates between the two groups was 12.3 percentage points, indicating non-inferiority of the balloon method (non-inferiority limit -10 %; P BDSs ≤ 10 mm, complete endoscopic treatment with a single catheter is more likely when choosing a balloon catheter over a basket catheter.University Hospital Medical Information Network Trials Registry: UMIN000011887. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Accuracy of Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound in the Diagnosis of Bile Duct Obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontán, F. J. P.; Reboredo, Á. R.; Siso, A. R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the ability of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) to differentiate benign from malignant lesions causing biliary duct obstruction. Materials and Methods: Between November 2006 and December 2013, 59 patients with bile duct obstruction of undetermined cause in baseline ultrasound underwent CEUS study. The enhancement and posterior washout were analyzed in real time all along the study duration (5′). The final diagnosis suggested by CEUS was compared with histologic diagnosis (47.5%) or with radiologic follow-up with TC, RM or ERCP. Results: Final diagnoses included 42 malignant lesions (cholangiocarcinoma n=22, metastases n=6, pancreatic carcinoma n=6, hepatocarcinoma n=4, gallbladder carcinoma n=2, ampullary carcinoma n=1 and lymphoma n=1) and 17 benign lesions (lithiasis or biliary sludge n=15, xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis n=1 and indeterminate n=1). CEUS accuracy compared with final diagnoses based on combined reference standard was 86.4%. CEUS correctly identified 36 of 42 malignant lesions (sensibility 85.7%) and 15 of 17 benign lesions (specificity 88.2%). The positive predictive value of CEUS for malignancy was 94.7%, while the negative predictive value was 71.4%. Conclusion: CEUS is useful to differentiate between benign and malignant causes of obstructive jaundice. This technique improves the detection of bile duct invasion in hepatic neoplasms and permits better evaluation of intra- and extraductal extension of hilar hepatobiliary tumors. PMID:27689143

  12. Novel use of a balloon dilatation catheter to enable mechanical lithotripsy of difficult common bile duct stones after initial failed attempt: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Wei-Liang; Tung, Joshua Yi Min; Tan, Trevor Hwee Yong; Tan, Li Ting; Tan, Shaun; Ngoi, Sing Shang

    2018-01-24

    Difficult and large common bile duct stones can be crushed and removed using a mechanical lithotripter. Very often the lack of working space within the common bile duct causing the failure of mechanical lithotripsy would inevitably mean repeat or further invasive procedures. A patient with large and multiple common bile duct stones underwent ERCP, and initial deployment of a mechanical lithotripter failed due to the lack of working space within the common bile duct. A through-the-scope (TTS) dilator was utilized to increase the working space before successful deployment of the mechanical lithotripter, and subsequent clearance of all stones within the same setting. We herein describe a novel and ingenious technique of utilizing a through-the-scope (TTS) dilator in helping to expand the space within the common bile duct to allow for full deployment of a mechanical lithotripter and successful clearance of common bile duct stones. This method can be easily applied by advanced endoscopists and is expected to lead to increased success rates of difficult common bile duct stones clearance in a single setting. Use of TTS dilators to increase working space within the common bile duct can be useful in increasing the success rates of mechanical lithotripsy in the setting of large and multiple common bile duct stones. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. The Stent Patency and Migration Rate of Different Shaped Plastic Stents in Bile Flow Phantom Model and In Vivo Animal Bile Duct Dilation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Chang-Il; Kim, Gwangil; Jeong, Seok; Lee, Don Haeng; Kim, Kyoung Ah; Ko, Kwang Hyun; Cho, Joo Young; Hong, Sung Pyo

    2017-05-01

    In research and development of biliary plastic stents (PS), continuous efforts have been made to overcome short patency time and high rate of migration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the patency and migration rate of different PS shapes for a given period of time. Using an in vitro bile phantom model, we compared the patency among different shapes of PS (three straight PS, four double-pigtail PS, and a new screw-shaped PS). We performed an analysis of the degree of luminal narrowing by light microscopic examination. Using an in vivo swine model, we compared the patency and migration rate among the three different types of PS. Eight weeks after the bile exposure in the bile flow phantom model, 80 PS were retrieved and analyzed. The straight PS showed less biofilm formation and luminal narrowing than other types of PS (p dilated bile ducts of 10 swine models, and 39 PS were successfully retrieved 8 weeks later. The stent migration occurred less frequently in the double-pigtail PS and the screw-shaped PS than it did in the straight PS (11.1, 10, and 27.3%, respectively). However, there was no statistical difference in stent patency among the different shapes. Stent patency may not be significantly different depending on the shape of PS for 8 weeks. The screw-shaped PS showed similar patency and migration rate to the double-pigtail PS. These results may help guiding future PS development and clinical decisions.

  14. Linear endoscopic ultrasound for clinically suspected bile duct stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lien-Fu Lin

    2012-06-01

    Conclusion: Linear EUS is sensitive for the detection of CBDS. It detected 56% of CBDS in a high-risk group and 14.2% in an intermediate-risk group and therefore is a useful assessment tool in patients with high or intermediate risk of CBDS.

  15. Mass-forming intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma with portal vein tumor thrombus and bile duct tumor thrombus: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaki, Kentaro; Kaido, Toshimi; Yamamoto, Gen; Kamo, Naoko; Yagi, Shintaro; Taura, Kojiro; Uemoto, Shinji

    2017-01-01

    We report the first case of mass-forming intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) with portal vein tumor thrombus (PVTT) and bile duct tumor thrombus (BDTT), where the extrahepatic bile duct was preserved with thrombectomy. A 70-year-old male. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed the tumor extending from the hepatic hilum to the left hepatic duct with complete obstruction of the left hepatic duct and a defect at the left portal vein. We planned to perform extended left lobectomy, lymph node dissection, extra hepatic bile duct resection and reconstruction based on the diagnosis of mass-forming ICC with left portal vein and left hepatic duct infiltration (cT3N0M0 Stage III). Intraoperative cholangiography revealed a crab claw-like filling defect at the left hepatic duct, which suggested tumor thrombus. Accordingly, we performed thrombectomy. The margin of the left hepatic duct was tumor negative, so we performed extended left lobectomy, lymph node dissection and thrombectomy. Pathologically, the tumor was diagnosed as ICC (pT4N0M0 Stage IVA, vp3, b3). Tumors in the left hepatic duct and left portal vein proved to be tumor thrombus. The postoperative course was uneventful. He is doing well without recurrence. Thrombectomy is performed for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with tumor thrombus. Furthermore, extrahepatic bile duct resection and reconstruction are recommended for ICC. In this case, intraoperative cholangiography was effective for precisely diagnosing. Thrombectomy could reduce surgical stress and prevent complications. Thrombectomy can be a valid option for ICC with tumor thrombus, as well as for HCC. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Septicemia with Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae: report of three cases with an apparent hepatic or bile duct association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuursted, Kurt; Littauer, Pia Jeanette; Greve, Thomas; Scholz, Christian F P

    2016-08-01

    Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae was described in 2004 as a new human pathogen, acknowledged in a range of clinical infections typically associated to the respiratory tract. This report demonstrates that S. pseudopneumoniae has the potential to cause invasive infection. In blood cultures from three patients, growth of an atypical Streptococcus pneumoniae (non-capsular, non-serotypeable, optochin susceptible under ambient atmosphere and bile-intermediately soluble) was recovered. All three patients had a history of a haematological disease (myelodysplastic syndrome and multiple myeloma) and an apparent origin of infection related to the liver or bile duct. All isolates were genome sequenced and subsequently identified as S. pseudopneumoniae by multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA). Multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) based on the S. pneumoniae scheme revealed unknown sequence types and the antibiogram and resistome revealed no antibiotic resistance.

  17. Prevention of bile duct injury: the case for incorporating educational theories of expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, Sophia K; Brunt, L Michael; Schwaitzberg, Steven D

    2014-12-01

    Over 700,000 laparoscopic cholecystectomies are performed yearly in the US. Despite multiple advantages of laparoscopic surgery, the increased rate of bile duct injury (BDI) compared to the traditional, open approach to cholecystectomy remains problematic. Due to the seriousness of bile duct injury, the time has come for an aggressive educational campaign to better train laparoscopic surgeons in order to reduce the incidence of this life-threatening and expensive complication. We performed a literature review of what is currently known about the causes of bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Based on these reviews, we identified educational theories of expertise that may be relevant in understanding variable rates of BDI between surgeons. Finally, we applied educational theories of expertise to the problem of BDI in laparoscopic cholecystectomy to propose how to develop and design an effective educational approach for the prevention of BDI. Multiple studies demonstrate that the primary causes of BDI during laparoscopic cholecystectomy are non-technical. Additionally, there exists a learning curve in which the rates of BDI are higher in a surgeon's earlier cases compared to later cases and that some surgeons perform laparoscopic cholecystectomy with significantly fewer injuries than others. Educational theories indicate that interventions that optimize novice to expert development require (1) revealing expert knowledge to novices and (2) scaffolding the mental habits of expert-like learners. BDI is an appropriate target for the application of educational theories of expertise. Designing better educational interventions for the prevention of BDI will require uncovering the hidden knowledge of expert surgeons and incorporating the processes of reinvestment and progressive problem solving that are inherent to expert performance.

  18. Transarterial Chemoembolization for Hepatocellular Carcinomas with Central Bile Duct Invasion: Safety, Prognosis, and Predictive Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jin Woo; Chung, Jin Wook, E-mail: chungjw@snu.ac.kr [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Yun Ku [VHS Medical Center, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yoon Jun; Yoon, Jung-Hwan [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyo-Cheol; Jae, Hwan Jun [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    PurposeTo assess the safety and effectiveness of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) of patients who have hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) with central bile duct invasion.Materials and MethodsThe institutional review board approved this retrospective study and waived informed consent. Fifty-three patients, initially treated with TACE for HCCs with central bile duct invasion from January 1999 to September 2012, were included. Clinical, laboratory, and survival data were reviewed. Complications and hospitalization length were evaluated using the χ{sup 2} test, Fisher’s exact test, and logistic regression analysis. Survival was analyzed using the Kaplan–Meier method with log-rank test and Cox proportional hazard model.ResultsSeven patients experienced TACE-related major complications (severe post-embolization syndrome in 3, non-fatal sepsis in 3, and secondary bacterial peritonitis in 1). The overall major complication rate was 13.2 %, but there were no permanent adverse sequelae or deaths within 30 days. Serum total bilirubin ≥3.0 mg/dL was the only significant risk factor for long hospitalization [hazard ratio (HR) = 4.341, p = .022]. The median survival was 12.2 months. Extrahepatic metastasis (HR = 6.145, p < .001), international normalized ratio (PT-INR) ≥1.20 (HR = 4.564, p < .001), vascular invasion (HR = 3.484, p = .001), and intermediate tumor enhancement (HR = 2.417, p = .019) were significantly associated with shorter survival.ConclusionTACE can be a safe and effective treatment for patients who have HCCs with central bile duct invasion. In particular, long-term survival can be expected if patients have strongly enhancing tumors without poor prognostic factors such as extrahepatic metastasis, PT-INR prolongation, and vascular invasion.

  19. Matrix metalloproteinase-14 mediates formation of bile ducts and hepatic maturation of fetal hepatic progenitor cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otani, Satoshi [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Kakinuma, Sei, E-mail: skakinuma.gast@tmd.ac.jp [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Department for Liver Disease Control, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Kamiya, Akihide [Institute of Innovative Science and Technology, Tokai University, Isehara (Japan); Goto, Fumio; Kaneko, Shun; Miyoshi, Masato; Tsunoda, Tomoyuki; Asano, Yu; Kawai-Kitahata, Fukiko; Nitta, Sayuri; Nakata, Toru; Okamoto, Ryuichi; Itsui, Yasuhiro; Nakagawa, Mina; Azuma, Seishin [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Asahina, Yasuhiro [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Department for Liver Disease Control, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Yamaguchi, Tomoyuki [Division of Stem Cell Therapy, Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Koshikawa, Naohiko [Division of Cancer Cell Research, Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Seiki, Motoharu [Medical School, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa (Japan); Nakauchi, Hiromitsu [Division of Stem Cell Therapy, Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); and others

    2016-01-22

    Fetal hepatic stem/progenitor cells, called hepatoblasts, play central roles in liver development; however, the molecular mechanisms regulating the phenotype of these cells have not been completely elucidated. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-14 is a type I transmembrane proteinase regulating pericellular proteolysis of the extracellular matrix and is essential for the activation of several MMPs and cytokines. However, the physiological functions of MMP-14 in liver development are unknown. Here we describe a functional role for MMP-14 in hepatic and biliary differentiation of mouse hepatoblasts. MMP-14 was upregulated in cells around the portal vein in perinatal stage liver. Formation of bile duct-like structures in MMP-14–deficient livers was significantly delayed compared with wild-type livers in vivo. In vitro biliary differentiation assays showed that formation of cholangiocytic cysts derived from MMP-14–deficient hepatoblasts was completely impaired, and that overexpression of MMP-14 in hepatoblasts promoted the formation of bile duct-like cysts. In contrast, the expression of molecules associated with metabolic functions in hepatocytes, including hepatic nuclear factor 4α and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase, were significantly increased in MMP-14–deficient livers. Expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor and phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases were significantly upregulated in MMP-14–deficient livers. We demonstrate that MMP-14–mediated signaling in fetal hepatic progenitor cells promotes biliary luminal formation around the portal vein and negatively controls the maturation of hepatocytes. - Highlights: • Loss of MMP-14 delayed formation of bile duct-like structures in perinatal liver. • Overexpression of MMP-14 in hepatobalsts promoted the biliary formation in vitro. • Loss of MMP-14 promoted hepatocyte maturation of hepatoblasts in vivo. • MMP-14–mediated signaling regulates terminal differentiation of

  20. Endoscopic sphincterotomy for common bile duct stones during laparoscopic cholecystectomy is safe and effective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Henrik Loft; Vilmann, Peter; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    Management strategy for common bile duct (CBD) stones is controversial with several treatment options if stones in the CBD are recognized intraoperatively. The aim of this study was to report our experience with same-session combined endoscopic-laparoscopic treatment of gallbladder and CBD stones....... We retrospectively evaluated 31 patients with cholecystolithiasis and CBD stones undergoing same-session combined endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) with sphincterotomy and endoscopic stone extraction and laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Same-session ERCP and sphincterotomy were...... pancreatitis postoperatively and no other morbidity or mortality. In conclusion, same-session ERCP with stone extraction and laparoscopic cholecystectomy seems to be a safe and effective treatment strategy for CBD stones....

  1. Vanishing bile duct and Stevens-Johnson syndrome associated with ciprofloxacin treated with tacrolimus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okan, Gokhan; Yaylaci, Serpil; Peker, Onder; Kaymakoglu, Sabahattin; Saruc, Murat

    2008-01-01

    Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) is a serious and potentially life-threatening disease. Vanishing bile duct syndrome (VBDS) is a rare cause of progressive cholestasis. Both syndromes are mostly related with drugs. We report a case of a patient with ciprofloxacin-induced SJS and acute onset of VBDS, and reviewed the related literature. It is the first case of ciprofloxacin-induced VBDS successfully treated with tacrolimus. This case reminds physicians of the importance of drug reactions, their severity, techniques for diagnosis and methods of management. PMID:18698687

  2. A fatal case of primary basaloid squamous cell carcinoma in the intrahepatic bile ducts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Johan; Grunnet, Mie; Hasselby, Jane Preuss

    2014-01-01

    Primary squamous cholangiocellular carcinomas are very rare. We describe a case of a 67-year-old man, who underwent chemotherapy and surgery for a right-sided liver tumor with an unusual presentation of metastasis to a lymph node in the left armpit. The patient was asymptomatic at the time...... of diagnosis but expired 20 months after surgery with epidural, lung, and spine metastasis. In addition to the unusual clinical presentation, the diagnosis of the liver tumor was that of a primary basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the intrahepatic bile ducts, an entity with only one previous report...... in the literature....

  3. A case of amoxicillin-induced hepatocellular liver injury with bile-duct damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ju Seung; Jang, Young Rock; Lee, Ji Won; Kim, Jin Yong; Chung, Dong Hae; Kwon, Oh Sang; Kim, Yun Soo; Choi, Duck Joo; Kim, Ju Hyun

    2011-01-01

    Amoxicillin, an antibiotic that is widely prescribed for various infections, is associated with a very low rate of drug-induced liver injury; hepatitis and cholestasis are rare complications. Here we present a case of a 39-year-old woman who was diagnosed with abdominal actinomycosis and received amoxicillin treatment. The patient displayed hepatocellular and bile-duct injury, in addition to elevated levels of liver enzymes. The patient was diagnosed with amoxicillin-induced cholestatic hepatitis. When amoxicillin was discontinued, the patient's symptoms improved and her liver enzyme levels reduced to near to the normal range. PMID:22102391

  4. [Nitroglycerin and amyl nitrite action on common bile duct during operation for vesicular lithiasis (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelly, J; Tannières, M L; Tournay, D; Franchiset, F; Alexandre, J H; Passelecq, J

    1979-01-01

    Eight patients undergoing cholecystectomy received a single injection of nitroglycerin (0,9 mg) and 8 received amyl nitrite, during a cholangio-kinesimetry. The maximum fall in common bile duct pressure was similar in both group; 3.2 +/- 0.3 torr after nitroglycerin (NTG),3.8 +/- 0.6 torr after amyl nitrite (AN). NTG caused a more persistent lowering of pressure than AN; 614 +/- 42 seconds/343 +/- 27 seconds (p < 0.001). This study showed that it is possible to produce a relaxation of biliary tract muscle fibres with an injection of nitroglycerin and then replace amyl nitrite during anesthesia.

  5. Caroli's disease misdiagnosed as intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae Hoe Gu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Caroli's disease is a rare autosomal-recessive disorder caused by malformation of the ductal plate during embryonic development. Although it is present at birth, Caroli's disease is typically not diagnosed until between the second and fourth decades of life, as it was in the present patient. Here we report a rare case of Caroli's disease limited to one liver segment, which was initially misdiagnosed as an intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct. The asymptomatic patient was treated with liver segmentectomy.

  6. Endoscopic extraction of large common bile duct stones: A review article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanidis, Gerasimos; Christodoulou, Christos; Manolakopoulos, Spilios; Chuttani, Ram

    2012-01-01

    Since therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography replaced surgery as the first approach in cases of choledocolithiasis, a plethora of endoscopic techniques and devices appeared in order to facilitate rapid, safe and effective bile duct stones extraction. Nowadays, endoscopic sphincterotomy combined with balloon catheters and/or baskets is the routine endoscopic technique for stone extraction in the great majority of patients. Large common bile duct stones are treated conventionally with mechanical lithotripsy, while the most serious complication of the procedure is “basket and stone impaction” that is predominately resolved surgically. In cases of difficult, impacted, multiple or intrahepatic stones, more sophisticated procedures have been used. Electrohydraulic lithotripsy and laser lithotripsy are performed using conventional mother-baby scope systems, ultra-thin cholangioscopes, thin endoscopes and ultimately using the novel single use, single operator SpyGlass Direct Visualization System, in order to deliver intracorporeal shock wave energy to fragment the targeted stone, with very good outcomes. Recently, large balloon dilation after endoscopic sphincterotomy confirmed its effectiveness in the extraction of large stones in a plethora of trials. When compared with mechanical lithotripsy or with balloon dilation alone, it proved to be superior. Moreover, dilation is an ideal alternative in cases of altered anatomy where access to the papilla is problematic. Endoscopic sphincterotomy followed by large balloon dilation represents the onset of a new era in large bile duct stone extraction and the management of “impaction” because it seems that is an effective, inexpensive, less traumatic, safe and easy method that does not require sophisticated apparatus and can be performed widely by skillful endoscopists. When complete extraction of large stones is unsuccessful, the drainage of the common bile duct is mandatory either for bridging to the

  7. Two-stage vs single-stage management for concomitant gallstones and common bile duct stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jiong; Cheng, Yao; Xiong, Xian-Ze; Lin, Yi-Xin; Wu, Si-Jia; Cheng, Nan-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of two-stage vs single-stage management for concomitant gallstones and common bile duct stones. METHODS: Four databases, including PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and the Science Citation Index up to September 2011, were searched to identify all randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Data were extracted from the studies by two independent reviewers. The primary outcomes were stone clearance from the common bile duct, postoperative morbidity and mortality. The secondary outcomes were conversion to other procedures, number of procedures per patient, length of hospital stay, total operative time, hospitalization charges, patient acceptance and quality of life scores. RESULTS: Seven eligible RCTs [five trials (n = 621) comparing preoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)/endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) + laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) with LC + laparoscopic common bile duct exploration (LCBDE); two trials (n = 166) comparing postoperative ERCP/EST + LC with LC + LCBDE], composed of 787 patients in total, were included in the final analysis. The meta-analysis detected no statistically significant difference between the two groups in stone clearance from the common bile duct [risk ratios (RR) = -0.10, 95% confidence intervals (CI): -0.24 to 0.04, P = 0.17], postoperative morbidity (RR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.58 to 1.10, P = 0.16), mortality (RR = 2.19, 95% CI: 0.33 to 14.67, P = 0.42), conversion to other procedures (RR = 1.21, 95% CI: 0.54 to 2.70, P = 0.39), length of hospital stay (MD = 0.99, 95% CI: -1.59 to 3.57, P = 0.45), total operative time (MD = 12.14, 95% CI: -1.83 to 26.10, P = 0.09). Two-stage (LC + ERCP/EST) management clearly required more procedures per patient than single-stage (LC + LCBDE) management. CONCLUSION: Single-stage management is equivalent to two-stage management but requires fewer procedures. However, patient’s condition, operator

  8. True and false incomplete duplications of the common bile duct and their impact on therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brãtucu, E; Stãnescu, A; Straja, D N; Cirimbei, C; Marincas, M; Rãdoi, S; Fãtoi, D; Huwood Al Jabouri, Abdul Kariem H; Stefan, I; Ionescu, S

    2012-01-01

    The congenital anomalies of the common bile duct (CBD) represent a real challenge for the surgeon, and not recognizing them may have two consequences: either generate incomplete or incorrect surgical solutions, or, even worse, lead to iatrogenic pathology. The association between the anomalies of the CBD and biliary lithiasis, biliary cancer or other hepatobiliopancreatic pathology may lead to a pre/perioperative diagnosis; frequently, the incertitude persists. We present 2 cases: one with an incomplete duplication of the CBD and the other with a false duplication. We wish to underline the sovereign value of cholangio-MRI with 3 D reconstructions in the diagnosis and description of the anatomy of the biliary ducts, superior, in some cases, to the intraoperative cholangiography or ERCP. RevistaChirurgia.

  9. Intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile ducts: A case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yaohong; Milikowski, Clara; Toribio, Yanelba; Singer, Adam; Rojas, Claudia P; Garcia-Buitrago, Monica T

    2015-11-21

    Intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPNB) is a rare bile duct neoplasm mostly found in far eastern nations where hepatolithiasis and clonorchiasis infections are endemic. In western countries, it is very rare and the etiology is unknown. In this article, we report the first IPNB patient we encountered in our clinic and a literature review. The patient is a 38-year-old female with a history of choledocholithiasis who presented with obstructive jaundice. She was found to have a papillary mass at the junction of the right hepatic duct and common hepatic duct with six masses in the liver parenchyma. The immunophenotypic and histologic features of the tumor are consistent with IPNB, gastric subtype. The patient had a partial hepatectomy and has been receiving palliative chemotherapy. In a search of PubMed database, we collected 354 IPNB patients reported in 22 articles. In these patients, 52.8% were from Japan and 27.7% were from western countries including the United States (11.0%). The age of the patients ranged from 35 to 80 years old with an average of 64.6. Male/female ratio was 1.5. Macroscopically, 57.5% of the tumors were in the left lobe and 29.5% were in the right lobe. The average size of the tumor were 4.2 cm at the time of diagnosis. Histologically, pancreato-biliary subtype accounted for 41.8%, intestinal 28.0%, gastric 13.5% and oncocytic 16%. An invasive component is most often present in the pancreato-biliary and gastric subtypes. Despite recent advanced technologies, diagnosis of IPNB is still challenging, especially in western countries due to its rarity. Defined clinico-pathologic features are in demand for the accurate diagnosis and proper treatment.

  10. Intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile ducts: A case report and literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yaohong; Milikowski, Clara; Toribio, Yanelba; Singer, Adam; Rojas, Claudia P; Garcia-Buitrago, Monica T

    2015-01-01

    Intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPNB) is a rare bile duct neoplasm mostly found in far eastern nations where hepatolithiasis and clonorchiasis infections are endemic. In western countries, it is very rare and the etiology is unknown. In this article, we report the first IPNB patient we encountered in our clinic and a literature review. The patient is a 38-year-old female with a history of choledocholithiasis who presented with obstructive jaundice. She was found to have a papillary mass at the junction of the right hepatic duct and common hepatic duct with six masses in the liver parenchyma. The immunophenotypic and histologic features of the tumor are consistent with IPNB, gastric subtype. The patient had a partial hepatectomy and has been receiving palliative chemotherapy. In a search of PubMed database, we collected 354 IPNB patients reported in 22 articles. In these patients, 52.8% were from Japan and 27.7% were from western countries including the United States (11.0%). The age of the patients ranged from 35 to 80 years old with an average of 64.6. Male/female ratio was 1.5. Macroscopically, 57.5% of the tumors were in the left lobe and 29.5% were in the right lobe. The average size of the tumor were 4.2 cm at the time of diagnosis. Histologically, pancreato-biliary subtype accounted for 41.8%, intestinal 28.0%, gastric 13.5% and oncocytic 16%. An invasive component is most often present in the pancreato-biliary and gastric subtypes. Despite recent advanced technologies, diagnosis of IPNB is still challenging, especially in western countries due to its rarity. Defined clinico-pathologic features are in demand for the accurate diagnosis and proper treatment. PMID:26604656

  11. Sequential changes of attenuation values of bile duct and gallbladder on CT after oral contrast ingestion

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    Lee, Kyung Hee; Suh, Chang Hae; Lim, Myung Kwan; Chung, Won Kyun [Inha University College of Medicine, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-10-15

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate that sequential CT scans after oral contrast ingestion can show morphological and functional status of the biliary tree, especially for the gallbladder and assess whether the CT scans demonstrate other radiological information than conventional oral cholecystography. Thirty volunteers in third decades and eight patients with hepatobiliary disease were included for the study. CT scans were obtained 3, 6, 9, 12 hours after oral contrast ingestion and thirty minutes after fat meal in thirty volunteers. Conventional oral cholecystography was also obtained in all volunteers at 12 hours after oral contrast ingestion and after fat meal. We evaluate opacification of gallbladder, biliary tree, and duodenum by contrast media on CT scans and attenuation values of gallbladder, common hepatic duct and common bile duct in each anatomic area on CT and its sequential change. CT scans were performed 6 hours after oral contrast ingestion in eight patients with hepatobiliary disease. And gallbladder function was evaluated by opacification of gallbladder by contrast media in all patients. In thirty volunteers, opacified gallbladder by contrast media was seen in all cases in all sequential periods of time on CT scans, but in 22 cases on conventional oral cholecystography. Contrast-filled intrahepatic ducts were demonstrated in 3 cases at 3 hours after oral contrast ingestion and 11 cases at 6 hours and were not seen thereafter. Contrast-filled common hepatic duct was noted in 28, 18 and 4 cases respectively at 3, 6 and 9 hours after oral contrast ingestion and the CT attenuation values of common hepatic ducts had become progressively decreased. Contrast-filled common bile duct was noted in 28, 18 and 4 cases respectively at 3, 6 and 9 hours and the CT attenuation values of common bile ducts were not changed until 9 hours but slightly increased at 12 hours. Contrast media was noted in 7, 5, 6 and 5 cases at 3, 6, 9 and 12 hours in cystic duct and

  12. Percutaneous transhepatic balloon dilatation of the hepaticojejunal anastomosis for the definitive treatment of the intrahepatic bile duct stones occurring in choledochal cysts excised children

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    Osman Z. Karakuş

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cyst excision with hepaticojejunostomy is the well defined standard treatment for choledochal cysts. Intra or extrahepatic bile duct stone formation are serious complications observed in long-term follow-up after hepaticojejunostomy. Revision of hepaticojejunostomy is the most defined treatment of intra or extrahepatic bile duct stones secondary to hepaticojejunal anastomotic stenosis. We report two cases of common hepatic duct and/or intrahepatic bile duct stones that developed after hepatico-jejunostomy for choledochal cyst resection, that were treated with percutaneous transhepatic balloon dilatation of the hepaticojejunal anastomotic stenosis. During percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography a catheter was passed through the hepaticojejunal anastomotic stenosis and the hepatic duct-jejunal anastomotic junction was dilated with a balloon. The common hepatic duct stone and intrahepatic bile duct stones thus passed to the jejunum following the dilatation. The patients recovered uneventfully and are free of stones.

  13. Extraordinary elevated CA19-9 in patient with common bile duct stones and cholangitis Case report

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    Ali Mokhtarifar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Serum Carbohydrate Antigen, CA19-9, is a carbohydrate antigen whose usage -as a tumor marker- in pancreatic and bile ducts malignancies is commonly increasing. Sensitivity and specificity of this antigen in the diagnosis of malignancies is 70-90% and 68-91%, respectively. CA19-9 can also rise in other disorders and in few of benign conditions including cholangitis, due to other causes, e.g. choledocholithiasis. However, in such cases the increase is not significant and it is usually below 1000 u/ml. Values more than 10000 u/ml are limited to few case reports in articles. The case under study was a 66 year old man hospitalized because of epigastric and right upper quadrant pain, fever, jaundice, acholic stool, weight loss of about 6 kg, and hyperchromic urine. Physical examination revealed that the case was icteric and febrile with a mild RUQ tenderness on percussion. Laboratory tests showed marked elevation of bilirubin and CA19-9 (Total bilirubin: 36 mg/dl, Direct: 19.5 mg/dl CA19-9 :44777u/ml, Normal: 0-40 u/ml, but the enzymes of the liver and alkaline phosphatase only increased to two times the normal level. Sonography showed dilated common bile duct with four stones within it. Four weeks after stones extraction and renewal of bile current CA19-9 fell to 60 u/ml and returned to normal range (0-40 2 months later and during this period the patient was totally asymptomatic. As a result, in patients with biliary obstruction, a diagnosis of malignancy cannot be made solely on the basis of increased concentration of CA19-9, even in case of high clinical suspicion and the interpretation of this increase must be done with more caution and after lab follow-up following removal of the obstruction.

  14. Notch signaling regulates formation of the three-dimensional architecture of intrahepatic bile ducts in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Erin E; Huppert, Kari A; Brown, Melanie A; Washington, M Kay; Huppert, Stacey S

    2010-04-01

    Alagille syndrome, a chronic hepatobiliary disease, is characterized by paucity of intrahepatic bile ducts (IHBDs). To determine the impact of Notch signaling specifically on IHBD arborization, we studied the influence of both chronic gain and loss of Notch function on the intact three-dimensional IHBD structure using a series of mutant mouse models and a resin casting method. Impaired Notch signaling in bipotential hepatoblast progenitor cells (BHPCs) dose-dependently decreased the density of peripheral IHBDs, whereas activation of Notch1 results in an increased density of peripheral IHBDs. Although Notch2 has a dominant role in IHBD formation, there is also a redundant role for other Notch receptors in determining the density of peripheral IHBDs. Because changes in IHBD density do not appear to be due to changes in cellular proliferation of bile duct progenitors, we suggest that Notch plays a permissive role in cooperation with other factors to influence lineage decisions of BHPCs and sustain peripheral IHBDs. There is a threshold requirement for Notch signaling at multiple steps, including IHBD tubulogenesis and maintenance, during hepatic development that determines the density of three-dimensional peripheral IHBD architecture.

  15. Single-session minimally invasive management of common bile duct stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElGeidie, Ahmed AbdelRaouf

    2014-01-01

    Up to 18% of patients submitted to cholecystectomy had concomitant common bile duct stones. To avoid serious complications, these stones should be removed. There is no consensus about the ideal management strategy for such patients. Traditionally, open surgery was offered but with the advent of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) minimally invasive approach had nearly replaced laparotomy because of its well-known advantages. Minimally invasive approach could be done in either two-session (preoperative ERCP followed by LC or LC followed by postoperative ERCP) or single-session (laparoscopic common bile duct exploration or LC with intraoperative ERCP). Most recent studies have found that both options are equivalent regarding safety and efficacy but the single-session approach is associated with shorter hospital stay, fewer procedures per patient, and less cost. Consequently, single-session option should be offered to patients with cholecysto-choledocholithiaisis provided that local resources and expertise do exist. However, the management strategy should be tailored according to many variables, such as available resources, experience, patient characteristics, clinical presentations, and surgical pathology. PMID:25386063

  16. Reappraisal of endoscopic papillary balloon dilation for the management of common bile duct stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Kwok-Hung; Chan, Hoi-Hung; Tsai, Tzung-Jiun; Cheng, Jin-Shiung; Hsu, Ping-I

    2015-01-01

    Although endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) is still considered as a gold standard treatment for common bile duct (CBD) stones in western guideline, endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) is commonly used by the endoscopists in Asia as the first-line treatment for CBD stones. Besides the advantages of a technical easy procedure, endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation (EPLBD) can facilitate the removal of large CBD stones. The indication of EPBD is now extended from removal of the small stones by using traditional balloon, to removal of large stones and avoidance of lithotripsy by using large balloon alone or after EST. According to the reports of antegrade papillary balloon dilatation, balloon dilation itself is not the cause of pancreatitis. On the contrary, adequate dilation of papillary orifice can reduce the trauma to the papilla and pancreas by the basket or lithotripter during the procedure of stone extraction. EPLBD alone is as effective as EPLBD with limited EST. Longer ballooning time may be beneficial in EPLBD alone to achieve adequate loosening of papillary orifice. The longer ballooning time does not increase the risk of pancreatitis but may reduce the bleeding episodes in patients with coagulopathy. Slowly inflation of the balloon, but not exceed the diameter of bile duct and tolerance of the patients are important to prevent the complication of perforation. EPBLD alone or with EST are not the sphincter preserved procedures, regular follow up is necessary for early detection and management of CBD stones recurrence. PMID:25685263

  17. [ERCP: ampulotomy or suprapapillary fistulotomy with needle knife to access bile duct in difficult cannulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas C, Gloria

    2012-01-01

    Biliary conducts deep cannulation is a requirement for therapeutic Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangio-Pancreatography (ERCP). The pre-cut papillotomy is a technique for difficult cannulation cases. Report cases of hard cannulation and suprapapilar fistulotomy as a method for selective common bile duct cannulation. Report efficacy, demographic and endoscopic findings and complications of this procedure. Observational, descriptive and prospective study of cases. Sample of 93 patients who had a difficult cannulation ERCP, in which suprapapilar fistulotomy pre-cut type was done, in a private digestive endoscopic center between 2000 and 2010 in Lima, Peru. 1205 (100%) ERCP were made 1152 (96%) papillosphincterotomies. Fistulotomy was done in 93 cases (8%) of these papillosphincterotomies. The most prevalent age group was 61 to 70 years old, the female-male proportion was 2.4:1. The efficacy was 96%. The most prevalent endoscopy findings were odditis, gallstone impactation and ampulloma presence, final diagnosis were lithiasic disease (34%), Odditis with or without common bile duct lithiasis (29%). Therapeutic ERCP was done in 75% of the cases, 8.5% showed complications (pancreatitis and bleeding). No perforation or cholangitis were registered. In this case series, fistulotomy in difficult cannulation procedures had good efficacy. Is most prevalent in cases with odditis, gallstone impactation and ampulloma. Complications of the procedure are low. The fistulotomy type of pre-cut is leaded for patients who require therapeutic ERCP. The decision for doing the procedure must be precocious and informed consent is primordial.

