WorldWideScience

Sample records for high battery performance

  1. High performance anode for advanced Li batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lake, Carla [Applied Sciences, Inc., Cedarville, OH (United States)

    2015-11-02

    The overall objective of this Phase I SBIR effort was to advance the manufacturing technology for ASI’s Si-CNF high-performance anode by creating a framework for large volume production and utilization of low-cost Si-coated carbon nanofibers (Si-CNF) for the battery industry. This project explores the use of nano-structured silicon which is deposited on a nano-scale carbon filament to achieve the benefits of high cycle life and high charge capacity without the consequent fading of, or failure in the capacity resulting from stress-induced fracturing of the Si particles and de-coupling from the electrode. ASI’s patented coating process distinguishes itself from others, in that it is highly reproducible, readily scalable and results in a Si-CNF composite structure containing 25-30% silicon, with a compositionally graded interface at the Si-CNF interface that significantly improve cycling stability and enhances adhesion of silicon to the carbon fiber support. In Phase I, the team demonstrated the production of the Si-CNF anode material can successfully be transitioned from a static bench-scale reactor into a fluidized bed reactor. In addition, ASI made significant progress in the development of low cost, quick testing methods which can be performed on silicon coated CNFs as a means of quality control. To date, weight change, density, and cycling performance were the key metrics used to validate the high performance anode material. Under this effort, ASI made strides to establish a quality control protocol for the large volume production of Si-CNFs and has identified several key technical thrusts for future work. Using the results of this Phase I effort as a foundation, ASI has defined a path forward to commercialize and deliver high volume and low-cost production of SI-CNF material for anodes in Li-ion batteries.

  2. High performance zinc anode for battery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, John E., Jr. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    An improved zinc anode for use in a high density rechargeable alkaline battery is disclosed. A process for making the zinc electrode comprises electrolytic loading of the zinc active material from a slightly acidic zinc nitrate solution into a substrate of nickel, copper or silver. The substrate comprises a sintered plaque having very fine pores, a high surface area, and 80-85 percent total initial porosity. The residual porosity after zinc loading is approximately 25-30%. The electrode of the present invention exhibits reduced zinc mobility, shape change and distortion, and demonstrates reduced dendrite buildup cycling of the battery. The disclosed battery is useful for applications requiring high energy density and multiple charge capability.

  3. High Rate Performing Li-ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-09

    permeable to lithium ions and efficient in transferring the electrons into/from the LVP surface to the corresponding current collector. a) b) c) d) e...PO4)3/C for High Rate Lithium-ion Battery Applications”, Lee Hwang Sheng, Nail Suleimanov, Vishwanathan Ramar, Mangayarkarasi Murugan, Kuppan

  4. Management and Performance of APPLE Battery in High Temperature Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, M. S.; Subrahmanyam, A.; Agrawal, B. L.

    1984-01-01

    India's first experimental communication satellite, APPLE, carried a 12 AH Ni-Cd battery for supplying power during eclipse. Failure to deploy one of the two solar panels resulted in the battery operating in a high temperature environment, around 40 C. This also resulted in the battery being used in diurnal cycles rather than just half yearly eclipse seasons. The management and performance of the battery during its life of two years are described. An attempt to identify the probable degradation mechanisms is also made.

  5. High Performance Cathodes for Li-Air Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, Yangchuan

    2013-08-22

    The overall objective of this project was to develop and fabricate a multifunctional cathode with high activities in acidic electrolytes for the oxygen reduction and evolution reactions for Li-air batteries. It should enable the development of Li-air batteries that operate on hybrid electrolytes, with acidic catholytes in particular. The use of hybrid electrolytes eliminates the problems of lithium reaction with water and of lithium oxide deposition in the cathode with sole organic electrolytes. The use of acid electrolytes can eliminate carbonate formation inside the cathode, making air breathing Li-air batteries viable. The tasks of the project were focused on developing hierarchical cathode structures and bifunctional catalysts. Development and testing of a prototype hybrid Li-air battery were also conducted. We succeeded in developing a hierarchical cathode structure and an effective bifunctional catalyst. We accomplished integrating the cathode with existing anode technologies and made a pouch prototype Li-air battery using sulfuric acid as catholyte. The battery cathodes contain a nanoscale multilayer structure made with carbon nanotubes and nanofibers. The structure was demonstrated to improve battery performance substantially. The bifunctional catalyst developed contains a conductive oxide support with ultra-low loading of platinum and iridium oxides. The work performed in this project has been documented in seven peer reviewed journal publications, five conference presentations, and filing of two U.S. patents. Technical details have been documented in the quarterly reports to DOE during the course of the project.

  6. High Energy Lithium-Ion VES Cells And Batteries Performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castric, A.-F.; Lawson, S.; Borthomieu, Y.

    2011-10-01

    b Saft's Space VES range of lithium-ion cells have been designed specifically to meet the satellites on-board power need, while meeting the legitimate high levels of requirements for space products. The purpose of the paper is to develop how the VES batteries designs have progressively evolved in order to accommodate the needs, requirements and constraints evolutions. The following topics will be presented: - Description of the main design features of the VES Li- ion batteries. - How the optimised battery configuration is selected against the required EOL power need or other constraints. - Presentation of the batteries performances (electrical, mechanical, thermal, interface, weight, ...). - Measures implemented in order to maintain these performances, and to guarantee the best product quality as per space standards.

  7. An improved high-performance lithium-air battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hun-Gi; Hassoun, Jusef; Park, Jin-Bum; Sun, Yang-Kook; Scrosati, Bruno

    2012-07-01

    Although dominating the consumer electronics markets as the power source of choice for popular portable devices, the common lithium battery is not yet suited for use in sustainable electrified road transport. The development of advanced, higher-energy lithium batteries is essential in the rapid establishment of the electric car market. Owing to its exceptionally high energy potentiality, the lithium-air battery is a very appealing candidate for fulfilling this role. However, the performance of such batteries has been limited to only a few charge-discharge cycles with low rate capability. Here, by choosing a suitable stable electrolyte and appropriate cell design, we demonstrate a lithium-air battery capable of operating over many cycles with capacity and rate values as high as 5,000 mAh gcarbon-1 and 3 A gcarbon-1, respectively. For this battery we estimate an energy density value that is much higher than those offered by the currently available lithium-ion battery technology.

  8. Nano-structured electrocatalysts for high performance lithium sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosavati, Negar

    Ni nanoparticles has been investigated as a carbon-free cathode material for dissolved polysulfide Li-S battery. A series of Ni nanoparticles with nominal particle size of 20, 40, and 100 nm have been used as electrocatalysts, and the effect of particle size on Li-S battery performance has been investigated. In addition, graphene has been chosen as a support to anchor the Ni nanoparticles, and the synergetic effect of carbon material and Ni nanoparticles on Li-S battery electrochemical performance has been studied. The results indicated there is a strong particle size effect. Ni/graphene electrode exhibits a capacity of 753 mAh g-1 sulfur after 40 cycles due to its high conductivity and electrocatalytic activity toward polysulfide reduction reaction. This capacity is significantly higher than similar studies. Based on the understanding of the electrocathalytic effect of Ni and capacity fading mechanism, transition metal nitrides has been investigated as a new class of cathode materials. Titanium nitride (TiN) nanoparticle was studied as a novel cathode material for Li/dissolved polysulfide batteries. In addition, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis was used to obtain a deeper understanding of the mechanism underlying polysulfide conversion reactions with TiN cathode, and during charge and discharge processes. TiN exhibited a superior performance in a Li/dissolved polysulfide battery configuration. Knowing the superior performance of TiN, the study was expanded to different transition metal nitrides to investigate the role of surface composition and morphology in enhancing the electrochemical performance of Li-S batteries. WN, Mo2N, and VN were synthesized and the electrochemical performance, surface composition, and oxidation/reduction mechanism of these cathodes electrodes were studied for lithium sulfur batteries. Understanding the fading mechanisms of dissolved polysulfide system for metal nitride cathodes, It was tried to enhance Li-S battery

  9. High performance batteries with carbon nanomaterials and ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wen

    2012-08-07

    The present invention is directed to lithium-ion batteries in general and more particularly to lithium-ion batteries based on aligned graphene ribbon anodes, V.sub.2O.sub.5 graphene ribbon composite cathodes, and ionic liquid electrolytes. The lithium-ion batteries have excellent performance metrics of cell voltages, energy densities, and power densities.

  10. Fabricating high performance lithium-ion batteries using bionanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xudong; Hou, Yukun; He, Wen; Yang, Guihua; Cui, Jingjie; Liu, Shikun; Song, Xin; Huang, Zhen

    2015-02-01

    Designing, fabricating, and integrating nanomaterials are key to transferring nanoscale science into applicable nanotechnology. Many nanomaterials including amorphous and crystal structures are synthesized via biomineralization in biological systems. Amongst various techniques, bionanotechnology is an effective strategy to manufacture a variety of sophisticated inorganic nanomaterials with precise control over their chemical composition, crystal structure, and shape by means of genetic engineering and natural bioassemblies. This provides opportunities to use renewable natural resources to develop high performance lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). For LIBs, reducing the sizes and dimensions of electrode materials can boost Li+ ion and electron transfer in nanostructured electrodes. Recently, bionanotechnology has attracted great interest as a novel tool and approach, and a number of renewable biotemplate-based nanomaterials have been fabricated and used in LIBs. In this article, recent advances and mechanism studies in using bionanotechnology for high performance LIBs studies are thoroughly reviewed, covering two technical routes: (1) Designing and synthesizing composite cathodes, e.g. LiFePO4/C, Li3V2(PO4)3/C and LiMn2O4/C; and (2) designing and synthesizing composite anodes, e.g. NiO/C, Co3O4/C, MnO/C, α-Fe2O3 and nano-Si. This review will hopefully stimulate more extensive and insightful studies on using bionanotechnology for developing high-performance LIBs.

  11. Mesoporous Nitrogen Doped Carbon-Glass Ceramic Cathode for High Performance Lithium-Oxygen Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Hardwick, and J.- M. Tarascon, Nature Materials, vol. 11, pp 19-29, 2012. 2. Linden , D. (Ed), Handbook of Batteries , 2nd Edition, Mc-Graw-Hill, New...AFRL-RQ-WP-TP-2015-0053 MESOPOROUS NITROGEN DOPED CARBON-GLASS CERAMIC CATHODE FOR HIGH PERFORMANCE LITHIUM-OXYGEN BATTERY (POSTPRINT...DOPED CARBON-GLASS CERAMIC CATHODE FOR HIGH PERFORMANCE LITHIUM-OXYGEN BATTERY (POSTPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-house 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  12. Development of Nanoporous Carbide-Derived Carbon Electrodes for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Advanced Energy Materials, vol. 22, pp. E28-E62, 2010. [2] D. Linden and T. B. Reddy, Handbook of Batteries , 3rd. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2002...Electrodes for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR( S ) Kamryn M. Sakamoto 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND...5 accumulations, each at ~30 s ). 36 C. MACCOR BATTERY TESTER The button-type coin cells that were constructed were tested and cycled. The

  13. High-performance rechargeable batteries with fast solid-state ion conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, Joseph C.

    2017-06-27

    A high-performance rechargeable battery using ultra-fast ion conductors. In one embodiment the rechargeable battery apparatus includes an enclosure, a first electrode operatively connected to the enclosure, a second electrode operatively connected to the enclosure, a nanomaterial in the enclosure, and a heat transfer unit.

  14. High-performance battery electrodes via magnetic templating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, J. S.; Erb, R. M.; Li, L.; Gurijala, A.; Chiang, Y.-M.

    2016-08-01

    In lithium-ion batteries, the critical need for high-energy-density, low-cost storage for applications ranging from wearable computing to megawatt-scale stationary storage has created an unmet need for facile methods to produce high-density, low-tortuosity, kinetically accessible storage electrodes. Here we show that magnetic control of sacrificial features enables the creation of directional pore arrays in lithium-ion electrodes. The directional pores result in faster charge transport kinetics and enable electrodes with more than threefold higher area capacity (for example, >12 mAh cm-2 versus charge-discharge rates. We demonstrate these capabilities in laboratory cells under various test conditions, including an electric vehicle model drive cycle.

  15. Electrochemical Performance of Highly Mesoporous Nitrogen Doped Carbon Cathode in Lithium-Oxygen Batteries (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Chem. Lett. 1 (2010) 2193–2203. [3] F.T. Wagner, B. Lakshmanan, M.F. Mathias, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 1 (2010) 2204–2219. [4] D. Linden (Ed.), Handbook ...AFRL-RQ-WP-TP-2015-0052 ELECTROCHEMICAL PERFORMANCE OF HIGHLY MESOPOROUS NITROGEN DOPED CARBON CATHODE IN LITHIUM-OXYGEN BATTERIES ...01 March 2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ELECTROCHEMICAL PERFORMANCE OF HIGHLY MESOPOROUS NITROGEN DOPED CARBON CATHODE IN LITHIUM-OXYGEN BATTERIES

  16. High-Performance Lithium-Air Battery with a Coaxial-Fiber Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ye; Wang, Lie; Guo, Ziyang; Xu, Yifan; Wang, Yonggang; Peng, Huisheng

    2016-03-24

    The lithium-air battery has been proposed as the next-generation energy-storage device with a much higher energy density compared with the conventional lithium-ion battery. However, lithium-air batteries currently suffer enormous problems including parasitic reactions, low recyclability in air, degradation, and leakage of liquid electrolyte. Besides, they are designed into a rigid bulk structure that cannot meet the flexible requirement in the modern electronics. Herein, for the first time, a new family of fiber-shaped lithium-air batteries with high electrochemical performances and flexibility has been developed. The battery exhibited a discharge capacity of 12,470 mAh g(-1) and could stably work for 100 cycles in air; its electrochemical performances were well maintained under bending and after bending. It was also wearable and formed flexible power textiles for various electronic devices.

  17. High Performance Pillared Vanadium Oxide Cathode for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-24

    Automotive Research Development and Engineering Center, Warren, MI 48387, USA Keywords: nanostructured materials, lithium ion batteries, cathode... key consideration for batteries used in vehicle applications, the rate capability, cyclability, and safety of LIBs have been identified as critical...diffraction planes ( Figure 1). With the intercalation of the Al13 Keggin pillars, the position of the 001 plane shifts to 6.7 degrees two-theta, along with

  18. High Temperature Carbonized Grass as a High Performance Sodium Ion Battery Anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fang; Yao, Yonggang; Wan, Jiayu; Henderson, Doug; Zhang, Xiaogang; Hu, Liangbing

    2017-01-11

    Hard carbon is currently considered the most promising anode candidate for room temperature sodium ion batteries because of its relatively high capacity, low cost, and good scalability. In this work, switchgrass as a biomass example was carbonized under an ultrahigh temperature, 2050 °C, induced by Joule heating to create hard carbon anodes for sodium ion batteries. Switchgrass derived carbon materials intrinsically inherit its three-dimensional porous hierarchical architecture, with an average interlayer spacing of 0.376 nm. The larger interlayer spacing than that of graphite allows for the significant Na ion storage performance. Compared to the sample carbonized under 1000 °C, switchgrass derived carbon at 2050 °C induced an improved initial Coulombic efficiency. Additionally, excellent rate capability and superior cycling performance are demonstrated for the switchgrass derived carbon due to the unique high temperature treatment.

  19. Silver: high performance anode for thin film lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taillades, G.; Sarradin, J.

    Among metals and intermetallic compounds, silver exhibits a high specific capacity according to the formation of different Ag-Li alloys (up to AgLi 12) in a very low voltage range versus lithium (0.250-0 V). Electrochemical results including Galvanostatic Intermittent Titration Technique (GITT) as well as cycling behaviour experiments confirmed the interesting characteristics of silver thin film electrodes prepared by radio frequency (r.f.) sputtering. XRD patterns recorded at different electrochemical stages of the alloying/de-alloying processes showed the complexity of the silver-lithium system under dynamic conditions. Cycling life depends on several parameters and particularly of the careful choice of cut-off voltages. In very well monitored conditions, galvanostatic cycles exhibited flat reversible plateaus with a minimal voltage value (0.050 V) between charge and discharge, a feature of great interest in the use of an electrode. The first results of a lithium ion battery with both silver and LiMn 1.5Ni 0.5O 4 thin films are presented.

  20. High performance nickel-metal hydride and lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehler, U.; Kruger, F.J.; Kuempers, J.; Maul, M.; Niggemann, E.; Schoenfelder, H.H. [VARTA Batterie AG, Kelkheim (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The development of high performance traction batteries is a key issue for the future market acceptance of electric and hybrid vehicles. The Nickel-Metal Hydride (NiMH) system is besides Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) the most promising battery system for electric vehicles. NiMH batteries have already penetrated the consumer market worldwide. Due to its high design flexibility and robustness the NiMH battery system is an ideal candidate for the whole range of battery applications from small consumer cells up to large traction batteries. Because of its high power capability for charging and discharging, the NiMH system is regarded as the optimum battery system for hybrid vehicles. VARTA is developing three different NiMH product lines: high energy, high power and ultra-high power cells. The specific energy of these products exceeds 80 Wh/kg (high energy cells) and a specific power of more than 1000 W/kg (ultra high power cells) can be achieved. The most prominent feature of the Li-Ion battery system is its high gravimetric and volumetric energy density. Although still in the early stage of development, large prismatic Li-Ion cells reach specific energies of more than 120 Wh/kg and energy densities over 300 Wh/l. There is a predicted potential for a further increase of the specific energy of more than 30% and for the energy density of above 60% during the next 4 years. The system works within a wide temperature range of {minus}20 to +60 C and can run up to 1200 cycles. The Li-Ion system represents the latest battery technology. It is expected to be the dominating technology for electric vehicles and aerospace applications. Therefore, VARTA has developed large prismatic cells up to 240 Wh employing low cost manganese spinell cathodes and carbon anodes. This talk describes VARTA`s high performance NiMH and Li-Ion cells as well as complete batteries.

  1. La2O3 hollow nanospheres for high performance lithium-ion rechargeable batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasidharan, Manickam; Gunawardhana, Nanda; Inoue, Masamichi; Yusa, Shin-ichi; Yoshio, Masaki; Nakashima, Kenichi

    2012-03-28

    An efficient and simple protocol for synthesis of novel La(2)O(3) hollow nanospheres of size about 30 ± 2 nm using polymeric micelles is reported. The La(2)O(3) hollow nanospheres exhibit high charge capacity and cycling performance in lithium-ion rechargeable batteries (LIBs), which was scrutinized for the first time among the rare-earth oxides.

  2. High-Performance Aluminum-Ion Battery with CuS@C Microsphere Composite Cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuai; Jiao, Shuqiang; Wang, Junxiang; Chen, Hao-Sen; Tian, Donghua; Lei, Haiping; Fang, Dai-Ning

    2017-01-24

    On the basis of low-cost, rich resources, and safety performance, aluminum-ion batteries have been regarded as a promising candidate for next-generation energy storage batteries in large-scale energy applications. A rechargeable aluminum-ion battery has been fabricated based on a 3D hierarchical copper sulfide (CuS) microsphere composed of nanoflakes as cathode material and room-temperature ionic liquid containing AlCl3 and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([EMIm]Cl) as electrolyte. The aluminum-ion battery with a microsphere electrode exhibits a high average discharge voltage of ∼1.0 V vs Al/AlCl4(-), reversible specific capacity of about 90 mA h g(-1) at 20 mA g(-1), and good cyclability of nearly 100% Coulombic efficiency after 100 cycles. Such remarkable electrochemical performance is attributed to the well-defined nanostructure of the cathode material facilitating the electron and ion transfer, especially for chloroaluminate ions with large size, which is desirable for aluminum-ion battery applications.

  3. A high performance hybrid battery based on aluminum anode and LiFePO4 cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Guang; Bi, Zhonghe; Liu, Hansan; Fang, Youxing; Bridges, Craig A; Paranthaman, M Parans; Dai, Sheng; Brown, Gilbert M

    2016-01-28

    A novel hybrid battery utilizing an aluminum anode, a LiFePO4 cathode and an acidic ionic liquid electrolyte based on 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (EMImCl) and aluminum trichloride (AlCl3) (EMImCl-AlCl3, 1-1.1 in molar ratio) with or without LiAlCl4 is proposed. The hybrid ion battery delivers an initial high capacity of 160 mA h g(-1) at a current rate of C/5. It also shows good rate capability and cycling performance.

  4. Multifunctional Nitrogen-Doped Loofah Sponge Carbon Blocking Layer for High-Performance Rechargeable Lithium Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xingxing; Tong, Chuan-Jia; Rehman, Sarish; Liu, Li-Min; Hou, Yanglong; Zhang, Shanqing

    2016-06-29

    Low-cost, long-life, and high-performance lithium batteries not only provide an economically viable power source to electric vehicles and smart electricity grids but also address the issues of the energy shortage and environmental sustainability. Herein, low-cost, hierarchically porous, and nitrogen-doped loofah sponge carbon (N-LSC) derived from the loofah sponge has been synthesized via a simple calcining process and then applied as a multifunctional blocking layer for Li-S, Li-Se, and Li-I2 batteries. As a result of the ultrahigh specific area (2551.06 m(2) g(-1)), high porosity (1.75 cm(3) g(-1)), high conductivity (1170 S m(-1)), and heteroatoms doping of N-LSC, the resultant Li-S, Li-Se, and Li-I2 batteries with the N-LSC-900 membrane deliver outstanding electrochemical performance stability in all cases, i.e., high reversible capacities of 623.6 mA h g(-1) at 1675 mA g(-1) after 500 cycles, 350 mA h g(-1) at 1356 mA g(-1) after 1000 cycles, and 150 mA h g(-1) at 10550 mA g(-1) after 5000 cycles, respectively. The successful application to Li-S, Li-Se, and Li-I2 batteries suggests that loofa sponge carbon could play a vital role in modern rechargeable battery industries as a universal, cost-effective, environmentally friendly, and high-performance blocking layer.

  5. Hierarchical Porous Carbon Spheres for High-Performance Na-O2 Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bing; Kretschmer, Katja; Xie, Xiuqiang; Munroe, Paul; Peng, Zhangquan; Wang, Guoxiu

    2017-04-04

    As a new family member of room-temperature aprotic metal-O2 batteries, Na-O2 batteries, are attracting growing attention because of their relatively high theoretical specific energy and particularly their uncompromised round-trip efficiency. Here, a hierarchical porous carbon sphere (PCS) electrode that has outstanding properties to realize Na-O2 batteries with excellent electrochemical performances is reported. The controlled porosity of the PCS electrode, with macropores formed between PCSs and nanopores inside each PCS, enables effective formation/decomposition of NaO2 by facilitating the electrolyte impregnation and oxygen diffusion to the inner part of the oxygen electrode. In addition, the discharge product of NaO2 is deposited on the surface of individual PCSs with an unusual conformal film-like morphology, which can be more easily decomposed than the commonly observed microsized NaO2 cubes in Na-O2 batteries. A combination of coulometry, X-ray diffraction, and in situ differential electrochemical mass spectrometry provides compelling evidence that the operation of the PCS-based Na-O2 battery is underpinned by the formation and decomposition of NaO2 . This work demonstrates that employing nanostructured carbon materials to control the porosity, pore-size distribution of the oxygen electrodes, and the morphology of the discharged NaO2 is a promising strategy to develop high-performance Na-O2 batteries. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Design of poly(acrylonitrile)-based gel electrolytes for high-performance lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shih-Hong; Kuo, Ping-Lin; Hsieh, Chien-Te; Teng, Hsisheng

    2014-11-12

    The use of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) as a host for gel polymer electrolytes (GPEs) commonly produces a strong dipole-dipole interaction with the polymer. This study presents a strategy for the application of PAN in GPEs for the production of high performance lithium ion batteries. The resulting gel electrolyte GPE-AVM comprises a poly(acrylonitrile-co-vinyl acetate) copolymer blending poly(methyl methacrylate) as a host, which is swelled using a liquid electrolyte (LE) of 1 M LiPF6 in carbonate solvent. Vinyl acetate and methacrylate groups segregate the PAN chains in the GPE, which produces high ionic conductivity (3.5 × 10 (-3) S cm(-1) at 30 °C) and a wide electrochemical voltage range (>6.5 V) as well as an excellent Li(+) transference number of 0.6. This study includes GPE-AVM in a full-cell battery comprising a LiFePO4 cathode and graphite anode to promote ion motion, which reduced resistance in the battery by 39% and increased the specific power by 110%, relative to the performance of batteries based on LE. The proposed GPE-based battery has a capacity of 140 mAh g(-1) at a discharge rate of 0.1 C and is able to deliver 67 mAh g(-1) of electricity at 17 C. The proposed GPE-AVM provides a robust interface with the electrodes in full-cell batteries, resulting in 93% capacity retention after 100 charge-discharge cycles at 17 C and 63% retention after 1000 cycles.

  7. A review of atomic layer deposition providing high performance lithium sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Bo; Li, Xifei; Bai, Zhimin; Song, Xiaosheng; Xiong, Dongbin; Zhao, Mengli; Li, Dejun; Lu, Shigang

    2017-01-01

    With the significant obstacles that have been conquered in lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries, it is urgent to impel accelerating development of room-temperature Li-S batteries with high energy density and long-term stability. In view of the unique solid-liquid-solid conversion processes of Li-S batteries, however, designing effective strategies to address the insulativity and volume effect of cathode, shuttle of soluble polysulfides, and/or safety hazard of Li metal anode has been challenging. An atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a representative thin film technology with exceptional capabilities in developing atomic-precisely conformal films. It has been demonstrated to be a promise strategy of solving emerging issues in advanced electrical energy storage (EES) devices via the surface modification and/or the fabrication of complex nanostructured materials. In this review, the recent developments and significances on how ALD improves the performance of Li-S batteries were discussed in detail. Significant attention mainly focused on the various strategies with the use of ALD to refine the electrochemical interfaces and cell configurations. Furthermore, the novel opportunities and perspective associated with ALD for future research directions were summarized. This review may boost the development and application of advanced Li-S batteries using ALD.

  8. Sulfonic Groups Originated Dual-Functional Interlayer for High Performance Lithium-Sulfur Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yang; Gu, Sui; Guo, Jing; Rui, Kun; Chen, Chunhua; Zhang, Sanpei; Jin, Jun; Yang, Jianhua; Wen, Zhaoyin

    2017-05-03

    The lithium-sulfur battery is one of the most prospective chemistries in secondary energy storage field due to its high energy density and high theoretical capacity. However, the dissolution of polysulfides in liquid electrolytes causes the shuttle effect, and the rapid decay of lithium sulfur battery has greatly hindered its practical application. Herein, combination of sulfonated reduced graphene oxide (SRGO) interlayer on the separator is adopted to suppress the shuttle effect. We speculate that this SRGO layer plays two roles: physically blocking the migration of polysulfide as ion selective layer and anchoring lithium polysulfide by the electronegative sulfonic group. Lewis acid-base theory and density functional theory (DFT) calculations indicate that sulfonic groups have a strong tendency to interact with lithium ions in the lithium polysulfide. Hence, the synergic effect involved by the sulfonic group contributes to the enhancement of the battery performance. Furthermore, the uniformly distributed sulfonic groups working as active sites which could induce the uniform distribution of sulfur, alleviating the excessive growth of sulfur and enhancing the utilization of active sulfur. With this interlayer, the prototype battery exhibits a high reversible discharge capacity of more than 1300 mAh g(-1) and good capacity retention of 802 mAh g(-1) after 250 cycles at 0.5 C rate. After 60 cycles at different rates from 0.2 to 4 C, the cell with this functional separator still recovered a high specific capacity of 1100 mAh g(-1) at 0.2 C. The results demonstrate a promising interlayer design toward high performance lithium-sulfur battery with longer cycling life, high specific capacity, and rate capability.

  9. A Fluorinated Ether Electrolyte Enabled High Performance Prelithiated Graphite/Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuru; Yu, Zhaoxin; Gordin, Mikhail L; Yi, Ran; Song, Jiangxuan; Wang, Donghai

    2017-03-01

    Lithium/sulfur (Li/S) batteries have attracted great attention as a promising energy storage technology, but so far their practical applications are greatly hindered by issues of polysulfide shuttling and unstable lithium/electrolyte interface. To address these issues, a feasible strategy is to construct a rechargeable prelithiated graphite/sulfur batteries. In this work, a fluorinated ether of bis(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl) ether (BTFE) was reported to blend with 1,3-dioxolane (DOL) for making a multifunctional electrolyte of 1.0 M LiTFSI DOL/BTFE (1:1, v/v) to enable high performance prelithiated graphite/S batteries. First, the electrolyte significantly reduces polysulfide solubility to suppress the deleterious polysulfide shuttling and thus improves capacity retention of sulfur cathodes. Second, thanks to the low viscosity and good wettability, the fluorinated electrolyte dramatically enhances the reaction kinetics and sulfur utilization of high-areal-loading sulfur cathodes. More importantly, this electrolyte forms a stable solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer on graphite surface and thus enables remarkable cyclability of graphite anodes. By coupling prelithiated graphite anodes with sulfur cathodes with high areal capacity of ∼3 mAh cm(-2), we demonstrate prelithiated graphite/sulfur batteries that show high sulfur-specific capacity of ∼1000 mAh g(-1) and an excellent capacity retention of >65% after 450 cycles at C/10.

  10. Nb2O5 microstructures: a high-performance anode for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sainan; Zhou, Jiang; Cai, Zhenyang; Fang, Guozhao; Pan, Anqiang; Liang, Shuquan

    2016-11-01

    We report the synthesis of three-dimensional (3D) urchin-like Nb2O5 microstructures by a facile hydrothermal approach with subsequent annealing treatment. As anode materials for lithium-ion batteries, the 3D urchin-like Nb2O5 microstructures exhibit superior electrochemical performance with excellent rate capability as well as long-term cycling stability. The electrode delivers high capacity of 131 mA h g-1 after 1000 cycles at a high current density of 1 A g-1. The excellent electrochemical performance suggests the 3D urchin-like Nb2O5 microstructures may be a promising anode candidate for high-power lithium ion batteries.

  11. High energy density lithium batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Aifantis, Katerina E; Kumar, R Vasant

    2010-01-01

    Cell phones, portable computers and other electronic devices crucially depend on reliable, compact yet powerful batteries. Therefore, intensive research is devoted to improving performance and reducing failure rates. Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries promise significant advancement and high application potential for hybrid vehicles, biomedical devices, and everyday appliances. This monograph provides special focus on the methods and approaches for enhancing the performance of next-generation batteries through the use of nanotechnology. Deeper understanding of the mechanisms and strategies is

  12. Microwave exfoliated graphene oxide/TiO2 nanowire hybrid for high performance lithium ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishtiaque Shuvo, Mohammad Arif; Rodriguez, Gerardo; Islam, Md Tariqul; Karim, Hasanul; Ramabadran, Navaneet; Noveron, Juan C.; Lin, Yirong

    2015-09-01

    Lithium ion battery (LIB) is a key solution to the demand of ever-improving, high energy density, clean-alternative energy systems. In LIB, graphite is the most commonly used anode material; however, lithium-ion intercalation in graphite is limited, hindering the battery charge rate and capacity. To date, one of the approaches in LIB performance improvement is by using porous carbon (PC) to replace graphite as anode material. PC's pore structure facilitates ion transport and has been proven to be an excellent anode material candidate in high power density LIBs. In addition, to overcome the limited lithium-ion intercalation obstacle, nanostructured anode assembly has been extensively studied to increase the lithium-ion diffusion rate. Among these approaches, high specific surface area metal oxide nanowires connecting nanostructured carbon materials accumulation have shown promising results for enhanced lithium-ion intercalation. Herein, we demonstrate a hydrothermal approach of growing TiO2 nanowires (TON) on microwave exfoliated graphene oxide (MEGO) to further improve LIB performance over PC. This MEGO-TON hybrid not only uses the high surface area of MEGO but also increases the specific surface area for electrode-electrolyte interaction. Therefore, this new nanowire/MEGO hybrid anode material enhances both the specific capacity and charge-discharge rate. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction were used for materials characterization. Battery analyzer was used for measuring the electrical performance of the battery. The testing results have shown that MEGO-TON hybrid provides up to 80% increment of specific capacity compared to PC anode.

  13. High-performance rechargeable batteries with nanoparticle active materials, photochemically regenerable active materials, and fast solid-state ion conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, Joseph C.

    2017-04-04

    A high-performance rechargeable battery using ultra-fast ion conductors. In one embodiment the rechargeable battery apparatus includes an enclosure, a first electrode operatively connected to the enclosure, a second electrode operatively connected to the enclosure, a nanomaterial in the enclosure, and a heat transfer unit.

  14. Biomass Waste Inspired Highly Porous Carbon for High Performance Lithium/Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Ren, Jun; Tan, Taizhe; Babaa, Moulay-Rachid; Bakenov, Zhumabay; Liu, Ning; Zhang, Yongguang

    2017-09-06

    The synthesis of highly porous carbon (HPC) materials from poplar catkin by KOH chemical activation and hydrothermal carbonization as a conductive additive to a lithium-sulfur cathode is reported. Elemental sulfur was composited with as-prepared HPC through a melt diffusion method to form a S/HPC nanocomposite. Structure and morphology characterization revealed a hierarchically sponge-like structure of HPC with high pore volume (0.62 cm³∙g (−1) ) and large specific surface area (1261.7 m²∙g (−1) ). When tested in Li/S batteries, the resulting compound demonstrated excellent cycling stability, delivering a second-specific capacity of 1154 mAh∙g (−1) as well as presenting 74% retention of value after 100 cycles at 0.1 C. Therefore, the porous structure of HPC plays an important role in enhancing electrochemical properties, which provides conditions for effective charge transfer and effective trapping of soluble polysulfide intermediates, and remarkably improves the electrochemical performance of S/HPC composite cathodes.

  15. Chemically bonded phosphorus/graphene hybrid as a high performance anode for sodium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jiangxuan; Yu, Zhaoxin; Gordin, Mikhail L; Hu, Shi; Yi, Ran; Tang, Duihai; Walter, Timothy; Regula, Michael; Choi, Daiwon; Li, Xiaolin; Manivannan, Ayyakkannu; Wang, Donghai

    2014-11-12

    Room temperature sodium-ion batteries are of great interest for high-energy-density energy storage systems because of low-cost and natural abundance of sodium. Here, we report a novel phosphorus/graphene nanosheet hybrid as a high performance anode for sodium-ion batteries through facile ball milling of red phosphorus and graphene stacks. The graphene stacks are mechanically exfoliated to nanosheets that chemically bond with the surfaces of phosphorus particles. This chemical bonding can facilitate robust and intimate contact between phosphorus and graphene nanosheets, and the graphene at the particle surfaces can help maintain electrical contact and stabilize the solid electrolyte interphase upon the large volume change of phosphorus during cycling. As a result, the phosphorus/graphene nanosheet hybrid nanostructured anode delivers a high reversible capacity of 2077 mAh/g with excellent cycling stability (1700 mAh/g after 60 cycles) and high Coulombic efficiency (>98%). This simple synthesis approach and unique nanostructure can potentially be applied to other phosphorus-based alloy anode materials for sodium-ion batteries.

  16. High performance nickel-metal hydride battery in bipolar stack design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohms, D.; Kohlhase, M.; Benczúr-Ürmössy, G.; Wiesener, K.; Harmel, J.

    The consumption of fuel in cars can be reduced by using hybrid concepts. Even for fuel cell vehicles, a high power battery may cut costs and allow the recovery of energy during retarding. Alkaline batteries, such as nickel-metal hydride batteries, have displayed long cycle life combined with high power ability. In order to improve the power/energy ratio of Ni/MH to even higher values, the cells may be arranged in a bipolar stack design.

  17. Sulfur/three-dimensional graphene composite for high performance lithium-sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chunmei; Wu, Yishan; Zhao, Xuyang; Wang, Xiuli; Du, Gaohui; Zhang, Jun; Tu, Jiangping

    2015-02-01

    A sulfur/graphene composite is prepared by loading elemental sulfur into three-dimensional graphene (3D graphene), which is assembled using a metal ions assisted hydrothermal method. When used as cathode materials for lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries, the sulfur/graphene composite (S@3D-graphene) with 73 wt % sulfur shows a significantly enhanced cycling performance (>700 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles at 0.1C rate with a Coulombic efficiency > 96%) as well as high rate capability with a capacity up to 500 mAh g-1 at 2C rate (3.35 A g-1). The superior electrochemical performance could be attributed to the highly porous structure of three-dimensional graphene that not only enables stable and continue pathway for rapid electron and ion transportation, but also restrain soluble polysulfides and suppress the "shuttle effect". Moreover, the robust structure of 3D graphene can keep cathode integrity and accommodate the volume change during high-rate charge/discharge processes, making it a promising candidate as cathode for high performance Li-S batteries.

  18. High performance magnesium anode in paper-based microfluidic battery, powering on-chip fluorescence assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Youngmi; Sankar, Jagannathan; Yun, Yeoheung

    2014-09-01

    A high power density and long-lasting stable/disposable magnesium battery anode was explored for a paper-based fluidic battery to power on-chip functions of various Point of Care (POC) devices. The single galvanic cell with magnesium foil anode and silver foil cathode in Origami cellulose chip provided open circuit potential, 2.2 V, and power density, 3.0 mW/cm(2). A paper-based fluidic galvanic cell was operated with one drop of water (80 μl) and continued to run until it was dry. To prove the concept about powering on-chip POC devices, two-serial galvanic cells are developed and incorporated with a UV-light emitting diode (λ = 365 nm) and fluorescence assay for alkaline phosphatase reaction. Further, detection using smart phones was performed for quantitative measurement of fluorescent density. To conclude, a magnesium-based fluidic battery paper chip was extremely low-cost, required minute sample volumes, was easy to dispose of, light weight, easy to stack, store and transport, easy to fabricate, scalable, and has faster analysis times.

  19. Fibrous hybrid of graphene and sulfur nanocrystals for high-performance lithium-sulfur batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guangmin; Yin, Li-Chang; Wang, Da-Wei; Li, Lu; Pei, Songfeng; Gentle, Ian Ross; Li, Feng; Cheng, Hui-Ming

    2013-06-25

    Graphene-sulfur (G-S) hybrid materials with sulfur nanocrystals anchored on interconnected fibrous graphene are obtained by a facile one-pot strategy using a sulfur/carbon disulfide/alcohol mixed solution. The reduction of graphene oxide and the formation/binding of sulfur nanocrystals were integrated. The G-S hybrids exhibit a highly porous network structure constructed by fibrous graphene, many electrically conducting pathways, and easily tunable sulfur content, which can be cut and pressed into pellets to be directly used as lithium-sulfur battery cathodes without using a metal current-collector, binder, and conductive additive. The porous network and sulfur nanocrystals enable rapid ion transport and short Li(+) diffusion distance, the interconnected fibrous graphene provides highly conductive electron transport pathways, and the oxygen-containing (mainly hydroxyl/epoxide) groups show strong binding with polysulfides, preventing their dissolution into the electrolyte based on first-principles calculations. As a result, the G-S hybrids show a high capacity, an excellent high-rate performance, and a long life over 100 cycles. These results demonstrate the great potential of this unique hybrid structure as cathodes for high-performance lithium-sulfur batteries.

  20. High-performance batteries. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, development, components, testing, electrolytes, use, and safety aspects of advanced or high-performance batteries. Applications include use in space vehicles, electric vehicles, in load leveling operations, and for pulse power. The types discussed include sodium/metal chloride, sodium/sulfur, nickel/hydrogen, nickel/iron, iron/air, lithium/sulfur dioxide, and zinc halide.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  1. Could Borophene Be Used as a Promising Anode Material for High-Performance Lithium Ion Battery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Wu, Zhi-Feng; Gao, Peng-Fei; Zhang, Sheng-Li; Wen, Yu-Hua

    2016-08-31

    The rapid development of electronic products has inspired scientists to design and explore novel electrode materials with an ultrahigh rate of charging/discharging capability, such as two-dimensional (2-D) nanostructures of graphene and MoS2. In this study, another 2-D nanosheet, that is a borophene layer, has been predicted to be utilized as a promising anode material for high-performance Li ion battery based on density functional theory calculations. Our study has revealed that Li atom can combine strongly with borophene surface strongly and easily, and exist as a pure Li(+) state. A rather small energy barrier (0.007 eV) of Li diffusion leads to an ultrahigh diffusivity along an uncorrugated direction of borophene, which is estimated to be 10(4) (10(5)) times faster than that on MoS2 (graphene) at room temperature. A high Li storage capacity of 1239 mA·h/g can be achieved when Li content reaches 0.5. A low average operating voltage of 0.466 V and metallic properties result in that the borophene can be used as a possible anode material. Moreover, the properties of Li adsorption and diffusion on the borophene affected by Ag (111) substrate have been studied. It has been found that the influence of Ag (111) substrate is very weak. Li atom can still bind on the borophene with a strong binding energy of -2.648 eV. A small energy barrier of 0.033 eV can be retained for Li diffusion along the uncorrugated direction, which can give rise to a high Li diffusivity. Besides, the performances of borophene-based Na ion battery have been explored. Our results suggest that an extremely high rate capability could be expected in borophene-based Li ion battery.

  2. Interconnected Nanoflake Network Derived from a Natural Resource for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fei; Li, Wen-Cui; Lu, An-Hui

    2016-10-06

    Numerous natural resources have a highly interconnected network with developed porous structure, so enabling directional and fast matrix transport. Such structures are appealing for the design of efficient anode materials for lithium-ion batteries, although they can be challenging to prepare. Inspired by nature, a novel synthesis route from biomass is proposed by using readily available auricularia as retractable support and carbon coating precursor to soak up metal salt solution. Using the swelling properties of the auricularia with the complexation of metal ions, a nitrogen-containing MnO@C nanoflake network has been easily synthesized with fast electrochemical reaction dynamics and a superior lithium storage performance. A subsequent carbonization results in the in situ synthesis of MnO nanoparticles throughout the porous carbon flake network. When evaluated as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, an excellent reversible capacity is achieved of 868 mA h g(-1) at 0.2 A g(-1) over 300 cycles and 668 mA h g(-1) at 1 A g(-1) over 500 cycles, indicating a high tolerance to the volume expansion. The approach investigated opens up new avenues for the design of high performance electrodes with highly cross-linked nanoflake structures, which may have great application prospects.

  3. Rational Design of Cathode Structure for High Rate Performance Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongwei; Wang, Changhong; Dai, Yafei; Qiu, Shengqiang; Yang, Jinlong; Lu, Wei; Chen, Liwei

    2015-08-12

    Practical applications of Li-S batteries require not only high specific capacities and long cycle lifetimes but also high rate performance. We report a rationally designed Li-S cathode, which consists of a freestanding composite thin film assembled from S nanoparticles, reduced graphene oxide (rGO), and a multifunctional additive poly(anthraquinonyl sulfide) (PAQS). The S nanoparticles provide a high initial specific capacity, and the layered and porous rGO structure provides electron and ion transport paths and restricts polysulfide shuttling. PAQS is not only a highly efficient sulfide trapping agent but also an excellent Li(+) conductor, which benefits the battery reaction kinetics at a high rate. The resulting cathode exhibits an initial specific capacity of 1255 mAh g(-1) with a decay rate as low as 0.046% per cycles over 1200 cycles. Importantly, it displays a reversible capacity of 615 mAh g(-1) when discharged at a high rate of 8 C (13.744 A g(-1)).

  4. Performance Model for High-Power Lithium Titanate Oxide Batteries based on Extended Characterization Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Ana-Irina; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel Ioan

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are found nowadays not only in portable/consumer electronics but also in more power demanding applications, such as stationary renewable energy storage, automotive and back-up power supply, because of their superior characteristics in comparison to other energy...... storage technologies. Nevertheless, prior to be used in any of the aforementioned application, a Li-ion battery cell must be intensively characterized and its behavior needs to be understood. This can be realized by performing extended laboratory characterization tests and developing Li-ion battery...... performance models. Furthermore, accurate performance models are necessary in order to analyze the behavior of the battery cell under different mission profiles, by simulation; thus, avoiding time and cost demanding real life tests. This paper presents the development and the parametrization of a performance...

  5. Hard Carbon Fibers Pyrolyzed from Wool as High-Performance Anode for Sodium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoming; Li, Qian; Qiu, Shen; Liu, Xiaoling; Xiao, Lifen; Ai, Xinping; Yang, Hanxi; Cao, Yuliang

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we first demonstrate that the wool from worn-out clothes can serve as a low-cost and easy-to-collect precursor to preparing high-performance hard carbons for Na-ion batteries. Morphological characterizations demonstrate that this wool-derived hard carbon presents well-defined and homogeneously dispersed fiber networks. X-ray diffraction results combined with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis reveal that the interlayer space (d(002)) of the graphitic layers is 0.376 nm, sufficient for Na insertion into the stacked graphene layers. Electrochemical results show that the wool-derived hard carbon can deliver a high capacity of 303 mAh g-1 and excellent cycle stability over 80 cycles. This satisfactory electrochemical performance and easy synthetic procedure make it a promising anode material for practical SIBs.

  6. 3D Graphene-Foam-Reduced-Graphene-Oxide Hybrid Nested Hierarchical Networks for High-Performance Li-S Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guangjian; Xu, Chuan; Sun, Zhenhua; Wang, Shaogang; Cheng, Hui-Ming; Li, Feng; Ren, Wencai

    2016-02-24

    A 3D graphene-foam-reduced-graphene-oxide hybrid nested hierarchical network is synthesized to achieve high sulfur loading and content simultaneously, which solves the "double low" issues of Li-S batteries. The obtained Li-S cathodes show a high areal capacity two times larger than that of commercial lithium-ion batteries, and a good cycling performance comparable to those at low sulfur loading.

  7. High performance nickel-metal hydride and lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, U.; Kümpers, J.; Ullrich, M.

    In comparison to pure electric vehicles (EV) the opportunities for hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) are much better, since range restrictions no longer apply and the interaction of the internal combustion engine and electrical drive bring increased energy efficiency and environmental friendliness. The batteries used in such applications must meet very high standards in terms of performance and service life. Although the battery capacity is smaller than for a purely EV, it needs to be able to generate far higher levels of power. The technical challenges of hybrid applications have led to the development of high-performance batteries. At the forefront of these is the nickel-metal hydride system (NiMH). With specific power and energy data in the range from 300 to 900 W/kg, 55 to 37 Wh/kg, respectively (based on cell weight), excellent charge efficiency and energy throughput levels of more than 10,000 times the nominal energy, the NiMH system comes very close to satisfying the needs of the HEV. Parallel developments with the lithium-ion system based on manganese spinel as cathode material show that, with specific power and energy levels above 1000 W/kg, 50 Wh/kg, respectively, this technology will also be able to play an important role in the future. Service life figures in terms of calendar life have been improved tremendously to about three years, but there is still a need for further improvement in order to meet the specifications of car manufacturers. For this reason, an increase of life span is the subject of intensive development work.

  8. CuO nanorods/graphene nanocomposites for high-performance lithium-ion battery anodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qi; Zhao, Jun; Shan, Wanfei; Xia, Xinbei; Xing, Lili; Xue, Xinyu, E-mail: xuexinyu@mail.neu.edu.cn

    2014-03-25

    Highlights: • CuO/GNS nanocomposites are synthesized by a hydrothermal method. • CuO/GNSs as LIB anodes exhibit much higher cyclability and capacity than CuO nanostructures. • Such excellent performances can be attributed to the synergistic effect between CuO and GNSs. -- Abstract: CuO/graphene nanocomposites are synthesized by a hydrothermal method, and their application as anodes of lithium-ion batteries has been investigated. CuO nanorods are uniformly coating on the surface of graphene nanosheets. CuO/graphene nanocomposites exhibit high cyclability and capacity. After 50 cycles, the capacity can maintain at 692.5 mA h g{sup −1} at 0.1 C rate (10 h per half cycle). Such a high performance can be attributed to the synergistic effect between graphene nanosheets and CuO nanorods. The present results indicate that CuO/graphene nanocomposites have potential applications in the anodes of lithium-ion battery.

  9. Sulfur nanocrystals anchored graphene composite with highly improved electrochemical performance for lithium-sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Dong, Zimin; Wang, Xiuli; Zhao, Xuyang; Tu, Jiangping; Su, Qingmei; Du, Gaohui

    2014-12-01

    Two kinds of graphene-sulfur composites with 50 wt% of sulfur are prepared using hydrothermal method and thermal mixing, respectively. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectra mapping show that sulfur nanocrystals with size of ∼5 nm dispersed on graphene sheets homogeneously for the sample prepared by hydrothermal method (NanoS@G). While for the thermal mixed graphene-sulfur composite (S-G mixture), sulfur shows larger and uneven size (50-200 nm). X-ray Photoelectron Spectra (XPS) reveals the strong chemical bonding between the sulfur nanocrystals and graphene. Comparing with the S-G mixture, the NanoS@G composite shows highly improved electrochemical performance as cathode for lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery. The NanoS@G composite delivers an initial capacity of 1400 mAh g-1 with the sulfur utilization of 83.7% at a current density of 335 mA g-1. The capacity keeps above 720 mAh g-1 over 100 cycles. The strong adherence of the sulfur nanocrystals on graphene immobilizes sulfur and polysulfides species and suppressed the "shuttle effect", resulting higher coulombic efficiency and better capacity retention. Electrochemical impedance also suggests that the strong bonding enabled rapid electronic/ionic transport and improved electrochemical kinetics, therefore good rate capability is obtained. These results demonstrate that the NanoS@G composite is a very promising candidate for high-performance Li-S batteries.

  10. High performance lithium sulfur battery with novel separator membrane for space applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For NASA's human and robotic mission, the battery with extremely high specific energy (>500 Wh/kg) and long cycle life are urgently sought after in order to...

  11. High-Performance Silicon Battery Anodes Enabled by Engineering Graphene Assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Min; Li, Xianglong; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Yunbo; Ning, Jing; Xiao, Zhichang; Zhang, Xinghao; Chang, Yanhong; Zhi, Linjie

    2015-09-01

    We propose a novel material/electrode design formula and develop an engineered self-supporting electrode configuration, namely, silicon nanoparticle impregnated assemblies of templated carbon-bridged oriented graphene. We have demonstrated their use as binder-free lithium-ion battery anodes with exceptional lithium storage performances, simultaneously attaining high gravimetric capacity (1390 mAh g(-1) at 2 A g(-1) with respect to the total electrode weight), high volumetric capacity (1807 mAh cm(-3) that is more than three times that of graphite anodes), remarkable rate capability (900 mAh g(-1) at 8 A g(-1)), excellent cyclic stability (0.025% decay per cycle over 200 cycles), and competing areal capacity (as high as 4 and 6 mAh cm(-2) at 15 and 3 mA cm(-2), respectively). Such combined level of performance is attributed to the templated carbon bridged oriented graphene assemblies involved. This engineered graphene bulk assemblies not only create a robust bicontinuous network for rapid transport of both electrons and lithium ions throughout the electrode even at high material mass loading but also allow achieving a substantially high material tap density (1.3 g cm(-3)). Coupled with a simple and flexible fabrication protocol as well as practically scalable raw materials (e.g., silicon nanoparticles and graphene oxide), the material/electrode design developed would propagate new and viable battery material/electrode design principles and opportunities for energy storage systems with high-energy and high-power characteristics.

  12. Scalable Synthesis of Defect Abundant Si Nanorods for High-Performance Li-Ion Battery Anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Meng, Xiangcai; Fan, Xiulin; Zhang, Wenbo; Zhang, Hongyong; Wang, Chunsheng

    2015-06-23

    Microsized nanostructured silicon-carbon composite is a promising anode material for high energy Li-ion batteries. However, large-scale synthesis of high-performance nano-Si materials at a low cost still remains a significant challenge. We report a scalable low cost method to synthesize Al/Na-doped and defect-abundant Si nanorods that have excellent electrochemical performance with high first-cycle Coulombic efficiency (90%). The unique Si nanorods are synthesized by acid etching the refined and rapidly solidified eutectic Al-Si ingot. To maintain the high electronic conductivity, a thin layer of carbon is then coated on the Si nanorods by carbonization of self-polymerized polydopamine (PDA) at 800 °C. The carbon coated Si nanorods (Si@C) electrode at 0.9 mg cm(-2) loading (corresponding to area-specific-capacity of ∼2.0 mAh cm(-2)) exhibits a reversible capacity of ∼2200 mAh g(-1) at 100 mA g(-1) current, and maintains ∼700 mAh g(-1) over 1000 cycles at 1000 mA g(-1) with a capacity decay rate of 0.02% per cycle. High Coulombic efficiencies of 87% in the first cycle and ∼99.7% after 5 cycles are achieved due to the formation of an artificial Al2O3 solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) on the Si surface, and the low surface area (31 m(2) g(-1)), which has never been reported before for nano-Si anodes. The excellent electrochemical performance results from the massive defects (twins, stacking faults, dislocations) and Al/Na doping in Si nanorods induced by rapid solidification and Na salt modifications; this greatly enhances the robustness of Si from the volume changes and alleviates the mechanical stress/strain of the Si nanorods during the lithium insertion/extraction process. Introducing massive defects and Al/Na doping in eutectic Si nanorods for Li-ion battery anodes is unexplored territory. We venture this uncharted territory to commercialize this nanostructured Si anode for the next generation of Li-ion batteries.

  13. A trilayer separator with dual function for high performance lithium-sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Rensheng; Fang, Ruopian; Wen, Lei; Shi, Ying; Wang, Shaogang; Li, Feng

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we propose a trilayer graphene/polypropylene/Al2O3 (GPA) separator with dual function for high performance lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries. Graphene is coated on one side of polypropylene (PP) separator, which functions as a conductive layer and an electrolyte reservoir that allows for rapid electron and ion transport. Then Al2O3 particles are coated on the other side to further enhance thermal stability and safety of the graphene coated polypropylene (GCP) separator, which are touched with lithium metal anode in the Li-S battery. The GPA separator shows good thermal stability after heating at 157 °C for 10 min while both GCP and PP separators showing an obvious shrinkage about 10%. The initial discharge specific capacity of Li-S coin cell with a GPA separator could reach 1067.7 mAh g-1 at 0.2C. After 100 discharge/charge cycles, it can still deliver a reversible capacity of as high as 804.4 mAh g-1 with 75% capacity retention. The pouch cells further confirm that the trilayer design has great promise towards practical applications.

  14. High-performance ball-milled SiOx anodes for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junying; Zhang, Chunqian; Liu, Zhi; Zheng, Jun; Zuo, Yuhua; Xue, Chunlai; Li, Chuanbo; Cheng, Buwen

    2017-01-01

    High-performance SiOx was scalable synthesized by means of simple high-energy ball-milling method, and used as anode materials for lithium ion batteries. The electrochemical performance of SiOx electrode after high-energy ball-milling is improved effectively compared to raw SiOx. That is benefit for the reduced size of SiOx powder. By changing the species of conductive agents, improved cyclic performance and excellent rate capability were achieved. Under galvanostatic mode with current density of 0.3 A/g, SiOx electrode after high-energy ball-milling with optimized conductive agents delivers a reversible capacity of 1416.8 mAh/g with coulombic efficiency as high as 99.8% and capacity retention of 83.6% (1184.8 mAh/g) even after 100 cycles. The approach is simple and can be adopted for large scale production of high performance SiOx anode materials.

  15. Nanostructured Black Phosphorus/Ketjenblack-Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Composite as High Performance Anode Material for Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gui-Liang; Chen, Zonghai; Zhong, Gui-Ming; Liu, Yuzi; Yang, Yong; Ma, Tianyuan; Ren, Yang; Zuo, Xiaobing; Wu, Xue-Hang; Zhang, Xiaoyi; Amine, Khalil

    2016-06-08

    Sodium-ion batteries are promising alternatives to lithium-ion batteries for large-scale applications. However, the low capacity and poor rate capability of existing anodes for sodium-ion batteries are bottlenecks for future developments. Here, we report a high performance nanostructured anode material for sodium-ion batteries that is fabricated by high energy ball milling to form black phosphorus/Ketjenblack-multiwalled carbon nanotubes (BPC) composite. With this strategy, the BPC composite with a high phosphorus content (70 wt %) could deliver a very high initial Coulombic efficiency (>90%) and high specific capacity with excellent cyclability at high rate of charge/discharge (∼1700 mAh g(-1) after 100 cycles at 1.3 A g(-1) based on the mass of P). In situ electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, synchrotron high energy X-ray diffraction, ex situ small/wide-angle X-ray scattering, high resolution transmission electronic microscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance were further used to unravel its superior sodium storage performance. The scientific findings gained in this work are expected to serve as a guide for future design on high performance anode material for sodium-ion batteries.

  16. High performance Prussian Blue cathode for nonaqueous Ca-ion intercalation battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuperman, Neal; Padigi, Prasanna; Goncher, Gary; Evans, David; Thiebes, Joseph; Solanki, Raj

    2017-02-01

    Potassium iron hexacyanoferrate, or Prussian blue (PB), is investigated as a cathode material for nonaqueous divalent calcium ion batteries. PB is an attractive prospect due to its high specific capacity, nontoxicity, low cost, and simple synthesis. Charge/discharge performances are examined at current densities of 23 mAg-1, 45 mAg-1, 90 mAg-1, and 125 mAg-1 that produced reversible specific capacities ranging from 150 mAhg-1 (at 23 mAg-1 current density) to over 120 mAhg-1 (at 125 mAg-1 current density). These are the highest storage capacities to date for a divalent calcium ion cathode over extended period of charge/discharge cycling and are comparable in performance to monovalent intercalating ions.

  17. High performance electrodes in vanadium redox flow batteries through oxygen-enriched thermal activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezeshki, Alan M.; Clement, Jason T.; Veith, Gabriel M.; Zawodzinski, Thomas A.; Mench, Matthew M.

    2015-10-01

    The roundtrip electrochemical energy efficiency is improved from 63% to 76% at a current density of 200 mA cm-2 in an all-vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) by utilizing modified carbon paper electrodes in the high-performance no-gap design. Heat treatment of the carbon paper electrodes in a 42% oxygen/58% nitrogen atmosphere increases the electrochemically wetted surface area from 0.24 to 51.22 m2 g-1, resulting in a 100-140 mV decrease in activation overpotential at operationally relevant current densities. An enriched oxygen environment decreases the amount of treatment time required to achieve high surface area. The increased efficiency and greater depth of discharge doubles the total usable energy stored in a fixed amount of electrolyte during operation at 200 mA cm-2.

  18. Fabrication of SnO2 Asymmetric Membranes for High Performance Lithium Battery Anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ji; Chen, Hao; Byrd, Ian; Lovelace, Shavonne; Jin, Congrui

    2016-06-08

    Alloy electrode material like tin dioxide (SnO2) possesses much higher specific capacity as compared to commercial graphite anode in lithium ion battery (783 vs 372 mAh g(-1)). However, the huge volume change (260%) of SnO2-based anode during the alloying and dealloying process can cause significant electrode pulverization and rapid capacity loss. Herein we report the synthesis of SnO2 asymmetric membranes via a unique combination of phase inversion and sol-gel chemistry to overcome this big challenge. The SnO2 asymmetric membrane electrode demonstrates a specific capacity of 500 mAh g(-1) based on the overall electrode mass at a current density of 280 mA g(-1) (∼0.5C) with >96% capacity retention after 400 cycles. When the current density is increased from 28 to 560 mA g(-1), its overall capacity is only reduced by 36%. Such an outstanding rate and cycling performance is attributed to the existence of networking porous structure in the membrane that can provide high electrical conductivity, multiple diffusion channels, and free volumes for electrode expansion. The carbonization temperature has a dramatic impact on the electrode performance. Membranes carbonized at 500 °C show an excellent cycling performance, whereas the capacity of the membrane carbonized at 800 °C decreases by 51% in 100 cycles. Such a drastic difference in cycle life is caused by the reduction of small SnO2 NPs (∼3.9 nm) into large metallic tin spheres (∼40 nm) at 800 °C. This is the first original report on using asymmetric membrane structure to stabilize an SnO2-based lithium ion battery anode with an excellent electrochemical performance.

  19. A high-performance dual-scale porous electrode for vanadium redox flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X. L.; Zeng, Y. K.; Zhu, X. B.; Wei, L.; Zhao, T. S.

    2016-09-01

    In this work, we present a simple and cost-effective method to form a dual-scale porous electrode by KOH activation of the fibers of carbon papers. The large pores (∼10 μm), formed between carbon fibers, serve as the macroscopic pathways for high electrolyte flow rates, while the small pores (∼5 nm), formed on carbon fiber surfaces, act as active sites for rapid electrochemical reactions. It is shown that the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller specific surface area of the carbon paper is increased by a factor of 16 while maintaining the same hydraulic permeability as that of the original carbon paper electrode. We then apply the dual-scale electrode to a vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) and demonstrate an energy efficiency ranging from 82% to 88% at current densities of 200-400 mA cm-2, which is record breaking as the highest performance of VRFB in the open literature.

  20. Raspberry-like Nanostructured Silicon Composite Anode for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Shan; Tong, Zhenkun; Nie, Ping; Liu, Gao; Zhang, Xiaogang

    2017-06-07

    Adjusting the particle size and nanostructure or applying carbon materials as the coating layers is a promising method to hold the volume expansion of Si for its practical application in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Herein, the mild carbon coating combined with a molten salt reduction is precisely designed to synthesize raspberry-like hollow silicon spheres coated with carbon shells (HSi@C) as the anode materials for LIBs. The HSi@C exhibits a remarkable electrochemical performance; a high reversible specific capacity of 886.2 mAh g(-1) at a current density of 0.5 A g(-1) after 200 cycles is achieved. Moreover, even after 500 cycles at a current density of 2.0 A g(-1), a stable capacity of 516.7 mAh g(-1) still can be obtained.

  1. Leaf-Like Graphene-Oxide-Wrapped Sulfur for High-Performance Lithium-Sulfur Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Shouyi; Guo, Ziyang; Wang, Lina; Hu, Shuang; Wang, Yonggang; Xia, Yongyao

    2015-08-01

    Carbon/sulfur composites are attracting extensive attention because of their improved performances for Li-S batteries. However, the achievements are generally based on the low S-content in the composites and the low S-loading on the electrode. Herein, a leaf-like graphene oxide (GO), which includes an inherent carbon nanotube midrib in the GO plane, is synthesized for preparing GO/S composites. Owing to the inherent high conductivity of carbon nanotube midribs and the abundant surface groups of GO for S-immobilization, the composite with an S-content of 60 wt% exhibits ultralong cycling stability over 1000 times with a low capacity decay of 0.033% per cycle and a high rate up to 4C. When the S-content is increased to 75 wt%, the composite still shows a perfect cycling performance over 1000 cycles. Even with the high S-loading of 2.7 mg cm(-2) on the electrode and the high S-content of 85 wt%, it still shows a promising cycling performance over 600 cycles.

  2. Synergistic Ultrathin Functional Polymer-Coated Carbon Nanotube Interlayer for High Performance Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joo Hyun; Seo, Jihoon; Choi, Junghyun; Shin, Donghyeok; Carter, Marcus; Jeon, Yeryung; Wang, Chengwei; Hu, Liangbing; Paik, Ungyu

    2016-08-10

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries have been intensively investigated as a next-generation rechargeable battery due to their high energy density of 2600 W·h kg(-1) and low cost. However, the systemic issues of Li-S batteries, such as the polysulfide shuttling effect and low Coulombic efficiency, hinder the practical use in commercial rechargeable batteries. The introduction of a conductive interlayer between the sulfur cathode and separator is a promising approach that has shown the dramatic improvements in Li-S batteries. The previous interlayer work mainly focused on the physical confinement of polysulfides within the cathode part, without considering the further entrapment of the dissolved polysulfides. Here, we designed an ultrathin poly(acrylic acid) coated single-walled carbon nanotube (PAA-SWNT) film as a synergic functional interlayer to address the issues mentioned above. The designed interlayer not only lowers the charge transfer resistance by the support of the upper current collector but also localizes the dissolved polysulfides within the cathode part by the aid of a physical blocking and chemical bonding. With the synergic combination of PAA and SWNT, the sulfur cathode with a PAA-SWNT interlayer maintained higher capacity retention over 200 cycles and achieved better rate retention than the sulfur cathode with a SWNT interlayer. The proposed approach of combining a functional polymer and conductive support material can provide an optimiztic strategy to overcome the fundamental challenges underlying in Li-S batteries.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of high performance electrode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jian

    Lithium-ion batteries have revolutionized portable electronics. Electrode reactions in these electrochemical systems are based on reversible intercalation of Li+ ions into the host electrode material with a concomitant addition/removal of electrons into the host. If such batteries are to find a wider market such as the automotive industry, less expensive and higher capacity electrode materials will be required. The olivine phase lithium iron phosphate has attracted the most attention because of its low cost and safety (high thermal and chemical stability). However, it is an intriguing fundamental problem to understand the fast electrochemical response from the poorly electronic conducting two-phase LiFePO4/FePO 4 system. This thesis focuses on determining the rate-limit step of LiFePO4. First, a LiFePO4 material, with vanadium substituting on the P-site, was synthesized, and found that the crystal structure change may cause high lithium diffusivity. Since an accurate Li diffusion coefficient cannot be measured by traditional electrochemical method in a three-electrode cell due to the phase transformation during measurement, a new method to measure the intrinsic electronic and ionic conductivity of mixed conductive LiFePO 4 was developed. This was based on the conductivity measurements of mixed conductive solid electrolyte using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and blocking electrode. The effects of ionic/electronic conductivity and phase transformation on the rate performance of LiFePO4 were also first investigated by EIS and other electrochemical technologies. Based on the above fundamental kinetics studies, an optimized LiFePO4 was used as a target to deposit 1mum LiFePO4 thin film at Oak Ridge National Laboratory using radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. Similar to the carbon coated LiFePO4 powder electrode, the carbon-contained RF LiFePO4 film with no preferential orientation showed excellent capacity and rate capability both at 25°C and -20

  4. Functional Organosulfide Electrolyte Promotes an Alternate Reaction Pathway to Achieve High Performance in Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuru; Dai, Fang; Gordin, Mikhail L; Yu, Zhaoxin; Gao, Yue; Song, Jiangxuan; Wang, Donghai

    2016-03-18

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries have recently received great attention because they promise to provide energy density far beyond current lithium ion batteries. Typically, Li-S batteries operate by conversion of sulfur to reversibly form different soluble lithium polysulfide intermediates and insoluble lithium sulfides through multistep redox reactions. Herein, we report a functional electrolyte system incorporating dimethyl disulfide as a co-solvent that enables a new electrochemical reduction pathway for sulfur cathodes. This pathway uses soluble dimethyl polysulfides and lithium organosulfides as intermediates and products, which can boost cell capacity and lead to improved discharge-charge reversibility and cycling performance of sulfur cathodes. This electrolyte system can potentially enable Li-S batteries to achieve high energy density.

  5. Advanced zinc-air batteries based on high-performance hybrid electrocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanguang; Gong, Ming; Liang, Yongye; Feng, Ju; Kim, Ji-Eun; Wang, Hailiang; Hong, Guosong; Zhang, Bo; Dai, Hongjie

    2013-01-01

    Primary and rechargeable Zn-air batteries could be ideal energy storage devices with high energy and power density, high safety and economic viability. Active and durable electrocatalysts on the cathode side are required to catalyse oxygen reduction reaction during discharge and oxygen evolution reaction during charge for rechargeable batteries. Here we developed advanced primary and rechargeable Zn-air batteries with novel CoO/carbon nanotube hybrid oxygen reduction catalyst and Ni-Fe-layered double hydroxide oxygen evolution catalyst for the cathode. These catalysts exhibited higher catalytic activity and durability in concentrated alkaline electrolytes than precious metal Pt and Ir catalysts. The resulting primary Zn-air battery showed high discharge peak power density ~265 mW cm(-2), current density ~200 mA cm(-2) at 1 V and energy density >700 Wh kg(-1). Rechargeable Zn-air batteries in a tri-electrode configuration exhibited an unprecedented small charge-discharge voltage polarization of ~0.70 V at 20 mA cm(-2), high reversibility and stability over long charge and discharge cycles.

  6. High temperature battery. Hochtemperaturbatterie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulling, M.

    1992-06-04

    To prevent heat losses of a high temperature battery, it is proposed to make the incoming current leads in the area of their penetration through the double-walled insulating housing as thermal throttle, particularly spiral ones.

