WorldWideScience

Sample records for high beta-sheet content

  1. Cyclic modular beta-sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, R Jeremy; Brower, Justin O; Castellanos, Elena; Hashemzadeh, Mehrnoosh; Khakshoor, Omid; Russu, Wade A; Nowick, James S

    2007-03-07

    The development of peptide beta-hairpins is problematic, because folding depends on the amino acid sequence and changes to the sequence can significantly decrease folding. Robust beta-hairpins that can tolerate such changes are attractive tools for studying interactions involving protein beta-sheets and developing inhibitors of these interactions. This paper introduces a new class of peptide models of protein beta-sheets that addresses the problem of separating folding from the sequence. These model beta-sheets are macrocyclic peptides that fold in water to present a pentapeptide beta-strand along one edge; the other edge contains the tripeptide beta-strand mimic Hao [JACS 2000, 122, 7654] and two additional amino acids. The pentapeptide and Hao-containing peptide strands are connected by two delta-linked ornithine (deltaOrn) turns [JACS 2003, 125, 876]. Each deltaOrn turn contains a free alpha-amino group that permits the linking of individual modules to form divalent beta-sheets. These "cyclic modular beta-sheets" are synthesized by standard solid-phase peptide synthesis of a linear precursor followed by solution-phase cyclization. Eight cyclic modular beta-sheets 1a-1h containing sequences based on beta-amyloid and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 were synthesized and characterized by 1H NMR. Linked cyclic modular beta-sheet 2, which contains two modules of 1b, was also synthesized and characterized. 1H NMR studies show downfield alpha-proton chemical shifts, deltaOrn delta-proton magnetic anisotropy, and NOE cross-peaks that establish all compounds but 1c and 1g to be moderately or well folded into a conformation that resembles a beta-sheet. Pulsed-field gradient NMR diffusion experiments show little or no self-association at low (

  2. Macrocyclic beta-sheet peptides that mimic protein quaternary structure through intermolecular beta-sheet interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khakshoor, Omid; Demeler, Borries; Nowick, James S

    2007-05-02

    This paper reports the design, synthesis, and characterization of a family of cyclic peptides that mimic protein quaternary structure through beta-sheet interactions. These peptides are 54-membered-ring macrocycles comprising an extended heptapeptide beta-strand, two Hao beta-strand mimics [JACS 2000, 122, 7654] joined by one additional alpha-amino acid, and two delta-linked ornithine beta-turn mimics [JACS 2003, 125, 876]. Peptide 3a, as the representative of these cyclic peptides, contains a heptapeptide sequence (TSFTYTS) adapted from the dimerization interface of protein NuG2 [PDB ID: 1mio]. 1H NMR studies of aqueous solutions of peptide 3a show a partially folded monomer in slow exchange with a strongly folded oligomer. NOE studies clearly show that the peptide self-associates through edge-to-edge beta-sheet dimerization. Pulsed-field gradient (PFG) NMR diffusion coefficient measurements and analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) studies establish that the oligomer is a tetramer. Collectively, these experiments suggest a model in which cyclic peptide 3a oligomerizes to form a dimer of beta-sheet dimers. In this tetrameric beta-sheet sandwich, the macrocyclic peptide 3a is folded to form a beta-sheet, the beta-sheet is dimerized through edge-to-edge interactions, and this dimer is further dimerized through hydrophobic face-to-face interactions involving the Phe and Tyr groups. Further studies of peptides 3b-3n, which are homologues of peptide 3a with 1-6 variations in the heptapeptide sequence, elucidate the importance of the heptapeptide sequence in the folding and oligomerization of this family of cyclic peptides. Studies of peptides 3b-3g show that aromatic residues across from Hao improve folding of the peptide, while studies of peptides 3h-3n indicate that hydrophobic residues at positions R3 and R5 of the heptapeptide sequence are important in oligomerization.

  3. The Promiscuity of [beta]-Strand Pairing Allows for Rational Design of [beta]-Sheet Face Inversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makabe, Koki; Koide, Shohei (UC)

    2009-06-17

    Recent studies suggest the dominant role of main-chain H-bond formation in specifying {beta}-sheet topology. Its essentially sequence-independent nature implies a large degree of freedom in designing {beta}-sheet-based nanomaterials. Here we show rational design of {beta}-sheet face inversions by incremental deletions of {beta}-strands from the single-layer {beta}-sheet of Borrelia outer surface protein A. We show that a {beta}-sheet structure can be maintained when a large number of native contacts are removed and that one can design large-scale conformational transitions of a {beta}-sheet such as face inversion by exploiting the promiscuity of strand-strand interactions. High-resolution X-ray crystal structures confirmed the success of the design and supported the importance of main-chain H-bonds in determining {beta}-sheet topology. This work suggests a simple but effective strategy for designing and controlling nanomaterials based on {beta}-rich peptide self-assemblies.

  4. Hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds in \\beta-sheet formation

    CERN Document Server

    Narayanan, Chitra

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we investigate interactions of extended conformations of homodimeric peptides made of small (glycine or alanine) and large hydrophobic (valine or leucine) sidechains using all-atom molecular dynamics simulations to decipher driving forces for \\beta-sheet formation. We make use of a periodic boundary condition setup in which individual peptides are infinitely long and stretched. Dimers adopt \\beta-sheet conformations at short interpeptide distances (\\xi ~ 0.5 nm) and at intermediate distances (~ 0.8 nm), valine and leucine homodimers assume cross-\\beta-like conformations with side chains interpenetrating each other. These two states are identified as minima in the Potential of Mean Force (PMF). While the number of interpeptide hydrogen bonds increases with decreasing interpeptide distance, the total hydrogen bond number in the system does not change significantly, suggesting that formation of \\beta-sheet structures from extended conformations is not driven by hydrogen bonds. This is supported by...

  5. Ranking Beta Sheet Topologies of Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonseca, Rasmus; Helles, Glennie; Winter, Pawel

    2010-01-01

    One of the challenges of protein structure prediction is to identify long-range interactions between amino acids.  To reliably predict such interactions, we enumerate, score and rank all beta-topologies (partitions of beta-strands into sheets, orderings of strands within sheets and orientations...... of paired strands) of a given protein.  We show that the beta-topology corresponding to the native structure is, with high probability, among the top-ranked. Since full enumeration is very time-consuming, we also suggest a method to deal with proteins with many beta-strands. The results reported...... in this paper are highly relevant for ab initio protein structure prediction methods based on decoy generation. The top-ranked beta-topologies can be used to find initial conformations from which conformational searches can be started. They can also be used to filter decoys by removing those with poorly...

  6. NMR studies of Borrelia burgdorferi OspA, a 28 kDa protein containing a single-layer {beta}-sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham, Thuy-Nga; Koide, Shohei

    1998-05-15

    The crystal structure of outer surface protein A (OspA) from Borrelia burgdorferi contains a single-layer {beta}-sheet connecting the N- and C-terminal globular domains. The central {beta}-sheet consists largely of polar amino acids and it is solvent-exposed on both faces, which so far appears to be unique among known protein structures. We have accomplished nearly complete backbone H, C and N and C{sup ;}/H{sup {beta}} assignments of OspA (28 kDa) using standard triple resonance techniques without perdeuteration. This was made possible by recording spectra at a high temperature (45 {sup o}C ). The chemical shift index and {sup 15}N T{sub 1}/T{sub 2} ratios show that both the secondary structure and the global conformation of OspA in solution are similar to the crystal structure, suggesting that the unique central {beta}-sheet is fairly rigid.

  7. Amino acid preference against beta sheet through allowing backbone hydration enabled by the presence of cation

    CERN Document Server

    Sharley, John N

    2016-01-01

    It is known that steric blocking by peptide sidechains of hydrogen bonding, HB, between water and peptide groups, PGs, in beta sheets accords with an amino acid intrinsic beta sheet preference. The present observations with Quantum Molecular Dynamics, QMD, simulation with quantum mechanical treatment of every water molecule solvating a beta sheet that would be transient in nature suggest that this steric blocking is not applicable in a hydrophobic region unless a cation is present, so that the amino acid beta sheet preference due to this steric blocking is only effective in the presence of a cation. We observed backbone hydration in a polyalanine and to a lesser extent polyvaline alpha helix without a cation being present, but a cation could increase the strength of these HBs. Parallel beta sheets have a greater tendency than antiparallel beta sheets of equivalent small size to retain regular structure in solvated QMD, and a 4 strand 4 inter-PG HB chain parallel beta sheet was used. Stability was reinforced b...

  8. A simple and realistic model system for studying hydrogen bonds in beta-sheets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossmeisl, Jan; Hinnemann, Berit; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the interaction between peptide chains at the level of state-of-the-art ab initio density functional theory. We propose an interacting periodic polypeptide model for studying the interactions in beta-sheets and apply this to glycine and alanine peptide chains in both parallel...... and antiparallel structures. The calculated structures of alanine are compared to x-ray structures of beta-sheets and the model is found to reproduce the geometry of the hydrogen bonds very well both concerning parallel and antiparallel beta-sheets. We investigate the structures of both the N-H...O=C and the C...

  9. Stability of the beta-sheet of the WW domain: A molecular dynamics simulation study.

    OpenAIRE

    Ibragimova, G T; Wade, R C

    1999-01-01

    The WW domain consists of approximately 40 residues, has no disulfide bridges, and forms a three-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet that is monomeric in solution. It thus provides a model system for studying beta-sheet stability in native proteins. We performed molecular dynamics simulations of two WW domains, YAP65 and FBP28, with very different stability characteristics, in order to explore the initial unfolding of the beta-sheet. The less stable YAP domain is much more sensitive to simulatio...

  10. Stability of the beta-sheet of the WW domain: A molecular dynamics simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibragimova, G T; Wade, R C

    1999-10-01

    The WW domain consists of approximately 40 residues, has no disulfide bridges, and forms a three-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet that is monomeric in solution. It thus provides a model system for studying beta-sheet stability in native proteins. We performed molecular dynamics simulations of two WW domains, YAP65 and FBP28, with very different stability characteristics, in order to explore the initial unfolding of the beta-sheet. The less stable YAP domain is much more sensitive to simulation conditions than the FBP domain. Under standard simulation conditions in water (with or without charge-balancing counterions) at 300 K, the beta-sheet of the YAP WW domain disintegrated at early stages of the simulations. Disintegration commenced with the breakage of a hydrogen bond between the second and third strands of the beta-sheet due to an anticorrelated transition of the Tyr-28 psi and Phe-29 phi angles. Electrostatic interactions play a role in this event, and the YAP WW domain structure is more stable when simulated with a complete explicit model of the surrounding ionic strength. Other factors affecting stability of the beta-sheet are side-chain packing, the conformational entropy of the flexible chain termini, and the binding of cognate peptide.

  11. Effect of secondary structure on the potential of mean force for poly-L-lysine in the alpha-Helix and beta-sheet conformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigsby, J.J.; Blanch, H.W.; Prausnitz, J.M.

    2001-10-30

    Because poly-L-lysine (PLL) can exist in the {alpha}-helix or {beta}-sheet conformation depending on solution preparation and solution conditions, PLL is a suitable candidate to probe the dependence of protein interactions on secondary structure. The osmotic second virial coefficient and weight-average molecular weight are reported from low-angle laser-light scattering measurements for PLL as a function of NaCl concentration, pH, and {alpha}-helix or {beta}-sheet content. Interactions between PLL molecules become more attractive as salt concentration increases due to screening of PLL charge by salt ions and at low salt concentration become more attractive as pH increases due to decreased net charge on PLL. The experimental results show that interactions are stronger for the {beta}-sheet conformation than for the {alpha}-helix conformation. A spherically-symmetric model for the potential of mean force is used to account for specific interactions not described by DLVO theory and to show how differences in secondary structure affect PLL interactions.

  12. Stabilization of TRAIL, an all-{beta}-sheet multimeric protein, using computational redesign

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sloot, Almer Martinus; Mullally, Margaret; Fernandez-Ballester, G.; Serrano, L.; Quax, Wim

    2004-01-01

    Protein thermal stability is important for therapeutic proteins, both influencing the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties and for stability during production and shelf-life of the final product. In this paper we show the redesign of a therapeutically interesting trimeric all-beta-sheet pr

  13. Stabilization of TRAIL, an all-beta-sheet multimeric protein, using computational redesign

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sloot, AM; Mullally, MM; Fernandez-Ballester, G; Serrano, L; Quax, WJ

    2004-01-01

    Protein thermal stability is important for therapeutic proteins, both influencing the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties and for stability during production and shelf-life of the final product. In this paper we show the redesign of a therapeutically interesting trimeric all-beta-sheet pr

  14. Misfolded amyloid ion channels present mobile beta-sheet subunits in contrast to conventional ion channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hyunbum; Arce, Fernando Teran; Capone, Ricardo; Ramachandran, Srinivasan; Lal, Ratnesh; Nussinov, Ruth

    2009-12-02

    In Alzheimer's disease, calcium permeability through cellular membranes appears to underlie neuronal cell death. It is increasingly accepted that calcium permeability involves toxic ion channels. We modeled Alzheimer's disease ion channels of different sizes (12-mer to 36-mer) in the lipid bilayer using molecular dynamics simulations. Our Abeta channels consist of the solid-state NMR-based U-shaped beta-strand-turn-beta-strand motif. In the simulations we obtain ion-permeable channels whose subunit morphologies and shapes are consistent with electron microscopy/atomic force microscopy. In agreement with imaged channels, the simulations indicate that beta-sheet channels break into loosely associated mobile beta-sheet subunits. The preferred channel sizes (16- to 24-mer) are compatible with electron microscopy/atomic force microscopy-derived dimensions. Mobile subunits were also observed for beta-sheet channels formed by cytolytic PG-1 beta-hairpins. The emerging picture from our large-scale simulations is that toxic ion channels formed by beta-sheets spontaneously break into loosely interacting dynamic units that associate and dissociate leading to toxic ionic flux. This sharply contrasts intact conventional gated ion channels that consist of tightly interacting alpha-helices that robustly prevent ion leakage, rather than hydrogen-bonded beta-strands. The simulations suggest why conventional gated channels evolved to consist of interacting alpha-helices rather than hydrogen-bonded beta-strands that tend to break in fluidic bilayers. Nature designs folded channels but not misfolded toxic channels.

  15. Signatures of beta-sheet secondary structures in linear and two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheatum, CM; Tokmakoff, A; Knoester, J

    2004-01-01

    Using idealized models for parallel and antiparallel beta sheets, we calculate the linear and two-dimensional infrared spectra of the amide I vibration as a function of size and secondary structure. The model assumes transition-dipole coupling between the amide I oscillators in the sheet and account

  16. Effects of side-chain orientation on the {sup 13}C chemical shifts of antiparallel {beta}-sheet model peptides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villegas, Myriam E.; Vila, Jorge A. [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico Matematicas y Naturales, Instituto de Matematica Aplicada San Luis, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, CONICET (Argentina); Scheraga, Harold A. [Cornell University, Baker Laboratory of Chemistry and Chemical Biology (United States)], E-mail: has5@cornell.edu

    2007-02-15

    The dependence of the {sup 13}C chemical shift on side-chain orientation was investigated at the density functional level for a two-strand antiparallel {beta}-sheet model peptide represented by the amino acid sequence Ac-(Ala){sub 3}-X-(Ala){sub 12}-NH{sub 2} where X represents any of the 17 naturally occurring amino acids, i.e., not including alanine, glycine and proline. The dihedral angles adopted for the backbone were taken from, and fixed at, observed experimental values of an antiparallel {beta}-sheet. We carried out a cluster analysis of the ensembles of conformations generated by considering the side-chain dihedral angles for each residue X as variables, and use them to compute the {sup 13}C chemical shifts at the density functional theory level. It is shown that the adoption of the locally-dense basis set approach for the quantum chemical calculations enabled us to reduce the length of the chemical-shift calculations while maintaining good accuracy of the results. For the 17 naturally occurring amino acids in an antiparallel {beta}-sheet, there is (i) good agreement between computed and observed {sup 13}C{sup {alpha}} and {sup 13}C{sup {beta}} chemical shifts, with correlation coefficients of 0.95 and 0.99, respectively; (ii) significant variability of the computed {sup 13}C{sup {alpha}} and {sup 13}C{sup {beta}} chemical shifts as a function of {chi}{sup 1} for all amino acid residues except Ser; and (iii) a smaller, although significant, dependence of the computed {sup 13}C{sup {alpha}} chemical shifts on {chi}{sup {xi}} (with {xi} {>=} 2) compared to {chi}{sup 1} for eleven out of seventeen residues. Our results suggest that predicted {sup 13}C{sup {alpha}} and {sup 13}C{sup {beta}} chemical shifts, based only on backbone ({phi},{psi}) dihedral angles from high-resolution X-ray structure data or from NMR-derived models, may differ significantly from those observed in solution if the dihedral-angle preferences for the side chains are not taken into

  17. Thermally Induced Alpha-Helix to Beta-Sheet Transition in Regenerated Silk Fibers and Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drummy,L.; Phillips, D.; Stone, M.; Farmer, B.; Naik, R.

    2005-01-01

    The structure of thin films cast from regenerated solutions of Bombyx mori cocoon silk in hexafluoroisopropyl alcohol (HFIP) was studied by synchrotron X-ray diffraction during heating. A solid-state conformational transition from an alpha-helical structure to the well-known beta-sheet silk II structure occurred at a temperature of approximately 140 degrees C. The transition appeared to be homogeneous, as both phases do not coexist within the resolution of the current study. Modulated differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) of the films showed an endothermic melting peak followed by an exothermic crystallization peak, both occurring near 140 degrees C. Oriented fibers were also produced that displayed this helical molecular conformation. Subsequent heating above the structural transition temperature produced oriented beta-sheet fibers very similar in structure to B. mori cocoon fibers. Heat treatment of silk films at temperatures well below their degradation temperature offers a controllable route to materials with well-defined structures and mechanical behavior.

  18. Alpha-helical, but not beta-sheet, propensity of proline is determined by peptide environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S C; Goto, N K; Williams, K A; Deber, C M

    1996-06-25

    Proline is established as a potent breaker of both alpha-helical and beta-sheet structures in soluble (globular) proteins. Thus, the frequent occurrence of the Pro residue in the putative transmembrane helices of integral membrane proteins, particularly transport proteins, presents a structural dilemma. We propose that this phenomenon results from the fact that the structural propensity of a given amino acid may be altered to conform to changes imposed by molecular environment. To test this hypothesis on proline, we synthesized model peptides of generic sequence H2N-(Ser-LyS)2-Ala- Leu-Z-Ala-Leu-Z-Trp-Ala-Leu-Z-(Lys-Ser)3-OH (Z = Ala and/or Pro). Peptide conformations were analyzed by circular dichroism spectroscopy in aqueous buffer, SDS, lysophosphatidylglycerol micelles, and organic solvents (methanol, trifluoroethanol, and 2-propanol). The helical propensity of Pro was found to be greatly enhanced in the membrane-mimetic environments of both lipid micelles and organic solvents. Proline was found to stabilize the alpha-helical conformation relative to Ala at elevated temperatures in 2-propanol, an observation that argues against the doctrine that Pro is the most potent alpha-helix breaker as established in aqueous media. Parallel studies in deoxycholate micelles of the temperature-induced conformational transitions of the single-spanning membrane bacteriophage IKe major coat protein, in which the Pro-containing wild type was compared with Pro30 --> Ala mutant, Pro was found to protect the helix, but disrupt the beta-sheet structure as effectively as it does to model peptides in water. The intrinsic capacity of Pro to disrupt beta-sheets was further reflected in a survey of porins where Pro was found to be selectively excluded from the core of membrane-spanning beta-sheet barrels. The overall data provide a rationale for predicting and understanding the structural consequences when Pro occurs in the context of a membrane.

  19. Beating the Heat - Fast Scanning Melts Silk Beta Sheet Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebe, Peggy; Hu, Xiao; Kaplan, David L.; Zhuravlev, Evgeny; Wurm, Andreas; Arbeiter, Daniela; Schick, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Beta-pleated-sheet crystals are among the most stable of protein secondary structures, and are responsible for the remarkable physical properties of many fibrous proteins, such as silk, or proteins forming plaques as in Alzheimer's disease. Previous thinking, and the accepted paradigm, was that beta-pleated-sheet crystals in the dry solid state were so stable they would not melt upon input of heat energy alone. Here we overturn that assumption and demonstrate that beta-pleated-sheet crystals melt directly from the solid state to become random coils, helices, and turns. We use fast scanning chip calorimetry at 2,000 K/s and report the first reversible thermal melting of protein beta-pleated-sheet crystals, exemplified by silk fibroin. The similarity between thermal melting behavior of lamellar crystals of synthetic polymers and beta-pleated-sheet crystals is confirmed. Significance for controlling beta-pleated-sheet content during thermal processing of biomaterials, as well as towards disease therapies, is envisioned based on these new findings.

  20. Ranking beta sheet topologies with applications to protein structure prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonseca, Rasmus; Helles, Glennie; Winter, Pawel

    2011-01-01

    One reason why ab initio protein structure predictors do not perform very well is their inability to reliably identify long-range interactions between amino acids. To achieve reliable long-range interactions, all potential pairings of ß-strands (ß-topologies) of a given protein are enumerated......, including the native ß-topology. Two very different ß-topology scoring methods from the literature are then used to rank all potential ß-topologies. This has not previously been attempted for any scoring method. The main result of this paper is a justification that one of the scoring methods, in particular...... of this paper is a method to deal with the inaccuracies of secondary structure predictors when enumerating potential ß-topologies. The results reported in this paper are highly relevant for ab initio protein structure prediction methods based on decoy generation. They indicate that decoy generation can...

  1. PB1-F2 influenza A virus protein adopts a beta-sheet conformation and forms amyloid fibers in membrane environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Christophe; Al Bazzal, Ali; Vidic, Jasmina; Février, Vincent; Bourdieu, Christiane; Bouguyon, Edwige; Le Goffic, Ronan; Vautherot, Jean-François; Bernard, Julie; Moudjou, Mohammed; Noinville, Sylvie; Chich, Jean-François; Da Costa, Bruno; Rezaei, Human; Delmas, Bernard

    2010-04-23

    The influenza A virus PB1-F2 protein, encoded by an alternative reading frame in the PB1 polymerase gene, displays a high sequence polymorphism and is reported to contribute to viral pathogenesis in a sequence-specific manner. To gain insights into the functions of PB1-F2, the molecular structure of several PB1-F2 variants produced in Escherichia coli was investigated in different environments. Circular dichroism spectroscopy shows that all variants have a random coil secondary structure in aqueous solution. When incubated in trifluoroethanol polar solvent, all PB1-F2 variants adopt an alpha-helix-rich structure, whereas incubated in acetonitrile, a solvent of medium polarity mimicking the membrane environment, they display beta-sheet secondary structures. Incubated with asolectin liposomes and SDS micelles, PB1-F2 variants also acquire a beta-sheet structure. Dynamic light scattering revealed that the presence of beta-sheets is correlated with an oligomerization/aggregation of PB1-F2. Electron microscopy showed that PB1-F2 forms amorphous aggregates in acetonitrile. In contrast, at low concentrations of SDS, PB1-F2 variants exhibited various abilities to form fibers that were evidenced as amyloid fibers in a thioflavin T assay. Using a recombinant virus and its PB1-F2 knock-out mutant, we show that PB1-F2 also forms amyloid structures in infected cells. Functional membrane permeabilization assays revealed that the PB1-F2 variants can perforate membranes at nanomolar concentrations but with activities found to be sequence-dependent and not obviously correlated with their differential ability to form amyloid fibers. All of these observations suggest that PB1-F2 could be involved in physiological processes through different pathways, permeabilization of cellular membranes, and amyloid fiber formation.

  2. Conformational diversity in prion protein variants influences intermolecular [beta]-sheet formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seungjoo; Antony, Lizamma; Hartmann, Rune; Knaus, Karen J.; Surewicz, Krystyna; Surewicz, Witold K.; Yee, Vivien C. (Case Western); (Cleveland Clinic)

    2010-04-19

    A conformational transition of normal cellular prion protein (PrP{sup C}) to its pathogenic form (PrP{sup Sc}) is believed to be a central event in the transmission of the devastating neurological diseases known as spongiform encephalopathies. The common methionine/valine polymorphism at residue 129 in the PrP influences disease susceptibility and phenotype. We report here seven crystal structures of human PrP variants: three of wild-type (WT) PrP containing V129, and four of the familial variants D178N and F198S, containing either M129 or V129. Comparison of these structures with each other and with previously published WT PrP structures containing M129 revealed that only WT PrPs were found to crystallize as domain-swapped dimers or closed monomers; the four mutant PrPs crystallized as non-swapped dimers. Three of the four mutant PrPs aligned to form intermolecular {beta}-sheets. Several regions of structural variability were identified, and analysis of their conformations provides an explanation for the structural features, which can influence the formation and conformation of intermolecular {beta}-sheets involving the M/V129 polymorphic residue.

  3. Biomimetic deposition of hydroxyapatite on a synthetic polypeptide with beta sheet structure in a solution mimicking body fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Akari; Ohtsuki, Chikara; Kamitakahara, Masanobu; Ogata, Shin-ichi; Miyazaki, Toshiki; Tanihara, Masao

    2008-01-01

    Deposition of a hydroxyapatite layer with similar structure to bone mineral is an attractive approach to the fabrication of bioactive coating layers to achieve direct bonding to living bone. To get successful coating of a hydroxyapatite layer on an organic polymer using a biomimetic solution, it is essential to find organic substrates that can effectively induce heterogeneous nucleation of hydroxyapatite after exposure to the body environment. Our previous study showed that sericin, a type of silk protein, has the ability to induce hydroxyapatite nucleation in a biomimetic solution when the sericin has a beta sheet structure. To confirm the effectiveness of the beta sheet structure in hydroxyapatite nucleation, we focused on investigating hydroxyapatite deposition on a synthetic polypeptide with a beta sheet structure in a biomimetic solution. The beta sheet forming polypeptides with and without carboxyl groups, poly(FE)(3)FG, poly(FQ)(3)FG, poly(LE)(3)LG and poly(LQ)(3)LG, were synthesized in this study. All the polypeptides had mainly beta sheet structure. After soaking the polypeptide films in 1.5SBF, which has 1.5 times the inorganic ion concentrations of human blood plasma, hydroxyapatite formed on the surfaces of the polypeptides with carboxyl groups, poly(FE)(3)FG and poly(LE)(3)LG, within 2 days, but not on those without carboxyl groups, poly(FQ)(3)FG and poly(LQ)(3)LG. We confirmed that the beta sheet structure was effective for hydroxyapatite nucleation even in the synthetic polypeptide. This finding is useful for the future design of organic polymers that can effectively induce nucleation of hydroxyapatite.

  4. A new perspective on beta-sheet structures using vibrational Raman optical activity: From poly(L-lysine) to the prion protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McColl, L.H.; Blanch, E.W.; Gill, A.C.;

    2003-01-01

    The vibrational Raman optical activity (ROA) spectrum of a polypeptide in a model beta-sheet conformation, that of poly(L-lysine), was measured for the first time, and the alpha-helix --> beta-sheet transition monitored as a function of temperature in H2O and D2O. Although no significant populati...

  5. Molecular dynamics simulation of {beta}-sheet formation in self-assembled peptide amphiphile fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, One-Sun; Liu Yamei; Schatz, George C., E-mail: schatz@chem.northwestern.edu [Northwestern University, Department of Chemistry (United States)

    2012-08-15

    The influence of amino acid sequence on the secondary structure of peptide amphiphile (PAs) cylindrical micelles and fibers that are self-assembled in solution is studied using molecular dynamics simulations. Simulations for two choices of PAs were performed, starting with structures that have the correct overall shape, but which restructure considerably during the simulation, with one fiber being composed of valine rich PAs and the other of alanine rich PAs. Self-assembly is similar in both simulations, with stable fibers (diameter is 7.7-8 nm) obtained after 40 ns. We find that the valine rich PA fiber has a higher {beta}-sheet population than the alanine rich fiber, and that the number of hydrogen bonds is higher. This behavior of the valine rich fiber is consistent with experimental measurements of higher stiffness, and it shows that stiffness can be varied while still maintaining self-assembly.

  6. Evidence for novel beta-sheet structures in Iowa mutant beta-amyloid fibrils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tycko, Robert; Sciarretta, Kimberly L; Orgel, Joseph P R O; Meredith, Stephen C

    2009-07-01

    Asp23-to-Asn mutation within the coding sequence of beta-amyloid, called the Iowa mutation, is associated with early onset, familial Alzheimer's disease and cerebral amyloid angiopathy, in which patients develop neuritic plaques and massive vascular deposition predominantly of the mutant peptide. We examined the mutant peptide, D23N-Abeta40, by electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and solid-state NMR spectroscopy. D23N-Abeta40 forms fibrils considerably faster than the wild-type peptide (k = 3.77 x 10(-3) min(-1) and 1.07 x 10(-4) min(-1) for D23N-Abeta40 and the wild-type peptide WT-Abeta40, respectively) and without a lag phase. Electron microscopy shows that D23N-Abeta40 forms fibrils with multiple morphologies. X-ray fiber diffraction shows a cross-beta pattern, with a sharp reflection at 4.7 A and a broad reflection at 9.4 A, which is notably smaller than the value for WT-Abeta40 fibrils (10.4 A). Solid-state NMR measurements indicate molecular level polymorphism of the fibrils, with only a minority of D23N-Abeta40 fibrils containing the in-register, parallel beta-sheet structure commonly found in WT-Abeta40 fibrils and most other amyloid fibrils. Antiparallel beta-sheet structures in the majority of fibrils are indicated by measurements of intermolecular distances through (13)C-(13)C and (15)N-(13)C dipole-dipole couplings. An intriguing possibility exists that there is a relationship between the aberrant structure of D23N-Abeta40 fibrils and the unusual vasculotropic clinical picture in these patients.

  7. Evidence for Novel [beta]-Sheet Structures in Iowa Mutant [beta]-Amyloid Fibrils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tycko, Robert; Sciarretta, Kimberly L.; Orgel, Joseph P.R.O.; Meredith, Stephen C.; (IIT); (NIH); (UC)

    2009-07-24

    Asp23-to-Asn mutation within the coding sequence of {beta}-amyloid, called the Iowa mutation, is associated with early onset, familial Alzheimer's disease and cerebral amyloid angiopathy, in which patients develop neuritic plaques and massive vascular deposition predominantly of the mutant peptide. We examined the mutant peptide, D23N-A{beta}40, by electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and solid-state NMR spectroscopy. D23N-A{beta}40 forms fibrils considerably faster than the wild-type peptide (k = 3.77 x 10{sup -3} min{sup -1} and 1.07 x 10{sup -4} min{sup -1} for D23N-A{beta}40 and the wild-type peptide WT-A{beta}40, respectively) and without a lag phase. Electron microscopy shows that D23N-A{beta}40 forms fibrils with multiple morphologies. X-ray fiber diffraction shows a cross-{beta} pattern, with a sharp reflection at 4.7 {angstrom} and a broad reflection at 9.4 {angstrom}, which is notably smaller than the value for WT-A{beta}40 fibrils (10.4 {angstrom}). Solid-state NMR measurements indicate molecular level polymorphism of the fibrils, with only a minority of D23N-A{beta}40 fibrils containing the in-register, parallel {beta}-sheet structure commonly found in WT-A{beta}40 fibrils and most other amyloid fibrils. Antiparallel {beta}-sheet structures in the majority of fibrils are indicated by measurements of intermolecular distances through 13C-13C and 15N-13C dipole-dipole couplings. An intriguing possibility exists that there is a relationship between the aberrant structure of D23N-A{beta}40 fibrils and the unusual vasculotropic clinical picture in these patients.

  8. Identification of a novel human islet amyloid polypeptide beta-sheet domain and factors influencing fibrillogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaikaran, E T; Higham, C E; Serpell, L C; Zurdo, J; Gross, M; Clark, A; Fraser, P E

    2001-05-04

    Human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) accumulates as pancreatic amyloid in type 2 diabetes and readily forms fibrils in vitro. Investigations into the mechanism of hIAPP fibril formation have focused largely on residues 20 to 29, which are considered to comprise a primary amyloidogenic domain. In rodents, proline substitutions within this region and the subsequent beta-sheet disruption, prevents fibril formation. An additional amyloidogenic fragment within the C-terminal sequence, residues 30 to 37, has been identified recently. We have extended these observations by examining a series of overlapping peptide fragments from the human and rodent sequences. Using protein spectroscopy (CD/FTIR), electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, a previously unrecognised amyloidogenic domain was localised within residues 8 to 20. Synthetic peptides corresponding to this region exhibited a transition from random coil to beta-sheet conformation and assembled into fibrils having a typical amyloid-like morphology. The comparable rat 8-20 sequence, which contains a single His18Arg substitution, was also capable of assembling into amyloid-like fibrils. Examination of peptide fragments corresponding to residues 1 to 13 revealed that the immediate N-terminal region is likely to have only a modulating influence on fibril formation or conformational conversion. The contributions of charged residues as they relate to the amyloid-forming 8-20 sequence were also investigated using IAPP fragments and by assessing the effects of pH and counterions. The identification of these principal amyloidogenic sequences and the effects of associated factors provide details on the IAPP aggregation pathway and structure of the peptide in its fibrillar state. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  9. Characterization of the conformational space of a triple-stranded beta-sheet forming peptide with molecular dynamics simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soto, P; Colombo, G

    2004-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been performed on a series of mutants of the 20 amino acid peptide Betanova in order to critically assess the ability of MD simulations to reproduce the folding and stability of small beta-sheet-forming peptides on currently accessible timescales. Simulations

  10. Competing intrachain interactions regulate the formation of beta-sheet fibrils in bovine PrP peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahiri-Alaoui, Abdessamad; Bouchard, Mario; Zurdo, Jesús; James, William

    2003-03-01

    At the heart of the pathogenesis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), such as BSE, scrapie, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, lies a poorly understood structural rearrangement of PrP, an abundant glycoprotein of the nervous and lymphoid systems. The normal form (PrP(C)), rich in alpha-helix, converts into an aberrant beta-sheet-dominated form (PrP(Sc)), which seems to be at the center of the pathotoxic symptoms observed in TSEs. To understand this process better at a molecular level, we have studied the interactions between different peptides derived from bovine PrP and their structural significance. We show that two unstructured peptides derived from the central region of bovine PrP, residues 115-133 and 140-152, respectively, interact stoichiometrically under physiological conditions to generate beta-sheet-dominated fibrils. However, when both peptides are incubated in the presence of a third peptide derived from an adjoining alpha-helical region (residues 153-169), the formation of beta-sheet-rich fibrils is abolished. These data indicate that native PrP(C) helix 1 might inhibit the strong intrinsic beta-sheet-forming propensity of sequences immediately N-terminal to the globular core of PrP(C), by keeping in place intrachain interactions that would prevent these amyloidogenic regions from triggering aggregation. Moreover, these results indicate new ways in which PrP(Sc) formation could be prevented.

  11. Factors contributing to decreased protein stability when aspartic acid residues are in {beta}-sheet regions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokkuluri, P. R.; Cai, X.; Raffen, R.; Gu, M.; Stevens, F. J.; Schiffer, M.

    2002-07-01

    Asp residues are significantly under represented in {beta}-sheet regions of proteins, especially in the middle of {beta}-strands, as found by a number of studies using statistical, modeling, or experimental methods. To further understand the reasons for this under representation of Asp, we prepared and analyzed mutants of a {beta}-domain. Two Gln residues of the immunoglobulin light-chain variable domain (V{sub L}) of protein Len were replaced with Asp, and then the effects of these changes on protein stability and protein structure were studied. The replacement of Q38D, located at the end of a {beta}-strand, and that of Q89D, located in the middle of a {beta}-strand, reduced the stability of the parent immunoglobulin VL domain by 2.0 kcal/mol and 5.3 kcal/mol, respectively. Because the Q89D mutant of the wild-type V{sub L}-Len domain was too unstable to be expressed as a soluble protein, we prepared the Q89D mutant in a triple mutant background, V{sub L}-Len M4L/Y27dD/T94H, which was 4.2 kcal/mol more stable than the wild-type V{sub L}-Len domain. The structures of mutants V{sub L}-Len Q38D and V{sub L}-Len Q89D/M4L/Y27dD/T94H were determined by X-ray diffraction at 1.6 A resolution. We found no major perturbances in the structures of these QD mutant proteins relative to structures of the parent proteins. The observed stability changes have to be accounted for by cumulative effects of the following several factors: (1) by changes in main-chain dihedral angles and in side-chain rotomers, (2) by close contacts between some atoms, and, most significantly, (3) by the unfavorable electrostatic interactions between the Asp side chain and the carbonyls of the main chain. We show that the Asn side chain, which is of similar size but neutral, is less destabilizing. The detrimental effect of Asp within a {beta}-sheet of an immunoglobulin-type domain can have very serious consequences. A somatic mutation of a {beta}-strand residue to Asp could prevent the expression of the

  12. Embryonic neural inducing factor churchill is not a DNA-binding zinc finger protein: solution structure reveals a solvent-exposed beta-sheet and zinc binuclear cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Brian M; Buck-Koehntop, Bethany A; Martinez-Yamout, Maria A; Dyson, H Jane; Wright, Peter E

    2007-08-31

    Churchill is a zinc-containing protein that is involved in neural induction during embryogenesis. At the time of its discovery, it was thought on the basis of sequence alignment to contain two zinc fingers of the C4 type. Further, binding of an N-terminal GST-Churchill fusion protein to a particular DNA sequence was demonstrated by immunoprecipitation selection assay, suggesting that Churchill may function as a transcriptional regulator by sequence-specific DNA binding. We show by NMR solution structure determination that, far from containing canonical C4 zinc fingers, the protein contains three bound zinc ions in novel coordination sites, including an unusual binuclear zinc cluster. The secondary structure of Churchill is also unusual, consisting of a highly solvent-exposed single-layer beta-sheet. Hydrogen-deuterium exchange and backbone relaxation measurements reveal that Churchill is unusually dynamic on a number of time scales, with the exception of regions surrounding the zinc coordinating sites, which serve to stabilize the otherwise unstructured N terminus and the single-layer beta-sheet. No binding of Churchill to the previously identified DNA sequence could be detected, and extensive searches using DNA sequence selection techniques could find no other DNA sequence that was bound by Churchill. Since the N-terminal amino acids of Churchill form part of the zinc-binding motif, the addition of a fusion protein at the N terminus causes loss of zinc and unfolding of Churchill. This observation most likely explains the published DNA-binding results, which would arise due to non-specific interaction of the unfolded protein in the immunoprecipitation selection assay. Since Churchill does not appear to bind DNA, we suggest that it may function in embryogenesis as a protein-interaction factor.

  13. Factors That Affect the Degree of Twist in beta-Sheet Structures : A Molecular Dynamics Simulation Study of a Cross-beta Filament of the GNNQQNY Peptide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Periole, Xavier; Rampioni, Aldo; Vendruscolo, Michele; Mark, Alan E.

    2009-01-01

    By exploiting the recent availability of the crystal structure of a cross-beta filament of the GNNQQNY peptide fragment of the yeast prion protein Sup35, possible factors affecting the twisting of beta-sheets structures have been analyzed. The advantage of this system is that it is composed entirely

  14. Origin of life. Primordial genetics: Information transfer in a pre-RNA world based on self-replicating beta-sheet amyloid conformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maury, Carl Peter J

    2015-10-07

    The question of the origin of life on Earth can largely be reduced to the question of what was the first molecular replicator system that was able to replicate and evolve under the presumably very harsh conditions on the early Earth. It is unlikely that a functional RNA could have existed under such conditions and it is generally assumed that some other kind of information system preceded the RNA world. Here, I present an informational molecular system that is stable, self-replicative, environmentally responsive, and evolvable under conditions characterized by high temperatures, ultraviolet and cosmic radiation. This postulated pregenetic system is based on the amyloid fold, a functionally unique polypeptide fold characterized by a cross beta-sheet structure in which the beta strands are arranged perpendicular to the fiber axis. Beside an extraordinary structural robustness, the amyloid fold possesses a unique ability to transmit information by a three-dimensional templating mechanism. In amyloidogenesis short peptide monomers are added one by one to the growing end of the fiber. From the same monomeric subunits several structural variants of amyloid may be formed. Then, in a self-replicative mode, a specific amyloid conformer can act as a template and confer its spatially encoded information to daughter molecular entities in a repetitive way. In this process, the specific conformational information, the spatially changed organization, is transmitted; the coding element is the steric zipper structure, and recognition occurs by amino acid side chain complementarity. The amyloid information system fulfills several basic requirements of a primordial evolvable replicator system: (i) it is stable under the presumed primitive Earth conditions, (ii) the monomeric building blocks of the informational polymer can be formed from available prebiotic compounds, (iii) the system is self-assembling and self-replicative and (iv) it is adaptive to changes in the environment and

  15. Aluminium and iron, but neither copper nor zinc, are key to the precipitation of beta-sheets of Abeta_{42} in senile plaque cores in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, Christopher

    2006-11-01

    A number of metals including Fe(II)/Fe(III), Al(III), Zn(II) and Cu(II) are found co-localised with beta-sheets of Abeta_{42} in senile plaque cores in AD brain. We know neither why nor how the co-localisation takes place or, indeed, if it is entirely aberrant or partly protective. There are data from in vitro studies which may begin to explain some of these unanswered questions and in considering these I have summised that Al(III) and Fe(III)/Fe(II) are directly involved in the precipitation of beta-sheets of Abeta_{42} in senile plaque cores whereas the presence of Cu(II) and Zn(II) is adventitious. The co-deposition of Al(III), Fe(III) and beta-sheets of Abeta_{42} could act as a source of reactive oxygen species and begin to explain some of the oxidative damage found in the immediate vicinity of senile plaques. Whether such metal-Abeta_{42} synergisms are an integral part of the aetiology of AD remains to be confirmed.

  16. New aluminium alloys with high lithium content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schemme, K.; Velten, B.

    1989-06-01

    Since the early 80's there have been made great efforts to replace the high strength aluminium alloys for the aircraft and space industry by a new generation of aluminium-lithium alloys. The attractivity of this kind of alloys could be increased by a further reduction of their density, caused by an increasing lithium content (/ge/ 5 wt.% Li). Therefore binary high-lithium containing alloys with low density are produced and metallografically investigated. A survey of their strength and wear behavior is given by using tensile tests and pin abrasing tests. (orig.).

  17. Computer vision for high content screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Oren Z; Frey, Brendan J

    2016-01-01

    High Content Screening (HCS) technologies that combine automated fluorescence microscopy with high throughput biotechnology have become powerful systems for studying cell biology and drug screening. These systems can produce more than 100 000 images per day, making their success dependent on automated image analysis. In this review, we describe the steps involved in quantifying microscopy images and different approaches for each step. Typically, individual cells are segmented from the background using a segmentation algorithm. Each cell is then quantified by extracting numerical features, such as area and intensity measurements. As these feature representations are typically high dimensional (>500), modern machine learning algorithms are used to classify, cluster and visualize cells in HCS experiments. Machine learning algorithms that learn feature representations, in addition to the classification or clustering task, have recently advanced the state of the art on several benchmarking tasks in the computer vision community. These techniques have also recently been applied to HCS image analysis.

  18. High content screening in microfluidic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Raymond; Paliwal, Saurabh; Levchenko, Andre

    2011-01-01

    Importance of the field Miniaturization is key to advancing the state-of-the-art in high content screening (HCS), in order to enable dramatic cost savings through reduced usage of expensive biochemical reagents and to enable large-scale screening on primary cells. Microfluidic technology offers the potential to enable HCS to be performed with an unprecedented degree of miniaturization. Areas covered in this review This perspective highlights a real-world example from the authors’ work of HCS assays implemented in a highly miniaturized microfluidic format. Advantages of this technology are discussed, including cost savings, high throughput screening on primary cells, improved accuracy, the ability to study complex time-varying stimuli, and ease of automation, integration, and scaling. What the reader will gain The reader will understand the capabilities of a new microfluidics-based platform for HCS, and the advantages it provides over conventional plate-based HCS. Take home message Microfluidics technology will drive significant advancements and broader usage and applicability of HCS in drug discovery. PMID:21852997

  19. High content analysis in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Federica; Motti, Dario; Ferraiuolo, Laura; Kaspar, Brian K

    2017-04-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating disease characterized by the progressive loss of motor neurons. Neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and microglial cells all undergo pathological modifications in the onset and progression of ALS. A number of genes involved in the etiopathology of the disease have been identified, but a complete understanding of the molecular mechanisms of ALS has yet to be determined. Currently, people affected by ALS have a life expectancy of only two to five years from diagnosis. The search for a treatment has been slow and mostly unsuccessful, leaving patients in desperate need of better therapies. Until recently, most pre-clinical studies utilized the available ALS animal models. In the past years, the development of new protocols for isolation of patient cells and differentiation into relevant cell types has provided new tools to model ALS, potentially more relevant to the disease itself as they directly come from patients. The use of stem cells is showing promise to facilitate ALS research by expanding our understanding of the disease and help to identify potential new therapeutic targets and therapies to help patients. Advancements in high content analysis (HCA) have the power to contribute to move ALS research forward by combining automated image acquisition along with digital image analysis. With modern HCA machines it is possible, in a period of just a few hours, to observe changes in morphology and survival of cells, under the stimulation of hundreds, if not thousands of drugs and compounds. In this article, we will summarize the major molecular and cellular hallmarks of ALS, describe the advancements provided by the in vitro models developed in the last few years, and review the studies that have applied HCA to the ALS field to date. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Association thermodynamics and conformational stability of beta-sheet amyloid beta(17-42) oligomers: effects of E22Q (Dutch) mutation and charge neutralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinov, Nikolay; Dorosh, Lyudmyla; Wishart, David; Kovalenko, Andriy

    2010-01-20

    Amyloid fibrils are associated with many neurodegenerative diseases. It was found that amyloidogenic oligomers, not mature fibrils, are neurotoxic agents related to these diseases. Molecular mechanisms of infectivity, pathways of aggregation, and molecular structure of these oligomers remain elusive. Here, we use all-atom molecular dynamics, molecular mechanics combined with solvation analysis by statistical-mechanical, three-dimensional molecular theory of solvation (also known as 3D-RISM-KH) in a new MM-3D-RISM-KH method to study conformational stability, and association thermodynamics of small wild-type Abeta(17-42) oligomers with different protonation states of Glu(22), as well the E22Q (Dutch) mutants. The association free energy of small beta-sheet oligomers shows near-linear trend with the dimers being thermodynamically more stable relative to the larger constructs. The linear (within statistical uncertainty) dependence of the association free energy on complex size is a consequence of the unilateral stacking of monomers in the beta-sheet oligomers. The charge reduction of the wild-type Abeta(17-42) oligomers upon protonation of the solvent-exposed Glu(22) at acidic conditions results in lowering the association free energy compared to the wild-type oligomers at neutral pH and the E22Q mutants. The neutralization of the peptides because of the E22Q mutation only marginally affects the association free energy, with the reduction of the direct electrostatic interactions mostly compensated by the unfavorable electrostatic solvation effects. For the wild-type oligomers at acidic conditions such compensation is not complete, and the electrostatic interactions, along with the gas-phase nonpolar energetic and the overall entropic effects, contribute to the lowering of the association free energy. The differences in the association thermodynamics between the wild-type Abeta(17-42) oligomers at neutral pH and the Dutch mutants, on the one hand, and the Abeta(17

  1. Microscopic factors that control beta-sheet registry in amyloid fibrils formed by fragment 11-25 of amyloid beta peptide: insights from computer simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negureanu, Lacramioara; Baumketner, Andrij

    2009-06-26

    Short fragments of amyloidogenic proteins are widely used as model systems in studies of amyloid formation. Fragment 11-25 of the amyloid beta protein involved in Alzheimer's disease (Abeta11-25) was recently shown to form amyloid fibrils composed of anti-parallel beta-sheets. Interestingly, fibrils grown under neutral and acidic conditions were seen to possess different registries of their inter-beta-strand hydrogen bonds. In an effort to explain the microscopic origin of this pH dependence, we studied Abeta11-25 fibrils using methods of theoretical modeling. Several structural models were built for fibrils at low and neutral pH levels and these were examined in short molecular dynamics simulations in explicit water. The models that displayed the lowest free energy, as estimated using an implicit solvent model, were selected as representative of the true fibrillar structure. It was shown that the registry of these models agrees well with the experimental results. At neutral pH, the main contribution to the free energy difference between the two registries comes from the electrostatic interactions. The charge group of the carboxy terminus makes a large contribution to these interactions and thus appears to have a critical role in determining the registry.

  2. Dissecting the structural determinants for the difference in mechanical stability of silk and amyloid beta-sheet stacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Senbo; Xiao, Shijun; Gräter, Frauke

    2013-06-14

    Stacking of β-sheets results in a protein super secondary structure with remarkable mechanical properties. β-Stacks are the determinants of a silk fiber's resilience and are also the building blocks of amyloid fibrils. While both silk and amyloid-type crystals are known to feature a high resistance against rupture, their structural and mechanical similarities and particularities are yet to be fully understood. Here, we systematically compare the rupture force and stiffness of amyloid and spider silk poly-alanine β-stacks of comparable sizes using Molecular Dynamics simulations. We identify the direction of force application as the primary determinant of the rupture strength; β-sheets in silk are orientated along the fiber axis, i.e. the pulling direction, and consequently require high forces in the several nanoNewton range for shearing β-strands apart, while β-sheets in amyloid are oriented vertically to the fiber, allowing a zipper-like rupture at sub-nanoNewton forces. A secondary factor rendering amyloid β-stacks softer and weaker than their spider silk counterparts is the sub-optimal side-chain packing between β-sheets due to the sequence variations of amyloid-forming proteins as opposed to the perfectly packed poly-alanine β-sheets of silk. Taken together, amyloid fibers can reach the stiffness of silk fibers in spite of their softer and weaker β-sheet arrangement as they are missing a softening amorphous matrix.

  3. Cast Iron With High Carbon Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curreri, P. A.; Hendrix, J. C.; Stefanescu, D. M.

    1986-01-01

    Method proposed for solidifying high-carbon cast iron without carbon particles segregating at upper surface. Solidification carried out in low gravity, for example on airplane flying free-fall parabolic trajectory. Many different microstructures obtained by proposed technique, and percentage by weight of carbon retained in melt much higher than at present.

  4. The aluminium content of infant formulas remains too high

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent research published in this journal highlighted the issue of the high content of aluminium in infant formulas. The expectation was that the findings would serve as a catalyst for manufacturers to address a significant problem of these, often necessary, components of infant nutrition. It is critically important that parents and other users have confidence in the safety of infant formulas and that they have reliable information to use in choosing a product with a lower content ...

  5. {sup 13}C structuring shifts for the analysis of model {beta}-hairpins and {beta}-sheets in proteins: diagnostic shifts appear only at the cross-strand H-bonded residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, Irene; Scian, Michele; Stewart, James M.; Kier, Brandon L.; Andersen, Niels H., E-mail: andersen@chem.washington.edu [University of Washington, Department of Chemistry (United States)

    2013-08-15

    The present studies have shown that {sup 13}C=O, {sup 13}C{sup {alpha}} and {sup 13}C{sup {beta}} of H-bonded strand residues in {beta}-hairpins provide additional probes for quantitating the extent of folding in {beta}-hairpins and other {beta}-sheet models. Large differences in the structuring shifts (CSDs) of these {sup 13}C sites in H-bonded versus non-H-bonded sites are observed: the differences between H-bonded and non-H-bonded sites are greater than 1.2 ppm for all three {sup 13}C probes. This prompts us to suggest that efforts to determine the extent of hairpin folding from {sup 13}C shifts should be based exclusively on the observation at the cross-strand H-bonded sites. Furthermore, the statistics suggest the {sup 13}C Prime and {sup 13}C{sup {beta}}CSDs will provide the best differentiation with 100 %-folded CSD values approaching -2.6 and +3 ppm, respectively, for the H-bonded sites. These conclusions can be extended to edge-strands of protein {beta}-sheets. Our survey of reported {sup 13}C shifts in {beta}-proteins indicates that some of the currently employed random coil values need to be adjusted, particularly for ionization-induced effects.

  6. Shedding light on filovirus infection with high-content imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegoraro, Gianluca; Bavari, Sina; Panchal, Rekha G

    2012-08-01

    Microscopy has been instrumental in the discovery and characterization of microorganisms. Major advances in high-throughput fluorescence microscopy and automated, high-content image analysis tools are paving the way to the systematic and quantitative study of the molecular properties of cellular systems, both at the population and at the single-cell level. High-Content Imaging (HCI) has been used to characterize host-virus interactions in genome-wide reverse genetic screens and to identify novel cellular factors implicated in the binding, entry, replication and egress of several pathogenic viruses. Here we present an overview of the most significant applications of HCI in the context of the cell biology of filovirus infection. HCI assays have been recently implemented to quantitatively study filoviruses in cell culture, employing either infectious viruses in a BSL-4 environment or surrogate genetic systems in a BSL-2 environment. These assays are becoming instrumental for small molecule and siRNA screens aimed at the discovery of both cellular therapeutic targets and of compounds with anti-viral properties. We discuss the current practical constraints limiting the implementation of high-throughput biology in a BSL-4 environment, and propose possible solutions to safely perform high-content, high-throughput filovirus infection assays. Finally, we discuss possible novel applications of HCI in the context of filovirus research with particular emphasis on the identification of possible cellular biomarkers of virus infection.

  7. Shedding Light on Filovirus Infection with High-Content Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekha G. Panchal

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Microscopy has been instrumental in the discovery and characterization of microorganisms. Major advances in high-throughput fluorescence microscopy and automated, high-content image analysis tools are paving the way to the systematic and quantitative study of the molecular properties of cellular systems, both at the population and at the single-cell level. High-Content Imaging (HCI has been used to characterize host-virus interactions in genome-wide reverse genetic screens and to identify novel cellular factors implicated in the binding, entry, replication and egress of several pathogenic viruses. Here we present an overview of the most significant applications of HCI in the context of the cell biology of filovirus infection. HCI assays have been recently implemented to quantitatively study filoviruses in cell culture, employing either infectious viruses in a BSL-4 environment or surrogate genetic systems in a BSL-2 environment. These assays are becoming instrumental for small molecule and siRNA screens aimed at the discovery of both cellular therapeutic targets and of compounds with anti-viral properties. We discuss the current practical constraints limiting the implementation of high-throughput biology in a BSL-4 environment, and propose possible solutions to safely perform high-content, high-throughput filovirus infection assays. Finally, we discuss possible novel applications of HCI in the context of filovirus research with particular emphasis on the identification of possible cellular biomarkers of virus infection.

  8. EFFECT OF CARBON CONTENT ON MICROSTRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF HIGH STRENGTH AND HIGH ELONGATION STEELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.Chen; X.Chen; 等

    2003-01-01

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of new kind of hot-rolled high strength and high elongation steels with retained austenite were studied by discussing the in-fluence of different carbon content.The research results indicate that carbon content has a significant effect on retaining austenite and consequently resulting in high elon-gation.Besides,new findings about relationship between carbon content and retained austenite as well as properties were discussed in the paper.

  9. Evaluation of dissolution rate on high plutonium content MOX fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugaya, Shinichi; Kurita, Ichiro; Endo, Hideo; Higuchi, Hidetoshi; Kihara, Yoshiyuki [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai Works, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Ogasawara, Masahiro; Shinada, Masanori; Kowata, Masato [Inspection Development Company Ltd., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2002-06-01

    The dissolution rate of high Pu content MOX fuel into nitric acid was measured as a function of Pu content. MOX fuel samples, pressed and sintered, were dissolved in 7 M of boiling nitric acid, and the dissolution rate was measured by analyzing the Pu and U concentration in the solution. The dissolution rate of MOX fuel tended to decrease with the increase in the Pu content and was reduced after 6 hours of dissolution. These results agreed well with previous ones, but the dissolution rate was 3-6 times faster than those. It is estimated that the cause of this difference was due to underestimation of the surface area of MOX fuel powder and the difference of the MOX O/M ratio. (author)

  10. Developmental toxicity assay using high content screening of zebrafish embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz-McPeak, Susan; Guo, Xiaoqing; Cuevas, Elvis; Dumas, Melanie; Newport, Glenn D; Ali, Syed F; Paule, Merle G; Kanungo, Jyotshna

    2015-03-01

    Typically, time-consuming standard toxicological assays using the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo model evaluate mortality and teratogenicity after exposure during the first 2 days post-fertilization. Here we describe an automated image-based high content screening (HCS) assay to identify the teratogenic/embryotoxic potential of compounds in zebrafish embryos in vivo. Automated image acquisition was performed using a high content microscope system. Further automated analysis of embryo length, as a statistically quantifiable endpoint of toxicity, was performed on images post-acquisition. The biological effects of ethanol, nicotine, ketamine, caffeine, dimethyl sulfoxide and temperature on zebrafish embryos were assessed. This automated developmental toxicity assay, based on a growth-retardation endpoint should be suitable for evaluating the effects of potential teratogens and developmental toxicants in a high throughput manner. This approach can significantly expedite the screening of potential teratogens and developmental toxicants, thereby improving the current risk assessment process by decreasing analysis time and required resources.

  11. Molecular Dynamics of Materials Possessing High Energy Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-26

    I -RI90 634 MOLECULAR DYNAMICS OF MATERIALS POSSESSING HIGH ENERGY 1/1 r CONTENTCU) COLUMBIA UNIV MENd YORK N J TURRO 26 JAN GO I RFOSR-TR-88-0168...Bolling Air Force Base, D.C. 2 61102F_ 2303 I B2 11 T,TL.E (Inciuoe Security Classification) Molecular Dynamics of Materials Possessing High Energy...York 10027 (212) 280-2175 TITLE: MOLECULAR DYNAMICS OF MATERIALS POSSESSING HIGH ENERGY CONTENT .. 0 0 88 2 ... "" ’% ,i u , . .. .. ....... ŝ" ;! ,i

  12. Information management for high content live cell imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Michael RH

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High content live cell imaging experiments are able to track the cellular localisation of labelled proteins in multiple live cells over a time course. Experiments using high content live cell imaging will generate multiple large datasets that are often stored in an ad-hoc manner. This hinders identification of previously gathered data that may be relevant to current analyses. Whilst solutions exist for managing image data, they are primarily concerned with storage and retrieval of the images themselves and not the data derived from the images. There is therefore a requirement for an information management solution that facilitates the indexing of experimental metadata and results of high content live cell imaging experiments. Results We have designed and implemented a data model and information management solution for the data gathered through high content live cell imaging experiments. Many of the experiments to be stored measure the translocation of fluorescently labelled proteins from cytoplasm to nucleus in individual cells. The functionality of this database has been enhanced by the addition of an algorithm that automatically annotates results of these experiments with the timings of translocations and periods of any oscillatory translocations as they are uploaded to the repository. Testing has shown the algorithm to perform well with a variety of previously unseen data. Conclusion Our repository is a fully functional example of how high throughput imaging data may be effectively indexed and managed to address the requirements of end users. By implementing the automated analysis of experimental results, we have provided a clear impetus for individuals to ensure that their data forms part of that which is stored in the repository. Although focused on imaging, the solution provided is sufficiently generic to be applied to other functional proteomics and genomics experiments. The software is available from: fhttp://code.google.com/p/livecellim/

  13. Aggressive content of high school students' TV viewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jina S; Somers, Cheryl L

    2003-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine high school students' exposure to television programming with aggressive content and to explore whether consumption of aggressive TV varied by sex and ethnicity. Participants were 472 boys and girls from two high schools, one urban and one suburban. Definitions of both direct and indirect aggression were used to rate TV programs, and the participants' exposure to both was assessed. Analysis yielded a statistically significant effect for sex but not ethnicity as girls watched more TV programs containing indirect aggression. Also, exposure to aggressive TV content peaked in Grade 10 and fell sharply thereafter. The importance of educating adolescents about the images they view is highlighted. Implications for research are discussed.

  14. Method for creating high carbon content products from biomass oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Reginald; Seames, Wayne

    2012-12-18

    In a method for producing high carbon content products from biomass, a biomass oil is added to a cracking reactor vessel. The biomass oil is heated to a temperature ranging from about 100.degree. C. to about 800.degree. C. at a pressure ranging from about vacuum conditions to about 20,700 kPa for a time sufficient to crack the biomass oil. Tar is separated from the cracked biomass oil. The tar is heated to a temperature ranging from about 200.degree. C. to about 1500.degree. C. at a pressure ranging from about vacuum conditions to about 20,700 kPa for a time sufficient to reduce the tar to a high carbon content product containing at least about 50% carbon by weight.

  15. The aluminium content of infant formulas remains too high.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuchu, Nancy; Patel, Bhavini; Sebastian, Blaise; Exley, Christopher

    2013-10-08

    Recent research published in this journal highlighted the issue of the high content of aluminium in infant formulas. The expectation was that the findings would serve as a catalyst for manufacturers to address a significant problem of these, often necessary, components of infant nutrition. It is critically important that parents and other users have confidence in the safety of infant formulas and that they have reliable information to use in choosing a product with a lower content of aluminium. Herein, we have significantly extended the scope of the previous research and the aluminium content of 30 of the most widely available and often used infant formulas has been measured. Both ready-to-drink milks and milk powders were subjected to microwave digestion in the presence of 15.8 M HNO3 and 30% w/v H2O2 and the aluminium content of the digests was measured by TH GFAAS. Both ready-to-drink milks and milk powders were contaminated with aluminium. The concentration of aluminium across all milk products ranged from ca 100 to 430 μg/L. The concentration of aluminium in two soya-based milk products was 656 and 756 μg/L. The intake of aluminium from non-soya-based infant formulas varied from ca 100 to 300 μg per day. For soya-based milks it could be as high as 700 μg per day. All 30 infant formulas were contaminated with aluminium. There was no clear evidence that subsequent to the problem of aluminium being highlighted in a previous publication in this journal that contamination had been addressed and reduced. It is the opinion of the authors that regulatory and other non-voluntary methods are now required to reduce the aluminium content of infant formulas and thereby protect infants from chronic exposure to dietary aluminium.

  16. Engineering properties for high kitchen waste content municipal solid waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Gao; Yunmin Chen; Liangtong Zhan; Xuecheng Bian

    2015-01-01

    Engineering properties of municipal solid waste (MSW) depend largely on the waste’s initial composition and degree of degradation. MSWs in developing countries usually have a high kitchen waste content (called HKWC MSW). After comparing and analyzing the laboratory and field test results of physical composition, hydraulic properties, gas generation and gas permeability, and mechanical properties for HKWC MSW and low kitchen waste content MSW (called LKWC MSW), the following findings were obtained: (1) HKWC MSW has a higher initial water content (IWC) than LKWC MSW, but the field ca-pacities of decomposed HKWC and LKWC MSWs are similar; (2) the hydraulic conductivity and gas permeability for HKWC MSW are both an order of magnitude smaller than those for LKWC MSW; (3) compared with LKWC MSW, HKWC MSW has a higher landfill gas (LFG) generation rate but a shorter duration and a lower potential capacity; (4) the primary compression feature for decomposed HKWC MSW is similar to that of decomposed LKWC MSW, but the compression induced by degradation of HKWC MSW is greater than that of LKWC MSW; and (5) the shear strength of HKWC MSW changes significantly with time and strain. Based on the differences of engineering properties between these two kinds of MSWs, the geo-environmental issues in HKWC MSW landfills were analyzed, including high leachate production, high leachate mounds, low LFG collection efficiency, large settlement and slope stability problem, and corresponding advice for the management and design of HKWC MSW landfills was recommended.

  17. Liquid alternative diesel fuels with high hydrogen content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hancsok, Jenoe; Varga, Zoltan; Eller, Zoltan; Poelczmann, Gyoergy [Pannonia Univ., Veszprem (Hungary). MOL Dept. of Hydrocarbon Processing; Kasza, Tamas [MOL Hungarian Oil and Gas Plc., Szazhalombatta (Hungary)

    2013-06-01

    Mobility is a keystone of the sustainable development. In the operation of the vehicles as the tools of mobility internal combustion engines, so thus Diesel engines will play a remarkable role in the next decades. Beside fossil fuels - used for power these engines - liquid alternative fuels have higher and higher importance, because of their known advantages. During the presentation the categorization possibilities based on the chronology of their development and application will be presented. The importance of fuels with high hydrogen content will be reviewed. Research and development activity in the field of such kind of fuels will be presented. During this developed catalytic systems and main performance properties of the product will be presented which were obtained in case of biogasoils produced by special hydrocracking of natural triglycerides and in case of necessity followed by isomerization; furthermore in case of synthetic biogasoils obtained by the isomerization hydrocracking of Fischer-Tropsch paraffins produced from biomass based synthesis gas. Excellent combustion properties (cetane number > 65-75), good cold flow properties and reduced harmful material emission due to the high hydrogen content (C{sub n}H{sub 2n+2}) are highlighted. Finally production possibilities of linear and branched paraffins based on lignocelluloses are briefly reviewed. Summarizing it was concluded that liquid hydrocarbons with high isoparaffin content are the most suitable fuels regarding availability, economical and environmental aspects, namely the sustainable development. (orig.)

  18. Engineering properties for high kitchen waste content municipal solid waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Gao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Engineering properties of municipal solid waste (MSW depend largely on the waste's initial composition and degree of degradation. MSWs in developing countries usually have a high kitchen waste content (called HKWC MSW. After comparing and analyzing the laboratory and field test results of physical composition, hydraulic properties, gas generation and gas permeability, and mechanical properties for HKWC MSW and low kitchen waste content MSW (called LKWC MSW, the following findings were obtained: (1 HKWC MSW has a higher initial water content (IWC than LKWC MSW, but the field capacities of decomposed HKWC and LKWC MSWs are similar; (2 the hydraulic conductivity and gas permeability for HKWC MSW are both an order of magnitude smaller than those for LKWC MSW; (3 compared with LKWC MSW, HKWC MSW has a higher landfill gas (LFG generation rate but a shorter duration and a lower potential capacity; (4 the primary compression feature for decomposed HKWC MSW is similar to that of decomposed LKWC MSW, but the compression induced by degradation of HKWC MSW is greater than that of LKWC MSW; and (5 the shear strength of HKWC MSW changes significantly with time and strain. Based on the differences of engineering properties between these two kinds of MSWs, the geo-environmental issues in HKWC MSW landfills were analyzed, including high leachate production, high leachate mounds, low LFG collection efficiency, large settlement and slope stability problem, and corresponding advice for the management and design of HKWC MSW landfills was recommended.

  19. Highly ordered structures of peptides by using molecular scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriuchi, Toshiyuki; Hirao, Toshikazu

    2004-06-20

    Protein secondary structures such as alpha-helices, beta-sheets, and beta-turns are important in inducing the three-dimensional structure and biological activity of proteins. Designing secondary structure mimics composed of short peptides has attracted much attention not only to gain fundamental insight into the factors affecting protein folding but also to develop pharmacologically useful compounds, artificial receptors, asymmetric catalysts, and new materials. In this tutorial review, we focus on molecular scaffolds employed to induce beta-sheet-like structure in attached peptide chains, thereby creating highly ordered molecular structures, and discuss the versatility of these molecular scaffolds to regulate the attached peptide strands in the appropriate dimensions.