  18. [Bile duct cysts; an unusual cause of jaundice in paediatrics. Presentation of a case series].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Ruiz, Rocío; Aguilera Alonso, David; Muñoz Aguilar, Gemma; Fonseca Martín, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    Cysts of the bile duct or choledochal cysts are rare diseases in our area. The aetiology is unknown, with the most accepted hypothesis being a pancreatobiliary maljunction anomaly. To analyse the clinical data, diagnosis and treatment of a number of patients with choledochal cyst, as well as presenting an update on this condition. A retrospective descriptive study was performed on paediatric patients diagnosed with choledochal cyst in the last 20 years in a tertiary hospital. A total of 4 choledochal cyst cases in childhood, predominantly female, are pre- sented. The most frequent reason for consultation was vomiting, and presenting with jaundice and choluria in all cases. Patients with choledochal cyst were classified as type I in 3 cases, and one case of type IVa. In all cases surgical treatment was performed; any patient had complications to date. Cysts of the bile ducts have a low prevalence. The treatment of choice is surgical, requiring close monitoring due to the risk of cholangiocarcinoma. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Bile duct-duodenal fistula caused by AIDS/HIV-associated tuberculosis

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    Patino Carlos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Allthough infrequent, digestive fistulae in HIV/AIDS patients have been reported throughout the digestive tract from the esophagus to the anus, with predominance of esophageal fistulae. AIDS/HIV-associated opportunistic infections may invade the digestive system and lead to fistula formation. Tuberculosis is the most common infection associated with these esophageal fistulae. We report here one case of bile duct-duodenal fistula in a female AIDS patient with associated abdominal Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection compromising lymphnodes of the hepatic pedicle where the fistula was found. According to the reviewed literature, this is the third case of bile duct-duodenal fistula associated with abdominal tuberculosis in AIDS patient, and the first where both the fistula and the tuberculosis infection were diagnosed at laparotomy for acute abdomen. Whether the AIDS patient with abdominal pain needs or not a laparotomy to treat an infectious disease is often a difficult matter for the surgeon to decide, as most of the times appropriate medical treatment will bring more benefit.

  20. Long-term outcome of surgical resection for intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvira, Vor; Pugkhem, Ake; Bhudhisawasdi, Vajarabhongsa; Pairojkul, Chawalit; Sathitkarnmanee, Egapong; Luvira, Varisara; Kamsa-Ard, Supot

    2017-02-01

    Intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPNB) is a specific type of bile duct tumor. Studies about the surgical outcomes for IPNB are few; therefore, we investigated the survival of patients who underwent curative surgical resection of IPNB. We retrospectively reviewed the medical and pathological records of 148 IPNB patients who underwent curative-intent hepatic resection between January 2005 and December 2011, to examine the prognosis of IPNB. All demographic and operative parameters were analyzed the effect on survival of patients. The median survival of IPNB patients was 1326 days with a respective 1, 3, and 5 year overall survival of 83.6% (95%CI: 76.5-88.7), 64.4% (95%CI: 56.0-71.6), and 47% (95%CI: 38.4-55.7). The level of invasiveness of IPNB predicted survival very well. For malignant IPNB, univariate analysis showed that serum CA19-9 level, lymph node metastasis, and completeness of resection were significant prognostic factors. Lymph node metastasis and completeness of resection were found in multivariate analysis to be significantly related to survival of the patients. The level of invasiveness and lymph node status were found to be associated with patient survival, as was adequacy of surgery. We recommend R0 resection be attempted for patients with IPNB. © 2016 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  1. Endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation for the removal of bile duct stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Hong; Yang, Min Jae; Hwang, Jae Chul; Yoo, Byung Moo

    2013-01-01

    Endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation (EPLBD) with endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) has been widely used as the alternative to EST along with endoscopic mechanical lithotripsy (EML) for the removal of large or difficult bile duct stones. Furthermore, EPLBD without EST was recently introduced as its simplified alternative technique. Thus, we systematically searched PubMed, Medline, the Cochrane Library and EMBASE, and analyzed all gathered data of EPLBD with and without EST, respectively, by using a single standardized definition, reviewing relevant literatures, published between 2003 and June 2013, where it was performed with large-diameter balloons (12-20 mm). The outcomes, including the initial success rate, the rate of needs for EML, and the overall success rate, and adverse events were assessed in each and compared between both of two procedures: “EPLBD with EST” and “EPLBD without EST”. A total of 2511 procedures from 30 published articles were included in EPLBD with EST, while a total of 413 procedures from 3 published articles were included in EPLBD without EST. In the results of outcomes, the overall success rate was 96.5% in EPLBD with EST and 97.2% in EPLBD without EST, showing no significant difference between both of them. The initial success rate (84.0% vs 76.2%, P bile duct stones without any additional risk of severe adverse events, when performed under appropriate guidelines. PMID:24379575

  2. Protective effect of gadolinium chloride on early warm ischemia/reperfusion injury in rat bile duct during liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Biao; Zhang, Qi; Zhu, Bili; Cui, Zhonglin; Zhou, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Activation of Kupffer cell (KC) is acknowledged as a key event in the initiation and perpetuation of bile duct warm ischemia/reperfusion injury. The inhibitory effect of gadolinium chloride (GdCl(3)) on KC activation shows potential as a protective intervention in liver injury, but there is less research with regard to bile duct injury. Sixty-five male Sprague-Dawley rats (200-250 g) were randomly divided into three experimental groups: a sham group (n = 15), a control group (n = 25), and a GdCl(3) group (n = 25). Specimen was collected at 0.5, 2, 6, 12 and 24 h after operation. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total bilirubin (TBIL) of serum were measured. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), Capase-3 activity and soluble Fas (sFas) were detected. The pathologic changes of bile duct were observed. Immunochemistry for bile duct Fas was performed. Apoptosis of bile duct cells was evaluated by the terminal UDP nick end labeling assay. GdCl(3) significantly decreased the levels of ALT, ALP and TBIL at 2, 6, 12, and 24 h, and increased serum sFas at 2, 6 and 12 h (Pbile duct cell apoptosis at 2, 6, 12 and 24 h. After operation for 2, 6 and 12 h, the expression of Fas protein was lower in the GdCl(3) group than in the control group (Pbile duct cell apoptosis, including decreasing ALT, ALP, TBIL and TNF-α; suppressing Fas-FasL-Caspase signal transduction during transplantation.

  3. Bile duct ligature in young rats: A revisited animal model for biliary atresia

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    Matias Garrido

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Biliary atresia leads to cirrhosis in the vast majority of patients and constitutes the first cause of paediatric liver transplantation. Animal models allow us to understand the molecular basis and natural history of diseases. The aim of this study is to describe a surgically created animal model of biliary atresia with emphasis in long-term liver function. Forty-two 3-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups: bile duct ligature (BDL and control. The animals were sacrificed on the 2nd, 4th, and 6th postoperative weeks. Blood samples were collected for liver function analysis. The spleen to body weight ratio was determined. Histopathological examination of liver tissue was performed by hematoxylin-eosin and Sirius red staining. Collagen quantification was determined by using colorimetric digital image analysis and was expressed as a percentage of total liver tissue area. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to analyse gene expression levels of transforming growth factor-β1 (Tgfb1 and apeline (Apln genes. Statistical analysis was performed where P<0.05 was considered significant. Animals from BDL group developed increasing cholestasis with clinical and laboratory features. Splenomegaly was detected at 4th and 6th week (P<0.05. Histological evaluation of the liver showed ductular reaction, portal fibrosis and bile plugs. Collagen area to total liver tissue area had a median of 2.5% in the control group and 6.5 %, 14.3 % and 37.7 % in BDL rats at 2nd, 4th and 6th weeks respectively (P<0.001. Tgfb1 mRNA expression level was significantly higher at 6th week (P<0.001 in BDL group when compared to control. Apln mRNA expression level was significantly higher at 4th and 6th week (P<0.001 and showed a positive linear correlation (r = 0.975, P<0.05 in BDL group when compared to control. Bile duct ligature in young rats is an animal model that recreates clinical, laboratory, histological and molecular

  4. Mixed Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma and Adenocarcinoma with Spindle Cell and Clear Cell Features in the Extrahepatic Bile Duct

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    John Wysocki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinomas, spindle cell carcinomas, and clear cell carcinomas are all rare tumors in the biliary tract. We present the first case, to our knowledge, of an extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma composed of all three types. A 65-year-old man with prior cholecystectomy presented with painless jaundice, vomiting, and weight loss. CA19-9 and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP were elevated. Cholangioscopy revealed a friable mass extending from the middle of the common bile duct to the common hepatic duct. A bile duct excision was performed. Gross examination revealed a 3.6 cm intraluminal polypoid tumor. Microscopically, the tumor had foci of conventional adenocarcinoma (CK7-positive and CA19-9-postive surrounded by malignant-appearing spindle cells that were positive for cytokeratins and vimentin. Additionally, there were separate areas of large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC. Foci of clear cell carcinoma merged into both the LCNEC and the adenocarcinoma. Tumor invaded through the bile duct wall with extensive perineural and vascular invasion. Circumferential margins were positive. The patient’s poor performance status precluded adjuvant therapy and he died with recurrent and metastatic disease 5 months after surgery. This is consistent with the reported poor survival rates of biliary mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinomas.

  5. Congenital dilatation of the large and segmental intrahepatic bile ducts (Caroli's disease in two Golden retriever littermates : clinical communication

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    R.D. Last

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Two, sibling, male Golden retriever puppies, 13 weeks of age, were presented with congenital biliary cysts of the liver involving both hepatic and segmental bile ducts, as well as bilateral polycystic kidney disease. Ultrasonography of the livers of both pups demonstrated segmental cystic lesions that were contiguous with the bile ducts. Histopathology revealed cystic ectatic bile duct hyperplasia and dysplasia with variable portal fibrosis in the liver, while in the kidneys there were radially arranged, cylindrically dilated cysts of the collecting ducts, which extended through the medulla and cortex. This pathology was compatible with that of congenital dilatation of the large and segmental bile ducts (Caroli's disease described in humans, dogs and rats. In humans Caroli's disease has an autosomal recessive inheritance pattern, while in rats activation of the MEK5/ERK cascade initiates the biliary dysgenesis of Caroli's disease in this species. However, the exact mode of inheritance and pathogenesis of Caroli's disease in dogs is as yet unknown. Previous reports on congenital hepatic cystic diseases of the dog have described Caroli's disease like lesions in various breeds, but these are believed to be the 1st reported cases in the Golden retriever breed.

  6. Congenital dilatation of the large and segmental intrahepatic bile ducts (Caroli's disease) in two Golden retriever littermates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Last, R D; Hill, J M; Roach, M; Kaldenberg, T

    2006-12-01

    Two, sibling, male Golden retriever puppies, 13 weeks of age, were presented with congenital biliary cysts of the liver involving both hepatic and segmental bile ducts, as well as bilateral polycystic kidney disease. Ultrasonography of the livers of both pups demonstrated segmental cystic lesions that were contiguous with the bile ducts. Histopathology revealed cystic ectatic bile duct hyperplasia and dysplasia with variable portal fibrosis in the liver, while in the kidneys there were radially arranged, cylindrically dilated cysts of the collecting ducts, which extended through the medulla and cortex. This pathology was compatible with that of congenital dilatation of the large and segmental bile ducts (Caroli's disease) described in humans, dogs and rats. In humans Caroli's disease has an autosomal recessive inheritance pattern, while in rats activation of the MEK5/ERK cascade initiates the biliary dysgenesis of Caroli's disease in this species. However, the exact mode of inheritance and pathogenesis of Caroli's disease in dogs is as yet unknown. Previous reports on congenital hepatic cystic diseases of the dog have described Caroli's disease like lesions in various breeds, but these are believed to be the 1st reported cases in the Golden retriever breed.

  7. Management of bile duct stones in 1572 patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, L L; Weinstein, L S; Hannon, J K; Lane, D R

    1999-06-01

    Evidence of bile duct stones (BDSs) was identified on routine cholangiogram in 136 (8.7%) of 1572 patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy from March 1989 through March 1997. Forty-two (30.9%) were unsuspected. All patients with evidence of BDSs underwent laparoscopic bile duct exploration (LBDE). Initially, a standard choledochotomy with T-tube drainage as in the open approach was used. Later, transcystic duct exploration was added to the algorithm. The algorithm evolved into an ongoing treatment protocol study that was initiated in March 1992. Through March 1997, 100 patients underwent LBDE based on the protocol. The study is divided into two groups. Group A comprises the total 136 patients undergoing LBDE, including those in the protocol study. A subgroup, Group B, comprises only the 100 patients in the protocol study. In Group A, LBDE was successful in 114 patients (83.8%). Stones were missed in seven patients and left behind for spontaneous passage or later retrieval in six patients. Eleven patients (8.1%) were converted to open. There were 13 major complications (9.6%), including the seven missed stones and two deaths. In Group B, LBDE was successful in 94 per cent. Stones were missed in one patient and intentionally left behind in four patients. One patient was converted to open. There were seven major complications (7%), including one of the missed stones and one death. Using the protocol algorithm and the techniques described, BDSs can be effectively managed laparoscopically at the time of cholecystectomy in approximately 94 per cent of cases.

  8. Bile duct cyst type V (Caroli's disease): surgical strategy and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lendoire, Javier; Barros Schelotto, Pablo; Alvarez Rodríguez, Juan; Duek, Fernando; Quarin, Carlos; Garay, Verónica; Amante, Marcelo; Cassini, Eduardo; Imventarza, Oscar

    2007-01-01

    Caroli's disease (CD) is a benign congenital disorder characterized by segmental cystic dilatation of the intrahepatic biliary ducts. Therapeutic strategy includes medical treatment, percutaneous, endoscopic or surgical drainage of the affected bile ducts, liver resection or transplantation. The aim of this study was to analyse the results and long-term follow-up of a consecutive series of patients who underwent surgical treatment for CD. Between 1995 and 2005, 10 patients were surgically treated for CD. Variables evaluated were: age, gender, clinical presentation, diagnostic procedures, percutaneous and surgical treatments, histopathological analysis and outcome. The average age of the patients was 45.8 years. Recurrent cholangitis was the main clinical manifestation (70%). In unilateral CD a liver resection was performed in nine patients (left lateral sectionectomy in seven, left hepatectomy in one and right hepatectomy in one). In bilateral disease a cholecystectomy, duct exploration, hepaticojejunostomy and liver biopsy of both lobes were performed. Average follow-up was 60 months. All the patients are alive and free of symptoms without recurrence in the remnant liver. Liver resection is the preferred therapeutic option for unilateral CD, demonstrating good results in long-term follow-up. In bilateral disease, hepaticojejunostomy could be considered as an alternative or a previous step to liver transplantation, which still remains the ultimate option.

  9. The natural history of carcinoma of the bile duct in patients less than forty-five years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, K D; Tompkins, R K; Cates, J A; Longmire, W P; Roslyn, J J

    1992-01-01

    Traditionally regarded as a disease of the elderly, the natural history of carcinoma of the bile duct in young patients has not been well defined. Of 186 patients (mean age of 62 years) treated at UCLA (1954 to 1988) for carcinoma of the bile duct, 26 were less than 45 years old. Younger patients had symptoms for an average of 4.5 +/- 0.8 months prior to diagnosis, as compared with 2.3 +/- 0.2 months for patients more than 45 years old (p less than 0.03). Of the younger patients, 96 per cent were managed surgically with either resection, surgical palliative bypass or laparotomy and tube drainage. Among the younger patients who underwent resections, 92 per cent were alive at one year, as compared with 60 per cent of patients who underwent palliative bypass procedures. Two patients who underwent tumor resections survived four years or longer. We conclude that carcinoma of the bile duct is not limited to the elderly and occurs in a significant number of young patients. In the younger population, carcinoma of the bile duct is characterized by delays in diagnosis. Early suspicion and aggressive management of young patients with obstructive jaundice are essential to ensure the best possible outcome for patients with this disease.

  10. Cost Efficacy of Metal Stents for Palliation of Extrahepatic Bile Duct Obstruction in a Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walter, Daisy; van Boeckel, Petra G A; Groenen, Marcel J; Weusten, Bas L A M; Witteman, Ben J; Tan, Gi; Brink, Menno A; Nicolai, Jan; Tan, Adriaan C; Alderliesten, Joyce; Venneman, Niels G; Laleman, Wim; Jansen, Jeroen M; Bodelier, Alexander; Wolters, Frank L; van der Waaij, Laurens A; Breumelhof, Ronald; Peters, Frank T M; Scheffer, Robbert C H; Leenders, Max; Hirdes, Meike M C; Steyerberg, Ewout W; Vleggaar, Frank P; Siersema, Peter D

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Endoscopic stents are placed for palliation of extrahepatic bile duct obstruction. Although self-expandable metal stents (SEMS) remain patent longer than plastic stents, they are more expensive. We aimed to evaluate which type of stent (plastic, uncovered SEMS [uSEMS], or

  11. Ultrasound Findings of Intraductal Papillary Neoplasm in Bile Duct and the Added Value of Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L N; Xu, H X; Zheng, S G; Sun, L P; Guo, L H; Zhang, Y F; Xu, J M; Liu, C; Xu, X H

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the imaging features of intraductal papillary neoplasm in bile duct (IPNB) on baseline ultrasound and contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS). The imaging features on baseline ultrasound and CEUS in 16 pathologically proven IPNB lesions in 15 patients were retrospectively analyzed. Real-time contrast specific modes and contrast agent of SonoVue were used for CEUS. Bile duct dilation was present in all patients. The mean lengths for the intraductal papillary adenomas and adenocarcinomas were 2.5 ± 1.1 (range, 1.2 - 4.2 cm) and 5.6 ± 2.0 cm (range, 3.3 - 9.8 cm) (P = 0.004). Three imaging types of IPNB on ultrasound were depicted: bile duct dilation with intraductal mass (n = 8), bile duct dilation without intraductal mass (n = 3), and cystic-solid mixed type (n = 5). On CEUS, solid components of 13 lesions appeared hyper- (n = 12) or iso-enhancement (n = 1) in the arterial phase whereas all showed hypo-enhancement in the portal and late phases. For 3 lesions of bile duct dilation without intraductal mass, CEUS showed non-enhancement during all phases. Pre-surgical CEUS and conventional ultrasound made correct diagnoses in 12 (75.0 %) and 5(31.3 %) of 16 IPNBs respectively (P = 0.04). For CECT, correct diagnosis was also achieved in 12 (75.0 %) of 16 lesions (P = 1.00, in comparison with CEUS). IPNB should be taken into consideration when intraductal mass or cystic-solid mass with bile duct dilation, or remarkable bile duct dilation without intraductal mass, are found on US. Intraductal mass length > 3.0 cm is more commonly found in malignant IPNB. CEUS might facilitate the diagnosis of IPNB by easily excluding the possibility of commonly found sludge, nonshadowing stones, or blood clots. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen: a marker of hepatic fibrosis after bile duct obstruction in the monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruf, G; Mappes, H J; Koch, H; Baumgartner, U; Hagmann, W; Farthmann, E H

    1996-01-01

    In an experimental study in monkeys, liver fibrosis development after segmental bile duct obstruction was investigated and correlated with the aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP). Segmental bile duct obstruction was produced by ligation and section of the left hepatic bile duct in all monkeys. Fibrosis induction was examined by intravenous leukotriene C4 (LTC4, 5 nmol/kg) application, endogenous LT-production stimulated by endotoxin (LPS,salmonella abortus equi, 50 ng/kg), fibrosis inhibition by dexamethasone (1 mg/kg) intramuscularly and subsequent endogenous LT-production stimulation by LPS (50 ng/kg). Ligated and unligated liver lobe biopsies were taken 3, 7 and 12 weeks after ligation. All portal areas were measured morphometrically. PIIINP was measured by a specific radioimmunoassay each week and correlated with the morphometric results. Bile duct obstruction leads to secondary sclerosing cholangitis with bile duct vanishing and subsequent biliary cirrhosis combined with perivenous sclerosis and cavernous transformation of the terminal vein. The collagen concentration increased in the nonligated lobe from mean +/-SEM 1.05 +/- 0.03% to 1.53 +/- 0.19% only after LTC4 and with no difference in the other groups. In the ligated lobe collagen concentration increased significantly in all groups continuously from 1.05 +/- 0.03% up to: controls 6.1 +/- 0.9%, dexamethasone 5.9 +/- 0.8%, LPS 8.2 +/- 0.8%, LTC4 9.075 +/- 1.4%. PIIINP concentration rose within 6 weeks in the controls with hepatic bile duct obstruction from 34.43 +/- 15 ng/ml up to 57 +/- 13.27 ng/ml, after dexamethasone to 48.5 +/- 18.23 ng/ml, after LPS to 57 +/- 13.27 ng/ml, after LTC4 to 80.25 +/- 16.04 ng/ml. After 12 weeks, PIIINP decreased in the controls resp. after dexamethasone to 41.25 +/- 6.94 ng/ml resp. 33.5 +/- 7.72 ng/ml and increased after LPS resp. LTC4 up to 64.25 +/- 17.07 ng/ml resp.104 +/- 22.46 ng/ ml. The correlation of collagen deposition and PIIINP was in the

  13. [Analysis of clinical prognosis and the correlation between bile duct injury after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization and the level of hepatic arterial embolization in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, H Y; Yu, X P; Feng, R; Hu, H J; Xiao, W W

    2017-05-23

    Objective: To evaluate the correlation between bile duct injury after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization and the level of hepatic arterial embolization, and to analyze the clinical prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma patients. Methods: From January18, 2012 to December18, 2014, 21 patients underwent TACE for HCC were retrospectively reviewed, including patients' clinical and pathological data. The clinical outcome and relevant factors for bile duct injury were analyzed. Results: A total of 21 patients were identified with bile duct injury at our single institution. All patients received 48 TACE treatments, including proper hepatic artery (14), left hepatic artery (3), the right hepatic artery (10), left and right hepatic artery (9) and tumor artery branches (12). Thirty-five bile duct injury occurred in 21 patients: 7 cases was close to the tumor, 2 distant to the tumor, 7 at right liver, 2 left liver, 11 both lobes of liver and 6 hepatic hilar. After medical conservative treatment and biliary tract inside and outside drainage, liver function of 10 cases were improved. In four patients with hepatic bile duct stricture and biloma, the effect of drainage was not obvious, which subsequently caused biliary complications such as infection, gallbladder and common bile duct stones. Three patients with liver cirrhosis at decompensation stage developed complications, and one of them died of hepatic encephalopathy. Four patients experienced tumor recurrence during the follow-up period. Conclusions: The location of bile duct injury after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization is quite consistent with the level of hepatic arterial embolization. There may be some blood vessels mainly involved in blood supply of biliary duct. Complete embolism of these vessels may lead to bile duct injuries. Biliary drainage is ineffective in patients with hilar bile duct stricture, and can lead to complications of biliary tract later on.

  14. Embryonic liver cells and permanent lines as models for hepatocyte and bile duct cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strick-Marchand, Hélène; Weiss, Mary C

    2003-01-01

    Analysis of liver cells during development is facilitated by the possibility of complementing in vivo analysis with experiments on cultured cells. In this review, we discuss results from several laboratories concerning bipotential hepatic stem cells from mouse (HBC-3, H-CFU-C, MMH and BMEL), rat (rhe14321) and primate (IPFLS) embryos. Several groups have used fluorescence-activated cell sorting to identify clonogenic bipotential cells; others have derived bipotential cell lines by plating liver cell suspensions and cloning. The bipotential cells, which probably originate from hepatoblasts, can differentiate as hepatocytes or bile duct cells, and undergo morphogenesis in culture. Disparities in differentiation can be explained by distinct medium compositions, extracellular matrix coated culture surfaces, and gene expression detection methods. Potential applications of these cell lines are discussed.

  15. Cost-Effective Treatment of Patients with Symptomatic Cholelithiasis and Possible Common Bile Duct Stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lisa M; Rogers, Stanley J; Cello, John P; Brasel, Karen J; Inadomi, John M

    2011-01-01

    Background Clinicians must choose a treatment strategy for patients with symptomatic cholelithiasis without knowing whether common bile duct (CBD) stones are present. The purpose of this study was to determine the most cost-effective treatment strategy for patients with symptomatic cholelithiasis and possible CBD stones. Study Design Our decision model included five treatment strategies: (1) laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) alone followed by expectant management, (2) preoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) followed by LC, (3) LC with intraoperative cholangiography (IOC) ± common bile duct exploration (CBDE), (4) LC followed by postoperative ERCP, and (5) LC with IOC ± postoperative ERCP. The rates of successful completion of diagnostic testing and therapeutic intervention, test characteristics (sensitivity and specificity), morbidity, and mortality for all procedures are from current literature. Hospitalization costs and lengths of stay are from the 2006 National CMS data. The probability of CBD stones was varied from 0% to 100% and the most cost-effective strategy was determined at each probability. Results Across the CBD stone probability range of 4% to 100%, LC with IOC ± ERCP was the most cost-effective. If the probability was 0%, LC alone was the most cost-effective. Our model was sensitive to one health input: specificity of IOC, and three costs: cost of hospitalization for LC with CBDE, cost of hospitalization for LC without CBDE, and cost of LC with IOC. Conclusions The most cost-effective treatment strategy for the majority of patients with symptomatic cholelithiasis is LC with routine IOC. If stones are detected, CBDE should be forgone and the patient referred for ERCP. PMID:21444220

  16. Percutaneous treatment of extrahepatic bile duct stones assisted by balloon sphincteroplasty and occlusion balloon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yong Sung; Kim, Ji Hyung; Choi, Young Woo; Lee, Tae Hee; Hwang, Cheol Mog; Cho, Young Jun; Kim, Keum Won [Konyang University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-12-15

    To describe the technical feasibility and usefulness of extrahepatic biliary stone removal by balloon sphincteroplasty and occlusion balloon pushing. Fifteen patients with extrahepatic bile duct stones were included in this study. Endoscopic stone removal was not successful in 13 patients, and two patients refused the procedure due to endoscopy phobia. At first, all patients underwent percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD). A few days later, through the PTBD route, balloon assisted dilatation for common bile duct (CBD) sphincter was performed, and then the stones were pushed into the duodenum using an 11.5 mm occlusion balloon. Success rate, reason for failure, and complications associated with the procedure were evaluated. Eight patients had one stone, five patients had two stones, and two patients had more than five stones. The procedure was successful in 13 patients (13/15). In 12 of the patients, all stones were removed in the first trial. In one patients, residual stones were discovered on follow-up cholangiography, and were subsequently removed in the second trial. Technical failure occurred in two patients. Both of these patients had severely dilated CBD and multiple stones with various sizes. Ten patients complained of pain in the right upper quadrant and epigastrium of the abdomen immediately following the procedure, but there were no significant procedure-related complications such as bleeding or pancreatitis. Percutaneous extrahepatic biliary stone removal by balloon sphincteroplasty and subsequent stone pushing with occlusion balloon is an effective, safe, and technically feasible procedure which can be used as an alternative method in patients when endoscopic extrahepatic biliary stone removal was not successful.

  17. Prognostic factors in patients with middle and distal bile duct cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyung Jun; Kim, Sang Geol; Chun, Jae Min; Lee, Won Kee; Hwang, Yoon Jin

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To identify the influence of the surgery type and prognostic factors in middle and distal bile duct cancers. METHODS: Between August 1990 and June 2011, data regarding the clinicopathological factors of 194 patients with surgical and pathological confirmation were collected. A total of 133 patients underwent resections (R0, R1, R2; n = 102, 24, 7), whereas 61 patients underwent nonresectional surgery. Either pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) or bile duct resection (BDR) was selected according to the sites of tumors and co-morbidities of the patients after confirming resection margin by the frozen histology in all cases. Univariate and multivariate analyses of clinicopathologic factors were performed, utilizing the Kaplan-Meyer method and Cox hazard regression analysis. RESULTS: The overall 5-year survival rate for the 133 patients who underwent resection (R0, R1, and R2) was 41.2%, whereas no patients survived longer than 3 years among the 61 patient who underwent nonresectional surgeries. The 5-year survival rate of the patients who underwent a PD (n = 90) was higher than the rate of those who underwent BDR (n = 43), although the difference was not statistically significant (46.6% vs 30.0% P = 0.105). However, PD had a higher rate of R0 resection than BDR (90.0% vs 48.8%, P metastasis (TNM) stage, and involvement of resection margin were significant prognostic factors in univariate analysis, multivariate analysis identified only TNM stage and LVI as independent prognostic factors. CONCLUSION: PD had a greater likelihood of curative resection and R1 resection might have some positive impact. The TNM stage and LVI were independent prognostic factors. PMID:24914391

  18. High ratio of programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1)(+)/CD8(+) tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes identifies a poor prognostic subset of extrahepatic bile duct cancer undergoing surgery plus adjuvant chemoradiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Yu Jin; Koh, Jaemoon; Kim, Kyubo; Chie, Eui Kyu; Kim, BoKyong; Lee, Kyoung Bun; Jang, Jin-Young; Kim, Sun-Whe; Oh, Do-Youn; Bang, Yung-Jue; Ha, Sung W

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the prognostic role of PD-L1 expression, PD-1(+) tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), and the ratio of PD-1(+)/CD8(+) TILs in extrahepatic bile duct (EHBD) cancer. We analyzed 83 patients with EHBD cancer who underwent curative surgery plus fluoropyrimidine-based chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Expressions of PD-L1, PD-1, and CD8 were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Fifty-six (68%) patients were PD-L1-positive, and its lower expression level was associated with hilar tumor location (P=0.044). A higher ratio of PD-1(+)/CD8(+) TILs was associated with poorer overall survival (OS) (P=0.032), relapse-free survival (RFS) (P=0.024), and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) (P=0.039) in Kaplan-Meier analyses, but survival differences were not observed according to the PD-L1 expression level. With Cox proportional hazards models, the ratio of PD-1(+)/CD8(+) TILs was the independent prognostic factor in OS (HR 2.47, 95% CI 1.04-5.86), RFS (HR 2.41, 95% CI 1.08-5.41), and DMFS (HR 2.67, 95% CI 1.00-7.11) after adjusting for other significant clinicopathologic variables. A strong survival impact of the ratio of PD-1(+)/CD8(+) TILs was observed in EHBD cancer. In the poor prognostic subgroup, the blockade of the immune checkpoint in combination with conventional multimodality treatment needs to be considered. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Management of common bile duct stones with a biliary endoprosthesis. Report on 40 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, R; Macmathuna, P; Lombard, M; Karani, J; Westaby, D

    1992-01-01

    Endoscopic placement of a biliary endoprosthesis has been proposed for the management of choledocholithiasis when stone extraction is difficult or considered hazardous. Over a two year period this approach was used in 40 such patients. There were 24 women and 16 men with a median age of 76 years. In seven patients with severe cholangitis no attempt was made to extract the stones. Twenty three (57.5%) patients underwent a sphincterotomy and four (10%) needle knife papillotomy. The endoprosthesis insertion was considered a temporary measure in 13 (32.5%) patients and definitive treatment in 27 (67.5%). Bile duct drainage was established in all patients. Early complications occurred in six patients (15%), but were without sequelae. Late complications developed in eight (20%) of the patients and included biliary colic (four), cholangitis (three), and cholecystitis (one). Two patients (one cholangitis and one cholecystitis) died as a consequence of the complication. Only patients without a sphincterotomy developed cholangitis. A total of eight patients (20%) underwent surgery (one as an emergency) and nine a repeat endoscopic retrograde cholangio pancreatography (two as an emergency) to clear the duct. The remaining 23 patients are asymptomatic at a median of 13 months (range five to 24 months). Biliary endoprosthesis insertion for choledocholithiasis is an important alternative means of establishing drainage in selected cases, and is probably the optimum method of management for the elderly and or debilitated patients with previous cholecystectomy. Caution must be exercised, however, in patients with an in situ gall bladder. PMID:1446871

  20. Intrahepatic bile ducts develop according to a new mode of tubulogenesis regulated by the transcription factor SOX9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, Aline; Raynaud, Peggy; Cordi, Sabine; Zong, Yiwei; Tronche, François; Stanger, Ben Z; Jacquemin, Patrick; Pierreux, Christophe E; Clotman, Frederic; Lemaigre, Frederic P

    2009-06-01

    A number of diseases are characterized by defective formation of the intrahepatic bile ducts. In the embryo, hepatoblasts differentiate to cholangiocytes, which give rise to the bile ducts. Here, we investigated duct development in mouse liver and characterized the role of the SRY-related HMG box transcription factor 9 (SOX9). We identified SOX9 as a new biliary marker and used it in immunostaining experiments to characterize bile duct morphogenesis. The expression of growth factors was determined by in situ hybridization and immunostaining, and their role was studied on cultured hepatoblasts. SOX9 function was investigated by phenotyping mice with a liver-specific inactivation of Sox9. Biliary tubulogenesis started with formation of asymmetrical ductal structures, lined on the portal side by cholangiocytes and on the parenchymal side by hepatoblasts. When the ducts grew from the hilum to the periphery, the hepatoblasts lining the asymmetrical structures differentiated to cholangiocytes, thereby allowing formation of symmetrical ducts lined only by cholangiocytes. We also provide evidence that transforming growth factor-beta promotes differentiation of the hepatoblasts lining the asymmetrical structures. In the absence of SOX9, the maturation of asymmetrical structures into symmetrical ducts was delayed. This was associated with abnormal expression of CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein alpha and Homolog of Hairy/Enhancer of Split-1, as well as of the transforming growth factor-beta receptor type II, which are regulators of biliary development. Our results suggest that biliary development proceeds according to a new mode of tubulogenesis characterized by transient asymmetry and whose timing is controlled by SOX9.

  1. Postoperative anastomotic bile duct stricture is affected by the experience of surgeons and the choice of surgical procedures but not the timing of repair after obstructive bile duct injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiang; Liu, Chenhai; Zhu, Chenglin; Xie, Fang; Hu, Sanyuan

    2014-01-01

    Bile duct injury (BDI) is one of the most severe complications of biliary operation. This study is to investigate the correlation between the timing of bile duct repair and anastomotic bile duct stricture. Transverse BDI models were constructed in 60 dogs that were divided randomly into BDI₅, BDI₁₀, BDI₁₅, BDI₂₀, and BDI₃₀ groups according to days of injury (5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 days). The morphological and histological changes of anastomotic stoma of hepaticojejunostomy (HJ) were observed after bile duct reconstruction. TGF-β1, α-SMA, and collagen of anastomotic stoma were detected. After HJ, the concentration of direct bilirubin decreased significantly, dropping to 50% after one week, and returning to normal levels after three weeks. The anastomotic diameter shrunk from 1.5 cm to 0.6 cm without significant difference. At 3 months and 6 months after HJ, the expression of TGF-β in the anastomotic tissue in BDI₅ group was higher than that in BDI₁₀, BDI₁₅, BDI₂₀, and BDI₃₀ groups. However, no significant differences were observed (F = 1.282, P > 0.05 at 3 months; F = 1.308, P > 0.05 at 6 months). Similarly, the expression of α-SMA and collagen did not vary significantly. For obstructive BDI, repairing time is not a relevant factor for postoperative anastomotic stenosis, but surgeons and operation methods are the key factors. For patients with BDI, hospitals should focus on the experience of surgeons and the choice of operation methods in order to achieve a good long-term effect.