  7. Inverse opal-inspired, nanoscaffold battery separators: a new membrane opportunity for high-performance energy storage systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Hwan; Kim, Jeong-Hoon; Choi, Keun-Ho; Yu, Hyung Kyun; Kim, Jong Hun; Lee, Joo Sung; Lee, Sang-Young

    2014-08-13

    The facilitation of ion/electron transport, along with ever-increasing demand for high-energy density, is a key to boosting the development of energy storage systems such as lithium-ion batteries. Among major battery components, separator membranes have not been the center of attention compared to other electrochemically active materials, despite their important roles in allowing ionic flow and preventing electrical contact between electrodes. Here, we present a new class of battery separator based on inverse opal-inspired, seamless nanoscaffold structure ("IO separator"), as an unprecedented membrane opportunity to enable remarkable advances in cell performance far beyond those accessible with conventional battery separators. The IO separator is easily fabricated through one-pot, evaporation-induced self-assembly of colloidal silica nanoparticles in the presence of ultraviolet (UV)-curable triacrylate monomer inside a nonwoven substrate, followed by UV-cross-linking and selective removal of the silica nanoparticle superlattices. The precisely ordered/well-reticulated nanoporous structure of IO separator allows significant improvement in ion transfer toward electrodes. The IO separator-driven facilitation of the ion transport phenomena is expected to play a critical role in the realization of high-performance batteries (in particular, under harsh conditions such as high-mass-loading electrodes, fast charging/discharging, and highly polar liquid electrolyte). Moreover, the IO separator enables the movement of the Ragone plot curves to a more desirable position representing high-energy/high-power density, without tailoring other battery materials and configurations. This study provides a new perspective on battery separators: a paradigm shift from plain porous films to pseudoelectrochemically active nanomembranes that can influence the charge/discharge reaction.

  8. Ternary Hybrid Material for High-Performance Lithium-Sulfur Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Qi; Liu, Wen; Weng, Zhe; Sun, Yueming; Wang, Hailiang

    2015-10-14

    The rechargeable lithium-sulfur battery is a promising option for energy storage applications because of its low cost and high energy density. The electrochemical performance of the sulfur cathode, however, is substantially compromised because of fast capacity decay caused by polysulfide dissolution/shuttling and low specific capacity caused by the poor electrical conductivities of the active materials. Herein we demonstrate a novel strategy to address these two problems by designing and synthesizing a carbon nanotube (CNT)/NiFe2O4-S ternary hybrid material structure. In this unique material architecture, each component synergistically serves a specific purpose: The porous CNT network provides fast electron conduction paths and structural stability. The NiFe2O4 nanosheets afford strong binding sites for trapping polysulfide intermediates. The fine S nanoparticles well-distributed on the CNT/NiFe2O4 scaffold facilitate fast Li(+) storage and release for energy delivery. The hybrid material exhibits balanced high performance with respect to specific capacity, rate capability, and cycling stability with outstandingly high Coulombic efficiency. Reversible specific capacities of 1350 and 900 mAh g(-1) are achieved at rates of 0.1 and 1 C respectively, together with an unprecedented cycling stability of ∼0.009% capacity decay per cycle over more than 500 cycles.

  9. Zirconium oxide nanotube-Nafion composite as high performance membrane for all vanadium redox flow battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Md. Abdul; Shanmugam, Sangaraju

    2017-01-01

    A high-performance composite membrane for vanadium redox flow battery (VRB) consisting of ZrO2 nanotubes (ZrNT) and perfluorosulfonic acid (Nafion) was fabricated. The VRB operated with a composite (Nafion-ZrNT) membrane showed the improved ion-selectivity (ratio of proton conductivity to permeability), low self-discharge rate, high discharge capacity and high energy efficiency in comparison with a pristine commercial Nafion-117 membrane. The incorporation of zirconium oxide nanotubes in the Nafion matrix exhibits high proton conductivity (95.2 mS cm-1) and high oxidative stability (99.9%). The Nafion-ZrNT composite membrane exhibited low vanadium ion permeability (3.2 × 10-9 cm2 min-1) and superior ion selectivity (2.95 × 107 S min cm-3). The VRB constructed with a Nafion-ZrNT composite membrane has lower self-discharge rate maintaining an open-circuit voltage of 1.3 V for 330 h relative to a pristine Nafion membrane (29 h). The discharge capacity of Nafion-ZrNT membrane (987 mAh) was 3.5-times higher than Nafion-117 membrane (280 mAh) after 100 charge-discharge cycles. These superior properties resulted in higher coulombic and voltage efficiencies with Nafion-ZrNT membranes compared to VRB with Nafion-117 membrane at a 40 mA cm-2 current density.

  10. Monodisperse mesoporous anatase beads as high performance and safer anodes for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Erwin F.; Chen, Dehong; Hollenkamp, Anthony F.; Cao, Lu; Caruso, Rachel A.

    2015-10-01

    To achieve high efficiency lithium ion batteries (LIBs), an effective active material is important. In this regard, monodisperse mesoporous titania beads (MMTBs) featuring well interconnected nanoparticles were synthesised, and their mesoporous properties were tuned to study how these affect the electrochemical performance in LIBs. Two pore diameters of 15 and 25 nm, three bead diameters of 360, 800 and 2100 nm, and various annealing temperatures (from 300 to 650 °C) were investigated. The electrochemical results showed that while the pore size does not significantly influence the electrochemical behaviour, the specific surface area and the nanocrystal size affect the performance. Also, there is an optimum annealing temperature that enhances electron transfer across the titania bead structure. The carbon content employed in the electrode was varied, showing that the bead diameter strongly influences the minimal content of the conductive carbon required to fabricate the electrode. As a general rule, the smaller the bead diameter, the more carbon was required in the electrode. A large energy capacity and high current rate performance were achieved on the MMTBs featuring high surface area, nano-sized anatase crystals and well-sintered connections between the nanocrystals. The high stability of these mesoporous structures was demonstrated by charge/discharge cycling up to 500 cycles. Devices constructed with the MMTBs retained more than 80% of the initial capacity, indicating an excellent performance.To achieve high efficiency lithium ion batteries (LIBs), an effective active material is important. In this regard, monodisperse mesoporous titania beads (MMTBs) featuring well interconnected nanoparticles were synthesised, and their mesoporous properties were tuned to study how these affect the electrochemical performance in LIBs. Two pore diameters of 15 and 25 nm, three bead diameters of 360, 800 and 2100 nm, and various annealing temperatures (from 300 to 650

  11. Properties of battery materials and their contribution to a high performing lithium-polymer battery (VART PoLiFlex{sup TM})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilic, D.; Perner, A.; Wohrle, T.; Haug, P.; Wurm, C.; Pompetzki, M. [VARTA Microbattery GmbH, Ellwangen (Germany)

    2006-01-15

    Advanced lithium-ion or lithium-polymer batteries are required to have high energy densities in addition to possessing safety features that forestall venting, burning and explosions. Thermal run-away can occur when compounds decompose. This paper presented details of tests conducted on polymer binders and electrolyte formulations in the VARTA PoLiFlex microbattery. Oven and overcharge tests were conducted at a laboratory. Cycle data were recorded with a Maccor test system. A variety of PVdF-HFP copolymer binders were tested, including Kynar, Powerflex and Solef binders. Results suggested that the safety of the polymer cells were not affected by the type of PVdF-HFP. An EC/GBL-based electrolyte formulation using M LiBF{sub 4} as a conducting salt showed less micro-shorts after reaching a temperature plateau compared to low boiling point electrolyte mixtures. Electrolyte additives VC, VEC, PheC and SUC were also tested for their ability to stabilize protective layers on the electrodes. It was concluded that a careful consideration of the electrolyte is needed to ensure high performance and safety level in batteries. Appropriate electrode materials and separators can be selected to ensure that intrinsic safety of the battery is achieved, regardless of exterior protection devices. Good cycle behaviour can be achieved through the selection of binder materials and other battery materials. 4 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

  12. Mesoporous carbon spheres with controlled porosity for high-performance lithium-sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dexian; Fu, Aiping; Li, Hongliang; Wang, Yiqian; Guo, Peizhi; Liu, Jingquan; Zhao, Xiu Song

    2015-07-01

    Mesoporous carbon (MC) spheres with hierarchical pores, controlled pore volume and high specific surface areas have been prepared by a mass-producible spray drying assisted template method using sodium alginate as carbon precursor and commercial colloidal silica particles as hard template. The resulting MC spheres, possessing hierarchical pores in the range of 3-30 nm, are employed as conductive matrices for the preparation of cathode materials for lithium-sulfur batteries. A high pressure induced one-step impregnation of elemental sulfur into the pore of the MC spheres has been exploited. The electrochemical performances of sulfur-impregnated MC spheres (S-MC) derived from MC spheres with different pore volume and specific surface area but with the same sulfur loading ratio of 60 wt% (S-MC-X-60) have been investigated in details. The S-MC-4-60 composite cathode material displayed a high initial discharge capacity of 1388 mAhg-1 and a good cycling stability of 857 mAhg-1 after 100 cycles at 0.2C, and shows also excellent rate capability of 864 mAhg-1 at 2C. More importantly, the sulfur loading content in MC-4 spheres can reach as high as 80%, and it still can deliver a capacity of 569 mAhg-1 after 100 cycles at 0.2C.

  13. Chemically Crushed Wood Cellulose Fiber towards High-Performance Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Fei; Zhu, Hongli; Luo, Wei; Wan, Jiayu; Zhou, Lihui; Dai, Jiaqi; Zhao, Bin; Han, Xiaogang; Fu, Kun; Hu, Liangbing

    2015-10-21

    Carbon materials have attracted great interest as an anode for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) due to their high performance and low cost. Here, we studied natural wood fiber derived hard carbon anodes for SIBs considering the abundance and low cost of wood. We discovered that a thermal carbonization of wood fiber led to a porous carbon with a high specific surface area of 586 m(2) g(-1), while a pretreatment with 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO) could effectively decrease it to 126 m(2) g(-1). When evaluating them as anodes for SIBs, we observed that the low surface area carbon resulted in a high initial Coulombic efficiency of 72% compared to 25% of the high surface area carbon. More importantly, the low surface area carbon exhibits an excellent cycling stability that a desodiation capacity of 196 mAh g(-1) can be delivered over 200 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g(-1), indicating a promising anode for low-cost SIBs.

  14. Hollow Porous VOx/C Nanoscrolls as High-Performance Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Bao-Rui; Qin, Ming-Li; Zhang, Zi-Li; Li, Shu-Mei; Zhang, De-Yin; Wu, Hao-Yang; Zhang, Lin; Lu, Xin; Qu, Xuan-Hui

    2016-10-05

    Novel hollow porous VOx/C nanoscrolls are synthesized by an annealing process with the VOx/octadecylamine (ODA) nanoscrolls as both vanadium and carbon sources. In the preparation, the VOx/ODA nanoscrolls are first achieved by a two-phase solvothermal method using ammonium metavanadat as the precursor. Upon subsequent heating, the intercalated amines between the vanadate layers in the VOx/ODA nanoscrolls decompose into gases, which escape from inside the nanoscrolls and leave sufficient pores in the walls. As the anodes of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), such hollow porous VOx/C nanoscrolls possess exceedingly high capacity and rate capability (904 mAh g(-1) at 1 A g(-1)) and long cyclic stability (872 mAh g(-1) after 210 cycles at 1 A g(-1)). The good performance is derived from the unique structural features of the hollow hierarchical porous nanoscrolls with low crystallinity, which could significantly suppress irreversible Li(+) trapping as well as improve Li(+) diffusion kinetics. This universal method of annealing amine-intercalated oxide could be widely applied to the fabrication of a variety of porous electrode materials for high-performance LIBs and supercapacitors.

  15. A long-life lithium ion sulfur battery exploiting high performance electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Noelia; Agostini, Marco; Caballero, Alvaro; Morales, Julián; Hassoun, Jusef

    2015-10-04

    A novel lithium ion sulfur battery is formed by coupling an activated ordered mesoporous carbon-sulfur (AOMC-S) cathode and a nanostructured tin-carbon anode. The lithium ion cell has improved reversibility, high energy content and excellent cycle life.

  16. Preparation of 3D nanoporous copper-supported cuprous oxide for high-performance lithium ion battery anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dequan; Yang, Zhibo; Wang, Peng; Li, Fei; Wang, Desheng; He, Deyan

    2013-03-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) nanoporous architectures can provide efficient and rapid pathways for Li-ion and electron transport as well as short solid-state diffusion lengths in lithium ion batteries (LIBs). In this work, 3D nanoporous copper-supported cuprous oxide was successfully fabricated by low-cost selective etching of an electron-beam melted Cu(50)Al(50) alloy and subsequent in situ thermal oxidation. The architecture was used as an anode in lithium ion batteries. In the first cycle, the sample delivered an extremely high lithium storage capacity of about 2.35 mA h cm(-2). A high reversible capacity of 1.45 mA h cm(-2) was achieved after 120 cycles. This work develops a promising approach to building reliable 3D nanostructured electrodes for high-performance lithium ion batteries.

  17. Metal hydride-based materials towards high performance negative electrodes for all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Liang; Kawahito, Koji; Ikeda, Suguru; Ichikawa, Takayuki; Miyaoka, Hiroki; Kojima, Yoshitsugu

    2015-06-18

    Electrode performances of MgH2-LiBH4 composite materials for lithium-ion batteries have been studied using LiBH4 as the solid-state electrolyte, which shows a high reversible capacity of 1650 mA h g(-1) with an extremely low polarization of 0.05 V, durable cyclability and robust rate capability.

  18. Nanostructured titanium nitride as a novel cathode for high performance lithium/dissolved polysulfide batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosavati, Negar; Chitturi, Venkateswara Rao; Salley, Steven O.; Ng, K. Y. Simon

    2016-07-01

    Lithium-sulfur (Lisbnd S) batteries could potentially revolutionize the rechargeable battery market due to their high energy density and low cost. However, low active material utilization, electrode volumetric expansion and a high rate of capacity fade due to the dissolution of lithium polysulfide intermediates in the liquid electrolyte are the main challenges facing further Lisbnd S battery development. Here, we enhanced Lisbnd S batteries active material utilization and decreased the volumetric expansion by using the lithium/dissolved polysulfide configuration. Moreover, a novel class of cathode materials, Titanium Nitride (TiN), was developed for polysulfide conversion reactions. The surface chemical environment of the TiN has been investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. The existence of Ssbnd Tisbnd N bonding at the cathode electrode surface was observed, which indicates the strong interactions between TiN and polysulfides. Therefore, the TiN electrode retains the sulfur species on the cathode surface, minimizing the active material and surface area loss and consequently, improves the capacity retention. The resultant cells demonstrated a high initial capacity of 1524 mAh g-1 and a good capacity retention for 100 cycles at a C/10 current rate.

  19. Highly monodispersed tin oxide/mesoporous starbust carbon composite as high-performance Li-ion battery anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiajun; Yano, Kazuhisa

    2013-08-28

    The widespread commercialization of today's plug-in hybrid and all electric vehicles will rely on improved lithium batteries with higher energy density, greater power, and durability.To take advantage of the high density of SnO2 anodes for Li ion batteries, we achieved a smart design of monodispersed SnO2/MSCS composite with very high content of SnO2 by a simple infiltration procedure. The synergistic effects of the unique nanoarchitecture of MSCS and the ultrafine size of SnO2 nanoparticle endowed the composite with superior electrochemical performance. Because of the high density of the composite resulting from its monodispersed submicrometer spherical morphology, an exceptionally high reversible lithium storage capacity (both gravimetric and volumetric), very close to the theoretical capacity (1491 mA h/g), can be achieved with good cyclability (capacity retention of 92.5% after 15 cycles). The SnO2/MSCS composite anode exhibited a high reversible average capacity of about 1200 mAh/g over 30 cycles at a current of 80 mAh/g, which corresponds to about 1440 mAh/cm(3) (practical volumetric capacity). In addition, a Coulombic efficiency close to 100% was achieved, and less than 25% first irreversible capacity loss was observed.

  20. A high performance silicon/carbon composite anode with carbon nanofiber for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Q.; Hanai, K.; Ichikawa, T.; Hirano, A.; Imanishi, N.; Takeda, Y.; Yamamoto, O.

    The electrochemical performance of a composite of nano-Si powder and a pyrolytic carbon of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) with carbon nanofiber (CNF) was examined as an anode for lithium-ion batteries. CNF was incorporated into the composite by two methods; direct mixing of CNF with the nano-Si powder coated with carbon produced by pyrolysis of PVC (referred to as Si/C/CNF-1) and mixing of CNF, nano-Si powder, and PVC with subsequent firing (referred to as Si/C/CNF-2). The external Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area of Si/C/CNF-1 was comparable to that of Si/C/CNF-2. The micropore BET surface area of Si/C/CNF-2 (73.86 m 2 g -1) was extremely higher than that of Si/C/CNF-1 (0.74 m 2 g -1). The composites prepared by both methods exhibited high capacity and excellent cycling stability for lithium insertion and extraction. A capacity of more than 900 mA h g -1 was maintained after 30 cycles. The coulombic efficiency of the first cycle for Si/C/CNF-1 was as low as 53%, compared with 73% for Si/C/CNF-2. Impedance analysis of cells containing these anode materials suggested that the charge transfer resistance for Si/C/CNF-1 was not changed by cycling, but that Si/C/CNF-2 had high charge transfer resistance after cycling. A composite electrode prepared by mixing Si/C/CNF-2 and CNF exhibited a high reversible capacity at high rate, excellent cycling performance, and a high coulombic efficiency during the first lithium insertion and extraction cycles.

  1. TiS2-MWCNT hybrid as high performance anode in lithium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartick, B.; Srivastava, Suneel Kumar; Mahanty, Sourindra

    2013-09-01

    The present work reports the preparation of hybrids by simple dry grinding of titanium sulfide (TiS2) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in different weight ratio and their characterization. X-ray diffraction and Raman studies indicated the presence of interaction between the TiS2 and MWCNT. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy showed the formation of three-dimensional architecture and co-dispersion in TiS2-MWCNT (1:1) hybrid. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy also confirmed the presence of TiS2 and MWCNT in the prepared hybrid. Thermogravimetric analysis indicated an increase in thermal stability with higher MWCNT content. The results of the electrochemical analyses indicated that TiS2-MWCNT (1:1) hybrid exhibited an enhanced performance as lithium-ion battery anode. The initial specific capacity was found to be ≈450 mAh g-1 with 80 % retention in capacity after 50 discharge-charge cycles. These values are significantly higher compared to those for TiS2, MWCNT or other TiS2-MWCNT hybrids. Such improved performance is attributed to the presence of a synergistic effect between TiS2 and MWCNT.

  2. Electrochemically Formed Ultrafine Metal Oxide Nanocatalysts for High-Performance Lithium–Oxygen Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Bin; Yan, Pengfei; Xu, Wu; Zheng, Jianming; He, Yang; Luo, Langli; Bowden, Mark E.; Wang, Chong-Min; Zhang, Ji-Guang

    2016-08-10

    Lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) battery has an extremely high theoretical specific energy density as compared with conventional energy storage systems. However, practical application of Li-O2 battery system still faces significant challenges, especially its poor cyclability. In this work, we report a new approach to synthesis ultrafine metal oxide nanocatalysts through an electrochemical pre-lithiation process. This process reduces the size of NiCo2O4 (NCO) particles from 20~30 nm to a uniformly distributed domain of ~ 2 nm and largely improved their catalytic activity. Structurally, the pre-lithiated NCO NWs are featured by ultrafine NiO/CoO nanoparticles, which show high stability during prolonged cycles in terms of morphology and the particle size, therefore maintaining an excellent catalytic effect to oxygen reduction and evolution reactions. Li-O2 battery using this catalyst has demonstrated an initial capacity of 29,280 mAh g-1 and has retained a stable capacity of over 1,000 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles based on the weight of NCO active material. Direct in-situ TEM observation conclusively reveals the lithiation/delithiation process of as-prepared NCO NWs, clarifying the NCO/Li electrochemical reaction mechanism that can be extended to other transition-metal oxides and providing the in depth understandings on the catalysts and battery chemistries of other ternary transition-metal oxides.

  3. Electrochemically Formed Ultrafine Metal Oxide Nanocatalysts for High-Performance Lithium-Oxygen Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Yan, Pengfei; Xu, Wu; Zheng, Jianming; He, Yang; Luo, Langli; Bowden, Mark E; Wang, Chong-Min; Zhang, Ji-Guang

    2016-08-10

    Lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) batteries have an extremely high theoretical specific energy density when compared with conventional energy-storage systems. However, practical application of the Li-O2 battery system still faces significant challenges. In this work, we report a new approach for synthesis of ultrafine metal oxide nanocatalysts through an electrochemical prelithiation process. This process reduces the size of NiCo2O4 (NCO) particles from 20-30 nm to a uniformly distributed domain of ∼2 nm and significantly improves their catalytic activity. Structurally, the prelithiated NCO nanowires feature ultrafine NiO/CoO nanoparticles that are highly stable during prolonged cycles in terms of morphology and particle size, thus maintaining an excellent catalytic effect to oxygen reduction and evolution reactions. A Li-O2 battery using this catalyst demonstrated an initial capacity of 29 280 mAh g(-1) and retained a capacity of >1000 mAh g(-1) after 100 cycles based on the weight of the NCO active material. Direct in situ transmission electron microscopy observations conclusively revealed the lithiation/delithiation process of as-prepared NCO nanowires and provided in-depth understanding for both catalyst and battery chemistries of transition-metal oxides. This unique electrochemical approach could also be used to form ultrafine nanoparticles of a broad range of materials for catalyst and other applications.

  4. Highly nitrogen-doped carbon capsules: scalable preparation and high-performance applications in fuel cells and lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chuangang; Xiao, Ying; Zhao, Yang; Chen, Nan; Zhang, Zhipan; Cao, Minhua; Qu, Liangti

    2013-04-07

    Highly nitrogen-doped carbon capsules (hN-CCs) have been successfully prepared by using inexpensive melamine and glyoxal as precursors via solvothermal reaction and carbonization. With a great promise for large scale production, the hN-CCs, having large surface area and high-level nitrogen content (N/C atomic ration of ca. 13%), possess superior crossover resistance, selective activity and catalytic stability towards oxygen reduction reaction for fuel cells in alkaline medium. As a new anode material in lithium-ion battery, hN-CCs also exhibit excellent cycle performance and high rate capacity with a reversible capacity of as high as 1046 mA h g(-1) at a current density of 50 mA g(-1) after 50 cycles. These features make the hN-CCs developed in this study promising as suitable substitutes for the expensive noble metal catalysts in the next generation alkaline fuel cells, and as advanced electrode materials in lithium-ion batteries.

  5. Ordered mesoporous carbon/sulfur nanocomposite of high performances as cathode for lithium-sulfur battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Shuru [State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, School of Energy Research, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Zhai Yunpu [Department of Chemistry, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Materials, and Advanced Materials Laboratory, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Xu Guiliang; Jiang Yanxia [State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, School of Energy Research, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Zhao Dongyuan, E-mail: dyzhao@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Materials, and Advanced Materials Laboratory, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Li Juntao; Huang Ling [State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, School of Energy Research, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Sun Shigang, E-mail: sgsun@xmu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, School of Energy Research, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)

    2011-11-01

    Ordered mesoporous carbon/sulfur (OMC/S) nanocomposites with hierarchically structured sulfur loading, ranging from 50 to 75 wt%, were synthesized via a simple melt-diffusion strategy. The OMC with a BET surface area of 2102 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}, a pore volume of 2.0 cm{sup 3} g{sup -1} and unique bimodal mesoporous (5.6/2.3 nm) structure, was prepared from a triconstituent co-assembly method. The resulting OMC/S nanocomposite material served as cathode of rechargeable lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery. It has been tested that the novel OMC/S cathode can deliver a superior reversible capacity and cyclability. In particular, the nanocomposite with a loading of 60 wt% sulfur (OMC/S-60) presents the highest sulfur utilization ca. 70%, an excellent high rate capability ca. 6 C and a good cycling stability for up to 400 full charge-discharge cycles. The exceptional electrochemical performances are exclusively attributed to the large internal surface area and high porosity of the ordered mesoporous carbon, which favorites both electron and Li-ion transportations.

  6. Sb nanoparticles encapsulated into porous carbon matrixes for high-performance lithium-ion battery anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Zheng; Han, Qigang; Zan, Ping; Wu, Yaoming; Cheng, Yong; Wang, Limin

    2016-11-01

    A novel Sb/C polyhedra composite is successfully fabricated by a galvanic replacement reaction technique using metal organic frameworks as templates. In this composite, the ultrasmall Sb nanoparticles with an average size of 15 nm are homogeneously encapsulated into the carbon matrixes, forming a hierarchical porous structure with nanosized building blocks. Used as an anode material for lithium ion batteries, this composite exhibits high lithium storage capacities, excellent rate capability and superior cycle stability, higher than many reported results. Notably, a discharge capacity of 565 mAh g-1 at a current density of 0.2 A g-1 is delivered after 100 repeated cycles. Even at a high current density of 1 A g-1, a discharge capacity of 400.5 mAh g-1 is also maintained after 500 cycles. Such superior cycling stability and rate discharge performance of the designed Sb/C composite can be attributed to the synergistic effect between Sb nanoparticles and the porous carbon matrixes.

  7. Fabrication of ordered NiO coated Si nanowire array films as electrodes for a high performance lithium ion battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, M C; Yang, L W; Qi, X; Li, Jun; Zhong, J X

    2010-12-01

    Highly ordered NiO coated Si nanowire array films are fabricated as electrodes for a high performance lithium ion battery via depositing Ni on electroless-etched Si nanowires and subsequently annealing. The structures and morphologies of as-prepared films are characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. When the potential window versus lithium was controlled, the coated NiO can be selected to be electrochemically active to store and release Li+ ions, while highly conductive crystalline Si cores function as nothing more than a stable mechanical support and an efficient electrical conducting pathway. The hybrid nanowire array films exhibit superior cyclic stability and reversible capacity compared to that of NiO nanostructured films. Owing to the ease of large-scale fabrication and superior electrochemical performance, these hybrid nanowire array films will be promising anode materials for high performance lithium-ion batteries.

  8. Nitrogen-Doped Hollow Carbon Nanospheres for High-Performance Li-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yufen; Jin, Song; Zhang, Zhen; Du, Zhenzhen; Liu, Huarong; Yang, Jia; Xu, Hangxun; Ji, Hengxing

    2017-04-26

    N-doped carbon materials is of particular attraction for anodes of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) because of their high surface areas, superior electrical conductivity, and excellent mechanical strength, which can store energy by adsorption/desorption of Li(+) at the interfaces between the electrolyte and electrode. By directly carbonization of zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 nanospheres synthesized by an emulsion-based interfacial reaction, we obtained N-doped hollow carbon nanospheres with tunable shell thickness (20 nm to solid sphere) and different N dopant concentrations (3.9 to 21.7 at %). The optimized anode material possessed a shell thickness of 20 nm and contained 16.6 at % N dopants that were predominately pyridinic and pyrrolic. The anode delivered a specific capacity of 2053 mA h g(-1) at 100 mA g(-1) and 879 mA h g(-1) at 5 A g(-1) for 1000 cycles, implying a superior cycling stability. The improved electrochemical performance can be ascribed to (1) the Li(+) adsorption dominated energy storage mechanism prevents the volume change of the electrode materials, (2) the hollow nanostructure assembled by the nanometer-sized primary particles prevents the agglomeration of the nanoparticles and favors for Li(+) diffusion, (3) the optimized N dopant concentration and configuration facilitate the adsorption of Li(+); and (4) the graphitic carbon nanostructure ensures a good electrical conductivity.

  9. High-performance graphene/sulphur electrodes for flexible Li-ion batteries using the low-temperature spraying method

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Pushpendra

    2015-01-01

    Elementary sulphur (S) has been shown to be an excellent cathode material in energy storage devices such as Li-S batteries owing to its very high capacity. The major challenges associated with the sulphur cathodes are structural degradation, poor cycling performance and instability of the solid-electrolyte interphase caused by the dissolution of polysulfides during cycling. Tremendous efforts made by others have demonstrated that encapsulation of S materials improves their cycling performance. To make this approach practical for large scale applications, the use of low-cost technology and materials has become a crucial and new focus of S-based Li-ion batteries. Herein, we propose to use a low temperature spraying process to fabricate graphene/S electrode material, where the ink is composed of graphene flakes and the micron-sized S particles prepared by grinding of low-cost S powders. The S particles are found to be well hosted by highly conductive graphene flakes and consequently superior cyclability (∼70% capacity retention after 250 cycles), good coulombic efficiency (∼98%) and high capacity (∼1500 mA h g-1) are obtained. The proposed approach does not require high temperature annealing or baking; hence, another great advantage is to make flexible Li-ion batteries. We have also demonstrated two types of flexible batteries using sprayed graphene/S electrodes. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015.

  10. Recent Progress in the Design of Advanced Cathode Materials and Battery Models for High-Performance Lithium-X (X = O2 , S, Se, Te, I2 , Br2 ) Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiantie; Ma, Jianmin; Fan, Qinghua; Guo, Shaojun; Dou, Shixue

    2017-07-01

    Recent advances and achievements in emerging Li-X (X = O2 , S, Se, Te, I2 , Br2 ) batteries with promising cathode materials open up new opportunities for the development of high-performance lithium-ion battery alternatives. In this review, we focus on an overview of recent important progress in the design of advanced cathode materials and battery models for developing high-performance Li-X (X = O2 , S, Se, Te, I2 , Br2 ) batteries. We start with a brief introduction to explain why Li-X batteries are important for future renewable energy devices. Then, we summarize the existing drawbacks, major progress and emerging challenges in the development of cathode materials for Li-O2 (S) batteries. In terms of the emerging Li-X (Se, Te, I2 , Br2 ) batteries, we systematically summarize their advantages/disadvantages and recent progress. Specifically, we review the electrochemical performance of Li-Se (Te) batteries using carbonate-/ether-based electrolytes, made with different electrode fabrication techniques, and of Li-I2 (Br2 ) batteries with various cell designs (e.g., dual electrolyte, all-organic electrolyte, with/without cathode-flow mode, and fuel cell/solar cell integration). Finally, the perspective on and challenges for the development of cathode materials for the promising Li-X (X = O2 , S, Se, Te, I2 , Br2 ) batteries is presented. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. High energy battery. Hochenergiebatterie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, H.; Beyermann, G.; Bulling, M.

    1992-03-26

    In a high energy battery with a large number of individual cells in a housing with a cooling medium flowing through it, it is proposed that the cooling medium should be guided so that it only affects one or both sides of the cells thermally.

  12. Methods of synthesis and performance improvement of lithium iron phosphate for high rate Li-ion batteries: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V.S.L. Satyavani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Lithium ion battery technology has the potential to meet the requirements of high energy density and high power density applications. A continuous search for novel materials is pursued continually to exploit the latent potential of this technology. In this review paper, methods for preparation of Lithium Iron Phosphate are discussed which include solid state and solution based synthesis routes. The methods to improve the electrochemical performance of lithium iron phosphate are presented in detail.

  13. Methods of synthesis and performance improvement of lithium iron phosphate for high rate Li-ion batteries: A review

    OpenAIRE

    T.V.S.L. Satyavani; Srinivas Kumar, A.; P.S.V. Subba Rao

    2016-01-01

    Lithium ion battery technology has the potential to meet the requirements of high energy density and high power density applications. A continuous search for novel materials is pursued continually to exploit the latent potential of this technology. In this review paper, methods for preparation of Lithium Iron Phosphate are discussed which include solid state and solution based synthesis routes. The methods to improve the electrochemical performance of lithium iron phosphate are presented in d...

  14. Structural optimization of 3D porous electrodes for high-rate performance lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jianchao; Baumgaertel, Andreas C; Wang, Y Morris; Biener, Juergen; Biener, Monika M

    2015-02-24

    Much progress has recently been made in the development of active materials, electrode morphologies and electrolytes for lithium ion batteries. Well-defined studies on size effects of the three-dimensional (3D) electrode architecture, however, remain to be rare due to the lack of suitable material platforms where the critical length scales (such as pore size and thickness of the active material) can be freely and deterministically adjusted over a wide range without affecting the overall 3D morphology of the electrode. Here, we report on a systematic study on length scale effects on the electrochemical performance of model 3D np-Au/TiO2 core/shell electrodes. Bulk nanoporous gold provides deterministic control over the pore size and is used as a monolithic metallic scaffold and current collector. Extremely uniform and conformal TiO2 films of controlled thickness were deposited on the current collector by employing atomic layer deposition (ALD). Our experiments demonstrate profound performance improvements by matching the Li(+) diffusivity in the electrolyte and the solid state through adjusting pore size and thickness of the active coating which, for 200 μm thick porous electrodes, requires the presence of 100 nm pores. Decreasing the thickness of the TiO2 coating generally improves the power performance of the electrode by reducing the Li(+) diffusion pathway, enhancing the Li(+) solid solubility, and minimizing the voltage drop across the electrode/electrolyte interface. With the use of the optimized electrode morphology, supercapacitor-like power performance with lithium-ion-battery energy densities was realized. Our results provide the much-needed fundamental insight for the rational design of the 3D architecture of lithium ion battery electrodes with improved power performance.

  15. Three-dimensional tungsten nitride nanowires as high performance anode material for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Qiu, Yongfu; Han, Yi; Guo, Yan; Cheng, Faliang

    2016-08-01

    Nanostructure materials often achieve low capacity when the active material mass loading is high. In this communication, high mass-loading tungsten nitride nanowires (WNNWs) were fabricated on a flexible carbon cloth by hydrothermal method and post annealing. The prepared electrode exhibited remarkable cyclic stability and attractive rate capability for lithium storage. It delivers at a current density of 200 mA g-1, a high capacity of 418 mAh g-1, which is higher than that of conventional graphite. This research opens more opportunity for the fabrication of three-dimensional metal nitrides as negative electrode material for flexible lithium ion batteries.

  16. Hard carbon coated nano-Si/graphite composite as a high performance anode for Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Sookyung; Li, Xiaolin; Zheng, Jianming; Yan, Pengfei; Cao, Ruiguo; Jung, Hee Joon; Wang, Chongmin; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Ji-Guang

    2016-10-01

    With the ever-increasing demands for higher energy densities in Li-ion batteries, alternative anodes with higher reversible capacity are required to replace the conventional graphite anode. Here, we demonstrate a cost-effective hydrothermal carbonization approach to prepare a hard carbon coated nano-Si/graphite (HC-nSi/G) composite as a high performance anode for Li-ion batteries. In this hierarchical structured composite, the hard carbon coating not only provides an efficient pathway for electron transfer, but also alleviates the volume variation of Si during charge/discharge processes. The HC-nSi/G composite electrode shows excellent performance, including a high specific capacity of 878.6 mAh g-1 based on the total weight of composite, good rate performance, and a decent cycling stability, which is promising for practical applications.

  17. Hard carbon coated nano-Si/graphite composite as a high performance anode for Li-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Sookyung; Li, Xiaolin; Zheng, Jianming; Yan, Pengfei; Cao, Ruiguo; Jung, Hee Joon; Wang, Chong M.; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Jiguang

    2016-08-27

    With the ever increasing demands on Li-ion batteries with higher energy densities, alternative anode with higher reversible capacity is required to replace the conventional graphite anode. Here, we demonstrate a cost-effective hydrothermal-carbonization approach to prepare the hard carbon coated nano-Si/graphite (HC-nSi/G) composite as a high performance anode for Li-ion batteries. In this hierarchical structured composite, the hard carbon coating layer not only provides an efficient pathway for electron transfer, but also alleviates the volume variation of silicon during charge/discharge processes. The HC-nSi/G composite electrode shows excellent electrochemical performances including a high specific capacity of 878.6 mAh g-1 based on the total weight of composite, good rate performance and a decent cycling stability, which is promising for practical applications.

  18. Taichi-inspired rigid-flexible coupling cellulose-supported solid polymer electrolyte for high-performance lithium batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianjun; Yue, Liping; Hu, Pu; Liu, Zhihong; Qin, Bingsheng; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Qingfu; Ding, Guoliang; Zhang, Chuanjian; Zhou, Xinhong; Yao, Jianhua; Cui, Guanglei; Chen, Liquan

    2014-09-03

    Inspired by Taichi, we proposed rigid-flexible coupling concept and herein developed a highly promising solid polymer electrolyte comprised of poly (ethylene oxide), poly (cyano acrylate), lithium bis(oxalate)borate and robust cellulose nonwoven. Our investigation revealed that this new class solid polymer electrolyte possessed comprehensive properties in high mechanical integrity strength, sufficient ionic conductivity (3 × 10(-4) S cm(-1)) at 60°C and improved dimensional thermostability (up to 160°C). In addition, the lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4)/lithium (Li) cell using such solid polymer electrolyte displayed superior rate capacity (up to 6 C) and stable cycle performance at 80°C. Furthermore, the LiFePO4/Li battery could also operate very well even at an elevated temperature of 160°C, thus improving enhanced safety performance of lithium batteries. The use of this solid polymer electrolyte mitigates the safety risk and widens the operation temperature range of lithium batteries. Thus, this fascinating study demonstrates a proof of concept of the use of rigid-flexible coupling solid polymer electrolyte toward practical lithium battery applications with improved reliability and safety.

  19. Facile Synthesis of V2O5 Hollow Spheres as Advanced Cathodes for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingyuan Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional V2O5 hollow structures have been prepared through a simple synthesis strategy combining solvothermal treatment and a subsequent thermal annealing. The V2O5 materials are composed of microspheres 2–3 μm in diameter and with a distinct hollow interior. The as-synthesized V2O5 hollow microspheres, when evaluated as a cathode material for lithium-ion batteries, can deliver a specific capacity as high as 273 mAh·g−1 at 0.2 C. Benefiting from the hollow structures that afford fast electrolyte transport and volume accommodation, the V2O5 cathode also exhibits a superior rate capability and excellent cycling stability. The good Li-ion storage performance demonstrates the great potential of this unique V2O5 hollow material as a high-performance cathode for lithium-ion batteries.

  20. Facile Synthesis of V₂O₅ Hollow Spheres as Advanced Cathodes for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xingyuan; Wang, Jian-Gan; Liu, Huanyan; Liu, Hongzhen; Wei, Bingqing

    2017-01-18

    Three-dimensional V₂O₅ hollow structures have been prepared through a simple synthesis strategy combining solvothermal treatment and a subsequent thermal annealing. The V₂O₅ materials are composed of microspheres 2-3 μm in diameter and with a distinct hollow interior. The as-synthesized V₂O₅ hollow microspheres, when evaluated as a cathode material for lithium-ion batteries, can deliver a specific capacity as high as 273 mAh·g(-1) at 0.2 C. Benefiting from the hollow structures that afford fast electrolyte transport and volume accommodation, the V₂O₅ cathode also exhibits a superior rate capability and excellent cycling stability. The good Li-ion storage performance demonstrates the great potential of this unique V₂O₅ hollow material as a high-performance cathode for lithium-ion batteries.

  1. A binder-free sulfur/reduced graphene oxide aerogel as high performance electrode materials for lithium sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitze, Florian; Agostini, Marco; Lundin, Filippa; Palmqvist, Anders E. C.; Matic, Aleksandar

    2016-12-01

    Societies’ increasing need for energy storage makes it necessary to explore new concepts beyond the traditional lithium ion battery. A promising candidate is the lithium-sulfur technology with the potential to increase the energy density of the battery by a factor of 3-5. However, so far the many problems with the lithium-sulfur system have not been solved satisfactory. Here we report on a new approach utilizing a self-standing reduced graphene oxide based aerogel directly as electrodes, i.e. without further processing and without the addition of binder or conducting agents. We can thereby disrupt the common paradigm of “no battery without binder” and can pave the way to a lithium-sulfur battery with a high practical energy density. The aerogels are synthesized via a one-pot method and consist of more than 2/3 sulfur, contained inside a porous few-layered reduced graphene oxide matrix. By combining the graphene-based aerogel cathode with an electrolyte and a lithium metal anode, we demonstrate a lithium-sulfur cell with high areal capacity (more than 3 mAh/cm2 after 75 cycles), excellent capacity retention over 200 cycles and good sulfur utilization. Based on this performance we estimate that the energy density of this concept-cell can significantly exceed the Department of Energy (DEO) 2020-target set for transport applications.

  2. High-Performance Integrated Self-Package Flexible Li-O2 Battery Based on Stable Composite Anode and Flexible Gas Diffusion Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao-Yang; Xu, Ji-Jing; Bao, Di; Chang, Zhi-Wen; Liu, Da-Peng; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Xin-Bo

    2017-07-01

    With the rising development of flexible and wearable electronics, corresponding flexible energy storage devices with high energy density are required to provide a sustainable energy supply. Theoretically, rechargeable flexible Li-O2 batteries can provide high specific energy density; however, there are only a few reports on the construction of flexible Li-O2 batteries. Conventional flexible Li-O2 batteries possess a loose battery structure, which prevents flexibility and stability. The low mechanical strength of the gas diffusion layer and anode also lead to a flexible Li-O2 battery with poor mechanical properties. All these attributes limit their practical applications. Herein, the authors develop an integrated flexible Li-O2 battery based on a high-fatigue-resistance anode and a novel flexible stretchable gas diffusion layer. Owing to the synergistic effect of the stable electrocatalytic activity and hierarchical 3D interconnected network structure of the free-standing cathode, the obtained flexible Li-O2 batteries exhibit superior electrochemical performance, including a high specific capacity, an excellent rate capability, and exceptional cycle stability. Furthermore, benefitting from the above advantages, the as-fabricated flexible batteries can realize excellent mechanical and electrochemical stability. Even after a thousand cycles of the bending process, the flexible Li-O2 battery can still possess a stable open-circuit voltage, a high specific capacity, and a durable cycle performance. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Highly-flexible 3D Li2S/graphene cathode for high-performance lithium sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiarui; Chen, Yuanfu; Lv, Weiqiang; Wen, Kechun; Li, Pingjian; Qi, Fei; Wang, Zegao; Zhang, Wanli; Li, Yanrong; Qin, Wu; He, Weidong

    2016-09-01

    Three-dimensional Li2S/graphene hierarchical architecture (3DLG) is synthesized with a facile infiltration method. Highly-crystalline Li2S nanoparticles are deposited homogenously into three-dimensional graphene foam (3DGF) network grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD), resulting in 3DLG with high surface area, porosity, flexibility and conductivity. The 3DLG is employed as flexible, free-standing and binder-free cathode without metallic current collectors or conducting additives. Due to the unique structure, the 3DLG exhibits a high discharge capacity of 894.7 mAh g-1 at 0.1 C, a high capacity retention of 87.7% after 300 cycles at 0.2 C, and the high-rate capacity up to 4 C reaches 598.6 mAh g-1. The cyclic performance is record-breaking compared to the previous reports on free-standing graphene-Li2S cathodes. Flexible lithium-sulfur batteries based on the high-capacity 3DLG cathode have promising application potentials in flexible electronics, electrical vehicles, etc.

  4. TiC/NiO Core/Shell Nanoarchitecture with Battery-Capacitive Synchronous Lithium Storage for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hui; Feng, Tong; Gan, Yongping; Fang, Mingyu; Xia, Yang; Liang, Chu; Tao, Xinyong; Zhang, Wenkui

    2015-06-10

    The further development of electrode materials with high capacity and excellent rate capability presents a great challenge for advanced lithium-ion batteries. Herein, we demonstrate a battery-capacitive synchronous lithium storage mechanism based on a scrupulous design of TiC/NiO core/shell nanoarchitecture, in which the TiC nanowire core exhibits a typical double-layer capacitive behavior, and the NiO nanosheet shell acts as active materials for Li(+) storage. The as-constructed TiC/NiO (32 wt % NiO) core/shell nanoarchitecture offers high overall capacity and excellent cycling ability, retaining above 507.5 mAh g(-1) throughout 60 cycles at a current density of 200 mA g(-1) (much higher than theoretical value of the TiC/NiO composite). Most importantly, the high rate capability is far superior to that of NiO or other metal oxide electrode materials, owing to its double-layer capacitive characteristics of TiC nanowire and intrinsic high electrical conductivity for facile electron transport during Li(+) storage process. Our work offers a promising approach via a rational hybridization of two electrochemical energy storage materials for harvesting high capacity and good rate performance.

  5. Electrodeposited Structurally Stable V2O5 Inverse Opal Networks as High Performance Thin Film Lithium Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Eileen; McNulty, David; Geaney, Hugh; O'Dwyer, Colm

    2015-12-01

    High performance thin film lithium batteries using structurally stable electrodeposited V2O5 inverse opal (IO) networks as cathodes provide high capacity and outstanding cycling capability and also were demonstrated on transparent conducting oxide current collectors. The superior electrochemical performance of the inverse opal structures was evaluated through galvanostatic and potentiodynamic cycling, and the IO thin film battery offers increased capacity retention compared to micron-scale bulk particles from improved mechanical stability and electrical contact to stainless steel or transparent conducting current collectors from bottom-up electrodeposition growth. Li(+) is inserted into planar and IO structures at different potentials, and correlated to a preferential exposure of insertion sites of the IO network to the electrolyte. Additionally, potentiodynamic testing quantified the portion of the capacity stored as surface bound capacitive charge. Raman scattering and XRD characterization showed how the IO allows swelling into the pore volume rather than away from the current collector. V2O5 IO coin cells offer high initial capacities, but capacity fading can occur with limited electrolyte. Finally, we demonstrate that a V2O5 IO thin film battery prepared on a transparent conducting current collector with excess electrolyte exhibits high capacities (∼200 mAh g(-1)) and outstanding capacity retention and rate capability.

  6. Microwave exfoliated graphene oxide/TiO{sub 2} nanowire hybrid for high performance lithium ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishtiaque Shuvo, Mohammad Arif; Rodriguez, Gerardo; Karim, Hasanul; Lin, Yirong [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas 79968 (United States); Islam, Md Tariqul; Noveron, Juan C. [Department of Chemistry, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas 79968 (United States); Ramabadran, Navaneet [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of California at Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

    2015-09-28

    Lithium ion battery (LIB) is a key solution to the demand of ever-improving, high energy density, clean-alternative energy systems. In LIB, graphite is the most commonly used anode material; however, lithium-ion intercalation in graphite is limited, hindering the battery charge rate and capacity. To date, one of the approaches in LIB performance improvement is by using porous carbon (PC) to replace graphite as anode material. PC's pore structure facilitates ion transport and has been proven to be an excellent anode material candidate in high power density LIBs. In addition, to overcome the limited lithium-ion intercalation obstacle, nanostructured anode assembly has been extensively studied to increase the lithium-ion diffusion rate. Among these approaches, high specific surface area metal oxide nanowires connecting nanostructured carbon materials accumulation have shown promising results for enhanced lithium-ion intercalation. Herein, we demonstrate a hydrothermal approach of growing TiO{sub 2} nanowires (TON) on microwave exfoliated graphene oxide (MEGO) to further improve LIB performance over PC. This MEGO-TON hybrid not only uses the high surface area of MEGO but also increases the specific surface area for electrode–electrolyte interaction. Therefore, this new nanowire/MEGO hybrid anode material enhances both the specific capacity and charge–discharge rate. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction were used for materials characterization. Battery analyzer was used for measuring the electrical performance of the battery. The testing results have shown that MEGO-TON hybrid provides up to 80% increment of specific capacity compared to PC anode.

  7. High-performance batteries for electric-vehicle propulsion and stationary energy storage. Progress report, October 1977--September 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, P.A.; Barney, D.L.; Steunenberg, R.K.

    1978-11-01

    The research, development, and management activities of the programs at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and at industrial subcontractors' laboratories on high-temperature batteries during the period October 1977--September 1978 are reported. These batteries are being developed for electric-vehicle propulsion and for stationary-energy-storage applications. The present cells, which operate at 400 to 500/sup 0/C, are of a vertically oriented, prismatic design with one or more inner positive electrodes of FeS or FeS/sub 2/, facing electrodes of lithium--aluminum alloy, and molten LiCl--KCl electrolyte. During this fiscal year, cell and battery development work continued at ANL, Eagle--Picher Industries, Inc., the Energy Systems Group of Rockwell International, and Gould Inc. Related work was also in progress at the Carborundum Co., General Motors Research Laboratories, and various other organizations. A major event was the initiation of a subcontract with Eagle--Picher Industries to develop, design, and fabricate a 40-kWh battery (Mark IA) for testing in an electric van. Conceptual design studies on a 100-MWh stationary-energy-storage module were conducted as a joint effort between ANL and Rockwell International. A significant technical advance was the development of multiplate cells, which are capable of higher performance than bicells. 89 figures, 57 tables.

  8. Bubble-Sheet-Like Interface Design with an Ultrastable Solid Electrolyte Layer for High-Performance Dual-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Panpan; Wang, Meng; Li, Na; Zhu, Haili; Ding, Xuan; Tang, Yongbing

    2017-02-22

    In this work, a bubble-sheet-like hollow interface design on Al foil anode to improve the cycling stability and rate performance of aluminum anode based dual-ion battery is reported, in which, a carbon-coated hollow aluminum anode is used as both anode materials and current collector. This anode structure can guide the alloying position inside the hollow nanospheres, and also confine the alloy sizes within the hollow nanospheres, resulting in significantly restricted volumetric expansion and ultrastable solid electrolyte interface (SEI). As a result, the battery demonstrates an excellent long-term cycling stability within 1500 cycles with ≈99% capacity retention at 2 C. Moreover, this cell displays an energy density of 169 Wh kg(-1) even at high power density of 2113 W kg(-1) (10 C, charge and discharge within 6 min), which is much higher than most of conventional lithium ion batteries. The interfacial engineering strategy shown in this work to stabilize SEI layer and control the alloy forming position could be generalized to promote the research development of metal anodes based battery systems.

  9. High performance Si/C@CNF composite anode for solid-polymer lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Q.; Hanai, K.; Ichikawa, T.; Hirano, A.; Imanishi, N.; Yamamoto, O.; Takeda, Y.

    The electrochemical performance of a composite of nano-Si powder and a pyrolytic carbon of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) with carbon nanofiber (CNF) was examined as an anode for solid-polymer lithium-ion batteries. Nano-Si powder was firstly coated with carbon by pyrolysis of PVC and then mixed with CNF (referred to as Si/C@CNF) using a rotation mixer. The composite exhibited good cycling performance, but suffered from a large irreversible capacity loss of which the retention was less than 60%. In order to reduce the loss, a thin lithium sheet was attached to the Si/C@CNF electrode surface as a reducing agent. The irreversible capacity of the first cycle was lowered to as much as 0 mAh g -1 and after the third cycle, the lithium insertion and extraction efficiency was almost 100%. A reversible capacity of more than 1000 mAh g -1 was still maintained after 40 cycles.

  10. Hubble space telescope onboard battery performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Gopalakrishna M.; Wajsgras, Harry; Vaidyanathan, Hari; Armontrout, Jon D.

    1996-01-01

    The performance of six 88 Ah Nickel-Hydrogen (Ni-H2) batteries that are used onboard in the Hubble Space Telescope (Flight Spare Module (FSM) and Flight Module 2 (FM2)) is discussed. These batteries have 22 series cells per battery and a common bus that would enable them to operate at a common voltage. It is launched on April 24, 1990. This paper reviews: the cell design, battery specification, system constraints, operating parameters, onboard battery management, and battery performance.

  11. High-performance graphene/sulphur electrodes for flexible Li-ion batteries using the low-temperature spraying method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pushpendra; Wu, Feng-Yu; Hu, Lung-Hao; Ali Abbas, Syed; Ming, Jun; Lin, Chia-Nan; Fang, Jason; Chu, Chih-Wei; Li, Lain-Jong

    2015-04-01

    Elementary sulphur (S) has been shown to be an excellent cathode material in energy storage devices such as Li-S batteries owing to its very high capacity. The major challenges associated with the sulphur cathodes are structural degradation, poor cycling performance and instability of the solid-electrolyte interphase caused by the dissolution of polysulfides during cycling. Tremendous efforts made by others have demonstrated that encapsulation of S materials improves their cycling performance. To make this approach practical for large scale applications, the use of low-cost technology and materials has become a crucial and new focus of S-based Li-ion batteries. Herein, we propose to use a low temperature spraying process to fabricate graphene/S electrode material, where the ink is composed of graphene flakes and the micron-sized S particles prepared by grinding of low-cost S powders. The S particles are found to be well hosted by highly conductive graphene flakes and consequently superior cyclability (~70% capacity retention after 250 cycles), good coulombic efficiency (~98%) and high capacity (~1500 mA h g-1) are obtained. The proposed approach does not require high temperature annealing or baking; hence, another great advantage is to make flexible Li-ion batteries. We have also demonstrated two types of flexible batteries using sprayed graphene/S electrodes.Elementary sulphur (S) has been shown to be an excellent cathode material in energy storage devices such as Li-S batteries owing to its very high capacity. The major challenges associated with the sulphur cathodes are structural degradation, poor cycling performance and instability of the solid-electrolyte interphase caused by the dissolution of polysulfides during cycling. Tremendous efforts made by others have demonstrated that encapsulation of S materials improves their cycling performance. To make this approach practical for large scale applications, the use of low-cost technology and materials has become

  12. Ceramic separators based on Li+-conducting inorganic electrolyte for high-performance lithium-ion batteries with enhanced safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yun-Chae; Kim, Seul-Ki; Kim, Moon-Sung; Lee, Jeong-Hye; Han, Man-Seok; Kim, Duck-Hyun; Shin, Woo-Cheol; Ue, Makoto; Kim, Dong-Won

    2015-10-01

    Flexible ceramic separators based on Li+-conducting lithium lanthanum zirconium oxide are prepared as thin films and directly applied onto negative electrode to produce a separator-electrode assembly with good interfacial adhesion and low interfacial resistances. The ceramic separators show an excellent thermal stability and high ionic conductivity as compared to conventional polypropylene separator. The lithium-ion batteries assembled with graphite negative electrode, Li+-conducting ceramic separator and LiCoO2 positive electrode exhibit good cycling performance in terms of discharge capacity, capacity retention and rate capability. It is also demonstrated that the use of a ceramic separator can greatly improve safety over cells employing a polypropylene separator, which is highly desirable for lithium-ion batteries with enhanced safety.

  13. Hydroxylated N-doped carbon nanotube-sulfur composites as cathodes for high-performance lithium-sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun Seop; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2017-03-01

    Despite the higher energy density than the conventional Li-ion cells at a lower cost, commercialization of Lisbnd S batteries is hindered by the insulating nature of sulfur and the dissolution of intermediate polysulfides (Li2SX, 4 batteries to reduce polysulfide shuttling through an interaction between polysulfides and nitrogen and hydroxyl groups in the H-NCNT. This sulfur-carbon composite electrode with 2.2 mg cm-2 sulfur displays excellent performance with high rate capability (initial capacity of 1341 mAh g-1 at C/5 rate and 849 mAh g-1 at 5C rate), rate stability until 500 cycles (a decay of 0.06% per cycle). Furthermore, a stable reversible capacity of as high as ∼1081 mAh g-1 is realized with a higher sulfur loading of 5.1 mg cm-2.

  14. Nickel cobalt oxide/carbon nanotubes hybrid as a high-performance electrocatalyst for metal/air battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Qiao, Hang; Wang, Haiyan; Zhou, Nan; Chen, Jiajie; Tang, Yougen; Li, Jingsha; Huang, Chenghuan

    2014-08-01

    High-performance, low cost catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) remains a big challenge. Herein, nanostructured NiCo2O4/CNTs hybrid was proposed as a high-performance catalyst for metal/air battery for the first time. The well-formed NiCo2O4/CNTs hybrid was studied by steady-state linear polarization curves and galvanostatic discharge curves in comparison with CNTs-free NiCo2O4 and commercial carbon-supported Pt. Because of the synergistic effect, NiCo2O4/CNTs hybrid exhibited significant improvement of catalytic performance in comparison with NiCo2O4 or CNTs alone, even outperforming Pt/C hybrid in ORR process. In addition, the benefits of Ni incorporation were demonstrated by the improved catalytic performance of NiCo2O4/CNTs compared to Co3O4/CNTs, which should be attributed to improved electrical conductivity and new, highly efficient, active sites created by Ni cation incorporation into the spinel structure. NiCo2O4/CNTs hybrid could be used as a promising catalyst for high power metal/air battery.High-performance, low cost catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) remains a big challenge. Herein, nanostructured NiCo2O4/CNTs hybrid was proposed as a high-performance catalyst for metal/air battery for the first time. The well-formed NiCo2O4/CNTs hybrid was studied by steady-state linear polarization curves and galvanostatic discharge curves in comparison with CNTs-free NiCo2O4 and commercial carbon-supported Pt. Because of the synergistic effect, NiCo2O4/CNTs hybrid exhibited significant improvement of catalytic performance in comparison with NiCo2O4 or CNTs alone, even outperforming Pt/C hybrid in ORR process. In addition, the benefits of Ni incorporation were demonstrated by the improved catalytic performance of NiCo2O4/CNTs compared to Co3O4/CNTs, which should be attributed to improved electrical conductivity and new, highly efficient, active sites created by Ni cation incorporation into the spinel structure. NiCo2O4/CNTs hybrid could be used as a

  15. Highly Conductive, Mechanically Robust, and Electrochemically Inactive TiC/C Nanofiber Scaffold for High-Performance Silicon Anode Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Yan

    2011-10-25

    Silicon has a high specific capacity of 4200 mAh/g as lithium-ion battery anodes, but its rapid capacity fading due to >300% volume expansion and pulverization presents a significant challenge for practical applications. Here we report a core-shell TiC/C/Si inactive/active nanocomposite for Si anodes demonstrating high specific capacity and excellent electrochemical cycling. The amorphous silicon layer serves as the active material to store Li+, while the inactive TiC/C nanofibers act as a conductive and mechanically robust scaffold for electron transport during the Li-Si alloying process. The core-shell TiC/C/Si nanocomposite anode shows ∼3000 mAh g-1 discharge capacity and 92% capacity retention after 100 charge/discharge cycles. The excellent cycling stability and high rate performance could be attributed to the tapering of the nanofibers and the open structure that allows facile Li ion transport and the high conductivity and mechanical stability of the TiC/C scaffold. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  16. Sulfur-infiltrated graphene-based layered porous carbon cathodes for high-performance lithium-sulfur batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xi; Zhang, Long; Zhang, Fan; Huang, Yi; Chen, Yongsheng

    2014-05-27

    Because of advantages such as excellent electronic conductivity, high theoretical specific surface area, and good mechanical flexibility, graphene is receiving increasing attention as an additive to improve the conductivity of sulfur cathodes in lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries. However, graphene is not an effective substrate material to confine the polysulfides in cathodes and stable the cycling. Here, we designed and synthesized a graphene-based layered porous carbon material for the impregnation of sulfur as cathode for Li-S battery. In this composite, a thin layer of porous carbon uniformly covers both surfaces of the graphene and sulfur is highly dispersed in its pores. The high specific surface area and pore volume of the porous carbon layers not only can achieve a high sulfur loading in highly dispersed amorphous state, but also can act as polysulfide reservoirs to alleviate the shuttle effect. When used as the cathode material in Li-S batteries, with the help of the thin porous carbon layers, the as-prepared materials demonstrate a better electrochemical performance and cycle stability compared with those of graphene/sulfur composites.

  17. Performance Comparison of Commercial Mobile Phone Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat, Azrulnizam; Buniran, Surani; Sulaiman, Mohd Ali

    2002-12-01

    Mobile phone is not only accepted as a communication apparatus, but also as a contemporary life style. Multifunctional mobile phone requires high energy density battery and at the same time, the miniaturization of the device requires slimmer and lighter battery. There are many brands of lithium-ion battery manufactured by different companies available in the market. In order to focus on the perspective of the battery performance, a study on the performance of the commercial battery was conducted. Various brands and designs of lithium-ion batteries manufactured by different companies from different countries were purchased from open market. Samples were analyzed based on the cycle life and discharging rate. The cycle life tests were performed with 1C current discharge, whereas the discharge rate was performed using discharge current at 0.2C, 0.5C, 1C and 2C. Recovery capacity at high rate discharge, 2C is about 90 to 96% of 0.2C capacity. Cycle life performance is above 300 cycles and some good sample can achieve more than 500 cycles.

  18. High energy density aluminum battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Gilbert M.; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Dai, Sheng; Dudney, Nancy J.; Manthiram, Arumugan; McIntyre, Timothy J.; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Liu, Hansan

    2016-10-11

    Compositions and methods of making are provided for a high energy density aluminum battery. The battery comprises an anode comprising aluminum metal. The battery further comprises a cathode comprising a material capable of intercalating aluminum or lithium ions during a discharge cycle and deintercalating the aluminum or lithium ions during a charge cycle. The battery further comprises an electrolyte capable of supporting reversible deposition and stripping of aluminum at the anode, and reversible intercalation and deintercalation of aluminum or lithium at the cathode.

  19. High energy density aluminum battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gilbert M.; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Dai, Sheng; Dudney, Nancy J.; Manthiram, Arumugan; McIntyre, Timothy J.; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Liu, Hansan

    2016-10-11

    Compositions and methods of making are provided for a high energy density aluminum battery. The battery comprises an anode comprising aluminum metal. The battery further comprises a cathode comprising a material capable of intercalating aluminum or lithium ions during a discharge cycle and deintercalating the aluminum or lithium ions during a charge cycle. The battery further comprises an electrolyte capable of supporting reversible deposition and stripping of aluminum at the anode, and reversible intercalation and deintercalation of aluminum or lithium at the cathode.

  20. Mesoporous Silicon-Based Anodes for High Capacity, High Performance Li-ion Batteries Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A new high capacity anode composite based on mesoporous silicon is proposed. By virtue of a structure that resembles a pseudo one-dimensional phase, the active...

  1. Mesoporous Silicon-Based Anodes for High Capacity, High Performance Li-ion Batteries Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A new high capacity anode composite based on mesoporous silicon is proposed. By virtue of a structure that resembles a pseudo one-dimensional phase, the active anode...

  2. High-Performance Li-ion Batteries and Sup er-capacitors Based on Prosp ective 1-D Nanomaterials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dandan Zhao; Ying Wang; Yafei Zhang

    2011-01-01

    One-dimensional (1-D) nanomaterials with superior specific capacity, higher rate capability, bet-ter cycling peroperties have demonstrated significant advantages for high-performance Li-ion batteries and supercapacitors. This review describes some recent developments on the rechargeable electrodes by using 1-D nanomaterials (such as LiMn2O4 nanowires, carbon nanofibers, NiMoO4 · nH2O nanorods, V2O5 nanoribbons, carbon nanotubes, etc.). New preparation methods and superior electrochemical properties of the 1-D nano-materials including carbon nanotube (CNT), some oxides, transition metal compounds and polymers, and their composites are emphatically introduced. The VGCF/LiFePO4/C triaxial nanowire cathodes for Li-ion battery present a positive cycling performance without any degradation in almost theoretical capacity (160 mAh/g). The Si nanowire anodes for Li-ion battery show the highest known theoretical charge capacity (4277 mAh/g), that is about 11 times lager than that of the commercial graphite (∼372 mAh/g). The SWCNT/Ni foam elec-trodes for supercapacitor display small equivalent series resistance (ESR, 52 mΩ) and impressive high power density (20 kW/kg). The advantages and challenges associated with the application of these materials for en-ergy conversion and storage devices are highlighted.

  3. Sandwich-Structured Graphene-Fe3O4@Carbon Nanocomposites for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li; Gao, Miaomiao; Yue, Wenbo; Jiang, Yang; Wang, Yuan; Ren, Yu; Hu, Fengqin

    2015-05-13

    Advanced anode materials for high power and high energy lithium-ion batteries have attracted great interest due to the increasing demand for energy conversion and storage devices. Metal oxides (e.g., Fe3O4) usually possess high theoretical capacities, but poor electrochemical performances owing to their severe volume change and poor electronic conductivity during cycles. In this work, we develop a self-assembly approach for the synthesis of sandwich-structured graphene-Fe3O4@carbon composite, in which Fe3O4 nanoparticles with carbon layers are immobilized between the layers of graphene nanosheets. Compared to Fe3O4@carbon and bulk Fe3O4, graphene-Fe3O4@carbon composite shows superior electrochemical performance, including higher reversible capacity, better cycle and rate performances, which may be attributed to the sandwich structure of the composite, the nanosized Fe3O4, and the carbon layers on the surface of Fe3O4. Moreover, compared to the reported graphene-Fe3O4 composite, the particle size of Fe3O4 is controllable and the content of Fe3O4 in this composite can be arbitrarily adjusted for optimal performance. This novel synthesis strategy may be employed in other sandwich-structured nanocomposites design for high-performance lithium-ion batteries and other electrochemical devices.

  4. High-performance gel electrolytes with tetra-armed polymer network for Li ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazama, Taisuke; Fujii, Kenta; Sakai, Takamasa; Aoki, Masahiro; Mimura, Hideyuki; Eguchi, Hisao; Todorov, Yanko; Yoshimoto, Nobuko; Morita, Masayuki

    2015-07-01

    An organo gel with only 6 wt % tetra-armed poly(ethylene glycol), TetraPEG, was prepared and applied as a novel gel electrolyte for Li ion batteries (LIBs). The TetraPEG gel electrolyte containing 1.0 M LiPF6 in binary or ternary mixtures, i.e., EC + DEC and EC + DEC + TFEP (EC: ethylene carbonate, DEC: diethyl carbonate and TFEP: tris(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)phosphate showed high ionic conductivity required for the use in LIB systems. The TetraPEG gel based on ternary EC + DEC + TFEP system acts as a nonflammable gel electrolyte at the TFEP content higher than 20 vol%. In cyclic voltammetry and charge/discharge cycling tests, the TetraPEG gel electrolytes showed good reversibility for a graphite negative electrode.

  5. Three dimensional Graphene aerogels as binder-less, freestanding, elastic and high-performance electrodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhihang; Li, Hua; Tian, Ran; Duan, Huanan; Guo, Yiping; Chen, Yujie; Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Chunmei; Dugnani, Roberto; Liu, Hezhou

    2016-06-01

    In this work it is shown how porous graphene aerogels fabricated by an eco-friendly and simple technological process, could be used as electrodes in lithium- ion batteries. The proposed graphene framework exhibited excellent performance including high reversible capacities, superior cycling stability and rate capability. A significantly lower temperature (75 °C) than the one currently utilized in battery manufacturing was utilized for self-assembly hence providing potential significant savings to the industrial production. After annealing at 600 °C, the formation of Sn-C-O bonds between the SnO2 nanoparticles and the reduced graphene sheets will initiate synergistic effect and improve the electrochemical performance. The XPS patterns revealed the formation of Sn-C-O bonds. Both SEM and TEM imaging of the electrode material showed that the three dimensional network of graphene aerogels and the SnO2 particles were distributed homogeneously on graphene sheets. Finally, the electrochemical properties of the samples as active anode materials for lithium-ion batteries were tested and examined by constant current charge-discharge cycling and the finding fully described in this manuscript.

  6. Three dimensional Graphene aerogels as binder-less, freestanding, elastic and high-performance electrodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhihang; Li, Hua; Tian, Ran; Duan, Huanan; Guo, Yiping; Chen, Yujie; Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Chunmei; DUGNANI, Roberto; Liu, Hezhou

    2016-01-01

    In this work it is shown how porous graphene aerogels fabricated by an eco-friendly and simple technological process, could be used as electrodes in lithium- ion batteries. The proposed graphene framework exhibited excellent performance including high reversible capacities, superior cycling stability and rate capability. A significantly lower temperature (75 °C) than the one currently utilized in battery manufacturing was utilized for self-assembly hence providing potential significant savings to the industrial production. After annealing at 600 °C, the formation of Sn-C-O bonds between the SnO2 nanoparticles and the reduced graphene sheets will initiate synergistic effect and improve the electrochemical performance. The XPS patterns revealed the formation of Sn-C-O bonds. Both SEM and TEM imaging of the electrode material showed that the three dimensional network of graphene aerogels and the SnO2 particles were distributed homogeneously on graphene sheets. Finally, the electrochemical properties of the samples as active anode materials for lithium-ion batteries were tested and examined by constant current charge–discharge cycling and the finding fully described in this manuscript. PMID:27265146

  7. Three dimensional Graphene aerogels as binder-less, freestanding, elastic and high-performance electrodes for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhihang; Li, Hua; Tian, Ran; Duan, Huanan; Guo, Yiping; Chen, Yujie; Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Chunmei; Dugnani, Roberto; Liu, Hezhou

    2016-06-06

    In this work it is shown how porous graphene aerogels fabricated by an eco-friendly and simple technological process, could be used as electrodes in lithium- ion batteries. The proposed graphene framework exhibited excellent performance including high reversible capacities, superior cycling stability and rate capability. A significantly lower temperature (75 °C) than the one currently utilized in battery manufacturing was utilized for self-assembly hence providing potential significant savings to the industrial production. After annealing at 600 °C, the formation of Sn-C-O bonds between the SnO2 nanoparticles and the reduced graphene sheets will initiate synergistic effect and improve the electrochemical performance. The XPS patterns revealed the formation of Sn-C-O bonds. Both SEM and TEM imaging of the electrode material showed that the three dimensional network of graphene aerogels and the SnO2 particles were distributed homogeneously on graphene sheets. Finally, the electrochemical properties of the samples as active anode materials for lithium-ion batteries were tested and examined by constant current charge-discharge cycling and the finding fully described in this manuscript.