  20. Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor IJRED

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available International Journal of Renewable Energy Development www.ijred.com Volume 1             Number 3            October 2012                ISSN 2252- 4940   CONTENTS OF ARTICLES page Design and Economic Analysis of a Photovoltaic System: A Case Study 65-73 C.O.C. Oko , E.O. Diemuodeke, N.F. Omunakwe, and E. Nnamdi     Development of Formaldehyde Adsorption using Modified Activated Carbon – A Review 75-80 W.D.P Rengga , M. Sudibandriyo and M. Nasikin     Process Optimization for Ethyl Ester Production in Fixed Bed Reactor Using Calcium Oxide Impregnated Palm Shell Activated Carbon (CaO/PSAC 81-86 A. Buasri , B. Ksapabutr, M. Panapoy and N. Chaiyut     Wind Resource Assessment in Abadan Airport in Iran 87-97 Mojtaba Nedaei       The Energy Processing by Power Electronics and its Impact on Power Quality 99-105 J. E. Rocha and B. W. D. C. Sanchez       First Aspect of Conventional Power System Assessment for High Wind Power Plants Penetration 107-113 A. Merzic , M. Music, and M. Rascic   Experimental Study on the Production of Karanja Oil Methyl Ester and Its Effect on Diesel Engine 115-122 N. Shrivastava,  , S.N. Varma and M. Pandey  

  1. Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    Aim, content and methods are fundamental categories of both theoretical and practical general didactics. A quick glance in recent pedagogical literature on higher education, however, reveals a strong preoccupation with methods, i.e. how teaching should be organized socially (Biggs & Tang, 2007......; Race, 2001; Ramsden, 2003). This trend appears closely related to the ‘from-teaching-to-learning’ movement, which has had a strong influence on pedagogy since the early nineties (Keiding, 2007; Terhart, 2003). Another interpretation of the current interest in methodology can be derived from...... for selection of content (Klafki, 1985, 2000; Myhre, 1961; Nielsen, 2006). These attempts all share one feature, which is that criteria for selection of content appear very general and often, more or less explicitly, deal with teaching at the first Bologna-cycle; i.e. schooling at the primary and lower...

  2. Fruit characterization of high oil content avocado varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez-López Vicente Manuel

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available To expand the data bank on avocado (Persea americana Mill. varieties all over the world, and to select good varieties for commercial or improving purposes, a partial fruit characterization of 13 high oil content (11.23-18.80% was performed. The chosen varieties are growing in a Venezuelan germplasm bank: Fuerte, Peruano, Lula, Ortega, Red Collinson, Alcemio, Araira 1, Pope, Ettinger, Gripiña 5, Barker, Duke, and Ryan. They were characterized for pulp oil and moisture; weight (whole fruit, seed, pulp and peel; length, width and fruit shape; peel characteristics (roughness, color and hand peeling; and ripeness time. The variety Ryan showed the highest oil content (18.80% and calorific value (191 Kcal/100 g wet flesh. Avocado varieties grown in Venezuela have generally less oil content and are generally lighter than those from other countries. Most of the varieties had low pulp proportion, and were pyriform, with rough green peel and difficult to hand peel. Red Collinson had an uncommon reddish peel. The ripening time was between 4 and 10 days after harvest.

  3. EFFECT OF CARBON CONTENT ON MICROSTRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF HIGH STRENGTH AND HIGH ELONGATION STEELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y. Chen; X. Chen; P.H. Li; S.K. Pu; Z.X. Yuan; B.F. Xu; D.X. Lou; A.M. Guo; S.B.Zhou

    2003-01-01

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of new kind of hot-rolled high strengthand high elongation steels with retained austenite were studied by discussing the in-fluence of different carbon content. The research results indicate that carbon contenthas a significant effect on retaining austenite and consequently resulting in high elon-gation. Besides, new findings about relationship between carbon content and retainedaustenite as well as properties were discussed in the paper.

  4. Image analysis benchmarking methods for high-content screen design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, C J; Straight, A F

    2010-05-01

    The recent development of complex chemical and small interfering RNA (siRNA) collections has enabled large-scale cell-based phenotypic screening. High-content and high-throughput imaging are widely used methods to record phenotypic data after chemical and small interfering RNA treatment, and numerous image processing and analysis methods have been used to quantify these phenotypes. Currently, there are no standardized methods for evaluating the effectiveness of new and existing image processing and analysis tools for an arbitrary screening problem. We generated a series of benchmarking images that represent commonly encountered variation in high-throughput screening data and used these image standards to evaluate the robustness of five different image analysis methods to changes in signal-to-noise ratio, focal plane, cell density and phenotype strength. The analysis methods that were most reliable, in the presence of experimental variation, required few cells to accurately distinguish phenotypic changes between control and experimental data sets. We conclude that by applying these simple benchmarking principles an a priori estimate of the image acquisition requirements for phenotypic analysis can be made before initiating an image-based screen. Application of this benchmarking methodology provides a mechanism to significantly reduce data acquisition and analysis burdens and to improve data quality and information content.

  5. High resolution DNA content measurements of mammalian sperm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinkel, D.; Lake, S.; Gledhill, B.L.; Van Dilla, M.A.; Stephenson, D.; Watchmaker, G.

    1982-01-01

    The high condensation and flat shape of the mammalian sperm nucleus present unique difficulties to flow cytometric measurement of DNA content. Chromatin compactness makes quantitative fluorescent staining for DNA difficult and causes a high index of refraction. The refractive index makes optical measurements sensitive to sperm head orientation. We demonstrate that the optical problems can be overcome using the commercial ICP22 epiillumination flow cytometer (Ortho Instruments, Westwood, MA) or a specially built cell orientating flow cytometer (OFCM). The design and operation of the OFCM are described. Measurements of the angular dependence of fluorescence from acriflavine stained rabbit sperm show that it is capable of orienting flat sperm with a tolerance of +-7/sup 0/. Differences in the angular dependence for the similarly shaped bull and rabbit sperm allow discrimination of these cells. We show that DNA staining with 4-6 diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) or an ethidium bromide mithramycin combination allows resolution of the X and Y populations in mouse sperm. They have also been successful with sperm from the bull, ram, rabbit, and boar. Reliable results with human sperm are not obtained. The accuracy of the staining and measurement techniques are verified by the correct determination of the relative content of these two populations in sperm from normal mice and those with the Cattanach (7 to X) translocation. Among the potential uses of these techniques are measurement of DNA content errors induced in sperm due to mutagen exposure, and assessment of the fractions of X and Y sperm in semen that may have one population artifically enriched.

  6. Strong and moldable cellulose magnets with high ferrite nanoparticle content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galland, Sylvain; Andersson, Richard L; Ström, Valter; Olsson, Richard T; Berglund, Lars A

    2014-11-26

    A major limitation in the development of highly functional hybrid nanocomposites is brittleness and low tensile strength at high inorganic nanoparticle content. Herein, cellulose nanofibers were extracted from wood and individually decorated with cobalt-ferrite nanoparticles and then for the first time molded at low temperature (ferrite and cellulose material. A nanocomposite with 70 wt % ferrite, 20 wt % cellulose nanofibers, and 10 wt % epoxy showed a modulus of 12.6 GPa, a tensile strength of 97 MPa, and a strain at failure of ca. 4%. Magnetic characterization was performed in a vibrating sample magnetometer, which showed that the coercivity was unaffected and that the saturation magnetization was in proportion with the ferrite content. The used ferrite, CoFe2O4, is a magnetically hard material, demonstrated by that the composite material behaved as a traditional permanent magnet. The presented processing route is easily adaptable to prepare millimeter-thick and moldable magnetic objects. This suggests that the processing method has the potential to be scaled-up for industrial use for the preparation of a new subcategory of magnetic, low-cost, and moldable objects based on cellulose nanofibers.

  7. The Gray Institute 'open' high-content, fluorescence lifetime microscopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, P R; Tullis, I D C; Pierce, G P; Newman, R G; Prentice, J; Rowley, M I; Matthews, D R; Ameer-Beg, S M; Vojnovic, B

    2013-08-01

    We describe a microscopy design methodology and details of microscopes built to this 'open' design approach. These demonstrate the first implementation of time-domain fluorescence microscopy in a flexible automated platform with the ability to ease the transition of this and other advanced microscopy techniques from development to use in routine biology applications. This approach allows easy expansion and modification of the platform capabilities, as it moves away from the use of a commercial, monolithic, microscope body to small, commercial off-the-shelf and custom made modular components. Drawings and diagrams of our microscopes have been made available under an open license for noncommercial use at http://users.ox.ac.uk/~atdgroup. Several automated high-content fluorescence microscope implementations have been constructed with this design framework and optimized for specific applications with multiwell plates and tissue microarrays. In particular, three platforms incorporate time-domain FLIM via time-correlated single photon counting in an automated fashion. We also present data from experiments performed on these platforms highlighting their automated wide-field and laser scanning capabilities designed for high-content microscopy. Devices using these designs also form radiation-beam 'end-stations' at Oxford and Surrey Universities, showing the versatility and extendibility of this approach. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Microscopy published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Royal Microscopical Society.

  8. Runaway electron dynamics in tokamak plasmas with high impurity content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Solís, J. R.; Loarte, A.; Lehnen, M.

    2015-09-01

    The dynamics of high energy runaway electrons is analyzed for plasmas with high impurity content. It is shown that modified collision terms are required in order to account for the collisions of the relativistic runaway electrons with partially stripped impurity ions, including the effect of the collisions with free and bound electrons, as well as the scattering by the full nuclear and the electron-shielded ion charge. The effect of the impurities on the avalanche runaway growth rate is discussed. The results are applied, for illustration, to the interpretation of the runaway electron behavior during disruptions, where large amounts of impurities are expected, particularly during disruption mitigation by massive gas injection. The consequences for the electron synchrotron radiation losses and the resulting runaway electron dynamics are also analyzed.

  9. High-content screening of functional genomic libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rines, Daniel R; Tu, Buu; Miraglia, Loren; Welch, Genevieve L; Zhang, Jia; Hull, Mitchell V; Orth, Anthony P; Chanda, Sumit K

    2006-01-01

    Recent advances in functional genomics have enabled genome-wide genetic studies in mammalian cells. These include the establishment of high-throughput transfection and viral propagation methodologies, the production of large-scale cDNA and siRNA libraries, and the development of sensitive assay detection processes and instrumentation. The latter has been significantly facilitated by the implementation of automated microscopy and quantitative image analysis, collectively referred to as high-content screening (HCS), toward cell-based functional genomics application. This technology can be applied to whole genome analysis of discrete molecular and phenotypic events at the level of individual cells and promises to significantly expand the scope of functional genomic analyses in mammalian cells. This chapter provides a comprehensive guide for curating and preparing function genomics libraries and performing HCS at the level of the genome.

  10. The dust content of QSO hosts at high redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Calura, F; Vignali, C; Pozzi, F; Pipino, A; Matteucci, F

    2013-01-01

    Infrared observations of high-z quasar (QSO) hosts indicate the presence of large masses of dust in the early universe. When combined with other observables, such as neutral gas masses and star formation rates, the dust content of z~6 QSO hosts may help constraining their star formation history. We have collected a database of 58 sources from the literature discovered by various surveys and observed in the FIR. We have interpreted the available data by means of chemical evolution models for forming proto-spheroids, investigating the role of the major parameters regulating star formation and dust production. For a few systems, given the derived small dynamical masses, the observed dust content can be explained only assuming a top-heavy initial mass function, an enhanced star formation efficiency and an increased rate of dust accretion. However, the possibility that, for some systems, the dynamical mass has been underestimated cannot be excluded. If this were the case, the dust mass can be accounted for by stan...

  11. Semisolid Slurry Preparation of Die Steel with High Chromium Content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Wei-min; ZHAO Ai-min; ZHANG Li-juan; ZHONG Xue-you

    2004-01-01

    The semisolid slurry preparation of die steels Cr12 and Cr12MoV with high chromium content was studied. The results show that the semisolid slurry of both steels with solid of 40 %-60 % can be made by electromagnetic stirring method and is easy to be discharged from the bottom little hole of the stirring chamber. The sizes of the spherical primary austenite in the slurry of die steels Cr12 and Cr12MoV are 50-100 μm and 80-150 μm, respectively. The homogeneous temperature field and solute field for both steel melts are obtained. The strong temperature fluctuation in the melt with many fine primary austenite grains occurs and the remelting of the secondary arm roots at the same time is accelerated because of the electromagnetic stirring. These are the most important reasons for deposition of spherical primary austenite grains.

  12. High-Content Screening for Quantitative Cell Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattiazzi Usaj, Mojca; Styles, Erin B; Verster, Adrian J; Friesen, Helena; Boone, Charles; Andrews, Brenda J

    2016-08-01

    High-content screening (HCS), which combines automated fluorescence microscopy with quantitative image analysis, allows the acquisition of unbiased multiparametric data at the single cell level. This approach has been used to address diverse biological questions and identify a plethora of quantitative phenotypes of varying complexity in numerous different model systems. Here, we describe some recent applications of HCS, ranging from the identification of genes required for specific biological processes to the characterization of genetic interactions. We review the steps involved in the design of useful biological assays and automated image analysis, and describe major challenges associated with each. Additionally, we highlight emerging technologies and future challenges, and discuss how the field of HCS might be enhanced in the future.

  13. Preparation of Garlic Powder with High Allicin Content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yu; XU Shi-ying

    2007-01-01

    Garlic powder with high allicin content was prepared using microwave-vacuum and vacuum drying as well as microencapsulation to protect alliinase activity throughout the stomach and improve the ratio of alliin transforming into allicin. The results showed that the optimal drying condition was 376.1 W for 3 min, 282.1 W for 3 min, 188 W for 9 min, and 94 W for 3 min. The thiosulfinates retention after drying was 90.2%. Following drying, the garlic powder was microencapsulated by modified fluidized bed technique. Scanning electron microscope revealed good integrity and core materials that were embedded in the microcapsules. Studies on the release kinetics of microencapsulated garlic granulates in vitro using simulated intestinal fluid indicated that release of garlic powder could be controlled in the intestine by passing stomach conditions.

  14. Automation in high-content flow cytometry screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, U; Wand, M P

    2009-09-01

    High-content flow cytometric screening (FC-HCS) is a 21st Century technology that combines robotic fluid handling, flow cytometric instrumentation, and bioinformatics software, so that relatively large numbers of flow cytometric samples can be processed and analysed in a short period of time. We revisit a recent application of FC-HCS to the problem of cellular signature definition for acute graft-versus-host-disease. Our focus is on automation of the data processing steps using recent advances in statistical methodology. We demonstrate that effective results, on par with those obtained via manual processing, can be achieved using our automatic techniques. Such automation of FC-HCS has the potential to drastically improve diagnosis and biomarker identification.

  15. High-content analysis for drug delivery and nanoparticle applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brayden, David J; Cryan, Sally-Ann; Dawson, Kenneth A; O'Brien, Peter J; Simpson, Jeremy C

    2015-08-01

    High-content analysis (HCA) provides quantitative multiparametric cellular fluorescence data. From its origins in discovery toxicology, it is now addressing fundamental questions in drug delivery. Nanoparticles (NPs), polymers, and intestinal permeation enhancers are being harnessed in drug delivery systems to modulate plasma membrane properties and the intracellular environment. Identifying comparative mechanistic cytotoxicity on sublethal events is crucial to expedite the development of such systems. NP uptake and intracellular routing pathways are also being dissected using chemical and genetic perturbations, with the potential to assess the intracellular fate of targeted and untargeted particles in vitro. As we discuss here, HCA is set to make a major impact in preclinical delivery research by elucidating the intracellular pathways of NPs and the in vitro mechanistic-based toxicology of formulation constituents.

  16. Oxy-combustion of high water content fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Fei

    As the issues of global warming and the energy crisis arouse extensive concern, more and more research is focused on maximizing energy efficiency and capturing CO2 in power generation. To achieve this, in this research, we propose an unconventional concept of combustion - direct combustion of high water content fuels. Due to the high water content in the fuels, they may not burn under air-fired conditions. Therefore, oxy-combustion is applied. Three applications of this concept in power generation are proposed - direct steam generation for the turbine cycle, staged oxy-combustion with zero flue gas recycle, and oxy-combustion in a low speed diesel-type engine. The proposed processes could provide alternative approaches to directly utilize fuels which intrinsically have high water content. A large amount of energy to remove the water, when the fuels are utilized in a conventional approach, is saved. The properties and difficulty in dewatering high water content fuels (e.g. bioethanol, microalgae and fine coal) are summarized. These fuels include both renewable and fossil fuels. In addition, the technique can also allow for low-cost carbon capture due to oxy-combustion. When renewable fuel is utilized, the whole process can be carbon negative. To validate and evaluate this concept, the research focused on the investigation of the flame stability and characteristics for high water content fuels. My study has demonstrated the feasibility of burning fuels that have been heavily diluted with water in a swirl-stabilized burner. Ethanol and 1-propanol were first tested as the fuels and the flame stability maps were obtained. Flame stability, as characterized by the blow-off limit -- the lowest O2 concentration when a flame could exist under a given oxidizer flow rate, was determined as a function of total oxidizer flow rate, fuel concentration and nozzle type. Furthermore, both the gas temperature contour and the overall ethanol concentration in the droplets along the

  17. CONTENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The Development and Evolution of the Idea of the Mandate of Heaven in the Zhou Dynasty The changes in the idea of Mandate of Heaven during the Shang and Zhou dynasties are of great significance in the course of the development of traditional Chinese culture. The quickening and awakening of the humanistic spirit was not the entire content of the Zhou idea of Mandate of Heaven. In the process of annihilating the Shang dynasty and setting up their state, the Zhou propagated the idea of the Mandate of Heaven out of practical needs. Their idea of the Mandate of Heaven was not very different from that of the Shang. From the Western Zhou on, the Zhou idea of Mandate of Heaven by no means developed in a linear way along a rational track. The intermingling of rationality and irrationality and of awakening and non-awakening remained the overall state of the Zhou intellectual superstructure after their "spiritual awakening".

  18. An oral multispecies biofilm model for high content screening applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kommerein, Nadine; Stumpp, Sascha N.; Müsken, Mathias; Ehlert, Nina; Winkel, Andreas; Häussler, Susanne; Behrens, Peter; Buettner, Falk F. R.; Stiesch, Meike

    2017-01-01

    Peri-implantitis caused by multispecies biofilms is a major complication in dental implant treatment. The bacterial infection surrounding dental implants can lead to bone loss and, in turn, to implant failure. A promising strategy to prevent these common complications is the development of implant surfaces that inhibit biofilm development. A reproducible and easy-to-use biofilm model as a test system for large scale screening of new implant surfaces with putative antibacterial potency is therefore of major importance. In the present study, we developed a highly reproducible in vitro four-species biofilm model consisting of the highly relevant oral bacterial species Streptococcus oralis, Actinomyces naeslundii, Veillonella dispar and Porphyromonas gingivalis. The application of live/dead staining, quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and urea-NaCl fluorescence in situ hybridization (urea-NaCl-FISH) revealed that the four-species biofilm community is robust in terms of biovolume, live/dead distribution and individual species distribution over time. The biofilm community is dominated by S. oralis, followed by V. dispar, A. naeslundii and P. gingivalis. The percentage distribution in this model closely reflects the situation in early native plaques and is therefore well suited as an in vitro model test system. Furthermore, despite its nearly native composition, the multispecies model does not depend on nutrient additives, such as native human saliva or serum, and is an inexpensive, easy to handle and highly reproducible alternative to the available model systems. The 96-well plate format enables high content screening for optimized implant surfaces impeding biofilm formation or the testing of multiple antimicrobial treatment strategies to fight multispecies biofilm infections, both exemplary proven in the manuscript. PMID:28296966

  19. Development of automatic image analysis methods for high-throughput and high-content screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di, Zi

    2013-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the development of image analysis methods for ultra-high content analysis of high-throughput screens where cellular phenotype responses to various genetic or chemical perturbations that are under investigation. Our primary goal is to deliver efficient and robust image analysis

  20. Development of automatic image analysis methods for high-throughput and high-content screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di, Zi

    2013-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the development of image analysis methods for ultra-high content analysis of high-throughput screens where cellular phenotype responses to various genetic or chemical perturbations that are under investigation. Our primary goal is to deliver efficient and robust image analysis

  1. How can a beta-sheet peptide be both a potent antimicrobial and harmfully toxic? Molecular dynamics simulations of protegrin-1 in micelles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langham, Allison A; Khandelia, Himanshu; Kaznessis, Yiannis N

    2006-01-01

    In this work, the naturally occurring beta-hairpin antimicrobial peptide protegrin-1 (PG-1) is studied by molecular dynamics simulation in all-atom sodium dodecylsulfate and dodecylphosphocholine micelles. These simulations provide a high-resolution picture of the interactions between the peptide...

  2. An objective method for High Dynamic Range source content selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Narwaria, Manish; Mantel, Claire; Da Silva, Matthieu Perreira

    2014-01-01

    component of such validation studies is the selection of a challenging and balanced set of source (reference) HDR content. In order to facilitate this, we present an objective method based on the premise that a more challenging HDR scene encapsulates higher contrast, and as a result will show up more...

  3. Evidence for Intramolecular Antiparallel Beta-Sheet Structure in Alpha-Synuclein Fibrils from a Combination of Two-Dimensional Infrared Spectroscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeters, Steven J.; Iyer, Aditya; Pletikapić, Galja; Kogan, Vladimir; Subramaniam, Vinod; Woutersen, Sander

    2017-01-01

    The aggregation of the intrinsically disordered protein alpha-synuclein (αS) into amyloid fibrils is thought to play a central role in the pathology of Parkinson’s disease. Using a combination of techniques (AFM, UV-CD, XRD, and amide-I 1D- and 2D-IR spectroscopy) we show that the structure of αS fibrils varies as a function of ionic strength: fibrils aggregated in low ionic-strength buffers ([NaCl] ≤ 25 mM) have a significantly different structure than fibrils grown in higher ionic-strength buffers. The observations for fibrils aggregated in low-salt buffers are consistent with an extended conformation of αS molecules, forming hydrogen-bonded intermolecular β-sheets that are loosely packed in a parallel fashion. For fibrils aggregated in high-salt buffers (including those prepared in buffers with a physiological salt concentration) the measurements are consistent with αS molecules in a more tightly-packed, antiparallel intramolecular conformation, and suggest a structure characterized by two twisting stacks of approximately five hydrogen-bonded intermolecular β-sheets each. We find evidence that the high-frequency peak in the amide-I spectrum of αS fibrils involves a normal mode that differs fundamentally from the canonical high-frequency antiparallel β-sheet mode. The high sensitivity of the fibril structure to the ionic strength might form the basis of differences in αS-related pathologies.

  4. Sensitivity enhanced (14)N/(14)N correlations to probe inter-beta-sheet interactions using fast magic angle spinning solid-state NMR in biological solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Manoj Kumar; Amoureux, Jean-Paul; Asakura, Tetsuo; Nishiyama, Yusuke

    2016-08-10

    (14)N/(14)N correlations are vital for structural studies of solid samples, especially those in which (15)N isotopic enrichment is challenging, time-consuming and expensive. Although (14)N nuclei have high isotopic abundance (99.6%), there are inherent difficulties in observing (14)N/(14)N correlations due to limited resolution and sensitivity related to: (i) low (14)N gyromagnetic ratio (γ), (ii) large (14)N quadrupolar couplings, (iii) integer (14)N spin quantum number (I = 1), and (iv) very weak (14)N-(14)N dipolar couplings. Previously, we demonstrated a proton-detected 3D (14)N/(14)N/(1)H correlation experiment at fast magic angle spinning (MAS) on l-histidine·HCl·H2O utilizing a through-bond (J) and residual dipolar-splitting (RDS) based heteronuclear multiple quantum correlation (J-HMQC) sequence mediated through (1)H/(1)H radio-frequency driven recoupling (RFDR). As an extension of our previous work, in this study we show the utility of dipolar-based HMQC (D-HMQC) in combination with (1)H/(1)H RFDR mixing to obtain sensitivity enhanced (14)N/(14)N correlations in more complex biological solids such as a glycyl-l-alanine (Gly-l-Ala) dipeptide, and parallel (P) and antiparallel (AP) β-strand alanine tripeptides (P-(Ala)3 and AP-(Ala)3, respectively). These systems highlight the mandatory necessity of 3D (14)N/(14)N/(1)H measurements to get (14)N/(14)N correlations when the amide proton resonances are overlapped. Moreover, the application of long selective (14)N pulses, instead of short hard ones, is shown to improve the sensitivity. Globally, we demonstrate that replacing J-scalar with dipolar interaction and hard- with selective-(14)N pulses allows gaining a factor of ca. 360 in experimental time. On the basis of intermolecular NH/NH distances and (14)N quadrupolar tensor orientations, (14)N/(14)N correlations are effectively utilized to make a clear distinction between the parallel and antiparallel arrangements of the β-strands in (Ala)3 through the

  5. High water content in primitive continental flood basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Qun-Ke; Bi, Yao; Li, Pei; Tian, Wei; Wei, Xun; Chen, Han-Lin

    2016-01-01

    As the main constituent of large igneous provinces, the generation of continental flood basalts (CFB) that are characterized by huge eruption volume (>105 km3) within short time span (basaltic melts and the partition coefficient of H2O between cpx and basaltic melt. The arc-like H2O content (4.82 ± 1.00 wt.%) provides the first clear evidence that H2O plays an important role in the generation of CFB. PMID:27143196

  6. Decomposition kinetics of expanded austenite with high nitrogen contents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the decomposition kinetics of synthesized homogeneous expanded austenite formed by gaseous nitriding of stainless steel AISI 304L and AISI 316L with nitrogen contents up to 38 at.% nitrogen. Isochronal annealing experiments were carried out in both inert (N2) and reducing (H2......) atmospheres. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) and thermogravimetry were applied for identification of the decomposition reactions and X-ray diffraction analysis was applied for phase analysis. CrN precipitated upon annealing; the activation energies are 187 kJ/mol and 128 kJ/mol for AISI 316L and AISI 304L...

  7. Determination of Stabiliser Contents in Advanced Gun Propellants by Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-01

    HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY N"m A.R. TURNER AND A. WHITE...TO biEPROOU.; AND SELL THIS REPORT Determination of Stabiliser Contents in Advanced Gun Propellants by Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography A.R...8217/......... .. Availability Cooes Dist Avaiardlo A-i Determination of Stabiliser Contents in Advanced Gun Propellants by Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography

  8. Electric-arc synthesis of soot with high content of higher fullerenes in parallel arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutlov, A. E.; Nekrasov, V. M.; Sergeev, A. G.; Bubnov, V. P.; Kareev, I. E.

    2016-12-01

    Soot with a relatively high content of higher fullerenes (C76, C78, C80, C82, C84, C86, etc.) is synthesized in a parallel arc upon evaporation of pure carbon electrodes. The content of higher fullerenes in soot extract amounts to 13.8 wt % when two electrodes are simultaneously burnt in electric-arc reactor. Such a content is comparable with the content obtained upon evaporation of composite graphite electrodes with potassium carbonate impurity.

  9. High content screening as high quality assay for biological evaluation of photosensitizers in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela M F Vaz

    Full Text Available A novel single step assay approach to screen a library of photdynamic therapy (PDT compounds was developed. Utilizing high content analysis (HCA technologies several robust cellular parameters were identified, which can be used to determine the phototoxic effects of porphyrin compounds which have been developed as potential anticancer agents directed against esophageal carcinoma. To demonstrate the proof of principle of this approach a small detailed study on five porphyrin based compounds was performed utilizing two relevant esophageal cancer cell lines (OE21 and SKGT-4. The measurable outputs from these early studies were then evaluated by performing a pilot screen using a set of 22 compounds. These data were evaluated and validated by performing comparative studies using a traditional colorimetric assay (MTT. The studies demonstrated that the HCS assay offers significant advantages over and above the currently used methods (directly related to the intracellular presence of the compounds by analysis of their integrated intensity and area within the cells. A high correlation was found between the high content screening (HCS and MTT data. However, the HCS approach provides additional information that allows a better understanding of the behavior of these compounds when interacting at the cellular level. This is the first step towards an automated high-throughput screening of photosensitizer drug candidates and the beginnings of an integrated and comprehensive quantitative structure action relationship (QSAR study for photosensitizer libraries.

  10. Pedagogical content knowledge and preparation of high school physics teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Etkina

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains a scholarly description of pedagogical practices of the Rutgers Physics/Physical Science Teacher Preparation program. The program focuses on three aspects of teacher preparation: knowledge of physics, knowledge of pedagogy, and knowledge of how to teach physics (pedagogical content knowledge—PCK. The program has been in place for 7 years and has a steady production rate of an average of six teachers per year who remain in the profession. The main purpose of the paper is to provide information about a possible structure, organization, and individual elements of a program that prepares physics teachers. The philosophy of the program and the coursework can be implemented either in a physics department or in a school of education. The paper provides details about the program course work and teaching experiences and suggests ways to adapt it to other local conditions.

  11. beta-sheet preferences from first principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossmeisl, Jan; Bækgaard, Iben Sig Buur; Gregersen, Misha Marie

    2003-01-01

    The natural amino acids have different preferences of occurring in specific types of secondary protein structure. Simulations are performed on periodic model â-sheets of 14 different amino acids, at the level of density functional theory, employing the generalized gradient approximation. We find ...

  12. A multi-channel high time resolution detector for high content imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Lapington, J S; Miller, G M; Ashton, T J R; Jarron, P; Despeisse, M; Powolny, F; Howorth, J; Milnes, J

    2009-01-01

    Medical imaging has long benefited from advances in photon counting detectors arising from space and particle physics. We describe a microchannel plate-based detector system for high content (multi-parametric) analysis, specifically designed to provide a step change in performance and throughput for measurements in imaged live cells and tissue for the ‘omics’. The detector system integrates multi-channel, high time resolution, photon counting capability into a single miniaturized detector with integrated ASIC electronics, comprising a fast, low power amplifier discriminator and TDC for every channel of the discrete pixel electronic readout, and achieving a pixel density improvement of order two magnitudes compared with current comparable devices. The device combines high performance, easy reconfigurability, and economy within a compact footprint. We present simulations and preliminary measurements in the context of our ultimate goals of 20 ps time resolution with multi-channel parallel analysis (1024 chan...

  13. Thermal Analysis of ZPPR High Pu Content Stored Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles W. Solbrig

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Zero Power Physics Reactor (ZPPR operated from April 18, 1969, until 1990. ZPPR operated at low power for testing nuclear reactor designs. This paper examines the temperature of Pu content ZPPR fuel while it is in storage. Heat is generated in the fuel due to Pu and Am decay and is a concern for possible cladding damage. Damage to the cladding could lead to fuel hydriding and oxidizing. A series of computer simulations were made to determine the range of temperatures potentially occuring in the ZPPR fuel. The maximum calculated fuel temperature is 292°C (558°F. Conservative assumptions in the model intentionally overestimate temperatures. The stored fuel temperatures are dependent on the distribution of fuel in the surrounding storage compartments, the heat generation rate of the fuel, and the orientation of fuel. Direct fuel temperatures could not be measured but storage bin doors, storage sleeve doors, and storage canister temperatures were measured. Comparison of these three temperatures to the calculations indicates that the temperatures calculated with conservative assumptions are, as expected, higher than the actual temperatures. The maximum calculated fuel temperature with the most conservative assumptions is significantly below the fuel failure criterion of 600°C (1,112°F.

  14. High dynamic range images for enhancing low dynamic range content

    OpenAIRE

    Banterle, Francesco; Dellepiane, Matteo; Scopigno, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    This poster presents a practical system for enhancing the quality of Low Dynamic Range (LDR) videos using High Dynamic Range (HDR) background images. Our technique relies on the assumption that the HDR information is static in the video footage. This assumption can be valid in many scenarios where moving subjects are the main focus of the footage and do not have to interact with moving light sources or highly reflective objects. Another valid scenario is teleconferencing via webcams, where th...

  15. A parallel microfluidic flow cytometer for high-content screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Brian K; Evans, James G; Cheung, Man Ching; Ehrlich, Daniel J

    2011-05-01

    A parallel microfluidic cytometer (PMC) uses a high-speed scanning photomultiplier-based detector to combine low-pixel-count, one-dimensional imaging with flow cytometry. The 384 parallel flow channels of the PMC decouple count rate from signal-to-noise ratio. Using six-pixel one-dimensional images, we investigated protein localization in a yeast model for human protein misfolding diseases and demonstrated the feasibility of a nuclear-translocation assay in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing an NFκB-EGFP reporter.

  16. High content image cytometry in the context of subnuclear organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vos, W H; Van Neste, L; Dieriks, B; Joss, G H; Van Oostveldt, P

    2010-01-01

    The organization of proteins in space and time is essential to their function. To accurately quantify subcellular protein characteristics in a population of cells with regard for the stochasticity of events in a natural context, there is a fast-growing need for image-based cytometry. Simultaneously, the massive amount of data that is generated by image-cytometric analyses, calls for tools that enable pattern recognition and automated classification. In this article, we present a general approach for multivariate phenotypic profiling of individual cell nuclei and quantification of subnuclear spots using automated fluorescence mosaic microscopy, optimized image processing tools, and supervised classification. We demonstrate the efficiency of our analysis by determination of differential DNA damage repair patterns in response to genotoxic stress and radiation, and we show the potential of data mining in pinpointing specific phenotypes after transient transfection. The presented approach allowed for systematic analysis of subnuclear features in large image data sets and accurate classification of phenotypes at the level of the single cell. Consequently, this type of nuclear fingerprinting shows potential for high-throughput applications, such as functional protein assays or drug compound screening.

  17. Decreased adipose tissue zinc content is associated with metabolic parameters in high fat fed Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Alexey A. Tinkov; Elizaveta V. Popova; Evgenia R. Gatiatulina; Anastasia A. Skalnaya; Elena N. Yakovenko; Irina B. Alchinova; Mikhail Y. Karganov; Anatoly V. Skalny; Nikonorov, Alexandr A.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Limited data on adipose tissue zinc content in obesity exist. At the same time, the association between adipose tissue zinc content and metabolic parameters in dietary-induced obesity is poorly studied. Therefore, the primary objective of this study is to assess adipose tissue zinc content and its association  with morphometric parameters, adipokine spectrum, proinflammatory cytokines, and apolipoprotein profile in high fat fed Wistar rats. Material and method...

  18. Trend in Plutonium Content of MOX in Thermal Reactor Use and Irradiation Behavior of MOX with High Plutonium Content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakae, N.; Baba, T.; Kamimura, K. [Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization - JNES, TOKYU REIT Toranomon Bldg., 3-17-1, Toranomon, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 105-0001 (Japan); Verwerft, M.; Jutier, F. [SCK-CEN (Belgium)

    2009-06-15

    The uranium enrichment of UO{sub 2} fuel for the current power reactors, both PWR and BWR, tends to increase because of increasing burn-up target. The plutonium content of MOX fuel used in thermal reactors shall be determined in order to have reactivity worth equivalent to enriched UO{sub 2} fuel based on physical accounting method for adjusting fissile enrichment, thus the plutonium content tends to increase according to the increment of the uranium enrichment of UO{sub 2} fuel and this trend shall further be accentuated due to the fact that Pu recovered from reprocessing of the spent high burnup UO{sub 2} fuel contains less fissile isotopes. The plutonium content is calculated by use of the physical accounting method with the plutonium having several kinds of isotope ratios and the calculation results indicate that the plutonium content in MOX will evolve to ratios in excess of 10%. It shall be, therefore, important to know the irradiation behavior of MOX with high plutonium content of more than 10 wt%. MOX fuel rods having a plutonium content of about 14 wt% and fabricated by use of MIMAS process have been irradiated under PWR conditions in the Belgian test reactors BR-3 and BR-2. The peak fuel rod burn-up of the fuel rods studied in this paper ranges from 31 to 37 GWd/t-HM, and their average burnup is about 22-26 GWd/t-HM with the rod averaged linear heat generation rate of about 15-21 kW/m. The MOX rods are investigated by destructive and non-destructive post irradiation examinations and some of them are now continued to be irradiated in BR-2. Mixed Oxide (U,Pu)O{sub 2} fuel produced by the MIMAS process results in a fine dispersion of Pu enriched particles in a UO{sub 2} matrix and effectively gives three enrichment classes: low, medium and high enriched. The high enriched particles (often called 'Pu spots'), have an enrichment of around 25 wt% Pu, the low enriched phase is the UO{sub 2} matrix and contains only trace amounts of Pu. An

  19. Synthesis and Characterization of Mesoporous Silicon Oxynitride MCM-41 with High Nitrogen Content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Cunman; XU Zheng; LIU Qian

    2005-01-01

    Mesoporous silicon oxynitrides MCM-41 were synthesized successfully. The resulting materials not only have high nitrogen contents and good structural characteristics of MCM-41 (high surface area, narrow pore size distribution and good order), but also are amorphous. The composition and structure of the materials were investigated by CNH element analysis, XPS, Si MAS NMR, XRD, HRTEM and N2 sorption, respectively. Mesoporous silicon oxynitrides MCM-41 with a high nitrogen content are still non-crystal (amorphous).

  20. Method of preparing a high solids content, low viscosity ceramic slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiegs, Terry N.; Wittmer, Dale E.

    1995-01-01

    A method for producing a high solids content, low viscosity ceramic slurry composition comprises turbomilling a dispersion of a ceramic powder in a liquid to form a slurry having a viscosity less than 100 centipoise and a solids content equal to or greater than 48 volume percent.

  1. Content-Based Curriculum for High-Ability Learners, Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanTassel-Baska, Joyce, Ed.; Little, Catherine A., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The newly updated "Content-Based Curriculum for High-Ability Learners" provides a solid introduction to curriculum development in gifted and talented education. Written by experts in the field of gifted education, this text uses cutting-edge design techniques and aligns the core content with national and state standards. In addition to a revision…

  2. Composition and Content of High-Molecular-Weight Glutenin Subunits and Their Effects on Wheat Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Jian-min; LIU Ai-feng; WU Xiang-yun; LIU Jian-jun; ZHAO Zhen-dong; LIU Guang-tian

    2002-01-01

    Sedimentation values, flour glutenin macropolymer (GMP) contents, composition and contents of high-molecular-weight (HMW) glutenin subunits (GS) of 233 flour samples were determined. Our data indicated that subunit 1 occurred more frequently at Glu-A1, subunit pair 7 + 8 at Glu- B1 and 2 + 12 at Glu-D1. The significant relationships between Glu-1 quality score and total HMW glutenin content, sedimentation value and GMP content suggested that the composition of HMW-GS affects wheat quality strongly. Moreover,the total content of HMW-GS was correlated with certain quality parameters more significantly. Relationship between subunit 5 + 10 content and breadmaking quality was better than others, but 2 + 12, 7 + 8, 7 + 9 and 4 + 12 also correlated with certain quality parameters significantly. The contents of total HMW-glutenin, x-type subunits and y-type subunits related with sedimentation value, flour GMP content, and Glu-1 quality score more strongly than that of individual subunit or subunit pair. The flour GMP content, with excellent correlation to sedimentation value, total contents of HMW glutenin, x- and y-type subunits and many other quality parameters, could be an ideal indicator of breadmaking quality at earlier generations for breeding purpose for its simple procedure and small scale.

  3. High Seas High Schoolers: Creating ERESE Content on an Expedition to Samoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, R.; English, B.; Staudigel, D.; Staudigel, H.; Koppers, A.; Hart, S.

    2005-12-01

    As part of the ERESE program, three high school seniors aboard the ALIA expedition generated contents and published a live trip website with a wide range of information about the science and personal aspects of the cruise. These activities served to relate as much meaningful information about the month-long research cruise in the South Pacific as possible, to people of all ages and skills. The website http://earthref.org/ERESE/projects/ALIA/ has reports on almost every aspect of the research cruise; from what it is like staying on the Research Vessel Kilo Moana for a month, to operating machinery, to interviews with the captain and chief scientists, and even how the equipment aboard works, in less than technical terms. An effective way to relay what was actually going on aboard the Kilo Moana, were the daily reports, written by the high school students, complete with the pictures and videos taken that day. This website connected the ALIA cruise to high school students and classrooms, who were following the expedition through the website both in the United States and in Samoa. High school seniors designed and implemented the "CruiseWatch" feature on the Alia website. This "applet" extracts data from the shipboard datastream and relays them to the ERESE website at the San Diego Supercomputing center via satellite, where they are prepared for real-time display on the cruise website. Data displayed include the ships' location on the map, geographic coordinates, heading, speed and wind speed. During dredging operations it displays the length of wire deployed, wire speed and wire tension. Overall the website with the daily reports and photographs, in addition to other web media, gave this trip a unique ability to engage people from around the world in researching oceanographic and geological phenomena.

  4. Adapting human pluripotent stem cells to high-throughput and high-content screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbordes, Sabrina C; Studer, Lorenz

    2013-01-01

    The increasing use of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) as a source of cells for drug discovery, cytotoxicity assessment and disease modeling requires their adaptation to large-scale culture conditions and screening formats. Here, we describe a simple and robust protocol for the adaptation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) to high-throughput screening (HTS). This protocol can also be adapted to human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) and high-content screening (HCS). We also describe a 7-d assay to identify compounds with an effect on hESC self-renewal and differentiation. This assay can be adapted to a variety of applications. The procedure involves the culture expansion of hESCs, their adaptation to 384-well plates, the addition of small molecules or other factors, and finally data acquisition and processing. In this protocol, the optimal number of hESCs plated in 384-well plates has been adapted to HTS/HCS assays of 7 d.

  5. REQUIREMENT OF FLUIDITY OF HIGH WATER CONTENT MATERIALS FORTHE GETWAY-SIDE BACKFILLING TECHNIQUE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QiTaiyue; MaNianjie

    1996-01-01

    Through analyzing the effects of water consumption, diameter of solid particle, and flow velocity on the fluidity of high water content material slurry, the relationship among the fluidity, the isotropy of the slurry, and the pumping facilities applied in getway-side backfilling has been found. And the requirment of fluidity of high water content material for the design of getway-side backfilling technique is put forward in the paper.

  6. A degradation model for high kitchen waste content municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yunmin; Guo, Ruyang; Li, Yu-Chao; Liu, Hailong; Zhan, Tony Liangtong

    2016-12-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) in developing countries has a high content of kitchen waste (KW), and therefore contains large quantities of water and non-hollocellulose degradable organics. The degradation of high KW content MSW cannot be well simulated by the existing degradation models, which are mostly established for low KW content MSW in developed countries. This paper presents a two-stage anaerobic degradation model for high KW content MSW with degradations of hollocellulose, sugars, proteins and lipids considered. The ranges of the proportions of chemical compounds in MSW components are summarized with the recommended values given. Waste components are grouped into rapidly or slowly degradable categories in terms of the degradation rates under optimal water conditions for degradation. In the proposed model, the unionized VFA inhibitions of hydrolysis/acidogenesis and methanogenesis are considered as well as the pH inhibition of methanogenesis. Both modest and serious VFA inhibitions can be modeled by the proposed model. Default values for the parameters in the proposed method can be used for predictions of degradations of both low and high KW content MSW. The proposed model was verified by simulating two laboratory experiments, in which low and high KW content MSW were used, respectively. The simulated results are in good agreement with the measured data of the experiments. The results show that under low VFA concentrations, the pH inhibition of methanogenesis is the main inhibition to be considered, while the inhibitions of both hydrolysis/acidogenesis and methanogenesis caused by unionized VFA are significant under high VFA concentrations. The model is also used to compare the degradation behaviors of low and high KW content MSW under a favorable environmental condition, and it shows that the gas potential of high KW content MSW releases more quickly.

  7. Enhanced ethanol fermentation by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with high spermidine contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun-Ki; Jo, Jung-Hyun; Jin, Yong-Su; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2017-05-01

    Construction of robust and efficient yeast strains is a prerequisite for commercializing a biofuel production process. We have demonstrated that high intracellular spermidine (SPD) contents in Saccharomyces cerevisiae can lead to improved tolerance against various fermentation inhibitors, including furan derivatives and acetic acid. In this study, we examined the potential applicability of the S. cerevisiae strains with high SPD contents under two cases of ethanol fermentation: glucose fermentation in repeated-batch fermentations and xylose fermentation in the presence of fermentation inhibitors. During the sixteen times of repeated-batch fermentations using glucose as a sole carbon source, the S. cerevisiae strains with high SPD contents maintained higher cell viability and ethanol productivities than a control strain with lower SPD contents. Specifically, at the sixteenth fermentation, the ethanol productivity of a S. cerevisiae strain with twofold higher SPD content was 31% higher than that of the control strain. When the SPD content was elevated in an engineered S. cerevisiae capable of fermenting xylose, the resulting S. cerevisiae strain exhibited much 40-50% higher ethanol productivities than the control strain during the fermentations of synthetic hydrolysate containing high concentrations of fermentation inhibitors. These results suggest that the strain engineering strategy to increase SPD content is broadly applicable for engineering yeast strains for robust and efficient production of ethanol.

  8. Development of a New Foxtail Millet Germplasm with Super Early Maturity and High Iron Content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zheng-li; SUN Shi-xian; CHENG Ru-hong; HUANG Wen-sheng; LIU Jun-xin; QU Zhu-feng; XIA Xue-yan; SHI Zhi-gang

    2006-01-01

    Super Early Maturation No.2 is a new foxtail millet germplasm developed by using the targeted-character-gene-bankbreeding method. It has several outstanding characteristics. (1) Super early maturity. It can normally mature in Bashang,Hebei Province, China, where the altitude is around 1 400 meters, and it needs 1 650℃ of effective accumulated temperature in the growing period. (2) Millet is rich in iron. The iron content of the millet of Super Early Maturation No.2 is 54.10 mg kg-1,which is 62.0% higher than the average iron content of the foxtail millet varieties in China. (3) High crude fat content. Its crude fat content is 6.24%, which is 54.1% higher than the average content of foxtail millet varieties in China. (4) High crude protein content. The average of the crude protein content of all the foxtail millet varieties in China is 12.71%, only5% varieties surpass 14%, however, the crude protein content of Super Early Maturation No.2 is 14.36%, which is rare in improved varieties of foxtail millet in China. (5) Overall characteristics are good.

  9. High-content screening of yeast mutant libraries by shotgun lipidomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarasov, Kirill; Stefanko, Adam; Casanovas, Albert;

    2014-01-01

    To identify proteins with a functional role in lipid metabolism and homeostasis we designed a high-throughput platform for high-content lipidomic screening of yeast mutant libraries. To this end, we combined culturing and lipid extraction in 96-well format, automated direct infusion nanoelectrosp......To identify proteins with a functional role in lipid metabolism and homeostasis we designed a high-throughput platform for high-content lipidomic screening of yeast mutant libraries. To this end, we combined culturing and lipid extraction in 96-well format, automated direct infusion...... factor KAR4 precipitated distinct lipid metabolic phenotypes. These results demonstrate that the high-throughput shotgun lipidomics platform is a valid and complementary proxy for high-content screening of yeast mutant libraries....

  10. Effect of high temperature and excessive light on glutathione content in apple peel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianguang ZHANG; Shaochun CHEN; Yingli LI; Bao DI; Jianqiang ZHANG; Yufang LIU

    2008-01-01

    The present experiment was conducted to examine the changing patterns of glutathione (GSH) contents in apple peel stressed by high temperature and excessive solar radiation. By comparing the parameters of temperature and light conditions where fruits grow with the GSH contents in them, the mutual relationship was disclosed. Meanwhile, the changes of antioxidant capacity of fruits stressed at different levels were studied under artificially controlled conditions in a laboratory. Also, the effect of applying various types of exogenous substances was evaluated on endogenous GSH contents. The results indicated that within a certain range, a positive correlation was found between the stressed extents to which fruits were subject by high temperature and exces-sive light, and GSH contents in fruit peel. Moreover, fruits on southwest (SW) exposure contained a very significantly higher amount of GSH than those on other exposures. In laboratory experiments, it was proved that fruit GSH contents increased with temperatures within a certain range but they declined beyond a given limit. The temperature rising modes had a great influence on fruit GSH contents, and gradual tem-perature increase was favorable to an increase of antioxidant capability in fruit peel, thus providing a theoretical basis for exerting appropriate acclimation on fruits. It was also docu-mented that application of four exogenous formulations could significantly increase the endogenous GSH contents, among which AsA (ascorbit acid)+BA (benzoic acid) and SA (sali-cylic acid) treatments exhibited better results, 33.97% and 31.81% higher than the control, respectively.

  11. Optimisation of rubberised concrete with high rubber content: an experimental investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Raffoul, S.; Garcia, R; Pilakoutas, K.; Guadagnini, M.; Flores Medina, N.

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates experimentally the behaviour of rubberised concrete (RuC) with high rubber content so as to fully utilise the mechanical properties of vulcanised rubber. The fresh properties and short-term uniaxial compressive strength of 40 rubberised concrete mixes were assessed. The parameters examined included the volume (0–100%) and type of mineral aggregate replacement (fine or coarse), water or admixture contents, type of binder, rubber particle properties, and rubber surface...

  12. High and Low Consensus Groups: A Content and Relational Interaction Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeStephen, Rolayne S.

    1983-01-01

    Analyzed the complete interaction of high and low consensus groups in a basic small group course. Interaction analysis indicated that both the relational and content levels of communication are significantly different for high versus low consensus groups. The conclusion that increased feedback leads to decision satisfaction was confirmed. (JAC)

  13. Innovation management and marketing in the high-tech sector: A content analysis of advertisements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerhard, D.; Brem, Alexander; Baccarella, Ch.

    2011-01-01

    Advertizing high-technology products is a tricky and critical task for every company, since it means operating in an environment with high market uncertainty. The work presents results of a content analysis of 110 adverts for consumer electronics products which examines how these products and the...

  14. Evaluation of Compatibility of ToxCast High-Throughput/High-Content Screening Assays with Engineered Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    High-throughput and high-content screens are attractive approaches for prioritizing nanomaterial hazards and informing targeted testing due to the impracticality of using traditional toxicological testing on the large numbers and varieties of nanomaterials. The ToxCast program a...

  15. Calculation Method to Determine the Group Composition of Vacuum Distillate with High Content of Saturated Hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazarova Galina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Calculation method to determine the group composition of the heavy fraction of vacuum distillate with high content of saturated hydrocarbons, obtained by vacuum distillation of the residue from the West Siberian oil with subsequent hydrotreating, are given in this research. The method is built on the basis of calculation the physico-chemical characteristics and the group composition of vacuum distillate according to the fractional composition and density considering with high content of saturated hydrocarbons in the fraction. Calculation method allows to determine the content of paraffinic, naphthenic, aromatic hydrocarbons and the resins in vacuum distillate with high accuracy and can be used in refineries for rapid determination of the group composition of vacuum distillate.

  16. Graph cut and image intensity-based splitting improves nuclei segmentation in high-content screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhan, Muhammad; Ruusuvuori, Pekka; Emmenlauer, Mario; Rämö, Pauli; Yli-Harja, Olli; Dehio, Christoph

    2013-02-01

    Quantification of phenotypes in high-content screening experiments depends on the accuracy of single cell analysis. In such analysis workflows, cell nuclei segmentation is typically the first step and is followed by cell body segmentation, feature extraction, and subsequent data analysis workflows. Therefore, it is of utmost importance that the first steps of high-content analysis are done accurately in order to guarantee correctness of the final analysis results. In this paper, we present a novel cell nuclei image segmentation framework which exploits robustness of graph cut to obtain initial segmentation for image intensity-based clump splitting method to deliver the accurate overall segmentation. By using quantitative benchmarks and qualitative comparison with real images from high-content screening experiments with complicated multinucleate cells, we show that our method outperforms other state-of-the-art nuclei segmentation methods. Moreover, we provide a modular and easy-to-use implementation of the method for a widely used platform.

  17. Optimization of the Content of Tricalcium Silicate of High Cementing Clinker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Lin; SHEN Xiaodong; MA Suhua; HUANG Yeping; ZHONG Baiqian

    2011-01-01

    Optimization of the content of tricalcium silicate (C3S) of high cementing clinker was investigated. The content of free-CaO(f-CaO), mineral composite, the content of C3S in the clinker and the hydration product were analyzed by chemical analysis and X-ray diffraction (XRD). "K Value" method of QXRD was selected as a quantitative analysis way to measure the content of C3S, and the strength of cement paste was determined. The results show that at a water cement ratio of 0.29, the strength of cement paste with 73% C3S can be up to 97.5 MPa at 28 days age. The strength at 28 d of cement with 73% C3S is 16% higher than that with 78% C3S at water requirement for normal consistency. The relationship between the strength of high cementing Portland cement and the content of C3S in the clinker is nonlinear. According to the strength of cement paste, the optimal content of C3S in cement clinker is around 73% in this paper.

  18. Decreased adipose tissue zinc content is associated with metabolic parameters in high fat fed Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey A. Tinkov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Limited data on adipose tissue zinc content in obesity exist. At the same time, the association between adipose tissue zinc content and metabolic parameters in dietary-induced obesity is poorly studied. Therefore, the primary objective of this study is to assess adipose tissue zinc content and its association  with morphometric parameters, adipokine spectrum, proinflammatory cytokines, and apolipoprotein profile in high fat fed Wistar rats. Material and methods. A total of 48 adult female Wistar rats were used in the present study. Rats were fed either control (10% of fat or high fat diet (31.6% of fat. Adipose tissue zinc content was assessed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Rats’ serum was examined for adiponectin, leptin, insulin, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Serum glucose and apolipoprotein spectrum were also evaluated. Results. High fat feeding resulted in a significant 34% decrease in adipose tissue zinc content in comparison to the control values. Fat pad zinc levels were significantly inversely associated with morphometric param- eters, circulating leptin, insulin, tumor necrosis factor-α levels and HOMA-IR values. At the same time,      a significant correlation with apolipoprotein A1 concentration was observed. Conclusion. Generally, the obtained data indicate that (1 high fat feeding results in decreased adipose tis- sue zinc content; (2 adipose tissue zinc content is tightly associated with excessive adiposity, inflammation, insulin resistance and potentially atherogenic changes.

  19. Magnetic and mechanical properties of FeSi alloys with high Si content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Feng-shuang; QIAO Liang; BI Xiao-fang

    2006-01-01

    The chemical vapor(CVD) deposition-diffusion method was applied to prepare FeSi alloys with high silicon content up to 6.5%. In spite of various deposition and post-annealing, the sample remains α-Fe bcc structure. The cross section of the composition was analyzed to evaluate the Si content and distribution before and after annealing. The results show that the soft magnetic properties are improved by increasing the silicon content. For the samples containing about 6.5% Si, the coercivity decreases to 60 from 237.3 A/m of the original. It is also obtained that, in addition to the Si content, Si distribution has a large influence on the core loss due to the effect of resistivity. The micro-hardnesses were also evaluated along the cross-section after various annealings.

  20. High-content single-cell analysis on-chip using a laser microarray scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jing; Wu, Yu; Lee, Sang-Kwon; Fan, Rong

    2012-12-07

    High-content cellomic analysis is a powerful tool for rapid screening of cellular responses to extracellular cues and examination of intracellular signal transduction pathways at the single-cell level. In conjunction with microfluidics technology that provides unique advantages in sample processing and precise control of fluid delivery, it holds great potential to transform lab-on-a-chip systems for high-throughput cellular analysis. However, high-content imaging instruments are expensive, sophisticated, and not readily accessible. Herein, we report on a laser scanning cytometry approach that exploits a bench-top microarray scanner as an end-point reader to perform rapid and automated fluorescence imaging of cells cultured on a chip. Using high-content imaging analysis algorithms, we demonstrated multiplexed measurements of morphometric and proteomic parameters from all single cells. Our approach shows the improvement of both sensitivity and dynamic range by two orders of magnitude as compared to conventional epifluorescence microscopy. We applied this technology to high-throughput analysis of mesenchymal stem cells on an extracellular matrix protein array and characterization of heterotypic cell populations. This work demonstrates the feasibility of a laser microarray scanner for high-content cellomic analysis and opens up new opportunities to conduct informative cellular analysis and cell-based screening in the lab-on-a-chip systems.

  1. Enzymatic Hydrolysis of biomasses having a high dry matter (DM) content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to a process for liquefaction and saccharification of polysaccharide containing biomasses, having a relatively high dry matter content. The present invention combines enzymatic hydrolysis with a type of mixing relying on the principle of gravity ensuring that the bio......The present invention relates to a process for liquefaction and saccharification of polysaccharide containing biomasses, having a relatively high dry matter content. The present invention combines enzymatic hydrolysis with a type of mixing relying on the principle of gravity ensuring...

  2. Multi Feature Content Based Video Retrieval Using High Level Semantic Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdy K. Elminir

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Content-based retrieval allows finding information by searching its content rather than its attributes. The challenge facing content-based video retrieval (CBVR is to design systems that can accurately and automatically process large amounts of heterogeneous videos. Moreover, content-based video retrieval system requires in its first stage to segment the video stream into separate shots. Afterwards features are extracted for video shots representation. And finally, choose a similarity/distance metric and an algorithm that is efficient enough to retrieve query - related videos results. There are two main issues in this process; the first is how to determine the best way for video segmentation and key frame selection. The second is the features used for video representation. Various features can be extracted for this sake including either low or high level features. A key issue is how to bridge the gap between low and high level features. This paper proposes a system for a content based video retrieval system that tries to address the aforementioned issues by using adaptive threshold for video segmentation and key frame selection as well as using both low level features together with high level semantic object annotation for video representation. Experimental results show that the use of multi features increases both precision and recall rates by about 13% to 19 % than traditional system that uses only color feature for video retrieval.

  3. Innovation management and marketing in the high-tech sector: A content analysis of advertisements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerhard, D.; Brem, Alexander; Baccarella, Ch.

    2011-01-01

    Advertizing high-technology products is a tricky and critical task for every company, since it means operating in an environment with high market uncertainty. The work presents results of a content analysis of 110 adverts for consumer electronics products which examines how these products...... and the incorporated technology are communicated to the customer. Based on established coding schemes, the content and the appeals of the adverts are evaluated by coders. The results show that these adverts are very informative, mainly have rational appeals and feature products being in the early stage of their life...... cycles. Regarding the specific content, the ‘mother brand’ is shown to play a very important role. On the other hand, the results show that incorporated technology, its superiority and functionality do not play an important role in the advertisements...

  4. Ethanol production from food waste at high solid contents with vacuum recovery technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethanol production from food wastes does not only solve the environmental issues but also provide renewable biofuel to partially substitute fossil fuels. This study investigated the feasibility of utilization of food wastes for producing ethanol at high solid contents (35%, w/w). Vacuum recovery sys...

  5. Cultural Parallax and Content Analysis: Images of Black Women in High School History Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woyshner, Christine; Schocker, Jessica B.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the representation of Black women in high school history textbooks. To examine the extent to which Black women are represented visually and to explore how they are portrayed, the authors use a mixed-methods approach that draws on analytical techniques in content analysis and from visual culture studies. Their findings…

  6. Exceptional heat stability of high protein content dispersions containing whey protein particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saglam, D.; Venema, P.; Vries, de R.J.; Linden, van der E.

    2014-01-01

    Due to aggregation and/or gelation during thermal treatment, the amount of whey proteins that can be used in the formulation of high protein foods e.g. protein drinks, is limited. The aim of this study was to replace whey proteins with whey protein particles to increase the total protein content and

  7. The content and role of formal contracts in high-tech alliances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, G. de; Klein Woolthuis, R.J.A.

    2009-01-01

    In this study we investigate the governance structure of innovation processes in high-tech alliances, focusing on the content and role of formal contracts. The design of a formal agreement is one of the most important strategic decisions for alliance partners. Drawing upon transaction cost arguments

  8. [Determination of high content of tin in geochemical samples by solid emission spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jian-Zhen; Hao, Zhi-Hong; Tang, Rui-Ling; Li, Xiao-Jing; Li, Wen-Ge; Zhang, Qin

    2013-11-01

    A method for the determination of high content of tin in geochemical samples by solid emission spectrometry was presented. The dedicated high content tin spectrum standard series was developed. K2S2O7, NaF, Al2O3 and carbon powder were used as buffers and Ge was used as internal standard, and the ratio of sample/matrix/buffer is 1 : 1 : 2. A weak sensitive line (Sn 242. 170 0 nm) was used as the analytical line. The technologies of vertical electrodes, AC arc overlap spectrograph, interception of the exposure, quantitative computer translation spectrum and background correction were used. The determination range is 100-22 350 microg x g(-1), the detection limit is 16.64 microg x g(-1), and the precision is (RSD, n = 12) 4.11%-6.46%. The accuracy of the method has been verified by determination of high content of tin in national geochemical standard samples and the results are in agreement with certified value. The method can be used for measurement directly without dilution of high content of tin in geochemical samples, and it greatly improved the detection upper limit for the determination of tin with solid emission spectroscopy and has certain practical value.

  9. The content and role of formal contracts in high-tech alliances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Gjalt; Woolthuis, Rosalinde Ja Klein

    2009-01-01

    In this study we investigate the governance structure of innovation processes in high-tech alliances, focusing on the content and role of formal contracts. The design of a formal agreement is one of the most important strategic decisions for alliance partners. Drawing upon transaction cost arguments

  10. Nanoscale high-content analysis using compositional heterogeneities of single proteoliposomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, Signe; Christensen, Sune M.; Fung, Juan José

    2014-01-01

    heterogeneities can severely skew ensemble-average proteoliposome measurements but also enable ultraminiaturized high-content screens. We took advantage of this screening capability to map the oligomerization energy of the β2-adrenergic receptor using ∼10(9)-fold less protein than conventional assays....

  11. Cultural Parallax and Content Analysis: Images of Black Women in High School History Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woyshner, Christine; Schocker, Jessica B.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the representation of Black women in high school history textbooks. To examine the extent to which Black women are represented visually and to explore how they are portrayed, the authors use a mixed-methods approach that draws on analytical techniques in content analysis and from visual culture studies. Their findings…

  12. Adhesive performance of washed cottonseed meal at high solid contents and low temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water-washed cottonseed meal (WCSM) has been shown as a promising biobased wood adhesive. Recently, we prepared WSCM in a pilot scale for promoting its industrial application. In this work, we tested the adhesive strength and viscosity of the adhesive preparation with high solid contents (up to 30%...

  13. Evolution of undissolved phases in high-zinc content super-high strength aluminum alloy during ageing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张坤; 刘志义; 叶呈武; 许晓嫦; 郑青春

    2004-01-01

    The evolution of undissolved phases in the high-zinc content super-high strength aluminum alloy during ageing was investigated by means of SEM and EIS. The results show that undissolved phases of Cu-rich M(AlZnMgCu) exist in the silver-free alloy at solid-solution state. With increasing the ageing time, the precipitation of agehardening precipitates MgZn2 stimulates Zn atoms within the undissolved phases to diffuse into the matrix, and thus the Cu content in the M(AlZnMgCu) phase increases relatively. For the silver-bearing alloy, small addition of Ag promotes the formation of Ag-rich M(A1ZnMgCuAg) undissolved phases and deteriorates mechanical properties of the alloy. At the early stage of ageing, Ag content within the M(AlZnMgCuAg) phases greatly decreases due to rapid diffusing of Ag atoms into the matrix and the co-clustering of Ag and Mg atoms. As the ageing time prolonging, the precipitation of MgZn2 results in the decrease of Zn content in the undissolved phases, and the relative increase of Ag and Mg contents.

  14. High Water Content Material Based on Ba-Bearing Sulphoaluminate Cement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG Jun; CHENG Xin; LU Lingchao; HUANG Shifeng; YE Zhengmao

    2005-01-01

    A new type of high water content material which is made up of two pastes is prepared, one is made from lime and gypsum, and another is based on Ba-bearing stdphoaluminate cement. It has excellent properties such as slow single paste solidifing,fast double pastes solidifing,fast coagulating and hardening, high early strength, good suspension property at high W/C ratio and low cost. Meanwhile, the properties and hydration mechanism of the material were analyzed by using XRD , DTA- TG and SEM. The hydrated products of new type of high water content material are Ba-bearing ettringite, BaSO4 , aluminum gel and C-S-H gel.

  15. The effect of High Pressure and High Temperature processing on carotenoids and chlorophylls content in some vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Celia; Baranda, Ana Beatriz; Martínez de Marañón, Iñigo

    2014-11-15

    The effect of High Pressure (HP) and High Pressure High Temperature (HPHT) processing on carotenoid and chlorophyll content of six vegetables was evaluated. In general, carotenoid content was not significantly influenced by HP or HPHT treatments (625 MPa; 5 min; 20, 70 and 117 °C). Regarding chlorophylls, HP treatment caused no degradation or slight increases, while HPHT processes degraded both chlorophylls. Chlorophyll b was more stable than chlorophyll a at 70 °C, but both of them were highly degraded at 117 °C. HPHT treatment at 117 °C provided products with a good retention of carotenoids and colour in the case of red vegetables. Even though the carotenoids also remained in the green vegetables, their chlorophylls and therefore their colour were so affected that milder temperatures need to be applied. As an industrial scale equipment was used, results will be useful for future industrial implementation of this technology.

  16. High School Science Teachers' Perceptions of Teaching Content-Related Reading Comprehension Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Theresa

    In order to achieve academic success, students must be able to comprehend written material in content-area textbooks. However, a large number of high school students struggle to comprehend science content. Research findings have demonstrated that students make measurable gains in comprehending content-area textbooks when provided quality reading comprehension instruction. The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of how high school science teachers perceived their responsibility to provide content-related comprehension instruction and 10 high school science teachers were interviewed for this study. Data analysis consisted of open, axial, and selective coding. The findings revealed that 8 out of the 10 participants believed that it is their responsibility to provide reading comprehension. However, the findings also revealed that the participants provided varying levels of reading comprehension instruction as an integral part of their science instruction. The potential for positive social change could be achieved by teachers and administrators. Teachers may use the findings to reflect upon their own personal feelings and beliefs about providing explicit reading comprehension. In addition to teachers' commitment to reading comprehension instruction, administrators could deliberate about professional development opportunities that might improve necessary skills, eventually leading to better comprehension skills for students and success in their education.

  17. Fast repurposing of high-resolution stereo video content for mobile use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaoglu, Ali; Lee, Bong Ho; Boev, Atanas; Cheong, Won-Sik; Gotchev, Atanas

    2012-06-01

    3D video content is captured and created mainly in high resolution targeting big cinema or home TV screens. For 3D mobile devices, equipped with small-size auto-stereoscopic displays, such content has to be properly repurposed, preferably in real-time. The repurposing requires not only spatial resizing but also properly maintaining the output stereo disparity, as it should deliver realistic, pleasant and harmless 3D perception. In this paper, we propose an approach to adapt the disparity range of the source video to the comfort disparity zone of the target display. To achieve this, we adapt the scale and the aspect ratio of the source video. We aim at maximizing the disparity range of the retargeted content within the comfort zone, and minimizing the letterboxing of the cropped content. The proposed algorithm consists of five stages. First, we analyse the display profile, which characterises what 3D content can be comfortably observed in the target display. Then, we perform fast disparity analysis of the input stereoscopic content. Instead of returning the dense disparity map, it returns an estimate of the disparity statistics (min, max, meanand variance) per frame. Additionally, we detect scene cuts, where sharp transitions in disparities occur. Based on the estimated input, and desired output disparity ranges, we derive the optimal cropping parameters and scale of the cropping window, which would yield the targeted disparity range and minimize the area of cropped and letterboxed content. Once the rescaling and cropping parameters are known, we perform resampling procedure using spline-based and perceptually optimized resampling (anti-aliasing) kernels, which have also a very efficient computational structure. Perceptual optimization is achieved through adjusting the cut-off frequency of the anti-aliasing filter with the throughput of the target display.