  2. Hepatic synthesis and urinary elimination of acetaminophen glucuronide are exacerbated in bile duct-ligated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Silvina S M; Ruiz, María L; Ghanem, Carolina I; Luquita, Marcelo G; Catania, Viviana A; Mottino, Aldo D

    2008-03-01

    Renal and intestinal disposition of acetaminophen glucuronide (APAP-GLU), a common substrate for multidrug resistance-associated proteins 2 and 3 (Mrp2 and Mrp3), was assessed in bile duct-ligated rats (BDL) 7 days after surgery using an in vivo perfused jejunum model with simultaneous urine collection. Doses of 150 mg/kg b.w. (i.v.) or 1 g/kg b.w. (i.p.) of acetaminophen (APAP) were administered, and its glucuronide was determined in bile (only Shams), urine, and intestinal perfusate throughout a 150-min period. Intestinal excretion of APAP-GLU was unchanged or decreased (-58%) by BDL for the 150 mg and 1 g/kg b.w. doses of APAP, respectively. In contrast, renal excretion was increased by 200 and 320%, respectively. Western studies revealed decreased levels of apical Mrp2 in liver and jejunum but increased levels in renal cortex from BDL animals, whereas Mrp3 was substantially increased in liver and not affected in kidney or intestine. The global synthesis of APAP-GLU, determined as the sum of cumulative excretions, was higher in BDL rats (+51 and +110%) for these same doses of APAP as a consequence of a significant increase in functional liver mass, with no changes in specific glucuronidating activity. Expression of apical breast cancer resistance protein, which also transports nontoxic metabolites of APAP, was decreased by BDL in liver and renal cortex, suggesting a minor participation of this route. We demonstrate a more efficient hepatic synthesis and basolateral excretion of APAP-GLU followed by its urinary elimination in BDL group, the latter two processes consistent with up-regulation of liver Mrp3 and renal Mrp2.

  3. A single institution report of 19 hepatocellular carcinoma patients with bile duct tumor thrombus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chotirosniramit A

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Anon Chotirosniramit, Akkaphod Liwattanakun, Worakitti Lapisatepun, Wasana Ko-iam, Trichak Sandhu, Sunhawit Junrungsee Division of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand Background: Obstructive jaundice caused due to bile duct tumor thrombus (BDTT in a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC patient is an uncommon event. This study reports our clinical experiences and evaluates the outcomes of HCC patients with BDTT in a single institution. Methods: A retrospective review of 19 HCC patients with secondary obstructive jaundice caused due to BDTT during a 15-year period was conducted. Results: At the time of diagnosis, 14 (73.7% patients had obstructive jaundice. Eighteen (94.7% patients were preoperatively suspected of “obstruction of the bile duct”. Sixteen patients (84.2% underwent a hepatectomy with curative intent, while two patients underwent removal of BDTT combined with biliary decompression and another patient received only palliative care as his liver reserve and general condition could not tolerate the primary tumor resection. The overall early recurrence (within 1 year after hepatectomy occurred in more than half (9/16, 56.3% of our patients. The 1-year survival rate of patients was 75% (12/16. The longest disease-free survival time was >11 years. Conclusion: Identification of HCC patients with obstructive jaundice is clinically important because proper treatment can offer an opportunity for a cure and favorable long-term survival. Keywords: hepatocellular carcinoma, biliary thrombosis, hepatectomy, recurrence, survival

  4. Predictors of outcome after reconstructive hepatico-jejunostomy for post cholecystectomy bile duct injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Rachel M; Doctor, Nilesh H

    2015-01-01

    Reconstructive hepatico-jejunostomy is recommended for major bile duct injuries (BDIs) during cholecystectomy. Complications of biliary leak, cholangitis, bleeding, anastomotic strictures and biliary cirrhosis remain a major concern affecting a patient's outcome after surgery. The aim of this study was to analyse the results of surgical repair of major BDIs at our institution and identify predictors for the development of major complications. A retrospective study of 57 patients with major BDI after cholecystectomy referred to a tertiary hepato-biliary centre from July 1999 to July 2011 and subsequently managed with reconstructive bilio-enteric anastomosis was performed. Of 57 patents 35 (61.4%) were primary referred. 22 (38.6 %) were secondary referred, of which 17 were for correct reconstructive surgery performed elsewhere and 5 were following attempted endoscopic management. 17 (29.8%) had local and systemic perioperative complications. 13 (22.8%) had major complications (bile leak, bleed, stricture and/or biliary cirrhosis). No association was found between age, type of cholecystectomy, type of injury, vascular injury and occurrence of major complications. Secondarily referred patients after therapeutic interventions (p = 0.010) and reconstructive surgery after repair performed by non-specialists suffered an increased incidence of major complications (p = 0.032). Secondary referral was also an independent predictor of major complications (p = 0.024). Early referral of patients with no previous intervention to a tertiary hepato-biliary center and specialist surgical repair is recommended for improved outcome after reconstructive hepatico-jejunostomy for major BDIs during cholecystectomy.

  5. Size of common bile duct stones on MRCP predicts likelihood of positive findings at ERCP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, J; Dolan, R; Patel, M; Fleming, R; Young, D; Hair, A

    2017-06-01

    To ascertain if direct measurement of the size of common bile duct stones (CBD) on magnetic resonance cholangio-pancreatography (MRCP) can be used to predict the likelihood of a positive endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (ERCP) result. Should we be carrying out ERCPs on all patients with CBD stones? We retrospectively analysed the records of 1812 consecutive patients undergoing MRCP between November 2009 and November 2014 at the Victoria Infirmary. A measurable CBD stone was present in 383 patients, of whom 293 successfully underwent ERCP. 221 patients (75%) had stones demonstrated on ERCP. A receiver operating curve (ROC) was plotted correlating stone size with the likelihood of a positive ERCP result, and demonstrates that using a cut off of >4 mm as an indication for ERCP gives the mathematical best-fit correlation with a sensitivity of 83% (95% CI 78-88) and specificity of 66% (95% CI 53-77). In our current practice, all patients with CBD stones at MRCP are considered for ERCP regardless of stone size. Our results would support the hypothesis that as size decreases the likelihood of spontaneous stone passage increases. Although the threshold of mathematical best compromise is >4 mm to minimise both type 1 and type 2 errors, we would favour a lower threshold of 2 mm above which ERCP is performed (sensitivity 98.65, 95% CI 96.1-99.7, specificity 25.71%, CI 16.0-37.6). For patients with stones measuring 2 mm or less, early operative intervention with intraoperative cholangiography to confirm duct clearance could be a suitable alternative. Copyright © 2015 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Trends in cancer of the liver, gall bladder, bile duct, and pancreas in elderly in Denmark, 1980-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Jon Kroll; Mortensen, Michael Bau; Pfeiffer, Per

    2016-01-01

    Background Cancers of the liver, bile duct, gall bladder and pancreas (HPB-c) are a heterogeneous group, united almost exclusively by a poor prognosis. As the number of elderly in the Western world continues to rise and HPB-c are associated with age, we wanted to examine changes in incidence...... of cancer of the gall bladder and bile duct decreased. All HBP-c were more frequent in persons over the age of 70 than in younger persons. The relative one- and five-year survival rose in most HPB-c, but mainly occurring in the younger population of 0-69 years with only small to no gains in the 80 + group.......Conclusion As the number of persons aged 80 years or more will increase dramatically in the following years, and our results show a gap in relative survival, it is important to continue to study this population in order to improve management and outcome....

  7. Descriptive study of gallbladder, extrahepatic bile duct, and ampullary cancers in the United States, 1997-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, M T; Yamamoto, Jennifer

    2007-05-01

    Few investigations of biliary tract (gallbladder, extrahepatic bile duct, ampulla of Vater) cancers have been conducted because of the relative rarity of these malignancies. The objective of this analysis was to compare the demographic, pathological, and clinical features of biliary tract cancers among men and women. Biliary tract cancers among 11,261 men and 15,722 women were identified through 33 US population-based registries during the period 1997-2002. These registries were estimated to represent 61% of the US population. Age-adjusted incidence rates (AAIR) were calculated per 100,000 population using counts derived from the 2000 US census. The AAIR for gallbladder cancer among men (0.82 per 100,000) was significantly lower than the AAIR among women (1.45 per 100,000). By contrast, rates for extrahepatic bile duct and ampullary cancers were significantly higher among men (0.93 per 100,000 and 0.70 per 100,000, respectively) than among women (0.61 per 100,000 and 0.45 per 100,000, respectively). White men and women had significantly lower AAIRs for gallbladder cancer compared with other racial-ethnic groups, with the highest rates among Hispanics, American Indian-Alaska Natives, and Asian-Pacific Islanders. Asian-Pacific Islanders and Hispanics of both sexes had the highest AAIRs for extrahepatic bile duct and ampullary cancers. Ampullary tumors were more likely to be diagnosed at a localized or regional stage than were cancers of the gallbladder and extrahepatic bile duct. Asian-Pacific Islander men and women tended to have more unstaged cancers than other groups. This population-based study suggests distinct etiologies of anatomic subsites of biliary tract cancer and caution against analytic investigations of all biliary tract cancers combined.

  8. Matrix proteins of basement membrane of intrahepatic bile ducts are degraded in congenital hepatic fibrosis and Caroli's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasoshima, Mitsue; Sato, Yasunori; Furubo, Shinichi; Kizawa, Kazuo; Sanzen, Takahiro; Ozaki, Satoru; Harada, Kenichi; Nakanuma, Yasuni

    2009-02-01

    Congenital hepatic fibrosis (CHF) and Caroli's disease are though to result from ductal plate malformation, and the basal laminar components play important roles in biliary differentiation during development. To clarify the involvement of basal laminar components in the ductal plate malformation, this study examined the immunohistochemical expression of laminin and type IV collagen in the livers of CHF and Caroli's disease. Using the polycystic kidney (PCK) rat, an animal model of Caroli's disease with CHF, in vivo and in vitro experiments were also performed. Immunostaining showed that basement membrane expression of laminin and type IV collagen around intrahepatic bile ducts was degraded in CHF, Caroli's disease, and the PCK rats. The degradation of laminin and type IV collagen around bile ducts was also observed in foci of cholangiocarcinoma in situ of Caroli's disease. In vitro, PCK cholangiocytes were found to overexpress plasminogen and a serine proteinase, the tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA). When PCK cholangiocytes were cultured in Matrigel, the amounts of laminin and collagen in the gel were significantly reduced, and addition of alpha2-antiplasmin in the culture medium inhibited the degradation of laminin and collagen in Matrigel. These results suggest that biliary overexpression of plasminogen and tPA leads to the generation of excessive amounts of plasmin, and subsequent plasmin-dependent lysis of the extracellular matrix molecules may contribute to the biliary dysgenesis in CHF and Caroli's disease, including progressive cystic dilatation of the intrahepatic bile ducts in Caroli's disease. In addition, it is suggested that once cholangiocarcinoma in situ develops in the biliary epithelium of CHF and Caroli's disease, it tends to transform into invasive carcinoma, due to instability of the basement membrane of the bile ducts.

  9. Efficiency of the confocal method of laser endomicroscopy in complex diagnoses of diseases of common bile duct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaskin, S. G.; Panchenkov, D. N.; Chertyuk, V. B.; Sazonov, D. V.; Zabozlayev, F. G.; Danilevskaya, O. V.; Mokshina, N. V.; Korniletsky, I. D.

    2017-01-01

    One of the more frequent manifestations of diseases of the bile ducts are its’ strictures or stenoses that could be of either malignant or benign nature. Current methods of diagnosing this pathology include computer tomography (CT) scan, magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP), endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). However, these methods are not always informative, which makes this a current and topical problem. A fundamentally new method that broadens the capabilities of ERCP when diagnosing diseases of the bile duct accompanied by the development of strictures or stenoses is probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE). The method is based on the principle of confocal fluorescence microscopy. The most elaborate complications arise with the presence of the pre-existing pancreatobiliary pathology: pseudotumoral chronic pancreatitis, acute cholangitis, etc. Early stage cholangiocarcinoma diagnosis can be difficult (and not always possible) even with the help of modern research methods. For the timely diagnostic it is advantageous to conduct pCLE and targeted biopsy of the zone with most manifested changes. In all instances, the first use of the pCLE method for diagnostic purposes allowed us to clarify and correctly verify the diagnosis. When concerning the diseases of the bile duct, the modern stage of pCLE development can be of critical importance when other methods are not effective.

  10. One-stage robotic-assisted laparoscopic cholecystectomy and common bile duct exploration with primary closure in 5 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Wen-bin; Zhao, Zhi-ming; Dong, Jia-hong; Wang, Hong-guang; Lu, Fang; Lu, Hong-wei

    2011-04-01

    Surgical robotic systems are superior to traditional laparoscopic technologies with regard to generation of 3-dimensional images, and they also offer better instrumentation. Here, we report on our early results for 1-stage robot-assisted laparoscopic cholecystectomy and laparoscopic common bile duct exploration with primary closure. From March 2009 to July 2009, five consecutive patients underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy and laparoscopic common bile duct exploration with primary closure assisted by the da Vinci robotic system. Patient demographics, intraoperative findings, postoperative complications, and length of postoperative hospital stay were recorded and analyzed. No patient required conversion to laparotomy or conventional laparoscopy. The average robotic console time was 176.0±32.1 minutes. One female patient developed postoperative pulmonary infection that was successfully treated medically; the others' postoperative courses were uneventful. The average length of postoperative stay was 5.8±2.5 days. At follow up, all 5 patients were free of recurrent stones. Robotic-assisted laparoscopic cholecystectomy and laparoscopic common bile duct exploration with primary closure are effective and safe for selected patients. Future experience is needed to further study the efficacy and role of this novel approach.

  11. Intrapancreatic bile duct metastasis from colon cancer after resection of liver metastasis with intrabiliary growth: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakatsu, Shoji; Kaneoka, Yuji; Maeda, Atsuyuki; Takayama, Yuichi; Fukami, Yasuyuki; Onoe, Shunsuke

    2015-08-21

    An extremely rare case of intrapancreatic bile duct metastasis from sigmoid colon adenocarcinoma is herein presented. Sigmoid colon cancer (T3, N0, M0, stage IIA) had been diagnosed and treated by sigmoidectomy in October 1993. In December 2002, a liver metastasis with intrabiliary growth was found, and this was treated by extended right hepatic lobectomy and caudate lobectomy with extrahepatic bile duct resection. In February 2014, intrapancreatic bile duct metastasis was found, and this was treated by subtotal stomach-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy. The intrapancreatic metastasis was judged to have arisen from cancer cell implantation, either by spontaneous shedding of cancer cells or as a complication of percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage. Twelve months have passed since the last surgical intervention, and there has been no sign of local recurrence or distant metastasis. Differential diagnosis between intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and intrabiliary growth of a liver metastasis originating from colorectal adenocarcinoma is difficult but very important for determining the therapeutic strategy. Careful examination is needed to diagnose intrahepatic biliary dilatation, especially for patients with a history of carcinoma in the digestive tract and even if years have passed since curative resection of the digestive tract cancer. Aggressive surgical management for localized recurrence of a hepatic metastasis from colorectal adenocarcinoma may improve patient survival.

  12. Successfully-treated advanced bile duct cancer of donor origin after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation by pancreaticoduodenectomy: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruki, Koichiro; Shiba, Hiroaki; Futagawa, Yasuro; Wakiyama, Shigeki; Misawa, Takeyuki; Yanaga, Katsuhiko

    2014-07-01

    Secondary malignancies are one of the late complications observed in long-term survivors of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). However, reports on secondary non-hematopoietic solid tumors derived from donor cells is extremely rare. We herein report a successfully-treated case of advanced bile duct cancer of donor-origin after allogeneic HSCT. A 44-year-old man was diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia. When he achieved the third complete response, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells of one-mismatch female donor were transplanted at the age of 50 years. Post-transplant acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease was treated by increased immunosuppression. At the age of 59, the patient was diagnosed with lower bile duct cancer and underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy with lymph node dissection. Pathological findings revealed a well-differentiated adenocarcinoma of the bile duct. Additional fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis revealed female patterns of the tumor cells, which suggested that the tumor cells originated from the donor. The patient had a satisfactory recovery, and received adjuvant chemotherapy with S-1. He remains well with no evidence of tumor recurrence as of one year after resection. Copyright© 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  13. Preoperative Change in Peripheral Blood Monocyte Count May Predict Long-term Outcomes After Pancreaticoduodenectomy for Bile Duct Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruki, Koichiro; Shiba, Hiroaki; Horiuchi, Takashi; Shirai, Yoshihiro; Iwase, Ryota; Fujiwara, Yuki; Furukawa, Kenei; Misawa, Takeyuki; Yanaga, Katsuhiko

    2015-09-01

    The perioperative immunological response predicts long-term outcomes after resection for malignant tumors. The aim of the study was to evaluate the significance of perioperative change in the peripheral blood monocyte count regarding therapeutic outcome after pancreaticoduodenectomy for bile duct cancer. The study comprised of 51 patients who had undergone pancreaticoduodenectomy for bile duct cancer between January 2000 and December 2012. We retrospectively investigated the relation between perioperative change in peripheral blood monocyte count and disease-free as well as overall survival. In multivariate analysis, advanced TNM stage, and decrease in monocyte count on postoperative day 1 in comparison with those before surgery were independent and significant predictors of poor disease-free survival and overall survival (p=0.014 and 0.004, and 0.010 and 0.006, respectively). Perioperative change in peripheral blood monocyte count is an independent and significant indicator of therapeutic outcome after pancreaticoduodenectomy in patients with bile duct cancer. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  14. Bile duct carcinoma associated with congenital biliary dilatation in a 16-year-old female: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Hideki; Yazawa, Naoki; Furukawa, Daisuke; Masuoka, Yoshihito; Yamada, Misuzu; Mashiko, Taro; Kawashima, Yohei; Ogawa, Masami; Kawaguchi, Yoshiaki; Mine, Tetsuya; Hirabayashi, Kenichi; Nakagohri, Toshio

    2016-12-01

    We encountered a very rare case of bile duct carcinoma associated with congenital biliary dilatation (CBD) in a 16-year-old female who was admitted to our hospital because of right upper abdominal pain and vomiting. Abdominal computed tomography demonstrated a cystic dilatation of the common bile duct measuring 7 cm in diameter and two enhanced tumors 4 cm in diameter located in the inferior bile duct and middle bile duct. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography clearly demonstrated a cystic dilatation of the extrahepatic bile duct (Todani's CBD classification: type 4-A). Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography also revealed two tumors. Biopsy results of one of the tumors confirmed adenocarcinoma. Excision of the perihilar bile duct and subtotal stomach-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy with dissection of the major lymph nodes were performed. A postoperative histopathologic examination revealed a well-differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma, which remained within the mucosal layer, and no lymph node metastasis was found. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient was discharged 10 days after surgery and has remained disease-free for 21 months.

  15. Cannabidiol ameliorates cognitive and motor impairments in mice with bile duct ligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magen, Iddo; Avraham, Yosefa; Ackerman, Zvi; Vorobiev, Lia; Mechoulam, Raphael; Berry, Elliot M

    2009-09-01

    The endocannabinoid system in mice plays a role in models of human cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy (HE), induced by a hepatotoxin. We report now the therapeutic effects of cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychoactive constituent of Cannabis sativa, on HE caused by bile duct ligation (BDL), a model of chronic liver disease. CBD (5mg/kg; i.p.) was administered over 4weeks to mice that had undergone BDL. Cognitive function in the eight arm maze and the T-maze tests, as well as locomotor function in the open field test were impaired by the ligation and were improved by CBD. BDL raised hippocampal expression of the TNF-alpha-receptor 1 gene, which was reduced by CBD. However, BDL reduced expression of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene, which was increased by CBD. The effects of CBD on cognition, locomotion and on TNF-alpha receptor 1 expression were blocked by ZM241385, an A(2)A adenosine receptor antagonist. BDL lowers the expression of this receptor. The effects of BDL apparently result in part from down-regulation of A(2)A adenosine receptor. CBD reverses these effects through activation of this receptor, leading to compensation of the ligation effect.

  16. Quality of life in bile duct injury: 1-, 5-, and 10-year outcomes after surgical repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez-Rosado, Ismael; Mercado, Miguel Angel; Kauffman, Christopher; Ramirez-del Val, Fernando; Elnecavé-Olaiz, Alejandro; Zamora-Valdés, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    Quality of life after bile duct injury is a relevant health issue besides physician-oriented outcomes. A prospective study was performed to explore short- and long-term outcomes after surgical repair. We studied a cohort of patients with Strasberg E injuries who underwent Roux-en-Y jejunal anastomosis from 1990 to 2008. The Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) was selected as the appropriate quality of life assessment instrument. Two groups were comprised: Group I included patients with 10-year follow-up after surgery. Group II included patients operated during 2008 with preoperative 1- and 5-year questionnaires. Group I patients (N = 41) were operated from 1990 to 2003 and Group II (N = 44) during 2008. There is a significant improvement in quality of life after the first year of repair in all domains. Readmissions (48 vs 25 %; p colangitis (46 vs 14 %; p < 0.001), and hepatojejunal redo (26 vs. 4 %; p < 0.0001) were less frequent in Group II. No differences in quality of life summary scores were found between Group I and II. Quality of life improves significantly after the first year of surgical repair, reaching a plateau at 5 years. No correlation exists with physician-centered outcomes.

  17. Analysis of Wire-Guided Hemostasis Introducer for Percutaneous Therapy of Bile Duct Stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollenbach, Marcus; Feisthammel, Jürgen; Mössner, Joachim; Hoffmeister, Albrecht

    2018-02-09

    Bile duct stones (BDS) are usually removed via endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) or, if ERCP remains unsuccessful, percutaneous transhepatic cholangiodrainage (PTCD). However, PTCD provides limited access to large BDSs. We analyzed a modified approach of PTCD for percutaneous therapy of BDS. We used a modified approach of PTCD with a 13-french (Fr) hemostasis introducer for transhepatic access to BDS. Short-wired balloon or basket catheter were applied for safe removal of BDS. Patient characteristics, effectiveness, and complications were analyzed. We identified 11 patients who underwent PTCD with hemostasis introducer. BDSs were either pushed forward to the duodenum (36%) or both partly pushed and extracted via hemostasis introducer (64%). In some cases, mechanical lithotripsy was necessary (45%). Complete removal of BDS was initially achieved in 36% of patients, 45% received additional PTCD, and in 19% stent implantation was performed. Finally, all BDSs could be removed. Laboratory analysis revealed significant reduction of alkaline phosphatase (p = 0.03) and C reactive protein (p = 0.03). Complications occurred only in 1 patient with post-interventional cholangitis. Our study showed feasibility and safety of a modified PTCD with hemostasis introducer. In addition, protection of liver tissue from sharp-edged catheters and stones was achieved. Therefore, our modification revealed an innovational approach for transhepatic removal of BDS. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. N-acetyl-l-cysteine Prevents Bile Duct Ligation Induced Renal Injury by Modulating Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhir, Rajat; Kaur, Sandeep; Dhanda, Saurabh

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) on bile duct ligation (BDL) induced oxidative stress in kidneys. Male Wistar rats were randomly segregated into four groups; sham control (SC), SC + NAC, BDL and BDL + NAC group. Liver damage was induced following BDL and renal injury was assessed by kidney function tests along with lipid peroxidation, nitrite levels, thiols and antioxidant enzymes. Three weeks after BDL, rats developed renal dysfunction in terms of elevated serum creatinine levels. BDL animals exhibited an increase in lipid peroxidation, reduction in thiols and redox ratio in liver and kidney tissue along with altered antioxidant enzymes in kidneys. BDL animals that were orally administered NAC at a daily dose 100 mg/kg for duration of two weeks, showed significant reduction in serum creatinine levels. NAC was effective in lowering lipid peroxidation and was able to restore thiol levels along with GSH/GSSG ratio in both liver and kidneys along with the activity of antioxidant enzymes in the kidneys of BDL animals. The results clearly demonstrate the efficacy of NAC in attenuating oxidative stress in kidneys, suggesting a therapeutic role for NAC in individuals with renal dysfunction following BDL.

  19. Risk Factors for Recurrence of Symptomatic Common Bile Duct Stones after Cholecystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Hyun Oak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The recurrence of CBD stone is still observed in a considerable number of patients. The study was to evaluate the risk factors for recurrence of symptomatic CBD stone in patients who underwent cholecystectomy after the removal of CBD stone. Methods. The medical records of patients who underwent removal of CBD stone with subsequent cholecystectomy were reviewed. The risk factors for the recurrence of symptomatic CBD stone were compared between the recurrence and the nonrecurrence group. Results. The mean follow-up period was 40.6 months. The recurrence of symptomatic CBD stones was defined as the detection of bile duct stones no sooner than 6 months after complete clearance of CBD stones, based on symptoms or signs of biliary complication. 144 patients (68 males, 47.2% were finally enrolled and their mean age was 59.8 (range: 26~86 years. The recurrence of CBD stone occurred in 15 patients (10.4%. The mean period until first recurrence was 25.9 months. The presence of type 1 or 2 periampullary diverticulum and multiple CBD stones were the independent risk factors. Conclusion. For the patients with type 1 or 2 periampullary diverticulum or multiple CBD stones, careful followup is needed for the risk in recurrence of symptomatic CBD stone.

  20. Dilation Time in Endoscopic Papillary Balloon Dilation for Common Bile Duct Stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yong-Hua; Yang, Liu-Qing; Yao, Yu-Ling; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Yi-Yang; Cao, Jun; He, Qi-Bin; Zou, Xiao-Ping; Li, Yun-Hong

    2017-10-01

    To assess the short-term outcomes after endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) plus endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) versus EPBD alone and appropriate balloon dilation time in EPBD alone. A total of 413 patients with common bile duct stones (CBDSs) were included in the EST plus EPBD group and 84 were in the EPBD alone group. We retrospectively evaluated the safety and efficacy between EST plus EPBD and EPBD alone group. The patients in EPBD alone group were assigned to dilation time ≥5 minutes group (n=35) and time dilation time on the procedure-related complications. Compared with EST plus EPBD, the patients in EPBD alone group were younger [56.6 (range: 18 to 95) vs. 65.1 (24 to 92) y; P=0.006], had smaller diameter of the largest stone [10.4 (range: 3 to 20) vs. 12.3 (5 to 30) mm; Pdilation time dilation time ≥5 minutes group had less procedure-related hemorrhage than the EST plus EPBD group [0 vs. 36 (8.7%); P=0.047]. Long balloon dilation time in EPBD alone is safe and effective in treating CBDSs.

  1. Molecular biomarkers in extrahepatic bile duct cancer patients undergoing chemoradiotherapy for gross residual disease after surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Hyeon Kang; Kim, Kyu Bo; Chie, Eui Kyu; Ha, Sung W. [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hae Jin [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Soonchunhyang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    To analyze the outcomes of chemoradiotherapy for extrahepatic bile duct (EHBD) cancer patients who underwent R2 resection or bypass surgery and to identify prognostic factors affecting clinical outcomes, especially in terms of molecular biomarkers. Medical records of 21 patients with EHBD cancer who underwent R2 resection or bypass surgery followed by chemoradiotherapy from May 2001 to June 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. All surgical specimens were re-evaluated by immunohistochemical staining using phosphorylated protein kinase B (pAKT), CD24, matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9), survivin, and {beta}-catenin antibodies. The relationship between clinical outcomes and immunohistochemical results was investigated. At a median follow-up of 20 months, the actuarial 2-year locoregional progression-free, distant metastasis-free and overall survival were 37%, 56%, and 54%, respectively. On univariate analysis using clinicopathologic factors, there was no significant prognostic factor. In the immunohistochemical staining, cytoplasmic staining, and nuclear staining of pAKT was positive in 10 and 6 patients, respectively. There were positive CD24 in 7 patients, MMP9 in 16 patients, survivin in 8 patients, and {beta}-catenin in 3 patients. On univariate analysis, there was no significant value of immunohistochemical results for clinical outcomes. There was no significant association between clinical outcomes of patients with EHBD cancer who received chemoradiotherapy after R2 resection or bypass surgery and pAKT, CD24, MMP9, survivin, and {beta}-catenin. Future research is needed on a larger data set or with other molecular biomarkers.

  2. The bile duct ligated rat: A relevant model to study muscle mass loss in cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosoi, Cristina R; Oliveira, Mariana M; Ochoa-Sanchez, Rafael; Tremblay, Mélanie; Ten Have, Gabriella A; Deutz, Nicolaas E; Rose, Christopher F; Bemeur, Chantal

    2017-04-01

    Muscle mass loss and hepatic encephalopathy (complex neuropsychiatric disorder) are serious complications of chronic liver disease (cirrhosis) which impact negatively on clinical outcome and quality of life and increase mortality. Liver disease leads to hyperammonemia and ammonia toxicity is believed to play a major role in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. However, the effects of ammonia are not brain-specific and therefore may also affect other organs and tissues including muscle. The precise pathophysiological mechanisms underlying muscle wasting in chronic liver disease remains to be elucidated. In the present study, we characterized body composition as well as muscle protein synthesis in cirrhotic rats with hepatic encephalopathy using the 6-week bile duct ligation (BDL) model which recapitulates the main features of cirrhosis. Compared to sham-operated control animals, BDL rats display significant decreased gain in body weight, altered body composition, decreased gastrocnemius muscle mass and circumference as well as altered muscle morphology. Muscle protein synthesis was also significantly reduced in BDL rats compared to control animals. These findings demonstrate that the 6-week BDL experimental rat is a relevant model to study liver disease-induced muscle mass loss.

  3. Life-threatening complications of impacted common bile duct lithiasis. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, Lidia; Timofte, D; Savin, M; Fotea, V; Dănilă, R

    2015-01-01

    Impacted common bile duct (CBD) lithiasis poses therapeutical challenges and repeated attempts of removal may result in life-threatening complications. CASE REPORT. A 45 year-old female patient was admitted in emergency for right upper quadrant abdominal pain and jaundice. Clinical, lab data, abdominal ultrasound (US) and cholangio-MRI established the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis and obstructive jaundice due to distal CBD lithiasis. Endoscopic retrograde colangiopancreatography (ERCP) confirmed the presence of a distal CBD stone but extraction failed. The patient was operated on and surgical procedure consisted of cholecistectomy, intraoperative cholangiography and a side-to-side choledocho-duodenal anastomosis was performed because all attempts to extract the stone through choledocotomy or duodenotomy and enlargement of endoscopic shincterotomy failed. The postoperative course was endangered by a severe pancreatitis, a massive upper digestive bleeding and portal vein thrombosis that responded to conservative management in the intensive care unit. The patient was discharged after 34 days in good clinical condition and approximately 9 months later was readmitted electively for an incisional hernia. Apart from this, physical examination, lab tests and imagistic studies were normal; the patient was operated and rapidly discharged in good condition. In conclusion, the management of CBD lithiasis may be a serious challenge both for interventional endoscopists and surgeons and require a concerted team effort.

  4. Quality of life after iatrogenic bile duct injury: a case control study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hogan, Aisling M

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare quality of life (QOL) of patients following iatrogenic bile duct injuries (BDI) to matched controls. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: BDI complicate approximately 0.3% of all cholecystectomy procedures. The literature regarding impact on quality of life is conflicted as assessment using clinical determinants alone is insufficient. METHODS: The medical outcomes study short form 36 (SF-36), a sensitive tool for quantification of life quality outcome, was used. The study group of iatrogenic BDI was compared with an age- and sex-matched group who underwent uncomplicated cholecystectomy. Telephone questionnaire using the SF-36 quality of life tool was administered to both groups at a median postoperative time of 12 years 8 months (range, 2 months -20 years). RESULTS: Seventy-eight patients were referred with BDI but due to mortality (n = 10) and unavailability (n = 6) 62 participated. The age- and sex-matched control cohort had undergone uncomplicated cholecystectomy (n = 62). Comparison between groups revealed that 7 of 8 variables examined were statistically similar to those of the control group (physical functioning, role physical, bodily pain, general health perceptions, vitality and social functioning, and mental health index). Mean role emotional scores were slightly worse in the BDI group (46 vs. 50) but the significance was borderline (P = 0.045). Subgroup analysis by method of intervention for BDI did not demonstrate significant differences. CONCLUSION: Quality of life of surviving patients following BDI compares favorably to that after uncomplicated laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

  5. Diagnostic value of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography to detect bile duct stones in acute biliary pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su-Lim; Kim, Hyung-Keun; Choi, Hyun-Ho; Jeon, Bu-Seok; Kim, Tae-Hyung; Choi, Jong-Min; Ku, Young-Mi; Kim, Sang-Woo; Kim, Sung-Soo; Chae, Hiun-Suk

    2017-12-09

    This study aims to evaluate the diagnostic value of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) in detecting common bile duct (CBD) stones in acute biliary pancreatitis (ABP). The medical records of patients presenting with ABP from January 2008 to July 2013 were reviewed to assess the value of MRCP in detecting CBD stones in ABP. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) was used as the reference standard to assess the diagnostic yield of MRCP in detecting choledocholithiasis. When ERCP was unavailable, intraoperative cholangiography or clinical follow-up was used as the reference standard. Seventy-eight patients who underwent MRCP were diagnosed with ABP, and thirty of the 78 patients (38%) were confirmed to have CBD stones per the study protocol. The sensitivity of MRCP in detecting CBD stones in ABP was 93.3% compared to 66.7% for abdominal CT (P ABP and can help identify patients who require ERCP. Copyright © 2017 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Risk factors for the late development of common bile duct stones after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoo Shin; Do, Jae Hyuk; Suh, Suk Won; Lee, Seung Eun; Kang, Hyun; Park, Hyun Jeong

    2017-11-01

    The development of common bile duct (CBD) stones after laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) could be a stressful event for surgeons and patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the risk factors for and the time of occurrence of CBD stones, which are detected at a certain period after LC in patients who have no history of having CBD stone before operation. A total of 1938 patients who underwent LC for benign gallbladder lesion were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were categorized into two groups according to the development of CBD stones at least 6 months after LC (case group, control group). The risk factors for and the time of development of CBD stones after LC were evaluated. In a univariate analysis, the significant factors for the development of CBD stones were old age, acute cholecystitis, the presence of periampullary diverticulum, and the presence of gall bladder stones sized development of CBD stones at least 6 months after LC. The time intervals of the development of CBD stones had evenly distributed during 50 months after LC. This study suggested that the surgeon should inform the possibility of the development of CBD stones who have the identified risk factors.

