WorldWideScience

Sample records for high bad nearby

  1. Ozone: Good Up High, Bad Nearby

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reduce driving, carpool, use public transportation, walk, or bicycle to reduce ozone pollution, especially on hot summer ... presence of sunlight. Emissions from industrial facilities and electric utilities, motor vehicle exhaust, gasoline vapors, and chemical ...

  2. Are high real interest rates bad for world economic growth?

    OpenAIRE

    1991-01-01

    There is a conventional perception that high real interest rates are bad for economic growth. However, the authors show that close examination of the experience over the last 40 years undermines the existence of such a relationship. For much of the 1950-79 period, expost real interest rates were less than the growth rate of income in the major economies, whereas the 1980s were a period of rapid growth in the world economy that coincided withunprecedentedly high real interest rates. The author...

  3. Knowing Our Neighbors: Four New Nearby High Proper Motion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Jennifer L.; Lurie, John C.; Ianna, Philip A.; Riedel, Adric R.; Finch, Charlie T.; Winters, Jennifer G.; Jao, Wei-Chun; Subasavage, John P.; Henry, Todd J.

    2017-01-01

    Obtaining a well-understood, volume-limited (and ultimately volume-complete) sample of stellar systems within 25 pc is essential for determining the stellar luminosity function, the mass-luminosity relationship, the stellar velocity distribution, and the stellar multiplicity fraction. Such a sample also provides insight into the local star formation history. Towards that end, the Research Consortium On Nearby Stars (RECONS) team measures trigonometric parallaxes to establish which systems truly lie within the 25-pc radius of the Solar Neighborhood. Recent astrometric measurements with the CTIO/SMARTS 0.9-m telescope establish three high proper motion systems as members (2MASS J02511490-0352459, 2MASS J15345704-1418486, and 2MASS J09211410-2104446) and confirm a fourth (2MASS J23062928-0502285). All four proper motions exceed 0.9”/yr. 2MA0251 travels 2.1497±0.0009”/yr in 149.20±0.05° at a distance of 11.0±0.4 pc. 2M2306 moves 1.0344±0.0007”/yr in 118.50±0.08° at a distance of 12.7±0.2 pc. 2MA1534 goes 0.9726±0.0004”/yr in 251.50 ±0.05° at a distance of 10.93±0.10 pc. 2MA0921 shifts 0.9489±0.0003”/yr in 164.70±0.04° at a distance of 12.3±0.2 pc. The corresponding tangential velocities are 112.4, 62.4, 50.4, and 55.5 km/s whereas the median for parallaxes previously published by RECONS is 53 km/s. With radial velocities in the literature of -75.5 to 80.53 km/s, none of these is a candidate member of any young moving groups.To characterize these late M-early L systems more fully, RECONS obtained VRI photometry; their I -band magnitudes range from 14.10 to 16.55. Over their astrometric baselines of 7.75 to 8.99 years, these demonstrated long-term I-band variability of 0.0135 mag. or less, indicating they may be older systems.With each new confirmation, we come closer to completing the census of the Solar Neighborhood.NSF grants AST 05-07711 and AST 09-08402, NASA-SIM, Georgia State University, the University of Virginia, Hampden-Sydney College

  4. Nearby debris disk systems with high fractional luminosity reconsidered

    CERN Document Server

    Moor, A; Apai, D; Derekas, A; Grady, C; Henning, T; Kiss, C; Kiss, L L; Henning, Th.; Kiss, Cs.

    2006-01-01

    By searching the IRAS and ISO databases we compiled a list of 60 debris disks which exhibit the highest fractional luminosity values (fd>10^-4) in the vicinity of the Sun (d5x10^-4 are younger than 100Myr. The distribution of the disks in the fractional luminosity versus age diagram indicates that (1) the number of old systems with high fd is lower than was claimed before; (2) there exist many relatively young disks of moderate fractional luminosity; and (3) comparing the observations with a current theoretical model of debris disk evolution a general good agreement could be found.

  5. VLA-ANGST: A high-resolution HI Survey of Nearby Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Ott, Juergen; Warren, Steven R; Skillman, Evan D; Dalcanton, Julianne J; Walter, Fabian; de Blok, W J G; Koribalski, Baerbel; West, Andrew A

    2012-01-01

    We present the "Very Large Array survey of Advanced Camera for Surveys Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury galaxies (VLA-ANGST)." VLA-ANGST is a National Radio Astronomy Observatory Large Program consisting of high spectral (0.6-2.6 km/s) and spatial (~6") resolution observations of neutral, atomic hydrogen (HI) emission toward 35 nearby dwarf galaxies from the ANGST survey. ANGST is a systematic HST survey to establish a legacy of uniform multi-color photometry of resolved stars for a volume-limited sample of nearby galaxies (D\\lesssim4 Mpc). VLA-ANGST provides VLA HI observations of the sub-sample of ANGST galaxies with recent star formation that are observable from the northern hemisphere and that were not observed in the "The HI Nearby Galaxy Survey" (THINGS). The overarching scientific goal of VLA-ANGST is to investigate fundamental characteristics of the neutral interstellar medium (ISM) of dwarf galaxies. Here we describe the VLA observations, the data reduction, and the final VLA-ANGST data products. We pre...

  6. From Nearby Low Luminosity AGN to High Redshift Radio Galaxies: Science Interests with SKA

    CERN Document Server

    Kharb, P; Singh, V; Bagchi, J; Chandra, C H Ishwara; Hota, A; Konar, C; Wadadekar, Y; Shastri, P; Das, M; Baliyan, K; Nath, B B; Pandey-Pommier, M

    2016-01-01

    We present detailed science cases that a large fraction of the Indian AGN community is interested in pursuing with the upcoming Square Kilometre Array (SKA). These interests range from understanding low luminosity active galactic nuclei in the nearby Universe to powerful radio galaxies at high redshifts. Important unresolved science questions in AGN physics are discussed. Ongoing low-frequency surveys with the SKA pathfinder telescope GMRT, are highlighted.

  7. From Nearby Low Luminosity AGN to High Redshift Radio Galaxies: Science Interests with Square Kilometre Array

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P. Kharb; D. V. Lal; V. Singh; J. Bagchi; C. H. Ishwara Chandra; A. Hota; C. Konar; Y. Wadadekar; P. Shastri; M. Das; K. Baliyan; B. B. Nath; M. Pandey-Pommier

    2016-12-01

    We present detailed science cases that a large fraction of the Indian AGN community is interested in pursuing with the upcoming Square Kilometre Array (SKA). These interests range from understanding low luminosity active galactic nuclei in the nearby Universe to powerful radio galaxies at high redshifts. Important unresolved science questions in AGN physics are discussed. Ongoing low-frequency surveys with the SKA pathfinder telescope GMRT, are highlighted.

  8. Star Formation Histories of Nearby Galaxies and the Connection to High Redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Tolstoy, E

    1998-01-01

    It is an obvious statement that all the galaxies we see today in and around our Local Group have been forming and evolving for a significant fraction of the age of the Universe. It is not a great leap of logic to further state that the manner in which they have formed and evolved must be fairly representative of these processes in general. Unless of course we would like to assume that our local region of space is in some way peculiar for which there is no evidence. In other words, if we are able to determine accurate star formation histories for the nearby galaxies back to the ages of the oldest globular clusters then we will also obtain a representative picture of how galaxies have evolved from the earliest times, and predict what nearby galaxies looked like at intermediate and high redshifts. Deep, precision, multi-colour photometry of resolved stellar populations in external galaxies can uniquely determine the star formation histories of nearby galaxies going back many Gyrs. Hubble Space Telescope and high...

  9. Reliability and Failure in NASA Missions: Blunders, Normal Accidents, High Reliability, Bad Luck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2015-01-01

    NASA emphasizes crew safety and system reliability but several unfortunate failures have occurred. The Apollo 1 fire was mistakenly unanticipated. After that tragedy, the Apollo program gave much more attention to safety. The Challenger accident revealed that NASA had neglected safety and that management underestimated the high risk of shuttle. Probabilistic Risk Assessment was adopted to provide more accurate failure probabilities for shuttle and other missions. NASA's "faster, better, cheaper" initiative and government procurement reform led to deliberately dismantling traditional reliability engineering. The Columbia tragedy and Mars mission failures followed. Failures can be attributed to blunders, normal accidents, or bad luck. Achieving high reliability is difficult but possible.

  10. VLA-ANGST: A HIGH-RESOLUTION H I SURVEY OF NEARBY DWARF GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, Juergen [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, 1003 Lopezville Road, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Stilp, Adrienne M.; Dalcanton, Julianne J. [Department of Astronomy, Box 351580, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Warren, Steven R.; Skillman, Evan D. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, 116 Church St. SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Walter, Fabian [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); De Blok, W. J. G. [Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy, Oude Hoogeveensedijk 4, 7991 PD Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Koribalski, Baerbel [Australia Telescope National Facility, CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); West, Andrew A., E-mail: jott@nrao.edu, E-mail: adrienne@astro.washington.edu, E-mail: jd@astro.washington.edu, E-mail: warren@astro.umn.edu, E-mail: skillman@astro.umn.edu, E-mail: walter@mpia.de, E-mail: blok@astron.nl, E-mail: Baerbel.Koribalski@csiro.au, E-mail: aawest@bu.edu [Department of Astronomy, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2012-10-01

    We present the 'Very Large Array survey of Advanced Camera for Surveys Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury galaxies (VLA-ANGST)'. VLA-ANGST is a National Radio Astronomy Observatory Large Program consisting of high spectral (0.6-2.6 km s{sup -1}) and spatial ({approx}6'') resolution observations of neutral, atomic hydrogen (H I) emission toward 35 nearby dwarf galaxies from the ANGST survey. ANGST is a systematic Hubble Space Telescope survey to establish a legacy of uniform multi-color photometry of resolved stars for a volume-limited sample of nearby galaxies (D {approx}< 4 Mpc). VLA-ANGST provides VLA H I observations of the sub-sample of ANGST galaxies with recent star formation that are observable from the northern hemisphere and that were not observed in the 'The H I Nearby Galaxy Survey' (THINGS). The overarching scientific goal of VLA-ANGST is to investigate fundamental characteristics of the neutral interstellar medium (ISM) of dwarf galaxies. Here we describe the VLA observations, the data reduction, and the final VLA-ANGST data products. We present an atlas of the integrated H I maps, the intensity-weighted velocity fields, the second moment maps as a measure for the velocity dispersion of the H I, individual channel maps, and integrated H I spectra for each VLA-ANGST galaxy. We closely follow the observational setup and data reduction of THINGS to achieve comparable sensitivity and angular resolution. A major difference between VLA-ANGST and THINGS, however, is the high velocity resolution of the VLA-ANGST observations (0.65 and 1.3 km s{sup -1} for the majority of the galaxies). The VLA-ANGST data products are made publicly available through a dedicated Web site (https://science.nrao.edu/science/surveys/vla-angst). With available star formation histories from resolved stellar populations and lower resolution ancillary observations from the far-infrared to the ultraviolet, VLA-ANGST will enable detailed studies of the

  11. Contribution from individual nearby sources to the spectrum of high-energy cosmic-ray electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedrati, R., E-mail: rafik.sedrati@univ-annaba.org; Attallah, R.

    2014-04-01

    In the last few years, very important data on high-energy cosmic-ray electrons and positrons from high-precision space-born and ground-based experiments have attracted a great deal of interest. These particles represent a unique probe for studying local comic-ray accelerators because they lose energy very rapidly. These energy losses reduce the lifetime so drastically that high-energy cosmic-ray electrons can attain the Earth only from rather local astrophysical sources. This work aims at calculating, by means of Monte Carlo simulation, the contribution from some known nearby astrophysical sources to the cosmic-ray electron/positron spectra at high energy (≥10GeV). The background to the electron energy spectrum from distant sources is determined with the help of the GALPROP code. The obtained numerical results are compared with a set of experimental data.

  12. Chandra Survey of Nearby Highly Inclined Disc Galaxies - III: Comparison with Hydrodynamical Simulations of Circumgalactic Coronae

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jiang-Tao; Wang, Q Daniel

    2014-01-01

    X-ray observations of circumgalactic coronae provide a valuable means by which to test galaxy formation theories. Two primary mechanisms are thought to be responsible for the establishment of such coronae: accretion of intergalactic gas (IGM) and/or galactic feedback. In this paper, we first compare our Chandra sample of galactic coronae of 53 nearby highly-inclined disc galaxies to an analytical model considering only the accretion of IGM. We confirm the existing conclusion that this pure accretion model substantially over-predicts the coronal emission. We then select 30 field galaxies from our original sample, and correct their coronal luminosities to uniformly compare them to deep X-ray measurements of several massive disc galaxies from the literature, as well as to a comparable sample of simulated galaxies drawn from the Galaxies-Intergalactic Medium Interaction Calculation (GIMIC). These simulations explicitly model both accretion and SNe feedback and yield galaxies exhibit X-ray properties in broad agre...

  13. The Nearby Supernova Factory: Toward A High-Precision Spectro-Photometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nearby Supernova Factory; Copin, Y.; Buton, C.; Gangler, E.; Smadja, G.; Pecontal, E.; Rigaudier, G.; Antilogus, P.; Bailey, S.; Pain, R.; Pereira, R.; Wu, C.; Aldering, G.; Aragon, C.; Bongard, S.; Childress, M.; Loken, S.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Runge, K.; Thomas, R.; Weaver, B.; Baltay, C.; Bauer, A.; Rabinowitz, D.; Scalzo, R.

    2007-07-01

    The Nearby Supernova Factory (SNfactory) is an international project to discover and study a large sample of type Ia supernovae in the redshift range 0.03 < z < 0.08. Follow-up spectro-photometric observations are performed using the dedicated Supernovae Integral-Field Spectrograph, mounted since 2004 on 2.2 m UH telescope. The goal is to acquire for each supernova and over its full life-time (more than 10 epochs) high spectro-photometric quality spectra over the extended optical range (320-1000 nm).I will present the current status of the SNfactory project, from search efficiency to first scientific results, with an emphasis on the spectro-photometric calibration issues and achievements.

  14. Modelling CO emission from hydrodynamic simulations of nearby spirals, starbursting mergers, and high-redshift galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Bournaud, F; Weiss, A; Renaud, F; Mastropietro, C; Teyssier, R

    2014-01-01

    We model the intensity of emission lines from the CO molecule, based on hydrodynamic simulations of spirals, mergers, and high-redshift galaxies with very high resolutions (3pc and 10^3 Msun) and detailed models for the phase-space structure of the interstellar gas including shock heating, stellar feedback processes and galactic winds. The simulations are analyzed with a Large Velocity Gradient (LVG) model to compute the local emission in various molecular lines in each resolution element, radiation transfer and opacity effects, and the intensity emerging from galaxies, to generate synthetic spectra for various transitions of the CO molecule. This model reproduces the known properties of CO spectra and CO-to-H2 conversion factors in nearby spirals and starbursting major mergers. The high excitation of CO lines in mergers is dominated by an excess of high-density gas, and the high turbulent velocities and compression that create this dense gas excess result in broad linewidths and low CO intensity-to-H2 mass r...

  15. Chandra Survey of Nearby Highly Inclined Disc Galaxies - II: Correlation Analysis of Galactic Coronal Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jiang-Tao

    2013-01-01

    X-ray observations provide a key tool for exploring the properties of galactic coronae and their formation processes. In an earlier paper, we have presented a Chandra data analysis of the coronae of 53 nearby highly-inclined disc galaxies. Here we study the correlation of the X-ray measurements with other galaxy properties and compare the results with those obtained for elliptical galaxies. A good correlation is present between the coronal luminosity Lx and the SFR. But we find a better correlation between Lx and the total SN mechanical energy input rate (ESN), including the expected contribution from core collapsed (CC) and Ia SNe. The X-ray radiation efficiency (eta=Lx/ESN) has a mean value of ~0.4% with an rms of ~0.5dex. eta further correlates with MTF/M* (MTF is the baryon mass measured from the rotation velocity and the Tully-Fisher relation, M* is the stellar mass measured from the K-band luminosity) and the CC SN rate surface density (FSN, in units of SN/yr/kpc^2), which can be characterized as: eta=0...

  16. High precision astrometry mission for the detection and characterization of nearby habitable planetary systems with the Nearby Earth Astrometric Telescope (NEAT)

    CERN Document Server

    Malbet, Fabien; Shao, Michael; Goullioud, Renaud; Lagage, Pierre-Olivier; Brown, Anthony G A; Cara, Christophe; Durand, Gilles; Eiroa, Carlos; Feautrier, Philippe; Jakobsson, Björn; Hinglais, Emmanuel; Kaltenegger, Lisa; Labadie, Lucas; Lagrange, Anne-Marie; Laskar, Jacques; Liseau, René; Lunine, Jonathan; Maldonado, Jesús; Mercier, Manuel; Mordasini, Christoph; Queloz, Didier; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Sozzetti, Alessandro; Traub, Wesley; Absil, Olivier; Alibert, Yann; Andrei, Alexandre Humberto; Beichman, Charles; Chelli, Alain; Cockell, Charles S; Duvert, Gilles; Forveille, Thierry; Garcia, Paulo J V; Hobbs, David; Krone-Martins, Alberto; Lammer, Helmut; Meunier, Nadège; Minardi, Stefano; de Almeida, André Moitinho; Rambaux, Nicolas; Raymond, Sean; Röttgering, Huub J A; Sahlmann, Johannes; Schuller, Peter A; Ségransan, Damien; Selsis, Franck; Surdej, Jean; Villaver, Eva; White, Glenn J; Zinnecker, Hans

    2011-01-01

    (abridged) A complete census of planetary systems around a volume-limited sample of solar-type stars (FGK dwarfs) in the Solar neighborhood with uniform sensitivity down to Earth-mass planets within their Habitable Zones out to several AUs would be a major milestone in extrasolar planets astrophysics. This fundamental goal can be achieved with a mission concept such as NEAT - the Nearby Earth Astrometric Telescope. NEAT is designed to carry out space-borne extremely-high-precision astrometric measurements sufficient to detect dynamical effects due to orbiting planets of mass even lower than Earth's around the nearest stars. Such a survey mission would provide the actual planetary masses and the full orbital geometry for all the components of the detected planetary systems down to the Earth-mass limit. The NEAT performance limits can be achieved by carrying out differential astrometry between the targets and a set of suitable reference stars in the field. The NEAT instrument design consists of an off-axis para...

  17. Nearby supernova remnants and the cosmic-ray spectral hardening at high energies

    CERN Document Server

    Thoudam, Satyendra

    2011-01-01

    Recent measurements of cosmic-ray spectra of several individual nuclear species by the CREAM, TRACER, and ATIC experiments indicate a change in the spectral index of the power laws at TeV energies. Possible explanations among others include non linear diffusive shock acceleration of cosmic-rays, different cosmic-ray propagation properties at higher and lower energies in the Galaxy and the presence of nearby sources. In this paper, we show that if supernova remnants are the main sources of cosmic rays in our Galaxy, the effect of the nearby remnants can be responsible for the observed spectral changes. Using a rigidity dependent escape of cosmic-rays from the supernova remnants, we explain the apparent observed property that the hardening of the helium spectrum occurs at relatively lower energies as compared to the protons and also that the spectral hardening does not persist beyond $\\sim (20-30)$ TeV energies.