  18. Selection of hybrids and edible citrus species with a high content in the diosmin functional compound. Modulating effect of plant growth regulators on contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, F R; Del Río, J A

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify species, hybrids, and cultivars of edible Citrus species with high contents of diosmin as a functional compound and also to identify the developmental progress of the fruit in which it reaches maximum levels; these findings would be useful for extraction purposes and for the modulating effect of plant growth regulators on diosmin content to increase the level of this flavone. The results obtained reveal that the highest contents of diosmin are present in immature fruits of certain varieties of citron (Buda's finger) and lemon (Meyer), whereas the contents in the edible parts of the fruits are irrelevant from a pharmacological point of view. Similarly, it is shown that it is possible to increase the content of this flavone using hormonal treatments (6-benzylaminopurine and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) during the early stages of fruit growth.

  19. Photoluminescence efficiency of BGaN epitaxial layers with high boron content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurkevičius, J.; Mickevičius, J., E-mail: juras.mickevicius@ff.vu.lt; Kadys, A.; Kolenda, M.; Tamulaitis, G.

    2016-07-01

    High-boron-content epitaxial layers of BGaN intended for lattice-matching with AlGaN in UV light emitters were grown on SiC substrate and GaN and AlN templates on sapphire. Photoluminescence (PL) of these layers was studied under quasi-steady-state conditions by varying temperature and excitation intensity. The PL spectra in the samples with different boron content and their dynamics evidence formation of boron-rich regions occupying a small fraction of the total layer volume and acting as the emission killers. The room-temperature PL efficiency of the BGaN epilayers was estimated and shown to drastically decrease at increasing boron content with no significant correlation with either the type of substrate/template or technological conditions of the layer deposition.

  20. Determination of Ge content in high concentration Ge-doped Czochralski Si single crystals by FTIR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Zhongwei; ZHANG Weilian; NIU Xinhuan

    2005-01-01

    SiGe single crystals with different Ge concentrations were measured by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy at room temperature (RT) and 10 K. A new peak appears at the wave number of 710 cm-1 and the spectroscopy becomes clearer with an increase in Ge content. The absorption strength and wave sharp of the 710 cm-1 peak are independent of temperature. The relation of the absorption coefficient amax, the band width of half maximum (BWHM) W1/2 of the 710 cm-1 peak, and the Ge concentration is determined with the Ge content obtained by SEM-EDX. The conversion factor is k = 1.211 at 10 K. Therefore, the Ge content in high concentration Ge doped CZ-Si single crystals can be determined by FTIR.

  1. Structure and Content Analysis for Vocational High School Website in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subagja, H.; Abdullah, A. G.; Trisno, B.; Nandiyanto, A. B. D.

    2017-03-01

    Statistics about the condition of the school’s website in Indonesia is still difficult. This study aims to determine website quality in terms of completeness of content’s criteria of Vocational High School (VHS) in West Java, Indonesia. The method used is the content analysis and survey. Content analysis is reviewing the documents comprising the general category, while the survey is a observation process to get the facts from 272 school websites. Aspects of the structure and content of school website are including institutional information, educators and education personnel, curriculum, student, infrastructure, school achievement, and public access. The results of this study showed the average quality of the VHS website in West Java is still low. The recommendations are needed to improve the quality of the school website.

  2. Deposition of High Conductivity Low Silver Content Materials by Screen Printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eifion Jewell

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive experimental investigation has been carried out into the role of film thickness variation and silver material formulation on printing capability in the screen printing process. A full factorial experiment was carried out where two formulations of silver materials were printed through a range of screens to a polyester substrate under a set of standard conditions. The materials represented a novel low silver content (45%–49% polymer material and traditional high silver content (65%–69% paste. The resultant prints were characterised topologically and electrically. The study shows that more cost effective use of the silver in the ink was obtained with the low silver polymer materials, but that the electrical performance was more strongly affected by the mesh being used (and hence film thickness. Thus, while optimum silver use could be obtained using materials with a lower silver content, this came with the consequence of reduced process robustness.

  3. A High Resolution Capacitive Sensing System for the Measurement of Water Content in Crude Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zubair Aslam

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of a non-intrusive system to measure ultra-low water content in crude oil. The system is based on a capacitance to phase angle conversion method. Water content is measured with a capacitance sensor comprising two semi-cylindrical electrodes mounted on the outer side of a glass tube. The presence of water induces a capacitance change that in turn converts into a phase angle, with respect to a main oscillator. A differential sensing technique is adopted not only to ensure high immunity against temperature variation and background noise, but also to eliminate phase jitter and amplitude variation of the main oscillator that could destabilize the output. The complete capacitive sensing system was implemented in hardware and experiment results using crude oil samples demonstrated that a resolution of ±50 ppm of water content in crude oil was achieved by the proposed design.

  4. Reduction of phorbol ester content in jatropha cake using high energy gamma radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runumi Gogoi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an attempt has been made to remove phorbol ester present in jatropha cake by exposing it to gamma radiation. A sensitizer was also used to accelerate the degradation of phorbol esters. The phorbol ester content in the cake was estimated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. It was observed that gamma irradiation of the jatropha seed cake was effective in reducing the phorbol ester content. Originally, the phorbol ester content in the cake was found as 0.29 mg/g, which on exposure to radiation was reduced by 33.4% and 96% with radiation dose of 30 and 125 kGy respectively. The presence of a sensitizer was found to enhances the susceptibility of phorbol esters degradation by oxidative degradation on exposure to ionizing radiation.

  5. High-Reliability Low-Ag-Content Sn-Ag-Cu Solder Joints for Electronics Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shnawah, Dhafer Abdulameer; Said, Suhana Binti Mohd; Sabri, Mohd Faizul Mohd; Badruddin, Irfan Anjum; Che, Fa Xing

    2012-09-01

    Sn-Ag-Cu (SAC) alloy is currently recognized as the standard lead-free solder alloy for packaging of interconnects in the electronics industry, and high- Ag-content SAC alloys are the most popular choice. However, this choice has been encumbered by the fragility of the solder joints that has been observed in drop testing as well as the high cost of the Ag itself. Therefore, low-Ag-content SAC alloy was considered as a solution for both issues. However, this approach may compromise the thermal-cycling performance of the solders. Therefore, to enhance the thermal-cycling reliability of low-Ag-content SAC alloys without sacrificing their drop-impact performance, alloying elements such as Mn, Ce, Ti, Bi, In, Sb, Ni, Zn, Al, Fe, and Co were selected as additions to these alloys. However, research reports related to these modified SAC alloys are limited. To address this paucity, the present study reviews the effect of these minor alloying elements on the solder joint reliability of low-Ag-content SAC alloys in terms of thermal cycling and drop impact. Addition of Mn, Ce, Bi, and Ni to low-Ag-content SAC solder effectively improves the thermal-cycling reliability of joints without sacrificing the drop-impact performance. Taking into consideration the improvement in the bulk alloy microstructure and mechanical properties, wetting properties, and growth suppression of the interface intermetallic compound (IMC) layers, addition of Ti, In, Sb, Zn, Al, Fe, and Co to low-Ag-content SAC solder has the potential to improve the thermal-cycling reliability of joints without sacrificing the drop-impact performance. Consequently, further investigations of both thermal-cycling and drop reliability of these modified solder joints must be carried out in future work.

  6. S-RHT FIXED-BED HYDROTREATING TECHNOLOGY FOR RESIDUE WITH HIGH SULFUR CONTENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    To meet the demands of processing residue with high sulfur content, Fushun Research Institute of Petroleum and Petrochemicals (FRIPP) successfully developed the fixed-bed residue hydrotreating technology (S-RHT), which is suitable for treating high sulfur residue to produce diesel oil with low sulfur content. the hydrotreated 350 ℃+ residue is also a good feedstock for RFCC. Based on this technology, Maoming Petrochemical Company constructed the hydrotreating unit with a capacity of 2 Mt/a to treat high sulfur residue, in which loaded FZC series catalysts were developed by FRIPP. The unit was first put into commercial operation at the end of 1999. The commercial operation showed that the catalysts have good activities and the products meet the designed specifications.

  7. Effect of religious context on the content of visual hallucinations in individuals high in religiosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Phil; Clarke, Natasha

    2014-03-30

    This study investigated the interaction between the current environment and personality factors associated with religiosity in determining the content of false perceptions (used as a model for hallucinations). A primed word-detection task was used to investigate the effect of a 'religious' context on false perceptions in individuals scoring highly on religiosity. After a subliminal prime, participants viewed letter strings, and stated any words that they saw. The prime and the actual words could have a religious connotation or not. Participants measuring high on religiosity were more likely to report false perceptions of a religious type than participants low on religiosity. It is suggested that context affects the content of false perceptions through the activation of stored beliefs and values, which vary between individuals, offering a mechanism for the effect of context on idiosyncratic content of hallucinations in schizophrenia. The effect of context and individual differences on false-perception content in the current study provides possibilities for future work regarding the underlying nature of hallucinations and their treatment.

  8. Effect of droplet heat content distribution on humping formation in high speed GMAW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji CHEN; Chuansong WU

    2011-01-01

    The momentum of strong backward flowing melt jet and the thermal action from transferred droplets are two dominating factors affecting the formation of humping bead in high speed gas metal arc welding (GMAW).Appropriate describing the influence of the distribution mode of droplet heat content in the weld pool is essential to understand the physical mechanism of humping bead formation.Based on the experimental results,four kinds of droplet heat content distribution modes are proposed and employed to calculate the transient evolution of the temperature field and weld pool during high speed GMAW process.Through making comparison of predicted and measured weld bead dimensions,a suitable and adaptive distribution mode of droplet heat content is found,i.e.,droplet heat content is distributed in bottom layer of gouging region at the front of weld pool,and is averagely distributed in the whole layer at the rear of weld pool.The proposed mode is also validated by experimental observation of the weld pool images and measured by geometric dimensions of the weld bead.

  9. Influence of Ta Content in High Purity Niobium on Cavity Performance Preliminary Results*

    CERN Document Server

    Kneisel, P

    2004-01-01

    In a previous paper* a program designed to study the influence of the residual tantalum content on the superconducting properties of pure niobium metal for RF cavities was outlined. The main rationale for this program was based on a potential cost reduction for high purity niobium, if a less strict limit on the chemical specification for Ta content, which is not significantly affecting the RRR–value, could be tolerated for high performance cavities. Four ingots with different Ta contents have been melted and transformed into sheets. In each manufacturing step the quality of the material has been monitored by employing chemical analysis, neutron activation analysis, thermal conductivity measurements and evaluation of the mechanical properties. The niobium sheets have been scanned for defects by an eddy current device. From three of the four ingots—Ta contents 100, 600 and 1,200 wppm—two single cell cavities each of the CEBAF variety have been fabricated and a series of tests on each ...

  10. A Categorical Content Analysis of Highly Cited Literature Related to Trends and Issues in Special Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arden, Sarah V; Pentimonti, Jill M; Cooray, Rochana; Jackson, Stephanie

    2017-07-01

    This investigation employs categorical content analysis processes as a mechanism to examine trends and issues in a sampling of highly cited (100+) literature in special education journals. The authors had two goals: (a) broadly identifying trends across publication type, content area, and methodology and (b) specifically identifying articles with disaggregated outcomes for students with learning disabilities (LD). Content analyses were conducted across highly cited (100+) articles published during a 20-year period (1992-2013) in a sample ( n = 3) of journals focused primarily on LD, and in one broad, cross-categorical journal recognized for its impact in the field. Results indicated trends in the article type (i.e., commentary and position papers), content (i.e., reading and behavior), and methodology (i.e., small proportions of experimental and quasi-experimental designs). Results also revealed stability in the proportion of intervention research studies when compared to previous analyses and a decline in the proportion of those that disaggregated data specifically for students with LD.

  11. Optimizing Cationic and Neutral Lipids for Efficient Gene Delivery at High Serum Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majzoub, Ramsey N.; Hwu, Yeu-kuang; Liang, Keng S.; Leal, Cecília; Safinya, Cyrus R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cationic liposome (CL)-DNA complexes are promising gene delivery vectors with potential applications in gene therapy. A key challenge in creating CL-DNA complexes for applications is that their transfection efficiency (TE) is adversely affected by serum. In particular, little is known about the effects of high serum contents on TE even though this may provide design guidelines for applications in vivo. Methods We prepared CL-DNA complexes in which we varied the neutral lipid (DOPC, glycerol-monooleate (GMO), cholesterol), the headgroup charge and chemical structure of the cationic lipid, and the ratio of neutral to cationic lipid; we then measured the TE of these complexes as a function of serum content and assessed their cytotoxicity. We tested selected formulations in two human cancer cell lines (M21/melanoma and PC-3/prostate cancer). Results In the absence of serum, all CL-DNA complexes of custom-synthesized multivalent lipids show high TE. Certain combinations of multivalent lipids and neutral lipids, such as MVL5(5+)/GMO-DNA complexes or complexes based on the dendritic-headgroup lipid TMVLG3(8+) exhibited high TE both in the absence and presence of serum. Although their TE still dropped to a small extent in the presence of serum, it reached or surpassed that of benchmark commercial transfection reagents, in particular at high serum content. Conclusions Two-component vectors (one multivalent cationic lipid and one neutral lipid) can rival or surpass benchmark reagents at low and high serum contents (up to 50%, v/v). We suggest guidelines for optimizing the serum resistance of CL-DNA complexes based on a given cationic lipid. PMID:24753287

  12. Active Learning Strategies for Phenotypic Profiling of High-Content Screens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kevin; Horvath, Peter

    2014-06-01

    High-content screening is a powerful method to discover new drugs and carry out basic biological research. Increasingly, high-content screens have come to rely on supervised machine learning (SML) to perform automatic phenotypic classification as an essential step of the analysis. However, this comes at a cost, namely, the labeled examples required to train the predictive model. Classification performance increases with the number of labeled examples, and because labeling examples demands time from an expert, the training process represents a significant time investment. Active learning strategies attempt to overcome this bottleneck by presenting the most relevant examples to the annotator, thereby achieving high accuracy while minimizing the cost of obtaining labeled data. In this article, we investigate the impact of active learning on single-cell-based phenotype recognition, using data from three large-scale RNA interference high-content screens representing diverse phenotypic profiling problems. We consider several combinations of active learning strategies and popular SML methods. Our results show that active learning significantly reduces the time cost and can be used to reveal the same phenotypic targets identified using SML. We also identify combinations of active learning strategies and SML methods which perform better than others on the phenotypic profiling problems we studied.

  13. Variations in pore characteristics in high volatile bituminous coals: Implications for coal bed gas content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastalerz, Maria; Drobniak, A.; Strapoc, D.; Solano-Acosta, W.; Rupp, J.

    2008-01-01

    The Seelyville Coal Member of the Linton Formation (Pennsylvanian) in Indiana was studied to: 1) understand variations in pore characteristics within a coal seam at a single location and compare these variations with changes occurring between the same coal at different locations, 2) elaborate on the influence of mineral-matter and maceral composition on mesopore and micropore characteristics, and 3) discuss implications of these variations for coal bed gas content. The coal is high volatile bituminous rank with R0 ranging from 0.57% to 0.60%. BET specific surface areas (determined by nitrogen adsorption) of the coals samples studied range from 1.8 to 22.9??m2/g, BJH adsorption mesopore volumes from 0.0041 to 0.0339??cm3/g, and micropore volumes (determined by carbon dioxide adsorption) from 0.0315 to 0.0540??cm3/g. The coals that had the largest specific surface areas and largest mesopore volumes occur at the shallowest depths, whereas the smallest values for these two parameters occur in the deepest coals. Micropore volumes, in contrast, are not depth-dependent. In the coal samples examined for this study, mineral-matter content influenced both specific surface area as well as mesopore and micropore volumes. It is especially clear in the case of micropores, where an increase in mineral-matter content parallels the decrease of micropore volume of the coal. No obvious relationships were observed between the total vitrinite content and pore characteristics but, after splitting vitrinite into individual macerals, we see that collotelinite influences both meso- and micropore volume positively, whereas collodetrinite contributes to the reduction of mesopore and micropore volumes. There are large variations in gas content within a single coal at a single location. Because of this variability, the entire thickness of the coal must be desorbed in order to determine gas content reliably and to accurately calculate the level of gas saturation. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All

  14. Non-isothermal Crystallization Kinetics of Spinels in Vanadium Slag with High CaO Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wang; Xie, Bing; Tan, Wen-Feng; Diao, Jiang; Zhang, Xie; Li, Hong-Yi

    2016-09-01

    This paper investigated the non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of the spinel crystals in vanadium slags containing high CaO content. Experiments were performed in combination with theoretical calculation to address this issue, and statistical analyses based on the Crystal Size Distribution theory. The results indicate that low cooling rate and high CaO content benefit the growth of spinel crystals. The growth mechanism is revealed to be controlled by interface reactions and diffusion at the cooling rates of 5 K/min and 15 K/min, respectively. However, at higher temperatures (>1673 K), the growth of spinel crystals is controlled by nucleation. While the temperature is decreased to 1523 K at the cooling rate of 5 K/min, the mean diameter of spinel crystals could reach 36.44 μm. Experimental results combining with theoretical reveal that low cooling rate benefits spinels growth, especially for the interval of 1523 K-1200 K.

  15. Nonisothermal Thermogravimetric Analysis of Thai Lignite with High CaO Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pakamon Pintana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal behaviors and combustion kinetics of Thai lignite with different SO3-free CaO contents were investigated. Nonisothermal thermogravimetric method was carried out under oxygen environment at heating rates of 10, 30, and 50°C min−1 from ambient up to 1300°C. Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO and Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS methods were adopted to estimate the apparent activation energy (E for the thermal decomposition of these coals. Different thermal degradation behaviors were observed in lignites with low (14% and high (42% CaO content. Activation energy of the lignite combustion was found to vary with the conversion fraction. In comparison with the KAS method, higher E values were obtained by the FWO method for all conversions considered. High CaO lignite was observed to have higher activation energy than the low CaO coal.

  16. Aquatic heterotrophic bacteria have highly flexible phosphorus content and biomass stoichiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godwin, Casey M; Cotner, James B

    2015-10-01

    Bacteria are central to the cycling of carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in every ecosystem, yet our understanding of how tightly these cycles are coupled to bacterial biomass composition is based upon data from only a few species. Bacteria are commonly assumed to have high P content, low biomass C:P and N:P ratios, and inflexible stoichiometry. Here, we show that bacterial assemblages from lakes exhibit unprecedented flexibility in their P content (3% to less than 0.01% of dry mass) and stoichiometry (C:N:P of 28: 7: 1 to more than 8500: 1200: 1). The flexibility in C:P and N:P stoichiometry was greater than any species or assemblage, including terrestrial and aquatic autotrophs, and suggests a highly dynamic role for bacteria in coupling multiple element cycles.

  17. Effect of spinel content on the properties of phosphoric acid bonded high alumina castables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zichun Yang; Hongwei Duan; Lin Li; Shuqin Li; Wen Ni

    2003-01-01

    In order to study the effect of fused spinel on the properties of phosphoric acid bonded high alumina castables, samples with different contents of fused spinel were prepared. The results show that when the contents of the fused spinel are between 8% and 16% (mass fraction), the castables have good properties. The castables overcome the shortages of the phosphoric acid bonded high alumina castables with bauxite cement as a hardening promoter. The experiments demonstrate that most of the service properties of the castables with fused spinel are better than those of the normal phosphoric acid bonded castables which use bauxite cement as a hardening promoter. The examination of the materials indicates that free MgO inclusions in the spinel powder can promote the hardening of the castables.

  18. Electrodeposition of Sm–Co film with high Sm content from aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Xiong-fei; Guo, Guang-hua, E-mail: guogh@mail.csu.edu.cn; Li, Xin-hua; Xia, Qing-lin; Zhang, Jin-fang

    2013-12-02

    Sm–Co films with high Sm content were electrodeposited by potentiostat technique from the aqueous solution containing glycine as a complexing agent. The Cyclic Voltammetry measurements showed that the glycine plays a crucial role in the electrodeposition of Sm–Co films. The forming of stable complex [Co{sup II}Sm{sup III}(Gly{sup −}){sub 2}(HGly{sup ±})]{sup 3+} facilitated the codeposition of Sm with Co at relatively low potential, which made it possible to fabricate the Sm–Co films with high Sm content. The Sm–Co film with 43 at.% Sm had been obtained. X-ray diffraction showed that the as-deposited Sm–Co films were amorphous. After annealing at 600 °C for 2 h in Ar atmosphere, the films became crystalline and the permanent Sm{sub 2}Co{sub 17} phase was formed, which significantly enhanced the coercivity of the films. - Highlights: • The Sm–Co film with high Sm content is electrodeposited from aqueous solutions. • The addition of glycine facilitates the codeposition of Sm with Co at relatively low potential. • The Sm{sub 2}Co{sub 17} phase is formed in the annealed Sm–Co film.

  19. High-Content Microscopy Analysis of Subcellular Structures: Assay Development and Application to Focal Adhesion Quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Torsten; Schmidt, David; Schwanitz, Georg; Ahmad, Mubashir; Hamann, Jana; Schlosser, Corinne; Lin, Yu-Chieh; Böhm, Konrad J; Tuckermann, Jan; Ploubidou, Aspasia

    2016-07-01

    High-content analysis (HCA) converts raw light microscopy images to quantitative data through the automated extraction, multiparametric analysis, and classification of the relevant information content. Combined with automated high-throughput image acquisition, HCA applied to the screening of chemicals or RNAi-reagents is termed high-content screening (HCS). Its power in quantifying cell phenotypes makes HCA applicable also to routine microscopy. However, developing effective HCA and bioinformatic analysis pipelines for acquisition of biologically meaningful data in HCS is challenging. Here, the step-by-step development of an HCA assay protocol and an HCS bioinformatics analysis pipeline are described. The protocol's power is demonstrated by application to focal adhesion (FA) detection, quantitative analysis of multiple FA features, and functional annotation of signaling pathways regulating FA size, using primary data of a published RNAi screen. The assay and the underlying strategy are aimed at researchers performing microscopy-based quantitative analysis of subcellular features, on a small scale or in large HCS experiments. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  20. Retrogradation of Maize Starch after High Hydrostatic Pressure Gelation: Effect of Amylose Content and Depressurization Rate

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Zhi

    2016-05-24

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) has been employed to gelatinize or physically modify starch dispersions. In this study, waxy maize starch, normal maize starch, and two high amylose content starch were processed by a HHP of the order of 600 MPa, at 25°C for 15min. The effect of HHP processing on the crystallization of maize starches with various amylose content during storage at 4°C was investigated. Crystallization kinetics of HHP treated starch gels were investigated using rheology and FTIR. The effect of crystallization on the mechanical properties of starch gel network were evaluated in terms of dynamic complex modulus (G*). The crystallization induced increase of short-range helices structures were investigated using FTIR. The pressure releasing rate does not affect the starch retrogradation behaviour. The rate and extent of retrogradation depends on the amylose content of amylose starch. The least retrogradation was observed in HHP treated waxy maize starch. The rate of retrogradation is higher for HHP treated high amylose maize starch than that of normal maize starch. A linear relationship between the extent of retrogradation (phase distribution) measured by FTIR and G* is proposed.

  1. Retrogradation of Maize Starch after High Hydrostatic Pressure Gelation: Effect of Amylose Content and Depressurization Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhi; Swedlund, Peter; Gu, Qinfen; Hemar, Yacine; Chaieb, Sahraoui

    2016-01-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) has been employed to gelatinize or physically modify starch dispersions. In this study, waxy maize starch, normal maize starch, and two high amylose content starch were processed by a HHP of the order of 600 MPa, at 25°C for 15min. The effect of HHP processing on the crystallization of maize starches with various amylose content during storage at 4°C was investigated. Crystallization kinetics of HHP treated starch gels were investigated using rheology and FTIR. The effect of crystallization on the mechanical properties of starch gel network were evaluated in terms of dynamic complex modulus (G*). The crystallization induced increase of short-range helices structures were investigated using FTIR. The pressure releasing rate does not affect the starch retrogradation behaviour. The rate and extent of retrogradation depends on the amylose content of amylose starch. The least retrogradation was observed in HHP treated waxy maize starch. The rate of retrogradation is higher for HHP treated high amylose maize starch than that of normal maize starch. A linear relationship between the extent of retrogradation (phase distribution) measured by FTIR and G* is proposed.

  2. Functional genomic and high-content screening for target discovery and deconvolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heynen-Genel, Susanne; Pache, Lars; Chanda, Sumit K

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Functional genomic screens apply knowledge gained from the sequencing of the human genome toward rapid methods of identifying genes involved in cellular function based on a specific phenotype. This approach has been made possible through the use of advances in both molecular biology and automation. The utility of this approach has been further enhanced through the application of image-based high content screening, an automated microscopy and quantitative image analysis platform. These approaches can significantly enhance acquisition of novel targets for drug discovery. Areas covered Both the utility and potential issues associated with functional genomic screening approaches are discussed along with examples that illustrate both. The considerations for high content screening applied to functional genomics are also presented. Expert opinion Functional genomic and high content screening are extremely useful in the identification of new drug targets. However, the technical, experimental, and computational parameters have an enormous influence on the results. Thus, although new targets are identified, caution should be applied toward interpretation of screening data in isolation. Genomic screens should be viewed as an integral component of a target identification campaign that requires both the acquisition of orthogonal data, as well as a rigorous validation strategy. PMID:22860749

  3. Retrogradation of Maize Starch after High Hydrostatic Pressure Gelation: Effect of Amylose Content and Depressurization Rate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Yang

    Full Text Available High hydrostatic pressure (HHP has been employed to gelatinize or physically modify starch dispersions. In this study, waxy maize starch, normal maize starch, and two high amylose content starch were processed by a HHP of the order of 600 MPa, at 25°C for 15min. The effect of HHP processing on the crystallization of maize starches with various amylose content during storage at 4°C was investigated. Crystallization kinetics of HHP treated starch gels were investigated using rheology and FTIR. The effect of crystallization on the mechanical properties of starch gel network were evaluated in terms of dynamic complex modulus (G*. The crystallization induced increase of short-range helices structures were investigated using FTIR. The pressure releasing rate does not affect the starch retrogradation behaviour. The rate and extent of retrogradation depends on the amylose content of amylose starch. The least retrogradation was observed in HHP treated waxy maize starch. The rate of retrogradation is higher for HHP treated high amylose maize starch than that of normal maize starch. A linear relationship between the extent of retrogradation (phase distribution measured by FTIR and G* is proposed.

  4. New formulations of sunflower based bio-lubricants with high oleic acid content – VOSOLUB project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leao J. D.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available VOSOLUB project is a demonstration project supported by Executive Agency for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (EASME that aims at testing under real operating conditions new formulations of sunflower-based biolubricants with high oleic acid content. These biolubricant formulations (including hydraulic fluids, greases, and neat oil metal-working fluids will be tested in three European demonstrating sites. Their technical performance will be evaluated and compared to corresponding mineral lubricants ones. In order to cover the demand for the sunflower base oil, a European SMEs network will be established to ensure the supply of the base at a competitive market price. Results presented concerns the base oil quality confirmed to be in accordance with the specification required, in particular on Free Fatty acid content, Phosphorus content, rancimat induction time and oleic acid content (ITERG. The oil characteristics specific for lubricant application analyzed by BfB Oil Research under normalized methods, match with lubricant specifications requirement such as viscosity, cold & hot properties, surface properties, anti-oxidant properties and thermal stability, anti-wear and EP properties, anti-corrosion properties Performance of the new biolubricant have been assessed by formulators and TEKNIKER First results on the use of new lubricant on real condition for rail Grease (produced by RS CLARE and tested with Sheffield Supertram, Hydraulic oil (produced by BRUGAROLAS and cutting oil (produced by MOTUL TECH and tested with innovative machining, turning are described.

  5. Analysis of the origins of content non-uniformity in high-shear wet granulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Sarang; Smrčka, David; Kataria, Anjali; Emady, Heather; Muzzio, Fernando; Štěpánek, František; Ramachandran, Rohit

    2017-08-07

    In this study, the origins of granule content non-uniformity in the high-shear wet granulation of a model two-component pharmaceutical blend were investigated. Using acetaminophen as the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and microcrystalline cellulose as the excipient, the distribution of the API across the granule size classes was measured for a range of conditions that differed in the duration of the initial dry mixing stage, the overall composition of the blend and the wet massing time. The coarse granule fractions were found to be systematically sub-potent, while the fines were enriched in the API. The extent of content non-uniformity was found to be dependent on two factors - powder segregation during dry mixing and redistribution of the API between the granule size fractions during the wet massing phase. The latter was demonstrated in an experiment where the excipient was pre-granulated, the API was added later and wet massed. The content non-uniformity in this case was comparable to that obtained when both components were present in the granulator from the beginning. With increasing wet massing time, the extent of content non-uniformity decreased, indicating that longer wet massing times might be a solution for systems with a natural tendency for component segregation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Predicting In Vivo Anti-Hepatofibrotic Drug Efficacy Based on In Vitro High-Content Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Many anti-fibrotic drugs with high in vitro efficacies fail to produce significant effects in vivo. The aim of this work is to use a statistical approach to design a numerical predictor that correlates better with in vivo outcomes. METHODS: High-content analysis (HCA) was performed with 49 drugs on hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) LX-2 stained with 10 fibrotic markers. ~0.3 billion feature values from all cells in >150,000 images were quantified to reflect the drug effects. A sy...

  7. High-throughput analysis of total nitrogen content that replaces the classic Kjeldahl method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuhara, T; Nokihara, K

    2001-10-01

    A high-throughput method for determination of total nitrogen content has been developed. The method involves decomposition of samples, followed by trapping and quantitative colorimetric determination of the resulting ammonia. The present method is rapid, facile, and economical. Thus, it can replace the classic Kjeldahl method through its higher efficiency for determining multiple samples. Compared to the classic method, the present method is economical and environmentally friendly. Based on the present method, a novel reactor was constructed to realize routine high-throughput analyses of multiple samples such as those found for pharmaceutical materials, foods, and/or excrements.

  8. Electrical resistance stability of high content carbon fiber reinforced cement composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zai-fu; TANG Zu-quan; LI Zhuo-qiu; QIAN Jue-shi

    2005-01-01

    The influences of curing time, the content of free evaporable water in cement paste, environmental temperature, and alternative heating and cooling on the electrical resistance of high content carbon fiber reinforced cement (CFRC) paste are studied by experiments with specimens of Portland cement 42.5 with 10 mm PAN-based carbon fiber and methylcellulose. Experimental results indicate that the electrical resistance of CFRC increases relatively by 24% within a hydration time of 90 d and almost keeps constant after 14 d, changes hardly with the mass loss of free evaporable water in the concrete dried at 50℃C, increases relatively by 4% when ambient temperature decreases from 15℃ to-20℃, and decreases relatively by 13% with temperature increasing by 88℃. It is suggested that the electric resistance of the CFRC is stable, which is testified by the stable power output obtained by electrifying the CFRC slab with a given voltage. This implies that such kind of high content carbon fiber reinforced cement composite is potentially a desirable electrothermal material for airfield runways and road surfaces deicing.

  9. Effect of skin care with an emollient containing a high water content on mild uremic pruritus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Kazuyoshi; Matsumoto, Koichi

    2004-10-01

    Skin care is very important for preventing uremic pruritus. However, mild uremic pruritus has usually been treated with antihistamine and urea-containing ointments. We therefore examined the effects of an aqueous gel with higher water content. Twenty hemodialysis patients with mild pruritus who were not being treated with any emollient were divided into two groups of 10 each. Patients in one group were treated with an aqueous gel containing 80% water. This emollient was applied twice daily for 2 weeks. No emollient was applied for the next 2 weeks. The other group of patients were not treated with any emollient for the 4 weeks. Visual analog scale scores for itching in the experimental group at week 2 were significantly decreased compared with that at week 0 (3.5 +/- 0.3 vs 0.6 +/- 0.2, P emollient was stopped. There were no significant changes in the control group during the study. It is concluded that the aqueous gel with high water content reduced itching and improved xerosis in patients with mild uremic pruritus. It is reasonable that skin care with an emollient containing a high water content is first started for hemodialysis patients with xerosis, even if they do not feel itching.

  10. Pulsed Nd:YAG laser cladding of high silicon content coating on low silicon steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Danyang Dong; Changsheng Liu; Bin Zhang; Jun Miao

    2007-01-01

    A pulsed Nd:YAG (yttrium aluminum garnet) laser-based technique was employed to clad low silicon steel with preplaced Si and Fe mixed powders for high Si content. The surface morphology, microstructural evolution, phase composition, and Si distribution,within the obtained cladding coatings, were characterized by optical microscopy (OM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), with associated energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The microhardness was also measured along the depth direction of the specimens. A crack- and pore-free cladding coating through excellent metallurgical bonding with the substrate was successfully prepared on low silicon steel by means of optimized single-track and multi-track laser cladding. The phases of the coating are α-Fe, γ-Fe, and FeSi. The high microhardness of the lasercladding zone is considered as an increase in Si content and as the refined microstructure produced by the laser treatment. The Si contents of the cladding coatings were about 5.8wt% in the single-track cladding and 6.5wt% in the multi-track cladding, respectively.

  11. Utilization of potato starch processing wastes to produce animal feed with high lysine content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Liu, Bingnan; Song, Jinzhu; Jiang, Cheng; Yang, Qian

    2015-02-01

    This work aims to utilize wastes from the potato starch industry to produce single-cell protein (SCP) with high lysine content as animal feed. In this work, S-(2-aminoethyl)-L-cysteine hydrochloride-resistant Bacillus pumilus E1 was used to produce SCP with high lysine content, whereas Aspergillus niger was used to degrade cellulose biomass and Candida utilis was used to improve the smell and palatability of the feed. An orthogonal design was used to optimize the process of fermentation for maximal lysine content. The optimum fermentation conditions were as follows: temperature of 40°C, substrate concentration of 3%, and natural pH of about 7.0. For unsterilized potato starch wastes, the microbial communities in the fermentation process were determined by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA genes. Results showed that the dominant population was Bacillus sp. The protein quality as well as the amino acid profile of the final product was found to be significantly higher compared with the untreated waste product at day 0. Additionally, acute toxicity test showed that the SCP product was non-toxic, indicating that it can be used for commercial processing.

  12. High Water Contents in the Siberian Cratonic Mantle: An FTIR Study of Udachnaya Peridotite Xenoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucet, Luc S.; Peslier, Anne H.; Ionov, Dimitri A.; Brandon, Alan D.; Golovin, Alexander V.; Ashchepkov, Igor V.

    2013-01-01

    Water is believed to be a key factor controlling the long-term stability of cratonic lithosphere, but mechanisms responsible for the water content distribution in the mantle remain poorly constrained. Water contents were obtained by FTIR in olivine, pyroxene and garnet for 20 well-characterized peridotite xenoliths from the Udachnaya kimberlite (central Siberian craton) and equilibrated at 2-7 GPa. Water contents in minerals do not appear to be related to interaction with the host kimberlite. Diffusion modeling indicates that the core of olivines preserved their original water contents. The Udachnaya peridotites show a broad range of water contents in olivine (6.5 +/- 1.1 to 323 +- 65 ppm H2O (2 sigma)), and garnet (0 - 23 +/- 6 ppm H2O). The water contents of olivine and garnet are positively correlated with modal clinopyroxene, garnet and FeO in olivine. Water-rich garnets are also rich in middle rare earth elements. This is interpreted as the result of interaction between residual peridotites and water rich-melts, consistent with modal and cryptic metasomatism evidenced in the Siberian cratonic mantle. The most water-rich Udachnaya minerals contain 2 to 3 times more water than those from the Kaapvaal craton, the only craton with an intact mantle root for which water data is available. The highest water contents in olivine and orthopyroxene in this study (>= 300 ppm) are found at the bottom of the lithosphere (> 6.5 GPa). This is in contrast with the Kaapvaal craton where the olivines of peridotites equilibrated at > 6.4 GPa have 6 GPa is lower or similar (8.4× 10(exp 16) to 8.0× 10(exp 18) Pa./s) to that of the asthenosphere (<= 3.7x10(exp 18) Pa./s ). Such lithologies would not be able to resist delamination by the convecting asthenosphere. However, seismology studies as well as the high equilibration pressures of our samples indicate that the Udachnaya cratonic lithosphere is 220-250 km thick. Consequently, the water-rich peridotites are likely not

  13. Recent advances in quantitative high throughput and high content data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutsatsos, Ioannis K; Parker, Christian N

    2016-01-01

    High throughput screening has become a basic technique with which to explore biological systems. Advances in technology, including increased screening capacity, as well as methods that generate multiparametric readouts, are driving the need for improvements in the analysis of data sets derived from such screens. This article covers the recent advances in the analysis of high throughput screening data sets from arrayed samples, as well as the recent advances in the analysis of cell-by-cell data sets derived from image or flow cytometry application. Screening multiple genomic reagents targeting any given gene creates additional challenges and so methods that prioritize individual gene targets have been developed. The article reviews many of the open source data analysis methods that are now available and which are helping to define a consensus on the best practices to use when analyzing screening data. As data sets become larger, and more complex, the need for easily accessible data analysis tools will continue to grow. The presentation of such complex data sets, to facilitate quality control monitoring and interpretation of the results will require the development of novel visualizations. In addition, advanced statistical and machine learning algorithms that can help identify patterns, correlations and the best features in massive data sets will be required. The ease of use for these tools will be important, as they will need to be used iteratively by laboratory scientists to improve the outcomes of complex analyses.

  14. Iodine content of infant formulas and iodine intake of premature babies: high risk of iodine deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ares, S; Quero, J; Durán, S; Presas, M J; Herruzo, R; Morreale de Escobar, G

    1994-11-01

    As part of a study of thyroid function in premature babies, the iodine content of their mothers' breast milk, that of 32 formulas from different brands used in Spain, and that of 127 formulas used in other countries was determined. Breast milk contained more iodine--mean (SEM) 10 (1) microgram/dl--than most of the formulas, especially those for premature babies. Iodine intakes were therefore below the recommended daily amount (RDA) for newborns: babies of 27-30 weeks' gestational age took 3.1 (1.1) micrograms/day at 5 days of age and 29.8 (2.7) micrograms by 2 months of age. This problem is not exclusive to Spanish premature babies as the iodine content of many of the formulas on sale in other countries was also inadequate. It is concluded that preterm infants who are formula fed are at high risk of iodine deficiency.

  15. Data and prediction of water content of high pressure nitrogen, methane and natural gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folas, Georgios; Froyna, E.W.; Lovland, J.;

    2007-01-01

    New data for the equilibrium water content of nitrogen, methane and one natural gas mixture are presented. The new binary data and existing binary sets were compared to calculated values of dew point temperature using both the CPA (Cubic-Plus-Association) EoS and the GERG-water EoS. CPA is purely...... predictive (i.e. all binary interaction parameters are set equal to 0), while GERG-water uses a temperature dependent interaction parameter fitted to published data. The GERG-water model is proposed as an ISO standard for determining the water content of natural gas. The data sets for nitrogen cover...... they have large scatter. The data sets that have been measured at low pressures extrapolate well towards the ideal equilibrium values. The two models show similar results, but differ at high pressure and/or temperature. CPA is shown to extrapolate well for methane-water to 1000 bar and 573 K, and our...

  16. Development of High Strength Steel Designed for Carbonitriding with High Nitrogen Content to Be Used for Automatic Transmission Gears

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Youichi Watanabe

    2004-01-01

    To downsize and lighten automatic transmission components, the gears installed must be strengthened in terms of pitting endurance and/or wear resistance. The most important metallurgical factor affecting fractures is well known to be resistance to softening when steel is tempered at approximately 573 K. Carbonitriding with a high anount of nitrogen is a very effective production technique because nitrogen increases the resistance during tempering. However, structural anomalies begin to appear in the surface layer when the nitrogen content exceeds 0.6 mass% in the chromium steel generally used. To address this, we have developed new high-strength chromium steel with an optimized chemical composition that effectively inhibits anomalies even when carbonitriding with a nitrogen content of more than 0.6 mass%.We performed a drivetrain durability test on an automatic transmission component designed to have excellent contact fatigue strength and a tooth root bending impact and fatigue strength. We found that the developed steel that was carbonitrided with a content of about 0.9 mass%, and then shot peened hard, has a pitting life of roughly 4.5 times that of conventionally manufactured steel.

  17. High N-content a-C:N films elaborated by femtosecond PLD with plasma assistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maddi, C. [Université de Lyon, F-69003, Lyon, France, Université de Saint-Étienne, Laboratoire Hubert Curien (UMR 5516 CNRS) , 42000 Saint-Étienne (France); Donnet, C., E-mail: Christophe.Donnet@univ-st-etienne.fr [Université de Lyon, F-69003, Lyon, France, Université de Saint-Étienne, Laboratoire Hubert Curien (UMR 5516 CNRS) , 42000 Saint-Étienne (France); Loir, A.-S.; Tite, T. [Université de Lyon, F-69003, Lyon, France, Université de Saint-Étienne, Laboratoire Hubert Curien (UMR 5516 CNRS) , 42000 Saint-Étienne (France); Barnier, V. [Laboratoire Georges Friedel, Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines, 42023 Saint-Etienne (France); Rojas, T.C.; Sanchez-Lopez, J.C. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla (CSIC-US) , Avda. Américo Vespucio 49, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Wolski, K. [Laboratoire Georges Friedel, Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines, 42023 Saint-Etienne (France); Garrelie, F. [Université de Lyon, F-69003, Lyon, France, Université de Saint-Étienne, Laboratoire Hubert Curien (UMR 5516 CNRS) , 42000 Saint-Étienne (France)

    2015-03-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Nitrogen doped amorphous carbon films were deposited by DC reactive plasma femtosecond (fs) -PLD and conventional fs-PLD. • High nitrogen content in plasma assisted films. • More ordered sp2 rich graphitic clusters both in terms of structural and topological order. • Correlation length La of the clusters increases with nitrogen incorporation. • Formation of CN bonds at the expense of CC bonds with N content. • At the highest nitrogen concentration, terminal C≡N groups are incorporated in the film. • Correlation between film composition and plasma process. - Abstract: Amorphous carbon nitride (a-C:N) thin films are a interesting class of carbon-based electrode materials. Therefore, synthesis and characterization of these materials have found lot of interest in environmental analytical microsystems. Herein, we report the nitrogen-doped amorphous carbon thin film elaboration by femtosecond pulsed laser deposition (fs-PLD) both with and without a plasma assistance. The chemical composition and atomic bonding configuration of the films were investigated by multi-wavelength (MW) Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). The highest nitrogen content, 28 at.%, was obtained with plasma assistance. The I(D)/I(G) ratio and the G peak position increased as a function of nitrogen concentration, whereas the dispersion and full width at half maximum (FWHM) of G peak decreased. This indicates more ordered graphitic like structures in the films both in terms of topological and structural, depending on the nitrogen content. EELS investigations were correlated with MW Raman results. The interpretation of XPS spectra of carbon nitride films remains a challenge. Plasma assisted PLD in the femtosecond regime led to a significant high nitrogen concentration, which is highlighted on the basis of collisional processes in the carbon plasma plume interacting with the nitrogen

  18. Microspheres with an ultra high holmium content for brachytherapy of malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lira, Raphael A.; Myamoto, Douglas M.; Souza, Jaime R.; Nascimento, Nanci; Azevedo, Mariangela de Burgos M. de [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Biotecnologia; Osso Junior, Joao A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Radiofarmacia; Martinelli, Jose R. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias e Tecnologia de Materiais

    2011-07-01

    The overall objective of this work is to develop biodegradable microspheres intended for internal radiation therapy which provides an improved treatment for hepatic carcinomas. The most studied brachytherapy system employing microspheres made of holmium-biopolymer system is composed by poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) and holmium acetylacetonate (HoAcAc). The importance of the holmium high content in the microspheres can be interpreted as follow from a therapeutic standpoint, to achieve an effective use of microspheres loaded with HoAcAc, a high content of holmium is required to yield enough radioactivity with a relatively low amount of microspheres.The usual amounts of holmium that are incorporated in the microspheres composed by poly(L-lactic acid) and HoAcAc are 17.0 {+-} 0.5% (w/w) of holmium, which corresponds to a loading of about 50% of HoAcAc. Different approaches have been investigated to increase that value. One updated approach towards this direction is the production of microspheres with ultrahigh holmium as matrix using HoAcAc crystals as the sole starting material without the use of biopolymer. Likewise, in the search of microspheres with increased holmium content , it has been demonstrated that by changing the HoAcAc crystal structure by its recrystallization from crystal phase to the amorphous there is lost of acetylacetonate and water molecules causing the increasing of the holmium content. Microspheres were prepared by solvent evaporation, using holmium acetylacetonate (HoAcAc) crystals as the sole ingredient. Microspheres were characterized by using light and scanning electron microscopy, infrared and Raman spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, X-rays diffraction, and confocal laser scanning microscopy. (author)

  19. A Place for Content Literacy: Incorporating Vocabulary and Comprehension Strategies in the High School Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misulis, Katherine E.

    2011-01-01

    To help students learn and apply science content, teachers can embed content literacy instruction within science instruction. This involves teaching the content and the literacy skills students need to learn that content, such as vocabulary and comprehension. In this article, the author provides tips on how to incorporate content literacy…

  20. High content analysis of phagocytic activity and cell morphology with PuntoMorph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ali, Hassan; Gao, Han; Dalby-Hansen, Camilla; Peters, Vanessa Ann; Shi, Yan; Brambilla, Roberta

    2017-11-01

    Phagocytosis is essential for maintenance of normal homeostasis and healthy tissue. As such, it is a therapeutic target for a wide range of clinical applications. The development of phenotypic screens targeting phagocytosis has lagged behind, however, due to the difficulties associated with image-based quantification of phagocytic activity. We present a robust algorithm and cell-based assay system for high content analysis of phagocytic activity. The method utilizes fluorescently labeled beads as a phagocytic substrate with defined physical properties. The algorithm employs statistical modeling to determine the mean fluorescence of individual beads within each image, and uses the information to conduct an accurate count of phagocytosed beads. In addition, the algorithm conducts detailed and sophisticated analysis of cellular morphology, making it a standalone tool for high content screening. We tested our assay system using microglial cultures. Our results recapitulated previous findings on the effects of microglial stimulation on cell morphology and phagocytic activity. Moreover, our cell-level analysis revealed that the two phenotypes associated with microglial activation, specifically cell body hypertrophy and increased phagocytic activity, are not highly correlated. This novel finding suggests the two phenotypes may be under the control of distinct signaling pathways. We demonstrate that our assay system outperforms preexisting methods for quantifying phagocytic activity in multiple dimensions including speed, accuracy, and resolution. We provide a framework to facilitate the development of high content assays suitable for drug screening. For convenience, we implemented our algorithm in a standalone software package, PuntoMorph. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Foraminiferal indicators of high OC content in marine sediments; a question of OC source?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Giudice Cappelli, Elena; Austin, William; Smith, Laura; Ward, Hannah; Clarke, Jess; Green, Jade; Smeaton, Craig

    2017-04-01

    West Shetland voes (sea inlets), on Scotland northern maritime periphery, represent a range of environmental and depositional settings in an area of coastal ocean which is characterised by a generally high organic carbon content in marine sediments. Possible sources of organic carbon are fish farms, as this region is experiencing a large expansion in marine aquaculture, and/or erosion of peatland. Twenty-one sites in six voes were sampled in August 2015 following an organic carbon gradient. The aims of this study are: 1) to establish the modern biogeography of benthic foraminifera in west Shetland voes, 2) to explore the use of these organisms as bio-indicators of high organic carbon content in marine sediments, and 3) to trace the source of organic carbon and its transportation between different habitats and pools (e.g.: terrestrial to marine; marine aquaculture to sediments). To achieve this, we paired together spatial variations in the composition of benthic foraminiferal assemblages (species abundance and diversity) with changes in the physical properties of marine sediments determined by carbon stable isotope measurements and loss on ignition analysis. Preliminary results show a positive relationship between high abundance of the agglutinated benthic foraminifera Eggerelloides scaber, high organic carbon content in the sediments and proximity to fish farms. Although aquaculture farming in these areas may be a contributing factor, radiocarbon dates demonstrate that organic enrichment in the sediments pre-dates the introduction of aquaculture, while carbon stable isotope measurements point to peat erosion as a more likely source of organic carbon in west Shetland voes. Therefore, peatland erosion is a significant source of organic carbon in marine sediments and may be an important contributor to the store of blue carbon in west Shetland voes and, more in general, in the coastal ocean.

  2. New Literacies and Pedagogical Migration: Exploring Impacts of New Literacies on Instruction and Learning in High School Content Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Melody Anne

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the impacts of integrating new literacies practices into high school curriculum content classrooms. This study examined data collected through observations and semi-structured interviews conducted with four high school content curriculum teachers. Analysis of the data resulted in essential findings emerging…

  3. Molecular Assisted Breeding and Adaptability Analysis of Zhongyouza 11 with Super High Oil Content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Using a three-line system of Shaan 2A cytoplasmic male sterility, a hybrid variety rapeseed, Zhongyouza 11, was developed by the combination of traditional methods and a molecular marker-assisted breeding technique. This hybrid variety had high grain yield, high oil content, wide adaptability, and good quality. The oil content of Zhongyouza 11 is steadily above 43% in the three ecological regions along the Yangtze River valley, which is the largest winter oilseed production area in China. The highest oil content of Zhongyouza 11 reached 46.68% in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River valley in 2003-2004, which was the highest among all lines involved in the national regional rapeseed variety trials. In the regional yield trials in Hubei Province, the average yield of Zhongyouza 11 reached 2 853 kg ha-1 (2002-2004), yielding more than the control variety Zhongshuang 6 by 11.34%. In the national trials, the yield of Zhongyouza 11 reached 2 405.7, 2 697.3, and 2 770.2 kg ha-1 in the upper, middle, and lower reaches of the Yangtze River valley, yielding more than the control varieties by 11.52, 12.9, and 14.92%, respectively, in 2003-2005. Both the high oil content and high grain yield contributed to the high oil yield of Zhongyouza 11. The oil yield of Zhongyouza 11 in the national trials reached 1083.3, 1210.2, and 1224.8 kg ha-1, yielding more than the controls by 29.42, 27.65, and 20.98%, respectively, in the upper, middle, and lower reaches of the Yangtze River valley. The highest oil yield reached 1369.65 kg ha-1 in the middle reach of the Yangtze River valley(2003-2004), with an increase of 46.21% compared to the control. The experimental sites distributed widely along the Yangtze River valley, cover most of the Chinese winter rapeseed production areas. Among the 89 experimental location/years, the yield of Zhongyouza 11 surpassed the controls at 77 location/years in the trials, indicating its wide adaptability.Zhongyouza 11 was the only one that passed the

  4. High phosphorylase activity is correlated with increased potato minituber formation and starch content during extended clinorotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedukha, O. M.; Schnyukova, E. I.; Leach, J. E.

    2003-05-01

    The major purpose of these experiments were to investigate growth of potato storage organs and starch synthesis in minitubers at slow horizontal clinorotation (2 rpm), which partly mimics microgravity, and a secondary goal was to study the activity and localization of phosphorylase (EC 2.4.1.1) in storage parenchyma under these conditions. Miniplants of Solanum tuberosum L. (cv Adreta) were grown in culture for 30 days for both the vertical control and the horizontal clinorotation. During long-term clinorotation, an acceleration of minituber formation, and an increase of amyloplast number and size in storage parenchyma cells, as well as increased starch content, was observed in the minitubers. The differences among cytochemical reaction intensity, activity of phosphorylase, and carbohydrate content in storage parenchyma cells of minitubers grown in a horizontal clinostat were established by electron-cytochemical and biochemical methods. It is shown that high phosphorylase activity is correlated with increased starch content during extended clinorotation. The results demonstrate the increase in carbohydrate metabolism and possible accelerated growth of storage organs under the influence of microgravity, as mimicked by clinorotation; therefore, clinorotation can be used as a basis for future studies on mechanisms of starch synthesis under microgravity.

  5. Thermogravimetric Analysis of Effects of High-Content Limstone Addition on Combustion Characteristics of Taixi Anthracite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hong; LI Mei; SUN Min; WEI Xian-yong

    2004-01-01

    Combustion characteristics of Taixi anthracite admixed with high content of limestone addition were investigated with thermogravimetric analysis. The results show that limestone addition has a little promoting effect on the ignition of raw coals as a whole. The addition of limestone is found to significantly accelerate the combustion and burnout of raw coals. The higher the sample mass is, the more significant the effect will be. The results also show that the change of limestone proportion between 45%-80% has little effect on ignition temperatures of coal in the blended samples. Increasing limestone content lowers the temperature corresponding to the maximum weight loss. Although higher maximum mass loss rates are observed with higher limestone content, the effect is found not ascribed to changing limestone addition, but to the decrease of absolute coal mass in the sample. The change of limestone proportion has little effect on its burnout temperature. Mechanism analysis indicates that these phenomena result mainly from improved heat conduction due to limestone addition.

  6. Biodiesel from the seed oil of Treculia africana with high free fatty acid content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adewuyi, Adewale [Redeemer' s University, Department of Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Redemption City, Ogun State (Nigeria); Oderinde, Rotimi A.; Ojo, David F.K. [University of Ibadan, Industrial Unit, Department of Chemistry, Ibadan, Oyo State (Nigeria)

    2012-12-15

    Oil was extracted from the seed of Treculia africana using hexane. The oil was characterized and used in the production of biodiesel. Biodiesel was produced from the seed oil of T. africana using a two-step reaction system. The first step was a pretreatment which involved the use of 2 % sulfuric acid in methanol, and secondly, transesterification reaction using KOH as catalyst. Saponification value of the oil was 201.70 {+-} 0.20 mg KOH/g, free fatty acid was 8.20 {+-} 0.50 %, while iodine value was 118.20 {+-} 0.50 g iodine/100 g. The most dominant fatty acid was C18:2 (44 %). The result of the method applied showed a conversion which has ester content above 98 %, flash point of 131 {+-} 1.30 C, and phosphorus content below 1 ppm in the biodiesel. The biodiesel produced exhibited properties that were in agreement with the European standard (EN 14214). This study showed that the high free fatty acid content of T. africana seed oil can be reduced in a one-step pretreatment of esterification reaction using H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} as catalyst. (orig.)

  7. Factor analysis in optimization of formulation of high content uniformity tablets containing low dose active substance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukášová, Ivana; Muselík, Jan; Franc, Aleš; Goněc, Roman; Mika, Filip; Vetchý, David

    2017-09-11

    Warfarin is intensively discussed drug with narrow therapeutic range. There have been cases of bleeding attributed to varying content or altered quality of the active substance. Factor analysis is useful for finding suitable technological parameters leading to high content uniformity of tablets containing low amount of active substance. The composition of tabletting blend and technological procedure were set with respect to factor analysis of previously published results. The correctness of set parameters was checked by manufacturing and evaluation of tablets containing 1-10mg of warfarin sodium. The robustness of suggested technology was checked by using "worst case scenario" and statistical evaluation of European Pharmacopoeia (EP) content uniformity limits with respect to Bergum division and process capability index (Cpk). To evaluate the quality of active substance and tablets, dissolution method was developed (water; EP apparatus II; 25rpm), allowing for statistical comparison of dissolution profiles. Obtained results prove the suitability of factor analysis to optimize the composition with respect to batches manufactured previously and thus the use of metaanalysis under industrial conditions is feasible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Mutational breeding and genetic engineering in the development of high grain protein content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenefrida, Ida; Utomo, Herry S; Linscombe, Steve D

    2013-12-04

    Cereals are the most important crops in the world for both human consumption and animal feed. Improving their nutritional values, such as high protein content, will have significant implications, from establishing healthy lifestyles to helping remediate malnutrition problems worldwide. Besides providing a source of carbohydrate, grain is also a natural source of dietary fiber, vitamins, minerals, specific oils, and other disease-fighting phytocompounds. Even though cereal grains contain relatively little protein compared to legume seeds, they provide protein for the nutrition of humans and livestock that is about 3 times that of legumes. Most cereal seeds lack a few essential amino acids; therefore, they have imbalanced amino acid profiles. Lysine (Lys), threonine (Thr), methionine (Met), and tryptophan (Trp) are among the most critical and are a limiting factor in many grain crops for human nutrition. Tremendous research has been put into the efforts to improve these essential amino acids. Development of high protein content can be outlined in four different approaches through manipulating seed protein bodies, modulating certain biosynthetic pathways to overproduce essential and limiting amino acids, increasing nitrogen relocation to the grain through the introduction of transgenes, and exploiting new genetic variance. Various technologies have been employed to improve protein content including conventional and mutational breeding, genetic engineering, marker-assisted selection, and genomic analysis. Each approach involves a combination of these technologies. Advancements in nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics continue to improve public knowledge at a rapid pace on the importance of specific aspects of food nutrition for optimum fitness and health. An understanding of the molecular basis for human health and genetic predisposition to certain diseases through human genomes enables individuals to personalize their nutritional requirements. It is critically important

  9. Comparison of three cell fixation methods for high content analysis assays utilizing quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Y; Byrne, S; Bashir, M; Davies, A; Whelan, A; Gun'ko, Y; Kelleher, D; Volkov, Y

    2008-10-01

    Semiconductor nanoparticles or quantum dots are being increasingly utilized as fluorescent probes in cell biology both in live and fixed cell assays. Quantum dots possess an immense potential for use in multiplexing assays that can be run on high content screening analysers. Depending on the nature of the biological target under investigation, experiments are frequently required on cells retaining an intact cell membrane or also on those that have been fixed and permeabilized to expose intracellular antigens. Fixation of cell lines before or after the addition of quantum dots may affect their localization, emission properties and stability. Using a high content analysis platform we perform a quantitative comparative analysis of three common fixation techniques in two different cell lines exposed to carboxylic acid stabilized CdTe quantum dots. Our study demonstrates that in prefixed and permeabilized cells, quantum dots are readily internalized regardless of cell type, and their intracellular location is primarily determined by the properties of the quantum dots themselves. However, if the fixation procedures are preformed on live cells previously incubated with quantum dots, other important factors have to be considered. The choice of the fixative significantly influences the fluorescent characteristics of the quantum dots. Fixatives, regardless of their chemical nature, negatively affected quantum dots fluorescence intensity. Comparative analysis of gluteraldehyde, methanol and paraformaldehyde demonstrated that 2% paraformaldehyde was the fixative of choice. The presence of protein in the media did not significantly alter the quantum dot fluorescence. This study indicates that multiplexing assays utilizing quantum dots, despite being a cutting edge tool for high content cell imaging, still require careful consideration of the basic steps in biological sample processing.

  10. [Characteristics of anaerobic sequencing batch reactor for the treatment of high-solids-content waste].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-jun; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Xi-hui

    2006-06-01

    Based on the experiments of digestion of thermo-hydrolyzed sewage sludge in both mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic sequencing batch reactors (ASBRs) with 20, 10, 7.5, 5d hydraulic retention time (HRT), operating characteristics of ASBR for treatment of high-solids-content waste were investigated. ASBR can efficiently accumulates suspended solids and keep high concentration solids, however there exists a "critical point" of ASBR, which means the maximum capability to accumulate suspended solids without negative effects on ASBR stability, and beyond which the performance deteriorates. Under steady condition, ASBR can sustains high solid retention time (SRT) and mean cell retention time (MCRT), the SRT and MCRT is 2.53 approximately 3.73 and 2.03 approximately 3.14 times of hydraulic retention time (HRT) when treating thermo-hydrolyzed sludge, respectively. Therefore, compared to traditional continuous-flow stirred tank reactor (CSTR), the efficiency of ASBR enhances about 7.13% approximately 34.68%.

  11. FBC desulfurization process using coal with low sulfur content, high oxidizing conditions and metamorphic limestones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Bragança

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A metamorphic limestone and a dolomite were employed as SO2 sorbents in the desulfurization of gas from coal combustion. The tests were performed in a fluidized bed reactor on a bench and pilot scale. Several parameters such as bed temperature, sorbent type, and sorbent particle size at different Ca/S molar ratios were analyzed. These parameters were evaluated for the combustion of coal with low-sulfur/high-ash content, experimental conditions of high air excess and high O2 level in fluidization air. Under these conditions, typical of furnaces, few published data can be found. In this work, a medium level of desulfurization efficiency (~60% for Ca/S = 2 was obtained.

  12. FBC desulfurization process using coal with low sulfur content, high oxidizing conditions and metamorphic limestones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braganca, S.R.; Castellan, J.L. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2009-04-15

    A metamorphic limestone and a dolomite were employed as SO{sub 2} sorbents in the desulfurization of gas from coal combustion. The tests were performed in a fluidized bed reactor on a bench and pilot scale. Several parameters such as bed temperature, sorbent type, and sorbent particle size at different Ca/S molar ratios were analyzed. These parameters were evaluated for the combustion of coal with low-sulfur/high-ash content, experimental conditions of high air excess and high O{sub 2} level in fluidization air. Under these conditions, typical of furnaces, few published data can be found. In this work, a medium level of desulfurization efficiency (similar to 60%) for Ca/S = 2 was obtained.

  13. FBC desulfurization process using coal with low sulfur content, high oxidizing conditions and metamorphic limestones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.R. Braganca; J.L. Castellan [Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    A metamorphic limestone and a dolomite were employed as SO{sub 2} sorbents in the desulfurization of gas from coal combustion. The tests were performed in a fluidised bed reactor on a bench and pilot scale. Several parameters such as bed temperature, sorbent type, and sorbent particle size at different Ca/S molar ratios were analyzed. These parameters were evaluated for the combustion of coal with low-sulfur/high-ash content, experimental conditions of high air excess and high O{sub 2} level in fluidization air. Under these conditions, typical of furnaces, few published data can be found. In this work, a medium level of desulfurization efficiency (about 60%) for Ca/S = 2 was obtained. 25 refs., 5 figs.

  14. Automated analysis of high-content microscopy data with deep learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Oren Z; Grys, Ben T; Ba, Jimmy; Chong, Yolanda; Frey, Brendan J; Boone, Charles; Andrews, Brenda J

    2017-04-18

    Existing computational pipelines for quantitative analysis of high-content microscopy data rely on traditional machine learning approaches that fail to accurately classify more than a single dataset without substantial tuning and training, requiring extensive analysis. Here, we demonstrate that the application of deep learning to biological image data can overcome the pitfalls associated with conventional machine learning classifiers. Using a deep convolutional neural network (DeepLoc) to analyze yeast cell images, we show improved performance over traditional approaches in the automated classification of protein subcellular localization. We also demonstrate the ability of DeepLoc to classify highly divergent image sets, including images of pheromone-arrested cells with abnormal cellular morphology, as well as images generated in different genetic backgrounds and in different laboratories. We offer an open-source implementation that enables updating DeepLoc on new microscopy datasets. This study highlights deep learning as an important tool for the expedited analysis of high-content microscopy data. © 2017 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  15. High-content analysis screening for cell cycle regulators using arrayed synthetic crRNA libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strezoska, Žaklina; Perkett, Matthew R; Chou, Eldon T; Maksimova, Elena; Anderson, Emily M; McClelland, Shawn; Kelley, Melissa L; Vermeulen, Annaleen; Smith, Anja van Brabant

    2017-06-10

    The CRISPR-Cas9 system has been utilized for large-scale, loss-of-function screens mainly using lentiviral pooled formats and cell-survival phenotypic assays. Screening in an arrayed format expands the types of phenotypic readouts that can be used to now include high-content, morphology-based assays, and with the recent availability of synthetic crRNA libraries, new studies are emerging. Here, we use a cell cycle reporter cell line to perform an arrayed, synthetic crRNA:tracrRNA screen targeting 169 genes (>600 crRNAs) and used high content analysis (HCA) to identify genes that regulate the cell cycle. Seven parameters were used to classify cells into cell cycle categories and multiple parameters were combined using a new analysis technique to identify hits. Comprehensive hit follow-up experiments included target gene expression analysis, confirmation of DNA insertions/deletions, and validation with orthogonal reagents. Our results show that most hits had three or more independent crRNAs per gene that demonstrated a phenotype with consistent individual parameters, indicating that our screen produced high-confidence hits with low off-target effects and allowed us to identify hits with more subtle phenotypes. The results of our screen demonstrate the power of using arrayed, synthetic crRNAs for functional phenotypic screening using multiparameter HCA assays. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Detection of abnormally high amygdalin content in food by an enzyme immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, A-Yeon; Yi, Kye Sook; Rhim, Jung-Hyo; Kim, Kyu-Il; Park, Jae-Young; Keum, Eun-Hee; Chung, Junho; Oh, Sangsuk

    2006-04-30

    Amygdalin is a cyanogenic glycoside compound which is commonly found in the pits of many fruits and raw nuts. Although amygdalin itself is not toxic, it can release cyanide (CN) after hydrolysis when the pits and nuts are crushed, moistened and incubated, possibly within the gastrointestinal tract. CN reversibly inhibits cellular oxidizing enzymes and cyanide poisoning generates a range of clinical symptoms. As some pits and nuts may contain unusually high levels of amygdalin such that there is a sufficient amount to induce critical CN poisoning in humans, the detection of abnormal content of amygdalin in those pits and nuts can be a life-saving measure. Although there are various methods to detect amygdalin in food extracts, an enzyme immunoassay has not been developed for this purpose. In this study we immunized New Zealand White rabbits with an amygdalin-KLH (keyhole limpet hemocyanin) conjugate and succeeded in raising anti-sera reactive to amygdalin, proving that amygdalin can behave as a hapten in rabbits. Using this polyclonal antibody, we developed a competition enzyme immunoassay for determination of amygdalin concentration in aqueous solutions. This technique was able to effectively detect abnormally high amygdalin content in various seeds and nuts. In conclusion, we proved that enzyme immunoassay can be used to determine the amount of amygdalin in food extracts, which will allow automated analysis with high throughput.

  17. Tenside-free preparation of nanogels with high functional β-cyclodextrin content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettel, Markus J; Hildebrandt, Haika; Schaefer, Karola; Moeller, Martin; Groll, Juergen

    2012-09-25

    We present the preparation of ultrafine (R(h), 50 -150 nm) nanogels through tenside-free condensation of reactive prepolymers with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) in water. These nanogels possess a maximum content of 60 wt % functional β-CD that can form inclusion complexes as demonstrated by dye sorption with phenolphthalein. Aside of this extremely high uptake capacity to hydrophobic molecules, the nanogels also show good adhesion to surfaces in homogeneous distribution with size of R(h) of 25 nm under dry conditions.

  18. Process Modules for GeSn Nanoelectronics with high Sn-contents

    OpenAIRE

    Schulte-Braucks, C; Glass, S; Hofmann, E; Stange, D; Von Den Driesch, N; Hartmann, JM; Ikonic, Z; Zhao, GT; Buca, D.; Mantl, S

    2017-01-01

    This paper systematically studies GeSn n-FETs, from individual process modules to a complete device. High-k gate stacks and NiGeSn metallic contacts for source and drain are characterized in independent experiments. To study both direct and indirect bandgap semiconductors, a range of 0 at.% to 14.5 at.% Sn-content GeSn alloys are investigated. Special emphasis is placed on capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics and Schottky-barrier optimization. GeSn n-FET devices are presented including t...