  7. Endoscopic Management of the Difficult Bile Duct Stones: A Single Tertiary Center Experience

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    Bülent Ödemiş

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Most common bile duct (CBD stones can be removed with standard techniques using endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP, but in some cases additional methods are needed. In this study we aimed to investigate the management of patients with difficult stones and the factors that affect the outcome of patients that have undergone periodic endobiliary stenting. Materials and Methods. Data of 1529 patients with naive papilla who had undergone ERCP with an indication of CBD stones was evaluated retrospectively. Stones that could not be removed with standard techniques were defined as “difficult stones.” Cholangiograms of patients who had difficult stones were revised prospectively. Results. Two hundred and eight patients (13.6% had difficult stones; 150 of these patients were followed up with periodic endobiliary stenting and successful biliary clearance was achieved in 85.3% of them. Both CBD (p<0.001 and largest stone size (p<0.001 were observed to be significantly reduced between the first and the last procedure. This difference was even more significant in successfully treated patients. Conclusions. Periodic endobiliary stenting can be used as an effective treatment for patients with difficult stones. Sizes of the CBD and of the largest stone are independent risk factors that affect the success rate.

  8. Clinical effect of laparoscopic reoperation combined with choledochoscope in treatment of intra- and extrahepatic bile duct stones: analysis of 35 cases

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    WU Liming

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the feasibility and safety of laparoscopic reoperation combined with choledochoscope in the treatment of intra- and extrahepatic bile duct stones. MethodsThe 35 patients with intra- and extrahepatic bile duct stones who underwent laparoscopic bile duct reoperation from January 2008 to May 2012 were selected as a laparoscopic treatment group; 50 patients with recurrent intra- and extrahepatic bile duct stones who underwent open surgery in the same period were selected as an open surgery group. The t-test was used to compare the two groups in terms of off-bed activity early after operation, recovery of intestinal function, and length of hospital stay; the chi-square test was used to compare the incision infection rate between the two groups. ResultsAmong the 35 cases of intra- and extrahepatic bile duct stones, 32 completed laparoscopic surgery, 2 had the procedure converted to open surgery due to severe adhesion, and 1 had the procedure converted to open surgery due to subcutaneous emphysema. In the laparoscopic treatment group, the mean operative time of laparoscopic bile duct reoperation was 148 min (range, 105-200 min; there were no bleeding and bile leak in the perioperative period. All patients underwent T-tube drainage; postoperative peritoneal drainage was performed for 2-5 d; the mean length of hospital stay after operation was 5-8 d. No case of incision infection occurred in the laparoscopic treatment group. The laparoscopic treatment group had a significantly better outcome than the open surgery group in terms of time to off-bed activity early after operation, time to recovery of intestinal function, length of hospital stay after operation, and incision infection rate (P<0.05. In the laparoscopic treatment group, 3 cases had retained bile duct stones, and the stones were taken out through the sinus tract using a fiber choledochoscope at 2 months after operation. All cases were followed up for 6-24 months after

  9. Macroscopical and microscopical studies of the common bile duct in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L

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    Timo Rahko

    1990-08-01

    Full Text Available The histological structure and secretory function of the common bile duct (ductus hepaticus communis has not been previously described in reindeer. Macroscopical studies were thus performed in 25 reindeer to reveal the morphology and topography of the ductus hepaticus communis and adjoining organs. Histologic structure of the common bile duct was investigated in 20 animals. Our studies showed that the ductus hepaticus communis and pancreaticus join about 2 cm before the duodenal opening to form the common duct. The common bile duct is an elastic tube about 3 to 5 cm long and 2 to 3 mm thick partly surrounded by fat and pancreatic tissues. The wall of the duct, being about 1 mm thick by light microscopy, consisted of folded mucosa surrounded by connective tissue fibres and a serosal layer. Distally, also muscular bands were seen. In some areas separate leucocytes and even lymphatic nodules were present. Surprisingly pancreatic acini occurred in certain areas of the wall, even in close contact to subepithelial tissues. Mucosal epithelium consisted of surface and glandular epithelial cells with mucous secretion. Numerous intraepithelial globule leucocytes were identifiable within the lamina epithelialis.Tutkimus yhteisen sappikäytävän rakenteesta porolla.Abstract in Finnish / Yhteenveto: Yhteisen sappikäytävän (ductus hepaticus communis histologista rakennetta ja eritystoimintaa ei ole aikaisemmin kuvattu porolla. Makroskooppisia tutkimuksia suoritettiin 25 porolla yhteisen sappikäytävän rakenteen ja topografian selvittämiseksi. Seinämän histologinen rakenne selvitettiin 20 porolla. Tutkimukset osoittivat, että porolla ductus hepaticus communis ja ductus pancreaticus yhtyvät noin 2 cm ennen ohutsuolta muodostaakseen yhteisen tiehyeen. Ductus hepaticus communis on noin 3-5 cm pitkä ja 2-3 mm:n läpimittainen käytävä. Se on elastinen ja osit-tain rasva- ja haimakudoksen ympäröimä. Seinämä on mikroskooppisesti noin 1 mm paksu

  10. Bile Formation and Secretion

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    Boyer, James L.

    2014-01-01

    Bile is a unique and vital aqueous secretion of the liver that is formed by the hepatocyte and modified down stream by absorptive and secretory properties of the bile duct epithelium. Approximately 5% of bile consists of organic and inorganic solutes of considerable complexity. The bile-secretory unit consists of a canalicular network which is formed by the apical membrane of adjacent hepatocytes and sealed by tight junctions. The bile canaliculi (~1 μm in diameter) conduct the flow of bile countercurrent to the direction of portal blood flow and connect with the canal of Hering and bile ducts which progressively increase in diameter and complexity prior to the entry of bile into the gallbladder, common bile duct, and intestine. Canalicular bile secretion is determined by both bile salt-dependent and independent transport systems which are localized at the apical membrane of the hepatocyte and largely consist of a series of adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transport proteins that function as export pumps for bile salts and other organic solutes. These transporters create osmotic gradients within the bile canalicular lumen that provide the driving force for movement of fluid into the lumen via aquaporins. Species vary with respect to the relative amounts of bile salt-dependent and independent canalicular flow and cholangiocyte secretion which is highly regulated by hormones, second messengers, and signal transduction pathways. Most determinants of bile secretion are now characterized at the molecular level in animal models and in man. Genetic mutations serve to illuminate many of their functions. PMID:23897680

  11. The morbidity and mortality of hepaticojejunostomies for complex bile duct injuries: a multi-institutional analysis of risk factors and outcomes using NSQIP.

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    Ismael, Hishaam N; Cox, Steven; Cooper, Amanda; Narula, Nisha; Aloia, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Bile duct injury (BDI) is an infrequent but morbid complication of cholecystectomy. High-grade BDI repairs requiring hepaticojejunostomies are complex and associated with increased morbidity and mortality. This study sought to establish the increased risk associated with complex bile duct repair at a multi-institutional level in the United States. Using the ACS-NSQIP Participant Use File, all patients who underwent a hepaticojejunostomy for bile duct repair between 2005 and 2012 were identified. Clinical data, perioperative risk factors and morbidity and mortality rates were calculated. Of the 293 BDI patients, 102 (65.2%) were female and the mean age was 49.8 years. The 30-day morbidity and mortality rates were 26.3% and 2%, respectively. Univariable analysis identified male gender, ASA class, functional status, diabetes, hypertension and chronic steroid use to be associated with increased morbidity. A higher ASA class was associated with increased postoperative sepsis and chronic steroid use was associated with increased overall morbidity on multivariable analysis. The morbidity rates for BDI repair within 30 days of injury vs. later repair were similar (24% vs. 23%), but the mortality rate was higher for the earlier repair group (5% vs. 0%, p = 0.012). Within the largest multi-institutional analysis of 30-day outcomes after hepaticojejunostomies for BDI in the US, morbidity and mortality rates were established at 26.3% and 2% respectively. ASA class and preoperative functional status remain the main risk factors for surgery. Earlier repair in the face of ongoing sepsis and disability is associated with worse outcomes. A multidisciplinary approach at a specialized center aimed at controlling infection and improving functional status prior to surgical reconstruction is recommended. Copyright © 2017 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Reduced EBP50 expression levels are correlated with unfavorable clinicopathological features of extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma and promote the proliferation and migration of QBC939 cells

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    Feng, Duiping; Xiong, Ying; Peng, Zhiqiang; Ma, Qiang; Tao, Tao; Liu, Hua; Liang, Jianfang; Wei, Zhigang; Zheng, Junfang; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Hui

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to clarify the association between ezrin-radixin-moesin-binding phosphoprotein-50 (EBP50) expression level and the tumor phenotype and clinicopathological features of extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma. Tissue samples from patients with extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma (54 cases) and patients with normal bile duct epithelia from gallbladder of cholecystitis (20 cases) were collected, and immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the expression levels of EBP50 in these tissues. In addition, small interfering (si)RNA-EBP50 was used to knock down the expression of EBP50 in the QBC939 human cholangiocarcinoma (CC) cell line. The effect of EBP50 expression on QBC939 cell proliferation and migration was analyzed using the Cell Counting kit-8 and wound healing assays, respectively. EBP50 expression was significantly downregulated in CC tissue samples (P<0.01), with low EBP50 expression levels positively correlated with a high pathological stage and a poor differentiation degree (P<0.01 and P<0.001, respectively). EBP50 expression in QBC939 cells was knocked down by ≤80% using siRNA-EBP50, and EBP50 knockdown significantly promoted QBC939 cell proliferation, as compared with the vector control cells (P=0.04). EBP50 knockdown also significantly enhanced the wound healing ability of QBC939 cells (P=0.02). These results demonstrated that EBP50 expression levels are significantly correlated with a malignant phenotype in patients with CC, and decreased expression levels of EBP50 may promote CC cell proliferation and migration. These findings provide insight into novel potential diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for patients with CC. PMID:28454463

  13. A novel therapy strategy for bile duct repair using tissue engineering technique: PCL/PLGA bilayered scaffold with hMSCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Chen; Wang, Meicong; Yang, Fuchun; Chen, Guojun; Chen, Jiarong; Tang, Zihua; Liu, Quanwen; Gao, Changyou; Ma, Lie; Wang, Jinfu

    2017-04-01

    The current clinical treatments for complications caused by hepatobiliary surgery still have some inevitable weakness. The aim of the study was to fabricate a tissue-engineered bile duct that utilized a novel bilayered polymer scaffold combined with human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) for new treatment of biliary disease. The biocompatibility of polycaprolactone (PCL) (PCL)/poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) scaffold with hMSCs was first examined, and the hMSC-PCL/PLGA constructs (MPPCs) prepared. The MPPCs and blank scaffolds were then transplanted into 18 pigs for evaluation its efficacy on bile duct repairing, respectively. In vitro, the PCL/PLGA scaffold was verified to support the adhesion, proliferation and matrix deposition of hMSCs. There was no sign of bile duct narrowing and cholestasis in all experimental animals. At 6 months, the MPPCs had a superior repairing effect on the bile duct injury, compared with the blank PCL/PLGA scaffolds. Therefore, the implanted scaffolds could not only support the biliary tract and allow free bile flow but also had direct or indirect positive effects on repair of injured bile duct. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. The long-term results of benign bile duct strictures reconstruction

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    Čolović Radoje B.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Over 27 year period (1.01.1974-31.12.2001 a 168 patients (pts were operated on for benign bile duct strictures of types I to IV according to Bismuth,s classification. Reconstruction of fresh lesions and lesions and strictures of sectoral or segmental ducts were not taken into account. The later are to be the subject of separate publication. There were 107(63,7% women and 61(36,3% men of average age of 46 years (ranging from 14 to 76 years. The average time from injury to our reconstruction was 8,2 years. In 162 pts (96,4% an operative injury was the cause of the stricture, in 150 (89,3% during cholecystectomy, in 8 (4,76% during distal gastrectomy for duodenal ulcer and in 4 (2,38% during surgery of the central hydatid cyst of the liver. In 112 (66,66% pts 1 to 6 previous attempts of reconstructions had been performed elsewhere. According to the Bismuth,s classification there were 27 (16,07% strictures of type I, 46 (27,38% of type II, 66 (39,28% of type III and 29 (17,26% of type IV. The most frequent preoperative complications were intrahepatic lithiasis (34%, fibrosis or cirrhosis of the liver in 9,5%, liver abscesses in 6%, bilioduodenal fistula in 4,16% biliary peritonitis in 4,16% and incisional hernia in 8,9% of pts. Suture mucosa-to-mucosa hepaticojejunostomy with 75 cm long Roux-en-Y jejunal limb described by Blumgart was performed in 161 (95,8%, choledochoduodenostomy in 3 (1,8% and strictureplasty in 2 (1,2% while in 2 pts the reconstruction was not technically possible. Three pts died during the first 6 months, 2 in whom the reconstruction was not possible and 1 with chronic endemic nephropathy. Eight of the rest 165 pts were lost from follow up being from Bosnia and Croatia due to well known war events. Six out of the 157 pts died in the mean time, 2 due to variceal bleeding (they had cirrhosis and portal hypertension at the time of reconstruction an 4 due to unrelated causes (2 due to pancreatic carcinoma, 1 due to myocardial

  15. Colchicine blocks the effects of secretin on bile duct cell tubulovesicles and plasma membrane geometry and impairs ductular HCO3- secretion in the pig.

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    Veel, T; Buanes, T; Grotmol, T; Engeland, E; Raeder, M G

    1990-08-01

    Secretin causes the bile duct cells to secrete HCO3-. To examine whether the transformation of duct cell ultrastructure that follows secretin stimulation depends on microtubules and is important for ductular HCO3- secretion, we examined the effect of colchicine on ductular HCO3- secretion and on the morphology of cells lining bile ductules of anaesthetized pigs. Colchicine blocked secretin-dependent cytoplasmic clearance of tubulovesicles and prevented expansion of the basolateral plasma membrane in duct cells and reduced the ductular HCO3- secretory response from 132 +/- 25 mumol min-1 to 97 +/- 14 mumol min-1. In contrast, lumicolchicine did not affect secretin-dependent tubulovesicle clearance or plasma membrane geometry or ductular HCO3- secretion. Accordingly, secretin-dependent cytoplasmic clearance of tubulovesicles in bile duct cells appears to depend on microtubules and to be important for ductular HCO3- secretion.

  16. Clinical effect of anatomical hepatectomy in treatment of intrahepatic bile duct stones

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    WANG Dianbei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the clinical effect of anatomical hepatectomy in the treatment of intrahepatic bile duct stones. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 117 patients with intrahepatic bile duct stones who underwent hepatectomy in The Affiliated Hospital of Zunyi Medical College from July 2013 to December 2015. Among these patients, 66 underwent anatomical hepatectomy (anatomical hepatectomy group and 51 underwent irregular hepatectomy (irregular hepatectomy group. The time of operation, intraoperative blood loss, volume of drainage on the day after surgery, serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, and total bilirubin (TBil, and length of postoperative hospital stay were recorded, as well as the patients′ general status, liver function parameters, and abdominal ultrasound, and CT or MRI findings from 2 months to 2 years after discharge, to observe the presence or absence of residual stones or stone recurrence. The t-test was used for comparison of continuous data between groups, and the chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between groups. ResultsCompared with the irregular hepatectomy group, the anatomical hepatectomy group had a significantly longer time of operation (303.1±51.6 min vs 246.5±36.2 min, t=6.963, P<0.01, but it had significantly less intraoperative blood loss (467.9±80.6 ml vs 565.9±92.0 ml, t=6.026, P<0.01, a significantly lower volume of drainage on the day after surgery (212.6±54.9 ml vs 358.3±69.4 ml, t=12.682, P<0.01, a significantly lower incidence rate of complications (10.6% vs 25.5%, χ2=4.497, P=0.034, a significantly lower rate of postoperative residual stones (4.5% vs 15.7%, χ2=4.192, P=0.041, and a significantly shorter length of hospital stay (13.4±2.6 d vs 21.9±3.2 d, t=15.427, P<001. On day 3 after surgery, the anatomical hepatectomy group had significantly lower serum levels of ALT, AST, and

  17. Preoperative versus intraoperative endoscopic sphincterotomy in patients with gallbladder and suspected common bile duct stones: system review and meta-analysis.

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    Wang, Bin; Guo, Zhenying; Liu, Zhenjie; Wang, Yuan; Si, Yi; Zhu, Yuefeng; Jin, Mingjuan

    2013-07-01

    Conducting preoperative versus intraoperative endoscopic sphincterotomy in patients with gallbladder and suspected common bile duct stones remains controversial. We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the outcomes of preoperative endoscopic sphincterotomy (POES) versus intraoperative endoscopic sphincterotomy (IOES). We searched multiple electronic databases for prospective, randomized, controlled trials related to safety and effectiveness of POES versus IOES. Relative risk ratios (RRs) were estimated with 95 % confidence intervals (CI) based on an intention-to-treat analysis. We considered the following outcomes: clearance rate, postprocedural complications, and hospital stay. Five trials with 631 patients (318 with POES, 313 with IOES) were analyzed. Although the overall rates of common bile duct stone clearance were similar between POES and IOES (RR 0.96, 95 % CI 0.91-1.01; p = 0.13), the failure rate of common bile duct cannulation during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) was significantly higher for IOES (RR 2.54, 95 % CI 1.23-5.26; p = 0.01). The pooled RR after POES for overall complication rates was similar to that for IOES (RR 1.56, 95 % CI 0.94-2.59; p = 0.09). However, compared with IOES, the RR risk of ERCP-related complications was significantly higher for POES (RR 2.27, 95 % CI 1.18-4.40, p = 0.01), especially in the patients at high risk of developing post-ERCP pancreatitis. There was no significant difference in morbidity after laparoscopic cholecystectomy or required subsequent open surgery between the two groups. In the subgroup analyses, the RR risks of post-ERCP pancreatitis were significantly higher for POES (RR 4.85, 95 % CI 1.41-16.66, p = 0.01), and mean hospital stay was longer in the POES group (RR 2.22, 95 % CI 1.98-246; p POES and IOES. With regard to the stone clearance and overall complication rates, POES is equal to IOES in patients with gallbladder and common bile duct stones. However, IOES is associated with a

  18. Transforming growth factor-beta 1 and mannose 6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor-II receptor expression during intrahepatic bile duct hyperplasia and biliary fibrosis in the rat.

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    Saperstein, L A; Jirtle, R L; Farouk, M; Thompson, H J; Chung, K S; Meyers, W C

    1994-02-01

    These studies investigate the role of transforming growth factor-beta 1, a potent inhibitor of epithelial cell proliferation and stimulator of extracellular matrix biosynthesis, during intrahepatic bile duct hyperplasia and biliary fibrosis. These pathogenic responses were induced in rats by common bile duct ligation. Bile duct cell replication, measured by the bromodeoxyuridine labeling index, was significantly increased 24 hr after common bile duct ligation. This response diminished to baseline by 1 wk. Liver collagen content, determined by quantification of hydroxyproline, was increased significantly after 1 wk of common bile duct ligation, and by 4 wk was increased by a factor of 4. Immunohistochemistry revealed low levels of TGF-beta 1 in normal intrahepatic bile duct epithelium. In contrast, the bile duct epithelium in bile duct-ligated rats stained strongly positive for transforming growth factor-beta 1 at 1 and 4 wk after ligation. These results suggest that transforming growth factor-beta 1 may play a role in both the termination of the bile duct epithelial cell proliferative response and the induction of fibrogenesis after common bile duct ligation. In addition, the mannose 6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor II receptor was up-regulated in hyperplastic bile duct epithelium 1 and 4 wk after ligation. Because the mannose 6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor-II receptor has been shown to facilitate the proteolytic activation of transforming growth factor-beta 1, these results suggest that the bile duct epithelium may also be involved in the activation of transforming growth factor-beta 1.

  19. Robot-assisted common bile duct exploration as an option for complex choledocholithiasis.

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    Alkhamesi, Nawar A; Davies, Ward T; Pinto, R Fiona; Schlachta, Christopher M

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the authors' early experience with robot-assisted common bile duct exploration (CBDE) for choledocholithiasis refractory to endoscopic therapy and to compare the outcomes with those of equivalent patients undergoing an open technique. At our institution, 55 CBDEs were performed between 2005 and 2010. All 19 robot-assisted cases were unselected elective referrals for stone disease. Of 36 open procedures, emergency cases and exploration not for stone disease were excluded, leaving 18 cases for analysis. Cases were analyzed on an intent-to-treat basis. A P value of 0.05 denoted statistical significance. The patients did not differ in terms of demography, comorbidity, or presenting symptoms. The reasons for endoscopic failure in both groups were similar. The mean operating time was longer for robot-assisted surgery (220 ± 41.26 min) than for open surgery (169 ± 65.81 min) (P = 0.01), but the median hospital stay was shorter (4 vs 11 days; P = 0.02). Four conversions to open surgery (21%) were performed due to severe adhesions. The two groups did not differ statistically in terms of T-tube usage (74 vs 61%; P = 0.414). One death occurred in the robotic group and two in the open cohort. Postoperative complications occurred in seven robotic and ten open cases (P = 0.402). They were mainly respiratory complications in the robot-assisted group, whereas they were cardiac and wound-related complications in the open group. Two of the converted cases had complications similar to those of the open group. Postoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for retained stones was performed in one open case and three robotic cases. Robot-assisted CBDE offers some benefit when ERCP fails. Ideal case selection may enhance success.

  20. Comparison of long-term results of laparoscopic and endoscopic exploration of common bile duct

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    Rai Sarabjit

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To compare long term results of laparoscopic and endoscopic exploration of common bile duct, to assess post-procedure quality of life. Materials and Methods: From September 1992 to August 2003, we performed 4058 cholecystectomies, out of which 479 (11.80% patients had choledocholithiasis. There were 163 males and 316 females. Mean age was 63.65 ± 5.5 years. These patients were put in two groups. In the first group of 240 patients, a majority of patients underwent two-stage procedures. ERCP/ES was performed in 210 (87.50% cases. In the second group of 239 patients, a majority of patients underwent single-stage procedures. ERCP/ES was done in 32 (13.38% cases. Results: Mortality was zero in both groups. Morbidity was 15.1% in first group and 7.5% in second group. Mean hospital stay was 11.7 ± 3.2 days in first group and 6.2 ± 2.1 days in second group. Average operative time was 95.6 ± 20 minutes in first group and 128.4 ± 32 minutes in second group. Completed questionnaires received from 400 (83.50% patients revealed better long-term results in the second group. Clinical features of low-grade cholangitis were seen in 20% of patients who underwent ES. Hence the post-procedure quality of life in patients who underwent single-stage procedures was definitely much better, because of minimal damage of sphincter of Oddi. Conclusions: Single-stage laparoscopic operations provide better results and shorter hospital stay. Damage to sphincter of Oddi should be minimal, to avoid long-term low-grade cholangitis. In young patients, the operation of choice should be single-stage laparoscopic procedure with absolutely no damage to sphincter of Oddi.

  1. Biliary stenting in the management of large or multiple common bile duct stones.

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    Horiuchi, Akira; Nakayama, Yoshiko; Kajiyama, Masashi; Kato, Naoyuki; Kamijima, Tetsuya; Graham, David Y; Tanaka, Naoki

    2010-06-01

    Endoscopic biliary stenting with a plastic stent is often performed to prevent impaction of common bile duct (CBD) stones. The therapeutic effect of a plastic stent placement in terms of reduction in stone size and number has not been established. The aim of this study was to study the effect of biliary stenting as therapy for CBD stones. Retrospective study. Municipal hospital outpatients. Patients with large (> or = 20 mm) and/or multiple (> or = 3) stones had placement of a 7F double-pigtail plastic stent without stone extraction at the initial ERCP. Approximately 2 months later, stone removal was attempted. The number and size of CBD stones before and after stent placement, stone clearance, complications, and 180-day mortality were evaluated. Forty patients were studied. Stent placement averaged 65 days (range, 50-82 days). The median number (interquartile range) of stones per patient fell after stent placement (4.0 [3.0] before vs. 2.0 [1.0] after; P < .0001). Characteristically, larger stones became smaller and small stones disappeared (ie, the median stone index decreased from 4.6 [3.0] to 2.0 [1.5]; P < .0001). Stone clearance at the second ERCP was achieved in 37 out of 40 patients (93%). Complications included cholangitis (13%) and pancreatitis (5%) after the second ERCP. No 180-day mortality occurred. A retrospective, single-center study. Stent placement for 2 months was associated with large and/or multiple CBD stones becoming smaller and/or disappearing without any complications. Stenting followed by a wait period may assist in difficult CBD stone removal. Copyright 2010 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Dietary glycine blunts liver injury after bile duct ligation in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froh, Matthias; Zhong, Zhi; Walbrun, Peter; Lehnert, Mark; Netter, Susanne; Wiest, Reiner; Conzelmann, Lars; Gäbele, Erwin; Hellerbrand, Claus; Schölmerich, Jürgen; Thurman, Ronald G

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of (dietary) glycine against oxidant-induced injury caused by bile duct ligation (BDL). METHODS: Either a diet containing 5% glycine or a standard diet was fed to male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Three days later, BDL or sham-operation was performed. Rats were sacrificed 1 to 3 d after BDL. The influence of deoxycholic acid (DCA) in the presence or absence of glycine on liver cells was determined by measurement of calcium and chloride influx in cultivated Kupffer cells and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity was determined in the supernatant of cultivated hepatocytes. RESULTS: Serum alanine transaminase levels increased to about 600 U/L 1 d after BDL. However, enzyme release was blunted by about two third in rats receiving glycine. Release of the alkaline phosphatase and aspartate aminotransferase was also blocked significantly in the group fed glycine. Focal necrosis was observed 2 d after BDL. Glycine partially blocked the histopathological changes. Incubation of Kupffer cells with DCA led to increased intracellular calcium that could be blocked by incubation with glycine. However, systemic blockage of Kupffer cells with gadolinium chloride had no effects on transaminase release. Incubation of isolated hepatocytes with DCA led to a significant release of LDH after 4 h. This release was largely blocked when incubation with glycine was performed. CONCLUSION: These data indicate that glycine significantly decreased liver injury, most likely by a direct effect on hepatocytes. Kupffer cells do not appear to play an important role in the pathological changes caused by cholestasis. PMID:18932277

  3. CD24 expression predicts distant metastasis in extrahepatic bile duct cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyubo; Min, Hye Sook; Chie, Eui Kyu; Jang, Jin-Young; Kim, Sun Whe; Han, Sae-Won; Oh, Do-Youn; Im, Seock-Ah; Kim, Tae-You; Bang, Yung-Jue; Jang, Ja-June; Ha, Sung W

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the prognostic significance of CD24 expression in patients undergoing adjuvant chemoradiotherapy for extrahepatic bile duct (EHBD) cancer. METHODS: Eighty-four patients with EHBD cancer who underwent curative resection followed by adjuvant chemoradiotherapy were enrolled in this study. Postoperative radiotherapy was delivered to the tumor bed and regional lymph nodes up to a median of 40 Gy (range: 40-56 Gy). All patients also received fluoropyrimidine chemotherapy for radiosensitization during radiotherapy. CD24 expression was assessed with immunohistochemical staining on tissue microarray. Clinicopathologic factors as well as CD24 expression were evaluated in multivariate analysis for clinical outcomes including loco-regional recurrence, distant metastasis-free and overall survival. RESULTS: CD24 was expressed in 36 patients (42.9%). CD24 expression was associated with distant metastasis, but not with loco-regional recurrence nor with overall survival. The 5-year distant metastasis-free survival rates were 55.1% and 29.0% in patients with negative and positive expression, respectively (P = 0.0100). On multivariate analysis incorporating N stage, histologic differentiation and CD24 expression, N stage was the only significant factor predicting distant metastasis-free survival (P = 0.0089), while CD24 expression had borderline significance (P = 0.0733). In subgroup analysis, CD24 expression was significantly associated with 5-year distant metastasis-free survival in node-positive patients (38.4% with negative expression vs 0% with positive expression, P = 0.0110), but not in node-negative patients (62.0% with negative expression vs 64.0% with positive expression, P = 0.8599). CONCLUSION: CD24 expression was a significant predictor of distant metastasis for patients undergoing curative resection followed by adjuvant chemoradiotherapy especially for node-positive EHBD cancer. PMID:23539485

  4. Molecular biomarkers in extrahepatic bile duct cancer patients undergoing chemoradiotherapy for gross residual disease after surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Hyeon Kang; Park, Hae Jin; Chie, Eui Kyu; Min, Hye Sook; Ha, Sung W.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To analyze the outcomes of chemoradiotherapy for extrahepatic bile duct (EHBD) cancer patients who underwent R2 resection or bypass surgery and to identify prognostic factors affecting clinical outcomes, especially in terms of molecular biomarkers. Materials and Methods Medical records of 21 patients with EHBD cancer who underwent R2 resection or bypass surgery followed by chemoradiotherapy from May 2001 to June 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. All surgical specimens were re-evaluated by immunohistochemical staining using phosphorylated protein kinase B (pAKT), CD24, matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9), survivin, and β-catenin antibodies. The relationship between clinical outcomes and immunohistochemical results was investigated. Results At a median follow-up of 20 months, the actuarial 2-year locoregional progression-free, distant metastasis-free and overall survival were 37%, 56%, and 54%, respectively. On univariate analysis using clinicopathologic factors, there was no significant prognostic factor. In the immunohistochemical staining, cytoplasmic staining, and nuclear staining of pAKT was positive in 10 and 6 patients, respectively. There were positive CD24 in 7 patients, MMP9 in 16 patients, survivin in 8 patients, and β-catenin in 3 patients. On univariate analysis, there was no significant value of immunohistochemical results for clinical outcomes. Conclusion There was no significant association between clinical outcomes of patients with EHBD cancer who received chemoradiotherapy after R2 resection or bypass surgery and pAKT, CD24, MMP9, survivin, and β-catenin. Future research is needed on a larger data set or with other molecular biomarkers. PMID:23346539

  5. Adjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy with low-dose daily cisplatin for extrahepatic bile duct cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Won; Noh, O Kyu; Kim, Ji Hun; Chun, Mison; Oh, Young-Taek; Kang, Seok Yun; Lee, Hyun Woo; Park, Rae Woong; Yoon, Dukyong

    2017-06-01

    We aimed to present the clinical outcomes of adjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) with low-dose daily cisplatin regimen compared to the conventional 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-based regimen for extrahepatic bile duct cancer (EHBDC). From October 1994 to April 2013, 41 patients received adjuvant CCRT with low-dose daily regimen or 5-FU-based regimens. Nineteen patients received low-dose of cisplatin just before every delivery of radiation therapy, and 21 patients received two cycles of 5-FU-based regimen during radiotherapy. We compared the clinical outcomes between two adjuvant CCRT regimens. Adjuvant CCRT with low-dose daily cisplatin showed comparable toxicity profiles compared with that of a 5-FU-based regimen. The median follow-up time was 33 months (range, 5-205), and the 5-year overall survival (OS), locoregional recurrence-free survival (LRRFS), and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) were 34.2, 50.8, and 49.7%, respectively. Univariable analyses showed no significant differences in OS, LRRFS, and DMFS between the groups with two regimens. In multivariable analyses, chemotherapeutic regimen was a significant prognostic factor for OS, favoring the low-dose daily cisplatin regimen (HR = 2.491, p = 0.036) over 5-FU-based regimen, though not for LRRFS (p = 0.642) and DMFS (p = 0.756). Adjuvant CCRT with low-dose daily cisplatin regimen showed acceptable toxicities and survivals compared to those of the 5-FU-based regimen. Low-dose daily cisplatin can be one of the feasible regimens for adjuvant CCRT for EHBDC.

  6. Postoperative radiotherapy dose correlates with locoregional control in patients with extra-hepatic bile duct cancer

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    Im, Jung Ho; Seong, Jinsil; Lee, Jeong Shim; Kim, Yong Bae; Kim, Kyung Sik; Lee, Woo Jung [Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ik Jae; Park, Jun Sung; Yoon, Dong Sup [Sangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    To evaluate the results of postoperative radiotherapy in patients with extra-hepatic bile duct cancer (EHBDC) and identify the prognostic factors for local control and survival. Between January 2001 and December 2010, we retrospectively reviewed the cases of 70 patients with EHBDC who had undergone curative resection and received postoperative radiotherapy. The median radiation dose was 50.4 Gy (range, 41.4 to 54 Gy). The resection margin status was R0 in 30 patients (42.9%), R1 in 25 patients (35.7%), and R2 in 15 patients (21.4%). The 5-year rates of overall survival (OS), event-free survival (EFS), and locoregional control (LRC) for all patients were 42.9%, 38.3%, and 61.2%, respectively. The major pattern of failure was distant relapses (33 patients, 47.1%). A multivariate analysis showed that the postradiotherapy CA19-9 level, radiation dose (≥50 Gy), R2 resection margins, perineural invasion, and T stage were the significant prognostic factors for OS, EFS, and LRC. OS was not significantly different between the patients receiving R0 and R1 resections, but was significantly lower among those receiving R2 resection (54.6%, 56.1%, and 7.1% for R0, R1, and R2 resections, respectively). In patients with EHBDC who had undergone curative resection, a postoperative radiotherapy dose less than 50 Gy was suboptimal for OS and LRC. Higher radiation doses may be needed to obtain better LRC. Further investigation of novel therapy or palliative treatment should be considered for patients receiving R2 resection.