  18. Flood of July 2016 in northern Wisconsin and the Bad River Reservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Dantoin, Eric D.; Tillison, Naomi; Watson, Kara M.; Waschbusch, Robert J.; Blount, James D.

    2017-06-06

    Heavy rain fell across northern Wisconsin and the Bad River Reservation on July 11, 2016, as a result of several rounds of thunderstorms. The storms caused major flooding in the Bad River Basin and nearby tributaries along the south shore of Lake Superior. Rainfall totals were 8–10 inches or more and most of the rain fell in an 8-hour period. A streamgage on the Bad River near Odanah, Wisconsin, rose from 300 cubic feet per second to a record peak streamflow of 40,000 cubic feet per second in only 15 hours. Following the storms and through September 2016, personnel from the U.S. Geological Survey and Bad River Tribe Natural Resources Department recovered and documented 108 high-water marks near the Bad River Reservation. Many of these high-water marks were used to create three flood-inundation maps for the Bad River, Beartrap Creek, and Denomie Creek for the Bad River Reservation in the vicinity of the community of Odanah.

  19. Comparison of good- and bad-quality cork: application of high-throughput sequencing of phellogenic tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Rita Teresa; Fortes, Ana Margarida; Pinheiro, Carla; Pereira, Helena

    2014-09-01

    Cork is one of the most valuable non-wood forest products and plays an important role in Mediterranean economies. The production of high-quality cork is dependent on both genome and environment, posing constraints on the industry because an ever-growing amount of bad-quality cork (BQC) development has been observed. In order to identify genes responsible for production of cork of superior quality we performed a comparative analysis using the 454 pyrosequencing approach on phellogenic tissue of good- and bad-quality samples. The transcriptional profiling showed a high number of genes differentially expressed (8.48%) from which 78.8% displayed annotation. Genes more highly represented in BQC are involved in DNA synthesis, RNA processing, proteolysis, and transcription factors related to the abiotic stress response. Putative stomatal/lenticular-associated genes which may be responsible for the disadvantageous higher number of lenticular channels in BQC are also more highly represented. BQC also showed an elevated content of free phenolics. On the other hand, good-quality cork (GQC) can be distinguished by highly expressed genes encoding heat-shock proteins. Together the results provide valuable new information about the molecular events leading to cork formation and provide putative biomarkers associated with cork quality that can be useful in breeding programmes.

  20. A Search for Stellar Dust Production in Leo P, a Nearby Analog of High Redshift Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Martha; McDonald, Iain; McQuinn, Kristen; Skillman, Evan; Sonneborn, George; Srinivasan, Sundar; van Loon, Jacco Th.; Zijlstra, Albert; Sloan, Greg

    2016-08-01

    The origin of dust in the early Universe is a matter of debate. One of the main potential dust contributors are Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars, and several studies have been devoted to investigating whether and how AGB dust production changes in metal-poor environments. Of particular interest are the most massive AGB stars (8-10 Msun), which can in principle enter the dust-producing phase systems reachable in the infrared and to the short lifetimes of these stars. The recently discovered galaxy Leo P provides an irresistible opportunity to search for these massive AGB stars: Leo P is a gas-rich, star-forming galaxy, it is nearby enough for resolved star photometry with Spitzer, and its interstellar medium is 0.4 dex more metal-poor than any other accessible star-forming galaxy. Models predict ~3 massive AGB stars may be present in Leo P, and optical HST observations reveal 7 candidates. We propose to use Spitzer to determine whether these stars are dusty, providing valuable constraints to the dust contribution from AGB stars up to at least redshift 3.2, or 11.7 Gyr ago, when massive spheroidals and Galactic globular clusters were still forming. This is a gain of 2.8 Gyr compared to other accessible galaxies. We also request 1 orbit of joint HST time to confirm whether the AGB candidates in Leo P are indeed massive AGB stars belonging to the galaxy. These observations will provide information crucial for potential JWST followup spectroscopy.

  1. LEOMA and the US laser industry the good and bad moves for trade associations in emerging high-tech industries

    CERN Document Server

    Hitz, C

    2015-01-01

    Hitz addresses the urgent issues that the Laser and Electro-Optics Manufacturer’s Association (LEOMA) tackled in the late 1980s, which will help guide future trade associations to handle related political and infrastructural issues from the industry. LEOMA- the Laser and Electro-Optics Manufacturers’ Association – is in many ways similar to trade associations that exist, or will exist, in other emerging, high-technology industries. Having dealt successfully with these initial obstacles, LEOMA went on to tackle other issues, perhaps less urgent, that confronted the industry. LEOMA and the US Laser Industry: The Good and Bad Moves for Trade Associations in Emerging High-Tech Industries describes the approaches, both successful and not, to the political and infrastructure issues addressed by the trade association. The intent is to provide guidance to those confronting similar issues, and help them avoid unsuccessful approaches. The key fea ures highlight the problems that were dealt with, and solutions,...

  2. Faking Bad: Do High-Ability Elementary Students Intentionally Underachieve When Their Work Is Peer-Reviewed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Kasey M. K.

    2012-01-01

    While faking bad, or the intentional distortion of assessment results, has been studied extensively with self-report measures (Lim & Butcher, 1996; Roskes, 2009), the possible presence of this behavior on direct measures has only just begun to be examined. Previous studies of faking bad on academic measures have been limited to students at the…

  3. High Energy Cosmic Electrons: Messengers from Nearby Cosmic Ray Sources or Dark Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moiseev, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the recent discoveries by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) and the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on board the Fermi Gamma-Ray Telescope in reference to high energy cosmic electrons, and whether their source is cosmic rays or dark matter. Specific interest is devoted to Cosmic Ray electrons anisotropy,

  4. Far Infrared Spectroscopy of the Nearby Analogues of High-Redshift Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Matthew

    2014-10-01

    We propose far infrared emission line spectroscopy of a sample of 23 local star-forming galaxies, drawn from the Lyman alpha Reference Sample (LARS), for which we have unrivalled high-resolution imaging and spectroscopy from HST, and 21cm HI observations from VLA+GMRT. Moreover the galaxies are selected as the close analogues of the high-redshift Lyman-break galaxies and Spitzer+Herschel selected galaxies found in extragalactic deep fields. The science goal of LARS is to determine what governs the escape of Lyman alpha (Lya) photons from galaxies, and thereby aid interpretation of high-z observations where Lya is the most used spectral probe. However given its clean selection and multiwavelength nature, LARS can equally well improve our understanding of FIR line observations of high-z galaxies. The target emission lines in this proposal are [CII], [OI], and [OIII] at 158, 63, and 88 micron, respectively. The motivations are that these lines: 1. are of increasing interest at high-z as new sensitive submm/radio interferometers come online 2. are proposed quantitative tracers of star formation rates, but their utility must be proven in appropriately analogous well-studied galaxies 3. when combined with models of photodissociation regions, enable estimates of the density and mass of PDR gas and provide vital constraints on our Lya radiative transfer models of galaxies. 4. provide uniquely robust estimates of nebular extinction and metallicity when combined with our optical IFU data. Astrophysical applications are many, especially when combined with the array of existing data. Specifically they will provide vital constraints on ISM structure, that are required for understanding the emission of the cosmologically vital Lya emission line. Moreover, SFR calibrations will be tested in star forming environments that resemble those of early galaxies and the legacy value of the sample is hard to overstate.

  5. Large Differences in Bacterial Community Composition among Three Nearby Extreme Waterbodies of the High Andean Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Pablo; Acosta, Eduardo; Dorador, Cristina; Sommaruga, Ruben

    2016-01-01

    The high Andean plateau or Altiplano contains different waterbodies that are subjected to extreme fluctuations in abiotic conditions on a daily and an annual scale. The bacterial diversity and community composition of those shallow waterbodies is largely unexplored, particularly, of the ponds embedded within the peatland landscape (i.e., Bofedales). Here we compare the small-scale spatial variability (Altiplano peatland ponds represent a hitherto unknown source of microbial diversity.

  6. NEARBY CLUMPY, GAS RICH, STAR-FORMING GALAXIES: LOCAL ANALOGS OF HIGH-REDSHIFT CLUMPY GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garland, C. A. [Natural Sciences Department, Jeffords Science Center, Castleton State College, Castleton, VT 05735 (United States); Pisano, D. J.; Rabidoux, K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Virginia University, 135 Willey Street, P.O. Box 6315, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Low, M.-M. Mac [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10024 (United States); Kreckel, K. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Guzmán, R., E-mail: catherine.garland@castleton.edu, E-mail: djpisano@mail.wvu.edu, E-mail: krabidou@mix.wvu.edu, E-mail: mordecai@amnh.org, E-mail: kreckel@mpia.de, E-mail: guzman@astro.ufl.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, P.O. Box 112055, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2015-07-10

    Luminous compact blue galaxies (LCBGs) have enhanced star formation rates (SFRs) and compact morphologies. We combine Sloan Digital Sky Survey data with H i data of 29 LCBGs at redshift z ∼ 0 to understand their nature. We find that local LCBGs have high atomic gas fractions (∼50%) and SFRs per stellar mass consistent with some high-redshift star-forming galaxies (SFGs). Many local LCBGs also have clumpy morphologies, with clumps distributed across their disks. Although rare, these galaxies appear to be similar to the clumpy SFGs commonly observed at z ∼ 1–3. Local LCBGs separate into three groups: (1) interacting galaxies (∼20%); (2) clumpy spirals (∼40%); and (3) non-clumpy, non-spirals with regular shapes and smaller effective radii and stellar masses (∼40%). It seems that the method of building up a high gas fraction, which then triggers star formation, is not the same for all local LCBGs. This may lead to a dichotomy in galaxy characteristics. We consider possible gas delivery scenarios and suggest that clumpy spirals, preferentially located in clusters and with companions, are smoothly accreting gas from tidally disrupted companions and/or intracluster gas enriched by stripped satellites. Conversely, as non-clumpy galaxies are preferentially located in the field and tend to be isolated, we suggest clumpy, cold streams, which destroy galaxy disks and prevent clump formation, as a likely gas delivery mechanism for these systems. Other possibilities include smooth cold streams, a series of minor mergers, or major interactions.

  7. The Local Group as a time machine: studying the high-redshift Universe with nearby galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Johnson, Benjamin D; Bullock, James S; Conroy, Charlie; Fitts, Alex

    2015-01-01

    We infer the UV luminosities of Local Group galaxies at early cosmic times ($z \\sim 2$ and $z \\sim 7$) by combining stellar population synthesis modeling with star formation histories derived from deep color-magnitude diagrams constructed from Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations. Our analysis provides a basis for understanding high-$z$ galaxies - including those that may be unobservable even with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) - in the context of familiar, well-studied objects in the very low-$z$ Universe. We find that, at the epoch of reionization, all Local Group dwarfs were less luminous than the faintest galaxies detectable in deep HST observations of blank fields. We predict that JWST will observe $z \\sim 7$ progenitors of galaxies similar to the Large Magellanic Cloud today; however, the HST Frontier Fields initiative may already be observing such galaxies, highlighting the power of gravitational lensing. Consensus reionization models require an extrapolation of the observed blank-field lum...

  8. On the Possible Association of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays with Nearby Active Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moskalenko, Igor V.; Stawarz, Lukasz; Porter, Troy A.; Cheung, Chi C.

    2008-05-14

    Data collected by the Pierre Auger Observatory provide evidence for anisotropy in the arrival directions of cosmic rays (CRs) with energies >57 EeV that suggests a correlation with the positions of active galactic nuclei (AGN) located within {approx}75 Mpc. However, this analysis does not take into account AGN morphology. A detailed study of the sample of AGN whose positions correlate with the CR events shows that most of them are classified as Seyfert 2 and low-ionization nuclear emission-line region (LINER) galaxies which do not differ from other local AGN of the same types. Therefore, the claimed correlation between the CR events observed by the Pierre Auger Observatory and local active galaxies should be considered as resulting from a chance coincidence, if the production of the highest energy CRs is not episodic in nature, but operates in a single object on long ({ge} Myr) timescales. Additionally, most of the selected sources do not show significant jet activity, and hence--in the framework of the jet paradigm--there are no reasons for expecting them to accelerate CRs up to the highest energies, {approx}10{sup 20} eV, at all. If the extragalactic magnetic fields and the sources of these CRs are coupled with matter, it is possible that the deflection angle is larger than expected in the case of a uniform source distribution due to effectively larger fields. A future analysis has to take into account AGN morphology and may yield a correlation with a larger deflection angle and/or more distant sources. We further argue that Cen A alone could be associated with at least 4 events due to its large radio extent, and Cen B can be associated with more than 1 event due to its proximity to the Galactic plane and, correspondingly, the stronger Galactic magnetic field the ultra high energy CRs (UHECRs) encounter during propagation. If the UHECRs associated with these events are indeed accelerated by Cen A and Cen B, their deflection angles may provide information on the

  9. Chandra Survey of Nearby Highly-Inclined Disk Galaxies I: X-ray Measurements of Galactic Coronae

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jiang-Tao

    2012-01-01

    We present a systematical analysis of the Chandra observations of 53 nearby highly-inclined (i>60 degree) disk galaxies to study the coronae around them. This sample covers a broad range of galaxy properties: e.g., about three orders of magnitude in the SFR and more than two orders of magnitude in the stellar mass. The Chandra observations of the diffuse soft X-ray emission from 20 of these galaxies are presented for the first time. The data are reduced in a uniform manner, including the excision/subtraction of both resolved and unresolved stellar contributions. Various coronal properties, such as the scale height and luminosity, are characterized for all the sample galaxies. For galaxies with high enough counting statistics, we also examine the thermal and chemical states of the coronal gas. We note on galaxies with distinct multi-wavelength characteristics which may affect the coronal properties. The uniformly processed images, spectra, and brightness profiles, as well as the inferred hot gas parameters, fo...

  10. Chandra survey of nearby highly inclined disk galaxies -- IV: New insights into the working of stellar feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Q Daniel; Jiang, Xiaochuan; Fang, Taotao

    2015-01-01

    Galaxy evolution is regulated by the interplay between galactic disks and their surrounding medium. We study this interplay by examining how the galactic coronal emission efficiency of stellar feedback depends on the (surface and specific) star formation rates (SFRs) and other parameters for a sample of 52 Chandra-observed nearby highly inclined disk galaxies. We first measure the star forming galactic disk sizes, as well as the SFRs of these galaxies, using data from the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer, and then show that 1) the specific 0.5-2~keV luminosity of the coronal emission correlates with the specific SFR in a {\\sl sub-linear} fashion: on average, $L_X/L_K \\propto (SFR/M_*)^{\\Gamma}$ with $\\Gamma =0.29\\pm0.12$; 2) the efficiency of the emission $ L_X/SFR$ decreases with increasing surface SFR ($I_{SFR}$; $\\Gamma = -0.44\\pm0.12$); and 3) the characteristic temperature of the X-ray-emitting plasma weakly correlates with $I_{SFR}$ ($\\Gamma = 0.08\\pm0.04$). These results, somewhat surprising and ant...

  11. A survey of the high order multiplicity of nearby solar-type binary stars with Robo-AO

    CERN Document Server

    Riddle, Reed L; Mason, Brian D; Hartkopf, William I; Roberts,, Lewis C; Baranec, Christoph; Law, Nicholas M; Bui, Khanh; Burse, Mahesh P; Das, H K; Dekany, Richard G; Kulkarni, Shrinivas; Punnadi, Sujit; Ramaprakash, A N; Tendulkar, Shriharsh P

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a survey of nearby binary systems composed of main sequence stars of spectral types F and G in order to improve our understanding of the hierarchical nature of multiple star systems. Using Robo-AO, the first robotic adaptive optics instrument, we collected high angular resolution images with deep and well-defined detection limits in the SDSS $i'$ band. A total of 695 components belonging to 595 systems were observed. We prioritized observations of faint secondary components with separations over $10''$ to quantify the still poorly constrained frequency of their sub-systems. Of the 214 secondaries observed, 39 contain such subsystems; 19 of those were discovered with Robo-AO. The selection-corrected frequency of secondary sub-systems with periods from $10^{3.5}$ to $10^5$ days is 0.12$\\pm$0.03, the same as the frequency of such companions to the primary. Half of the secondary pairs belong to quadruple systems where the primary is also a close pair, showing that the presence of sub-systems in both ...

  12. Good vs. Bad Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Good vs. Bad Cholesterol Updated:Apr 3,2017 Cholesterol can't dissolve ... test . View an animation of cholesterol . LDL (Bad) Cholesterol LDL cholesterol is considered the “bad” cholesterol because ...

  13. What Causes Bad Breath?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness What Causes Bad Breath? KidsHealth > For Teens > What Causes Bad Breath? A A A en español ¿Qué es lo que provoca el mal aliento? Bad breath, or halitosis , can be a major problem, ...

  14. Chandra survey of nearby highly inclined disk galaxies - IV. New insights into the working of stellar feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q. Daniel; Li, Jiangtao; Jiang, Xiaochuan; Fang, Taotao

    2016-04-01

    Galaxy evolution is regulated by the interplay between galactic discs and their surrounding medium. We study this interplay by examining how the galactic coronal emission efficiency of stellar feedback depends on the (surface and specific) star formation rates (SFRs) and other parameters for a sample of 52 Chandra-observed nearby highly inclined disc galaxies. We first measure the star-forming galactic disc sizes, as well as the SFRs of these galaxies, using data from the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer, and then show that (1) the specific 0.5-2 keV luminosity of the coronal emission correlates with the specific SFR in a sub-linear fashion: on average, LX/LK∝(SFR/M*)Γ with Γ = 0.29 ± 0.12; (2) the efficiency of the emission LX/SFR decreases with increasing surface SFR (ISFR; Γ = -0.44 ± 0.12); and (3) the characteristic temperature of the X-ray-emitting plasma weakly correlates with ISFR (Γ = 0.08 ± 0.04). These results, somewhat surprising and anti-intuitive, suggest that (i) the linear correlation between LX and SFR, as commonly presented, is largely due to the correlation of these two parameters with galaxy mass; (ii) much of the mechanical energy from stellar feedback likely drives global outflows with little X-ray cooling and with a mass-loading efficiency decreasing fast with increasing ISFR (Γ ≲ -0.5); (iii) these outflows heat and inflate the medium around the galactic disks of massive galaxies, reducing its radiative cooling rate, whereas for relatively low-mass galaxies, the energy in the outflows is probably dissipated in regions far away from the galactic discs.