  19. Desulphurisation of high moisture content fuel-gases derived from low-rank coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodges, S.; Anderson, B. [HRL Technology, Mulgrave, Vic. (Australia); Abbasian, J.; Slimane, R.B. [Inst. of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    1999-07-01

    Regenerable sulphur sorbent materials have been developed specifically for fluidised-bed desulphurisation of high moisture content fuel-gases derived from the gasification of low-rank coals. Selection of the most appropriate sorbents was based on thermodynamic limitations, strength/attrition resistance, reactivity and sulphur capacity. Pilot-scale tests showed that sorbents based on iron and copper were able to reduce the level of H{sub 2}S in the fuel-gas (up to 2.5 MPa, 350 C) from about 3000 ppmv to less than 100 ppmv. (orig.)

  20. Optimal Dearsenification Parameters of Gold Sulfide Concentrate with a High As Content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yaozhong LAN; Rose W. Smith

    2005-01-01

    The gold sulfide concentrate with a high As content in Liangshan District, Sichuan Province, China, is a potentially important resource. This paper describes experiments of dearsenification of gold concentrate in a weakly reduced atmosphere in a rotary pipe furnace. The results showed that the optimal parameters were a temperature range of 650~700℃, 15%~16% CO2 of gas and a reaction time of 30~40 min. The removal rate of arsenic and sulfur was over 95% and 25%~28%, respectively. With further oxidization and roasting, residue sulfur in the roasted materials was dropped to below 4%, and the cyanide leaching recovery of gold was over 92%.

  1. Non-metallic inclusions structure dimension in high quality steel with medium carbon contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Lipiński

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The experimental material consisted of semi-finished products of high-grade, medium-carbon structural steel. The production process involved two melting technologies: steel melting in a 140-ton basic arc furnace with desulfurization and argon refining variants, and in a 100-ton oxygen converter. Billet samples were collected to analyze the content of non-metallic inclusions with the use of an optical microscope and a video inspection microscope. The results were processed and presented in graphic form.

  2. Identification of Novel Macropinocytosing Human Antibodies by Phage Display and High-Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, K D; Bidlingmaier, S M; Su, Y; Lee, N-K; Liu, B

    2017-01-01

    Internalizing antibodies have great potential for the development of targeted therapeutics. Antibodies that internalize via the macropinocytosis pathway are particularly promising since macropinocytosis is capable of mediating rapid, bulk uptake and is selectively upregulated in many cancers. We hereby describe a method for identifying antibodies that internalize via macropinocytosis by screening phage-displayed single-chain antibody selection outputs with an automated fluorescent microscopy-based high-content analysis platform. Furthermore, this method can be similarly applied to other endocytic pathways if other fluorescent, pathway-specific, soluble markers are available. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Experiences of High School Students about the Predictors of Tobacco Use: a Directed Qualitative Content Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Ghasemi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Tobacco use is one of the most important risk factors that increases the burden of diseases worldwide. Based on the increasing speed of tobacco use, the aim of the present study was to explain the experiences of high school students about the determiners of use and non-use of tobacco (cigarettes and hookah based on the theory of protection motivation. Materials and Methods: The present study is a qualitative study based on content analysis that has been carried out for five months from 22, November of 2014 to 20, April of 2015 on male high schools in Noshahr. Data were collected in the form of semi-structured interviews from 21 male high school students of whom 7 smoked cigarettes, 7 used hookah and 7 of them did not use any type of tobacco. Data analysis was carried out through the use of directed qualitative content analysis. Results: Data analysis led to the extraction of 99 primary codes that were categorized into 9 predetermined levels of protection motivation theory including perceived sensitivity, perceived intensity, fear, perceived self-efficacy, response expense, efficiency of the perceived answer, external perceived reward, internal perceived reward, protection motivation. The findings of the study showed that the most important predictors for the use of tobacco were the structures of response expense and high perceived rewards and the most important predictors for non-use of tobacco were perceived sensitivity, perceived intensity and high self-efficacy of students. Conclusions: the findings of the present study showed that the pressure from peers, being present in a group using tobacco and the absence of alternative recreational activities are among the most important factors of using tobacco. So, it is suggested that planners of the health department take the comprehensive interventions to improve effective individual and environmental factors of using tobacco so that they could reduce smoking cigarettes

  4. Biochemistry in the High School Textbook: A Distance Between Content And Students Reality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Simões-Pires

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Several  contents  have  been  taught  in  a  decontextualized  way  within  the  area  of biology,  one  of  these  contents  is  Biochemistry.  Biochemistry  is  one  of  the  most present subjects in the student’s daily lives, because it can explain a huge number of  processes  that  happens  in  their  routine.  The  textbook  is  the  main  tool  in  the Brazilian  public  high  schools  classrooms,  so  a  huge  number  of  programs  to improve the textbooks were created by the government, like the National Program of the Textbook or PNLD( translated from the Portuguese ‘’Programa Nacional do Livro Didático’’. But despite the efforts to improve the textbook, their quality is still questionable, for such reasons like the distance between contents showed in the textbook and student’s reality. The main objective of this work is to evaluate how the  high  school  textbooks  show  the  content  related  to  biochemistry  and  how  this content is contextualized in the student’s reality.  To achieve this goal we analyzed four  textbooks  that  are  most  frequently  used  in  the  schools  today  and  evaluated parameters  related  with  contextualization  between  the  biochemistry  content  and students  daily  lives  situations.  The  analysis  was  done  on  a  qualitative  way.  We observed  a  lack  of  daily  examples  in  the  biochemical  contents,  an  excess  of scientific terms without clear explanations and also a huge presence of conceptual errors  in  all  four  textbooks.  The  data  showed  here  leads  us  to  conclude  that  the science’s textbooks analyzed in this study are inappropriate to teach biochemistry in an interesting way for the students.

  5. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy as tool for high-content-screening in yeast (HCS-FCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Christopher; Huff, Joseph; Marshall, Will; Yu, Elden Qingfeng; Unruh, Jay; Slaughter, Brian; Wiegraebe, Winfried

    2011-03-01

    To measure protein interactions, diffusion properties, and local concentrations in single cells, Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS) is a well-established and widely accepted method. However, measurements can take a long time and are laborious. Therefore investigations are typically limited to tens or a few hundred cells. We developed an automated system to overcome these limitations and make FCS available for High Content Screening (HCS). We acquired data in an auto-correlation screen of more than 4000 of the 6000 proteins of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, tagged with eGFP and expanded the HCS to use cross-correlation between eGFP and mCherry tagged proteins to screen for molecular interactions. We performed all high-content FCS screens (HCS-FCS) in a 96 well plate format. The system is based on an extended Carl Zeiss fluorescence correlation spectrometer ConfoCor 3 attached to a confocal microscope LSM 510. We developed image-processing software to control these hardware components. The confocal microscope obtained overview images and we developed an algorithm to search for and detect single cells. At each cell, we positioned a laser beam at a well-defined point and recorded the fluctuation signal. We used automatic scoring of the signal for quality control. All data was stored and organized in a database based on the open source Open Microscopy Environment (OME) platform. To analyze the data we used the image processing language IDL and the open source statistical software package R.

  6. BioSig3D: High Content Screening of Three-Dimensional Cell Culture Models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemal Cagatay Bilgin

    Full Text Available BioSig3D is a computational platform for high-content screening of three-dimensional (3D cell culture models that are imaged in full 3D volume. It provides an end-to-end solution for designing high content screening assays, based on colony organization that is derived from segmentation of nuclei in each colony. BioSig3D also enables visualization of raw and processed 3D volumetric data for quality control, and integrates advanced bioinformatics analysis. The system consists of multiple computational and annotation modules that are coupled together with a strong use of controlled vocabularies to reduce ambiguities between different users. It is a web-based system that allows users to: design an experiment by defining experimental variables, upload a large set of volumetric images into the system, analyze and visualize the dataset, and either display computed indices as a heatmap, or phenotypic subtypes for heterogeneity analysis, or download computed indices for statistical analysis or integrative biology. BioSig3D has been used to profile baseline colony formations with two experiments: (i morphogenesis of a panel of human mammary epithelial cell lines (HMEC, and (ii heterogeneity in colony formation using an immortalized non-transformed cell line. These experiments reveal intrinsic growth properties of well-characterized cell lines that are routinely used for biological studies. BioSig3D is being released with seed datasets and video-based documentation.

  7. Human pluripotent stem cells on artificial microenvironments: a high content perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyalakshmi eViswanathan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Self-renewing stem cell populations are increasingly considered as resources for cell therapy and tools for drug discovery. Human pluripotent stem (hPS cells in particular offer a virtually unlimited reservoir of homogeneous cells and can be differentiated towards diverse lineages. Many diseases show impairment in self-renewal or differentiation, abnormal lineage choice or other aberrant cell behavior in response to chemical or physical cues. To investigate these responses, there is a growing interest in the development of specific assays using hPS cells artificial microenvironments and high content analysis. Several hurdles need to be overcome that can be grouped in: (i availability of robust, homogeneous and consistent cell populations as a starting point; (ii appropriate understanding and use of chemical and physical microenvironments; (iii development of assays that dissect the complexity of cell populations in tissues while mirroring specific aspects of their behavior. Here we review recent progress in the culture of hPS cells and we detail the importance of the environment surrounding the cells with a focus on synthetic material and suitable high content analysis approaches. The technologies described if properly combined have the potential to create a paradigm shift in the way diseases are modelled and drug discovery is performed.

  8. A Liposomal Formulation Able to Incorporate a High Content of Paclitaxel and Exert Promising Anticancer Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Kan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A liposome formulation for paclitaxel was developed in this study. The liposomes, composed of naturally unsaturated and hydrogenated phosphatidylcholines, with significant phase transition temperature difference, were prepared and characterized. The liposomes exhibited a high content of paclitaxel, which was incorporated within the segregated microdomains coexisting on phospholipid bilayer of liposomes. As much as 15% paclitaxel to phospholipid molar ratio were attained without precipitates observed during preparation. In addition, the liposomes remained stable in liquid form at 4∘C for at least 6 months. The special composition of liposomal membrane which could reduce paclitaxel aggregation could account for such a capacity and stability. The cytotoxicity of prepared paclitaxel liposomes on the colon cancer C-26 cell culture was comparable to Taxol. Acute toxicity test revealed that LD50 for intravenous bolus injection in mice exceeded by 40 mg/kg. In antitumor efficacy study, the prepared liposomal paclitaxel demonstrated the increase in the efficacy against human cancer in animal model. Taken together, the novel formulated liposomes can incorporate high content of paclitaxel, remaining stable for long-term storage. These animal data also demonstrate that the liposomal paclitaxel is promising for further clinical use.

  9. Quantitative high content imaging of cellular adaptive stress response pathways in toxicity for chemical safety assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wink, Steven; Hiemstra, Steven; Huppelschoten, Suzanna; Danen, Erik; Niemeijer, Marije; Hendriks, Giel; Vrieling, Harry; Herpers, Bram; van de Water, Bob

    2014-03-17

    Over the past decade, major leaps forward have been made on the mechanistic understanding and identification of adaptive stress response landscapes underlying toxic insult using transcriptomics approaches. However, for predictive purposes of adverse outcome several major limitations in these approaches exist. First, the limited number of samples that can be analyzed reduces the in depth analysis of concentration-time course relationships for toxic stress responses. Second these transcriptomics analysis have been based on the whole cell population, thereby inevitably preventing single cell analysis. Third, transcriptomics is based on the transcript level, totally ignoring (post)translational regulation. We believe these limitations are circumvented with the application of high content analysis of relevant toxicant-induced adaptive stress signaling pathways using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter cell-based assays. The goal is to establish a platform that incorporates all adaptive stress pathways that are relevant for toxicity, with a focus on drug-induced liver injury. In addition, cellular stress responses typically follow cell perturbations at the subcellular organelle level. Therefore, we complement our reporter line panel with reporters for specific organelle morphometry and function. Here, we review the approaches of high content imaging of cellular adaptive stress responses to chemicals and the application in the mechanistic understanding and prediction of chemical toxicity at a systems toxicology level.

  10. High-content analysis of single cells directly assembled on CMOS sensor based on color imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Saeki, Tatsuya; Sunaga, Yoshihiko; Matsunaga, Tadashi

    2010-12-15

    A complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor was applied to high-content analysis of single cells which were assembled closely or directly onto the CMOS sensor surface. The direct assembling of cell groups on CMOS sensor surface allows large-field (6.66 mm×5.32 mm in entire active area of CMOS sensor) imaging within a second. Trypan blue-stained and non-stained cells in the same field area on the CMOS sensor were successfully distinguished as white- and blue-colored images under white LED light irradiation. Furthermore, the chemiluminescent signals of each cell were successfully visualized as blue-colored images on CMOS sensor only when HeLa cells were placed directly on the micro-lens array of the CMOS sensor. Our proposed approach will be a promising technique for real-time and high-content analysis of single cells in a large-field area based on color imaging.

  11. Development of high-content assays for kidney progenitor cell expansion in transgenic zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanker, Subramaniam; Cirio, Maria Cecilia; Vollmer, Laura L; Goldberg, Natasha D; McDermott, Lee A; Hukriede, Neil A; Vogt, Andreas

    2013-12-01

    Reactivation of genes normally expressed during organogenesis is a characteristic of kidney regeneration. Enhancing this reactivation could potentially be a therapeutic target to augment kidney regeneration. The inductive events that drive kidney organogenesis in zebrafish are similar to the initial steps in mammalian kidney organogenesis. Therefore, quantifying embryonic signals that drive zebrafish kidney development is an attractive strategy for the discovery of potential novel therapeutic modalities that accelerate kidney regeneration. The Lim1 homeobox protein, Lhx1, is a marker of kidney development that is also expressed in the regenerating kidneys after injury. Using a fluorescent Lhx1a-EGFP transgene whose phenotype faithfully recapitulates that of the endogenous protein, we developed a high-content assay for Lhx1a-EGFP expression in transgenic zebrafish embryos employing an artificial intelligence-based image analysis method termed cognition network technology (CNT). Implementation of the CNT assay on high-content readers enabled automated real-time in vivo time-course, dose-response, and variability studies in the developing embryo. The Lhx1a assay was complemented with a kidney-specific secondary CNT assay that enables direct measurements of the embryonic renal tubule cell population. The integration of fluorescent transgenic zebrafish embryos with automated imaging and artificial intelligence-based image analysis provides an in vivo analysis system for structure-activity relationship studies and de novo discovery of novel agents that augment innate regenerative processes.

  12. Two-step in situ biodiesel production from microalgae with high free fatty acid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Tao; Wang, Jun; Miao, Chao; Zheng, Yubin; Chen, Shulin

    2013-05-01

    The yield of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) from microalgae biomass is generally low via traditional extraction-conversion route due to the deficient solvent extraction. In this study a two-step in situ process was investigated to obtain a high FAME yield from microalgae biomass that had high free fatty acids (FFA) content. This was accomplished with a pre-esterification process using heterogeneous catalyst to reduce FFA content prior to the base-catalyzed transesterification. The two-step in situ process resulted in a total FAME recovery up to 94.87±0.86%, which was much higher than that obtained by a one-step acid or base catalytic in situ process. The heterogeneous catalyst, Amberlyst-15, could be used for 8 cycles without significant loss in activity. This process have the potential to reduce the production cost of microalgae-derived FAME and be more environmental compatible due to the higher FAME yield with reduced catalyst consumption.

  13. Optical High Content Nanoscopy of Epigenetic Marks Decodes Phenotypic Divergence in Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joseph J.; Bennett, Neal K.; Devita, Mitchel S.; Chahar, Sanjay; Viswanath, Satish; Lee, Eunjee A.; Jung, Giyoung; Shao, Paul P.; Childers, Erin P.; Liu, Shichong; Kulesa, Anthony; Garcia, Benjamin A.; Becker, Matthew L.; Hwang, Nathaniel S.; Madabhushi, Anant; Verzi, Michael P.; Moghe, Prabhas V.

    2017-01-01

    While distinct stem cell phenotypes follow global changes in chromatin marks, single-cell chromatin technologies are unable to resolve or predict stem cell fates. We propose the first such use of optical high content nanoscopy of histone epigenetic marks (epi-marks) in stem cells to classify emergent cell states. By combining nanoscopy with epi-mark textural image informatics, we developed a novel approach, termed EDICTS (Epi-mark Descriptor Imaging of Cell Transitional States), to discern chromatin organizational changes, demarcate lineage gradations across a range of stem cell types and robustly track lineage restriction kinetics. We demonstrate the utility of EDICTS by predicting the lineage progression of stem cells cultured on biomaterial substrates with graded nanotopographies and mechanical stiffness, thus parsing the role of specific biophysical cues as sensitive epigenetic drivers. We also demonstrate the unique power of EDICTS to resolve cellular states based on epi-marks that cannot be detected via mass spectrometry based methods for quantifying the abundance of histone post-translational modifications. Overall, EDICTS represents a powerful new methodology to predict single cell lineage decisions by integrating high content super-resolution nanoscopy and imaging informatics of the nuclear organization of epi-marks. PMID:28051095

  14. BioSig3D: High Content Screening of Three-Dimensional Cell Culture Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgin, Cemal Cagatay; Fontenay, Gerald; Cheng, Qingsu; Chang, Hang; Han, Ju; Parvin, Bahram

    2016-01-01

    BioSig3D is a computational platform for high-content screening of three-dimensional (3D) cell culture models that are imaged in full 3D volume. It provides an end-to-end solution for designing high content screening assays, based on colony organization that is derived from segmentation of nuclei in each colony. BioSig3D also enables visualization of raw and processed 3D volumetric data for quality control, and integrates advanced bioinformatics analysis. The system consists of multiple computational and annotation modules that are coupled together with a strong use of controlled vocabularies to reduce ambiguities between different users. It is a web-based system that allows users to: design an experiment by defining experimental variables, upload a large set of volumetric images into the system, analyze and visualize the dataset, and either display computed indices as a heatmap, or phenotypic subtypes for heterogeneity analysis, or download computed indices for statistical analysis or integrative biology. BioSig3D has been used to profile baseline colony formations with two experiments: (i) morphogenesis of a panel of human mammary epithelial cell lines (HMEC), and (ii) heterogeneity in colony formation using an immortalized non-transformed cell line. These experiments reveal intrinsic growth properties of well-characterized cell lines that are routinely used for biological studies. BioSig3D is being released with seed datasets and video-based documentation.

  15. The Gray Institute ‘open’ high-content, fluorescence lifetime microscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    BARBER, PR; TULLIS, IDC; PIERCE, GP; NEWMAN, RG; PRENTICE, J; ROWLEY, MI; MATTHEWS, DR; AMEER-BEG, SM; VOJNOVIC, B

    2013-01-01

    Summary We describe a microscopy design methodology and details of microscopes built to this ‘open’ design approach. These demonstrate the first implementation of time-domain fluorescence microscopy in a flexible automated platform with the ability to ease the transition of this and other advanced microscopy techniques from development to use in routine biology applications. This approach allows easy expansion and modification of the platform capabilities, as it moves away from the use of a commercial, monolithic, microscope body to small, commercial off-the-shelf and custom made modular components. Drawings and diagrams of our microscopes have been made available under an open license for noncommercial use at http://users.ox.ac.uk/~atdgroup. Several automated high-content fluorescence microscope implementations have been constructed with this design framework and optimized for specific applications with multiwell plates and tissue microarrays. In particular, three platforms incorporate time-domain FLIM via time-correlated single photon counting in an automated fashion. We also present data from experiments performed on these platforms highlighting their automated wide-field and laser scanning capabilities designed for high-content microscopy. Devices using these designs also form radiation-beam ‘end-stations’ at Oxford and Surrey Universities, showing the versatility and extendibility of this approach. PMID:23772985

  16. Corrosion Behavior of the Stressed Sensitized Austenitic Stainless Steels of High Nitrogen Content in Seawater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Almubarak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of high nitrogen content on corrosion behavior of austenitic stainless steels in seawater under severe conditions such as tensile stresses and existence of sensitization in the structure. A constant tensile stress has been applied to sensitized specimens types 304, 316L, 304LN, 304NH, and 316NH stainless steels. Microstructure investigation revealed various degrees of stress corrosion cracking. SCC was severe in type 304, moderate in types 316L and 304LN, and very slight in types 304NH and 316NH. The electrochemical polarization curves showed an obvious second current peak for the sensitized alloys which indicated the existence of second phase in the structure and the presence of intergranular stress corrosion cracking. EPR test provided a rapid and efficient nondestructive testing method for showing passivity, degree of sensitization and determining IGSCC for stainless steels in seawater. A significant conclusion was obtained that austenitic stainless steels of high nitrogen content corrode at a much slower rate increase pitting resistance and offer an excellent resistance to stress corrosion cracking in seawater.

  17. Kenaf Powder Filled Recycled High Density Polyethylene/Natural Rubber Biocomposites: The Effect of Filler Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Viet Cao

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The performance of kenaf powder (KP as filler for recycled high density polyethylene (rHDPE/natural rubber (NR thermoplastic elastomer (TPE composites was investigated. The composites with different filler loading were prepared in a Haake internal mixer. Increasing KP loading in rHDPE/NR/KP biocomposites reduced the tensile strength, elongation at break but increased the stabilization torque and the tensile modulus. SEM study of fracture surface indicated that fibrillation of rHDPE was reduced and detachment of kenaf powder from polymer matrix was present particularly at high filler loading. These observations were responsible for the deterioration of tensile strength and elongation at break of rHDPE/NR/KP biocomposites. Water absorption study also showed that the water absorption of these biocomposites increased with increasing KP content.

  18. High-Content Analysis of CRISPR-Cas9 Gene-Edited Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared Carlson-Stevermer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing of human cells and tissues holds much promise to advance medicine and biology, but standard editing methods require weeks to months of reagent preparation and selection where much or all of the initial edited samples are destroyed during analysis. ArrayEdit, a simple approach utilizing surface-modified multiwell plates containing one-pot transcribed single-guide RNAs, separates thousands of edited cell populations for automated, live, high-content imaging and analysis. The approach lowers the time and cost of gene editing and produces edited human embryonic stem cells at high efficiencies. Edited genes can be expressed in both pluripotent stem cells and differentiated cells. This preclinical platform adds important capabilities to observe editing and selection in situ within complex structures generated by human cells, ultimately enabling optical and other molecular perturbations in the editing workflow that could refine the specificity and versatility of gene editing.

  19. Comparison of multivariate data analysis strategies for high-content screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kümmel, Anne; Selzer, Paul; Beibel, Martin; Gubler, Hanspeter; Parker, Christian N; Gabriel, Daniela

    2011-03-01

    High-content screening (HCS) is increasingly used in biomedical research generating multivariate, single-cell data sets. Before scoring a treatment, the complex data sets are processed (e.g., normalized, reduced to a lower dimensionality) to help extract valuable information. However, there has been no published comparison of the performance of these methods. This study comparatively evaluates unbiased approaches to reduce dimensionality as well as to summarize cell populations. To evaluate these different data-processing strategies, the prediction accuracies and the Z' factors of control compounds of a HCS cell cycle data set were monitored. As expected, dimension reduction led to a lower degree of discrimination between control samples. A high degree of classification accuracy was achieved when the cell population was summarized on well level using percentile values. As a conclusion, the generic data analysis pipeline described here enables a systematic review of alternative strategies to analyze multiparametric results from biological systems.

  20. Selective-plane illumination microscopy for high-content volumetric biological imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGorty, Ryan; Huang, Bo

    2016-03-01

    Light-sheet microscopy, also named selective-plane illumination microscopy, enables optical sectioning with minimal light delivered to the sample. Therefore, it allows one to gather volumetric datasets of developing embryos and other light-sensitive samples over extended times. We have configured a light-sheet microscope that, unlike most previous designs, can image samples in formats compatible with high-content imaging. Our microscope can be used with multi-well plates or with microfluidic devices. In designing our optical system to accommodate these types of sample holders we encounter large optical aberrations. We counter these aberrations with both static optical components in the imaging path and with adaptive optics. Potential applications of this microscope include studying the development of a large number of embryos in parallel and over long times with subcellular resolution and doing high-throughput screens on organisms or cells where volumetric data is necessary.

  1. Performance of a commercial inoculum for the aerobic biodegradation of a high fat content dairy wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loperena, Lyliam; Ferrari, Mario Daniel; Saravia, Verónica; Murro, Daiman; Lima, Cynthia; Ferrando, Lucía; Fernández, Ana; Lareo, Claudia

    2007-03-01

    The effectiveness of a commercial inoculum for degrading a dairy wastewater with high fat content was evaluated, and compared with an activated sludge inoculum from a dairy wastewater treatment pond. Both inocula reached similar chemical oxygen demand removal in batch experiments. The population dynamics was also studied by determining heterotrophic counts. Predominant microorganisms were differentiated by colony morphology and genomic fingerprinting (BOX-PCR) analysis. The higher population diversity and the wider range of CO2 production rate observed in batch reactors inoculated with activated-sludge, indicated that microorganisms from this inoculum were well adapted and may have had synergic activity for the degradation of the dairy effluent. When the bioreactor was operated with the commercial inoculum in continuous mode, according to its microbial growth kinetics, other microorganisms became predominant. These results showed that inoculated microorganisms did not persist in the open system and periodic addition of microorganisms may be needed to achieve a high performance treatment.

  2. Construction and validation of two metagenomic DNA libraries from Cerrado soil with high clay content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Alinne Pereira; Quirino, Betania Ferraz; Allen, Heather; Williamson, Lynn L; Handelsman, Jo; Krüger, Ricardo Henrique

    2011-11-01

    A challenge of metagenomic studies is in the extraction and purification of DNA from environmental samples. The soils of the Cerrado region of Brazil present several technical difficulties to DNA extraction: high clay content (>55% w/w), low pH (4.7) and high iron levels (146 ppm). Here we describe for the first time the efficient recovery and purification of microbial DNA associated with these unusual soil characteristics and the construction and validation of two metagenomic libraries: a 150,000 clones library with insert size of approximately 8 kb and a 65,000 clones library with insert size of approximately 35 kb. The construction of these metagenomic libraries will allow the biotechnological exploitation of the microbial community present in the soil from this endangered biome.

  3. High-Content Analysis of CRISPR-Cas9 Gene-Edited Human Embryonic Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson-Stevermer, Jared; Goedland, Madelyn; Steyer, Benjamin; Movaghar, Arezoo; Lou, Meng; Kohlenberg, Lucille; Prestil, Ryan; Saha, Krishanu

    2016-01-12

    CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing of human cells and tissues holds much promise to advance medicine and biology, but standard editing methods require weeks to months of reagent preparation and selection where much or all of the initial edited samples are destroyed during analysis. ArrayEdit, a simple approach utilizing surface-modified multiwell plates containing one-pot transcribed single-guide RNAs, separates thousands of edited cell populations for automated, live, high-content imaging and analysis. The approach lowers the time and cost of gene editing and produces edited human embryonic stem cells at high efficiencies. Edited genes can be expressed in both pluripotent stem cells and differentiated cells. This preclinical platform adds important capabilities to observe editing and selection in situ within complex structures generated by human cells, ultimately enabling optical and other molecular perturbations in the editing workflow that could refine the specificity and versatility of gene editing.

  4. Salvinorin A content in legal high products of Salvia divinorum sold in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Bello, Rafael; García-Rodríguez, Rosa Virginia; García-Sosa, Karlina; Peña-Rodríguez, Luis Manuel; Vázquez-Hernández, Maribel; Ramos-Morales, Fernando Rafael; Corcoran, Olivia; Sánchez-Medina, Alberto

    2015-04-01

    Salvia divinorum (Lamiaceae) is a herb native to Mexico where it is used by Mazatec shamans for spiritual and divination purposes. S. divinorum products are easily available to consumers and are used worldwide as legal highs because of the hallucinogenic effects caused mainly by salvinorin A. Highly popular videos and websites on the internet depicting the use of S. divinorum products have contributed to an increase in their consumption. Recent reports have highlighted the potential of these products to induce psychosis in consumers. In Mexico, dried leaf extracts of S. divinorum are sold in different strengths, claiming to correlate with increasing amounts of salvinorin A. In order to determine the variability of salvinorin A content between brands and to investigate possible correlation between brand strengths, this study sought to quantify salvinorin A in commercial products available in Mexico using an HPLC method. The HPLC analytical method showed a correlation coefficient R(2)>0.99, with LOD of 0.44 μg/mL and LOQ of 1.34 μg/mL. The retention time for salvinorin A was 23.09±0.95 min and the measured concentrations ranged between 8.32±0.65 and 56.52±3.77 mg/g dried leaf. The results for brand c did not show an agreement between the declared and the calculated amount of salvinorin A. Additionally, the emergence in Mexico of high strength salvia products (100×), the lack of regulation and the observed variability of salvinorin A content between brands of commercial legal highs products of S. divinorum could result in a health problem for consumers.

  5. High-content analysis of sequential events during the early phase of influenza A virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Indranil; Yamauchi, Yohei; Helenius, Ari; Horvath, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Influenza A virus (IAV) represents a worldwide threat to public health by causing severe morbidity and mortality every year. Due to high mutation rate, new strains of IAV emerge frequently. These IAVs are often drug-resistant and require vaccine reformulation. A promising approach to circumvent this problem is to target host cell determinants crucial for IAV infection, but dispensable for the cell. Several RNAi-based screens have identified about one thousand cellular factors that promote IAV infection. However, systematic analyses to determine their specific functions are lacking. To address this issue, we developed quantitative, imaging-based assays to dissect seven consecutive steps in the early phases of IAV infection in tissue culture cells. The entry steps for which we developed the assays were: virus binding to the cell membrane, endocytosis, exposure to low pH in endocytic vacuoles, acid-activated fusion of viral envelope with the vacuolar membrane, nucleocapsid uncoating in the cytosol, nuclear import of viral ribonucleoproteins, and expression of the viral nucleoprotein. We adapted the assays to automated microscopy and optimized them for high-content screening. To quantify the image data, we performed both single and multi-parametric analyses, in combination with machine learning. By time-course experiments, we determined the optimal time points for each assay. Our quality control experiments showed that the assays were sufficiently robust for high-content analysis. The methods we describe in this study provide a powerful high-throughput platform to understand the host cell processes, which can eventually lead to the discovery of novel anti-pathogen strategies.

  6. Interaction genotype by season and its influence on the identification of beans with high content of zinc and iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Andrade Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The mineral contents in common bean seeds are influenced, in addition to genetic variation, by environmental crop conditions, especially by the soil type and chemical composition and by the genotype x environment interaction. This study was carried out to verify if the zinc and iron contents are affected by the crop growing period. Ten lines with high iron and zinc contents and ten with low contents were assessed in three seasons: "wet season" of 2009/2010 (sowing in November; "dry season" of 2010 (sowing in February and "winter season" of 2010 (sowing in July, in Lavras, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The experimental design used was randomized blocks with three replications and plots consisting of two rows of two meters, with a spacing of 0.50 m. The seeds harvested were assessed in regard to iron and zinc mineral contents. The greatest contents were observed in the winter season and the smallest ones in the dry season, with sowing in February. It was observed that in the mean of the three harvests, the lines classified as having high iron and zinc content exhibited an iron quantity 11.0% and a zinc quantity 6.8% above those of low content. The lines by seasons interaction occurs. However, its interference in identification of the groups with high and low content of the two nutrients is not great.

  7. Low Temperature Deposition of High-k/Metal Gate Stacks on High-Sn Content (Si)GeSn-Alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte-Braucks, C; von den Driesch, N; Glass, S; Tiedemann, A T; Breuer, U; Besmehn, A; Hartmann, J-M; Ikonic, Z; Zhao, Q T; Mantl, S; Buca, D

    2016-05-25

    (Si)GeSn is an emerging group IV alloy system offering new exciting properties, with great potential for low power electronics due to the fundamental direct band gap and prospects as high mobility material. In this Article, we present a systematic study of HfO2/TaN high-k/metal gate stacks on (Si)GeSn ternary alloys and low temperature processes for large scale integration of Sn based alloys. Our investigations indicate that SiGeSn ternaries show enhanced thermal stability compared to GeSn binaries, allowing the use of the existing Si technology. Despite the multielemental interface and large Sn content of up to 14 atom %, the HfO2/(Si)GeSn capacitors show small frequency dispersion and stretch-out. The formed TaN/HfO2/(Si)GeSn capacitors present a low leakage current of 2 × 10(-8) A/cm(2) at -1 V and a high breakdown field of ∼8 MV/cm. For large Sn content SiGeSn/GeSn direct band gap heterostructures, process temperatures below 350 °C are required for integration. We developed an atomic vapor deposition process for TaN metal gate on HfO2 high-k dielectric and validated it by resistivity as well as temperature and frequency dependent capacitance-voltage measurements of capacitors on SiGeSn and GeSn. The densities of interface traps are deduced to be in the low 10(12) cm(-2) eV(-1) range and do not depend on the Sn-concentration. The new processes developed here are compatible with (Si)GeSn integration in large scale applications.

  8. A multi-functional imaging approach to high-content protein interaction screening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R Matthews

    Full Text Available Functional imaging can provide a level of quantification that is not possible in what might be termed traditional high-content screening. This is due to the fact that the current state-of-the-art high-content screening systems take the approach of scaling-up single cell assays, and are therefore based on essentially pictorial measures as assay indicators. Such phenotypic analyses have become extremely sophisticated, advancing screening enormously, but this approach can still be somewhat subjective. We describe the development, and validation, of a prototype high-content screening platform that combines steady-state fluorescence anisotropy imaging with fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM. This functional approach allows objective, quantitative screening of small molecule libraries in protein-protein interaction assays. We discuss the development of the instrumentation, the process by which information on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET can be extracted from wide-field, acceptor fluorescence anisotropy imaging and cross-checking of this modality using lifetime imaging by time-correlated single-photon counting. Imaging of cells expressing protein constructs where eGFP and mRFP1 are linked with amino-acid chains of various lengths (7, 19 and 32 amino acids shows the two methodologies to be highly correlated. We validate our approach using a small-scale inhibitor screen of a Cdc42 FRET biosensor probe expressed in epidermoid cancer cells (A431 in a 96 microwell-plate format. We also show that acceptor fluorescence anisotropy can be used to measure variations in hetero-FRET in protein-protein interactions. We demonstrate this using a screen of inhibitors of internalization of the transmembrane receptor, CXCR4. These assays enable us to demonstrate all the capabilities of the instrument, image processing and analytical techniques that have been developed. Direct correlation between acceptor anisotropy and donor FLIM is observed for FRET

  9. High water contents in basaltic melt inclusions from Arenal volcano, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, J. A.; Plank, T.; Hauri, E. H.; Melson, W. G.; Soto, G. J.

    2004-12-01

    Despite the importance of water to arc magma genesis, fractionation and eruption, few quantitative constraints exist on the water content of Arenal magmas. Early estimates, by electron microprobe sum deficit, suggested up to 4 wt% H2O in olivine-hosted basaltic andesite melt inclusions (MI) from pre-historic ET-6 tephra (Melson, 1982), and up to 7 wt% H2O in plagioclase and orthopyroxene-hosted dacitic MI from 1968 lapilli (Anderson, 1979). These high water contents are consistent with abundant hornblende phenocrysts in Arenal volcanics, but inconsistent with geochemical tracers such as 10Be and Ba/La that suggest a low flux of recycled material (and presumably water) from the subduction zone. In order to test these ideas, and provide the first direct measurements of water in mafic Arenal magmas, we have studied olivine-hosted MI from the prehistoric (900 yBP; Soto et al., 1998) ET3 tephra layer. MI range from andesitic (> 58% SiO2) to basaltic compositions ( 4 wt%) found here for Arenal basaltic MI support the semi-quantitative data from earlier studies, but are somewhat unexpected given predictions from slab tracers. Arenal water contents (4%) approach those of the 1995 eruption of Cerro Negro in Nicaragua (4-5 wt% in basaltic MI; Roggensack et al., 1997), despite the fact that the latter has Ba/La of > 100, while Arenal has Ba/La Boletin de Volcanologia; Roggensack et al. (1997) Science; Soto et al. (1998) OSIVAM; Williams-Jones et al. (2001) Journal of Volc. and Geoth. Res.

  10. Noble strain of Sparassis latifolia produces high content of β-glucan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong; Ju; Lee; Min; Cheol; Jang; A; Ra; Jo; Hyun; Jun; Choi; Kwang-Sang; Kim; Youn-Tae; Chi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To classify four new Sparassis strains(CLM1, CKM1, CKM2, and KJM1) using the internal transcribed spacer sequence and to elucidate their β-glucan content and mycelial growth.Methods: Two different microbiological media were used to determine growth rate. The β-glucan contents were analyzed using the Megazyme Mushroom and Yeast Beta-Glucan kit. To determine the genetic relationships, phylogenetic trees were constructed using ClustalX. Multiple sequence alignments were printed and shaded with the BOXSHADE 3.21 program. Results: In this study, four new Sparassis strains were isolated from the southern region of the Korea Peninsula. They were all classified into the Sparassis latifolia clade as a monophyletic group based on the internal transcribed spacer sequence. Mycelial growth rate of the CLM1 strain was highest in potato dextrose agar and potato dextrose agar larch. The β-glucan content of the CLM1 strain was highest at 29.5%(w/w). A high degree of sequence divergence was detected in the RNA polymerase second largest subunit II gene(RPB2) within Sparassis spp. tested. The putative amino acid sequences of the RPB2 had a distinct sequence. The nucleotide sequences of the RPB2’s intron were also divergent among Sparassis spp., even though their nucleotide length was well conserved within Sparassis latifolia. Conclusions: These results indicate that the nucleotide sequences and the amino acid sequences of RPB2 can be used to identify individual Sparassis sp. The Sparassis strain CLM1 may be best for developing a remedy to prevent or treat cancer and other chronic diseases.

  11. Fat content increases the lethality of ultra-high-pressure homogenization on Listeria monocytogenes in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roig-Sagués, A X; Velázquez, R M; Montealegre-Agramont, P; López-Pedemonte, T J; Briñez-Zambrano, W J; Guamis-López, B; Hernandez-Herrero, M M

    2009-11-01

    Listeria monocytogenes CCUG 15526 was inoculated at a concentration of approximately 7.0 log(10) cfu/mL in milk samples with 0.3, 3.6, 10, and 15% fat contents. Milk samples with 0.3 and 3.6% fat content were also inoculated with a lower load of approximately 3.0 log(10) cfu/mL. Inoculated milk samples were subjected to a single cycle of ultra-high-pressure homogenization (UHPH) treatment at 200, 300, and 400 MPa. Microbiological analyses were performed 2 h after the UHPH treatments and after 5, 8, and 15 d of storage at 4 degrees C. Maximum lethality values were observed in samples treated at 400 MPa with 15 and 10% fat (7.95 and 7.46 log(10) cfu/mL), respectively. However, in skimmed and 3.6% fat milk samples, complete inactivation was not achieved and, during the subsequent 15 d of storage at 4 degrees C, L. monocytogenes was able to recover and replicate until achieving initial counts. In milk samples with 10 and 15% fat, L. monocytogenes recovered to the level of initial counts only in the milk samples treated at 200 MPa but not in the milk samples treated at 300 and 400 MPa. When the load of L. monocytogenes was approximately 3.0 log(10) cfu/mL in milk samples with 0.3 and 3.6% fat, complete inactivation was not achieved and L. monocytogenes was able to recover and grow during the subsequent cold storage. Fat content increased the maximum temperature reached during UHPH treatment; this could have contributed to the lethal effect achieved, but the amount of fat of the milk had a stronger effect than the temperature on obtaining a higher death rate of L. monocytogenes.

  12. High-resolution prediction of soil available water content within the crop root zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghverdi, Amir; Leib, Brian G.; Washington-Allen, Robert A.; Ayers, Paul D.; Buschermohle, Michael J.

    2015-11-01

    A detailed understanding of soil hydraulic properties, particularly soil available water content (AWC) within the effective root zone, is needed to optimally schedule irrigation in fields with substantial spatial heterogeneity. However, it is difficult and time consuming to directly measure soil hydraulic properties. Therefore, easily collected and measured soil properties, such as soil texture and/or bulk density, that are well correlated with hydraulic properties are used as proxies to develop pedotransfer functions (PTF). In this study, multiple modeling scenarios were developed and evaluated to indirectly predict high resolution AWC maps within the effective root zone. The modeling techniques included kriging, co-kriging, regression kriging, artificial neural networks (NN) and geographically weighted regression (GWR). The efficiency of soil apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) as proximal data in the modeling process was assessed. There was a good agreement (root mean square error (RMSE) = 0.052 cm3 cm-3 and r = 0.88) between observed and point prediction of water contents using pseudo continuous PTFs. We found that both GWR (mean RMSE = 0.062 cm3 cm-3) and regression kriging (mean RMSE = 0.063 cm3 cm-3) produced the best water content maps with these accuracies improved up to 19% when ECa was used as an ancillary soil attribute in the interpolation process. The maps indicated fourfold differences in AWC between coarse- and fine-textured soils across the study site. This provided a template for future investigations for evaluating the efficiency of variable rate irrigation management scenarios in accounting for the spatial heterogeneity of soil hydraulic attributes.

  13. Auxiliary units for refining of high nitrogen content oils: Premium II refinery case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolato, Paolo Contim; Pinotti, Rafael [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    PETROBRAS is constantly investing on its refining park in order to increase the production of clean and stable fuels and to be capable to process heavier oils with high contaminants content. Sulfur and nitrogen are the main heteroatoms present in petroleum. They are responsible for some undesirable fuels properties like corrosivity and instability, and also emit pollutants when burnt. Hydrotreating and hydrocracking processes are designed to remove these contaminants and adjust other fuel properties, generating, as byproduct, sour gases and sour water streams rich in H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3}, which are usually sent to Sour Water Treatment Units and Sulfur Recovery Units. The regeneration of the amine used for the light streams treatment, as fuel gas and LPG, also generates sour gas streams that must be also sent to Sulfur Recovery Units. As the ammonia content in the sour streams increases, some design parameters must be adjusted to avoid increasing the Refinery emissions. Sulfur Recovery Units must provide proper NH3 destruction. Sour Water Treatment must have a proper segregation between H{sub 2}S and ammonia streams, whenever desirable. Amine Regeneration Systems must have an efficient procedure to avoid the ammonia concentration in the amine solution. This paper presents some solutions usually applied to the Petroleum Industry and analyses some aspects related to Premium II Refinery Project and how its design will help the Brazilian refining park to meet future environmental regulation and market demands. (author)

  14. Live Broadcasting of High Definition Audiovisual Content Using HDTV over Broadband IP Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Vegiris

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The current paper focuses on validating an implementation of a state-of-the art audiovisual (AV technologies setup for live broadcasting of cultural shows, via broadband Internet. The main objective of the work was to study, configure, and setup dedicated audio-video equipment for the processes of capturing, processing, and transmission of extended resolution and high fidelity AV content in order to increase realism and achieve maximum audience sensation. Internet2 and GEANT broadband telecommunication networks were selected as the most applicable technology to deliver such traffic workloads. Validation procedures were conducted in combination with metric-based quality of service (QoS and quality of experience (QoE evaluation experiments for the quantification and the perceptual interpretation of the quality achieved during content reproduction. The implemented system was successfully applied in real-world applications, such as the transmission of cultural events from Thessaloniki Concert Hall throughout Greece as well as the reproduction of Philadelphia Orchestra performances (USA via Internet2 and GEANT backbones.

  15. Effect of ammonium concentration on alcoholic fermentation kinetics by wine yeasts for high sugar content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taillandier, Patricia; Ramon Portugal, Felipe; Fuster, André; Strehaiano, Pierre

    2007-02-01

    Kinetics of alcoholic fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine strains in a synthetic medium with high sugar content were established for different nitrogen initial content and are presented for four strains. The composition of the medium was close to grape must except that the nitrogen source consisted mainly in ammonium and was varied from 120 to 290 mg N/l assimilable nitrogen. The overall nitrogen consumed was also estimated in order to determine nitrogen requirement variability. The effect of assimilable nitrogen was in general greater on sugar consumption rates than on growth and three kinds of effect on sugar consumption rates were observed: (i) existence of an optimal initial nitrogen level for a maximal sugar consumption rate (inhibition if excess), (ii) no effect of nitrogen beyond the intermediary level (saturation), (iii) sugar consumption rate proportional to the initial nitrogen level (activation). In all cases, the amount of consumed nitrogen increased with its initial concentration and so did the fructophilic capacity of the strains. The optimal requirement varied from 0.62 to 0.91 mg N/g of sugars according to different strains. There was no general correlation between the sugar assimilation rates and the nitrogen requirement.

  16. Fuel-N Evolution during the Pyrolysis of Industrial Biomass Wastes with High Nitrogen Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunio Yoshikawa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, sewage sludge and mycelial waste from antibiotic production were pyrolyzed in a batch scale fixed-bed reactor as examples of two kinds of typical industrial biomass wastes with high nitrogen content. A series of experiments were conducted on the rapid pyrolysis and the slow pyrolysis of these wastes in the temperature range from 500–800 °C to investigate the Fuel-N transformation behavior among pyrolysis products. The results showed that Fuel-N conversion to Char-N intimately depended on the pyrolysis temperature and the yield of Char-N reduced with the increase of the pyrolysis temperature. Under the same pyrolysis conditions, Tar-N production mainly depended on complex properties of the different biomasses, including volatile matter, nitrogen content and biomass functional groups. HCN was the predominant NOx precursor in the rapid pyrolysis of biomass, whereas in the slow pyrolysis of mycelial waste, more NH3 was produced than HCN due to the additional NH3 formation through the hydrogenation reaction of Char-N, HCN and H radicals. At the same time, some part of the char was analyzed by Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR to get more information on the nitrogen functionality changes and the tar was also characterized by Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry (GCMS to identify typical nitrogenous tar compounds. Finally, the whole nitrogen distribution in products was discussed.

  17. Processing and Characterization of High Density Polyethylene/Ethylene Vinyl Acetate Blends with Different VA Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman Y. Alothman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Different series of high density Polyethylene/Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (HDPE/EVA blends were prepared via melt blending in a corotating intermeshing twin screw extruder. The effects of VA percentage and EVA loading ratio on the thermal, rheological viscoelastic, mechanical, and fracture toughness of the blends were analyzed. The results showed that the addition of EVA to HDPE reduces the thermal, elastic, and viscoelastic properties of the blends. The microscopic examination of the fracture surface confirmed the ductile fracture of HDPE/EVA blends for all blend ratios and VA percentages. Increasing the EVA ratio and VA content caused a significant reduction in the blend crystallinity but had no significant effect on melting temperature. The complex viscosity increased with increasing the percentage of EVA due to the restriction of molecular mobility and reduction of free volume, induced by the addition of EVA. The storage modulus decreased with increasing the EVA ratio and temperature, while it increased with increasing the frequency. Young’s modulus, yield strength, and fracture strain decreased with increasing the EVA ratio. Similarly, the fracture toughness decreased proportional to the EVA percentage. Finally the results indicated that the VA content has significant effects on the mechanical, thermal, and dynamic properties of HDPE/EVA blends.

  18. Protein adsorption of dialdehyde cellulose-crosslinked chitosan with high amino group contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ung-Jin; Lee, Yeong Ro; Kang, Tong Ho; Choi, Joon Weon; Kimura, Satoshi; Wada, Masahisa

    2017-05-01

    Crosslinked chitosan was prepared by Schiff base formation between the aldehyde groups of dialdehyde cellulose (DAC) and the amino groups of chitosan and a subsequent reduction. DAC was obtained through periodate oxidation of cellulose and solubilization in hot water at 100°C for 1h. Three grades of DAC-crosslinked chitosan were prepared by adding various amounts DAC. The degrees of crosslinking as determined by amino group content were 3.8, 8.3, and 12.1%, respectively. DAC-crosslinked chitosan showed higher stability in the pH 2-9 range and no cytotoxicity was identified over the course of a 21-day long-term stability test. Also, DAC-crosslinked chitosan showed remarkably high bovine serum albumin (BSA) adsorption capacity at pH 5.5 as a result of the increased amino group content, due to the reaction between DAC and chitosan molecular chains occurring at multiple points even though DAC-crosslinked chitosan showed a lower degree of crosslinking.

  19. Quantitative characterization of mitosis-blocked tetraploid cells using high content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, Linnette E; Ghosh, Richik N

    2006-08-01

    A range of cellular evidence supporting a G1 tetraploidy checkpoint was obtained from different assay methods including flow cytometry, immunoblotting, and microscopy. Cancer research would benefit if these cellular properties could instead be measured by a single, quantitative, automated assay method, such as high content analysis (HCA). Thus, nocodazole-treated cells were fluorescently labeled for different cell cycle-associated properties, including DNA content, retinoblastoma (Rb) and histone H3 phosphorylation, p53 and p21(WAF1) expression, nuclear and cell sizes, and cell morphology, and automatically imaged, analyzed, and correlated using HCA. HCA verified that nocodazole-induced mitosis block resulted in tetraploid cells. Rb and histone H3 were maximally hyperphosphorylated by 24 h of nocodazole treatment, accompanied by cell and nuclear size decreases and cellular rounding. Cells remained tetraploid and mononucleated with longer treatments, but other targets reverted to G1 levels, including Rb and histone H3 dephosphorylation accompanied by cellular respreading. This was accompanied by increased p53 and p21(WAF1) expression levels. The range of effects accompanying nocodazole-induced block of mitosis and the resulting tetraploid cells' reversal to a pseudo-G1 state can be quantitatively measured by HCA in an automated manner, recommending this assay method for the large-scale biology challenges of modern cancer drug discovery.

  20. Covalent Triazine-Based Frameworks with Ultramicropores and High Nitrogen Contents for Highly Selective CO2 Capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Keke; Huang, Hongliang; Liu, Dahuan; Wang, Chang; Li, Jinping; Zhong, Chongli

    2016-05-03

    Porous organic frameworks (POFs) are a class of porous materials composed of organic precursors linked by covalent bonds. The objective of this work is to develop POFs with both ultramicropores and high nitrogen contents for CO2 capture. Specifically, two covalent triazine-based frameworks (CTFs) with ultramicropores (pores of width capture CO2 due to ultramicroporous nature. Especially, CTF-FUM-350 has the highest nitrogen content (27.64%) and thus the highest CO2 adsorption capacity (57.2 cc/g at 298 K) and selectivities for CO2 over N2 and CH4 (102.4 and 20.5 at 298 K, respectively) among all CTF-FUM and CTF-DCN. More impressively, as far as we know, the CO2/CH4 selectivity is larger than that of all reported CTFs and ranks in top 10 among all reported POFs. Dynamic breakthrough curves indicate that both CTFs could indeed separate gas mixtures of CO2/N2 and CO2/CH4 completely.

  1. Analysis of Information Content in High-Spectral Resolution Sounders using Subset Selection Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez-Reyes, Miguel; Joiner, Joanna

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, we summarize the results of the sensitivity analysis and data reduction carried out to determine the information content of AIRS and IASI channels. The analysis and data reduction was based on the use of subset selection techniques developed in the linear algebra and statistical community to study linear dependencies in high dimensional data sets. We applied the subset selection method to study dependency among channels by studying the dependency among their weighting functions. Also, we applied the technique to study the information provided by the different levels in which the atmosphere is discretized for retrievals and analysis. Results from the method correlate well with intuition in many respects and point out to possible modifications for band selection in sensor design and number and location of levels in the analysis process.

  2. THE CRYSTALLIZATION OF POTASSIUM GERMANATE GLASS WITH HIGH CONTENT OF NIOBIUM OXIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SRĐAN D.MATIJAŠEVIĆ

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Potassium germanate glass with molar ratio [GeO2]/[K2O] = 1.2 and Nb2O5 content of 34 mol% have been synthesized by a melt-quenching method. The crystallization behavior under non-isothermal and isothermal crystallization conditions was investigated. The results showed that this glass exposed complex primary crystallization. In the temperature range 800 °C. K10Nb22Ge4O68 and metastable KNbO3 and K4Nb6O17 were formed as secondary phases. The crystallization commenced at T > 640 °C with high homogeneous nucleation rate and spherulite crystal growth morphology. DTA curves recorded for powder samples particle size 0.1 mm showed two exothermic peaks and two endothermic peaks within temperature range of T = 640-1020 °C. The analysis of the dominant crystallization mechanism of powder glass sample and kinetics of crystallization is presented.

  3. Bench-scale synthesis of zeolite A from subbituminous coal ashes with high crystalline silica content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chareonpanich, M.; Jullaphan, O.; Tang, C. [Kasetsart University, Bangkok (Thailand). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2011-01-15

    In this present work, fly ash and bottom ash with high crystalline silica content were obtained from the coal-fired boilers within the paper industries in Thailand. These coal ashes were used as the basic raw materials for synthetic zeolite production. The crystal type and crystallinity, specific surface area and pore size, and textural properties of zeolite products were characterized by using X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), N{sub 2} sorption analysis, and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), respectively. It was found that sodalite octahydrate was selectively formed via the direct conventional (one-step) synthesis, whereas through a two-step, sodium silicate preparation and consecutive zeolite A synthesis process, 94 and 72 wt.% zeolite A products could be produced from the fly ash and bottom ash, respectively. The cation-exchange capacity (CEC) of fly ash and bottom ash-derived zeolite A products were closely similar to that of the commercial grade zeolite A.

  4. Process modules for GeSn nanoelectronics with high Sn-contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte-Braucks, C.; Glass, S.; Hofmann, E.; Stange, D.; von den Driesch, N.; Hartmann, J. M.; Ikonic, Z.; Zhao, Q. T.; Buca, D.; Mantl, S.

    2017-02-01

    This paper systematically studies GeSn n-FETs, from individual process modules to a complete device. High-k gate stacks and NiGeSn metallic contacts for source and drain are characterized in independent experiments. To study both direct and indirect bandgap semiconductors, a range of 0-14.5 at.% Sn-content GeSn alloys are investigated. Special emphasis is placed on capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics and Schottky-barrier optimization. GeSn n-FET devices are presented including temperature dependent I-V characteristics. Finally, as an important step towards implementing GeSn in tunnel-FETs, negative differential resistance in Ge0.87Sn0.13 tunnel-diodes is demonstrated at cryogenic temperatures. The present work provides a base for further optimization of GeSn FETs and novel tunnel FET devices.

  5. High solids content, soap-free, film-forming latexes stabilized by laponite clay platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeat-Lami, Elodie; Guimarães, Thiago Rodrigues; Pereira, Ana Maria Cenacchi; Alves, Gizelda Maria; Moreira, José Carlos; Putaux, Jean-Luc; Dos Santos, Amilton Martins

    2010-11-01

    High solids content film-forming poly[styrene-co-(n-butyl acrylate)] [poly(Sty-co-BuA)] latexes armored with Laponite clay platelets have been synthesized by soap-free emulsion copolymerization of styrene and n-butyl acrylate. The polymerizations were performed in batch in the presence of Laponite and a methyl ether acrylate-terminated poly(ethylene glycol) macromonomer in order to promote polymer/clay association. The overall polymerization kinetics showed a pronounced effect of clay on nucleation and stabilization of the latex particles. Cryo-transmission electron microscopy observation confirmed the armored morphology and indicated that the majority of Laponite platelets were located at the particle surface. The resulting nanostructured films displayed enhanced mechanical properties.

  6. Colloidal processing of Fe-based metal ceramic composites with high content of ceramic reinforcement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escribano, J. A.; Ferrari, B.; Alvaredo, P.; Gordo, E.; Sanchez-Herencia, A. J.

    2013-07-01

    Major difficulties of processing metal-matrix composites by means of conventional powder metallurgy techniques are the lack of dispersion of the phases within the final microstructure. In this work, processing through colloidal techniques of the Fe-based metal-matrix composites, with a high content of a ceramic reinforcement (Ti(C,N) ), is presented for the first time in the literature. The colloidal approach allows a higher control of the powders packing and a better homogenization of phases since powders are mixed in a liquid medium. The chemical stability of Fe in aqueous medium determines the dispersion conditions of the mixture. The Fe slurries were formulated by optimising their zeta potential and their rheology, in order to shape bulk pieces by slip-casting. Preliminary results demonstrate the viability of this procedure, also opening new paths to the microstructural design of fully sintered Fe-based hard metal, with 50 vol. % of Ti(C,N) in its composition. (Author)

  7. tranSMART: An Open Source Knowledge Management and High Content Data Analytics Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheufele, Elisabeth; Aronzon, Dina; Coopersmith, Robert; McDuffie, Michael T; Kapoor, Manish; Uhrich, Christopher A; Avitabile, Jean E; Liu, Jinlei; Housman, Dan; Palchuk, Matvey B

    2014-01-01

    The tranSMART knowledge management and high-content analysis platform is a flexible software framework featuring novel research capabilities. It enables analysis of integrated data for the purposes of hypothesis generation, hypothesis validation, and cohort discovery in translational research. tranSMART bridges the prolific world of basic science and clinical practice data at the point of care by merging multiple types of data from disparate sources into a common environment. The application supports data harmonization and integration with analytical pipelines. The application code was released into the open source community in January 2012, with 32 instances in operation. tranSMART's extensible data model and corresponding data integration processes, rapid data analysis features, and open source nature make it an indispensable tool in translational or clinical research.

  8. Organosilica hybrid nanomaterials with a high organic content: syntheses and applications of silsesquioxanes

    KAUST Repository

    Croissant, Jonas G.

    2016-11-07

    Organic-inorganic hybrid materials garner properties from their organic and inorganic matrices as well as synergistic features, and therefore have recently attracted much attention at the nanoscale. Non-porous organosilica hybrid nanomaterials with a high organic content such as silsesquioxanes (R-SiO, with R organic groups) and bridged silsesquioxanes (OSi-R-SiO) are especially attractive hybrids since they provide 20 to 80 weight percent of organic functional groups in addition to the known chemistry and stability of silica. In the organosilica family, silsesquioxanes (R-SiO) stand between silicas (SiO) and silicones (RSiO), and are variously called organosilicas, ormosil (organically-modified silica), polysilsesquioxanes and silica hybrids. Herein, we comprehensively review non-porous silsesquioxane and bridged silsesquioxane nanomaterials and their applications in nanomedicine, electro-optics, and catalysis.

  9. Subfamily logos: visualization of sequence deviations at alignment positions with high information content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beitz Eric

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recognition of relevant sequence deviations can be valuable for elucidating functional differences between protein subfamilies. Interesting residues at highly conserved positions can then be mutated and experimentally analyzed. However, identification of such sites is tedious because automated approaches are scarce. Results Subfamily logos visualize subfamily-specific sequence deviations. The display is similar to classical sequence logos but extends into the negative range. Positive, upright characters correspond to residues which are characteristic for the subfamily, negative, upside-down characters to residues typical for the remaining sequences. The symbol height is adjusted to the information content of the alignment position. Residues which are conserved throughout do not appear. Conclusion Subfamily logos provide an intuitive display of relevant sequence deviations. The method has proven to be valid using a set of 135 aligned aquaporin sequences in which established subfamily-specific positions were readily identified by the algorithm.

  10. MALDI-TOF MS for quality control of high protein content sport supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ceglie, Cristina; Calvano, Cosima D; Zambonin, Carlo G

    2015-06-01

    High protein content sport nutritional supplements are found as powder products containing, as ingredients, amino acids and proteins with important nutritional values as milk, soy and egg proteins. An EU Food Supplements Directive (2002) requires that supplements should be safe, both in dosages and in purity. It is important, then, to develop rapid and sensitive methods to be employed for the quality control of these substances. In this work, we apply, for the first time, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry as a fast, reproducible and sensitive method for the quality control of sport nutritional supplements based on proteins. To this aim, several commercial egg- and/or milk-based powder products have been processed by in gel or in solution digestion and analyzed in comparison to pure standard products. This strategy allowed to assess the reliability of the indications on proteins (as caseins, whey proteins and ovalbumin) declared in the label of several sport nutritional supplements.

  11. High Stellar FUV/NUV Ratio and Oxygen Contents in the Atmospheres of Potentially Habitable Planets

    CERN Document Server

    Tian, Feng; Linsky, Jeffrey L; Mauas, Pablo J D; Vieytes, Mariela C

    2013-01-01

    Recent observations of several planet-hosting M dwarfs show that most have FUV/NUV flux ratios 1000 times greater than that of the Sun. Here we show that the atmospheric oxygen contents (O2 and O3) of potentially habitable planets in this type of UV environment could be 2~3 orders of magnitude greater than those of their counterparts around Sun-like stars as a result of decreased photolysis of O3, H2O2, and HO2. Thus detectable levels of atmospheric oxygen, in combination with the existence of H2O and CO2, may not be the most promising biosignatures on planets around stars with high FUV/NUV ratios such as the observed M dwarfs.

  12. Understanding a High School Physics Teacher's Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Argumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianlan; Buck, Gayle A.

    2016-08-01

    Scientific argumentation is an important learning objective in science education. It is also an effective instructional approach to constructivist science learning. The implementation of argumentation in school settings requires science teachers, who are pivotal agents of transforming classroom practices, to develop sophisticated knowledge of argumentation. However, there is a lack of understanding about science teachers' knowledge of argumentation, especially the dialogic meaning of argumentation. In this case study, we closely examine a high school physics teacher's argumentation-related pedagogic content knowledge (PCK) in the context of dialogic argumentation. We synthesize the teacher's performed PCK from his argumentation practices and narrated PCK from his reflection on the argumentation practices, from which we summarize his PCK of argumentation from the perspectives of orientation, instructional strategies, students, curriculum, and assessment. Finally, we describe the teacher's perception and adaption of argumentation in his class. We also identity the barriers to argumentation implementation in this particular case and suggest solutions to overcome these barriers.

  13. High content screening for G protein-coupled receptors using cell-based protein translocation assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grånäs, Charlotta; Lundholt, Betina Kerstin; Heydorn, Arne

    2005-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been one of the most productive classes of drug targets for several decades, and new technologies for GPCR-based discovery promise to keep this field active for years to come. While molecular screens for GPCR receptor agonist- and antagonist-based drugs...... as valuable discovery tools for several years. The application of high content cell-based screening to GPCR discovery has opened up additional possibilities, such as direct tracking of GPCRs, G proteins and other signaling pathway components using intracellular translocation assays. These assays provide...... the capability to probe GPCR function at the cellular level with better resolution than has previously been possible, and offer practical strategies for more definitive selectivity evaluation and counter-screening in the early stages of drug discovery. The potential of cell-based translocation assays for GPCR...

  14. Modeling of Flow Stress of High Titanium Content 6061 Aluminum Alloy Under Hot Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Guan, Yingping; Wang, Zhenhua

    2016-09-01

    Hot compression tests were performed on high titanium content 6061 aluminum alloy (AA 6061-Ti) using a Gleeble-3500 thermomechanical testing system at temperatures from 350 to 510 °C with a constant strain rate in the range of 0.001-10 s-1. Three types of flow stress models were established from the experimental stress-strain curves, the correlation coefficient ( R), mean absolute relative error ( MARE), and root mean square deviation ( RMSD) between the predicted data and the experimental data were also calculated. The results show that the Fields-Backofen model, which includes a softening factor, was the simplest mathematical expression with a level of precision appropriate for the numerical simulations. However, the Arrhenius and artificial neural network (ANN) models were also consistent with the experimental results but they are more limited in their application in terms of their accuracy and the mathematical expression of the models.

  15. Doping of GaN{sub 1-x}As{sub x} with high As content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levander, A.X.; Novikov, S.V.; Liliental-Weber, Z.; dos Reis, R.; Dubon, O.D.; Wu, J.; Foxon, C.T.; Yu, K.M.; Walukiewicz, W.

    2011-09-22

    Recent work has shown that GaN{sub 1-x}As{sub x} can be grown across the entire composition range by low temperature molecular beam epitaxy with intermediate compositions being amorphous, but control of the electrical properties through doping is critical for functionalizing this material. Here we report the bipolar doping of GaN{sub 1-x}As{sub x} with high As content to conductivities above 4 S/cm at room temperature using Mg or Te. The carrier type was confirmed by thermopower measurements. Doping requires an increase in Ga flux during growth resulting in a mixed phase material of polycrystalline GaAs:N embedded in amorphous GaN{sub 1-x}As{sub x}.

  16. Skin-effect down hole electric heater for heavy oil and high wax content oil applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Chenglin; Wang, Hui; Liu, Yanhua [Liaoning Huafu Petroleum High-Tech Co., Ltd. (China); Xiao, Jon H; Klotz, Eric [ANDMIR Environmental Group Canada Inc. (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    With the increased production of oil and the depletion of conventional reserves, operators have started to exploit heavy oil and high wax content oil. Adequate production of such oils is difficult to achieve due to viscosity increase and mobility decrease during lifting as a result of heat loss. The down-hole electric heater has been developed to resolve these issues with the application of skin-effect electric heating technology. The aim of this paper is to present how this technology improves the production of heavy oil and waxy oil. Applications of the technology to wells in Chinese oilfields are studied. Results proved the technology to be efficient while being based on a simple process and operating in an easy and safe manner. This paper showed that the down-hole electric heater is a breakthrough technology, resolving the issues encountered in the heavy oil and waxy oil exploitation field, with broad application prospects.

  17. Characterization of SPAD Array for Multifocal High-Content Screening Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Tsikouras

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Current instruments used to detect specific protein-protein interactions in live cells for applications in high-content screening (HCS are limited by the time required to measure the lifetime. Here, a 32 × 1 single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD array was explored as a detector for fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM in HCS. Device parameters and characterization results were interpreted in the context of the application to determine if the SPAD array could satisfy the requirements of HCS-FLIM. Fluorescence lifetime measurements were performed using a known fluorescence standard; and the recovered fluorescence lifetime matched literature reported values. The design of a theoretical 32 × 32 SPAD array was also considered as a detector for a multi-point confocal scanning microscope.

  18. Identifying Content Knowledge for Teaching Energy: Examples from High School Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Amy D.; Scherr, Rachel E.; Goodhew, Lisa M.; Daane, Abigail R.; Gray, Kara E.; Aker, Leanna B.

    2017-01-01

    "Content knowledge for teaching" is the specialized content knowledge that teachers use in practice the content knowledge that serves them for tasks of teaching such as revoicing students' ideas, choosing an instructional activity to address a student misunderstanding, and evaluating student statements. We describe a methodology for…

  19. Identifying Content Knowledge for Teaching Energy: Examples from High School Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Amy D.; Scherr, Rachel E.; Goodhew, Lisa M.; Daane, Abigail R.; Gray, Kara E.; Aker, Leanna B.

    2017-01-01

    "Content knowledge for teaching" is the specialized content knowledge that teachers use in practice the content knowledge that serves them for tasks of teaching such as revoicing students' ideas, choosing an instructional activity to address a student misunderstanding, and evaluating student statements. We describe a methodology for…

  20. Solar activity variability in the IRI at high latitudes: Comparisons with GPS total electron content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Themens, David R.; Jayachandran, P. T.