  7. Minocycline restores cognitive-relative altered proteins in young bile duct-ligated rat prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shih-Wen; Chen, Yu-Chieh; Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Hsu, Mei-Hsin; Tain, You-Lin; Chang, Kow-Aung; Huang, Li-Tung

    2017-07-01

    Bile duct ligation (BDL) model is used to study hepatic encephalopathy accompanied by cognitive impairment. We employed the proteomic analysis approach to evaluate cognition-related proteins in the prefrontal cortex of young BDL rats and analyzed the effect of minocycline on these proteins and spatial memory. BDL was induced in young rats at postnatal day 17. Minocycline as a slow-release pellet was implanted into the peritoneum. Morris water maze test and two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry were used to evaluate spatial memory and prefrontal cortex protein expression, respectively. We used 2D/LC-MS/MS to analyze for affected proteins in the prefrontal cortex of young BDL rats. Results were verified with Western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and quantitative real-time PCR. The effect of minocycline in BDL rats was assessed. BDL induced spatial deficits, while minocycline rescued it. Collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP2) and manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) were upregulated and nucleoside diphosphate kinase B (NME2) was downregulated in young BDL rats. BDL rats exhibited decreased levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA as compared with those by the control. However, minocycline treatment restored CRMP2 and NME2 protein expression, BDNF mRNA level, and MnSOD activity to control levels. We demonstrated that BDL altered the expression of CRMP2, NME2, MnSOD, and BDNF in the prefrontal cortex of young BDL rats. However, minocycline treatment restored the expression of the affected mediators that are implicated in cognition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Endoscopic biliary stenting for irretrievable common bile duct stones: Indications, advantages, disadvantages, and follow-up results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Peng, Jia-yuan; Chen, Wei

    2012-08-01

    The advantages of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) over open surgery have made it the predominant method of treating patients with choledocholithiasis. After sphincterotomy, however, 10%-15% of common bile duct (CBD) stones cannot be removed with a basket or balloon. Methods for managing "irretrievable stones" include surgery; mechanical, intraductal shock wave, and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy; chemical dissolution; and biliary stenting. Endoscopic biliary stent insertion, which is frequently used in specific situations, has both advantages and disadvantages. To maximize the advantages and minimize the complications of biliary endoprosthesis, it is important to recognize its proper indications and to apply the technique in proper situations. We reviewed all publications cited in Pubmed and published through July 2011 on biliary endoprosthesis in patients with irretrievable CBD stones. We analyzed the indications, advantages, disadvantages, and long-term follow-up results of this technique. Despite the occurrence of related complications, such as cholangitis, endoscopic placement of an endoprosthesis may reduce stone size, allowing later clearance of unextractable stones. Permanent biliary stenting may be a definitive treatment in selected elderly patients who are poor candidates for surgery. Endoscopic biliary stenting remains a simple and safe method for patients with stones difficult to manage by conventional endoscopic methods and those patients unfit for surgery or at high surgical risks. Copyright © 2012 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A case of the hepatic hilar bile duct cancer with external radiation. Efficacy and severe side effect of external radiation therapy

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    Andoh, Hideaki; Yasui, Ouki; Ise, Norihito [Akita Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2003-04-01

    Hepatic hilar bile duct cancer was difficult to cure by surgical treatment and its prognosis was very poor. We present the case of non-curative resection of hepatic hilar bile duct cancer, controlled with external radiation. 72 years-old-female, she complained jaundice and diagnosed hepatic hilar bile duct cancer with abdominal ultrasonography. Hepatic hilar resection was performed but curative resection could not be done, because cancer was diffusely spreaded to the hepatic and duodenal ends of the bile duct. After surgery, external radiation (1.8 Gy/day; total 50.4 Gy) was performed. Three months after operation, sometimes, cholangitis was occurred but we could not detect the intrahepatic bile duct dilatation and improved with antibiotics. After seven months, she was dead for sepsis, liver abscess and biliary cirrhosis. From autopsy findings, severe hepatic hilar fibrosis around the irradiation area, stenosis of the hepatico-jejunostomy and portal vein were existed but could not detect the remnant cancer cells. External radiation was sometimes effective, especially for this case. But we should consider the side effect of fibrosis and preventive treatments such as biliary stenting or early biliary drainage. (author)

  10. A comparative evaluation of treatment methods for bile duct stones after hepaticojejunostomy between percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopy and peroral, short double-balloon enteroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsumi, Koichiro; Kato, Hironari; Yabe, Shuntaro; Mizukawa, Sho; Seki, Hiroyuki; Akimoto, Yutaka; Uchida, Daisuke; Matsumoto, Kazuyuki; Tomoda, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Naoki; Horiguchi, Shigeru; Kawamoto, Hirofumi; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    Bile duct stones after hepaticojejunostomy are considered a troublesome adverse event. Although percutaneous transhepatic procedures using a cholangioscopy is performed to treat these bile duct stones, a peroral endoscopic procedure using a short, double-balloon enteroscope (sDBE) is an alternative. This study aimed to compare the immediate and long-term outcomes of both treatments for bile duct stones in patients who underwent prior hepaticojejunostomy. Between October 2001 and May 2013, 40 consecutive patients were treated for bile duct stones after hepaticojejunostomy at a tertiary care hospital. Initial success with biliary access, biliary intervention-related technical success, clinical success, adverse events, hospitalization duration, and stone-free survival were retrospectively evaluated. The initial success rates for biliary access were 100% (8/8) with percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopy (PTCS) and 91% (29/32) with sDBE. In three patients in whom biliary access during initial sDBE failed, successful access with subsequent PTCS was achieved, and biliary intervention-related technical success and clinical success were eventually achieved in all 40 patients. The rate of adverse events was significantly lower with sDBE than with PTCS (10% versus 45%; p = 0.025). The median hospitalization duration for complete stone clearance was significantly shorter with sDBE than with PTCS (10 versus 35 days; p bile duct stones in patients with prior hepaticojejunostomy.

  11. Retrieval of Surgical Clip from Common Bile Duct by Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography: A Rare Complication of Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Rasool

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has become the standard procedure for the surgical management of symptomatic cholelithiasis. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is generally considered a safe procedure although a few complications such as major bleeding, wound infection, bile leakage, biliary and bowel injury are well known. We are reporting a case of a thirty-seven year old male who presented with abdominal pain, three weeks after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Abdominal ultrasound revealed a filling defect in common bile duct with deranged liver function tests. With an impression of choledocholithiasis, his endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP was done which revealed a surgical clip impacted in the ampulla. The surgical clip was retrieved successfully by ERCP. Intraductal clip migration is a rarely encountered complication after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Appropriate management requires timely identification and retrieval during ERCP.

  12. [A meta-analysis of preoperative versus intraoperative endoscopic sphincterotomy in patients with gallbladder and suspected common bile duct stones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Liu, Zhenjie; Lü, Yunxiao; Zhao, Sicong; Chen, Liang

    2015-05-12

    To compare the safety and efficiency of preoperative endoscopic sphincterotomy (POES) versus intraoperative endoscopic sphincterotomy (IOES) in patients with gallbladder and common bile duct stones. Multiple electronic databases were searched for prospective, randomized, controlled trials on the safety and effectiveness of POES versus IOES. And the outcome parameters of clearance rate, post-procedural complications and hospital stay were analyzed. Five trials with 631 patients (POES, n=318; IOES, n=313) were analyzed. Although the overall rates of common bile duct stone clearance were similar between POES and IOES (RR 0.96, 95% CI: 0.91-1.01; P=0.13), the failure rate of CBD cannulation was significantly higher for IOES (RR 2.54, 95% CI: 1.23-5.26; P=0.01) during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). The pooled RR after POES for overall complication rates was similar to that for IOES (RR 1.56, 95% CI: 0.94-2.59; P=0.09). However, as compared with IOES, the RR risk of ERCP-related complications was significantly higher for POES (RR 2.27, 95% CI: 1.18-4.40, P=0.01). No significant inter-group differences existed in morbidity after laparoscopic cholecystectomy or subsequent conversion into open surgery. In subgroup analyses, the rates of hemorrhage, perforation, cholangitis, cholecystitis, and gastric ulceration showed no significant inter-group differences. With regards to stone clearance and overall complication rate, POES is comparable to IOES in patients with gallbladder and common bile duct stones. However, IOES has a lowered incidence of ERCP-related pancreatitis and a shorter hospital stay.

  13. Appropriate Patient Selection Is Essential for the Success of Primary Closure After Laparoscopic Common Bile Duct Exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Shun-Qian; Hu, Qiu-Hui; Wan, Ming; Tai, Sheng; Xie, Xue-Yi; Wu, Qing; Yang, Shang-Lin; Liao, Guan-Qun

    2017-05-01

    Laparoscopic common bile duct exploration (LCBDE) is being increasingly used for management of common bile duct (CBD) stones. Primary CBD closure has been reported to have better short-term outcomes compared to T-tube placement. However, primary CBD closure cannot be performed in all patients. This study aims to evaluate the short- and long-term outcomes of LCBDE with primary CBD closure in appropriately selected patients and compare them with T-tube drainage. Retrospective analysis of patients undergoing LCBDE in our department from June 2011 to October 2014 was performed. Primary closure was performed in 52 patients (group A), and a T-tube was placed in 33 patients (group B). Patient demographics, intraoperative findings, postoperative stay, complications, and long-term follow-up data were recorded and compared. The mean operating time was much longer in group A compared to group B (113.92 vs. 95.92 min, p = 0.032). The overall complication rate (9.6 vs. 6.3%, p = 0.701) and hospital stay (4 vs. 5.11 days, p = 0.088) were similar in both groups. No patient required conversion to the open procedure. Bile leakage was more frequent in group A (5.78 vs. 0%, p = 0.279), but this was not statistically significant. All three patients with bile leakage were treated successfully by conservative measures and gradual drain withdrawal. On long-term follow-up, recurrent stones were detected in two patients in group A. No patient was found to develop CBD stricture. LCBDE and primary CBD closure has excellent short- and long-term outcomes when performed in appropriately selected patients.

  14. Spontaneous Perforation of Common Bile Duct in a Child with a Clinical Manifestation of Acute Abdominal Distension: A Case Report

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    Jeong, Hee Rok; Namkyung Sook; Kim, Heung Cheol; Hong, Myung Sun [Dept. of Radiology, Chuncheon Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    Spontaneous perforation of common bile duct (CBD) is extremely rare in children, but potentially a fatal disorder that requires an emergency laparotomy. Most of the patients present with insidious symptoms including slowly progressive abdominal distension with accumulation of the ascites, fluctuating mild jaundice, and clay-colored stools. We report a case of surgically confirmed spontaneous perforation of the CBD in a 3-year-old girl who presented with acute abdominal distension with no biliary symptoms or signs, and who showed imaging findings consistent with anomalous pancreaticobiliary ductal union with a focal stenosis in the CBD.

  15. Multistep carcinogenesis of perihilar cholangiocarcinoma arising in the intrahepatic large bile ducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanuma, Yasuni; Sasaki, Motoko; Sato, Yasunori; Ren, Xiangshan; Ikeda, Hiroko; Harada, Kenichi

    2009-10-31

    Flat-type "biliary intraepithelial neoplasia (BilIN)" and papillary-type "intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPN-B)" are proposed as precursors of invasive, perihilar intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). Three carcinogenetic pathways are proposed: BilIN progressing to tubular adenocarcinoma, and IPN-B progressing to tubular adenocarcinoma or to colloid carcinoma. Carcinogenesis via BilIN was characterized by mucin core protein 2-/cytokeratin 20-(MUC2-/CK20-) with MUC1 expression, while carcinogenesis via IPN-B leading to tubular adenocarcinoma was associated with MUC1 expression or that to colloid carcinoma with MUC1-negativity. In both the BilIN and IPNB series, the expression of p21, p53, and cyclin D1 was upregulated with histological progression. Interestingly, p53 expression was upregulated at the invasive stage of BilIN, but was low in noninvasive BilIN, while p53 expression was upregulated in IPN-B1 and reached a plateau in IPN-B2 and invasive ICC. Expression of p16(INK4a), which was frequent in BilIN1, was decreased in BilIN-2/3 and invasive carcinoma. EZH2 expression showed a stepwise increase from BilIN to invasive carcinoma. Membranous expression of β-catenin and E-cadherin was more markedly decreased in ICC with BilIN than in ICC with IPNB. Interestingly, disruption of the membranous distribution of β-catenin and E-cadherin seems to result in the invasion and metastasis of carcinoma cells of BilIN and IPN-B expressing MMP-7 and MT1-MMP. Increased expression of cyclin D1 and c-myc was more frequent in the IPNB lineage than BilIN lineage, possibly related to the Wnt signaling pathway associated with the nuclear accumulation of β-catenin. In conclusion, BilIN and IPN-B progress to invasive ICC through characteristic multistep processes.

  16. Vascular biliopathy as a cause of common bile duct obstruction successfully treated by mesocaval shunt and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography biliary stent placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Martin D; White, Geoffrey H; Stephen, Michael S; Gallagher, James J; Sandroussi, Charbel

    2008-01-01

    Common bile duct stenosis owing to extrahepatic portal varices is termed "portal hypertensive biliopathy" (PHB) and is a rare occurrence. We report a case of PHB owing to portal vein thrombosis with cavernous transformation successfully managed by mesocaval shunt and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) biliary stent placement. A 44-year-old male, who presented with hematemesis, melena, jaundice, and abdominal pain, underwent gastroscopy, which revealed bleeding gastric varices. Computed tomography with arterial and venous imaging demonstrated portal vein thrombosis with cavernous transformation and extensive extrahepatic varices within the porta hepatis causing common bile duct obstruction from extrinsic compression. Biliary decompression was achieved with ERCP, and a small common bile duct stone was retrieved. A mesocaval shunt with a 16 mm Dacron graft successfully treated the portal hypertension. PHB is rare. We report a case successfully treated by mesocaval shunt and ERCP.

  17. A long-term recurrence-free survival of a patient with the mixed adeno-neuroendocrine bile duct carcinoma: A case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumo, Wataru; Higuchi, Ryota; Yazawa, Takehisa; Uemura, Shuichiro; Matsunaga, Yutaro; Shiihara, Masahiro; Furukawa, Toru; Yamamoto, Masakazu

    2017-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors arising primarily in the bile duct are rare. And among these tumors, mixed adeno-neuroendocrine carcinoma (MANEC) is quite uncommon. We report a patient with MANEC who achieved long-term recurrence-free survival. And our case report includes analysis previous case reports. A 66-year-old man underwent investigation for persistent anorexia and fatigue. Laboratory tests showed that the values of hepatobiliary enzymes were increased. On CT, a 10mm×8mm hypervascular tumor was observed in the distal bile duct and the proximal bile duct was markedly dilated. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC) also showed a stenosis with a long diameter of 10mm. Examination of a biopsy specimen obtained from the narrow site of the bile duct at the time of ERC revealed tubular adenocarcinoma. Therefore, pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy was performed under a preoperative diagnosis of distal bile duct carcinoma. Postoperative pathologic examination revealed alveolar structures and a mixture of moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma with synaptophysin-positive and chromogranin-A-positive neuroendocrine carcinoma. Therefore, the final diagnosis was MANEC, pT3, pN1, M0, pStage II B (TNM classification of the UICC). Curative resection was achieved and there has been no recurrence after 30 months. In the previous reports, only five patients (14.7%) survived for 24 months or longer. Median survival was longer (14 months) in the curative resection group and shorter (6 months) in the non-curative resection group. Curative resection is essential to achieve long-term survival in patients with bile duct MANEC, even if these patients have lymph node metastasis. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Intrahepatic bile duct adenoma in a patient with chronic hepatitis B accompanied by elevation of alpha-fetoprotein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jem Ma Ahn

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A 51-year-old male patient with chronic hepatitis B was referred to our hospital due to a 1-cm liver nodule on ultrasonography. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP was slightly elevated. The nodule showed prolonged enhancement on dynamic liver magnetic resonance imaging and appeared as a hyperintensity on both diffusion-weighted and T2-weighted imaging. The nodule was followed up because it was small and typical findings of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC were not observed in the dynamic imaging investigations. However, liver contrast-enhanced ultrasonography performed 1 month later showed enhancement during the arterial phase and definite washout during the delayed phase. Also, AFP had increased to over 200 ng/mL even though AST and ALT were decreased after administering an antiviral agent. He was presumptively diagnosed as HCC and underwent liver segmentectomy. Microscopy findings of the specimen indicated bile duct adenoma. After resection, the follow-up AFP had decreased to within the normal range. This patient represents a case of bile duct adenoma with AFP elevation mimicking HCC on contrast-enhanced ultrasonography.

  19. Safety and long-term outcomes of endoscopic papillary balloon dilation in children with bile duct stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osanai, Manabu; Maguchi, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Kuniyuki; Katanuma, Akio; Yane, Kei; Kaneko, Maki; Hashigo, Syunpei; Katoh, Shin; Harada, Ryo; Katoh, Ryusuke; Tanno, Satoshi

    2011-03-01

    Although experience with diagnostic and therapeutic ERCP in children is growing, little is known about the safety and technical outcomes of endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) in pediatric patients with bile duct stones (BDSs). To assess the safety and long-term outcomes of EPBD in pediatric patients with BDSs. Case study. Tertiary referral center. This study involved 5 children who had BDSs combined with gallstones who underwent EPBD. Successful EPBD, successful stone removal, procedure-related complications, and long-term outcomes. ERCP was successful in all cases, with cannulation and subsequent EPBD. Stone removal was performed in 1 session in all patients. No EPBD-related complications were observed in any patient. After EPBD, 1 patient subsequently underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy for gallstones. The remaining 4 were followed without surgery. In 2 patients, gallstones were spontaneously passed from the bile duct into the duodenum. During the follow-up period, over a mean of 7.1 years (range 3.7-9.3 years), no recurrence of BDSs was observed in any patient. Small number of patients. Although BDSs are rare in pediatric patients, EPBD may be a safe and effective technique for the management of such stones in some children. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Prevention, diagnosis and treatment of iatrogennic lesions of biliary tract during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Management of papila injury after invasive endoscopy. Part 1. Prevention and diagnosis of bile duct injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sváb, J; Pesková, M; Krska, Z; Gürlich, R; Kasalický, M

    2005-04-01

    Endoscopic invasive procedures in 70th and 80th years leaded to decrease reoperations on biliary tree. Iatrogenic injury of the biliary tract have increased in incidence in the first decade with the introduction of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Athough a number of factors have been identified with a high risk of injury ( and number of technical steps have been emphasized to avoid these injury, the incidence of the bile duct injury has reached at least double the rate observed with open cholecystectomy. Cholecystectomy is most frequently performed abdominal operation and the most serious complication associated with this procedure is accidental injury to the common bile duct (0.3-0.4%). This preventable technical error has tradicionally been thought to occur in one or more of three situations: 1. When the operator attempts to clip or ligate a bleeding cystic artery and also clips the common hepatic duct (Fig. 3a). 2. When too much traction has been exerted on the gallbladder so that the common bile duct has tented up into an albow, which was either tied off with ligature or clipped (Fig. 3b). 3. When anatomic anomalies were not recognized and the wrong structure is divided, for example, when the cystic duct winds anterior to the common bile duct and enters on the left side, or when the cystic duct joins the right hepatic duct rather than the junction of the common hepatic and the common bile ducts (Fig. 1, 2, 3cd). In anatomical incertain cases is discussed about cholangiography and cholecystocholangiography during laparoscopy cholecystectomy. Most patients sustained a bile duct injury are recognized in the weeks folloving laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Careful preoperative preparation should include control of sepsis by draining any bile collections or fistulas and komplete cholangiography. Long-term results are best achieved in specialized hepatobiliary centres performing biliary reconstruction with a Roux-Y hepaticojejunostomy. Success rates over 90% have been

  1. Hepatic and extrahepatic synthesis and disposition of dinitrophenyl-S-glutathione in bile duct-ligated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Silvina S M; Ruiz, María L; Soroka, Carol J; Cai, Shi-Ying; Luquita, Marcelo G; Torres, Adriana M; Sánchez Pozzi, Enrique J; Pellegrino, José M; Boyer, James L; Catania, Viviana A; Mottino, Aldo D

    2006-08-01

    The ability of the kidney and small intestine to synthesize and subsequently eliminate dinitrophenyl-S-glutathione (DNP-SG), a substrate for the multidrug resistance-associated proteins (Mrps), was assessed in bile duct-ligated (BDL) rats 1, 7, and 14 days after surgery, using an in vivo perfused jejunum model with simultaneous urine collection. A single i.v. dose of 30 micromol/kg b.wt. of 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) was administered, and its glutathione conjugate DNP-SG and dinitrophenyl cysteinyl glycine derivative, which is the result of gamma-glutamyl-transferase action on DNP-SG, were determined in urine and intestinal perfusate by high-performance liquid chromatography. Intestinal excretion of these metabolites was unchanged at day 1, and decreased at days 7 and 14 (-39% and -33%, respectively) after surgery with respect to shams. In contrast, renal excretion was increased by 114%, 150%, and 128% at days 1, 7, and 14. Western blot studies revealed decreased levels of apical Mrp2 in liver and jejunum but increased levels in renal cortex from BDL animals, these changes being maximal between days 7 and 14. Assessment of expression of basolateral Mrp3 at day 14 postsurgery indicated preserved levels in renal cortex, duodenum, jejunum, distal ileum, and colon. Analysis of expression of glutathione-S-transferases alpha, mu, and pi, as well as activity toward CDNB, indicates that formation of DNP-SG was impaired in liver, preserved in intestine, and increased in renal cortex. In conclusion, increased renal tubular conversion of CDNB to DNP-SG followed by subsequent Mrp2-mediated secretion into urine partially compensates for altered liver function in experimental obstructive cholestasis.

  2. Hybrid Approach for Biliary Interventions Employing MRI-Guided Bile Duct Puncture with Near-Real-Time Imaging

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    Wybranski, Christian, E-mail: Christian.Wybranski@uk-koeln.de [University Hospital of Cologne, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Pech, Maciej [Otto-von-Guericke University Medical School, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (Germany); Lux, Anke [Otto-von-Guericke University Medical School, Institute of Biometry and Medical Informatics (Germany); Ricke, Jens; Fischbach, Frank; Fischbach, Katharina [Otto-von-Guericke University Medical School, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (Germany)

    2017-06-15

    ObjectiveTo assess the feasibility of a hybrid approach employing MRI-guided bile duct (BD) puncture for subsequent fluoroscopy-guided biliary interventions in patients with non-dilated (≤3 mm) or dilated BD (≥3 mm) but unfavorable conditions for ultrasonography (US)-guided BD puncture.MethodsA total of 23 hybrid interventions were performed in 21 patients. Visualization of BD and puncture needles (PN) in the interventional MR images was rated on a 5-point Likert scale by two radiologists. Technical success, planning time, BD puncture time and positioning adjustments of the PN as well as technical success of the biliary intervention and complication rate were recorded.ResultsVisualization even of third-order non-dilated BD and PN was rated excellent by both radiologists with good to excellent interrater agreement. MRI-guided BD puncture was successful in all cases. Planning and BD puncture times were 1:36 ± 2.13 (0:16–11:07) min. and 3:58 ± 2:35 (1:11–9:32) min. Positioning adjustments of the PN was necessary in two patients. Repeated capsular puncture was not necessary in any case. All biliary interventions were completed successfully without major complications.ConclusionA hybrid approach which employs MRI-guided BD puncture for subsequent fluoroscopy-guided biliary intervention is feasible in clinical routine and yields high technical success in patients with non-dilated BD and/or unfavorable conditions for US-guided puncture. Excellent visualization of BD and PN in near-real-time interventional MRI allows successful cannulation of the BD.

  3. MicroRNA-29a Alleviates Bile Duct Ligation Exacerbation of Hepatic Fibrosis in Mice through Epigenetic Control of Methyltransferases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Ling Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNA-29 (miR-29 is found to modulate hepatic stellate cells’ (HSCs activation and, thereby, reduces liver fibrosis pathogenesis. Histone methyltransferase regulation of epigenetic reactions reportedly participates in hepatic fibrosis. This study is undertaken to investigate the miR-29a regulation of the methyltransferase signaling and epigenetic program in hepatic fibrosis progression. miR-29a transgenic mice (miR-29aTg mice and wild-type littermates were subjected to bile duct-ligation (BDL to develop cholestatic liver fibrosis. Primary HSCs were transfected with a miR-29a mimic and antisense inhibitor. Profibrogenic gene expression, histone methyltransferases and global genetic methylation were probed with real-time quantitative RT-PCR, immunohistochemical stain, Western blot and ELISA. Hepatic tissue in miR-29aTg mice displayed weak fibrotic matrix as evidenced by Sirius Red staining concomitant with low fibrotic matrix collagen 1α1 expression within affected tissues compared to the wild-type mice. miR-29a overexpression reduced the BDL exaggeration of methyltransferases, DNMT1, DNMT3b and SET domain containing 1A (SET1A expression. It also elevated phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN signaling within liver tissue. In vitro, miR-29a mimic transfection lowered collagen 1α1, DNMT1, DNMT3b and SET1A expression in HSCs. Gain of miR-29a signaling resulted in DNA hypomethylation and high PTEN expression. This study shines a new light on miR-29a inhibition of methyltransferase, a protective effect to maintain the DNA hypomethylation state that decreases fibrogenic activities in HSC. These robust analyses also highlight the miR-29a regulation of epigenetic actions to ameliorate excessive fibrosis during cholestatic liver fibrosis development.

  4. Evaluation of Tumor Markers and Their Impact on Prognosis in Gallbladder, Bile Duct and Cholangiocellular Carcinomas - A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liska, Vaclav; Treska, Vladislav; Skalicky, Tomas; Fichtl, Jakub; Bruha, Jan; Vycital, Ondrej; Topolcan, Ondrej; Palek, Richard; Rosendorf, Jachym; Polivka, Jiri; Holubec, Lubos

    2017-04-01

    The behavior of tumor markers in biliary tract malignancies is not well-known and has been scarcely studied. Such markers could play important roles in diagnostic and prognostic schemes as well as in decision-making about the best treatment strategies. This study analyzed the preoperative serum levels of conventional tumor markers (AFP, CEA, CA 19-9, CA 72-4), proliferative marker thymidine kinase (TK) and cytokeratins (TPA, TPS and CYFRA 21.1) in patients with gallbladder carcinoma, bile duct carcinoma (Klatskin) and cholangiocellular carcinoma, in relation to the patient prognosis. The study aimed in finding the role of tumor markers in not properly investigated diseases, where their importance is often marginalized. The study included 43 patients, who underwent either radical surgical procedure (n=21) or explorative laparotomy without any surgical treatment (n=22) for gallbladder carcinoma, bile duct carcinoma (Klatskin tumor) and cholangiocellular carcinoma (24, 8 and 11 patients, respectively) between 2003 and 2010 at our Department. The association of serum tumor markers and patients' prognosis were assessed for the entire cohort and for each cancer type and also with regard to treatment (radical surgery versus explorative laparotomy). Overall survival (OS) and disease-free interval (DFI) were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method and statistically evaluated using the LogRank test. DFI was computed only in the subgroup of patients treated by radical surgery. The statistical analysis of tumor markers revealed TK as a poor prognostic factor for shorter DFI (HR=3.5, 95%CI=0.6-21.3, pbile duct carcinoma, and cholangiocellular carcinoma. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  5. Primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the common bile duct: A case report and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Zakaria, Ali; Al-Obeidi, Salwan; Daradkeh, Salam

    2017-01-01

    Hepatobiliary involvement by malignant lymphoma is usually a secondary manifestation of systemic disease, whereas primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the extrahepatic biliary ducts is an extremely rare entity. We describe the case of a 57-year-old man who presented with an acute onset of obstructive jaundice and severe itching. Abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography revealed intrahepatic and common hepatic ducts dilatation. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic r...

  6. Delphi consensus on bile duct injuries during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: an evolutionary cul-de-sac or the birth pangs of a new technical framework?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iwashita, Yukio; Hibi, Taizo; Ohyama, Tetsuji; Umezawa, Akiko; Takada, Tadahiro; Strasberg, Steven M.; Asbun, Horacio J.; Pitt, Henry A.; Han, Ho-Seong; Hwang, Tsann-Long; Suzuki, Kenji; Yoon, Yoo-Seok; Choi, In-Seok; Yoon, Dong-Sup; Huang, Wayne Shih-Wei; Yoshida, Masahiro; Wakabayashi, Go; Miura, Fumihiko; Okamoto, Kohji; Endo, Itaru; de Santibañes, Eduardo; Giménez, Mariano Eduardo; Windsor, John A.; Garden, O. James; Gouma, Dirk J.; Cherqui, Daniel; Belli, Giulio; Dervenis, Christos; Deziel, Daniel J.; Jonas, Eduard; Jagannath, Palepu; Supe, Avinash Nivritti; Singh, Harjit; Liau, Kui-Hin; Chen, Xiao-Ping; Chan, Angus C. W.; Lau, Wan Yee; Fan, Sheung Tat; Chen, Miin-Fu; Kim, Myung-Hwan; Honda, Goro; Sugioka, Atsushi; Asai, Koji; Wada, Keita; Mori, Yasuhisa; Higuchi, Ryota; Misawa, Takeyuki; Watanabe, Manabu; Matsumura, Naoki; Rikiyama, Toshiki; Sata, Naohiro; Kano, Nobuyasu; Tokumura, Hiromi; Kimura, Taizo; Kitano, Seigo; Inomata, Masafumi; Hirata, Koichi; Sumiyama, Yoshinobu; Inui, Kazuo; Yamamoto, Masakazu

    2017-01-01

    Bile duct injury (BDI) during laparoscopic cholecystectomy remains a serious iatrogenic surgical complication. BDI most often occurs as a result of misidentification of the anatomy; however, clinical evidence on its precise mechanism and surgeons' perceptions is scarce. Surgeons from Japan, Korea,

  7. Decline in CA19-9 during chemotherapy predicts survival in four independent cohorts of patients with inoperable bile duct cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunnet, Mie; Christensen, Ib J.; Lassen, Ulrik

    2015-01-01

    Background: Carbohydrate associated antigen (CA19-9) has been approved by the FDA as a biomarker for monitoring treatment effect in pancreatic cancer. However, the value of serum CA19-9 as a biomarker of response to chemotherapy in bile duct cancer is unclear. The aim of this study was to determi...

  8. Diagnostic performance of CT and MRI in distinguishing intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct from cholangiocarcinoma with intraductal papillary growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yubao; Zhong, Xiaomei; Yan, Lifen; Zheng, Junhui; Liu, Zaiyi; Liang, Changhong [Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiology, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangzhou (China)

    2015-07-15

    We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of CT and MRI for distinguishing intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPNB) from cholangiocarcinoma (CC) with intraductal papillary growth (IPG). Forty-two patients with either IPNB or CC with IPG proven by histopathology were independently reviewed in retrospect. Strict criteria for diagnosis of IPNB included presence of the designated imaging features as follows: local dilatation of the bile duct, nodule within the dilated bile duct, growing along the interior wall of bile duct. Any lesion that was not consistent with the criteria was classified as CC with IPG. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values for characterization of IPNB were calculated, and k test was used to assess the level of agreement. Two imaging reviewers correctly identified 21 of 26 (80.8 %) and 22 of 26 (84.6 %) IPNB cases, respectively. Alternatively, they correctly identified 14 of 16 (87.5 %) and 15 of 16 (93.8 %) CC with IPG, respectively. Agreement between the two reviewers was perfect (k = 0.81) for the diagnosis of IPNB and differentiation from CC with IPG. By using our designated diagnostic criteria of CT and MRI, IPNB can be accurately identified and possible to be distinguished from CC with IPG. (orig.)

  9. Liver morphology with emphasis on bile ducts changes and survival analysis in mice submitted to multiple Schistosoma mansoni infections and chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, L C; Vianna, M R; Abrantes, C P; Lima, D M; Falavigna, A L; Antonelli-Cardoso, R H; Gallucci, S D; de Brito, T

    1990-01-01

    In an attempt to be as close as possible to the infected and treated patients of the endemic areas of schistosomiasis (S. mansoni) and in order to achieve a long period of follow-up, mice were repeatedly infected with a low number of cercariae. Survival data and histological variables such as schistosomal granuloma, portal changes, hepatocellular necrosis, hepatocellular regeneration, schistosomotic pigment, periductal fibrosis and chiefly bile ducts changes were analysed in the infected treated and non treated mice. Oxamniquine chemotherapy in repeatedly infected mice prolonged survival significantly when compared to non-treated animals (chi-square 9.24, p = 0.0024), thus confirming previous results with a similar experimental model but with a shorter term follow-up. Furthermore, mortality decreased rapidly after treatment suggesting an abrupt reduction in the severity of hepatic lesions. A morphological and immunohistochemical study of the liver was carried out. Portal fibrosis, with a pattern resembling human Symmers fibrosis was present at a late phase in the infected animals. Bile duct lesions were quite close to those described in human Mansonian schistosomiasis. Schistosomal antigen was observed in one isolated altered bile duct cell. The pathogenesis of the bile duct changes and its relation to the parasite infection and/or their antigens are discussed.

  10. Laparoscopic exploration of the common bile duct and removal of dead worm in a patient of cholangitis after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalkoo Mushtaq

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a dead ascaris-induced extrahepatic bilary obstruction in a young female who presented with acute cholangitis. The dead ascaris was removed by laparoscopic exploration of common bile duct after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography failure. Patient had an uneventful hospital course after the procedure and was discharged afebrile after 3 days of hospital stay.

  11. Intraluminal hyperthermia and radiotherapy using {sup 192}Ir remote after loading system in the treatment of unresectable hilar bile duct cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchida, Akira; Itoh, Masaki; Fujii, Tohru [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine] [and others

    1995-10-01

    The efficacy of combined therapy of intraluminal hyperthermia and radiotherapy using remote after loading system (RALS) was compared with that of percutaneous transhepatic biliary endoprosthesis (PTBE) alone. The subjects were 60 patients having unresectable hilar bile duct cancer. Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) was performed in the all patients, and additionally PTBE in 39, local infusion of bleomycin and intraluminal hyperthermia in 11, and internal irradiation (RALS) in 10. Four fractionated irradiation (4 Gy x 4) was performed on the site 10 mm from the source using {sup 192}Ir high dose RALS, and subsequently two fractionated brachytherapy of 10 Gy and 20 fractionated external irradiation of 40 Gy. The outcome was significantly improved in the RALS group, showing 50% survival time of 444.8 days (PTBE group, 228.7 days; hyperthermia group, 472 days). (S.Y.).

  12. Profile of preoperative fecal organic acids closely predicts the incidence of postoperative infectious complications after major hepatectomy with extrahepatic bile duct resection: Importance of fecal acetic acid plus butyric acid minus lactic acid gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Yukihiro; Mizuno, Takashi; Sugawara, Gen; Asahara, Takashi; Nomoto, Koji; Igami, Tsuyoshi; Ebata, Tomoki; Nagino, Masato

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the association between preoperative fecal organic acid concentrations and the incidence of postoperative infectious complications in patients undergoing major hepatectomy with extrahepatic bile duct resection for biliary malignancies. The fecal samples of 44 patients were collected before undergoing hepatectomy with bile duct resection for biliary malignancies. The concentrations of fecal organic acids, including acetic acid, butyric acid, and lactic acid, and representative fecal bacteria were measured. The perioperative clinical characteristics and the concentrations of fecal organic acids were compared between patients with and without postoperative infectious complications. Among 44 patients, 13 (30%) developed postoperative infectious complications. Patient age and intraoperative bleeding were significantly greater in patients with postoperative infectious complications compared with those without postoperative infectious complications. The concentrations of fecal acetic acid and butyric acid were significantly less, whereas the concentration of fecal lactic acid tended to be greater in the patients with postoperative infectious complications. The calculated gap between the concentrations of fecal acetic acid plus butyric acid minus lactic acid gap was less in the patients with postoperative infectious complications (median 43.5 vs 76.1 μmol/g of feces, P = .011). Multivariate analysis revealed that an acetic acid plus butyric acid minus lactic acid gap acid profile (especially low acetic acid, low butyric acid, and high lactic acid) had a clinically important impact on the incidence of postoperative infectious complications in patients undergoing major hepatectomy with extrahepatic bile duct resection. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Severity of Acute Cholecystitis and Risk of Iatrogenic Bile Duct Injury During Cholecystectomy, a Population-Based Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Törnqvist, Björn; Waage, Anne; Zheng, Zongli; Ye, Weimin; Nilsson, Magnus

    2016-05-01

    Acute cholecystitis is a common complication to gallstone disease. The relation between the severity of acute cholecystitis and risk of bile duct injury during cholecystectomy has not yet been addressed and is the main focus of this study. All cases with iatrogenic bile duct injury during cholecystectomy, within the Lake Mälaren region, Sweden, were identified through ICD procedure codes for biliary reconstruction within the Swedish Inpatient Register and matched to non-injured cholecystectomized controls. Information regarding perioperative variables was collected through medical record review. After review, 158 cases and 623 controls remained for analyses. Adjusted risk of bile duct injury was doubled among patients with acute cholecystitis (OR 1.97 95 % CI 1.05-3.72), whereas a mild acute cholecystitis (Tokyo grade I) did not affect the risk of bile duct injury (OR 0.96 95 % CI 0.41-2.25), a moderate (Tokyo grade II) more than doubled the risk (OR 2.41 95 % CI 1.21-4.80). Severe cholecystitis (Tokyo grade III) had a close to significant eightfold increase in risk (OR 8.43 95 % CI 0.97-72.9). The intention to use intraoperative cholangiography reduced injury risk by 52 % (OR 0.48, 95 % CI 0.29-0.81). Patients with on-going acute cholecystitis had twice the risk of sustaining a biliary lesion compared to patients without acute cholecystitis. There was a relation between the Tokyo guidelines severity grading of acute cholecystitis and injury risk and the intention to use intraoperative cholangiography halved the risk of reconstructed bile duct injury during cholecystectomy.