  15. A SURVEY OF THE HIGH ORDER MULTIPLICITY OF NEARBY SOLAR-TYPE BINARY STARS WITH Robo-AO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riddle, Reed L.; Bui, Khanh; Dekany, Richard G.; Kulkarni, Shrinivas; Tendulkar, Shriharsh P. [Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Tokovinin, Andrei [Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Mason, Brian D.; Hartkopf, William I. [U.S. Naval Observatory, 3450 Massachusetts Avenue, Washington, DC 20392-5420 (United States); Roberts, Lewis C. Jr. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Baranec, Christoph [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai" i at Mānoa, Hilo, HI 96720-2700 (United States); Law, Nicholas M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3255 (United States); Burse, Mahesh P.; Das, H. K.; Punnadi, Sujit; Ramaprakash, A. N. [Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Ganeshkhind, Pune, 411007 (India)

    2015-01-20

    We conducted a survey of nearby binary systems composed of main sequence stars of spectral types F and G in order to improve our understanding of the hierarchical nature of multiple star systems. Using Robo-AO, the first robotic adaptive optics instrument, we collected high angular resolution images with deep and well-defined detection limits in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey i' band. A total of 695 components belonging to 595 systems were observed. We prioritized observations of faint secondary components with separations over 10'' to quantify the still poorly constrained frequency of their subsystems. Of the 214 secondaries observed, 39 contain such subsystems; 19 of those were discovered with Robo-AO. The selection-corrected frequency of secondary subsystems with periods from 10{sup 3.5} to 10{sup 5} days is 0.12 ± 0.03, the same as the frequency of such companions to the primary. Half of the secondary pairs belong to quadruple systems where the primary is also a close pair, showing that the presence of subsystems in both components of the outer binary is correlated. The relatively large abundance of 2+2 quadruple systems is a new finding, and will require more exploration of the formation mechanism of multiple star systems. We also targeted close binaries with periods less than 100 yr, searching for their distant tertiary components, and discovered 17 certain and 2 potential new triples. In a subsample of 241 close binaries, 71 have additional outer companions. The overall frequency of tertiary components is not enhanced, compared to all (non-binary) targets, but in the range of outer periods from 10{sup 6} to 10{sup 7.5} days (separations on the order of 500 AU), the frequency of tertiary components is 0.16 ± 0.03, exceeding the frequency of similar systems among all targets (0.09) by almost a factor of two. Measurements of binary stars with Robo-AO allowed us to compute first orbits for 9 pairs and to improve orbits of another 11 pairs.

  16. Memory loss risk assessment for the students nearby high-voltage power lines-a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadamgahi, Mojgan; Monazzam, Mohammad Reza; Hosseini, Monireh

    2016-06-01

    With increasing sources of alternating current electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in everyday life, their possible harmful effects on human health are a main area of concern in many countries. Given that children are the most valuable assets of each country, it is of utmost importance to study the effect(s) of EMF exposure on various health aspects of members within this age group. The present research is the first systematic study of the effects of exposure to electric substations on the memory status of male students in the age group of 10 to 12 years. The flux density values of extremely low frequency magnetic field were measured at four elementary schools in Tehran in accordance with IEEE std 644-1994. The device was 3-axis (X, Y, and Z) Gauss Meter, model: TES-1394. The students from two schools nearby a high voltage electricity substation (at distances of 30 and 50 m) were selected as the exposed group, and the students of two other schools at further distances of 1390 and 610 m were considered as the control group. To determine the status of working memory in the students, the questionnaire was adapted from Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV). The completed questionnaires were analyzed by t test and chi-square using SPSS 20. The average magnetic flux density was 0.245 μT at case schools and 0.164 μT at control schools, P < 0.01. The demographic characteristics of the students in the two groups were not statistically different. However, the difference in working memory was significant at the level of 5 %. The results of the questionnaire data showed that students in the control group had better working memory compared to students in case group. The findings revealed a reverse correlation between magnetic flux density and working memory of students (R = -0.255). It is concluded that extremely low frequency magnetic field exposure may have a negative impact on the working memory of children, but further studies are necessary to reach a

  17. A Survey of the High Order Multiplicity of Nearby Solar-type Binary Stars with Robo-AO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, Reed L.; Tokovinin, Andrei; Mason, Brian D.; Hartkopf, William I.; Roberts, Lewis C., Jr.; Baranec, Christoph; Law, Nicholas M.; Bui, Khanh; Burse, Mahesh P.; Das, H. K.; Dekany, Richard G.; Kulkarni, Shrinivas; Punnadi, Sujit; Ramaprakash, A. N.; Tendulkar, Shriharsh P.

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a survey of nearby binary systems composed of main sequence stars of spectral types F and G in order to improve our understanding of the hierarchical nature of multiple star systems. Using Robo-AO, the first robotic adaptive optics instrument, we collected high angular resolution images with deep and well-defined detection limits in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey i' band. A total of 695 components belonging to 595 systems were observed. We prioritized observations of faint secondary components with separations over 10'' to quantify the still poorly constrained frequency of their subsystems. Of the 214 secondaries observed, 39 contain such subsystems; 19 of those were discovered with Robo-AO. The selection-corrected frequency of secondary subsystems with periods from 103.5 to 105 days is 0.12 ± 0.03, the same as the frequency of such companions to the primary. Half of the secondary pairs belong to quadruple systems where the primary is also a close pair, showing that the presence of subsystems in both components of the outer binary is correlated. The relatively large abundance of 2+2 quadruple systems is a new finding, and will require more exploration of the formation mechanism of multiple star systems. We also targeted close binaries with periods less than 100 yr, searching for their distant tertiary components, and discovered 17 certain and 2 potential new triples. In a subsample of 241 close binaries, 71 have additional outer companions. The overall frequency of tertiary components is not enhanced, compared to all (non-binary) targets, but in the range of outer periods from 106 to 107.5 days (separations on the order of 500 AU), the frequency of tertiary components is 0.16 ± 0.03, exceeding the frequency of similar systems among all targets (0.09) by almost a factor of two. Measurements of binary stars with Robo-AO allowed us to compute first orbits for 9 pairs and to improve orbits of another 11 pairs.

  18. The RINGS Survey: High-Resolution H-alpha Velocity Fields of Nearby Spiral Galaxies with the SALT Fabry-Perot

    CERN Document Server

    Mitchell, Carl J; Williams, T B; Spekkens, Kristine; Lee-Waddell, K; de Naray, Rachel Kuzio

    2015-01-01

    We have obtained high-spatial-resolution spectrophotometric data on several nearby spiral galaxies with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) Fabry-P\\'erot interferometer on the Robert Stobie Spectrograph (RSS) as a part of the RSS Imaging spectroscopy Nearby Galaxy Survey (RINGS). We have successfully reduced two tracks of Fabry-P\\'erot data for the galaxy NGC 2280 to produce a velocity field of the H-alpha line of excited hydrogen. We have modeled these data with the DiskFit modeling software and found these models to be in excellent agreement both with previous measurements in the literature and with our lower-resolution HI velocity field of the same galaxy. Despite this good agreement, small regions exist where the difference between the H-alpha and HI velocities is larger than would be expected from typical dispersions. We investigate these regions of high velocity difference and offer possible explanations for their existence.

  19. The Badness of Discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert-Rasmussen, Kasper

    2006-01-01

    The most blatant forms of discrimination are morally outrageous and very obviously so; but the nature and boundaries of discrimination are more controversial, and it is not clear whether all forms of discrimination are morally bad; nor is it clear why objectionable cases of discrimination are bad....... In this paper I address these issues. First, I offer a taxonomy of discrimination. I then argue that discrimination is bad, when it is, because it harms people. Finally, I criticize a rival, disrespect-based account according to which discrimination is bad regardless of whether it causes harm....

  20. What Causes Bad Breath?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... teeth, you shouldn't have bad breath. The truth is that most people only brush their teeth ... The Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, Corbis, Veer, Science Photo Library, Science Source Images, Shutterstock, and Clipart. ...

  1. Good And Bad News

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    <正>A distinguished scientist was participating in a panel discussion on the results of the nation’s future water supply.“Gentlemen,” he said.“I have some good news and bad news for you,Our study shows that by the year 2010 everyone will be drinking recycled sewage from

  2. That's really too bad

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘京西

    2009-01-01

    @@ Oh! I failed my final exam. B:That's really too bad! But don't feel upset about it. A:But what should I say to my father? B:Come on!It could have happened to anybody! A:唉,我期末考试没及格.

  3. Hot house bad house

    OpenAIRE

    Azzopardi, Shaun

    2014-01-01

    Shaun Azzopardi met up with a team of researchers led by Eur. Ing. Charles Yousif to take the concrete block to the next level. It is more exciting than it sounds. Photography by Dr Edward Duca. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/hot-house-bad-house/

  4. The Nearby Supernova Factory

    CERN Document Server

    Wood-Vasey, W M; Lee Byung Cheol; Loken, S; Nugent, P; Perlmutter, S; Siegrist, J L; Wang, L; Antilogus, P; Astier, Pierre; Hardin, D; Pain, R; Copin, Y; Smadja, G; Gangler, E; Castera, A; Adam, G; Bacon, R; Lemonnier, J P; Pecontal, A; Pécontal, E; Kessler, R

    2004-01-01

    The Nearby Supernova Factory (SNfactory) is an ambitious project to find and study in detail approximately 300 nearby Type Ia supernovae (SNe~Ia) at redshifts 0.03nearby smooth Hubble flow that can be used as calibration for the current and future programs designed to use SNe to measure the cosmological parameters. The first key ingredient for this program is a reliable supply of Hubble-flow SNe systematically discovered in unprecedented numbers using the same techniques as those used in distant SNe searches. In 2002, 35 SNe were found using our test-bed pipeline for automated SN search and discovery. The pipeline uses images from the asteroid search conducted by the Near Earth Asteroid Tracking group at JPL. Improvements in our subtraction techniques and analysis have allowed us to increase our effective SN discovery rate to ~12 SNe/month in 2003.

  5. A VLT/MUSE view of the highly ionized outflow cones in the nearby starburst ESO338-IG04

    CERN Document Server

    Bik, A; Hayes, M; Adamo, A; Melinder, J; Amram, P

    2015-01-01

    Despite the fact that the Ly$\\alpha$ line is an important diagnostic for star formation at high redshift, the interpretation of its flux and line profile is difficult due to its resonance nature. Trends between the escape of Ly$\\alpha$ photons and dust and ISM properties have been found, but detailed comparisons between Ly$\\alpha$ emission and the properties of the gas in local high redshift analogues are vital to understand the relation between Ly$\\alpha$ emission and galaxy properties. For the first time we can directly infer the properties of the ionized gas at the same location and comparable spatial scales of the extended Ly$\\alpha$ halo around ESO 338-IG04. VLT/MUSE integral field spectra have been obtained. We use ionization parameter mapping of the [SII/OIII] line ratio and the kinematics of H$\\alpha$ to study the ionization state and kinematics of the interstellar medium of ESO 338. The velocity map reveals two outflows. The entire central area of the galaxy is highly ionized by photons leaking from ...

  6. High proper motion objects towards the inner Milky Way: characterisation of newly identified nearby stars from the VISTA Variables in the Via Lactea Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Gromadzki, M; Beamin, J C; Tekola, A; Ramphul, R; Ivanov, V D; Minniti, D; Folkes, S L; Vaisanen, P; Kniazev, A Y; Borissova, J; Parsons, S G; Villanueva, V

    2016-01-01

    The census of the Solar neighbourhood is still incomplete, as demonstrated by recent discoveries of many objects within 5-10 pc from the Sun. The area around the mid-plane and bulge of the Milky Way presents the most difficulties in searches for such nearby objects, and is therefore deficient in the known population. This is largely due to high stellar densities encountered. Spectroscopic, photometric and kinematic characterization of these objects allows better understand the local mass function, the binary fraction, and provides new interesting targets for more detailed studies. We report the spectroscopic follow-up and characterisation of 12 bright high PM objects, identified from the VISTA Variables in Via Lactea survey (VVV). We used the 1.9-m telescope of the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) for low-resolution optical spectroscopy and spectral classification, and the MPG/ESP 2.2m telescope Fiber-fed Extended Range Optical Spectrograph (FEROS) high-resolution optical spectroscopy to obtain t...

  7. I bad med Picasso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanggaard, Lene; Stadil, Christian Nicolas

    Alle er kreative! I denne bog viser Lene Tanggaard (professor i kreativitet) og Christian N. Stadil (ejer af bl.a. Hummel), at alle kan blive endnu mere kreative. De har interviewet en række af Danmarks mest kreative mennesker, for at finde ud af, hvordan de gør. Picasso gik i bad, når han skulle...... få nye ideer. I bogen hører du om Ingolf Gabolds blå elefanter, Kenneth Bagers bad, Bjarke Ingels visioner, René Redzepis lørdagssessioner, Jørgen Leth gåture og Søren Rasteds tvivl. Du får inspiration til at udfordre dig selv og arbejde med din egen kreativitet....

  8. I bad med Picasso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanggaard, Lene; Stadil, Christian Nicolas

    Alle er kreative! I denne bog viser Lene Tanggaard (professor i kreativitet) og Christian N. Stadil (ejer af bl.a. Hummel), at alle kan blive endnu mere kreative. De har interviewet en række af Danmarks mest kreative mennesker, for at finde ud af, hvordan de gør. Picasso gik i bad, når han skulle...... få nye ideer. I bogen hører du om Ingolf Gabolds blå elefanter, Kenneth Bagers bad, Bjarke Ingels visioner, René Redzepis lørdagssessioner, Jørgen Leth gåture og Søren Rasteds tvivl. Du får inspiration til at udfordre dig selv og arbejde med din egen kreativitet....

  9. Looks Like 10 Miles of Bad Road: Cheating, Gaming, Mistrust, and an Interim Principal in an Urban Texas High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMatthews, David E.

    2014-01-01

    High-stakes accountability policies have brought about significant change in schools, but have also triggered instances of cheating and gaming at school and district levels. This undisguised case study involves the El Paso Independent School District, one of its high schools, and a popular principal accused of cheating. This context provides the…

  10. The TRENDS High-Contrast Imaging Survey. V. Discovery of an Old and Cold Benchmark T-dwarf Orbiting the Nearby G-star HD 19467

    CERN Document Server

    Crepp, Justin R; Howard, Andrew W; Marcy, Geoffrey W; Brewer, John; Fischer, Debra A; Wright, Jason T; Isaacson, Howard

    2013-01-01

    The nearby Sun-like star HD 19467 shows a subtle radial velocity (RV) acceleration of -1.37+/-0.09 m/s/yr over an 16.9 year time baseline (an RV trend), hinting at the existence of a distant orbiting companion. We have obtained high-contrast adaptive optics images of the star using NIRC2 at Keck Observatory and report the direct detection of the body that causes the acceleration. The companion, HD 19467 B, is dK=12.57+/-0.09 mag fainter than its parent star (contrast ratio of 9.4e-6), has blue colors J-K_s=-0.36+/-0.14 (J-H=-0.29+/-0.15), and is separated by 1.653+/-0.004" (51.1+/-1.0 AU). Follow-up astrometric measurements obtained over an 1.1 year time baseline demonstrate physical association through common parallactic and proper motion. We calculate a firm lower-limit of m>51.9^{+3.6}_{-4.3}Mjup for the companion mass from orbital dynamics using a combination of Doppler observations and imaging. We estimate a model-dependent mass of m=56.7^{+4.6}_{-7.2}Mjup from a gyrochronological age of 4.3^{+1.0}_{-1.2...

  11. Development of an intervention programme to encourage high school students to stay in school for lunch instead of eating at nearby fast-food restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Dominique; Godin, Gaston

    2012-08-01

    Many schools have recently adopted food policies and replaced unhealthy products by healthy foods. Consequently, adolescents are more likely to consume a healthy meal if they stay in school for lunch to eat a meal either prepared at home or purchased in school cafeterias. However, many continue to eat in nearby fast-food restaurants. The present paper describes the development of a theory-based intervention programme aimed at encouraging high school students to stay in school for lunch. Intervention Mapping and the Theory of Planned Behaviour served as theoretical frameworks to guide the development of a 12-week intervention programme of activities addressing intention, descriptive norm, perceived behavioural control and attitude. It was offered to students and their parents with several practical applications, such as structural environmental changes, and educational activities, such as audio and electronic messages, posters, cooking sessions, pamphlets, improvisation play theatre, quiz, and conferences. The programme considers theoretical and empirical data, taking into account specific beliefs and contexts of the target population. This paper should help programme planners in the development of appropriate interventions addressing the problem.

  12. High annual radon concentration in dwellings and natural radioactivity content in nearby soil in some rural areas of Kosovo and Metohija

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulan Ljiljana R.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Some previous studies on radon concentration in dwellings of some areas of Kosovo and Metohija have revealed a high average radon concentration, even though the detectors were exposed for three months only. In order to better design a larger study in this region, the annual measurements in 25 houses were carried out as a pilot study. For each house, CR-39-based passive devices were exposed in two rooms for the two consecutive six-month periods to account for seasonal variations of radon concentration. Furthermore, in order to correlate the indoor radon with radium in nearby soil and to improve the knowledge of the natural radioactivity in the region, soil samples near each house were collected and 226Ra, 232Th, 40K activity concentration were measured. The indoor radon concentration resulted quite high from the average (163 Bq/m3 and generally it did not differ considerably between the two rooms and the two six-month periods. The natural radionuclides in soil resulted to be distributed quite uniformly. Moreover, the correlation between the226Ra content in soil and radon concentration in dwellings resulted to be low (R2=0.26. The annual effective dose from radon and its short-lived progeny (5.5 mSv, in average was calculated by using the last ICRP dose conversion factors. In comparison, the contribution to the annual effective dose of outdoor gamma exposure from natural radionuclides in soil is nearly negligible (66 mSv. In conclusion, the observed high radon levels are only partially correlated with radium in soil; moreover, a good estimate of the annual average of radon concentration can be obtained from a six-month measurement with a proper choice of exposure period, which could be useful when designing large surveys.

  13. HDL (Good), LDL (Bad) Cholesterol and Triglycerides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More HDL (Good), LDL (Bad) Cholesterol and Triglycerides Updated:Jul 5,2017 Cholesterol isn’t just ... Your Cholesterol Score Explained What Are High Blood Cholesterol and Triglycerides? How Can I Improve My Cholesterol? | Spanish What ...

  14. Eggs: good or bad?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Bruce A

    2016-08-01

    Eggs have one of the lowest energy to nutrient density ratios of any food, and contain a quality of protein that is superior to beef steak and similar to dairy. From a nutritional perspective, this must qualify eggs as 'good'. The greater burden of proof has been to establish that eggs are not 'bad', by increasing awareness of the difference between dietary and blood cholesterol, and accumulating sufficient evidence to exonerate eggs from their associations with CVD and diabetes. After 60 years of research, a general consensus has now been reached that dietary cholesterol, chiefly from eggs, exerts a relatively small effect on serum LDL-cholesterol and CVD risk, in comparison with other diet and lifestyle factors. While dietary guidelines have been revised worldwide to reflect this view, associations between egg intake and the incidence of diabetes, and increased CVD risk in diabetes, prevail. These associations may be explained, in part, by residual confounding produced by other dietary components. The strength of evidence that links egg intake to increased CVD risk in diabetes is also complicated by variation in the response of serum LDL-cholesterol to eggs and dietary cholesterol in types 1 and 2 diabetes. On balance, the answer to the question as to whether eggs are 'bad', is probably 'no', but we do need to gain a better understanding of the effects of dietary cholesterol and its association with CVD risk in diabetes.