    2016-04-01

    Total electron content (TEC) measurements from 10 dual-frequency GPS receivers in the Canadian High Arctic Ionospheric Network (CHAIN) are used to evaluate the performance of International Reference Ionosphere (IRI)-2007 within the Canadian sector. Throughout the region, we see systematic underestimation of daytime TEC, particularly at solar maximum, where summer and equinox root-mean-square errors reach as high as 14 total electron content units, 1 TECU = 1016 el m-2 (TECU). It is also shown that the use of a monthly IG index, in place of the IRI's standard IG12 index, leads to an improvement in TEC specification by up to 3 TECU in the polar cap and up to 6 TECU in the subauroral region during periods of short-term, large amplitude changes in solar activity. On diurnal timescales, variability in TEC is found to be underestimated by the IRI, during equinox periods, by up to 40% at subauroral latitudes and up to 70% in the polar cap region. During the winter, diurnal variations are overestimated by up to 40% in the subauroral region and are underestimated within the polar cap by up to 80%. Using collocated ionosonde data, we find IRI bottomside TEC to be within 1 TECU of observation with errors largest during the equinoxes. For the topside we find good agreement during the winter but significant underestimation of topside TEC by the IRI during summer and equinox periods, exceeding 6 TECU at times. By ingesting measured NmF2 into the IRI, we show that the topside thickness parameterization is the source of the bulk of the observed TEC errors.

  1. High-throughput retrotransposon-based fluorescent markers: improved information content and allele discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baker David

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dense genetic maps, together with the efficiency and accuracy of their construction, are integral to genetic studies and marker assisted selection for plant breeding. High-throughput multiplex markers that are robust and reproducible can contribute to both efficiency and accuracy. Multiplex markers are often dominant and so have low information content, this coupled with the pressure to find alternatives to radio-labelling, has led us to adapt the SSAP (sequence specific amplified polymorphism marker method from a 33P labelling procedure to fluorescently tagged markers analysed from an automated ABI 3730 xl platform. This method is illustrated for multiplexed SSAP markers based on retrotransposon insertions of pea and is applicable for the rapid and efficient generation of markers from genomes where repetitive element sequence information is available for primer design. We cross-reference SSAP markers previously generated using the 33P manual PAGE system to fluorescent peaks, and use these high-throughput fluorescent SSAP markers for further genetic studies in Pisum. Results The optimal conditions for the fluorescent-labelling method used a triplex set of primers in the PCR. These included a fluorescently labelled specific primer together with its unlabelled counterpart, plus an adapter-based primer with two bases of selection on the 3' end. The introduction of the unlabelled specific primer helped to optimise the fluorescent signal across the range of fragment sizes expected, and eliminated the need for extensive dilutions of PCR amplicons. The software (GeneMarker Version 1.6 used for the high-throughput data analysis provided an assessment of amplicon size in nucleotides, peak areas and fluorescence intensity in a table format, so providing additional information content for each marker. The method has been tested in a small-scale study with 12 pea accessions resulting in 467 polymorphic fluorescent SSAP markers of which

  2. Terahertz-dependent evaluation of water content in high-water-cut crude oil using additive-manufactured samplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, LiMei; Zhan, HongLei; Miao, XinYang; Zhu, Jing; Zhao, Kun

    2017-04-01

    The evaluation of water content in crude oil is of significance to petroleum exploration and transportation. Terahertz (THz) waves are sensitive to fluctuations in the dipole moment of water. However, due to the strong absorption of water in the THz range, it is difficult for the THz spectrum to determine high water content with the common sampler. In this research, micron-grade samplers for THz detection were designed and manufactured using additive manufacturing (AM) technology. Oil-water mixtures with water content from 1.8% to 90.6% were measured with the THz-TDS system using sample cells. In addition, a detailed analysis was performed of the relationships among THz parameters such as signal peak, time delay, and refractive index as well as absorption coefficient and high water content (>60%). Results suggest that the combination of THz spectroscopy and AM technique is effective for water content evaluation in crude oil and can be further applied in the petroleum industry.

  3. Terahertz-dependent evaluation of water content in high-water-cut crude oil using additive-manufactured samplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, LiMei; Zhan, HongLei; Miao, XinYang; Zhu, Jing; Zhao, Kun

    2017-04-01

    The evaluation of water content in crude oil is of significance to petroleum exploration and transportation. Terahertz (THz) waves are sensitive to fluctuations in the dipole moment of water. However, due to the strong absorption of water in the THz range, it is difficult for the THz spectrum to determine high water content with the common sampler. In this research, micron-grade samplers for THz detection were designed and manufactured using additive manufacturing (AM) technology. Oil-water mixtures with water content from 1.8% to 90.6% were measured with the THz-TDS system using sample cells. In addition, a detailed analysis was performed of the relationships among THz parameters such as signal peak, time delay, and refractive index as well as absorption coefficient and high water content (>60%). Results suggest that the combination of THz spectroscopy and AM technique is effective for water content evaluation in crude oil and can be further applied in the petroleum industry.

  4. High temperature ultralow water content carbon dioxide-in-water foam stabilized with viscoelastic zwitterionic surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzobaidi, Shehab; Da, Chang; Tran, Vu; Prodanović, Maša; Johnston, Keith P

    2017-02-15

    Ultralow water content carbon dioxide-in-water (C/W) foams with gas phase volume fractions (ϕ) above 0.95 (that is foams may be stabilized with viscoelastic aqueous phases formed with a single zwitterionic surfactant at a concentration of only 1% (w/v) in DI water and over a wide range of salinity. Moreover, they are stable with a foam quality ϕ up to 0.98 even for temperatures up to 120°C. The properties of aqueous viscoelastic solutions and foams containing these solutions are examined for a series of zwitterionic amidopropylcarbobetaines, R-ONHC3H6N(CH3)2CH2CO2, where R is varied from C12-14 (coco) to C18 (oleyl) to C22 (erucyl). For the surfactants with long C18 and C22 tails, the relaxation times from complex rheology indicate the presence of viscoelastic wormlike micelles over a wide range in salinity and pH, given the high surfactant packing fraction. The apparent viscosities of these ultralow water content foams reached more than 120cP with stabilities more than 30-fold over those for foams formed with the non-viscoelastic C12-14 surfactant. At 90°C, the foam morphology was composed of ∼35μm diameter bubbles with a polyhedral texture. The apparent foam viscosity typically increased with ϕ and then dropped at ϕ values higher than 0.95-0.98. The Ostwald ripening rate was slower for foams with viscoelastic versus non-viscoelastic lamellae as shown by optical microscopy, as a consequence of slower lamellar drainage rates. The ability to achieve high stabilities for ultralow water content C/W foams over a wide temperature range is of interest in various technologies including polymer and materials science, CO2 enhanced oil recovery, CO2 sequestration (by greater control of the CO2 flow patterns), and possibly even hydraulic fracturing with minimal use of water to reduce the requirements for wastewater disposal.

  5. Spatial variability in the soil water content of a Mediterranean agroforestry system with high soil heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Antonio Jaime; Llorens, Pilar; Aranda, Xavier; Savé, Robert; Biel, Carmen

    2013-04-01

    Variability of soil water content is known to increase with the size of spatial domain in which measurements are taken. At field scale, heterogeneity in soil, vegetation, topography, water input volume and management affects, among other factors, hydrologic plot behaviour under different mean soil water contents. The present work studies how the spatial variability of soil water content (SWC) is affected by soil type (texture, percentage of stones and the combination of them) in a timber-orientated plantation of cherry tree (Prunus avium) under Mediterranean climatic conditions. The experimental design is a randomized block one with 3 blocks * 4 treatments, based on two factors: irrigation (6 plots irrigated versus 6 plots not irrigated) and soil management (6 plots tillaged versus 6 plots not tillaged). SWC is continuously measured at 25, 50 and 100 cm depth with FDR sensors, located at two positions in each treatment: under tree influence and 2.5 m apart. This study presents the results of the monitoring during 2012 of the 24 sensors located at the 25 cm depth. In each of the measurement point, texture and percentage of stones were measured. Sandy-loam, sandy-clay-loam and loam textures were found together with a percentage of stones ranging from 20 to 70 %. The results indicated that the relationship between the daily mean SWC and its standard deviation, a common procedure used to study spatial variability, changed with texture, percentage of stones and the estimation of field capacity from the combination of both. Temporal stability analysis of SWC showed a clear pattern related to field capacity, with the measurement points of the sandy-loam texture and the high percentage of stones showing the maximun negative diference with the global mean. The high range in the mean relative difference observed (± 75 %), could indicate that the studied plot may be considered as a good field-laboratory to extrapolate results at higher spatial scales. Furthermore, the

  6. Cultivation Methods for Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) with High Soluble Solids Content Using the Vertically Split Root System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    HAYASHI, Hiroyuki; TOYOFUKU, Kyoko; TAGUCHI, Takiko; OGAWA, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    For the cultivation of tomatoes with high soluble solids content, the root system was split vertically and irrigation to the upper part of the root system was stopped to create split vertically (SR treatment...

  7. BioSig3D: High Content Screening of Three-Dimensional Cell Culture Models: e0148379

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cemal Cagatay Bilgin; Gerald Fontenay; Qingsu Cheng; Hang Chang; Ju Han; Bahram Parvin

    2016-01-01

    ...) cell culture models that are imaged in full 3D volume. It provides an end-to-end solution for designing high content screening assays, based on colony organization that is derived from segmentation of nuclei in each colony...

  8. High nitrogen supply and carbohydrate content reduce fungal endophyte and alkaloid concentration in Lolium perenne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Susanne; Parsons, Anthony J; Bassett, Shalome; Christensen, Michael J; Hume, David E; Johnson, Linda J; Johnson, Richard D; Simpson, Wayne R; Stacke, Christina; Voisey, Christine R; Xue, Hong; Newman, Jonathan A

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between cool-season grasses and fungal endophytes is widely regarded as mutualistic, but there is growing uncertainty about whether changes in resource supply and environment benefit both organisms to a similar extent. Here, we infected two perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) cultivars (AberDove, Fennema) that differ in carbohydrate content with three strains of Neotyphodium lolii (AR1, AR37, common strain) that differ intrinsically in alkaloid profile. We grew endophyte-free and infected plants under high and low nitrogen (N) supply and used quantitative PCR (qPCR) to estimate endophyte concentrations in harvested leaf tissues. Endophyte concentration was reduced by 40% under high N supply, and by 50% in the higher sugar cultivar. These two effects were additive (together resulting in 75% reduction). Alkaloid production was also reduced under both increased N supply and high sugar cultivar, and for three of the four alkaloids quantified, concentrations were linearly related to endophyte concentration. The results stress the need for wider quantification of fungal endophytes in the grassland-foliar endophyte context, and have implications for how introducing new cultivars, novel endophytes or increasing N inputs affect the role of endophytes in grassland ecosystems.

  9. Halophilic properties of metal binding protein characterized by high histidine content from Chromohalobacter salexigens DSM3043.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Rui; Arakawa, Tsutomu; Tokunaga, Hiroko; Ishibashi, Matsujiro; Tokunaga, Masao

    2012-02-01

    Periplasmic metal binding protein characterized by high histidine content was cloned from moderate halophile, Chromohalobacter salexigens. The protein, termed histidine-rich metal binding protein (HP), was expressed in and purified from E. coli as a native form. HP bound to Ni- and Cu-loaded chelate columns with high affinity, and Co- and Zn-columns with moderate affinity. Although the secondary structure was not grossly altered by the addition of 0.2-2.0 M NaCl, the thermal transition pattern was considerably shifted to higher temperature with increasing salt concentration: melting temperature was raised by ~20 °C at 2.0 M NaCl over the melting temperature at 0.2 M NaCl. HP showed reversible refolding from thermal melting in 0.2-1.15 M NaCl, while it formed irreversible aggregates upon thermal melting at 2 M NaCl. Addition of 0.01-0.1 mM NiSO₄ stabilized HP against thermal melting with high reversibility, while addition above 0.5 mM resulted in irreversible melting due to aggregation.

  10. Development and freeze-thaw durability of high flyash-content concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sajadi, J.

    1987-01-01

    Objectives were to investigate the effects on concrete strength, drying shrinkage, freeze-thaw durability, and air-void system parameters of replacing various amounts of portland cement with different types of fly ash and to compare selected characteristics of such fly-ash concretes and fly-ash concretes containing a high-range water-reducing admixture to those of a control mixture. It was concluded that concrete mixtures with 90-day compressive strengths equal to the control could be produced when large amounts of cement were replaced by fly ash. In addition, when the high-range water-reducing admixtures was employed, very large amounts of cement could be replaced by fly ash to yield mixtures whose compressive strengths were equal to or greater than the strengths of the control mix at all ages. The maximum amount of cement that could be replaced for equal-strength mixtures depended upon the nature of the fly ash. Drying shrinkage of plain fly-ash concretes and fly-ash concretes containing the high-range water-reducing admixture were similar to those of the control mix. The optimum fly-ash content in a concrete is comparable in strength and durability to a conventional (control) concrete was influenced by the chemical and physical characteristics of the fly ash.

  11. Evaluation of Mechanical Properties According to Nb Content of High Strength Steel Manufactured in VIM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Byung-Hui Choi; Byung-Ki Choi

    2008-01-01

    As the aircraft and aerospace industry and the automobile industry are developed, the demand of reliable materials with high strength and high toughness is steadily increased. The grain miniature method which improves the ductility and the toughness simultaneously under high strength is the miniature of the casting microstructure. In this paper, the Nb which affects the austenite grain miniature is added by 0.00%, 0.03% and 0.06% in this steel and the ingot is manufactured in a vacuum induction melting furnace (VIM). The castingmi crostructure and the mechanical property of the maraging steel according to Nb contents are analyzed by conducting the solution annealing and the age hardening after hot rolling. In this result, a specimen containing 0.03% Nb is most miniature. When it does the long time age hardening, the precipitation estimated as the carbide is appeared. The mechanical properties are excellent if a specimen containing 0.06% Nb does the age hardening during 8 h in 482℃.

  12. Predicting In Vivo Anti-Hepatofibrotic Drug Efficacy Based on In Vitro High-Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Baixue; Tan, Looling; Mo, Xuejun; Yu, Weimiao; Wang, Yan; Tucker-Kellogg, Lisa; Welsch, Roy E.; So, Peter T. C.; Yu, Hanry

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aims Many anti-fibrotic drugs with high in vitro efficacies fail to produce significant effects in vivo. The aim of this work is to use a statistical approach to design a numerical predictor that correlates better with in vivo outcomes. Methods High-content analysis (HCA) was performed with 49 drugs on hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) LX-2 stained with 10 fibrotic markers. ∼0.3 billion feature values from all cells in >150,000 images were quantified to reflect the drug effects. A systematic literature search on the in vivo effects of all 49 drugs on hepatofibrotic rats yields 28 papers with histological scores. The in vivo and in vitro datasets were used to compute a single efficacy predictor (Epredict). Results We used in vivo data from one context (CCl4 rats with drug treatments) to optimize the computation of Epredict. This optimized relationship was independently validated using in vivo data from two different contexts (treatment of DMN rats and prevention of CCl4 induction). A linear in vitro-in vivo correlation was consistently observed in all the three contexts. We used Epredict values to cluster drugs according to efficacy; and found that high-efficacy drugs tended to target proliferation, apoptosis and contractility of HSCs. Conclusions The Epredict statistic, based on a prioritized combination of in vitro features, provides a better correlation between in vitro and in vivo drug response than any of the traditional in vitro markers considered. PMID:22073152

  13. Solution-Processable Organic Molecule for High-Performance Organic Solar Cells with Low Acceptor Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kun; Guo, Bing; Xu, Zhuo; Guo, Xia; Zhang, Maojie; Li, Yongfang

    2015-11-11

    A new planar D2-A-D1-A-D2 structured organic molecule with bithienyl benzodithiophene (BDT) as central donor unit D1 and fluorine-substituted benzothiadiazole (BTF) as acceptor unit and alkyl-dithiophene as end group and donor unit D2, BDT-BTF, was designed and synthesized for the application as donor material in organic solar cells (OSCs). BDT-BTF shows a broad absorption in visible region, suitable highest occupied molecular orbital energy level of -5.20 eV, and high hole mobility of 1.07 × 10(-2) cm(2)/(V s), benefitted from its high coplanarity and strong crystallinity. The OSCs based on BDT-BTF as donor (D) and PC71BM as acceptor (A) at a D/A weight ratio of 3:1 without any extra treatment exhibit high photovoltaic performance with Voc of 0.85 V, Jsc of 10.48 mA/cm(2), FF of 0.66, and PCE of 5.88%. The morphological study by transmission electron microscopy reveals that the blend of BDT-BTF and PC71BM (3:1, w/w) possesses an appropriate interpenetrating D/A network for the exciton separation and charge carrier transport, which agrees well with the good device performance. The optimized D/A weight ratio of 3:1 is the lowest acceptor content in the active layer reported so far for the high-performance OSCs, and the organic molecules with the molecular structure like BDT-BTF could be promising high-performance donor materials in solution-processable OSCs.

  14. NeuriteQuant: An open source toolkit for high content screens of neuronal Morphogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwang Eric

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To date, some of the most useful and physiologically relevant neuronal cell culture systems, such as high density co-cultures of astrocytes and primary hippocampal neurons, or differentiated stem cell-derived cultures, are characterized by high cell density and partially overlapping cellular structures. Efficient analytical strategies are required to enable rapid, reliable, quantitative analysis of neuronal morphology in these valuable model systems. Results Here we present the development and validation of a novel bioinformatics pipeline called NeuriteQuant. This tool enables fully automated morphological analysis of large-scale image data from neuronal cultures or brain sections that display a high degree of complexity and overlap of neuronal outgrowths. It also provides an efficient web-based tool to review and evaluate the analysis process. In addition to its built-in functionality, NeuriteQuant can be readily extended based on the rich toolset offered by ImageJ and its associated community of developers. As proof of concept we performed automated screens for modulators of neuronal development in cultures of primary neurons and neuronally differentiated P19 stem cells, which demonstrated specific dose-dependent effects on neuronal morphology. Conclusions NeuriteQuant is a freely available open-source tool for the automated analysis and effective review of large-scale high-content screens. It is especially well suited to quantify the effect of experimental manipulations on physiologically relevant neuronal cultures or brain sections that display a high degree of complexity and overlap among neurites or other cellular structures.

  15. [Effects of high temperature on Bt protein content and nitrogen metabolic physiology in boll wall of Bt cotton].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Abidallah, Eltayib H M A; Hua, Ming-ming; Heng, Li; Lyu, Chun-hua; Chen, De-hua

    2015-10-01

    Bt cotton cultivar Sikang 1 (a conventional cultivar) and Sikang 3 (a hybrid cultivar) from China, and 99B (a conventional cultivar) and Daiza 1 (a hybrid cultivar) from USA were selected as experimental materials, the ball wall Bt protein content and nitrogen metabolic physiology were investigated under different high temperature levels at peak boll stage. The results showed that the Bt protein content of boll wall decreased with the increasing temperature. Compared with the control (32 °C, the boll wall Bt protein content decreased significantly when the temperature was above 38 °C for the conventional cultivars and above 40 °C for the hybrid cultivars. The Bt protein contents of cultivar Sikang 1 and 99B decreased by 53.0% and 69.5% respectively with the temperature at 38 °C, and that of cultivar Sikang 3 and Daiza 1 decreased by 64.8% and 54.1% respectively with the temperature at 40 °C. Greater reductions in the boll wall soluble protein contents and GPT activities, larger increments for the boll wall free amino acid contents and proteinsase activities were also observed when the boll wall Bt protein content was significantly reduced. Therefore, high temperature resulted in the reduction of Bt protein synthesis and increase of the insecticidal protein degradation in the boll wall significantly, which caused the reductions in boll wall Bt protein content and insect resistance.

  16. Wild plants as tools for the remediation of abandoned mining sites with a high arsenic content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Lopez, Salvadora; Martínez-Sanchez, MJose; Perez-Sirvent, Carmen; Martínez, Lucia B.; Bech, Jaume

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the environmental risk posed by arsenic when new vegetation types are introduced, analyzing the transfer of arsenic in different plant species that grow spontaneously in mining areas of SE Spain (Sierra Minera of Cartagena), and the contribution of such plants to the environmental risk represented by their ingestion by animals living in the same ecosystems. When dealing with remediation projects in zones affected by mining activities, the risk posed by the ingestion of the plants by fauna is often forgotten. To study the transfer to the trophic chain, two mammals, sheep and vole, were selected. The risk analysis was centered in the contribution of these natural plants to the ingestion calculated. For this study, 21 vegetal species naturally growing in the soils were collected from the Sierra Minera. The vegetal material studied is clearly associated with the Mediterranean Region (S.E. of Spain) and the plant species collected are endemisms and plants characteristic of the zone. Physico-chemical properties were obtained by means of the usual procedures. To determine the arsenic content, the soil samples and plant materials were digested in a microwave system and the arsenic concentration was determined using atomic fluorescence spectrometry with an automated continuous flow hydride generation system. A semiquantitative estimation of the mineralogical composition of the samples was made by X Ray Diffraction analysis. The soils were classified into three groups: Low (group 1) (7-35 mg/kg) medium (group 2) (35-327 mg/kg) and high (group 3) (> 327 mg/kg), according to their As content. The mineralogy and As content of the soils studied depends on the materials related with mining activity. The descriptive statistical analysis of the population of plants studied showed the As range in roots to be 0.31-150 mg/kg while leaf concentrations were lower (0.21-83.4 mg/kg). The potential risk of As entering the food chain through of the plant

  17. Aromatic claw: A new fold with high aromatic content that evades structural prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachleben, Joseph R; Adhikari, Aashish N; Gawlak, Grzegorz; Hoey, Robert J; Liu, Gaohua; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Montelione, Gaetano T; Sosnick, Tobin R; Koide, Shohei

    2017-02-01

    We determined the NMR structure of a highly aromatic (13%) protein of unknown function, Aq1974 from Aquifex aeolicus (PDB ID: 5SYQ). The unusual sequence of this protein has a tryptophan content five times the normal (six tryptophan residues of 114 or 5.2% while the average tryptophan content is 1.0%) with the tryptophans occurring in a WXW motif. It has no detectable sequence homology with known protein structures. Although its NMR spectrum suggested that the protein was rich in β-sheet, upon resonance assignment and solution structure determination, the protein was found to be primarily α-helical with a small two-stranded β-sheet with a novel fold that we have termed an Aromatic Claw. As this fold was previously unknown and the sequence unique, we submitted the sequence to CASP10 as a target for blind structural prediction. At the end of the competition, the sequence was classified a hard template based model; the structural relationship between the template and the experimental structure was small and the predictions all failed to predict the structure. CSRosetta was found to predict the secondary structure and its packing; however, it was found that there was little correlation between CSRosetta score and the RMSD between the CSRosetta structure and the NMR determined one. This work demonstrates that even in relatively small proteins, we do not yet have the capacity to accurately predict the fold for all primary sequences. The experimental discovery of new folds helps guide the improvement of structural prediction methods.

  18. The high-ion content and kinematics of low-redshift Lyman limit systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Andrew J.; Tumlinson, Jason; Bordoloi, Rongmon [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Lehner, Nicolas; Howk, J. Christopher [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Tripp, Todd M.; Katz, Neal [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Prochaska, J. Xavier; Werk, Jessica K. [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); O' Meara, John M. [Department of Physics, Saint Michael' s College, One Winooski Park, Colchester, VT 05439 (United States); Oppenheimer, Benjamin D. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Davé, Romeel, E-mail: afox@stsci.edu [University of the Western Cape, Robert Sobukwe Road, Bellville 7535 (South Africa)

    2013-12-01

    We study the high-ion content and kinematics of the circumgalactic medium around low-redshift galaxies using a sample of 23 Lyman limit systems (LLSs) at 0.08 < z < 0.93 observed with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope. In Lehner et al., we recently showed that low-z LLSs have a bimodal metallicity distribution. Here we extend that analysis to search for differences between the high-ion and kinematic properties of the metal-poor and metal-rich branches. We find that metal-rich LLSs tend to show higher O VI columns and broader O VI profiles than metal-poor LLSs. The total H I line width (Δv {sub 90} statistic) in LLSs is not correlated with metallicity, indicating that the H I kinematics alone cannot be used to distinguish inflow from outflow and gas recycling. Among the 17 LLSs with O VI detections, all but two show evidence of kinematic sub-structure, in the form of O VI-H I centroid offsets, multiple components, or both. Using various scenarios for how the metallicities in the high-ion and low-ion phases of each LLS compare, we constrain the ionized hydrogen column in the O VI phase to lie in the range log N(H II) ∼ 17.6-20. The O VI phase of LLSs is a substantial baryon reservoir, with M(high-ion) ∼ 10{sup 8.5-10.9} (r/150 kpc){sup 2} M {sub ☉}, similar to the mass in the low-ion phase. Accounting for the O VI phase approximately doubles the contribution of low-z LLSs to the cosmic baryon budget.

  19. Evidence for high fluid/melt content beneath Krakatau volcano (Indonesia) from local earthquake tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaxybulatov, Kairly; Koulakov, Ivan; Seht, Malte Ibs-von; Klinge, Klaus; Reichert, Christian; Dahren, Börje; Troll, Valentin R.

    2011-09-01

    Within the KRAKMON project for multiparameter monitoring of Anak Krakatau volcano (Indonesia), a network of temporary stations was installed on the islands of the Krakatau complex as well as in the surrounding areas of the Sunda Strait, Sumatra and Java. The network was operated from June 2005 until January 2006. More than 700 local events were recorded during this experiment, and travel times from these events were used to perform a tomographic inversion for P and S velocities and for the Vp/Vs ratio. In this study, special attention was paid to the validation of the computed model based on different tests, such as inversion of independent data subsets and synthetic modeling. Although the network configuration and the distribution of the events are not favorable for high-quality tomographic imaging, we have obtained some important and robust features which give information about sources of volcanic activity in the Krakatau complex. The most interesting feature of this study is a zone of high Vp/Vs ratio beneath the Krakatau complex. At depths down to 4 km depth we observe anticorrelation of higher P- and lower S-velocities that leads to Vp/Vs ratio higher than 2. This is a probable indicator of the presence of partially molten and/or with high fluid content material with a composition corresponding to deeper layers. It is important that the anomaly of high Vp/Vs ratio beneath the Krakatau complex appears to be separated in two parts at a depth of 5-6 km. This fits to results of geobarometric analysis that presume the existence of several levels of magma chambers beneath Anak Krakatau.

  20. Effect of Simulated High Hydrogen Content Combustion Environments on Abradable Properties of Ceramic Turbine Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu Majumder, Madhura

    Air plasma sprayed (APS) abradable coatings are used in the turbine hot section to reduce the stator-rotor gap, minimizing gas leakage. These coatings are designed to exhibit controlled removal of material in thin layers when the turbine blades sweep through the coating, which protects the mechanical integrity of the turbine blade. In an effort to lower CO2 emissions, high H2 content fuel is being explored. This change in chemical composition of the fuel may affect the microstructure, abradability and durability of the coatings at turbine operational temperatures. The presence of high water vapor in the combustion chamber leads to accelerated degradation of the sacrificial coating materials. In this work, zirconia based composite materials with a machinable phase and varied porosity have been used to study microstructural evolution, thermal and chemical stability of the phases and abradable characteristics of baseline coating systems in both humid and dry environments. Investigation of the mechanisms that control the removal of materials and performance of abradable coatings through thermo-mechanical tests will be discussed.

  1. Teachable, high-content analytics for live-cell, phase contrast movies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alworth, Samuel V; Watanabe, Hirotada; Lee, James S J

    2010-09-01

    CL-Quant is a new solution platform for broad, high-content, live-cell image analysis. Powered by novel machine learning technologies and teach-by-example interfaces, CL-Quant provides a platform for the rapid development and application of scalable, high-performance, and fully automated analytics for a broad range of live-cell microscopy imaging applications, including label-free phase contrast imaging. The authors used CL-Quant to teach off-the-shelf universal analytics, called standard recipes, for cell proliferation, wound healing, cell counting, and cell motility assays using phase contrast movies collected on the BioStation CT and BioStation IM platforms. Similar to application modules, standard recipes are intended to work robustly across a wide range of imaging conditions without requiring customization by the end user. The authors validated the performance of the standard recipes by comparing their performance with truth created manually, or by custom analytics optimized for each individual movie (and therefore yielding the best possible result for the image), and validated by independent review. The validation data show that the standard recipes' performance is comparable with the validated truth with low variation. The data validate that the CL-Quant standard recipes can provide robust results without customization for live-cell assays in broad cell types and laboratory settings.

  2. Toward high-content screening of mitochondrial morphology and membrane potential in living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannetti, Eligio F; Willems, Peter H G M; Pellegrini, Mina; Beyrath, Julien; Smeitink, Jan A M; Blanchet, Lionel; Koopman, Werner J H

    2015-06-01

    Mitochondria are double membrane organelles involved in various key cellular processes. Governed by dedicated protein machinery, mitochondria move and continuously fuse and divide. These "mitochondrial dynamics" are bi-directionally linked to mitochondrial and cell functional state in space and time. Due to the action of the electron transport chain (ETC), the mitochondrial inner membrane displays a inside-negative membrane potential (Δψ). The latter is considered a functional readout of mitochondrial "health" and required to sustain normal mitochondrial ATP production and mitochondrial fusion. During the last decade, live-cell microscopy strategies were developed for simultaneous quantification of Δψ and mitochondrial morphology. This revealed that ETC dysfunction, changes in Δψ and aberrations in mitochondrial structure often occur in parallel, suggesting they are linked potential targets for therapeutic intervention. Here we discuss how combining high-content and high-throughput strategies can be used for analysis of genetic and/or drug-induced effects at the level of individual organelles, cells and cell populations. This article is part of a Directed Issue entitled: Energy Metabolism Disorders and Therapies.

  3. Multiplexed high-content analysis of mitochondrial morphofunction using live-cell microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannetti, Eligio F; Smeitink, Jan A M; Beyrath, Julien; Willems, Peter H G M; Koopman, Werner J H

    2016-09-01

    Mitochondria have a central role in cellular (patho)physiology, and they display a highly variable morphology that is probably coupled to their functional state. Here we present a protocol that allows unbiased and automated quantification of mitochondrial 'morphofunction' (i.e., morphology and membrane potential), cellular parameters (size, confluence) and nuclear parameters (number, morphology) in intact living primary human skin fibroblasts (PHSFs). Cells are cultured in 96-well plates and stained with tetramethyl rhodamine methyl ester (TMRM), calcein-AM (acetoxy-methyl ester) and Hoechst 33258. Next, multispectral fluorescence images are acquired using automated microscopy and processed to extract 44 descriptors. Subsequently, the descriptor data are subjected to a quality control (QC) algorithm based upon principal component analysis (PCA) and interpreted using univariate, bivariate and multivariate analysis. The protocol requires a time investment of ∼4 h distributed over 2 d. Although it is specifically developed for PHSFs, which are widely used in preclinical research, the protocol is portable to other cell types and can be scaled up for implementation in high-content screening.

  4. Designs and concept reliance of a fully automated high-content screening platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radu, Constantin; Adrar, Hosna Sana; Alamir, Ab; Hatherley, Ian; Trinh, Trung; Djaballah, Hakim

    2012-10-01

    High-content screening (HCS) is becoming an accepted platform in academic and industry screening labs and does require slightly different logistics for execution. To automate our stand-alone HCS microscopes, namely, an alpha IN Cell Analyzer 3000 (INCA3000), originally a Praelux unit hooked to a Hudson Plate Crane with a maximum capacity of 50 plates per run, and the IN Cell Analyzer 2000 (INCA2000), in which up to 320 plates could be fed per run using the Thermo Fisher Scientific Orbitor, we opted for a 4 m linear track system harboring both microscopes, plate washer, bulk dispensers, and a high-capacity incubator allowing us to perform both live and fixed cell-based assays while accessing both microscopes on deck. Considerations in design were given to the integration of the alpha INCA3000, a new gripper concept to access the onboard nest, and peripheral locations on deck to ensure a self-reliant system capable of achieving higher throughput. The resulting system, referred to as Hestia, has been fully operational since the new year, has an onboard capacity of 504 plates, and harbors the only fully automated alpha INCA3000 unit in the world.

  5. Ethanol production from food waste at high solids content with vacuum recovery technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haibo; Qureshi, Nasib; Chen, Ming-Hsu; Liu, Wei; Singh, Vijay

    2015-03-18

    Ethanol production from food wastes does not only solve environmental issues but also provides renewable biofuels. This study investigated the feasibility of producing ethanol from food wastes at high solids content (35%, w/w). A vacuum recovery system was developed and applied to remove ethanol from fermentation broth to reduce yeast ethanol inhibition. A high concentration of ethanol (144 g/L) was produced by the conventional fermentation of food waste without a vacuum recovery system. When the vacuum recovery is applied to the fermentation process, the ethanol concentration in the fermentation broth was controlled below 100 g/L, thus reducing yeast ethanol inhibition. At the end of the conventional fermentation, the residual glucose in the fermentation broth was 5.7 g/L, indicating incomplete utilization of glucose, while the vacuum fermentation allowed for complete utilization of glucose. The ethanol yield for the vacuum fermentation was found to be 358 g/kg of food waste (dry basis), higher than that for the conventional fermentation at 327 g/kg of food waste (dry basis).

  6. Laser-based single-axon transection for high-content axon injury and regeneration studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darío Kunik

    Full Text Available The investigation of the regenerative response of the neurons to axonal injury is essential to the development of new axoprotective therapies. Here we study the retinal neuronal RGC-5 cell line after laser transection, demonstrating that the ability of these cells to initiate a regenerative response correlates with axon length and cell motility after injury. We show that low energy picosecond laser pulses can achieve transection of unlabeled single axons in vitro and precisely induce damage with micron precision. We established the conditions to achieve axon transection, and characterized RGC-5 axon regeneration and cell body response using time-lapse microscopy. We developed an algorithm to analyze cell trajectories and established correlations between cell motility after injury, axon length, and the initiation of the regeneration response. The characterization of the motile response of axotomized RGC-5 cells showed that cells that were capable of repair or regrowth of damaged axons migrated more slowly than cells that could not. Moreover, we established that RGC-5 cells with long axons could not recover their injured axons, and such cells were much more motile. The platform we describe allows highly controlled axonal damage with subcellular resolution and the performance of high-content screening in cell cultures.

  7. High-Content Analysis of Breast Cancer Using Single-Cell Deep Transfer Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandaswamy, Chetak; Silva, Luís M; Alexandre, Luís A; Santos, Jorge M

    2016-03-01

    High-content analysis has revolutionized cancer drug discovery by identifying substances that alter the phenotype of a cell, which prevents tumor growth and metastasis. The high-resolution biofluorescence images from assays allow precise quantitative measures enabling the distinction of small molecules of a host cell from a tumor. In this work, we are particularly interested in the application of deep neural networks (DNNs), a cutting-edge machine learning method, to the classification of compounds in chemical mechanisms of action (MOAs). Compound classification has been performed using image-based profiling methods sometimes combined with feature reduction methods such as principal component analysis or factor analysis. In this article, we map the input features of each cell to a particular MOA class without using any treatment-level profiles or feature reduction methods. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first application of DNN in this domain, leveraging single-cell information. Furthermore, we use deep transfer learning (DTL) to alleviate the intensive and computational demanding effort of searching the huge parameter's space of a DNN. Results show that using this approach, we obtain a 30% speedup and a 2% accuracy improvement.

  8. High-content analysis to leverage a robust phenotypic profiling approach to vascular modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isherwood, Beverley J; Walls, Rebecca E; Roberts, Mark E; Houslay, Thomas M; Brave, Sandra R; Barry, Simon T; Carragher, Neil O

    2013-12-01

    Phenotypic screening seeks to identify substances that modulate phenotypes in a desired manner with the aim of progressing first-in-class agents. Successful campaigns require physiological relevance, robust screening, and an ability to deconvolute perturbed pathways. High-content analysis (HCA) is increasingly used in cell biology and offers one approach to prosecution of phenotypic screens, but challenges exist in exploitation where data generated are high volume and complex. We combine development of an organotypic model with novel HCA tools to map phenotypic responses to pharmacological perturbations. We describe implementation for angiogenesis, a process that has long been a focus for therapeutic intervention but has lacked robust models that recapitulate more completely mechanisms involved. The study used human primary endothelial cells in co-culture with stromal fibroblasts to model multiple aspects of angiogenic signaling: cell interactions, proliferation, migration, and differentiation. Multiple quantitative descriptors were derived from automated microscopy using custom-designed algorithms. Data were extracted using a bespoke informatics platform that integrates processing, statistics, and feature display into a streamlined workflow for building and interrogating fingerprints. Ninety compounds were characterized, defining mode of action by phenotype. Our approach for assessing phenotypic outcomes in complex assay models is robust and capable of supporting a range of phenotypic screens at scale.

  9. Combination of Sardine and Shark Oil High Content of Omega-3 and Squalene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Musbah

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Sardine oil contain high concentration of  EPA but low of  DHA while shark is reverse. Shark oil  high contain of DHA and squalene but low EPA. This research aim to fortify the quality of  fish oil withomega-3 and squalen and improve the quality of fish oil. The combination of fish oil (sardine:shark 1: 1, 1: 2, 1: 3, 1: 4, 2: 1, 3: 1 and 4:1 showed significant results on peroxide, anisidine, and total oxidation value, however free fatty acids analysis did not show the influence to the content value.  The best oxidation parameters value werefound (sardine: shark (1:4 with peroxide was 5.44±0.06 mEq/kg, anisidine was 8.3±0.72 mEq/kg and total oxidation was 19.27±0.7mEq/kg. Fatty acids profile between  sardines and shark oil containedvarious SFA, MUFA and PUFA. Sardine oil which was added more to combination ratio will increase omega-3. Sample 1:4 had 43.16% squalene.

  10. GPS scintillations and total electron content climatology in the southern low, middle and high latitude regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Spogli

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, several groups have installed high-frequency sampling receivers in the southern middle and high latitude regions, to monitor ionospheric scintillations and the total electron content (TEC changes. Taking advantage of the archive of continuous and systematic observations of the ionosphere on L-band by means of signals from the Global Positioning System (GPS, we present the first attempt at ionospheric scintillation and TEC mapping from Latin America to Antarctica. The climatology of the area considered is derived through Ground-Based Scintillation Climatology, a method that can identify ionospheric sectors in which scintillations are more likely to occur. This study also introduces the novel ionospheric scintillation 'hot-spot' analysis. This analysis first identifies the crucial areas of the ionosphere in terms of enhanced probability of scintillation occurrence, and then it studies the seasonal variation of the main scintillation and TEC-related parameters. The results produced by this sophisticated analysis give significant indications of the spatial/ temporal recurrences of plasma irregularities, which contributes to the extending of current knowledge of the mechanisms that cause scintillations, and consequently to the development of efficient tools to forecast space-weather-related ionospheric events.

  11. Activated carbon fibers with a high heteroatom content by chemical activation of PBO with phosphoric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Santos, M B; Suárez-García, F; Martínez-Alonso, A; Tascón, J M D

    2012-04-03

    The preparation of activated carbon fibers (ACFs) by phosphoric acid activation of poly(p-phenylene benzobisoxazole) (PBO) fibers was studied, with particular attention to the effects of impregnation ratio and carbonization temperature on porous texture. Phosphoric acid has a strong effect on PBO degradation, lowering the temperature range at which the decomposition takes place and changing the number of mass loss steps. Chemical analysis results indicated that activation with phosphoric acid increases the concentration of oxygenated surface groups; the resulting materials also exhibiting high nitrogen content. ACFs are obtained with extremely high yields; they have well-developed porosity restricted to the micropore and narrow mesopore range and with a significant concentration of phosphorus incorporated homogeneously in the form of functional groups. An increase in the impregnation ratio leads to increases in both pore volume and pore size, maximum values of surface area (1250 m(2)/g) and total pore volume (0.67 cm(3)/g) being attained at the highest impregnation ratio (210 wt % H(3)PO(4)) and lowest activation temperature (650 °C) used; the corresponding yield was as large as 83 wt %. The obtained surface areas and pore volumes were higher than those achieved in previous works by physical activation with CO(2) of PBO chars.

  12. High-content live cell imaging with RNA probes: advancements in high-throughput antimalarial drug discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cervantes Serena

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria, a major public health issue in developing nations, is responsible for more than one million deaths a year. The most lethal species, Plasmodium falciparum, causes up to 90% of fatalities. Drug resistant strains to common therapies have emerged worldwide and recent artemisinin-based combination therapy failures hasten the need for new antimalarial drugs. Discovering novel compounds to be used as antimalarials is expedited by the use of a high-throughput screen (HTS to detect parasite growth and proliferation. Fluorescent dyes that bind to DNA have replaced expensive traditional radioisotope incorporation for HTS growth assays, but do not give additional information regarding the parasite stage affected by the drug and a better indication of the drug's mode of action. Live cell imaging with RNA dyes, which correlates with cell growth and proliferation, has been limited by the availability of successful commercial dyes. Results After screening a library of newly synthesized stryrl dyes, we discovered three RNA binding dyes that provide morphological details of live parasites. Utilizing an inverted confocal imaging platform, live cell imaging of parasites increases parasite detection, improves the spatial and temporal resolution of the parasite under drug treatments, and can resolve morphological changes in individual cells. Conclusion This simple one-step technique is suitable for automation in a microplate format for novel antimalarial compound HTS. We have developed a new P. falciparum RNA high-content imaging growth inhibition assay that is robust with time and energy efficiency.

  13. Environmental implications of high metal content in soils of a titanium mining zone in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maina, David M; Ndirangu, Douglas M; Mangala, Michael M; Boman, Johan; Shepherd, Keith; Gatari, Michael J

    2016-11-01

    Mining activities contribute to an increase of specific metal contaminants in soils. This may adversely affect plant life and consequently impact on animal and human health. The objective of this study was to obtain the background metal concentrations in soils around the titanium mining in Kwale County for monitoring its environmental impacts. Forty samples were obtained with half from topsoils and the other from subsoils. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry was used to determine the metal content of the soil samples. High concentrations of Ti, Mn, Fe, and Zr were observed where Ti concentrations ranged from 0.47 to 2.8 %; Mn 0.02 to 3.1 %; Fe 0.89 to 3.1 %; and Zr 0.05 to 0.85 %. Using ratios of elemental concentrations in topsoil to subsoil method and enrichment factors concept, the metals were observed to be of geogenic origin with no anthropogenic input. The high concentrations of Mn and Fe may increase their concentration levels in the surrounding agricultural lands through deposition, thereby causing contamination on the land and the cultivated food crops. The latter can cause adverse human health effects. In addition, titanium mining will produce tailings containing low-level titanium concentrations, which will require proper disposal to avoid increasing titanium concentrations in the soils of the region since it has been observed to be phytotoxic to plants at high concentrations. The results of this study will serve as reference while monitoring the environmental impact by the titanium mining activities.

  14. Assessment of Cr(VI-induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity using high content analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad M Thompson

    Full Text Available Oral exposure to high concentrations of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI] induces intestinal redox changes, villus cytotoxicity, crypt hyperplasia, and intestinal tumors in mice. To assess the effects of Cr(VI in a cell model relevant to the intestine, undifferentiated (proliferating and differentiated (confluent Caco-2 cells were treated with Cr(VI, hydrogen peroxide or rotenone for 2-24 hours. DNA damage was then assessed by nuclear staining intensity of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG and phosphorylated histone variant H2AX (γ-H2AX measured by high content analysis methods. In undifferentiated Caco-2, all three chemicals increased 8-OHdG and γ-H2AX staining at cytotoxic concentrations, whereas only 8-OHdG was elevated at non-cytotoxic concentrations at 24 hr. Differentiated Caco-2 were more resistant to cytotoxicity and DNA damage than undifferentiated cells, and there were no changes in apoptotic markers p53 or annexin-V. However, Cr(VI induced a dose-dependent translocation of the unfolded protein response transcription factor ATF6 into the nucleus. Micronucleus (MN formation was assessed in CHO-K1 and A549 cell lines. Cr(VI increased MN frequency in CHO-K1 only at highly cytotoxic concentrations. Relative to the positive control Mitomycin-C, Cr(VI only slightly increased MN frequency in A549 at mildly cytotoxic concentrations. The results demonstrate that Cr(VI genotoxicity correlates with cytotoxic concentrations, and that H2AX phosphorylation occurs at higher concentrations than oxidative DNA damage in proliferating Caco-2 cells. The findings suggest that in vitro genotoxicity of Cr(VI is primarily oxidative in nature at low concentrations. Implications for in vivo intestinal toxicity of Cr(VI will be discussed.

  15. Susceptibility Contrast in High Field MRI of Human Brain as a Function of Tissue Iron Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Bing; Li, Tie-Qiang; van Gelderen, Peter; Shmueli, Karin; de Zwart, Jacco A.; Duyn, Jeff H.

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic susceptibility provides an important contrast mechanism for MRI. Increasingly, susceptibility-based contrast is being exploited to investigate brain tissue microstructure and to detect abnormal levels of brain iron as these have been implicated in a variety of neuro-degenerative diseases. However, it remains unclear to what extent magnetic susceptibility-related contrast at high field relates to actual brain iron concentrations. In this study, we performed susceptibility weighted imaging as a function of field strength on healthy brains in vivo and post-mortem brain tissues at 1.5T, 3T and 7T. Iron histology was performed on the tissue samples for comparison. The calculated susceptibility-related parameters R2* and signal frequency shift in four iron-rich regions (putamen, globus pallidus, caudate, and thalamus) showed an almost linear dependence (r=0.90 for R2*; r=0.83 for phase, p<0.01) on field strength, suggesting that potential ferritin saturation effects are not relevant to susceptibility-weighted contrast for field strengths up to 7T. The R2* dependence on the putative (literature-based) iron concentration was 0.048 Hz/Tesla/ppm. The histological data from brain samples confirmed the linear dependence of R2* on field strength and showed a slope against iron concentration of 0.0099 Hz/Tesla/ppm dry-weight, which is equivalent to 0.05 Hz/Tesla/ppm wet-weight and closely matched the calculated value in vivo. These results confirm the validity of using susceptibility-weighted contrast as an indicator of iron content in iron-rich brain regions. The absence of saturation effects opens the way to exploit the benefits of MRI at high field strengths for the detection of iron distributions with high sensitivity and resolution. PMID:19027861

  16. Effect of high contents of dietary animal-derived protein or carbohydrates on canine faecal microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Ingrid

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Considerable evidence suggests that food impacts both the gastro-intestinal (GI function and the microbial ecology of the canine GI tract. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of high-carbohydrate (HC, high-protein (HP and dry commercial (DC diets on the canine colonic microbiota in Beagle dogs. Diets were allocated according to the Graeco-Latin square design. For this purpose, microbial DNA was isolated from faecal samples and separated by density gradient centrifugation, resulting in specific profiling based on the guanine-cytosine content (%G + C. In addition, 16 S rRNA gene amplicons were obtained from the most abundant %G + C peaks and analysed by sequence analysis, producing a total of 720 non-redundant sequences (240 sequences per diet. Results The DC diet sample showed high abundance of representatives of the orders Clostridiales, Lactobacillales, Coriobacteriales and Bacteroidales. Sequence diversity was highest for DC diet samples and included representatives of the orders Lactobacillales and Bacteroidales, which were not detected in samples from the HP and HC diets. These latter two diets also had reduced levels of representatives of the family Lachnospiraceae, specifically Clostridial cluster XIVa. The HC diet favoured representatives of the order Erysipelotrichales, more specifically the Clostridial cluster XVIII, while the HP diet favoured representatives of the order Fusobacteriales. Conclusions This study detected Coriobacteriales in dog faeces, possibly due to the non-selective nature of the %G + C profiling method used in combination with sequencing. Moreover, our work demonstrates that the effect of diet on faecal microbiota can be explained based on the metabolic properties of the detected microbial taxa.

  17. Assessment of Cr(VI)-Induced Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity Using High Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Chad M.; Fedorov, Yuriy; Brown, Daniel D.; Suh, Mina; Proctor, Deborah M.; Kuriakose, Liz; Haws, Laurie C.; Harris, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Oral exposure to high concentrations of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] induces intestinal redox changes, villus cytotoxicity, crypt hyperplasia, and intestinal tumors in mice. To assess the effects of Cr(VI) in a cell model relevant to the intestine, undifferentiated (proliferating) and differentiated (confluent) Caco-2 cells were treated with Cr(VI), hydrogen peroxide or rotenone for 2–24 hours. DNA damage was then assessed by nuclear staining intensity of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and phosphorylated histone variant H2AX (γ-H2AX) measured by high content analysis methods. In undifferentiated Caco-2, all three chemicals increased 8-OHdG and γ-H2AX staining at cytotoxic concentrations, whereas only 8-OHdG was elevated at non-cytotoxic concentrations at 24 hr. Differentiated Caco-2 were more resistant to cytotoxicity and DNA damage than undifferentiated cells, and there were no changes in apoptotic markers p53 or annexin-V. However, Cr(VI) induced a dose-dependent translocation of the unfolded protein response transcription factor ATF6 into the nucleus. Micronucleus (MN) formation was assessed in CHO-K1 and A549 cell lines. Cr(VI) increased MN frequency in CHO-K1 only at highly cytotoxic concentrations. Relative to the positive control Mitomycin-C, Cr(VI) only slightly increased MN frequency in A549 at mildly cytotoxic concentrations. The results demonstrate that Cr(VI) genotoxicity correlates with cytotoxic concentrations, and that H2AX phosphorylation occurs at higher concentrations than oxidative DNA damage in proliferating Caco-2 cells. The findings suggest that in vitro genotoxicity of Cr(VI) is primarily oxidative in nature at low concentrations. Implications for in vivo intestinal toxicity of Cr(VI) will be discussed. PMID:22905163

  18. Predicting in vivo anti-hepatofibrotic drug efficacy based on in vitro high-content analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baixue Zheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/AIMS: Many anti-fibrotic drugs with high in vitro efficacies fail to produce significant effects in vivo. The aim of this work is to use a statistical approach to design a numerical predictor that correlates better with in vivo outcomes. METHODS: High-content analysis (HCA was performed with 49 drugs on hepatic stellate cells (HSCs LX-2 stained with 10 fibrotic markers. ~0.3 billion feature values from all cells in >150,000 images were quantified to reflect the drug effects. A systematic literature search on the in vivo effects of all 49 drugs on hepatofibrotic rats yields 28 papers with histological scores. The in vivo and in vitro datasets were used to compute a single efficacy predictor (E(predict. RESULTS: We used in vivo data from one context (CCl(4 rats with drug treatments to optimize the computation of E(predict. This optimized relationship was independently validated using in vivo data from two different contexts (treatment of DMN rats and prevention of CCl(4 induction. A linear in vitro-in vivo correlation was consistently observed in all the three contexts. We used E(predict values to cluster drugs according to efficacy; and found that high-efficacy drugs tended to target proliferation, apoptosis and contractility of HSCs. CONCLUSIONS: The E(predict statistic, based on a prioritized combination of in vitro features, provides a better correlation between in vitro and in vivo drug response than any of the traditional in vitro markers considered.

  19. High β phase content in PVDF/CoFe2O4 nanocomposites induced by DC magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shenglin; Wan, Hongyan; Liu, Huan; Zeng, Yike; Liu, Jianguo; Wu, Yunyi; Zhang, Guangzu

    2016-09-01

    Flexible ferroelectrics being exploited as energy harvesting and conversion materials are highly desirable for wearable and skin-mountable electronic devices. As one of the most typical ferroelectric polymers, poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) has been widely used in modern electronic systems and devices, whose ferroelectric performance relies heavily on its β phase content. In this work, to achieve high-β-phase-content PVDF, we first introduced CoFe2O4 nanoparticles into PVDF. With the incorporation of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles used as an effective polymer nucleation agent, the percentage of the β phase in the PVDF has been significantly enhanced, e.g., 84% in the nanocomposite with 5 wt. % CoFe2O4 versus only 73% in the pure PVDF. In order to further increase the β phase content in PVDF, we subsequently proposed an easily realized strategy. By applying DC magnetic fields during the solution-casting process of the PVDF/CoFe2O4 nanocomposites, a further improved β phase content as high as 95% can be achieved. The further improvement of the β phase content is attributable to the tensile stress at the CoFe2O4/PVDF interfaces created by the coupling of magnetic field and CoFe2O4 by means of the magnetostriction effect. The high β-phase content makes the PVDF/CoFe2O4 nanocomposites a promising candidate for flexible and wearable electronic device applications.

  20. Robo-Lector – a novel platform for automated high-throughput cultivations in microtiter plates with high information content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kensy Frank

    2009-08-01

    culture plate, where subsequently similar growth kinetics could be obtained. Conclusion The Robo-Lector generates extensive kinetic data in high-throughput cultivations, particularly for biomass and fluorescence protein formation. Based on the non-invasive on-line-monitoring signals, actions of the liquid-handling robot can easily be triggered. This interaction between the robot and the BioLector (Robo-Lector combines high-content data generation with systematic high-throughput experimentation in an automated fashion, offering new possibilities to study biological production systems. The presented platform uses a standard liquid-handling workstation with widespread automation possibilities. Thus, high-throughput cultivations can now be combined with small-scale downstream processing techniques and analytical assays. Ultimately, this novel versatile platform can accelerate and intensify research and development in the field of systems biology as well as modelling and bioprocess optimization.

  1. Biodrying process: A sustainable technology for treatment of municipal solid waste with high moisture content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom, Asha P; Pawels, Renu; Haridas, Ajit

    2016-03-01

    Municipal solid waste with high moisture content is the major hindrance in the field of waste to energy conversion technologies and here comes the importance of biodrying process. Biodrying is a convective evaporation process, which utilizes the biological heat developed from the aerobic reactions of organic components. The numerous end use possibilities of the output are making the biodrying process versatile, which is possible by achieving the required moisture reduction, volume reduction and bulk density enhancement through the effective utilization of biological heat. In the present case study the detailed research and development of an innovative biodrying reactor has been carried out for the treatment of mixed municipal solid waste with high moisture content. A pilot scale biodrying reactor of capacity 565 cm(3) was designed and set up in the laboratory. The reactor dimensions consisted of an acrylic chamber of 60 cm diameter and 200 cm height, and it was enveloped by an insulation chamber. The insulation chamber was provided to minimise the heat losses through the side walls of the reactor. It simulates the actual condition in scaling up of the reactor, since in bigger scale reactors the heat losses through side walls will be negligible while comparing the volume to surface area ratio. The mixed municipal solid waste with initial moisture content of 61.25% was synthetically prepared in the laboratory and the reactor was fed with 109 kg of this substrate. Aerobic conditions were ensured inside the reactor chamber by providing the air at a constant rate of 40 litre per minute, and the direction of air flow was from the specially designed bottom air chamber to the reactor matrix top. The self heating inside reactor matrix was assumed in the range of 50-60°C during the design stage. Innovative biodrying reactor was found to be efficiently working with the temperature inside the reactor matrix rising to a peak value of 59°C by the fourth day of experiment (the

  2. Submerged Cultivation of Mycelium with High Ergothioneine Content from the Culinary-Medicinal Golden Oyster Mushroom, Pleurotus citrinopileatus (Higher Basidiomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shin-Yi; Chien, Shih-Chang; Wang, Sheng-Yang; Mau, Jeng-Leun

    2015-01-01

    The optimization of submerged culture of the culinary-medicinal golden oyster mushroom, Pleurotus citrinopileatus, was studied using a one-factor-at-a-time, two-stage stimulation and central composite rotatable design to produce mycelia with high ergothioneine content. The optimal culture conditions for mycelia harvested at day 22 were a temperature of 25°C, an inoculation ratio of 5%, 2% glucose, 0.5% yeast extract, and adjustment of the initial pH value to 10. The biomass and ergothioneine content were 8.28 g/L and 10.65 mg/g dry weight (dw), respectively. The addition of an amino acid precursor increased the ergothioneine content of mycelia; cysteine was the most effective. In addition, the results obtained from central composite rotatable design showed that the recommended combination for cysteine, histidine, and methionine was 8, 4, and 0.5 mmol/L, respectively. The predicted ergothioneine content was 13.90 mg/g dw, whereas the experimental maximal ergothioneine content was 14.57 mg/g dw. With the addition of complex precursors and under optimal culture conditions, mycelia harvested at days 16-20 had higher ergothioneine content. Accordingly, the information obtained could be used to produce mycelia with high ergothioneine content.

  3. Analysis of SSLP and Soluble Protein Contents in Leaves of Mutants Induced by High Pressure in Rice (Oryza sativa)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Xiu-ying; XU Shi-ping; LIAO Yao-ping; MAO Xing-xue; WENG Ke-nan; CHEN Zhao-ming; CHEN Yue-han; XIAO Wan-sheng

    2004-01-01

    Rice variety Yuexiangzhan and its mutants induced by high pressure were studied using microsatellite markers and soluble protein content analyses. Eleven of the 88 microsatellite primer pairs showed evident polymorphisms repeatedly, and the polymorphic frequencies were 3.4-11.3% between the mutants and Yuexiangzhan. The polymorphic markers were randomly located on chromosomes. The more similar the plant types of the mutants like their original variety, the less polymorphic loci were detected. In addition, there was variation in the soluble protein contents among the leaves of mutants,and the contents were significantly lower than those of the original variety.

  4. Highly recommended!’ The content characteristics and perceived usefulness of online consumer reviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.M. Willemsen; P.C. Neijens; F. Bronner; J.A. de Ridder

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to gain a better understanding of the content characteristics that make online consumer reviews a useful source of consumer information. To this end, we content analyzed reviews of experience and search products posted on Amazon.com (N = 400). The insights derived fr

  5. Initial Characterization of Colombian High School Physics Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge on Electric Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo-Niño, Lina Viviana; Cañada, Florentina; Mellado, Vicente

    2017-01-01

    We explore the initial characterization of the pedagogical content knowledge of four, in-service, Colombian pre-university secondary education physics teachers on the concept of electric field. Two of them teach the content in English as a second language. The aim of the study was to obtain an image of the participants' teaching of electric field…

  6. Initial Characterization of Colombian High School Physics Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge on Electric Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo-Niño, Lina Viviana; Cañada, Florentina; Mellado, Vicente

    2017-01-01

    We explore the initial characterization of the pedagogical content knowledge of four, in-service, Colombian pre-university secondary education physics teachers on the concept of electric field. Two of them teach the content in English as a second language. The aim of the study was to obtain an image of the participants' teaching of electric field…

  7. Study of elastic-plastic damage model of cement consolidated soil with high organic content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Huie; WANG Qing; CAI Keyi

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of elastic-plastic damage model of cement consolidated soil, the authors took organic contents into reasonable damage variable evolution equation in order to seek relation between the organic contents and parameters in the equation, and established the elastic-plastic damage model of cement consolidated soil considering organic contents. The results show that the parameters change correspondingly with difference of the organic contents. The higher the organic contents are, the less the valves of the parameters such as elastic modulus (E), material parameters (K, n) and damage evolution parameter (ε) become, but the larger strain damage threshold value (εd) of the sample is. Meanwhile, the calculation results obtained from established model are compared with the test data in the condition of common indoors test, which is testified with reliability.

  8. Identifying and quantifying heterogeneity in high content analysis: application of heterogeneity indices to drug discovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert H Gough

    Full Text Available One of the greatest challenges in biomedical research, drug discovery and diagnostics is understanding how seemingly identical cells can respond differently to perturbagens including drugs for disease treatment. Although heterogeneity has become an accepted characteristic of a population of cells, in drug discovery it is not routinely evaluated or reported. The standard practice for cell-based, high content assays has been to assume a normal distribution and to report a well-to-well average value with a standard deviation. To address this important issue we sought to define a method that could be readily implemented to identify, quantify and characterize heterogeneity in cellular and small organism assays to guide decisions during drug discovery and experimental cell/tissue profiling. Our study revealed that heterogeneity can be effectively identified and quantified with three indices that indicate diversity, non-normality and percent outliers. The indices were evaluated using the induction and inhibition of STAT3 activation in five cell lines where the systems response including sample preparation and instrument performance were well characterized and controlled. These heterogeneity indices provide a standardized method that can easily be integrated into small and large scale screening or profiling projects to guide interpretation of the biology, as well as the development of therapeutics and diagnostics. Understanding the heterogeneity in the response to perturbagens will become a critical factor in designing strategies for the development of therapeutics including targeted polypharmacology.

  9. On forecasting ionospheric total electron content responses to high-speed solar wind streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Xing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Conditions in the ionosphere have become increasingly important to forecast, since more and more spaceborne and ground-based technological systems rely on ionospheric weather. Here we explore the feasibility of ionospheric forecasts with the current generation of physics-based models. In particular, we focus on total electron content (TEC predictions using the Global Ionosphere-Thermosphere Model (GITM. Simulations are configured in a forecast mode and performed for four typical high-speed-stream events during 2007–2012. The simulated TECs are quantified through a metric, which divides the globe into a number of local regions and robustly differentiates between quiet and disturbed periods. Proposed forecast products are hourly global maps color-coded by the TEC disturbance level of each local region. To assess the forecasts, we compare the simulated TEC disturbances with global TEC maps derived from Global Positioning System (GPS satellite observations. The forecast performance is found to be merely acceptable, with a large number of regions where the observed variations are not captured by the simulations. Examples of model-data agreements and disagreements are investigated in detail, aiming to understand the model behavior and improve future forecasts. For one event, we identify two adjacent regions with similar TEC observations but significant differences in how local chemistry versus plasma transport contribute to electron density changes in the simulation. Suggestions for further analysis are described.

  10. Anti-cancer agents in Saudi Arabian herbals revealed by automated high-content imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Hajjar, Dina

    2017-06-13

    Natural products have been used for medical applications since ancient times. Commonly, natural products are structurally complex chemical compounds that efficiently interact with their biological targets, making them useful drug candidates in cancer therapy. Here, we used cell-based phenotypic profiling and image-based high-content screening to study the mode of action and potential cellular targets of plants historically used in Saudi Arabia\\'s traditional medicine. We compared the cytological profiles of fractions taken from Juniperus phoenicea (Arar), Anastatica hierochuntica (Kaff Maryam), and Citrullus colocynthis (Hanzal) with a set of reference compounds with established modes of action. Cluster analyses of the cytological profiles of the tested compounds suggested that these plants contain possible topoisomerase inhibitors that could be effective in cancer treatment. Using histone H2AX phosphorylation as a marker for DNA damage, we discovered that some of the compounds induced double-strand DNA breaks. Furthermore, chemical analysis of the active fraction isolated from Juniperus phoenicea revealed possible anti-cancer compounds. Our results demonstrate the usefulness of cell-based phenotypic screening of natural products to reveal their biological activities.

  11. High content analysis at single cell level identifies different cellular responses dependent on nanomaterial concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manshian, Bella B; Munck, Sebastian; Agostinis, Patrizia; Himmelreich, Uwe; Soenen, Stefaan J

    2015-09-08

    A mechanistic understanding of nanomaterial (NM) interaction with biological environments is pivotal for the safe transition from basic science to applied nanomedicine. NM exposure results in varying levels of internalized NM in different neighboring cells, due to variances in cell size, cell cycle phase and NM agglomeration. Using high-content analysis, we investigated the cytotoxic effects of fluorescent quantum dots on cultured cells, where all effects were correlated with the concentration of NMs at the single cell level. Upon binning the single cell data into different categories related to NM concentration, this study demonstrates, for the first time, that quantum dots activate both cytoprotective and cytotoxic mechanisms, resulting in a zero net result on the overall cell population, yet with significant effects in cells with higher cellular NM levels. Our results suggest that future NM cytotoxicity studies should correlate NM toxicity with cellular NM numbers on the single cell level, as conflicting mechanisms in particular cell subpopulations are commonly overlooked using classical toxicological methods.

  12. Belite cement clinker from coal fly ash of high Ca content. Optimization of synthesis parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Guerrero; S. Goni; I. Campillo; A. Moragues [Instituto de Ciencias de la Construccion ' Eduardo Torroja' (CSIC), Madrid (Spain)

    2004-06-01

    The optimization of parameters of synthesis of belite cement clinker from Spanish coal fly ash of high Ca content is presented in this paper. The investigations were prompted by a need to reduce the CO{sub 2} emissions produced by the cement industry. Belite Ca{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} synthesis produces less CO{sub 2} than alite, the main component of Portland cement clinker. The synthesis process is based on the hydrothermal-calcination-route of the fly ash without extra additions. The hydrothermal treatment was carried out in demineralized water and a 1 M NaOH solution for 4 h at the temperatures of 100, 150, and 200{sup o} C. The precursors obtained during the hydrothermal treatment were heated at temperatures of 700, 800, 900, and 1000{sup o}C. The changes of fly ash composition after the different treatments were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), FT infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, surface area (BET-N{sub 2}), and thermal analyses. From the results obtained it was concluded that the optimum temperature of the hydrothermal treatment was 200{sup o}C, and the optimum temperature for obtaining the belite cement clinker was 800{sup o}C. 12 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Recirculation of Chilean copper smelting dust with high impurities contents to the smelting process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sano, H.; Fujisawa, T. [Nagoya Univ., Nagoya (Japan). EcoTopia Science Inst.; Montenegro, V. [Nagoya Univ., Nagoya (Japan). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    2007-07-01

    Dust generated during the copper smelting process is generally stabilized using hydrometallurgical methods as it contains high concentrations of arsenic. In this laboratory study, dust was recirculated during the smelting process in order to recover more copper and decrease dust emissions while recovering more copper. The behaviour of impurities and their influence on matte quality was also investigated. Industrial matte, flue dust, slag, and copper concentrates from a Chilean smelter were used as test materials. Dust recirculation tests were conducted in a simulated electric furnace. Off-gases were collected in a reaction tube, and the condensed volatile matter, slag, and matte phases were analyzed for their elemental content by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. The distribution of arsenic (As); antimony (Sb), bismuth (Bi), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) were investigated by varying the amounts of dust recirculating to the smelting stage with 21 per cent of the oxygen. Results showed that distributions of all analyzed elements increased with recirculation. It was concluded that copper can be recovered using the dust recirculation technique. However, impurities may limit the efficacy of the dust recirculation process. 6 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.

  14. On forecasting ionospheric total electron content responses to high-speed solar wind streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xing; Mannucci, Anthony J.; Verkhoglyadova, Olga P.; Tsurutani, Bruce T.

    2016-04-01

    Conditions in the ionosphere have become increasingly important to forecast, since more and more spaceborne and ground-based technological systems rely on ionospheric weather. Here we explore the feasibility of ionospheric forecasts with the current generation of physics-based models. In particular, we focus on total electron content (TEC) predictions using the Global Ionosphere-Thermosphere Model (GITM). Simulations are configured in a forecast mode and performed for four typical high-speed-stream events during 2007-2012. The simulated TECs are quantified through a metric, which divides the globe into a number of local regions and robustly differentiates between quiet and disturbed periods. Proposed forecast products are hourly global maps color-coded by the TEC disturbance level of each local region. To assess the forecasts, we compare the simulated TEC disturbances with global TEC maps derived from Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite observations. The forecast performance is found to be merely acceptable, with a large number of regions where the observed variations are not captured by the simulations. Examples of model-data agreements and disagreements are investigated in detail, aiming to understand the model behavior and improve future forecasts. For one event, we identify two adjacent regions with similar TEC observations but significant differences in how local chemistry versus plasma transport contribute to electron density changes in the simulation. Suggestions for further analysis are described.