  14. Cost analysis of robot-assisted choledochotomy and common bile duct exploration as an option for complex choledocholithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almamar, Ahmed; Alkhamesi, Nawar A; Davies, Ward T; Schlachta, Christopher M

    2017-08-15

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical outcomes and cost-effectiveness of elective, robot-assisted choledochotomy and common bile duct exploration (RCD/CBDE) compared to open surgery for ERCP refractory choledocholithiasis. A prospective database of all RCD/CBDE has been maintained since our first procedure in April 2007 though April 2016. With ethics approval, this database was compared with all contemporaneous elective open procedures (OCD/CBDE) performed since March 2005. Emergency procedures were excluded from analysis. Cost analysis was calculated using a micro-costing approach. Outcomes were analyzed on the basis of intent-to-treat. A p value of 0.05 denoted statistical significance. A total of 80 cases were performed since 2005 compromising 50 consecutive, unselected RCD/CBDE and 30 OCD/CBDE. Comparing RCD/CBDE to OCD/CBDE there were no significant differences between groups with respect to age (65 ± 20 vs. 67 ± 18 years, p = 0.09), gender (14/30 vs. 16/25 male/female, p = 0.52), ASA class or co-morbidities. The mean duration of surgery for RCD/CBDE trended longer compared to OCD/CBDE (205 ± 70 min vs. 174 ± 73 min, p = 0.08). However, there was significant reduction in postoperative complications with RCD/CBDE versus OCD/CBDE (22% vs. 56%, p = 0.002). Median hospital stay was also significantly reduced (6 vs 12 days, p = 0.01). The net overall hospital cost for RCD/CBDE was lower ($8449.88 CAD vs. $11671.2 CAD). In this single-centre, cohort study, robotic-assisted CD/CBDE for ERCP refractory common bile duct stones provides the dominating strategy of improved patient outcomes with a reduction of overall cost.

  15. Oncolytic gene therapy combined with double suicide genes for human bile duct cancer in nude mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Yoh; Honda, Kazuo; Hamada, Hirofumi; Kobayashi, Nobuaki

    2009-11-01

    The prognosis of bile duct cancer is quite poor because of the low resection rate and the tolerance of the cancer to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. We investigated the feasibility of an oncolytic adenovector with two suicide genes for the treatment of bile duct cancer. We developed a new conditionally replicating adenovirus (AxE1CAUT) with the uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (UPRT) gene and the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-tk) gene, and compared its antitumor effects with a replication defective adenovector (AxCAUT) that has both the UPRT and HSV-tk genes. We evaluated the effects of these adenoviruses with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and/or ganciclovir (GCV) on human cholangiocarcinoma cells (HuCCT1, with mutant p53) in vitro and in vivo. The drug sensitivity of HuCCT1 cells to 5-FU and/or GCV was increased with an increase in the multiplicity of infection (MOI). The antitumor effect increased when 5-FU and GCV were given at the same time. Subcutaneous tumors of nude mice directly injected with AxCAUT showed a higher response to 5-FU/GCV than 5-FU or GCV alone, but there was no difference between AxCAUT and AxE1CAUT. However, AxE1CAUT with 5-FU/GCV produced a decrease in tumor weight and better survival than AxCAUT in a peritoneal dissemination model infected by intraperitoneal administration of the adenovectors. Oncolytic double suicide gene therapy is effective against human cholangiocarcinoma cells in nude mouse models.

  16. Percutaneous transhepatic balloon dilation of biliary-enteric anastomotic strictures after surgical repair of iatrogenic bile duct injuries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Y Lee

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of percutaneous balloon dilation of biliary-enteric anastomotic strictures resulting from surgical repair of laparoscopic cholecystectomy-related bile duct injuries. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 61 patients were referred to our institution from 1995 to 2010 for treatment of obstruction at the biliary-enteric anastomosis following surgical repair of laparoscopic cholecystectomy-related bile duct injuries. Of these 61 patients, 27 underwent surgical revision upon stricture diagnosis, and 34 patients were managed using balloon dilation. Of these 34 patients, 2 were lost to follow up, leaving 32 patients for analysis. The primary study objective was to determine the clinical success rate of balloon dilation of biliary-enteric anastomotic strictures. Secondary study objectives included determining anastomosis patency, rates of stricture recurrence following treatment, and morbidity. RESULTS: Balloon dilation of biliary-enteric anastomotic strictures was clinically successful in 21 of 32 patients (66%. Anastomotic stricture recurred in one of 21 patients (5% after an average of 13.1 years of follow-up. Patients who were unsuccessfully managed with balloon dilation required significantly more invasive procedures (6.8 v. 3.4; p = 0.02 and were left with an indwelling biliary catheter for a significantly longer period of time (8.8 v. 2.0 months; p = 0.02 than patients whose strictures could be resolved by balloon dilation. No significant differences in the number of balloon dilations performed (p = 0.17 or in the maximum balloon diameter used (p = 0.99 were demonstrated for patients with successful or unsuccessful balloon dilation outcomes. CONCLUSION: Percutaneous balloon dilation of anastomotic biliary strictures following surgical repair of laparoscopic cholecystectomy-related injuries may result in lasting patency of the biliary-enteric anastomosis.

  17. The effects of chitosan and low dose dexamethasone on extrahepatic cholestasis after bile duct ligation in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olteanu, Diana; Filip, A; Mureşan, A; Nagy, A; Tabaran, F; Moldovan, R; Decea, N; Catoi, C; Clichici, S

    2012-03-01

    Inflammation and oxidative stress are important pathways in the development of liver fibrosis following biliary obstruction. To evaluate the effects of low dose dexamethasone and chitosan, a natural compound with no side-effects, on liver damage caused by bile duct ligation in rats. Fifty female Wistar rats, randomly and equally divided in 5 groups: I (SHAM) underwent only laparotomy, II (BDL) with bile duct ligation, III (DEX) 0.125 mg/kg dexamethasone i.m. daily, IV (CS) 1 mg/kg chitosan by gavage and group V (DEX+CS), both substances. After six days, the following parameters were assessed from liver homogenates: malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyls (PC), reduced glutathione (GSH), total SH groupings, nitric oxide (NO), and from plasma: MDA, γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and total bilirubin (TB). A histopathological examination was performed using some of the elements of the Knodell Histological Activity Index. BDL significantly increases the levels of MDA, liver enzymes, and the necro-inflammatory score compared to the sham group and it decreases the antioxidant capacity. DEX protects against lipid peroxidation and improves the antioxidant capacity, but it is not able to protect the hepatocytes. Chitosan significantly decreases (pliver necrosis and inflammation (2.75±0.95 vs 1±0, p<0.05). Both CS and DEX reduce the level of NO significantly. BDL induces severe oxidative stress damage after six days already. Chitosan proved very efficient in protecting the hepatocytes against oxidative stress, a fact supported by the histological findings.

  18. Early hepatocyte, endothelial, and bile duct cell injury after pediatric liver transplantation from cadaveric or living-related donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reding, R; Wallemacq, P; Moulin, D; Manicourt, D; Lambotte, L; Jamart, J; Sokal, E; de Ville de Goyet, J; Otte, J B

    1998-03-15

    When compared with cadaveric grafts (Cad), the potential advantages of pediatric orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) from living-related (LR) donors may include better graft quality, shorter ischemic time, appropriate preparation of the recipient, and better immunologic compatibility. The aim of this study was to analyze early hepatocyte, endothelial, and bile duct cell injury following pediatric OLT using LR (n=15) or uncomplicated Cad reduced-size (n=10) grafts. Median (range) total ischemic times were 190 min (105-261) versus 760 min (418-948) in LR and Cad groups, respectively (PBile duct cell injury, as assessed using plasma gamma-glutamyl transferase levels, was similar in both groups, with a progressive increase at the end of the first week after OLT, which was correlated with a similar incidence of early acute rejection in both groups (80% in the LR group vs. 62% in the Cad group, NS). (1) The hepatocellular and endothelial cell damage was reduced after OLT with LR grafts, which may be related to shorter ischemic time when compared with Cad grafts; (2) the putative immunologic advantage for LR grafts was not confirmed in terms of incidence of acute rejection.

  19. Stepwise approach to curative surgery using percutaneous transhepatic cholangiodrainage and portal vein embolization for severe bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honmyo, Naruhiko; Kuroda, Shintaro; Kobayashi, Tsuyoshi; Ishiyama, Kohei; Ide, Kentaro; Tahara, Hiroyuki; Ohira, Masahiro; Ohdan, Hideki

    2016-12-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) has been recently adapted to acute cholecystitis. Major bile duct injury during LC, especially Strasberg-Bismuth classification type E, can be a critical problem sometimes requiring hepatectomy. Safety and definitive treatment without further morbidities, such as posthepatectomy liver failure, is required. Here, we report a case of severe bile duct injury treated with a stepwise approach using (99m)Tc-galactosyl human serum albumin ((99m)Tc-GSA) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT fusion imaging to accurately estimate liver function.A 52-year-old woman diagnosed with acute cholecystitis underwent LC at another hospital and was transferred to our university hospital for persistent bile leakage on postoperative day 20. She had no jaundice or infection, although an intraperitoneal drainage tube discharged approximately 500 ml of bile per day. Recorded operation procedure showed removal of the gallbladder with a part of the common bile duct due to its misidentification, and each of the hepatic ducts and right hepatic artery was injured. Abdominal enhanced CT revealed obstructive jaundice of the left liver and arterial shunt through the hilar plate to the right liver. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography revealed type E4 or more advanced bile duct injury according to the Bismuth-Strasberg classification. We planned a stepwise approach using percutaneous transhepatic cholangiodrainage (PTCD) and portal vein embolization (PVE) for secure right hemihepatectomy and biliary-jejunum reconstruction and employed (99m)Tc-GSA SPECT/CT fusion imaging to estimate future remnant liver function. The left liver function rate had changed from 26.2 % on admission to 26.3 % after PTCD and 54.5 % after PVE, while the left liver volume rate was 33.8, 33.3, and 49.6 %, respectively. The increase of liver function was higher than that of volume (28.3 vs. 15.8 %). On postoperative day 63, the curative operation, right

  20. Technical report: gadoxetate-disodium-enhanced 2D R2* mapping: a novel approach for assessing bile ducts in living donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazeli Dehkordy, Soudabeh; Fowler, Kathryn J; Wolfson, Tanya; Igarashi, Saya; Lamas Constantino, Carolina P; Hooker, Jonathan C; Hong, Cheng W; Mamidipalli, Adrija; Gamst, Anthony C; Hemming, Alan; Sirlin, Claude B

    2017-10-31

    Gadoxetate-disodium (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced 3D T1- weighted (T1w) MR cholangiography (MRC) is an efficient method to evaluate biliary anatomy due to T1 shortening of excreted contrast in the bile. A method that exploits both T1 shortening and T2* effects may produce even greater bile duct conspicuity. The aim of our study is to determine feasibility and compare the diagnostic performance of two-dimensional (2D) T1w multi-echo (ME) spoiled gradient-recalled-echo (SPGR) derived R2* maps against T1w MRC for bile duct visualization in living liver donor candidates. Ten potential living liver donor candidates underwent pretransplant 3T MRI and were included in our study. Following injection of Gd-EOBDTPA and a 20-min delay, 3D T1w MRC and 2D T1w ME SPGR images were acquired. 2D R2* maps were generated inline by the scanner assuming exponential decay. The 3D T1w MRC and 2D R2* maps were retrospectively and independently reviewed in two separate sessions by three radiologists. Visualization of eight bile duct segments was scored using a 4-point ordinal scale. The scores were compared using mixed effects regression model. Imaging was tolerated by all donors and R2* maps were successfully generated in all cases. Visualization scores of 2D R2* maps were significantly higher than 3D T1w MRC for right anterior (p = 0.003) and posterior (p = 0.0001), segment 2 (p mapping is a feasible method for evaluating the bile ducts in living donors and may be a valuable addition to the living liver donor MR protocol for delineating intrahepatic biliary anatomy.

  1. Tratamento laparoscópico de coledocolitíase Laparoscopic treatment of common bile duct lithiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Autran C. MACHADO

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Paciente com história de 18 meses de emagrecimento e icterícia foi encaminhado ao Serviço de Cirurgia Abdominal do Hospital do Câncer, São Paulo, SP., com hipótese diagnóstica de câncer de cabeça de pâncreas. Exames laboratoriais mostraram elevação de bilirrubinas e de enzimas canaliculares. Ultra-sonografia abdominal revelou dilatação de via biliar intra e extra-hepática. Tomografia computadorizada mostrou árvore biliar dilatada com presença de cálculo de cerca de 3 cm em colédoco distal. O paciente foi submetido a colecistectomia com coledocotomia, retirada do cálculo e anastomose colédoco-duodenal por laparoscopia. Evoluiu sem intercorrências, recebendo alta no sexto dia de pós-operatório. Conclui-se que o tratamento laparoscópico da coledocolitíase é factível em alguns pacientes, especialmente naqueles com dilatação de via biliar. A retirada de cálculos deve ser seguida de procedimento de drenagem da via biliar com dreno de Kehr. Em alguns pacientes com colédoco cronicamente dilatado, como o do presente caso, a anastomose colédoco-duodenal é o procedimento de escolha.With the advances of videolaparoscopic surgery, this approach had become the treatment of choice for cholelithiasis. However, about 5% to 10% may present common bile duct lithiasis. Most surgeons have still difficulties to deal with this situation and do prefer resolve with open surgery or with further endoscopic approach. We present a case of a 60-year-old man, with 18 months history of right upper quadrant pain, weight loss and jaundice. He was referred with diagnostic of pancreatic cancer. Laboratory investigation showed increased bilirrubin (10 mg/dL, alkaline phosphatase and GGT. Abdominal ultrasound showed atrophic gallbladder with dilated intra and extrahepatic biliary tree. Computerized tomography scan disclosed enlarged biliary tree with 3 cm stone in the distal common bile duct. The patient underwent a laparoscopic cholecystectomy

  2. Revealing impaired blood supply to the bile ducts on contrast-enhanced ultrasound: a novel diagnosis method to ischemic-type biliary lesions after orthotropic liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jie; Zheng, Bo-Wen; Wang, Ping; Liao, Mei; Zheng, Rong-Qin; Lu, Ming-De; Lu, Yan; Zeng, Jie; Zhang, Yan-Ling

    2013-05-01

    Ischemic-type biliary lesions (ITBLs) are a major source of morbidity and mortality after orthotropic liver transplantation (OLT). The study determines diagnostic accuracy of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in diagnosing ITBLs. Nine healthy volunteers, six OLT recipients without complications, 36 OLT patients with complications (12 without ITBLs and 24 with ITBLs) underwent CEUS. Two radiologists reviewed the sonograms of the hilar bile duct wall and established specific criteria used to detect ITBLs. Next, the sonograms of six OLT recipients without complications and 36 patients with complications (12 without ITBLs and 24 with ITBLs) were retrospectively reviewed by two other independent, blinded radiologists. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of CEUS were evaluated. The main feature differentiating ITBLs from three other groups was non- or hypo-enhancement of the hilar bile duct wall in arterial phase (all p Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Percutaneous drainage and stenting for palliation of malignant bile duct obstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delden, Otto M. van; Lameris, Johan S. [Academic Medical Center of the University of Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2008-03-15

    Percutaneous biliary drainage and stenting (PTBD) for palliation of malignant obstructive jaundice has evolved to a safe and effective technique. PTBD is equally effective for treatment of distal and proximal bile obstruction. Metal self-expandable stents have proved superior to plastic stents and should therefore be used. Technical success is >90% en clinical success is >75% in all major series. There are a considerable number of complications, but most can be treated conservatively and procedure-related mortality is <2% in most series. Thirty-day mortality after PTBD is >10% in many series, but this is largely due to the underlying disease. About 10-30% of patients will have recurrent jaundice at some point in their disease after PTBD and require re-intervention. (orig.)

  4. Immunoelectron Microscopic Localization of MHC Class 1 and 2 Antigens on Bile Duct Epithelial Cells in Patients with Primary Biliary Cirrhosis

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    Nishimoto, Hiroshi; Yamada, Gotaro; Mizuno, Motowo; Tsuji, Takao

    1994-01-01

    We studied the distribution of class 1 and class 2 major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens on bile duct epithelial cells in liver from patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) by an immunohistochemical method using monoclonal antibodies to HLA-ABC products and HLA-D subregion products (HLA-DR, -DP, -DQ). By light microscopy, the expression of MHC class 1 antigens (HLA-ABC antigens) was enhanced in PBC compared with controls. While negligible staining of MHC class 2 antigens was d...

  5. Decline in CA19-9 during chemotherapy predicts survival in four independent cohorts of patients with inoperable bile duct cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunnet, Mie; Christensen, Ib J; Lassen, Ulrik; Jensen, Lars H; Lydolph, Magnus; Knox, Jennifer J; McNamara, Mairead G; Jitlal, Mark; Wasan, Harpreet; Bridgewater, John; Valle, Juan W; Mau-Sorensen, Morten

    2015-07-01

    Carbohydrate associated antigen (CA19-9) has been approved by the FDA as a biomarker for monitoring treatment effect in pancreatic cancer. However, the value of serum CA19-9 as a biomarker of response to chemotherapy in bile duct cancer is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine if a decline in CA19-9 (CA19-9 response) during chemotherapy is predictive of survival in patients with inoperable bile duct cancer. Consecutive patients with inoperable bile duct cancer treated at a University Hospital were retrospectively included in an investigational cohort (n = 212). Three validation cohorts were established including patients 1) participating in phase I/II trials at a Danish Hospital (n = 71), 2) identified retrospectively in a Canadian cohort (n = 196) and 3) randomized in the ABC-02 trial (n = 410). Patients with a baseline CA19-9 and at least one CA19-9 value measured 10-12 weeks after the start of chemotherapy were included. Multivariate Cox regression analyses were performed. Patients meeting the criteria to be included were 54 in the investigational cohort and 34, 68 and 148 in the three validation sets, respectively. Multivariate analysis included radiological response, performance status, bilirubin, gender, site of cancer, extend of disease, CA19-9 at baseline and age. A hazard ratio (HR) of 0.60 (95%CI: 0.44-0.80, p = 0.0005) for death in CA19-9 responders was reached in the investigational cohort. The predictive value of CA 19-9 response was confirmed in all three validation cohorts. CA19-9 response is a robust predictor of survival in patients with inoperable bile duct cancer in four independent data sets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Endobiliary brush biopsy: Intra- and interobserver variation in cytological evaluation of brushings from bile duct strictures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamsen, S; Olsen, M; Jendresen, MB

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Obtaining cytological specimens by wire-guided endobiliary brushing at the time of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a convenient way to reach a diagnosis. Sensitivity for malignant disease is generally around 50% and specificity around 100%. The present study...... was designed to assess the reproducibility of the cytological examination. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Samples were obtained from 55 consecutive patients with biliary duct strictures that eventually turned out to be caused by malignant disease in 41 patients (73%). The cytology specimens were evaluated twice...... in different random order with an interval of at least 4 months by two pathologists blinded to the final diagnoses. Suitability for diagnosis (suitable, suboptimal or unsuitable) and cytologic diagnosis (benign, atypical, suspicious for malignancy and malignant cells) were registered. Kappa analysis...

  7. CT findings of intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct: Assessment with multiphase contrast-enhanced examination using multi-detector CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, H., E-mail: ogawa.hiroshi@h.mbox.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Itoh, S. [Department of Radiology, Japanese Red Cross Nagoya Daiichi Hospital, Nagoya (Japan); Nagasaka, T. [Department of Medical Technology, Nagoya University School of Health Sciences, Nagoya (Japan); Suzuki, K. [Department of Radiology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Ota, T. [Department of Radiology, Aichi Medical University Hospital, Nagakute Aichi (Japan); Naganawa, S. [Department of Radiology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan)

    2012-03-15

    Aim: To evaluate multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) findings of intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPNB), a neoplasm that is considered to be the biliary counterpart of pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm. Materials and methods: Two radiologists retrospectively evaluated multiphase contrast-enhanced CT images with 0.5 or 1 mm collimation in 37 consecutive patients with resected IPNB diagnosed by a single pathologist. The CT findings were correlated with the pathological findings concerning invasion of the surrounding organs and vessels. Results: All patients showed bile duct dilatation. An intraductal mass was detected in 36 patients and the following findings were observed: extensive infiltration along the bile duct more than 20 mm (n = 32), compared with normal hepatic parenchyma, isodense or hyperdense during the late arterial phase (n = 31), not hyperdense during the portal-venous and delayed phases (n = 36), and intense enhancement rim at the base of the mass during the portal-venous or delayed phase (n = 27). Parenchymal invasion of the surrounding organs was seen in eight of 16 tumours showing irregular or bulging margins. Vascular invasion was false positive in four of eight tumours. Conclusions: IPNB exhibits relatively characteristic findings with multiphase contrast-enhanced examination using MDCT. A tendency to overestimate invasion of the surrounding organs and vessels was seen.

  8. Multimodal Treatment of Hepatic Metastasis in the Form of a Bile Duct Tumor Thrombus from Pancreatic Acinar Cell Carcinoma: Case Report of Successful Resection after Chemoradiation Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotada Kittaka

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma (ACC is a rare tumor, and its pathophysiology has not been well understood. Treatment strategies for hepatic metastasis originating from ACC remain controversial. We report the case of a 66-year-old woman who had undergone total pancreatectomy from ACC 7 years prior to clinical presentation. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography imaging revealed a tumorous lesion measuring 7 cm in length and 1 cm in diameter and extending along the intrahepatic bile duct (B6, which showed mild enhancement in the early phase and modest washout in the late phase. This lesion was diagnosed as hepatic metastasis primarily in the form of a bile duct tumor thrombus originating from the prior ACC by the pathological evaluation of the fine needle biopsy specimen. The patient underwent preoperative gemcitabine-based chemoradiation therapy followed by subsequent surgical resection, which included subsegmentectomy (S6 of the liver and complete removal of the bile duct tumor thrombus. The patient has had no recurrence during the past 8 months since her last surgery. Multimodal treatment including preoperative chemoradiation therapy might be beneficial especially for marginally resectable cases of ACC.

  9. Treatment of bile duct-ligated rats with the nitric oxide synthase transcription enhancer AVE 9488 ameliorates portal hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biecker, Erwin; Trebicka, Jonel; Kang, Alice; Hennenberg, Martin; Sauerbruch, Tilman; Heller, Jörg

    2008-03-01

    Nitric oxide levels are decreased in the cirrhotic liver and increased in the systemic vasculature. We investigated whether the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) transcription enhancer AVE 9488 ameliorates portal hypertension in cirrhotic rats. Rats with secondary biliary cirrhosis [bile duct ligation (BDL)] were treated with AVE 9488. BDL animals without treatment served as controls. Blood flow was determined with the microsphere technique. Intrahepatic resistance was measured by in situ perfusion. NOS-3 mRNA and protein levels in the liver, aorta and superior mesenteric artery (SMA) were measured. Arterial pressure did not differ between treated and non-treated animals. Portal pressure, hepatic portal-vascular resistance and perfusion pressure of the in situ perfused liver were lower in the AVE 9488-treated animals. Arterial splanchnic resistance, portal venous inflow and shunt volume were increased by AVE 9488. N (G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester abolished the effect of AVE 9488. AVE 9488-treated rats had higher liver NOS-3 mRNA and protein levels, whereas NOS-3 mRNA and protein in the aorta and the SMA did not vary between groups. Phosphorylation of liver vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) and NOS-3 as well as hepatic nitrite/nitrate was increased by AVE 9488. Treatment of BDL rats with the NOS transcription enhancer AVE 9488 induces an increase in NOS-3 mRNA and protein in the liver. This is associated with an amelioration of portal hypertension.

  10. Pathogenesis of Portal Cavernoma Cholangiopathy: Is it Compression by Collaterals or Ischemic Injury to Bile Ducts During Portal Vein Thrombosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Pankaj

    2014-01-01

    The pathogenesis of portal cavernoma cholangiopathy (PCC) is important as it can impact the choice of treatment modalities. PCC consists of a reversible component, which resolves by decompression of collaterals as well as a fixed component, which persists despite the decompression of collaterals. The reversible component is due to compression by large collaterals located adjacent to the bile duct as well as possibly intracholedochal varices. The fixed component is likely to be due to ischemia at the time of portal vein thrombosis, local ischemia by compression as well as encasement by a solid tumor-like cavernoma comprising of fibrous hilar mass containing multiple tiny collateral veins rather than markedly enlarged portal collaterals. Although cholangiographic abnormalities in portal hypertension are common, the prevalence of symptomatic PCC is low. This is likely to be related to the cause of portal hypertension, the duration of portal hypertension and possibly the pattern of occlusion of the splenoportal axis. There may possibly be higher prevalence of symptomatic PCC in extension of the thrombosis to the splenomesentric veins. PMID:25755592

  11. Effects Comparison between Endoscopic Papillary Large Balloon Dilatation and Endoscopic Sphincterotomy for Common Bile Duct Stone Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yandong Guo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST is a treatment of choice for stone extraction and is now most frequently used. The study was to compare the efficacy of endoscopic papillary large balloon dilatation (EPLBD and endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST for common bile duct stone removal. Trials comparing the effects between EPLBD and EST treatment were searched according to the study protocol. Overall stone removal rate, complete removal rate in 1st session, treatment duration, mechanical lithotripsy using rate, and overall complication rate were compared using risk ratio (RR and mean difference (MD and their 95% confidence interval (CI via RevMan 5.2 software. For overall stone removal rate, two therapies showed similar effect, but EPLBD showed better overall stone removal rate for stone >10 mm in diameter. For complete stone removal rate in 1st session, no difference was found, even for those with stone >10 mm in diameter; EPLBD showed longer treatment duration, higher mechanical lithotripsy using rate obvious overall complications rate, and more serious bleeding, whereas there were no significant differences for perforation, hyperamylasemia, pancreatitis, and cholecystitis/cholangitis. EPLBD showed better efficacy in certain conditions compared to EST, however with shortcomings, such as more duration, higher mechanical lithotripsy using rate, more serious overall complications rate, and bleeding.

  12. Analytical review of diagnosis and treatment strategies for dominant bile duct strictures in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljiffry, Murad; Renfrew, Paul D; Walsh, Mark J; Laryea, Marie; Molinari, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Background The diagnosis and treatment of indeterminate dominant strictures (DS) in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is challenging and the literature on the subject is scarce. Objectives This review aims to appraise and synthesize the evidence published in the English-language medical literature on this topic. Methods Scientific papers published from 1950 until week 4 of July 2010 were extracted from MEDLINE, Ovid Medline In-Process, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, the Database of Systematic Reviews, the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, EMBASE, PubMed and the National Library of Medicine Gateway. Results Strategies for the optimal management of DS in PSC patients are supported only by level II and III evidence. Intraductal endoscopic ultrasound appears to be the most sensitive (64%) and specific (95%) diagnostic test for the evaluation of DS in PSC. Endoscopic and percutaneous dilatations achieve 1- and 3-year palliation in 80% and 60% of patients, respectively. Although dilatation and stenting are the most common palliative interventions in DS, no randomized trials on the optimal duration of treatment have been conducted. Conclusions In benign DS, endoscopic dilatation with short-term stenting seems to be effective and safe and does not increase the risks for malignant transformation or complications after liver transplantation. Surgical bile duct resection and/or bilioenteric bypass are indicated only in patients with preserved liver function. PMID:21241424

  13. Improved diagnosis of common bile duct stone with single-shot balanced turbo field-echo sequence in MRCP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Yoshifumi; Goshima, Satoshi; Kojima, Toshihisa; Kawaguchi, Shimpei; Kawada, Hiroshi; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Koyasu, Hiromi; Matsuo, Masayuki; Bae, Kyongtae T

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the value of adding single-shot balanced turbo field-echo (b-TFE) sequence to conventional magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) for the detection of common bile duct (CBD) stone. One hundred thirty-seven consecutive patients with suspected CBD stone underwent MRCP including single-shot b-TFE sequence. Twenty-five patients were confirmed with CBD stone by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography or ultrasonography. Two radiologists reviewed two image protocols: protocol A (conventional MRCP protocol: unenhanced T1-, T2-, and respiratory-triggered three-dimensional fat-suppressed single-shot turbo spin-echo MRCP sequence) and protocol B (protocol A plus single-shot b-TFE sequence). The sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV), and area under the receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) for the detection of CBD stone were compared. The sensitivity (72%) and NPV (94%) were the same between the two protocols. However, protocol B was greater in the specificity (99%) and PPV (94%) than protocol A (92% and 67%, respectively) (P = 0.0078 and 0.031, respectively). The AUC was significantly greater for protocol B (0.93) than for protocol A (0.86) (P = 0.026). Inclusion of single-shot b-TFE sequence to conventional MRCP significantly improved the specificity and PPV for the detection of CBD stone.

  14. Antiproliferation and apoptosis induced by tamoxifen in human bile duct carcinoma QBC939 cells via upregulated p53 expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Peng; Kang, Jin-He; Li, Hua-Liang [Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Cell Biology and Tumor Cell Engineering, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Hu, Su-Xian [First Hospital Attached to Fujian Medical University, Xiamen 361004 (China); Lian, Hui-Hui; Qiu, Ping-Ping; Zhang, Jian [Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Cell Biology and Tumor Cell Engineering, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Li, Wen-Gang, E-mail: lwg11861@163.com [First Hospital Attached to Fujian Medical University, Xiamen 361004 (China); Chen, Qing-Xi, E-mail: chenqx@xmu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Cell Biology and Tumor Cell Engineering, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Key Laboratory for Chemical Biology of Fujian Province, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)

    2009-07-24

    Tamoxifen (TAM) is a nonsteroidal antiestrogen that has been used in the treatment of breast cancer for over 30 years. Recently, it was shown that TAM also has efficacy on gastrointestinal neoplasms such as hepatocarcinoma and pancreatic carcinoma, and that the chemopreventive activities of TAM might be due to its abilities to inhibit cell growth and induce apoptosis. In the present study, we investigated the effects of tamoxifen on growth and apoptosis in the human bile duct carcinoma (BDC) cell line QBC939 using MTT assay, inverted microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, classic DNA fragmentation agarose gel electrophoresis assay, PI single- and FITC/PI double-staining flow cytometry, and Western blotting. Our data revealed that TAM could significantly inhibit growth and induce apoptosis in QBC939 cells. Increased expression of p53 was observed in TAM-treated cells, indicating that p53 might play an important role in TAM-induced apoptosis in QBC939 cells. These results provide significant insight into the anticarcinogenic action of TAM on BDC.

  15. Large balloon dilation post endoscopic sphincterotomy in removal of difficult common bile duct stones: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouquette, Olivier; Bommelaer, Gilles; Abergel, Armando; Poincloux, Laurent

    2014-06-28

    Endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) is the standard therapy in common bile duct (CBD) stones extraction. Large stones (≥ 12 mm) or multiple stones extraction may be challenging after ES alone. Endoscopic sphincterotomy followed by large balloon dilation (ESLBD) has been described as an alternative to ES in these indications. Efficacy, safety, cost-effectiveness and technical aspects of the procedure have been here reviewed. PubMed and Google Scholar search resulted in forty-one articles dealing with CBD stone extraction with 12 mm or more dilation balloons after ES. ESLBD is at least as effective as ES, and reduces the need for additional mechanical lithotripsy. Adverse events rates are not statistically different after ESLBD compared to ES for pancreatitis, bleeding and perforation. However, particular attention should be paid in patients with CBD strictures, which is identified as a risk factor of perforation. ESLBD is slightly cost-effective compared to ES. A small sphincterotomy is usually performed, and may reduce bleeding rates compared to full sphincterotomy. Dilation is performed with 12-20 mm enteral balloons. Optimal inflation time is yet to be determined. The procedure can be performed safely even in patients with peri-ampullary diverticula and surgically altered anatomy. ESLBD is effective and safe in the removal of large CBD stones, however, small sphincterotomy might be preferred and CBD strictures should be considered as a relative contraindication.

  16. Laparoscopic Transcystic Common Bile Duct Exploration in the Elderly is as Effective and Safe as in Younger Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jie-Gao; Guo, Wei; Han, Wei; Zhang, Zhong-Tao

    2017-01-01

    Choledocholithiasis represents a greater proportion of gallstone in the elderly. Elderly patients have more comorbidity, which could increase the operative risk and postoperative complications. However, no study has focused on the effect and safety of laparoscopic transcystic common bile duct exploration (LTCBDE) in elderly patients. The aim of this study was to investigate whether LTCBDE can be performed effectively and safely in elderly patients. This is a retrospective study of patients who underwent LTCBDE for choledocholithiasis performed from January 2010 to December 2012. Patients of age 70 or older were included in the elderly group. The rest integrated the younger group. Demographic data and perioperative parameters were compared between groups. From January 2010 to December 2012, 171 patients admitted for choledocholithiasis and gallstone attempted a single-step treatment combining LTCBDE and laparoscopic cholecystectomy. There were 104 women (60.8%) and 67 men (39.2%) with a median age of 57 (range 24-87) years. Elderly patients had significantly more preoperative risk factors. However, there was no significant difference in the success rate of LTCBDE (96.9% versus 92.7%, P = .142) for the two groups. The operative time was a little longer in elderly group than in younger group: median 80 (60-110) minutes versus 70 (50-95) minutes, respectively (P elderly group than in younger group, as reflected by a longer median postoperative hospital stay (2 days versus 1 day, P elderly patients is as effective and safe as in younger patients.

  17. A Review on the Use of Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy in the Bile Duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Smith

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Current methods to diagnose malignant biliary strictures are of low sensitivity. Probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE is a new approach that can be used to evaluate in vivo histopathology of the GI tract. This paper is of studies evidencing pCLE’s application in the diagnosis of indeterminate biliary strictures. Methods. This paper examined peer-reviewed studies conducted between January 2000 and November 2011. A PubMed search for relevant articles was performed using the following keywords:“pCLE”, “confocal”, “endomicroscopy”, “probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy”, “and “bile duct”. Further individual review was done to assess the screened articles’ relevance to the topic. Results. After individual review, 6 studies were included; with a cumulative sample size of 165, with 75 subjects identified as having a malignancy. These studies included tertiary care centers in Germany, France, and USA, including one multicenter trial. 3 studies assessed pCLE’s specificity (range 67%–88% ,sensitivity (range 83%–98, and accuracy (range 81%–86%. Conclusion. Confocal endomicroscopy is a novel and promising modality for the biliary tree. Further studies need to be conducted both to establish its usefulness for the diagnosis of indeterminate biliary strictures and to understand the histological meaning of the imaging patterns that are observed.

  18. Site-characteristic expression and induction of trefoil factor family 1, 2 and 3 and malignant brain tumor-1 in normal and diseased intrahepatic bile ducts relates to biliary pathophysiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasaki, Motoko; Tsuneyama, Koichi; Saito, Takahito

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIM: Trefoil factor family (TFF)1,2,3 are involved in a homeostasis/repair process of mucosal epithelia. In this study, the significance of TFF family and deleted in the malignant brain tumor-1 (DMBT1), a putative receptor of TFF2, in the intrahepatic biliary tree was investigated....../DMBT1 was induced in moderately to severely damaged ducts irrespective of etiology. CONCLUSION: The intrahepatic biliary tree shows a site-characteristic expression and induction of TFF1,2,3 and DMBT1. In large bile ducts, TFF1,3 were constitutively expressed and increased in pathologic bile ducts...