  15. Not all risk taking behavior is bad: Associative sensitivity predicts learning during risk taking among high sensation seekers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Kathryn L; Lee, Steve S; Tottenham, Nim

    2013-04-01

    Risk taking behavior can be both adaptive and maladaptive depending on context. The majority of studies of risk taking, however, focus on clinical populations and dangerous or harmful risk taking. Individual differences in learning during risk taking are rarely examined in relation to task performance. The present study examined risk taking and associated outcomes in an exploration-based instrumental learning task (Balloon Emotional Learning Task; BELT), which presented a series of balloons in which participants pump up for points. Consistent with prior work, sensation seeking predicted increased risk taking behavior. Importantly, however, a significant interaction between sensation seeking and associative sensitivity, an attentional construct defined as the frequency and remoteness of automatic cognitive activity, was found. Specifically, among individuals high in sensation seeking, associative sensitivity predicted fewer balloon explosions and an increase in points earned on the balloon condition with the most potential feedback driven learning. Thus, these findings suggest that sensation seekers are a heterogeneous group, and secondary traits such as associative sensitivity moderate behavior such as risk taking and learning according to context.

  16. Development of an Intervention Programme to Encourage High School Students to Stay in School for Lunch Instead of Eating at Nearby Fast-Food Restaurants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Dominique; Godin, Gaston

    2012-01-01

    Many schools have recently adopted food policies and replaced unhealthy products by healthy foods. Consequently, adolescents are more likely to consume a healthy meal if they stay in school for lunch to eat a meal either prepared at home or purchased in school cafeterias. However, many continue to eat in nearby fast-food restaurants. The present…

  17. Air movement - good or bad?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    Air movement - good or bad? The question can only be answered by those who are exposed when they are exposed. Human perception of air movement depends on environmental factors including air velocity, air velocity fluctuations, air temperature, and personal factors such as overall thermal sensation...... and activity level. Even for the same individual, sensitivity to air movement may change from day to day as a result of e.g. different levels of fatigue. Based on existing literature, the current paper summarizes factors influencing the human perception of air movement and attempts to specify in general terms...... influences the subjective perception of air movement. With occupants feeling warmer than neutral, at temperatures above 23oC or at raised activity levels, humans generally do not feel draught at air velocities typical for indoor environments (up to around 0.4 m/s). In the higher temperature range, very high...

  18. High-resolution shear-wave seismic reflection as a tool to image near-surface subrosion structures - a case study in Bad Frankenhausen, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadas, Sonja H.; Polom, Ulrich; Krawczyk, Charlotte M.

    2016-10-01

    Subrosion is the subsurface leaching of soluble rocks that results in the formation of depression and collapse structures. This global phenomenon is a geohazard in urban areas. To study near-surface subrosion structures, four shear-wave seismic reflection profiles, with a total length of ca. 332 m, were carried out around the famous leaning church tower of Bad Frankenhausen in northern Thuringia, Germany, which shows an inclination of 4.93° from the vertical. Most of the geological underground of Thuringia is characterized by soluble Permian deposits, and the Kyffhäuser Southern Margin Fault is assumed to be a main pathway for water to leach the evaporite. The seismic profiles were acquired with the horizontal micro-vibrator ELVIS, developed at Leibniz Institute for Applied Geophysics (LIAG), and a 72 m long landstreamer equipped with 72 horizontal geophones. The high-resolution seismic sections show subrosion-induced structures to a depth of ca. 100 m and reveal five features associated with the leaching of Permian deposits: (1) lateral and vertical varying reflection patterns caused by strongly heterogeneous strata, (2) discontinuous reflectors, small offsets, and faults, which show the underground is heavily fractured, (3) formation of depression structures in the near-surface, (4) diffractions in the unmigrated seismic sections that indicate increased scattering of the seismic waves, and (5) varying seismic velocities and low-velocity zones that are presumably caused by fractures and upward-migrating cavities. A previously undiscovered southward-dipping listric normal fault was also found, to the north of the church. It probably serves as a pathway for water to leach the Permian formations below the church and causes the tilting of the church tower. This case study shows the potential of horizontal shear-wave seismic reflection to image near-surface subrosion structures in an urban environment with a horizontal resolution of less than 1 m in the uppermost 10

  19. Magnetic fields in nearby galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heald, G.; Braun, R.

    2009-01-01

    We describe a recent full-polarization radio continuum survey, performed using the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT), of several nearby galaxies in the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS) sample. The WSRT-SINGS survey has been utilized to study the polarized emission and

  20. Freelancing: Cool jobs or bad jobs?

    OpenAIRE

    Elstad, Beate

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to study the working conditions for freelance jazz musicians and freelance journalists in Norway. The study indicates that freelancing entails both good and bad job characteristics. The overall job satisfaction is reasonably high. Furthermore, the freelancers’ turnover intentions in terms of intention to leave the freelance job situation are quite low. The intrinsic motivation is very high and most freelancers perceive self-employment to be a personal choice. Th...

  1. Comparative analysis of general characteristics of ischemic stroke of BAD and non-BAD CISS subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Bin; Liu, Guang-zhi; Yang, Yang; Liu, Yu-min; Cao, Jiang-hui; Zhang, Jun-jian

    2015-12-01

    Based on the recently proposed Chinese ischemic stroke subclassification (CISS) system, intracranial branch atheromatous disease (BAD) is divided into large artery atherosclerosis (LAA) and penetrating artery disease (PAD). In the current retrospective analysis, we compared the general characteristics of BAD-LAA with BAD-PAD, BAD-LAA with non-BAD-LAA and BAD-PAD with non-BAD-PAD. The study included a total of 80 cases, including 45 cases of BAD and 35 cases of non-BAD. Subjects were classified using CISS system: BAD-LAA, BAD-PAD, non-BAD-LAA and non-BAD-PAD. In addition to analysis of general characteristics, the correlation between the factors and the two subtypes of BAD was evaluated. The number of cases included in the analysis was: 32 cases of BAD-LAA, 13 cases of BAD-PAD, 21 cases of non-BAD-LAA, and 14 cases of non-BAD-PAD. Diabetes mellitus affected more non-BAD-LAA patients than BAD-LAA patients (P=0.035). In comparison with non-BAD-PAD, patients with BAD-PAD were younger (P=0.040), had higher initial NIHSS score (PBAD, the PAD subtype was associated with smoking (OR=0.043; P=0.011), higher low-density lipoprotein (OR=5.339; P=0.029), ischemic heart disease (OR=9.383; P=0.047) and diabetes mellitus (OR=12.59; P=0.020). It was concluded that large artery atherosclerosis was the primary mechanism of BAD. The general characteristics showed no significant differences between the CISS subtypes of LAA and PAD within BAD, as well as between the BAD and non-BAD within LAA subtype. Several differences between PAD subtypes of BAD and non-BAD were revealed.

  2. Bad Astronomy Goes Hollywood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plait, P.

    2003-05-01

    It can be argued that astronomy is the oldest of all the sciences, so you'd think that after all this time people would have a pretty good understanding of it. In reality, however, misconceptions about astronomy abound, and even basic concepts are misunderstood. There are many sources of these cosmic misconceptions, including incorrect textbooks, parents and/or teachers who don't understand astronomy and therefore spread misinformation, urban legends, and so on. Perhaps the most pervasive source of bad astronomy is Hollywood. Science fiction movies are enormously popular, but are commonly written and directed by people who don't have even a passing familiarity with astronomy. The smash hit "Armageddon" (the number one box office movie of 1998), for example, used vast quantities of incorrect astronomy in the plot. It reinforced such popular misconceptions as huge asteroids impacting the Earth with little warning, small meteorites being hot when they impact, air existing in space, and that a simple bomb can blow up an asteroid the size of a small moon (even when the bomb is buried only 800 feet deep!). However, movie scenes can be used as a hook that engages the student, helping them learn and remember the correct science. In this talk, I will light-heartedly discuss specific examples of common misinformation, using movie clips, diagrams, and a splash of common sense to show just where Hollywood gets it wrong, and what you can do to help students and the public get it right.

  3. Bad debt is (not a bad friend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zavišić Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Investing in distressed debt is a less known investment strategy of astute investors. Bonds with uncertain cash flow are the subject of their focus, especially in the Anglo-Saxon financial systems. The range of realized rates of return is very wide and retail investors are out of the game. One aspect of this strategy are investments in non-performing loans, that is the purchase of distressed loans at a discount. It does not take a genius to see that one of the reasons of insolvency in the Serbian economy is the long-standing low economic growth in Serbia, in the region and in Europe. High systemic risk coupled with the inefficient bankruptcy process and out-of-court restructuring are the context in which the problem of non-performing loans is to be solved. A series of other factors related to banks, real estate market, tax considerations, as well as the lack of supportive actions to prevent the increase of non-performing loans act as additional constraints. In mid-2015, a strategy was adopted in Serbia, which recognized this silent and prolonged crisis that has been accumulating within the banking system.

  4. Important Nearby Galaxies without Accurate Distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuinn, Kristen

    2014-10-01

    The Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS) and its offspring programs (e.g., THINGS, HERACLES, KINGFISH) have resulted in a fundamental change in our view of star formation and the ISM in galaxies, and together they represent the most complete multi-wavelength data set yet assembled for a large sample of nearby galaxies. These great investments of observing time have been dedicated to the goal of understanding the interstellar medium, the star formation process, and, more generally, galactic evolution at the present epoch. Nearby galaxies provide the basis for which we interpret the distant universe, and the SINGS sample represents the best studied nearby galaxies.Accurate distances are fundamental to interpreting observations of galaxies. Surprisingly, many of the SINGS spiral galaxies have numerous distance estimates resulting in confusion. We can rectify this situation for 8 of the SINGS spiral galaxies within 10 Mpc at a very low cost through measurements of the tip of the red giant branch. The proposed observations will provide an accuracy of better than 0.1 in distance modulus. Our sample includes such well known galaxies as M51 (the Whirlpool), M63 (the Sunflower), M104 (the Sombrero), and M74 (the archetypal grand design spiral).We are also proposing coordinated parallel WFC3 UV observations of the central regions of the galaxies, rich with high-mass UV-bright stars. As a secondary science goal we will compare the resolved UV stellar populations with integrated UV emission measurements used in calibrating star formation rates. Our observations will complement the growing HST UV atlas of high resolution images of nearby galaxies.

  5. A Case Study on Bad Listening Behavior in Kindergarten High Grades%大班幼儿不良倾听行为个案研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张心雪

    2014-01-01

    Language is the carrier of thought, while language is a bridge in the process of interpersonal communication, its development will influence social interaction as well, hence, we must learn listening. Good listening behavior is the important factor of interpersonal success, while bad listening behavior affects social interaction and interpersonal communication of children. The paper go on training the child in a kindergarten. We carry out intervention study for bad listening behavior, by observing and making plans, and putting forward corresponding suggestions and strategies.%语言是思维的载体,在人际交流过程中,语言成为交流中的一个沟通桥梁,但是要与人沟通,首先必须学会倾听,良好的倾听行为是人际交往成功的重要因素,反之不良的倾听行为影响到幼儿社会互动和人际交往。本研究以某幼儿园大班幼儿为例,通过观察制定方案计划对案例的不良倾听行为进行干预研究,并提出相应的建议或对策。

  6. Faint Dwarfs in Nearby Groups

    CERN Document Server

    Speller, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    The number and distribution of dwarf satellite galaxies remain a critical test of cold dark matter-dominated structure formation on small scales. Until recently, observational information about galaxy formation on these scales has been limited mainly to the Local Group. We have searched for faint analogues of Local Group dwarfs around nearby bright galaxies, using a spatial clustering analysis of the photometric catalog of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 8. Several other recent searches of SDSS have detected clustered satellite populations down to $\\Delta m_r \\equiv ({m}_{r,\\, {\\rm sat}} -\\, {m}_{r,\\, {\\rm main}}) \\sim 6$-$8$, using photometric redshifts to reduce background contamination. SDSS photometric redshifts are relatively imprecise, however, for faint and nearby galaxies. Instead we use angular size to select potential nearby dwarfs, and consider only the nearest isolated bright galaxies as primaries. As a result, we are able to detect an excess clustering signal from companions down...

  7. Biochemical and biophysical investigations of the interaction between human glucokinase and pro-apoptotic BAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rexford, Alix; Zorio, Diego A R; Miller, Brian G

    2017-01-01

    The glycolytic enzyme glucokinase (GCK) and the pro-apoptotic protein BAD reportedly reside within a five-membered complex that localizes to the mitochondria of mammalian hepatocytes and pancreatic β-cells. Photochemical crosslinking studies using a synthetic analog of BAD's BH3 domain and in vitro transcription/translation experiments support a direct interaction between BAD and GCK. To investigate the biochemical and biophysical consequences of the BAD:GCK interaction, we developed a method for the production of recombinant human BAD. Consistent with published reports, recombinant BAD displays high affinity for Bcl-xL (KD = 7 nM), and phosphorylation of BAD at S118, within the BH3 domain, abolishes this interaction. Unexpectedly, we do not detect association of recombinant, full-length BAD with recombinant human pancreatic GCK over a range of protein concentrations using various biochemical methods including size-exclusion chromatography, chemical cross-linking, analytical ultracentrifugation, and isothermal titration calorimetry. Furthermore, fluorescence polarization assays and isothermal titration calorimetry detect no direct interaction between GCK and BAD BH3 peptides. Kinetic characterization of GCK in the presence of high concentrations of recombinant BAD show modest (BAD BH3 peptides. These results raise questions as to the mechanism of action of stapled peptide analogs modeled after the BAD BH3 domain, which reportedly enhance the Vmax value of GCK and stimulate insulin release in BAD-deficient islets. Based on our results, we postulate that the BAD:GCK interaction, and any resultant regulatory effect(s) upon GCK activity, requires the participation of additional members of the mitochondrial complex.

  8. Nuclear activity in nearby galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filho, Mercedes Esteves

    2003-01-01

    The main focus of this thesis has been the search for and study of low luminosity AGN. We have detected severa low luminosity AGN in nearby galaxies, revealing that this type of activity can occur in a broad range of galaxy types and powers. Furthermore, we have been able to establish importan const

  9. Somatic microindels in human cancer: the insertions are highly error-prone and derive from nearby but not adjacent sense and antisense templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaringe, William A; Li, Kai; Gu, Dongqing; Gonzalez, Kelly D; Chen, Zhenbin; Hill, Kathleen A; Sommer, Steve S

    2008-09-15

    Somatic microindels (microdeletions with microinsertions) have been studied in normal mouse tissues using the Big Blue lacI transgenic mutation detection system. Here we analyze microindels in human cancers using an endogenous and transcribed gene, the TP53 gene. Microindel frequency, the enhancement of 1-2 microindels and other features are generally similar to that observed in the non-transcribed lacI gene in normal mouse tissues. The current larger sample of somatic microindels reveals recurroids: mutations in which deletions are identical and the co-localized insertion is similar. The data reveal that the inserted sequences derive from nearby but not adjacent sequences in contrast to the slippage that characterizes the great majority of pure microinsertions. The microindel inserted sequences derive from a template on the sense or antisense strand with similar frequency. The estimated error rate of the insertion process of 13% per bp is by far the largest reported in vivo, with the possible exception of somatic hypermutation in the immunoglobulin gene. The data constrain possible mechanisms of microindels and raise the question of whether microindels are 'scars' from the bypass of large DNA adducts by a translesional polymerase, e.g. the 'Tarzan model' presented herein.

  10. Bad Arguments Defending Racial Preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Carl

    2008-01-01

    Professor Cohen describes the arduous path to the passage of Proposition 2 in Michigan in 2006. In considering the reasons for its victory, he shows how claims (sometimes well-intended) "for" preferences rest on truly bad arguments. (Contains 8 footnotes.)

  11. Bad neighborhoods on the internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moura, Giovane C.M.; Sadre, Ramin; Pras, Aiko

    2014-01-01

    Analogous to the real world, sources of malicious activities on the Internet tend to be concentrated in certain networks instead of being evenly distributed. In this article we formally define and frame such areas as Internet Bad Neighborhoods. By extending the reputation of malicious IP addresses t

  12. Bad Neighborhoods on the Internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreira Moura, G.C.; Sadre, R.; Pras, A.

    2014-01-01

    Analogous to the real world, sources of malicious activities on the Internet tend to be concentrated in certain networks instead of being evenly distributed. In this article, we formally define and frame such areas as Internet Bad Neighborhoods. By extending the reputation of malicious IP addresses

  13. On badly approximable complex numbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esdahl-Schou, Rune; Kristensen, S.

    We show that the set of complex numbers which are badly approximable by ratios of elements of , where has maximal Hausdorff dimension. In addition, the intersection of these sets is shown to have maximal dimension. The results remain true when the sets in question are intersected with a suitably...

  14. Bad neighborhoods on the internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreira Moura, Giovane; Sadre, R.; Pras, Aiko

    Analogous to the real world, sources of malicious activities on the Internet tend to be concentrated in certain networks instead of being evenly distributed. In this article we formally define and frame such areas as Internet Bad Neighborhoods. By extending the reputation of malicious IP addresses

  15. Bad Neighborhoods on the Internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreira Moura, G.C.; Sadre, R.; Pras, A.

    2014-01-01

    Analogous to the real world, sources of malicious activities on the Internet tend to be concentrated in certain networks instead of being evenly distributed. In this article, we formally define and frame such areas as Internet Bad Neighborhoods. By extending the reputation of malicious IP addresses

  16. Taking on Internet Bad Neighorhoods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreira Moura, G.C.; Sadre, R.; Pras, A.

    2014-01-01

    It's known fact that malicious IP addresses are not evenly distributed over the IP addressing space. In this paper, we frame networks concentrating malicious addresses as bad neighborhoods. We propose a formal definition and show this concentration can be used to predict future attacks (new spamming

  17. Internet bad neighborhoods temporal behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moura, Giovane C.M.; Sadre, Ramin; Pras, Aiko

    2014-01-01

    Malicious hosts tend to be concentrated in certain areas of the IP addressing space, forming the so-called Bad Neighborhoods. Knowledge about this concentration is valuable in predicting attacks from unseen IP addresses. This observation has been employed in previous works to filter out spam. In thi

  18. Internet Bad Neighborhoods Temporal Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreira Moura, G.C.; Sadre, R.; Pras, A.

    2014-01-01

    Malicious hosts tend to be concentrated in certain areas of the IP addressing space, forming the so-called Bad Neighborhoods. Knowledge about this concentration is valuable in predicting attacks from unseen IP addresses. This observation has been employed in previous works to filter out spam. In th

  19. On badly approximable complex numbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esdahl-Schou, Rune; Kristensen, S.

    We show that the set of complex numbers which are badly approximable by ratios of elements of , where has maximal Hausdorff dimension. In addition, the intersection of these sets is shown to have maximal dimension. The results remain true when the sets in question are intersected with a suitably...

  20. Tongue Scrapers Only Slightly Reduce Bad Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your desktop! more... Tongue Scrapers Only Slightly Reduce Bad Breath Article Chapters Tongue Scrapers Only Slightly Reduce ... oral cavity. Reviewed: January 2012 Related Articles: Halitosis (Bad Breath) Do You Have Traveler's Breath? Does a ...

  1. 42 CFR 413.178 - Bad debts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bad debts. 413.178 Section 413.178 Public Health...) Services and Organ Procurement Costs § 413.178 Bad debts. Link to an amendment published at 75 FR 49199, Aug. 12, 2010. (a) CMS will reimburse each facility its allowable Medicare bad debts, as defined...