  8. Cobalt- and Cadmium-Based Metal-Organic Frameworks as High-Performance Anodes for Sodium Ion Batteries and Lithium Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Caifu; Xu, Liqiang

    2017-03-01

    Two multifunctional metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with the same coordination mode, [Co(L)(H2O)]n·2nH2O [defined as "Co(L) MOF"] and [Cd(L)(H2O)]n·2nH2O [defined as "Cd(L) MOF"] (L = 5-aminoisophthalic acid) have been fabricated via a simple and versatile scalable solvothermal approach at 85 °C for 24 h. The relationship between the structure of the electrode materials (especially the coordination water and different metal ions) and the electrochemical properties of MOFs have been investigated for the first time. And then the possible electrochemical mechanisms of the electrodes have been studied and proposed. In addition, MOFs/RGO hybrid materials were prepared via ball milling, which demonstrated better electrochemical performances than those of individual Co(L) MOF and Cd(L) MOF. For example, when Co(L) MOF/RGO was applied as anode for sodium ion batteries (SIBs), it retained 206 mA h g(-1) after 330 cycles at 500 mA g(-1) and 1185 mA h g(-1) could be obtained after 50 cycles at 100 mA g(-1) for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The high-discharge capacity, excellent cyclic stability combined with the facile synthesis procedure enable Co(L) MOF- and Cd(L) MOF-based materials to be prospective anode materials for SIBs and LIBs.

  9. Modification of SnO2 Anodes by Atomic Layer Deposition for High Performance Lithium Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Yesibolati, Nulati

    2013-05-01

    Tin dioxide (SnO2) is considered one of the most promising anode materials for Lithium ion batteries (LIBs), due to its large theoretical capacity and natural abundance. However, its low electronic/ionic conductivities, large volume change during lithiation/delithiation and agglomeration prevent it from further commercial applications. In this thesis, we investigate modified SnO2 as a high energy density anode material for LIBs. Specifically two approaches are presented to improve battery performances. Firstly, SnO2 electrochemical performances were improved by surface modification using Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD). Ultrathin Al2O3 or HfO2 were coated on SnO2 electrodes. It was found that electrochemical performances had been enhanced after ALD deposition. In a second approach, we implemented a layer-by-layer (LBL) assembled graphene/carbon-coated hollow SnO2 spheres as anode material for LIBs. Our results indicated that the LBL assembled electrodes had high reversible lithium storage capacities even at high current densities. These superior electrochemical performances are attributed to the enhanced electronic conductivity and effective lithium diffusion, because of the interconnected graphene/carbon networks among nanoparticles of the hollow SnO2 spheres.

  10. Bamboo leaf derived ultrafine Si nanoparticles and Si/C nanocomposites for high-performance Li-ion battery anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Gao, Biao; Peng, Changjian; Peng, Xiang; Fu, Jijiang; Chu, Paul K; Huo, Kaifu

    2015-09-07

    Silicon-based nanomaterials are promising anode materials in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) due to their high theoretical capacity of 4200 mA h g(-1), more than 10 times that of commercial graphite. Si nanoparticles (NPs) with a diameter of or below 10 nm generally exhibit enhanced lithium storage properties due to their small size and large surface area. However, it is challenging to generate such ultrafine Si NPs by a facile and scalable method. This paper reports a scalable method to fabricate ultrafine Si NPs 5-8 nm in size from dead bamboo leaves (BLs) by thermally decomposing the organic matter, followed by magnesiothermic reduction in the presence of NaCl as a heat scavenger. The ultrafine Si NPs show a high capacity of 1800 mA h g(-1) at a 0.2 C (1 C = 4200 mA g(-1)) rate and are thus promising anode materials in lithium-ion batteries. To achieve better rate capability, the BLs-derived ultrafine Si NPs are coated with a thin amorphous carbon layer (Si@C) and then dispersed and embedded in a reduced graphene oxide (RGO) network to produce Si@C/RGO nanocomposites by a layer-by-layer assembly method. The double protection rendered by the carbon shell and RGO network synergistically yield structural stability, high electrical conductivity and a stable solid electrolyte interface during Li insertion/extraction. The Si@C/RGO nanocomposites show excellent battery properties with a high capacity of 1400 mA h g(-1) at a high current density of 2 C and remarkable rate performance with a capacity retention of 60% when the current density is increased 20 times from 0.2 to 4 C. This work provides a simple, low cost, and scalable approach enabling the use of BL waste as a sustainable source for the production of ultrafine Si NPs towards high-performance LIBs.

  11. Hierarchical nitrogen-doped porous graphene/reduced fluorographene/sulfur hybrids for high-performance lithium-sulfur batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhixuan; Li, Jie; Xiang, Jingwei; Cheng, Shuai; Wu, Hao; Zhang, Na; Yuan, Lixia; Zhang, Wenfeng; Xie, Jia; Huang, Yunhui; Chang, Haixin

    2017-01-18

    It is a great challenge to obtain high performance cathodes with a high sulfur loading and good cycle performance due to the dissolution of intermediate lithium polysulfides in lithium-sulfur batteries. Herein, we report a novel hierarchical hybrid composed of nitrogen-doped porous graphene (NG), reduced fluorographene or graphene fluoride (RFG), and sulfur as a composite cathode in the Li-S batteries. In comparison with sulfur composites based on only either nitrogen-doped porous graphene or pure reduced fluorographene, the hierarchical hybrid of RFG, NG, and sulfur (NG-RFG/S) shows a better reversible capacity and rate capability performance due to a better confinement effect of lithium polysulfides and sulfur. The NG-RFG/S cathode with ∼63.2% S content exhibits a high discharge capacity of 1120 mA h g(-1) and retains 632 mA h g(-1) after 100 cycles at 0.1C. At the higher rate of 0.5C, the cell still maintains a discharge capacity of about 300 mA h g(-1) after 800 cycles, which reveals the great potential of this hybrid cathode for long-cycle-life, high energy density storage applications.

  12. High performance red phosphorus electrode in ionic liquid-based electrolyte for Na-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahbi, Mouad; Fukunishi, Mika; Horiba, Tatsuo; Yabuuchi, Naoaki; Yasuno, Satoshi; Komaba, Shinichi

    2017-09-01

    Electrochemical performance of the red phosphorus electrode was examined in ionic-liquid electrolyte, 0.25 mol dm-3 sodium bisfluorosulfonylamide (NaFSA) dissolved N-methyl-N-propylpyridinium-bisfluorosulfonylamide (MPPFSA), at room temperature. We compared its electrochemical performance to conventional EC/PC/DEC, EC/DEC, and PC solutions containing 1 mol dm-3 NaPF6. The electrode in NaFSA/MPPFSA demonstrated a reversible capacity of 1480 mAh g-1 and excellent capacity retention of 93% over 80 cycles, which is much better than those in the conventional electrolytes. The difference in capacity retention for the electrolytes correlates to the different solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer formed on the phosphorus electrode. To understand the SEI formation in NaFSA/MPPFSA and its evolution during cycling, we investigate the surface layer of the red phosphorus electrodes with hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS). A detailed analysis of HAXPES spectra demonstrates that SEI layer consists of major inorganic and minor organic species, originating from decomposition of MPP+ and FSA-. Homogenous surface layer is formed during the first cycle in NaFSA/MPPFSA while in alkyl carbonate ester electrolytes, continuous growth of surface film up to the 20th cycle is observed. Possibility of red phosphorous electrode for battery applications with pure ionic liquid is discussed.

  13. Highly stable linear carbonate-containing electrolytes with fluoroethylene carbonate for high-performance cathodes in sodium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yongwon; Lee, Jaegi; Kim, Hyungsub; Kang, Kisuk; Choi, Nam-Soon

    2016-07-01

    Employing linear carbonates such as dimethyl carbonate (DMC), ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), and diethyl carbonate (DEC) as electrolyte solvents provides an opportunity to design appropriate electrolyte systems for high-performance sodium-ion batteries (SIBs). However, in practice, the use of linear carbonate-containing electrolytes is quite challenging because linear carbonates readily decompose at Na metal electrodes or sodiated anodes. One of the promising approaches is using an electrolyte additive to resolve the critical problems related to linear carbonates. Our investigation reveals that remarkable enhancement in electrochemical performance of Na4Fe3(PO4)2(P2O7) cathodes with linear carbonate-containing electrolytes is achieved by using a fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) additive. Importantly, the initial Coulombic efficiency of the Na deposition/stripping on a stainless steel (SS) electrode is drastically improved from 16% to 90% by introducing the FEC additive into ethylene carbonate (EC)/propylene carbonate (PC)/DEC (5/3/2, v/v/v)/0.5 M NaClO4. The underlying mechanism of FEC at the electrode-electrolyte interface is clearly demonstrated by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). In addition, the Na4Fe3(PO4)2(P2O7) cathode in EC/PC/DEC (5/3/2, v/v/v)/0.5 M sodium perchlorate (NaClO4) with FEC delivers a discharge capacity of 90.5 mAh g-1 at a current rate of C/2 and exhibits excellent capacity retention of 97.5% with high Coulombic efficiency of 99.6% after 300 cycles at 30 °C.

  14. High concentration nitrogen doped carbon nanotube anodes with superior Li+ storage performance for lithium rechargeable battery application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xifei; Liu, Jian; Zhang, Yong; Li, Yongliang; Liu, Hao; Meng, Xiangbo; Yang, Jinli; Geng, Dongsheng; Wang, Dongniu; Li, Ruying; Sun, Xueliang

    2012-01-01

    A floating catalyst chemical vapor deposition method has been developed to synthesize carbon nanotubes doped with a high concentration of nitrogen. Their electrochemical performance as anodes for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) in comparison to pristine carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has been investigated. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results indicated that the nitrogen content reaches as high as 16.4 at.%. Bamboo-like compartments were fabricated as shown by high resolution transmission electron microscopy. High concentration nitrogen doped carbon nanotubes (HN-CNTs) show approximately double reversible capacity of CNTs: 494 mAh g-1 vs. 260 mAh g-1, and present a much better rate capability than CNTs. The significantly superior electrochemical performance could be related to the high electrical conductivity and the larger number of defect sites in HN-CNTs for anodes of LIBs.

  15. Growth of copper oxide nanocrystals in metallic nanotubes for high performance battery anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuxin; Mu, Shanjun; Sun, Wanfu; Liu, Quanzhen; Li, Yanpeng; Yan, Zifeng; Huo, Ziyang; Liang, Wenjie

    2016-12-08

    A rational integration of 1D metallic nanotubes and oxide nanoparticles has been demonstrated as a viable strategy for the production of both highly stable and efficient anodes for lithium ion batteries. We encapsulated copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles in ultra-long metallic copper nanotubes with engineered interspaces, and explored their electrochemical properties. Such a hierarchical architecture provides three important features: (i) a continuous nanoscale metallic Cu shell to minimize electronic/ionic transmitting impedance; (ii) a unique quasi-one-dimensional structure with a large aspect ratio to reduce self-aggregation; (iii) free space for volume expansion of CuO nanoparticles and stable solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation. The anode materials with such hierarchical structures have high specific capacity (around 600 mA h g(-1) at a current density of 0.1 A g(-1)), excellent cycling stability (over 94% capacity retention after 200 cycles) and superb reversible capacity of 175 mA h g(-1) at a high charging rate of 15 A g(-1).

  16. Bismuth nanoparticle decorating graphite felt as a high-performance electrode for an all-vanadium redox flow battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Gu, Meng; Nie, Zimin; Shao, Yuyan; Luo, Qingtao; Wei, Xiaoliang; Li, Xiaolin; Xiao, Jie; Wang, Chongmin; Sprenkle, Vincent; Wang, Wei

    2013-03-13

    Employing electrolytes containing Bi(3+), bismuth nanoparticles are synchronously electrodeposited onto the surface of a graphite felt electrode during operation of an all-vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB). The influence of the Bi nanoparticles on the electrochemical performance of the VRFB is thoroughly investigated. It is confirmed that Bi is only present at the negative electrode and facilitates the redox reaction between V(II) and V(III). However, the Bi nanoparticles significantly improve the electrochemical performance of VRFB cells by enhancing the kinetics of the sluggish V(II)/V(III) redox reaction, especially under high power operation. The energy efficiency is increased by 11% at high current density (150 mA·cm(-2)) owing to faster charge transfer as compared with one without Bi. The results suggest that using Bi nanoparticles in place of noble metals offers great promise as high-performance electrodes for VRFB application.

  17. Structurally tailored graphene nanosheets as lithium ion battery anodes: an insight to yield exceptionally high lithium storage performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xifei; Hu, Yuhai; Liu, Jian; Lushington, Andrew; Li, Ruying; Sun, Xueliang

    2013-12-21

    How to tune graphene nanosheets (GNSs) with various morphologies has been a significant challenge for lithium ion batteries (LIBs). In this study, three types of GNSs with varying size, edge sites, defects and layer numbers have been successfully achieved. It was demonstrated that controlling GNS morphology and microstructure has important effects on its cyclic performance and rate capability in LIBs. Diminished GNS layer number, decreased size, increased edge sites and increased defects in the GNS anode can be highly beneficial to lithium storage and result in increased electrochemical performance. Interestingly, GNSs treated with a hydrothermal approach delivered a high reversible discharge capacity of 1348 mA h g(-1). This study demonstrates that the controlled design of high performance GNS anodes is an important concept in LIB applications.

  18. Highly conductive bridges between graphite spheres to improve the cycle performance of a graphite anode in lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hongyu [IM and T Ltd., Advanced Research Center, Saga University, Yoga-machi 1341, Saga 840-0047 (Japan); Umeno, Tatsuo; Mizuma, Koutarou [Research Center, Mitsui Mining Co. Ltd., Hibiki-machi 1-3, Wakamatsu-ku, Kitakyushu 808-0021 (Japan); Yoshio, Masaki [Advanced Research Center, Saga University, Yoga-machi 1341, Saga 840-0047 (Japan)

    2008-01-10

    Spherical carbon-coated natural graphite (SCCNG) is a promising anode material for lithium-ion batteries, but the smooth surface of graphite spheres is difficult to wet with an aqueous binder solution, and lacks electrical contacts. As a result, the cycle performance of such a graphite anode material is not satisfactory. An effective method has been introduced to tightly connect adjacent SCCNG particles by a highly conductive binder, viz. acetylene black bridges. The effect of the conductive bridges on the cyclability of SCCNG electrode has been investigated. (author)

  19. All-Solid, High-Performance Li-ion Batteries for NASA's Future Science Missions Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The state-of-the-art Li-ion battery technology is based on processing of lithium transition metal oxides, and graphite powder, and use of liquid organic...

  20. Elastic and wearable wire-shaped lithium-ion battery with high electrochemical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jing; Zhang, Ye; Bai, Wenyu; Chen, Xuli; Zhang, Zhitao; Fang, Xin; Weng, Wei; Wang, Yonggang; Peng, Huisheng

    2014-07-21

    A stretchable wire-shaped lithium-ion battery is produced from two aligned multi-walled carbon nanotube/lithium oxide composite yarns as the anode and cathode without extra current collectors and binders. The two composite yarns can be well paired to obtain a safe battery with superior electrochemical properties, such as energy densities of 27 Wh kg(-1) or 17.7 mWh cm(-3) and power densities of 880 W kg(-1) or 0.56 W cm(-3), which are an order of magnitude higher than the densities reported for lithium thin-film batteries. These wire-shaped batteries are flexible and light, and 97 % of their capacity was maintained after 1000 bending cycles. They are also very elastic as they are based on a modified spring structure, and 84 % of the capacity was maintained after stretching for 200 cycles at a strain of 100 %. Furthermore, these novel wire-shaped batteries have been woven into lightweight, flexible, and stretchable battery textiles, which reveals possible large-scale applications.

  1. Durable polydopamine-coated porous sulfur core-shell cathode for high performance lithium-sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yuanfu; Xu, Hui; Bai, Zhaowen; Huang, Baoling; Su, Jingyang; Chen, Guohua

    2015-12-01

    Lithium-sulfur batteries show fascinating potential for advanced energy system due to their high specific capacity, low-cost, and environmental benignity. However, their wide applications have been plagued by low coulombic efficiency, fast capacity fading and poor rate performance. Herein, a facile method for preparation of S@PDA (PDA = polydopamine) composites with core-shell structure and good electrochemical performance as well as the First-Principles calculations on the interactions of PDA and polysulfides are reported. Taking the advantages of the core-shell structure with porous sulfur core, the high mechanical flexibility of PDA for accommodating the volumetric variation during the discharge/charge processes, the good lithium ion conductivity and the strong chemical interactions between the nitrogen/oxygen atoms with lone electron pair and lithium polysulfides for alleviating their dissolution, the S@PDA composites exhibit high discharge capacities at different current densities (1048 and 869 mAh g-1 at 0.2 and 0.8 A g-1, respectively) and excellent capacity retention capability. A capacity decay as low as 0.021% per cycle and an average coulombic efficiency of 98.5% is observed over a long-term cycling of 890 cycles at 0.8 A g-1. The S@PDA electrode has great potential as a low-cost cathode in high energy Li-S batteries.

  2. Preparation of All-Ceramic, High Performance Li-ion Batteries for Deep Space Power Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lithium (Li) ion batteries are among the most promising power sources for many civilian, military and space applications due to their high power and high energy...

  3. Sustainable, heat-resistant and flame-retardant cellulose-based composite separator for high-performance lithium ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianjun; Yue, Liping; Kong, Qingshan; Liu, Zhihong; Zhou, Xinhong; Zhang, Chuanjian; Xu, Quan; Zhang, Bo; Ding, Guoliang; Qin, Bingsheng; Duan, Yulong; Wang, Qingfu; Yao, Jianhua; Cui, Guanglei; Chen, Liquan

    2014-02-01

    A sustainable, heat-resistant and flame-retardant cellulose-based composite nonwoven has been successfully fabricated and explored its potential application for promising separator of high-performance lithium ion battery. It was demonstrated that this flame-retardant cellulose-based composite separator possessed good flame retardancy, superior heat tolerance and proper mechanical strength. As compared to the commercialized polypropylene (PP) separator, such composite separator presented improved electrolyte uptake, better interface stability and enhanced ionic conductivity. In addition, the lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2)/graphite cell using this composite separator exhibited better rate capability and cycling retention than that for PP separator owing to its facile ion transport and excellent interfacial compatibility. Furthermore, the lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4)/lithium cell with such composite separator delivered stable cycling performance and thermal dimensional stability even at an elevated temperature of 120°C. All these fascinating characteristics would boost the application of this composite separator for high-performance lithium ion battery.

  4. Porous cellulose diacetate-SiO2 composite coating on polyethylene separator for high-performance lithium-ion battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenju; Shi, Liyi; Wang, Zhuyi; Zhu, Jiefang; Yang, Haijun; Mao, Xufeng; Chi, Mingming; Sun, Lining; Yuan, Shuai

    2016-08-20

    The developments of high-performance lithium ion battery are eager to the separators with high ionic conductivity and thermal stability. In this work, a new way to adjust the comprehensive properties of inorganic-organic composite separator was investigated. The cellulose diacetate (CDA)-SiO2 composite coating is beneficial for improving the electrolyte wettability and the thermal stability of separators. Interestingly, the pore structure of composite coating can be regulated by the weight ratio of SiO2 precursor tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) in the coating solution. The electronic performance of lithium ion batteries assembled with modified separators are improved compared with the pristine PE separator. When weight ratio of TEOS in the coating solution was 9.4%, the composite separator shows the best comprehensive performance. Compared with the pristine PE separator, its meltdown temperature and the break-elongation at elevated temperature increased. More importantly, the discharge capacity and the capacity retention improved significantly. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Water-activated graphite felt as a high-performance electrode for vanadium redox flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabtamu, Daniel Manaye; Chen, Jian-Yu; Chang, Yu-Chung; Wang, Chen-Hao

    2017-02-01

    A simple, green, novel, time-efficient, and potentially cost-effective water activation method was employed to enhance the electrochemical activity of graphite felt (GF) electrodes for vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs). The GF electrode prepared with a water vapor injection time of 5 min at 700 °C exhibits the highest electrochemical activity for the VO2+/VO2+ couple among all the tested electrodes. This is attributed to the small, controlled amount of water vapor that was introduced producing high contents of oxygen-containing functional groups, such as sbnd OH groups, on the surface of the GF fibers, which are known to be electrochemically active sites for vanadium redox reactions. Charge-discharge tests further confirm that only 5 min of GF water activation is required to improve the efficiency of the VRFB cell. The average coulombic efficiency, voltage efficiency, and energy efficiency are 95.06%, 87.42%, and 83.10%, respectively, at a current density of 50 mA cm-2. These voltage and energy efficiencies are determined to be considerably higher than those of VRFB cells assembled using heat-treated GF electrodes without water activation and pristine GF electrodes.

  6. Effects of Electrospun Carbon Nanofibers’ Interlayers on High-Performance Lithium–Sulfur Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianji Gao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Two different interlayers were introduced in lithium–sulfur batteries to improve the cycling stability with sulfur loading as high as 80% of total mass of cathode. Melamine was recommended as a nitrogen-rich (N-rich amine component to synthesize a modified polyacrylic acid (MPAA. The electrospun MPAA was carbonized into N-rich carbon nanofibers, which were used as cathode interlayers, while carbon nanofibers from PAA without melamine was used as an anode interlayer. At the rate of 0.1 C, the initial discharge capacity with two interlayers was 983 mAh g−1, and faded down to 651 mAh g−1 after 100 cycles with the coulombic efficiency of 95.4%. At the rate of 1 C, the discharge capacity was kept to 380 mAh g−1 after 600 cycles with a coulombic efficiency of 98.8%. It apparently demonstrated that the cathode interlayer is extremely effective at shutting down the migration of polysulfide ions. The anode interlayer induced the lithium ions to form uniform lithium metal deposits confined on the fiber surface and in the bulk to strengthen the cycling stability of the lithium metal anode.

  7. Study of Microstructure Change of Carbon Nanofibers as Binder-Free Anode for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Shi, Shaojun; Li, Yuhong; Zhao, Mengxi; Chang, Xiaofeng; Wu, Di; Wang, Haiying; Peng, Luming; Wang, Peng; Yang, Gang

    2016-12-07

    Flexible and binder-free film of N, O-doped carbon nanofibers (CNFs) is the ideal anode for high-energy-density batteries. Here, CNFs flexible films which the N, O dopant give defect in graphite structure results in high specific surface area more than 500 m(2) g(-1). A flexible film of CNF800 carbonized at 800 °C delivers initial capacities of 2000 and 755 mAh g(-1) at the current densities of 5 and 10 A g(-1), respectively. After 500 cycles, CNF800 remains the capacities of 1251, 865, 702, and 305 mAh g(-1) at 0.5, 1, 5, and 10 A g(-1), respectively. The microstructures of CNFs under various state of charge are studied by HRTEM, XPS, (13)C NMR, and so forth. The lithiation/delithiation mainly happens to the interlayer of graphite domain of CNFs. The dopants of nitrogen and oxygen involve in lithiation, but much of Li-N is irreversible. The excellent performances of CNFs film can be attributed to the N, O doped structure of graphite domain that has increased the conductivity and lithium storage ability. Further development of N, O doped CNFs may enable practical applications as flexible anode in high-performance lithium-ion batteries.

  8. Green synthesis of boron doped graphene and its application as high performance anode material in Li ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahoo, Madhumita; Sreena, K.P.; Vinayan, B.P.; Ramaprabhu, S., E-mail: ramp@iitm.ac.in

    2015-01-15

    Graphical abstract: Boron doped graphene (B-G), synthesized by simple hydrogen induced reduction technique using boric acid as boron precursor, have more uneven surface as a result of smaller bonding distance of boron compared to carbon, showed high capacity and high rate capability compared to pristine graphene as an anode material for Li ion battery application. - Abstract: The present work demonstrates a facile route for the large-scale, catalyst free, and green synthesis approach of boron doped graphene (B-G) and its use as high performance anode material for Li ion battery (LIB) application. Boron atoms were doped into graphene framework with an atomic percentage of 5.93% via hydrogen induced thermal reduction technique using graphite oxide and boric acid as precursors. Various characterization techniques were used to confirm the boron doping in graphene sheets. B-G as anode material shows a discharge capacity of 548 mAh g{sup −1} at 100 mA g{sup −1} after 30th cycles. At high current density value of 1 A g{sup −1}, B-G as anode material enhances the specific capacity by about 1.7 times compared to pristine graphene. The present study shows a simplistic way of boron doping in graphene leading to an enhanced Li ion adsorption due to the change in electronic states.

  9. A Sulfur Heterocyclic Quinone Cathode and a Multifunctional Binder for a High-Performance Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ting; Zhao, Qing; Wang, Jianbin; Pan, Zeng; Chen, Jun

    2016-05-23

    We report a rational design of a sulfur heterocyclic quinone (dibenzo[b,i]thianthrene-5,7,12,14-tetraone=DTT) used as a cathode (uptake of four lithium ions to form Li4 DTT) and a conductive polymer [poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate)= PSS) used as a binder for a high-performance rechargeable lithium-ion battery. Because of the reduced energy level of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) caused by the introduced S atoms, the initial Li-ion intercalation potential of DTT is 2.89 V, which is 0.3 V higher than that of its carbon analog. Meanwhile, there is a noncovalent interaction between DTT and PSS, which remarkably suppressed the dissolution and enhanced the conductivity of DTT, thus leading to the great improvement of the electrochemical performance. The DTT cathode with the PSS binder displays a long-term cycling stability (292 mAh g(-1) for the first cycle, 266 mAh g(-1) after 200 cycles at 0.1 C) and a high rate capability (220 mAh g(-1) at 1 C). This design strategy based on a noncovalent interaction is very effective for the application of small organic molecules as the cathode of rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. A chemical reaction controlled mechanochemical route to construction of CuO nanoribbons for high performance lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kunfeng; Xue, Dongfeng

    2013-12-07

    We reported a chemical reaction controlled mechanochemical route to synthesize mass CuO nanosheets by manual grinding in a mortar and pestle, which does not require any solvent, complex apparatus and techniques. The activation of chemical reactions by milling reactants was thus proved, and the energy from mechanical grinding promotes the fast formation of CuO nanoribbons. The resultant materials have preferential nanoscale ribbon-like morphology that can show large capacity and high cycle performance as lithium-ion battery anodes. After 50 cycles, the discharge capacity of CuO nanoribbon electrodes is 614.0 mA h g(-1), with 93% retention of the reversible capacity. The thermodynamic reactions of the CuO battery showed size-dependent characterization. The microstructures of CuO nanosheets and reaction routes can be controlled by the ratio of NaOH/CuAc2 according to the chemical reactions involved. The intact nanoribbon structure, thin-layer, and hierarchical structures endow present CuO materials with high reversible capacity and excellent cycling performances. The simple, economical, and environmentally friendly mechanochemical route is of great interest in modern synthetic chemistry.

  11. Facile preparation of carbon wrapped copper telluride nanowires as high performance anodes for sodium and lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hong; Yang, Jun; Geng, Hongbo; Chao Li, Cheng

    2017-04-01

    Uniform carbon wrapped copper telluride nanowires were successfully prepared by using an in situ conversion reaction. The length of these nanowires is up to several micrometers and the width is around 30–40 nm. The unique one dimensional structure and the presence of conformal carbon coating of copper telluride greatly accommodate the large volumetric changes during cycling, significantly increase the electrical conductivity and reduce charge transfer resistance. The copper telluride nanowires show promising performance in a lithium ion battery with a discharge capacity of 130.2 mA h g‑1 at a high current density of 6.0 A g‑1 (26.74 C) and a stable cycling performance of 673.3 mA h g‑1 during the 60th cycle at 100 mA g‑1. When evaluated as anode material for a sodium ion battery, the copper telluride nanowires deliver a reversible capacity of 68.1 mA h g‑1 at 1.0 A g‑1 (∼4.46 C) and have a high capacity retention of 177.5 mA h g‑1 during the 500th cycle at 100 mA g‑1.

  12. A High Performance LIA-Based Interface for Battery Powered Sensing Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel García-Romeo; María R. Valero; Nicolás Medrano; Belén Calvo; Santiago Celma

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a battery-compatible electronic interface based on a general purpose lock-in amplifier (LIA) capable of recovering input signals up to the MHz range. The core is a novel ASIC fabricated in 1.8 V 0.18 µm CMOS technology, which contains a dual-phase analog lock-in amplifier consisting of carefully designed building blocks to allow configurability over a wide frequency range while maintaining low power consumption. It operates using square input signals. Hence, for battery-...

  13. The Design and Construction of a Battery Electric Vehicle Propulsion System - High Performance Electric Kart Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burridge, Mark; Alahakoon, Sanath

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents an electric propulsion system designed specifically to meet the performance specification for a competition racing kart application. The paper presents the procedure for the engineering design, construction and testing of the electric powertrain of the vehicle. High performance electric Go-Kart is not an established technology within Australia. It is expected that this work will provide design guidelines for a high performance electric propulsion system with the capability of forming the basis of a competitive electric kart racing formula for Australian conditions.

  14. Truncated octahedral LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cathode for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Bo-Mi; Kim, Si-Jin; Lee, Young-Woo; Park, Han-Chul; Kim, Da-Mi; Park, Kyung-Won, E-mail: kwpark@ssu.ac.kr

    2015-05-05

    Spinel-type LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} has been studied as a promising cathode candidate capable of replacing LiCoO{sub 2} in lithium-ion batteries. Here we demonstrate LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} powders prepared by a calcination process as a function of temperature and time. LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} structure electrode prepared at 700 °C for 10 h forms a truncated octahedral structure consisting of {111} and {100} surfaces. In particular, the truncated octahedral structure exhibits the crystal orientation toward dominant {111} surfaces of octahedral structure to minimize Mn dissolution and a particular portion of {100} surfaces of the truncated structure to stabilize the electrode. The truncated octahedral structure shows excellent discharge capacity (∼132.14 mAh g{sup −1} at 1 C), high capacity retention (∼100%) and durable cycling performance (after 100 cycle) compared to the octahedral shaped electrodes. In particular, the truncated octahedral structure of LMO-700-10h exhibits the crystal orientation toward majority {111} surfaces of octahedral structure and minority {100} surfaces. - Highlights: • LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanostructure materials were prepared for Li-ion batteries. • LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanostructure materials were controlled by calcination temperatures. • The truncated octahedral nanostructure consists of {111} and {100} surfaces. • The truncated octahedral structure shows an excellent performance.

  15. Flexible carbon nanofiber/polyvinylidene fluoride composite membranes as interlayers in high-performance Lithiumsbnd Sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenhua; Zhang, Jing; Yang, Yuxiang; Yue, Xinyang; Hao, Xiaoming; Sun, Wang; Rooney, David; Sun, Kening

    2016-10-01

    Traditionally polyvinylidene fluoride membranes have been used in applications such as membrane distillation, wastewater treatment, desalination and separator fabrication. Within this work we demonstrate that a novel carbon nanofiber/polyvinylidene fluoride (CNF/PVDF) composite membrane can be used as an interlayer for Lithiumsbnd Sulfur (Lisbnd S) batteries yielding both high capacity and long cycling life. This PVDF membrane is shown to effectively separate dissolved lithium polysulfide with the high electronic conductivity CNF not only reducing the internal resistance in the sulfur cathode but also helping immobilize the polysulfide through its abundant nanospaces. The resulting Lisbnd S battery assembled with the CNF/PVDF composite membrane effectively solves the polysulfide permeation problem and exhibits excellent electrochemical performance. It is further shown that the CNF/PVDF electrode has an excellent cycling stability and retains a capacity of 768.6 mAh g-1 with a coulombic efficiency above 99% over 200 cycles at 0.5C, which is more than twice that of a cell without CNF/PVDF (374 mAh g-1). In addition, the low-cost raw materials and the simple preparation process of CNF/PVDF composite membrane is also amenable for industrial production.

  16. Integrated Solid/Nanoporous Copper/Oxide Hybrid Bulk Electrodes for High-performance Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Chao; Lang, Xing-You; Han, Gao-Feng; Li, Ying-Qi; Zhao, Lei; Wen, Zi; Zhu, Yong-Fu; Zhao, Ming; Li, Jian-Chen; Lian, Jian-She; Jiang, Qing

    2013-01-01

    Nanoarchitectured electroactive materials can boost rates of Li insertion/extraction, showing genuine potential to increase power output of Li-ion batteries. However, electrodes assembled with low-dimensional nanostructured transition metal oxides by conventional approach suffer from dramatic reductions in energy capacities owing to sluggish ion and electron transport kinetics. Here we report that flexible bulk electrodes, made of three-dimensional bicontinuous nanoporous Cu/MnO2 hybrid and seamlessly integrated with Cu solid current collector, substantially optimizes Li storage behavior of the constituent MnO2. As a result of the unique integration of solid/nanoporous hybrid architecture that simultaneously enhances the electron transport of MnO2, facilitates fast ion diffusion and accommodates large volume changes on Li insertion/extraction of MnO2, the supported MnO2 exhibits a stable capacity of as high as ~1100 mA h g−1 for 1000 cycles, and ultrahigh charge/discharge rates. It makes the environmentally friendly and low-cost electrode as a promising anode for high-performance Li-ion battery applications. PMID:24096928

  17. Superior electrochemical performance of sulfur/graphene nanocomposite material for high-capacity lithium-sulfur batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bei; Li, Kefei; Su, Dawei; Ahn, Hyojun; Wang, Guoxiu

    2012-06-01

    Sulfur/graphene nanocomposite material has been prepared by incorporating sulfur into the graphene frameworks through a melting process. Field-emission scanning electron microscope analysis shows a homogeneous distribution of sulfur in the graphene nanosheet matrix. The sulfur/graphene nanocomposite exhibits a super-high lithium-storage capacity of 1580 mA h g(-1) and a satisfactory cycling performance in lithium-sulfur cells. The enhancement of the reversible capacity and cycle life could be attributed to the flexible graphene nanosheet matrix, which acts as a conducting medium and a physical buffer to cushion the volume change of sulfur during the lithiation and delithiation process. Graphene-based nanocomposites can significantly improve the electrochemical performance of lithium-sulfur batteries.

  18. Study on novel functional materials carboxymethyl cellulose lithium (CMC-Li) improve high-performance lithium-ion battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Lei; Shao, Ziqiang; Xiang, Pan; Wang, Daxiong; Zhou, Zhenwen; Wang, Feijun; Wang, Wenjun; Wang, Jianquan

    2014-09-22

    Novel cellulose derivative CMC-Li was synthesized by cotton as raw material. The mechanism of the CMC-Li modified electrode materials by electrospinning was reported. CMC-Li/lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4, LFP) composite fiber coated with LFP and CMC-Li nanofibers was successfully obtained by electrospinning. Then, CMC-Li/LFP nano-composite fiber was carbonized under nitrogen at a high temperature formed CNF/LFP/Li (CLL) composite nanofibers as cathode material. It can increase the contents of Li+, and improving the diffusion efficiency and specific capacity. The battery with CLL as cathode material retained close to 100% of initial reversible capacity after 200 cycles at 168 mAh g(-1), which was nearly the theoretical specific capacity of LFP. The cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were characterizing material performance. The batteries have good electrochemical property, outstanding pollution-free, excellent stability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Binding S0.6 Se0.4 in 1D Carbon Nanofiber with CS Bonding for High-Performance Flexible Li-S Batteries and Na-S Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yu; Zeng, Linchao; Hu, Shuhe; Jiang, Yu; Yuan, Beibei; Yu, Yan

    2017-03-29

    A one-step synthesis procedure is developed to prepare flexible S0.6 Se0.4 @carbon nanofibers (CNFs) electrode by coheating S0.6 Se0.4 powder with electrospun polyacrylonitrile nanofiber papers at 600 °C. The obtained S0.6 Se0.4 @CNFs film can be used as cathode material for high-performance Li-S batteries and room temperature (RT) Na-S batteries directly. The superior lithium/sodium storage performance derives from its rational structure design, such as the chemical bonding between Se and S, the chemical bonding between S0.6 Se0.4 and CNFs matrix, and the 3D CNFs network. This easy one-step synthesis procedure provides a feasible route to prepare electrode materials for high-performance Li-S and RT Na-S batteries.

  20. A Facile Bottom-Up Approach to Construct Hybrid Flexible Cathode Scaffold for High-Performance Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Arnab; Manjunatha, Revanasiddappa; Kumar, Rajat; Mitra, Sagar

    2016-12-14

    Lithium-sulfur batteries mostly suffer from the low utilization of sulfur, poor cycle life, and low rate performances. The prime factors that affect the performance are enormous volume change of the electrode, soluble intermediate product formation, poor electronic and ionic conductivity of S, and end discharge products (i.e., Li2S2 and Li2S). The attractive way to mitigate these challenges underlying in the fabrication of a sulfur nanocomposite electrode consisting of different nanoparticles with distinct properties of lithium storage capability, mechanical reinforcement, and ionic as well as electronic conductivity leading to a mechanically robust and mixed conductive (ionic and electronic conductive) sulfur electrode. Herein, we report a novel bottom-up approach to synthesize a unique freestanding, flexible cathode scaffold made of porous reduced graphene oxide, nanosized sulfur, and Mn3O4 nanoparticles, and all are three-dimensionally interconnected to each other by hybrid polyaniline/sodium alginate (PANI-SA) matrix to serve individual purposes. A capacity of 1098 mAh g(-1) is achieved against lithium after 200 cycles at a current rate of 2 A g(-1) with 97.6% of initial capacity at a same current rate, suggesting the extreme stability and cycling performance of such electrode. Interestingly, with the higher current density of 5 A g(-1), the composite electrode exhibited an initial capacity of 1015 mA h g(-1) and retained 71% of the original capacity after 500 cycles. The in situ Raman study confirms the polysulfide absorption capability of Mn3O4. This work provides a new strategy to design a mechanically robust, mixed conductive nanocomposite electrode for high-performance lithium-sulfur batteries and a strategy that can be used to develop flexible large power storage devices.

  1. Cu6Sn5-TiC-C nanocomposite anodes for high-performance sodium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Il Tae; Allcorn, Eric; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2015-05-01

    Cu6Sn5 alloy nanoparticles dispersed in a TiC and C conductive matrix have been developed via high energy mechanical milling (HEMM), and the resulting Cu6Sn5-TiC-C nanocomposite has been assessed as anodes for sodium-ion batteries. Composite anodes of Sn-C exhibit poor cyclic performance even with the introduction of 2 vol. % fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) additive into the electrolyte. In contrast, Cu6Sn5-TiC-C nanocomposite anodes exhibit stable cycle life corresponding to a capacity retention of ∼80% at 40 cycles and high-rate performance with a capacity retention of ∼62% at 3000 mA g-1. These superior performance metrics is ascribed to the well-developed electrochemically active nanocrystalline material (Cu6Sn5) as well as a hybrid conductive matrix (TiC and C). The incorporation of 2 vol. % FEC additive into the electrolyte further improves the performance of Cu6Sn5-TiC-C nanocomposite to display a capacity retention of ∼94% at 250 cycles and high-rate capacity retention of ∼82% at 5000 mA g-1, which are attributed to the formation of a thin and stable SEI layer in presence of FEC.

  2. Bamboo leaf derived ultrafine Si nanoparticles and Si/C nanocomposites for high-performance Li-ion battery anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Gao, Biao; Peng, Changjian; Peng, Xiang; Fu, Jijiang; Chu, Paul K.; Huo, Kaifu

    2015-08-01

    Silicon-based nanomaterials are promising anode materials in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) due to their high theoretical capacity of 4200 mA h g-1, more than 10 times that of commercial graphite. Si nanoparticles (NPs) with a diameter of or below 10 nm generally exhibit enhanced lithium storage properties due to their small size and large surface area. However, it is challenging to generate such ultrafine Si NPs by a facile and scalable method. This paper reports a scalable method to fabricate ultrafine Si NPs 5-8 nm in size from dead bamboo leaves (BLs) by thermally decomposing the organic matter, followed by magnesiothermic reduction in the presence of NaCl as a heat scavenger. The ultrafine Si NPs show a high capacity of 1800 mA h g-1 at a 0.2 C (1 C = 4200 mA g-1) rate and are thus promising anode materials in lithium-ion batteries. To achieve better rate capability, the BLs-derived ultrafine Si NPs are coated with a thin amorphous carbon layer (Si@C) and then dispersed and embedded in a reduced graphene oxide (RGO) network to produce Si@C/RGO nanocomposites by a layer-by-layer assembly method. The double protection rendered by the carbon shell and RGO network synergistically yield structural stability, high electrical conductivity and a stable solid electrolyte interface during Li insertion/extraction. The Si@C/RGO nanocomposites show excellent battery properties with a high capacity of 1400 mA h g-1 at a high current density of 2 C and remarkable rate performance with a capacity retention of 60% when the current density is increased 20 times from 0.2 to 4 C. This work provides a simple, low cost, and scalable approach enabling the use of BL waste as a sustainable source for the production of ultrafine Si NPs towards high-performance LIBs.Silicon-based nanomaterials are promising anode materials in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) due to their high theoretical capacity of 4200 mA h g-1, more than 10 times that of commercial graphite. Si nanoparticles (NPs) with a

  3. A facile approach to make high performance nano-fiber reinforced composite separator for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaosong

    2016-08-01

    The separator is a porous membrane located between the negative and the positive electrodes. In this work, a nano-fiber reinforced composite separator was developed. Compared with the commercial polyolefin separator, the composite separator showed superior (a) dimensional stability at elevated temperatures relative to conventional separators and (b) wettability by the liquid electrolyte. After being saturated with a commercial LiPF6-ethylene carbonate-dimethyl carbonate electrolyte, the composite separator enabled a high effective ionic conductivity (σeff) of 1.25 mS/cm. A stable cycle performance and an improved rate capability have been observed in the coin cells with the composite separator. This initial study shows that this type of composite membranes can be a promising alternative separator for lithium ion batteries.

  4. N-doped graphene-SnO{sub 2} sandwich paper for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xi; Chen, Shimou; Tang, Dai-Ming; Zhai, Tianyou; Li, Liang; Bando, Yoshio; Golberg, Dmitri [International Center for Young Scientists (ICYS) and International Center for Materials, Nanoarchitectonics (MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Namiki 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Cao, Xinqiang; Zhong, Yeteng [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Science, Key Laboratory of Photochemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Bourgeois, Laure [Monash Centre for Electron Microscopy and Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, VIC 3800 (Australia); Guan, Hasigaowa [Key Laboratory of Marine Chemistry Theory and Technology, Ministry of Education, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); Li, Huiqiao [Energy Technology Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industry and Technology (AIST), Umezono, 1-1-1, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2012-07-10

    A new facile route to fabricate N-doped graphene-SnO{sub 2} sandwich papers is developed. The 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane anion (TCNQ{sup -}) plays a key role for the formation of such structures as it acts as both the nitrogen source and complexing agent. If used in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), the material exhibits a large capacity, high rate capability, and excellent cycling stability. The superior electrochemical performance of this novel material is the result from its unique features: excellent electronic conductivity related to the sandwich structure, short transportation length for both lithium ions and electrons, and elastomeric space to accommodate volume changes upon Li insertion/extraction. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Ternary CNTs@TiO2/CoO Nanotube Composites: Improved Anode Materials for High Performance Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Madian

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 nanotubes (NTs synthesized by electrochemical anodization are discussed as very promising anodes for lithium ion batteries, owing to their high structural stability, high surface area, safety, and low production cost. However, their poor electronic conductivity and low Li+ ion diffusivity are the main drawbacks that prevent them from achieving high electrochemical performance. Herein, we report the fabrication of a novel ternary carbon nanotubes (CNTs@TiO2/CoO nanotubes composite by a two-step synthesis method. The preparation includes an initial anodic fabrication of well-ordered TiO2/CoO NTs from a Ti-Co alloy, followed by growing of CNTs horizontally on the top of the oxide films using a simple spray pyrolysis technique. The unique 1D structure of such a hybrid nanostructure with the inclusion of CNTs demonstrates significantly enhanced areal capacity and rate performances compared to pure TiO2 and TiO2/CoO NTs, without CNTs tested under identical conditions. The findings reveal that CNTs provide a highly conductive network that improves Li+ ion diffusivity, promoting a strongly favored lithium insertion into the TiO2/CoO NT framework, and hence resulting in high capacity and an extremely reproducible high rate capability.

  6. Ternary CNTs@TiO₂/CoO Nanotube Composites: Improved Anode Materials for High Performance Lithium Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madian, Mahmoud; Ummethala, Raghunandan; Naga, Ahmed Osama Abo El; Ismail, Nahla; Rümmeli, Mark Hermann; Eychmüller, Alexander; Giebeler, Lars

    2017-06-20

    TiO₂ nanotubes (NTs) synthesized by electrochemical anodization are discussed as very promising anodes for lithium ion batteries, owing to their high structural stability, high surface area, safety, and low production cost. However, their poor electronic conductivity and low Li⁺ ion diffusivity are the main drawbacks that prevent them from achieving high electrochemical performance. Herein, we report the fabrication of a novel ternary carbon nanotubes (CNTs)@TiO₂/CoO nanotubes composite by a two-step synthesis method. The preparation includes an initial anodic fabrication of well-ordered TiO₂/CoO NTs from a Ti-Co alloy, followed by growing of CNTs horizontally on the top of the oxide films using a simple spray pyrolysis technique. The unique 1D structure of such a hybrid nanostructure with the inclusion of CNTs demonstrates significantly enhanced areal capacity and rate performances compared to pure TiO₂ and TiO₂/CoO NTs, without CNTs tested under identical conditions. The findings reveal that CNTs provide a highly conductive network that improves Li⁺ ion diffusivity, promoting a strongly favored lithium insertion into the TiO₂/CoO NT framework, and hence resulting in high capacity and an extremely reproducible high rate capability.

  7. Control of interfacial layers for high-performance porous Si lithium-ion battery anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyungmin; Lee, Sungjun; Yoo, Seungmin; Shin, Myoungsoo; Kim, Jieun; Chun, Myungjin; Choi, Nam-Soon; Park, Soojin

    2014-09-24

    We demonstrate a facile synthesis of micrometer-sized porous Si particles via copper-assisted chemical etching process. Subsequently, metal and/or metal silicide layers are introduced on the surface of porous Si particles using a simple chemical reduction process. Macroporous Si and metal/metal silicide-coated Si electrodes exhibit a high initial Coulombic efficiency of ∼90%. Reversible capacity of carbon-coated porous Si gradually decays after 80 cycles, while metal/metal silicide-coated porous Si electrodes show significantly improved cycling performance even after 100 cycles with a reversible capacity of >1500 mAh g(-1). We confirm that a stable solid-electrolyte interface layer is formed on metal/metal silicide-coated porous Si electrodes during cycling, leading to a highly stable cycling performance.

  8. A High Performance LIA-Based Interface for Battery Powered Sensing Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Romeo, Daniel; Valero, María R; Medrano, Nicolás; Calvo, Belén; Celma, Santiago

    2015-09-30

    This paper proposes a battery-compatible electronic interface based on a general purpose lock-in amplifier (LIA) capable of recovering input signals up to the MHz range. The core is a novel ASIC fabricated in 1.8 V 0.18 µm CMOS technology, which contains a dual-phase analog lock-in amplifier consisting of carefully designed building blocks to allow configurability over a wide frequency range while maintaining low power consumption. It operates using square input signals. Hence, for battery-operated microcontrolled systems, where square reference and exciting signals can be generated by the embedded microcontroller, the system benefits from intrinsic advantages such as simplicity, versatility and reduction in power and size. Experimental results confirm the signal recovery capability with signal-to-noise power ratios down to -39 dB with relative errors below 0.07% up to 1 MHz. Furthermore, the system has been successfully tested measuring the response of a microcantilever-based resonant sensor, achieving similar results with better power-bandwidth trade-off compared to other LIAs based on commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components and commercial LIA equipment.

  9. Inorganic Glue Enabling High Performance of Silicon Particles as Lithium Ion Battery Anode

    KAUST Repository

    Cui, Li-Feng

    2011-01-01

    Silicon, as an alloy-type anode material, has recently attracted lots of attention because of its highest known Li+ storage capacity (4200 mAh/g). But lithium insertion into and extraction from silicon are accompanied by a huge volume change, up to 300, which induces a strong strain on silicon and causes pulverization and rapid capacity fading due to the loss of the electrical contact between part of silicon and current collector. Silicon nanostructures such as nanowires and nanotubes can overcome the pulverization problem, however these nano-engineered silicon anodes usually involve very expensive processes and have difficulty being applied in commercial lithium ion batteries. In this study, we report a novel method using amorphous silicon as inorganic glue replacing conventional polymer binder. This inorganic glue method can solve the loss of contact issue in conventional silicon particle anode and enables successful cycling of various sizes of silicon particles, both nano-particles and micron particles. With a limited capacity of 800 mAh/g, relatively large silicon micron-particles can be stably cycled over 200 cycles. The very cheap production of these silicon particle anodes makes our method promising and competitive in lithium ion battery industry. © 2011 The Electrochemical Society.

  10. A High Performance LIA-Based Interface for Battery Powered Sensing Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel García-Romeo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a battery-compatible electronic interface based on a general purpose lock-in amplifier (LIA capable of recovering input signals up to the MHz range. The core is a novel ASIC fabricated in 1.8 V 0.18 µm CMOS technology, which contains a dual-phase analog lock-in amplifier consisting of carefully designed building blocks to allow configurability over a wide frequency range while maintaining low power consumption. It operates using square input signals. Hence, for battery-operated microcontrolled systems, where square reference and exciting signals can be generated by the embedded microcontroller, the system benefits from intrinsic advantages such as simplicity, versatility and reduction in power and size. Experimental results confirm the signal recovery capability with signal-to-noise power ratios down to −39 dB with relative errors below 0.07% up to 1 MHz. Furthermore, the system has been successfully tested measuring the response of a microcantilever-based resonant sensor, achieving similar results with better power-bandwidth trade-off compared to other LIAs based on commercial off-the-shelf (COTS components and commercial LIA equipment.

  11. Vertically aligned N-doped coral-like carbon fiber arrays as efficient air electrodes for high-performance nonaqueous Li-O2 batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shui, Jianglan; Du, Feng; Xue, Chenming; Li, Quan; Dai, Liming

    2014-03-25

    High energy efficiency and long cycleability are two important performance measures for Li-air batteries. Using a rationally designed oxygen electrode based on a vertically aligned nitrogen-doped coral-like carbon nanofiber (VA-NCCF) array supported by stainless steel cloth, we have developed a nonaqueous Li-O2 battery with an energy efficiency as high as 90% and a narrow voltage gap of 0.3 V between discharge/charge plateaus. Excellent reversibility and cycleability were also demonstrated for the newly developed oxygen electrode. The observed outstanding performance can be attributed to its unique vertically aligned, coral-like N-doped carbon microstructure with a high catalytic activity and an optimized oxygen/electron transportation capability, coupled with the microporous stainless steel substrate. These results demonstrate that highly efficient and reversible Li-O2 batteries are feasible by using a rationally designed carbon-based oxygen electrode.

  12. Performance Degradation of Thermal Parameters during Cycle Ageing of High Energy Density Ni-Mn-Co based Lithium-Ion Battery Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanciu, Tiberiu; Stroe, Daniel Loan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef

    2016-01-01

    The accelerated demand for electrifying the transportation sector, coupled with the continuous improvement of rechargeable batteries’ characteristics, have made modern high-energy Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries the standard choice for hybrid and electric vehicles (EVs). Consequently, Li......-ion batteries’ electrochemical and thermal characteristics are very important topics, putting them at the forefront of the research. Along with the electrical performance of Li-ion battery cells, their thermal behavior needs to be accurately predicted during operation and over the lifespan of the application...... as well, since the thermal management of the battery is crucial for the safety of the EV driver. Moreover, the thermal management system can significantly lower the degradation rate of the battery pack and thus reduce costs. In this paper, the thermal characterization of a commercially available Nickel...

  13. Beads-Milling of Waste Si Sawdust into High-Performance Nanoflakes for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasukabe, Takatoshi; Nishihara, Hirotomo; Kimura, Katsuya; Matsumoto, Taketoshi; Kobayashi, Hikaru; Okai, Makoto; Kyotani, Takashi

    2017-02-01

    Nowadays, ca. 176,640 tons/year of silicon (Si) (>4N) is manufactured for Si wafers used for semiconductor industry. The production of the highly pure Si wafers inevitably includes very high-temperature steps at 1400-2000 °C, which is energy-consuming and environmentally unfriendly. Inefficiently, ca. 45-55% of such costly Si is lost simply as sawdust in the cutting process. In this work, we develop a cost-effective way to recycle Si sawdust as a high-performance anode material for lithium-ion batteries. By a beads-milling process, nanoflakes with extremely small thickness (15-17 nm) and large diameter (0.2-1 μm) are obtained. The nanoflake framework is transformed into a high-performance porous structure, named wrinkled structure, through a self-organization induced by lithiation/delithiation cycling. Under capacity restriction up to 1200 mAh g-1, the best sample can retain the constant capacity over 800 cycles with a reasonably high coulombic efficiency (98-99.8%).

  14. Beads-Milling of Waste Si Sawdust into High-Performance Nanoflakes for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasukabe, Takatoshi; Nishihara, Hirotomo; Kimura, Katsuya; Matsumoto, Taketoshi; Kobayashi, Hikaru; Okai, Makoto; Kyotani, Takashi

    2017-02-20

    Nowadays, ca. 176,640 tons/year of silicon (Si) (>4N) is manufactured for Si wafers used for semiconductor industry. The production of the highly pure Si wafers inevitably includes very high-temperature steps at 1400-2000 °C, which is energy-consuming and environmentally unfriendly. Inefficiently, ca. 45-55% of such costly Si is lost simply as sawdust in the cutting process. In this work, we develop a cost-effective way to recycle Si sawdust as a high-performance anode material for lithium-ion batteries. By a beads-milling process, nanoflakes with extremely small thickness (15-17 nm) and large diameter (0.2-1 μm) are obtained. The nanoflake framework is transformed into a high-performance porous structure, named wrinkled structure, through a self-organization induced by lithiation/delithiation cycling. Under capacity restriction up to 1200 mAh g(-1), the best sample can retain the constant capacity over 800 cycles with a reasonably high coulombic efficiency (98-99.8%).

  15. Beads-Milling of Waste Si Sawdust into High-Performance Nanoflakes for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasukabe, Takatoshi; Nishihara, Hirotomo; Kimura, Katsuya; Matsumoto, Taketoshi; Kobayashi, Hikaru; Okai, Makoto; Kyotani, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, ca. 176,640 tons/year of silicon (Si) (>4N) is manufactured for Si wafers used for semiconductor industry. The production of the highly pure Si wafers inevitably includes very high-temperature steps at 1400–2000 °C, which is energy-consuming and environmentally unfriendly. Inefficiently, ca. 45–55% of such costly Si is lost simply as sawdust in the cutting process. In this work, we develop a cost-effective way to recycle Si sawdust as a high-performance anode material for lithium-ion batteries. By a beads-milling process, nanoflakes with extremely small thickness (15–17 nm) and large diameter (0.2–1 μm) are obtained. The nanoflake framework is transformed into a high-performance porous structure, named wrinkled structure, through a self-organization induced by lithiation/delithiation cycling. Under capacity restriction up to 1200 mAh g−1, the best sample can retain the constant capacity over 800 cycles with a reasonably high coulombic efficiency (98–99.8%). PMID:28218271

  16. Hollow-Cuboid Li3VO4/C as High-Performance Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Changkun; Liu, Chaofeng; Nan, Xihui; Song, Huanqiao; Liu, Yaguang; Zhang, Cuiping; Cao, Guozhong

    2016-01-13

    Li3VO4 has been demonstrated to be a promising anode material for lithium-ion batteries with a low, safe voltage and large capacity. However, its poor electronic conductivity hinders its practical application particularly at a high rate. This work reports that Li3VO4 coated with carbon was synthesized by a one-pot, two-step method with F127 ((PEO)100-(PPO)65-(PEO)100) as both template and carbon source, yielding a microcuboid structure. The resulting Li3VO4/C cuboid shows a stable capacity of 415 mAh g(-1) at 0.5 C and excellent capacity stability at high rates (e.g., 92% capacity retention after 1000 cycles at 10 C = 4 A g(-1)). The lithiation/delithiation process of Li3VO4/C was studied by ex situ X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy, which confirmed that Li3VO4/C underwent a reversible intercalation reaction during discharge/charge processes. The excellent electrochemical performance is attributed largely to the unique microhollow structure. The voids inside hollow structure can not only provide more space to accommodate volume change during discharge/charge processes but also allow the lithium ions insertion and extraction from both outside and inside the hollow structure with a much larger surface area or more reaction sites and shorten the lithium ions diffusion distance, which leads to smaller overpotential and faster reaction kinetics. Carbon derived from F127 through pyrolysis coats Li3VO4 conformably and thus offers good electrical conduction. The results in this work provide convincing evidence that the significant potential of hollow-cuboid Li3VO4/C for high-power batteries.

  17. Nanocasting hierarchical carbide-derived carbons in nanostructured opal assemblies for high-performance cathodes in lithium-sulfur batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Claudia; Thieme, Sören; Brückner, Jan; Oschatz, Martin; Biemelt, Tim; Mondin, Giovanni; Althues, Holger; Kaskel, Stefan

    2014-12-23

    Silica nanospheres are used as templates for the generation of carbide-derived carbons with monodisperse spherical mesopores (d=20-40 nm) and microporous walls. The nanocasting approach with a polycarbosilane precursor and subsequent pyrolysis, followed by silica template removal and chlorine treatment, results in carbide-derived carbons DUT-86 (DUT=Dresden University of Technology) with remarkable textural characteristics, monodisperse, spherical mesopores tunable in diameter, and very high pore volumes up to 5.0 cm3 g(-1). Morphology replication allows these nanopores to be arranged in a nanostructured inverse opal-like structure. Specific surface areas are very high (2450 m2 g(-1)) due to the simultaneous presence of micropores. Testing DUT-86 samples as cathode materials in Li-S batteries reveals excellent performance, and tailoring of the pore size allows optimization of cell performance, especially the active center accessibility and sulfur utilization. The outstanding pore volumes allow sulfur loadings of 80 wt %, a value seldom achieved in composite cathodes, and initial capacities of 1165 mAh gsulfur(-1) are reached. After 100 cycle capacities of 860 mAh gsulfur(-1) are retained, rendering DUT-86 a high-performance sulfur host material.

  18. Three-dimensional SnO2/carbon on Cu foam for high-performance lithium ion battery anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weimin; Maloney, Scott; Wang, Wenyong

    2016-10-01

    SnO2 is an attractive anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) due to its high theoretical specific capacity (1491 mAh g-1), low cost, and environmental benignity. The main challenges for SnO2 anodes are their low intrinsic conductivity and poor cycling stability associated with their large volume changes during the charge and discharge process. Here, we present a simple chemical vapor deposition method to fabricate three-dimensional SnO2/carbon on Cu foam electrodes for LIBs. Such a three-dimensional electrode combines multiple advantages, including a continuous electrically conductive network, short pathways for electron transport and ion diffusion, and porous space to allow for the volume expansion of SnO2 nanoparticles. With this anode, superior electrochemical performance is achieved with a high reversible specific capacity of 1171 mAh g-1 at a current density of 100 mA g-1. A stable cycling performance as well as an excellent rate capability is also achieved. These outstanding lithium-storage properties suggest the strategy is a reliable approach for fabricating high-performance LIB electrodes.

  19. Graphene/Sulfur/Carbon Nanocomposite for High Performance Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kangke Jin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Here, we report a two-step synthesis of graphene/sulfur/carbon ternary composite with a multilayer structure. In this composite, ultrathin S layers are uniformly deposited on graphene nanosheets and covered by a thin layer of amorphous carbon derived from β-cyclodextrin on the surface. Such a unique microstructure, not only improves the electrical conductivity of sulfur, but also effectively inhibits the dissolution of polysulfides during charging/discharging processes. As a result, this ternary nanocomposite exhibits excellent electrochemical performance. It can deliver a high initial discharge and charge capacity of 1410 mAh·g−1 and 1370 mAh·g−1, respectively, and a capacity retention of 63.8% can be achieved after 100 cycles at 0.1 C (1 C = 1675 mA·g−1. A relatively high specific capacity of 450 mAh·g−1 can still be retained after 200 cycles at a high rate of 2 C. The synthesis process introduced here is simple and broadly applicable to the modification of sulfur cathode for better electrochemical performance.

  20. High-performance Sn@carbon nanocomposite anode for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meschini, Ida; Nobili, Francesco; Mancini, Marilena; Marassi, Roberto; Tossici, Roberto; Savoini, Alberto; Focarete, Maria Letizia; Croce, Fausto

    2013-03-01

    Nanosize tin particles (Sn-PMCMT) embedded in electrically conducting porous multichannel carbon microtubes are synthesized by co-electrospinning followed by air stabilization and carbonization in Ar/H2 atmosphere. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy show that the material is nanostructured with nanosize Sn particles well embedded into the carbon host matrix. Composite electrodes prepared using Sn-PMCMT, Super-P carbon and Na-carboxymethylcellulose as binder, exhibit a superior rate capability and exceptional cycle life in cell tests at room temperature. Discharge capacities as high as 632 mAh g-1 at 0.7 C rate are obtained during the first galvanostatic cycles. The delivered capacities are still in excess of 350 mAh g-1 after 600 cycles, most of them performed at 2 C rate. These outstanding results represent the highest performance so far reported for this type of electrode.

  1. Jahn–Teller Assisted Na Diffusion for High Performance Na Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xin [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences; Wang, Yan [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Wu, Di [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Liu, Lei [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Bo, Shou-Hang [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Ceder, Gerbrand [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    2016-08-30

    Na energy storage technology is strategically attractive for large scale applications such as grid energy storage. Here, we show in this paper that there is a clear relation between the Jahn$-$Teller activity of a transition metal ion at the end of charge and the mobility of Na in a cathode material. This is particularly important as mobility at the end of charge limits the capacity of current materials. Consequently, by using this classical piece of physics in the battery world, it is possible to create higher capacity Na-cathode materials. Even more exciting is that the ideal element to impart this effect on cathodes is Fe, which is the least expensive of the transition metal oxides and can therefore enable low cost cathode materials.

  2. Synthesis and Characterization of Silicon Nanoparticles Inserted into Graphene Sheets as High Performance Anode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Silicon nanoparticles have been successfully inserted into graphene sheets via a novel method combining freeze-drying and thermal reduction. The structure, electrochemical performance, and cycling stability of this anode material were characterized by SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, charge/discharge cycling, and cyclic voltammetry (CV. CV showed that the Si/graphene nanocomposite exhibits remarkably enhanced cycling performance and rate performance compared with bare Si nanoparticles for lithium ion batteries. XRD and SEM showed that silicon nanoparticles inserted into graphene sheets were homogeneous and had better layered structure than the bare silicon nanoparticles. Graphene sheets improved high rate discharge capacity and long cycle-life performance. The initial capacity of the Si nanoparticles/graphene keeps above 850 mAhg−1 after 100 cycles at a rate of 100 mAg−1. The excellent cycle performances are caused by the good structure of the composites, which ensured uniform electronic conducting sheet and intensified the cohesion force of binder and collector, respectively.

  3. Facile Synthesis of Carbon-Coated Silicon/Graphite Spherical Composites for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So Yeun; Lee, Jaewoo; Kim, Bo-Hye; Kim, Young-Jun; Yang, Kap Seung; Park, Min-Sik

    2016-05-18

    A high-performance Si/carbon/graphite composite in which Si nanoparticles are attached onto the surface of natural graphite by carbonization of coal-tar pitch is proposed for use in lithium-ion batteries. This multicomponent structure is favorable for improving Li(+) storage capability because the amorphous carbon layer encapsulating Si nanoparticles offers sufficient electric conductivity and strong elasticity to facilitate relaxation of strain caused by electrochemical reaction of Si during cycles. The Si/carbon/graphite composite exhibits a specific capacity of 712 mAh g(-1) at a constant current density of 130 mA g(-1), and maintains more than 80% of its initial capacity after 100 cycles. Moreover, it shows a high capacity retention of approximately 88% even at a high current density of 5 C (3250 mA g(-1)). On the basis of electrochemical and structural analyses, we suggest that a rational design of the Si/carbon/graphite composite is mainly responsible for delivering a high reversible capacity and stable cycle performance. Furthermore, the proposed synthetic route for the Si/carbon/graphite composite is simple and cost-effective for mass production.

  4. Expanded graphite embedded with aluminum nanoparticles as superior thermal conductivity anodes for high-performance lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tingkai; She, Shengfei; Ji, Xianglin; Guo, Xinai; Jin, Wenbo; Zhu, Ruoxing; Dang, Alei; Li, Hao; Li, Tiehu; Wei, Bingqing

    2016-09-27

    The development of high capacity and long-life lithium-ion batteries is a long-term pursuing and under a close scrutiny. Most of the researches have been focused on exploring electrode materials and structures with high store capability of lithium ions and at the same time with a good electrical conductivity. Thermal conductivity of an electrode material will also have significant impacts on boosting battery capacity and prolonging battery lifetime, which is, however, underestimated. Here, we present the development of an expanded graphite embedded with Al metal nanoparticles (EG-MNPs-Al) synthesized by an oxidation-expansion process. The synthesized EG-MNPs-Al material exhibited a typical hierarchical structure with embedded Al metal nanoparticles into the interspaces of expanded graphite. The parallel thermal conductivity was up to 11.6 W·m(-1)·K(-1) with a bulk density of 453 kg·m(-3) at room temperature, a 150% improvement compared to expanded graphite (4.6 W·m(-1)·K(-1)) owing to the existence of Al metal nanoparticles. The first reversible capacity of EG-MNPs-Al as anode material for lithium ion battery was 480 mAh·g(-1) at a current density of 100 mA·g(-1), and retained 84% capacity after 300 cycles. The improved cycling stability and system security of lithium ion batteries is attributed to the excellent thermal conductivity of the EG-MNPs-Al anodes.

  5. Expanded graphite embedded with aluminum nanoparticles as superior thermal conductivity anodes for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tingkai; She, Shengfei; Ji, Xianglin; Guo, Xinai; Jin, Wenbo; Zhu, Ruoxing; Dang, Alei; Li, Hao; Li, Tiehu; Wei, Bingqing

    2016-09-01

    The development of high capacity and long-life lithium-ion batteries is a long-term pursuing and under a close scrutiny. Most of the researches have been focused on exploring electrode materials and structures with high store capability of lithium ions and at the same time with a good electrical conductivity. Thermal conductivity of an electrode material will also have significant impacts on boosting battery capacity and prolonging battery lifetime, which is, however, underestimated. Here, we present the development of an expanded graphite embedded with Al metal nanoparticles (EG-MNPs-Al) synthesized by an oxidation-expansion process. The synthesized EG-MNPs-Al material exhibited a typical hierarchical structure with embedded Al metal nanoparticles into the interspaces of expanded graphite. The parallel thermal conductivity was up to 11.6 W·m-1·K-1 with a bulk density of 453 kg·m-3 at room temperature, a 150% improvement compared to expanded graphite (4.6 W·m-1·K-1) owing to the existence of Al metal nanoparticles. The first reversible capacity of EG-MNPs-Al as anode material for lithium ion battery was 480 mAh·g-1 at a current density of 100 mA·g-1, and retained 84% capacity after 300 cycles. The improved cycling stability and system security of lithium ion batteries is attributed to the excellent thermal conductivity of the EG-MNPs-Al anodes.

  6. Honeycomb-inspired design of ultrafine SnO2@C nanospheres embedded in carbon film as anode materials for high performance lithium- and sodium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, Xiang; Jiang, Jianjun; Ruan, Yunjun; Li, Zhishan; Zhang, Yi; Sun, Jianwu; Wang, Chundong

    2017-08-01

    Tin oxide (SnO2) has been considered as one of the most promising anodes for advanced rechargeable batteries due to its advantages such as high energy density, earth abundance and environmental friendly. However, its large volume change during the Li-Sn/Na-Sn alloying and de-alloying processes will result in a fast capacity degradation over a long term cycling. To solve this issue, in this work we design and synthesize a novel honeycomb-like composite composing of carbon encapsulated SnO2 nanospheres embedded in carbon film by using dual templates of SiO2 and NaCl. Using these composites as anodes both in lithium ion batteries and sodium-ion batteries, no discernable capacity degradation is observed over hundreds of long term cycles at both low current density (100 mA g-1) and high current density (500 mA g-1). Such a good cyclic stability and high delivered capacity have been attributed to the high conductivity of the supported carbon film and hollow encapsulated carbon shells, which not only provide enough space to accommodate the volume expansion but also prevent further aggregation of SnO2 nanoparticles upon cycling. By engineering electrodes of accommodating high volume expansion, we demonstrate a prototype to achieve high performance batteries, especially high-power batteries.