  19. Prognostic Impact of CD163+ Macrophages in Tumor Stroma and CD8+ T-Cells in Cancer Cell Nests in Invasive Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Takuya; Yoshizawa, Tadashi; Hirai, Hideaki; Seino, Hiroko; Morohashi, Satoko; Wu, Yunyan; Wakiya, Taiichi; Kimura, Norihisa; Kudo, Daisuke; Ishido, Keinosuke; Toyoki, Yoshikazu; Kijima, Hiroshi; Hakamada, Kenichi

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the clinicopathological influence of tumor-infiltrating cluster of differentiation (CD) 163(+) macrophages and CD8(+) T-cells, and to clarify the prognostic effects of these cells in patients with invasive extrahepatic bile duct cancer (EHBC). The numbers of CD8(+) T-cells in cancer cell nests and CD163(+) macrophages in tumor stroma were evaluated using immunohistochemistry in 101 resected EHBC specimens. Correlations with clinicopathological variables and overall survival were analyzed. Perihilar EHBC and perineural invasion were significantly associated with a low number of tumor-infiltrating CD8(+) T-cells. Poorly- differentiated histology and nodal metastasis were significantly associated with a high number of tumor-infiltrating CD163(+) macrophages. A combination of high number of CD8(+) T-cells and low number of CD163(+) macrophages was independently related to better overall survival in the whole patient cohort (hazard ratio=0.127, p<0.001) and in patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy (hazard ratio=0.139, p=0.021). Infiltrating CD163(+) macrophages in tumor stroma and CD8(+) T-cells in cancer cell nests have a prognostic impact in patients with EHBC following resection and also after adjuvant chemotherapy. Copyright© 2017 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  20. Cannabidiol ameliorates cognitive and motor impairments in bile-duct ligated mice via 5-HT1A receptor activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magen, I; Avraham, Y; Ackerman, Z; Vorobiev, L; Mechoulam, R; Berry, E M

    2010-02-01

    We aimed to demonstrate the involvement of 5-HT(1A) receptors in the therapeutic effect of cannabidiol, a non-psychoactive constituent of Cannabis sativa, in a model of hepatic encephalopathy induced by bile-duct ligation (BDL) in mice. Cannabidiol (5 mg x kg(-1); i.p.) was administered over 4 weeks to BDL mice. Cognition and locomotion were evaluated using the eight-arm maze and the open field tests respectively. Hippocampi were analysed by RT-PCR for expression of the genes for tumour necrosis factor-alpha receptor 1, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and 5-HT(1A) receptor. N-(2-(4-(2-methoxy-phenyl)-1-piperazin-1-yl)ethyl)-N-(2-pyridyl) cyclohexanecarboxamide (WAY-100635), a 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist (0.5 mg x kg(-1)), was co-administered with cannabidiol. Liver function was evaluated by measuring plasma liver enzymes and bilirubin. Cannabidiol improved cognition and locomotion, which were impaired by BDL, and restored hippocampal expression of the tumour necrosis factor-alpha receptor 1 and the BDNF genes, which increased and decreased, respectively, following BDL. It did not affect reduced 5-HT(1A) expression in BDL mice. All the effects of cannabidiol, except for that on BDNF expression, were blocked by WAY-100635, indicating 5-HT(1A) receptor involvement in cannabidiol's effects. Cannabidiol did not affect the impaired liver function in BDL. The behavioural outcomes of BDL result from both 5-HT(1A) receptor down-regulation and neuroinflammation. Cannabidiol reverses these effects through a combination of anti-inflammatory activity and activation of this receptor, leading to improvement of the neurological deficits without affecting 5-HT(1A) receptor expression or liver function. BDNF up-regulation by cannabidiol does not seem to account for the cognitive improvement.

  1. Cost-effectiveness analysis of endoscopic ultrasound versus magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography in patients with suspected common bile duct stones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Morris

    Full Text Available Patients with suspected common bile duct (CBD stones are often diagnosed using endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP, an invasive procedure with risk of significant complications. Using endoscopic ultrasound (EUS or Magnetic Resonance CholangioPancreatography (MRCP first to detect CBD stones can reduce the risk of unnecessary procedures, cut complications and may save costs.This study sought to compare the cost-effectiveness of initial EUS or MRCP in patients with suspected CBD stones.This study is a model based cost-utility analysis estimating mean costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs per patient from the perspective of the UK National Health Service (NHS over a 1 year time horizon. A decision tree model was constructed and populated with probabilities, outcomes and cost data from published sources, including one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses.Using MRCP to select patients for ERCP was less costly than using EUS to select patients or proceeding directly to ERCP ($1299 versus $1753 and $1781, respectively, with similar QALYs accruing to each option (0.998, 0.998 and 0.997 for EUS, MRCP and direct ERCP, respectively. Initial MRCP was the most cost-effective option with the highest monetary net benefit, and this result was not sensitive to model parameters. MRCP had a 61% probability of being cost-effective at $29,000, the maximum willingness to pay for a QALY commonly used in the UK.From the perspective of the UK NHS, MRCP was the most cost-effective test in the diagnosis of CBD stones.

  2. Antiangiogenic and antifibrogenic activity of pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) in bile duct-ligated portal hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejias, Marc; Coch, Laura; Berzigotti, Annalisa; Garcia-Pras, Ester; Gallego, Javier; Bosch, Jaime; Fernandez, Mercedes

    2015-04-01

    Antiangiogenic strategies have been proposed as a promising new approach for the therapy of portal hypertension and chronic liver disease. Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is a powerful endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor whose role in portal hypertension remains unknown. Therefore, we aimed at determining the involvement of PEDF in cirrhotic portal hypertension and the therapeutic efficacy of its supplementation. PEDF expression profiling and its relationship with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), neovascularisation and fibrogenesis was determined in bile duct-ligated (BDL) rats and human cirrhotic livers. The ability of exogenous PEDF overexpression by adenovirus-mediated gene transfer (AdPEDF) to inhibit angiogenesis, fibrogenesis and portal pressure was also evaluated in BDL rats, following prevention and intervention trials. PEDF was upregulated in cirrhotic human and BDL rat livers. PEDF and VEGF protein expression and localisation in mesentery and liver increased in parallel with portal hypertension progression, being closely linked in time and space with mesenteric neovascularisation and liver fibrogenesis in BDL rats. Furthermore, AdPEDF increased PEDF bioavailability in BDL rats, shifting the net balance in the local abundance of positive (VEGF) and negative (PEDF) angiogenesis drivers in favour of attenuation of portal hypertension-associated pathological neovascularisation. The antiangiogenic effects of AdPEDF targeted only pathological angiogenesis, without affecting normal vasculature, and were observed during early stages of disease. AdPEDF also significantly decreased liver fibrogenesis (through metalloproteinase upregulation), portosystemic collateralisation and portal pressure in BDL rats. This study provides compelling experimental evidence indicating that PEDF could be a novel therapeutic agent worthy of assessment in portal hypertension and cirrhosis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not

  3. A frequent PNPLA3 variant is a sex specific disease modifier in PSC patients with bile duct stenosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kilian Friedrich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AIMS: Primary sclerosing cholangitis predominantly affects males and is an important indication for liver transplantation. The rs738409 variant (I148M of the PNPLA3 gene is associated with alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver disease and we evaluated its impact on the disease course of PSC. METHODS: The I148M polymorphism was genotyped in 121 German PSC patients of a long-term prospective cohort and 347 Norwegian PSC patients. RESULTS: In the prospective German cohort, actuarial survival free of liver transplantation was significantly reduced for I148M carriers (p = 0.011 compared to wildtype patients. This effect was restricted to patients with severe disease, as defined by development of dominant stenosis (DS requiring endoscopic intervention. DS patients showed markedly decreased survival (p = 0.004 when carrying the I148M variant (I148M: mean 13.8 years; 95% confidence interval: 11.6-16.0 vs. wildtype: mean 18.6 years; 95% confidence interval: 16.3-20.9 while there was no impact on survival in patients without a DS (p = 0.87. In line with previous observations of sex specific effects of the I148M polymorphism, the effect on survival was further restricted to male patients (mean survival 11.9 years; 95% confidence interval: 10.0-14.0 in I148M carriers vs. 18.8 years; 95% confidence interval: 16.2-21.5 in wildtype; p<0.001 while female patients were unaffected by the polymorphism (p = 0.65. These sex specific findings were validated in the Norwegian cohort (p = 0.013. CONCLUSIONS: In male PSC patients with severe disease with bile duct stenosis requiring intervention, the common I148M variant of the PNPLA3 gene is a risk factor for reduced survival.

  4. Cannabidiol ameliorates cognitive and motor impairments in bile-duct ligated mice via 5-HT1A receptor activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magen, I; Avraham, Y; Ackerman, Z; Vorobiev, L; Mechoulam, R; Berry, EM

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: We aimed to demonstrate the involvement of 5-HT1A receptors in the therapeutic effect of cannabidiol, a non-psychoactive constituent of Cannabis sativa, in a model of hepatic encephalopathy induced by bile-duct ligation (BDL) in mice. Experimental approach: Cannabidiol (5 mg·kg−1; i.p.) was administered over 4 weeks to BDL mice. Cognition and locomotion were evaluated using the eight-arm maze and the open field tests respectively. Hippocampi were analysed by RT-PCR for expression of the genes for tumour necrosis factor-α receptor 1, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and 5-HT1A receptor. N-(2-(4-(2-methoxy-phenyl)-1-piperazin-1-yl)ethyl)-N-(2-pyridyl) cyclohexanecarboxamide (WAY-100635), a 5-HT1A receptor antagonist (0.5 mg·kg−1), was co-administered with cannabidiol. Liver function was evaluated by measuring plasma liver enzymes and bilirubin. Key results: Cannabidiol improved cognition and locomotion, which were impaired by BDL, and restored hippocampal expression of the tumour necrosis factor-α receptor 1 and the BDNF genes, which increased and decreased, respectively, following BDL. It did not affect reduced 5-HT1A expression in BDL mice. All the effects of cannabidiol, except for that on BDNF expression, were blocked by WAY-100635, indicating 5-HT1A receptor involvement in cannabidiol's effects. Cannabidiol did not affect the impaired liver function in BDL. Conclusions and implications: The behavioural outcomes of BDL result from both 5-HT1A receptor down-regulation and neuroinflammation. Cannabidiol reverses these effects through a combination of anti-inflammatory activity and activation of this receptor, leading to improvement of the neurological deficits without affecting 5-HT1A receptor expression or liver function. BDNF up-regulation by cannabidiol does not seem to account for the cognitive improvement. PMID:20128798

  5. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Endoscopic Ultrasound versus Magnetic Resonance Cholangiopancreatography in Patients with Suspected Common Bile Duct Stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Stephen; Gurusamy, Kurinchi S.; Sheringham, Jessica; Davidson, Brian R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients with suspected common bile duct (CBD) stones are often diagnosed using endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), an invasive procedure with risk of significant complications. Using endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) or Magnetic Resonance CholangioPancreatography (MRCP) first to detect CBD stones can reduce the risk of unnecessary procedures, cut complications and may save costs. Aim This study sought to compare the cost-effectiveness of initial EUS or MRCP in patients with suspected CBD stones. Methods This study is a model based cost-utility analysis estimating mean costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) per patient from the perspective of the UK National Health Service (NHS) over a 1 year time horizon. A decision tree model was constructed and populated with probabilities, outcomes and cost data from published sources, including one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Results Using MRCP to select patients for ERCP was less costly than using EUS to select patients or proceeding directly to ERCP ($1299 versus $1753 and $1781, respectively), with similar QALYs accruing to each option (0.998, 0.998 and 0.997 for EUS, MRCP and direct ERCP, respectively). Initial MRCP was the most cost-effective option with the highest monetary net benefit, and this result was not sensitive to model parameters. MRCP had a 61% probability of being cost-effective at $29,000, the maximum willingness to pay for a QALY commonly used in the UK. Conclusion From the perspective of the UK NHS, MRCP was the most cost-effective test in the diagnosis of CBD stones. PMID:25799113

  6. OPPORTUNITIES OF ENDOSCOPIC RETROGRADE STENTING OF THE BILE DUCTS IN MALIGNANT TUMORS OF THE PANCREATOBILIARY ZONE, COMPLICATED BY OBSTRUCTIVE JAUNDICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Budzinsky

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In the last 10 years in the treatment of acute jaundice, developed on a background of malignant tumors of the pancreatobiliary zone (PBZ, more preferred method is endoscopic retrograde biliary drainage.Material and methods. From January 2007 to July 2012 in the clinic of hospital surgery N. 2 PRNMU endoscopic biliary stenting was performed in 441 patients. Of these, 324 (73.5% stenting fell to 234 patients with a tumor of the extrahepatic bile ducts. The diagnostic program included ultrasonography, computed tomography, endoscopic ultrasonography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreaticography.Results. Installing of bilioduodenal stent in 223 patients (95.3% was generated after the pre-endoscopic papillosphincterotomy (EPST. The adequacy of the biliary drainage after produced in the required amount of biliary stent placement was achieved in all patients. In 46 cases, execute the biliary tract prosthesis failed. Complications of endoscopic interventions presented with acute pancreatitis, cholangitis, bleeding from the area of EPST, perforated duodenal wall and migration of the stent were in 19 cases (5?9%. Postoperative mortality was 3?8%. 7 patients (3% died after the endoscopic decompression of the biliary tract. After stenting in all patients with jaundice it was resolved or significantly reduced. In 185 of them (79% was the definitive guide endoscopic treatment because of severity of tumor process. In cases of jaundice reccurence endoscopic stent recanalizing or replacement were performed. In the remaining cases (21% patients after the resolution of jaundice decompressive surgical intervention were done.Conclusion. The method of endoscopic retrograde biliary drainage allows you to prepare patients with obstructive jaundice for surgical intervention, including the radical. The frequency of complications after endoscopic retrograde operations on the major duodenal papilla for acute jaundice blastomatous origin did not differ from

  7. Regulation of Ca2+ Signaling in Rat Bile Duct Epithelia by Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Receptor Isoforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Keiji; Dufour, Jean-François; Shibao, Kazunori; Knickelbein, Roy; O'Neill, Allison F.; Bode, Hans-Peter; Cassio, Doris; St-Pierre, Marie V.; LaRusso, Nicholas F.; Leite, M. Fatima; Nathanson, Michael H.

    2010-01-01

    Cytosolic Ca2+ (Cai2+) regulates secretion of bicarbonate and other ions in the cholangiocyte. In other cell types, this second messenger acts through Ca2+ waves, Ca2+ oscillations, and other subcellular Ca2+ signaling patterns, but little is known about the subcellular organization of Ca2+ signaling in cholangiocytes. Therefore, we examined Ca2+ signaling and the subcellular distribution of Ca2+ release channels in cholangiocytes and in a model cholangiocyte cell line. The expression and subcellular distribution of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) receptor (InsP3R) isoforms and the ryanodine receptor (RyR) were determined in cholangiocytes from normal rat liver and in the normal rat cholangiocyte (NRC) polarized bile duct cell line. Subcellular Ca2+ signaling in cholangiocytes was examined by confocal microscopy. All 3 InsP3R isoforms were expressed in cholangiocytes, whereas RyR was not expressed. The type III InsP3R was the most heavily expressed isoform at the protein level and was concentrated apically, whereas the type I and type II isoforms were expressed more uniformly. The type III InsP3R was expressed even more heavily in NRC cells but was concentrated apically in these cells as well. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which increases Ca2+ via InsP3 in cholangiocytes, induced Ca2+ oscillations in both cholangiocytes and NRC cells. Acetylcholine (ACh) induced apical-to-basal Ca2+ waves. In conclusion, Ca2+ signaling in cholangiocytes occurs as polarized Ca2+ waves that begin in the region of the type III InsP3R. Differential subcellular localization of InsP3R isoforms may be an important molecular mechanism for the formation of Ca2+ waves and oscillations in cholangiocytes. Because Cai2+ is in part responsible for regulating ductular secretion, these findings also may have implications for the molecular basis of cholestatic disorders. PMID:12143036

  8. Regulation of Ca(2+) signaling in rat bile duct epithelia by inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor isoforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Keiji; Dufour, Jean-François; Shibao, Kazunori; Knickelbein, Roy; O'Neill, Allison F; Bode, Hans-Peter; Cassio, Doris; St-Pierre, Marie V; Larusso, Nicholas F; Leite, M Fatima; Nathanson, Michael H

    2002-08-01

    Cytosolic Ca(2+) (Ca(i)(2+)) regulates secretion of bicarbonate and other ions in the cholangiocyte. In other cell types, this second messenger acts through Ca(2+) waves, Ca(2+) oscillations, and other subcellular Ca(2+) signaling patterns, but little is known about the subcellular organization of Ca(2+) signaling in cholangiocytes. Therefore, we examined Ca(2+) signaling and the subcellular distribution of Ca(2+) release channels in cholangiocytes and in a model cholangiocyte cell line. The expression and subcellular distribution of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP(3)) receptor (InsP(3)R) isoforms and the ryanodine receptor (RyR) were determined in cholangiocytes from normal rat liver and in the normal rat cholangiocyte (NRC) polarized bile duct cell line. Subcellular Ca(2+) signaling in cholangiocytes was examined by confocal microscopy. All 3 InsP(3)R isoforms were expressed in cholangiocytes, whereas RyR was not expressed. The type III InsP(3)R was the most heavily expressed isoform at the protein level and was concentrated apically, whereas the type I and type II isoforms were expressed more uniformly. The type III InsP(3)R was expressed even more heavily in NRC cells but was concentrated apically in these cells as well. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which increases Ca(2+) via InsP(3) in cholangiocytes, induced Ca(2+) oscillations in both cholangiocytes and NRC cells. Acetylcholine (ACh) induced apical-to-basal Ca(2+) waves. In conclusion, Ca(2+) signaling in cholangiocytes occurs as polarized Ca(2+) waves that begin in the region of the type III InsP(3)R. Differential subcellular localization of InsP(3)R isoforms may be an important molecular mechanism for the formation of Ca(2+) waves and oscillations in cholangiocytes. Because Ca(i)(2+) is in part responsible for regulating ductular secretion, these findings also may have implications for the molecular basis of cholestatic disorders.

  9. Distant Metastasis Risk Stratification for Patients Undergoing Curative Resection Followed by Adjuvant Chemoradiation for Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyubo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chie, Eui Kyu, E-mail: ekchie93@snu.ac.kr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Jin-Young; Kim, Sun Whe [Department of Surgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Sae-Won; Oh, Do-Youn; Im, Seock-Ah; Kim, Tae-You; Bang, Yung-Jue [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Sung W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Medical Research Center, Seoul National University (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: To analyze the prognostic factors predicting distant metastasis in patients undergoing adjuvant chemoradiation for extrahepatic bile duct (EHBD) cancer. Methods and Materials: Between January 1995 and August 2006, 166 patients with EHBD cancer underwent resection with curative intent, followed by adjuvant chemoradiation. There were 120 males and 46 females, and median age was 61 years (range, 34-86). Postoperative radiotherapy was delivered to tumor bed and regional lymph nodes (median dose, 40 Gy; range, 34-56 Gy). A total of 157 patients also received fluoropyrimidine chemotherapy as a radiosensitizer, and fluoropyrimidine-based maintenance chemotherapy was administered to 127 patients. Median follow-up duration was 29 months. Results: The treatment failed for 97 patients, and the major pattern of failure was distant metastasis (76 patients, 78.4%). The 5-year distant metastasis-free survival rate was 49.4%. The most common site of distant failure was the liver (n = 36). On multivariate analysis, hilar tumor, tumor size {>=}2 cm, involved lymph node, and poorly differentiated tumor were associated with inferior distant metastasis-free survival (p = 0.0348, 0.0754, 0.0009, and 0.0078, respectively), whereas T stage was not (p = 0.8081). When patients were divided into four groups based on these risk factors, the 5-year distant metastasis-free survival rates for patients with 0, 1, 2, and 3 risk factors were 86.4%, 59.9%, 32.5%, and 0%, respectively (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: Despite maintenance chemotherapy, distant metastasis was the major pattern of failure in patients undergoing adjuvant chemoradiation for EHBD cancer after resection with curative intent. Intensified chemotherapy is warranted to improve the treatment outcome, especially in those with multiple risk factors.

  10. The relative roles of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) and endoscopic ultrasound in diagnosis of common bile duct calculi: a critically appraised topic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Colm J

    2008-01-01

    The relative roles of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) in the investigation of common bile duct (CD) calculi were evaluated using "evidence-based practice" (EBP) methods. A focused clinical question was constructed. A structured search of primary and secondary evidence was performed. Retrieved studies were appraised for validity, strength and level of evidence (Oxford/CEBM scale: 1-5). Retrieved literature was divided into group A; MRCP slice thickness >or=5 mm, group B; MRCP slice thickness = 3 mm or 3D-MRCP sequences. Six studies were eligible for inclusion (3 = level 1b, 3 = level 3b). Group A: sensitivity and specificity of MRCP and EUS were (40%, 96%) and (80%, 95%), respectively. Group B: sensitivity and specificity of MRCP and EUS were (87%, 95%) and (90%, 99%), respectively. MRCP should be the first-line investigation for CD calculi and EUS should be performed when MRCP is negative in patients with moderate or high pre-test probability.

  11. Unique inhibition of bile salt-induced apoptosis by lecithins and cytoprotective bile salts in immortalized mouse cholangiocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komichi, Daisuke; Tazuma, Susumu; Nishioka, Tomoji; Hyogo, Hideyuki; Une, Mizuho; Chayama, Kazuaki

    2003-12-01

    Bile duct epithelium is physiologically exposed to high concentrations of bile salts, suggesting the presence of a cytoprotective mechanism(s). The aim of this study was to clarify whether bile salts cause bile duct cell damage and to elucidate the mechanism(s) providing protection against such an action of bile salts. Immortalized mouse cholangiocytes were incubated with taurocholate, taurochenodeoxycholate, glycochenodeoxycholate (GCDC), taurodeoxycholate, and tauroursodeoxycholate (TUDC), followed by flow-cytometric analysis and caspase activity assay to evaluate the induction of apoptosis. GCDC time-dependently induced caspase 3 (3.4-fold)- and caspase 9 (1.4-fold)-mediated apoptosis of cholangiocytes, but this was inhibited by lecithins and TUDC. Further, expression of cholangiocyte bile salt transporters (apical sodium-dependent bile salt transporter [Asbt] and multidrug resistance protein 3 [Mrp3]) was examined by RT-PCR and western blotting, and cholangiocyte bile salt uptake was determined using radiolabeled bile salts. Expression of cholangiocyte Asbt and Mrp3 was increased by bile salts, whereas lecithins interestingly reduced bile salt uptake to inhibit cholangiocyte apoptosis. In conclusion, bile salts themselves cause cholangiocyte apoptosis when absorbed by and retained inside the cell, but this is inhibited by washing out cytotoxic bile salts according to Mrp3, a rescue exporting molecule. Biliary lecithin is seemingly another cytoprotective player against cytotoxic bile salts, reducing their uptake, and this is associated with a reduced expression of Mrp3.

  12. Primary versus delayed repair for bile duct injuries sustained during cholecystectomy: results of a survey of the Association Francaise de Chirurgie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannelli, Antonio; Paineau, Jacques; Hamy, Antoine; Schneck, Anne-Sophie; Schaaf, Caroline; Gugenheim, Jean

    2013-08-01

    Bile duct injuries (BDIs) sustained during a cholecystectomy still remain a major surgical problem, and it is still not clear whether the injury should be repaired immediately or a delayed repair is preferred. A retrospective national French survey was conducted to compare the results of immediate (at time of cholecystectomy), early (within 45 days after a cholecystectomy) and late (beyond 45 days after a cholecystectomy) surgical repair for BDI sustained during a cholecystectomy. Forty-seven surgical centres provided 640 cases of bile duct injury sustained during a cholecystectomy of which 543 were analysed for the purpose of the present study. The timing of repair was immediate in 194 cases (35.7%), early in 216 cases (39.8%) and late in 133 cases (24.5%). The type of repair was a suture repair in 157 cases (81%), and a bilio-digestive reconstruction in 37 cases (19%) for immediate repair; a suture repair in 119 cases (55.1%) and a bilio-digestive anastomosis in 96 cases (44.9%) for the early repair; and a bilio-digestive reconstruction in 129 cases (97%) and a suture repair in 4 cases (3%) for late repair. A second procedure was required in 110 cases (56.7%) for immediate repair, 80 cases (40.7%) for early repair (P < 0.05) and in 9 cases (6.8%) for late repair (P < 0.001). The timing of surgical repair for a bile duct injury sustained during a cholecystectomy influences significantly the rate of a second procedure and a late repair should be preferred option. © 2012 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association.

  13. [Gender-specific influencing factors on incidence, risk factors and outcome of carcinoma of the liver, gallbladder, extrahepatic bile duct and pancreas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundmann, R T; Meyer, F

    2014-04-01

    This overview comments on gender-specific differences in incidence, risk factors and prognosis in patients with carcinoma of the liver, gallbladder, extrahepatic bile duct and pancreas. For the literature review, the MEDLINE database (PubMed) was searched under the key words "liver cancer", "gallbladder cancer", "extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma", "pancreatic cancer" AND "gender". There were significant gender differences in the epidemiology of the analysed carcinomas. The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is much higher in men than in women, one of 86 men, but only 1 out of 200 women develop a malignant primary liver tumour in Germany in the course of their life. The lifetime risk for carcinomas of the gallbladder and extrahepatic bile ducts in Germany amounts to about 0.6 % for women and 0.5 % for men, specifically gallbladder carcinomas are observed more frequently in women than in men. For pancreatic cancer, no clear gender preference exists in Germany, although the mortality risk for men is higher than that for women (age-adjusted standardised death rate in men 12.8/100, 000 persons, in women 9.5). Remarkable is furthermore the shift of the tumour incidence in the last decades. Liver cancer has increased among men in Germany by about 50 % in the last 30 years, the incidence of gallbladder carcinoma has inversely dropped. The prognosis of these cancers across all tumour stages is uniformly bad in an unselected patient population. This is probably the main reason why only little - if any - gender differences in survival are described. In addition to avoiding the known risk factors such as hepatitis B and C virus infection, alcohol abuse, and smoking, the avoidance of overweight and obesity plays an increasingly important role in the prevention of these cancers. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. National survey on cholecystectomy related bile duct injury--public health and financial aspects in Belgian hospitals--1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Sande, St; Bossens, M; Parmentier, Y; Gigot, J F

    2003-04-01

    Public health and financial aspects of cholecystectomy related bile duct injury (BDI) are highlighted in a National Cholecystectomy Survey carried out through 'datamining' the Federal State Medical Records Summaries and Financial Summaries of all Belgian hospitals in 1997. All cancer diagnoses, children < or = 10 years, cholecystectomies performed as an abdominal co-procedure or patients having undergone other non-related surgery were excluded from the study. 10.595 laparoscopic (LC) and 1.033 open cholecystectomies (OC) as well as 137 secondary BDI treatments (LC/OC) were included in the survey (total 11.765). Both LC and OC groups turned out to be significantly different as to distribution of patient's age and APR-DRG severity classes. Composite criteria in terms of ICD-9-CM and billing codes were elaborated to classify: 1) primary, intra-operatively detected and treated BDI (N = 30), 2) primary delayed BDI treatments (N = 38), 3) secondary BDI treatments (N = 137), 4) non-BDI abdomino-surgical complications (N = 119), 4) uneventful laparoscopic (N = 7.476) and 5) uneventful open cholecystectomy (N = 681). Complication rates, community costs of LC and OC groups, incidence of preoperative ERCP and/or intra-operative cholangiography as well as interventions for complications were studied. Incidence of cholecystectomy related BDI was 0.37% in LC, 2.81% in OC and 0.58% overall. Average costs amounted to [symbol: see text] 1.721 for uneventful LC, [symbol: see text] 2.924 for uneventful OC, [symbol: see text] 7.250 for primary, intra-operatively detected and immediately treated BDI [symbol: see text] 9.258 for primary delayed BDI treatments, [symbol: see text] 6.076 for secondary BDI treatments and [symbol: see text] 10.363 for non-BDI abdomino-surgical complications. In conclusion BDI with cholecystectomy reveals to be a serious complication increasing the overall average cost factor ninefold if not detected intra-operatively, in which case the raise is only fourfold

  15. Clinical Implications of Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Antigen-4 Expression on Tumor Cells and Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes in Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer Patients Undergoing Surgery Plus Adjuvant Chemoradiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Yu Jin; Koh, Jaemoon; Kim, Kyubo; Chie, Eui Kyu; Kim, Sehui; Lee, Kyoung Bun; Jang, Jin-Young; Kim, Sun Whe; Oh, Do-Youn; Bang, Yung-Jue

    2017-04-01

    There currently is only limited knowledge on the role of tumor-specific immunity in cholangiocarcinoma. This study evaluated the clinical implications of cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) expression levels and CD4(+) and CD8(+) tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in extrahepatic bile duct (EHBD) cancer. Immunohistochemistry of CTLA-4, CD4, and CD8 was performed for 77 EHBD cancer patients undergoing surgery plus adjuvant chemoradiotherapy. CTLA-4 expression on tumor cells and TILs were assessed by using H-scores and the proportion of CTLA-4(+) lymphocytes, respectively. With optimal cutoff values determined by a maximal chi-square method with overall survival (OS) data, patients with CTLA-4 H-score >70 and a proportion of CTLA-4(+) TILs >0.15 showed higher mean density of CD8(+) and CD4(+) TILs, respectively (P = 0.025 for CD8(+) and P = 0.055 for CD4(+) TILs). The high CTLA-4 H-score level was associated with prolonged OS and disease-free interval (DFI) (P = 0.025 and 0.004, respectively). With differential levels of CTLA-4 H-score according to hilar and non-hilar locations (high rate 32 vs. 68%, respectively; P = 0.013), an exploratory subgroup analysis demonstrated that the associations between the CTLA-4 expression and OS and DFI were confined to hilar tumors (P = 0.003 and <0.001, respectively), but not to non-hilar ones (P = 0.613 and 0.888, respectively). This study demonstrates a potential prognostic relevance of CTLA-4 expression in EHBD cancer. We suggest a differential survival impact of the CTLA-4 expression level according to different tumor locations.

  16. PANCREATITIS AGUDA COMO PRESENTACIÓN DE UN QUISTE DEL CONDUCTO BILIAR EN EL ADULTO: REPORTE DE CASO Acute pancreatitis as a presentation of bile duct cyst in adults: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenin Enríquez Domínguez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Paciente adulta se presentÓ en la sala de urgencias con un cuadro de pancreatitis aguda como complicaciÓn de un quiste del conducto biliar colédoco tipo IV, el cual fue diagnosticado por ultrasonograma abdominal durante su estancia intrahospitalaria. El diagnÓstico de quiste de colédoco es más difícil en la edad adulta ya que los pacientes raramente se presentan con la triada clásica de dolor abdominal, masa palpable e ictericia, presentándose principalmente con alguna manifestaciÓn de vías biliares o pancreática benigna. Existen pocas publicaciones en Occidente acerca de este tÓpico. La importancia en cuanto al diagnÓstico temprano, la clasificaciÓn del mismo y al tratamiento quirúrgico con la resecciÓn total del quiste radica en su alta incidencia hacia el desarrollo de colangiocarcinoma.An adult female patient who attended an ER with acute pancreatitis as a complication of bile duct cyst disease is described here; she was diagnosed by abdominal ultrasonogram during her hospital stay. A diagnosis of bile duct cysts is difficult to make in adults, since patients rarely present the classic picture of abdominal pain, palpable mass and jaundice; it is mainly presented as a biliary duct or pancreatic tissue complication. There are few publications on this topic in the west. A diagnosis can be made by ultrasound in many cases and is the image study of choice due to its low cost and accessibility. These are only few western publications concerning this subject. The importance of making an early diagnosis, classification and surgical treatment (total resection of the cyst lies in the high risk of malignancy developing.

  17. Single Balloon Enteroscopy-Assisted ERCP Using Rendezvous Technique for Sharp Angulation of Roux-en-Y Limb in a Patient with Bile Duct Stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takao Itoi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The acute angulation of Roux-en-Y (R-Y limb precludes endoscopic access for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP even using a balloon enteroscopy. Here, we describe a case of successful single balloon enteroscopy (SBE-assisted ERCP using a rendezvous technique in a patient with sharply angulated R-Y limb in a 79-year-old woman who had bile duct stones. Method. At first, a guidewire was passed antegradely through the major papilla after the needle puncture using percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage technique. A hydrophilic guidewire with an ERCP catheter was antegradely advanced beyond the Roux limb. After a guidewire was firmly grasped by a snare forceps, it was pulled out of the body, resulting that the enteroscope could advance to the papilla. After papillary dilation, complete removal of bile duct stones was achieved without any procedure-related complication. In conclusion, although further study is needed, SBE-assisted ERCP using a rendezvous technique may have a potential for selected patients.

  18. Three-dimensional visualization of the microvasculature of bile duct ligation-induced liver fibrosis in rats by x-ray phase-contrast imaging computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Ruijiao; Zhao, Xinyan; Hu, Doudou; Jian, Jianbo; Wang, Tailing; Hu, Chunhong

    2015-07-01

    X-ray phase-contrast imaging (PCI) can substantially enhance contrast, and is particularly useful in differentiating biological soft tissues with small density differences. Combined with computed tomography (CT), PCI-CT enables the acquisition of accurate microstructures inside biological samples. In this study, liver microvasculature was visualized without contrast agents in vitro with PCI-CT using liver fibrosis samples induced by bile duct ligation (BDL) in rats. The histological section examination confirmed the correspondence of CT images with the microvascular morphology of the samples. By means of the PCI-CT and three-dimensional (3D) visualization technique, 3D microvascular structures in samples from different stages of liver fibrosis were clearly revealed. Different types of blood vessels, including portal veins and hepatic veins, in addition to ductular proliferation and bile ducts, could be distinguished with good sensitivity, excellent specificity and excellent accuracy. The study showed that PCI-CT could assess the morphological changes in liver microvasculature that result from fibrosis and allow characterization of the anatomical and pathological features of the microvasculature. With further development of PCI-CT technique, it may become a novel noninvasive imaging technique for the auxiliary analysis of liver fibrosis.