  2. 'Bad boys'' Bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skårderud, Finn; Nygren, Pär; Edlund, Birgitta

    2005-01-01

    (n= 196) completed the Eating Disorders Inventory ? Child version (EDI-C). The childcare residents also completed an extended questionnaire, including questions regarding the use of anabolic?andro-genic steroids. Our main ?ndings were high scores on EDI-C symptom scales for boys in the childcare...... resident group; few differences between girls in the two samples; and a high frequency of having used anabolic?androgenic steroids among boys in care. Body-image problems among boys have hitherto been given little attention. The results call for increased efforts in describing and detecting patho...

  3. 'Bad boys'' Bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skårderud, Finn; Nygren, Pär; Edlund, Birgitta

    2005-01-01

    Children residing in care (hereafter referred to as childcare residents) are a risk¬group for emotional disturbances and behaviour problems. Based on existing knowledge of risk factors one would also expect this population to be a high-risk group for eating disorders and related body-image disord......Children residing in care (hereafter referred to as childcare residents) are a risk¬group for emotional disturbances and behaviour problems. Based on existing knowledge of risk factors one would also expect this population to be a high-risk group for eating disorders and related body...... resident group; few differences between girls in the two samples; and a high frequency of having used anabolic?androgenic steroids among boys in care. Body-image problems among boys have hitherto been given little attention. The results call for increased efforts in describing and detecting patho......¬logical cognitions, emotions and behaviour concerning the body in males in general and, more speci?cally, in high-risk male groups, such as childcare residents....

  4. From Bad to Worse: How Changing Inequality in Nearby Areas Impacts Local Crime

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    John R. Hipp; Charis E. Kubrin

    2017-01-01

    Recognition is growing that criminogenic neighborhood effects may not end at the borders of local communities, that neighborhoods are located relative to one another in ways that shape local crime rates...

  5. MaNGA: Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Weijmans, Anne-Marie

    2015-01-01

    MaNGA (Mapping Nearby Galaxies at APO) is a galaxy integral-field spectroscopic survey within the fourth generation Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-IV). It will be mapping the composition and kinematics of gas and stars in 10,000 nearby galaxies, using 17 differently sized fiber bundles. MaNGA's goal is to provide new insights in galaxy formation and evolution, and to deliver a local benchmark for current and future high-redshift studies.

  6. MaNGA: Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijmans, A.-M.; MaNGA Team

    2016-10-01

    MaNGA (Mapping Nearby Galaxies at APO) is a galaxy integral-field spectroscopic survey within the fourth generation Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-IV). It will be mapping the composition and kinematics of gas and stars in 10,000 nearby galaxies, using 17 differently sized fiber bundles. MaNGA's goal is to provide new insights in galaxy formation and evolution, and to deliver a local benchmark for current and future high-redshift studies.

  7. Nuclear Activity in Nearby Galaxies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaisa Bergmann Storchi

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available I discuss some recent observational results in the research of nearby active galactic nuclei (AGN. These results cover three main topics: (i evidences for the current paradigm for AGN´s, which includes a nuclear supermassive blackhole (SMBH fed via an accretion disk; (ii evidence that this paradigm may also apply to LINER´s, the lowest luminous AGN´s and to normal galaxies; (iii evidences of how the fueling of the SMBH occurs and its relation to recent and intermediate age (106 to 108 yrs old episodes of star formation.

  8. Contemporary Conditions are Badly Known

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, Geoff; Lund, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    -technological processes that makes contemporary art possible, in the sense of an ‘art of contemporaneity’. “Contemporary art is badly known”, as he puts it. Thus ‘contemporaneity’ begins to describe the more complex and layered problem of different kinds of time existing simultaneously across different localities. Yet...... of operation. Full bibliographic details are as follows: Renewable Futures: Art, Science and Society in the Post-Media Age, Acoustic Space 16, eds. Rasa Smite, Raitis Smits, Armin Medosch, Riga: Center for New Media Culture RIXC in collaboration with Art Research Laboratory, Leipaja University, Riga. ISSN 1407...

  9. How Bad is Selfish Voting?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Caragiannis, Ioannis; Morgenstern, Jamie;

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that strategic behavior in elections is essentially unavoidable; we therefore ask: how bad can the rational outcome be? We answer this question via the notion of the price of anarchy, using the scores of alternatives as a proxy for their quality and bounding the ratio between...... the score of the optimal alternative and the score of the winning alternative in Nash equilibrium. Specifically, we are interested in Nash equilibria that are obtained via sequences of rational strategic moves. Focusing on three common voting rules — plurality, veto, and Borda — we provide very positive...

  10. Evidence for Nearby Supernova Explosions

    CERN Document Server

    Benítez, N; Canelles, M; Benitez, Narciso; Maiz-Apellaniz, Jesus; Canelles, Matilde

    2002-01-01

    Supernova explosions are one of the most energetic--and potentially lethal--phenomena in the Universe. Scientists have speculated for decades about the possible consequences for life on Earth of a nearby supernova, but plausible candidates for such an event were lacking. Here we show that the Scorpius-Centaurus OB association, a group of young stars currently located at~130 parsecs from the Sun, has generated 20 SN explosions during the last 11 Myr, some of them probably as close as 40 pc to our planet. We find that the deposition on Earth of 60Fe atoms produced by these explosions can explain the recent measurements of an excess of this isotope in deep ocean crust samples. We propose that ~2 Myr ago, one of the SNe exploded close enough to Earth to seriously damage the ozone layer, provoking or contributing to the Pliocene-Pleistocene boundary marine extinction.

  11. Comparison of Freshwater Diatom Assemblages from a High Arctic Oasis to Nearby Polar Desert Sites and Their Application to Environmental Inference Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelutti, Neal; McCleary, Kathryn; Douglas, Marianne S V; Smol, John P

    2013-02-01

    Arctic oases are regions of atypical warmth and relatively high biological production and diversity. They are small in area (Achnanthes sensu lato, Fragilaria sensu lato, and Nitzschia dominating the assemblages. A correspondence analysis (CA) ordination showed that oasis sites generally plotted separately from the northern sites, although the sites also appear to plot separately based on whether they were lakes or ponds. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) identified specific conductivity, DOC, and SiO2 as explaining significant (P < 0.05) and additional amounts of variation in the diatom data set. The most robust diatom-based inference model was generated for DOC, which will provide useful reconstructions on long-term changes in paleo-optics of high Arctic lakes.

  12. Good Dog, Bad Food: Foods for People That Are Bad for Your Dog

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Good Dog, Bad Food: Foods for People That Are Bad for ...

  13. High mass star formation in the IRAS 17233-3606 region: a new nearby and bright hot core in the southern sky

    CERN Document Server

    Leurini, S; Thorwirth, S; Wyrowski, F; Schilke, P; Menten, K M; Guesten, R; Zapata, L

    2008-01-01

    We present molecular line observations of the massive star forming region IRAS 17233-3606 aimed at studying the molecular core associated with the source. The observations were made using the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment telescope in the CO (3-2) and HCO^+ (4-3) transitions, and in the CH_3OH (6_K-5_K), (7_K-6_K) and CH_3CN (16_K-15_K) bands. For the CO(3-2) and HCO^+ (4-3) transitions, we obtained maps with a size of 70''\\times 70''. The typical angular resolution of the data is ~18''. Our observations reveal an exceptionally rich molecular spectrum, a signpost of hot core activity. Comparisons with two other prominent southern hot cores were made through observations in the same frequency setups. We also detected a bipolar outflow in CO (3-2) and HCO^+ (4-3) lines. Modelling reveals a hot core of size ~3'' and a temperature of 150 K in the IRAS17233-3606 region. The parameters of the molecular outflow are derived through the analysis of the CO (3-2) emission, and are typical of outflows driven by high-mass...

  14. 25 CFR 11.421 - Bad checks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bad checks. 11.421 Section 11.421 Indians BUREAU OF... Criminal Offenses § 11.421 Bad checks. (a) A person who issues or passes a check or similar sight order for..., and the issuer failed to make good within 10 days after receiving notice of that refusal....

  15. 27 CFR 70.101 - Bad checks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bad checks. 70.101 Section....101 Bad checks. If any check or money order in payment of any amount receivable under Title 26 of the... appropriate TTB officer that such check was tendered in good faith and that such person had reasonable...

  16. BAD Phosphorylation: A Novel Link between Apoptosis and Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Polzien, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    BAD (Bcl-2 antagonist of cell death, Bcl-2 associated death promoter) is a pro-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 protein family that is regulated by phosphorylation in response to survival factors. Although much attention has been devoted to the identification of phosphorylation sites in murine BAD (mBAD), little data are available with respect to phosphorylation of human BAD (hBAD) protein. In this work, we investigated the quantitative contribution of BAD targeting kinases in phosphorylating se...

  17. The AGN Population in Nearby Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filho, Mercedes; Barthel, Peter; Ho, Luis

    2006-01-01

    In order to determine the incidence of black hole accretion-driven nuclear activity in nearby galaxies, we have compiled radio data for the LINERs, composite LINER,/Hn and Seyfert galaxies from a complete magnitude-limited sample of bright nearby galaxies (Palomar sample). Our results show an overal

  18. Initial Hubble Diagram Results from the Nearby Supernova Factory

    CERN Document Server

    Bailey, S; Antilogus, P; Aragon, C; Baltay, C; Bongard, S; Buton, C; Childress, M; Copin, Y; Gangler, E; Loken, S; Nugent, P; Pain, R; Pécontal, E; Pereira, R; Perlmutter, S; Rabinowitz, D; Rigaudier, G; Ripoche, P; Runge, K; Scalzo, R; Smadja, G; Tao, C; Thomas, R C; Wu, C

    2008-01-01

    The use of Type Ia supernovae as distance indicators led to the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the universe a decade ago. Now that large second generation surveys have significantly increased the size and quality of the high-redshift sample, the cosmological constraints are limited by the currently available sample of ~50 cosmologically useful nearby supernovae. The Nearby Supernova Factory addresses this problem by discovering nearby supernovae and observing their spectrophotometric time development. Our data sample includes over 2400 spectra from spectral timeseries of 185 supernovae. This talk presents results from a portion of this sample including a Hubble diagram (relative distance vs. redshift) and a description of some analyses using this rich dataset.

  19. WINGS: WFIRST Infrared Nearby Galaxy Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Benjamin

    WFIRST's combination of wide field and high resolution will revolutionize the study of nearby galaxies. We propose to produce and analyze simulated WFIRST data of nearby galaxies and their halos to maximize the scientific yield in the limited observing time available, ensuring the legacy value of WFIRST's eventual archive. We will model both halo structure and resolved stellar populations to optimize WFIRST's constraints on both dark matter and galaxy formation models in the local universe. WFIRST can map galaxy structure down to ~35 mag/square arcsecond using individual stars. The resulting maps of stellar halos and accreting dwarf companions will provide stringent tests of galaxy formation and dark matter models on galactic (and even sub-galactic) scales, which is where the most theoretical tension exists with the Lambda-CDM model. With a careful, coordinated plan, WFIRST can be expected to improve current sample sizes by 2 orders of magnitude, down to surface brightness limits comparable to those currently reached only in the Local Group, and that are >4 magnitudes fainter than achievable from the ground due to limitations in star-galaxy separation. WFIRST's maps of galaxy halos will simultaneously produce photometry for billions of stars in the main bodies of galaxies within 10 Mpc. These data will transform studies of star formation histories that track stellar mass growth as a function of time and position within a galaxy. They also will constrain critical stellar evolution models of the near-infrared bright, rapidly evolving stars that can contribute significantly to the integrated light of galaxies in the near-infrared. Thus, with WFIRST we can derive the detailed evolution of individual galaxies, reconstruct the complete history of star formation in the nearby universe, and put crucial constraints on the theoretical models used to interpret near-infrared extragalactic observations. We propose a three-component work plan that will ensure these gains by

  20. "They'll Expect More Bad Things from Us.": Latino/a Youth Constructing Identities in a Racialized High School in New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechuga, Chalane Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    This research explores how Latino/a high school students in New Mexico constitute their racial identities in this particular historical moment, the post-Civil Rights colorblind era. I explore what their chosen nomenclatures and employed discourses suggest about the relationship between their racial identities and academic achievement. The research…

  1. Diophantine approximation and badly approximable sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, S.; Thorn, R.; Velani, S.

    2006-01-01

    Let (X,d) be a metric space and (Omega, d) a compact subspace of X which supports a non-atomic finite measure m.  We consider `natural' classes of badly approximable  subsets of Omega. Loosely speaking, these consist of points in Omega which `stay clear' of some given set of points in X. The clas......Let (X,d) be a metric space and (Omega, d) a compact subspace of X which supports a non-atomic finite measure m.  We consider `natural' classes of badly approximable  subsets of Omega. Loosely speaking, these consist of points in Omega which `stay clear' of some given set of points in X....... The classical set Bad of `badly approximable' numbers in the theory of Diophantine approximation falls within our framework as do the sets Bad(i,j) of simultaneously badly approximable numbers. Under various natural conditions we prove that the badly approximable subsets of Omega have full Hausdorff dimension...

  2. Evidence of nearby supernovae affecting life on Earth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensmark, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    . A statistical analysis indicates that the Solar system has experienced many large short-term increases in the flux of Galactic cosmic rays (GCR) from nearby SNe. The hypothesis that a high GCR flux should coincide with cold conditions on the Earth is borne out by comparing the general geological record...

  3. Too Many Is Too Bad: Long-Term Net Negative Effects of High Density Ungulate Populations on a Dominant Mediterranean Shrub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecomte, Xavier; Fedriani, José M.; Caldeira, Maria C.; Clemente, Adelaide S.; Olmi, Alessandro; Bugalho, Miguel N.

    2016-01-01

    Plant–animal interactions imply costs and benefits with net balance depending on interacting species and ecological context. Ungulates, in particular, confer costs (e.g., plant leaf consumption, flower bud predation) and benefits (e.g., plant overcompensation, seed dispersal) to plants. Magnitude of costs and benefits may be altered by habitat management or ecological conditions favoring high density ungulate populations. Little is known however on whether plant costs or benefits predominate over the years, or the long-term outcomes of plant-animal interactions in habitat types sustaining high density ungulate populations. We investigated how high density ungulate populations alter plant costs and benefits by quantifying ungulate long-term effects on the shrub Cistus ladanifer (Cistaceae) individual size, seed weight and number, seed bank, and population density, through a 12-year ungulate exclusion experiment in a Mediterranean scrubland. We monitored plant size and flower buds in plants exposed or protected from ungulates and number of developed capsules and seeds consumed (potential seed dispersal) by ungulates during three reproductive seasons. We found that ungulates negatively affected shrub size and led to a dramatically decline of shrub reproductive structures and seed production, affecting the plant reproductive cycle. Number of buds was 27 times higher and number of developed seed 5 times higher in ungulate-excluded as compared to ungulate-exposed plots. After 9 years of ungulate exclusion, the C. ladanifer seed bank was 2.6 times higher in ungulate-excluded plots. The population density of C. ladanifer was 4 times higher in ungulate-excluded plots. Our long-term experiment showed that high density ungulate populations can alter plant-animal interactions by reducing plant benefits and increasing plant costs. PMID:27387134

  4. Too Many Is Too Bad: Long-Term Net Negative Effects of High Density Ungulate Populations on a Dominant Mediterranean Shrub.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Lecomte

    Full Text Available Plant-animal interactions imply costs and benefits with net balance depending on interacting species and ecological context. Ungulates, in particular, confer costs (e.g., plant leaf consumption, flower bud predation and benefits (e.g., plant overcompensation, seed dispersal to plants. Magnitude of costs and benefits may be altered by habitat management or ecological conditions favoring high density ungulate populations. Little is known however on whether plant costs or benefits predominate over the years, or the long-term outcomes of plant-animal interactions in habitat types sustaining high density ungulate populations. We investigated how high density ungulate populations alter plant costs and benefits by quantifying ungulate long-term effects on the shrub Cistus ladanifer (Cistaceae individual size, seed weight and number, seed bank, and population density, through a 12-year ungulate exclusion experiment in a Mediterranean scrubland. We monitored plant size and flower buds in plants exposed or protected from ungulates and number of developed capsules and seeds consumed (potential seed dispersal by ungulates during three reproductive seasons. We found that ungulates negatively affected shrub size and led to a dramatically decline of shrub reproductive structures and seed production, affecting the plant reproductive cycle. Number of buds was 27 times higher and number of developed seed 5 times higher in ungulate-excluded as compared to ungulate-exposed plots. After 9 years of ungulate exclusion, the C. ladanifer seed bank was 2.6 times higher in ungulate-excluded plots. The population density of C. ladanifer was 4 times higher in ungulate-excluded plots. Our long-term experiment showed that high density ungulate populations can alter plant-animal interactions by reducing plant benefits and increasing plant costs.

  5. Throwing the book at bad ideas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Philip

    2015-12-01

    Several eminent science authors have recently claimed that bad scientific ideas "held back" good ones throughout human history, delaying the progress of science. But as Philip Ball argues, it just isn't that simple.

  6. On State Estimation with Bad Data Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Weiyu; Tang, Ao

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of state estimation through observations possibly corrupted with both bad data and additive observation noises. A mixed $\\ell_1$ and $\\ell_2$ convex programming is used to separate both sparse bad data and additive noises from the observations. Through using the almost Euclidean property for a linear subspace, we derive a new performance bound for the state estimation error under sparse bad data and additive observation noises. Our main contribution is to provide sharp bounds on the almost Euclidean property of a linear subspace, using the "escape-through-a-mesh" theorem from geometric functional analysis. We also propose and numerically evaluate an iterative convex programming approach to performing bad data detections in nonlinear electrical power networks problems.

  7. The psychological benefits of bad poetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, Donald

    2010-12-01

    The author was the founder and secretary pro-tem of the Bad Poets Society at Princeton Theological Seminary. This distinction does not appear on his official resume. The Society did not have meetings but it had a newsletter that came out several times a year comprised of bad poetry written by members of the faculty and staff. These poetic works included reflections on institutional matters. This article contains bad poetry by the author relating to such matters. This poetry illustrates Sigmund Freud's (Jokes and Their Relation to the Unconscious. Norton, New York, 1960) view of humor as saving in the expenditure of painful emotions, costly inhibitions, and difficult thinking. The parasitical nature of bad poetry is also noted and illustrated with the author's own poems.

  8. Is Running Bad for Your Knees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162903.html Is Running Bad for Your Knees? Study suggests it may ... THURSDAY, Jan. 5, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Everybody believes running can leave you sore and swollen, right? Well, ...