  7. Facile synthesis of uniform MWCNT@Si nanocomposites as high-performance anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yifan; Du, Ning, E-mail: dna1122@zju.edu.cn; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Deren

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • A uniform SiO{sub 2} layer was deposited on multi-walled carbon nanotube. • Synthesis of uniform (MWCNT)@Si nanocomposites via the magnesiothermic reduction. • The MWCNT@Si nanocomposites show high reversible capacity and good cyclability. • Enhanced performance is attributed to porous nanostructure, introduction of MWCNTs. - Abstract: We demonstrate the synthesis of uniform multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)@Si nanocomposites via the magnesiothermic reduction of pre-synthesized MWCNT@SiO{sub 2} nanocables. At first, the acid vapor steaming is used to treat the surface, which can facilitate the uniform deposition of SiO{sub 2} layer via the TEOS hydrolysis. Then, the uniform MWCNT@Si nanocomposites are obtained on the basis of MWCNT@SiO{sub 2} nanocables via a simple magnesiothermic reduction. When used as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, the as-synthesized MWCNT@Si nanocomposites show high reversible capacity and good cycling performance, which is better than bulk Si and bare MWCNTs. It is believed that the good electrochemical performance can be attributed to the novel porous nanostructure and the introduction of MWCNTs that can buffer the volume change, maintain the electrical conductive network, and enhance the electronic conductivity and lithium-ion transport.

  8. LiFePO4 nanoparticles encapsulated in graphene nanoshells for high-performance lithium-ion battery cathodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Huilong; Peng, Zhiwei; Yang, Yang; Li, Lei; Raji, Abdul-Rahman O; Samuel, Errol L G; Tour, James M

    2014-07-11

    LiFePO4 encapsulated in graphene nanoshells (LiFePO4@GNS) nanoparticles were synthesized by solid state reaction between graphene-coated Fe nanoparticles and LiH2PO4. The resulting nanocomposite was demonstrated to be a superior lithium-ion battery cathode with improved cycle and rate performances.

  9. Sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone)/mesoporous silica hybrid membrane for high performance vanadium redox flow battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaohua; Dai, Wenjing; Yu, Lihong; Xi, Jingyu; Qiu, Xinping; Chen, Liquan

    2014-07-01

    Hybrid membranes of sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) and mesoporous silica SBA-15 are prepared with various mass ratios for vanadium redox flow battery (VRB) application and investigated in detail. The hybrid membranes are dense and homogeneous with no visible hole as the SEM and EDX images shown. With the increasing of SBA-15 mass ratio, the physicochemical property, VO2+ permeability, mechanical property and thermal stability of hybrid membranes exhibit good trends, which can be attributed to the interaction between SPEEK and SBA-15. The hybrid membrane with 20 wt.% SBA-15 (termed as S/SBA-15 20) shows the VRB single cell performance of CE 96.3% and EE 88.1% at 60 mA cm-2 due to its good balance of proton conductivity and VO2+ permeability, while Nafion 117 membrane shows the cell performance of CE 92.2% and EE 81.0%. Besides, the S/SBA-15 20 membrane shows stable cell performance of highly stable efficiency and slower discharge capacity decline during 120 cycles at 60 mA cm-2. Therefore, the SPEEK/SBA-15 hybrid membranes with optimized mass ratio and excellent VRB performance can be achieved, exhibiting good potential usage in VRB systems.

  10. Sb-AlC0.75-C composite anodes for high-performance sodium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Gyu Jin; Lee, Yongho; Mun, Yoo Seok; Kim, Hyeongwoo; Hur, Jaehyun; Kim, Tae Young; Suh, Kwang S.; Kim, Ji Hyeon; Lee, Daeho; Choi, Wonchang; Kim, Il Tae

    2017-02-01

    Antimony (Sb) nanoparticles dispersed in a hybrid matrix consisting of aluminum (Al) and carbon, AlC0.75-C were synthesized via one-step high-energy mechanical milling (HEMM) process and assessed as potential anode materials for use in sodium-ion batteries. The introduction of carbon during HEMM led to the formation of individual Sb nanoparticles dispersed in the AlC0.75-C matrix; in the absence of carbon during HEMM, an AlSb alloy was formed. The Sb-AlC0.75-C composite anodes demonstrated better cycling performance as well as higher rate capability compared to an AlSb anode; these improved properties could be due to the well-developed Sb phase, which acts as an electrochemically active nanocrystalline material in the AlC0.75/carbon conductive matrix. Furthermore, when fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) was added to the electrolyte, the sodium-ion cells exhibited the best electrochemical performances, corresponding to a capacity retention of 83% at 100 cycles at 100 mA g-1 and a high rate capacity retention of 58% at 5000 mA g-1. In addition, the as-prepared Sb-AlC0.75-C composite has a high tap density; thus, its volumetric capacity was approximately three times that of carbon.

  11. Ultrafine Nb2O5 Nanocrystal Coating on Reduced Graphene Oxide as Anode Material for High Performance Sodium Ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Litao; Chen, Gen; Sarker, Swagotom; Richins, Stephanie; Wang, Huiqiang; Xu, Weichuan; Rui, Xianhong; Luo, Hongmei

    2016-08-31

    Ultrafine niobium oxide nanocrystals/reduced graphene oxide (Nb2O5 NCs/rGO) was demonstrated as a promising anode material for sodium ion battery with high rate performance and high cycle durability. Nb2O5 NCs/rGO was synthesized by controllable hydrolysis of niobium ethoxide and followed by heat treatment at 450 °C in flowing forming gas. Transmission electron microscopy images showed that Nb2O5 NCs with average particle size of 3 nm were uniformly deposited on rGO sheets and voids among Nb2O5 NCs existed. The architecture of ultrafine Nb2O5 NCs anchored on a highly conductive rGO network can not only enhance charge transfer and buffer the volume change during sodiation/desodiation process but also provide more active surface area for sodium ion storage, resulting in superior rate and cycle performance. Ex situ XPS analysis revealed that the sodium ion storage mechanism in Nb2O5 could be accompanied by Nb(5+)/Nb(4+) redox reaction and the ultrafine Nb2O5 NCs provide more surface area to accomplish the redox reaction.

  12. Boron Clusters as Highly Stable Magnesium-Battery Electrolytes**

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Tyler J; Mohtadi, Rana; Arthur, Timothy S; Mizuno, Fuminori; Zhang, Ruigang; Shirai, Soichi; Kampf, Jeff W

    2014-01-01

    Boron clusters are proposed as a new concept for the design of magnesium-battery electrolytes that are magnesium-battery-compatible, highly stable, and noncorrosive. A novel carborane-based electrolyte incorporating an unprecedented magnesium-centered complex anion is reported and shown to perform well as a magnesium-battery electrolyte. This finding opens a new approach towards the design of electrolytes whose likelihood of meeting the challenging design targets for magnesium-battery electrolytes is very high. PMID:24519845

  13. Core-shell amorphous silicon-carbon nanoparticles for high performance anodes in lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sourice, Julien; Bordes, Arnaud; Boulineau, Adrien; Alper, John P.; Franger, Sylvain; Quinsac, Axelle; Habert, Aurélie; Leconte, Yann; De Vito, Eric; Porcher, Willy; Reynaud, Cécile; Herlin-Boime, Nathalie; Haon, Cédric

    2016-10-01

    Core-shell silicon-carbon nanoparticles are attractive candidates as active material to increase the capacity of Li-ion batteries while mitigating the detrimental effects of volume expansion upon lithiation. However crystalline silicon suffers from amorphization upon the first charge/discharge cycle and improved stability is expected in starting with amorphous silicon. Here we report the synthesis, in a single-step process, of amorphous silicon nanoparticles coated with a carbon shell (a-Si@C), via a two-stage laser pyrolysis where decomposition of silane and ethylene are conducted in two successive reaction zones. Control of experimental conditions mitigates silicon core crystallization as well as formation of silicon carbide. Auger electron spectroscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy show a carbon shell about 1 nm in thickness, which prevents detrimental oxidation of the a-Si cores. Cyclic voltammetry demonstrates that the core-shell composite reaches its maximal lithiation during the first sweep, thanks to its amorphous core. After 500 charge/discharge cycles, it retains a capacity of 1250 mAh.g-1 at a C/5 rate and 800 mAh.g-1 at 2C, with an outstanding coulombic efficiency of 99.95%. Moreover, post-mortem observations show an electrode volume expansion of less than 20% and preservation of the nanostructuration.

  14. High-performing mesoporous iron oxalate anodes for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Wei An; Gupta, Nutan; Prasanth, Raghavan; Madhavi, Srinivasan

    2012-12-01

    Mesoporous iron oxalate (FeC(2)O(4)) with two distinct morphologies, i.e., cocoon and rod, has been synthesized via a simple, scalable chimie douce precipitation method. The solvent plays a key role in determining the morphology and microstructure of iron oxalate, which are studied by field-emission scanning electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Crystallographic characterization of the materials has been carried out by X-ray diffraction and confirmed phase-pure FeC(2)O(4)·2H(2)O formation. The critical dehydration process of FeC(2)O(4)·2H(2)O resulted in anhydrous FeC(2)O(4), and its thermal properties are studied by thermogravimetric analysis. The electrochemical properties of anhydrous FeC(2)O(4) in Li/FeC(2)O(4) cells are evaluated by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge cycling, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The studies showed that the initial discharge capacities of anhydrous FeC(2)O(4) cocoons and rods are 1288 and 1326 mA h g(-1), respectively, at 1C rate. Anhydrous FeC(2)O(4) cocoons exhibited stable capacity even at high C rates (11C). The electrochemical performance of anhydrous FeC(2)O(4) is found to be greatly influenced by the number of accessible reaction sites, morphology, and size effects.

  15. High Pseudocapacitance in FeOOH/rGO Composites with Superior Performance for High Rate Anode in Li-Ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Hui; Cao, Liyun; Li, Jiayin; Huang, Jianfeng; Xu, Zhanwei; Cheng, Yayi; Kong, Xingang; Yanagisawa, Kazumichi

    2016-12-28

    Capacitive storage has been considered as one type of Li-ion storage with fast faradaic surface redox reactions to offer high power density for electrochemical applications. However, it is often limited by low extent of energy contribution during the charge/discharge process, providing insufficient influences to total capacity of Li-ion storage in electrodes. In this work, we demonstrate a pseudocapacitance predominated storage (contributes 82% of the total capacity) from an in-situ pulverization process of FeOOH rods on rGO (reduced graphene oxide) sheets for the first time. Such high extent of pseudocapacitive storage in the FeOOH/rGO electrode achieves high energy density with superior cycling performance over 200 cycles at different current densities (1135 mAh/g at 1 A/g and 783 mAh/g at 5 A/g). It is further revealed that the in-situ pulverization process is essential for the high pseudocapacitance in this electrode, because it not only produces a porous structure for high exposure of tiny FeOOH crystallites to electrolyte but also maintains stable electrochemical contact during ultrahigh rate charge transfer with high energy density in the battery. The utilization of in-situ pulverization in an Fe-based anode to realize high surface pseudocapacitance with superior performance may inspire future design of electrode structures in Li-ion batteries.

  16. Graphene–Selenium Hybrid Microballs as Cathode Materials for High-performance Lithium–Selenium Secondary Battery Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Hee-Chang; Jeong, Jun Hui; Roh, Kwang Chul; Kim, Kwang-Bum

    2016-08-01

    In this study, graphene–selenium hybrid microballs (G–SeHMs) are prepared in one step by aerosol microdroplet drying using a commercial spray dryer, which represents a simple, scalable continuous process, and the potential of the G–SeHMs thus prepared is investigated for use as cathode material in applications of lithium–selenium secondary batteries. These morphologically unique graphene microballs filled with Se particles exhibited good electrochemical properties, such as high initial specific capacity (642 mA h g‑1 at 0.1 C, corresponding to Se electrochemical utilisation as high as 95.1%), good cycling stability (544 mA h g‑1 after 100 cycles at 0.1 C 84.5% retention) and high rate capability (specific capacity of 301 mA h g‑1 at 5 C). These electrochemical properties are attributed to the fact that the G–SeHM structure acts as a confinement matrix for suppressing the dissolution of polyselenides in the organic electrolyte, as well as an electron conduction path for increasing the transport rate of electrons for electrochemical reactions. Notably, based on the weight of hybrid materials, electrochemical performance is considerably better than that of previously reported Se-based cathode materials, attributed to the high Se loading content (80 wt%) in hybrid materials.

  17. Membranes of MnO Beading in Carbon Nanofibers as Flexible Anodes for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Du, Yuxuan; Jin, Lei; Yang, Yang; Wu, Shuilin; Li, Weihan; Yu, Yan; Zhu, Yanwu; Zhang, Qinghua

    2015-01-01

    Freestanding yet flexible membranes of MnO/carbon nanofibers are successfully fabricated through incorporating MnO2 nanowires into polymer solution by a facile electrospinning technique. During the stabilization and carbonization processes of the as-spun membranes, MnO2 nanowires are transformed to MnO nanoparticles coincided with a conversion of the polymer from an amorphous state to a graphitic structure of carbon nanofibers. The hybrids consist of isolated MnO nanoparticles beading in the porous carbon and demonstrate superior performance when being used as a binder-free anode for lithium-ion batteries. With an optimized amount of MnO (34.6 wt%), the anode exhibits a reversible capacity of as high as 987.3 mAh g−1 after 150 discharge/charge cycles at 0.1 A g−1, a good rate capability (406.1 mAh g−1 at 3  A g−1) and an excellent cycling performance (655 mAh g−1 over 280 cycles at 0.5 A g−1). Furthermore, the hybrid anode maintains a good electrochemical performance at bending state as a flexible electrode. PMID:26374601

  18. Bismuth Nanoparticle Decorating Graphite Felt as a High-Performance Electrode for an All-Vanadium Redox Flow Battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Bin; Gu, Meng; Nie, Zimin; Shao, Yuyan; Luo, Qingtao; Wei, Xiaoliang; Li, Xiaolin; Xiao, Jie; Wang, Chong M.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Wang, Wei

    2013-02-04

    The selection of electrode materials plays a great role in improving performances of all vanadium redox flow batteries (VRBs). Low-cost graphite felt (GF) as traditional electrode material has to be modified to address its issue of low electrocatalytic activity. In our paper, low-cost and highly conductive bismuth nanoparticles, as a powerful alternative electrocatalyst to noble metal, are proposed and synchronously electro-deposited onto the surface of GF while running flow cells employing the electrolytes containing suitable Bi3+. Although bismuth is proved to only take effect on the redox reaction of V(II)/V(III) and present at negative half-cell side, the whole cell electrochemical performances are significantly improved. In particular, the energy efficiency is increased by 11% owing to faster charge transfer as compared with one without Bi at high charge/discharge rate of 150 mA/cm2, which is prone to reduce stack size, thus dramatically reducing the cost. The excellent results show great promise of Bi nano-catalysts in the commercialization of VRBs in terms of product cost as well as electrochemical properties.

  19. Porous organic polymer/RGO composite as high performance cathode for half and full sodium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Aihua; Feng, Zhenyu; Sun, Yan; Shang, Limei; Xu, Liqiang

    2017-03-01

    Redox-active organic polymers are promising cathode electrodes owing to the advantages of open and flexible frame-works, renewability and environmental friendliness. Sodium salt of poly (2, 5-dihydroxy-p-benzoquinonyl sulfide)/RGO (Na2PDHBQS/RGO) composite has been fabricated via a convenient route and applied as a high performance and stable cathode for sodium ion batteries. The Na2PDHBQS/RGO was investigated in ether-based electrolyte, which demonstrated better electrochemical performances (228, 214, 203, 193, 172 and 147 mAh g-1 at 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, 2 and 4C, respectively) than that in traditional ester-based ones. The high specific capacity, excellent cycle stability and reversibility of Na2PDHBQS/RGO may be attributed to the special porous structure, enhanced electronic conductivity by the introduction of RGO and fast sodium ion and electron diffusion rate in ether-based electrolyte. In addition, the Na2PDHBQS/RGO cathode has been assembled with disodium terephthalate (Na2TP) anode to compose a full cell for the first time, which presents an initial reversible capacity of 210 mAh g-1 at 0.1C.

  20. The developments of SnO2/graphene nanocomposites as anode materials for high performance lithium ion batteries: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yuanfu; Fang, Chengcheng; Chen, Guohua

    2016-02-01

    With the increasing energy demands for electronic devices and electrical vehicles, anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) with high specific capacity, good cyclic and rate performances become one of the focal areas of research. Among the various anode materials, SnO2/graphene nanocomposites have drawn extensive attentions due to their high theoretical specific capacities, low charge potential vs. Li/Li+ and environmental benignity. In this review, the advances, including the synthetic methods and structural optimizations, of the SnO2/graphene nanocomposites as anode materials for LIBs have been reviewed in detail. By providing an in-depth discussion of SnO2/graphene nanocomposites, we aim to demonstrate that the electrochemical performances of SnO2/graphene nanocomposites could be significantly enhanced by rational modifications of morphology and crystal structures, chemical compositions and surface features. Though only focusing on SnO2/graphene-based composites, the concepts and strategies should be referential to other metal oxide/graphene composites.

  1. Boron-Doped Anatase TiO2 as a High-Performance Anode Material for Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Baofeng; Zhao, Fei; Du, Guodong; Porter, Spencer; Liu, Yong; Zhang, Peng; Cheng, Zhenxiang; Liu, Hua Kun; Huang, Zhenguo

    2016-06-29

    Pristine and boron-doped anatase TiO2 were prepared via a facile sol-gel method and the hydrothermal method for application as anode materials in sodium-ion batteries (SIBs). The sol-gel method leads to agglomerated TiO2, whereas the hydrothermal method is conducive to the formation of highly crystalline and discrete nanoparticles. The structure, morphology, and electrochemical properties were studied. The crystal size of TiO2 with boron doping is smaller than that of the nondoped crystals, which indicates that the addition of boron can inhibit the crystal growth. The electrochemical measurements demonstrated that the reversible capacity of the B-doped TiO2 is higher than that for the pristine sample. B-doping also effectively enhances the rate performance. The capacity of the B-doped TiO2 could reach 150 mAh/g at the high current rate of 2C and the capacity decay is only about 8 mAh/g over 400 cycles. The remarkable performance could be attributed to the lattice expansion resulting from B doping and the shortened Li(+) diffusion distance due to the nanosize. These results indicate that B-doped TiO2 can be a good candidate for SIBs.

  2. Synthesis of Ionic Liquid Based Electrolytes, Assembly of Li-ion Batteries, and Measurements of Performance at High Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xinrong; Chapman Varela, Jennifer; Grinstaff, Mark W

    2016-12-20

    The chemical instability of the traditional electrolyte remains a safety issue in widely used energy storage devices such as Li-ion batteries. Li-ion batteries for use in devices operating at elevated temperatures require thermally stable and non-flammable electrolytes. Ionic liquids (ILs), which are non-flammable, non-volatile, thermally stable molten salts, are an ideal replacement for flammable and low boiling point organic solvent electrolytes currently used today. We herein describe the procedures to: 1) synthesize mono- and di-phosphonium ionic liquids paired with chloride or bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide (TFSI) anions; 2) measure the thermal properties and stability of these ionic liquids by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA); 3) measure the electrochemical properties of the ionic liquids by cyclic voltammetry (CV); 4) prepare electrolytes containing lithium bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonamide; 5) measure the conductivity of the electrolytes as a function of temperature; 6) assemble a coin cell battery with two of the electrolytes along with a Li metal anode and LiCoO2 cathode; and 7) evaluate battery performance at 100 °C. We additionally describe the challenges in execution as well as the insights gained from performing these experiments.

  3. High performance carbon nanotube-Si core-shell wires with a rationally structured core for lithium ion battery anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yu; Zhang, Qing; Lu, Congxiang; Xiao, Qizhen; Wang, Xinghui; Tay, Beng Kang

    2013-02-21

    Core-shell Si nanowires are very promising anode materials. Here, we synthesize vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with relatively large diameters and large inter-wire spacing as core wires and demonstrate a CNT-Si core-shell wire composite as a lithium ion battery (LIB) anode. Owing to the rationally engineered core structure, the composite shows good capacity retention and rate performance. The excellent performance is superior to most core-shell nanowires previously reported.

  4. Uniform Yolk-Shell MoS2 @Carbon Microsphere Anodes for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yunmei; Zhang, Jiajia; Lu, Hongbin

    2017-07-21

    As an electrode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), MoS2 has attracted much attention because of its high capacity and low cost. However, the rational design of a novel electrode structure with a high capacity, fast charge/discharge rate, and long cycling lifetime remains a great challenge. Herein, a environmentally friendly etching strategy is reported for the construction of monodisperse, inner void-controlled yolk-shell MoS2 @carbon microspheres. The resulting anode reveals an initial discharge capacity up to 1813 mAh g(-1) , a high reversible capacity (1016 mAh g(-1) ), excellent cycling stability (200 cycles), and superior rate performance. Such microspheres consist of nanosized MoS2 yolks (≈280 nm), porous carbon shells (≈25 nm) and well-controlled internal voids in between, opening a new pathway for the optimization of the electrochemical properties of MoS2 -based anodes without sacrificing their capacity. In addition, this etching strategy offers a new method for the development of functional, hollow MoS2 -based composites. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Rice husks as a sustainable source of nanostructured silicon for high performance Li-ion battery anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Nian; Huo, Kaifu; McDowell, Matthew T.; Zhao, Jie; Cui, Yi

    2013-05-01

    The recovery of useful materials from earth-abundant substances is of strategic importance for industrial processes. Despite the fact that Si is the second most abundant element in the Earth's crust, processes to form Si nanomaterials is usually complex, costly and energy-intensive. Here we show that pure Si nanoparticles (SiNPs) can be derived directly from rice husks (RHs), an abundant agricultural byproduct produced at a rate of 1.2 × 108 tons/year, with a conversion yield as high as 5% by mass. And owing to their small size (10-40 nm) and porous nature, these recovered SiNPs exhibits high performance as Li-ion battery anodes, with high reversible capacity (2,790 mA h g-1, seven times greater than graphite anodes) and long cycle life (86% capacity retention over 300 cycles). Using RHs as the raw material source, overall energy-efficient, green, and large scale synthesis of low-cost and functional Si nanomaterials is possible.

  6. Scalable synthesis of Fe₃O₄ nanoparticles anchored on graphene as a high-performance anode for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Yu Cheng [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR (China); Center of Super-Diamond and Advanced Films (COSDAF), City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR (China); Ma, Ru Guang; Jun Hu, Ming; Cheng, Hua; Tsang, Chun Kwan; Yang, Qing Dan; Yang Li, Yang [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR (China); Zapien, Juan Antonio, E-mail: apjazs@cityu.edu.hk [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR (China); Center of Super-Diamond and Advanced Films (COSDAF), City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR (China)

    2013-05-01

    We report a scalable strategy to synthesize Fe₃O₄/graphene nanocomposites as a high-performance anode material for lithium ion batteries. In this study, ferric citrate is used as precursor to prepare Fe₃O₄ nanoparticles without introducing additional reducing agent; furthermore and show that such Fe₃O₄ nanoparticles can be anchored on graphene sheets which attributed to multifunctional group effect of citrate. Electrochemical characterization of the Fe₃O₄/graphene nanocomposites exhibit large reversible capacity (~1347 mA h g⁻¹ at a current density of 0.2 C up to 100 cycles, and subsequent capacity of ~619 mA h g⁻¹ at a current density of 2 C up to 200 cycles), as well as high coulombic efficiency (~97%), excellent rate capability, and good cyclic stability. High resolution transmission electron microscopy confirms that Fe₃O₄ nanoparticles, with a size of ~4–16 nm are densely anchored on thin graphene sheets, resulting in large synergetic effects between Fe₃O₄ nanoparticles and graphene sheets with high electrochemical performance. - Graphical abstract: The reduction of Fe³⁺ to Fe²⁺ and the deposition of Fe₃O₄ on graphene sheets occur simultaneously using citrate function as reductant and anchor agent in this reaction process. Highlights: • Fe₃O₄/graphene composites are synthesized directly from graphene and C₆H₅FeO₇. • The citrate function as reductant and anchor agent in this reaction process. • The resulting Fe₃O₄ particles (~4–16 nm) are densely anchored on graphene sheets. • The prepared Fe₃O₄/graphene composites exhibit excellent electrochemical performance.

  7. Hierarchical LiNixCoyO2 mesostructures as high-performance cathode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Longmei; Li, He; Lai, Hongwei; Li, Danqin; Wu, Qiang; Yang, Lijun; Wang, Xizhang; Hu, Zheng

    2016-09-01

    Lithium ion batteries (LIBs) with enhanced performance to commercial ones are urgently demanded in portable electric devices. Herein, we demonstrate an efficient strategy to improve the electrochemical performance of a dominant commercial cathode material (LiCoO2) by constructing 3D hierarchical LiNixCoyO2 (h-LNCO). The h-LNCO presents porous spherical-shaped morphology at mesoscale while comprises interconnected primary nanoparticles at nanoscale. Such a unique morphology endows the h-LNCO with porous structure for easy penetration of electrolyte, relatively small size of primary particles with short Li+ ions diffusion length and abundant exposed surface in favor of Li+ intercalation/deintercalation. The synergism of these merits makes the h-LNCO exhibit superior electrochemical properties with high capacity, superior cyclability and rate capability, much better than the solid granular LNCO counterparts and commercial LiCoO2. This strategy of constructing porous hierarchical mesostructures could be extended to other electrode materials for electrochemical energy storage.

  8. Boron Clusters as Highly Stable Magnesium-Battery Electrolytes**

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, Tyler J; Mohtadi, Rana; Arthur, Timothy S.; Mizuno, Fuminori; Zhang, Ruigang; Shirai, Soichi; Kampf, Jeff W.

    2014-01-01

    Boron clusters are proposed as a new concept for the design of magnesium-battery electrolytes that are magnesium-battery-compatible, highly stable, and noncorrosive. A novel carborane-based electrolyte incorporating an unprecedented magnesium-centered complex anion is reported and shown to perform well as a magnesium-battery electrolyte. This finding opens a new approach towards the design of electrolytes whose likelihood of meeting the challenging design targets for magnesium-battery electro...

  9. Double carbon decorated lithium titanate as anode material with high rate performance for lithium-ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifang Ni

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Spinel lithium titanate (Li4Ti5O12 has the advantages of structural stability, however it suffers the disadvantages of low lithium-ion diffusion coefficient as well as low conductivity. In order to solve issues, we reported a simple method to prepare carbon-coated Li4Ti5O12/CNTs (C@Li4Ti5O12/CNTs using stearic acid as surfactant and carbon source to prepare carbon coated nanosized particles. The obtained Li4Ti5O12 particles of 100 nm in size are coated with the carbon layers pyrolyzed from stearic acid and dispersed in CNTs matrix homogeneously. These results show that the synthesized C@Li4Ti5O12/CNTs material used as anode materials for lithium ion batteries, presenting a better high-rate performance (147 mA h g−1 at 20 C. The key factors affecting the high-rate properties of the C@Li4Ti5O12/CNTs composite may be related to the synergistic effects of the CNTs matrix and the carbon- coating layers with conductivity enhancement. Additionally, the amorphous carbon coating is an effective route to ameliorate the rate capability of Li4Ti5O12/CNTs.

  10. Graphene-based three-dimensional hierarchical sandwich-type architecture for high-performance Li/S batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Renjie; Zhao, Teng; Lu, Jun; Wu, Feng; Li, Li; Chen, Junzheng; Tan, Guoqiang; Ye, Yusheng; Amine, Khalil

    2013-10-09

    A multiwalled carbon nanotube/sulfur (MWCNT@S) composite with core-shell structure was successfully embedded into the interlay galleries of graphene sheets (GS) through a facile two-step assembly process. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy images reveal a 3D hierarchical sandwich-type architecture of the composite GS-MWCNT@S. The thickness of the S layer on the MWCNTs is ~20 nm. Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis confirm that the sulfur in the composite is highly crystalline with a mass loading up to 70% of the composite. This composite is evaluated as a cathode material for Li/S batteries. The GS-MWCNT@S composite exhibits a high initial capacity of 1396 mAh/g at a current density of 0.2C (1C = 1672 mA/g), corresponding to 83% usage of the sulfur active material. Much improved cycling stability and rate capability are achieved for the GS-MWCNT@S composite cathode compared with the composite lacking GS or MWCNT. The superior electrochemical performance of the GS-MWCNT@S composite is mainly attributed to the synergistic effects of GS and MWCNTs, which provide a 3D conductive network for electron transfer, open channels for ion diffusion, strong confinement of soluble polysulfides, and effective buffer for volume expansion of the S cathode during discharge.

  11. Large-Area Carbon Nanosheets Doped with Phosphorus: A High-Performance Anode Material for Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Hongshuai; Shao, Lidong; Zhang, Yan; Zou, Guoqiang; Chen, Jun; Ji, Xiaobo

    2017-01-01

    Large-area phosphorus-doped carbon nanosheets (P-CNSs) are first obtained from carbon dots (CDs) through self-assembly driving from thermal treatment with Na catalysis. This is the first time to realize the conversion from 0D CDs to 2D nanosheets doped with phosphorus. The sodium storage behavior of phosphorus-doped carbon material is also investigated for the first time. As anode material for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs), P-CNSs exhibit superb performances for electrochemical storage of sodium. When cycled at 0.1 A g(-1), the P-CNSs electrode delivers a high reversible capacity of 328 mAh g(-1), even at a high current density of 20 A g(-1), a considerable capacity of 108 mAh g(-1) can still be maintained. Besides, this material also shows excellent cycling stability, at a current density of 5 A g(-1), the reversible capacity can still reach 149 mAh g(-1) after 5000 cycles. This work will provide significant value for the development of both carbon materials and SIBs anode materials.

  12. Lithium Germanate (Li2 GeO3 ): A High-Performance Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Mokhlesur; Sultana, Irin; Yang, Tianyu; Chen, Zhiqiang; Sharma, Neeraj; Glushenkov, Alexey M; Chen, Ying

    2016-12-23

    A simple, cost-effective, and easily scalable molten salt method for the preparation of Li2 GeO3 as a new type of high-performance anode for lithium-ion batteries is reported. The Li2 GeO3 exhibits a unique porous architecture consisting of micrometer-sized clusters (secondary particles) composed of numerous nanoparticles (primary particles) and can be used directly without further carbon coating which is a common exercise for most electrode materials. The new anode displays superior cycling stability with a retained charge capacity of 725 mAh g(-1) after 300 cycles at 50 mA g(-1) . The electrode also offers excellent rate capability with a capacity recovery of 810 mAh g(-1) (94 % retention) after 35 cycles of ascending steps of current in the range of 25-800 mA g(-1) and finally back to 25 mA g(-1) . This work emphasizes the importance of exploring new electrode materials without carbon coating as carbon-coated materials demonstrate several drawbacks in full devices. Therefore, this study provides a method and a new type of anode with high reversibility and long cycle stability. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Ultra-thin polytetrafluoroethene/Nafion/silica composite membrane with high performance for vanadium redox flow battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Xiangguo; Dai, Jicui; Bi, Fangyuan; Yin, Geping

    2014-12-01

    Ultra-thin and high performance polytetrafluoroethene (PTFE)/Nafion/silica composite membrane has been successfully prepared by solution casting and sol-gel method for all vanadium redox flow battery (VRB). Thickness of ∼25 μm polytetrafluoroethene/Nafion (P/N) membrane is first prepared by impregnating porous PTFE membrane with Nafion solution, and then the P/N membrane is immersed in tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) solution to prepare PTFE/Nafion/silica (P/N/S) composite membranes. The chemical structures of membranes are investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), which prove that the Nafion resin and silica are well impregnated in PTFE membrane. The water uptake, proton conductivity, vanadium permeability and VRB single cell tests of the composite membrane are also investigated in detail. At 80 mA cm-2, coulombic efficiency, voltage efficiency and energy efficiency of the VRB with P/N/S-7 (7 wt.% SiO2 in P/N/S) membrane are 93.9%, 87.2% and 81.9%, respectively. Furthermore, the self-discharge rate of the VRB with P/N/S membrane is much slower than that of the VRB with P/N membrane, which indicates that the membrane has good vanadium block ability. Fifty cycles charge-discharge test proves that the P/N/S membrane is very stable and possesses high chemical stability under the strong acid solutions.

  14. Electrospun CuFe2O4 nanotubes as anodes for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shengjie Peng; Linlin Li; Madhavi Srinivasan

    2014-01-01

    Herein, we report on the synthesis and lithium storage properties of electrospun one-dimensional (1D) CuFe2O4 nanomaterials. 1D CuFe2O4 nanotubes and nanorods were fabricated by a single spinneret electrospinning method followed by thermal decomposition for removal of polymers from the precursor fibers. The as-prepared CuFe2O4 nanotubes with wall thickness of∼50 nm presented diameters of∼150 nm and lengths up to several millimeters. It was found that phase separation between the electrospun composite materials occured during the electrospinning process, while the as-spun precursor nanofibers composed of polyacrylonitrile (PAN), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and metal salts might possess a core-shell structure (PAN as the core and PVP/metal salts composite as the shell) and then transformed to a hollow structure after calcination. Moreover, as a demonstration of the functional properties of the 1D nanostructure, CuFe2 O4 nanotubes and nanorods were investigated as anodes for lithium ion batteries (LIBs). It was demonstrated that CuFe2O4 nanotubes not only delivered a high reversible capacity of ∼816 mAh·g-1 at a current density of 200 mA·g-1 over 50 cycles, but also showed superior rate capability with respect to counterpart nanorods. Probably, the enhanced electrochemical performance can be attributed to its high specific surface areas as well as the unique hollow structure.

  15. Advanced Materials for Safe, High Performance Space-Rated Lithium-Ion Batteries Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA space exploration vehicles are trending to higher pulse power, energy capacity levels and cycle life in order to meet exponentially increasing performance and...

  16. Sulfur-graphene nanostructured cathodes via ball-milling for high-performance lithium-sulfur batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiantie; Shui, Jianglan; Wang, Jianli; Wang, Min; Liu, Hua-Kun; Dou, Shi Xue; Jeon, In-Yup; Seo, Jeong-Min; Baek, Jong-Beom; Dai, Liming

    2014-10-28

    Although much progress has been made to develop high-performance lithium-sulfur batteries (LSBs), the reported physical or chemical routes to sulfur cathode materials are often multistep/complex and even involve environmentally hazardous reagents, and hence are infeasible for mass production. Here, we report a simple ball-milling technique to combine both the physical and chemical routes into a one-step process for low-cost, scalable, and eco-friendly production of graphene nanoplatelets (GnPs) edge-functionalized with sulfur (S-GnPs) as highly efficient LSB cathode materials of practical significance. LSBs based on the S-GnP cathode materials, produced by ball-milling 70 wt % sulfur and 30 wt % graphite, delivered a high initial reversible capacity of 1265.3 mAh g(-1) at 0.1 C in the voltage range of 1.5-3.0 V with an excellent rate capability, followed by a high reversible capacity of 966.1 mAh g(-1) at 2 C with a low capacity decay rate of 0.099% per cycle over 500 cycles, outperformed the current state-of-the-art cathode materials for LSBs. The observed excellent electrochemical performance can be attributed to a 3D "sandwich-like" structure of S-GnPs with an enhanced ionic conductivity and lithium insertion/extraction capacity during the discharge-charge process. Furthermore, a low-cost porous carbon paper pyrolyzed from common filter paper was inserted between the 0.7S-0.3GnP electrode and porous polypropylene film separator to reduce/eliminate the dissolution of physically adsorbed polysulfide into the electrolyte and subsequent cross-deposition on the anode, leading to further improved capacity and cycling stability.

  17. In situ thermally cross-linked polyacrylonitrile as binder for high-performance silicon as lithium ion battery anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lanyao; Shen, Lian; Wang, Zhaoxiang; Chen, Liquan

    2014-07-01

    Electrode integrity and electric contact between particles and between particle and current collector are critical for electrochemical performance, especially for that of electrode materials with large volume change during cycling and with poor electric conductivity. We report on the in situ thermally cross-linked polyacrylonitrile (PAN) as a binder for silicon-based anodes of lithium-ion batteries. The electrode delivers excellent cycle life and rate capability with a reversible capacity of about 1450 mA h g(-1) even after 100 cycles. The improved electrochemical performance of such silicon electrodes is attributed to heat-treatment-induced cross-linking and the formation of conjugated PAN. These findings open new avenues to explore other polymers for both anode and cathode electrodes of rechargeable batteries.

  18. Expanded graphite embedded with aluminum nanoparticles as superior thermal conductivity anodes for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tingkai; She, Shengfei; Ji, Xianglin; Guo, Xinai; Jin, Wenbo; Zhu, Ruoxing; Dang, Alei; Li, Hao; Li, Tiehu; Wei, Bingqing

    2016-01-01

    The development of high capacity and long-life lithium-ion batteries is a long-term pursuing and under a close scrutiny. Most of the researches have been focused on exploring electrode materials and structures with high store capability of lithium ions and at the same time with a good electrical conductivity. Thermal conductivity of an electrode material will also have significant impacts on boosting battery capacity and prolonging battery lifetime, which is, however, underestimated. Here, we present the development of an expanded graphite embedded with Al metal nanoparticles (EG-MNPs-Al) synthesized by an oxidation-expansion process. The synthesized EG-MNPs-Al material exhibited a typical hierarchical structure with embedded Al metal nanoparticles into the interspaces of expanded graphite. The parallel thermal conductivity was up to 11.6 W·m−1·K−1 with a bulk density of 453 kg·m−3 at room temperature, a 150% improvement compared to expanded graphite (4.6 W·m−1·K−1) owing to the existence of Al metal nanoparticles. The first reversible capacity of EG-MNPs-Al as anode material for lithium ion battery was 480 mAh·g−1 at a current density of 100 mA·g−1, and retained 84% capacity after 300 cycles. The improved cycling stability and system security of lithium ion batteries is attributed to the excellent thermal conductivity of the EG-MNPs-Al anodes. PMID:27671848

  19. 3D Networked Tin Oxide/Graphene Aerogel with a Hierarchically Porous Architecture for High-Rate Performance Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiuqiang; Chen, Shuangqiang; Sun, Bing; Wang, Chengyin; Wang, Guoxiu

    2015-09-07

    Low-cost and sustainable sodium-ion batteries are regarded as a promising technology for large-scale energy storage and conversion. The development of high-rate anode materials is highly desirable for sodium-ion batteries. The optimization of mass transport and electron transfer is crucial in the discovery of electrode materials with good high-rate performances. Herein, we report the synthesis of 3 D interconnected SnO2 /graphene aerogels with a hierarchically porous structure as anode materials for sodium-ion batteries. The unique 3 D architecture was prepared by a facile in situ process, during which cross-linked 3 D conductive graphene networks with macro-/meso-sized hierarchical pores were formed and SnO2 nanoparticles were dispersed uniformly on the graphene surface simultaneously. Such a 3 D functional architecture not only facilitates the electrode-electrolyte interaction but also provides an efficient electron pathway within the graphene networks. When applied as anode materials in sodium-ion batteries, the as-prepared SnO2 /graphene aerogel exhibited high reversible capacity, improved cycling performance compared to SnO2 , and promising high-rate capability.

  20. Graphene/sulfur hybrid nanosheets from a space-confined "sauna" reaction for high-performance lithium-sulfur batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Linfeng; Li, Xiaogang; Bi, Wentuan; Zhuo, Zhiwen; Wei, Wenfei; Sun, Li; Lu, Wei; Wu, Xiaojun; Xie, Keyu; Wu, Changzheng; Chan, Helen L W; Wang, Yu

    2015-10-21

    A space-confined "sauna" reaction system is introduced for the simultaneous reduction and functionalization of graphene oxide to unique graphene-sulfur hybrid nanosheets, in which thin layers of amorphous sulfur are tightly anchored on the graphene sheet via strong chemical bonding. Upon being used as the cathode material in lithium-sulfur batteries, the as-synthesized composite shows an excellent electrochemical performance.

  1. A Safe High-Performance All-Solid-State Lithium-Vanadium Battery with a Freestanding V2O5 Nanowire Composite Paper Cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Lai, Jingyuan; Gong, Yudong; Hu, Yongming; Liu, Jin; Sun, Chunwen; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-12-21

    The electronic conductivity and structural stability are still challenges for vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) as cathode materials in batteries. Here, we report a V2O5 nanowire-reduced graphene oxide (rGO) composite paper for direct use as a cathode without any additives for high-temperature and high-safety solid polymer electrolyte [PEO-MIL-53(Al)-LiTFSI] lithium-vanadium batteries. The batteries can show a fast and stable lithium-ion-storage performance in a wide voltage window of 1.0-4.0 V versus Li(+)/Li at 80 °C, in which with an average capacity of 329.2 mAh g(-1) at 17 mA g(-1) and a stable cycling performance over 40 cycles are achieved. The excellent electrochemical performance is mainly ascribed to integration of the electronic conductivity of rGO and interconnected networks of the V2O5 nanowires and solid electrolyte. This is a promising lithium battery for flexible and highly safe energy-storage devices.

  2. The prospects of phosphorene as an anode material for high-performance lithium-ion batteries: a fundamental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Congyan; Yu, Ming; Anderson, George; Ravinath Dharmasena, Ruchira; Sumanasekera, Gamini

    2017-02-01

    To completely understand lithium adsorption, diffusion, and capacity on the surface of phosphorene and, therefore, the prospects of phosphorene as an anode material for high-performance lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), we carried out density-functional-theory calculations and studied the lithium adsorption energy landscape, the lithium diffusion mobility, the lithium intercalation, and the lithium capacity of phosphorene. We also carried out, for the very first time, experimental measurement of the lithium capacity of phosphorene. Our calculations show that the lithium diffusion mobility along the zigzag direction in the valley of phosphorene was about 7 to 11 orders of magnitude faster than that along the other directions, indicating its ultrafast and anisotropic diffusivity. The lithium intercalation in phosphorene was studied by considering various Li n P16 configurations (n = 1-16) including single-side and double-side adsorptions. We found that phosphorene could accommodate up to a ratio of one Li per P atom (i.e. Li16P16). In particular, we found that, even at a high Li concentration (e.g. x = 1 in Li x P), there was no lithium clustering, and the structure of phosphorene (when fractured) is reversible during lithium intercalation. The theoretical value of the lithium capacity for a monolayer phosphorene is predicted to be above 433 mAh g-1, depending on whether Li atoms are adsorbed on the single side or the double side of phosphorene. Our experimental measurement of the lithium capacity for few-layer phosphorene networks shows a reversible stable value of ˜453 mAh g-1 even after 50 cycles. Our results clearly show that phosphorene, compared to graphene and other two-dimensional materials, has great promise as a novel anode material for high-performance LIBs.

  3. Rational design of three-dimensional macroporous silicon as high performance Li-ion battery anodes with long cycle life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Du, Ning; Shi, Xianxing; Yang, Deren

    2016-11-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) macroporous silicon with stable interconnected structure is prepared by magnesiothermic reduction based on deliberate design, while flexible morphological control of zero-dimensional (0D) hollow nanospheres is realized via simply altering the conditions of the same reaction. When used as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries, the empty space in both structures allows for effective accommodation of large volume changes during lithium insertion and extraction. Due to the robustness of the interconnected porous structure, the 3D Si@C electrode exhibits better electrochemical properties with a reversible capacity of 1058 mAh g-1 after 800 cycles and 91% capacity retention (only 0.012% capacity degradation per cycle). The coulombic efficiency of the 3D porous electrode stabilizes at 99.4% in later cycles. The results demonstrated herein provide a better understanding of the controllable magnesiothermic reduction reaction, which is potentially an efficient method for large scale synthesis of high-performance Si anodes.

  4. LiFePO 4: From molten ingot to nanoparticles with high-rate performance in Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghib, K.; Charest, P.; Dontigny, M.; Guerfi, A.; Lagacé, M.; Mauger, A.; Kopec, M.; Julien, C. M.

    LiFePO 4 (LFP) particles were obtained by grinding ingot synthesized in the molten state. This process, followed by jet milling, and then wet milling, provides a simple way to obtain powders with controlled particle size in the range from macroscopic to 25 nm. However, at this time, we find that these particles tend to agglomerate to form secondary particles of size ∼100 nm. The particles obtained by this process are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). In situ and ex situ scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The effect of milling was also investigated by analysis of physical properties using infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and magnetic measurements. The electrochemical performance was evaluated in cells containing Li/1 M LiPF 6 in EC:DEC (1:1)/C-LiFePO 4. After carbon coating, the LFP particles which are free of impurities, exhibit high-rate capability. Even with a limited amount of carbon (2 wt.%) appropriate for commercial batteries, the capacity is 157 mAh g -1 at 0.1 C, 120 mAh g -1 at 10 C, without capacity fading after 60 cycles.

  5. A novel high-performance gel polymer electrolyte membrane basing on electrospinning technique for lithium rechargeable batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Na; Cao, Qi; Wang, Xianyou; Li, Xiaoyun; Deng, Huayang

    2011-10-01

    Nonwoven films of composites of thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) with different proportion of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVdF) (80, 50 and 20%, w/w) are prepared by electrospinning 9 wt% polymer solution at room temperature. Then the gel polymer electrolytes (GPEs) are prepared by soaking the electrospun TPU-PVdF blending membranes in 1 M LiClO4/ethylene carbonate (EC)/propylene carbonate (PC) for 1 h. The gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) shows a maximum ionic conductivity of 3.2 × 10-3 S cm-1 at room temperature and electrochemical stability up to 5.0 V versus Li+/Li for the 50:50 blend ratio of TPU:PVdF system. At the first cycle, it shows a first charge-discharge capacity of 168.9 mAh g-1 when the gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) is evaluated in a Li/PE/lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) cell at 0.1 C-rate at 25 °C. TPU-PVdF (50:50, w/w) based gel polymer electrolyte is observed much more suitable than the composite films with other ratios for high-performance lithium rechargeable batteries.

  6. Free-standing and flexible LiMnTiO4/carbon nanotube cathodes for high performance lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yinhua; Zhang, Xingyu; Zhang, Xu; Yang, Le; Zhang, Xinyi; Chen, Haosen; Yang, Meng; Fang, Daining

    2016-07-01

    A flexible, free-standing, and light-weight LiMnTiO4/MWCNT electrode has been prepared by vacuum filtration method for the first time. The as-prepared flexible LiMnTiO4/MWCNT electrode possesses a three-dimensional braiding structure in which LiMnTiO4 particles are well embedded in the twining CNT networks. The novel LiMnTiO4/MWCNT electrodes show tensile strength of 1.34 MPa and 2.04 MPa, when the percentages of MWCNTs reach to 30% and 50%, respectively. This novel flexible electrode exhibits a superior electrochemical property, especially at rate capability and cycling stability. The LiMnTiO4/MWCNT electrode can deliver capacity of 161 mAh g-1 (86.4% retention) after 50 cycles at 0.5C rate. Since the high conductivity from MWCNT networks, the LiMnTiO4/MWCNT electrode can still maintain a capacity of 77 mAh g-1 at 5C rate, which is much higher than that of the conventional electrode fabricated by slurry casting method on Al foil. The features of free-standing, light-weight, and excellent electrochemical performance indicate the potential of using the LiMnTiO4/MWCNT cathode in new-generation flexible lithium ion batteries.

  7. Amorphous Li-Al-Based Compounds: A Novel Approach for Designing High Performance Electrode Materials for Li-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Thoss

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A new amorphous compound with the initial atomic composition Al43Li43Y6Ni8 applied as electrode material for Li-ion batteries is investigated. Unlike other amorphous compounds so-far investigated as anode materials, it already contains Li as a base element in the uncycled state. The amorphous compound powder is prepared by high energy ball milling of a master alloy. It shows a strongly enhanced specific capacity in contrast to amorphous alloys without Li in the initial state. Therewith, by enabling a reversible (delithiation of metallic electrodes without the phase transition caused volume changes it offers the possibility of much increased specific capacities than conventional graphite anodes. According to the charge rate (C-rate, the specific capacity is reversible over 20 cycles at minimum in contrast to conventional crystalline intermetallic phases failing by volume changes. The delithiation process occurs quasi-continuously over a voltage range of nearly 4 V, while the lithiation is mainly observed between 0.1 V and 1.5 V. That way, the electrode is applicable for different potential needs. The electrode stays amorphous during cycling, thus avoiding volume changes. The cycling performance is further enhanced by a significant amount of Fe introduced as wear debris from the milling tools, which acts as a promoting element.

  8. A Co(OH){sub 2}-graphene nanosheets composite as a high performance anode material for rechargeable lithium batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Y.S.; Yang, X.; Liao, X.Z.; Ma, Z.F. [Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ. (China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Chen, J. [Wollongong Univ., NSW (Australia). ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, Intelligent Polymer Research Inst.

    2010-07-01

    The 2-D structure of graphene provides it with excellent electronic conductivity, and a high surface area. Graphene nanosheets have been investigated for use in lithium-ion (Li-ion) storage applications. In this study nanostructured TiO{sub 2}-graphene hybrid materials were fabricated in order to investigate their potential uses in Li-ion batteries. The study showed that the materials showed significantly enhanced Li-ion insertion and extraction capabilities in TiO{sub 2}. A cobalt oxide (Co(OH){sub 2})-graphene nanosheet was also developed as an advanced anode material for Li-storage. The discharge-charge cycling performance of the material was discussed, as well as the coulombic efficiency of the synthesized samples. Results of the experimental study showed that after 30 cycles, the reversible capacity of the composite achieved approximately 82 per cent of its initial value. The corresponding capacity retentions of the graphene nanosheets and the Co(OH)2 after 30 cycles were approximately 66 per cent and 58 per cent, respectively. 5 refs.

  9. Hierarchical mesoporous/microporous carbon with graphitized frameworks for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingying Lv

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A hierarchical meso-/micro-porous graphitized carbon with uniform mesopores and ordered micropores, graphitized frameworks, and extra-high surface area of ∼2200 m2/g, was successfully synthesized through a simple one-step chemical vapor deposition process. The commercial mesoporous zeolite Y was utilized as a meso-/ micro-porous template, and the small-molecule methane was employed as a carbon precursor. The as-prepared hierarchical meso-/micro-porous carbons have homogeneously distributed mesopores as a host for electrolyte, which facilitate Li+ ions transport to the large-area micropores, resulting a high reversible lithium ion storage of 1000 mA h/g and a high columbic efficiency of 65% at the first cycle.

  10. A mild route to mesoporous Mo2C-C hybrid nanospheres for high performance lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qing; Zhao, Xinyu; Xiao, Ying; Zhao, Di; Cao, Minhua

    2014-05-01

    In this work, we have developed a mild route to fabricate typically mesoporous Mo2C-C hybrid nanospheres based on a solvothermal synthesis and reduction-carbonization process. This work opens a low-temperature route to synthesize valuable carbides. The resultant Mo2C-C hybrid, for the first time, is used as an anode material in lithium ion batteries (LIBs). Compared with bulk Mo2C, the Mo2C-C hybrid exhibits much better electrochemical performance. Remarkably, the hybrid electrode can deliver a specific capacity of over 670 mA h g-1 after 50 cycles at 100 mA g-1, which is much higher than that of the bulk material (113 mA h g-1). Even cycled at a high current density of 1000 mA g-1, high capacities of around 400-470 mA h g-1 can still be retained for the Mo2C-C hybrid. It might benefit from the synergistic effect of the nanohybridization, effectively relieving the volume change during the repeated lithium insertion-extraction reactions and maintaining the integrity of the electrical connections. It is expected that the present synthesis strategy for the Mo2C-C hybrid can be extended to other nanostructured carbides with good energy storage performance.In this work, we have developed a mild route to fabricate typically mesoporous Mo2C-C hybrid nanospheres based on a solvothermal synthesis and reduction-carbonization process. This work opens a low-temperature route to synthesize valuable carbides. The resultant Mo2C-C hybrid, for the first time, is used as an anode material in lithium ion batteries (LIBs). Compared with bulk Mo2C, the Mo2C-C hybrid exhibits much better electrochemical performance. Remarkably, the hybrid electrode can deliver a specific capacity of over 670 mA h g-1 after 50 cycles at 100 mA g-1, which is much higher than that of the bulk material (113 mA h g-1). Even cycled at a high current density of 1000 mA g-1, high capacities of around 400-470 mA h g-1 can still be retained for the Mo2C-C hybrid. It might benefit from the synergistic effect of

  11. Hierarchical Porous Nickel Cobaltate Nanoneedle Arrays as Flexible Carbon-Protected Cathodes for High-Performance Lithium-Oxygen Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Hairong; Wu, Shichao; Tang, Jing; Gong, Hao; He, Ping; He, Jianping; Zhou, Haoshen

    2016-04-06

    Rechargeable lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) batteries are consequently considered to be an attractive energy storage technology because of the high theoretical energy densities. Here, an effective binder-free cathode with high capacity for Li-O2 batteries, needle-like mesoporous NiCo2O4 nanowire arrays uniformly coated on the flexible carbon textile have been in situ fabricated via a facile hydrothermal process followed by low temperature calcination. Because of the material and structural features, the needle-like NiCo2O4 nanowire arrays (NCONWAs) served as a binder-free cathode exhibits high specific capacity (4221 mAh g(-1)), excellent rate capability, and outstanding cycling stability (200 cycles). This cathode based on nonprecious mesoporous metal oxides nanowire arrays has large open spaces and high surface area, providing numerous catalytically active sites and effective transmission pathways for lithium ion and oxygen, and promises the abundant Li2O2 storage. The fast electron transport by directly anchoring on the substrate ensures fast electrochemical reaction process involved with the every nanowire. Furthermore, a bendable Li-O2 battery assembled by using the flexible NCONWAs as the cathode, can be able to light an LED and shows good rate capability and cyclic stability.

  12. High performance of solvothermally prepared VO2(B as anode for aqueous rechargeable lithium batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Sanja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The VO2 (B was synthesized via a simple solvothermal route at 160oC in ethanol. The initial discharge capacity of VO2 (B anode, in saturated aqueous solution of LiNO3, was 177 mAh g-1 at a current rate of 50 mA g-1. After 50 cycles capacity fade was 4%, but from 20th-50th cycle no capacity drop was observed. The VO2 (B has shown very good cyclability at current rate of even 1000 mA g-1 with initial discharge capacity of 92 mAh g-1. The excellent electrochemical performance of VO2 (B was attributed to the stability of micro-nano structures to repeated intercalation /deintercalation process, very good electronic conductivity as well as the very low charge transfer resistance in the aqueous electrolyte. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III45014

  13. Biotechnology Opens New Routes to High-Performance Materials for Improved Photovoltaics, Batteries, Uncooled IR Detectors, Ferroelectrics and Optical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    by Army Laboratories at ARL and CERDEC for lightweight, flexible, soldier-carried solar energy cells . Because the synthesis method is solution...which are advantageous for more efficient solar energy and lightweight, high power-density 3-d batteries. Because no organics or biochemicals are... interdigitated electrode array) confirm that material exhibits excellent ohmic conductance (with very low dark sheet dark sheet resistance = 5.9 x

  14. Ag-Cu nanoalloyed film as a high-performance cathode electrocatalytic material for zinc-air battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yimin; Chen, Fuyi; Jin, Yachao; Liu, Zongwen

    2015-04-01

    A novel Ag50Cu50 film electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) was prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method. The electrocatalyst actually is Ag-Cu alloyed nanoparticles embedded in amorphous Cu film, based on transmission electron microscopy (TEM) characterization. The rotating disk electrode (RDE) measurements provide evidence that the ORR proceed via a four-electron pathway on the electrocatalysts in alkaline solution. And it is much more efficient than pure Ag catalyst. The catalytic layer has maximum power density of 67 mW cm-2 and an acceptable cell voltage at 0.863 V when current densities increased up to 100 mA cm-2 in the Ag50Cu50-based primary zinc-air battery. The resulting rechargeable zinc-air battery exhibits low charge-discharge voltage polarization of 1.1 V at 20 mAcm-2 and high durability over 100 cycles in natural air.

  15. High-performance aqueous rechargeable batteries based on zinc anode and NiCo2O4 cathode

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jun Wang; Zhijun Jia; Songbo Li; Yi Wang; Wei Guo; Tao Qi

    2015-09-01

    A new aqueous Zn–NiCo2O4 rechargeable battery system with a high voltage, consisting of NiCo2O4 as cathode and metal Zn as anode, is proposed for the first time. It is cheap and environmental friendly, and its energy density is about 202.8 Wh kg–1. The system still maintains excellent capacity retention of about 85% after 100 full cycles at a current rate of 2 A g–1 between 1.5 and 1.95 V. This work not only provides a new battery system but also shows promise for application in large-scale energy storage for its low cost, good cycling and environmental friendliness.

  16. Growth of Hollow Transition Metal (Fe, Co, Ni) Oxide Nanoparticles on Graphene Sheets through Kirkendall Effect as Anodes for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xianbo; Qu, Bin; Zhao, Yang; Li, Chunyan; Chen, Yujin; Sun, Chunwen; Gao, Peng; Zhu, Chunling

    2016-01-26

    A general strategy based on the nanoscale Kirkendall effect has been developed to grow hollow transition metal (Fe, Co or Ni) oxide nanoparticles on graphene sheets. When applied as lithium-ion battery anodes, these hollow transition metal oxide-based composites exhibit excellent electrochemical performance, with high reversible capacities and long-term stabilities at a high current density, superior to most transition metal oxides reported to date.

  17. "Electron/Ion Sponge"-Like V-Based Polyoxometalate: Toward High-Performance Cathode for Rechargeable Sodium Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jilei; Chen, Zhen; Chen, Shi; Zhang, Bowei; Wang, Jin; Wang, Huanhuan; Tian, Bingbing; Chen, Minghua; Fan, Xiaofeng; Huang, Yizhong; Sum, Tze Chien; Lin, Jianyi; Shen, Ze Xiang

    2017-07-25

    One key challenge facing room temperature Na-ion batteries lies in identifying earth-abundant, environmentally friendly and safe materials that can provide efficient Na(+) storage sites in Na-ion batteries. Herein, we report such a material, polyoxometalate Na2H8[MnV13O38] (NMV), with entirely different composition and structure from those cathode compounds reported before. Ex-situ XPS and FTIR analyses reveal that NMV cathode behaves like an "electron/Na-ion sponge", with 11 electrons/Na(+) acceptability per mole, which has a decisive contribution to the high capacity. The extraordinary structural features, evidenced by X-ray crystallographic analysis, of Na2H8[MnV13O38] with a flexible 2D lamellar network and 1D open channels provide diverse Na ion migration pathways, yielding good rate capability. First-principle calculations demonstrate that a super-reduced state, [MnV13O38](20-), is formed with slightly expanded size (ca. 7.5%) upon Na(+) insertion compared to the original [MnV13O38](9-). This "ion sponge" feature ensures the good cycling stability. Consequently, benefiting from the combinations of "electron/ion sponge" with diverse Na(+) diffusion channels, when revealed as the cathode materials for Na-ion batteries, Na2H8[MnV13O38]/G exhibits a high specific capacity (ca. 190 mA h/g at 0.1 C), associates with a good rate capability (130 mA h/g at 1 C), and a good capacity retention (81% at 0.2 C). Our results promote better understanding of the storage mechanism in polyoxometalate host, enrich the existing rechargeable SIBs cathode chemistry, and enlighten an exciting direction for exploring promising cathode materials for Na-ion batteries.

  18. Nanoporous Polytetrafluoroethylene/Silica Composite Separator as a High-Performance All-Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Xiaoliang; Nie, Zimin; Luo, Qingtao; Li, Bin; Chen, Baowei; Simmons, Kevin L.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Wang, Wei

    2013-09-02

    Driven by the motivation of searching for low-cost membrane alternatives, a novel nanoporous polytetrafluoroethylene/silica composite separator has been prepared and evaluated for its use in all-vanadium mixed-acid redox flow battery. This separator consisting of silica particles enmeshed in a polytetrafluoroethylene fibril matrix has no ion exchange capacity and is featured with unique nanoporous structures, which function as the ion transport channels in redox flow battery operation, with an average pore size of 38nm and a porosity of 48%. This separator has produced excellent electrochemical performance in the all-vanadium mixed-acid system with energy efficiency delivery comparable to Nafion membrane and superior rate capability and temperature tolerance. The separator also demonstrates an exceptional capacity retention capability over extended cycling, offering additional operational latitude towards conveniently mitigating the capacity decay that is inevitable for Nafion. Because of the inexpensive raw materials and simple preparation protocol, the separator is particularly low-cost, estimated to be at least an order of magnitude more inexpensive than Nafion. Plus the proven chemical stability due to the same backbone material as Nafion, this separator possesses a good combination of critical membrane requirements and shows great potential to promote market penetration of the all-vanadium redox flow battery by enabling significant reduction of capital and cycle costs.

  19. Unravelling the correlation between the aspect ratio of nanotubular structures and their electrochemical performance to achieve high-rate and long-life lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yuxin; Zhang, Yanyan; Deng, Jiyang; Qi, Dianpeng; Leow, Wan Ru; Wei, Jiaqi; Yin, Shengyan; Dong, Zhili; Yazami, Rachid; Chen, Zhong; Chen, Xiaodong

    2014-12-01

    The fundamental understanding of the relationship between the nanostructure of an electrode and its electrochemical performance is crucial for achieving high-performance lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). In this work, the relationship between the nanotubular aspect ratio and electrochemical performance of LIBs is elucidated for the first time. The stirring hydrothermal method was used to control the aspect ratio of viscous titanate nanotubes, which were used to fabricate additive-free TiO2 -based electrode materials. We found that the battery performance at high charging/discharging rates is dramatically boosted when the aspect ratio is increased, due to the optimization of electronic/ionic transport properties within the electrode materials. The proof-of-concept LIBs comprising nanotubes with an aspect ratio of 265 can retain more than 86 % of their initial capacity over 6000 cycles at a high rate of 30 C. Such devices with supercapacitor-like rate performance and battery-like capacity herald a new paradigm for energy storage systems.

  20. Suppression of Aluminum Current Collector Dissolution by Protective Ceramic Coatings for Better High-Voltage Battery Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckmann, Andreas; Krott, Manuel; Streipert, Benjamin; Uhlenbruck, Sven; Winter, Martin; Placke, Tobias

    2017-01-04

    Batteries based on cathode materials that operate at high cathode potentials, such as LiNi0.5 Mn1.5 O4 (LNMO), in lithium-ion batteries or graphitic carbons in dual-ion batteries suffer from anodic dissolution of the aluminum (Al) current collector in organic solvent-based electrolytes based on imide salts, such as lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide (LiTFSI). In this work, we developed a protective surface modification for the Al current collector by applying ceramic coatings of chromium nitride (Crx N) and studied the anodic Al dissolution behavior. By magnetron sputter deposition, two different coating types, which differ in their composition according to the CrN and Cr2 N phases, were prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and their electronic conductivity. Furthermore, the anodic dissolution behavior was studied by cyclic voltammetry and chronocoulometry measurements in two different electrolyte mixtures, that is, LiTFSI in ethyl methyl sulfone and LiTFSI in ethylene carbonate/dimethyl carbonate 1:1 (by weight). These measurements showed a remarkably reduced current density or cumulative charge during the charge process, indicating an improved anodic stability of the protected Al current collector. The coating surfaces after electrochemical treatment were characterized by means of SEM and XPS, and the presence or lack of pit formation, as well as electrolyte degradation products could be well correlated to the electrochemical results.

  1. Carbon-Coated Fe3O4/VOx Hollow Microboxes Derived from Metal-Organic Frameworks as a High-Performance Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhi-Wei; Wen, Tao; Liang, Kuang; Jiang, Yi-Fan; Zhou, Xiao; Shen, Cong-Cong; Xu, An-Wu

    2017-02-01

    As the ever-growing demand for high-performance power sources, lithium-ion batteries with high storage capacities and outstanding rate performance have been widely considered as a promising storage device. In this work, starting with metal-organic frameworks, we have developed a facile approach to the synthesis of hybrid Fe3O4/VOx hollow microboxes via the process of hydrolysis and ion exchange and subsequent calcination. In the constructed architecture, the hollow structure provides an efficient lithium ion diffusion pathway and extra space to accommodate the volume expansion during the insertion and extraction of Li(+). With the assistance of carbon coating, the obtained Fe3O4/VOx@C microboxes exhibit excellent cyclability and enhanced rate performance when employed as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries. As a result, the obtained Fe3O4/VOx@C delivers a high Coulombic efficiency (near 100%) and outstanding reversible specific capacity of 742 mAh g(-1) after 400 cycles at a current density of 0.5 A g(-1). Moreover, a remarkable reversible capacity of 556 mAh g(-1) could be retained even at a current density of 2 A g(-1). This study provides a fundamental understanding for the rational design of other composite oxides as high-performance electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

  2. Fibrous zinc anodes for high power batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X. Gregory

    This paper introduces newly developed solid zinc anodes using fibrous material for high power applications in alkaline and large size zinc-air battery systems. The improved performance of the anodes in these two battery systems is demonstrated. The possibilities for control of electrode porosity and for anode/battery design using fibrous materials are discussed in light of experimental data. Because of its mechanical integrity and connectivity, the fibrous solid anode has good electrical conductivity, mechanical stability, and design flexibility for controlling mass distribution, porosity and effective surface area. Experimental data indicated that alkaline cells made of such anodes can have a larger capacity at high discharging currents than commercially available cells. It showed even greater improvement over commercial cells with a non-conventional cell design. Large capacity anodes for a zinc-air battery have also been made and have shown excellent material utilization at various discharge rates. The zinc-air battery was used to power an electric bicycle and demonstrated good results.

  3. High-Performance Li-O2 Batteries with Controlled Li2O2 Growth in Graphene/Au-Nanoparticles/Au-Nanosheets Sandwich.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoqing; Tu, Fangfang; Xie, Jian; Du, Gaohui; Zhang, Shichao; Cao, Gaoshao; Zhao, Xinbing

    2016-10-01

    The working of nonaqueous Li-O2 batteries relies on the reversible formation/decomposition of Li2O2 which is electrically insulating and reactive with carbon and electrolyte. Realizing controlled growth of Li2O2 is a prerequisite for high performance of Li-O2 batteries. In this work, a sandwich-structured catalytic cathode is designed: graphene/Au-nanoparticles/Au-nanosheets (G/Au-NP/Au-NS) that enables controlled growth of Li2O2 spatially and structurally. It is found that thin-layer Li2O2 (below 10 nm) can grow conformally on the surface of Au NPs confined in between graphene and Au NSs. This unique crystalline behavior of Li2O2 effectively relieves or defers the electrode deactivation with Li2O2 accumulation and largely reduces the contact of Li2O2 with graphene and electrolyte. As a result, Li-O2 batteries with the G/Au-NP/Au-NS cathode exhibit superior electrochemical performance. A stable cycling of battery can last 300 times at 400 mA g(-1) when the capacity is limited at 500 mAh g(-1). This work provides a practical design of catalytic cathodes capable of controlling Li2O2 growth.

  4. Nanotubular structured Si-based multicomponent anodes for high-performance lithium-ion batteries with controllable pore size via coaxial electro-spinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Jaegeon; Choi, Sinho; Bok, Taesoo; Park, Soojin

    2015-04-14

    We demonstrate a simple but straightforward process for the synthesis of nanotube-type Si-based multicomponents by combining a coaxial electrospinning technique and subsequent metallothermic reduction reaction. Si-based multicomponent anodes consisting of Si, alumina and titanium silicide show several advantages for high-performance lithium-ion batteries. Alumina and titanium silicide, which have high mechanical properties, act as an effective buffer layer for the large volume change of Si, resulting in outstanding volume suppression behavior (volume expansion of only 14%). Moreover, electrically conductive titanium silicide layers located at the inner and outer layers of a Si nanotube exhibit a high initial coulombic efficiency of 88.5% and an extraordinary rate capability. Nanotubular structured Si-based multicomponents with mechanically and electrically improved components can be used as a promising alternative to conventional graphite anode materials. This synthetic route can be extended to other high capacity lithium-ion battery anode materials.

  5. In Situ Grown Fe2O3 Single Crystallites on Reduced Graphene Oxide Nanosheets as High Performance Conversion Anode for Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting; Qin, Aiqiong; Yang, Lanlan; Chen, Jie; Wang, Qiufan; Zhang, Daohong; Yang, Hanxi

    2017-06-14

    Electrochemical conversion reactions of metal oxides provide a new avenue to build high capacity anodes for sodium-ion batteries. However, the poor rate performance and cyclability of these conversion anodes remain a significant challenge for Na-ion battery applications because most of the conversion anodes suffer from sluggish kinetics and irreversible structural change during cycles. In this paper, we report an Fe2O3 single crystallites/reduced graphene oxide composite (Fe2O3/rGO), where the Fe2O3 single crystallites with a particle size of ∼300 nm were uniformly anchored on the rGO nanosheets, which provide a highly conductive framework to facilitate electron transport and a flexible matrix to buffer the volume change of the material during cycling. This Fe2O3/rGO composite anode shows a very high reversible capacity of 610 mAh g(-1) at 50 mA g(-1), a high Coulombic efficiency of 71% at the first cycle, and a strong cyclability with 82% capacity retention after 100 cycles, suggesting a potential feasibility for sodium-ion batteries. More significantly, the present work clearly illustrates that an electrochemical conversion anode can be made with high capacity utilization, strong rate capability, and stable cyclability through appropriately tailoring the lattice structure, particle size, and electronic conduction channels for a simple transition-metal oxide, thus offering abundant selections for development of low-cost and high-performance Na-storage electrodes.