  15. Synthesis and high content cell-based profiling of simplified analogues of the microtubule stabilizer (+)-discodermolide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguez, Jose M; Giuliano, Kenneth A; Balachandran, Raghavan; Madiraju, Charitha; Curran, Dennis P; Day, Billy W

    2002-12-01

    (+)-Discodermolide, a C24:4, trihydroxylated, octamethyl, carbamate-bearing fatty acid lactone originally isolated from a Caribbean sponge, has proven to be the most potent of the microtubule-stabilizing agents. Recent studies suggest that it or its analogues may have advantages over other classes of microtubule-stabilizing agents. (+)-Discodermolide's complex molecular architecture has made structure-activity relationship analysis in this class of compounds a formidable task. The goal of this study was to prepare simplified analogues of (+)-discodermolide and to analyze their biological activities to expand structure-activity relationships. A small library of analogues was prepared wherein the (+)-discodermolide methyl groups at C-14 and C-16 and the C-7 hydroxyl were removed, and the lactone was replaced by simple esters. The library components were analyzed for microtubule-stabilizing actions in vitro, antiproliferative activity against a small panel of human carcinoma cells, and cell signaling, microtubule architecture and mitotic spindle alterations by a multiparameter fluorescence cell-based screening technique. The results show that even drastic structural simplification can lead to analogues with actions related to microtubule targeting and signal transduction, but that these subtle effects were illuminated only through the high information content cell-based screen.

  16. A Multivariate Computational Method to Analyze High-Content RNAi Screening Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rameseder, Jonathan; Krismer, Konstantin; Dayma, Yogesh; Ehrenberger, Tobias; Hwang, Mun Kyung; Airoldi, Edoardo M; Floyd, Scott R; Yaffe, Michael B

    2015-09-01

    High-content screening (HCS) using RNA interference (RNAi) in combination with automated microscopy is a powerful investigative tool to explore complex biological processes. However, despite the plethora of data generated from these screens, little progress has been made in analyzing HC data using multivariate methods that exploit the full richness of multidimensional data. We developed a novel multivariate method for HCS, multivariate robust analysis method (M-RAM), integrating image feature selection with ranking of perturbations for hit identification, and applied this method to an HC RNAi screen to discover novel components of the DNA damage response in an osteosarcoma cell line. M-RAM automatically selects the most informative phenotypic readouts and time points to facilitate the more efficient design of follow-up experiments and enhance biological understanding. Our method outperforms univariate hit identification and identifies relevant genes that these approaches would have missed. We found that statistical cell-to-cell variation in phenotypic responses is an important predictor of hits in RNAi-directed image-based screens. Genes that we identified as modulators of DNA damage signaling in U2OS cells include B-Raf, a cancer driver gene in multiple tumor types, whose role in DNA damage signaling we confirm experimentally, and multiple subunits of protein kinase A. © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  17. Determination of purine contents in different parts of pork and beef by high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Shengzhong; Zou, Lina; Zhang, Yannan; Zhang, Guangteng; Li, Xiaoxia; Li, Miaojing; Yang, Fenghua; Li, Chunmei; He, Yingjuan; Guan, Hongjun; Guo, Yupeng; Wang, Dong; Cui, Xinyu; Ye, Hongting; Liu, Fenghai; Pan, Hongzhi; Yang, Yuexin

    2015-03-01

    Determination of adenine, hypoxanthine, guanine and xanthine in different parts of pork and beef using high performance liquid chromatography was described. Chromatographic separation was carried out on Waters Atlantis T3 column (4.6 mm × 250 mm × 5 μm) with column temperature at 30 °C. The mobile phase contained 99% 10.0 mmol/L ammonium formate solution at pH 3.6 and 1.0% methanol. Chromatography was achieved at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and detection wavelength at 254 nm. The results indicated that total purine amounts in pork rump and beef sirloin were higher than those in other parts (Ppurine bases were hypoxanthine and adenine, and hypoxanthine content was the most highest in all samples (Ppurine and uricogenic purine base, we suggest that excess consumption of them be avoid, whereas pork loin chop and beef rib eye are more suitable for a low-purine diet. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A high-content platform to characterise human induced pluripotent stem cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leha, Andreas; Moens, Nathalie; Meleckyte, Ruta; Culley, Oliver J.; Gervasio, Mia K.; Kerz, Maximilian; Reimer, Andreas; Cain, Stuart A.; Streeter, Ian; Folarin, Amos; Stegle, Oliver; Kielty, Cay M.; Durbin, Richard; Watt, Fiona M.; Danovi, Davide

    2016-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) provide invaluable opportunities for future cell therapies as well as for studying human development, modelling diseases and discovering therapeutics. In order to realise the potential of iPSCs, it is crucial to comprehensively characterise cells generated from large cohorts of healthy and diseased individuals. The human iPSC initiative (HipSci) is assessing a large panel of cell lines to define cell phenotypes, dissect inter- and intra-line and donor variability and identify its key determinant components. Here we report the establishment of a high-content platform for phenotypic analysis of human iPSC lines. In the described assay, cells are dissociated and seeded as single cells onto 96-well plates coated with fibronectin at three different concentrations. This method allows assessment of cell number, proliferation, morphology and intercellular adhesion. Altogether, our strategy delivers robust quantification of phenotypic diversity within complex cell populations facilitating future identification of the genetic, biological and technical determinants of variance. Approaches such as the one described can be used to benchmark iPSCs from multiple donors and create novel platforms that can readily be tailored for disease modelling and drug discovery. PMID:26608109

  19. Open Source High Content Analysis Utilizing Automated Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görlitz, Frederik; Kelly, Douglas J; Warren, Sean C; Alibhai, Dominic; West, Lucien; Kumar, Sunil; Alexandrov, Yuriy; Munro, Ian; Garcia, Edwin; McGinty, James; Talbot, Clifford; Serwa, Remigiusz A; Thinon, Emmanuelle; da Paola, Vincenzo; Murray, Edward J; Stuhmeier, Frank; Neil, Mark A A; Tate, Edward W; Dunsby, Christopher; French, Paul M W

    2017-01-18

    We present an open source high content analysis instrument utilizing automated fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) for assaying protein interactions using Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) based readouts of fixed or live cells in multiwell plates. This provides a means to screen for cell signaling processes read out using intramolecular FRET biosensors or intermolecular FRET of protein interactions such as oligomerization or heterodimerization, which can be used to identify binding partners. We describe here the functionality of this automated multiwell plate FLIM instrumentation and present exemplar data from our studies of HIV Gag protein oligomerization and a time course of a FRET biosensor in live cells. A detailed description of the practical implementation is then provided with reference to a list of hardware components and a description of the open source data acquisition software written in µManager. The application of FLIMfit, an open source MATLAB-based client for the OMERO platform, to analyze arrays of multiwell plate FLIM data is also presented. The protocols for imaging fixed and live cells are outlined and a demonstration of an automated multiwell plate FLIM experiment using cells expressing fluorescent protein-based FRET constructs is presented. This is complemented by a walk-through of the data analysis for this specific FLIM FRET data set.

  20. Robust content-dependent high-fidelity watermark for tracking in digital cinema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubin, Jeffrey; Bloom, Jeffrey A.; Cheng, Hui

    2003-06-01

    Forensic digital watermarking is a promising tool in the fight against piracy of copyrighted motion imagery content, but to be effective it must be (1) imperceptibly embedded in high-definition motion picture source, (2) reliably retrieved, even from degraded copies as might result from camcorder capture and subsequent very-low-bitrate compression and distribution on the Internet, and (3) secure against unauthorized removal. No existing watermarking technology has yet to meet these three simultaneous requirements of fidelity, robustness, and security. We describe here a forensic watermarking approach that meets all three requirements. It is based on the inherent robustness and imperceptibility of very low spatiotemporal frequency watermark carriers, and on a watermark placement technique that renders jamming attacks too costly in picture quality, even if the attacker has complete knowledge of the embedding algorithm. The algorithm has been tested on HD Cinemascope source material exhibited in a digital cinema viewing room. The watermark is imperceptible, yet recoverable after exhibition capture with camcorders, and after the introduction of other distortions such as low-pass filtering, noise addition, geometric shifts, and the manipulation of brightness and contrast.

  1. In vitro oxidation of high polydimethylsiloxane content biomedical polyurethanes: correlation with the microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Rebeca; Weksler, Jadwiga; Padsalgikar, Ajay; Runt, James

    2008-11-01

    The resistance to in vitro metal ion oxidation of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-containing thermoplastic polyurethane elastomer (Elast-Eon) is compared with that of a polyurethane consisting of the same hard segment chemistry and content, but with aliphatic polycarbonate soft segments (PCU). Scanning electron microscopy and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to assess changes in surface morphology and chemistry. The extent of bulk degradation was assessed indirectly by dynamic mechanical analysis and small-angle X-ray scattering experiments. The findings indicate that Elast-Eon is more resistant to oxidation than the PCU, because of the presence of the PDMS soft segments as well as its phase separated microstructure. The PCU exhibits a rather high degree of intermixing between hard and soft segments, rendering the hard segments dissolved or trapped in the soft phase more susceptible to oxidative conditions. By contrast, we propose that the existence of a completely phase separated PDMS soft phase in Elast-Eon protects the remainder of the segments from oxidation.

  2. High content analysis at single cell level identifies different cellular responses dependent on nanomaterial concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manshian, Bella B.; Munck, Sebastian; Agostinis, Patrizia; Himmelreich, Uwe; Soenen, Stefaan J.

    2015-09-01

    A mechanistic understanding of nanomaterial (NM) interaction with biological environments is pivotal for the safe transition from basic science to applied nanomedicine. NM exposure results in varying levels of internalized NM in different neighboring cells, due to variances in cell size, cell cycle phase and NM agglomeration. Using high-content analysis, we investigated the cytotoxic effects of fluorescent quantum dots on cultured cells, where all effects were correlated with the concentration of NMs at the single cell level. Upon binning the single cell data into different categories related to NM concentration, this study demonstrates, for the first time, that quantum dots activate both cytoprotective and cytotoxic mechanisms, resulting in a zero net result on the overall cell population, yet with significant effects in cells with higher cellular NM levels. Our results suggest that future NM cytotoxicity studies should correlate NM toxicity with cellular NM numbers on the single cell level, as conflicting mechanisms in particular cell subpopulations are commonly overlooked using classical toxicological methods.

  3. Nonionic Polymerizable Emulsifier in High-Solids-Content Acrylate Emulsion Polymerization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Deping; HUANG Hongzhi; SHEN Ling; XIE Jin; GUAN Rong

    2012-01-01

    Stable high-solids-content acrylate emulsion were obtained with a nonionic polymerizable emulsifier allyloxy nonylphenoxy poly (ethyleneoxy) (10) ether (ANPEO10),and a conventional emulsifier OP-10 as a reference sample.1H NMR proves that the polymerizable emulsifier ANPEO10 has been incorporated into the resulted acrylate polymers.TEM demonstrates that there are some differences in the particle morphologies.AFM proves that the polymerizable emulsifier ANPEO10 migrating to the surface of the emulsion film was much less than the conventional emulsifier OP-10.The polymerizable emulsifier ANPEO10 can enhance the adhesion with glass plate compared to the conventional emulsifier.Furthermore,with increasing amount of emulsifier,the surface free energy of the films first decreased and then increased,and the adhesion with glass plate is initially enhanced and then attenuated.The water-resistance and solvent-resistance of the films prepared by the polymerizable emulsifier ANPEO10 are superior to those prepared by the conventional emulsifier OP-10.

  4. STUDIES ON HIGH SOLID CONTENT AND STABLE EMULSIFIER—FREE EMULSION POLYMERIZATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TangGuangliang; HaoGuangjie; 等

    1998-01-01

    In this article,AHPS(3-allyloxy-2-hydroxy-1-propanesulfonate salt) was synthesized to use in emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization of BA/BMA/MMA system for high solid content latexes.Storage stability,flow behavior of the latexes,morphology of the obtained latex particles,dynamic viscoelastic behavior,tensile strength and water resistance properties of the resulted copolymers were investigated.The experimental results show that with the addition of AHPS,stability of the emulsion is greatly improved that there appears no apparent precipitation during the polymerization and storage at room temperature for 6 months and at -10℃ for four months.Flow of the latexes follows the Bingham body laws,diameter of the latex particles is about 0.6μm,of which is larger than that of by conventional emulsion polymerization(0.12μm).In addition,not only water resistance of the copolymers obtained by emulsifier-free emulstion polymerization is greatly improved,but also tensile strength is obviously enhanced.

  5. A High-Content Larval Zebrafish Brain Imaging Method for Small Molecule Drug Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Harrison; Chen, Steven; Huang, Kevin; Kim, Jeffrey; Mo, Han; Iovine, Raffael; Gendre, Julie; Pascal, Pauline; Li, Qiang; Sun, Yaping; Dong, Zhiqiang; Arkin, Michelle; Guo, Su

    2016-01-01

    Drug discovery in whole-organisms such as zebrafish is a promising approach for identifying biologically-relevant lead compounds. However, high content imaging of zebrafish at cellular resolution is challenging due to the difficulty in orienting larvae en masse such that the cell type of interest is in clear view. We report the development of the multi-pose imaging method, which uses 96-well round bottom plates combined with a standard liquid handler to repose the larvae within each well multiple times, such that an image in a specific orientation can be acquired. We have validated this method in a chemo-genetic zebrafish model of dopaminergic neuron degeneration. For this purpose, we have developed an analysis pipeline that identifies the larval brain in each image and then quantifies neuronal health in CellProfiler. Our method achieves a SSMD* score of 6.96 (robust Z’-factor of 0.56) and is suitable for screening libraries up to 105 compounds in size. PMID:27732643

  6. Content-based high-resolution remote sensing image retrieval with local binary patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, A. P.; Wang, S. G.

    2006-10-01

    Texture is a very important feature in image analysis including content-based image retrieval (CBIR). A common way of retrieving images is to calculate the similarity of features between a sample images and the other images in a database. This paper applies a novel texture analysis approach, local binary patterns (LBP) operator, to 1m Ikonos images retrieval and presents an improved LBP histogram spatially enhanced LBP (SEL) histogram with spatial information by dividing the LBP labeled images into k*k regions. First different neighborhood P and scale factor R were chosen to scan over the whole images, so that their labeled LBP and local variance (VAR) images were calculated, from which we got the LBP, LBP/VAR, and VAR histograms and SEL histograms. The histograms were used as the features for CBIR and a non-parametric statistical test G-statistic was used for similarity measure. The result showed that LBP/VAR based features got a very high retrieval rate with certain values of P and R, and SEL features that are more robust to illumination changes than LBP/VAR also obtained higher retrieval rate than LBP histograms. The comparison to Gabor filter confirmed the effectiveness of the presented approach in CBIR.

  7. Pulse laser assisted MOVPE for InGaN with high indium content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawaguchi, Norihito [Technical Development and Engineering Center, Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., Yokohama 235-8501 (Japan); Dept. of Applied Chemistry, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan); Hida, Kennosuke; Kangawa, Yoshihiro; Kumagai, Yoshinao; Koukitu, Akinori [Dept. of Applied Chemistry, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan)

    2004-09-01

    In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}N film was grown at 600 C by Nd:YAG pulse laser assisted MOVPE. The optical and structural properties of the film were compared with that grown without laser assistance at the same condition. The results of XRD measurements showed that the crystallinity of the film grown with laser was better than that of the one grown without laser. The surface morphology and cross-sectional SEM image of the film grown with laser revealed that there were no In droplets on the film. The band-edge emission of the film grown with laser at room temperature and 77 K was observed at 840 nm. The results of micro-Raman measurement showed that the film grown with laser had better crystalline structure than that of the film grown without laser and the radiative recombination which contributed to photoluminescence mainly occurred at In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}N region. Those results imply that pulse laser enhances the surface migration and reaction of elements in spite of low-growth temperature. We suggest that pulse laser assisted technique is effective for low-temperature growth of InGaN with high indium content. (copyright 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  8. Pulse laser assisted MOVPE for InGaN with high indium content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Norihito; Hida, Ken-Nosuke; Kangawa, Yoshihiro; Kumagai, Yoshinao; Koukitu, Akinori

    2004-09-01

    In0.53Ga0.47N film was grown at 600 °C by Nd:YAG pulse laser assisted MOVPE. The optical and structural properties of the film were compared with that grown without laser assistance at the same condition. The results of XRD measurements showed that the crystallinity of the film grown with laser was better than that of the one grown without laser. The surface morphology and cross-sectional SEM image of the film grown with laser revealed that there were no In droplets on the film. The band-edge emission of the film grown with laser at room temperature and 77 K was observed at 840 nm. The results of micro-Raman measurement showed that the film grown with laser had better crystalline structure than that of the film grown without laser and the radiative recombination which contributed to photoluminescence mainly occurred at In0.53Ga0.47N region. Those results imply that pulse laser enhances the surface migration and reaction of elements in spite of low-growth temperature. We suggest that pulse laser assisted technique is effective for low-temperature growth of InGaN with high indium content.

  9. Discovering Molecules That Regulate Efferocytosis Using Primary Human Macrophages and High Content Imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Santulli-Marotto

    Full Text Available Defective clearance of apoptotic cells can result in sustained inflammation and subsequent autoimmunity. Macrophages, the "professional phagocyte" of the body, are responsible for efficient, non-phlogistic, apoptotic cell clearance. Controlling phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by macrophages is an attractive therapeutic opportunity to ameliorate inflammation. Using high content imaging, we have developed a system for evaluating the effects of antibody treatment on apoptotic cell uptake in primary human macrophages by comparing the Phagocytic Index (PI for each antibody. Herein we demonstrate the feasibility of evaluating a panel of antibodies of unknown specificities obtained by immunization of mice with primary human macrophages and show that they can be distinguished based on individual PI measurements. In this study ~50% of antibodies obtained enhance phagocytosis of apoptotic cells while approximately 5% of the antibodies in the panel exhibit some inhibition. Though the specificities of the majority of antibodies are unknown, two of the antibodies that improved apoptotic cell uptake recognize recombinant MerTK; a receptor known to function in this capacity in vivo. The agonistic impact of these antibodies on efferocytosis could be demonstrated without addition of either of the MerTK ligands, Gas6 or ProS. These results validate applying the mechanism of this fundamental biological process as a means for identification of modulators that could potentially serve as therapeutics. This strategy for interrogating macrophages to discover molecules regulating apoptotic cell uptake is not limited by access to purified protein thereby increasing the possibility of finding novel apoptotic cell uptake pathways.

  10. A high-content analysis toolbox permits dissection of diverse signaling pathways for T lymphocyte polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeley, Michael; Bakos, Gabor; Davies, Anthony; Kelleher, Dermot; Long, Aideen; Dunican, Dara J

    2010-06-01

    RNA interfering (RNAi) screening strategies offer the potential to elucidate the signaling pathways that regulate integrin and adhesion receptor-mediated changes in T lymphocyte morphology. Of crucial importance, however, is the definition of key sets of parameters that will provide accurate, quantitative, and nonredundant information to flag relevant hits in such assays. In this study, the authors have used an image-based high-content analysis (HCA) technology platform and a panel of 24 pharmacological inhibitors, at a range of concentrations, to define key sets of parameters that enables sensitive and quantitative effects on integrin (LFA-1)-mediated lymphocyte morphology to be evaluated. In particular, multiparametric analysis of lymphocyte morphology that was based on intracellular staining of both the F-actin and alpha-tubulin cytoskeleton resulted in improved ability to discriminate morphological behavior compared to F-actin staining alone. Morphological and fluorescence intensity/distribution profiling of pharmacologically treated lymphocytes stimulated with integrin (LFA-1) and adhesion receptors (CD44) also revealed notable differences in their sensitivity to inhibitors. The assay described here may be used in HCA strategies such as RNAi screening assays to elucidate the signaling pathways and molecules that regulate integrin/adhesion receptor-mediated T lymphocyte polarization.

  11. Developing E-Learning Based on Animation Content for Improving Mathematical Connection Abilities in High School Students

    OpenAIRE

    Dedi Rohendi

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop e-learning based on animation content for improving mathematical connection abilities in senior high school students. The e-learning was developed by using Moddle and the animation content was developed by using macromedia flash. To get the student mathematical conection abilities it uses the instruments of mathematical tests before and after teaching and learning process. The data were analyzed by using t-test and gain value test. The study found that ...

  12. Effect of High Temperature on Sucrose Content and Sucrose Cleaving Enzyme Activity in Rice Grain During the Filling Stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Tian; LIU Qi-hua; Ryu OHSUGI; Tohru YAMAGISHI; Haruto SASAKI

    2006-01-01

    Dynamic changes of sucrose, fructose, glucose contents and differences in activities of sucrose synthase, vacuolar invertase, and cell wall bound invertase in rice grain after flowering stage were studied under natural and high temperatures by using two japonica rice varieties Koshihikari and Sasanishiki. In rice grains, the sucrose synthase activity was higher than that of invertase, which was significantly correlated with starch accumulation rate, indicating that the sucrose synthase played an important role in sucrose degradation and starch synthesis. Under high temperature, the significant increase in grain sucrose content without any increase in fructose and glucose contents, suggested that the high temperature treatment enhanced sucrose accumulation, while diminished sucrose degradation in rice grains. Compared with the control plants, the decrease in activities of sucrose synthase, vacuolar invertase, and cell wall bound invertase with high temperature treated plants indicated that the deceleration of sucrose-degradation was related to the decrease in activities of sucrose synthase and invertase.

  13. Precipitation of aluminum nitride in a high strength maraging steel with low nitrogen content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeanmaire, G., E-mail: guillaume.jeanmaire@univ-lorraine.fr [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR 7198 CNRS-Université de Lorraine, 54011 Nancy Cedex (France); Aubert and Duval, BP1, 63770 Les Ancizes (France); Dehmas, M.; Redjaïmia, A. [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR 7198 CNRS-Université de Lorraine, 54011 Nancy Cedex (France); Puech, S. [Aubert and Duval, BP1, 63770 Les Ancizes (France); Fribourg, G. [Snecma Gennevilliers, 171 Boulevard de Valmy-BP 31, 92702 Colombes (France)

    2014-12-15

    In the present work, aluminum nitride (AlN) precipitation was investigated in a X23NiCoCrMoAl13-6-3 maraging steel with low nitrogen content (wt.% N = 5.5 ppm). A reliable and robust automatic method by scanning electron microscopy observations coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy was developed for the quantification of AlN precipitates. The first stage was to identify the solvus temperature and to develop a heat treatment able to dissolve the AlN precipitates. The experimental determination of equilibrium conditions and solvus temperature show good agreement with ThermoCalc® simulation. Then, from this AlN-free state, the cooling rate, isothermal holding time and temperature were the subject of an intensive investigation in the austenite region of this maraging steel. In spite of the high temperatures used during heat treatments, the growth kinetic of the largest AlN precipitates (> 1 μm) is slow. The cooling rate has a major effect on the size and the number density of AlN due to a higher driving force for nucleation at low temperatures. At last, quenching prior to isothermal annealing at high temperatures leads to fine and dense AlN precipitation, resulting from the martensite to austenite transformation. Experimental results will be discussed and compared with kinetic data obtained with the mobility database MobFe2 implemented in Dictra® software. - Highlights: • Slow dissolution kinetic of AlN precipitates due to both their large size and small chemical driving force • Significant effects of cooling rate prior isothermal heat treatment, holding time and temperature on AlN precipitation • Size of AlN precipitates can be reduced by quenching prior isothermal holding. • Fine precipitation of AlN related to the α → γ transformation.

  14. High boron content carboranyl-functionalized aryl ether derivatives displaying photoluminescent properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerouge, Frédéric; Viñas, Clara; Teixidor, Francesc; Núñez, Rosario; Abreu, Arturo; Xochitiotzi, Elba; Santillan, Rosa; Farfán, Norberto

    2007-05-21

    The reaction of alpha,alpha'-bis(3,5-bis(bromomethyl)phenoxy-p-xylene (3) with 4 equiv of the monolithium salt of 1-Ph-1,2-C2B10H11 or 1-Me-1,2-C2B10H11 gave the corresponding neutral carboranyl-functionalized aryl ether derivatives closo-4 and closo-5, respectively. These compounds contain four closo clusters that were degraded using basic conditions with KOH in EtOH, affording the corresponding nido-6 and nido-7 as potassium salts. Nido species were also isolated with tetramethylammonium as cation giving compounds nido-8 and nido-9 in good yield. The potassium salts showed good solubility in water and polar solvents. All these compounds were characterized by 1H, 11B and 13C NMR spectroscopy and UV-vis. The electronic data in different solvents indicated a solvatochromic shift for all compounds and a red shift of the absorption maxima for the nido species with respect to the closo derivatives. These neutral and anionic carboranyl-functionalized aryl ether derivatives represent a new family of high boron content luminescent compounds that show strong fluorescence emission in different solvents at room temperature. This phenomenon is very interesting considering the fact that none of the precursors have such a property. The fluorescence emission depends on the cluster substituent (Ph or Me) and the solvent polarity. Additionally, the fluorescence emission intensity was clearly dependent on the solvent polarity; the closo species showed strongest fluorescence intensities in the non-polar solvents, while anionic species were highly emissive in polar solvents.

  15. Label-free high-throughput detection and content sensing of individual droplets in microfluidic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesiloz, Gurkan; Boybay, Muhammed Said; Ren, Carolyn L

    2015-10-21

    This study reports a microwave-microfluidics integrated approach capable of performing droplet detection at high-throughput as well as content sensing of individual droplets without chemical or physical intrusion. The sensing system consists of a custom microwave circuitry and a spiral-shaped microwave resonator that is integrated with microfluidic chips where droplets are generated. The microwave circuitry is very cost effective by using off-the-shelf components only. It eliminates the need for bulky benchtop equipment, and provides a compact, rapid and sensitive tool compatible for Lab-on-a-Chip (LOC) platforms. To evaluate the resonator's sensing capability, it was first applied to differentiate between single-phase fluids which are aqueous solutions with different concentrations of glucose and potassium chloride respectively by measuring its reflection coefficient as a function of frequency. The minimum concentration assessed was 0.001 g ml(-1) for potassium chloride and 0.01 g ml(-1) for glucose. In the droplet detection experiments, it is demonstrated that the microwave sensor is able to detect droplets generated at as high throughput as 3.33 kHz. Around two million droplets were counted over a period of ten minutes without any missing. For droplet sensing experiments, pairs of droplets that were encapsulated with biological materials were generated alternatively in a double T-junction configuration and clearly identified by the microwave sensor. The sensed biological materials include fetal bovine serum, penicillin antibiotic mixture, milk (2% mf) and d-(+)-glucose. This system has significant advantages over optical detection methods in terms of its cost, size and compatibility with LOC settings and also presents significant improvements over other electrical-based detection techniques in terms of its sensitivity and throughput.

  16. Normalizing for individual cell population context in the analysis of high-content cellular screens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knapp Bettina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-content, high-throughput RNA interference (RNAi offers unprecedented possibilities to elucidate gene function and involvement in biological processes. Microscopy based screening allows phenotypic observations at the level of individual cells. It was recently shown that a cell's population context significantly influences results. However, standard analysis methods for cellular screens do not currently take individual cell data into account unless this is important for the phenotype of interest, i.e. when studying cell morphology. Results We present a method that normalizes and statistically scores microscopy based RNAi screens, exploiting individual cell information of hundreds of cells per knockdown. Each cell's individual population context is employed in normalization. We present results on two infection screens for hepatitis C and dengue virus, both showing considerable effects on observed phenotypes due to population context. In addition, we show on a non-virus screen that these effects can be found also in RNAi data in the absence of any virus. Using our approach to normalize against these effects we achieve improved performance in comparison to an analysis without this normalization and hit scoring strategy. Furthermore, our approach results in the identification of considerably more significantly enriched pathways in hepatitis C virus replication than using a standard analysis approach. Conclusions Using a cell-based analysis and normalization for population context, we achieve improved sensitivity and specificity not only on a individual protein level, but especially also on a pathway level. This leads to the identification of new host dependency factors of the hepatitis C and dengue viruses and higher reproducibility of results.

  17. Continuous-flow sorting of microalgae cells based on lipid content by high frequency dielectrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doug Redelman

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a continuous-flow cell screening device to isolate and separate microalgae cells (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii based on lipid content using high frequency (50 MHz dielectrophoresis. This device enables screening of microalgae due to the balance between lateral DEP forces relative to hydrodynamic forces. Positive DEP force along with amplitude-modulated electric field exerted on the cells flowing over the planar interdigitated electrodes, manipulated low-lipid cell trajectories in a zigzag pattern. Theoretical modelling confirmed cell trajectories during sorting. Separation quantification and sensitivity analysis were conducted with time-course experiments and collected samples were analysed by flow cytometry. Experimental testing with nitrogen starveddw15-1 (high-lipid, HL and pgd1 mutant (low-lipid, LL strains were carried out at different time periods, and clear separation of the two populations was achieved. Experimental results demonstrated that three populations were produced during nitrogen starvation: HL, LL and low-chlorophyll (LC populations. Presence of the LC population can affect the binary separation performance. The continuous-flow micro-separator can separate 74% of the HL and 75% of the LL out of the starting sample using a 50 MHz, 30 voltages peak-to-peak AC electric field at Day 6 of the nitrogen starvation. The separation occurred between LL (low-lipid: 86.1% at Outlet # 1 and LC (88.8% at Outlet # 2 at Day 9 of the nitrogen starvation. This device can be used for onsite monitoring; therefore, it has the potential to reduce biofuel production costs

  18. Sex Education in Connecticut High Schools: Teachers' Reports of Content and Importance Ratings According to the SIECUS Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obloj, Wallace; Lynn, Donna

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine Connecticut teachers' reports of the sex education content taught to high school students as well as teachers' reports of the degree of importance for Connecticut high school students to understand according to the SIECUS Guidelines. The data revealed that participants (N=125) reported teaching 72% of the…

  19. New high boron content polyborane precursors to advanced ceramic materials: New syntheses, new applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guron, Marta

    There is a need for new synthetic routes to high boron content materials for applications as polymeric precursors to ceramics, as well as in neutron shielding and potential medical applications. To this end, new ruthenium-catalyzed olefin metathesis routes have been devised to form new complex polyboranes and polymeric species. Metathesis of di-alkenyl substituted o-carboranes allowed the synthesis of ring-closed products fused to the carborane cage, many of which are new compounds and one that offers a superior synthetic method to one previously published. Acyclic diene metathesis of di-alkenyl substituted m-carboranes resulted in the formation of new main-chain carborane-containing polymers of modest molecular weights. Due to their extremely low char yields, and in order to explore other metathesis routes, ring opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) was used to generate the first examples of poly(norbornenyl- o-carboranes). Monomer synthesis was achieved via a two-step process, incorporating Ti-catalyzed hydroboration to make 6-(5-norbornenyl)-decaborane, followed by alkyne insertion in ionic liquid media to achieve 1,2-R2 -3-norbornenyl o-carborane species. The monomers were then polymerized using ROMP to afford several examples of poly(norbornenyl- o-carboranes) with relatively high molecular weights. One such polymer, [1-Ph, 3-(=CH2-C5H7-CH2=)-1,2-C 2B10H10]n, had a char yield very close to the theoretical char yield of 44%. Upon random copolymerization with poly(6-(5-norbornenyl) decaborane), char yields significantly increased to 80%, but this number was well above the theoretical value implicating the formation of a boron-carbide/carbon ceramic. Finally, applications of polyboranes were explored via polymer blends toward the synthesis of ceramic composites and the use of polymer precursors as reagents for potential ultra high temperature ceramic applications. Upon pyrolysis, polymer blends of poly(6-(5-norbornenyl)-decaborane) and poly

  20. Development of CAPS markers to identify Indian tea (Camellia sinensis) clones with high catechin content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elangbam, M; Misra, A K

    2016-06-10

    Tea leaves are rich in plant secondary phenolics, especially flavonoids. Catechins are considered to be the most valuable flavonoids, and the catechin content in tea is an important trait for determining its quality. We have developed cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS)-based markers for evaluating total catechin content that target two important secondary metabolite pathway genes, PAL (phenylalanine ammonia-lyase) and CHS (chalcone synthase). Catechin content levels in the tea samples tested ranged from 9 to 33 mg/mg. The CAPS technique identified clones with the homozygous profile PRc1, which has relatively lower catechin content than clones with the heterozygous profile PRc2. A significant difference (t = 16.85) in the level of catechin content was also detected between heterozygotes and homozygotes in the tea seed stock TS379. We found a polynomial relationship between the marker developed for CHS2 and catechin content in these tea samples with R2 = 0.9788. Moreover, PAL has less of a relationship with catechin content. Therefore, we recommend tea clones with heterozygous CAPS profiles for the gene CHS2+RcaI for the further improvement in these clones.

  1. Optimization of conditions to achieve high content of gamma amino butyric acid in germinated black rice, and changes in bioactivities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaiyavat CHAIYASUT

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study estimated the optimum germination conditions to achieve high content of Gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA and other phytochemicals in Thai black rice cultivar Kum Payao (BR. The Box–Behnken design of response surface methodology was employed to optimize the germination conditions. The changes in the GABA, phytochemical content, impact of salt, and temperature stress variation on phytochemical content, and stability of GABA were studied. The results showed that 12 h of soaking at pH 7, followed by 36 h of germination was the optimum condition to achieve maximum GABA content (0.2029 mg/g of germinated BR (GBR. The temperature (8 and 30 °C, and salt (50-200 mM NaCl content affected the phytochemicals of GBR, especially GABA, and anthocyanins. Obviously, the antioxidant capability, and enzyme (α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibiting nature of BR was significantly (P < 0.001 increased after germination. The storage of GBR at 4 °C significantly, preserved the GABA content (∼80% for 45 days. Primarily, the current study revealed the changes in phytochemical content, and bioactivity of Thai black rice cr. Kum Payao during germination. More studies should be carried out on pharmacological benefits of GABA-rich GBR.

  2. Effects of Nitrogen Content on the HAZ Softening of Ti-Containing High Strength Steels Manufactured by Accelerated Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Kook-soo; Jung, Ho-shin; Park, Chan [Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    The effects of nitrogen content on the HAZ softening of Ti-containing high strength steels manufactured by accelerating cooling were investigated and interpreted in terms of the microstructures in the softening zone. Regardless of their content, all of the steels investigated showed a softened zone 9-10 mm wide. The minimum hardness in the zone, however, was different, with lower hardness in the higher nitrogen content steel. Microstructural observations of the steel showed that the amount of soft ferrite was increased in the zone with an increase of nitrogen content of the steel, suggesting that microstructural evolution in the HAZ is influenced by the nitrogen content. Measurements of TiN particles showed that the degree of particles coarsening in the HAZ was lower in the higher nitrogen content steel. Therefore, it is believed that finer TiN particles in the HAZ inhibit austenite grain growth more effectively, and lead to an accelerated ferrite transformation in higher nitrogen content steel, resulting in a higher amount of soft ferrite microstructure in the softened zone.

  3. Identification of differentially expressed genes in longissimus muscle of pigs with high and low intramuscular fat content using RNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, K S; Lee, K T; Park, J E; Chung, W H; Jang, G W; Choi, B H; Hong, K C; Kim, T H

    2017-04-01

    Intramuscular fat (IMF) content in pork is an important element of consumer preference and is positively correlated with meat quality, including tenderness and juiciness. With advances in RNA sequencing technologies, transcriptome-related differences can be associated with specific traits in animals. The objective of this study was to investigate differentially expressed genes (DEGs) closely related to IMF content in porcine longissimus muscle using RNA sequencing. A total of 107 Berkshire pigs were used for IMF content measurements, and significant differences between extremely high (H, n = 3) and low (L, n = 3) IMF content groups were found (P change ≥2). Functional analyses with DEGs revealed that lipid metabolism (SCD and FASN) was one of the significant biological processes related to IMF content determination. In addition, we found that DEGs related to muscle regeneration (MYOG and VEGFA) and extracellular matrix (COL1A1, COL1A2, COL5A1, COL14A1 and COL15A1) were changed among individuals with extreme IMF contents. These results will aid in understanding the regulation of IMF content in pigs.

  4. A Neuronal and Astrocyte Co-Culture Assay for High Content Analysis of Neurotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderl, Janet L; Redpath, Stella; Ball, Andrew J

    2009-01-01

    High Content Analysis (HCA) assays combine cells and detection reagents with automated imaging and powerful image analysis algorithms, allowing measurement of multiple cellular phenotypes within a single assay. In this study, we utilized HCA to develop a novel assay for neurotoxicity. Neurotoxicity assessment represents an important part of drug safety evaluation, as well as being a significant focus of environmental protection efforts. Additionally, neurotoxicity is also a well-accepted in vitro marker of the development of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Recently, the application of HCA to neuronal screening has been reported. By labeling neuronal cells with βIII-tubulin, HCA assays can provide high-throughput, non-subjective, quantitative measurements of parameters such as neuronal number, neurite count and neurite length, all of which can indicate neurotoxic effects. However, the role of astrocytes remains unexplored in these models. Astrocytes have an integral role in the maintenance of central nervous system (CNS) homeostasis, and are associated with both neuroprotection and neurodegradation when they are activated in response to toxic substances or disease states. GFAP is an intermediate filament protein expressed predominantly in the astrocytes of the CNS. Astrocytic activation (gliosis) leads to the upregulation of GFAP, commonly accompanied by astrocyte proliferation and hypertrophy. This process of reactive gliosis has been proposed as an early marker of damage to the nervous system. The traditional method for GFAP quantitation is by immunoassay. This approach is limited by an inability to provide information on cellular localization, morphology and cell number. We determined that HCA could be used to overcome these limitations and to simultaneously measure multiple features associated with gliosis - changes in GFAP expression, astrocyte hypertrophy, and astrocyte proliferation - within a single assay. In co

  5. A neuronal and astrocyte co-culture assay for high content analysis of neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderl, Janet L; Redpath, Stella; Ball, Andrew J

    2009-05-05

    High Content Analysis (HCA) assays combine cells and detection reagents with automated imaging and powerful image analysis algorithms, allowing measurement of multiple cellular phenotypes within a single assay. In this study, we utilized HCA to develop a novel assay for neurotoxicity. Neurotoxicity assessment represents an important part of drug safety evaluation, as well as being a significant focus of environmental protection efforts. Additionally, neurotoxicity is also a well-accepted in vitro marker of the development of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Recently, the application of HCA to neuronal screening has been reported. By labeling neuronal cells with betaIII-tubulin, HCA assays can provide high-throughput, non-subjective, quantitative measurements of parameters such as neuronal number, neurite count and neurite length, all of which can indicate neurotoxic effects. However, the role of astrocytes remains unexplored in these models. Astrocytes have an integral role in the maintenance of central nervous system (CNS) homeostasis, and are associated with both neuroprotection and neurodegradation when they are activated in response to toxic substances or disease states. GFAP is an intermediate filament protein expressed predominantly in the astrocytes of the CNS. Astrocytic activation (gliosis) leads to the upregulation of GFAP, commonly accompanied by astrocyte proliferation and hypertrophy. This process of reactive gliosis has been proposed as an early marker of damage to the nervous system. The traditional method for GFAP quantitation is by immunoassay. This approach is limited by an inability to provide information on cellular localization, morphology and cell number. We determined that HCA could be used to overcome these limitations and to simultaneously measure multiple features associated with gliosis - changes in GFAP expression, astrocyte hypertrophy, and astrocyte proliferation - within a single assay. In co

  6. The application of content based teaching method in English writing in Senior High School

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李素霞

    2016-01-01

    Content-based instruction (CBI) refers to an approach of subject integration to language teaching in which the teaching is organized around the subject or information that students will acquire. Based on the deficiency of the previous studies, the thesis proposes a Content-Based Instruction, in order to improve the quality of English Writing Teaching in senior school and students' actual level of writing.

  7. High-content, high-throughput analysis of cell cycle perturbations induced by the HSP90 inhibitor XL888.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan K Lyman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many proteins that are dysregulated or mutated in cancer cells rely on the molecular chaperone HSP90 for their proper folding and activity, which has led to considerable interest in HSP90 as a cancer drug target. The diverse array of HSP90 client proteins encompasses oncogenic drivers, cell cycle components, and a variety of regulatory factors, so inhibition of HSP90 perturbs multiple cellular processes, including mitogenic signaling and cell cycle control. Although many reports have investigated HSP90 inhibition in the context of the cell cycle, no large-scale studies have examined potential correlations between cell genotype and the cell cycle phenotypes of HSP90 inhibition. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To address this question, we developed a novel high-content, high-throughput cell cycle assay and profiled the effects of two distinct small molecule HSP90 inhibitors (XL888 and 17-AAG [17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin] in a large, genetically diverse panel of cancer cell lines. The cell cycle phenotypes of both inhibitors were strikingly similar and fell into three classes: accumulation in M-phase, G2-phase, or G1-phase. Accumulation in M-phase was the most prominent phenotype and notably, was also correlated with TP53 mutant status. We additionally observed unexpected complexity in the response of the cell cycle-associated client PLK1 to HSP90 inhibition, and we suggest that inhibitor-induced PLK1 depletion may contribute to the striking metaphase arrest phenotype seen in many of the M-arrested cell lines. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our analysis of the cell cycle phenotypes induced by HSP90 inhibition in 25 cancer cell lines revealed that the phenotypic response was highly dependent on cellular genotype as well as on the concentration of HSP90 inhibitor and the time of treatment. M-phase arrest correlated with the presence of TP53 mutations, while G2 or G1 arrest was more commonly seen in cells bearing wt TP53. We draw

  8. Effect of Nitrogen Content and Cooling Rate on Transformation Characteristics and Mechanical Properties for 600 MPa High Strength Rebar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Wang, Fu-ming; Li, Chang-rong; Yang, Zhan-bing

    2016-10-01

    To obtain appropriate chemical composition and thermo-mechanical schedules for processing the V-N microalloyed 600 MPa grade high strength rebar, the microstructure analysis during dynamic continuous cooling and tensile tests of three experimental steels with different nitrogen contents were conducted. The results show that increasing nitrogen content promotes ferrite transformation and broadens the bainite transformation interval, when the nitrogen content is in the range of 0.019-0.034 mass%. Meanwhile, the martensite start temperatures decrease and the minimal cooling rate to form martensite increases. To achieve a good combination of strength and ductility, the cooling rates should be controlled in the range of 0.5-3°C/s, leading to the microstructure of ferrite, pearlite and less than 10% bainite (volume fraction). Furthermore, all the experimental steels satisfy the performance requirement of 600 MPa grade rebar and the rebar with nitrogen content of 0.034 mass% shows the highest strength through systematically comparative investigation.

  9. PHASE SEPARATION IN BIMODAL MOLECULAR WEIGHT HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLENE WITH DIFFERING BRANCH CONTENTS BY MOLECULAR DYNAMICS AND MESODYN SIMULATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-jie Zhang; Zhong-yuan Lu; Ze-sheng Li

    2009-01-01

    The phase behavior of bimodal molecular weight high density polyethylene (BHDPE) in solid state was investigated. Hildebrand solubility parameters (δ) were calculated for the models of blends of higher molecular weight branch polyethylene (HBPE) with different branch contents and lower molecular weight linear polyethylene (LLPE), by using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. These δ values were then used to calculate the corresponding Flory-Huggins interaction parameter (χ) between HBPE and LLPE models. In order to better understand the compatibility between LLPE and various HBPE, Mesodyn simulations were used to show the density profiles of the blends of LLPE with various HBPE at different compositions. The results indicated that the phase behavior of BHDPE was influenced by both the global branch content of the system and the local branch content, I.e., the branch content of HBPE.

  10. Validation of a high-content screening assay using whole-well imaging of transformed phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Christina N; Ozawa, Tatsuya; Takagi, Toshimitsu; Antczak, Christophe; Shum, David; Graves, Robert; Holland, Eric C; Djaballah, Hakim

    2011-06-01

    Automated microscopy was introduced two decades ago and has become an integral part of the discovery process as a high-content screening platform with noticeable challenges in executing cell-based assays. It would be of interest to use it to screen for reversers of a transformed cell phenotype. In this report, we present data obtained from an optimized assay that identifies compounds that reverse a transformed phenotype induced in NIH-3T3 cells by expressing a novel oncogene, KP, resulting from fusion between platelet derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRα) and kinase insert domain receptor (KDR), that was identified in human glioblastoma. Initial image acquisitions using multiple tiles per well were found to be insufficient as to accurately image and quantify the clusters; whole-well imaging, performed on the IN Cell Analyzer 2000, while still two-dimensional imaging, was found to accurately image and quantify clusters, due largely to the inherent variability of their size and well location. The resulting assay exhibited a Z' value of 0.79 and a signal-to-noise ratio of 15, and it was validated against known effectors and shown to identify only PDGFRα inhibitors, and then tested in a pilot screen against a library of 58 known inhibitors identifying mostly PDGFRα inhibitors as reversers of the KP induced transformed phenotype. In conclusion, our optimized and validated assay using whole-well imaging is robust and sensitive in identifying compounds that reverse the transformed phenotype induced by KP with a broader applicability to other cell-based assays that are challenging in HTS against chemical and RNAi libraries.

  11. Reactivity and burnability of cement raw materials witt high manganese content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puertas, F.

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been verified that high manganese content in raw mixes causes alters the mineralogical composition of clinkers. New phases like 2 CaO.Mn02 and Ca2AIMnO5 are developed and C3A formation can be inhibited. Manganese is a flux similar to iron in the traditional raw mixes. The presence of manganese will modify the expressions of the lime saturation factor (LSF, silica modulus (Ms and aluminum modulus (Mf. This has as consequence an increase of the proportion of interstitial phase in the obtained clinkers.

    Se ha comprobado que contenidos elevados de manganeso en el crudo provoca una modificación significativa en la composición mineralógica del clinker. Se desarrollan las fases no tradicionales 2 CaO.Mn02 y Ca2AIMnO5 , y se puede llegar, incluso, a inhibir la formación de alumínate tricálcico. El manganeso tiene un comportamiento fundente muy similar al jugado por el hierro en los crudos tradicionales, por lo que la incorporación de óxidos de manganeso al crudo produce una alteración significativa en los módulos tradicionales (LSF, Ms y Mf. Esto tiene como consecuencia inmediata un gran incremento en la proporción de fase intersticial en los clínkeres producidos.

  12. Investigation of possibilities for high heavy metal content sludges utilization by incorporating them in concrete products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simeonova A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The safe removal of sludge, obtained during the surface treatment of different metal products, is a serious environmental problem. These sludges are usually characterized by a high content of heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Ni, Zn, Cr, Cd, Mn, low quality and are obtained in many small industrial units in the whole country, which makes their centralized treatment difficult. In world practice, different methods are used for component fixation of such sludge, in the aim to prevent leaching of the metals causing pollution of the soil and underground water. The aim of the recent work is to prepare the sludge in a form of light (keramzit fillers by preliminary treatment with binding substances and to introduce them in non supporting concrete products - curbs, stakes and similar products. The investigation was made with two types of sludge - from a production line for thermal treatment and hardening of different parts used in machine building and from a production line for surface decoration treatment (nickel-plating and chromium-plating of consumer products. The sludge were dried and ground and then granulated with a solution of water glass. After their solidifying the air dried granules with a size of 5 to 15 mm were treated with cement milk and air dried again. With the obtained granules, standard percolation test for leaching metals like Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni and Cr was carried out. After a preliminary calculation of concrete mixtures, these granules were mixed with Portland cement and concrete sample products were made. These molded concrete samples were characterized by their density, water absorption, and mechanical strength for defined standard periods of time. The samples were subjected to a modified percolation test for leaching metals. The metal concentration in eluates was determined by Atomic Spectral Analysis.

  13. STOCHASTIC DESCRIPTION OF THE HIGH-FREQUENCY CONTENT OF DAILY SUNSPOTS AND EVIDENCE FOR REGIME CHANGES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapoval, A. [Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation, Leningradsky pr. 49, Moscow (Russian Federation); Le Mouël, J.-L.; Courtillot, V. [Institute de Physique du Globe, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris (France); Shnirman, M. [Institute of Earthquake Prediction Theory and Mathematical Geophysics, Profsoyuznaya 84/32, 117997 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-01-20

    The irregularity index λ is applied to the high-frequency content of daily sunspot numbers ISSN. This λ is a modification of the standard maximal Lyapunov exponent. It is computed here as a function of embedding dimension m, within four-year time windows centered at the maxima of Schwabe cycles. The λ(m) curves form separate clusters (pre-1923 and post-1933). This supports a regime transition and narrows its occurrence to cycle 16, preceding the growth of activity leading to the Modern Maximum. The two regimes are reproduced by a simple autoregressive process AR(1), with the mean of Poisson noise undergoing 11 yr modulation. The autocorrelation a of the process (linked to sunspot lifetime) is a ≈ 0.8 for 1850-1923 and ≈0.95 for 1933-2013. The AR(1) model suggests that groups of spots appear with a Poisson rate and disappear at a constant rate. We further applied the irregularity index to the daily sunspot group number series for the northern and southern hemispheres, provided by the Greenwich Royal Observatory (RGO), in order to study a possible desynchronization. Correlations between the north and south λ(m) curves vary quite strongly with time and indeed show desynchronization. This may reflect a slow change in the dimension of an underlying dynamical system. The ISSN and RGO series of group numbers do not imply an identical mechanism, but both uncover a regime change at a similar time. Computation of the irregularity index near the maximum of cycle 24 will help in checking whether yet another regime change is under way.

  14. Glucose tolerance and antioxidant activity of spent brewer's yeast hydrolysate with a high content of Cyclo-His-Pro (CHP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Eun Young; Lee, Hyun-Sun; Choi, Jang Won; Ra, Kyung Soo; Kim, Mi-Ryung; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2011-03-01

    To elevate the Cyclo-His-Pro (CHP) content in yeast, the yeast hydrolysate that was obtained from enzymatic hydrolysis was subjected to various treatments. Flavourzyme-treated hydrolysate showed the highest CHP content (674.0 μg/g) among the various proteases treatments. Ultrafiltration was selected as the best method for concentrating CHP in yeast hydrolysate, based on the yields and CHP contents. In addition, we evaluated the radical scavenge and glucose tolerance of yeast hydrolysate with a high content of CHP. Yeast hydrolysate showed intense scavenging abilities of both 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radicals. The IC(50) values of yeast hydrolysate on DPPH and ABTS radicals were 1.9 and 0.9 mg/mL, respectively. There were significant differences in glucose level between the diabetes-control and yeast hydrolysate group at 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after injection in a type 1 diabetes model (P CHP as an antioxidative and/or antidiabetic material for the preparation of functional foods. This study tried to develop a material containing a high content of CHP using yeast for possible applications of this cyclic dipeptide in the therapy of metabolic disorders. The yeast hydrolysate prepared with Flavourzyme showed a high level of CHP. The hydrolysate with a high content of CHP showed high levels of radical scavenging activities and oral glucose tolerance activity. Therefore, it is possible to use the yeast hydrolysate with high levels of CHP as an antioxidative and/or antidiabetic material for the preparation of functional foods.

  15. Materials development and field demonstration of high-recycled-content concrete for energy-efficient building construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostowari, Ken; Nosson, Ali

    2000-09-30

    The project developed high-recycled-content concrete material with balanced structural and thermal attributes for use in energy-efficient building construction. Recycled plastics, tire, wool, steel and concrete were used as replacement for coarse aggregates in concrete and masonry production. With recycled materials the specific heat and thermal conductivity of concrete could be tailored to enhance the energy-efficiency of concrete buildings. A comprehensive field project was implemented which confirmed the benefits of high-recycled-content concrete for energy-efficient building construction.

  16. Study on Filling Cross-Roadway in Fully-Mechanized Coal Faces with High Water-Content Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周华强; 王光伟; 雷文成; 曲庆贺; 李峰

    2001-01-01

    A new method using high water-content material to mechanically fill cross-roadways to form artificial bottom for coal faces was introduced. The reasonable determination of filling range, the optimization of the compounding ratio of high water-content material, and the filling technique were discussed in detail. This new method has been spread after industrial testing in Baodian Colliery. Compared with the traditional method, the manual wooden chock method, the new one decreases about 40% of the filling range and cost in dealing every one set of cross-roadway in the testing condition.

  17. Effect of atmospheric CO 2 enrichment on rubisco content in herbaceous species from high and low altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, Rowan F.; Schäppi, Bernd; Körner, Christian

    Atmospheric CO 2 enrichment reduces Rubisco content in many species grown in controlled environments; however, relatively few studies have examined CO 2 effects on Rubisco content of plants grown in their natural habitat. We examined the response of Rubisco content to atmospheric CO 2 enrichment (600-680 μmol mol -1 in place of ppm) in 5 herbaceous species growing in a low altitude grassland (550 m) near Basel, Switzerland, and 3 herbaceous species from Swiss alpine grassland at 2470 m. At low elevation, the dominant grass Bromus erectus and the subdominant dicot Sanquisorba minor exhibited 20% to 25% reduction of Rubisco content following high CO 2 exposure; no CO 2 effect was observed in the subdominants Carex flacca, Lotus corniculatus and Trifolium repens. At the Alpine site, the subdominant grass Poa alpina maintained 27% less Rubisco content when grown at high CO 2 while the co-dominant forb Leontodon helveticus had 19% less Rubisco in high CO 2. Rubisco content was unaffected in the tundra dominant Carex curvula. Because the degree of Rubisco modulation was similar between high and low elevation sites, it does not appear that differences in local partial pressure of CO 2 (altitude) or differences in stress in general induce different patterns of modulation of photosynthetic capacity in response to high CO 2. In addition, the degree of Rubisco reduction (<30%) was less than might be indicated by the low biomass response to CO 2 enrichment previously observed at these sites. Thus, plants in Swiss lowland and alpine grassland appear to maintain greater Rubisco concentration and photosynthetic capacity than whole plants can effectively exploit in terms of harvestable biomass.

  18. HC StratoMineR: A Web-Based Tool for the Rapid Analysis of High-Content Datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omta, Wienand A; van Heesbeen, Roy G; Pagliero, Romina J; van der Velden, Lieke M; Lelieveld, Daphne; Nellen, Mehdi; Kramer, Maik; Yeong, Marley; Saeidi, Amir M; Medema, Rene H; Spruit, Marco; Brinkkemper, Sjaak; Klumperman, Judith; Egan, David A

    2016-10-01

    High-content screening (HCS) can generate large multidimensional datasets and when aligned with the appropriate data mining tools, it can yield valuable insights into the mechanism of action of bioactive molecules. However, easy-to-use data mining tools are not widely available, with the result that these datasets are frequently underutilized. Here, we present HC StratoMineR, a web-based tool for high-content data analysis. It is a decision-supportive platform that guides even non-expert users through a high-content data analysis workflow. HC StratoMineR is built by using My Structured Query Language for storage and querying, PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor as the main programming language, and jQuery for additional user interface functionality. R is used for statistical calculations, logic and data visualizations. Furthermore, C++ and graphical processor unit power is diffusely embedded in R by using the rcpp and rpud libraries for operations that are computationally highly intensive. We show that we can use HC StratoMineR for the analysis of multivariate data from a high-content siRNA knock-down screen and a small-molecule screen. It can be used to rapidly filter out undesirable data; to select relevant data; and to perform quality control, data reduction, data exploration, morphological hit picking, and data clustering. Our results demonstrate that HC StratoMineR can be used to functionally categorize HCS hits and, thus, provide valuable information for hit prioritization.

  19. Improved solid fuels from co-pyrolysis of a high-sulphur content coal and different lignocellulosic wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Cordero; J. Rodriguez-Mirasol; J. Pastrana; J.J. Rodriguez [ETSII, University of Malaga, Malaga (Spain). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2004-08-01

    Co-pyrolysis of blends of a high-sulphur coal with different biomass wastes has been investigated as a way to obtain improved solid fuels. Experiments have been performed in a thermogravimetric laboratory system and in a pilot-scale mobile bed furnace, this last operating at 600{sup o}C. The presence of biomass enhances coal desulphurization upon thermal treatment in significant relative amounts, giving rise about as much as twice percent sulphur loss at high biomass-to-coal ratios in the starting blend in comparison with the S loss occurring upon pyrolysis of coal alone. Combustion experiments with chars resulting from co-pyrolysis of these coal-biomass blends confirm this significantly improved desulphurization. Thus, co-pyrolysis of blends of high-sulphur coals with biomass wastes provides a potential way to obtain improved solid fuels combining good heating values with environmentally acceptable S contents. The chars resulting from co-pyrolysis show heating values within the range of high-quality solid fuels whereas the ash contents remain in the vicinity of that of the starting coal except in the case of the coal-straw blend where the relatively high ash content of this biomass waste leads to co-pyrolysis chars with substantially higher ash contents and lower heating values. 19 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. High-performance membrane-electrode assembly with an optimal polytetrafluoroethylene content for high-temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Gisu; Kim, MinJoong; Han, Junyoung; Kim, Hyoung-Juhn; Shul, Yong-Gun; Cho, EunAe

    2016-08-01

    Although high-temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (HT-PEMFCs) have a high carbon monoxide tolerance and allow for efficient water management, their practical applications are limited due to their lower performance than conventional low-temperature PEMFCs. Herein, we present a high-performance membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) with an optimal polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) content for HT-PEMFCs. Low or excess PTFE content in the electrode leads to an inefficient electrolyte distribution or severe catalyst agglomeration, respectively, which hinder the formation of triple phase boundaries in the electrodes and result in low performance. MEAs with PTFE content of 20 wt% have an optimal pore structure for the efficient formation of electrolyte/catalyst interfaces and gas channels, which leads to high cell performance of approximately 0.5 A cm-2 at 0.6 V.

  1. [Pilot study of thermal treatment/thermophilic anaerobic digestion process treating waste activated sludge of high solid content].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing; Wang, Guang-qi; Cao, Zhi-ping; Li, Zhong-hua; Hu, Yu-ying; Wang, Kai-jun; Zu, Jian-e

    2014-09-01

    A pilot-scale experiment about the process of "thermal pretreatment at 70°C/thermophilic anaerobic digestion" of waste activated sludge of high solid content (8% -9% ) was conducted. The process employed thermal treatment of 3 days to accelerate the hydrolysis and thermophilic digestion to enhance anaerobic reaction. Thus it was good at organic removal and stabilization. When the solid retention time (SRT) was longer than 20 days, the VSS removal rate was greater than 42. 22% and it was linearly correlated to the SRT of the aerobic digestion with the R2 of 0. 915 3. It was suggested that SRT of anaerobic digestion was 25 days in practice. VSS removal rate and biogas production rate of the pilot experiment were similar to those of the run-well traditional full-scale sludge anaerobic digestion plants (solid content 3% -5% ) and the plant of high solid content using German technique.

  2. Defects, strain relaxation, and compositional grading in high indium content InGaN epilayers grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazioti, C.; Papadomanolaki, E.; Kehagias, Th.; Walther, T.; Smalc-Koziorowska, J.; Pavlidou, E.; Komninou, Ph.; Karakostas, Th.; Iliopoulos, E.; Dimitrakopulos, G. P.

    2015-10-01

    We investigate the structural properties of a series of high alloy content InGaN epilayers grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy, employing the deposition temperature as variable under invariant element fluxes. Using transmission electron microscopy methods, distinct strain relaxation modes were observed, depending on the indium content attained through temperature adjustment. At lower indium contents, strain relaxation by V-pit formation dominated, with concurrent formation of an indium-rich interfacial zone. With increasing indium content, this mechanism was gradually substituted by the introduction of a self-formed strained interfacial InGaN layer of lower indium content, as well as multiple intrinsic basal stacking faults and threading dislocations in the rest of the film. We show that this interfacial layer is not chemically abrupt and that major plastic strain relaxation through defect introduction commences upon reaching a critical indium concentration as a result of compositional pulling. Upon further increase of the indium content, this relaxation mode was again gradually succeeded by the increase in the density of misfit dislocations at the InGaN/GaN interface, leading eventually to the suppression of the strained InGaN layer and basal stacking faults.

  3. A somaclonal variant of rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium spp.) with moderately high content of isomenthone in its essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Swaroop S; Ravindra, Nagawara S; Srinivas, Kalavagunta V N S; Kulkarni, Raghavendra N

    2012-09-01

    Rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium spp.), which is highly valued for its essential oil, is exclusively propagated vegetatively. Hence no genetic improvement work is possible through conventional breeding. Somaclonal variation was generated with and without in vitro mutagenesis using N-nitroso-N-methyl urea (NMU) in an Indian cultivar 'Bourbon', and a clone 'Narmada'. A somaclonal variant (N75) with a moderately high content of isomenthone in its essential oil was isolated from somaclones generated after treatment of internodal explants of clone, 'Narmada' with 0.25 mM NMU for 1 h. The contents of isomenthone in its essential oil were 26% and 35%, respectively, in SC2/VM2 and SC3/VM3 generations (second and third vegetative generations, respectively, after in vitro mutagen treatment) as compared with 0.7% and 0.3%, respectively, in the parental clone, 'Narmada'. The contents of alcohols and their esters (linalool, citronellol, geraniol, citronellyl formate and geranyl formate) in the essential oil of N75 in SC2/VM2 and SC3/VM3 generations were 49% and 35%, respectively, as compared with 69% and 63%, respectively, in the parental clone, 'Narmada'. This is the first report on a chemovariant of rose-scented geranium with a moderately high content of isomenthone. All earlier reported isomenthone-rich variants of rose-scented geranium had quite high contents of isomenthone (64-71%) in their essential oils. The probable modes of origin of this somaclonal variant, its parental clone 'Narmada' (with very low content of isomenthone) and four earlier reported isomenthone-rich variants of Indian cultivars of geranium are discussed.

  4. The potential of a high protein-low carbohydrate diet to preserve intrahepatic triglyceride content in healthy humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveline A Martens

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Protein supplementation has been shown to reduce the increases in intrahepatic triglyceride (IHTG content induced by acute hypercaloric high-fat and high-fructose diets in humans. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of a 12-wk iso-energetic high protein-low carbohydrate (HPLC diet compared with an iso-energetic high carbohydrate-low protein (HCLP diet on IHTG content in healthy non-obese subjects, at a constant body weight. DESIGN: Seven men and nine women [mean ± SD age: 24 ± 5 y; BMI: 22.9 ± 2.1 kg/m2] were randomly allocated to a HPLC [30/35/35% of energy (En% from protein/carbohydrate/fat] or a HCLP (5/60/35 En% diet by stratification on sex, age and BMI. Dietary guidelines were prescribed based on individual daily energy requirements. IHTG content was measured by 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy before and after the dietary intervention. RESULTS: IHTG content changed in different directions with the HPLC (CH2H2O: 0.23 ± 0.17 to 0.20 ± 0.10; IHTG%: 0.25 ± 0.20% to 0.22 ± 0.11% compared with the HCLP diet (CH2H2O: 0.34 ± 0.20 vs. 0.38 ± 0.21; IHTG%: 0.38 ± 0.22% vs. 0.43 ± 0.24%, which resulted in a lower IHTG content in the HPLC compared with the HCLP diet group after 12 weeks, which almost reached statistical significance (P = 0.055. CONCLUSIONS: A HPLC vs. a HCLP diet has the potential to preserve vs. enlarge IHTG content in healthy non-obese subjects at a constant body weight. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01551238.

  5. Proline content and protein patterns in Eucalyptus grandis shoots submitted to high and low temperature shocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo M. Souza

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Proline content and protein patterns changes in response to temperature shocks of both acclimated and non acclimated E. grandis shoots cultivated in vitro were investigated. Analysis of soluble proteins through SDS-PAGE and proline were carried out after 12h at 12ºC (cold acclimation or 33ºC (heat acclimation, and immediately after temperature shocks at 41ºC and 0ºC. Analyses were also performed 24h after the temperature shocks (recovery period. Temperature treatment at 0ºC did not change soluble protein patterns both in acclimatized and non acclimatized plants, whereas cold temperature induced high proline levels, which kept relatively high after recovery period. Three novel, probably HSPs, proteins (90.5, 75 and 39 kDa were observed in both acclimated and non acclimated plants submitted to high temperatures. Plants exposed at 41ºC were able to recover from heat shocks after 24h, whereas they did not recover completely from cold shocks. The effect of the acclimation period on the recovering (homeostasis varied depending on the parameter evaluated, and type and duration of the temperature shock.As respostas às mudanças de temperatura de plantas aclimatadas e não aclimatadas de E. grandis cultivadas in vitro foram avaliadas considerando alterações dos níveis de prolina e proteínas solúveis totais. Análises de proteínas solúveis através de SDS-PAGE e prolina foram realizadas após 12h a 12ºC (aclimatação ao frio ou a 33ºC (aclimatação ao calor, e imediatamente depois dos choques térmicos a 41ºC e 0ºC. Análises também foram realizadas após um período de 24h depois dos choques térmicos (período de recuperação. O tratamento de temperatura a 0ºC não alterou o padrão de proteínas nas plantas aclimatadas e não aclimatadas, entretanto a temperatura baixa induziu altos níveis de prolina, que se mantiveram relativamente altos após o período de recuperação. Três novas proteínas (90,5, 75 e 39 kDa, provavelmente

  6. Analysis of Levodopa Content in Commercial Mucuna pruriens Products Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Fluorescence Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soumyanath, Amala; Denne, Tanya; Hiller, Amie; Ramachandran, Shaila; Shinto, Lynne

    2017-09-18

    Mucuna pruriens (MP) seeds contain levodopa (up to 2% by weight) and have been used in traditional Indian medicine to treat an illness named "Kampavata," now understood to be Parkinson's disease (PD). Studies have shown MP to be beneficial, and even superior, to levodopa alone in treating PD symptoms. Commercial products containing MP are readily available from online and retail sources to patients and physicians. Products often contain extracts of MP seeds, with significantly higher levodopa content than the seeds. However, MP products have limited regulatory controls with respect to quality and content of active ingredient. The aim of this study was to apply a quantitative method to determine levodopa content in readily available MP products that might be used by patients or in research studies. Levodopa present in six commercial MP products was quantified by solvent extraction followed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to fluorescence detection (FD). Certificates of analysis (COA) were obtained, from manufacturers of MP products, to assess the existence and implementation of specifications for levodopa content. HPLC-FD analysis revealed that the levodopa content of the six commercial MP products varied from 6% to 141% of individual label claims. No product contained levodopa within normal pharmacopeial limits of 90%-110% label claim. The maximum daily dose of levodopa delivered by the products varied from 14.4 to 720 mg/day. COAs were inconsistent in specifications for and verification of levodopa content. The commercial products tested varied widely in levodopa content, sometimes deviating widely from the label claim. These deficiencies could impact efficacy and safety of MP products used by PD patients and compromise the results of scientific studies on MP products. The HPLC-FD method described in this study could be utilized by both manufacturers and scientific researchers to verify levodopa content of MP products.