  9. Breaking Bad News in Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantis, Apostolos; Exiara, Triada

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In a regional hospital, many patients are newly diagnosed with cancer. Breaking the bad news in these patients and their relatives is a tough task. Many doctors are not experienced in talking to patients about death or death-related diseases. In recent years, there have been great efforts to change the current situation. The aim of this study was to investigate the experience and education of medical personnel in breaking bad news in a secondary hospital. Materials and Methods: 59 doctors from General Hospital of Komotini, Greece were included in the study. All the doctors were in clinical specialties that treated cancer patients. A brief questionnaire was developed based on current guidelines such as Baile/SPIKES framework and the ABCDE mnemonic. Results: Residents are involved in delivering bad news less frequently than specialists. Only 21 doctors (35.59%) had specific training on breaking bad news. 20 doctors (33.90%) were aware of the available techniques and protocols on breaking bad news. 47 doctors (79.66%) had a consistent plan for breaking bad news. 57 (96.61%) delivered bad news in a quiet place, 53 (89.83%) ensured no interruptions and enough time, 53 (89.83%) used simple words and 54 (91.53%) checked for understanding and did not rush through the news. 46 doctors (77.97%) allowed relatives to determine patient's knowledge about the disease. Conclusions: There were low rates of specific training in breaking bad news. However, the selected location, the physician's speech and their plan were according to current guidelines. PMID:25709183

  10. Breaking bad news in cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolos Konstantis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In a regional hospital, many patients are newly diagnosed with cancer. Breaking the bad news in these patients and their relatives is a tough task. Many doctors are not experienced in talking to patients about death or death-related diseases. In recent years, there have been great efforts to change the current situation. The aim of this study was to investigate the experience and education of medical personnel in breaking bad news in a secondary hospital. Materials and Methods: 59 doctors from General Hospital of Komotini, Greece were included in the study. All the doctors were in clinical specialties that treated cancer patients. A brief questionnaire was developed based on current guidelines such as Baile/SPIKES framework and the ABCDE mnemonic. Results: Residents are involved in delivering bad news less frequently than specialists. Only 21 doctors (35.59% had specific training on breaking bad news. 20 doctors (33.90% were aware of the available techniques and protocols on breaking bad news. 47 doctors (79.66% had a consistent plan for breaking bad news. 57 (96.61% delivered bad news in a quiet place, 53 (89.83% ensured no interruptions and enough time, 53 (89.83% used simple words and 54 (91.53% checked for understanding and did not rush through the news. 46 doctors (77.97% allowed relatives to determine patient′s knowledge about the disease. Conclusions: There were low rates of specific training in breaking bad news. However, the selected location, the physician′s speech and their plan were according to current guidelines.

  11. 26 CFR 1.166-1 - Bad debts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bad debts. 1.166-1 Section 1.166-1 Internal... TAXES (CONTINUED) Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations § 1.166-1 Bad debts. (a... shall be allowed in respect of bad debts owed to the taxpayer. For this purpose, bad debts...

  12. Three Temperate Neptunes Orbiting Nearby Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Benjamin J.; Howard, Andrew W.; Weiss, Lauren M.; Sinukoff, Evan; Petigura, Erik A.; Isaacson, Howard; Hirsch, Lea; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Henry, Gregory W.; Grunblatt, Samuel K.; Huber, Daniel; von Braun, Kaspar; Boyajian, Tabetha S.; Kane, Stephen R.; Wittrock, Justin; Horch, Elliott P.; Ciardi, David R.; Howell, Steve B.; Wright, Jason T.; Ford, Eric B.

    2016-10-01

    We present the discovery of three modestly irradiated, roughly Neptune-mass planets orbiting three nearby Solar-type stars. HD 42618 b has a minimum mass of 15.4 ± 2.4 {M}\\oplus , a semimajor axis of 0.55 au, an equilibrium temperature of 337 K, and is the first planet discovered to orbit the solar analogue host star, HD 42618. We also discover new planets orbiting the known exoplanet host stars HD 164922 and HD 143761 (ρ CrB). The new planet orbiting HD 164922 has a minimum mass of 12.9 ± 1.6 {M}\\oplus and orbits interior to the previously known Jovian mass planet orbiting at 2.1 au. HD 164922 c has a semimajor axis of 0.34 au and an equilibrium temperature of 418 K. HD 143761 c orbits with a semimajor axis of 0.44 au, has a minimum mass of 25 ± 2 {M}\\oplus , and is the warmest of the three new planets with an equilibrium temperature of 445 K. It orbits exterior to the previously known warm Jupiter in the system. A transit search using space-based CoRoT data and ground-based photometry from the Automated Photometric Telescopes (APTs) at Fairborn Observatory failed to detect any transits, but the precise, high-cadence APT photometry helped to disentangle planetary-reflex motion from stellar activity. These planets were discovered as part of an ongoing radial velocity survey of bright, nearby, chromospherically inactive stars using the Automated Planet Finder (APF) telescope at Lick Observatory. The high-cadence APF data combined with nearly two decades of radial velocity data from Keck Observatory and gives unprecedented sensitivity to both short-period low-mass, and long-period intermediate-mass planets. Based on observations obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated jointly by the University of California and the California Institute of Technology. Keck time was granted for this project by the University of Hawai‘i, the University of California, and NASA.

  13. BAD contributes to RAF-mediated proliferation and cooperates with B-RAF-V600E in cancer signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzien, Lisa; Baljuls, Angela; Albrecht, Marco; Hekman, Mirko; Rapp, Ulf R

    2011-05-20

    BAD (Bcl-2 antagonist of cell death) belongs to the proapoptotic BH3-only subfamily of Bcl-2 proteins. Physiological activity of BAD is highly controlled by phosphorylation. To further analyze the regulation of BAD function, we investigated the role of recently identified phosphorylation sites on BAD-mediated apoptosis. We found that in contrast to the N-terminal phosphorylation sites, the serines 124 and 134 act in an antiapoptotic manner because the replacement by alanine led to enhanced cell death. Our results further indicate that RAF kinases represent, besides PAK1, BAD serine 134 phosphorylating kinases. Importantly, in the presence of wild type BAD, co-expression of survival kinases, such as RAF and PAK1, leads to a strongly increased proliferation, whereas substitution of serine 134 by alanine abolishes this process. Furthermore, we identified BAD serine 134 to be strongly involved in survival signaling of B-RAF-V600E-containing tumor cells and found that phosphorylation of BAD at this residue is critical for efficient proliferation in these cells. Collectively, our findings provide new insights into the regulation of BAD function by phosphorylation and its role in cancer signaling.

  14. The Nearby Field Galaxy Survey a spectrophotometric and photometric study of nearby galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Jansen, R A

    2001-01-01

    We report on our observing program to obtain integrated spectrophotometry, intermediate and high resolution major axis spectra, and U,B,R surface photo- metry of a representative sample of ~200 galaxies in the nearby field. The main goal of this program is to provide a comparison sample for high redshift studies and to study the variation in star formation rates (SFR), star forma- tion history (SFH), excitation, metallicity, and internal kinematics over a large range in galaxy luminosity and morphological type. In particular, we extend the work of Kennicutt (1992) to lower luminosity systems. We present the main results of our analysis sofar. In these proceedings, we condense the presented two atlases of (1) images and radial surface brightness profiles and color profiles, and (2) of images and integrated spectra into several example images, profiles and spectra, showing the general trends observed. For the original atlasses we refer to the electronic version, available at http://www.astro.rug.nl/~nfgs/ .

  15. The natural selection of bad science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaldino, Paul E; McElreath, Richard

    2016-09-01

    Poor research design and data analysis encourage false-positive findings. Such poor methods persist despite perennial calls for improvement, suggesting that they result from something more than just misunderstanding. The persistence of poor methods results partly from incentives that favour them, leading to the natural selection of bad science. This dynamic requires no conscious strategizing-no deliberate cheating nor loafing-by scientists, only that publication is a principal factor for career advancement. Some normative methods of analysis have almost certainly been selected to further publication instead of discovery. In order to improve the culture of science, a shift must be made away from correcting misunderstandings and towards rewarding understanding. We support this argument with empirical evidence and computational modelling. We first present a 60-year meta-analysis of statistical power in the behavioural sciences and show that power has not improved despite repeated demonstrations of the necessity of increasing power. To demonstrate the logical consequences of structural incentives, we then present a dynamic model of scientific communities in which competing laboratories investigate novel or previously published hypotheses using culturally transmitted research methods. As in the real world, successful labs produce more 'progeny,' such that their methods are more often copied and their students are more likely to start labs of their own. Selection for high output leads to poorer methods and increasingly high false discovery rates. We additionally show that replication slows but does not stop the process of methodological deterioration. Improving the quality of research requires change at the institutional level.

  16. Characterizing Lyman Alpha Scattering in Nearby Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, Joanna; Hayes, Matthew; Melinder, Jens; Östlin, Göran; Gronwall, Caryl

    2017-01-01

    The hydrogen emission line of Lyman alpha (Lyα) has long been recognized as key to studying high redshift star-forming galaxies. However, due to the resonance of the emission line, the path that a Lyα photon takes from emission to eventual escape from the galaxy is essentially a mystery. This scattering poses a problem for using Lyα as a key emission feature of galaxies because it results in Lyα not being observed in all star-forming galaxies, and, in galaxies where it is observed, the place where the photon is originally emitted and where it is observed are two very different things. We discuss here how the Lyman-Alpha Reference Sample (LARS) provides a unique sample of 14 nearby (0.02 Space Telescope imaging. We compare the Lyα/Hα ratios with those expected from pure dust attenuation models, finding that in some cases significant positive departures are found on small scales, consistent with geometrical effects being important on sizes comparable to the HII regions. We then develop a simple scattering model in which we are able to estimate the average path length a Lyα photon travels with respect to non-resonant radiation, and quantifiy the excess dust optical depth to which Lyα radiation may be susceptible.

  17. Bad apples, bad cases, and bad barrels: meta-analytic evidence about sources of unethical decisions at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kish-Gephart, Jennifer J; Harrison, David A; Treviño, Linda Klebe

    2010-01-01

    As corporate scandals proliferate, practitioners and researchers alike need a cumulative, quantitative understanding of the antecedents associated with unethical decisions in organizations. In this meta-analysis, the authors draw from over 30 years of research and multiple literatures to examine individual ("bad apple"), moral issue ("bad case"), and organizational environment ("bad barrel") antecedents of unethical choice. Findings provide empirical support for several foundational theories and paint a clearer picture of relationships characterized by mixed results. Structural equation modeling revealed the complexity (multidetermined nature) of unethical choice, as well as a need for research that simultaneously examines different sets of antecedents. Moderator analyses unexpectedly uncovered better prediction of unethical behavior than of intention for several variables. This suggests a need to more strongly consider a new "ethical impulse" perspective in addition to the traditional "ethical calculus" perspective. Results serve as a data-based foundation and guide for future theoretical and empirical development in the domain of behavioral ethics.

  18. Adaptive bad pixel correction algorithm for IRFPA based on PCNN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Hanbing; Zhou, Zuofeng; Cao, Jianzhong; Yi, Bo; Yan, Aqi; Zhang, Jian

    2013-10-01

    Bad pixels and response non-uniformity are the primary obstacles when IRFPA is used in different thermal imaging systems. The bad pixels of IRFPA include fixed bad pixels and random bad pixels. The former is caused by material or manufacture defect and their positions are always fixed, the latter is caused by temperature drift and their positions are always changing. Traditional radiometric calibration-based bad pixel detection and compensation algorithm is only valid to the fixed bad pixels. Scene-based bad pixel correction algorithm is the effective way to eliminate these two kinds of bad pixels. Currently, the most used scene-based bad pixel correction algorithm is based on adaptive median filter (AMF). In this algorithm, bad pixels are regarded as image noise and then be replaced by filtered value. However, missed correction and false correction often happens when AMF is used to handle complex infrared scenes. To solve this problem, a new adaptive bad pixel correction algorithm based on pulse coupled neural networks (PCNN) is proposed. Potential bad pixels are detected by PCNN in the first step, then image sequences are used periodically to confirm the real bad pixels and exclude the false one, finally bad pixels are replaced by the filtered result. With the real infrared images obtained from a camera, the experiment results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  19. Stellar ages and metallicities of nearby elliptical galaxies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai-Tian Tang; Qiu-Sheng Gu; Song Huang

    2009-01-01

    Stellar ages and metallicities are crucial for understanding the formation and evolution of elliptical galaxies.However,due to the age-metallicity degeneracy,it is hard to measure these two parameters accurately with broad-hand photometry.In this paper,we observed high-resolution spectra for a sample of 20 nearby elliptical galaxies (EGs) with the NAOC 2.16 m telescope,and determined stellar ages and metallicities by using the empirical population synthesis and Lick/IDS index system methods.We found that stellar ages from these two methods are consistent with each other for purely old EGs; however,stellar metallicities show a zeropoint offset of 0.5 Z_⊙.Our results confirm that stellar populations in low-density environment galaxies are more diverse compared to their high-density counterparts.We also investigated the element abundance-galaxy mass relation for nearby elliptical galaxies.

  20. Rainmakers: why bad weather means good productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jooa Julia; Gino, Francesca; Staats, Bradley R

    2014-05-01

    People believe that weather conditions influence their everyday work life, but to date, little is known about how weather affects individual productivity. Contrary to conventional wisdom, we predict and find that bad weather increases individual productivity and that it does so by eliminating potential cognitive distractions resulting from good weather. When the weather is bad, individuals appear to focus more on their work than on alternate outdoor activities. We investigate the proposed relationship between worse weather and higher productivity through 4 studies: (a) field data on employees' productivity from a bank in Japan, (b) 2 studies from an online labor market in the United States, and (c) a laboratory experiment. Our findings suggest that worker productivity is higher on bad-, rather than good-, weather days and that cognitive distractions associated with good weather may explain the relationship. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of our research.

  1. The ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury

    CERN Document Server

    Dalcanton, Julianne J; Seth, Anil C; Dolphin, Andrew; Holtzman, Jon; Rosema, Keith; Skillman, Evan D; Cole, Andrew; Girardi, Leo; Gogarten, Stephanie M; Karachentsev, Igor D; Olsen, Knut; Weisz, Daniel; Christensen, Charlotte; Freeman, Ken; Gilbert, Karoline; Gallart, Carme; Harris, Jason; Hodge, Paul; de Jong, Roelof S; Karachentseva, Valentina; Mateo, Mario; Stetson, Peter B; Tavarez, Maritza; Zaritsky, Dennis; Governato, Fabio; Quinn, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury (ANGST) is a systematic survey to establish a legacy of uniform multi-color photometry of resolved stars for a volume-limited sample of nearby galaxies (D14 million stars. In this paper we present the details of the sample selection, imaging, data reduction, and the resulting photometric catalogs, along with an analysis of the photometric uncertainties (systematic and random), for both t he ACS and WFPC2 imaging. We also present uniformly derived relative distances measured from the apparent magnitude of the TRGB.

  2. Identifying Nearby UHECR Accelerators using UHE (and VHE) Photons

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, A M; Blasi, P; Ave, M

    2009-01-01

    Ultra-high energy photons (UHE, E > 10^19 eV) are inevitably produced during the propagation of 10^20 eV protons in extragalactic space. Their short interaction lengths ( 6x10^19 eV UHECRs from such a source should be detectable by Auger in the near future. The detection of these photons would also be a signature of a light composition of the UHECRs from the nearby source.

  3. The DANCE Project: Dynamical Analysis of Nearby Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouy, H.; Bertin, E.; Cuillandre, J. C.; Moraux, E.; Bouvier, J.; Arevalo Sánchez, M.; Barrado Y Navascués, D.

    We present the results of the DANCE project, a ground-based survey meant to prepare and complement Gaia i) down to the planetary mass regime; ii) in regions of high extinction. The DANCE project takes advantage of archival wide-field surveys to derive precise astrometry, and in particular proper motions, for millions of stars in young nearby associations. We present the first preliminary results obtained for the Pleiades cluster, as well as our immediate objectives for other associations.

  4. Abundances of metals in five nearby open clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Hui-Bon-Hoa, A

    1998-01-01

    Abundances of Mg, Ca, Sc, Cr, Fe, and Ni are derived for A stars of five nearby open clusters of various ages using high resolution spectroscopy. We point out a correlation between the abundance of Ca and that of Sc, suggesting that the abundance anomalies of these elements arise from the same physical process. Pronounced Am patterns are rather found in the oldest cluster stars whereas younger targets show weaker Am anomalies and atypical patterns for some of them.

  5. Characterising Nearby Luminous Infrared Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramphul, R.; Vaisanen, P.; Van der Heyden, K.

    2017-06-01

    Luminous InfraRed Galaxies (LIRGs) in the local universe are known to be highly interacting galaxies with strong star-formation in obscured environments. LIRGs have diversity in terms of morphology and mode and location of SF, while their even more energetic counterparts, the Ultra-Luminous IR galaxies, ULIRGs, (LIR ≥ 10^12 Lsol ) are normally (remnants of) gas rich major mergers with centralised starbursts and AGN. I will present ongoing work on a survey of >40 (U)LIRGs, in a distance range of 40 to 300Mpc, observed with SALT/RSS in long-slit mode. The sample of galaxies are in various stages of interaction and merging, some with strong AGN contribution. The reduction of the SALT/RSS data, was performed efficiently with our custom-built pipeline written in python/iraf/pyraf and handles error-frames propagation. We are performing a rigorous stellar populations analysis of our sample using Starlight (Cid Fernandes, 2005) which will ultimately lead to understanding the star formation history of these galaxies. We also use automatic line intensity measurements to derive chemical abundances, star formation rates, metallicity and emission line diagnostic. The talk will showcase the latest results that we just obtained for this dataset and discuss some of the future works.

  6. La poetica degli spazi di Breaking Bad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Martin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Breaking Bad (2008-2013 produced, thanks to the creativity of Vince Gilligan and his writing room, some of the most emblematic characters in the history of contemporary television. Also, the writers of Breaking Bad were able to devise places and spaces that play important symbolic functions: spaces of mediation, spaces of transit, sacred spaces. This article investigates the meanings and characteristics of some of these settings: the swimming pool, the White family home, the meth lab. The analysis considers also the relation between characters and spaces, paying particular attention to the places inhabited by the main character, Walter White.

  7. Ingestion analgesia occurs when a bad taste turns good.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Hayley; Mason, Peggy

    2011-12-01

    During ingestion of water, chocolate, sucrose, and saccharin, pain-related behaviors are suppressed. This ingestion analgesic effect is reversed when the hedonic valence of a food is switched from "good" to "bad" as occurs during conditioned taste aversion. Here, we tested the converse hedonic shift to determine if ingestion analgesia occurs when 0.3 M NaCl is made palatable by inducing a sodium appetite. In Experiment 1, sham- and sodium-depleted rats were tested for paw withdrawal and lick latencies to brief noxious heat during quiet wake and intraoral NaCl ingestion. Only sodium-depleted rats showed a suppression of heat-evoked reactions during NaCl ingestion. In Experiment 2, we tested whether this analgesic effect is mediated by the brainstem nucleus raphe magnus (NRM). Inactivation of NRM with muscimol blocked ingestion analgesia during NaCl ingestion by sodium-depleted rats. This attenuation was not due to a hyperalgesic effect of NRM inactivation. Muscimol microinjections into a nearby region, the nucleus raphe obscurus (NRO), were ineffective. The present findings demonstrate that the internal milieu of an animal can modify ingestion analgesia, and that the analgesia during NaCl ingestion by sodium hungry rats is mediated by NRM. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. PROGRAMMED CORRECTIVE EXERCISES IN PCYSICAL EDUCATION CLASSES AND LORDOTIC BAD BODY POSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Bogdanović

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of the research was the influence of specially program medphysical education instruction with specific complexes of exercises of corrective gymnastics at the 5th grade pupils at those with lordotic bad body position established by measuring. The aims were to define the number of children with lordotic bad body position and to eliminate or alleviate the existing disturbance until the end of the experimental programme. The experimental programme was carried out among the 5th grade pupils. Total number of pupils included in this experiment was 434. The methods that were used for the estimation of lordotic bad body position are somatoscopy and somatometry. The plumb, ruler and dermograph were necessary instruments. For the estimation of the states of bad body position, the average value of mild criterion is applied. It can be concluded that during experimental programme even 85.93% of the subjects successfully corrected their bad body position; more exactly completely corrected lordotic bad body position. That percentage is certificate of justification and necessity of application of experimental programme of corrective gymnastics with all his organizational characteristics (the setting, the scope of work, load intensity, directing and controlling the experiment. Muscular-bone system of boys shows the high level of adaptation on the applied experimental factor of corrective gymnastics.