  6. V2O5-C-SnO2 Hybrid Nanobelts as High Performance Anodes for Lithium-ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linfei; Yang, Mingyang; Zhang, Shengliang; Wu, Zefei; Amini, Abbas; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Dongyong; Bao, Shuhan; Lu, Zhouguang; Wang, Ning; Cheng, Chun

    2016-01-01

    The superior performance of metal oxide nanocomposites has introduced them as excellent candidates for emerging energy sources, and attracted significant attention in recent years. The drawback of these materials is their inherent structural pulverization which adversely impacts their performance and makes the rational design of stable nanocomposites a great challenge. In this work, functional V2O5-C-SnO2 hybrid nanobelts (VCSNs) with a stable structure are introduced where the ultradispersed SnO2 nanocrystals are tightly linked with glucose on the V2O5 surface. The nanostructured V2O5 acts as a supporting matrix as well as an active electrode component. Compared with existing carbon-V2O5 hybrid nanobelts, these hybrid nanobelts exhibit a much higher reversible capacity and architectural stability when used as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. The superior cyclic performance of VCSNs can be attributed to the synergistic effects of SnO2 and V2O5. However, limited data are available for V2O5-based anodes in lithium-ion battery design. PMID:27677326

  7. A facile and scalable method to prepare carbon nanotube-grafted-graphene for high performance Li-S battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q. Q.; Huang, J. B.; Li, G. R.; Lin, Z.; Liu, B. H.; Li, Z. P.

    2017-01-01

    A carbon nanotube-grafted-graphene (CNT-g-Gr) is developed for enhancements of electrical conduction and polysulfide (PS) absorption to improve rate performance and cycleability of lithium-sulfur battery. The CNT-g-Gr is prepared through CNT growth on Ni-deposited graphene sheet which is fabricated via pyrolysis of glucose in a molten salt. The obtained CNT-g-Gr shows much higher specific surface area and PS adsorption capability than graphene. The in-situ formed Ni nanoparticles on graphene sheet not only serve as the catalytic sites for CNT growth, but also function as the anchor-sites for polar PS absorption. The CNT-g-Gr contributes a superb PS adsorption capability arising from graphene and CNT absorbing weakly-polar PS species, and Ni nanoparticles absorbing the species with stronger polarity. The resultant Li-S battery with the CNT-g-Gr shows excellent cycleability and rate performance. A stable discharge capacity of 900 mAh g-1 (with low capacity degradation rate) and a rate capacity of 260 mAh g-1 at 30 C discharge rate have been achieved.

  8. One-step electrochemical growth of a three-dimensional Sn-Ni@PEO nanotube array as a high performance lithium-ion battery anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xin; Dou, Peng; Jiang, Anni; Ma, Daqian; Xu, Xinhua

    2014-12-24

    Various well-designed nanostructures have been proposed to optimize the electrode systems of lithium-ion batteries for problems like Li(+) diffusion, electron transport, and large volume changes so as to fulfill effective capacity utilization and increase electrode stability. Here, a novel three-dimensional (3D) hybrid Sn-Ni@PEO nanotube array is synthesized as a high performance anode for a lithium-ion battery through a simple one-step electrodeposition for the first time. Superior to the traditional stepwise synthesis processes of heterostructured nanomaterials, this one-step method is more suitable for practical applications. The electrode morphology is well preserved after repeated Li(+) insertion and extraction, indicating that the positive synergistic effect of the alloy nanotube array and 3D ultrathin PEO coating could authentically optimize the current volume-expansion electrode system. The electrochemistry results further confirm that the superiority of the Sn-Ni@PEO nanotube array electrode could largely boost durable high reversible capacities and superior rate performances compared to a Sn-Ni nanowire array. This proposed ternary hybrid structure is proven to be an ideal candidate for the development of high performance anodes for lithium-ion batteries.

  9. Engineering single crystalline Mn3O4 nano-octahedra with exposed highly active {011} facets for high performance lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shao-Zhuan; Jin, Jun; Cai, Yi; Li, Yu; Tan, Hai-Yan; Wang, Hong-En; Van Tendeloo, G; Su, Bao-Lian

    2014-06-21

    Well shaped single crystalline Mn3O4 nano-octahedra with exposed highly active {011} facets at different particle sizes have been synthesized and used as anode materials for lithium ion batteries. The electrochemical results show that the smallest sized Mn3O4 nano-octahedra show the best cycling performance with a high initial charge capacity of 907 mA h g(-1) and a 50th charge capacity of 500 mA h g(-1) at a current density of 50 mA g(-1) and the best rate capability with a charge capacity of 350 mA h g(-1) when cycled at 500 mA g(-1). In particular, the nano-octahedra samples demonstrate a much better electrochemical performance in comparison with irregular shaped Mn3O4 nanoparticles. The best electrochemical properties of the smallest Mn3O4 nano-octahedra are ascribed to the lower charge transfer resistance due to the exposed highly active {011} facets, which can facilitate the conversion reaction of Mn3O4 and Li owing to the alternating Mn and O atom layers, resulting in easy formation and decomposition of the amorphous Li2O and the multi-electron reaction. On the other hand, the best electrochemical properties of the smallest Mn3O4 nano-octahedra can also be attributed to the smallest size resulting in the highest specific surface area, which provides maximum contact with the electrolyte and facilitates the rapid Li-ion diffusion at the electrode/electrolyte interface and fast lithium-ion transportation within the particles. The synergy of the exposed {011} facets and the smallest size (and/or the highest surface area) led to the best performance for the Mn3O4 nano-octahedra. Furthermore, HRTEM observations verify the oxidation of MnO to Mn3O4 during the charging process and confirm that the Mn3O4 octahedral structure can still be partly maintained after 50 discharge-charge cycles. The high Li-ion storage capacity and excellent cycling performance suggest that Mn3O4 nano-octahedra with exposed highly active {011} facets could be excellent anode materials for

  10. Performance Enhancement of Silicon Alloy-Based Anodes Using Thermally Treated Poly(amide imide) as a Polymer Binder for High Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hwi Soo; Kim, Sang-Hyung; Kannan, Aravindaraj G; Kim, Seon Kyung; Park, Cheolho; Kim, Dong-Won

    2016-04-05

    The development of silicon-based anodes with high capacity and good cycling stability for next-generation lithium-ion batteries is a very challenging task due to the large volume changes in the electrodes during repeated cycling, which results in capacity fading. In this work, we synthesized silicon alloy as an active anode material, which was composed of silicon nanoparticles embedded in Cu-Al-Fe matrix phases. Poly(amide imide)s, (PAI)s, with different thermal treatments were used as polymer binders in the silicon alloy-based electrodes. A systematic study demonstrated that the thermal treatment of the silicon alloy electrodes at high temperature made the electrodes mechanically strong and remarkably enhanced the cycling stability compared to electrodes without thermal treatment. The silicon alloy electrode thermally treated at 400 °C initially delivered a discharge capacity of 1084 mAh g(-1) with good capacity retention and high Coulombic efficiency. This superior cycling performance was attributed to the strong adhesion of the PAI binder resulting from enhanced secondary interactions, which maintained good electrical contacts between the active materials, electronic conductors, and current collector during cycling. These findings are supported by results from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and a surface and interfacial cutting analysis system.

  11. General synthesis of vanadium-based mixed metal oxides hollow nanofibers for high performance lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Juan; Yu, Xin-Yao; Paik, Ungyu

    2016-10-01

    Hollow nanostructured mixed metal oxides have recently been intensively investigated as electrode materials for energy storage and conversion due to their remarkable electrochemical properties. Although great efforts have been made, the synthesis of hollow nanostructured vanadium-based mixed metal oxides especially those with one dimensional structure is rarely reported. Vanadium-based mixed metal oxides are promising electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries with high capacity and good rate capability. Here, we develop a facile and general method for the synthesis of one dimensional MxV2O8 (M = Co, Ni, Fe) tubular structure through a simple single-spinneret electrospinning technique followed by a calcination process. As a demonstration, Co3V2O8 hollow nanofibers are evaluated as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. As expected, benefiting from their unique one dimensional tubular structure, the as-synthesized Co3V2O8 exhibits excellent electrochemical properties for lithium storage. To be specific, it can deliver a high specific capacity of 900 mAh g-1 at 5 A g-1, and long cycling stability up to 2000 cycles. The present work makes a significant contribution to the design and synthesis of mixed metal oxides with one dimensional tubular structure, as well as their potential applications in electrochemical energy storage.

  12. Novel Ag@Nitrogen-doped Porous Carbon Composite with High Electrochemical Performance as Anode Materials for Lithium-ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuqing; Li, Jintang; Yue, Guanghui; Luo, Xuetao

    2017-07-01

    A novel Ag@nitrogen-doped porous carbon (Ag-NPC) composite was synthesized via a facile hydrothermal method and applied as an anode material in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Using this method, Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were embedded in NPC through thermal decomposition of AgNO3 in the pores of NPC. The reversible capacity of Ag-NPC remained at 852 mAh g-1 after 200 cycles at a current density of 0.1 A g-1, showing its remarkable cycling stability. The enhancement of the electrochemical properties such as cycling performance, reversible capacity and rate performance of Ag-NPC compared to the NPC contributed to the synergistic effects between Ag NPs and NPC.

  13. Porous nitrogen-doped carbon derived from silk fibroin protein encapsulating sulfur as a superior cathode material for high-performance lithium-sulfur batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiawei; Cai, Yurong; Zhong, Qiwei; Lai, Dongzhi; Yao, Juming

    2015-11-14

    The features of a carbon substrate are crucial for the electrochemical performance of lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries. Nitrogen doping of carbon materials is assumed to play an important role in sulfur immobilisation. In this study, natural silk fibroin protein is used as a precursor of nitrogen-rich carbon to fabricate a novel, porous, nitrogen-doped carbon material through facile carbonisation and activation. Porous carbon, with a reversible capacity of 815 mA h g(-1) at 0.2 C after 60 cycles, serves as the cathode material in Li-S batteries. Porous carbon retains a reversible capacity of 567 mA h g(-1), which corresponds to a capacity retention of 98% at 1 C after 200 cycles. The promising electrochemical performance of porous carbon is attributed to its mesoporous structure, high specific surface area and nitrogen doping into the carbon skeleton. This study provides a general strategy to synthesise nitrogen-doped carbons with a high specific surface area, which is crucial to improve the energy density and electrochemical performance of Li-S batteries.

  14. Nitrogen-Doped Porous Carbon Nanosheets from Eco-Friendly Eucalyptus Leaves as High Performance Electrode Materials for Supercapacitors and Lithium Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Anjon Kumar; Kretschmer, Katja; Zhao, Yufei; Liu, Hao; Wang, Chengyin; Sun, Bing; Wang, Guoxiu

    2016-12-31

    Nitrogen-doped porous carbon nanosheets were prepared from eucalyptus tree leaves by simply mixing the leaf powders with KHCO3 and subsequent carbonisation. Porous carbon nanosheets with a high specific surface area of 2133 m(2)  g(-1) were obtained and applied as electrode materials for supercapacitors and lithium ion batteries. For supercapacitor applications, the porous carbon nanosheet electrode exhibited a supercapacitance of 372 F g(-1) at a current density of 500 mA g(-1) in 1 m H2 SO4 aqueous electrolyte and excellent cycling stability over 15 000 cycles. In organic electrolyte, the nanosheet electrode showed a specific capacitance of 71 F g(-1) at a current density of 2 Ag(-1) and stable cycling performance. When applied as the anode material for lithium ion batteries, the as-prepared porous carbon nanosheets also demonstrated a high specific capacity of 819 mA h g(-1) at a current density of 100 mA g(-1) , good rate capability, and stable cycling performance. The outstanding electrochemical performances for both supercapacitors and lithium ion batteries are derived from the large specific surface area, porous nanosheet structure and nitrogen doping effects. The strategy developed in this paper provides a novel route to utilise biomass-derived materials for low-cost energy storage systems.

  15. High performance screen-printed electrodes prepared by a green solvent approach for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gören, A.; Mendes, J.; Rodrigues, H. M.; Sousa, R. E.; Oliveira, J.; Hilliou, L.; Costa, C. M.; Silva, M. M.; Lanceros-Méndez, S.

    2016-12-01

    New inks based on lithium iron phosphate and graphite for cathode and anode, respectively, were developed for printable lithium-ion batteries using the "green solvent" N,N‧-dimethylpropyleneurea (DMPU) and poly(vinylidene fluoride), PVDF, as a binder. The results were compared with the ones from inks developed with the conventionally used solvent N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, NMP. The rheological properties of the PVDF/DMPU binder solution shows a more pronounced shear thinning behavior than the PVDF/NMP solution. Cathode inks prepared with 2.25 mL and 2.50 mL of DMPU for 1 g of electrode mass show an apparent viscosity of 3 Pa s and 2 Pa s for a shear rate of 100 s-1, respectively, being therefore processable by screen-printing or doctor blade techniques. The electrodes prepared with DMPU and processed by screen-printing show a capacity of 52 mAh g-1 at 2C for the cathode and 349 mAh g-1 at C/5 for the anode, after 45 charge-discharge cycles. The electrochemical performance of both electrodes was evaluated in a full-cell and after 9 cycles, the discharge capacity value is 81 mAh g-1, showing a discharge capacity retention of 64%. The new inks presented in this work are thus suitable for the development of printed batteries and represent a step forward towards more environmental friendly processes.

  16. Performance and capacity fading reason of LiMn2O4/graphite batteries after storing at high temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yunjian; LI Xinhai; GUO Huajun; WANG Zhixing; HU Qiyang; PENG Wenjie; YANG Yong

    2009-01-01

    Spinel LiMn2O4 was synthesized by a solid-state method. A 204468-size battery was fabricated and stored at 55℃. The structure and mor-phology of the LiMn2O4 cathode were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (gEM) technique. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) was used to analyze the surface component of the carbon anode. The discharge capacities of LiMn2O4 stored for 0, 24, 48, and 96 h are 106, 98, 96, and 92 mAh-g-1, respectively. The cyclic performance is improved after storage. The capacity reten-tions of LiMn2O4 stored for 0, 24, 48, and 96 h are 83.8%, 85.8%, 86.9%, and 88.6% after 180 cycles. The intensity of all the LiMn2O4 dif-fraction peaks is weakened. Mn is detected from the carbon electrode when the battery is stored for 96 h. Cyclic voltammograms and elec-trochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were used to examine the surface state of the electrode after storage. The results show that the re-sistance and polarization of LiMn2O4/electrolyte is increased after storage, which is responsible for the fading of capacity.

  17. Nanostructured Phosphorus Doped Silicon/Graphite Composite as Anode for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shiqiang; Cheong, Ling-Zhi; Wang, Deyu; Shen, Cai

    2017-07-19

    Silicon as the potential anode material for lithium-ion batteries suffers from huge volume change (up to 400%) during charging/discharging processes. Poor electrical conductivity of silicon also hinders its long-term cycling performance. Herein, we report a two-step ball milling method to prepare nanostructured P-doped Si/graphite composite. Both P-doped Si and coated graphite improved the conductivity by providing significant transport channels for lithium ions and electrons. The graphite skin is able to depress the volume expansion of Si by forming a stable SEI film. The as-prepared composite anode having 50% P-doped Si and 50% graphite exhibits outstanding cyclability with a specific capacity of 883.4 mAh/g after 200 cycles at the current density of 200 mA/g. The cost-effective materials and scalable preparation method make it feasible for large-scale application of the P-doped Si/graphite composite as anode for Li-ion batteries.

  18. Spray drying method for large-scale and high-performance silicon negative electrodes in Li-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Dae Soo; Hwang, Tae Hoon; Park, Seung Bin; Choi, Jang Wook

    2013-05-08

    Nanostructured silicon electrodes have shown great potential as lithium ion battery anodes because they can address capacity fading mechanisms originating from large volume changes of silicon alloys while delivering extraordinarily large gravimetric capacities. Nonetheless, synthesis of well-defined silicon nanostructures in an industrially adaptable scale still remains as a challenge. Herein, we adopt an industrially established spray drying process to enable scalable synthesis of silicon-carbon composite particles in which silicon nanoparticles are embedded in porous carbon particles. The void space existing in the porous carbon accommodates the volume expansion of silicon and thus addresses the chronic fading mechanisms of silicon anodes. The composite electrodes exhibit excellent electrochemical performance, such as 1956 mAh/g at 0.05C rate and 91% capacity retention after 150 cycles. Moreover, the spray drying method requires only 2 s for the formation of each particle and allows a production capability of ~10 g/h even with an ultrasonic-based lab-scale equipment. This investigation suggests that established industrial processes could be adaptable to the production of battery active materials that require sophisticated nanostructures as well as large quantity syntheses.

  19. Upgrading Li-battery performance via nanotechnology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Lithium batteries,as a main or back-up power source for mobile communication devices,portable electronic devices and the like,have attracted much attention in the scientific and industrial fields due to their high electromotive force and high energy density.To meet the demand for batteries with higher energy density and improved cycle characteristics in recent years,many attempts have been made to develop new electrode materials or design new structures of electrode materials.

  20. FeS anchored reduced graphene oxide nanosheets as advanced anode material with superior high-rate performance for alkaline secondary batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shangguan, Enbo; Guo, Litan; Li, Fei; Wang, Qin; Li, Jing; Li, Quanmin; Chang, Zhaorong; Yuan, Xiao-Zi

    2016-09-01

    A new nanocomposite formulation of the iron-based anode for alkaline secondary batteries is proposed. For the first time, FeS nanoparticles anchored on reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanosheets are synthesized via a facile, environmentally friendly direct-precipitation approach. In this nanocomposite, FeS nanoparticles are anchored uniformly and tightly on the surface of RGO nanosheets. As an alkaline battery anode, the FeS@RGO electrode delivers a superior high-rate charge/discharge capability and outstanding cycling stability, even at a condition without any conductive additives and a high electrode loading of ∼40 mg cm-2. At high charge/discharge rates of 5C, 10C and 20C (6000 mA g-1), the FeS@RGO electrode presents a specific capacity of ∼288, 258 and 220 mAh g-1, respectively. Moreover, the FeS@RGO electrode exhibits an admirable long cycling stability with a superior capacity retention of 87.6% for 300 cycles at a charge/discharge rate of 2C. The excellent electrochemical properties of the FeS@RGO electrode can be stemmed from the high specific surface area, peculiar electric conductivity and robust sheet-anchored structure of the FeS@RGO nanocomposite. By virtue of its superior fast charge/discharge properties, the FeS@RGO nanocomposite is suitable as an advanced anode material for high-performance alkaline secondary batteries.

  1. Prognostics of Lithium-Ion Batteries Based on Battery Performance Analysis and Flexible Support Vector Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Wang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Accurate prediction of the remaining useful life (RUL of lithium-ion batteries is important for battery management systems. Traditional empirical data-driven approaches for RUL prediction usually require multidimensional physical characteristics including the current, voltage, usage duration, battery temperature, and ambient temperature. From a capacity fading analysis of lithium-ion batteries, it is found that the energy efficiency and battery working temperature are closely related to the capacity degradation, which account for all performance metrics of lithium-ion batteries with regard to the RUL and the relationships between some performance metrics. Thus, we devise a non-iterative prediction model based on flexible support vector regression (F-SVR and an iterative multi-step prediction model based on support vector regression (SVR using the energy efficiency and battery working temperature as input physical characteristics. The experimental results show that the proposed prognostic models have high prediction accuracy by using fewer dimensions for the input data than the traditional empirical models.

  2. Hollow/porous nanostructures derived from nanoscale metal-organic frameworks towards high performance anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lin; Chen, Qianwang

    2014-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), owing to their high energy density, light weight, and long cycle life, have shown considerable promise for storage devices. The successful utilization of LIBs depends strongly on the preparation of nanomaterials with outstanding lithium storage properties. Recent progress has demonstrated that hollow/porous nanostructured oxides are very attractive candidates for LIBs anodes due to their high storage capacities. Here, we aim to provide an overview of nanoscale metal-organic frameworks (NMOFs)-templated synthesis of hollow/porous nanostructured oxides and their LIBs applications. By choosing some typical NMOFs as examples, we present a comprehensive summary of synthetic procedures for nanostructured oxides, such as binary, ternary and composite oxides. Hollow/porous structures are readily obtained due to volume loss and release of internally generated gas molecules during the calcination of NMOFs in air. Interestingly, the NMOFs-derived hollow/porous structures possess several special features: pores generated from gas molecules release will connect to each other, which are distinct from ``dead pores'' pore size often appears to be <10 nm; in terms of surface chemistry, the pore surface is hydrophobic. These structural features are believed to be the most critical factors that determine LIBs' performance. Indeed, it has been shown that these NMOFs-derived hollow/porous oxides exhibit excellent electrochemical performance as anode materials for LIBs, including high storage capacity, good cycle stability, and so on. For example, a high charge capacity of 1465 mA h g-1 at a rate of 300 mA g-1 was observed after 50 cycles for NMOFs-derived Co3O4 porous nanocages, which corresponds to 94.09% of the initial capacity (1557 mA h g-1), indicating excellent stability. The capacity of NMOFs-derived Co3O4 is higher than that of other Co3O4 nanostructures obtained by a conventional two-step route, including nanosheets (1450 mA h g-1 at 50 mA g-1

  3. Multifunctional Free-Standing Gel Polymer Electrolyte with Carbon Nanofiber Interlayers for High-Performance Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sinho; Song, Jianjun; Wang, Chengyin; Park, Soojin; Wang, Guoxiu

    2017-07-04

    Free-standing trimethylolpropane ethoxylate triacrylate gel polymer electrolyte is synthesized by a chemical cross-linking process and used as an electrolyte and separator membrane in lithium-sulfur batteries. The cross linked gel polymer electrolyte also exhibited a stable geometric size retention of 95 % at the high temperature of 130 °C. The as-prepared gel polymer electrolyte membrane with carbon nanofibers interlayer can effectively prevent polysulfide dissolution and shuttle effect, leading to significantly enhanced electrochemical properties, including high capacity and cycling stability, with an enhanced specific capacity of 790 mA h g(-1) after 100 cycles. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Controllable embedding of sulfur in high surface area nitrogen doped three dimensional reduced graphene oxide by solution drop impregnation method for high performance lithium-sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegeye, Tilahun Awoke; Tsai, Meng-Che; Cheng, Ju-Hsiang; Lin, Ming-Hsien; Chen, Hung-Ming; Rick, John; Su, Wei-Nien; Kuo, Chung-Feng Jeffrey; Hwang, Bing-Joe

    2017-06-01

    High capacity lithium-sulfur batteries with stable cycle performance and sulfur loadings greater than 70 wt% are regarded as promising candidates for energy storage devices. However, it has been challenged to achieving practical application of sulfur cathode because of low loading of active sulfur and poor cycle performance. Herein, we design novel nanocomposite cathode materials consist of sulfur (80 wt%) embedded within nitrogen doped three-dimensional reduced graphene oxide (N-3D-rGO) by controllable sulfur-impregnation method. Nitrogen doping helps increase the surface area by ten times from pristine graphene, and pore volume by seven times. These structural features allow the cathode to hold more sulfur. It also adsorbs polysulfides and prevents their detachment from the host materials; thereby achieving stable cycle performance. The solution drop sulfur-impregnation method provides uniform distribution of nano-sulfur in controlled manner. The material delivers a high initial discharge capacity of 1042 mAhg-1 and 916 mAhg-1 with excellent capacity retention of 94.8% and 81.9% at 0.2 C and 0.5 C respectively after 100 cycles. Thus, the combination of solution drop and nitrogen doping opens a new chapter for resolving capacity fading as well as long cycling problems and creates a new strategy to increase sulfur loading in controlled mechanism.

  5. 锂亚硫酰氯电池的高温性能研究%Study on high temperature performance of lithium thionyl chloride battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨中发; 王庆杰; 石斌; 张云朋

    2013-01-01

    研究了高温状态下锂亚硫酰氯(Li/SOCl)电池的开路电压、工作电压平台、倍率放电性能、电压滞后及放电安全性.以相同电流放电,工作温度越高,工作电压平台越高;随着放电电流的增加,工作电压平台降低,放电容量下降;工作温度和电池形变对电池输出容量的影响较大;高温有利于减缓甚至消除电压滞后;电池的最高工作温度不宜超过150℃.%Open circuit voltage,operating voltage platform,rate discharge performance,voltage delay and discharge safety performance of lithium thionyl chloride(Li/SOCl2) battery in high-temperature state were studied.The operating voltage platform rose with the increasing of operating temperature,operating voltage platform decreased and discharge capacity reduced with the increasing of discharge current,operating temperature and deformation would seriously affect output capacity of the battery,high temperature helped to reduce or even eliminate voltage decay,maximum operating temperature of the battery should not exceed 150 ℃.

  6. Prevention of sulfur diffusion using MoS2-intercalated 3D-nanostructured graphite for high-performance lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Anand P; Yoo, HeeJoun; Lee, JeongTaik; Kim, Doyoung; Park, Jong Hyeok; Lee, Hyoyoung

    2015-07-28

    We report new three-dimensional (3D)-nanostructured MoS2-carbonaceous materials in which MoS2 sheets are intercalated between the graphite layers that possess a multiply repeated graphite/MoS2/graphite structure which prevents the aggregation of MoS2 and diffusion of sulfur from carbonaceous materials, enhancing the cycling stability of Li-ion batteries. We developed an efficient and scalable process applicable to mass production for synthesizing non-aggregated MoS2-intercalated 3D hybrid-nanostructured graphite based on stress induced and microwave irradiation. X-ray diffraction, X-ray photospectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy analyses demonstrated that the as-synthesized materials consisted of MoS2-intercalated 3D hybrid-nanostructured graphite platelets that had a multiply repeated graphite/MoS2/graphite structure. The obtained MoS2-graphite powder surpasses MoS2 as an anode material in terms of specific capacity, cyclic stability, and rate performances at high current densities for Li-ion batteries. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy demonstrated that the graphite sheets not only reduced the contact resistance in the electrode but also facilitated electron transfer in the lithiation/delithiation processes. The superior electrochemical performances especially for the cycling stability of the Li-ion battery originate from prevention of the sulfur diffusion of the MoS2-intercalated 3D-nanostructured graphite.

  7. Boron clusters as highly stable magnesium-battery electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Tyler J; Mohtadi, Rana; Arthur, Timothy S; Mizuno, Fuminori; Zhang, Ruigang; Shirai, Soichi; Kampf, Jeff W

    2014-03-17

    Boron clusters are proposed as a new concept for the design of magnesium-battery electrolytes that are magnesium-battery-compatible, highly stable, and noncorrosive. A novel carborane-based electrolyte incorporating an unprecedented magnesium-centered complex anion is reported and shown to perform well as a magnesium-battery electrolyte. This finding opens a new approach towards the design of electrolytes whose likelihood of meeting the challenging design targets for magnesium-battery electrolytes is very high. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Mesoporous TiO2 Nanocrystals/Graphene as an Efficient Sulfur Host Material for High-Performance Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanyuan; Cai, Qifa; Wang, Lei; Li, Qingwei; Peng, Xiang; Gao, Biao; Huo, Kaifu; Chu, Paul K

    2016-09-14

    Rechargeable lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries are promising in high-energy storage due to the large specific energy density of about 2600 W h kg(-1). However, the low conductivity of sulfur and discharge products as well as polysulfide-shuttle effect between the cathode and anode hamper applications of Li-S batteries. Herein, we describe a novel and efficient S host material consisting of mesoporous TiO2 nanocrystals (NCs) fabricated in situ on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) for Li-S batteries. The TiO2@rGO hybrid can be loaded with 72 wt % sulfur. The strong chemisorption ability of the TiO2 NCs toward polysulfide combined with high electrical conductivity of rGO effectively localize the soluble polysulfide species within the cathode and facilitate electron and Li ions transport to/from the cathode materials. The sulfur-incorporated TiO2@rGO hybrid (S/TiO2@rGO) shows large capacities of 1116 and 917 mA h g(-1) at the current densities of 0.2 and 1 C (1 C = 1675 mA g(-1)) after 100 cycles, respectively. When the current density is increased 20 times from 0.2 to 4 C, 60% capacity is retained, thereby demonstrating good cycling stability and rate capability. The synergistic effects of TiO2 NCs toward effective chemisorption of polysulfides and conductive rGO with high electron mobility make a promising application of S/TiO2@rGO hybrid in high-performance Li-S batteries.

  9. Facile mass production of nanoporous SnO2 nanosheets as anode materials for high performance lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wenli; Du, Pengcheng; Liu, Dong; Wang, Hongxing; Liu, Peng

    2017-10-01

    Facile one-step ultrasonic-assisted chemical precipitation strategy has been developed for the mass production of SnO2 nanomaterials with different morphologies. As anode material for lithium-ion batteries, the nanoporous SnO2 nanosheets exhibited an extremely high initial specific capacity of 2231mAh/g in comparison with 1242mAh/g of the SnO2 microcrystals and 1244mAh/g of the nanoporous SnO2 nanoflowers. Meanwhile the nanoporous SnO2 nanosheet electrode displayed a specific capacity of 688mAh/g after 60 cycles at 0.2 A/g current density and an extraordinary capacity retention of 224mAh/g at a current density of 8A/g (approximately 10 C) owing to a huge increase of Li(+) diffusion coefficient. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Performance requirements of automotive batteries for future car electrical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, R.; Richter, G.

    The further increase in the number of power-consuming functions which has been announced for future vehicle electrical systems, and in particular the effects of new starting systems on battery performance, requires a further optimization of the lead acid system coupled with effective energy management, and enhanced battery operating conditions. In the face of these increased requirements, there are proven benefits to splitting the functions of a single SLI battery between two separate, special-purpose batteries, each of which are optimized, for high power output and for high energy throughput, respectively. This will bring about a marked improvement in weight, reliability, and state of charge (SOC). The development of special design starter and service batteries is almost completed and will lead to new products with a high standard of reliability. The design of the power-optimized lead acid accumulator is particularly suitable for further development as the battery for a 42/36 V electrical system. This is intended to improve the efficiency of the generator and the various power-consuming functions and to improve start/stop operation thereby bringing about a marked reduction in the fuel consumption of passenger cars. This improvement can also be assisted by a charge management system used in conjunction with battery status monitoring.

  11. In-situ synthesis of sulfur-TiO2 hollow shell materials for high-performance lithium-sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai, Bo; Ma, Litong; Yan, Hui; Wei, Hang

    2017-05-01

    Lithium-sulfur batteries with higher energy density are highly attractive, but the practical applications have been greatly affected by their poor cycle performance. Despite much effort has been devoted to design the structure of sulfur cathode to suppress polysulfide dissolution, relatively little emphasis has been placed on in-situ immobilizing the sulfur atoms. Herein, we demonstrate a new approach of in-situ immobilizing the sulfur atoms into the TiO2 host, in which, the polysulphides can localized in the cathode side and efficiently reused during cycling due to the novel S-TiO2 hollow shell structure. The battery based on the well-designed S-TiO2 cathode can deliver a discharge capacity of 601 mA h g-1 at 0.5 C after 100 cycles. The good electrochemical performance could be attributed to the homogeneous dispersing of sulfur in the TiO2 host in the in-situ formation process, and the hollow structure of the S-TiO2 materials. The economical and simple strategy to overcome the polysulfide dissolution issues provides a commercially feasible way for the construction of lithium-sulfur batteries.

  12. Performance Degradation of Thermal Parameters during Cycle Ageing of High Energy Density Ni-Mn-Co based Lithium-Ion Battery Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanciu, Tiberiu; Stroe, Daniel Loan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef

    2016-01-01

    as well, since the thermal management of the battery is crucial for the safety of the EV driver. Moreover, the thermal management system can significantly lower the degradation rate of the battery pack and thus reduce costs. In this paper, the thermal characterization of a commercially available Nickel......-Manganese-Cobalt (NMC) based Li-ion battery cell was performed under different operating conditions: state-of-charge (SOC) levels, charge/discharge current rates and operating temperatures. Moreover, by carrying out accelerated cycle ageing tests on a total of nine NMC-based Li-ion battery cells, the effect of ageing...

  13. Co3O4 nanoparticles decorated carbon nanofiber mat as binder-free air-cathode for high performance rechargeable zinc-air batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing; Ge, Xiaoming; Goh, F. W. Thomas; Hor, T. S. Andy; Geng, Dongsheng; Du, Guojun; Liu, Zhaolin; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Xiaogang; Zong, Yun

    2015-01-01

    An efficient, durable and low cost air-cathode is essential for a high performance metal-air battery for practical applications. Herein, we report a composite bifunctional catalyst, Co3O4 nanoparticles-decorated carbon nanofibers (CNFs), working as an efficient air-cathode in high performance rechargeable Zn-air batteries (ZnABs). The particles-on-fibers nanohybrid materials were derived from electrospun metal-ion containing polymer fibers followed by thermal carbonization and a post annealing process in air at a moderate temperature. Electrochemical studies suggest that the nanohybrid material effectively catalyzes oxygen reduction reaction via an ideal 4-electron transfer process and outperforms Pt/C in catalyzing oxygen evolution reactions. Accordingly, the prototype ZnABs exhibit a low discharge-charge voltage gap (e.g. 0.7 V, discharge-charge at 2 mA cm-2) with higher stability and longer cycle life compared to their counterparts constructed using Pt/C in air-cathode. Importantly, the hybrid nanofiber mat readily serves as an integrated air-cathode without the need of any further modification. Benefitting from its efficient catalytic activities and structural advantages, particularly the 3D architecture of highly conductive CNFs and the high loading density of strongly attached Co3O4 NPs on their surfaces, the resultant ZnABs show significantly improved performance with respect to the rate capability, cycling stability and current density, promising good potential in practical applications.An efficient, durable and low cost air-cathode is essential for a high performance metal-air battery for practical applications. Herein, we report a composite bifunctional catalyst, Co3O4 nanoparticles-decorated carbon nanofibers (CNFs), working as an efficient air-cathode in high performance rechargeable Zn-air batteries (ZnABs). The particles-on-fibers nanohybrid materials were derived from electrospun metal-ion containing polymer fibers followed by thermal carbonization

  14. Sulfur impregnated N, P co-doped hierarchical porous carbon as cathode for high performance Li-S batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Junjie; Wu, Chun; Zhu, Ying; Zhang, Kaili; Shen, Pei Kang

    2017-02-01

    A nitrogen and phosphorus co-doped hierarchical porous carbon (N, P-HPC) were fabricated by simply pyrolysis of polyaniline aerogels in the presence of phytic acid and subsequently activation treatment by KOH. The as-prepared N, P-HPC with a highly interconnected network structure and possesses a large surface area and pore volume is very favor in the impregnation of sulfur. Moreover, simultaneously introduced nitrogen and phosphorous into the carbon could create more active sites than the mono-doped carbons, the synergistic effects of dual activation of carbon atoms induced stronger chemical adsorption ability. Benefiting from the advantages of suitable hierarchical porosity, high conductivity, fast ion transportation, physical and chemical adsorption of the N, P-HPC, the Sulfur/N, P-HPC composite exhibits high initial discharge capacity of 1116 mAh g-1 at 0.1 C (1 C = 1675 mA g-1, based on sulfur content) and high rate capability of 550 mAh g-1 at 2C, as well as excellent long term cycling stability at a current rate of 1 C with only 0.058% capacity decay per cycle for over 500 cycles. Such a high capacity and stability suggests that the novel cathode have alluring prospect for Li-S batteries.

  15. Formation of ZnMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} ball-in-ball hollow microspheres as a high-performance anode for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Genqiang; Lou, Xiong Wen [TUM-CREATE Centre for Electromobility, Singapore (Singapore); School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University (Singapore); Yu, Le; Wu, Hao Bin [School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University (Singapore); Hoster, Harry E. [TUM-CREATE Centre for Electromobility, Singapore (Singapore)

    2012-09-04

    Novel ZnMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} ball-in-ball hollow microspheres are fabricated by a facile two-step method involving the solution synthesis of ZnMn-glycolate hollow microspheres and subsequent thermal annealing in air. When evaluated as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, these ZnMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} ball-in-ball hollow microspheres show significantly enhanced electrochemical performance with high capacity, excellent cycling stability and good rate capability. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Carbon wrapped hierarchical Li3V2(PO4)3 microspheres for high performance lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shuquan; Tan, Qinguang; Xiong, Wei; Tang, Yan; Tan, Xiaoping; Huang, Linjun; Pan, Anqiang; Cao, Guozhong

    2016-09-21

    Nanomaterials are extensively studied in electrochemical energy storage and conversion systems because of their structural advantages. However, their volumetric energy density still needs improvement due to the high surface area, especially the carbon based nanocomposites. Constructing hierarchical micro-scaled materials from closely stacked subunits is proposed as an effective way to solve the problem. In this work, Li3V2(PO4)3@carbon hierarchical microspheres are prepared by a solvothermal reaction and subsequent annealing. Hierarchical Li3V2(PO4)3 structures with different subunits are obtained with the aid of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP). Moreover, excessive PVP interconnect and form PVP-based hydrogels, which later convert into conductive carbon layer on the surface of Li3V2(PO4)3 microspheres during the annealing process. As a cathode material for lithium ion batteries, the 3D carbon wrapped Li3V2(PO4)3 hierarchical microspheres exhibit high rate capability and excellent cycling stability. The electrode has the capacity retention of 80% after 5000 cycles even at 50C.

  17. Nitrogen-Doped Yolk-Shell-Structured CoSe/C Dodecahedra for High-Performance Sodium Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yifang; Pan, Anqiang; Ding, Lin; Zhou, Zilong; Wang, Yaping; Niu, Shaoyu; Liang, Shuquan; Cao, Guozhong

    2017-02-01

    In this work, nitrogen-doped, yolk-shell-structured CoSe/C mesoporous dodecahedra are successfully prepared by using cobalt-based metal-organic frameworks (ZIF-67) as sacrificial templates. The CoSe nanoparticles are in situ produced by reacting the cobalt species in the metal-organic frameworks with selenium (Se) powder, and the organic species are simultaneously converted into nitrogen-doped carbon material in an inert atmosphere at temperatures between 700 and 900 °C for 4 h. For the composite synthesized at 800 °C, the carbon framework has a relatively higher extent of graphitization, with high nitrogen content (17.65%). Furthermore, the CoSe nanoparticles, with a size of around 15 nm, are coherently confined in the mesoporous carbon framework. When evaluated as novel anode materials for sodium ion batteries, the CoSe/C composites exhibit high capacity and superior rate capability. The composite electrode delivers the specific capacities of 597.2 and 361.9 mA h g(-1) at 0.2 and 16 A g(-1), respectively.

  18. Slurryless Li2S/reduced graphene oxide cathode paper for high-performance lithium sulfur battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Wang, Xusheng; Yang, Yuan; Kushima, Akihiro; Chen, Jitao; Huang, Yunhui; Li, Ju

    2015-03-11

    Lithium sulfide (Li2S) is a promising cathode material for Li-S batteries with high capacity (theoretically 1166 mAh g(-1)) and can be paired with nonlithium-metal anodes to avoid potential safety issues. However, the cycle life of coarse Li2S particles suffers from poor electronic conductivity and polysulfide shuttling. Here, we develop a flexible slurryless nano-Li2S/reduced graphene oxide cathode paper (nano-Li2S/rGO paper) by simple drop-coating. The Li2S/rGO paper can be directly used as a free-standing and binder-free cathode without metal substrate, which leads to significant weight savings. It shows excellent rate capability (up to 7 C) and cycle life in coin cell tests due to the high electron conductivity, flexibility, and strong solvent absorbency of rGO paper. The Li2S particles that precipitate out of the solvent on rGO have diameters 25-50 nm, which is in contrast to the 3-5 μm coarse Li2S particles without rGO.

  19. A silicon nanowire-reduced graphene oxide composite as a high-performance lithium ion battery anode material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jian-Guo; Wang, Chundong; Wu, Qi-Hui; Liu, Xiang; Yang, Yang; He, Lifang; Zhang, Wenjun

    2014-03-21

    Toward the increasing demands of portable energy storage and electric vehicle applications, silicon has been emerging as a promising anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) owing to its high specific capacity. However, serious pulverization of bulk silicon during cycling limits its cycle life. Herein, we report a novel hierarchical Si nanowire (Si NW)-reduced graphene oxide (rGO) composite fabricated using a solvothermal method followed by a chemical vapor deposition process. In the composite, the uniform-sized [111]-oriented Si NWs are well dispersed on the rGO surface and in between rGO sheets. The flexible rGO enables us to maintain the structural integrity and to provide a continuous conductive network of the electrode, which results in over 100 cycles serving as an anode in half cells at a high lithium storage capacity of 2300 mA h g(-1). Due to its [111] growth direction and the large contact area with rGO, the Si NWs in the composite show substantially enhanced reaction kinetics compared with other Si NWs or Si particles.

  20. Carbon wrapped hierarchical Li3V2(PO4)3 microspheres for high performance lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shuquan; Tan, Qinguang; Xiong, Wei; Tang, Yan; Tan, Xiaoping; Huang, Linjun; Pan, Anqiang; Cao, Guozhong

    2016-01-01

    Nanomaterials are extensively studied in electrochemical energy storage and conversion systems because of their structural advantages. However, their volumetric energy density still needs improvement due to the high surface area, especially the carbon based nanocomposites. Constructing hierarchical micro-scaled materials from closely stacked subunits is proposed as an effective way to solve the problem. In this work, Li3V2(PO4)3@carbon hierarchical microspheres are prepared by a solvothermal reaction and subsequent annealing. Hierarchical Li3V2(PO4)3 structures with different subunits are obtained with the aid of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP). Moreover, excessive PVP interconnect and form PVP-based hydrogels, which later convert into conductive carbon layer on the surface of Li3V2(PO4)3 microspheres during the annealing process. As a cathode material for lithium ion batteries, the 3D carbon wrapped Li3V2(PO4)3 hierarchical microspheres exhibit high rate capability and excellent cycling stability. The electrode has the capacity retention of 80% after 5000 cycles even at 50C. PMID:27649860

  1. Interconnected CoFe2O4-Polypyrrole Nanotubes as Anode Materials for High Performance Sodium Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiming; Rui, Kun; Chen, Chunhua; Yang, Jianhua; Wen, Zhaoyin

    2017-10-10

    CoFe2O4-coated polypyrrole (PPy) nanotubes (CFO-PPy-NTs) with three-dimensional (3-D) interconnected networks have been prepared through a simple hydrothermal method. The application has been also studied for sodium ion batteries (SIBs). The finely crystallized CoFe2O4 nanoparticles (around 5 nm in size) are uniformly grown on the PPy nanotubes. When tested as anode materials for SIBs, the CFO-PPy-NT electrode maintains a discharge capacity of 400 mA h g(-1) and a stable Coulombic efficiency of 98% after 200 cycles at 100 mA g(-1). Even at a higher current density of 1000 mA g(-1), the composite can still retain a discharge capacity of 220 mA h g(-1) after 2000 cycles. The superior electrochemical performance could be mainly ascribed to the uniform distribution of CoFe2O4 on the 3-D matrix of PPy interconnected nanotubes, which favors the diffusion of sodium ions and electronic transportation and also buffers the large volumetric expansion during charge/discharge. Thereby our study suggests that such CFO-PPy-NTs have great potential as an anode material for SIBs.

  2. A chemically activated graphene-encapsulated LiFePO4 composite for high-performance lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jeonghyun; Park, Seung-Keun; Yu, Seung-Ho; Jin, Aihua; Jang, Byungchul; Bong, Sungyool; Kim, In; Sung, Yung-Eun; Piao, Yuanzhe

    2013-09-21

    A composite of modified graphene and LiFePO4 has been developed to improve the speed of charging-discharging and the cycling stability of lithium ion batteries using LiFePO4 as a cathode material. Chemically activated graphene (CA-graphene) has been successfully synthesized via activation by KOH. The as-prepared CA-graphene was mixed with LiFePO4 to prepare the composite. Microscopic observation and nitrogen sorption analysis have revealed the surface morphologies of CA-graphene and the CA-graphene/LiFePO4 composite. Electrochemical properties have also been investigated after assembling coin cells with the CA-graphene/LiFePO4 composite as a cathode active material. Interestingly, the CA-graphene/LiFePO4 composite has exhibited better electrochemical properties than the conventional graphene/LiFePO4 composite as well as bare LiFePO4, including exceptional speed of charging-discharging and excellent cycle stability. That is because the CA-graphene in the composite provides abundant porous channels for the diffusion of lithium ions. Moreover, it acts as a conducting network for easy charge transfer and as a divider, preventing the aggregation of LiFePO4 particles. Owing to these properties of CA-graphene, LiFePO4 could demonstrate enhanced and stably long-lasting electrochemical performance.

  3. Embedding NiCo2O4 nanoparticles into a 3DHPC assisted by CO2-expanded ethanol: a potential lithium-ion battery anode with high performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingyan; Zhuo, Linhai; Zhang, Chao; Zhao, Fengyu

    2014-07-09

    A high-performance anode material, NiCo2O4/3DHPC composite, for lithium-ion batteries was developed through direct nanoparticles nucleation on a three-dimensional hierarchical porous carbon (3DHPC) matrix and cation substitution of spinel Co3O4 nanoparticles. It was synthesized via a supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) expanded ethanol solution-assisted deposition method combined with a subsequent heat-treatment process. The NiCo2O4 nanoparticles were uniformly embedded into the porous carbon matrix and efficiently avoided free-growth in solution or aggregation in the pores even at a high content of 55.0 wt %. In particular, the 3DHPC was directly used without pretreatment or surfactant assistance. As an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, the NiCo2O4/3DHPC composite showed high reversible capacity and improved rate capability that outperformed those composites formed with single metal oxides (NiO/3DHPC, Co3O4/3DHPC), their physical mixture, and the composite prepared in pure ethanol (NiCo2O4/3DHPC-E). The superior performance is mainly contributed to the unique advantages of the scCO2-expanded ethanol medium, and the combination of high utilization efficiency and improved electrical conductivity of NiCo2O4 as well as the electronic and ionic transport advantages of 3DHPC.

  4. Porous Fe2O3 Nanoframeworks Encapsulated within Three-Dimensional Graphene as High-Performance Flexible Anode for Lithium-Ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tiancai; Bu, Fanxing; Feng, Xiaoxiang; Shakir, Imran; Hao, Guolin; Xu, Yuxi

    2017-05-23

    Integrating nanoscale porous metal oxides into three-dimensional graphene (3DG) with encapsulated structure is a promising route but remains challenging to develop high-performance electrodes for lithium-ion battery. Herein, we design 3DG/metal organic framework composite by an excessive metal-ion-induced combination and spatially confined Ostwald ripening strategy, which can be transformed into 3DG/Fe2O3 aerogel with porous Fe2O3 nanoframeworks well encapsulated within graphene. The hierarchical structure offers highly interpenetrated porous conductive network and intimate contact between graphene and porous Fe2O3 as well as abundant stress buffer nanospace for effective charge transport and robust structural stability during electrochemical processes. The obtained free-standing 3DG/Fe2O3 aerogel was directly used as highly flexible anode upon mechanical pressing for lithium-ion battery and showed an ultrahigh capacity of 1129 mAh/g at 0.2 A/g after 130 cycles and outstanding cycling stability with a capacity retention of 98% after 1200 cycles at 5 A/g, which is the best results that have been reported so far. This study offers a promising route to greatly enhance the electrochemical properties of metal oxides and provides suggestive insights for developing high-performance electrode materials for electrochemical energy storage.

  5. COBE battery overview: History, handling, and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Thomas; Tiller, Smith; Sullivan, David

    1991-01-01

    The following topics are presented in viewgraph format: Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) mission background; battery background and specifications; cell history; battery mechanical/structural design; battery test data; and flowcharts of the various battery approval procedures.

  6. Monodispersed FeCO3 nanorods anchored on reduced graphene oxide as mesoporous composite anode for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Donghui; Liu, Weijian; Zhang, Congcong; Cai, Xin; Chen, Wenyan; Fang, Yueping; Yu, Xiaoyuan

    2017-10-01

    The development of advanced 1D/2D hierarchical nanocomposites for high-performance lithium-ion batteries is important and promising. Herein, monodispersed FeCO3 nanorods anchored on reduced graphene oxide (RGO) are prepared via a facile and efficient one-pot hydrothermal synthesis. The influence of RGO content on the morphology and electrochemical performances of the mesoporous FeCO3/reduced graphene oxide (FeCO3/RGO) composites are systematically studied. Optimized FeCO3/RGO composite shows good cycling stability. It delivers an initial discharge capacity of 1449 mAh·g-1 at the current density of 200 mA g-1 and maintained a capacity of 789 mAh·g-1 after 80 cycles. A moderate amount of RGO sheets can not only provide more conductive channels to improve the electrode conductivity, but also effectively buffer the large volume variation of FeCO3 during continuous charge/discharge process. The combination of FeCO3 nanorods with RGOs synergistically contribute to enhanced capacity and durability of the composite anode. It demonstrates that RGO anchored-FeCO3 nanorods should be an attractive candidate as anode material for high-performance lithium-ion batteries.

  7. Layer-by-layer assembly synthesis of ZnO/SnO{sub 2} composite nanowire arrays as high-performance anode for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jiazheng, E-mail: zjulawerence@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Du, Ning; Zhang, Hui; Yu, Jingxue [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Yang, Deren, E-mail: mseyang@zju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles was deposited on ZnO nanoarrays through layer-by-layer assembly. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The composite nanowire arrays show improved performance as anode for Li-ion battery. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Improved performance was attributed to the combining advantages of each ingredient. -- Abstract: A layer-by-layer approach has been developed to synthesize ZnO/SnO{sub 2} composite nanowire arrays on copper substrate. ZnO nanowire arrays have been first prepared on copper substrate through seed-assisted method, and then, the surface of ZnO nanowires have been modified by the polyelectrolyte. After oxidation-reduction reaction, SnO{sub 2} layer has been deposited onto the surface of ZnO nanowires. The as-synthesized ZnO/SnO{sub 2} composite nanowire arrays have been applied as anode for lithium-ion batteries, which show high reversible capacity and good cycling stability compared to pure ZnO nanowire arrays and SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles. It is believed that the improved performance may be attributed to the high capacity of SnO{sub 2} and the good cycling stability of the array structure on current collector.

  8. Advanced cell technology for high performance Li-A1/FeS{sub 2} secondary batteries.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriksen, G. L.

    1998-07-10

    In early 1993. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) initiated a major R and D effort to develop bipolar Li-Al/LiCl-LiBr-KBr/FeS{sub 2} batteries for electric vehicles, targeting the USABC Long-Term Goals. Significant advancements were achieved in the areas of (i) chemical purity, (ii) electrode and electrolyte additives, and (iii) peripheral seals. It was determined that key chemical constituents contained undesirable impurities. ANL developed new chemical processes for preparing Li{sub 2}S, FeS, and CoS{sub 2} that were >98.5% pure. We evaluated a large variety of electrode and electrolyte additives for reducing cell area specific impedance (ASI). Candidate positive electrode additives offered increased electronic conductivity, enhanced reaction kinetics, and/or improved porous electrode morphology. CoS{sub 2}, CuFeS{sub 2}, MgO, and graphite (fibers) were identified as the most beneficial impedance-reducing positive electrode additives. Although electronically conductive carbon and graphite additives produced measurable ASI reductions in the negative electrode, they degraded its structural integrity and were deemed impractical. Lil and LiF were identified as beneficial electrolyte additives, that enhance positive electrode kinetics. ANL refined its baseline metal/ceramic peripheral seal and increased its strength by a factor of three (achieving a safety factor >10). In parallel, ANL developed a high-strength advanced metal/ceramic seal that offers appreciable cost reductions.

  9. Three-Dimensional Porous Iron Vanadate Nanowire Arrays as a High-Performance Lithium-Ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yunhe; Fang, Dong; Liu, Ruina; Jiang, Ming; Zhang, Hang; Li, Guangzhong; Luo, Zhiping; Liu, Xiaoqing; Xu, Jie; Xu, Weilin; Xiong, Chuanxi

    2015-12-23

    Development of three-dimensional nanoarchitectures on current collectors has emerged as an effective strategy for enhancing rate capability and cycling stability of the electrodes. Herein, a new type of three-dimensional porous iron vanadate (Fe0.12V2O5) nanowire arrays on a Ti foil has been synthesized by a hydrothermal method. The as-prepared Fe0.12V2O5 nanowires are about 30 nm in diameter and several micrometers in length. The effect of reaction time on the resulting morphology is investigated and the mechanism for the nanowire formation is proposed. As an electrode material used in lithium-ion batteries, the unique configuration of the Fe0.12V2O5 nanowire arrays presents enhanced capacitance, satisfying rate capability and good cycling stability, as evaluated by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic discharge-charge cycling. It delivers a high discharge capacity of 293 mAh·g(-1) at 2.0-3.6 V or 382.2 mAh·g(-1) at 1.0-4.0 V after 50 cycles at 30 mA·g(-1).

  10. Free-standing nitrogen-doped graphene paper as electrodes for high-performance lithium/dissolved polysulfide batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kai; Shen, Jingmei; Hao, Shiqiang; Ye, Hongqi; Wolverton, Christopher; Kung, Mayfair C; Kung, Harold H

    2014-09-01

    Free-standing N-doped graphene papers (NGP), generated by pyrolysis of polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride, were successfully used as binder-free electrodes for the state-of-the-art Li/polysulfide-catholyte batteries. They exhibited high specific capacities of approximately 1000 mA h g(-1) (based on S) after 100 cycles and coulombic efficiencies great than 98%, significantly better than undoped graphene paper (GP). These NGP were characterized with XRD, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, AFM, electron microscopy, and Raman and impedance spectroscopy before and after cycling. Spectroscopic evidence suggested stronger binding of sulfide to NGP relative to GP, and modelling results from DFT calculation, substantiated with experimental data, indicated that pyrrolic and pyridinic N atoms interacted more strongly with Li polysulfides than quaternary N atoms. Thus, more favorable partition of polysulfides between the electrode and the electrolyte and the corresponding effect on the morphology of the passivation layer were the causes of the beneficial effect of N doping. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Size-controlled synthesis of hierarchical nanoporous iron based fluorides and their high performances in rechargeable lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yan; Wen, Zhao-yin; Jin, Jun; Wu, Xiang-wei; Rui, Kun

    2014-06-21

    High performance nanostructured iron fluorides with controllable sizes were successfully synthesized using oleylamine as a size tuning agent for the first time. They exhibited excellent cathode performances with large retensive capacities exceeding 200 mA h g(-1) after 50 cycles and outstanding rate performances of nearly 100 mA h g(-1) even at 10 C.

  12. Burning lithium in CS2 for high-performing compact Li2 S-graphene nanocapsules for Li-S batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Guoqiang; Xu, Rui; Xing, Zhenyu; Yuan, Yifei; Lu, Jun; Wen, Jianguo; Liu, Cong; Ma, Lu; Zhan, Chun; Liu, Qi; Wu, Tianpin; Jian, Zelang; Shahbazian-Yassar, Reza; Ren, Yang; Miller, Dean J.; Curtiss, Larry A.; Ji, Xiulei; Amine, Khalil

    2017-07-01

    Tremendous efforts have been made to design the cathode of Li-S batteries to improve their energy density and cycling life. However, challenges remain in achieving fast electronic and ionic transport while accommodating the significant cathode volumetric change, especially for the cathode with a high practical mass loading. Here we report a cathode architecture, which is constructed by burning lithium foils in a CS2 vapour. The obtained structure features crystalline Li2S nanoparticles wrapped by few-layer graphene (Li2S@graphene nanocapsules). Because of the improvement on the volumetric efficiency for accommodating sulfur active species and electrical properties, the cathode design enables promising electrochemical performance. More notably, at a loading of 10 mgLi2S cm-2, the electrode exhibits a high reversible capacity of 1,160 mAh g-1s, namely, an area capacity of 8.1 mAh cm-2. Li2S@graphene cathode demonstrates a great potential for Li-ion batteries, where the Li2S@graphene-cathode//graphite-anode cell displays a high capacity of 730 mAh g-1s as well as stable cycle performance.

  13. Conductive Carbon Network inside a Sulfur-Impregnated Carbon Sponge: A Bioinspired High-Performance Cathode for Li-S Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xue-Li; You, Ya; Yan, Yang; Zhang, Dawei; Cong, Huai-Ping; Qin, Haili; Zhang, Chaofeng; Cao, Fei-Fei; Jiang, Ke-Cheng; Wang, Yan; Xin, Sen; He, Jian-Bo

    2016-08-31

    A highly conductive sulfur cathode is crucial for improving the kinetic performance of a Li-S battery. The encapsulation of sulfur in porous nanocarbons is expected to benefit the Li(+) migration, yet the e(-) conduction is still to be improved due to a low graphitization degree of a conventional carbon substrate, especially that pyrolyzed from carbohydrates or polymers. Aiming at facilitating the e(-) conduction in the cathode, here we propose to use ketjen black, a highly graphitized nanocarbon building block to form a conductive network for electrons in a biomass-derived, hierarchically porous carbon sponge by a easily scaled-up approach at a low cost. The specifically designed carbon host ensures a high loading and good retention of active sulfur, while also provides a faster electron transmission to benefit the lithiation/delithiation kinetics of sulfur. The sulfur cathode prepared from the carbon network shows excellent cycling and rate performance in a Li-S battery, rendering its practicality for emerging energy storage opportunities such as grids or automobiles.

  14. In Situ Formation of Co9 S8 /N-C Hollow Nanospheres by Pyrolysis and Sulfurization of ZIF-67 for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Peiyuan; Li, Jianwen; Ye, Ming; Zhuo, Kaifeng; Fang, Zhen

    2017-07-18

    Co9 S8 is considered a promising candidate as the anode material in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) because of its remarkable electrical conductivity, high theoretical capacity, and low cost. However, the practical application of Co9 S8 is greatly restricted because of its poor cycling stability and rate performance, which result mainly from the large volume expansion and dissolution of the polysulfide intermediates during the charge/discharge process. In this report, Co9 S8 embedded in N-rich carbon hollow spheres are successfully designed and synthesized through an in situ pyrolysis and sulfurization process, employing the well-known ZIF-67 as the precursor and ethanethiol as the sulfur source. Co9 S8 nanoparticles embedded in the N-rich hollow carbon shell exhibit excellent lithium storage properties at a high charge/discharge rate. A discharge capacity of 784 mAh g(-1) is obtained upon battery testing at a current density of 1 C (544 mA g(-1) ). Even upon cycling at a current density of 4 C, the as-prepared Co9 S8 /N-C can still deliver a discharge capacity of 518 mAh g(-1) . The excellent battery performance can be attributed to the hollow structure as well as the N-rich carbon encapsulation. Moreover, this metal-organic framework sulfurization route also shows good generality for the synthesis of other metal sulfide-carbon composites such as ZnS/N-C and Cu2 S/C. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Nonfilling carbon coating of porous silicon micrometer-sized particles for high-performance lithium battery anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhenda; Liu, Nian; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Zhao, Jie; Li, Weiyang; Li, Yuzhang; Cui, Yi

    2015-03-24

    Silicon is widely recognized as one of the most promising anode materials for lithium-ion batteries due to its 10 times higher specific capacity than graphite. Unfortunately, the large volume change of Si materials during their lithiation/delithiation process results in severe pulverization, loss of electrical contact, unstable solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI), and eventual capacity fading. Although there has been tremendous progress to overcome these issues through nanoscale materials design, improved volumetric capacity and reduced cost are still needed for practical application. To address these issues, we design a nonfilling carbon-coated porous silicon microparticle (nC-pSiMP). In this structure, porous silicon microparticles (pSiMPs) consist of many interconnected primary silicon nanoparticles; only the outer surface of the pSiMPs was coated with carbon, leaving the interior pore structures unfilled. Nonfilling carbon coating hinders electrolyte penetration into the nC-pSiMPs, minimizes the electrode-electrolyte contact area, and retains the internal pore space for Si expansion. SEI formation is mostly limited to the outside of the microparticles. As a result, the composite structure demonstrates excellent cycling stability with high reversible specific capacity (∼1500 mAh g(-1), 1000 cycles) at the rate of C/4. The nC-pSiMPs contain accurate void space to accommodate Si expansion while not losing packing density, which allows for a high volumetric capacity (∼1000 mAh cm(-3)). The areal capacity can reach over 3 mAh cm(-2) with the mass loading 2.01 mg cm(-2). Moreover, the production of nC-pSiMP is simple and scalable using a low-cost silicon monoxide microparticle starting material.

  16. Lithium metal protection enabled by in-situ olefin polymerization for high-performance secondary lithium sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Yongling; Zhang, Zhen; Fei, Huifang; Xu, Xiaoyan; Xiong, Shenglin; Feng, Jinkui; Ci, Lijie

    2017-09-01

    Lithium metal is considered to be the optimal choice of next-generation anode materials due to its ultrahigh theoretical capacity and the lowest redox potential. However, the growth of dendritic and mossy lithium for rechargeable Li metal batteries lead to the possible short circuiting and subsequently serious safety issues during charge/discharge cycles. For the further practical applications of Li anode, here we report a facile method for fabricating robust interfacial layer via in-situ olefin polymerization. The resulting polymer layer effectively suppresses the formation of Li dendrites and enables the long-term operation of Li metal batteries. Using Li-S cells as a test system, we also demonstrate an improved capacity retention with the protection of tetramethylethylene-polymer. Our results indicate that this method could be a promising strategy to tackle the intrinsic problems of lithium metal anodes and promote the development of Li metal batteries.

  17. Heteroatomic SenS8-n Molecules Confined in Nitrogen-Doped Mesoporous Carbons as Reversible Cathode Materials for High-Performance Lithium Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fugen; Cheng, Hongye; Chen, Jianzhuang; Zheng, Nan; Li, Yongsheng; Shi, Jianlin

    2016-09-27

    A reversible cathode material in an ether-based electrolyte for high-energy lithium batteries was successfully fabricated by homogeneously confining heteroatomic SenS8-n molecules into nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbons (NMCs) via a facile melt-impregnation route. The resultant SenS8-n/NMC composites exhibit highly reversible electrochemical behavior, where selenium sulfides are recovered through the reversible conversion of polysulfoselenide intermediates during discharge-charge cycles. The recovery of selenium sulfide molecules endows the SenS8-n/NMC cathodes with the rational integration of S and Se cathodes. Density functional theory calculations further reveal that heteroatomic selenium sulfide molecules with higher polarizability could bind more strongly with NMCs than homoatomic sulfur molecules, which provides more efficient suppression of the shuttling phenomenon. Therefore, with further assistance of mesopore confinement of the nitrogen-doped carbons, the Se2S6/NMC composite with an optimal Se/S mole ratio of 2/6 presents excellent cycle stability with a high initial Coulombic efficiency of 96.5% and a high reversible capacity of 883 mAh g(-1) after 100 cycles and 780 mAh g(-1) after 200 cycles at 250 mA g(-1). These encouraging results suggest that the heteroatomization of chalcogen (such as S, Se, or Te) molecules in mesostructured carbon hosts is a promising strategy in enhancing the electrochemical performances of chalcogen/carbon-based cathodes for Li batteries.

  18. Temperature- and time-tuned morphological evolution of polyhedral magnetite nanocrystals and their facet-dependent high-rate performance for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Chuan; Zeng, Yanwei, E-mail: stephen_zeng@njtech.edu.cn; Li, Rongjie; Zhang, Yuan; Zhao, Longfei

    2016-08-15

    Monodisperse Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} polyhedrons enclosed by {100}/{111} facets with different area ratios were synthesized through the thermolysis of Fe(acac){sub 3} by effectively tuning reaction temperature and time to mediate the adsorption of oleic acid (OA) on the crystallite surfaces, and utilized as high rate (≥1 A g{sup −1}) anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs). The electrochemical results show that Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} octahedrons with highly reactive {111} facets possess the best high rate cycling performance compared to that of cuboctahedrons and cubes, characterized by a high 300th discharge capacity of 785.1 mAh g{sup −1} at 1 A g{sup −1} and the best rate capability of 657.7 mAh g{sup −1} when cycled at 4 A g{sup −1}. These results prove that the surface structure of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} polyhedrons significantly influence the property of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanocrystal materials and hence their electrochemical performance though the morphology may be destroyed during cycling. These insights are helpful for the further understanding of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} anode materials and provide a simple and practical route to design high rate anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. - Graphical abstract: Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} polyhedrons enclosed by different area proportions of {100}/{111} facets were synthesized by effectively tuning reaction temperature and time length thanks to the characteristic absorption of oleic acid molecules on their crystal facets, which then exhibited intriguing plane-dependent electrochemical performance as high-rate anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. - Highlights: • Temperature and time directed growth of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} polyhedrons with different facets. • Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} polyhedrons were studied as high-rate and Long-Life anode materials for LIBs. • Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} octahedrons exhibited better cycle performance than cuboctahedrons and cubes. • Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} octahedrons showed 300th discharge

  19. 高容量型锂离子电池的制备及其电化学性能研究%Preparation and Electrochemical Performance of High Energy Li-ion Battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄锋涛; 李斌

    2015-01-01

    锰酸锂(LiMn2O4)圆柱形电池具有良好的循环性能、热稳定性、较高的容量以及相对低廉的价格,近年来成为电池研究的热点。采用刮刀涂布法制成电池,电池测试仪对电池的容量、寿命、电化学性能进行表征,电池的容量达到1520mAh,稳定倍率可以达到1C,寿命达到400次以上,针刺测试表明其安全性能良好。%Lithium manganate battery (LiMn2O4), as a new type of column Li-ion battery, is with good cycling performance, thermal stability, high discharge capacity and low price. Therefore, many researchers focus on the research of this type Lithium battery in recent years. The batteries were made by blade-coating method. The capacity, life, electrochemical performance of battery were characterized by battery tester. The capacity of battery is 1520 mAh and the power shows that battery can reach 1C or above. After 400 cycles, this column battery can deliver a reversible discharge capacity of 1087 mAh. Cutting through battery with needle showes good safty performance.

  20. Binding of carbon coated nano-silicon in graphene sheets by wet ball-milling and pyrolysis as high performance anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Hu, Renzong; Zhang, Miao; Liu, Jiangwen; Zhu, Min

    2016-06-01

    A novel approach has been developed to prepare silicon@carbon/graphene sheets (Si@C/G) composite with a unique structure, in which carbon coated Si nanoparticles are uniformly dispersed in a matrix of graphene sheets, to enhance the cycleability and electronic conductivity of Si-based anodes for Li-ion batteries. In this study, Si nanoparticles and expanded graphite (EG) are treated by combining high-energy wet ball-milling in sucrose solution with subsequent pyrolysis treatment to produce this Si@C/G composite. To achieve better overall electrochemical performance, the carbon content of the composites is also studied systematically. The as-designed Si30@C40/G30 (Si:C:G = 30:40:30, by weight) composite exhibits a high Li-storage capacity of 1259 mAh g-1 at a current density of 0.2 A g-1 in the first cycle. Further, a stable cycleability with 99.1/88.2% capacity retention from initial reversible charge capacity can be achieved over 100/300 cycles, showing great promise for batteries applications. This good electrochemical performance can be attributed to the uniform coating and binding effect of pyrolytic carbon as well as the network of graphene sheets, which increase the electronic conductivity and Li+ diffusion in the composite, and effectively accommodated the volume change of Si nanoparticles during the Li+ alloying and dealloying processes.

  1. Electrochemical Properties of LLTO/Fluoropolymer-Shell Cellulose-Core Fibrous Membrane for Separator of High Performance Lithium-Ion Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenglin Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A superfine Li0.33La0.557TiO3 (LLTO, 69.4 nm was successfully synthesized by a facile solvent-thermal method to enhance the electrochemical properties of the lithium-ion battery separator. Co-axial nanofiber of cellulose and Poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene (PVDF-HFP was prepared by a co-axial electrospinning technique, in which the shell material was PVDF-HFP and the core was cellulose. LLTO superfine nanoparticles were incorporated into the shell of the PVDF-HFP. The core–shell composite nanofibrous membrane showed good wettability (16.5°, contact angle, high porosity (69.77%, and super electrolyte compatibility (497%, electrolyte uptake. It had a higher ionic conductivity (13.897 mS·cm−1 than those of pure polymer fibrous membrane and commercial separator. In addition, the rate capability (155.56 mAh·g−1 was also superior to the compared separator. These excellent performances endowed LLTO composite nanofibrous membrane as a promising separator for high-performance lithium-ion batteries.