  7. [Sodium in breads and snacks of high consumption in Costa Rica. Basal content and verification of nutrition labeling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Campos, Maria de Los Ángeles; Blanco-Metzler, Adriana; Chan, Victoria Chan

    2015-03-01

    Bread is highly consumed by population, making it one of the main sources of sodium in the diet, despite being moderate in salt. Mean while, snacks have high sodium content, but are less consumed by the general population. The aim of this study was to determine by direct analysis the baseline of sodium in breads and snacks most consumed in Costa Rica and verify compliance with the Central American Technical Regulation on Nutritional Labeling. Foods samples were classified by type, trade mark, method and place of production. Samples were collected in supermarkets and bakeries in the Great Metropolitan Area between 2011 and 2012. Primary sample comprised 99 breads and 84 snacks, and analytical sample 33 and 28, respectively. The sodium content was determined by flame emission spectrophotometer. Breads showed between 496 and 744 mg/100 g sodium, 45% included nutritional labeling and 80% reported greater amount than found by direct analysis. Industrialized breads except the whole grain varieties, complied with regulations. In snacks, sodium content ranged from 276 to 1221 mg/100 g, all had nutritional labeling and 43% reported less content, in breach of the regulations. The study provides baseline data to initiate sodium reduction and direct analysis confirms that it is essential to know with certainty the sodium content in foods.

  8. Effects of contents of Nb and C on hot deformation behaviors of high Nb X80 pipeline steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAO Gui-ying; XIAO Fu-ren; ZHANG Xiao-bing; CAO Ya-bin; LIAO Bo

    2009-01-01

    The behavior of the flow deformation and the effects of contents of Nb and C on deformation behaviors of high Nb X80 pipeline steels during hot compression deformation were studied by thermal simulation test.The content of solid solution Nb was quantificationally studied during the reheating and hot deformation process,and the effects of change of solid solution Nb in steels on hot deformation behaviors were discussed.The results show that the contents of Nb and C have great effects on the flow stress behaviors of high Nb X80 pipeline steels.When the C content in steels is constant,the recrystallization activation energy increases from 387 to 481 kJ/mol with increasing the Nb from 0.082% to 0.13% (mass fraction).However,the effect of Nb is correlative to the C content,I.e.w(Nb)/w(C).When w(Nb)/w(C) decreases from 3.61 to 2.18,the recrystallization activation energy decreases from 481 to 434 kJ/mol.

  9. Resistant starch: Variation among high amylose rice varieties and its relationship with apparent amylose content, pasting properties and cooking methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-Hsuan; Bergman, Christine J; McClung, Anna M; Everette, Jace D; Tabien, Rodante E

    2017-11-01

    Resistant starch (RS), which is not hydrolyzed in the small intestine, has proposed health benefits. We evaluated 40 high amylose rice varieties for RS content in cooked rice and a 1.9-fold difference was found. Some varieties had more than two-fold greater RS content than a US long-grain intermediate-amylose rice. The high amylose varieties were grouped into four classes according to paste viscosity and gelatinization temperature based on genetic variants of the Waxy and Starch Synthase IIa genes, respectively. RS content was not different between the four paste viscosity-gelatinization temperature classes. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that apparent amylose content and pasting temperature were strong predictors of RS within each class. Two cooking methods, fixed water-to-rice ratio/time and in excess-water/minimum-cook-time, were compared using six rice varieties that were extremes in RS in each of the genetic variant classes, no difference in RS content due to cooking method was observed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Morphometric Characterization of Rat and Human Alveolar Macrophage Cell Models and their Response to Amiodarone using High Content Image Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Ewelina; Patel, Aateka; Ball, Doug; Klapwijk, Jan; Millar, Val; Kumar, Abhinav; Martin, Abigail; Mahendran, Rhamiya; Dailey, Lea Ann; Forbes, Ben; Hutter, Victoria

    2017-05-24

    Progress to the clinic may be delayed or prevented when vacuolated or "foamy" alveolar macrophages are observed during non-clinical inhalation toxicology assessment. The first step in developing methods to study this response in vitro is to characterize macrophage cell lines and their response to drug exposures. Human (U937) and rat (NR8383) cell lines and primary rat alveolar macrophages obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage were characterized using high content fluorescence imaging analysis quantification of cell viability, morphometry, and phospholipid and neutral lipid accumulation. Cell health, morphology and lipid content were comparable (p content. Responses to amiodarone, a known inducer of phospholipidosis, required analysis of shifts in cell population profiles (the proportion of cells with elevated vacuolation or lipid content) rather than average population data which was insensitive to the changes observed. A high content image analysis assay was developed and used to provide detailed morphological characterization of rat and human alveolar-like macrophages and their response to a phospholipidosis-inducing agent. This provides a basis for development of assays to predict or understand macrophage vacuolation following inhaled drug exposure.

  11. HC StratoMineR: A web-based tool for the rapid analysis of high content datasets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Omta, W.; Heesbeen, R. van; Pagliero, R.; Velden, L. van der; Lelieveld, D.; Nellen, M.; Kramer, M.; Yeong, M.; Saeidi, A.; Medema, R.; Spruit, M.; Brinkkemper, S.; Klumperman, J.; Egan, D.

    2016-01-01

    High-content screening (HCS) can generate large multidimensional datasets and when aligned with the appropriate data mining tools, it can yield valuable insights into the mechanism of action of bioactive molecules. However, easy-to-use data mining tools are not widely available, with the result that

  12. HC StratoMineR : A Web-Based Tool for the Rapid Analysis of High-Content Datasets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Omta, Wienand A; van Heesbeen, Roy G; Pagliero, Romina J; van der Velden, Lieke M; Lelieveld, Daphne; Nellen, Mehdi; Kramer, Maik; Yeong, Marley; Saeidi, Amir M; Medema, Rene H; Spruit, Marco; Brinkkemper, Sjaak; Klumperman, Judith; Egan, David A

    2016-01-01

    High-content screening (HCS) can generate large multidimensional datasets and when aligned with the appropriate data mining tools, it can yield valuable insights into the mechanism of action of bioactive molecules. However, easy-to-use data mining tools are not widely available, with the result that

  13. Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Argumentation: Using Classroom Contexts to Assess High-Quality PCK Rather than Pseudoargumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Katherine L.; González-Howard, María; Katsh-Singer, Rebecca; Loper, Suzanna

    2016-01-01

    Despite the recent emphasis on science practices, little work has focused on teachers' knowledge of these key learning goals. The development of high quality assessments for teachers' pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) of science practices, such as argumentation, is important to better assess the needs of teachers and to develop supportive…

  14. The Association Between Blood Alcohol Content and Cheerfulness, Focus Distraction, and Sluggishness Among Young Adults Attending High School Parties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasen, Marie; Rod, Morten Hulvej; Flensborg-Madsen, Trine

    2014-01-01

    The belief that alcohol makes you cheerful is one of the main reasons for engaging in high-risk drinking, especially among young adults. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between blood alcohol content (BAC) and cheerfulness, focus distraction, and sluggishness among students...

  15. Analyzing Content about the Federal Budget, National Debt, and Budget Deficit in High School and College-Level Economics Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marri, Anand R.; Gaudelli, William; Cohen, Aviv; Siegel, Brad; Wylie, Scott; Crocco, Margaret S.; Grolnick, Maureen

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to identify content on the federal budget, national debt, and budget deficit in the 12 most commonly used high school and college-level economics textbooks. Our systematic review of these sources leads to two key findings: (1) Textbooks are similar in how they represent fiscal policy yet treat the federal budget, deficit, and…

  16. Inferring Toxicological Responses of HepG2 Cells from ToxCast High Content Imaging Data (SOT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the dynamic perturbation of cell states by chemicals can aid in for predicting their adverse effects. High-content imaging (HCI) was used to measure the state of HepG2 cells over three time points (1, 24, and 72 h) in response to 976 ToxCast chemicals for 10 differe...

  17. Tuning University Undergraduates for High Mobility and Employability under the Content and Language Integrated Learning Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenhsien

    2017-01-01

    Globalisation affects both language use and the economics of higher education. Considering how to design new instructional approaches to prepare graduates with competence in using language and professional knowledge interactively and interculturally has thus become a major concern of higher education institutes. Content and language integrated…

  18. Detecting leaf-water content in Mediterranean trees using high-resolution spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Steven M.; Addink, Elisabeth A.; Doelman, Jonathan C.

    2014-01-01

    Water content of the vegetation canopy or individual leaves is an important variable in physiological plant processes. In Mediterranean regions where water availability is an important production limiting factor, it is a strong indicator of vegetation stress. Spectroscopic earth-observation techniqu

  19. Reasoning on the Basis of Fantasy Content: Two Studies with High-Functioning Autistic Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsanyi, Kinga; Handley, Simon J.

    2012-01-01

    Reasoning about problems with empirically false content can be hard, as the inferences that people draw are heavily influenced by their background knowledge. However, presenting empirically false premises in a fantasy context helps children and adolescents to disregard their beliefs, and to reason on the basis of the premises. The aim of the…

  20. Pro and Antisocial Television Content and Modeling by High and Low Self-esteem Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Stanley J.

    Children will individually react to television program content according to different psychological characteristics, one of which is self-esteem. Results of one study revealed a definite relationship between a child's self-esteem and his "modeling," or imitative behavior, after observing a televised film. A self-esteem inventory was administered…

  1. An Exploration of the Common Content Knowledge of High School Mathematics Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansilal, Sarah; Brijlall, Deonarain; Mkhwanazi, Thokozani

    2014-01-01

    Many studies point to the problem of poor mathematics content knowledge of mathematics teachers in South Africa. The purpose of this study was to investigate teachers' knowledge of the mathematics they are themselves teaching. Data was generated from the teachers' (n = 253) written responses to test that was a shortened form of a…

  2. INTEGRATED MODEL OF AUTOMATED PROCESS LIFECYCLE MANAGEMENT TRAINING THROUGH STRUCTURIZATION CONTENT OF HIGH SCHOOL AND ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennady G. Kulikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the modern point of view, the issue of developing methods of forming the structure of the process lifecycle management of specialisttraining in conjunction with the University of industrial enterprise on the basisof a comprehensive content base chair. The possibility of using IT to improve the efficiency of educational processes.

  3. Promoting Acceleration of Comprehension and Content through Text in High School Social Studies Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanzek, Jeanne; Swanson, Elizabeth A.; Roberts, Greg; Vaughn, Sharon; Kent, Shawn C.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Promoting Acceleration of Comprehension and Content Through Text intervention implemented with 11th-grade students enrolled in U.S. History classes. Using a within-teacher randomized design, the study was conducted in 41 classes (23 treatment classes) with 14 teachers providing the…

  4. PEDAGOGICAL CONTENT THREE-FACTOR MODEL OF EDUCATING HIGH-SCHOOL STUDENTS FOR PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Lopatukhina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the presented publication is to discuss the changes in the practice of professional higher education which consist in strengthening and emphasis of an educational component in educational process.Methods. The methods involve the analysis of a condition of higher education and the provisions of the Federal Law on Education regulating its functioning in the Russian Federation; text-centered approach to education of the person of culture – the professional specialist, responsible for the activities.Results and scientific novelty. It states that some drawbacks of the existing present-day education organization are being constantly discussed by a pedagogical community of the Russian Federation: the absence of development stability; the absence of effective strategies and technologies of their implementation; the triumph of national nihilism confirmed by high schools and individual scientists participation in different foreign educational projects, usually having world notorious reputation; penetration of commercial principals in to an education system, the latter having been turned in to an education service, etc. As a result the personality quality itself has greatly deteriorated as well as Russia society intellect, on the whole, according to some law, psychological, philosophical and pedagogical analysis. The article stresses that the way out maybe found in restoring Russian national traditions and lost values and returning them to Russian education via adequate upbringing process. The authors describe their innovative model comprising three directions: 1 the integral three-factor spiritual, moral and intellectual upbringing of the students; 2 specially selected text content professional information using text-centered approach and 3 peculiar interaction of two education subjects: a student and a teacher. Their cooperation envisages the following stages: first, teacher’s strict guidance of a student; then

  5. Improvement of PCR-free NGS Library Preparation to Obtain Uniform Read Coverage of Genome with Extremely High AT Content

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, A.; Storton, D.; Buckles, J.; Llinas, M.; Wang, Wei

    2012-01-01

    PCR amplification is commonly used in generating libraries for Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) to efficiently enrich and amplify sequenceable DNA fragments. However, it introduces bias in the representation of the original complex template DNA. Such artifact has devastating effects in sequencing genomes with highly unbalanced base composition: regions of extremely high or low GC content, which are a substantial fraction of such genomes, are often covered with zero or near-zero read depth. PC...

  6. A Sustainable Route from Biomass Byproduct Okara to High Content Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Sheets for Efficient Sodium Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tingzhou; Qian, Tao; Wang, Mengfan; Shen, Xiaowei; Xu, Na; Sun, Zhouzhou; Yan, Chenglin

    2016-01-20

    A sustainable route from the biomass byproduct okara as a natural nitrogen fertilizer to high-content N-doped carbon sheets is demonstrated. The as-prepared unique structure exhibits high specific capacity (292 mAh g(-1) ) and extremely long cycle life (exceeding 2000 cycles). A full battery is devised for the practical use of materials with a flexible/wearable LED screen.

  7. Effect of steaming, blanching, and high temperature/high pressure processing on the amino Acid contents of commonly consumed korean vegetables and pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su-Yeon; Kim, Bo-Min; Kim, Jung-Bong; Shanmugavelan, Poovan; Kim, Heon-Woong; Kim, So-Young; Kim, Se-Na; Cho, Young-Sook; Choi, Han-Seok; Park, Ki-Moon

    2014-09-01

    In the present report, the effects of blanching, steaming, and high temperature/high pressure processing (HTHP) on the amino acid contents of commonly consumed Korean root vegetables, leaf vegetables, and pulses were evaluated using an Automatic Amino Acid Analyzer. The total amino acid content of the samples tested was between 3.38 g/100 g dry weight (DW) and 21.32 g/100 g DW in raw vegetables and between 29.36 g/100 g DW and 30.55 g/100 g DW in raw pulses. With HTHP, we observed significant decreases in the lysine and arginine contents of vegetables and the lysine, arginine, and cysteine contents of pulses. Moreover, the amino acid contents of blanched vegetables and steamed pulses were more similar than the amino acid contents of the HTHP vegetables and HTHP pulses. Interestingly, lysine, arginine, and cysteine were more sensitive to HTHP than the other amino acids. Partial Least Squares-Discriminate Analyses were also performed to discriminate the clusters and patterns of amino acids.

  8. Effect of the strain rate on the mechanical properties of a sheet TRIP steel with a high martensite content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliseev, E. A.; Terent'ev, V. F.; Voznesenskaya, N. M.; Slizov, A. K.; Sirotinkin, V. P.; Baikin, A. S.; Seval'nev, G. S.

    2017-04-01

    The laws of changing the mechanical properties of sheet austenitic-martensitic VNS9-Sh (23Kh15N5AM3-Sh) TRIP steel are studied when the static strain rate changes in the range 0.1-20 mm/min (8.3 × 10-5-17 × 10-3 s-1). The 0.35-mm strip under study is characterized by a high martensite content (≈100%) in the surface layer at an average content of 80-85%. The transformation induced plasticity effect is maximal at a strain rate of 0.1 mm/min (8.3 × 10-5 s-1).

  9. Deciphering Genomic Regions for High Grain Iron and Zinc Content Using Association Mapping in Pearl Millet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuradha, N.; Satyavathi, C. Tara; Bharadwaj, C.; Nepolean, T.; Sankar, S. Mukesh; Singh, Sumer P.; Meena, Mahesh C.; Singhal, Tripti; Srivastava, Rakesh K.

    2017-01-01

    Micronutrient malnutrition, especially deficiency of two mineral elements, iron [Fe] and zinc [Zn] in the developing world needs urgent attention. Pearl millet is one of the best crops with many nutritional properties and is accessible to the poor. We report findings of the first attempt to mine favorable alleles for grain iron and zinc content through association mapping in pearl millet. An association mapping panel of 130 diverse lines was evaluated at Delhi, Jodhpur and Dharwad, representing all the three pearl millet growing agro-climatic zones of India, during 2014 and 2015. Wide range of variation was observed for grain iron (32.3–111.9 ppm) and zinc (26.6–73.7 ppm) content. Genotyping with 114 representative polymorphic SSRs revealed 0.35 mean gene diversity. STRUCTURE analysis revealed presence of three sub-populations which was further supported by Neighbor-Joining method of clustering and principal coordinate analysis (PCoA). Marker-trait associations (MTAs) were analyzed with 267 markers (250 SSRs and 17 genic markers) in both general linear model (GLM) and mixed linear model (MLM), however, MTAs resulting from MLM were considered for more robustness of the associations. After appropriate Bonferroni correction, Xpsmp 2261 (13.34% R2-value), Xipes 0180 (R2-value of 11.40%) and Xipes 0096 (R2-value of 11.38%) were consistently associated with grain iron and zinc content for all the three locations. Favorable alleles and promising lines were identified for across and specific environments. PPMI 1102 had highest number (7) of favorable alleles, followed by four each for PPMFeZMP 199 and PPMI 708 for across the environment performance for both grain Fe and Zn content, while PPMI 1104 had alleles specific to Dharwad for grain Fe and Zn content. When compared with the reference genome Tift 23D2B1-P1-P5, Xpsmp 2261 amplicon was identified in intergenic region on pseudomolecule 5, while the other marker, Xipes 0810 was observed to be overlapping with aspartic

  10. Error Analysis of Clay-Rock Water Content Estimation with Broadband High-Frequency Electromagnetic Sensors—Air Gap Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Bore

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Broadband electromagnetic frequency or time domain sensor techniques present high potential for quantitative water content monitoring in porous media. Prior to in situ application, the impact of the relationship between the broadband electromagnetic properties of the porous material (clay-rock and the water content on the frequency or time domain sensor response is required. For this purpose, dielectric properties of intact clay rock samples experimental determined in the frequency range from 1 MHz to 10 GHz were used as input data in 3-D numerical frequency domain finite element field calculations to model the one port broadband frequency or time domain transfer function for a three rods based sensor embedded in the clay-rock. The sensor response in terms of the reflection factor was analyzed in time domain with classical travel time analysis in combination with an empirical model according to Topp equation, as well as the theoretical Lichtenecker and Rother model (LRM to estimate the volumetric water content. The mixture equation considering the appropriate porosity of the investigated material provide a practical and efficient approach for water content estimation based on classical travel time analysis with the onset-method. The inflection method is not recommended for water content estimation in electrical dispersive and absorptive material. Moreover, the results clearly indicate that effects due to coupling of the sensor to the material cannot be neglected. Coupling problems caused by an air gap lead to dramatic effects on water content estimation, even for submillimeter gaps. Thus, the quantitative determination of the in situ water content requires careful sensor installation in order to reach a perfect probe clay rock coupling.

  11. Error Analysis of Clay-Rock Water Content Estimation with Broadband High-Frequency Electromagnetic Sensors--Air Gap Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bore, Thierry; Wagner, Norman; Lesoille, Sylvie Delepine; Taillade, Frederic; Six, Gonzague; Daout, Franck; Placko, Dominique

    2016-04-18

    Broadband electromagnetic frequency or time domain sensor techniques present high potential for quantitative water content monitoring in porous media. Prior to in situ application, the impact of the relationship between the broadband electromagnetic properties of the porous material (clay-rock) and the water content on the frequency or time domain sensor response is required. For this purpose, dielectric properties of intact clay rock samples experimental determined in the frequency range from 1 MHz to 10 GHz were used as input data in 3-D numerical frequency domain finite element field calculations to model the one port broadband frequency or time domain transfer function for a three rods based sensor embedded in the clay-rock. The sensor response in terms of the reflection factor was analyzed in time domain with classical travel time analysis in combination with an empirical model according to Topp equation, as well as the theoretical Lichtenecker and Rother model (LRM) to estimate the volumetric water content. The mixture equation considering the appropriate porosity of the investigated material provide a practical and efficient approach for water content estimation based on classical travel time analysis with the onset-method. The inflection method is not recommended for water content estimation in electrical dispersive and absorptive material. Moreover, the results clearly indicate that effects due to coupling of the sensor to the material cannot be neglected. Coupling problems caused by an air gap lead to dramatic effects on water content estimation, even for submillimeter gaps. Thus, the quantitative determination of the in situ water content requires careful sensor installation in order to reach a perfect probe clay rock coupling.

  12. Error Analysis of Clay-Rock Water Content Estimation with Broadband High-Frequency Electromagnetic Sensors—Air Gap Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bore, Thierry; Wagner, Norman; Delepine Lesoille, Sylvie; Taillade, Frederic; Six, Gonzague; Daout, Franck; Placko, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Broadband electromagnetic frequency or time domain sensor techniques present high potential for quantitative water content monitoring in porous media. Prior to in situ application, the impact of the relationship between the broadband electromagnetic properties of the porous material (clay-rock) and the water content on the frequency or time domain sensor response is required. For this purpose, dielectric properties of intact clay rock samples experimental determined in the frequency range from 1 MHz to 10 GHz were used as input data in 3-D numerical frequency domain finite element field calculations to model the one port broadband frequency or time domain transfer function for a three rods based sensor embedded in the clay-rock. The sensor response in terms of the reflection factor was analyzed in time domain with classical travel time analysis in combination with an empirical model according to Topp equation, as well as the theoretical Lichtenecker and Rother model (LRM) to estimate the volumetric water content. The mixture equation considering the appropriate porosity of the investigated material provide a practical and efficient approach for water content estimation based on classical travel time analysis with the onset-method. The inflection method is not recommended for water content estimation in electrical dispersive and absorptive material. Moreover, the results clearly indicate that effects due to coupling of the sensor to the material cannot be neglected. Coupling problems caused by an air gap lead to dramatic effects on water content estimation, even for submillimeter gaps. Thus, the quantitative determination of the in situ water content requires careful sensor installation in order to reach a perfect probe clay rock coupling. PMID:27096865

  13. Hypoplastic model for simulation of compressibility characteristics of cement-admixed Bangkok soft clay at high water content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattonjai, Piyachat

    2016-06-01

    The developed hypoplastic model for simulation of compressibility characteristics of cement-admixed Bangkok soft clay at high water content was proposed in this paper. By using unique equation, the model is able to predict the relationship between void ratio and vertical effective stress of different water and cement content of soil cement. For practically convenient utilization and understanding, the parameters of Q1 which represented to initial cement bonding of soil (the initial value of structure tensor at time = 0) and C2 which effected to the model stiffness on isotropic consolidation direction, at 45° for loading and 225° for unloading of stress response envelope, were proposed as the function of cement and water content by comparing with dry weight of soil. By numerical integration that satisfied one-dimensional settlement, the simulation results were directly compared with fifteen experimental results to verify the accuracy of the proposed model.

  14. Separation/enrichment of the low-content high molecular weight natural protein using protein-imprinted polymers with ARPCs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA JianJun; LONG Yi; GUO MinJie; WANG Ying; MI HuaiFeng

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a new method for separation/enrichment of the low-content cellular protein in high molecular weight on the basis of molecular imprinting.The template protein,bacterial cloned immunoglobulin binding protein (BiP),was selectively assembled with assistant recognition polymer chains (ARPCs) from their library,which consists of numerous limited length polymer chains with randomly distributed recognition and immobilizing sites.The assemblies of proteins and ARPCs were adsorbed by porous polymeric beads and immobilized by cross-linking polymerization.After the template was removed,the synthesized imprinted polymer was used to adsorb authentic BiP from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) extract,and its proportional content was enriched 45 times.It is the first time that the low-content cellular natural protein,whose molecular weight reaches 78 kDa,is enrichd by molecular imprinting.

  15. Developing E-Learning Based on Animation Content for Improving Mathematical Connection Abilities in High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedi Rohendi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to develop e-learning based on animation content for improving mathematical connection abilities in senior high school students. The e-learning was developed by using Moddle and the animation content was developed by using macromedia flash. To get the student mathematical conection abilities it uses the instruments of mathematical tests before and after teaching and learning process. The data were analyzed by using t-test and gain value test. The study found that e-learning based on animation content not only had significant influence toward mathematical connection abilities but also able to improve students mathematical connection abilities far better than that of conventional approach.

  16. Separation/enrichment of the low-content high molecular weight natural protein using protein-imprinted polymers with ARPCs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a new method for separation/enrichment of the low-content cellular protein in high mo-lecular weight on the basis of molecular imprinting. The template protein, bacterial cloned immu-noglobulin binding protein (BiP), was selectively assembled with assistant recognition polymer chains (ARPCs) from their library, which consists of numerous limited length polymer chains with randomly distributed recognition and immobilizing sites. The assemblies of proteins and ARPCs were adsorbed by porous polymeric beads and immobilized by cross-linking polymerization. After the template was removed, the synthesized imprinted polymer was used to adsorb authentic BiP from endoplasmic re-ticulum (ER) extract, and its proportional content was enriched 45 times. It is the first time that the low-content cellular natural protein, whose molecular weight reaches 78 kDa, is enriched by molecular imprinting.

  17. Experimental Study of High Moisture Content Gas Flow Across a Cylinder at Moderate Reynolds Numbers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D. M. Christopher; GUO Liang(郭亮)

    2003-01-01

    The Nusselt number for cross flow of a mixture of air and vapor over a cylinder was measured at moderate Reynolds numbers (3000-7000) for temperatures from 300℃ to 700℃ and for vapor mass fractions of 0.18-0.35. Results are also presented for a set of three cylinders aligned perpendicular to the flow for the same range of conditions. The effect of the vapor concentration and temperature on the convection coefficients was investigated to develop a modified Zhukauskas correlation. The results show that the Nusselt number increases as the moisture content increases and that the increase is more than could be accounted for by typical models for the property variations of mixtures. The exponent of the vapor concentration term in the modified correlation is 0.145 for the entire data set indicating the importance of the property variation due to the moisture content.

  18. Initial Characterization of Colombian High School Physics Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge on Electric Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo-Niño, Lina Viviana; Cañada, Florentina; Mellado, Vicente

    2015-09-01

    We explore the initial characterization of the pedagogical content knowledge of four, in-service, Colombian pre-university secondary education physics teachers on the concept of electric field. Two of them teach the content in English as a second language. The aim of the study was to obtain an image of the participants' teaching of electric field and the inherent complexities that go with that. The results revealed that factors which involved their personal educational models, such as, how they interpret their school's curriculum, the relationship they see between physics and mathematics, the most effective strategies for teaching physics, and the time they have available to develop the topic played a significant role. The teachers considered it essential to establish new strategies that would motivate the pupils by helping them visualize the electric field.

  19. Initial Characterization of Colombian High School Physics Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge on Electric Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo-Niño, Lina Viviana; Cañada, Florentina; Mellado, Vicente

    2017-02-01

    We explore the initial characterization of the pedagogical content knowledge of four, in-service, Colombian pre-university secondary education physics teachers on the concept of electric field. Two of them teach the content in English as a second language. The aim of the study was to obtain an image of the participants' teaching of electric field and the inherent complexities that go with that. The results revealed that factors which involved their personal educational models, such as, how they interpret their school's curriculum, the relationship they see between physics and mathematics, the most effective strategies for teaching physics, and the time they have available to develop the topic played a significant role. The teachers considered it essential to establish new strategies that would motivate the pupils by helping them visualize the electric field.

  20. Stable, high-efficiency amorphous silicon solar cells with low hydrogen content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortmann, C.M.; Hegedus, S.S. (Institute of Energy Conversion, Newark, DE (United States))

    1992-12-01

    Results and conclusions obtained during a research program of the investigation of amorphous silicon and amorphous silicon based alloy materials and solar cells fabricated by photo-chemical vapor and glow discharge depositions are reported. Investigation of the effects of the hydrogen content in a-si:H i-layers in amorphous silicon solar cells show that cells with lowered hydrogen content i-layers are more stable. A classical thermodynamic formulation of the Staebler-Wronski effect has been developed for standard solar cell operating temperatures and illuminations. Methods have been developed to extract a lumped equivalent circuit from the current voltage characteristic of a single junction solar cell in order to predict its behavior in a multijunction device.

  1. Salt content of school meals and comparison of perception related to sodium intake in elementary, middle, and high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sohyun; Park, Seoyun; Kim, Jin Nam; Han, Sung Nim; Jeong, Soo Bin; Kim, Hye-Kyeong

    2013-02-01

    Excessive sodium intake leading to hypertension, stroke, and stomach cancer is mainly caused by excess use of salt in cooking. This study was performed to estimate the salt content in school meals and to compare differences in perceptions related to sodium intake between students and staffs working for school meal service. We collected 382 dishes for food from 24 schools (9 elementary, 7 middle, 8 high schools) in Gyeonggi-do and salt content was calculated from salinity and weight of individual food. The average salt content from elementary, middle, and high school meals were 2.44 g, 3.96 g, and 5.87 g, respectively. The amount of salt provided from the school lunch alone was over 80% of the recommended daily salt intake by WHO. Noodles, stews, sauces, and soups were major sources of salt intake at dish group level, while the most salty dishes were sauces, kimchies, and stir-fried foods. Dietary knowledge and attitude related to sodium intake and consumption frequency of the salty dishes were surveyed with questionnaire in 798 students and 256 staffs working for school meal service. Compared with the staffs, the students perceived school meals salty and the proportions of students who thought school meals were salty increased with going up from elementary to high schools (P high school students showed significant propensity for the preference to one-dish meal, processed foods, eating much broth and dipping sauce or seasoning compared with the elementary students, although they had higher nutrition knowledge scores. These results proposed that monitoring salt content of school meals and consideration on the contents and education methods in school are needed to lower sodium intake.

  2. Alteration of MX-80 by hydrothermal treatment under high salt content conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pusch, R. [Geodevelopment AB, Lund (Sweden); Kasbohm, J. [Greifswald Univ. (Germany). Geological Dep.

    2002-02-01

    If brammalit, i.e. sodium illite, is formed from smectite in Na-rich salt water at high temperature such conversion can also take place in the buffer clay that surrounds the canisters in a KBS-3 repository. The present study comprised two laboratory test series with MX-80 clay, one with compacted clay powder with a dry density of 1200 to 1300 kg/m{sup 3} and saturation with 10% and 20% NaCl solutions followed by heating to 110 deg C under closed conditions for 30 days. In the second series air-dry compacted clay powder in a cell was heated at 110 deg C for the same period of time and connected to vessels with 10% and 20% NaCl solutions. The first series represents the conditions in the buffer clay after saturation with Na-rich salt water while the second one corresponds to the conditions in the course of saturation with such water. All laboratory tests were made after short-term percolation with distilled water for making sure that the hydro-thermally treated samples were fully fluid-saturated. The results from the physical testing showed that the hydraulic conductivity and swelling pressure of the hydrothermally treated clay samples were on the same order of magnitude as for untreated clay. Comparison with illitic clays shows that the latter are at least a hundred times more permeable than the hydrothermally treated salt clays in the present study, which hence indicates that conversion to illite was insignificant. This is obvious also from the fact that while illitic clays have very low swelling pressures the hydrothermally treated clays exhibited swelling pressures on the same order of magnitude as untreated MX-80. XRD analysis showed a clear difference in mineral constitution between the two test series. Thus, while no significant change from the typical mineralogy of untreated MX-80 was found for hydrothermal treatment of clay saturated with 10 and 20% NaCl solution, except for some very slight neoformation of illite-smectite mixed layers or irreversible

  3. Alteration of MX-80 by hydrothermal treatment under high salt content conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pusch, R. [Geodevelopment AB, Lund (Sweden); Kasbohm, J. [Greifswald Univ. (Germany). Geological Dep.

    2002-02-01

    If brammalit, i.e. sodium illite, is formed from smectite in Na-rich salt water at high temperature such conversion can also take place in the buffer clay that surrounds the canisters in a KBS-3 repository. The present study comprised two laboratory test series with MX-80 clay, one with compacted clay powder with a dry density of 1200 to 1300 kg/m{sup 3} and saturation with 10% and 20% NaCl solutions followed by heating to 110 deg C under closed conditions for 30 days. In the second series air-dry compacted clay powder in a cell was heated at 110 deg C for the same period of time and connected to vessels with 10% and 20% NaCl solutions. The first series represents the conditions in the buffer clay after saturation with Na-rich salt water while the second one corresponds to the conditions in the course of saturation with such water. All laboratory tests were made after short-term percolation with distilled water for making sure that the hydro-thermally treated samples were fully fluid-saturated. The results from the physical testing showed that the hydraulic conductivity and swelling pressure of the hydrothermally treated clay samples were on the same order of magnitude as for untreated clay. Comparison with illitic clays shows that the latter are at least a hundred times more permeable than the hydrothermally treated salt clays in the present study, which hence indicates that conversion to illite was insignificant. This is obvious also from the fact that while illitic clays have very low swelling pressures the hydrothermally treated clays exhibited swelling pressures on the same order of magnitude as untreated MX-80. XRD analysis showed a clear difference in mineral constitution between the two test series. Thus, while no significant change from the typical mineralogy of untreated MX-80 was found for hydrothermal treatment of clay saturated with 10 and 20% NaCl solution, except for some very slight neoformation of illite-smectite mixed layers or irreversible

  4. A new method using evaporation for high-resolution measurements of soil thermal conductivity at changing water contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markert, A.; Trinks, S.; Facklam, M.; Wessolek, G.

    2012-04-01

    The thermal conductivity of soils is a key parameter to know if their use as heat source or sink is planned. It is required to calculate the efficiency of ground-source heat pump systems in combination with soil heat exchangers. Apart from geothermal energy, soil thermal conductivity is essential to estimate the ampacity for buried power cables. The effective thermal conductivity of saturated and unsaturated soils, as a function of water transport, water vapour transport and heat conduction, mainly depends on the soil water content, its bulk density and texture. The major objectives of this study are (i) to describe the thermal conductivity of soil samples with a non-steady state measurement at changing water contents and for different bulk densities. Based on that it is (ii) tested if available soil thermal conductivity models are able to describe the measured data for the whole range of water contents. The new method allows a continuous measurement of thermal conductivity for soil from full water saturation to air-dryness. Thermal conductivity is measured with a thermal needle probe in predefined time intervals while the change of water content is controlled by evaporation. To relate the measured thermal conductivity to the current volumetric water content, the decrease in weight of the sample, due to evaporation, is logged with a lab scale. Soil texture of the 11 soil substrates tested in this study range between coarse sand and silty clay. To evaluate the impact of the bulk density on heat transport processes, thermal conductivity at 20°C was measured at 1.5g/cm3; 1.7g/cm3 and 1.9g/cm3 for each soil substrate. The results correspond well to literature values used to describe heat transport in soils. Due to the high-resolution and non-destructive measurements, the specific effects of the soil texture and bulk density on thermal conductivity could be proved. Decreasing water contents resulted in a non-linear decline of the thermal conductivity for all samples

  5. Experimental determination and prediction of the compressibility factor of high CO2 content natural gas with and without water vapor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoqiang Bian; Zhimin Du; YongTang

    2011-01-01

    In order to study the effect of different CO2 contents on gas compressibility factor (Z-factor),the JEFRI-PVT apparatus has been used to measure the Z-factor of dry natural gas with CO2 content range from 10.74 to 70.42 mol% at the temperature range from 301.2 to 407.3 K and pressure range from 7 to 44 MPa.The results show that Z-factor decreases with increasing CO2 content in natural gas at constant temperature and increases with increasing temperature for natural gas with the same CO2 content.In addition,the Z-factor of water-saturated natural gas with high CO2 content has been measured.A comparison of the Z-factor between natural gas with and without saturated water vapor indicates that the former shows a higher Z-factor than the latter.Furthermore,Peng-Robinson,Hall-Yarborough,and Soave-Benedict-WebbRubin equations of state (EoS) are used for the calculation of Z-factor of high CO2 content natural gas with and without water vapor.The optimal binary interaction parameters (BIP) for PR EoS are presented.The measured Z-factor is compared with the calculated Z-factor based on three models,which shows that PR EoS combined with van der Waals mixing rule for gas without water and Huron-Vidal mixing rule for water-saturated gas,are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  6. Formation of volatile compounds in kefir made of goat and sheep milk with high polyunsaturated fatty acid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cais-Sokolińska, D; Wójtowski, J; Pikul, J; Danków, R; Majcher, M; Teichert, J; Bagnicka, E

    2015-10-01

    This article explored the formation of volatile compounds during the production of kefir from goat and sheep milks with high polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) as a result of feeding animals forage supplemented with maize dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). The increased PUFA content of the goat and sheep milks resulted in significant changes to the fermentation process. In particular, apart from an increase in the time taken to ferment sheep milk, fermentation yielded less 2,3-butanedione. The highest quantities of this compound were assayed in kefir produced from goat milk with an increased content of PUFA. An increase of PUFA significantly elevated ethanal synthesis during lactose-alcohol fermentation of sheep milk. Neither the origin of milk (sheep or goat) nor the level of PUFA had any statistical effect on the amount of ethanal assayed during the fermentation of milk and within the finished product. The proportion of l(+)-lactic acid was higher in kefirs produced using goat milk compared with sheep milk and did not depend on the content of PUFA in milk fat. The content of PUFA had a significant effect on the aroma profile of the resulting kefirs. An increase in PUFA content resulted in the loss of whey aroma in goat milk kefirs and the animal odor in sheep milk kefirs, and a creamy aroma became more prevalent in kefirs made from sheep milk.

  7. High content analysis of an in vitro model for metabolic toxicity: results with the model toxicants 4-aminophenol and cyclophosphamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Stephanie D; Madren-Whalley, Janna S; Li, Albert P; Dorsey, Russell; Salem, Harry

    2014-12-01

    In vitro models that accurately and rapidly assess hepatotoxicity and the effects of hepatic metabolism on nonliver cell types are needed by the U.S. Department of Defense and the pharmaceutical industry to screen compound libraries. Here, we report the first use of high content analysis on the Integrated Discrete Multiple Organ Co-Culture (IdMOC) system, a high-throughput method for such studies. We cultured 3T3-L1 cells in the presence and absence of primary human hepatocytes, and exposed the cultures to 4-aminophenol and cyclophosphamide, model toxicants that are respectively detoxified and activated by the liver. Following staining with calcein-AM, ethidium homodimer-1, and Hoechst 33342, high content analysis of the cultures revealed four cytotoxic endpoints: fluorescence intensities of calcein-AM and ethidium homodimer-1, nuclear area, and cell density. Using these endpoints, we observed that the cytotoxicity of 4-aminophenol in 3T3-L1 cells in co-culture was less than that observed for 3T3-L1 monocultures, consistent with the known detoxification of 4-aminophenol by hepatocytes. Conversely, cyclophosphamide cytotoxicity for 3T3-L1 cells was enhanced by co-culturing with hepatocytes, consistent with the known metabolic activation of this toxicant. The use of IdMOC plates combined with high content analysis is therefore a multi-endpoint, high-throughput capability for measuring the effects of metabolism on toxicity.

  8. The Effect of High RAP and High Asphalt Binder Content on the Dynamic Modulus and Fatigue Resistance of Asphalt Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Tomlinson, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This thesis investigates the effects of using various percentages of RAP and asphalt binder contents on the dynamic modulus and fatigue resistance of asphalt concrete. Two RAP percentages (20% and 40%) and three binder percentages (plant-mixed, plant-mixed + 0.5%, and plant-mixed + 1.0%) were evaluated. A Superpave gyratory compactor and an asphalt vibratory compactor were used to prepare dynamic modulus samples and fatigue beam samples at 7% air voids. Three replicate samples for each percen...

  9. Noninvasively decoding the contents of visual working memory in the human prefrontal cortex within high-gamma oscillatory patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanía, Rafael; Paulus, Walter; Nitsche, Michael A

    2012-02-01

    The temporal maintenance and subsequent retrieval of information that no longer exists in the environment is called working memory. It is believed that this type of memory is controlled by the persistent activity of neuronal populations, including the prefrontal, temporal, and parietal cortex. For a long time, it has been controversially discussed whether, in working memory, the PFC stores past sensory events or, instead, its activation is an extramnemonic source of top-down control over posterior regions. Recent animal studies suggest that specific information about the contents of working memory can be decoded from population activity in prefrontal areas. However, it has not been shown whether the contents of working memory during the delay periods can be decoded from EEG recordings in the human brain. We show that by analyzing the nonlinear dynamics of EEG oscillatory patterns it is possible to noninvasively decode with high accuracy, during encoding and maintenance periods, the contents of visual working memory information within high-gamma oscillations in the human PFC. These results are thus in favor of an active storage function of the human PFC in working memory; this, without ruling out the role of PFC in top-down processes. The ability to noninvasively decode the contents of working memory is promising in applications such as brain computer interfaces, together with computation of value function during planning and decision making processes.

  10. High temperature electron transport properties of AlGaN/GaN heterostructures with different Al-contents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Electron transport properties in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures with different Al-contents have been in-vestigated from room temperature up to 680 K. The temperature dependencies of electron mobility have been systematically measured for the samples. The electron mobility at 680 K were measured as 154 and 182 cm2/V.s for Al0.15Ga0.85N/GaN and Al0.40Ga0.60N/GaN heterostructures,respectively. It was found that the electron mobility of low Al-content Al0.15Ga0.85N/GaN heterostructure was less than that of high Al-content Al0.40Ga0.60N/GaN heterostructure at high temperature of 680 K,which is different from that at room temperature. Detailed analysis showed that electron occupations in the first subband were 75% and 82% at 700 K for Al0.15Ga0.85N/GaN and Al0.40Ga0.60N/GaN heterostructures,respectively,and the two dimensional gas (2DEG) ratios in the whole electron system were 30% and near 60%,respectively. That indicated the 2DEG was better confined in the well,and was still dominant in the whole electron system for higher Al-content AlGaN/GaN heterostructure at 700 K,while lower one was not. Thus it had a higher electron mobility. So a higher Al-content AlGaN/GaN heterostructure is more suitable for high-temperature applications.

  11. Early High-Fat Feeding Induces Alteration of Trace Element Content in Tissues of Juvenile Male Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinkov, Alexey A; Gatiatulina, Eugenia R; Popova, Elizaveta V; Polyakova, Valentina S; Skalnaya, Anastasia A; Agletdinov, Eduard F; Nikonorov, Alexandr A; Skalny, Anatoly V

    2017-02-01

    The primary objective of the current study was to assess the influence of early high-fat feeding on tissue trace element content in young male Wistar rats. Twenty weanling male Wistar rats were divided into two groups fed standard (STD) or high-fat diet (HFD) containing 10 and 31.6 % of total calories from fat, respectively, for 1 month. Serum lipid spectrum, apolipoproteins, glucose, insulin, adiponectin, and leptin levels were assessed. The level of trace elements was estimated using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. High-fat feeding significantly increased epidydimal (EDAT) and retroperitoneal adipose tissue (RPAT), as well as total adipose tissue mass by 34, 103, and 59 %, respectively. Serum leptin levels in HFD animals were twofold higher than those in the control rats. No significant difference in serum lipid spectrum, apolipoproteins, glucose, adiponectin, and insulin was detected between the groups. HFD significantly altered tissue trace element content. In particular, HFD-fed animals were characterized by significantly lower levels of Cu, I, Mn, Se, and Zn in the liver; Cr, V, Co, Cu, Fe, and I content of EDAT; Co, Cu, I, Cr, V, Fe, and Zn concentration in RPAT samples. At the same time, only serum Cu was significantly depressed in HFD-fed animals as compared to the control ones. Hair Co, Mn, Si, and V levels were significantly increased in comparison to the control values, whereas Se and I content was decreased. HFD feeding induced excessive adiposity and altered tissue trace element content in rats without insulin resistance, adiponectin deficiency, and proatherogenic state. Hypothetically, trace element disbalance may precede obesity-associated metabolic disturbances.

  12. Commercial Application of the Second Generation RHT Catalysts for Hydroprocessing the Residue with Low Sulfur and High Nitrogen Contents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shao Zhicai; Zhao Xinqiang; Liu Tao; Dai Lishun; Nie Hong

    2014-01-01

    The RHT technology and the second generation RHT catalysts were applied in design of an 1.7Mt/a VRDS unit at the SINOPEC Changling Branch Co. The commercial application result demonstrated that the RHT catalysts showed good activity and stability in processing low-sulfur and high-nitrogen residue. The ifrst long period run of unit for processing high Fe and high Ca content residue was achieved. The reasons for excessive pressure drop of R-101 were ascribed to Fe and Ca deposition as well as coke formation.

  13. Authentic Engagement in High-Enrollment Graduate Courses: Pathophysiology Consumers Become Content Creators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Jodi; Tornwall, Joni

    2016-01-01

    The challenge to educate increasing numbers of nursing students at all levels in both online and in-class environments calls for innovative instructional strategies that may include technology-based assignments to help students apply knowledge to clinical situations. This article describes a case study assignment created for a graduate-level pathophysiology course that required students to create digitally enhanced patient stories. Nursing students enrolled in the online and in-class sections of the course worked together using commonly available learning technology tools to create content that bridged pathophysiology concepts and clinical practice.

  14. Preventing performance drops of coal mills due to high moisture content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob; Mataji, B.

    2007-01-01

    Coal mills pulverize and dry the coal dust before it is blown into the furnace in coal-fired power plants. The coal mills can only deliver the requested coal flow if certain conditions are fulfilled. These are normally considered as constraints on individual variables. However, combinations of more...... coal is accumulated instead of being blown into the furnace. This paper suggests a simple method for preventing the accumulation of the coal in the mill, by limiting the requested coal flow considering the coal moisture content and the temperature outside the mill.  ...

  15. Multiparametric Cell Cycle Analysis Using the Operetta High-Content Imager and Harmony Software with PhenoLOGIC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Massey

    Full Text Available High-content imaging is a powerful tool for determining cell phenotypes at the single cell level. Characterising the effect of small molecules on cell cycle distribution is important for understanding their mechanism of action especially in oncology drug discovery but also for understanding potential toxicology liabilities. Here, a high-throughput phenotypic assay utilising the PerkinElmer Operetta high-content imager and Harmony software to determine cell cycle distribution is described. PhenoLOGIC, a machine learning algorithm within Harmony software was employed to robustly separate single cells from cell clumps. DNA content, EdU incorporation and pHH3 (S10 expression levels were subsequently utilised to separate cells into the various phases of the cell cycle. The assay is amenable to multiplexing with an additional pharmacodynamic marker to assess cell cycle changes within a specific cellular sub-population. Using this approach, the cell cycle distribution of γH2AX positive nuclei was determined following treatment with DNA damaging agents. Likewise, the assay can be multiplexed with Ki67 to determine the fraction of quiescent cells and with BrdU dual labelling to determine S-phase duration. This methodology therefore provides a relatively cheap, quick and high-throughput phenotypic method for determining accurate cell cycle distribution for small molecule mechanism of action and drug toxicity studies.

  16. A one-step bioprocess for production of high-content fructo-oligosaccharides from inulin by yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Da; Li, Fu-Li; Wang, Shi-An

    2016-10-20

    Commercial fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) are predominantly produced from sucrose by transfructosylation process that presents a maximum theoretical yield below 0.60gFOSgSucrose(-1). To obtain high-content FOS, costly purification is generally employed. Additionally, high-content FOS can be produced from inulin by using endo-inulinases. However, commercial endo-inulinases have not been extensively used in scale-up production of FOS. In the present study, a one-step bioprocess that integrated endo-inulinase production, FOS fermentation, and non-FOS sugars removal into one reactor was proposed to produce high-content FOS from inulin. The bioprocess was implemented by a recombinant yeast strain JZHΔS-TSC, in which a heterologous endo-inulinase gene was expressed and the inherent invertase gene SUC2 was disrupted. FOS fermentation at 40°C from 200g/L chicory inulin presented the maximun titer, yield, and productivity of 180.2±0.8g/L, 0.9gFOSgInulin(-1), and 7.51±0.03g/L/h, respectively. This study demonstrated that the one-step bioprocess was simple and highly efficient.

  17. Prevalence and severity of the premenstrual syndrome. Effects of foods and beverages that are sweet or high in sugar content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossignol, A M; Bonnlander, H

    1991-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate whether certain foods and beverages that are high in sugar content or taste sweet are related to the prevalence and severity of the premenstrual syndrome. Specifically, we sought to evaluate whether consumption of "junk foods", chocolate, caffeine-free cola, fruit juices or alcoholic beverages might exert an effect on the premenstrual syndrome apart from any effects of daily consumption of beverages that are high in caffeine (caffeine-containing coffee, tea and colas). The study was based on 853 responses to a questionnaire probing menstrual and premenstrual health and certain daily dietary practices; it was mailed to female university students in Oregon. An analysis of the data revealed that the consumption of chocolate, but not of other junk foods, was related to the prevalence of the premenstrual syndrome among women with more severe premenstrual symptoms. Likewise, the consumption of alcoholic beverages (all alcoholic beverages and beer only) was related to the prevalence of the premenstrual syndrome among women with more severe symptoms, as were both fruit juice and caffeine-free soda. None of the associations was substantially altered when the daily consumption of beverages high in caffeine content was controlled for. Taken together, these data suggest that the consumption of foods and beverages that are high in sugar content or taste sweet is associated with prevalence of the premenstrual syndrome.

  18. A High Power Density, High Efficiency Hydrogen-Chlorine Regenerative Fuel Cell with a Low Precious Metal Content Catalyst

    OpenAIRE

    Huskinson, Brian; Rugolo, Jason; Mondal, Sujit K.; Aziz, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    We report the performance of a hydrogen-chlorine electrochemical cell with a chlorine electrode employing a low precious metal content alloy oxide electrocatalyst for the chlorine electrode: (Ru_0.09Co_0.91)_3O_4. The cell employs a commercial hydrogen fuel cell electrode and transports protons through a Nafion membrane in both galvanic and electrolytic mode. The peak galvanic power density exceeds 1 W cm^-2, which is twice previous literature values. The precious metal loading of the chlorin...

  19. Modeling shoot water contents in high-elevation Picea rubens during winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, R L; Friedland, A J; Macdonald, V N

    1992-12-01

    During the winter of 1990-1991, a meteorological tower was established at an 880-m elevation site within the spruce-fir zone on Mt. Moosilauke, New Hampshire, USA. Hourly means of air, needle and trunk temperatures, wind velocity, relative humidity and solar radiation were recorded. On a weekly basis, shoots that had elongated during the preceding growing season were collected from four red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) trees and their relative water contents (RWC) determined. Cuticular resistances of needles from these shoots were measured four times during the winter.Measured meteorological parameters were used in a previously developed model to simulate changes in red spruce shoot RWC during the winter. The modeled results were compared to measured shoot RWCs. The predictive power of the model was improved when it was modified to include measured values of cuticular resistance and needle and trunk temperatures. The new version of the model accurately predicted RWC from late December 1990 to the beginning of April 1991, after which spring recharge appeared to occur. We conclude that water lost from foliage was easily replaced by stored reserves and that uptake of water by the roots was not required to maintain an adequate foliar water content during the winter.

  20. Development of a beetroot-based nutritional gel containing high content of bioaccessible dietary nitrate and antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgado, Marina; de Oliveira, Gustavo Vieira; Vasconcellos, Julia; Monteiro, Maria Lucia; Conte-Junior, Carlos; Pierucci, Anna Paola Trindade Rocha; Alvares, Thiago Silveira

    2016-01-01

    Beetroot, a food rich in nitrate and antioxidants has gained attention because of its potential effect on improving cardiovascular health and exercise performance. This work had the purpose of developing a beetroot-based nutritional gel (BG) and estimating the in vitro bioaccessibility of the nitrate, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total phenolic (TP) and potassium content, as compared to beetroot juice (BJ). Nitrate was assessed by a high-performance liquid chromatography system, TAC was assessed using the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay and TP was measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu method before and after an in vitro digestion. Significantly higher values of nitrate, TEAC, TP and potassium before and after digestion were observed in BG as compared to BJ. The results suggest a new nutritional strategy to give high contents of bioaccessible nutrients (nitrate, antioxidants and potassium) that are potentially relevant to improve cardiovascular health and exercise performance.

  1. A method for canopy water content estimation for highly vegetated surfaces-shortwave infrared perpendicular water stress index

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GHULAM; Abduwasit; LI; Zhao-Liang; QIN; QiMing; TONG; QingXi; WANG; JiHua; KASIMU; Alimujiang; ZHU; Lin

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a new method for canopy water content (FMC) estimation for highly vegetated surfaces- shortwave infrared perpendicular water stress index (SPSI) is developed using NIR, SWIR wavelengths of Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) on the basis of spectral features and distribution of surface targets with different water conditions in NIR-SWIR spectral space. The developed method is further explored with radiative transfer simulations using PROSPECT, Lillesaeter, SailH and 6S. It is evident from the results of validation derived from satellite synchronous field measurements that SPSI is highly correlated with FMC, coefficient of determination (R squared) and root mean square error are 0.79 and 26.41%. The paper concludes that SPSI has a potential in vegetation water content estimation in terms of FMC.

  2. Growth of high Mg content wurtzite MgZnO epitaxial films via pulsed metal organic chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alema, Fikadu; Ledyaev, Oleg; Miller, Ross; Beletsky, Valeria; Osinsky, Andrei; Schoenfeld, Winston V.

    2016-02-01

    We report on the growth of high Mg content, high quality, wurtzite MgxZn1-xO (MgZnO) epitaxial films using a pulsed metal organic chemical vapor deposition (PMOCVD) method. Series of MgZnO films with variable Mg concentration were deposited on bare and AlN coated sapphire substrates. The band gap of the films estimated using UV-visible transmission spectra ranges from 3.24 eV to 4.49 eV, corresponding to fraction of Mg between x=0.0 and x=0.51, as determined by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy. The cathodoluminescence (CL) measurement has shown a blue-shift in the peak position of MgZnO with an increasing Mg content. No multi-absorption edges and CL band splitting were observed, suggesting the absence of phase segregation in the as grown films. The crystal structure and phase purity of the films were also confirmed by XRD analysis. Hall effect measurement in van der Pauw configuration was employed to evaluate the electrical properties of the films. With a rise in Mg incorporation into the ZnO lattice, the films became very resistive, consistent with the widening of the band gap. The AFM measurement on the films has shown a decreasing surface roughness with an Mg content. To the best of our knowledge, the current result shows the highest Mg content (x=0.51), high quality, wurtzite MgZnO epitaxial film ever grown by MOCVD. The high Mg incorporation without phase separation is believed to be due to the non-equilibrium behavior of the PMOCVD in which the kinetic processes dominate the thermodynamic one.

  3. Development of a quantitative morphological assessment of toxicant-treated zebrafish larvae using brightfield imaging and high-content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Samantha; Wambaugh, John; Judson, Richard; Mosher, Shad; Radio, Nick; Houck, Keith; Padilla, Stephanie

    2016-09-01

    One of the rate-limiting procedures in a developmental zebrafish screen is the morphological assessment of each larva. Most researchers opt for a time-consuming, structured visual assessment by trained human observer(s). The present studies were designed to develop a more objective, accurate and rapid method for screening zebrafish for dysmorphology. Instead of the very detailed human assessment, we have developed the computational malformation index, which combines the use of high-content imaging with a very brief human visual assessment. Each larva was quickly assessed by a human observer (basic visual assessment), killed, fixed and assessed for dysmorphology with the Zebratox V4 BioApplication using the Cellomics® ArrayScan® V(TI) high-content image analysis platform. The basic visual assessment adds in-life parameters, and the high-content analysis assesses each individual larva for various features (total area, width, spine length, head-tail length, length-width ratio, perimeter-area ratio). In developing the computational malformation index, a training set of hundreds of embryos treated with hundreds of chemicals were visually assessed using the basic or detailed method. In the second phase, we assessed both the stability of these high-content measurements and its performance using a test set of zebrafish treated with a dose range of two reference chemicals (trans-retinoic acid or cadmium). We found the measures were stable for at least 1 week and comparison of these automated measures to detailed visual inspection of the larvae showed excellent congruence. Our computational malformation index provides an objective manner for rapid phenotypic brightfield assessment of individual larva in a developmental zebrafish assay. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Age dependency of myocardial triglyceride content. A 3T high-field {sup 1}H-MR spectroscopy study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petritsch, B.; Gassenmaier, T.; Kunz, A.S.; Donhauser, J.; Bley, T.A.; Horn, M. [University Hospital of Wuerzburg (Germany). Inst. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Goltz, J.P. [University Hospital of Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Luebeck (Germany). Clinic for Radiology and Nuclear Medicine

    2015-11-15

    The role of myocardial triglyceride (mTG) content in the aging human heart is not entirely understood. The aim of this study was to measure concentrations of mTG content from healthy volunteers and to determine the association between age, mTG content and systolic heart function. Furthermore, the technical stability of the {sup 1}H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H-MRS) and the reliability of peak evaluation at 3 T were evaluated. The total study population of 47 healthy volunteers was divided into 4 age classes, according to the age of the subjects (1{sup st} cohort 20-29 years (yrs.), n=20; 2{sup nd} cohort 30-39 yrs., n=10; 3{sup rd} cohort 40-49 yrs., n=9; 4{sup th} cohort 50-60 yrs., n=8). Cardiac MRI and double triggered {sup 1}H-MRS of the myocardium were consecutively performed using a 3 T scanner. Each participant underwent spectroscopic measurements twice in the same investigation. mTG content increases with age. The correlation of age and mTG is minimal (r=0.48; p<0.001). The following age-averaged mTG content values expressed as % of mTG signal compared to the water signal were determined for each cohort: 1{sup st} cohort 0.25 % (± 0.17); 2{sup nd} cohort 0.48 % (± 0.30); 3{sup rd} cohort 0.48 % (± 0.18); 4{sup th} cohort 0.77 % (± 0.70). There was no significant correlation (r=0.04; p=n.s.) between LV mass and mTG content in healthy volunteers. Within our cohorts, no effects of age or mTG content on systolic heart function were seen (r=-0.01; p=n.s.). The intraclass correlation coefficient of spectroscopic measurements was high (r=0.965; p<0.001). Myocardial TG content increases with age. The normal age-dependent concentration ranges of myocardial lipid metabolites reported in this study may be helpful for the correction of acquired {sup 1}H-MRS data in patients when evaluating metabolic and cardiovascular diseases in future magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies.

  5. Novel technique to suppress hydrocarbon contamination for high accuracy determination of carbon content in steel by FE-EPMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Takako; Tanaka, Yuji; Yagoshi, Masayasu; Ishida, Kiyohito

    2016-07-01

    In multiphase steels, control of the carbon contents in the respective phases is the most important factor in alloy design for achieving high strength and high ductility. However, it is unusually difficult to determine the carbon contents in multiphase structures with high accuracy by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) due to the unavoidable effect of hydrocarbon contamination during measurements. We have investigated new methods for suppressing hydrocarbon contamination during field emission (FE) EPMA measurements as well as a conventional liquid nitrogen trap. Plasma cleaner inside the specimen chamber results in a improvement of carbon-content determination by point analysis, increasing precision tenfold from the previous 0.1 mass%C to 0.01 mass%C. Stage heating at about 100 °C dramatically suppresses contamination growth during continuous point measurement and mapping. By the combination of above two techniques, we successfully visualized the two-dimensional carbon distribution in a dual-phase steel. It was also noted that the carbon concentrations at the ferrite/martensite interfaces were not the same across all interfaces, and local variation was observed. The developed technique is expected to be a powerful tool for understanding the mechanisms of mechanical properties and microstructural evolution, thereby contributing to the design of new steel products with superior properties.

  6. Novel technique to suppress hydrocarbon contamination for high accuracy determination of carbon content in steel by FE-EPMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Takako; Tanaka, Yuji; Yagoshi, Masayasu; Ishida, Kiyohito

    2016-07-19

    In multiphase steels, control of the carbon contents in the respective phases is the most important factor in alloy design for achieving high strength and high ductility. However, it is unusually difficult to determine the carbon contents in multiphase structures with high accuracy by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) due to the unavoidable effect of hydrocarbon contamination during measurements. We have investigated new methods for suppressing hydrocarbon contamination during field emission (FE) EPMA measurements as well as a conventional liquid nitrogen trap. Plasma cleaner inside the specimen chamber results in a improvement of carbon-content determination by point analysis, increasing precision tenfold from the previous 0.1 mass%C to 0.01 mass%C. Stage heating at about 100 °C dramatically suppresses contamination growth during continuous point measurement and mapping. By the combination of above two techniques, we successfully visualized the two-dimensional carbon distribution in a dual-phase steel. It was also noted that the carbon concentrations at the ferrite/martensite interfaces were not the same across all interfaces, and local variation was observed. The developed technique is expected to be a powerful tool for understanding the mechanisms of mechanical properties and microstructural evolution, thereby contributing to the design of new steel products with superior properties.

  7. In vivo effects of high-dose steroids on nucleic acid content of immunocompetent cells of renal allograft recipients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walle, A.J.; Wong, G.Y.; Suthanthiran, M.; Rubin, A.L.; Stenzel, K.H.

    1988-03-01

    High-dose steroids administered to renal allograft recipients for treatment of acute graft rejection episodes may affect cell cycle progression of peripheral blood mononuclear (PBM) cells. DNA synthesis and cellular DNA and RNA contents of PBM cells were measured in 8 patients during clinically stable periods, and in another 10 patients both during acute rejection episodes and during 7 days of administration of high-dose steroids. Improved renal function documented successful reversal of the rejection episodes in the 10 patients. Compared with the stable patients, the rejecting patients had higher numbers of cells undergoing clonal expansion--namely, higher proportions of G1-cells and of proliferating, or S, G2, and M (SG2M) cells. Steroid treatment had no acute effects on proportions of G1 or SG2M cells in vivo or on incorporation of /sup 3/H thymidine by PBM cells in vitro. However, cells in the prereplicative compartment of the cell cycle (G0/1 cells) had significantly lower RNA content within 7 days of treatment with high doses of steroids. The results suggest that steroids do not acutely influence the posttranscriptional synthesis and the contents of nucleic acids of cells undergoing clonal expansion in vivo. The prereplicative phase of allogeneically stimulated PBM cells of renal allograft recipients may therefore be the cell cycle phase most sensitive to steroids in vivo.

  8. Ultrasound assisted enzymatic pre-treatment of high fat content dairy wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adulkar, Tejal V; Rathod, Virendra K

    2014-05-01

    This paper illustrates the application of ultrasound in a dairy waste water treatment for the removal of fat using enzyme as a catalyst. Lipase Z was used to perform the enzymatic pre-hydrolysis of a synthetic dairy wastewater containing around 2000 mg/L of fat content coupled with ultrasound irradiation. Different process parameters like effect of enzyme loading, temperature, ultrasound power, frequency, duty cycle and speed of agitation are optimized. The maximum hydrolysis of 78% is achieved at 0.2% enzyme loading (w/v), 30°C temperature, 165 W of ultrasonication power at 25 kHz and 66% duty cycle. It was observed that the enzymatic pre-hydrolysis under the influence of ultrasound drastically reduces the reaction time from 24h to 40 min as compared to conventional stirring with improved yield.

  9. A new type of MHD activity in JET ICRF-only discharges with high fast-ion energy contents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantsinen, M.J. [JET Joint Undertaking, Abingdon, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Helsinki University of Technology, Association Euratom-Tekes (Finland); Sharapov, S.; Alper, B.; Gondhalekar, A.; McDonald, D.C. [JET Joint Undertaking, Abingdon, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)

    2000-12-01

    The question of sawtooth stabilization at very high fast-ion energy contents has been addressed in discharges carried out in the JET tokamak with ion cyclotron resonance frequency (ICRF) heating and varying plasma density, controlled by deuterium gas puffs. In these experiments dramatic differences in the sawtooth behaviour have been observed. When the plasma density n{sub e} decreases below a certain threshold, the sawtooth frequency and the crash duration time increase by a factor of five. Since the fast-ion energy content increases with decreasing n{sub e} due to the inverse proportionality of the fast-ion slowing-down time on n{sub e}, the threshold in n{sub e} corresponds to a threshold in the fast-ion energy content. In the present experiments, this threshold is reached when the fast-ion energy contribution to the total plasma diamagnetic energy content becomes larger than 45%. The sawtooth activity with short sawtooth free period is accompanied by MHD activity, with a toroidal mode number n = 1 at frequencies between 55 and 65 kHz. This activity is interpreted as an energetic particle fishbone mode that is resonant with the ICRF-driven fast ions. The experimental results appear to be consistent with the stability diagram for sawtooth and fishbone modes (White 1989 Theory of Tokamak Plasmas (Amsterdam: North-Holland)), exploring the part of the diagram with a very large fast-ion population. (author)

  10. A new type of MHD activity in JET ICRF-only discharges with high fast-ion energy contents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantsinen, M.; Sharapov, S.; Alper, B. [and others

    2000-12-01

    The question of sawtooth stabilisation at very high fast ion energy contents has been addressed in discharges carried out in the JET tokamak with ion cyclotron resonance frequency (ICRF) heating and varying plasma density, controlled by deuterium gas puffs. In these experiments dramatic differences in the sawtooth behaviour have been observed. When the plasma density n{sub e} decreases below a certain threshold, the sawtooth frequency and the crash duration time increase by a factor of five. Since the fast-ion energy content increases with decreasing n{sub e} due to the inverse proportionality of the fast-ion slowing-down time on n{sub e}, the threshold in n{sub e} corresponds to a threshold in the fast ion energy content. In the present experiments, this threshold is reached when the fast ion energy contribution to the total plasma diamagnetic energy content becomes larger than 45%. The sawtooth activity with short sawtooth free period is accompanied by MHD activity, with a toroidal mode number n = 1 at frequencies between 55-65 kHz. This activity is interpreted as an energetic particle fishbone mode that is resonant with the ICRF-driven fast ions. The experimental results appear to be consistent with the stability diagram for sawtooth and fishbone modes [White, Theory of Tokamak Plasmas (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1989)], exploring the part of the diagram with a very large fast ion population. (author)

  11. A new type of MHD activity in JET ICRF-only discharges with high fast-ion energy contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantsinen, M. J.; Sharapov, S.; Alper, B.; Gondhalekar, A.; McDonald, D. C.

    2000-12-01

    The question of sawtooth stabilization at very high fast-ion energy contents has been addressed in discharges carried out in the JET tokamak with ion cyclotron resonance frequency (ICRF) heating and varying plasma density, controlled by deuterium gas puffs. In these experiments dramatic differences in the sawtooth behaviour have been observed. When the plasma density ne decreases below a certain threshold, the sawtooth frequency and the crash duration time increase by a factor of five. Since the fast-ion energy content increases with decreasing ne due to the inverse proportionality of the fast-ion slowing-down time on ne, the threshold in ne corresponds to a threshold in the fast-ion energy content. In the present experiments, this threshold is reached when the fast-ion energy contribution to the total plasma diamagnetic energy content becomes larger than 45%. The sawtooth activity with short sawtooth free period is accompanied by MHD activity, with a toroidal mode number n = 1 at frequencies between 55 and 65 kHz. This activity is interpreted as an energetic particle fishbone mode that is resonant with the ICRF-driven fast ions. The experimental results appear to be consistent with the stability diagram for sawtooth and fishbone modes (White 1989 Theory of Tokamak Plasmas (Amsterdam: North-Holland)), exploring the part of the diagram with a very large fast-ion population.

  12. High-throughput NIR-chemometric methods for determination of drug content and pharmaceutical properties of indapamide tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomuta, Ioan; Rus, Lucia; Iovanov, Rares; Rus, Luca Liviu

    2013-10-01

    This paper describes the development, validation and application of NIR-chemometric methods for API content and pharmaceutical characterization (disintegration time and crushing strength) of indapamide intact tablets. Development of the method for chemical characterization was performed on samples corresponding to 80, 90, 100, 110 and 120% of indapamide content and for pharmaceutical characterization on samples prepared at nine different compression forces (covering the interval 7-45 kN). NIR spectra of prepared tablets were recorded in transmission mode, and partial least-squares followed by leave-one-out cross-validation were used to develop models for the prediction of the drug content and the pharmaceutical properties of tablets. All developed models were validated in terms of trueness, precision and accuracy. No statistical differences were found between results predicted by NIR-chemometric methods and the ones determined by reference methods. Therefore, the developed NIR-chemometric methods meet the requirements of a high-throughput method for the determination of drug content, pharmaceutical properties of indapamide tablets.