  9. Satellite galaxies in nearby groups of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Vennik, J

    2015-01-01

    We analyse distribution, kinematics and star-formation (SF) properties of satellite galaxies in three different samples of nearby groups. We find that studied groups are generally well approximated by low-concentration NFW model, show a variety of LOS velocity dispersion profiles and signs of SF quenching in outskirts of dwarf satellite galaxies.

  10. Structure and Evolution of Nearby OB Associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, A. G. A.; Bruijne, J. H. J. de; Hoogerwerf, R.; Lub, J.; Le Poole, R. S.; Blaauw, A.

    1997-01-01

    Abstract: We present the first results of a comprehensive census of the stellar content of the nearby OB associations based on Hipparcos positions, proper motions and parallaxes for 12842 candidate member stars distributed over 21 fields on the sky. We use a new method to identify moving groups in t

  11. The ISM in nearby galaxies: NGC1365

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baan, Willem; Loenen, Edo; Spaans, Marco

    2010-01-01

    We propose a sensitive spectral survey of the nuclear region of the nearby Luminous Infrared Galaxy NGC1365. These observations are to confirm a similar program carried out in 2007, which suffers from severe bandpass issues. The previous observations have resulted in 76+ tentative detections, includ

  12. The Mass Function of Nearby Galaxy Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Biviano, A; Giuricin, G; Mardirossian, F; Mezzetti, M

    1993-01-01

    We present the distribution of virial masses for nearby galaxy clusters, as obtained from a data-set of 75 clusters, each having at least 20 galaxy members with measured redshifts within 1 Abell radius. After having accounted for problems of incompleteness of the data-set, we fitted a power-law to the cluster mass distribution.

  13. Limits on Planetary Companions from Doppler Surveys of Nearby Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Howard, Andrew W

    2016-01-01

    Most of our knowledge of planets orbiting nearby stars comes from Doppler surveys. For spaced-based, high-contrast imaging missions, nearby stars with Doppler-discovered planets are attractive targets. The known orbits tell imaging missions where and when to observe, and the dynamically-determined masses provide important constraints for the interpretation of planetary spectra. Quantifying the set of planet masses and orbits that could have been detected will enable more efficient planet discovery and characterization. We analyzed Doppler measurements from Lick and Keck Observatories collected by the California Planet Survey. We focused on stars that are likely targets for three space-based planet imaging mission concepts studied by NASA--WFIRST-AFTA, Exo-C, and Exo-S. The Doppler targets are primarily F8 and later main sequence stars, with observations spanning 1987-2014. We identified 76 stars with Doppler measurements from the prospective mission target lists. We developed an automated planet search and a ...

  14. Breaking bad news: a patient's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Lauren; Chabner, Bruce A; Lynch, Thomas J; Penson, Richard T

    2003-01-01

    Shortly before his death in 1995, Kenneth B. Schwartz, a cancer patient at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), founded The Kenneth B. Schwartz Center at MGH. The Schwartz Center is a nonprofit organization dedicated to supporting and advancing compassionate health care delivery that provides hope to the patient, support to caregivers, and encourages the healing process. The Center sponsors the Schwartz Center Rounds, a monthly multidisciplinary forum where caregivers reflect on important psychosocial issues faced by patients, their families, and their caregivers, and gain insight and support from fellow staff members. Clinicians in the field of oncology are unavoidably forced to break bad news. The Schwartz Center Rounds focuses on issues of communication between patients and their caregivers, one of the most difficult aspects of which is breaking bad news. The invited patient, a woman who had been living with a low-grade cancer for many years, spoke about her experiences both as a person living with cancer and as the daughter of a patient diagnosed with cancer. Her father's suicide, precipitated by being told his diagnosis, puts the horror of receiving bad news into stark relief. She provides a fascinating account of how she proactively adjusted to her diagnosis, and fought for optimal quality of life. This article discusses issues of support, abandonment, and how hope is conveyed, and reviews the literature that informs good clinical practice in breaking bad news.

  15. 48 CFR 31.205-3 - Bad debts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bad debts. 31.205-3... REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 31.205-3 Bad debts. Bad debts, including actual or estimated losses arising from uncollectible accounts receivable...

  16. Why Am I in Such a Bad Mood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breakfasts Shyness Why Am I in Such a Bad Mood? KidsHealth > For Teens > Why Am I in Such a Bad Mood? A A A What's in this article? ... like hurting yourself, that's more than just a bad mood and you need to tell someone. continue ...

  17. CfA Nearby Supernova Ia Light Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicken, Malcolm; Berlind, P.; Blondin, S.; Calkins, M.; Challis, P.; Esquerdo, G.; Everett, M.; Fernandez, J.; Jha, S.; Kirshner, R. P.; Latham, D.; Modjaz, M.; Rest, A.; Wood-Vasey, M.

    2007-12-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SN Ia) are central in measuring the accelerated expansion of the Universe and the properties of the underlying dark energy. Nearby SN Ia are compared with distant ones to establish the history of cosmic expansion. In fact, current efforts in SN Ia cosmology are constrained by the limited number of well-observed nearby SN Ia. A significantly improved sample of nearby SN Ia, fully covering the space of Ia properties, is needed to maximize the utility of high-redshift SN Ia. Our ongoing project at the CfA has collected such a set of 170 SN Ia. We have used the FLWO 1.2m telescope. About half of our objects were observed in UBVRI with the 4Shooter camera and have an average of 10 epochs each while the other half was taken in UBVr'i' with the Keplercam instrument and have an average of 17 epochs each. We have now reduced this sample of over 25000 images and present calibrated light curves of these SN Ia along with an analysis of their properties. The CfA Supernova program is supported in part by the National Science Foundation through grant AST-0606772 to Harvard University.

  18. Nearby Exo-Earth Astrometric Telescope (NEAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, M.; Nemati, B.; Zhai, C.; Goullioud, R.

    2011-01-01

    NEAT (Nearby Exo ]Earths Astrometric Telescope) is a modest sized (1m diameter telescope) It will be capable of searching approx 100 nearby stars down to 1 Mearth planets in the habitable zone, and 200 @ 5 Mearth, 1AU. The concept addresses the major issues for ultra -precise astrometry: (1) Photon noise (0.5 deg dia field of view) (2) Optical errors (beam walk) with long focal length telescope (3) Focal plane errors , with laser metrology of the focal plane (4) PSF centroiding errors with measurement of the "True" PSF instead of using a "guess " of the true PSF, and correction for intra pixel QE non-uniformities. Technology "close" to complete. Focal plane geometry to 2e-5 pixels and centroiding to approx 4e -5 pixels.

  19. Polymerase chain reaction with nearby primers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garafutdinov, Ravil R; Galimova, Aizilya A; Sakhabutdinova, Assol R

    2017-02-01

    DNA analysis of biological specimens containing degraded nucleic acids such as mortal remains, archaeological artefacts, forensic samples etc. has gained more attention in recent years. DNA extracted from these samples is often inapplicable for conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), so for its amplification the nearby primers are commonly used. Here we report the data that clarify the features of PCR with nearby and abutting primers. We have shown that the proximity of primers leads to significant reduction of the reaction time and ensures the successful performance of DNA amplification even in the presence of PCR inhibitors. The PCR with abutting primers is usually characterized by the absence of nonspecific amplification products that causes extreme sensitivity with limit of detection on single copy level. The feasibility of PCR with abutting primers was demonstrated on species identification of 100 years old rotten wood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Sloan Nearby Cluster Weak Lensing Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Kubo, Jeffrey M; Hardin, Frances Mei; Kubik, Donna; Lawhorn, Kelsey; Lin, Huan; Nicklaus, Liana; Nelson, Dylan; Reis, Ribamar R R; Seo, Hee-Jong; Soares-Santos, Marcelle; Stebbins, Albert; Yunker, Tony

    2009-01-01

    We describe and present initial results of a weak lensing survey of nearby ($\\rm{z}\\lesssim0.1$) galaxy clusters in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). In this first study, galaxy clusters are selected from the SDSS spectroscopic galaxy cluster catalogs of \\citet{miller05} and \\citet{berlind06}. We report a total of seven individual low redshift cluster weak lensing measurements which include: A2048, A1767, A2244, A1066, A2199, and two clusters specifically identified with the C4 algorithm. Our program of weak lensing of nearby galaxy clusters in the SDSS will eventually reach $\\sim 200$ clusters, making it the largest weak lensing survey of individual galaxy clusters to date.

  1. Interdependence of Bad and Puma during ionizing-radiation-induced apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristhian Toruno

    Full Text Available Ionizing radiation (IR-induced DNA double-strand breaks trigger an extensive cellular signaling response that involves the coordination of hundreds of proteins to regulate DNA repair, cell cycle arrest and apoptotic pathways. The cellular outcome often depends on the level of DNA damage as well as the particular cell type. Proliferating zebrafish embryonic neurons are highly sensitive to IR-induced apoptosis, and both p53 and its transcriptional target puma are essential mediators of the response. The BH3-only protein Puma has previously been reported to activate mitochondrial apoptosis through direct interaction with the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins Bax and Bak, thus constituting the role of an "activator" BH3-only protein. This distinguishes it from BH3-only proteins like Bad that are thought to indirectly promote apoptosis through binding to anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members, thereby preventing the sequestration of activator BH3-only proteins and allowing them to directly interact with and activate Bax and Bak. We have shown previously that overexpression of the BH3-only protein Bad in zebrafish embryos supports normal embryonic development but greatly sensitizes developing neurons to IR-induced apoptosis. While Bad has previously been shown to play only a minor role in promoting IR-induced apoptosis of T cells in mice, we demonstrate that Bad is essential for robust IR-induced apoptosis in zebrafish embryonic neural tissue. Moreover, we found that both p53 and Puma are required for Bad-mediated radiosensitization in vivo. Our findings show the existence of a hierarchical interdependence between Bad and Puma whereby Bad functions as an essential sensitizer and Puma as an essential activator of IR-induced mitochondrial apoptosis specifically in embryonic neural tissue.

  2. Interdependence of Bad and Puma during ionizing-radiation-induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toruno, Cristhian; Carbonneau, Seth; Stewart, Rodney A; Jette, Cicely

    2014-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR)-induced DNA double-strand breaks trigger an extensive cellular signaling response that involves the coordination of hundreds of proteins to regulate DNA repair, cell cycle arrest and apoptotic pathways. The cellular outcome often depends on the level of DNA damage as well as the particular cell type. Proliferating zebrafish embryonic neurons are highly sensitive to IR-induced apoptosis, and both p53 and its transcriptional target puma are essential mediators of the response. The BH3-only protein Puma has previously been reported to activate mitochondrial apoptosis through direct interaction with the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins Bax and Bak, thus constituting the role of an "activator" BH3-only protein. This distinguishes it from BH3-only proteins like Bad that are thought to indirectly promote apoptosis through binding to anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members, thereby preventing the sequestration of activator BH3-only proteins and allowing them to directly interact with and activate Bax and Bak. We have shown previously that overexpression of the BH3-only protein Bad in zebrafish embryos supports normal embryonic development but greatly sensitizes developing neurons to IR-induced apoptosis. While Bad has previously been shown to play only a minor role in promoting IR-induced apoptosis of T cells in mice, we demonstrate that Bad is essential for robust IR-induced apoptosis in zebrafish embryonic neural tissue. Moreover, we found that both p53 and Puma are required for Bad-mediated radiosensitization in vivo. Our findings show the existence of a hierarchical interdependence between Bad and Puma whereby Bad functions as an essential sensitizer and Puma as an essential activator of IR-induced mitochondrial apoptosis specifically in embryonic neural tissue.

  3. Diophantine approximation and badly approximable sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, S.; Thorn, R.; Velani, S.

    2006-01-01

    Let (X,d) be a metric space and (Omega, d) a compact subspace of X which supports a non-atomic finite measure m.  We consider `natural' classes of badly approximable  subsets of Omega. Loosely speaking, these consist of points in Omega which `stay clear' of some given set of points in X. The clas......Let (X,d) be a metric space and (Omega, d) a compact subspace of X which supports a non-atomic finite measure m.  We consider `natural' classes of badly approximable  subsets of Omega. Loosely speaking, these consist of points in Omega which `stay clear' of some given set of points in X...

  4. Twisted inhomogeneous Diophantine approximation and badly approximable sets

    CERN Document Server

    Harrap, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    For any real pair i, j geq 0 with i+j=1 let Bad(i, j) denote the set of (i, j)-badly approximable pairs. That is, Bad(i, j) consists of irrational vectors x:=(x_1, x_2) in R^2 for which there exists a positive constant c(x) such that max {||qx_1||^(-i), ||qx_2||^(-j)} > c(x)/q for all q in N. Building on a result of Kurzweil, a new characterization of the set Bad(i, j) in terms of `well-approximable' vectors in the area of `twisted' inhomogeneous Diophantine approximation is established. In addition, it is shown that Bad^x(i, j), the `twisted' inhomogeneous analogue of Bad(i, j), has full Hausdorff dimension 2 when x is chosen from the set Bad(i, j).

  5. How to Lie with Bad Data

    OpenAIRE

    De Veaux, Richard D.; Hand, David J.

    2005-01-01

    As Huff’s landmark book made clear, lying with statistics can be accomplished in many ways. Distorting graphics, manipulating data or using biased samples are just a few of the tried and true methods. Failing to use the correct statistical procedure or failing to check the conditions for when the selected method is appropriate can distort results as well, whether the motives of the analyst are honorable or not. Even when the statistical procedure and motives are correct, bad data can produce ...

  6. Breaking Bad News to Togolese Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kpanake, Lonzozou; Sorum, Paul Clay; Mullet, Etienne

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to map Togolese people's positions regarding the breaking of bad news to elderly patients. Two hundred eleven participants who had in the past received bad medical news were presented with 72 vignettes depicting communication of bad news to elderly female patients and asked to indicate the acceptability of the physician's conduct in each case. The vignettes were all combinations of five factors: (a) the severity of the disease, (b) the patient's wishes about disclosure, (c) the level of social support during hospitalization, (d) the patient's psychological robustness, and (e) the physician's decision about how to communicate the bad news. Five qualitatively different positions were found. Two percent of the participants preferred that the physician always tell the full truth to both the patient and her relatives, 8% preferred that the truth be told depending on the physician's perception of the situation, 15% preferred that the physician tell the truth but understood that in some cases nondisclosure to the patient was not inappropriate, 33% preferred that the physician tell the full truth to the relatives but not as much information to the patient, and 42% preferred that the physician tell the full truth to the relatives only. These findings present a challenge to European physicians taking care of African patients living in Europe or working in African hospitals, and to African physicians trained in Europe and now working in their home countries. If these physicians respect the imperative of always telling the truth directly to their patients, their behavior may trigger anger and considerable misunderstanding among African patients and their families.

  7. (THE LEGAL CONCEPT OF) BAD FAITH

    OpenAIRE

    Alferillo, Pascual E.; Academia Nacional de Derecho de Córdoba.

    2011-01-01

    In the present investigation examines bad faith trying to decipher if it has enough conceptual and operational independence for typical autonomous legal figure. In this course and, based on the collection of the normative background in Latin American and European civil codes which is mentioned in seeks to establish the common  parameters that guide the construction of its concept. From this, analyses the differences and links with the criminal intent and guilt, to conclude that the figure has...

  8. UCAC4 Nearby Star Survey: A Search for Our Stellar Neighbors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    the Sun. A sample of nearby stars with accurate trigonometric parallaxes from the Research Consortium On Nearby Stars is used to generate a set of 16...stars is required to determine accurate stellar luminosity and mass functions in the solar neighborhood, and is vital to our understanding of the...of the photometric color–MKs relations that incorporate BVgriJHKs photometry and high-quality trigonometric parallaxes. We outline the search for

  9. A synthesis of the literature on breaking bad news or truth telling: potential for research in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martis, Lawrence; Westhues, Anne

    2013-01-01

    The high incidence of fatal diseases, inequitable access to health care, and socioeconomic disparities in India generate plentiful clinical bad news including diagnosis of a life-limiting disease, poor prognosis, treatment failure, and impending death. These contexts compel health care professionals to become the messengers of bad news to patients and their families. In global literature on breaking bad news, there is very little about such complex clinical interactions occurring in India or guiding health care providers to do it well. The purpose of this article is to identify the issues for future research that would contribute to the volume, comprehensiveness, and quality of empirical literature on breaking bad news in clinical settings across India. Towards this end, we have synthesized the studies done across the globe on breaking bad news, under four themes: (a) deciding the amount of bad news to deliver; (b) attending to cultural and ethical issues; (c) managing psychological distress; and (d) producing competent messengers of bad news. We believe that robust research is inevitable to build an indigenous knowledge base, enhance communicative competence among health care professionals, and thereby to improve the quality of clinical interactions in India.

  10. A bad back needs help

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gotway MB

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. Case Presentation History of Present Illness A 61-year-old man was admitted to the hospital with a 2 month complaint of atraumatic back pain, worsening over the previous two weeks. The patient described his pain as sharp, 10/10 in intensity, radiating to his ribs, right hip, and right groin, and aggravated by coughing, weight lifting, and movement. His pain was worse in the supine and prone positions, with some relief provided by sitting, and relieved with high doses of pain medications, topical lidocaine, menthol-containing skin ointments, and chiropractic adjustments. Over the 2 days prior to admission, the patient became increasingly desperate as a result of his pain, and drank several pints of vodka.Past Medical and Social HistoryThe patient is a retired machinist whose medical history includes fibromyalgia and binge drinking. He smokes three-quarters of a pack of cigarettes per day.Physical ExaminationPhysical examination showed normal vital signs and …

  11. Evidence of nearby supernovae affecting life on Earth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensmark, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    . A statistical analysis indicates that the Solar system has experienced many large short-term increases in the flux of Galactic cosmic rays (GCR) from nearby SNe. The hypothesis that a high GCR flux should coincide with cold conditions on the Earth is borne out by comparing the general geological record...... between SN rates and carbon dioxide (CO2) levels is discussed in terms of a possible drawdown of CO2 by enhanced bio-productivity in oceans that are better fertilized in cold conditions – a hypothesis that is not contradicted by data on the relative abundance of the heavy isotope of carbon, 13C....