  2. Cross-linked branching nanohybrid polymer electrolyte with monodispersed TiO2 nanoparticles for high performance lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Cheng; Zhang, Jinfang; Xu, Mingquan; Xia, Qingbing; Liu, Jiatu; Zhao, Shuai; Chen, Libao; Pan, Anqiang; Ivey, Douglas G.; Wei, Weifeng

    2016-06-01

    Nanohybrid polymer electrolytes (NHPE) with ceramic particles have attracted significant attention owing to their improvement in electrochemical performance. However, particle aggregation and weak nanoparticle/polymer matrix interaction restrict their further application in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). We demonstrate a facile in-situ polymerization/crystallization method to synthesize a homogeneous TiO2-grafted NHPE with a cross-linked branching structure, comprised of ion-conducting poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMEM) and non-polar stearyl methacrylate (SMA). This technique is different from existing methods of blending functionalized ceramic particles into the polymer matrix. Highly monodispersed TiO2 nanocrystals enhance the effective interfacial interactions between particles and polymer matrix, which suppress the crystallization of ethylene oxide (EO) groups and facilitate forming continuously interconnected ion-conducting channels. Moreover, an increased dissociation degree of Li salt can also be achieved. The TiO2-grafted NHPE exhibits superior electrochemical properties with an ionic conductivity of 1.1 × 10-4 S cm-1 at 30 °C, a high lithium ion transference number and excellent interfacial compatibility with the lithium electrode. In particular, a lithium-ion battery based on TiO2-grafted NHPE demonstrates good C-rate performance, as well as excellent cycling stability with an initial discharge capacity of 153.5 mAh g-1 and a capacity retention of 96% after 300 cycles at 1 C (80 °C).

  3. Electrochemical Properties of LLTO/Fluoropolymer-Shell Cellulose-Core Fibrous Membrane for Separator of High Performance Lithium-Ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fenglin; Liu, Wenting; Li, Peiying; Ning, Jinxia; Wei, Qufu

    2016-01-26

    A superfine Li0.33La0.557TiO₃ (LLTO, 69.4 nm) was successfully synthesized by a facile solvent-thermal method to enhance the electrochemical properties of the lithium-ion battery separator. Co-axial nanofiber of cellulose and Poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) was prepared by a co-axial electrospinning technique, in which the shell material was PVDF-HFP and the core was cellulose. LLTO superfine nanoparticles were incorporated into the shell of the PVDF-HFP. The core-shell composite nanofibrous membrane showed good wettability (16.5°, contact angle), high porosity (69.77%), and super electrolyte compatibility (497%, electrolyte uptake). It had a higher ionic conductivity (13.897 mS·cm(-1)) than those of pure polymer fibrous membrane and commercial separator. In addition, the rate capability (155.56 mAh·g(-1)) was also superior to the compared separator. These excellent performances endowed LLTO composite nanofibrous membrane as a promising separator for high-performance lithium-ion batteries.

  4. Electrochemical Properties of LLTO/Fluoropolymer-Shell Cellulose-Core Fibrous Membrane for Separator of High Performance Lithium-Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fenglin; Liu, Wenting; Li, Peiying; Ning, Jinxia; Wei, Qufu

    2016-01-01

    A superfine Li0.33La0.557TiO3 (LLTO, 69.4 nm) was successfully synthesized by a facile solvent-thermal method to enhance the electrochemical properties of the lithium-ion battery separator. Co-axial nanofiber of cellulose and Poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) was prepared by a co-axial electrospinning technique, in which the shell material was PVDF-HFP and the core was cellulose. LLTO superfine nanoparticles were incorporated into the shell of the PVDF-HFP. The core–shell composite nanofibrous membrane showed good wettability (16.5°, contact angle), high porosity (69.77%), and super electrolyte compatibility (497%, electrolyte uptake). It had a higher ionic conductivity (13.897 mS·cm−1) than those of pure polymer fibrous membrane and commercial separator. In addition, the rate capability (155.56 mAh·g−1) was also superior to the compared separator. These excellent performances endowed LLTO composite nanofibrous membrane as a promising separator for high-performance lithium-ion batteries. PMID:28787873

  5. Novel Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Electrolyte to Enable LiFePO4 Quasi-Solid-State Li-Ion Batteries Performed Highly around Room Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Rui; Gao, Rongtan; Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Mingjian; Xu, Junyi; Yang, Jinlong; Pan, Feng

    2016-11-16

    A novel type of organic-inorganic hybrid polymer electrolytes with high electrochemical performances around room temperature is formed by hybrid of nanofillers, Y-type oligomer, polyoxyethylene and Li-salt (PBA-Li), of which the Tg and Tm are significantly lowered by blended heterogeneous polyethers and embedded nanofillers with benefit of the dipole modification to achieve the high Li-ion migration due to more free-volume space. The quasi-solid-state Li-ion batteries based on the LiFePO4/15PBA-Li/Li-metal cells present remarkable reversible capacities (133 and 165 mAh g(-1) @0.2 C at 30 and 45 °C, respectively), good rate ability and stable cycle performance (141.9 mAh g(-1) @0.2 C at 30 °C after 150 cycles).

  6. Mesoporous Li4Ti5O12 nanoclusters anchored on super-aligned carbon nanotubes as high performance electrodes for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li; Kong, Weibang; Wu, Hengcai; Wu, Yang; Wang, Datao; Zhao, Fei; Jiang, Kaili; Li, Qunqing; Wang, Jiaping; Fan, Shoushan

    2015-12-01

    Mesoporous lithium titanate (LTO) nanoclusters are in situ synthesized in a network of super aligned carbon nanotubes (SACNTs) via a solution-based method followed by heat treatment in air. In the LTO-CNT composite, SACNTs not only serve as the skeleton to support a binder-free electrode, but also render the composite with high conductivity, flexibility, and mechanical strength. The homogeneously dispersed LTO nanoclusters among the SACNTs allow each LTO grain to effectively access the electrolyte and the conductive network, benefiting both ion and electron transport. By the incorporation of LTO into the CNT network, mechanical reinforcement is also achieved. When serving as a negative electrode for lithium ion batteries, such a robust composite-network architecture provides the electrodes with effective charge transport and structural integrity, leading to high-performance flexible electrodes with high capacity, high rate capability, and excellent cycling stability.Mesoporous lithium titanate (LTO) nanoclusters are in situ synthesized in a network of super aligned carbon nanotubes (SACNTs) via a solution-based method followed by heat treatment in air. In the LTO-CNT composite, SACNTs not only serve as the skeleton to support a binder-free electrode, but also render the composite with high conductivity, flexibility, and mechanical strength. The homogeneously dispersed LTO nanoclusters among the SACNTs allow each LTO grain to effectively access the electrolyte and the conductive network, benefiting both ion and electron transport. By the incorporation of LTO into the CNT network, mechanical reinforcement is also achieved. When serving as a negative electrode for lithium ion batteries, such a robust composite-network architecture provides the electrodes with effective charge transport and structural integrity, leading to high-performance flexible electrodes with high capacity, high rate capability, and excellent cycling stability. Electronic supplementary information

  7. Strong Lithium Polysulfide Chemisorption on Electroactive Sites of Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Composites For High-Performance Lithium–Sulfur Battery Cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jiangxuan; Gordin, Mikhail; Xu, Terrence; Chen, Shuru; Yu, Zhaoxin; Sohn, Hiesang; Lu, Jun; Ren, Yang; Duan, Yuhua; wang, Donghai

    2015-03-27

    Despite the high theoretical capacity of lithium–sulfur batteries, their practical applications are severely hindered by a fast capacity decay, stemming from the dissolution and diffusion of lithium polysulfides in the electrolyte. A novel functional carbon composite (carbon-nanotube-interpenetrated mesoporous nitrogen-doped carbon spheres, MNCS/CNT), which can strongly adsorb lithium polysulfides, is now reported to act as a sulfur host. The nitrogen functional groups of this composite enable the effective trapping of lithium polysulfides on electroactive sites within the cathode, leading to a much improved electrochemical performance (1200 mAh g-1 after 200 cycles). The enhancement in adsorption can be attributed to the chemical bonding of lithium ions by nitrogen functional groups in the MNCS/CNT framework. Furthermore, the micrometer-sized spherical structure of the material yields a high areal capacity (ca. 6 mAh cm-2) with a high sulfur loading of approximately 5 mg cm-2, which is ideal for practical applications of the lithium–sulfur batteries.

  8. Strong Lithium Polysulfide Chemisorption on Electroactive Sites of Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Composites For High-Performance Lithium-Sulfur Battery Cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jiangxuan [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering; Gordin, Mikhail L. [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering; Xu, Terrence [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering; Chen, Shuru [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering; Yu, Zhaoxin [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering; Sohn, Hiesang [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering; Lu, Jun [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Chemical Sciences and Engineering Div.; Ren, Yang [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). X-ray Science Div.; Duan, Yuhua [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Wang, Donghai [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering

    2015-03-27

    Despite the high theoretical capacity of lithium–sulfur batteries, their practical applications are severely hindered by a fast capacity decay, stemming from the dissolution and diffusion of lithium polysulfides in the electrolyte. A novel functional carbon composite (carbon-nanotube-interpenetrated mesoporous nitrogen-doped carbon spheres, MNCS/CNT), which can strongly adsorb lithium polysulfides, is now reported to act as a sulfur host. The nitrogen functional groups of this composite enable the effective trapping of lithium polysulfides on electroactive sites within the cathode, leading to a much improved electrochemical performance (1200 mAhg-1after 200 cycles). The enhancement in adsorption can be attributed to the chemical bonding of lithium ions by nitrogen functional groups in the MNCS/CNT framework. Furthermore, the micrometer-sized spherical structure of the material yields a high areal capacity (ca.6 mAhcm-2) with a high sulfur loading of approximately 5 mgcm-2, which is ideal for practical applications of the lithium–sulfur batteries.

  9. High-Performance All-Solid-State Lithium-Sulfur Battery Enabled by a Mixed-Conductive Li2S Nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Fudong; Yue, Jie; Fan, Xiulin; Gao, Tao; Luo, Chao; Ma, Zhaohui; Suo, Liumin; Wang, Chunsheng

    2016-07-13

    All-solid-state lithium-sulfur batteries (ASSLSBs) using highly conductive sulfide-based solid electrolytes suffer from low sulfur utilization, poor cycle life, and low rate performance due to the huge volume change of the electrode and the poor electronic and ionic conductivities of S and Li2S. The most promising approach to mitigate these challenges lies in the fabrication of a sulfur nanocomposite electrode consisting of a homogeneous distribution of nanosized active material, solid electrolyte, and carbon. Here, we reported a novel bottom-up method to synthesize such a nanocomposite by dissolving Li2S as the active material, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as the carbon precursor, and Li6PS5Cl as the solid electrolyte in ethanol, followed by a coprecipitation and high-temperature carbonization process. Li2S active material and Li6PS5Cl solid electrolyte with a particle size of ∼4 nm were uniformly confined in a nanoscale carbon matrix. The homogeneous nanocomposite electrode consisting of different nanoparticles with distinct properties of lithium storage capability, mechanical reinforcement, and ionic and electronic conductivities enabled a mechanical robust and mixed conductive (ionic and electronic conductive) sulfur electrode for ASSLSB. A large reversible capacity of 830 mAh/g (71% utilization of Li2S) at 50 mA/g for 60 cycles with a high rate performance was achieved at room temperature even at a high loading of Li2S (∼3.6 mg/cm(2)). This work provides a new strategy to design a mechanically robust, mixed conductive nanocomposite electrode for high-performance all-solid-state lithium sulfur batteries.

  10. High performance, environmentally friendly and low cost anodes for lithium-ion battery based on TiO 2 anatase and water soluble binder carboxymethyl cellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, M.; Nobili, F.; Tossici, R.; Wohlfahrt-Mehrens, M.; Marassi, R.

    The challenge of producing lithium-ion batteries meeting performance requirements and low environmental impact is strictly related to the choice of materials as well as to the manufacturing processes. Most electrodes are currently prepared using poly(vinilydene fluoride) (PVDF) as binder. This fluorinated polymer is expensive and requires the use of a volatile and toxic organic solvent such as N-methyl-pyrrolidone (NMP) in the processing. Water soluble sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) can be a suitable substitute for PVDF as binder for both anodes and cathodes eliminating the necessity of NMP and thus decreasing the cost and the environmental impact of battery production. In this work, CMC has been successfully used to prepare efficient and stable anatase TiO 2 anodes by optimizing the electrode manufacturing process in terms of composition and compression. The stability and the high rate performances of the TiO 2/CMC are described and compared with those of TiO 2/PVDF electrodes. The compatibility of the TiO 2/CMC with a LiFePO 4 cathode in a full-cell is also reported.

  11. ZnFe2O4-C/LiFePO4-CNT: A Novel High-Power Lithium-Ion Battery with Excellent Cycling Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varzi, Alberto; Bresser, Dominic; von Zamory, Jan; Müller, Franziska; Passerini, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    An innovative and environmentally friendly battery chemistry is proposed for high power applications. A carbon-coated ZnFe2O4 nanoparticle-based anode and a LiFePO4-multiwalled carbon nanotube-based cathode, both aqueous processed with Na-carboxymethyl cellulose, are combined, for the first time, in a Li-ion full cell with exceptional electrochemical performance. Such novel battery shows remarkable rate capabilities, delivering 50% of its nominal capacity at currents corresponding to ≈20C (with respect to the limiting cathode). Furthermore, the pre-lithiation of the negative electrode offers the possibility of tuning the cell potential and, therefore, achieving remarkable gravimetric energy and power density values of 202 Wh kg−1 and 3.72 W kg−1, respectively, in addition to grant a lithium reservoir. The high reversibility of the system enables sustaining more than 10 000 cycles at elevated C-rates (≈10C with respect to the LiFePO4 cathode), while retaining up to 85% of its initial capacity. PMID:26190956

  12. ZnFe2O4-C/LiFePO4-CNT: A Novel High-Power Lithium-Ion Battery with Excellent Cycling Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varzi, Alberto; Bresser, Dominic; von Zamory, Jan; Müller, Franziska; Passerini, Stefano

    2014-07-15

    An innovative and environmentally friendly battery chemistry is proposed for high power applications. A carbon-coated ZnFe2O4 nanoparticle-based anode and a LiFePO4-multiwalled carbon nanotube-based cathode, both aqueous processed with Na-carboxymethyl cellulose, are combined, for the first time, in a Li-ion full cell with exceptional electrochemical performance. Such novel battery shows remarkable rate capabilities, delivering 50% of its nominal capacity at currents corresponding to ≈20C (with respect to the limiting cathode). Furthermore, the pre-lithiation of the negative electrode offers the possibility of tuning the cell potential and, therefore, achieving remarkable gravimetric energy and power density values of 202 Wh kg(-1) and 3.72 W kg(-1), respectively, in addition to grant a lithium reservoir. The high reversibility of the system enables sustaining more than 10 000 cycles at elevated C-rates (≈10C with respect to the LiFePO4 cathode), while retaining up to 85% of its initial capacity.

  13. High Temperature Rechargeable Battery Development Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This small business innovation research is intended to develop and proof the concept of a highly efficient, high temperature rechargeable battery for supporting...

  14. Hierarchical silicon nanowires-carbon textiles matrix as a binder-free anode for high-performance advanced lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Wang, Xianfu; Chen, Haitian; Wang, Zhuoran; Chen, Di; Cheng, Yi-Bing; Zhou, Chongwu; Shen, Guozhen

    2013-01-01

    Toward the increasing demands of portable energy storage and electric vehicle applications, the widely used graphite anodes with significant drawbacks become more and more unsuitable. Herein, we report a novel scaffold of hierarchical silicon nanowires-carbon textiles anodes fabricated via a facile method. Further, complete lithium-ion batteries based on Si and commercial LiCoO2 materials were assembled to investigate their corresponding across-the-aboard performances, demonstrating their enhanced specific capacity (2950 mAh g−1 at 0.2 C), good repeatability/rate capability (even >900 mAh g−1 at high rate of 5 C), long cycling life, and excellent stability in various external conditions (curvature, temperature, and humidity). Above results light the way to principally replacing graphite anodes with silicon-based electrodes which was confirmed to have better comprehensive performances. PMID:23572030

  15. A Core-Shell Fe/Fe2 O3 Nanowire as a High-Performance Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Zhaolin; Huang, Gang; Liang, Fei; Yin, Dongming; Wang, Limin

    2016-08-16

    The preparation of novel one-dimensional core-shell Fe/Fe2 O3 nanowires as anodes for high-performance lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) is reported. The nanowires are prepared in a facile synthetic process in aqueous solution under ambient conditions with subsequent annealing treatment that could tune the capacity for lithium storage. When this hybrid is used as an anode material for LIBs, the outer Fe2 O3 shell can act as an electrochemically active material to store and release lithium ions, whereas the highly conductive and inactive Fe core functions as nothing more than an efficient electrical conducting pathway and a remarkable buffer to tolerate volume changes of the electrode materials during the insertion and extraction of lithium ions. The core-shell Fe/Fe2 O3 nanowire maintains an excellent reversible capacity of over 767 mA h g(-1) at 500 mA g(-1) after 200 cycles with a high average Coulombic efficiency of 98.6 %. Even at 2000 mA g(-1) , a stable capacity as high as 538 mA h g(-1) could be obtained. The unique composition and nanostructure of this electrode material contribute to this enhanced electrochemical performance. Due to the ease of large-scale fabrication and superior electrochemical performance, these hybrid nanowires are promising anode materials for the next generation of high-performance LIBs.

  16. High-performance combination method of electric network frequency and phase for audio forgery detection in battery-powered devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savari, Maryam; Abdul Wahab, Ainuddin Wahid; Anuar, Nor Badrul

    2016-09-01

    Audio forgery is any act of tampering, illegal copy and fake quality in the audio in a criminal way. In the last decade, there has been increasing attention to the audio forgery detection due to a significant increase in the number of forge in different type of audio. There are a number of methods for forgery detection, which electric network frequency (ENF) is one of the powerful methods in this area for forgery detection in terms of accuracy. In spite of suitable accuracy of ENF in a majority of plug-in powered devices, the weak accuracy of ENF in audio forgery detection for battery-powered devices, especially in laptop and mobile phone, can be consider as one of the main obstacles of the ENF. To solve the ENF problem in terms of accuracy in battery-powered devices, a combination method of ENF and phase feature is proposed. From experiment conducted, ENF alone give 50% and 60% accuracy for forgery detection in mobile phone and laptop respectively, while the proposed method shows 88% and 92% accuracy respectively, for forgery detection in battery-powered devices. The results lead to higher accuracy for forgery detection with the combination of ENF and phase feature.

  17. Layered nickel sulfide-reduced graphene oxide composites synthesized via microwave-assisted method as high performance anode materials of sodium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Wei; Chen, Taiqiang; Lu, Ting; Chua, Daniel H. C.; Pan, Likun

    2016-01-01

    Layered nickel sulfide (NS)-reduced graphene oxide (RGO) composites are prepared via a simple microwave-assisted method and subsequent annealing in N2/H2 atmosphere. A detailed array of characterization tools are used to study their morphology, structure and electrochemical performance. It was found that these composites exhibit significantly improved sodium-ion storage ability as compared with pure NS under galvanostatic cycling at a specific current of 100 mA g-1 in a potential limitation of 0.005-3.0 V. Furthermore, the composite with the RGO content of 35 wt.% achieves a high maximum reversible specific capacity of about 391.6 mAh g-1 at a specific current of 100 mA g-1 after 50 cycles. These results prove that NS-RGO composites are highly promising when applied directly as anode materials in sodium-ion batteries.

  18. Tin nanoparticles encapsulated in porous multichannel carbon microtubes: preparation by single-nozzle electrospinning and application as anode material for high-performance Li-based batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yan; Gu, Lin; Zhu, Changbao; van Aken, Peter A; Maier, Joachim

    2009-11-11

    Tin nanoparticles encapsulated in porous multichannel carbon microtubes (denoted as SPMCTs) were prepared by carbonization of electrospun PAN-PMMA-tin octoate nanofibers fabricated using a single-nozzle electrospinning technique. This material exhibited excellent characteristics for lithium ion battery anode applications in terms of reversible capacities, cycling performance, and rate capability. Undertaking such a production configuration allows the long-existing problem of obtaining a high packing density of tin particles while retaining sufficient spare space to buffer the volume variation during lithium alloying and dealloying processes to be properly addressed. Furthermore, the porous carbon shell preserves both the mechanical and chemical stability of the function-active Sn metal, which also serves as a highly conductive medium allowing Li(+) to access.

  19. Factors on Storage Performance of MH-Ni Battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Zhong; Jia Chunming; Xing Zhiqiang; Li Li; Ma Yijun

    2004-01-01

    The open voltage of batteries shows different status after MH-Ni batteries are stored for a period of time.Some batteries with 0, 0.9 ~ 1.1V and above 1.1 V were chosen to study their corresponding internal resistances, open voltages and the reduction of capacities, etc.On the basis of battery reaction principle, battery samples were analyzed,and factors causing different storage performance were found out.Therefore, some references on the improvement of battery storage performance were provided.

  20. Structural modulation of lithium metal-electrolyte interface with three-dimensional metallic interlayer for high-performance lithium metal batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hongkyung; Song, Jongchan; Kim, Yun-Jung; Park, Jung-Ki; Kim, Hee-Tak

    2016-08-01

    The use of lithium (Li) metal anodes has been reconsidered because of the necessity for a higher energy density in secondary batteries. However, Li metal anodes suffer from ‘dead’ Li formation and surface deactivation which consequently form a porous layer of redundant Li aggregates. In this work, a fibrous metal felt (FMF) as a three-dimensional conductive interlayer was introduced between the separator and the Li metal anode to improve the reversibility of the Li metal anode. The FMF can facilitate charge transfer in the porous layer, rendering it electrochemically more active. In addition, the FMF acted as a robust scaffold to accommodate Li deposits compactly in its interstitial sites. The FMF-integrated Li metal (FMF/Li) electrode operated with a small polarisation even at a current density of 10 mA cm-2, and it exhibited a seven times longer cycle-life than that of an FMF-free Li electrode in a symmetric cell configuration. A Li metal battery (LMB) using the FMF/Li electrode and a LiFePO4 electrode exhibited a two-fold increase in cycling stability compared with that of a bare Li metal electrode, demonstrating the practical effectiveness of this approach for high performance LMBs.

  1. Effects of iron phthalocyanine on performance of MH/Ni battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳; 吴锋

    2004-01-01

    Oxygen evolution causes a high inner pressure during charge and overcharge for MH/Ni battery, and an inappropriate eliminating way of the oxygen in the battery results in accumulation of heat. This is the main obstacle to develop and apply high capability and high power battery. How to reduce the ratio of the chemical catalysis rate to the electric catalysis rate in MH/Ni battery is considered as an urgent question. Iron phthalocyanine(FePc) was chosen as an electrochemical catalyst. The batteries were prepared by adding iron phthalocyanine with different dosages. The inner pressure, the capacity attenuation, the discharge voltage and capacity at high current of these three batteries were compared. The battery with 1 mg FePc in the negative electrode exhibits a good performance.

  2. Direct Synthesis of Carbon-Doped TiO2-Bronze Nanowires as Anode Materials for High Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goriparti, Subrahmanyam; Miele, Ermanno; Prato, Mirko; Scarpellini, Alice; Marras, Sergio; Monaco, Simone; Toma, Andrea; Messina, Gabriele C; Alabastri, Alessandro; De Angelis, Francesco; Manna, Liberato; Capiglia, Claudio; Zaccaria, Remo Proietti

    2015-11-18

    Carbon-doped TiO2-bronze nanowires were synthesized via a facile doping mechanism and were exploited as active material for Li-ion batteries. We demonstrate that both the wire geometry and the presence of carbon doping contribute to the high electrochemical performance of these materials. Direct carbon doping for example reduces the Li-ion diffusion length and improves the electrical conductivity of the wires, as demonstrated by cycling experiments, which evidenced remarkably higher capacities and superior rate capability over the undoped nanowires. The as-prepared carbon-doped nanowires, evaluated in lithium half-cells, exhibited lithium storage capacity of ∼306 mA h g(-1) (91% of the theoretical capacity) at the current rate of 0.1C as well as excellent discharge capacity of ∼160 mAh g(-1) even at the current rate of 10 C after 1000 charge/discharge cycles.

  3. Low-cost carbon-coated Si-Cu3Si-Al2O3 nanocomposite anodes for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Ok; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2016-11-01

    Carbon-coated Si-Cu3Si-Al2O3 nanocomposites have been synthesized via a facile mechanochemical reaction and employed as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. Combined X-ray and microscopic studies show that the nanocomposites are composed of agglomerated nanostructured particles with uniform distribution of crystalline silicon, Cu3Si, and amorphous Al2O3. Electrochemical characterization reveals that the in situ incorporation of both the conductive Cu3Si and electrochemically stable Al2O3 phases results in a dramatic improvement of cyclability and rate capability, while the specific capacity decreases with increasing amount of Cu3Si. By controlling the Cu3Si content, the composite with a high tap density of ∼1.2 g cm-3 delivers a high reversible capacity of 841 mA h g-1, excellent cyclability, and good rate performance up to 3.2 A g-1 in half cells. Full-cell test coupled with a commercial spinel cathode also displays a high average operating voltage of >3.5 V, a relatively good capacity retention of ∼77.2% after 50 cycles with a high initial efficiency of ∼86.3%. The enhanced electrochemical performance is mainly attributed to the presence of the conductive Cu3Si buffer phase that mitigates structural degradation and offers high conductivity.

  4. Nitrogen-doped 3D macroporous graphene frameworks as anode for high performance lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaowu; Wu, Ying; Yang, Zhenzhong; Pan, Fusen; Zhong, Xiongwu; Wang, Jiaqing; Gu, Lin; Yu, Yan

    2015-10-01

    Nitrogen-doped 3D graphene frameworks (N-3D GFs) were synthesized by a facile two-step method: Polystyrene (PS) encapsulated in graphene oxide (GO) composites (denoted as PS@GO) are first synthesized, followed by a post-thermal annealing in ammonia step to get N-doped 3D GFs. The resulting N-3D GFs inherit the advantages of graphene, which possesses high electrical conductivity and high specific surface area. Furthermore, the well-defined 3D interconnected structure can facilitate the access of the electrolyte to the electrode surface, thus shortening the diffusion length of both Li+/e-, keeping the overall electrode highly conductive and active in lithium storage. Simultaneously, the in-situ formation of pyridinic N and pyrrolic N in 3D GFs provide high electronic conductivity and structure stability for lithium storage. The designed N-3D GFs electrode delivers a high specific capacity of 1094 mAhg-1 after 100 cycles at 200 mAg-1 and superior rate capability (691 mAhg-1 after 500 cycles at 1000 mAg-1) when used as anode for LIBs. We believe that such an inherently inexpensive, scalable, facile method can significantly increase the feasibility of building high performance energy storage system.

  5. Zn substitution NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles with enhanced conductivity as high-performances electrodes for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Junwei [Guang dong Engineering Technology Research Center of Efficient Green Energy and Environmental Protection Materials, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Guang dong Provincial Key Laboratory of Quantum Engineering and Quantum Materials, School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Hou, Xianhua, E-mail: houxh@scnu.edu.cn [Guang dong Engineering Technology Research Center of Efficient Green Energy and Environmental Protection Materials, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Guang dong Provincial Key Laboratory of Quantum Engineering and Quantum Materials, School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Huang, Fengsi; Shen, Kaixiang [Guang dong Engineering Technology Research Center of Efficient Green Energy and Environmental Protection Materials, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Guang dong Provincial Key Laboratory of Quantum Engineering and Quantum Materials, School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Lam, Kwok-ho [Department of Electrical Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hunghom, Kowloon 999077 (Hong Kong); Ru, Qiang [Guang dong Engineering Technology Research Center of Efficient Green Energy and Environmental Protection Materials, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Guang dong Provincial Key Laboratory of Quantum Engineering and Quantum Materials, School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Hu, Shejun, E-mail: husj@scnu.edu.cn [Guang dong Engineering Technology Research Center of Efficient Green Energy and Environmental Protection Materials, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Guang dong Provincial Key Laboratory of Quantum Engineering and Quantum Materials, School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Zn{sup 2+} ion substituted nickel ferrite nanomaterials with the chemical formula Ni{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} for x = 0, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7 and 1 have been synthesized by a facile green-chemical hydrothermal method as anode materials in lithium ion battery. The morphology and structure of the samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The physical and electrochemical properties were tested by electrochemical system. Furthermore, the energetic and electronic properties of the samples were investigated by density functional calculations. The results suggest that Zn substitution can affect the conduction performance of the zinc - nickel ferrite. Meanwhile, electrochemical results show that an enhancement in the capacity with increasing Zn concentration is observed especially for x = 0.3 which exhibit high discharge capacity of 1416 mAh g{sup −1}at the end of 100th cycle. Moreover, the theoretical research method with high yield synthesis strategy described in the present work holds promise for the general fabrication of other metallic elements substitution in complex transition metal oxides for high power LIBs. - Highlights: • Ni{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} anodes have been synthesized by hydrothermal method. • First principles calculation was used to investigate the conduction performance. • Electrochemical performance was enhanced with Zn substitution.

  6. Controllable fabrication of urchin-like Co3O4 hollow spheres for high-performance supercapacitors and lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fashen; Liu, Xiaohe; Zhang, Zhian; Zhang, Ning; Pan, Anqiang; Liang, Shuquan; Ma, Renzhi

    2016-09-27

    Urchin-like cobalt oxide (Co3O4) hollow spheres can be successfully prepared by thermal decomposition of cobalt carbonate hydroxide hydrate (Co(CO3)0.5(OH)·0.11H2O) obtained by template-assisted hydrothermal synthesis. The morphology, crystal structure evolution and thermal decomposition behaviors of the as-prepared products have been carefully investigated. A plausible formation mechanism of the urchin-like Co3O4 hollow spheres in the presence of hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) as the surfactant template is proposed. The urchin-like Co3O4 hollow spheres are further constructed as electrode materials for high-performance supercapacitors with a high specific capacitance of 460 F g(-1) at a current density of 4 A g(-1) and excellent cycling stability. Furthermore, as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), superior lithium storage performance of 1342.2 mA h g(-1) (0.1 C) and 1122.7 mA h g(-1) (0.2 C) can also be achieved. The excellent performances can be ascribed to the unique hierarchical urchin-like hollow structure of the electrode materials, which offers a large specific surface area, short electron and ion diffusion paths and high permeability while being directly in contact with the electrolyte. Moreover, the hollow structure with sufficient internal void spaces can self-accommodate volume change during electrochemical reactions, which improves the structural stability and integrity.

  7. Porous CuCo2O4 nanocubes wrapped by reduced graphene oxide as high-performance lithium-ion battery anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Wenpei; Tang, Yongbing; Li, Wenyue; Li, Zhangpeng; Yang, Xia; Xu, Jun; Lee, Chun-Sing

    2014-06-21

    A composite of porous CuCo2O4 nanocubes well wrapped by reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets has been synthesized by a facile microwave-assisted solvothermal reaction and applied as anode in lithium ion batteries (LIBs). The porous structure of the CuCo2O4 nanocubes not only provides a high surface area for contact with the electrolyte, but also assists by accommodating volume change upon charging-discharging. Impedance measurements and transmission electron microscopy show that incorporation of rGO further decreases the charge transfer resistance and improves the structural stability of the composite. As an anode material for a LIB, the composite exhibits a high stable capacity of ∼ 570 mA h g(-1) at a current density of 1000 mA g(-1) after 350 cycles. With a high specific surface area and a low charge transfer resistance, the composite anode shows impressive performance especially at high current density. The LIB shows a high capacity of ∼ 450 mA h g(-1) even at a high current density of 5000 mA g(-1), demonstrating the composite's potential for applications in LIBs with long cycling life and high power density.

  8. True performance metrics in beyond-intercalation batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freunberger, Stefan A.

    2017-07-01

    Beyond-intercalation batteries promise a step-change in energy storage compared to intercalation-based lithium-ion and sodium-ion batteries. However, only performance metrics that include all cell components and operation parameters can tell whether a true advance over intercalation batteries has been achieved.

  9. Performance of the Lester battery charger in electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivian, H. C.; Bryant, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    Tests are performed on an improved battery charger. The primary purpose of the testing is to develop test methodologies for battery charger evaluation. Tests are developed to characterize the charger in terms of its charge algorithm and to assess the effects of battery initial state of charge and temperature on charger and battery efficiency. Tests show this charger to be a considerable improvement in the state of the art for electric vehicle chargers.

  10. MOF-derived ultrafine MnO nanocrystals embedded in a porous carbon matrix as high-performance anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Fangcai; Xia, Guoliang; Yang, Yang; Chen, Qianwang

    2015-05-01

    Although MnO has been demonstrated to be a promising anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) in terms of its high theoretical capacity (755 mA h g-1), comparatively low voltage hysteresis (storage applications.Although MnO has been demonstrated to be a promising anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) in terms of its high theoretical capacity (755 mA h g-1), comparatively low voltage hysteresis (storage applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr00528k

  11. Hierarchical nanocomposites of vanadium oxide thin film anchored on graphene as high-performance cathodes in li-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhe-Fei; Zhang, Hangyu; Liu, Qi; Liu, Yadong; Stanciu, Lia; Xie, Jian

    2014-11-12

    Hierarchical nanocomposites of V2O5 thin film anchored on graphene sheets were prepared by slow hydrolysis of vanadyl triisobutoxide on graphene oxide followed by thermal treatment. The nanocomposite possessed a hierarchical structure of thin V2O5 film uniformly grown on graphene, leading to a high specific surface area and a good electronic/ionic conducting path. When used as the cathode material, the graphene/V2O5 nanosheet nanocomposites exhibit higher specific capacity, better rate performance, and longer cycle life, as compared to the pure V2O5. The nanocomposite cathode was able to deliver a specific capacity of 243 mAh/g, 191 mAh/g, and 86 mAh/g at a current density of 50 mA/g, 500 mA/g, and 15 A/g, respectively. Even after 300 cycles at 500 mA/g, the composite electrode still exhibited a specific capacity of ∼ 122 mAh/g, which corresponds to ∼ 64% of its initial capacity. This enhanced electrochemical performance can be attributed to facile electron transport between graphene and V2O5, fast Li-ion diffusion within the electrode, the high surface area of the composites, and a pore structure that can accommodate the volume change during lithiation/delithiation, which results from the unique hierarchical nanostructure of the V2O5 anchored on graphene.

  12. Highly Efficient High-Pressure Homogenization Approach for Scalable Production of High-Quality Graphene Sheets and Sandwich-Structured α-Fe2O3/Graphene Hybrids for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xin; Zhang, Hao-Bin; Xu, Jiantie; Wu, Xinyu; Yang, Dongzhi; Qu, Jin; Yu, Zhong-Zhen

    2017-03-29

    A highly efficient and continuous high-pressure homogenization (HPH) approach is developed for scalable production of graphene sheets and sandwich-structured α-Fe2O3/graphene hybrids by liquid-phase exfoliation of stage-1 FeCl3-based graphite intercalation compounds (GICs). The enlarged interlayer spacing of FeCl3-GICs facilitates their efficient exfoliation to produce high-quality graphene sheets. Moreover, sandwich-structured α-Fe2O3/few-layer graphene (FLG) hybrids are readily fabricated by thermally annealing the FeCl3 intercalated FLG sheets. As an anode material of Li-ion battery, α-Fe2O3/FLG hybrid shows a satisfactory long-term cycling performance with an excellent specific capacity of 1100.5 mA h g(-1) after 350 cycles at 200 mA g(-1). A high reversible capacity of 658.5 mA h g(-1) is achieved after 200 cycles at 1 A g(-1) and maintained without notable decay. The satisfactory cycling stability and the outstanding capability of α-Fe2O3/FLG hybrid are attributed to its unique sandwiched structure consisting of highly conducting FLG sheets and covalently anchored α-Fe2O3 particles. Therefore, the highly efficient and scalable preparation of high-quality graphene sheets along with the excellent electrochemical properties of α-Fe2O3/FLG hybrids makes the HPH approach promising for producing high-performance graphene-based energy storage materials.

  13. Three-dimensional spider-web architecture assembled from Na₂Ti₃O₇ nanotubes as a high performance anode for a sodium-ion battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuping; Guo, Lin; Yang, Shihe

    2014-11-21

    A Na2Ti3O7 nanotube-assembled three-dimensional spider-web architecture is synthesized using a hydrothermal method. The self-similar network architecture exhibits an excellent performance as an anode for a room temperature sodium ion battery without any additives (e.g. binder, conducting agent) for the first time.

  14. Ultrasmall Fe2O3 nanoparticles/MoS2 nanosheets composite as high-performance anode material for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Bin; Sun, Yue; Liu, Lianlian; Li, Chunyan; Yu, Changjian; Zhang, Xitian; Chen, Yujin

    2017-02-01

    Coupling ultrasmall Fe2O3 particles (~4.0 nm) with the MoS2 nanosheets is achieved by a facile method for high-performance anode material for Li-ion battery. MoS2 nanosheets in the composite can serve as scaffolds, efficiently buffering the large volume change of Fe2O3 during charge/discharge process, whereas the ultrasmall Fe2O3 nanoparticles mainly provide the specific capacity. Due to bigger surface area and larger pore volume as well as strong coupling between Fe2O3 particles and MoS2 nanosheets, the composite exhibits superior electrochemical properties to MoS2, Fe2O3 and the physical mixture Fe2O3+MoS2. Typically, after 140 cycles the reversible capacity of the composite does not decay, but increases from 829 mA h g‑1 to 864 mA h g‑1 at a high current density of 2 A g‑1. Thus, the present facile strategy could open a way for development of cost-efficient anode material with high-performance for large-scale energy conversion and storage systems.

  15. Ultrasmall Fe2O3 nanoparticles/MoS2 nanosheets composite as high-performance anode material for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Bin; Sun, Yue; Liu, Lianlian; Li, Chunyan; Yu, Changjian; Zhang, Xitian; Chen, Yujin

    2017-01-01

    Coupling ultrasmall Fe2O3 particles (~4.0 nm) with the MoS2 nanosheets is achieved by a facile method for high-performance anode material for Li-ion battery. MoS2 nanosheets in the composite can serve as scaffolds, efficiently buffering the large volume change of Fe2O3 during charge/discharge process, whereas the ultrasmall Fe2O3 nanoparticles mainly provide the specific capacity. Due to bigger surface area and larger pore volume as well as strong coupling between Fe2O3 particles and MoS2 nanosheets, the composite exhibits superior electrochemical properties to MoS2, Fe2O3 and the physical mixture Fe2O3+MoS2. Typically, after 140 cycles the reversible capacity of the composite does not decay, but increases from 829 mA h g−1 to 864 mA h g−1 at a high current density of 2 A g−1. Thus, the present facile strategy could open a way for development of cost-efficient anode material with high-performance for large-scale energy conversion and storage systems. PMID:28218313

  16. Porous CoFe2O4 nanocubes derived from metal-organic frameworks as high-performance anode for sodium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaojie; Li, Dongsheng; Zhu, Guang; Lu, Ting; Pan, Likun

    2017-08-01

    Recently sodium ion batteries (SIBs) as a new energy storage system have attracted enormous interests. Unfortunately, the development of high-performance electrode materials for SIBs is restricted owing to the large volume change during sodium insertion and extraction. In this work, porous CoFe2O4 nanocubes (PCFO-NCs) were prepared simply by annealing metal-organic frameworks and used as anode materials for SIBs. The PCFO-NCs exhibit a high initial Coulombic efficiency of 68.8% and a maximum reversible capacity of 360mAhg(-1) after 50 cycles at the current density of 50mAg(-1), as well as good rate capability and excellent cycling stability at high current density. The excellent electrochemical performance can be attributed the short diffusion distance of sodium ion due to the good interfacial contact between electrode and electrolyte, and the buffering of volume change during charge/discharge processes by the porous structure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Fluorine-doped SnO2 nanoparticles anchored on reduced graphene oxide as a high-performance lithium ion battery anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Dongming; Zheng, Zhong; Peng, Xue; Li, Teng; Sun, Tingting; Yuan, Liangjie

    2017-09-01

    The composite of fluorine-doped SnO2 anchored on reduced graphene oxide (F-SnO2/rGO) has been synthesized through a hydrothermal method. F-SnO2 particles with average size of 8 nm were uniformly anchored on the surfaces of rGO sheets and the resulting composite had a high loading of F-SnO2 (ca. 90%). Benefiting from the remarkably improved electrical conductivity and Li-ion diffusion in the electrode by F doping and rGO incorporation, the composite material exhibited high reversible capacity, excellent long-term cycling stability and superior rate capability. The electrode delivered a large reversible capacity of 1037 mAh g-1 after 150 cycles at 100 mA g-1 and high rate capacities of 860 and 770 mAh g-1 at 1 and 2 A g-1, respectively. Moreover, the electrode could maintain a high reversible capacities of 733 mAh g-1 even after 250 cycles at 500 mA g-1. The outstanding electrochemical performance of the as-synthesized composite make it a promising anode material for high-energy lithium ion batteries.

  18. High Anodic Performance of Co 1,3,5-Benzenetricarboxylate Coordination Polymers for Li-Ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Lou, Xiaobing; Shen, Ming; Hu, Xiaoshi; Guo, Zhi; Wang, Yong; Hu, Bingwen; Chen, Qun

    2016-06-22

    We report the designed synthesis of Co 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate coordination polymers (CPs) via a straightforward hydrothermal method, in which three kinds of reaction solvents are selected to form CPs with various morphologies and dimensions. When tested as anode materials in Li-ion battery, the cycling stabilities of the three CoBTC CPs at a current density of 100 mA g(-1) have not evident difference; however, the reversible capacities are widely divergent when the current density is increased to 2 A g(-1). The optimized product CoBTC-EtOH maintains a reversible capacity of 473 mAh g(-1) at a rate of 2 A g(-1) after 500 galvanostatic charging/discharging cycles while retaining a nearly 100% Coulombic efficiency. The hollow microspherical morphology, accessible specific area, and the absence of coordination solvent of CoBTC-EtOH might be responsible for such difference. Furthermore, the ex situ soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies of CoBTC-EtOH under different states-of-charge suggest that the Co ions remain in the Co(2+) state during the charging/discharging process. Therefore, Li ions are inserted to the organic moiety (including the carboxylate groups and the benzene ring) of CoBTC without the direct engagement of Co ions during electrochemical cycling.

  19. Assessment of high-temperature battery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, R K

    1989-02-01

    Three classes of high-temperature batteries are being developed internationally with transportation and stationary energy storage applications in mind: sodium/sulfur, lithium/metal sulfide, and sodium/metal chloride. Most attention is being given to the sodium/sulfur system. The Office of Energy Storage and Distribution (OESD) and the Office of Transportation Systems (OTS) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) are actively supporting the development of this battery system. It is anticipated that pilot-scale production facilities for sodium/sulfur batteries will be in operation in the next couple of years. The lithium/metal sulfide and the sodium/metal chloride systems are not receiving the same level of attention as the sodium/sulfur battery. Both of these systems are in an earlier stage of development than sodium/sulfur. OTS and OESD are supporting work on the lithium/iron sulfide battery in collaboration with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI); the work is being carried out at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The sodium/metal chloride battery, the newest member of the group, is being developed by a Consortium of South African and British companies. Very little DOE funds are presently allocated for research on this battery. The purpose of this assessment is to evaluate the present status of the three technologies and to identify for each technology a prioritized list of R and D issues. Finally, the assessment includes recommendations to DOE for a proposed high-temperature battery research and development program. 18 figs., 21 tabs.

  20. Extensive EIS characterization of commercially available lithium polymer battery cell for performance modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanciu, Tiberiu; Stroe, Daniel Loan; Teodorescu, Remus

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) has become a popular analytical technique for research and development of battery cells' chemistries, due to the established, high precision computer controlled equipment, that are capable of direct, on-line monitoring of performance parameters or degr......, which was further selected for the development of an accurate EIS based performance model for the chosen Li-ion battery cell....... or degradation of an electrochemical system. Used for Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries, this method allows for a fast and accurate assessment of the battery's impedance at any working point, without modifying the state of the battery. The influence of the operating conditions, state of charge (SOC) and temperature......Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) has become a popular analytical technique for research and development of battery cells' chemistries, due to the established, high precision computer controlled equipment, that are capable of direct, on-line monitoring of performance parameters...

  1. Facile preparation of porous Co3O4 nanosheets for high-performance lithium ion batteries and oxygen evolution reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhangpeng; Yu, Xin-Yao; Paik, Ungyu

    2016-04-01

    Two dimensional (2D) porous nanostructures are of great interest due to their high surface area and rich edge sites, which are favorable for a wide variety of applications. In this communication, well-defined porous Co3O4 nanosheets (PCNSs) are successfully fabricated using graphene oxide as sacrificial template. The 2D structure and porous nature effectively provide more exposed active sites for electrochemical reaction and facilitate easier ion transportation across the sheets. As a result, the as-prepared PCNSs exhibit remarkable lithium storage performance, showing high reversible capacity of 1380 mAh g-1 even after 240 discharge/charge cycles at a current density of 500 mA g-1 and good rate capability (606 mAh g-1 at 10 A g-1). Moreover, it also shows a good electrocatalytic activity for the electrochemical oxygen evolution reaction with an overpotential of 368 mV for driving the current density of 10 mA cm-2 in 1 M KOH and a small Tafel slope of 59 mV dec-1.

  2. International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) Battery History and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Gopalskrishna M.; Tiller, Smith E.

    1999-01-01

    The "International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) Battery History and Performance" report provides the information on the cell/battery design, battery performance during the thirty eight (38) solar eclipse seasons and the end-of-life test data. It is noteworthy that IUE spacecraft was an in-house project and that the batteries were designed, fabricated and tested (Qualification and Acceptance) at the Goddard Space Flight Center. A detailed information is given on the cell and battery design criteria and the designs, on the Qualification and the Acceptance tests, and on the cell life cycling tests. The environmental, thermal, and vibration tests were performed on the batteries at the battery level as well as with the interface on the spacecraft. The telemetry data were acquired, analyzed, and trended for various parameters over the mission life. Rigorous and diligent battery management programs were developed and implemented from time to time to extend the mission life over eighteen plus years. Prior to the termination of spacecraft operation, special tests were conducted to check the battery switching operation, battery residual capacity, third electrode performance and battery impedance.

  3. Bacteria Absorption-Based Mn2P2O7-Carbon@Reduced Graphene Oxides for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuhua; Wang, Bin; Zhu, Jingyi; Zhou, Jun; Xu, Zhi; Fan, Ling; Zhu, Jian; Podila, Ramakrishna; Rao, Apparao M; Lu, Bingan

    2016-05-24

    The development of freestanding flexible electrodes with high capacity and long cycle-life is a central issue for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Here, we use bacteria absorption of metallic Mn(2+) ions to in situ synthesize natural micro-yolk-shell-structure Mn2P2O7-carbon, followed by the use of vacuum filtration to obtain Mn2P2O7-carbon@reduced graphene oxides (RGO) papers for LIBs anodes. The Mn2P2O7 particles are completely encapsulated within the carbon film, which was obtained by carbonizing the bacterial wall. The resulting carbon microstructure reduces the electrode-electrolyte contact area, yielding high Coulombic efficiency. In addition, the yolk-shell structure with its internal void spaces is ideal for sustaining volume expansion of Mn2P2O7 during charge/discharge processes, and the carbon shells act as an ideal barrier, limiting most solid-electrolyte interphase formation on the surface of the carbon films (instead of forming on individual particles). Notably, the RGO films have high conductivity and robust mechanical flexibility. As a result of our combined strategies delineated in this article, our binder-free flexible anodes exhibit high capacities, long cycle-life, and excellent rate performance.

  4. Atomically thin Co3O4 nanosheet-coated stainless steel mesh with enhanced capacitive Na+ storage for high-performance sodium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Yuhai; Wang, Yunxiao; Tian, Dongliang; Xu, Jiantie; Zhang, Zhijia; Liu, Qiannan; Ruan, Boyang; Ma, Jianmin; Sun, Ziqi; Xue Dou, Shi

    2017-03-01

    Capacitive storage (e.g., double layer capacitance and pseudocapacitance) with Na+ stored mainly at the surface or interface of the active materials rather than inserted into the bulk crystal is an effective approach to achieve high rate capability and long cycle life in sodium-ion batteries (SIBs). Herein, atomically thin Co3O4 nanosheets are successfully synthesized and grown directly on the stainless steel mesh as an anode material for SIBs. This anode delivers a high average capacity of 509.2 mAh g-1 for the initial 20 cycles (excluding the first cycle) at 50 mA g-1, presents excellent rate capability with an average capacity of 427.0 mAh g-1 at 500 mA g-1, and exhibits high cycling stability, which significantly outperforms the electrode prepared from conventional Co3O4 nanostructures, the electrode prepared by conventional casting method, and previously reported Co3O4 electrodes. The superior electrochemical performance is mainly attributable to the atomic thickness of the Co3O4 nanosheets and the direct growth method in electrode processing, which lead to remarkably enhanced surface redox pseudocapacitance and interfacial double layer capacitance. This Na+ capacitive storage mechanism provides a promising strategy for the development of electrode materials with high energy and power densities and ultralong cycle life for SIBs.

  5. General synthesis of transition metal oxides hollow nanospheres/nitrogen-doped graphene hybrids via metal-ammine complex chemistry for high performance lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiayuan; Wu, Xiaofeng; Gong, Yan; Wang, Pengfei; Li, Wenhui; Mo, Shengpeng; Peng, Shengpan; Tan, Qiangqiang; Chen, Yunfa

    2017-08-30

    We present a general and facile synthesis strategy, on the basis of metal-ammine complex chemistry, in synthesizing hollow transition metal oxides (Co3O4, NiO, CuO-Cu2O and ZnO)/nitrogen-doped graphene hybrids, potentially applied in high performance lithium ion batteries. The oxygen-containing functional groups of graphene oxide play a prerequisite role in the formation of hollow transition metal oxides on graphene nanosheets, and a significant hollowing process occurs only when forming metal (Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, or Zn2+)-ammine complex ions. Moreover, the hollowing process is well correlated with complexing capacity between metal ions and NH3 molecules. The significant hollowing process occurs for strong metal-ammine complex ions including Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, and Zn2+ ions, and no hollow structures formed for weak and/or non-complex Mn2+ and Fe3+ ions. Simultaneously, this novel strategy can also achieve the directly doping of nitrogen atoms into graphene framework. When used as anodic materials, the electrochemical performance of two typical hollow Co3O4 or NiO/nitrogen-doped graphene hybrids are evaluated. It is demonstrated that these unique nanostructed hybrids, in contrast with the bare counterparts, solid transition metal oxides/nitrogen-doped graphene hybrids, perform the significantly improved specific capacity, superior rate capability and excellent capacity retention. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Growth of 3D hierarchical porous NiO@carbon nanoflakes on graphene sheets for high-performance lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiongwei; Zhang, Ludan; Zhang, Zehui; Yu, Aishui; Wu, Peiyi

    2016-02-07

    Nickel oxide (NiO) as one of the anode electrode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) has attracted considerable research attention. However, the poor electron conductivity and bad capacity retention performance greatly hinder its wide application. Herein, we prepared a novel three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical porous graphene@NiO@carbon composite via a simple solvothermal process, in which the graphene sheets were uniformly wrapped by porous NiO@carbon nanoflakes. In this case, nickelocene was creatively used as the precursor for both NiO and amorphous carbon, while graphene oxide sheets were employed as a template for the two-dimensional nanostructure and the conductive graphene backbone. The resultant composites possess high surface area (196 m(2) g(-1)) and large pore volume (0.46 cm(3) g(-1)). When it is applied as an anode for LIBs, the carbon outer-layer can effectively suppress the large volume change and serious aggregation of NiO nanoparticles during the charge-discharge process. Therefore, the graphene@NiO@carbon composites show a high reversible capacity of 1042 mA h g(-1) at a current density of 200 mA g(-1), an excellent rate performance and long cycle life. We believe that our method provides a new route for the fabrication of novel transition metal oxide composites.

  7. Facile Synthesis of ZnO Nanoparticles on Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanotubes as High-Performance Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haipeng; Liu, Zhengjun; Yang, Shuang; Zhao, Yan; Feng, Yuting; Bakenov, Zhumabay; Zhang, Chengwei; Yin, Fuxing

    2017-09-21

    ZnO/nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube (ZnO/NCNT) composite, prepared though a simple one-step sol-gel synthetic technique, has been explored for the first time as an anode material. The as-prepared ZnO/NCNT nanocomposite preserves a good dispersity and homogeneity of the ZnO nanoparticles (~6 nm) which deposited on the surface of NCNT. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveals the formation of ZnO nanoparticles with an average size of 6 nm homogeneously deposited on the surface of NCNT. ZnO/NCNT composite, when evaluated as an anode for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), exhibits remarkably enhanced cycling ability and rate capability compared with the ZnO/CNT counterpart. A relatively large reversible capacity of 1013 mAh·g(-1) is manifested at the second cycle and a capacity of 664 mAh·g(-1) is retained after 100 cycles. Furthermore, the ZnO/NCNT system displays a reversible capacity of 308 mAh·g(-1) even at a high current density of 1600 mA·g(-1). These electrochemical performance enhancements are ascribed to the reinforced accumulative effects of the well-dispersed ZnO nanoparticles and doping nitrogen atoms, which can not only suppress the volumetric expansion of ZnO nanoparticles during the cycling performance but also provide a highly conductive NCNT network for ZnO anode.

  8. Facile Synthesis of ZnO Nanoparticles on Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanotubes as High-Performance Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haipeng Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ZnO/nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube (ZnO/NCNT composite, prepared though a simple one-step sol-gel synthetic technique, has been explored for the first time as an anode material. The as-prepared ZnO/NCNT nanocomposite preserves a good dispersity and homogeneity of the ZnO nanoparticles (~6 nm which deposited on the surface of NCNT. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM reveals the formation of ZnO nanoparticles with an average size of 6 nm homogeneously deposited on the surface of NCNT. ZnO/NCNT composite, when evaluated as an anode for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs, exhibits remarkably enhanced cycling ability and rate capability compared with the ZnO/CNT counterpart. A relatively large reversible capacity of 1013 mAh·g−1 is manifested at the second cycle and a capacity of 664 mAh·g−1 is retained after 100 cycles. Furthermore, the ZnO/NCNT system displays a reversible capacity of 308 mAh·g−1 even at a high current density of 1600 mA·g−1. These electrochemical performance enhancements are ascribed to the reinforced accumulative effects of the well-dispersed ZnO nanoparticles and doping nitrogen atoms, which can not only suppress the volumetric expansion of ZnO nanoparticles during the cycling performance but also provide a highly conductive NCNT network for ZnO anode.

  9. Scalable Production of the Silicon-Tin Yin-Yang Hybrid Structure with Graphene Coating for High Performance Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yan; Tan, Yingling; Hu, Xiaozhen; Zhu, Bin; Zheng, Qinghui; Zhang, Zijiao; Zhu, Guoying; Yu, Qian; Jin, Zhong; Zhu, Jia

    2017-05-10

    Alloy anodes possessed of high theoretical capacity show great potential for next-generation advanced lithium-ion battery. Even though huge volume change during lithium insertion and extraction leads to severe problems, such as pulverization and an unstable solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI), various nanostructures including nanoparticles, nanowires, and porous networks can address related challenges to improve electrochemical performance. However, the complex and expensive fabrication process hinders the widespread application of nanostructured alloy anodes, which generate an urgent demand of low-cost and scalable processes to fabricate building blocks with fine controls of size, morphology, and porosity. Here, we demonstrate a scalable and low-cost process to produce a porous yin-yang hybrid composite anode with graphene coating through high energy ball-milling and selective chemical etching. With void space to buffer the expansion, the produced functional electrodes demonstrate stable cycling performance of 910 mAh g(-1) over 600 cycles at a rate of 0.5C for Si-graphene "yin" particles and 750 mAh g(-1) over 300 cycles at 0.2C for Sn-graphene "yang" particles. Therefore, we open up a new approach to fabricate alloy anode materials at low-cost, low-energy consumption, and large scale. This type of porous silicon or tin composite with graphene coating can also potentially play a significant role in thermoelectrics and optoelectronics applications.

  10. α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}@C nanorings as anode materials for high performance lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Le; Li, Zhenzhen; Fu, Wenming; Li, Fagen [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Ningbo University, Ningbo (China); Wang, Jun, E-mail: wjnaf@ustc.edu [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Ningbo University, Ningbo (China); Wang, Wenzhong [School of Science, Minzu University of China, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2015-10-25

    α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}@C core–shell nanorings are prepared by a facile large-scale two-step route incorporating a hydrothermal method and a carbon coated progress. Its structure and morphology are characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscope, and thermogravimetry. It is found that the as-prepared composite is composed of α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}@C nanorings of about 148 nm in outer diameter, 50 nm in thickness, and 115 nm in length. These α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}@C nanorings are enwrapped with ∼3 nm thick carbon shell. And the electrodes exhibit longer cycle life (815 mAhg{sup −1} after cycling 160 times) at high current rate (1000 mAg{sup −1}) compared with that of bare α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanorings (810 mAhg{sup −1} after cycling 30 times). The improved performance of the composite is attributed to the bondage from carbon shell, which can enhance the electronic conductivity and structural stability of α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanorings. - Highlights: • α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}@C core–shell nanorings are prepared by a facile two-step route. • The α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}@C nanorings are firstly reported as anode materials for LIBs. • The nanorings show a high capacity of 815 mAhg{sup −1} at 1 Ag{sup -1} after 160 cycles.

  11. High-rate performance of Ti3+ self-doped TiO2 prepared by imidazole reduction for Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seok, Dong-il; Wu, Mihye; Shim, Kwang Bo; Kang, Yongku; Jung, Ha-Kyun

    2016-10-01

    Ti3+ self-doped TiO2 nanoparticles were prepared via a simple imidazole reduction process and developed as an anode material for Li-ion batteries. Introducing the Ti3+-state on TiO2 nanoparticles resulted in superior rate performances that the capacity retention of 88% at 50 C. The enhanced electrochemical performances were attributed to the resulting lower internal resistance and improved electronic conductivity, based on galvanostatic intermittent titration technique and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analyses.

  12. Solution-combustion synthesized aluminium-doped spinel (LiAl(subx)Mn(sub2-x)O(sub4) as a high-performance lithium-ion battery cathode material

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kebede, MA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available High-performing (LiAl(subx)Mn(sub2-x)O(sub4) (x = 0, 0.125, 0.25, 0.375, and 0.5) spinel cathode materials for lithium-ion battery were developed using a solution combustion method. The as-synthesized cathode materials have spinel cubic structure...

  13. Coaxial MoS2@Carbon Hybrid Fibers: A Low-Cost Anode Material for High-Performance Li-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Zhou

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A low-cost bio-mass-derived carbon substrate has been employed to synthesize MoS2@carbon composites through a hydrothermal method. Carbon fibers derived from natural cotton provide a three-dimensional and open framework for the uniform growth of MoS2 nanosheets, thus hierarchically constructing coaxial architecture. The unique structure could synergistically benefit fast Li-ion and electron transport from the conductive carbon scaffold and porous MoS2 nanostructures. As a result, the MoS2@carbon composites—when serving as anodes for Li-ion batteries—exhibit a high reversible specific capacity of 820 mAh·g−1, high-rate capability (457 mAh·g−1 at 2 A·g−1, and excellent cycling stability. The use of bio-mass-derived carbon makes the MoS2@carbon composites low-cost and promising anode materials for high-performance Li-ion batteries.

  14. Phosphorus-Rich CuP2 Embedded in Carbon Matrix as a High-Performance Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Ok; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2017-05-17

    Phosphorus-rich CuP2 and its carbon composites have been investigated as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries. Through a facile, low-cost mechanochemical reaction, microsized composites composed of active CuP2 particles uniformly embedded in the carbon matrix have been successfully synthesized. Combined structural and electrochemical characterizations show that phosphorus-rich CuP2 undergoes irreversible reaction with lithium, giving metal-rich Cu3P and amorphous phosphorus at the end of the first cycle. Both Cu3P and phosphorus are reversibly formed in subsequent cycles, contributing to a high reversible capacity of >1000 mA h g(-1). By controlling the carbon content, the electrochemical reversibility and stability of CuP2 are greatly improved. The carbon composite demonstrates a remarkable lithium-storage capability in terms of a stable capacity of >720 mA h g(-1) over 100 cycles at 200 mA g(-1), a high initial Coulombic efficiency of ∼83%, and a good rate capability with a capacity of >637 mA h g(-1) at 1.6 A g(-1). The performance improvement is mainly associated with the formation of the conductive carbon network that offers high conductivity and fast reaction kinetics, as well as enhanced structural stability of CuP2 anode.

  15. Amorphous ZnO Quantum Dot/Mesoporous Carbon Bubble Composites for a High-Performance Lithium-Ion Battery Anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Zhiming; Yang, Gongzheng; Song, Huawei; Wang, Chengxin

    2017-01-11

    Due to its high theoretical capacity (978 mA h g(-1)), natural abundance, environmental friendliness, and low cost, zinc oxide is regarded as one of the most promising anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). A lot of research has been done in the past few years on this topic. However, hardly any research on amorphous ZnO for LIB anodes has been reported despite the fact that the amorphous type could have superior electrochemical performance due to its isotropic nature, abundant active sites, better buffer effect, and different electrochemical reaction details. In this work, we develop a simple route to prepare an amorphous ZnO quantum dot (QDs)/mesoporous carbon bubble composite. The composite consists of two parts: mesoporous carbon bubbles as a flexible skeleton and monodisperse amorphous zinc oxide QDs (smaller than 3 nm) encapsulated in an amorphous carbon matrix as a continuous coating tightly anchored on the surface of mesoporous carbon bubbles. With the benefits of abundant active sites, amorphous nature, high specific surface area, buffer effect, hierarchical pores, stable interconnected conductive network, and multidimensional electron transport pathways, the amorphous ZnO QD/mesoporous carbon bubble composite delivers a high reversible capacity of nearly 930 mA h g(-1) (at current density of 100 mA g(-1)) with almost 90% retention for 85 cycles and possesses a good rate performance. This work opens the possibility to fabricate high-performance electrode materials for LIBs, especially for amorphous metal oxide-based materials.

  16. Recycling rice husks for high-capacity lithium battery anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Dae Soo; Ryou, Myung-Hyun; Sung, Yong Joo; Park, Seung Bin; Choi, Jang Wook

    2013-07-23

    The rice husk is the outer covering of a rice kernel and protects the inner ingredients from external attack by insects and bacteria. To perform this function while ventilating air and moisture, rice plants have developed unique nanoporous silica layers in their husks through years of natural evolution. Despite the massive amount of annual production near 10(8) tons worldwide, so far rice husks have been recycled only for low-value agricultural items. In an effort to recycle rice husks for high-value applications, we convert the silica to silicon and use it for high-capacity lithium battery anodes. Taking advantage of the interconnected nanoporous structure naturally existing in rice husks, the converted silicon exhibits excellent electrochemical performance as a lithium battery anode, suggesting that rice husks can be a massive resource for use in high-capacity lithium battery negative electrodes.

  17. High performance Li2MnO3/rGO composite cathode for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Xiong, Lilong; Xu, Youlong; Li, Houli; Ren, Zaihuang

    2017-05-01

    The novel composite Li2MnO3 (LMO)/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) has been synthesized successfully. Based on the scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, LMO is found to distribute separately on the rGO sheets by forming a laminated structure, which is in favor of good electrical contact between the cathode active materials and the rGO matrix, and also facilitates the separation of LMO secondary particles with reduced size. Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy tests show that the charge transfer resistance decreases from 81.2 Ω for LMO to 29.6 Ω for LMO/rGO composite. The Li-ion diffusion coefficient of LMO/rGO composite is almost triple that of LMO. As a result, the LMO/rGO composite delivers an initial discharge capacity of 284.9 mAh g-1 with a capacity retention of 86.6% after 45 cycles at 0.1 C between 2.0 and 4.6 V. Cycle performance is even better at a higher current density 0.2 C while the retention ratio is up to 97.1% after 45 cycles. The rate capability is also significantly enhanced, and the LMO/rGO composite could exhibit a large discharge capacity of 123.7 mAh g-1 which is more than three times larger than that of LMO (40.8 mAh g-1) at a high rate of 8 C.

  18. Facile synthesis of 3D silicon/carbon nanotube capsule composites as anodes for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xinyang; Sun, Wang; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Fang; Sun, Kening

    2016-10-01

    Carbon nanotubes have attracted widespread attention as ideal materials for Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) due to their excellent conductivity, mechanical flexibility, chemical stability and extremely large surface area. Here, three-dimensional (3D) silicon/carbon nanotube capsule composites (Si/CNCs) are firstly prepared via water-in-oil (W/O) emulsion technique with more than 75 wt% loading amount of silicon. CNCs with unique hollow sphere structure act as a 3D interconnected conductive network skeleton, and the cross-linked carbon nanotubes (CNTs) of CNCs can effectively enhance the strength, flexibility and conductivity of the electrode. This Si/CNCs can not only alleviate the volume expansion, but also effectively improve the electrochemical performance of the LIBs. Such Si/CNCs electrode with the unique structure achieves a high initial discharge specific capacity of 2950 mAh g-1 and retains 1226 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles at 0.5 A g-1, as well as outstanding rate performance of 547 mAh g-1 at 10 A g-1.

  19. Confined SnO2 quantum-dot clusters in graphene sheets as high-performance anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chengling; Zhu, Shenmin; Zhang, Kai; Hui, Zeyu; Pan, Hui; Chen, Zhixin; Li, Yao; Zhang, Di; Wang, Da-Wei

    2016-05-01

    Construction of metal oxide nanoparticles as anodes is of special interest for next-generation lithium-ion batteries. The main challenge lies in their rapid capacity fading caused by the structural degradation and instability of solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer during charge/discharge process. Herein, we address these problems by constructing a novel-structured SnO2-based anode. The novel structure consists of mesoporous clusters of SnO2 quantum dots (SnO2 QDs), which are wrapped with reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets. The mesopores inside the clusters provide enough room for the expansion and contraction of SnO2 QDs during charge/discharge process while the integral structure of the clusters can be maintained. The wrapping RGO sheets act as electrolyte barrier and conductive reinforcement. When used as an anode, the resultant composite (MQDC-SnO2/RGO) shows an extremely high reversible capacity of 924 mAh g-1 after 200 cycles at 100 mA g-1, superior capacity retention (96%), and outstanding rate performance (505 mAh g-1 after 1000 cycles at 1000 mA g-1). Importantly, the materials can be easily scaled up under mild conditions. Our findings pave a new way for the development of metal oxide towards enhanced lithium storage performance.

  20. A high-voltage rechargeable magnesium-sodium hybrid battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yifei; An, Qinyou; Cheng, Yingwen; Liang, Yanliang; Ren, Yang; Sun, Cheng-Jun; Dong, Hui; Tang, Zhongjia; Li, Guosheng; Yao, Yan

    2017-04-01

    Growing global demand of safe and low-cost energy storage technology triggers strong interests in novel battery concepts beyond state-of-art Li-ion batteries. Here we report a high-voltage rechargeable Mg–Na hybrid battery featuring dendrite-free deposition of Mg anode and Na-intercalation cathode as a low-cost and safe alternative to Li-ion batteries for large-scale energy storage. A prototype device using a Na3V2(PO4)3 cathode, a Mg anode, and a Mg–Na dual salt electrolyte exhibits the highest voltage (2.60 V vs. Mg) and best rate performance (86% capacity retention at 10C rate) among reported hybrid batteries. Synchrotron radiation-based X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), atomic-pair distribution function (PDF), and high-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) studies reveal the chemical environment and structural change of Na3V2(PO4)3 cathode during the Na ion insertion/deinsertion process. XANES study shows a clear reversible shift of vanadium K-edge and HRXRD and PDF studies reveal a reversible two-phase transformation and V–O bond length change during cycling. The energy density of the hybrid cell could be further improved by developing electrolytes with a higher salt concentration and wider electrochemical window. This work represents a significant step forward for practical safe and low-cost hybrid batteries.

  1. Tuning the morphologies of fluorine-doped tin oxides in the three-dimensional architecture of graphene for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phulpoto, Shahnawaz; Sun, Jinhua; Qi, Siqi; Xiao, Linhong; Yan, Shouke; Geng, Jianxin

    2017-09-01

    The morphology of electrode materials plays an important role in determining the performance of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). However, studies on determining the most favorable morphology for high-performance LIBs have rarely been reported. In this study, a series of F-doped SnO x (F–SnO2 and F–SnO) materials with various morphologies was synthesized using ethylenediamine as a structure-directing agent in a facile hydrothermal process. During the hydrothermal process, the F–SnO x was embedded in situ into the three-dimensional (3D) architecture of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) to form F–SnO x @RGO composites. The morphologies and nanostructures of F–SnO x , i.e., F–SnO2 nanocrystals, F–SnO nanosheets, and F–SnO2 aggregated particles, were fully characterized using electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Electrochemical characterization indicated that the F–SnO2 nanocrystals uniformly distributed in the 3D RGO architecture exhibited higher specific capacity, better rate performance, and longer cycling stability than the F–SnO x with other morphologies. These excellent electrochemical performances were attributed to the uniform distribution of the F–SnO2 nanocrystals, which significantly alleviated the volume changes of the electrode material and shortened the Li ion diffusion path during lithiation/delithiation processes. The F–SnO2@RGO composite composed of uniformly distributed F–SnO2 nanocrystals also exhibited excellent rate performance, as the specific capacities were measured to be 1158 and 648 mA h g‑1 at current densities of 0.1 and 5 A g‑1, respectively.