  19. Differential diagnosis of sclerosing cholangitis with autoimmune pancreatitis and periductal infiltrating cancer in the common bile duct at dynamic CT, endoscopic retrograde cholangiography and MR cholangiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Hee; Byun, Jae Ho; Lee, So Jung; Park, Seong Ho; Kim, Hyoung Jung; Lee, Seung Soo; Lee, Moon-Gyu [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asanbyeongwon-gil 86, Songpa-Gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myung-Hwan [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Internal Medicine, Asanbyeongwon-gil 86, Songpa-Gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jihun [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Diagnostic Pathology, Asanbyeongwon-gil 86, Songpa-Gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    To compare findings at dynamic computed tomography (CT), endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC) and magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRC) in patients with sclerosing cholangitis with autoimmune pancreatitis (SC-AIP) and periductal infiltrating cancer in the common bile duct (CBD), and to evaluate the diagnostic performance of ERC and MRC in differentiating between the two diseases. Bile duct changes at dynamic CT, ERC and MRC were compared in 58 patients with SC-AIP and CBD involvement and 93 patients with periductal infiltrating CBD cancer. Two radiologists rated their confidence in differentiating between the two diseases and the diagnostic performances of ERC and MRC were compared. At CT, SC-AIP was more frequently associated with intrapancreatic CBD involvement, thinner CBD walls, concentric wall thickening, smooth outer margins, and lower degrees of upstream ductal dilatation and contrast enhancement (P {<=} 0.05) than CBD cancer. At ERC and MRC, SC-AIP was more frequently associated with smooth margins, gradual and symmetric narrowing, multifocal involvement and hourglass appearance (P {<=} 0.027) than CBD cancer. MRC showed good diagnostic performance comparable to ERC. Dynamic CT, ERC and MRC can be helpful in distinguishing SC-AIP from periductal infiltrating CBD cancer. MRC may be a useful diagnostic alternative to ERC in differentiating between the two diseases. (orig.)

  20. Surgery Alone Versus Surgery Followed by Chemotherapy and Radiotherapy in Resected Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer: Treatment Outcome Analysis of 336 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Jung Ho; Seong, Jinsil; Lee, Ik Jae; Park, Joon Seong; Yoon, Dong Sup; Kim, Kyung Sik; Lee, Woo Jung; Park, Kyung Ran

    2016-04-01

    This study analyzed the outcomes of patients with resected extrahepatic bile duct cancer (EHBDC) in order to clarify the role of adjuvant treatments in these patients. A total of 336 patients with EHBDC who underwent curative resection between 2001 and 2010 were analyzed retrospectively. The treatment types were as follows: surgery alone (n=168), surgery with chemotherapy (CTx, n=90), surgery with radiotherapy (RT) alone (n=29), and surgery with chemoradiotherapy (CRT, n=49). The median follow-up period was 63 months. The 5-year rates of locoregional failure-free survival (LRFFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) for all patients were 56.5%, 59.7%, 36.6%, and 42.0%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, surgery with RT and CRT was a significant prognostic factor for LRFFS, and surgery with CTx was a significant prognostic factor for DMFS, and surgery with CTx, RT, and CRT was a significant prognostic factor for PFS (p < 0.05). Surgery with CTx and CRT showed association with superior OS (p < 0.05), and surgery with RT had marginal significance (p=0.078). In multivariate analysis of the R1 resection patients, surgery with CRT showed significant association with OS (p < 0.05). Adjuvant RT and CTx may be helpful in improving clinical outcomes of patients with resected EHBDC who have a high risk of disease recurrence, particularly R1 resection patients. Conduct of additional prospective, larger-scale studies will be required in order to confirm the benefit of adjuvant RT and CTx in these patients.

  1. Noninvasive study of anatomic variations of the bile and pancreatic duct using magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography; Estudio no invasivo de variantes anatomicas de la via biliar y pancreatica mediante colangiopancreatografia por resonancia magnetica (CPRM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, E.; Falco, J.; Campo, R.; Martin, J.; Brullet, E. [SDI-UDIAT Corporacio Sanitaria Parc Tauli. Sabadell (Spain); Espinos, J. [Hospital Mutua de Tarrasa (Spain)

    1999-07-01

    To identify anatomic variations of the bile duct and pancreatic duct and papillary anomalies by means of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) and determine their correlation with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) findings. Eighty-five patients were selected by means of a prospective study comparing MRCP and ERCP. Coronal and axial HASTE images and coronal and oblique coronal RARE images were acquired in all the patients. Four of the studies (6%) were excluded because of poor technical quality. Anatomic variations were observed in 26 cases (30.5%), including trifurcation (n=7; 27%), right hepatic duct draining into left hepatic duct (n=2, 7.7%), right hepatic duct draining into common bile duct (n=4; 15.4%), extrahepatic confluence (n=2; 7.7%), medial cystic duct (n=2; 7.7%), parallel cystic duct (n=3; 11.5%), juxtapapillary duodenal diverticulum (n=3; 11.5%) and pancreas divisum (n=3; 11.5%). A good correlation was observed between the MRCP and ERCP findings. The introduction of MRCP into the noninvasive study of biliary disease may be useful in the detection of anatomic variations relevant to laparoscopic surgery and other endoscopic and interventional techniques. (Author) 11 refs.

  2. High-Performance Ducts in Hot-Dry Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeschele, Marc [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chitwood, Rick [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); German, Alea [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Weitzel, Elizabeth [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-07-30

    Duct thermal losses and air leakage have long been recognized as prime culprits in the degradation of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system efficiency. Both the U.S. Department of Energy’s Zero Energy Ready Home program and California’s proposed 2016 Title 24 Residential Energy Efficiency Standards require that ducts be installed within conditioned space or that other measures be taken to provide similar improvements in delivery effectiveness (DE). Pacific Gas & Electric Company commissioned a study to evaluate ducts in conditioned space and high-performance attics (HPAs) in support of the proposed codes and standards enhancements included in California’s 2016 Title 24 Residential Energy Efficiency Standards. The goal was to work with a select group of builders to design and install high-performance duct (HPD) systems, such as ducts in conditioned space (DCS), in one or more of their homes and to obtain test data to verify the improvement in DE compared to standard practice. Davis Energy Group (DEG) helped select the builders and led a team that provided information about HPD strategies to them. DEG also observed the construction process, completed testing, and collected cost data.

  3. BIODEGRADABLE BILIARY STENTS: A NEW APPROACH FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF HEPATICOJEJUNOSTOMY STRICTURES FOLLOWING BILE DUCT INJURY. PROSPECTIVE STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, Mariano E; Palermo, Mariano; Houghton, Eduardo; Acquafresca, Pablo; Finger, Caetano; Verde, Juan M; Cúneo, Jorge Cardoso

    2016-01-01

    Once a biliary injury has occurred, repair is done by a hepaticojejunostomy. The most common procedure is to perform a dilatation with balloon with a success of 70 %. Success rates range using biodegradable stents is from 85% to 95%. Biodegradable biliary stents should change the treatment of this complication. To investigate the use of biodegradable stents in a group of patients with hepaticojejunonostomy strictures. In a prospective study 16 biodegradable stents were placed in 13 patients with hepaticojejunostomy strictures secondary to bile duct repair of a biliary surgical injury. Average age was 38.7 years (23-67), nine were female and four male. All cases had a percutaneous drainage before at the time of biodegradable stent placement. In one case, temporary haemobilia was present requiring blood transfusion. In another, pain after stent placement required intravenous medication. In the other 11 patients, hospital discharge was the next morning following stent placement. During the patient´s follow-up, none presented symptoms during the first nine months. One patient presented significant alkaline phosphatase elevation and stricture recurrence was confirmed. One case had recurrence of cholangitis 11 months after the stent placement. 84.6% continued asymptomatic with a mean follow-up of 20 months. The placement of biodegradable stents is a safe and feasible technique. Was not observed strictures caused by the stent or its degradation. It could substitute balloon dilation in strictures of hepaticojejunostomy. Uma vez que lesão biliar ocorreu, o reparo é feito por hepaticojejunostomia. O procedimento mais comum é efetuar dilatação com balão com sucesso de 70%. As taxas de sucesso utilizando stents biodegradáveis ​​é de 85% a 95%. Stents biliares biodegradáveis ​​devem mudar o tratamento desta complicação. Investigar o uso de stents biodegradáveis em um grupo de pacientes com estenose hepaticojejunal. Em estudo prospectivo 16 stents biodegrad

  4. Epidemiology of Cancer of Liver and Intrahepatic Bile Ducts Based on Fars Province Cancer Registry’s Data, (2001-08

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahin Farahmand

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Liver cancer is the fifth most common cancer in men and seventh most common cancer in women. This study aims at analyzing epidemiologically the liver and bile duct cancer in Fars province during 2001 to 2008.Materials and Methods: In this epidemiological study, the crude incidence rate (CIR was measured per 100,000 people and the liver cancer’s age-standardized incidence rate (ASR was measured using direct standardization and world’s standard population.Results: Out of 344 registered liver cancer cases, 54.4% were men and 45.6% were women. The ASR of liver cancer in 2008 was estimated 3.4 cases per 100,000 which has a significant ascending trend (p=0.001. Conclusion: The ASR in this study shows that like other countries in West Asia, Fars Province is categorized as a region with low incidence rate.

  5. Pneumoperitoneum after Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography due to Rupture of Intrahepatic Bile Ducts and Glisson’s Capsule in Hepatic Metastasis: A Case Report and Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubair Khan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP has been proven to be a safe and effective method for diagnosis and treatment of biliary and pancreatic disorders. Major complications of ERCP include pancreatitis, hemorrhage, cholangitis, and duodenal perforation. We report a third case in literature of pneumoperitoneum after ERCP due to rupture of intrahepatic bile ducts and Glisson’s capsule in a peripheral hepatic lesion. Case Report: A 50-year-old male with a history of metastatic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor and who had a partially covered metallic stent placed in the biliary tree 1 year ago presented to the oncology clinic with fatigue, abdominal pain, and hypotension. He was planned for ERCP for possible cholangitis secondary to obstructed previously placed biliary stent. However, the duodenoscope could not be advanced to the level of the major papilla because of narrowed pylorus and severely strictured duodenal sweep. Forward-view gastroscope was then passed with careful manipulation to the severely narrowed second part of the duodenum where the previously placed metallic stent was visualized. Balloon sweeping of stenting was done. Cholangiography did not show any leak. Following the procedure, the patient underwent CT scan of the abdomen that showed pneumoperitoneum which was communicating with pneumobilia through a loculated air collection in necrotic hepatic metastasis perforating Glisson’s capsule. The patient was managed conservatively. Conclusion: In our case, pneumoperitoneum resulted from rupture of intrahepatic bile ducts and Glisson’s capsule in hepatic metastasis. This case emphasizes the need for close clinical and radiological observation of patients with hepatic masses (primary or metastatic subjected to ERCP.

  6. Heterogeneous response of antimitochondrial autoantibodies and bile duct apical staining monoclonal antibodies to pyruvate dehydrogenase complex E2: the molecule versus the mimic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliaccio, C; Van de Water, J; Ansari, A A; Kaplan, M M; Coppel, R L; Lam, K S; Thompson, R K; Stevenson, F; Gershwin, M E

    2001-04-01

    The 2-oxo-acid dehydrogenase complexes and, in particular, the E2 component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) are the target of antimitochondrial antibodies (AMA). More than 95% of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) patients have detectable levels of autoantibodies to PDC-E2 and in general these react with a region of the molecule that contains the prosthetic group lipoic acid (LA). LA is vital to the function of the enzyme, although there is conflicting evidence as to whether its presence is required for PDC-E2 recognition by AMA. Some, but not all, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to PDC-E2 produce an intense staining pattern at the apical surface of bile duct epithelial cells (BEC) in patients with PBC, and it has been argued that the molecule at the apical surface of PBC bile duct cells is a modified form of PDC-E2 or a cross-reactive molecule, acting as a molecular mimic. Herein, we characterize the epitopes recognized by 4 anti-PDC-E2 mAbs that give apical staining patterns (3 mouse and 1 human). In particular, by using a combination of recombinant antigens, competitive inhibition assays, and a unique peptide-on-bead assay, we determined that these apically staining mAbs recognize 3 or 4 distinct epitopes on PDC-E2. More importantly, this suggests that a portion spanning the entire inner lipoyl domain of PDC-E2 can be found at the BEC apical surface. In addition, competition assays with patient sera and a PDC-E2-specific mAb showed significant epitope overlap with only 1 of the 3 mouse mAbs and showed a differential response to the peptide bound to beads. These findings further highlight the heterogeneous response of patient autoantibodies to the inner lipoyl domain of PDC-E2.

  7. Spironolactone lowers portal hypertension by inhibiting liver fibrosis, ROCK-2 activity and activating NO/PKG pathway in the bile-duct-ligated rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Luo

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Aldosterone, one of the main peptides in renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS, has been suggested to mediate liver fibrosis and portal hypertension. Spironolactone, an aldosterone antagonist, has beneficial effect on hyperdynamic circulation in clinical practice. However, the mechanisms remain unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the role of spionolactone on liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension. METHODS: Liver cirrhosis was induced by bile duct ligation (BDL. Spironolactone was administered orally (20 mg/kg/d after bile duct ligation was performed. Liver fibrosis was assessed by histology, Masson's trichrome staining, and the measurement of hydroxyproline and type I collagen content. The activation of HSC was determined by analysis of alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA expression. Protein expressions and protein phosphorylation were determined by immunohistochemical staining and Western blot analysis, Messenger RNA levels by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR. Portal pressure and intrahepatic resistance were examined in vivo. RESULTS: Treatment with spironolactone significantly lowered portal pressure. This was associated with attenuation of liver fibrosis, intrahepatic resistance and inhibition of HSC activation. In BDL rat liver, spironolactone suppressed up-regulation of proinflammatory cytokines (TNFα and IL-6. Additionally, spironolactone significantly decreased ROCK-2 activity without affecting expression of RhoA and Ras. Moreover, spironolactone markedly increased the levels of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, phosphorylated eNOS and the activity of NO effector-protein kinase G (PKG in the liver. CONCLUSION: Spironolactone lowers portal hypertension by improvement of liver fibrosis and inhibition of intrahepatic vasoconstriction via down-regulating ROCK-2 activity and activating NO/PKG pathway. Thus, early spironolactone therapy might be the optional therapy in cirrhosis and

  8. Bile duct evaluation of potential living liver donors with Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced MR cholangiography: Single-dose, double dose or half-dose contrast enhanced imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinner, Sonja, E-mail: Sonja.Kinner@uni-due.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, University Hospital Essen (Germany); Steinweg, Verena [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, University Hospital Essen (Germany); Maderwald, Stefan [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, University Hospital Essen (Germany); Erwin L. Hahn Institute for Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Essen (Germany); Radtke, Arnold; Sotiropoulos, Georgios [Department of General Surgery, University Hospital Essen (Germany); Forsting, Michael; Schroeder, Tobias [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, University Hospital Essen (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    Introduction: Detailed knowledge of the biliary anatomy is essential to avoid complications in living donor liver transplantation. The aim of this study was to determine the optimal dosage of Gd-EOB-DTPA for contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance cholangiography (ce-MRC) with reference to contrast-enhanced CT cholangiography (ce-CTC). Materials and methods: 30 potential living liver donors (PLLD) underwent both ce-CTC and ce-MRC. Ten candidates each received single, double or half-dose Gd-EOB-DTPA. Ce-MRC images with and without inversion recovery pulses (T1w ± IR) were acquired 20–30 min after intravenous contrast injection. Image data was quantitatively and qualitatively reviewed by two radiologists based on a on a 5-point scale. Data sets were compared using a Mann–Whitney-U-test or Wilcoxon-rank-sum-test. Kappa values were also calculated. Results: All image series provided sufficient diagnostic information both showing normal biliary anatomy and variant bile ducts. Ce-CTC showed statistically significant better results compared to all ce-MRC data sets. T1w MRC with single dose Gd-EOB-DTPA proved to be superior to half and double dose in subjective and objective evaluation without a statistically significant difference. Conclusions: Ce-MRC is at any dosage inferior to ce-CTC. As far as preoperative planning of bile duct surgery is focused on the central biliary anatomy, ce-MRC can replace harmful ce-CTC strategies, anyway. Best results were seen with single dose GD-EOB-DTPA on T1w MRC+IR.

  9. Bile duct evaluation of potential living liver donors with Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced MR cholangiography: Single-dose, double dose or half-dose contrast enhanced imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinner, Sonja; Steinweg, Verena; Maderwald, Stefan; Radtke, Arnold; Sotiropoulos, Georgios; Forsting, Michael; Schroeder, Tobias

    2014-05-01

    Detailed knowledge of the biliary anatomy is essential to avoid complications in living donor liver transplantation. The aim of this study was to determine the optimal dosage of Gd-EOB-DTPA for contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance cholangiography (ce-MRC) with reference to contrast-enhanced CT cholangiography (ce-CTC). 30 potential living liver donors (PLLD) underwent both ce-CTC and ce-MRC. Ten candidates each received single, double or half-dose Gd-EOB-DTPA. Ce-MRC images with and without inversion recovery pulses (T1w±IR) were acquired 20-30min after intravenous contrast injection. Image data was quantitatively and qualitatively reviewed by two radiologists based on a on a 5-point scale. Data sets were compared using a Mann-Whitney-U-test or Wilcoxon-rank-sum-test. Kappa values were also calculated. All image series provided sufficient diagnostic information both showing normal biliary anatomy and variant bile ducts. Ce-CTC showed statistically significant better results compared to all ce-MRC data sets. T1w MRC with single dose Gd-EOB-DTPA proved to be superior to half and double dose in subjective and objective evaluation without a statistically significant difference. Ce-MRC is at any dosage inferior to ce-CTC. As far as preoperative planning of bile duct surgery is focused on the central biliary anatomy, ce-MRC can replace harmful ce-CTC strategies, anyway. Best results were seen with single dose GD-EOB-DTPA on T1w MRC+IR. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Surgical management of congenital intrahepatic bile duct dilatation, Caroli's disease and syndrome: long-term results of the French Association of Surgery Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabrut, Jean-Yves; Kianmanesh, Reza; Nuzzo, Gennaro; Castaing, Denis; Boudjema, Karim; Létoublon, Christian; Adham, Mustapha; Ducerf, Christian; Pruvot, François-René; Meurisse, Nicolas; Cherqui, Daniel; Azoulay, Daniel; Capussotti, Lorenzo; Lerut, Jan; Reding, Raymond; Mentha, Gilles; Roux, Adeline; Gigot, Jean-François

    2013-11-01

    To assess clinical presentation and long-term results of surgical management of congenital intrahepatic bile duct dilatation (IHBDD) (Caroli disease and syndrome) in a multicenter setting. Congenital IHBDD predisposes to biliary stasis, resulting in intrahepatic lithiasis, septic complications, and cholangiocarcinoma. Although liver resection (LR) is considered to be the treatment of choice for unilobar disease extent into the liver, the management of bilobar disease and/or associated congenital hepatic fibrosis remains challenging. From 1978 to 2011, a total of 155 patients (median age: 55.7 years) were enrolled from 26 centers. Bilobar disease, Caroli syndrome, liver atrophy, and intrahepatic stones were encountered in 31.0%, 19.4%, 27.7%, and 48.4% of patients, respectively. A complete resection of congenital intrahepatic bile ducts was achieved in 90.5% of the 148 patients who underwent surgery. Postoperative mortality was nil after anatomical LR (n = 111) and 10.7% after liver transplantation (LT) (n = 28). Grade 3 or higher postoperative morbidity occurred in 15.3% of patients after LR and 39.3% after LT. After a median follow-up of 35 months, the 5-year overall survival rate was 88.5% (88.7% after LT), and the Mayo Clinic score was considered as excellent or good in 86.0% of patients. The 1-year survival rate was 33.3% for the 8 patients (5.2%) who presented with coexistent cholangiocarcinoma. LR for unilobar and LT for diffuse bilobar congenital IHBDD complicated with cholangitis and/or portal hypertension achieved excellent long-term patient outcomes and survival. Because of the bad prognosis of cholangiocarcinoma and the sizeable morbidity-mortality after LT, timely indication for surgical treatment is of major importance.

  11. The relationship between vegetable/fruit consumption and gallbladder/bile duct cancer: A population-based cohort study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makiuchi, Takeshi; Sobue, Tomotaka; Kitamura, Tetsuhisa; Ishihara, Junko; Sawada, Norie; Iwasaki, Motoki; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Yamaji, Taiki; Shimazu, Taichi; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2017-03-01

    Vegetable and fruit consumption may have a protective effect against several types of cancers. However, the effect on biliary cancers is unclear. We investigated the association of vegetable/fruit consumption with the risks of gallbladder cancer (GBC), intrahepatic bile duct cancer (IHBDC) and extrahepatic bile duct cancer (EHBDC) in a population-based prospective cohort study in Japan. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using the Cox proportional hazard model, and the exposure level was categorized into quartiles, with the lowest group used as the reference. A total of 80,371 people aged 45 to 74 years were enrolled between 1995 and 1999, and followed up for 1,158,632 person-years until 2012, during which 133 GBC, 99 IHBDC, and 161 EHBDC cases were identified. Increased consumption of total vegetable and fruit was significantly associated with a decreased risk of EHBDC (HR = 0.49; 95% CI: 0.29-0.81 for the highest group; p trend = 0.005). From the analysis of relevant nutrients, significantly decreased risk of EHBDC was associated with folate and insoluble fiber (HR = 0.48, 0.53; 95% CI: 0.28-0.85, 0.31-0.88 for the highest group; p trend = 0.010, 0.023; respectively), and a significant trend of decreased EHBDC risk associated with vitamin C was observed (p trend = 0.029). No decreased risk of GBC and IHBDC was found. Our findings suggest that increased vegetable/fruit consumption may decrease a risk of EHBDC, and folate, vitamin C, and insoluble fiber might be key contributors to the observed protective effect. © 2016 UICC.

  12. Delayed rearterialization unlikely leads to nonanastomotic stricture but causes temporary injury on bile duct after liver transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yang; Wang, Jiazhong; Yang, Peng; Lu, Hongwei; Lu, Le; Wang, Jinlong; Li, Hua; Duan, Yanxia; Wang, Jun; Li, Yiming

    2014-01-01

    Nonanastomotic?strictures (NAS) are common biliary complications after liver transplantation (LT). Delayed rearterialization induces biliary injury in several hours. However, whether this injury can be prolonged remains unknown. The correlation of this injury with NAS occurrence remains obscure. Different delayed rearterialization times were compared using a porcine LT model. Morphological and functional changes in bile canaliculus were evaluated by transmission electron microscopy and real-t...

  13. Lesiones de la vía biliar en colecistectomías laparoscópicas Bile duct injures from laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Zamora Santana

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: en febrero de 1991, se realizó la primera colecistectomía laparoscópica en Cuba. No obstante sus beneficios, las lesiones de la vía biliar parecen ser más frecuentes. Objetivo: describir el comportamiento de las lesiones de la vía biliar en 6 centros de 5 provincias del país, a fin de detectar deficiencias al ser corregidas. Métodos: se realizó un estudio multicentros, descriptivo y retrospectivo de 27 lesiones de la vía biliar ocurridas en 17 288 colecistectomías laparoscópicas realizadas en 6 hospitales universitarios. Se colectó el dato primario a través de un cuestionario de 13 puntos, aplicado a cada paciente lesionado, y común para todos los centros. Resultados: el porcentaje de lesiones de la vía biliar en esta serie fue bajo (0,15 %. En 59,2 %, el diagnóstico fue posoperatorio y casi el 63 % fueron graves lesiones tipo E de Strasberg. Las técnicas de reparación más empleadas fueron las derivaciones biliodigestivas, pero las lesiones diagnosticadas durante el transoperatorio fueron en la mayoría de los casos tratados con reparación sobre sonda. Se presentaron complicaciones mayores en 25,9 %. Conclusiones: el porcentaje de lesiones en nuestro estudio es bajo, pero predominan las de carácter grave. Las estenosis posquirúrgicas, estuvieron predominantemente relacionadas con la elección errónea de la técnica primaria de reparación.Introduction: On February 1991 the first laparoscopic cholecistectomy (LC was performed in Cuba. Despite the benefits of this approach, bile ducts injuries (BDI seem to be more frequent. Objective: To describe the behavior of the bile duct injuries in six hospitals located in 5 provinces throughout the country so as to detect deficiencies to be corrected. Methods: A retrospective, multicenter and descriptive study of 27 bile duct injuries on 17288 LC performed in 6 university hospitals throughout the country. The primary data was collected through a 13 point

  14. Unexpected metastasis of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the bile duct into thoracic cavity with direct extension: Case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eung Tae; Heo, Jeong Nam; Park, Choong Ki [Hanyang Univ. Guri Hospital, Guri (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yo Won; Jeon, Seok Chol [Hanyang Univ. Seoul Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) is known to arise from intraductal proliferation of mucinous cells with findings of marked dilatation of the biliary or pancreatic duct. There are reports of the metastasis and extension of pancreatic IPMN. However, cases of biliary IPMN with direct metastasis, or metastasis to distant locations, are rare. We present a case of metastasis of biliary IPMN with unexpected direct extension into the thoracic cavity, and we attempt to account for the mechanism of this extension.

  15. High-Lift Low Reynolds Number Aerofoils With Specified Pressure Drop for Ducted Wind Turbine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, J.; van Bussel, G.J.W.

    2017-01-01

    A new high-lift aerofoil modification for the duct has been developed and will be experimentally tested in a small wind tunnel. Aerofoils for such wind tunnel ducts typically operate in the low Reynolds number range from 2 × 105 to 6 × 105. The effect of a duct and of rotor on power and pressure

  16. Reconstrucción de 183 lesiones iatrogénicas de la vía biliar Reconstruction of 183 iatrogenic lesions in the bile duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis González González

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: las lesiones iatrogénicas de la vía biliar constituyen una de las mayores preocupaciones para los cirujanos generales. Con el inicio de la llamada era laparoscópica se notó un aumento de la incidencia de estas lesiones, como era de esperar, al tratarse de la introducción de una nueva técnica; pero este aumento que llegó a ser el doble del que ocurría con la cirugía abierta ha permanecido así más allá de lo que pudiera esperarse de una curva de aprendizaje. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el comportamiento y resultado del tratamiento quirúrgico aplicado. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, de corte transversal en 183 pacientes con diagnóstico de lesión iatrogénica de la vía biliar principal, atendidos en el Hospital Clinicoquirúrgico “Hermanos Ameijeiras”, en el período comprendido entre mayo de 1983 y diciembre de 2008. Resultados: la incidencia de las lesiones de la vía biliar en nuestro centro fue de 0,14 %. En toda la serie hubo un predominio del sexo femenino, con una edad media de 44,7 años. El tratamiento quirúrgico por vía convencional provocó más lesiones con 55,2 %, y se comprobó que la mayoría fueron diagnosticadas en el posoperatorio con predominio, de forma general, de las lesiones a menos de 2 cm del confluente hepático. La modalidad quirúrgica más empleada fue la hepaticoyeyunostomía en Y de Roux. Prevalecieron, como complicaciones posoperatorias, la fístula biliar externa y la infección de la herida quirúrgica. Conclusiones: la correlación entre variables y los resultados del tratamiento mostraron que, tanto el empleo de drenaje externo, como la lesión tipo 5, constituyeron predictores de morbimortalidad posoperatoria.Introduction: iatrogenic lesions in the bile duct are one of the main concerns for general surgeons. As it was expected, with the onset of the so-called laparoscopic era, increased incidence of these lesions was noticed after the introduction of

  17. Biliary cystadenoma with bile duct communication depicted on liver-specific contrast agent-enhanced MRI in a child

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrone, Gianluca; Carollo, Vincenzo; Luca, Angelo [Mediterranean Institute of Transplantation and High Specialization Therapy (ISMETT), Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Palermo (Italy); Maggiore, Giuseppe [University Hospital S. Chiara, Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Paediatrics, Pisa (Italy); Sonzogni, Aurelio [Riuniti Hospital, Pathology Department, Bergamo (Italy)

    2011-01-15

    Biliary cystadenoma is a benign, but potentially malignant, cystic neoplasm of the biliary ducts occurring most commonly in middle-aged females and very rarely in children. We present a 9-year-old boy with biliary cystadenoma, diagnosed by MRI using a new liver-specific contrast agent (gadoxetic acid) that is eliminated by the biliary system. The images clearly demonstrate the communication between the multiloculated cystic mass and the biliary tree, suggesting the possibility of biliary cystadenoma. Due to the malignant potential of a cystadenoma, the lesion was resected. The resection was complete and the postoperative course was uneventful. (orig.)

  18. Biliary cystadenoma with bile duct communication depicted on liver-specific contrast agent-enhanced MRI in a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrone, Gianluca; Maggiore, Giuseppe; Carollo, Vincenzo; Sonzogni, Aurelio; Luca, Angelo

    2011-01-01

    Biliary cystadenoma is a benign, but potentially malignant, cystic neoplasm of the biliary ducts occurring most commonly in middle-aged females and very rarely in children. We present a 9-year-old boy with biliary cystadenoma, diagnosed by MRI using a new liver-specific contrast agent (gadoxetic acid) that is eliminated by the biliary system. The images clearly demonstrate the communication between the multiloculated cystic mass and the biliary tree, suggesting the possibility of biliary cystadenoma. Due to the malignant potential of a cystadenoma, the lesion was resected. The resection was complete and the postoperative course was uneventful.

  19. Quercetin protects liver injury induced by bile duct ligation via attenuation of Rac1 and NADPH oxidase1 expression in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabirifar, Razieh; Ghoreshi, Zohreh-Al-Sadat; Safari, Fatemeh; Karimollah, Alireza; Moradi, Ali; Eskandari-Nasab, Ebrahim

    2017-02-01

    Bile duct ligation (BDL) and subsequent cholestasis are correlated with oxidative stress, hepatocellular injury and fibrosis. Quercetin is a flavonoid with antifibrotic, and hepatoprotective properties. However, the molecular mechanism underlying quercetin-mediated hepatoprotection is not fully understood. The current study was to evaluate mechanisms of hepatoprotective effect of quercetin in BDL rat model. We divided male Wistar rats into 4 groups (n=8 for each): sham, sham+quercetin (30 mg/kg per day), BDL, and BDL+quercetin (30 mg/kg per day). Four weeks later, the rats were sacrificed, the blood was collected for liver enzyme measurements and liver for the measurement of Rac1, Rac1-GTP and NOX1 mRNA and protein levels by quantitative PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Quercetin significantly alleviated liver injury in BDL rats as evidenced by histology and reduced liver enzymes. Furthermore, the mRNA and protein expression of Rac1, Rac1-GTP and NOX1 were significantly increased in BDL rats compared with those in the sham group (P<0.05); quercetin treatment reversed these variables back toward normal (P<0.05). Another interesting finding was that the antioxidant markers e.g. superoxide dismutase and catalase were elevated in quercetin-treated BDL rats compared to BDL rats (P<0.05). Quercetin demonstrated hepatoprotective activity against BDL-induced liver injury through increasing antioxidant capacity of the liver tissue, while preventing the production of Rac1, Rac1-GTP and NOX1 proteins.

  20. Different Types of Periampullary Duodenal Diverticula Are Associated with Occurrence and Recurrence of Bile Duct Stones: A Case-Control Study from a Chinese Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Sun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. We here investigated the association of different types of periampullary diverticula (PAD with pancreaticobiliary disease and with technical success of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP. Methods. A total of 850 consecutive patients who underwent their first ERCP were entered into a database. Of these patients, 161 patients (18.9% had PAD and the age- and sex-matched control group comprised 483 patients. Results. PAD was correlated with common bile duct (CBD stones (59.6% versus 35.0% in controls; P=0.008 and negatively correlated with periampullary malignancy (6.8% versus 21.5% in controls; P=0.004. The acute pancreatitis was more frequent (62.5% in patients with PAD type 1 followed by PAD type 2 (28.9%, P=0.017 and type 3 (28.0%, P=0.006. No significant differences were observed in successful cannulation rate and post-ERCP complications among the 3 types of PAD. Type 1 PAD patients had less recurrence of CBD stones than did the patients who had type 2 or type 3 PAD (53.8% versus 85.7%; P=0.043. Conclusions. PAD, especially type 1 PAD, is associated with an increased acute pancreatitis as well as occurrence and recurrence of CBD stones. PAD during an ERCP should not be considered as an obstacle to a successful cannulation.

  1. Clinicopathological features of intraductal papillary neoplasms of the bile duct: a comparison with intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas with reference to subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumura, Yuki; Nakanuma, Yasuni; Kakuda, Yuko; Takase, Masaru; Yao, Takashi

    2017-07-01

    Intraductal papillary epithelial neoplasms of the pancreatobiliary system (intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPNB) and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN)) seem to share many clinicopathological features; however, IPNB has not been fully characterized. In order to understand the clinicopathological/immunohistochemical features of IPNB better, we compared 52 cases of IPNB with 42 cases of IPMNs with mural nodules. The IPNB cases were divided into two groups according to their histological similarity and according to five key histological findings. All IPNB and IPMN cases mainly affected middle-aged to elderly people, predominantly men. Mucin hypersecretion was less frequent in IPNB compared to IPMN. Group 2 IPNB more frequently had a higher histopathological grade and more extensive stromal invasion than IPMN. Group 1 IPNB and IPMN were further classified into four subtypes (gastric, intestinal, pancreatobiliary, and oncocytic). Although each subtype of IPNB and IPMN showed similar histology, the immunohistochemical results were different. The gastric type of IPNB was less frequently positive for CDX2, and intestinal IPNB was more frequently positive for MUC1 and less frequently positive for MUC2, MUC5AC, and CDX2 compared to each subtype of IPMN, respectively. In conclusion, IPNB and IPMN have some clinicopathological features in common, but mucin hypersecretion was less frequent both in IPNBs than in IPMN. Group 2 IPNB differed from IPMN in several parameters of tumor aggressiveness. Additional clinicopathological and molecular studies should be performed with respect to the subtypes of IPNB and IPMN.

  2. Intra-operative vs pre-operative endoscopic sphincterotomy in patients with gallbladder and common bile duct stones: cost-utility and value-of-information analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurusamy, Kurinchi; Wilson, Edward; Burroughs, Andrew K; Davidson, Brian R

    2012-01-01

    Patients with gallbladder and common bile duct stones are generally treated by pre-operative endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) followed by laparoscopic cholecystectomy (POES). Recently, a meta-analysis has shown that intra-operative ES during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (IOES) results in fewer complications than POES, with similar efficacy. The cost effectiveness of IOES versus POES is unknown. The objective of this study was to compare the cost effectiveness of IOES versus POES from the UK NHS perspective. A decision-tree model estimating and comparing costs to the UK NHS and QALYs gained following a policy of either IOES or POES was developed with a time horizon of 3 years. Uncertainty was investigated with probabilistic sensitivity analysis, and the expected value of perfect information (EVPI) and partial information (EVPPI) were also calculated. IOES was less costly than POES (approximately -£623 per patient [year 2008 values]) and resulted in similar quality of life (+0.008 QALYs per patient) as POES. Given a willingness-to-pay threshold of £20 000 per QALY gained, there was a 92.9% probability that IOES is cost effective compared with POES. Full implementation of IOES could save the NHS £2.8 million per annum. At a willingness to pay of £20 000 per QALY gained, the 10-year population EVPI was estimated at £0.6 million. IOES appears to be cost effective compared with POES.

  3. Systematic review and meta-analysis of intraoperative versus preoperative endoscopic sphincterotomy in patients with gallbladder and suspected common bile duct stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurusamy, K; Sahay, S J; Burroughs, A K; Davidson, B R

    2011-07-01

    Most patients with gallbladder and common bile duct stones are treated by preoperative endoscopic sphincterotomy (POES) followed by laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Recently, intraoperative endoscopic sphincterotomy (IOES) during laparoscopic cholecystectomy has been suggested as an alternative treatment. Data from randomized clinical trials related to safety and effectiveness of IOES versus POES were extracted by two independent reviewers. Risk ratios (RRs) or mean differences were calculated with 95 per cent confidence intervals based on intention-to-treat analysis whenever possible. Four trials with 532 patients comparing IOES with POES were included. There were no deaths. There was no significant difference in rates of ampullary cannulation (RR 1·01