  13. Preliminary study on optimization of pH, oxidant and catalyst dose for high COD content: solar parabolic trough collector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Chandan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the present study, solar photocatalytic oxidation has been investigated through laboratory experiments as an alternative to conventional secondary treatment for the organic content reduction of high COD wastewater. Experiments have been performed on synthetic high COD wastewater for solar photocatalytic oxidation using a parabolic trough reactor. Parameters affecting the oxidation of organics have been investigated. The experimental design followed the sequence of dark adsorption studies of organics, followed by photolytic studies (in absence of catalyst and finally photocatalytic studies in presence and absence of additional oxidant (H2O2. All the experimental studies have been performed at pH values of 2, 4, 6,8,10 and the initial pH value of the wastewater (normal pH. For photocatalytic studies, TiO2 has been used as a photocatalyst. Optimization of catalyst dose, pH and H2O2 concentration has been done. Maximum reduction of organic content was observed at the normal pH value of the wastewater (pH = 6.8. The reaction rate was significantly enhanced in presence of hydrogen peroxide. The optimum pH other than the Normal was in the alkaline range. Acidic pH was not found to be favourable for organic content reduction. pH was found to be a dominant factor affecting reaction rate even in presence of H2O2 as an additional oxidant. Also, the solar detoxification process was effective in treating a waste with a COD level of more than 7500 mg/L, which is a otherwise a difficult waste to treat. It can therefore be used as a treatment step in the high organic wastewater treatment during the primary stage also as it effectively reduces the COD content by 86%.

  14. Preliminary Study on Optimization of pH, Oxidant and Catalyst Dose for High COD Content: Solar Parabolic Trough Collector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandan Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, solar photocatalytic oxidation has been investigated through laboratory experiments as an alternative to conventional secondary treatment for the organic content reduction of high COD wastewater.Experiments have been performed on synthetic high COD wastewater for solar photocatalytic oxidation using aparabolic trough reactor. Parameters affecting the oxidation of organics have been investigated.The experimental design followed the sequence of dark adsorption studies of organics, followed by photolytic studies (in absence of catalyst and finally photocatalytic studies in presence and absence of additional oxidant(H2O2. All the experimental studies have been performed at pH values of 2, 4, 6,8,10 and the initial pH value of the wastewater (normal pH. For photocatalytic studies, TiO2 has been used as a photocatalyst. Optimization of catalyst dose, pH and H2O2 concentration has been done. Maximum reduction of organic content was observed at the normal pH value of the wastewater (pH = 6.8. The reaction rate was significantly enhanced in presence ofhydrogen peroxide. The optimum pH other than the Normal was in the alkaline range. Acidic pH was not found to be favourable for organic content reduction. pH was found to be a dominant factor affecting reaction rate even in presence of H2O2 as an additional oxidant. Also, the solar detoxification process was effective in treating a waste with a COD level of more than 7500 mg/L, which is a otherwise a difficult waste to treat. It can therefore be used as a treatment step in the high organic wastewater treatment during the primary stage also as it effectively reduces the COD content by 86%.

  15. Low-cost production of green microalga Botryococcus braunii biomass with high lipid content through mixotrophic and photoautotrophic cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeesang, Chittra; Cheirsilp, Benjamas

    2014-09-01

    Botryococcus braunii is a microalga that is regarded as a potential source of renewable fuel because of its ability to produce large amounts of lipid that can be converted into biodiesel. Agro-industrial by-products and wastes are of great interest as cultivation medium for microorganisms because of their low cost, renewable nature, and abundance. In this study, two strategies for low-cost production of B. braunii biomass with high lipid content were performed: (i) the mixotrophic cultivation using molasses, a cheap by-product from the sugar cane plant as a carbon source, and (ii) the photoautotrophic cultivation using nitrate-rich wastewater supplemented with CO2 as a carbon source. The mixotrophic cultivation added with 15 g L(-1) molasses produced a high amount of biomass of 3.05 g L(-1) with a high lipid content of 36.9 %. The photoautotrophic cultivation in nitrate-rich wastewater supplemented with 2.0 % CO2 produced a biomass of 2.26 g L(-1) and a lipid content of 30.3 %. The benefits of this photoautotrophic cultivation are that this cultivation would help to reduce accumulation of atmospheric carbon dioxide and more than 90 % of the nitrate could be removed from the wastewater. When this cultivation was scaled up in a stirred tank photobioreactor and run with semi-continuous cultivation regime, the highest microalgal biomass of 5.16 g L(-1) with a comparable lipid content of 32.2 % was achieved. These two strategies could be promising ways for producing cheap lipid-rich microalgal biomass that can be used as biofuel feedstocks and animal feeds.

  16. Fully Automated One-Step Production of Functional 3D Tumor Spheroids for High-Content Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monjaret, François; Fernandes, Mathieu; Duchemin-Pelletier, Eve; Argento, Amelie; Degot, Sébastien; Young, Joanne

    2016-04-01

    Adoption of spheroids within high-content screening (HCS) has lagged behind high-throughput screening (HTS) due to issues with running complex assays on large three-dimensional (3D) structures.To enable multiplexed imaging and analysis of spheroids, different cancer cell lines were grown in 3D on micropatterned 96-well plates with automated production of nine uniform spheroids per well. Spheroids achieve diameters of up to 600 µm, and reproducibility was experimentally validated (interwell and interplate CV(diameter) integration of micropatterned spheroid models within fundamental research and drug discovery applications.

  17. Breeding of a new potato variety ‘Nagasaki Kogane’ with high eating quality, high carotenoid content, and resistance to diseases and pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Yu; Mori, Kazuyuki; Matsuo, Yuuki; Mukojima, Nobuhiro; Watanabe, Wataru; Sobaru, Norio; Tamiya, Seiji; Nakao, Takashi; Hayashi, Kazuya; Watanuki, Hitomi; Nara, Kazuhiro; Yamazaki, Kaoru; Chaya, Masataka

    2017-01-01

    ‘Nagasaki Kogane’ is a new potato variety bred from a cross between ‘Saikai 35’ as a female parent and ‘Saikai 33’ as a male. ‘Saikai 35’ is resistant to bacterial wilt, contains the H1 and Rychc genes for resistance to the potato cyst nematode (PCN) and potato virus Y (PVY), respectively, and has high carotenoid content, while ‘Saikai 33’ has large and high-yielding tubers and is resistant to both bacterial wilt and PCN. The carotenoid content of ‘Nagasaki Kogane’ is higher than that of ‘Dejima’, a common double cropping variety. The taste quality of steamed ‘Nagasaki Kogane’ is comparable to that of ‘Inca-no-mezame’ tubers, which has high levels of carotenoid, and superior to ‘Nishiyutaka’, another popular double cropping variety. ‘Nagasaki Kogane’ is suitable for French fries, because its tuber has high starch content. The marketable yield of ‘Nagasaki Kogane’ was higher than that of ‘Inca-no-mezame’ in spring cropping, although it was lower than that of ‘Nishiyutaka’ in double cropping regions. ‘Nagasaki Kogane’ tubers are larger on average than ‘Inca-no-mezame’ tubers in spring cropping. Moreover, the ‘Nagasaki Kogane’ variety is resistant to PCN and PVY, and exhibits a high level of resistance to bacterial wilt. PMID:28744186

  18. Disposition of smoked cannabis with high [Delta]9-tetrahydrocannabinol content: A kinetic model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunault, C.C.; van Eijkeren, J.C.; Mensinga, T.T.; de Vries, I.; Leenders, M.E.C.; Meulenbelt, J.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction No model exists to describe the disposition and kinetics of inhaled cannabis containing a high THC dose. We aimed to develop a kinetic model providing estimates of the THC serum concentrations after smoking cannabis cigarettes containing high THC doses (up to 69 mg THC).Methods

  19. Disposition of smoked cannabis with high [Delta]9-tetrahydrocannabinol content: A kinetic model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunault, C.C.; van Eijkeren, J.C.; Mensinga, T.T.; de Vries, I.; Leenders, M.E.C.; Meulenbelt, J.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction No model exists to describe the disposition and kinetics of inhaled cannabis containing a high THC dose. We aimed to develop a kinetic model providing estimates of the THC serum concentrations after smoking cannabis cigarettes containing high THC doses (up to 69 mg THC).Methods Twenty-f

  20. Effect of high contents of dietary animal-derived protein or carbohydrates on canine fecal microbiota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hang, I.; Rinttila, T.; Zentek, J.; Kettunen, A.; Alaja, S.; Apajalahti, J.A.; Harmoinen, J.; Vos, de W.M.; Spillmann, T.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Considerable evidence suggests that food impacts both the gastro-intestinal (GI) function and the microbial ecology of the canine GI tract. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of high-carbohydrate (HC), high-protein (HP) and dry commercial (DC) diets on the canine colonic

  1. Diets with high or low protein content and glycemic index for weight-loss maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Thomas Meinert; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Baak, Marleen van;

    2010-01-01

    Studies of weight-control diets that are high in protein or low in glycemic index have reached varied conclusions, probably owing to the fact that the studies had insufficient power.......Studies of weight-control diets that are high in protein or low in glycemic index have reached varied conclusions, probably owing to the fact that the studies had insufficient power....

  2. Influence of free water content on the compressive mechanical behaviour of cement mortar under high strain rate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jikai Zhou; Xudong Chen; Longqiang Wu; Xiaowei Kan

    2011-06-01

    The effect of free water content upon the compressive mechanical behaviour of cement mortar under high loading rate was studied. The uniaxial rapid compressive loading testing of a total of 30 specimens, nominally 37 mm in diameter and 18.5 mm in height, with five different saturations (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%, respectively) were executed in this paper. The technique ‘Split Hopkinson pressure bar’ (SHPB) was used. The impact velocity was 10 m/s with the corresponding strain rate as 102/s. Water-cement ratio of 0.5 was used. The compressive behaviour of the materials was measured in terms of the maximum stress, Young’s modulus, critical strain at maximum stress and ultimate strain at failure. The data obtained from test indicates that the similarity exists in the shape of strain–stress curves of cement mortars with different water content, the upward section of the stress–strain curve shows bilinear characteristics, while the descending stage (softening state) is almost linear. The dynamic compressive strength of cement mortar increased with the decreasing of water content, the dynamic compressive strength of the saturated specimens was 23% lower than that of the totally dry specimens. With an increase in water content, the Young’s modulus first increases and then decreases, the Young’s modulus of the saturated specimens was 23% lower than that of the totally dry specimens. No significant changes occurred in the critical and ultimate strain value as the water content is changed.

  3. Distribution behavior of phosphorus in the coal-based reduction of high-phosphorus-content oolitic iron ore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-sheng Sun; Yue-xin Han; Peng Gao; Duo-zhen Ren

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on the reduction of phosphorus from high-phosphorus-content oolitic iron ore via coal-based reduction. The distribution behavior of phosphorus (i.e., the phosphorus content and the phosphorus distribution ratio in the metal, slag, and gas phases) during reduction was investigated in detail. Experimental results showed that the distribution behavior of phosphorus was strongly influenced by the reduction temperature, the reduction time, and the C/O molar ratio. A higher temperature and a longer reaction time were more favor-able for phosphorus reduction and enrichment in the metal phase. An increase in the C/O ratio improved phosphorus reduction but also hin-dered the mass transfer of the reduced phosphorus when the C/O ratio exceeded 2.0. According to scanning electron microscopy analysis, the iron ore was transformed from an integral structure to metal and slag fractions during the reduction process. Apatite in the ore was reduced to P, and the reduced P was mainly enriched in the metal phase. These results suggest that the proposed method may enable utilization of high-phosphorus-content oolitic iron ore resources.

  4. A biomechanical perspective on the role of large stem volume and high water content in baobab trees (Adansonia spp.; Bombacaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapotin, Saharah Moon; Razanameharizaka, Juvet H; Holbrook, N Michele

    2006-09-01

    The stems of large trees serve in transport, storage, and support; however, the degree to which these roles are reflected in their morphology is not always apparent. The large, water-filled stems of baobab trees (Adansonia spp.) are generally assumed to serve a water storage function, yet recent studies indicate limited use of stored water. Through an analysis of wood structure and composition, we examined whether baobab morphology reflects biomechanical constraints rather than water storage capacity in the six Madagascar baobab species. Baobab wood has a high water content (up to 79%), low wood density (0.09-0.17 g · cm(-3)), high parenchyma content (69-88%), and living cells beyond 35 cm into the xylem from the cambium. Volumetric construction cost of the wood is several times lower than in more typical trees, and the elastic modulus approaches that of parenchyma tissue. Safety factors calculated from estimated elastic buckling heights were low, indicating that baobabs are not more overbuilt than other temperate and tropical trees, yet the energy investment in stem material is comparable to that in temperate deciduous trees. Furthermore, the elastic modulus of the wood decreases with water content, such that excessive water withdrawal from the stem could affect mechanical stability.

  5. [Impact of Thermal Treatment on Biogas Production by Anaerobic Digestion of High-solid-content Swine Manure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yu-ying; Wu, Jing; Wang, Shi-feng; Cao, Zhi-ping; Wang, Kai-jun; Zuo, Jian-e

    2015-08-01

    Livestock manure is a kind of waste with high organic content and sanitation risk. In order to investigate the impact of thermal treatment on the anaerobic digestion of high-solid-content swine manure, 70 degrees C thermal treatment was conducted to treat raw manure (solid content 27.6%) without any dilution. The results indicated that thermal treatment could reduce the organic matters and improve the performance of anaerobic digestion. When the thermal treatment time was 1d, 2d, 3d, 4d, the VS removal rates were 15.1%, 15.5%, 17.8% and 20.0%, respectively. The methane production rates (CH4/VSadd) were 284.4, 296.3, 309.2 and 264.4 mL x g(-1), which was enhanced by 49.7%, 55.9%, 62.7% and 39.2%, respectively. The highest methane production rate occurred when the thermal treatment time was 3d. The thermal treatment had an efficient impact on promoting the performance of methane production rate with a suitable energy consumption. On the other hand, thermal treatment could act as pasteurization. This showed that thermal treatment would be of great practical importance.

  6. An open source based high content screening method for cell biology laboratories investigating cell spreading and adhesion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Schmandke

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adhesion dependent mechanisms are increasingly recognized to be important for a wide range of biological processes, diseases and therapeutics. This has led to a rising demand of pharmaceutical modulators. However, most currently available adhesion assays are time consuming and/or lack sensitivity and reproducibility or depend on specialized and expensive equipment often only available at screening facilities. Thus, rapid and economical high-content screening approaches are urgently needed. RESULTS: We established a fully open source high-content screening method for identifying modulators of adhesion. We successfully used this method to detect small molecules that are able to influence cell adhesion and cell spreading of Swiss-3T3 fibroblasts in general and/or specifically counteract Nogo-A-Δ20-induced inhibition of adhesion and cell spreading. The tricyclic anti-depressant clomipramine hydrochloride was shown to not only inhibit Nogo-A-Δ20-induced cell spreading inhibition in 3T3 fibroblasts but also to promote growth and counteract neurite outgrowth inhibition in highly purified primary neurons isolated from rat cerebellum. CONCLUSIONS: We have developed and validated a high content screening approach that can be used in any ordinarily equipped cell biology laboratory employing exclusively freely available open-source software in order to find novel modulators of adhesion and cell spreading. The versatility and adjustability of the whole screening method will enable not only centers specialized in high-throughput screens but most importantly also labs not routinely employing screens in their daily work routine to investigate the effects of a wide range of different compounds or siRNAs on adhesion and adhesion-modulating molecules.

  7. Lipid and glycogen contents in liver of high-yield dairy cows in peripartal period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đoković Radojica

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Liver tissue samples were taken by biopsy from Holstein cows in advanced stages of gravidity and in early lactation for pathological-histological examinations. Lipid content in hepatocytes was determined using the stereometric method by calculating volume density, and of glycogen using semi-quantitative microscopic examination of sections stained according to the method of Best. Pathological-histological examinations of liver tissue samples in healthy animals, gravid or peripartal cows did not reveal lipid infiltration or cell degeneration, and hepatocytes were completely or partly filled with glycogen. In ketotic cows, pathological-histological examinations of liver tissue samples showed lipid infiltration and hepatocyte degeneration of different intensity. In only one ketotic cow, we determined a slight degree of lipid infiltration, there was a medium degree of lipid infiltration and degeneration in six cows, and three cows were found to have a grave form of fatty liver. The quantity of glycogen in hepatocytes is in negative correlation with the degree of lipid infiltration and degeneration. In severe cases of fatty liver, glycogen is completely absent from hepatocyte cytoplasm.

  8. Laboratory and field evaluation of hot mix asphalt with high contents of reclaimed asphalt pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Winkle, Clinton Isaac

    Currently in Iowa, the amount of RAP materials allowed for the surface layer is limited to 15% by weight. The objective of this project was to develop quality standards for inclusion of RAP content higher than 15% in asphalt mixtures. To meet Superpave mix design requirements, it was necessary to fractionate the RAP materials. Based on the extensive sieve-by-sieve analysis of RAP materials, the optimum sieve size to fractionate RAP materials was identified. To determine if the higher percentage of RAP materials than 15% can be used in Iowa's state highway, three test sections with 30.0%, 35.5% and 39.2% of RAP materials were constructed on Highway 6 in Iowa City. The construction of the field test sections was monitored and the cores were obtained to measure field densities of test sections. Field mixtures collected from test sections were compacted in the laboratory in order to test the moisture sensitivity using a Hamburg Wheel Tracking Device. The binder was extracted from the field mixtures with varying amounts of RAP materials and tested to determine the effects of RAP materials on the PG grade of a virgin binder. Field cores were taken from the various mix designs to determine the percent density of each test section. A condition survey of the test sections was then performed to evaluate the short-term performance.

  9. Teaching the content in context: Preparing "highly qualified" and "high quality" teachers for instruction in underserved secondary science classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolbert, Sara E.

    2011-12-01

    This dissertation research project presents the results of a longitudinal study that investigates the knowledge, beliefs, and practices of 13 preservice secondary science teachers participating in a science teacher credentialing/Masters program designed to integrate issues of equity and diversity throughout coursework and seminars. Results are presented in the form of three papers: The first paper describes changes in preservice teacher knowledge about contextualization in science instruction, where contextualization is defined as facilitating authentic connections between science learning and relevant personal, social, cultural, ecological, and political contexts of students in diverse secondary classrooms; the second paper relates changes in the self-efficacy and content-specific beliefs about science, science teaching, diversity, and diversity in science instruction; and the final paper communicates the experiences and abilities of four "social justice advocates" learning to contextualize science instruction in underserved secondary placement classrooms. Results indicate that secondary student teachers developed more sophisticated understandings of how to contextualize science instruction with a focus on promoting community engagement and social/environmental activism in underserved classrooms and how to integrate science content and diversity instruction through student-centered inquiry activities. Although most of the science teacher candidates developed more positive beliefs about teaching science in underrepresented classrooms, many teacher candidates still attributed their minority students' underperformance and a (perceived) lack of interest in school to family and cultural values. The "social justice advocates" in this study were able to successfully contextualize science instruction to varying degrees in underserved placement classrooms, though the most significant limitations on their practice were the contextual factors of their student teaching

  10. [Development of a high content protein beverage from Chilean mesquite, lupine and quinoa for the diet of pre-schoolers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerezal Mezquita, P; Acosta Barrientos, E; Rojas Valdivia, G; Romero Palacios, N; Arcos Zavala, R

    2012-01-01

    This research was aimed at developing a high content protein beverage from the mixture of liquid extracts of a pseudocereal, quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) and two legumes: mesquite (Prosopis chilensis (Mol.) Stunz) and lupine (Lupinus albus L.), native from the Andean highlands of the Chilean northern macro-zone, flavored with raspberry pulp, to help in the feeding of children between 2 and 5 years of lower socioeconomic status with nutritional deficiencies. The formulation was defined by linear programming, its composition was determined by proximate analysis and physical, microbiological and sensory acceptance tests were performed. After 90 days of storage time, the beverage got a protein content of 1.36%, being tryptophan the limiting amino acid; for its part, the chromaticity coordinates of CIEL*a*b* color space showed no statistical significant differences (p < 0.05) maintaining the "dark pink" tonality, the viscosity and the sensory evaluation were acceptable for drinking.

  11. Prewashing enhances the liquid hot water pretreatment efficiency of waste wheat straw with high free ash content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chen; Wu, Xinxing; Huang, Yang; Lai, Chenhuan; Li, Xin; Yong, Qiang

    2016-11-01

    The effect of prewashing process prior to the liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatment of high free ash content waste wheat straw (WWS) was investigated. It was found that prewashing process decreased the ash content of WWS greatly, from 29.48% to 9.82%. This contributed to the lower pH value of prehydrolyzate and higher xylan removal in the following LHW pretreatment. More importantly, the prewashing process effectively increased the cellulose enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency of pretreated WWS, from 53.04% to 84.15%. The acid buffering capacity (ABC) and cation exchange capacity (CEC) of raw and prewashed WWS were examined. The majority of free ash removal from WWS by prewashing resulted in the decrease of the ABC of the WWS from 211.74 to 61.81mmol/pH-kg, and potentially enhancing the efficiency of the follow-up LHW pretreatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Production of Audiovisual Content in Ultra High Definition (UHD: Immersive Experience for Multimedia Viewing Screen TV and Smartphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier MONTEMAYOR RUIZ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzes the production of audiovisual content in ultra high definition (UHD as a catalyst factor of the new narratological discourse implanted in the media to the expressive, interactive and immersive possibilities obtained with the use of UHD 4K and 8K for viewing on large screen and, especially, in the 'fourth screen'. Through indepth interviews with experts from the academic and professional media world it is to establish an overview of the convergence of technology and industry of content creation, where the products are evolving to as for the entertainment needs of digital natives and adapting to new forms of consumption across multiple platforms, facing, in this way, a new business model for both industry technology industry and for the entire audiovisual sector.

  13. Understanding the paradox of selenium contamination in mercury mining areas: high soil content and low accumulation in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Feng, Xinbin; Jiang, Chengxin; Li, Qiuhua; Liu, Yi; Gu, Chunhao; Shang, Lihai; Li, Ping; Lin, Yan; Larssen, Thorjørn

    2014-05-01

    Rice is an important source of Se for billions of people throughout the world. The Wanshan area can be categorized as a seleniferous region due to its high soil Se content, but the Se content in the rice in Wanshan is much lower than that from typical seleniferous regions with an equivalent soil Se level. To investigate why the Se bioaccumulation in Wanshan is low, we measured the soil Se speciation using a sequential partial dissolution technique. The results demonstrated that the bioavailable species only accounted for a small proportion of the total Se in the soils from Wanshan, a much lower quantity than that found in the seleniferous regions. The potential mechanisms may be associated with the existence of Hg contamination, which is likely related to the formation of an inert Hg-Se insoluble precipitate in soils in Wanshan.

  14. Reduction in the earthworm metabolomic response after phenanthrene exposure in soils with high soil organic carbon content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvie, Jennifer R; Whitfield Åslund, Melissa; Celejewski, Magda A; Simpson, André J; Simpson, Myrna J

    2013-04-01

    We evaluated the correlation between soil organic carbon (OC) content and metabolic responses of Eisenia fetida earthworms after exposure to phenanthrene (58 ± 3 mg/kg) spiked into seven artificial soils with OC contents ranging from 1 to 27% OC. Principal component analysis of (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of aqueous extracts identified statistically significant differences in the metabolic profiles of control and phenanthrene-exposed E. fetida in the 1% OC soil only. Partial least squares analysis identified a metabolic response in the four soils with OC values ≤11% which was well correlated to estimated phenanthrene porewater concentrations. The results suggest that the higher sorption capability of high OC soils decreased the bioavailability of phenanthrene and the subsequent metabolic response of E. fetida.

  15. Reliable content delivery using persistent data sessions in a highly mobile environment

    OpenAIRE

    Pantoleon, Periklis K.

    2004-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Special Forces are crucial in specific military operations. They usually operate in hostile territory where communications are difficult to establish and preserve, since the operations are often carried out in a remote environment and the communications need to be highly mobile. The delivery of information about the geographical parameters of the area can be crucial for the completion of their mission. But in that highly mobile environ...

  16. Using a microfluidic device for high-content analysis of cell signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Raymond; Wang, Chiaochun Joanne; Levchenko, Andre

    2009-06-16

    Quantitative analysis and understanding of signaling networks require measurements of the location and activities of key proteins over time, at the level of single cells, in response to various perturbations. Microfluidic devices enable such analyses to be conducted in a high-throughput and in a highly controlled manner. We describe in detail how to design and use a microfluidic device to perform such information-rich experiments.

  17. [High-frequency electro-acupuncture stimulation modulates intracerebral γ-aminobutyric acid content in rat model of Parkinson's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jing; Sun, Zuo-Li; Jia, Jun; Wang, Xuan; Wang, Xiao-Min

    2011-08-25

    The purpose of the present study is to observe the effect of electro-acupuncture (EA) stimulation on intracerebral neurotransmitters in a rat model of Parkinson's disease (PD), and explore the possible mechanism. We used 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) injection in medial forebrain bundle (MFB) in the right brain of Sprague Dawley (SD) rat to establish the parkinsonian rat model, and randomly divided the PD rats into model and 100 Hz EA stimulation groups (n =10 in each group). EA stimulation group received 4 courses of EA stimulation on Baihui (GV-20) and Dazhui (GV-14) acupuncture points. Moreover, ten rats were randomly selected as sham operation group, only receiving normal saline (NS) injection in MFB. Then apomorphine (APO)-induced rotational behavior in different groups was recorded, and the contents of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain were analyzed with high pressure/performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD). The results showed that model group exhibited abnormal rotational behavior with APO treatment, suggesting the successful establishment of PD model. Compared with sham operation group, model group showed increased GABA contents in cortex and striatum, as well as decreased GABA content in ventral midbrain, on the lesioned side. EA stimulation could effectively ameliorate the abnormal rotational behavior of PD rat. Compared with the model group, EA stimulation decreased the ratio of GABA content on the lesioned side to that on unlesioned side in the cortex, while increased the ratios in the striatum and cerebellum. However, there was no difference of the ratio in the ventral midbrain among three groups. These results suggest high-frequency EA stimulation significantly improves the abnormal behavior of PD rats, which may exert through enhancing the inhibitory effect of cerebellum-basal ganglia-cortical loop on motor center.

  18. Hydrogen production from high-moisture content biomass in supercritical water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antal, M.J. Jr.; Adschiri, T.; Ekbom, T. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)] [and others

    1996-10-01

    Most hydrogen is produced by steam reforming methane at elevated pressures. The goal of this research is to develop commercial processes for the catalytic steam reforming of biomass and other organic wastes at high pressures. This approach avoids the high cost of gas compression and takes advantage of the unique properties of water at high pressures. Prior to this year the authors reported the ability of carbon to catalyze the decomposition of biomass and related model compounds in supercritical water. The product gas consists of hydrogen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, and traces of higher hydrocarbons. During the past year the authors have: (a) developed a method to extend the catalyst life, (b) begun studies of the role of the shift reaction, (c) completed studies of carbon dioxide absorption from the product effluent by high pressure water, (d) measured the rate of carbon catalyst gasification in supercritical water, (e) discovered the pumpability of oil-biomass slurries, and (f) completed the design and begun fabrication of a flow reactor that will steam reform whole biomass feedstocks (i.e. sewage sludge) and produce a hydrogen rich synthesis gas at very high pressure (>22 MPa).

  19. PCK to practice: Two experienced high school chemistry teachers' pedagological content knowledge in their teaching practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesdorfer, Sarah B.

    Pedagogical content knowledge has been defined by Magnusson, Krajcik, and Borko (1999) and others for the purpose of understanding science teachers' knowledge and teaching practice. It is hoped that by improving our understanding of science teachers' PCK, we can improve the education and practice of science teachers. Research describing all domains of a teacher's PCK and its use in the practice of teaching has not been well established. The purpose of this study is to understand how two experienced secondary chemistry teachers' PCK manifests itself in their daily teaching practice. For each teacher, observations, interviews, and class documents were utilized to provide a detailed description of the five domains for PCK as defined by Magnusson et al. Both teachers were well regarded in their schools, but one teacher's PCK was found to be significantly more consistent with our current understanding of science teaching and learning. Along with the comparisons of the two teachers' knowledge, this research found that the teachers' knowledge and their enacted knowledge did not always correspond---suggesting the importance of observations for understanding PCK's influence on teaching practices. In addition, this study supports the importance of clearly defining a teacher's orientation toward science teaching in understanding a teacher's PCK. Both teachers' orientations toward science teaching were found to greatly influence their knowledge and actions in the other PCK domains. Finally, this study suggests that a teacher's knowledge of science curriculum should not be defined only as the knowledge of goals and objectives because this narrow definition of curriculum does not allow a complete understanding of the teacher's knowledge nor how their knowledge affects their practice. These conclusions have implications for future research and teacher educators.

  20. THE EFFECT OF HIGH DIETARY FERMENTABLE CARBOHYDRATE CONTENT ON THE FATTENING PERFORMANCE AND CHEMICAL BODY COMPOSITION OF FATTENING PIGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cs. Szabó

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of dietary fermentable carbohydrates (FC = faecal digestible organic matter - faecal digestible crude protein- faecal digestible crude fat - starch - sugars on the body composition and meat quality of pigs. A total of seventy two Stamboek hybrid pigs were housed in groups of six per pen (two pens with gilts and two with barrows per treatment. Three diets were formulated with a low, medium and high FC content (63, 148, 233 g/kg in the grower diets (45-75 kg and 67, 152, 237 g/kg in the finisher diets (75-110 kg. Feed and water were offered ad libitum. At slaughter (110 kg LW lean meat percentage, meat quality and chemical body composition were determined. Our data indicated, that carcass grading was improved by dietary FC. Diet with the high level of fermentable carbohydrates decreased fatness of the carcass and the organ fraction. It can be concluded that the fattening performance (FI, ADG, FCR was not affected adversely by the high FC intake, but carcass quality in pigs could be improved. Feedstuffs high in fermentable carbohydrates can be valuable ingredients for pig diets, once their energy content has been properly estimated.

  1. Phosphorus, Potassium and Nitrate Contents in Fruit of Pickling Cucumbers Grown in a High Tunnel

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Pickling cucumbers are highly important both for fresh consumption and for canning industry. This study aimed to compare differences in yield and quality of eight pickling cucumber cultivars, including ‘Cor 12004’, ‘IGG 2010’, ‘IGG 2020’, ‘SM 5322’, ‘SM 5323’, ‘Zayin 201’, ‘Zayin 175201’ and ‘Trilogy’. The cucumber cultivars were laid out in a high tunnel crop and evaluated for vegetative traits (i.e. vine length, nodes per vine and branches per vine), yield attributes (i.e. fruits per main s...

  2. High vitamin D and calcium intakes increase bone mineral (Ca and P) content in high-fat diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qingming; Sergeev, Igor N

    2015-02-01

    Vitamin D and calcium are essential for bone formation, mineralization, and remodeling. Recent studies demonstrated that an increased body mass can be detrimental to bone health. However, whether an increase in dietary vitamin D and calcium intakes in obesity is beneficial to bone health has not been established. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of increased vitamin D and calcium intakes, alone or in combination, on bone status in a high-fat diet-induced obesity (DIO) mouse model. We hypothesized that DIO in growing mice affects bone mineral status and that high vitamin D and calcium intakes will promote mineralization of the growing bone in obesity via Ca(2+) regulatory hormones, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) and parathyroid hormone (PTH). Male mice were fed high vitamin D3 (10 000 IU/kg), high calcium (1.2%), or high vitamin D3 plus high-calcium diets containing 60% energy as fat for 10 weeks. Bone weight, specific gravity, mineral (Ca and P), and collagen (hydroxyproline) content were measured in the femur and the tibia. Regulators of Ca(2+) metabolism and markers of bone status (PTH, 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], 1,25(OH)2D3, and osteocalcin) were measured in blood plasma. Diet-induced obese mice exhibited lower bone Ca and P content and relative bone weight compared with the normal-fat control mice, whereas collagen (hydroxyproline) content was not different between the two groups. High vitamin D3 and calcium intakes significantly increased bone Ca and P content and relative bone weight in DIO mice, which was accompanied by an increase in 1,25(OH)2D3 and a decrease in PTH and osteocalcin concentrations in blood. The findings obtained indicate that increased vitamin D and calcium intakes are effective in increasing mineral (Ca and P) content in the growing bone of obese mice and that the hormonal mechanism of this effect may involve the vitamin D-PTH axis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. High rat food vitamin E content improves nerve function in streptozotocin-diabetic rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Dam, P.S. van; Bravenboer, B.; Asbeck, B.S. van; Marx, J.J.

    1999-01-01

    Antioxidants can improve nerve dysfunction in hyperglycaemic rats. We evaluated whether the standard supplementation of rat food with vitamin E (normally added for preservation purposes) or high-dose vitamin E treatment improves nerve conduction in maturing streptozotocin-diabetic rats, a model

  4. A Content Literacy Collaborative Study Group: High School Teachers Take Charge of Their Professional Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibodeau, Gail M.

    2008-01-01

    The progress and effects of a collaborative study group as a method of job-embedded professional development were studied. Eight high school teachers representing a variety of disciplines and the author (a literacy specialist) met monthly as a collaborative group for one school year to investigate materials and methods for literacy strategy…

  5. An Experimental and Chemical Kinetics Study of the Combustion of Syngas and High Hydrogen Content Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santoro, Robers [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States); Dryer, Frederick [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Ju, Yiguang [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    2013-09-30

    An integrated and collaborative effort involving experiments and complementary chemical kinetic modeling investigated the effects of significant concentrations of water and CO2 and minor contaminant species (methane [CH4], ethane [C2H6], NOX, etc.) on the ignition and combustion of HHC fuels. The research effort specifically addressed broadening the experimental data base for ignition delay, burning rate, and oxidation kinetics at high pressures, and further refinement of chemical kinetic models so as to develop compositional specifications related to the above major and minor species. The foundation for the chemical kinetic modeling was the well validated mechanism for hydrogen and carbon monoxide developed over the last 25 years by Professor Frederick Dryer and his co-workers at Princeton University. This research furthered advance the understanding needed to develop practical guidelines for realistic composition limits and operating characteristics for HHC fuels. A suite of experiments was utilized that that involved a high-pressure laminar flow reactor, a pressure-release type high-pressure combustion chamber and a high-pressure turbulent flow reactor.

  6. Assessing "Herstory" of WWII: Content Analysis of High School History Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordy, Laurie; Hogan, Jennifer; Pritchard, Alice

    2004-01-01

    Much of what U.S. students know about history is shaped by the textbook presentation of the subject. By high school, students should be exposed to an inclusive view of U.S. history. Previous research suggests that U.S. history has often centered on the stories of men, particularly from the perspective of white men in positions of power. It is…

  7. Controlling rheology and structure of sweet potato starch noodles with high broccoli powder content by hydrocolloids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, E.; Birkenhake, M.; Scholten, E.; Sagis, L.M.C.; Linden, van der E.

    2013-01-01

    Incorporating high volume fractions of broccoli powder in starch noodle dough has a major effect on its shear modulus, as a result of significant swelling of the broccoli particles. Several hydrocolloids with distinct water binding capacity (locust bean gum (LBG), guar gum, konjac glucomannan (KG),

  8. Canonical Pedagogical Content Knowledge by Cores for Teaching Acid-Base Chemistry at High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Clara; Cañada, Florentina; Garritz, Andoni; Mellado, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    The topic of acid-base chemistry is one of the oldest in general chemistry courses and it has been almost continuously in academic discussion. The central purpose of documenting the knowledge and beliefs of a group of ten Mexican teachers with experience in teaching acid-base chemistry in high school was to know how they design, prepare and…

  9. High contents of very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in different moss species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beike, Anna K; Jaeger, Carsten; Zink, Felix; Decker, Eva L; Reski, Ralf

    2014-02-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are important cellular compounds with manifold biological functions. Many PUFAs are essential for the human diet and beneficial for human health. In this study, we report on the high amounts of very long-chain (vl) PUFAs (≥C₂₀) such as arachidonic acid (AA) in seven moss species. These species were established in axenic in vitro culture, as a prerequisite for comparative metabolic studies under highly standardized laboratory conditions. In the model organism Physcomitrella patens, tissue-specific differences in the fatty acid compositions between the filamentous protonema and the leafy gametophores were observed. These metabolic differences correspond with differential gene expression of fatty acid desaturase (FADS)-encoding genes in both developmental stages, as determined via microarray analyses. Depending on the developmental stage and the species, AA amounts for 6-31 %, respectively, of the total fatty acids. Subcellular localization of the corresponding FADS revealed the endoplasmic reticulum as the cellular compartment for AA synthesis. Our results show that vlPUFAs are highly abundant metabolites in mosses. Standardized cultivation techniques using photobioreactors along with the availability of the P. patens genome sequence and the high rate of homologous recombination are the basis for targeted metabolic engineering in moss. The potential of producing vlPUFAs of interest from mosses will be highlighted as a promising area in plant biotechnology.

  10. RADIU-226 CONTENT IN SOIL OF THE HIGH NATURAL BACKGROUND RADIATION AREA OF RAMSAR (IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.Khademi

    1978-11-01

    Full Text Available The existence of a high natural radiation area in the northern part of Iran (Ramsar is proved. Ra 226 in soil is measured. The results are: minimum 23.5 pCi/g and maximum 999 pCi/g soil. Environmental radioactivity is from 0.1 to 5 mr/h.

  11. Canonical Pedagogical Content Knowledge by Cores for Teaching Acid-Base Chemistry at High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Clara; Cañada, Florentina; Garritz, Andoni; Mellado, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    The topic of acid-base chemistry is one of the oldest in general chemistry courses and it has been almost continuously in academic discussion. The central purpose of documenting the knowledge and beliefs of a group of ten Mexican teachers with experience in teaching acid-base chemistry in high school was to know how they design, prepare and…

  12. Unidirectional high fiber content composites: Automatic 3D FE model generation and damage simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qing, Hai; Mishnaevsky, Leon

    2009-01-01

    A new method and a software code for the automatic generation of 3D micromechanical FE models of unidirectional long-fiber-reinforced composite (LFRC) with high fiber volume fraction with random fiber arrangement are presented. The fiber arrangement in the cross-section is generated through random...

  13. Content Analysis of the Papers in 2015 High-Impact A-Class SSCI Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ay, Sule; Sahin, Seyma; Okmen, Burcu; Incirci, Ayhan

    2016-01-01

    It was aimed in this study to reveal the general tendency of studies in the field of education by examining the papers in the high-impact A-class SSCI journals, to which qualified papers are accepted from all around the world, in terms of their dependent-independent variables, sample or study groups, research designs, data collection instruments,…

  14. Low Temperature Deposition of High-k/Metal Gate Stacks on High-Sn Content (Si)GeSn-Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Schulte-Braucks, C; Von Den Driesch, N; Glass, S; Tiedemann, AT; Breuer, U; Besmehn, A; Hartmann, JM; Ikonic, Z; Zhao, QT; Mantl, S; Buca, D.

    2016-01-01

    (Si)GeSn is an emerging group IV alloy system offering new exciting properties, with great potential for low power electronics due to the fundamental direct band gap and prospects as high mobility material. In this Article, we present a systematic study of HfO2/TaN high-k/metal gate stacks on (Si)GeSn ternary alloys and low temperature processes for large scale integration of Sn based alloys. Our investigations indicate that SiGeSn ternaries show enhanced thermal stability compared to GeSn bi...

  15. The Effectiveness of High Quality Supplementary Cementitious Materials for Mitigating ASR Expansion in Concrete with High Alkali Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Prasetia

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Alkali silica reaction (ASR is influenced by external factors such as the surrounding environment of high alkalinity. Countries with cold climate have a high probability to be exposed to high concentrations of NaCl solution by the deicing salt. This condition will lead to serious ASR problems in concrete, if the aggregates contain reactive silica. The main research work in this paper is to investigate the effect of 15% replacement ratio of high quality fine fly ash (FA15% and 42% replacement ratio of blast furnace slag (BFS42% on the ASR mitigation in concrete with different alkali amount inside the pore solution. The experiments were conducted according to the accelerated mortar bars experiment following the JIS A1146 mortar bar test method. In addition, post-analysis such as observation of ASR gel formation by the Uranyl Acetate Fluorescence Method and observation of thin sections using a Polarizing Microscope were also conducted. The mortar bar tests show a very good mitigation effect of supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs. The results show that only small ASR expansions, which can be categorized as “innocuous”, occurred for specimens with 1.2% Na2Oeq using FA15% and BFS42%. However, larger alkali amount inside the system will require more SCMs amount.

  16. Determination of four different purines and their content change in seafood by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xin; Sui, Jianxin; Mi, Nasha; Lin, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Seafood is regarded as a high-purine food that may induce gout, which has attracted extensive attention concerning its safety. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a simple and reliable method to determine the purine content in seafood and its change during storage to offer consumers healthy diet information. Chromatographic separation was carried out using Waters Atlantis dC18 column, and potassium phosphate monobasic solution (0.02 mol L(-1) , pH 3.6) as a mobile phase. The average recovery yields of four purines were 91.5-105.0%, and relative standard deviation values were around 1.8-6.5%. Shrimp and snail contained higher amounts of purine than fish and bivalves; the livers and skins of fish contained higher amounts of purine than muscles; and the main purine varied depending on the type of seafood. Also, purine content of seafood changed during storage. The purine content of seafood differed depending on species, body part and degree of freshness, which could recommend consumers a healthy diet, especially for people with hyperuricemia and gout. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Zero added oxygen for high quality sputtered ITO: A data science investigation of reduced Sn-content and added Zr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peshek, Timothy J. [The School for the Engineering of Matter, Transport and Energy, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 and The National Center for Photovoltaics, The National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); Burst, James M.; Coutts, Timothy J.; Gessert, Timothy A., E-mail: tjp3@case.edu [The National Center for Photovoltaics, The National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    The authors demonstrate mobilities of >45 cm{sup 2}/V s for sputtered tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) films at zero added oxygen. All films were deposited with 5 wt. % SnO{sub 2}, instead of the more conventional 8–10 wt. %, and had varying ZrO{sub 2} content from 0 to 3 wt. %, with a subsequent reduction in In{sub 2}O{sub 3} content. These films were deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering from nominally stoichiometric targets with varying oxygen partial pressure in the sputter ambient. Anomalous behavior was discovered for films with no Zr-added, where a bimodality of high and low mobilities was discovered for nominally similar growth conditions. However, all films showed the lowest resistivity and highest mobilities when the oxygen partial pressure in the sputter ambient was zero. This result is contrasted with several other reports of ITO transport performance having a maximum for small but nonzero oxygen partial pressure. This result is attributed to the reduced concentration of SnO{sub 2}. The addition of ZrO{sub 2} yielded the highest mobilities at >55 cm{sup 2}/V s and the films showed a modest increase in optical transmission with increasing Zr-content.

  18. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of β-carotene content in four varieties of lotus stamens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nithida Phonkot

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed to determine -carotene content in lotus stamens.The stamens of four varieties of Nelumbo nucifera (Gaertn. and ten samples bought from traditional drug stores were determined.Validation of the method was carried out, the linearity of the -carotene concentrations range from 6.50-58.50 g.mL-1were 0.9997-0.9998. The repeatability and intermediate precision were 0.29 %CV (n=9 and 7.48 %CV (n=9, respectively; theaccuracy was 100.10 %w/w, the detection limit was 9.83 ng.mL-1 and the quantitation limit was 29.80 ng.mL-1. The -caroteneof the four varieties were 465.77-1150.80 mg% (n=3, and of the store samples were 4.70-41.73 mg% (n=3. The resultsdemonstrated that the contents varied according to the variety. The contents in the samples obtained from traditionaldrug stores were much lower that those dried in our laboratory, this might due to the source of the stamens, duration, andconditions of storages.

  19. Mix design of concrete with high content of mineral additions: Optimisation to improve early age strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.I.A. Khokhar; E. Roziere; P. Turcry; F. Grondin; A. Loukili [Institut de Recherche en Genie Civil et Mecanique (GeM), Nantes (France)

    2010-05-15

    The concrete industry is an important source of CO{sub 2} gas emissions. The cement used in the design of concrete is the result of a chemical process linked to the decarbonation of limestone conducted at high temperature and results in a significant release of carbon dioxide. Under the project EcoBeton (Green concrete) funded by the French National Research Agency (ANR), concrete mixtures have been designed with a low cement quantity, by replacing cement by mineral additions i.e., blast-furnace slag, fly ash or limestone fillers. Replacement of cement by other materials at high percentages generally lowers the early age strength of the resulting concrete. To cope with this problem, an optimisation method for mix design of concrete using Bolomey's law has been used. Following the encouraging results obtained from mortar, a series of tests on concretes with various substitution percentages were carried out to validate the optimisation method.

  20. Content analysis to detect high stress in oral interviews and text documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirumalainambi, Rajkumar (Inventor); Jorgensen, Charles C. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A system of interrogation to estimate whether a subject of interrogation is likely experiencing high stress, emotional volatility and/or internal conflict in the subject's responses to an interviewer's questions. The system applies one or more of four procedures, a first statistical analysis, a second statistical analysis, a third analysis and a heat map analysis, to identify one or more documents containing the subject's responses for which further examination is recommended. Words in the documents are characterized in terms of dimensions representing different classes of emotions and states of mind, in which the subject's responses that manifest high stress, emotional volatility and/or internal conflict are identified. A heat map visually displays the dimensions manifested by the subject's responses in different colors, textures, geometric shapes or other visually distinguishable indicia.

  1. Protein Profiling Gastric Cancer and Neighboring Control Tissues Using High-Content Antibody Microarrays

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    In this study, protein profiling was performed on gastric cancer tissue samples in order to identify proteins that could be utilized for an effective diagnosis of this highly heterogeneous disease and as targets for therapeutic approaches. To this end, 16 pairs of postoperative gastric adenocarcinomas and adjacent non-cancerous control tissues were analyzed on microarrays that contain 813 antibodies targeting 724 proteins. Only 17 proteins were found to be differentially regulated, with much ...

  2. Hydrogen production from high-moisture content biomass in supercritical water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antal, M.J. Jr.; Matsumura, Y.; Onuma, M.T. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    Wet biomass (water hyacinth, banana trees, cattails, green algae, kelp, etc.) grows rapidly and abundantly around the world. However, wet biomass is not regarded as a promising feedstock for conventional thermochemical conversion processes because the cost of drying the material is too high. Prior work has shown that low concentrations of glucose (a model compound for whole biomass) and various wet biomass species (water hyacinth, algae) can be completely gasified in supercritical water at 600{degrees}C and 34.5 MPa after a 30 s residence time. But higher concentrations of glucose evidenced incomplete conversion. For this reason, flow reactors were fabricated which could accommodate packed beds of catalyst, and studies were initiated of the steam reforming (gasification) reactions in the presence of various candidate heterogeneous catalysts. The goal is to identify active catalysts for steam reforming biomass slurries in supercritical water. Soon after tests began, a suitable class of carbon-based catalysts was discovered. These catalysts effect complete (>99%) conversion of high-concentration glucose (up to 22% by weight) to a hydrogen-rich synthesis gas. High space velocities are realized [>20 (g/hr)/g], and the catalyst is stable over a period of several hours. The carbon catalyst is not expensive, and exists in a wide variety of forms and compositions. After this discovery, work has focused on four interrelated tasks: (1) tests to identify the most active form and composition of the catalyst; (2) tests employing the preferred catalyst to study the effect of feedstock composition on carbon conversion and gas composition; (3) studies of catalyst deactivation and subsequent reactivation, including the in-house synthesis of bifunctional catalysts which incorporate promoters and stabilizers; and (4) the design and fabrication of a larger, new reactor with a slurry feeder intended to handle high-concentration, wet biomass feeds.

  3. Spray Drying of High Sugar Content Foods: Improving of Product Yield and Powder Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet Koç; Figen Kaymak-Ertekin

    2016-01-01

    Spray drying is the most preferred drying method to produce powdered food in the food industry and it is also widely used to convert sugar-rich liquid foods to a powder form. During and/or after spray drying process of sugar-rich products, undesirable situation was appeared such as stickiness, high moisture affinity (hygroscopicity) and low solubility due to low molecular weight monosaccharides that found naturally in the structure. The basis of these problems was formed by low glass transiti...

  4. Optimising metadata to make high-value content more accessible to Google users

    OpenAIRE

    Dawson, Alan; Hamilton, Val

    2006-01-01

    This paper shows how information in digital collections that have been catalogued using high-quality metadata can be retrieved more easily by users of search engines such as Google.The research and proposals described arose from an investigation into the observed phenomenon that pages from the Glasgow Digital Library (gdl.cdlr.strath.ac.uk) were regularly appearing near the top of Google search results shortly after publication, without any deliberate effort to achieve this. The reasons for t...

  5. HIGH SOLIDS-CONTENT NANOSIZE POLYMER LATEXES MADE BY A MODIFIED EMULSION COPOLYMERIZATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yuying; GUO Tianying; HAO Guangjie; SONG Maodao; Zhang Banghua

    2003-01-01

    Polymer nanoparticles were prepared in the methyl methacrylate (MMA)/buty lmethacrylate (BA) emulsion copolymerization process by a modified microemulsion copolymerization method. 2-Hydroxyethyl methacrylate(HEMA), acrylate (AA) and methyl acrylate (MAA) were used as reactive cosurfactants. With this process high polymer: surfactant weight ratios (40:1 or greater),relatively concentrated (~30wt. %) latexes and small (~60nm) particle diameters were obtained.Properties of the latexes were characterized by TEM, DSC, dynamic light scattering, and IR spectroscopy.

  6. The High-Ion Content and Kinematics of Low-Redshift Lyman Limit Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fox, Andrew J; Tumlinson, Jason; Howk, J Christopher; Tripp, Todd M; Prochaska, J Xavier; O'Meara, John M; Werk, Jessica K; Bordoloi, Rongmon; Katz, Neal; Oppenheimer, Benjamin D; Dave, Romeel

    2013-01-01

    We study the high-ionization phase and kinematics of the circumgalactic medium around low-redshift galaxies using a sample of 23 Lyman Limit Systems (LLSs) at 0.08high-ion and kinematic properties of the metal-poor and metal-rich branches. We find that metal-rich LLSs tend to show higher O VI columns and broader O VI profiles than metal-poor LLSs. The total H I line width (dv90 statistic) in LLSs is not correlated with metallicity, indicating that the H I kinematics alone cannot be used to distinguish inflow from outflow and gas recycling. Among the 17 LLSs with O VI detections, all but two show evidence of kinematic sub-structure, in the form of O VI-H I centroid offsets, multiple components, or both. Using various scenarios for how the metallicity in the high-ion and low...

  7. Linamarase Expression in Cassava Cultivars with Roots of Low- and High-Cyanide Content1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, María Angélica; Vásquez, Valeria; Matehus, Juan; Aldao, Rafael Rangel

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports the expression and localization of linamarase in roots of two cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) cultivars of low and high cyanide. Two different patterns of linamarase activity were observed. In the low-cyanide type, young leaves displayed very high enzyme activity during the early plant growing stage (3 months), whereas in root peel, the activity increased progressively to reach a peak in 11-month-old plants. Conversely, in the high-cyanide cultivar (HCV), root peel linamarase activity decreased during the growth cycle, whereas in expanded leaves linamarase activity peaked in 11-month-old plants. The accumulation of linamarin showed a similar pattern in both cultivars, although a higher concentration was always found in the HCV. Linamarase was found mainly in laticifer cells of petioles and roots of both cultivars with no significant differences between them. At the subcellular level, there were sharp differences because linamarase was found mainly in the cell walls of the HCV, whereas in the low-cyanide cultivar, the enzyme was present in vacuoles and cell wall of laticifer cells. Reverse transcriptase-PCR on cassava tissues showed no expression of linamarase in cassava roots, thus, the transport of linamarase from shoots to roots through laticifers is proposed. PMID:12177481

  8. Synthesis of modified polyacrylamide with high content of hydroxamate groups and settling performance of red mud

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘锦伟; 胡慧萍; 王梦; 陈湘攀; 陈启元; 丁治英

    2015-01-01

    Hydroxamated polyacrylamide (HPAM) was synthesized from polyacrylamide (PAM) with high relative molecular mass under the optimum reaction conditions (pH 12 and a molar ratio of hydroxylamine to amide groups of 1.5 at 50 °C for 12 h). The hydroxamate groups of HPAM were verified by Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FT-IR). 46% (molar fration) hydroxamate groups and 23% (molar fraction) carbonyl groups on HPAM were determined by conductometric titration combined with Kjeldahl’s microanalysis method. The settling performance achieved at different flocculant dosages was investigated with high goethite-containing red mud slurry of simulated Bayer process synthesized in laboratory. It turns out that the settling performance of high goethite-containing red mud was better with HPAM. The average settling rate of red mud in the first 5 min and the turbidity of supernatant after settling for 30 min are 2.36 m/h and 507 NTU, respectively, at a flocculant dosage of 120 g/t, which is similar to that achieved with Hx-600.

  9. Defect-free high Sn-content GeSn on insulator grown by rapid melting growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi; Cong, Hui; Yang, Fan; Li, Chuanbo; Zheng, Jun; Xue, Chunlai; Zuo, Yuhua; Cheng, Buwen; Wang, Qiming

    2016-12-01

    GeSn is an attractive semiconductor material for Si-based photonics. However, large lattice mismatch between GeSn and Si and the low solubility of Sn in Ge limit its development. In order to obtain high Sn-content GeSn on Si, it is normally grown at low temperature, which would lead to inevitable dislocations. Here, we reported a single-crystal defect-free graded GeSn on insulator (GSOI) stripes laterally grown by rapid melting growth (RMG). The Sn-content reaches to 14.2% at the end of the GSOI stripe. Transmission electron microscopy observation shows the GSOI stripe without stacking fault and dislocations. P-channel pseudo metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) and metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) Schottky junction photodetectors were fabricated on these GSOIs. Good transistor performance with a low field peak hole mobility of 402 cm2/Vs is obtained, which indicates a high-quality of this GSOI structure. Strong near-infrared and short-wave infrared optical absorption of the MSM photodetectors at 1550 nm and 2000 nm were observed. Owing to high Sn-content and defect-free, responsivity of 236 mA/W@-1.5 V is achieved at 1550 nm wavelength. In addition, responsivity reaches 154 mA/W@-1.5 V at 2000 nm with the optical absorption layer only 200 nm-thick, which is the highest value reported for GeSn junction photodetectors until now.

  10. High-content imaging with micropatterned multiwell plates reveals influence of cell geometry and cytoskeleton on chromatin dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkness, Ty; McNulty, Jason D; Prestil, Ryan; Seymour, Stephanie K; Klann, Tyler; Murrell, Michael; Ashton, Randolph S; Saha, Krishanu

    2015-10-01

    Understanding the mechanisms underpinning cellular responses to microenvironmental cues requires tight control not only of the complex milieu of soluble signaling factors, extracellular matrix (ECM) connections and cell-cell contacts within cell culture, but also of the biophysics of human cells. Advances in biomaterial fabrication technologies have recently facilitated detailed examination of cellular biophysics and revealed that constraints on cell geometry arising from the cellular microenvironment influence a wide variety of human cell behaviors. Here, we create an in vitro platform capable of precise and independent control of biochemical and biophysical microenvironmental cues by adapting microcontact printing technology into the format of standard six- to 96-well plates to create MicroContact Printed Well Plates (μCP Well Plates). Automated high-content imaging of human cells seeded on μCP Well Plates revealed tight, highly consistent control of single-cell geometry, cytoskeletal organization, and nuclear elongation. Detailed subcellular imaging of the actin cytoskeleton and chromatin within live human fibroblasts on μCP Well Plates was then used to describe a new relationship between cellular geometry and chromatin dynamics. In summary, the μCP Well Plate platform is an enabling high-content screening technology for human cell biology and cellular engineering efforts that seek to identify key biochemical and biophysical cues in the cellular microenvironment.

  11. Discovery of a novel ROCK2 inhibitor with anti-migration effects via docking and high-content drug screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Cheong-Meng; Kou, Man-Teng; Pan, Peichen; Zhou, Hefeng; Ai, Nana; Li, Chuwen; Zhong, Hai-Jing; Leung, Chung-Hang; Hou, Tingjun; Lee, Simon Ming-Yuen

    2016-08-16

    Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) mediated the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and has been implicated in the spread and metastatic process of cancer. In this study, structure-based high-throughput virtual screening was used to identify candidate compounds targeting ROCK2 from a chemical library. Moreover, high-content screening based on neurite outgrowth of SH-SY5Y cells (a human neuroblastoma cell line) was used for accelerating the identification of compounds with characteristics of ROCK2 inhibitors. The effects of bioactive ROCK2 inhibitor candidates were further validated using other bioassays including cell migration and wound healing in SH-SY5Y cells. Through the combined virtual and high-content drug screening, the compound 1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl[1-(5-isoquinolinylmethyl)-3-piperidinyl]-methanone (BIPM) was identified as a novel and potent ROCK2 inhibitor. Exposure of SH-SY5Y cells to BIPM led to significant changes in neurite length, cell migration and actin stress fibers. Further experiments demonstrated that BIPM was able to significantly inhibit phosphorylation of cofilin, a regulatory protein of actin cytoskeleton. These results suggest that BIPM could be considered as a promising scaffold for the further development of ROCK2 inhibitors for anti-cancer metastasis.

  12. Changes of the ganglioside pattern and content in human fibroblasts by high density cell population subculture progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciannamblo, Mariateresa; Chigorno, Vanna; Passi, Alberto; Valaperta, Rea; Zucchi, Ileana; Sonnino, Sandro

    2002-03-01

    In this study we show that the ganglioside content and pattern of human skin fibroblasts change along the process of cell subculture progression by varying the cell density. GM3, GD3 and GD1a were components of the total cell ganglioside mixtures extracted from cells, but GD1a was in all the extracts a minor component or very scant. Other gangliosides present in traces were not characterised. The fibroblast ganglioside content of 52 pools of cells obtained from 5 different cell lines cultured at variable cell density ranged from 2.0 to 13.1 nmoles per mg of cell protein. The molar ratio between GM3 and GD3 varied from 418 to 0.6 in the ganglioside mixtures, as determined by densitometric quantitative analysis after thin layer chromatographic separation. Both the ganglioside content and the GM3/GD3 molar ratio were constant along several passages of subculture progression performed by plating cells collected at confluence. Instead, when the subculture progression was performed by plating cells collected at a few days after reaching confluence, a progressive increase of the ganglioside content was observed. GD3 increased proportionally more than GM3 so that a progressive decrease of the ratio between GM3 and GD3 was observed. In some experiments, GD3 was very scant at the beginning of the progression, while it was near 30% after 5 passages under these conditions. The progressive increase of GD3 along the high density cell population subculture progression was associated to a moderate increase of the mRNA GD3 synthase.

  13. Growth of AlGaN Epitaxial Film with High Al Content by Metalorganic Chemical Vapour Deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-Lan; ZHAO De-Gang; YANG Hui; LIANG Jun-Wu

    2007-01-01

    A high-Al-content AlCaN epilayer is grown on a low-temperature-deposited AlN buffer on (0001) sapphire bylow pressure metalorganic chemical vapour deposition. The dependence of surface roughness, tilted mosaicity,and twisted mosaicity on the conditions of the AlCaN epilayer deposition is evaluated. An AlCaN epilayer withfavourable surface morphology and crystal quality is deposited on a 20nm low-temperature-deposited AlN buffer at a low Ⅴ/Ⅲ flow ratio of 783 and at a low reactor pressure of 100 Torr, and the adduct reaction between trimethylaluminium and NH3 is considered.

  14. ECOLOGY SAFE METHOD OF OBTAINING FROM FIR-WOOD THE CELLULOSIC PRODUCT WITH HIGH CONTENT OF ALFA-CELLULOSE

    OpenAIRE

    Владимир Александрович Левданский; Александр Владимирович Левданский; Борис Николаевич Кузнецов

    2014-01-01

    The «green» method of obtaining from fir-wood the cellulosic product with high content of alpha-cellulose was developed. It consists of the stage of wood delignification by hydrogen peroxide in the medium «acetic acid – water – sulfuric acid catalyst» and of the stage of alkaline treatment by NaOH. Preparation conditions were selected which allow to obtain with an acceptable yield (30–31% mas.) the cellulosic product containing 97,3–98,0% mas. of alpha-cellulose.

  15. Proteose-peptone content in the milk of Italian Friesian cows with moderate and high somatic cell values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Mariani

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Milk with elevated somatic cell count has an impaired quality and reduced value, especially for the manufacture of cheese (Schællibaum, 2002. If the milk has a high cell count, the deterioration during syneresis with a longer clotting time and weak curd leads to an increased moisture content and a lower dry matter yield (Politis and Ng-Kwai-Hang, 1988; Urech et al., 1999; Cooney et al., 2000. Most of proteose-peptones (PP and γ-caseins of the milk result from the enzymatic hydrolysis of the native casein (Pâquet, 1989; Bastian and Brown, 1996......

  16. Infrared photoluminescence of high In-content InN/InGaN multiple-quantum-wells

    OpenAIRE

    Valdueza Felip, Sirona; Rigutti, Lorenzo; Naranjo, Fernando B.; Lacroix, Bertrand; Fernández, Susana; Ruterana, Pierre; Julien, François H; González-Herráez, Miguel; Monroy, Eva

    2012-01-01

    We report on the thermal evolution of the photoluminescence (PL) from high In-content InN/In0.9Ga0.1N multiple-quantum wells (MQWs) synthesized by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy on GaN-on-sapphire templates. The structural quality and the well/barrier thickness uniformity in the MQW structure are assessed by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy measurements. PL results are compared with the luminescence from a 1-µm-thick InN reference sample. In both cases, the domin...

  17. An Unprecedented High Content of the Bioactive Flavone Tricin in Huperzia Medicinal Species Used by the Saraguro in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armijos, Chabaco; Ponce, Jorge; Ramírez, Jorge; Gozzini, Davide; Finzi, Paola Vita; Vidari, Giovanni

    2016-03-01

    The flavone tricin (5,7,4'-trihydroxy-3',5'-dimethoxyflavone) is considered to be a selective potent inhibitor of different cancer cell lines and a potential colorectal cancer chemopreventive agent. In this paper we describe a reliable UHPLC-UV-ESIMS method for the determination of tricin in Huperzia plants used in the traditional medicine of the Saraguro community living in Southern Ecuador. An unusually high amount of tricin was found in H. brevifolia and H. compacta, which exceeded the content of this flavone determined so far in other plants.

  18. Effect of annealing temperature on the optical property of high Cd content CdZnO films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Teren; Wang, Dongbo; Guo, Fengyun; Jiao, Shujie; Wang, Jinzhong; Liu, Yuhang; Luan, Chunyang; Cao, Wenwu; Zhao, Liancheng

    2016-09-01

    CdZnO films with high Cd contents (59%) have been deposited on quartz substrate by radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. The as-deposited CdZnO films can hardly show detectable photoluminescence (PL). However, once subjected to suitable annealing temperature, the CdZnO films exhibit pronounced PL. Furthermore, when the annealing temperature at 300 °C and above, that the CdZnO are changed from the single phase of the rs structure to involving w, zb, and rs phases. Consequently, reliable formation and optical property improvement of the CdZnO layers are achieved through annealing temperature at 300 °C.

  19. Colon luminal content and epithelial cell morphology are markedly modified in rats fed with a high-protein diet

    OpenAIRE

    Andriamihaja, Mireille; Davila-Gay, Anne-Marie; Eklou, Mamy; Petit, Nathalie; Delpal, Serge; Allek, Fadhila; Blais, Anne; Delteil, Corine; Tomé, Daniel; Blachier, Francois

    2010-01-01

    Andriamihaja M, Davila A, Eklou-Lawson M, Petit N, Delpal S, Allek F, Blais A, Delteil C, Tome D, Blachier F. Colon luminal content and epithelial cell morphology are markedly modified in rats fed with a high-protein diet. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 299: G1030-G1037, 2010. First published August 5, 2010; doi: 10.1152/ajpgi.00149.2010.-Hyperproteic diets are used in human nutrition to obtain body weight reduction. Although increased protein ingestion results in an increased transf...

  20. 3D high-content screening for the identification of compounds that target cells in dormant tumor spheroid regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, Carsten; Riefke, Björn; Gründemann, Stephan; Krebs, Alice; Christian, Sven; Prinz, Florian; Osterland, Marc; Golfier, Sven; Räse, Sebastian [Bayer Pharma AG, Global Drug Discovery, Muellerstrasse 178, 13353 Berlin (Germany); Ansari, Nariman [Physical Biology Group, Buchmann Institute for Molecular Life Sciences (BMLS), Goethe University Frankfurt (Germany); Esner, Milan; Bickle, Marc [Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics, High-Throughput Technology Development Studio (TDS), Dresden (Germany); Pampaloni, Francesco; Mattheyer, Christian; Stelzer, Ernst H. [Physical Biology Group, Buchmann Institute for Molecular Life Sciences (BMLS), Goethe University Frankfurt (Germany); Parczyk, Karsten; Prechtl, Stefan [Bayer Pharma AG, Global Drug Discovery, Muellerstrasse 178, 13353 Berlin (Germany); Steigemann, Patrick, E-mail: Patrick.Steigemann@bayer.com [Bayer Pharma AG, Global Drug Discovery, Muellerstrasse 178, 13353 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-04-15

    Cancer cells in poorly vascularized tumor regions need to adapt to an unfavorable metabolic microenvironment. As distance from supplying blood vessels increases, oxygen and nutrient concentrations decrease and cancer cells react by stopping cell cycle progression and becoming dormant. As cytostatic drugs mainly target proliferating cells, cancer cell dormancy is considered as a major resistance mechanism to this class of anti-cancer drugs. Therefore, substances that target cancer cells in poorly vascularized tumor regions have the potential to enhance cytostatic-based chemotherapy of solid tumors. With three-dimensional growth conditions, multicellular tumor spheroids (MCTS) reproduce several parameters of the tumor microenvironment, including oxygen and nutrient gradients as well as the development of dormant tumor regions. We here report the setup of a 3D cell culture compatible high-content screening system and the identification of nine substances from two commercially available drug libraries that specifically target cells in inner MCTS core regions, while cells in outer MCTS regions or in 2D cell culture remain unaffected. We elucidated the mode of action of the identified compounds as inhibitors of the respiratory chain and show that induction of cell death in inner MCTS core regions critically depends on extracellular glucose concentrations. Finally, combinational treatment with cytostatics showed increased induction of cell death in MCTS. The data presented here shows for the first time a high-content based screening setup on 3D tumor spheroids for the identification of substances that specifically induce cell death in inner tumor spheroid core regions. This validates the approach to use 3D cell culture screening systems to identify substances that would not be detectable by 2D based screening in otherwise similar culture conditions. - Highlights: • Establishment of a novel method for 3D cell culture based high-content screening. • First reported high-content