  2. High-Performance Olivine NaFePO4 Microsphere Cathode Synthesized by Aqueous Electrochemical Displacement Method for Sodium Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yongjin; Liu, Qi; Xiao, Lifen; Ai, Xinping; Yang, Hanxi; Cao, Yuliang

    2015-08-19

    Olivine NaFePO4/C microsphere cathode is prepared by a facile aqueous electrochemical displacement method from LiFePO4/C precursor. The NaFePO4/C cathode shows a high discharge capacity of 111 mAh g(-1), excellent cycling stability with 90% capacity retention over 240 cycles at 0.1 C, and high rate capacity (46 mAh g(-1) at 2 C). The excellent electrochemical performance demonstrates that the aqueous electrochemical displacement method is an effective and promising way to prepare NaFePO4/C material for Na-based energy storage applications. Moreover, the Na2/3FePO4 intermediate is observed for the first time during the Na intercalation process through conventional electrochemical techniques, corroborating an identical two-step phase transition reaction both upon Na intercalation and deintercalation processes. The clarification of the electrochemical reaction mechanism of olivine NaFePO4 could inspire more attention on the investigation of this material for Na ion batteries.

  3. Rational Design of 1-D Co3O4 Nanofibers@Low content Graphene Composite Anode for High Performance Li-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Su-Ho; Jung, Ji-Won; Kim, Chanhoon; Kim, Il-Doo

    2017-01-01

    Cobalt oxide that has high energy density, is the next-generation candidate as the anode material for LIBs. However, the practical use of Co3O4 as anode material has been hindered by limitations, especially, low electrical conductivity and pulverization from large volume change upon cycling. These features lead to hindrance to its electrochemical properties for lithium-ion batteries. To improve electrochemical properties, we synthesized one-dimensional (1-D) Co3O4 nanofibers (NFs) overed with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets by electrostatic self-assembly (Co3O4 NFs@rGO). The flexible graphene oxide sheets not only prevent volume changes of active materials upon cycling as a clamping layer but also provide efficient electrical pathways by three-dimensional (3-D) network architecture. When applied as an anode for LIBs, the Co3O4 NFs@rGO exhibits superior electrochemical performance: (i) high reversible capacity (615 mAh g−1 and 92% capacity retention after 400 cycles at 4.0 A g−1) and (ii) excellent rate capability. Herein, we highlighted that the enhanced conversion reaction of the Co3O4 NFs@rGO is attributed to effective combination of 1-D nanostructure and low content of rGO (~3.5 wt%) in hybrid composite. PMID:28345589

  4. Sucrose-assisted loading of LiFePO4 nanoparticles on graphene for high-performance lithium-ion battery cathodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yongmin; Wen, Zhenhai; Feng, Hongbin; Li, Jinghong

    2013-04-26

    A simple approach for loading LiFePO4 (LFP) nanoparticles on graphene (G) that could assemble amorphous LiFePO4 nanoparticles into a stable, crystalline, graphene-modified layered materials (G-S-LFP, S=sucrose) by using graphene as building block and sucrose as a linker has yet to be developed. On the basis of differential scanning calorimetric and transmission electron microscopy analysis of the samples from controlled experiment, a possible mechanism was proposed to explain the "linker" process of LFP and graphene with sucrose as the linker. The electrochemical properties of the samples as cathode material for lithium-ion batteries were studied by cyclic voltammogrametry and galvanostatic methods. Results showed that G-S-LFP displayed superior lithium-storage capability with current density changes randomly form 0.5 to 10 C. The significant improvement for rate and cycle performance could be attributed to the high conductivity of the graphene host, the high crystallinity, and the layered structure.

  5. Morphology-controlled synthesis of self-assembled LiFePO4/C/RGO for high-performance Li-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Mei; Chen, Yuming; Chen, Bolei; Wu, Xiao; Kam, Kifung; Lu, Wei; Chan, Helen Lai Wa; Yuan, Jikang

    2014-10-22

    Novel architectured LiFePO4 (LFP) that consisted of ordered LFP nanocubes was prepared through a facile hydrothermal method using polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a surfactant. The micro/nanostructured LFP with various morphologies ranging from cube cluster to rugby-like structure was synthesized via controlling the pH values of the precursor. A reasonable assembly process elucidating the formation of the hierarchical structure is also provided based on the experimental results. After a combination of carbon (C) coating and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) wrapping, the obtained LFP/C/RGO composites exhibit enhanced electrochemical performance compared to that of blank LFP synthesized under the same condition. Among as-synthesized cube-cluster-like, dumbbell-like, rod-like, and rugby-like composites, the rugby-like LFP/C/RGO reveal the best electrochemical properties with the discharge specific capacity of ∼150 mA h g(-1) after 100 cycles and a high reversible specific capacity of 152 mA h g(-1) at 0.1 C. The prepared LFP/C/RGO composite can be a promising cathode material for high energy, low cost, and environmentally friendly lithium-ion batteries.

  6. A New Polyoxometalate (POM)-Based Composite: Fabrication through POM-Assisted Polymerization of Dopamine and Properties as Anode Materials for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yan-Hong; Peng, Jun; Khan, Shifa-Ullah; Yuan, Yue

    2017-08-01

    Organic substrates are indispensable in the fabrication of multifunctional polyoxometalate (POM)-based composites for various applications. A new molybdovanadophosphoric heteropolyacid (PMo10 V2 )-based polydopamine (PDA) composite (PMo10 V2 /PDA) is first synthesized through a facile, in situ polymerization method under hydrothermal conditions, without the addition of extra buffer solution. The obtained PMo10 V2 /PDA composite shows homogeneous microsphere morphology. Through utilization of the adhesive ability of PDA, the composite can be used as an anode material without additional binder for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. Excellent electrochemical performances are obtained, with a high, stable specific capacity of 915.3 mA h g(-1) at a current density of 100 mA g(-1) , remarkable rate capability, and good cycling stability (≈93 % capacity retention after 300 cycles at a high current density of 1000 mA g(-1) ). © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. MnO2 nanorods/3D-rGO composite as high performance anode materials for Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongdong; Hu, Zhongli; Su, Yongyao; Ruan, Haibo; Hu, Rong; Zhang, Lei

    2017-01-01

    MnO2 nanorods/three-dimensional reduced graphene oxide (3D-rGO) composite has been synthesized by a simple in situ hydrothermal methord. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of the as-prepared composite reveals tetragonal structure of α-MnO2. Raman spectroscopic and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of the samples confirm the coexistence of MnO2 and graphene. The Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis shows the large surface area of the composite. The electron microscopy images of the as-synthesized products reveals the MnO2 nanorods are homogeneously grown on 3D-rGO matrix. Electrochemical characterization exhibits the MnO2 nanorods/3D-rGO composite with large reversible capacity (595 mA h g-1 over 60 cycles at 100 mA g-1), high coulombic efficiency (above 99%), excellent rate capability and good cyclic stability. The superior electrochemical performance can be attributed to the turf-like nanostructure of composite, high capacity of MnO2 and superior electrical conductivity of 3D-rGO. It suggests that MnO2 nanorods/3D-rGO composite will be a promising anode material for Li-ion batteries.

  8. Reserve, flowing electrolyte, high rate lithium battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puskar, M.; Harris, P.

    Flowing electrolyte Li/SOCl2 tests in single cell and multicell bipolar fixtures have been conducted, and measurements are presented for electrolyte flow rates, inlet and outlet temperatures, fixture temperatures at several points, and the pressure drop across the fixture. Reserve lithium batteries with flowing thionyl-chloride electrolytes are found to be capable of very high energy densities with usable voltages and capacities at current densities as high as 500 mA/sq cm. At this current density, a battery stack 10 inches in diameter is shown to produce over 60 kW of power while maintaining a safe operating temperature.

  9. Synthesis of 2D-Mesoporous-Carbon/MoS2 Heterostructures with Well-Defined Interfaces for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yin; Lv, Yingying; Gong, Feng; Elzatahry, Ahmed A; Zheng, Gengfeng; Zhao, Dongyuan

    2016-11-01

    A sandwich-like 2D-mesoporous-carbon/MoS2 -nanosheet heterostructure is fabricated for the first time. The hybrid structure is composed of three well-stacked monolayers: an ordered-mesoporous-carbon monolayer, a MoS2 monolayer, and a further ordered-mesoporous-carbon monolayer. This unique heterostructure exhibits excellent electrochemical performance as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Taichi-inspired rigid-flexible coupling cellulose-supported solid polymer electrolyte for high-performance lithium batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jianjun; Yue, Liping; Hu, Pu; Liu, Zhihong; Qin, Bingsheng; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Qingfu; DING, GUOLIANG; Zhang, Chuanjian; Zhou, Xinhong; Yao, Jianhua; Cui, Guanglei; Chen, Liquan

    2014-01-01

    Inspired by Taichi, we proposed rigid-flexible coupling concept and herein developed a highly promising solid polymer electrolyte comprised of poly (ethylene oxide), poly (cyano acrylate), lithium bis(oxalate)borate and robust cellulose nonwoven. Our investigation revealed that this new class solid polymer electrolyte possessed comprehensive properties in high mechanical integrity strength, sufficient ionic conductivity (3 × 10−4 S cm−1) at 60°C and improved dimensional thermostability (up to...

  11. Multilayered Si nanoparticle/reduced graphene oxide hybrid as a high-performance lithium-ion battery anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jingbo; Huang, Xingkang; Zhou, Guihua; Cui, Shumao; Hallac, Peter B; Jiang, Junwei; Hurley, Patrick T; Chen, Junhong

    2014-02-01

    Multilayered Si/RGO anode nanostructures, featuring alternating Si nanoparticle (NP) and RGO layers, good mechanical stability, and high electrical conductivity, allow Si NPs to easily expand between RGO layers, thereby leading to high reversible capacity up to 2300 mAh g(-1) at 0.05 C (120 mA g(-1) ) and 87% capacity retention (up to 630 mAh g(-1) ) at 10 C after 152 cycles.

  12. Performance Simulation Of Photovoltaic System Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Babatunde

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy, despite being inexhaustible, has a major shortcoming; it is intermittent. As a result, there's a need for it to be stored for later use. The widely used energy storage in photovoltaic system applications is the lead-acid battery and the knowledge of its state-of-charge (SOC is important in effecting efficient control and energy management. However, SOC cannot be measured while the battery is connected to the system. This study adjusts and validates two estimation models: battery state-of-charge model using ampere-hour counting method and battery charge voltage model. For the battery state-of-charge model, the SOC is estimated by integrating the charge/discharge current over time while the battery charge voltage characteristic response is modelled by using the equation-fit method which expresses the battery charge voltage variations by a 5th order polynomial in terms of the state-of-charge and current. These models are realized using the MATLAB program. The battery charge voltage model is corrected for errors which may result from reduced charge voltage due to variation of solar radiation using the battery state-of-charge model. Moreover, the starting SOC needed in the state-of-charge model is estimated using the charge voltage model. The accuracies of the models are verified using various laboratory experiments.

  13. LiFePO{sub 4}: From molten ingot to nanoparticles with high-rate performance in Li-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaghib, K.; Charest, P.; Dontigny, M.; Guerfi, A.; Lagace, M. [Institut de Recherche d' Hydro-Quebec, 1800 Lionel Boulet, Varennes, QC (Canada); Mauger, A. [Universite Paris 06, IMPMC, 140 rue de Lourmel, 75015 Paris (France); Kopec, M.; Julien, C.M. [Universite Paris 06, INSP, 140 rue de Lourmel, 75015 Paris (France)

    2010-12-15

    LiFePO{sub 4} (LFP) particles were obtained by grinding ingot synthesized in the molten state. This process, followed by jet milling, and then wet milling, provides a simple way to obtain powders with controlled particle size in the range from macroscopic to 25 nm. However, at this time, we find that these particles tend to agglomerate to form secondary particles of size {proportional_to}100 nm. The particles obtained by this process are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). In situ and ex situ scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The effect of milling was also investigated by analysis of physical properties using infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and magnetic measurements. The electrochemical performance was evaluated in cells containing Li/1 M LiPF{sub 6} in EC:DEC (1:1)/C-LiFePO{sub 4}. After carbon coating, the LFP particles which are free of impurities, exhibit high-rate capability. Even with a limited amount of carbon (2 wt.%) appropriate for commercial batteries, the capacity is 157 mAh g{sup -1} at 0.1 C, 120 mAh g{sup -1} at 10 C, without capacity fading after 60 cycles. (author)

  14. High rate performance of virus enabled 3D n-type Si anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Xilin [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Maryland College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Gerasopoulos, Konstantinos [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Institute for Systems Research, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Maryland College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Guo Juchen [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Maryland College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Brown, Adam [Institute for Bioscience and Biotechology Research, Department of Plant Science and Landscape Architecture, University of Maryland College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Ghodssi, Reza [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Institute for Systems Research, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Maryland College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Culver, James N. [Institute for Bioscience and Biotechology Research, Department of Plant Science and Landscape Architecture, University of Maryland College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Wang Chunsheng, E-mail: cswang@umd.edu [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Maryland College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2011-05-30

    Research highlights: > A novel three-dimensional Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) assembled n-type silicon anode is reported for the first time. > The combination of the large surface area conferred by the virus-enabled 3D Ni/TMV1cys current collector with the high electric conductivity of n-type Si rods results in excellent cyclic stability and rate capability for the core-shell n-type Si/Ni/TMV1cys anodes. > Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy reveals that the high electronic conductivity of n-type Si significantly reduces charge transfer resistance, thus even at high C-rates the capacity of the n-type Si is increased to almost 1000 mAh/g compared to undoped Si. - Abstract: A patterned 3D Si anode is fabricated by physical vapor deposition of n-type Si on a self-assembled TMV1cys-structured nickel current collector. The combination of the large surface area conferred by the virus-enabled 3D Ni/TMV1cys current collector with the high electric conductivity of n-type Si rods results in excellent cyclic stability and rate capability for the core-shell n-type Si/Ni/TMV1cys anodes. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy reveals that the high electronic conductivity of n-type Si significantly reduces charge transfer resistance, thus even at high current densities the capacity of the n-type Si is increased to almost 630 mAh/g compared to undoped Si.

  15. High-power lead-acid batteries for different applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Rainer

    High-power lead-acid batteries have been used for a rather long time in various applications, especially for uninterruptible power supplies (UPSs) and starting of automobiles. Future automotive service requires, in addition to cold-cranking performance, the combination of high-power capability, a very good charge-acceptance, and an excellent cycle-life. Such applications include stop-start, regenerative braking, and soft, mild and full hybrid vehicles. For UPS, there has been a clear tendency to shorter discharge times and higher discharge rates. During the past decades, the specific power of lead-acid batteries has been raised steadily and there is still, room for further improvement. This paper gives an overview of the progress made in the development of high-power lead-acid batteries and focuses on stationary and automotive applications.

  16. Performance Assessment of High and Low Income Families through "Online RAW Achievement Battery Test" of Primary Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Tamim; Hanif, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This study is intended to investigate student's achievement capability among two families i.e. Low and High income families and designed for primary level learners. A Reading, Arithmetic and Writing (RAW) Achievement test that was developed as a part of another research study (Tamim Ahmed Khan, 2015) was adopted for this study. Both English medium…

  17. Potassium-doped copper oxide nanoparticles synthesized by a solvothermal method as an anode material for high-performance lithium ion secondary battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thi, Trang Vu; Rai, Alok Kumar; Gim, Jihyeon; Kim, Jaekook, E-mail: jaekook@chonnam.ac.kr

    2014-06-01

    A simple and efficient approach was developed to synthesize CuO nanoparticles with improved electrochemical performance. Potassium (K{sup +})-doped CuO nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple and cost-effective solvothermal method followed by annealing at 500 °C for 5 h under air atmosphere. For comparison, an undoped CuO sample was also synthesized under the same conditions. X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrates that the K{sup +} ion doping caused no change in the phase structure, and highly crystalline K{sub x}Cu{sub 1−x}O{sub 1−δ} (x = 0.10) powder without any impurity was obtained. As an anode material for a lithium ion battery, the K{sup +}-doped CuO nanoparticle electrode exhibited better capacity retention with a reversible capacity of over 354.6 mA h g{sup −1} for up to 30 cycles at 0.1 C, as well as a high charge capacity of 162.3 mA h g{sup −1} at a high current rate of 3.2 C, in comparison to an undoped CuO electrode (275.9 mA h g{sup −1} at 0.1 C and 68.9 mA h g{sup −1} at 3.2 C). The high rate capability and better cycleability of the doped electrode can be attributed to the influence of the K{sup +} ion nanostructure on the increased electronic conductivity, diffusion efficiency, and kinetic properties of CuO during the lithiation and delithiation process.

  18. Potassium-doped copper oxide nanoparticles synthesized by a solvothermal method as an anode material for high-performance lithium ion secondary battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thi, Trang Vu; Rai, Alok Kumar; Gim, Jihyeon; Kim, Jaekook

    2014-06-01

    A simple and efficient approach was developed to synthesize CuO nanoparticles with improved electrochemical performance. Potassium (K+)-doped CuO nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple and cost-effective solvothermal method followed by annealing at 500 °C for 5 h under air atmosphere. For comparison, an undoped CuO sample was also synthesized under the same conditions. X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrates that the K+ ion doping caused no change in the phase structure, and highly crystalline KxCu1-xO1-δ (x = 0.10) powder without any impurity was obtained. As an anode material for a lithium ion battery, the K+-doped CuO nanoparticle electrode exhibited better capacity retention with a reversible capacity of over 354.6 mA h g-1 for up to 30 cycles at 0.1 C, as well as a high charge capacity of 162.3 mA h g-1 at a high current rate of 3.2 C, in comparison to an undoped CuO electrode (275.9 mA h g-1 at 0.1 C and 68.9 mA h g-1 at 3.2 C). The high rate capability and better cycleability of the doped electrode can be attributed to the influence of the K+ ion nanostructure on the increased electronic conductivity, diffusion efficiency, and kinetic properties of CuO during the lithiation and delithiation process.

  19. Highly Conductive In-SnO2/RGO Nano-Heterostructures with Improved Lithium-Ion Battery Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Palmieri, Alessandro; He, Junkai; Meng, Yongtao; Beauregard, Nicole; Suib, Steven L.; Mustain, William E.

    2016-05-01

    The increasing demand of emerging technologies for high energy density electrochemical storage has led many researchers to look for alternative anode materials to graphite. The most promising conversion and alloying materials do not yet possess acceptable cycle life or rate capability. In this work, we use tin oxide, SnO2, as a representative anode material to explore the influence of graphene incorporation and In-doping to increase the electronic conductivity and concomitantly improve capacity retention and cycle life. It was found that the incorporation of In into SnO2 reduces the charge transfer resistance during cycling, prolonging life. It is also hypothesized that the increased conductivity allows the tin oxide conversion and alloying reactions to both be reversible, leading to very high capacity near 1200 mAh/g. Finally, the electrodes show excellent rate capability with a capacity of over 200 mAh/g at 10C.

  20. One-pot hydrothermal synthesis of Nitrogen-doped graphene as high-performance anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Zheng; Ju, Zhicheng; Zhao, Yulong; Wan, Jialu; Zhu, Yabo; Qiang, Yinghuai; Qian, Yitai

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen-doped (N-doped) graphene has been prepared by a simple one-step hydrothermal approach using hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) as single carbon and nitrogen source. In this hydrothermal process, HMTA pyrolyzes at high temperature and the N-doped graphene subsequently self-assembles on the surface of MgO particles (formed by the Mg powder reacting with H2O) during which graphene synthesis and nitrogen doping are simultaneously achieved. The as-synthesized graphene with incorporation of nitrogen groups possesses unique structure including thin layer thickness, high surface area, mesopores and vacancies. These structural features and their synergistic effects could not only improve ions and electrons transportation with nanometer-scale diffusion distances but also promote the penetration of electrolyte. The N-doped graphene exhibits high reversible capacity, superior rate capability as well as long-term cycling stability, which demonstrate that the N-doped graphene with great potential to be an efficient electrode material. The experimental results provide a new hydrothermal route to synthesize N-doped graphene with potential application for advanced energy storage, as well as useful information to design new graphene materials. PMID:27184859

  1. One-pot hydrothermal synthesis of Nitrogen-doped graphene as high-performance anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Zheng; Ju, Zhicheng; Zhao, Yulong; Wan, Jialu; Zhu, Yabo; Qiang, Yinghuai; Qian, Yitai

    2016-05-01

    Nitrogen-doped (N-doped) graphene has been prepared by a simple one-step hydrothermal approach using hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) as single carbon and nitrogen source. In this hydrothermal process, HMTA pyrolyzes at high temperature and the N-doped graphene subsequently self-assembles on the surface of MgO particles (formed by the Mg powder reacting with H2O) during which graphene synthesis and nitrogen doping are simultaneously achieved. The as-synthesized graphene with incorporation of nitrogen groups possesses unique structure including thin layer thickness, high surface area, mesopores and vacancies. These structural features and their synergistic effects could not only improve ions and electrons transportation with nanometer-scale diffusion distances but also promote the penetration of electrolyte. The N-doped graphene exhibits high reversible capacity, superior rate capability as well as long-term cycling stability, which demonstrate that the N-doped graphene with great potential to be an efficient electrode material. The experimental results provide a new hydrothermal route to synthesize N-doped graphene with potential application for advanced energy storage, as well as useful information to design new graphene materials.

  2. Well-dispersed sulfur anchored on interconnected polypyrrole nanofiber network as high performance cathode for lithium-sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Fuxing; Liu, Xinyi; Zhang, Yongguang; Zhao, Yan; Menbayeva, Almagul; Bakenov, Zhumabay; Wang, Xin

    2017-04-01

    Preparation of novel sulfur/polypyrrole (S/PPy) composite consisting well-dispersed sulfur particles anchored on interconnected PPy nanowire network was demonstrated. In such hybrid structure, the as-prepared PPy clearly displays a three-dimensionally cross-linked and hierarchical porous structure, which was utilized in the composite cathode as a conductive network trapping soluble polysulfide intermediates and enhancing the overall electrochemical performance of the system. Benefiting from this unique structure, the S/PPy composite demonstrated excellent cycling stability, resulting in a discharge capacity of 931 mAh g-1 at the second cycle and retained about 54% of this value over 100 cycles at 0.1 C. Furthermore, the S/PPy composite cathode exhibits a good rate capability with a discharge capacity of 584 mAh g-1 at 1 C.

  3. Flake structured SnSbCo/MCMB/C composite as high performance anodes for lithium ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiaoqiu [School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Engineering Research Center of Materials and Technology for Electrochemical Energy Storage (Ministry of Education), Guangzhou 510006 (China); Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Quantum Engineering and Quantum Materials, School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Guangdong Engineering Technology Research Center of Low Carbon and Advanced Energy Materials, Guangzhou 510631 (China); Ru, Qiang, E-mail: rq7702@yeah.net [School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Engineering Research Center of Materials and Technology for Electrochemical Energy Storage (Ministry of Education), Guangzhou 510006 (China); Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Quantum Engineering and Quantum Materials, School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Guangdong Engineering Technology Research Center of Low Carbon and Advanced Energy Materials, Guangzhou 510631 (China); Zhao, Doudou; Mo, Yudi; Hu, Shejun [School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Engineering Research Center of Materials and Technology for Electrochemical Energy Storage (Ministry of Education), Guangzhou 510006 (China); Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Quantum Engineering and Quantum Materials, School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Guangdong Engineering Technology Research Center of Low Carbon and Advanced Energy Materials, Guangzhou 510631 (China)

    2015-10-15

    SnSbCo/MCMB/C composite with flake structure were prepared by stepwise synthesis method. Firstly, SnSbCo nanoparticles were fabricated by co-precipitation, and then nanosized SnSbCo alloy were embedded in mesocarbon microbeads (MCMB) by ball-milling to synthesize primitive SnSbCo/MCMB hybrids, followed by carbonization of phenolic resin to produce an outer layer of carbon coating. The crystal structure, morphology and electrochemical properties of the SnSbCo/MCMB/C composite were evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and galvanostatical cycling tests. Compared with bare SnSbCo alloy and SnSbCo/MCMB hybrids, the efficiently enhanced electrochemical performance of SnSbCo/MCMB/C composite were mainly ascribed to the improved electron conductivity and volume buffering effect provided by the amorphous carbon coating. The resultant SnSbCo/MCMB/C composite delivered an initial discharge capacity of 848 mAh g{sup −1} under 100 mA g{sup −1}, with a good capacity retention of 85.6% after 70 cycles. The composite also exhibited excellent rate capability of 603 mAh g{sup −1} and 405 mAh g{sup −1} at the current density of 200 mA g{sup −1} and 1000 mA g{sup −1}, respectively. - Highlights: • Flake structured SnSbCo/MCMB/C composite have been prepared by stepwise synthesis method. • SnSbCo/MCMB/C composite show good cycle performance and rate capability. • Using both MCMB and phenolic resin as dual carbon sources.

  4. Metal-organic framework derived porous CuO/Cu2O composite hollow octahedrons as high performance anode materials for sodium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaojie; Qin, Wei; Li, Dongsheng; Yan, Dong; Hu, Bingwen; Sun, Zhuo; Pan, Likun

    2015-11-25

    Porous CuO/Cu2O composite hollow octahedrons were synthesized simply by annealing Cu-based metal-organic framework templates. When evaluated as anode materials for sodium ion batteries, they exhibit a high maximum reversible capacity of 415 mA h g(-1) after 50 cycles at 50 mA g(-1) with excellent cycling stability and good rate capability.

  5. Innovation Meets Performance Demands of Advanced Lithium-ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-06-01

    Advancements in high capacity and low density battery technologies have led to a growing need for battery materials with greater charge capacity and therefore stability. NREL's developments in ALD and molecular layer MLD allow for thin film coatings to battery composite electrodes, which can improve battery lifespan, high charge capacity, and stability. Silicon, one of the best high-energy anode materials for Li-ion batteries, can experience capacity fade from volumetric expansion. Using MLD to examine how surface modification could stabilize silicon anode material in Li-ion batteries, researchers discovered a new reaction precursor that leads to a flexible surface coating that accommodates volumetric expansion of silicon electrodes.

  6. Efficient Synthesis of Graphene Nanoscrolls for Fabricating Sulfur-Loaded Cathode and Flexible Hybrid Interlayer toward High-Performance Li-S Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yi; Zhao, Gang; Wu, Naiteng; Zhang, Yun; Xiang, Mingwu; Wang, Bo; Liu, Heng; Wu, Hao

    2016-12-21

    A modified lyophilization approach is developed and used for highly efficient transformation of 2D graphene oxide sheet into 1D graphene nanoscroll (GNS) with high topological transforming efficiency (∼94%). Because of the unique open tubular structure and large specific surface area (545 m(2) g(-1)), GNS is utilized for the first time as a porous cathode scaffold for encapsulating sulfur with a high loading (81 wt %), and also as a conductive skeleton for assembling MnO2 nanowires into a flexible free-standing hybrid interlayer, both enabling high-rate and long-life Li-S battery.

  7. The Cycle Performance of a Hybrid Carbon Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sang-Yong; Kim, Sang-Chai; Jung, Ho-Young

    2016-02-01

    The behavior of a hybrid carbon battery is studied by using the Hg/Hg2SO4 reference electrode. The performance is confirmed in the discharge mode and a short-term cycle test. The capacities of the cell were 76.1, 60.3, 40.5, and 31.7 mAh at discharge currents of 150, 300, 600, and 900 mA, respectively. In the short-term cycle test, the capacity of the cell, 52.3 mAh at the first cycle, continuously increased to 66.7 mAh upon the fifth cycle (cut-off voltage 0.5 V in the deep cycle mode), indicating high feasibility of the hybrid carbon battery as a large-capacity energy storage system.

  8. Glycol Derived Carbon- TiO2 as Low Cost and High Performance Anode Material for Sodium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Hongwei; Zhou, Min; Wang, Kangli; Cheng, Shijie; Jiang, Kai

    2017-01-01

    Carbon coated TiO2 (TiO2@C) is fabricated by a convenient and green one-pot solvothermal method, in which ethylene glycol serve as both the reaction medium and carbon source without the addition of any other carbon additives. During the solvothermal process, ethylene glycol polymerize and coordinate with Ti4+ to form the polymeric ligand precursor, then the polymer brushes carbonize and convert to homogeneous carbon layer firmly anchored on the TiO2 nanoparticles (~1 nm thickness). The polymerization and carbonization process of the ethylene glycol is confirmed by FT-IR, Raman, TG and TEM characterizations. Benefiting from the well-dispersed nanoparticles and uniform carbon coating, the as-prepared TiO2@C demonstrate a high reversible capacity of 317 mAh g−1 (94.6% of theoretical value), remarkable rate capability of 125 mAh g−1 at 3.2 A g−1 and superior cycling stability over 500 cycles, possibly being one of the highest capacities reported for TiO2. PMID:28256630

  9. Cobalt-phthalocyanine-derived ultrafine Co3O4 nanoparticles as high-performance anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Heng-guo; Zhu, Yanjie; Yuan, Chenpei; Li, Yanhui; Duan, Qian

    2017-08-01

    In this work, we present a simple, general, effective yet mass-production strategy to prepare transition-metal oxides (TMOs) nanoparticles using the metal-phthalocyanine as both the precursor and the starting self-sacrificial template. As the central metals of metal-phthalocyanine are easily tunable, various TMOs nanoparticles including Co3O4, Fe2O3, and CuO have been successfully prepared by deriving from the corresponding metal-phthalocyanine. As a proof-of-concept demonstration of the application of such nanostructured TMOs, Co3O4 nanoparticles were evaluated as anode materials for LIBs, which show high initial capacity (1132.9 mAh g-1 at 0.05 A g-1), improved cycling stability (585.6 mAh g-1 after 200 cycles at 0.05 A g-1), and good rate capability (238.1 mAh g-1 at 2 A g-1) due to the unique properties of the ultrafine Co3O4 nanoparticles. This present strategy might open new avenues for the design of a series of transition metal oxides using organometallic compounds for a range of applications.

  10. Long Life, High Energy Silver-Zinc Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kainthla, Ramesh; Coffey, Brendan

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation includes: 1) an introduction to RBC Technologies; 2) Rechargeable Zinc Alkaline (RZA(tm)) Systems which include MnO2/Zn, Ni/Zn, Ag/Zn, and Zn/Air; and 3) RZA Silver/Zinc Battery Developments. Conclusions include the following: 1)Issues with long term wet life and cycle life of the silver/zinc battery system are being overcome through the use of new anode formulations and separator designs; 2) Performance may exceed 200 cycles to 80% of initial capacity and ultimate wet-life of > 36 months; and 3) Rechargeable silver/zinc batteries available in prismatic and cylindrical formats may provide a high energy, high power alternative to lithium-ion in military/aerospace applications.

  11. High Energy High Power Battery Exceeding PHEV40 Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rempel, Jane [TIAX LLC, Lexington, MA (United States)

    2016-03-31

    TIAX has developed long-life lithium-ion cells that can meet and exceed the energy and power targets (200Wh/kg and 800W/kg pulse power) set out by DOE for PHEV40 batteries. To achieve these targets, we selected and scaled-up a high capacity version of our proprietary high energy and high power CAM-7® cathode material. We paired the cathode with a blended anode containing Si-based anode material capable of delivering high capacity and long life. Furthermore, we optimized the anode blend composition, cathode and anode electrode design, and selected binder and electrolyte compositions to achieve not only the best performance, but also long life. By implementing CAM-7 with a Si-based blended anode, we built and tested prototype 18650 cells that delivered measured specific energy of 198Wh/kg total energy and 845W/kg at 10% SOC (projected to 220Wh/kg in state-of-the-art 18650 cell hardware and 250Wh/kg in 15Ah pouch cells). These program demonstration cells achieved 90% capacity retention after 500 cycles in on-going cycle life testing. Moreover, we also tested the baseline CAM-7/graphite system in 18650 cells showing that 70% capacity retention can be achieved after ~4000 cycles (20 months of on-going testing). Ultimately, by simultaneously meeting the PHEV40 power and energy targets and providing long life, we have developed a Li-ion battery system that is smaller, lighter, and less expensive than current state-of-the-art Li-ion batteries.

  12. Novel silicon/carbon nano-branches synthesized by reacting silicon with methyl chloride: A high performing anode material in lithium ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wenfeng; Wang, Yanhong; Tan, Qiangqiang; Zhong, Ziyi; Su, Fabing

    2016-11-01

    To overcome the existing technical barriers of pulverization and fast capacity fading of Si/C composite anodes in lithium ion batteries and to low their production cost, we have developed a facile method for preparing Si/C nano-branches (Si/C NBs) by reacting commercial Si microparticles directly with CH3Cl gas over Cu-based catalyst particles followed by a simple post treatment. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and Raman spectroscopy. It was found that the diameter and the length of Si/C NBs were ∼70 nm and ∼6 μm, respectively. When used as the anode materials for lithium ion batteries, they displayed excellent electrochemical properties with an average specific capacity of 849 mA h g-1 at a current density of 50 mA g-1. The much improved electrochemical performance is attributed to the unique branched nanostructure and the coated carbon layer on the surface, which can effectively increase the electrical conductivity and buffer the volume change. This work provides a simple and low-cost route to prepare Si/C anode materials with novel branched nanostructure for lithium ion batteries.

  13. Rigid-flexible coupling high ionic conductivity polymer electrolyte for an enhanced performance of LiMn2O4/graphite battery at elevated temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Pu; Duan, Yulong; Hu, Deping; Qin, Bingsheng; Zhang, Jianjun; Wang, Qingfu; Liu, Zhihong; Cui, Guanglei; Chen, Liquan

    2015-03-04

    LiMn2O4-based batteries exhibit severe capacity fading during cycling or storage in LiPF6-based liquid electrolytes, especially at elevated temperatures. Herein, a novel rigid-flexible gel polymer electrolyte is introduced to enhance the cyclability of LiMn2O4/graphite battery at elevated temperature. The polymer electrolyte consists of a robust natural cellulose skeletal incorporated with soft segment poly(ethyl α-cyanoacrylate). The introduction of the cellulose effectively overcomes the drawback of poor mechanical integrity of the gel polymer electrolyte. Density functional theory (DFT) calculation demonstrates that the poly(ethyl α-cyanoacrylate) matrices effectively dissociate the lithium salt to facilitate ionic transport and thus has a higher ionic conductivity at room temperature. Ionic conductivity of the gel polymer electrolyte is 3.3 × 10(-3) S cm(-1) at room temperature. The gel polymer electrolyte remarkably improves the cycling performance of LiMn2O4-based batteries, especially at elevated temperatures. The capacity retention after the 100th cycle is 82% at 55 °C, which is much higher than that of liquid electrolyte (1 M LiPF6 in carbonate solvents). The polymer electrolyte can significantly suppress the dissolution of Mn(2+) from surface of LiMn2O4 because of strong interaction energy of Mn(2+) with PECA, which was investigated by DFT calculation.

  14. Data-driven battery product development: Turn battery performance into a competitive advantage.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sholklapper, Tal [Voltaiq, Inc.

    2016-04-19

    Poor battery performance is a primary source of user dissatisfaction across a broad range of applications, and is a key bottleneck hindering the growth of mobile technology, wearables, electric vehicles, and grid energy storage. Engineering battery systems is difficult, requiring extensive testing for vendor selection, BMS programming, and application-specific lifetime testing. This work also generates huge quantities of data. This presentation will explain how to leverage this data to help ship quality products faster using fewer resources while ensuring safety and reliability in the field, ultimately turning battery performance into a competitive advantage.

  15. Energy Storage: Nitrogen-Doped Ordered Mesoporous Anatase TiO2 Nanofibers as Anode Materials for High Performance Sodium-Ion Batteries (Small 26/2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ying; Liu, Xiaowu; Yang, Zhenzhong; Gu, Lin; Yu, Yan

    2016-07-01

    On page 3522, Y. Yu and co-workers fabricate nitrogen-doped ordered mesoporous TiO2 nanofibers (denoted as N-MTO) by electrospinning and subsequent nitridation treatment. Nitrogen atoms are successfully doped into the TiO2 lattice, accompanied by the formation of Ti(3+) and oxygen vacancies, contributing to the improvement of electronic conductivity of TiO2 . When used as an anode for a sodium-ion battery, the N-MTO demonstrates excellent rate capability and superior long cycling performance.

  16. A facile method for in-situ synthesis of SnO{sub 2}/graphene as a high performance anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Guiliang [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao 266580 (China); Wu, Mingbo, E-mail: wumb@upc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao 266580 (China); Wang, Ding [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai 200093 (China); Yin, Linghong; Ye, Jiashun; Deng, Shenzhen; Zhu, Zhiyuan; Ye, Wenjun [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao 266580 (China); Li, Zhongtao, E-mail: liztao@upc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao 266580 (China)

    2014-10-01

    Highlights: • A facile, economic, and environment-friendly technique is proposed for in-situ synthesis of SnO{sub 2}/graphene nanocomposites. • The effects of Sn{sup 4+}/graphene oxide ratio on their structures as well as electrochemical behaviors are found playing important roles. • SnO{sub 2}/GN-50 with 50% SnO{sub 2} exhibits a stable capacity of 540 mAh g{sup −1} after 90 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g{sup −1}. • The excellent electrochemical performance of SnO{sub 2}/GN-50 is ascribed to the synergistic effect of a unique combination of SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles and graphene sheets. - Abstract: A facile, moderate, and environment-friendly method for in-situ preparation of SnO{sub 2}/graphene nanocomposites (SnO{sub 2}/GNs) was proposed. The structures and morphology as well as electrochemical behaviors of SnO{sub 2}/GNs with varied proportions of SnO{sub 2} and graphene were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, transmission electron microscopy and relevant electrochemical property tests. The results reveal that the ratios of SnO{sub 2} to graphene have a significant effect on the structures and properties of SnO{sub 2}/GNs. SnO{sub 2}/GN-50 containing 50% SnO{sub 2} delivers a high specific capacity of 540 mAh g{sup −1} even after 90 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g{sup −1}, which is attributed to the synergistic effect of a unique combination of SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles and graphene sheets, indicating that SnO{sub 2}/GNs might have a promising future as anode material in Li-ion batteries.

  17. High-rate performance electrospun Na0.44MnO2 nanofibers as cathode material for sodium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Bi; Zhou, Xuan; Wang, Yaping

    2016-04-01

    Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) are considered as one of the most promising candidates to replace lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), because of their similar electrochemical properties, and geographical limitations of lithium. However, searching for the appropriate cathode materials for SIBs that can accommodate structure change during the insertion and extraction of sodium ions is facing great challenges due to the relatively larger size of sodium ion. Na0.44MnO2 has recently attracted significant attention because its crystal structure exhibits two types of large channels formed by MnO6 octahedra and MnO5 square pyramids, which facilitate the transportation of sodium ions. However, suffering from the slow kinetics and structural degradation, its rate performance is still not satisfied. Here, we report the fabrication of two types of Na0.44MnO2 hierarchical structures by optimized electrospinning and controlled subsequent annealing process. One is nanofiber (NF) which demonstrates a superior rate performance with reversible specific capacity of 69.5 mAh g-1 at 10 C, attributed to its one-dimensional (1D) ultralong and continuous fibrous network structure; the other is nanorod (NR) which exhibits an excellent cyclic performance with reversible specific capacity of 120 mAh g-1 after 140 cycles, due to its large S-shaped tunnel structure with a single crystalline structure.

  18. Development of novel cathodes for high energy density lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargav, Amruth

    Lithium based batteries have become ubiquitous with our everyday life. They have propelled a generation of smart personal electronics and electric transport. Their use is now percolating to various fields as a source of energy to facilitate the operation of devices from nanoscale to mega scale. This need for a portable energy source has led to tremendous scientific interest in this field to develop electrochemical devices like batteries with higher capacities, longer cycle life and increased safety at a low cost. To this end, the research presented in this thesis focuses on two emerging and promising technologies called lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) and lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries. These batteries can offer an order of magnitude higher capacities through cheap, environmentally safe and abundant elements namely oxygen and sulfur. The first work introduces the concept of closed system lithium-oxygen batteries wherein the cell contains the discharge product of Li-O2 batteries namely, lithium peroxide (Li2O2) as the starting active material. The reversibility of this system is analyzed along with its rate performance. The possible use of such a cathode in a full cell is explored. Also, this concept is used to verify if all the lithium can be extracted from the cathode in the first charge. In the following work, lithium peroxide is chemically synthesized and deposited in a carbon nanofiber matrix. This forms a free standing cathode that shows high reversibility. It can be cycled up to 20 times and while using capacity control protocol, a cycle life of 50 is obtained. The cause of cell degradation and failure is also analyzed. In the work on full cell lithium-sulfur system, a novel electrolyte is developed that can support reversible lithium insertion and extraction from a graphite anode. A method to deposit solid lithium polysulfide is developed for the cathode. Coupling a lithiated graphite anode with the cathode using the new electrolyte yields a full cell whose

  19. Studies Leading to the Development of High-Rate Lithium Sulfuryl Chloride Battery Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    greatest attention has been given to the lithium - thionyl chloride (Li/SOC12 ) system. Cells and batteries have been demonstrated with energy densities...Studies Leading to the Development of High-Rate Lithium Sulfuryl Chloride Battery Technology John C. Hall and Mark Koch Gould Research Center, Materials...High-Rate 11182to 33182 Lithium -Sulfuryl Chloride Battery Technology 1_1/82_to_3/31/82 S. PERFORMING ORO. REPORT NUMBER 2 7. AUTHOR(*) S. CONTRACT OR

  20. Nanostructured reduced graphene oxide/Fe2O3 composite as a high-performance anode material for lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xianjun; Zhu, Yanwu; Murali, Shanthi; Stoller, Meryl D; Ruoff, Rodney S

    2011-04-26

    Reduced graphene oxide/Fe(2)O(3) composite was prepared using a facile two-step synthesis by homogeneous precipitation and subsequent reduction of the G-O with hydrazine under microwave irradiation to yield reduced graphene oxide (RG-O) platelets decorated with Fe(2)O(3) nanoparticles. As an anode material for Li-ion batteries, the RG-O/Fe(2)O(3) composite exhibited discharge and charge capacities of 1693 and 1227 mAh/g, respectively, normalized to the mass of Fe(2)O(3) in the composite (and ∼1355 and 982 mAh/g, respectively, based on the total mass of the composite), with good cycling performance and rate capability. Characterization shows that the Fe(2)O(3) nanoparticles are uniformly distributed on the surface of the RG-O platelets in the composite. The total specific capacity of RG-O/Fe(2)O(3) is higher than the sum of pure RG-O and nanoparticle Fe(2)O(3), indicating a positive synergistic effect of RG-O and Fe(2)O(3) on the improvement of electrochemical performance. The synthesis approach presents a promising route for a large-scale production of RG-O platelet/metal oxide nanoparticle composites as electrode materials for Li-ion batteries.

  1. A Cooperative Interface for Highly Efficient Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hong-Jie; Zhang, Ze-Wen; Huang, Jia-Qi; Zhang, Ge; Xie, Jin; Xu, Wen-Tao; Shi, Jia-Le; Chen, Xiang; Cheng, Xin-Bing; Zhang, Qiang

    2016-11-01

    A cooperative interface constructed by "lithiophilic" nitrogen-doped graphene frameworks and "sulfiphilic" nickel-iron layered double hydroxides (LDH@NG) is proposed to synergistically afford bifunctional Li and S binding to polysulfides, suppression of polysulfide shuttles, and electrocatalytic activity toward formation of lithium sulfides for high-performance lithium-sulfur batteries. LDH@NG enables high rate capability, long lifespan, and efficient stabilization of both sulfur and lithium electrodes.

  2. The effect of the carbon nanotube buffer layer on the performance of a Li metal battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ding; Zhou, Yi; Liu, Changhong; Fan, Shoushan

    2016-05-01

    Lithium (Li) metal is one of the most promising candidates as an anode for the next-generation energy storage systems because of its high specific capacity and lowest negative electrochemical potential. But the growth of Li dendrites limits the application of the Li metal battery. In this work, a type of modified Li metal battery with a carbon nanotube (CNT) buffer layer inserted between the separator and the Li metal electrode was reported. The electrochemical results show that the modified batteries have a much better rate capability and cycling performance than the conventional Li metal batteries. The mechanism study by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy reveals that the modified battery has a smaller charge transfer resistance and larger Li ion diffusion coefficient during the deposition process on the Li electrode than the conventional Li metal batteries. Symmetric battery tests show that the interfacial behavior of the Li metal electrode with the buffer layer is more stable than the naked Li metal electrode. The morphological characterization of the CNT buffer layer and Li metal lamina reveals that the CNT buffer layer has restrained the growth of Li dendrites. The CNT buffer layer has great potential to solve the safety problem of the Li metal battery.Lithium (Li) metal is one of the most promising candidates as an anode for the next-generation energy storage systems because of its high specific capacity and lowest negative electrochemical potential. But the growth of Li dendrites limits the application of the Li metal battery. In this work, a type of modified Li metal battery with a carbon nanotube (CNT) buffer layer inserted between the separator and the Li metal electrode was reported. The electrochemical results show that the modified batteries have a much better rate capability and cycling performance than the conventional Li metal batteries. The mechanism study by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy reveals that the modified battery has a

  3. Fully Coupled Simulation of Lithium Ion Battery Cell Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trembacki, Bradley L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Murthy, Jayathi Y. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roberts, Scott Alan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Lithium-ion battery particle-scale (non-porous electrode) simulations applied to resolved electrode geometries predict localized phenomena and can lead to better informed decisions on electrode design and manufacturing. This work develops and implements a fully-coupled finite volume methodology for the simulation of the electrochemical equations in a lithium-ion battery cell. The model implementation is used to investigate 3D battery electrode architectures that offer potential energy density and power density improvements over traditional layer-by-layer particle bed battery geometries. Advancement of micro-scale additive manufacturing techniques has made it possible to fabricate these 3D electrode microarchitectures. A variety of 3D battery electrode geometries are simulated and compared across various battery discharge rates and length scales in order to quantify performance trends and investigate geometrical factors that improve battery performance. The energy density and power density of the 3D battery microstructures are compared in several ways, including a uniform surface area to volume ratio comparison as well as a comparison requiring a minimum manufacturable feature size. Significant performance improvements over traditional particle bed electrode designs are observed, and electrode microarchitectures derived from minimal surfaces are shown to be superior. A reduced-order volume-averaged porous electrode theory formulation for these unique 3D batteries is also developed, allowing simulations on the full-battery scale. Electrode concentration gradients are modeled using the diffusion length method, and results for plate and cylinder electrode geometries are compared to particle-scale simulation results. Additionally, effective diffusion lengths that minimize error with respect to particle-scale results for gyroid and Schwarz P electrode microstructures are determined.

  4. Electrical circuit models for performance modeling of Lithium-Sulfur batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knap, Vaclav; Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Teodorescu, Remus

    2015-01-01

    Energy storage technologies such as Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are widely used in the present effort to move towards more ecological solutions in sectors like transportation or renewable-energy integration. However, today's Li-ion batteries are reaching their limits and not all demands...... of the industry are met yet. Therefore, researchers focus on alternative battery chemistries as Lithium-Sulfur (Li-S), which have a huge potential due to their high theoretical specific capacity (approx. 1675 Ah/kg) and theoretical energy density of almost 2600 Wh/kg. To analyze the suitability of this new...... emerging technology for various applications, there is a need for Li-S battery performance model; however, developing such models represents a challenging task due to batteries' complex ongoing chemical reactions. Therefore, the literature review was performed to summarize electrical circuit models (ECMs...

  5. Novel Stable Gel Polymer Electrolyte: Toward a High Safety and Long Life Li-Air Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jin; Liu, Xizheng; Guo, Shaohua; Zhu, Kai; Xue, Hailong; Zhou, Haoshen

    2015-10-28

    Nonaqueous Li-air battery, as a promising electrochemical energy storage device, has attracted substantial interest, while the safety issues derived from the intrinsic instability of organic liquid electrolytes may become a possible bottleneck for the future application of Li-air battery. Herein, through elaborate design, a novel stable composite gel polymer electrolyte is first proposed and explored for Li-air battery. By use of the composite gel polymer electrolyte, the Li-air polymer batteries composed of a lithium foil anode and Super P cathode are assembled and operated in ambient air and their cycling performance is evaluated. The batteries exhibit enhanced cycling stability and safety, where 100 cycles are achieved in ambient air at room temperature. The feasibility study demonstrates that the gel polymer electrolyte-based polymer Li-air battery is highly advantageous and could be used as a useful alternative strategy for the development of Li-air battery upon further application.

  6. International Space Station Nickel-Hydrogen Battery Start-Up and Initial Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Fred; Dalton, Penni J.

    2001-01-01

    International Space Station (ISS) Electric Power System (EPS) utilizes Nickel-Hydrogen (Ni-H2) batteries as part of its power system to store electrical energy. The batteries are charged during insolation and discharged during eclipse. The batteries are designed to operate at a 35% depth of discharge (DOD) maximum during normal operation. Thirty eight individual pressure vessel (IPV) Ni-H2 battery cells are series-connected and packaged in an Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU). Two ORUs are series-connected utilizing a total of 76 cells, to form one battery. The ISS is the first application for low earth orbit (LEO) cycling of this quantity of series-connected cells. The P6 Integrated Equipment Assembly (IEA) containing the initial ISS high-power components was successfully launched on November 30, 2000. The IEA contains 12 Battery Subassembly ORUs (6 batteries) that provide station power during eclipse periods. This paper will describe the battery hardware configuration, operation, and role in providing power to the main power system of the ISS. We will also discuss initial battery start-up and performance data.

  7. High Temperature Sensing Systems--Characteristics of Rechargeable Batteries at High Temperature--

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

     High temperature discharge characteristics were measured at 100℃ for commercial available Nickel Cadmium and Nickel Metal Hydride rechargeable batteries. A Nickel Cadmium battery has superior dis­charge characteristics than a Nickel Metal Hydride battery. A life cycle of rechargeable battery can be esti­mated by measuring an internal resistance of the battery during charge at room temperature.

  8. New Li Battery Chemistry for Improved Performance Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Current state-of-the-art Lithium (Li) or Li-ion systems are unable to meet the performance goals of space-rated rechargeable batteries for many NASA's future robotic...

  9. Synthesis of nano-sized silicon from natural halloysite clay and its high performance as anode for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiangyang; Wu, Lili; Yang, Juan; Tang, Jingjing; Xi, Lihua; Wang, Biao

    2016-08-01

    Recently, nanostructured Si has been intensively studied as a promising anode candidate for lithium ion batteries due to its ultrahigh capacity. However, the downsizing of Si to nanoscale dimension is often impeded by complicated and expensive methods. In this work, natural halloysite clay was utilized for the production of Si nanoparticles through selective acid etching and modified magnesiothermic reduction processes. The physical and chemical changes of these samples during the various processes have been analyzed. The as-prepared Hsbnd Si from halloysite clay is composed of many interconnected Si nanoparticles with an average diameter of 20-50 nm. Owing to the small size and porous nature, the Hsbnd Si nanoparticles exhibit a satisfactory performance as an anode for lithium ion batteries. Without further modification, a stable capacity over 2200 mAh g-1 at a rate of 0.2 C after 100 cycles and a reversible capacity above 800 mAh g-1 at a rate of 1 C after 1000 cycles can be obtained. As a result, this synthetic route is cost-effective and can be scaled up for mass production of Si nanoparticles, which may facilitate valuable utilization of halloysite clay and further commercial application of Si-based anode materials.

  10. 锂硫二次电池正极研究进展%Review of Sulfur-Based Cathodes for High Performance Lithium Rechargeable Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚真东; 魏巍; 王久林; 杨军; 努丽燕娜

    2011-01-01

    综述了锂硫电池中硫基正极材料的制备方法、结构特征以及电化学性能.简述了单质硫正极材料,重点探iCT有机硫化物、碳,硫复合材料、聚合物,硫复合材料的结构设计、材料制备、反应机理以及充放电特性,并对其中存在的问题进行了分析,还介绍了硫化锂正极材料.最后对硫基正极的进一步发展,以及锂硫电池的商业化应用进行了展望.%The preparation, characteristics and electrochemical performances of the sulfur-based cathode materials in lithium/sulfur batteries are reviewed in this paper.The elemental sulfur cathode material is briefly introduced.The structural designs, preparation processes, reaction mechanisms, and charge/discharge properties of organic sulfide, sulfur-porous carbon and sulfur-polymer composites as cathode materials are systematically discussed and problems associated with these materials are also analyzed.In addition, the research and application of lithium sulfides as cathode materials are also outlined.Finally, the further development of sulfur-based cathode materials and the commercialization of lithium/sulfur batteries are discussed.

  11. Superior electrochemical properties of manganese dioxide/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites as anode materials for high-performance lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Suk-Woo; Lee, Chang-Wook; Yoon, Seung-Beom; Kim, Myeong-Seong; Jeong, Jun Hui; Nam, Kyung-Wan; Roh, Kwang Chul; Kim, Kwang-Bum

    2016-04-01

    MnO2/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanocomposites were synthesized via a simple solution method at room temperature for use in Li-ion batteries. Owing to the mesoporous features as well as the high electrical conductivity of rGO, the overall electronic and ionic conductivities of the nanocomposite were increased, resulting in improved electrochemical properties in terms of specific capacity, rate capability, and cyclability. In particular, as-prepared nanocomposites showed 222 and 115 mAh g-1 at a current density of as high as 5 and 10 A g-1, and the specific capacitance was well maintained after 400 cycles. In addition, MnO2, via composite formation with rGO, permitted the additional conversion reaction between MnO and Mn3O4, resulting in the reduction of the initial irreversible capacity despite the high first discharge capacity caused by the large specific surface area.

  12. Monodisperse and inorganically capped Sn and Sn/SnO2 nanocrystals for high-performance Li-ion battery anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravchyk, Kostiantyn; Protesescu, Loredana; Bodnarchuk, Maryna I; Krumeich, Frank; Yarema, Maksym; Walter, Marc; Guntlin, Christoph; Kovalenko, Maksym V

    2013-03-20

    We report a facile synthesis of highly monodisperse colloidal Sn and Sn/SnO2 nanocrystals with mean sizes tunable over the range 9-23 nm and size distributions below 10%. For testing the utility of Sn/SnO2 nanocrystals as an active anode material in Li-ion batteries, a simple ligand-exchange procedure using inorganic capping ligands was applied to facilitate electronic connectivity within the components of the nanocrystalline electrode. Electrochemical measurements demonstrated that 10 nm Sn/SnO2 nanocrystals enable high Li insertion/removal cycling stability, in striking contrast to commercial 100-150 nm powders of Sn and SnO2. In particular, reversible Li-storage capacities above 700 mA h g(-1) were obtained after 100 cycles of deep charging (0.005-2 V) at a relatively high current of 1000 mA h g(-1).

  13. High energy density of Li3-xNaxV2(PO4)3/C cathode material with high rate cycling performance for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Zong-Lin; Deng, Jian-Qiu; Pan, Jin; Luo, Wen-Bin; Yao, Qing-Rong; Wang, Zhong-Min; Zhou, Huai-Ying; Liu, Hua-Kun

    2017-07-01

    A serials of micro-sized Li3-xNaxV2(PO4)3/C composite has been synthesized by sol-gel method, comprised of numerous primary nanocrystals. This structure can efficiently facilitate lithium-ion transport in secondary aggregated individual particles due to the short diffusion distance among primary nanocrystals, along with a high tap density. With the increasing of Na doping content, the structure evolution occurs in Li3-xNaxV2(PO4)3 from a single-phase structure to a two-phase structure. The appearance of rhombohedral phase can provide a larger free volume of the interstitial space, fastening ionic movement to offer an excellent high rate capability. Furthermore, Na doping can stabilize the rhombohedral structure of the V2(PO4)3 framework, leading to the remarkable cycling stability. Among all the composites, Li2.6Na0.4V2(PO4)3/C presents the best electrochemical performance with a high energy density of 478.8 Wh kg-1, delivering high initial discharge capacities of 121.6, 113.8 and 109.7 mAh g-1 at the rate of 5 C, 10 C and 20 C in a voltage range of 3.0 - 4.3 V, respectively. It also exhibit an excellent high rate cycling performance, with capacity retention of 85.9 %, 81.7 % and 76.5 % after 1000 cycles at the rate of 5 C, 10 C and 20 C in a voltage range of 3.0 - 4.3 V.

  14. Interaction between High-Voltage Cathode Materials and Ionic Liquids for Novel Li-Ion Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The fast-growing market on electronic portable devices is possibly due to the development of Li-ion batteries. Besides, such batteries are the most promising candidates as energy storage media in (hybrid) electric vehicles, in the near future. However, improvements on electrochemical performances and on safety need to be achieved. With respect to energy density, positive electrodes with a high voltage vs. Li/Li+ are favourable, provided they are stable against the rest of the battery material...

  15. Flexible High-Energy Polymer-Electrolyte-Based Rechargeable Zinc-Air Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jing; Lee, Dong Un; Hassan, Fathy Mohamed; Yang, Lin; Bai, Zhengyu; Park, Moon Gyu; Chen, Zhongwei

    2015-10-07

    A thin-film, flexible, and rechargeable zinc-air battery having high energy density is reported particularly for emerging portable and wearable electronic applications. This freeform battery design is the first demonstrated by sandwiching a porous-gelled polymer electrolyte with a freestanding zinc film and a bifunctional catalytic electrode film. The flexibility of both the electrode films and polymer electrolyte membrane gives great freedom in tailoring the battery geometry and performance.

  16. High-throughput theoretical design of lithium battery materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi-Gang, Ling; Jian, Gao; Rui-Juan, Xiao; Li-Quan, Chen

    2016-01-01

    The rapid evolution of high-throughput theoretical design schemes to discover new lithium battery materials is reviewed, including high-capacity cathodes, low-strain cathodes, anodes, solid state electrolytes, and electrolyte additives. With the development of efficient theoretical methods and inexpensive computers, high-throughput theoretical calculations have played an increasingly important role in the discovery of new materials. With the help of automatic simulation flow, many types of materials can be screened, optimized and designed from a structural database according to specific search criteria. In advanced cell technology, new materials for next generation lithium batteries are of great significance to achieve performance, and some representative criteria are: higher energy density, better safety, and faster charge/discharge speed. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11234013 and 51172274) and the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2015AA034201).

  17. High performances of ultrafine and layered LiCoO{sub 2} powders for lithium batteries by a novel sol-gel process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Chongqiang; Yang, Chunhui [Department of Applied Chemistry, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Yang, Wein-Duo, E-mail: ywd@cc.kuas.edu.t [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Ching-Yuan; Ysai, Huei-Mei [Materials and Electro-Optics Research Division Battery Section, Chung-Shan Institute of Science and Technology, Lung-Tan, Tao-Yuan 325, Taiwan (China); Chen, Yun-Sheng [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China)

    2010-04-30

    LiCoO{sub 2} powders are rapidly becoming important cathode materials in commercial lithium-ion batteries because of their excellent properties. In the present work, LiCoO{sub 2} powders were prepared using a novel sol-gel method with citric acid as a chelating agent, hydroxypropyl cellulose as a dispersant agent and LiNO{sub 3}, Co(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}.6H{sub 2}O as starting materials. The effects of calcination temperature and the calcination time on the structure and morphology of LiCoO{sub 2} powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. According to the analysis, the crystallinity of LiCoO{sub 2} powders depends on the calcination temperature and calcination time. The results indicate the layered, pure and ultrafine HT-LiCoO{sub 2} powders can be obtained at 700 {sup o}C for 4 h in air. After 25 cycles, the electrode demonstrates the charge/discharge capacities at 175 and 154 mAh/g, respectively, which will be suitable for high capacity cathode materials in rechargeable lithium-ion batteries.

  18. Tuning the Morphologies of MnO/C Hybrids by Space Constraint Assembly of Mn-MOFs for High Performance Li Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dan; Tang, Yougen; Ye, Delai; Yan, Jun; Zhou, Haoshen; Wang, Haiyan

    2017-02-15

    Morphology controllable fabrication of electrode materials is of great significance but is still a major challenge for constructing advanced Li ion batteries. Herein, we propose a novel space constraint assembly approach to tune the morphology of Mn(terephthalic acid) (PTA)-MOF, in which benzonic acid was employed as a modulator to adjust the available MOF assembly directions. As a result, Mn(PTA)-MOFs with microquadrangulars, microflakes, and spindle-like microrods morphologies have been achieved. MnO/C hybrids with preserved morphologies were further obtained by self-sacrificial and thermal transformation of Mn(PTA)-MOFs. As anodes for Li ion batteries, these morphologies showed great influence on the electrochemical properties. Owing to the abundant porous structure and unique architecture, the MnO/C spindle-like microrods demonstrated superior electrochemical properties with a high reversible capacity of 1165 mAh g(-1) at 0.3 A g(-1), excellent rate capability of 580 mAh g(-1) at 3 A g(-1), and no considerable capacity loss after 200 cycles at 1 A g(-1). This strategy could be extended to engineering the morphology of other MOF-derived functional materials in various structure-dependent applications.

  19. A truncated octahedral spinel LiMn2O4 as high-performance cathode material for ultrafast and long-life lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Caihua; Tang, Zilong; Wang, Shitong; Zhang, Zhongtai

    2017-07-01

    Spinel LiMn2O4 is a promising cathode candidate for lithium ion batteries whose electrochemical properties strongly depend on the surface orientation. In this work, we have successfully synthesized a high crystalline and well-defined truncated octahedral LiMn2O4 through the hydrothermal and heat treatment. The main {111} facets are aligned along the orientations mitigating Mn dissolution while the truncated {100} and {110} facets are along those facilitating Li+ diffusion. Benefiting from the unique structure, the octahedral LiMn2O4 delivers 143.4 mAh g-1 (close to the theoretical capacity of 148 mAh g-1) at 0.2 C and over 120 mAh g-1 at 30 C (discharged within 2 min) at 55 °C. Moreover, the fabricated LiMn2O4/Li4Ti5O12-TiO2 full cell demonstrates 121.6 mAh g-1 at 1 C and 56.0 mAh g-1 at 30 C with ∼81.2% capacity retention following 1000 cycles. The facilely synthesized truncated octahedral LiMn2O4 shows great potentials in practical applications for ultrafast and long-life lithium-ion batteries.

  20. Three-dimensional core-shell Fe2O3 @ carbon/carbon cloth as binder-free anode for the high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohua; Zhang, Miao; Liu, Enzuo; He, Fang; Shi, Chunsheng; He, Chunnian; Li, Jiajun; Zhao, Naiqin

    2016-12-01

    A facile and scalable strategy is developed to fabricate three dimensional core-shell Fe2O3 @ carbon/carbon cloth structure by simple hydrothermal route as binder-free lithium-ion battery anode. In the unique structure, carbon coated Fe2O3 nanorods uniformly disperse on carbon cloth which forms the conductive carbon network. The hierarchical porous Fe2O3 nanorods in situ grown on the carbon cloth can effectively shorten the transfer paths of lithium ions and reduce the contact resistance. The carbon coating significantly inhibits pulverization of active materials during the repeated Li-ion insertion/extraction, as well as the direct exposure of Fe2O3 to the electrolyte. Benefiting from the structural integrity and flexibility, the nanocomposites used as binder-free anode for lithium-ion batteries, demonstrate high reversible capacity and excellent cyclability. Moreover, this kind of material represents an alternative promising candidate for flexible, cost-effective, and binder-free energy storage devices.

  1. A high power lithium thionyl chloride battery for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Pinakin M.

    1993-03-01

    A high power, 28 V, 330 A h, active lithium thionyl chloride battery has been developed for use as main and payload power sources on an expendable launch vehicle. Nine prismatic cells, along with the required electrical components and a built-in heater system, are efficiently packaged resulting in significant weight savings over presently used silver-zinc batteries. The high rate capability is achieved by designing the cells with a large electrochemical surface area and impregnating an electrocatalyst, polymeric phthalocyanine, into the carbon cathodes. Passivation effects are reduced with the addition of sulfur dioxide into the thionyl chloride electrolyte solution. The results of conducting a detailed thermal analysis are utilized to establish the heater design parameters and the thermal insulation requirements of the battery. An analysis of cell internal pressure and vent characteristics clearly illustrates the margins of safety under different operating conditions. Performance of fresh cells is discussed using polarization scan and discharge data at different rates and temperatures. Self-discharge rate is estimated based upon test results on cells after storage. Results of testing a complete prototype battery are described.

  2. On Demand Internal Short Circuit Device Enables Verification of Safer, Higher Performing Battery Designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darcy, Eric; Keyser, Matthew

    2017-05-15

    The Internal Short Circuit (ISC) device enables critical battery safety verification. With the aluminum interstitial heat sink between the cells, normal trigger cells cannot be driven into thermal runaway without excessive temperature bias of adjacent cells. With an implantable, on-demand ISC device, thermal runaway tests show that the conductive heat sinks protected adjacent cells from propagation. High heat dissipation and structural support of Al heat sinks show high promise for safer, higher performing batteries.

  3. Freestanding manganese dioxide nanosheet network grown on nickel/polyvinylidene fluoride coaxial fiber membrane as anode materials for high performance lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Luo, Zhongping; Xiao, Qizhen; Sun, Tianlei; Lei, Gangtie; Li, Zhaohui; Li, Xiaojing

    2015-11-01

    A novel manganese dioxide (MnO2) nanosheet network grown on nickel/polyvinylidene fluoride (Ni/PVDF) coaxial fiber membrane is successfully fabricated by a three-step route: the polyvinylidene fluoride fiber membrane is prepared by electrospinning method, and then the Ni(shell)/PVDF(core) coaxial fiber membrane with core-shell structure can be obtained by the electroless deposition, and finally the manganese dioxide nanosheet network grown on Ni/PVDF coaxial fiber membrane can be achieved by using a simple hydrothermal treatment. This as-prepared binder-free and flexible composite membrane is directly used as anode for lithium ion batteries. The excellent electrochemical performance of the composite membrane can be attributed to the unique combinative effects of nanosized MnO2 network and conductive Ni/PVDF fiber matrix as well as the porous structure of composite fiber membrane.

  4. Synergistic effect of carbon nanofiber/nanotube composite catalyst on carbon felt electrode for high-performance all-vanadium redox flow battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Minjoon; Jung, Yang-jae; Kim, Jungyun; Lee, Ho il; Cho, Jeaphil

    2013-10-01

    Carbon nanofiber/nanotube (CNF/CNT) composite catalysts grown on carbon felt (CF), prepared from a simple way involving the thermal decomposition of acetylene gas over Ni catalysts, are studied as electrode materials in a vanadium redox flow battery. The electrode with the composite catalyst prepared at 700 °C (denoted as CNF/CNT-700) demonstrates the best electrocatalytic properties toward the V(2+)/V(3+) and VO(2+)/VO2(+) redox couples among the samples prepared at 500, 600, 700, and 800 °C. Moreover, this composite electrode in the full cell exhibits substantially improved discharge capacity and energy efficiency by ~64% and by ~25% at 40 mA·cm(-2) and 100 mA·cm(-2), respectively, compared to untreated CF electrode. This outstanding performance is due to the enhanced surface defect sites of exposed edge plane in CNF and a fast electron transfer rate of in-plane side wall of the CNT.

  5. Discrete carbon nanotubes increase lead acid battery charge acceptance and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swogger, Steven W.; Everill, Paul; Dubey, D. P.; Sugumaran, Nanjan

    2014-09-01

    Performance demands placed upon lead acid batteries have outgrown the technology's ability to deliver. These demands, typically leading to Negative Active Material (NAM) failure, include: short, high-current surges; prolonged, minimal, overvoltage charging; repeated, Ah deficit charging; and frequent deep discharges. Research shows these failure mechanisms are attenuated by inclusion of carbon allotropes into the NAM. Addition of significant quantities of carbon, however, produces detrimental changes in paste rheology, leading to lowered industrial throughput. Additionally, capacity, cold-cranking performance, and other battery metrics are negatively affected at high carbon loads. Presented here is Molecular Rebar® Lead Negative, a new battery additive comprising discrete carbon nanotubes (dCNT) which uniformly disperse within battery pastes during mixing. NS40ZL batteries containing dCNT show enhanced charge acceptance, reserve capacity, and cold-cranking performance, decreased risk of polarization, and no detrimental changes to paste properties, when compared to dCNT-free controls. This work focuses on the dCNT as NAM additives only, but early-stage research is underway to test their functionality as a PAM additive. Batteries infused with Molecular Rebar® Lead Negative address the needs of modern lead acid battery applications, produce none of the detrimental side effects associated with carbon additives, and require no change to existing production lines.

  6. Novel cathode materials LixNa2-xV2O6 (x = 2, 1.4, 1, 0) for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kaiqi; Cao, Liufei; Huang, Zheng; Chen, Liang; Chen, Zhongxue; Fu, Chaopeng

    2017-03-01

    In this work, sodium doped LiVO3 cathode is proposed to achieve enhanced cycling performance for lithium ion battery (LIB) application. LixNa2-xV2O6 (x = 2, 1.4, 1, 0) compounds have been prepared and characterized, and X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the successful Na doping with various amounts in the LiVO3. The electrochemical performances of the various Na doped compounds LiVO3, Li1.4Na0.6V2O6, LiNaV2O6, and NaVO3 are evaluated by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results reveal that Na-doping amount strongly affects the electrochemical performance, and LiNaV2O6 (x = 1) is considered as the optimized Na doped compound for LIB cathodes. The LiNaV2O6 cathode displays enhanced cycling and rate performances as a specific capacity of 193 mAh g-1 at 0.5 C after 100 cycles is delivered. The enhanced performance is explained that the doping of Na can provide good channels and increase Li+ diffusion coefficient for lithium ion intercalation/deintercalation.

  7. Mesoporous Nitrogen-Doped Carbon-LiSICON Glass Ceramics as High Performance Cathodes in Solid-State Lithium Oxygen Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    Mater. 2012, 11, 19–29. [2] Handbook of Batteries and Fuel Cells, 2nd ed. , (Ed.: D. Linden ), McGraw-Hill, New York, 1984, chap. 38. [3] a) G...Keywords: batteries · carbon · glasses · mesoporous materials · oxygen reduction [1] P. G. Bruce, S . A. Freunberger, L. J. Hardwick, J.-M. Tarascon, Nat... BATTERIES (POSTPRINT) Padmakar Kichambare and Stanley Rodrigues Electrical Systems Branch Power and Control Division MARCH 2013

  8. International Space Station Nickel-Hydrogen Battery On-Orbit Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Penni; Cohen, Fred

    2002-01-01

    International Space Station (ISS) Electric Power System (EPS) utilizes Nickel-Hydrogen (Ni-H2) batteries as part of its power system to store electrical energy. The batteries are charged during insolation and discharged during eclipse. The batteries are designed to operate at a 35 percent depth of discharge (DOD) maximum during normal operation. Thirty-eight individual pressure vessel (IPV) Ni-H2 battery cells are series-connected and packaged in an Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU). Two ORUs are series-connected utilizing a total of 76 cells to form one battery. The ISS is the first application for low earth orbit (LEO) cycling of this quantity of series-connected cells. The P6 (Port) Integrated Equipment Assembly (IEA) containing the initial ISS high-power components was successfully launched on November 30, 2000. The IEA contains 12 Battery Subassembly ORUs (6 batteries) that provide station power during eclipse periods. This paper will discuss the battery performance data after eighteen months of cycling.

  9. Update on International Space Station Nickel-Hydrogen Battery On-Orbit Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Penni; Cohen, Fred

    2003-01-01

    International Space Station (ISS) Electric Power System (EPS) utilizes Nickel-Hydrogen (Ni-H2) batteries as part of its power system to store electrical energy. The batteries are charged during insolation and discharged during eclipse. The batteries are designed to operate at a 35% depth of discharge (DOD) maximum during normal operation. Thirty-eight individual pressure vessel (IPV) Ni-H2 battery cells are series-connected and packaged in an Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU). Two ORUs are series-connected utilizing a total of 76 cells, to form one battery. The ISS is the first application for low earth orbit (LEO) cycling of this quantity of series-connected cells. The P6 (Port) Integrated Equipment Assembly (IEA) containing the initial ISS high-power components was successfully launched on November 30, 2000. The IEA contains 12 Battery Subassembly ORUs (6 batteries) that provide station power during eclipse periods. This paper will discuss the battery performance data after two and a half years of cycling.

  10. The effect of the carbon nanotube buffer layer on the performance of a Li metal battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ding; Zhou, Yi; Liu, Changhong; Fan, Shoushan

    2016-06-07

    Lithium (Li) metal is one of the most promising candidates as an anode for the next-generation energy storage systems because of its high specific capacity and lowest negative electrochemical potential. But the growth of Li dendrites limits the application of the Li metal battery. In this work, a type of modified Li metal battery with a carbon nanotube (CNT) buffer layer inserted between the separator and the Li metal electrode was reported. The electrochemical results show that the modified batteries have a much better rate capability and cycling performance than the conventional Li metal batteries. The mechanism study by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy reveals that the modified battery has a smaller charge transfer resistance and larger Li ion diffusion coefficient during the deposition process on the Li electrode than the conventional Li metal batteries. Symmetric battery tests show that the interfacial behavior of the Li metal electrode with the buffer layer is more stable than the naked Li metal electrode. The morphological characterization of the CNT buffer layer and Li metal lamina reveals that the CNT buffer layer has restrained the growth of Li dendrites. The CNT buffer layer has great potential to solve the safety problem of the Li metal battery.

  11. Generalized Characterization Methodology for Performance Modelling of Lithium-Ion Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel Loan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Ana-Irina

    2016-01-01

    Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are complex energy storage devices with their performance behavior highly dependent on the operating conditions (i.e., temperature, load current, and state-of-charge (SOC)). Thus, in order to evaluate their techno-economic viability for a certain application, detailed...... information about Li-ion battery performance behavior becomes necessary. This paper proposes a comprehensive seven-step methodology for laboratory characterization of Li-ion batteries, in which the battery’s performance parameters (i.e., capacity, open-circuit voltage (OCV), and impedance) are determined...... of the studied Li-ion battery is developed and its accuracy is successfully verified (maximum error lower than 5% and a mean error below 8.5 mV) for various load profiles (including a real application profile), thus validating the proposed seven-step characterization methodology....

  12. High-rate lithium thionyl-chloride battery development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cieslak, W.R.; Weigand, D.E.

    1993-12-31

    We have developed a lithium thionyl-chloride cell for use in a high rate battery application to provide power for a missile computer and stage separation detonators. The battery pack contains 20 high surface area ``DD`` cells wired in a series-parallel configuration to supply a nominal 28 volts with a continuous draw of 20 amperes. The load profile also requires six squib firing pulses of one second duration at a 20 ampere peak. Performance and safety of the cells were optimized in a ``D`` cell configuration before progressing to the longer ``DD` cell. Active surface area in the ``D`` cell is 735 cm{sup 2}, and 1650 cm{sup 2} in the ``DD`` cell. The design includes 1.5M LiAlCl{sub 4}/SOCl{sub 2} electrolyte, a cathode blend of Shawinigan Acetylene Black and Cabot Black Pearls 2000 carbons, Scimat ETFE separator, and photoetched current collectors.

  13. Advanced Electrodes for High Power Li-ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghib, Karim; Mauger, Alain; Groult, Henri; Goodenough, John B; Julien, Christian M

    2013-03-15

    While little success has been obtained over the past few years in attempts to increase the capacity of Li-ion batteries, significant improvement in the power density has been achieved, opening the route to new applications, from hybrid electric vehicles to high-power electronics and regulation of the intermittency problem of electric energy supply on smart grids. This success has been achieved not only by decreasing the size of the active particles of the electrodes to few tens of nanometers, but also by surface modification and the synthesis of new multi-composite particles. It is the aim of this work to review the different approaches that have been successful to obtain Li-ion batteries with improved high-rate performance and to discuss how these results prefigure further improvement in the near future.

  14. Advanced Electrodes for High Power Li-ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian M. Julien

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available While little success has been obtained over the past few years in attempts to increase the capacity of Li-ion batteries, significant improvement in the power density has been achieved, opening the route to new applications, from hybrid electric vehicles to high-power electronics and regulation of the intermittency problem of electric energy supply on smart grids. This success has been achieved not only by decreasing the size of the active particles of the electrodes to few tens of nanometers, but also by surface modification and the synthesis of new multi-composite particles. It is the aim of this work to review the different approaches that have been successful to obtain Li-ion batteries with improved high-rate performance and to discuss how these results prefigure further improvement in the near future.

  15. Performance evaluation of Mg-AgCI batteries for underwater propulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Venkateswara Rao

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium-silver chloride seawater activated reserve pile-type battery was exclusively used in all underwater vehicles as a source of power due to its high energy density and power density. Various tests have been conducted on fully assembled battery to test its performance, suitability and compatibility. However, it is also essential that the battery is subjected to failure mode studies to understand the limitations of the battery and to analyse the vehicles performance under such situations. Various possible failure modes that the battery might experience during its usage as propulsion source in the underwater vehicle are identified, and the performance evaluation of scale9 down model (I O-cell module of the battery has been carried out in the laboratory. The results are discussed to understand the electrochemical system and its effect on the overall performance of the vehicle. It has been observed that while some failure modes were found to affect the vehicles' performance adversely, only some failure modes are detrimental to the vehicle's performance.

  16. Morphology-controlled microwave-assisted solvothermal synthesis of high-performance LiCoPO4 as a high-voltage cathode material for Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Jennifer; Marino, Cyril; Haering, Dominik; Stinner, Christoph; Gasteiger, Hubert A.; Nilges, Tom

    2017-02-01

    High-performance particles of the high-voltage cathode material LiCoPO4 for Li-ion batteries are synthesized by a simple and rapid one-step microwave-assisted solvothermal route at moderate temperatures (250 °C). Using a variety of water/alcohol 1:1 (v:v) solvent mixtures, including ethylene glycol (EG), diethylene glycol (DEG), triethylene glycol (TEG), tetraethylene glycol (TTEG), polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG), and benzyl alcohol (BA), the focus of the study is set on optimizing the electrochemical performance of the material by controlling the particle size and morphology. Scanning electron microscopy studies reveal a strong influence of the co-solvent on the particle size and morphology, resulting in the formation of variations between square, rhombic and hexagonal platelets. According to selected area electron diffraction experiments, the smallest crystal dimension is in the [010] direction for all materials, which is along the lithium diffusion pathways of the olivine crystal structure. The anisotropic crystal orientations with enhanced Li-ion diffusion properties result in high initial discharge capacities and gravimetric energy densities (up to 141 mAh g-1 at 0.1 C and 677 Wh kg-1 for LiCoPO4 obtained from TEG), excellent rate capabilities, and cycle life for 20 cycles.

  17. Carbon-Free Porous Zn2GeO4 Nanofibers as Advanced Anode Materials for High-Performance Lithium Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huan-Huan; Wu, Xing-Long; Zhang, Lin-Lin; Fan, Chao-Ying; Wang, Hai-Feng; Li, Xiao-Ying; Sun, Hai-Zhu; Zhang, Jing-Ping; Yan, Qingyu

    2016-11-23

    In this work, carbon-free, porous, and micro/nanostructural Zn2GeO4 nanofibers (p-ZGONFs) have been prepared via a dissolution-recrystallization-assisted electrospinning technology. The successful electrospinning to fabricate the uniform p-ZGONFs mainly benefits from the preparation of completely dissolved solution, which avoids the sedimentation of common Ge-containing solid-state precursors. Electrochemical tests demonstrate that the as-prepared p-ZGONFs exhibit superior Li-storage properties in terms of high initial reversible capacity of 1075.6 mA h g(-1), outstanding cycling stability (no capacity decay after 130 cycles at 0.2 A g(-1)), and excellent high-rate capabilities (e.g., still delivering a capacity of 384.7 mA h g(-1) at a very high current density of 10 A g(-1)) when used as anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs). All these Li-storage properties are much better than those of Zn2GeO4 nanorods prepared by a hydrothermal process. The much enhanced Li-storage properties should be attributed to its distinctive structural characteristics including the carbon-free composition, plentiful pores, and macro/nanostructures. Carbon-free composition promises its high theoretical Li-storage capacity, and plentiful pores cannot only accommodate the volumetric variations during the successive lithiation/delithiation but can also serve as the electrolyte reservoirs to facilitate Li interaction with electrode materials.

  18. Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles-wrapped carbon nanofibers as high-performance anode for lithium-ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Fei; Zhao, Saihua; Guo, Jinxin; Su, Qingmei; Zhang, Jun; Du, Gaohui, E-mail: gaohuidu@zjnu.edu.cn [Zhejiang Normal University, Institute of Physical Chemistry (China)

    2015-08-15

    One-dimensional hierarchical nanostructures composed of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles and carbon nanofibers (CNFs) have been successfully synthesized through a facile solvothermal method followed by a simple thermal annealing treatment. X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy reveal that Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles with a size of 80–100 nm are uniformly dispersed on CNFs. The Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/CNFs nanocomposites show an enhanced reversible capacity and excellent rate performance as anode for Li-ion battery. The reversible capacity of the nanocomposites retains 684 mAh g{sup −1} after 55 cycles at 100 mA g{sup −1}. Even when cycled at various rate (100, 200, 500, 1000, and 2000 mA g{sup −1}) for 50 cycles, the capacity can recover to 757 mAh g{sup −1} at the current of 100 mA g{sup −1}. The enhanced electrochemical performances are attributed to the characteristics of interconnected one-dimensional nanostructures that provide three-dimensional networks for Li-ion diffusion and electron transfer, and can further accommodate the volumetric change of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles during charge–discharge cycling.

  19. Porous TiNb24O62 microspheres as high-performance anode materials for lithium-ion batteries of electric vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Deng, Shengjue; Lin, Chunfu; Lin, Shiwei; Chen, Yongjun; Li, Jianbao; Wu, Hui

    2016-11-10

    TiNb24O62 is explored as a new anode material for lithium-ion batteries. Microsized TiNb24O62 particles (M-TiNb24O62) are fabricated through a simple solid-state reaction method and porous TiNb24O62 microspheres (P-TiNb24O62) are synthesized through a facile solvothermal method for the first time. TiNb24O62 exhibits a Wadsley-Roth shear structure with a structural unit composed of a 3 × 4 octahedron-block and a 0.5 tetrahedron at the block-corner. P-TiNb24O62 with an average sphere size of ∼2 μm is constructed by nanoparticles with an average size of ∼100 nm, forming inter-particle pores with a size of ∼8 nm and inter-sphere pores with a size of ∼55 nm. Such desirable porous microspheres are an ideal architecture for enhancing the electrochemical performances by shortening the transport distance of electrons/Li(+)-ions and increasing the reaction area. Consequently, P-TiNb24O62 presents outstanding electrochemical performances in terms of specific capacity, rate capability and cyclic stability. The reversible capacities of P-TiNb24O62 are, respectively, as large as 296, 277, 261, 245, 222, 202 and 181 mA h g(-1) at 0.1, 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10 and 20 C, which are obviously larger than those of M-TiNb24O62 (258, 226, 210, 191, 166, 147 and 121 mA h g(-1)). At 10 C, the capacity of P-TiNb24O62 still remains at 183 mA h g(-1) over 500 cycles with a decay of only 0.02% per cycle, whereas the corresponding values of M-TiNb24O62 are 119 mA h g(-1) and 0.04%. These impressive results indicate that P-TiNb24O62 can be a promising anode material for lithium-ion batteries of electric vehicles.

  20. MnO Nanoparticle@Mesoporous Carbon Composites Grown on Conducting Substrates Featuring High-performance Lithium-ion Battery, Supercapacitor and Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianyu; Peng, Zheng; Wang, Yuhang; Tang, Jing; Zheng, Gengfeng

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate a facile, two-step coating/calcination approach to grow a uniform MnO nanoparticle@mesoporous carbon (MnO@C) composite on conducting substrates, by direct coating of the Mn-oleate precursor solution without any conducting/binding reagents, and subsequent thermal calcination. The monodispersed, sub-10 nm MnO nanoparticles offer high theoretical energy storage capacities and catalytic properties, and the mesoporous carbon coating allows for enhanced electrolyte transport and charge transfer towards/from MnO surface. In addition, the direct growth and attachment of the MnO@C nanocomposite in the supporting conductive substrates provide much reduced contact resistances and efficient charge transfer. These excellent features allow the use of MnO@C nanocomposites as lithium-ion battery and supercapacitor electrodes for energy storage, with high reversible capacity at large current densities, as well as excellent cycling and mechanical stabilities. Moreover, this MnO@C nanocomposite has also demonstrated a high sensitivity for H2O2 detection, and also exhibited attractive potential for the tumor cell analysis. PMID:24045767

  1. Multiscale modeling and characterization for performance and safety of lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannala, S.; Turner, J. A.; Allu, S.; Elwasif, W. R.; Kalnaus, S.; Simunovic, S.; Kumar, A.; Billings, J. J.; Wang, H.; Nanda, J.

    2015-08-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are highly complex electrochemical systems whose performance and safety are governed by coupled nonlinear electrochemical-electrical-thermal-mechanical processes over a range of spatiotemporal scales. Gaining an understanding of the role of these processes as well as development of predictive capabilities for design of better performing batteries requires synergy between theory, modeling, and simulation, and fundamental experimental work to support the models. This paper presents the overview of the work performed by the authors aligned with both experimental and computational efforts. In this paper, we describe a new, open source computational environment for battery simulations with an initial focus on lithium-ion systems but designed to support a variety of model types and formulations. This system has been used to create a three-dimensional cell and battery pack models that explicitly simulate all the battery components (current collectors, electrodes, and separator). The models are used to predict battery performance under normal operations and to study thermal and mechanical safety aspects under adverse conditions. This paper also provides an overview of the experimental techniques to obtain crucial validation data to benchmark the simulations at various scales for performance as well as abuse. We detail some initial validation using characterization experiments such as infrared and neutron imaging and micro-Raman mapping. In addition, we identify opportunities for future integration of theory, modeling, and experiments.

  2. Multiscale modeling and characterization for performance and safety of lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pannala, S., E-mail: spannala@sabic.com; Turner, J. A.; Allu, S.; Elwasif, W. R.; Kalnaus, S.; Simunovic, S.; Kumar, A.; Billings, J. J. [Computer Science and Mathematics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Wang, H.; Nanda, J. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    2015-08-21

    Lithium-ion batteries are highly complex electrochemical systems whose performance and safety are governed by coupled nonlinear electrochemical-electrical-thermal-mechanical processes over a range of spatiotemporal scales. Gaining an understanding of the role of these processes as well as development of predictive capabilities for design of better performing batteries requires synergy between theory, modeling, and simulation, and fundamental experimental work to support the models. This paper presents the overview of the work performed by the authors aligned with both experimental and computational efforts. In this paper, we describe a new, open source computational environment for battery simulations with an initial focus on lithium-ion systems but designed to support a variety of model types and formulations. This system has been used to create a three-dimensional cell and battery pack models that explicitly simulate all the battery components (current collectors, electrodes, and separator). The models are used to predict battery performance under normal operations and to study thermal and mechanical safety aspects under adverse conditions. This paper also provides an overview of the experimental techniques to obtain crucial validation data to benchmark the simulations at various scales for performance as well as abuse. We detail some initial validation using characterization experiments such as infrared and neutron imaging and micro-Raman mapping. In addition, we identify opportunities for future integration of theory, modeling, and experiments.

  3. Silicon Diphosphide: A Si-Based Three-Dimensional Crystalline Framework as a High-Performance Li-Ion Battery Anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyuk-Tae; Lee, Churl Kyoung; Jeon, Ki-Joon; Park, Cheol-Min

    2016-06-28

    The development of an electrode material for rechargeable Li-ion batteries (LIBs) and the understanding of its reaction mechanism play key roles in enhancing the electrochemical characteristics of LIBs for use in various portable electronics and electric vehicles. Here, we report a three-dimensional (3D) crystalline-framework-structured silicon diphosphide (SiP2) and its interesting electrochemical behaviors for superior LIBs. During Li insertion in the SiP2, a three-step electrochemical reaction mechanism, sequentially comprised of a topotactic transition (0.55-2 V), an amorphization (0.25-2 V), and a conversion (0-2 V), was thoroughly analyzed. On the basis of the three-step electrochemical reaction mechanism, excellent electrochemical properties, such as high initial capacities, high initial Coulombic efficiencies, stable cycle behaviors, and fast-rate capabilities, were attained from the preparation of a nanostructured SiP2/C composite. This 3D crystalline-framework-structured SiP2 compound will be a promising alternative anode material in the realization and mass production of excellent, rechargeable LIBs.

  4. High performance amorphous-Si@SiOx/C composite anode materials for Li-ion batteries derived from ball-milling and in situ carbonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dingsheng; Gao, Mingxia; Pan, Hongge; Wang, Junhua; Liu, Yongfeng

    2014-06-01

    Amorphous-Si@SiOx/C composites with amorphous Si particles as core and coated with a double layer of SiOx and carbon are prepared by ball-milling crystal micron-sized silicon powders and carbonization of the citric acid intruded in the ball-milled Si. Different ratios of Si to citric acid are used in order to optimize the electrochemical performance. It is found that SiOx exists naturally at the surfaces of raw Si particles and its content increases to ca. 24 wt.% after ball-milling. With an optimized Si to citric acid weight ratio of 1/2.5, corresponding to 8.4 wt.% C in the composite, a thin carbon layer is coated on the surfaces of a-Si@SiOx particles, moreover, floc-like carbon also forms and connects the carbon coated a-Si@SiOx particles. The composite provides a capacity of 1450 mA h g-1 after 100 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g1, and a capacity of 1230 mA h g-1 after 100 cycles at 500 mA g1 as anode material for lithium-ion batteries. Effects of ball-milling and the addition of citric acid on the microstructure and electrochemical properties of the composites are revealed and the mechanism of the improvement in electrochemical properties is discussed.

  5. High-performance spinel-rich Li1.5MnTiO4+δ ultralong nanofibers as cathode materials for Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung Vu, Ngoc; Arunkumar, Paulraj; Bin Im, Won

    2017-01-01

    Recently, composite materials based on Li-Mn-Ti-O system were developed to target low cost and environmentally benign cathodes for Li-ion batteries. The spinel-layered Li1.5MnTiO4+δ bulk particles showed excellent cycle stability but poor rate performance. To address this drawback, ultralong nanofibers of a Li1.5MnTiO4+δ spinel-layered heterostructure were synthesized by electrospinning. Uniform nanofibers with diameters of about 80 nm were formed of tiny octahedral particles wrapped together into 30 μm long fibers. The Li1.5MnTiO4+δ nanofibers exhibited an improved rate capability compared to both Li1.5MnTiO4+δ nanoparticles and bulk particles. The uniform one-dimensional nanostructure of the composite cathode exhibited enhanced capacities of 235 and 170 mAh g−1 at C/5 and 1 C rates, respectively. Its unique structure provided a large effective contact area for Li+ diffusion, and low charge transfer resistance. Moreover, the layered phase contributed to its capacity in over 3 V region, which increased specific energy (726 Wh kg−1) compared to the bulk particles (534 Wh kg−1). PMID:28361945

  6. Poly(3,4-ethylene-dioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) glued and graphene encapsulated sulfur-carbon film for high-performance free-standing lithium-sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiyu; Cheng, Jianli; Ni, Wei; Gao, Lizhen; Yang, Dan; Razal, Joselito M.; Wang, Bin

    2017-02-01

    A novel free-standing composite film electrode for Li-S battery is investigated. This novel electrode consists of polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated hollow sulfur microspheres (PVPS) that are homogeneously confined within the conductive composite matrix of graphene and poly(3,4-ethylene-dioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT-PSS). The characteristic large surface area and wrinkled surface of graphene sheets allow the formation of a conductive layer on the surface of PVPS to suppress the polysulfide dissolution and accommodate the volumetric expansion of sulfur. The addition of PEDOT-PSS also enhances the adhesion between the PVPS and the graphene surface, the overall conductivity of the electrode, and the charge transportation during the charging and discharging processes. The best electrode performances are achieved for a composite film cathode with a sulfur content of about 63.9%, which delivers an initial specific capacity of around 1060 mAh g-1 at 0.1 C. This electrode also displays an excellent capacity retention of 75% after 500 cycles at 1C, corresponding to a capacity decay of only 0.05% per cycle.

  7. Beneficial effects of activated carbon additives on the performance of negative lead-acid battery electrode for high-rate partial-state-of-charge operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Jiayuan; Ding, Ping; Zhang, Hao; Wu, Xianzhang; Chen, Jian; Yang, Yusheng

    2013-11-01

    Experiments are made with negative electrode of 2 V cell and 12 V lead-acid battery doped with typical activated carbon additives. It turns out that the negative electrode containing tens-of-micron-sized carbon particles in NAM exhibits markedly increased HRPSoC cycle life than the one containing carbon particles with much smaller size of several microns or the one containing no activated carbon. The improved performance is mainly attributed to the optimized NAM microstructure and the enhanced electrode reaction kinetics by introducing appropriate activated carbon. The beneficial effects can be briefly summarized from three aspects. First, activated carbon acts as new porous-skeleton builder to increase the porosity and active surface of NAM, and thus facilitates the electrolyte diffusion from surface to inner and provides more sites for crystallization/dissolution of lead sulfate; second, activated carbon plays the role of electrolyte supplier to provide sufficient H2SO4 in the inner of plate when the diffusion of H2SO4 from plate surface cannot keep pace of the electrode reaction; Third, activated carbon acts as capacitive buffer to absorb excess charge current which would otherwise lead to insufficient NAM conversion and hydrogen evolution.

  8. Interfacial Reaction Dependent Performance of Hollow Carbon Nanosphere – Sulfur Composite as a Cathode for Li-S Battery

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Jianming; Yan, Pengfei; Gu, Meng; Wagner, Michael J.; Hays, Kevin A.; Chen, Junzheng; Li, Xiaohong; Wang, Chongmin; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Liu, Jun; Xiao, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery is a promising energy storage system due to its high energy density, cost effectiveness, and environmental friendliness of sulfur. However, there are still a number of technical challenges, such as low Coulombic efficiency and poor long-term cycle life, impeding the commercialization of Li-S battery. The electrochemical performance of Li-S battery is closely related with the interfacial reactions occurring between hosting substrate and active sulfur species, whic...

  9. High capacity anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Herman A.; Anguchamy, Yogesh Kumar; Deng, Haixia; Han, Yongbon; Masarapu, Charan; Venkatachalam, Subramanian; Kumar, Suject

    2015-11-19

    High capacity silicon based anode active materials are described for lithium ion batteries. These materials are shown to be effective in combination with high capacity lithium rich cathode active materials. Supplemental lithium is shown to improve the cycling performance and reduce irreversible capacity loss for at least certain silicon based active materials. In particular silicon based active materials can be formed in composites with electrically conductive coatings, such as pyrolytic carbon coatings or metal coatings, and composites can also be formed with other electrically conductive carbon components, such as carbon nanofibers and carbon nanoparticles. Additional alloys with silicon are explored.

  10. A magnesium–sodium hybrid battery with high operating voltage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Hui; Li, Yifei; Liang, Yanliang; Li, Guosheng; Sun, Cheng-Jun; Ren, Yang; Lu, Yuhao; Yao, Yan

    2016-06-10

    We report a high performance magnesium-sodium hybrid battery utilizing a magnesium-sodium dual-salt electrolyte, a magnesium anode, and a Berlin green cathode. The cell delivers an average discharge voltage of 2.2 V and a reversible capacity of 143 mAh g-1. We also demonstrate the cell with an energy density of 135 Wh kg-1 and a high power density of up to 1.67 kW kg-1.

  11. High-performance characteristics of silicon inverse opal synthesized by the simple magnesium reduction as anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jae-Hun; Kim, Kwang-Hyun; Jung, Dong-Won; Kim, Ketack; Lee, Sung-Man; Oh, Eun-Suok

    2015-12-01

    Inverse silicon opal (ISi) and carbon-coated inverse Si opal (C-ISi) structures are prepared from the simple thermal reduction method using magnesium and investigated as the anode materials in lithium-ion batteries. The ISi and C-ISi samples comprise continuously arranged inverse opal structures, constructed by Si nanoparticles. The macroporous structures in ∼1 μm range are favourable for lithium-ion transport and more importantly for absorbing volumetric change in the silicon nanoparticles. Moreover, the carbon coating on the inverse Si opal improves the electrical conductivity and acts as a mechanical buffer for the volume change. C-ISi sample shows a high capacity of 1550 mAh g-1 at the 100th cycle with very stable cycle retention, whereas the ISi and pristine Si samples show 1146.4 mAh g-1 and approximately zero, respectively, at the 100th cycle with rapid capacity fading. Surprisingly, the volumetric expansion of C-ISi electrode after 100th cycles is only 16.1%, which is as low as that for commercial graphite electrodes.

  12. A General and Mild Approach to Controllable Preparation of Manganese-Based Micro- and Nanostructured Bars for High Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Guo; Li, Sheng; Zhang, Weixin; Yang, Zeheng; Liu, Shulin; Fan, Xiaoming; Chen, Fei; Tian, Yuan; Zhang, Weibo; Yang, Shihe; Li, Mei

    2016-03-07

    One-dimensional (1D) micro- and nanostructured electrode materials with controllable phase and composition are appealing materials for use in lithium-ion batteries with high energy and power densities, but they are challenging to prepare. Herein, a novel ethanol-water mediated co-precipitation method by a chimie douce route (synthesis conducted under mild conditions) has been exploited to selectively prepare an extensive series of manganese-based electrode materials, manifesting the considerable generalizability and efficacy of the method. Moreover, by simply tuning the mixed solvent and reagents, transition metal oxide bars with differing aspect ratios and compositions were prepared with an unprecedented uniformity. Application prospects are demonstrated by Li-rich 0.5 Li2 MnO3 ⋅0.5 LiNi1/3 Co1/3 Mn1/3 O2 bars, which demonstrate excellent reversible capacity and rate capability thanks to the steerable nature of the synthesis and material quality. This work opens a new route to 1D micro- and nanostructured materials by customizing the precipitating solvent to orchestrate the crystallization process.

  13. A rationally designed composite of alternating strata of Si nanoparticles and graphene: a high-performance lithium-ion battery anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fu; Huang, Kai; Qi, Xiang; Gao, Tian; Liu, Yuping; Zou, Xianghua; Wei, Xiaolin; Zhong, Jianxin

    2013-09-21

    We have successfully fabricated a free-standing Si-re-G (reduced graphene) alternating stratum structure composite through a repeated process of filtering liquid exfoliated graphene oxide and uniformly dispersed Si solution, followed by the reduction of graphene oxide. The as-prepared free-standing flexible alternating stratum structure composite was directly evaluated as the anode for rechargeable lithium half-cells without adding any polymer binder, conductive additives or using current collectors. The half cells based on this new alternating structure composite exhibit an unexpected capacity of 1500 mA h g(-1) after 100 cycles at 1.35 A g(-1). Our rationally proposed strategy has incorporated the long cycle life of carbon and the high lithium-storage capacity of Si into one entity using the feasible and scalable vacuum filtration technique, rendering this new protocol as a readily applicable means of addressing the practical application challenges associated with the next generation of rechargeable lithium-ion batteries.

  14. One-step thermolysis synthesis of two-dimensional ultrafine Fe3O4 particles/carbon nanonetworks for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wanqun; Li, Xiaona; Liang, Jianwen; Tang, Kaibin; Zhu, Yongchun; Qian, Yitai

    2016-02-01

    To tackle the issue of inferior cycle stability and rate capability for Fe3O4 anode materials in lithium ion batteries, ultrafine Fe3O4 nanocrystals uniformly encapsulated in two-dimensional (2D) carbon nanonetworks have been fabricated through thermolysis of a simple, low-cost iron(iii) acetylacetonate without any extra processes. Moreover, compared to the reported Fe3O4/carbon composites, the particle size of Fe3O4 is controllable and held down to ~3 nm. Benefitting from the synergistic effects of the excellent electroconductive carbon nanonetworks and uniform distribution of ultrafine Fe3O4 particles, the prepared 2D Fe3O4/carbon nanonetwork anode exhibits high reversible capacity, excellent rate capability and superior cyclability. A high capacity of 1534 mA h g-1 is achieved at a 1 C rate and is maintained without decay up to 500 cycles (1 C = 1 A g-1). Even at the high current density of 5 C and 10 C, the 2D Fe3O4/carbon nanonetworks maintain a reversible capacity of 845 and 647 mA h g-1 after 500 discharge/charge cycles, respectively. In comparison with other reported Fe3O4-based anodes, the 2D Fe3O4/carbon nanonetwork electrode is one of the most attractive of those in energy storage applications.To tackle the issue of inferior cycle stability and rate capability for Fe3O4 anode materials in lithium ion batteries, ultrafine Fe3O4 nanocrystals uniformly encapsulated in two-dimensional (2D) carbon nanonetworks have been fabricated through thermolysis of a simple, low-cost iron(iii) acetylacetonate without any extra processes. Moreover, compared to the reported Fe3O4/carbon composites, the particle size of Fe3O4 is controllable and held down to ~3 nm. Benefitting from the synergistic effects of the excellent electroconductive carbon nanonetworks and uniform distribution of ultrafine Fe3O4 particles, the prepared 2D Fe3O4/carbon nanonetwork anode exhibits high reversible capacity, excellent rate capability and superior cyclability. A high capacity of 1534 mA h

  15. High voltage and high specific capacity dual intercalating electrode Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, William C. (Inventor); Blanco, Mario (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention provides high capacity and high voltage Li-ion batteries that have a carbonaceous cathode and a nonaqueous electrolyte solution comprising LiF salt and an anion receptor that binds the fluoride ion. The batteries can comprise dual intercalating electrode Li ion batteries. Methods of the present invention use a cathode and electrode pair, wherein each of the electrodes reversibly intercalate ions provided by a LiF salt to make a high voltage and high specific capacity dual intercalating electrode Li-ion battery. The present methods and systems provide high-capacity batteries particularly useful in powering devices where minimizing battery mass is important.

  16. Surface modification of battery electrodes via electroless deposition with improved performance for Na-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiri, Abhishek; Olschewski, Mark; Gustus, René; Borisenko, Natalia; Endres, Frank

    2016-06-01

    Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) are emerging as potential stationary energy storage devices due to the abundance and low cost of sodium. A simple and energy efficient strategy to develop electrodes for SIBs with a high charge/discharge rate is highly desirable. Here we demonstrate that by surface modification of Ge, using electroless deposition in SbCl3/ionic liquids, the stability and performance of the anode can be improved. This is due to the formation of GexSb1-x at the surface leading to better diffusion of Na, and the formation of a stable twin organic and inorganic SEI which protects the electrode. By judicious control of the surface modification, an improvement in the capacity to between 50% and 300% has been achieved at high current densities (0.83-8.4 A g(-1)) in an ionic liquid electrolyte NaFSI-[Py1,4]FSI. The results clearly demonstrate that an electroless deposition based surface modification strategy in ionic liquids offers exciting opportunities in developing superior energy storage devices.

  17. Electrochemical performance of nickel/metal hydride batteries under unconventional conditions and degradation analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽; 吴锋; 杨凯; 王敬; 陈实

    2004-01-01

    The charge-discharge performance and cycle stability of D size Ni/MH batteries at -20 ℃, 25 ℃ and 55℃ were examined. The results show that the decline rate of Ni/MH battery discharge capacity at -20 ℃ and 55 ℃ are 12.1% and 13.6% ,and the average discharge voltage decreases by a value of 0.13 V and 0.06 V respectively,cycling stability declines obviously at various temperatures. The capacity degradation of Ni/MH batteries under low temperature is reversible, belonging to transient degradation and that of high and normal temperatures are not reversible, belonging to permanent degradation. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray analyzer were introduced to study the main causes of cycling deterioration of Ni/MH batteries.

  18. Enhanced rate performance of nano-micro structured LiFePO{sub 4}/C by improved process for high-power Li-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Bing; Zheng Xiaodong [Laboratory of Clean Energy, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Binzhou University, Binzhou, Shandong 256603 (China); Fan Xiaoping [Military Representative office in ChangHong Group, Mianyang, Sichuan 621000 (China); Song Guanghui [Laboratory of Clean Energy, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Binzhou University, Binzhou, Shandong 256603 (China); Lu Mi, E-mail: lumihit@sina.com [Laboratory of Clean Energy, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Binzhou University, Binzhou, Shandong 256603 (China)

    2011-05-01

    Highlights: > The LiFePO{sub 4}/C composite is spherical with nano-micro structure. > The LiFePO{sub 4}/C composite containing large amount of nano-spheres linked together. > The synthesis method is carbothermal reduction with two sessions of ball milling followed by spray-drying. > The discharge capacity is 88 mAh g{sup -1} at 20 C rate with the end voltage of 2.5 V. - Abstract: A spherical carbon-coated nano-micro structured LiFePO{sub 4} composite is synthesized for use as a cathode material in high-power lithium-ion batteries. The composites are synthesized through carbothermal reduction with two sessions of ball milling (before and after pre-sintering of precursor) followed by spray-drying with the dispersant of polyethylene glycol added. The structure, particle size, and surface morphology of the cathode active material and the properties of the coated carbon are investigated by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Results indicate that the LiFePO{sub 4}/C composite has a spherical micro-porous morphology composed of a large number of carbon-coated nano-spheres linked together with an ordered olivine structure. The carbon on the surface of LiFePO{sub 4} effectively reduces inter-particle agglomeration of the LiFePO{sub 4} particles. A galvanostatic charge-discharge test indicates that the LiFePO{sub 4}/C composites exhibit initial discharge capacities of 155 mAh g{sup -1} and 88 mAh g{sup -1} at 0.2 C and 20 C rates with the end of discharge voltage of 2.5 V, respectively. This behavior is ascribed to the unique spherical structure, which shortens lithium ions diffusion length and improves the electric contact between LiFePO{sub 4} particles.

  19. Ti2Nb10O29-x mesoporous microspheres as promising anode materials for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shengjue; Luo, Zhibin; Liu, Yating; Lou, Xiaoming; Lin, Chunfu; Yang, Chao; Zhao, Hua; Zheng, Peng; Sun, Zhongliang; Li, Jianbao; Wang, Ning; Wu, Hui

    2017-09-01

    Ti2Nb10O29 has recently been reported as a promising anode material for lithium-ion batteries. However, its poor electronic conductivity and insufficient Li+-ion diffusion coefficient significantly limit its rate capability. To tackle this issue, a strategy combining nanosizing and crystal-structure modification is employed. Ti2Nb10O29-x mesoporous microspheres with a sphere-size range of 0.5-4 μm are prepared by a one-step solvothermal method followed by thermal treatment in N2. These Ti2Nb10O29-x mesoporous microspheres exhibit primary nanoparticles, a large specific surface area (22.9 m2 g-1) and suitable pore sizes, leading to easy electron/Li+-ion transport and good interfacial reactivity. Ti2Nb10O29-x shows a defective shear ReO3 crystal structure with O2- vacancies and an increased unit cell volume, resulting in its increased Li+-ion diffusion coefficient. Besides Ti4+ and Nb5+ ions, Ti2Nb10O29-x comprises Nb4+ ions with unpaired 4d electrons, which significantly increase its electronic conductivity. As a result of these improvements, the Ti2Nb10O29-x mesoporous microspheres reveal superior electrochemical performances in term of large reversible specific capacity (309 mAh g-1 at 0.1 C), outstanding rate capability (235 mAh g-1 at 40 C) and durable cyclic stability (capacity retention of 92.1% over 100 cycles at 10 C).

  20. Role of Disorder in Enhancing Lithium-Ion Battery Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yue, Yuanzheng; He, W.

    and type of disorder, material performances can be significantly enhanced. Disorder can be tuned by doping, calcination, redox reaction, composition tuning, and so on. Recently we have fabricated a cathode material for lithium ion battery by introducing heterostructure and disorder into the material...

  1. Performance of Batteries for electric vehicles on shorter and longer term

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerssen-Gondelach, S.J.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, the prospects of available and new battery technologies for battery electric vehicles (BEVs) are examined. Five selected battery technologies are assessed on battery performance and cost in the short, medium and long term. Driving cycle simulations are carried out to assess the influen

  2. Performance of batteries for electric vehicles on short and longer term

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerssen - Gondelach, Sarah|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/355262436; Faaij, André P C|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/10685903X

    2012-01-01

    In this work, the prospects of available and new battery technologies for battery electric vehicles (BEVs) are examined. Five selected battery technologies are assessed on battery performance and cost in the short, medium and long term. Driving cycle simulations are carried out to assess the influen

  3. Performance of Batteries for electric vehicles on shorter and longer term

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerssen-Gondelach, S.J.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, the prospects of available and new battery technologies for battery electric vehicles (BEVs) are examined. Five selected battery technologies are assessed on battery performance and cost in the short, medium and long term. Driving cycle simulations are carried out to assess the influen

  4. Performance of batteries for electric vehicles on short and longer term

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerssen - Gondelach, Sarah; Faaij, André P C

    2012-01-01

    In this work, the prospects of available and new battery technologies for battery electric vehicles (BEVs) are examined. Five selected battery technologies are assessed on battery performance and cost in the short, medium and long term. Driving cycle simulations are carried out to assess the influen

  5. Performance of batteries for electric vehicles on short and longer term

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerssen - Gondelach, Sarah|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/355262436; Faaij, André P C|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/10685903X

    2012-01-01

    In this work, the prospects of available and new battery technologies for battery electric vehicles (BEVs) are examined. Five selected battery technologies are assessed on battery performance and cost in the short, medium and long term. Driving cycle simulations are carried out to assess the

  6. Performance of Batteries for electric vehicles on shorter and longer term

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerssen-Gondelach, S.J.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, the prospects of available and new battery technologies for battery electric vehicles (BEVs) are examined. Five selected battery technologies are assessed on battery performance and cost in the short, medium and long term. Driving cycle simulations are carried out to assess the

  7. Freeze-drying synthesis of three-dimensional porous LiFePO4 modified with well-dispersed nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Xiaofeng; Zhou, Yingke; Song, Yijie

    2017-04-01

    The three-dimensional porous LiFePO4 modified with uniformly dispersed nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes has been successfully prepared by a freeze-drying method. The morphology and structure of the porous composites are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and the electrochemical performances are evaluated using the constant current charge/discharge tests, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes are uniformly dispersed inside the porous LiFePO4 to construct a superior three-dimensional conductive network, which remarkably increases the electronic conductivity and accelerates the diffusion of lithium ion. The porous composite displays high specific capacity, good rate capability and excellent cycling stability, rendering it a promising positive electrode material for high-performance lithium-ion batteries.

  8. Designed Functional Systems for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries Anode: From Solid to Hollow, and to Core-Shell NiCo2O4 Nanoparticles Encapsulated in Ultrathin Carbon Nanosheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Liang; Zhang, Huijuan; Fang, Ling; Bai, Yuanjuan; Wang, Yu

    2016-02-01

    Binary metal oxides have been considered as ideal and promising anode materials, which can ameliorate and enhance the electrochemical performances of the single metal oxides, such as electronic conductivity, reversible capacity, and structural stability. In this research, we report a rational method to synthesize some novel sandwich-like NiCo2O4@C nanosheets arrays for the first time. The nanostructures exhibit the unique features of solid, hollow, and even core-shell NiCo2O4 nanoparticles encapsulated inside and a graphitized carbon layers coating outside. Compared to the previous reports, these composites demonstrate more excellent electrochemical performances, including superior rate capability and excellent cycling capacity. Therefore, the final conclusion would be given that these multifarious sandwich-like NiCo2O4@C composites could be highly qualified candidates for lithium-ion battery anodes in some special field, in which good capability and high capacity are urgently required.

  9. Generalized Characterization Methodology for Performance Modelling of Lithium-Ion Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel Loan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Ana-Irina;

    2016-01-01

    Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are complex energy storage devices with their performance behavior highly dependent on the operating conditions (i.e., temperature, load current, and state-of-charge (SOC)). Thus, in order to evaluate their techno-economic viability for a certain application, detailed...... information about Li-ion battery performance behavior becomes necessary. This paper proposes a comprehensive seven-step methodology for laboratory characterization of Li-ion batteries, in which the battery’s performance parameters (i.e., capacity, open-circuit voltage (OCV), and impedance) are determined...... and their dependence on the operating conditions are obtained. Furthermore, this paper proposes a novel hybrid procedure for parameterizing the batteries’ equivalent electrical circuit (EEC), which is used to emulate the batteries’ dynamic behavior. Based on this novel parameterization procedure, the performance model...

  10. High energy density battery based on complex hydrides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidan, Ragaiy

    2016-04-26

    A battery and process of operating a battery system is provided using high hydrogen capacity complex hydrides in an organic non-aqueous solvent that allows the transport of hydride ions such as AlH.sub.4.sup.- and metal ions during respective discharging and charging steps.

  11. High energy density battery based on complex hydrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zidan, Ragaiy

    2016-04-26

    A battery and process of operating a battery system is provided using high hydrogen capacity complex hydrides in an organic non-aqueous solvent that allows the transport of hydride ions such as AlH.sub.4.sup.- and metal ions during respective discharging and charging steps.

  12. Charging performance of automotive batteries-An underestimated factor influencing lifetime and reliable battery operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Dirk Uwe; Karden, Eckhard; Fricke, Birger; Blanke, Holger; Thele, Marc; Bohlen, Oliver; Schiffer, Julia; Gerschler, Jochen Bernhard; Kaiser, Rudi

    Dynamic charge acceptance and charge acceptance under constant voltage charging conditions are for two reasons essential for lead-acid battery operation: energy efficiency in applications with limited charging time (e.g. PV systems or regenerative braking in vehicles) and avoidance of accelerated ageing due to sulphation. Laboratory tests often use charge regimes which are beneficial for the battery life, but which differ significantly from the operating conditions in the field. Lead-acid batteries in applications with limited charging time and partial-state-of-charge operation are rarely fully charged due to their limited charge acceptance. Therefore, they suffer from sulphation and early capacity loss. However, when appropriate charging strategies are applied most of the lost capacity and thus performance for the user may be recovered. The paper presents several aspects of charging regimes and charge acceptance. Theoretical and experimental investigations show that temperature is the most critical parameter. Full charging within short times can be achieved only at elevated temperatures. A strong dependency of the charge acceptance during charging pulses on the pre-treatment of the battery can be observed, which is not yet fully understood. But these effects have a significant impact on the fuel efficiency of micro-hybrid electric vehicles.

  13. Self-assembled sulfur/reduced graphene oxide nanoribbon paper as a free-standing electrode for high performance lithium-sulfur batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Wang, Xuzhen; Dong, Yanfeng; Tang, Yongchao; Wang, Luxiang; Jia, Dianzeng; Zhao, Zongbin; Qiu, Jieshan

    2016-10-25

    Flexible, interconnected sulfur/reduced graphene oxide nanoribbon paper (S/RGONRP) is synthesized through S(2-) reduction and evaporation induced self-assembly processes. The in situ formed sulfur atoms chemically bonded with the surface of reduced graphene oxide nanoribbons and were physically trapped by the compact assembly, which make the hybrid a suitable cathode material for lithium-sulfur batteries.

  14. A Flexible Nanostructured Paper of a Reduced Graphene Oxide-Sulfur Composite for High-Performance Lithium-Sulfur Batteries with Unconventional Configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jun; Chen, Chen; Zhao, Qing; Zhang, Ning; Lu, Qiongqiong; Wang, Xinyu; Niu, Zhiqiang; Chen, Jun

    2016-11-01

    Flexible nanostructured reduced graphene oxide-sulfur (rGO-S) composite films are fabricated by synchronously reducing and assembling GO sheets with S nanoparticles on a metal surface. The nanostructured architecture in such composite films not only provides effective pathways for electron transport, but also suppresses the diffusion of polysulfides. Furthermore, they can serve as the cathodes of flexible Li-S batteries.

  15. Novel Lithium Ion High Energy Battery Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Under this SBIR project a new chemistry for Li-ion cells will be developed that will enable a major advance in secondary battery gravimetric and volumetric energy...

  16. A new lead-acid battery for high pulse power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlette, J. J.; Attia, A. I.

    1987-01-01

    The development of new electronically conductive materials which can withstand the environment of the positive plates has made possible the construction of a high pulse power sealed bipolar lead-acid battery. The new battery is described and its advantages over other electrochemical systems are outlined. Performance projections show that the peak specific power of the battery can be as high as 90 kW/kg, and that a specific power of 5 kW/kg can be sustained over several thousand pulses.

  17. High-discharge-rate lithium ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gao; Battaglia, Vincent S; Zheng, Honghe

    2014-04-22

    The present invention provides for a lithium ion battery and process for creating such, comprising higher binder to carbon conductor ratios than presently used in the industry. The battery is characterized by much lower interfacial resistances at the anode and cathode as a result of initially mixing a carbon conductor with a binder, then with the active material. Further improvements in cycleability can also be realized by first mixing the carbon conductor with the active material first and then adding the binder.

  18. Performance and Lifetime Limiting Effects in Li-ion Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scipioni, Roberto

    Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) find widespread use for electricity storage, from portable devices such as smart phones to electric vehicles (EV), because of their high energy density and design flexibility. However, limited lifetime is still a challenge for several LIB materials. Specifically...

  19. High Energy Density Battery Lithium Thionyl Chloride Improved Reverse Voltage Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    BATTERY LITHIUM THIONYL CHLORIDE IMPROVED R-ETC(U) DEC 81 A E ZOLLA N660011-C-0310...HIGH ENERGY DENSITY BATTERY LITHIUM THIONYL CHLORIDE IMPROVED REVERSE VOLTAGE DESIGN Dr. A. E. Zolla Altus Corporation C:1 1610 Crane Court San Jose...reverse aide If necesary and identify by block number) Lithium Battery Lithium Thionyl Chloride High Energy Density Battery Voltage Reversal Battery

  20. A low cost, high energy density, and long cycle life potassium-sulfur battery for grid-scale energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaochuan; Bowden, Mark E; Sprenkle, Vincent L; Liu, Jun

    2015-10-21

    A potassium-sulfur battery using K(+) -conducting beta-alumina as the electrolyte to separate a molten potassium metal anode and a sulfur cathode is presented. The results indicate that the battery can operate at as low as 150 °C with excellent performance. This study demonstrates a new type of high-performance metal-sulfur battery that is ideal for grid-scale energy-storage applications.

  1. Results of electric-vehicle propulsion system performance on three lead-acid battery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewashinka, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    Three types of state of the art 6 V lead acid batteries were tested. The cycle life of lead acid batteries as a function of the electric vehicle propulsion system design was determined. Cycle life, degradation rate and failure modes with different battery types (baseline versus state of the art tubular and thin plate batteries were compared. The effects of testing strings of three versus six series connected batteries on overall performance were investigated. All three types do not seem to have an economically feasible battery system for the propulsion systems. The tubular plate batteries on the load leveled profile attained 235 cycles with no signs of degradation and minimal capacity loss.

  2. Co(II)1-xCo(0)x/3Mn(III)2x/3S Nanoparticles Supported on B/N-Codoped Mesoporous Nanocarbon as a Bifunctional Electrocatalyst of Oxygen Reduction/Evolution for High-Performance Zinc-Air Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zilong; Xiao, Shuang; An, Yiming; Long, Xia; Zheng, Xiaoli; Lu, Xihong; Tong, Yexiang; Yang, Shihe

    2016-06-01

    Rechargeable Zn-air battery is an ideal type of energy storage device due to its high energy and power density, high safety, and economic viability. Its large-scale application rests upon the availability of active, durable, low-cost electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in the discharge process and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in the charge process. Herein we developed a novel ORR/OER bifunctional electrocatalyst for rechargeable Zn-air batteries based on the codoping and hybridization strategies. The B/N-codoped mesoporous nanocarbon supported Co(II)1-xCo(0)x/3Mn(III)2x/3S nanoparticles exhibit a superior OER performance compared to that of IrO2 catalyst and comparable Zn-air battery performance to that of the Pt-based battery. The rechargeable Zn-air battery shows high discharge peak power density (over 250 mW cm(-2)) and current density (180 mA cm(-2) at 1 V), specific capacity (∼550 mAh g(-1)), small charge-discharge voltage gap of ∼0.72 V at 20 mA cm(-2) and even higher stability than the Pt-based battery. The advanced performance of the bifunctional catalysts highlights the beneficial role of the simultaneous formation of Mn(III) and Co(0) as well as the dispersed hybridization with the codoped nanocarbon support.

  3. A hierarchically nanostructured composite of MnO{sub 2}/conjugated polymer/graphene for high-performance lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Chun Xian; Chen, Tao; Li, Chang Ming [Institute for Clean Energy and Advanced Materials, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University (Singapore); Wang, Min; Lou, Xiong Wen [School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University (Singapore)

    2011-10-15

    A hierarchically nanostructured composite of MnO{sub 2}/conjugated polymer/graphene is designed and fabricated for lithium ion batteries. The composite can produce a reversible capacity more than ten times that of plain MnO{sub 2}-based devices. The described approach can be used to create desired hierarchically nanostructured composite electrodes for broad applications in energy conversion/storage systems. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Preparation and Electrochemical Performance of High Power Lithium Ion Battery%高功率型锂离子电池的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄锋涛

    2015-01-01

    The 18650/1300 mA·h Li-ion batteries were prepared with LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 as positive electrode and graphite as negative electrode. The discharge capacity of the batteries at 5 C was about 99% of the capacity obtained at 1.0 C. The capacity was over 87% of the original capacity after 900 cycles. Furthermore, there was no exploding and fire when the batteries were short circuited by puncturing.%采用 LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2作为正极材料,石墨为负极材料,制成18650型/1300 mA·h 功率型圆柱电池;该类电池5 C 放电容量相当于1 C 放电容量的99%,5 C 循环测试900次后,容量剩余87%以上;经过针刺后,电池没有起火爆炸。

  5. Optimal bidding strategy of battery storage in power markets considering performance based regulation and battery cycle life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Guannan; Chen, Qixin; Kang, Chongqing

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale battery storage will become an essential part of the future smart grid. This paper investigates the optimal bidding strategy for battery storage in power markets. Battery storage could increase its profitability by providing fast regulation service under a performance-based regulation...... degree. Thus, we incorporate a battery cycle life model into a profit maximization model to determine the optimal bids in day-ahead energy, spinning reserve, and regulation markets. Then a decomposed online calculation method to compute cycle life under different operational strategies is proposed...

  6. Understanding the interfacial phenomena of a 4.7 V and 55 °C Li-ion battery with Li-rich layered oxide cathode and grap2hite anode and its correlation to high-energy cycling performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Hieu Quang; Hwang, Eui-Hyung; Kwon, Young-Gil; Song, Seung-Wan

    2016-08-01

    Research progress of high-energy performance and interfacial phenomena of Li1.13Mn0.463Ni0.203Co0.203O2 cathode and graphite anode in a 55 °C full-cell under an aggressive charge cut-off voltage to 4.7 V (4.75 V vs. Li/Li+) is reported. Although anodic instability of conventional electrolyte is the critical issue on high-voltage and high-temperature cell operation, interfacial phenomena and the solution to performance improvement have not been reported. Surface spectroscopic evidence revealed that structural degradation of both cathode and anode materials, instability of surface film at cathode, and metal-dissolution from cathode and -deposition at anode, and a rise of interfacial resistance with high-voltage cycling in 55 °C conventional electrolyte are resolved by the formation of a stable surface film with organic/inorganic mixtures at cathode and solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) at anode using blended additives of fluorinated linear carbonate and vinylene carbonate. As a result, significantly improved cycling stability of 77% capacity retention delivering 227-174 mAhg-1 after 50 cycles is obtained, corresponding to 819-609 Wh per kg of cathode active material. Interfacial stabilization approach would pave the way of controlling the performance and safety, and widening the practical application of Li-rich layered oxide cathode materials and high-voltage electrolyte materials in various high-energy density Li-ion batteries.

  7. High-Power-Density Organic Radical Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friebe, Christian; Schubert, Ulrich S

    2017-02-01

    Batteries that are based on organic radical compounds possess superior charging times and discharging power capability in comparison to established electrochemical energy-storage technologies. They do not rely on metals and, hence, feature a favorable environmental impact. They furthermore offer the possibility of roll-to-roll processing through the use of different printing techniques, which enables the cost-efficient fabrication of mechanically flexible devices. In this review, organic radical batteries are presented with the focus on the hitherto developed materials and the key properties thereof, e.g., voltage, capacity, and cycle life. Furthermore, basic information, such as significant characteristics, housing approaches, and applied additives, are presented and discussed in the context of organic radical batteries.

  8. High-energy metal air batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ji-Guang; Xiao, Jie; Xu, Wu; Wang, Deyu; Williford, Ralph E.; Liu, Jun

    2013-07-09

    Disclosed herein are embodiments of lithium/air batteries and methods of making and using the same. Certain embodiments are pouch-cell batteries encased within an oxygen-permeable membrane packaging material that is less than 2% of the total battery weight. Some embodiments include a hybrid air electrode comprising carbon and an ion insertion material, wherein the mass ratio of ion insertion material to carbon is 0.2 to 0.8. The air electrode may include hydrophobic, porous fibers. In particular embodiments, the air electrode is soaked with an electrolyte comprising one or more solvents including dimethyl ether, and the dimethyl ether subsequently is evacuated from the soaked electrode. In other embodiments, the electrolyte comprises 10-20% crown ether by weight.

  9. A flexible high potential printed battery for powering printed electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikwad, Abhinav M.; Steingart, Daniel A.; Nga Ng, Tse; Schwartz, David E.; Whiting, Gregory L.

    2013-06-01

    Mechanically flexible arrays of alkaline electrochemical cells fabricated using stencil printing onto fibrous substrates are shown to provide the necessary performance characteristics for driving ink-jet printed circuits. Due to the dimensions and material set currently required for reliable low-temperature print processing of electronic devices, a battery potential greater than that sourced by single cells is typically needed. The developed battery is a series interconnected array of 10 low resistance Zn-MnO2 alkaline cells, giving an open circuit potential of 14 V. This flexible battery is used to power an ink-jet printed 5-stage complementary ring oscillator based on organic semiconductors.

  10. Stability of Conductive Carbon Additives for High-voltage Li-ion Battery Cathodes

    OpenAIRE

    Nilssen, Benedicte Eikeland

    2014-01-01

    Conductive carbon additives are important constituents of the current state-of-the-art Li-ion battery cathodes, as the traditional active cathode materials are characterized by too low electronic conductivities. In high-voltage Li-ion batteries, these additives are subject for anion intercalation and electrolyte oxidation, which might cause changes in the conductive carbon network in the cathode, and hence the overall cycling performance of the electrode. This thesis has focused on study the ...

  11. Cu–Li{sub 2}MnSiO{sub 4}-polyaniline composite hybrids as high performance cathode for lithium batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sol-Nip; Baek, Seulgi; Amaresh, Samuthirapandian [Faculty of Applied Chemical Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwang-ju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Aravindan, Vanchiappan [Faculty of Applied Chemical Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwang-ju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Energy Research Institute @ NTU (ERI-N), Nanyang Technological University, Research Techno Plaza, 50 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637553 (Singapore); Chung, Kyung Yoon; Cho, Byung Won [Center for Energy Convergence, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Won-Sub, E-mail: wsyoon@skku.edu [Department of Energy Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yun-Sung, E-mail: leeys@chonnam.ac.kr [Faculty of Applied Chemical Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwang-ju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-05

    Highlights: • High performance Cu–Li{sub 2}MnSiO{sub 4}-PANI composites hybrids are prepared by Sol–gel. • Beyond one electron reaction is realized for the mentioned composite in half-cell assembly. • Stable cycling profiles are noted upon cycling with ∼63% retention after 50 cycles. - Abstract: We reported the dramatic improvement in electrochemical properties of high capacity orthosilicate, Li{sub 2}MnSiO{sub 4} by conventional sol–gel route. Simple inclusion of metallic Cu and subsequent hybridization with polyaniline (PANI) nanofibers certainly promotes superior electrochemical activity in terms of high reversibility i.e. beyond one electron reaction and cycling stability. First, the Li{sub 2}MnSiO{sub 4} nanoparticles are prepared by adipic acid assisted sol–gel technique at 700 °C under Ar flow by fine tuning the sintering duration. Then, optimization of adipic acid and Cu concentrations are performed based on the mentioned sintering conditions to yield high performance cathode active material. The Cu–Li{sub 2}MnSiO{sub 4}-PANI hybrid exhibits the reversible insertion of ∼1.15 and 0.73 mol of Li for first and 50th cycles, respectively. This corresponds to the ∼63% of retention.

  12. Electrochemical Properties of LLTO/Fluoropolymer-Shell Cellulose-Core Fibrous Membrane for Separator of High Performance Lithium-Ion Battery

    OpenAIRE

    Fenglin Huang; Wenting Liu; Peiying Li; Jinxia Ning; Qufu Wei

    2016-01-01

    A superfine Li0.33La0.557TiO3 (LLTO, 69.4 nm) was successfully synthesized by a facile solvent-thermal method to enhance the electrochemical properties of the lithium-ion battery separator. Co-axial nanofiber of cellulose and Poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) was prepared by a co-axial electrospinning technique, in which the shell material was PVDF-HFP and the core was cellulose. LLTO superfine nanoparticles were incorporated into the shell of the PVDF-HFP. The core–...

  13. Graphene encapsulated Fe3O4 nanorods assembled into a mesoporous hybrid composite used as a high-performance lithium-ion battery anode material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Wei; Xiao, Xinxin; Engelbrekt, Christian

    2017-01-01

    The discovery of new anode materials and engineering their fine structures are the core elements in the development of new-generation lithium ion batteries (LIBs). To this end, we herein report a novel nanostructured composite consisting of approximately 75% Fe3O4 nanorods and 25% reduced graphene...... oxide (rGO). Microscopy and spectroscopy analyses have identified that the Fe3O4 nanorods are wrapped (or encapsulated) by the rGO nanosheets via covalent bonding, which further self-assemble into a mesoporous hybrid composite networked by the graphene matrix. The composite has an average pore size...

  14. Materials and mechanisms of high temperature lithium sulfide batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaun, T.D.; Hash, M.C.; Henriksen, G.L.; Jansen, A.N.; Vissers, D.R.

    1994-05-01

    New materials have encouraged development of bipolar Li-Al/FeS{sub 2} batteries for electric vehicle (EV) applications. Current technology employs a two-phase Li-alloy negative electrode low-melting, LiCl-rich LiCl-LiBr-KBr molten salt electrolyte, and either an FeS or an upper-plateau (UP) FeS{sub 2} positive electrode. These components are assembled in a sealed bipolar battery configuration. Use of the two-phase Li-alloy ({alpha} + {beta} Li-Al and Li{sub 5}Al{sub 5}Fe{sub 2}) negative electrode provides in situ overcharge tolerance that renders the bipolar design viable. Employing LiCl-rich LiCl-LiBr-KBr electrolyte in ``electrolyte-starved`` calls achieves low-burdened cells, that possess low area-specific impedance; comparable to that of flooded cells using LiCl-LiBr-KBr eutectic electrolyte. The combination of dense UP FeS{sub 2} electrodes and low-melting electrolyte produces a stable and reversible couple, achieving over 1000 cycle life in flooded cells, with high power capabilities. In addition, a family of stable sulfide ceramic/sealant materials was developed that produce high-strength bonds between a variety of metals and ceramics, which renders lithium/iron suffide bipolar stacks practical. Bipolar Li-Al/FeS{sub 2} cells and four-cell stacks using these seals are being built and tested in the 13 cm diameter size for EV applications. To date, Li-Al/FeS{sub 2} cells have attained 400 W/kg power at 80% DOD and 180 Wh/kg energy at the 30 W/kg rate. When cell performance characteristics are used to model full-scale EV and hybrid vehicle (HV) batteries, they are projected to meet or exceed the performance requirements for a large variety of EV and HV applications. Efficient production and application of Li-alloys and Li-salt electrolyte are critical to approaching battery cost objectives.

  15. High Voltage Li-Ion Battery Using Exfoliated Graphite/Graphene Nanosheets Anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, Marco; Brutti, Sergio; Hassoun, Jusef

    2016-05-04

    The achievement of a new generation of lithium-ion battery, suitable for a continuously growing consumer electronic and sustainable electric vehicle markets, requires the development of new, low-cost, and highly performing materials. Herein, we propose a new and efficient lithium-ion battery obtained by coupling exfoliated graphite/graphene nanosheets (EGNs) anode and high-voltage, spinel-structure cathode. The anode shows a capacity exceeding by 40% that ascribed to commercial graphite in lithium half-cell, at very high C-rate, due to its particular structure and morphology as demonstrated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The Li-ion battery reveals excellent efficiency and cycle life, extending up to 150 cycles, as well as an estimated practical energy density of about 260 Wh kg(-1), that is, a value well exceeding the one associated with the present-state Li-ion battery.

  16. A Method for the Analysis of High Power Battery Designs

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    Proceedings of the 32nd Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, Honolulu, HI, July 27 - August 1, 1997 A spreadsheet model for the analysis of batteries of various types has been developed that permits the calculation of the size and performance characteristics of the battery based on its internal geometry and electrode/electrolyte material properties. The method accounts for most of the electrochemical mechanisms in both the anode and cathode without solving the gover...

  17. Disodium terephthalate (Na{sub 2}C{sub 8}H{sub 4}O{sub 4}) as high performance anode material for low-cost room-temperature sodium-ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Liang; Hu, Yong-Sheng; Li, Hong; Armand, Michel; Chen, Liquan [Key Laboratory for Renewable Energy, Beijing Key Laboratory for New, Energy Materials and Devices, Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Zhao, Junmei [Key Laboratory of Green Process and Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Zhou, Zhibin [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China)

    2012-08-15

    In this contribution, a cheap organic material, disodium terephthalate, Na{sub 2}C{sub 8}H{sub 4}O{sub 4}, has been firstly evaluated as a novel anode for room-temperature Na-ion batteries. The material exhibits a high reversible capacity of 250 mAh/g with excellent cycleability. The average Na storage voltage is approximately 0.43 V vs. Na{sup +}/Na. A thin layer of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating on the electrode surface derived from the atomic layer deposition technique is effective in further enhancing Na storage performance. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Well-dispersed LiFePO4 nanoparticles anchored on a three-dimensional graphene aerogel as high-performance positive electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiaohui; Zhou, Yingke; Tu, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Zhongtang; Du, Guodong

    2017-02-01

    A three-dimensional graphene aerogel supporting LiFePO4 nanoparticles (LFP/GA) has been synthesized by a hydrothermal process. The morphology and microstructure of LFP/GA were investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis. The electrochemical properties were evaluated by constant-current charge/discharge tests, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Well-distributed LFP nanoparticles are anchored on both sides of graphene and then assemble into a highly porous three-dimensional aerogel architecture. Conductive graphene networks provide abundant paths to facilitate the transfer of electrons, while the aerogel structures offer plenty of interconnected open pores for the storage of electrolyte to enable the fast supply of Li ions. The LFP and graphene aerogel composites present superior specific capacity, rate capability and cycling performance in comparison to the pristine LFP or LFP supported on graphene sheets and are thus promising for lithium-ion battery applications.

  19. 3D nitrogen-doped graphene foam with encapsulated germanium/nitrogen-doped graphene yolk-shell nanoarchitecture for high-performance flexible Li-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Runwei; Rooney, David; Sun, Kening; Yang, Hui Ying

    2017-01-01

    Flexible electrochemical energy storage devices have attracted extensive attention as promising power sources for the ever-growing field of flexible and wearable electronic products. However, the rational design of a novel electrode structure with a good flexibility, high capacity, fast charge-discharge rate and long cycling lifetimes remains a long-standing challenge for developing next-generation flexible energy-storage materials. Herein, we develop a facile and general approach to three-dimensional (3D) interconnected porous nitrogen-doped graphene foam with encapsulated Ge quantum dot/nitrogen-doped graphene yolk-shell nano architecture for high specific reversible capacity (1,220 mAh g-1), long cycling capability (over 96% reversible capacity retention from the second to 1,000 cycles) and ultra-high rate performance (over 800 mAh g-1 at 40 C). This work paves a way to develop the 3D interconnected graphene-based high-capacity electrode material systems, particularly those that suffer from huge volume expansion, for the future development of high-performance flexible energy storage systems.

  20. Facile and Scalable Synthesis of Zn3V2O7(OH)2·2H2O Microflowers as a High-Performance Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Haowu; Luo, Yanzhu; Xu, Xu; He, Liang; Tan, Jian; Li, Zhaohuai; Hong, Xufeng; He, Pan; Mai, Liqiang

    2017-08-23

    The employment of nanomaterials and nanotechnologies has been widely acknowledged as an effective strategy to enhance the electrochemical performance of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). However, how to produce nanomaterials effectively on a large scale remains a challenge. Here, the highly crystallized Zn3V2O7(OH)2·2H2O is synthesized through a simple liquid phase method at room temperature in a large scale, which is easily realized in industry. Through suppressing the reaction dynamics with ethylene glycol, a uniform morphology of microflowers is obtained. Owing to the multiple reaction mechanisms (insertion, conversion, and alloying) during Li insertion/extraction, the prepared electrode delivers a remarkable specific capacity of 1287 mA h g(-1) at 0.2 A g(-1) after 120 cycles. In addition, a high capacity of 298 mA h g(-1) can be obtained at 5 A g(-1) after 1400 cycles. The excellent electrochemical performance can be attributed to the high crystallinity and large specific surface area of active materials. The smaller particles after cycling could facilitate the lithium-ion transport and provide more reaction sites. The facile and scalable synthesis process and excellent electrochemical performance make this material a highly promising anode for the commercial LIBs.