  12. The Science Case for PILOT III: the Nearby Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Lawrence, J S; Bailey, J; Navascues, D Barrado y; Bedding, T; Bland-Hawthorn, J; Bond, I; Bruntt, H; Burton, M G; Cioni, M -R; Eiroa, C; Epchtein, N; Kiss, L; Lagage, P O; Minier, V; Mora, A; Olsen, K; Peri, P; Saunders, W; Stello, D; Storey, J W V; Tinney, C; Yock, P

    2009-01-01

    PILOT (the Pathfinder for an International Large Optical Telescope is a proposed 2.5 m optical/infrared telescope to be located at DomeC on the Antarctic plateau. The atmospheric conditions at Dome C deliver a high sensitivity, high photometric precision, wide-field, high spatial resolution, and high-cadence imaging capability to the PILOT telescope. These capabilities enable a unique scientific potential for PILOT, which is addressed in this series of papers. The current paper presents a series of projects dealing with the nearby Universe that have been identified as key science drivers for the PILOT facility. Several projects are proposed that examine stellar populations in nearby galaxies and stellar clusters in order to gain insight into the formation and evolution processes of galaxies and stars. A series of projects will investigate the molecular phase of the Galaxy and explore the ecology of star formation, and investigate the formation processes of stellar and planetary systems. Three projects in the ...

  13. Object Classification at the Nearby Supernova Factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aragon, Cecilia R.; Bailey, Stephen; Aragon, Cecilia R.; Romano, Raquel; Thomas, Rollin C.; Weaver, B. A.; Wong, D.

    2007-12-21

    We present the results of applying new object classification techniques to the supernova search of the Nearby Supernova Factory. In comparison to simple threshold cuts, more sophisticated methods such as boosted decision trees, random forests, and support vector machines provide dramatically better object discrimination: we reduced the number of nonsupernova candidates by a factor of 10 while increasing our supernova identification efficiency. Methods such as these will be crucial for maintaining a reasonable false positive rate in the automated transient alert pipelines of upcoming large optical surveys.

  14. [Bad tourist behaviors and their environmental impacts on Xixi National Wetland Park in Hangzhou].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guo-Xin; Wang, Ru-Song; Mao, Chun-Hong

    2009-06-01

    By the methods of site investigation, data collection and correlation analysis, the bad tourist behaviors and their environmental impacts on Xixi National Wetland Park in 2006 were studied. The occurrence probabilities of three bad tourist behaviors, i.e., picking, trampling, and littering were 6.5%, 10.3% and 12.6%, respectively. Picking probability was primarily related to the vegetation types along walkways, while the scale of heavy trampling was negatively correlated with tour distance from the entrance. Waste production by each tourist was 782 g x d(-1) on average. The waste from littering amounted for 13.6% of the total. Tourist flow fluctuations of daily, weekly, and monthly perspectives for the study area showed high seasonality and successive days of overloaded tourist flows during peak seasons, which caused an increase of bad tourist behaviors. However, the water quality in the Park was not affected because of the improvement of dredging facilities.

  15. The Ionization of Nearby Interstellar Gas

    CERN Document Server

    Slavin, J D; Slavin, Jonathan D.; Frisch, Priscilla C.

    2002-01-01

    We present new calculations of the photoionization of interstellar matter within ~5 pc of the Sun (which we refer to as the Local Cloud Complex or LCC) by directly observed radiation sources including nearby hot stars and the diffuse emission of the Soft X-ray Background (SXRB). In addition, we model the important, unobserved EUV emission both from the hot gas responsible for the SXRB and from a possible evaporative boundary between the LCC and the hot gas. We carry out radiative transfer calculations and show that these radiation sources can provide the ionization and heating of the cloud required to match a variety of observations. The ionization predicted in our models shows good agreement with pickup ion results, interstellar absorption line data towards epsilon CMa, and EUV opacity measurements of nearby white dwarf stars. Including the radiation from the conductive boundary improves agreement with data on the temperature and electron density in the cloud. The presence of dust in the cloud, or at least d...

  16. Landslides nearby Boguchwała

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maj, Hubert

    2014-05-01

    The students of first class of our school have been working during this season about landslides nearby Boguchwała - where our school is located. Although landslides in Poland are most common in the Carpathian Mountains, in southern Poland, this phenomenon becomes more and more serious also in other regions. The example of them is strzyżowski powiat, nearby Boguchwała, situated about 100km on the north from the Carpathian Mountains . These landslides have occured on a large scale in the district for 2000 year. What happened in 2010 was a real cataclysm. By now, people noted about 100 active landslides in the area of the district, which caused damage to about 400 building constructions and 50 families had to leave their homes. The largest landslide is located on the western slope of the valley of Wisłok. The landslide was almost 10ha big, 326m long and 330m wide. It caused damage to houses and barns, and one of them literally fell to the ground. The ground has subsided due to the geological construction of the substrate, mountain dynamic of sculptures and frequent downfalls. It was established on the base of sandstone. To prevent the phenomenon of the proceedings should be planted different kinds of plants to stabilize the ground.

  17. Infrared Galaxies in the Nearby Universe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    We used the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 5 (DR5) to study the morphological properties of 1137 nearby infrared (IR) galaxies, most of which are brighter than 15.9 mag in r-band. This sample was drawn from a cross-correlation of the Infra-Red Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) point source catalog redshift survey with DR5 at z(≤)0.08. Based on this IR galaxy sample, we constructed five volume-limited sub-samples with IR luminosity ranging from 109.5L⊙ to 1012L⊙. By deriving the IR luminosity functions (LF) for different morphological types, we found that normal spiral galaxies are the dominant population below LIR~ 8 × 1010 L⊙; while the fraction of barred spiral galaxies increases with increasing IR luminosity and becomes dominant in spiral galaxies beyond LIR(≈) 5×1010L⊙. As the IR luminosity decreases, the IR galaxies become more compact and have lower stellar masses. The analysis also shows that normal spiral galaxies give the dominant contribution to the total comoving IR energy density in the nearby universe, while, in contrast, the contribution from peculiar galaxies is only 39%.

  18. The Mitchell Spectrograph: Studying Nearby Galaxies with the VIRUS Prototype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo A. Blanc

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Mitchell Spectrograph (a.k.a. VIRUS-P on the 2.7 m Harlan J. Smith telescope at McDonald Observatory is currently the largest field of view (FOV integral field unit (IFU spectrograph in the world (1.7′×1.7′. It was designed as a prototype for the highly replicable VIRUS spectrograph which consists of a mosaic of IFUs spread over a 16′ diameter FOV feeding 150 spectrographs similar to the Mitchell. VIRUS will be deployed on the 9.2 meter Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET and will be used to conduct the HET Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX. Since seeing first light in 2007 the Mitchell Spectrograph has been widely used, among other things, to study nearby galaxies in the local universe where their internal structure and the spatial distribution of different physical parameters can be studied in great detail. These observations have provided important insight into many aspects of the physics behind the formation and evolution of galaxies and have boosted the scientific impact of the 2.7 meter telescope enormously. Here I review the contributions of the Mitchell Spectrograph to the study of nearby galaxies, from the investigation the spatial distribution of dark matter and the properties of supermassive black holes, to the studies of the process of star formation and the chemical composition of stars and gas in the ISM, which provide important information regarding the formation and evolution of these systems. I highlight the fact that wide field integral field spectrographs on small and medium size telescopes can be powerful cost effective tools to study the astrophysics of galaxies. Finally I briefly discuss the potential of HETDEX for conducting studies on nearby galaxies. The survey parameters make it complimentary and competitive to ongoing and future surveys like SAMI and MANGA.

  19. Antisocial features and "faking bad": A critical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niesten, Isabella J M; Nentjes, Lieke; Merckelbach, Harald; Bernstein, David P

    2015-01-01

    We critically review the literature on antisocial personality features and symptom fabrication (i.e., faking bad; e.g., malingering). A widespread assumption is that these constructs are intimately related. Some studies have, indeed, found that antisocial individuals score higher on instruments detecting faking bad, but others have been unable to replicate this pattern. In addition, studies exploring whether antisocial individuals are especially talented in faking bad have generally come up with null results. The notion of an intrinsic link between antisocial features and faking bad is difficult to test and research in this domain is sensitive to selection bias. We argue that research on faking bad would profit from further theoretical articulation. One topic that deserves scrutiny is how antisocial features affect the cognitive dissonance typically induced by faking bad. We illustrate our points with preliminary data and discuss their implications.

  20. Managing Bad Loans of Domestic Banks under Modern Economic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolhar Tetyana M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers main methods of management of bad bank loans under modern economic conditions, conducts analysis of internal and external banking methods used by Ukrainian banks, and specifies and identifies their advantages and shortcomings. In the result of the study the article analyses in detail the use of the methods of rehabilitation and liquidation of bad loans. It considers organisation of internal and external banking methods of liquidation of bad loans, considers mechanism of their conduct and identifies advantages and shortcomings of their application both for a bank and a borrower. Prospect of further studies in this direction is improvement of methods of assessment of bad loans, in particular, development of methodological approaches to identification of assessment of profitability of bad loans as an important element of the system of management of bad loans of a bank.

  1. Video games: good, bad, or other?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prot, Sara; McDonald, Katelyn A; Anderson, Craig A; Gentile, Douglas A

    2012-06-01

    Video games are a pervasive pastime among children and adolescents. The growing popularity of video games has instigated a debate among parents, researchers, video game producers, and policymakers concerning potential harmful and helpful effects of video games on children. This article provides an overview of research findings on the positive and negative effects of video games, thus providing an empirical answer to the question, are video games good or bad? The article also provides some guidelines to help pediatricians, parents, and other caregivers protect children from negative effects and to maximize positive effects of video games.

  2. Competition in Healthcare: Good, Bad or Ugly?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Goddard

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The role of competition in healthcare is much debated. Despite a wealth of international experience in relation to competition, evidence is mixed and contested and the debate about the potential role for competition is often polarised. This paper considers briefly some of the reasons for this, focusing on what is meant by “competition in healthcare” and why it is more valuable to think about the circumstances in which competition is more and less likely to be a good tool to achieve benefits, rather than whether or not it is “good” or “bad,” per se.

  3. Discursive Positioning in a Fifth-Grade Writing Lesson: The Making of a "Bad, Bad Boy"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Kathleen M.

    2011-01-01

    In this article the author draws on the concept of positioning to examine how language is used during one particular fifth-grade writing lesson to construct both the lesson and the participants. The author's analysis of the classroom interactions makes visible how participants colluded to position one student in particular, Larnell, as a "bad, bad…

  4. Bad news: an experimental study on the informational effects of rewards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremzen, A.; Khokhlova, E.; Suvorov, A.; van de Ven, J.

    2015-01-01

    Psychologists and economists have argued that rewards often have hidden costs. One possible reason is that the principal may have incentives to offer higher rewards when she knows the task is difficult. Our experiment tests if high rewards embody such bad news and if this is correctly perceived by

  5. Nearby outdoor environments and seniors physical activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available More than 60% of older Americans have sedentary lifestyles1 1 According to DHHS (1996. and are recommended more physical activities for health benefit. Nearby outdoor environments on residential sites may impact older inhabitants׳ physical activities there (defined as walking, gardening, yard work, and other outdoor physical activities on residential sites. This study surveyed 110 assisted-living residents in Houston, Texas, regarding their previous residential sites before moving to a retirement community and physical activities there. Twelve environmental features were studied under four categories (typology, motivators, function, and safety. Based on data availability, a subset of 57 sample sites was analyzed in Geographic Information Systems. Hierarchical linear modeling was applied to estimate physical activities as a function of the environments. Higher levels of physical activity were found to be positively related with four environmental features (transitional-areas, connecting-paths, walk-ability, and less paving.

  6. On good and bad forms of medicalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parens, Erik

    2013-01-01

    The ongoing 'enhancement' debate pits critics of new self-shaping technologies against enthusiasts. One important thread of that debate concerns medicalization, the process whereby 'non-medical' problems become framed as 'medical' problems. In this paper I consider the charge of medicalization, which critics often level at new forms of technological self-shaping, and explain how that charge can illuminate--and obfuscate. Then, more briefly, I examine the charge of pharmacological Calvinism, which enthusiasts, in their support of technological self-shaping, often level at critics. And I suggest how that charge, too, can illuminate and obfuscate. Exploring the broad charge of medicalization and the narrower counter charge of pharmacological Calvinism leads me to conclude that, as satisfying as it can be to level one of those charges at our intellectual opponents, and as tempting as it is to lie down and rest with our favorite insight, we need to gather the energy to have a conversation about the difference between good and bad forms of medicalization. Specifically, I suggest that if we consider the 'medicalization of love,' we can see why critics of and enthusiasts about technological self-shaping should want (and in some cases have already begun) to distinguish between good and bad forms of such medicalization.

  7. Comparing [CII], HI, and CO dynamics of nearby galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    de Blok, W J G; Smith, J -D T; Herrera-Camus, R; Bolatto, A D; Requena-Torres, M A; Crocker, A F; Croxall, K V; Kennicutt, R C; Koda, J; Armus, L; Boquien, M; Dale, D; Kreckel, K; Meidt, S

    2016-01-01

    The HI and CO components of the interstellar medium (ISM) are usually used to derive the dynamical mass M_dyn of nearby galaxies. Both components become too faint to be used as a tracer in observations of high-redshift galaxies. In those cases, the 158 $\\mu$m line of atomic carbon [CII] may be the only way to derive M_dyn. As the distribution and kinematics of the ISM tracer affects the determination of M_dyn, it is important to quantify the relative distributions of HI, CO and [CII]. HI and CO are well-characterised observationally, however, for [CII] only very few measurements exist. Here we compare observations of CO, HI, and [CII] emission of a sample of nearby galaxies, drawn from the HERACLES, THINGS and KINGFISH surveys. We find that within R_25, the average [CII] exponential radial profile is slightly shallower than that of the CO, but much steeper than the HI distribution. This is also reflected in the integrated spectrum ("global profile"), where the [CII] spectrum looks more like that of the CO tha...

  8. The mass function of nearby black hole candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Caramete, Laurentiu I

    2009-01-01

    The mass function of super-massive black holes in our cosmic neighborhood is required to understand the statistics of activity, specifically the production of ultra high energy particles. We determine a mass function of black hole candidates from the entire sky outside the Galactic plane. Using the 2MASS catalogue as a starting point, and the well established correlation between black hole mass and the old bulge population of stars, we derive a list of nearby black hole candidates within the redshift range z 10^7 M_sol has 5,634 entries. Here we use this catalogue to derive the mass function. We correct for volume, so that this mass function is a volume limited distribution to redshift 0.025. The mass function of nearby black hole candidates is a straight simple power-law, extending down into the mass range, where nuclear star clusters may replace the super-massive black holes. The slope of this mass function can be explained in a simple merger picture. Integrating this mass function over the redshift range,...

  9. Radial gas motions in The HI Nearby Galaxy Survey (THINGS)

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Tobias M; Klessen, Ralf S; de Blok, W J G

    2016-01-01

    The study of 21cm line observations of atomic hydrogen allows detailed insight into the kinematics of spiral galaxies. We use sensitive high-resolution VLA data from The HI Nearby Galaxy Survey (THINGS) to search for radial gas flows primarily in the outer parts (up to $3\\times r_{25}$) of ten nearby spiral galaxies. Inflows are expected to replenish the gas reservoir and fuel star formation under the assumption that galaxies evolve approximately in steady state. We carry out a detailed investigation of existing tilted ring fitting schemes and discover systematics that can hamper their ability to detect signatures of radial flows. We develop a new Fourier decomposition scheme that fits for rotational and radial velocities and simultaneously determines position angle and inclination as a function of radius. Using synthetic velocity fields we show that our novel fitting scheme is less prone to such systematic errors and that it is well suited to detect radial inflows in disks. We apply our fitting scheme to ten...

  10. Infrared colour properties of nearby radio-luminous galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Xiao-hong; Huang, Yan

    2015-01-01

    By combining the data of the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS), the Wide Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) and the Akari satellite, we study the infrared colour properties of a sample of 2712 nearby radio-luminous galaxies (RLGs). These RLGs are divided into radio-loud (RL) active galactic nuclei (AGNs), mainly occurring at redshifts of $0.05$ 3.0. We also analyse the MIR colours of RL AGNs divided into low- and high-excitation radio galaxies (LERGs and HERGs, respectively). The ([3.4]-[4.6])$-$([4.6]-[12]) diagram clearly shows separate distributions of LERGs and HERGs and a region of overlap, which suggests that LERGs and HERGs have different MIR properties. LERGs are responsible for the double-core distribution of RL AGNs on the ([3.4]-[4.6])$-$([4.6]-[12]) diagram. In addition, we also suggest 90$-$140$\\mu$m band spectral index $\\alpha(90,140)<-1.4$ as a criterion of selecting nearby active galaxies with non-thermal emissions at FIR wavelengths.

  11. The chronology of the Upper Pleistocene Volcanic Groups of Bad Bertrich and Wartgesberg (Eifel, FRG) - new attempts using luminescence dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoeller, Ludwig; Schmidt, Christoph; Fischer, Manfred; Kolb, Thomas; Schaarschmidt, Maria

    2016-04-01

    The volcanic groups of Bad Bertrich and Wartgesberg are situated in the most southeastern part of the Quaternary West Eifel Volcanic Field (WEVF) and are, therefore, of major interest for understanding origin and timing of the WEVF. For geomorphological reasons the eruptions were placed within the last Glacial. Recent Ar/Ar-dating results suggest ages of 32±11 ka and 31±11 ka, respectively (MERTZ ET AL. 2015). We used xenoliths from Lower Devonian country rock (slates and quarzitic slates) and a maar tephra to explore the feasibility of thermoluminescence (TL) to date the eruptions more accurately. Fine-grained (4-30 μm) quartz was extracted from the samples by grinding and etching in H2SiF6. Because of their high saturation dose the red (620 nm) TL-emissions from quartz was measured using a SAR protocol. Dose-rates were computed based on analytical results from thick source alpha counting (U, Th), ICP-OES (K) and high resolution gamma spectrometry. For the Wartgesberg volcanic group our preliminary results agree with the independent Ar/Ar-ages but can bracket the eruption age to 33±3 ka. Furthermore, the suggestion by RICHTER ET AL. (2015) to avoid quartz extracted from crustal xenoliths having been heated too high is confirmed. For the Bad Bertrich volcanic group our preliminary results are ambiguous. The "Hardtmaar"-Tephra is dated to 27±3 ka in agreement with the age of this group supposed by MERZ ET AL. (2015). Three xenoliths from the nearby "Facher Höhe" scoria cone, however, yielded consistent but significantly lower TL ages. From the view of volcanic stratigraphy there is so far no evidence of a significantly younger eruption phase. From one of these samples we so far found evidence of non-thermal fading as described by RICHTER ET AL. (2015) which needs further investigation. Stimulated by results of PREUSSER ET AL. (2011) we aim at applying also OSL and IRSL dating of the xenoliths and the maar tephra to clarify the age of the "Facher Höhe" scoria

  12. The Glory of a Nearby Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-08-01

    Optical Light from a Hot Stellar Corona Detected with the VLT Summary The solar corona is a beautiful sight during total solar eclipses . It is the uppermost region of the extended solar atmosphere and consists of a very hot (over 1 million degrees), tenuous plasma of highly ionised elements that emit strong X-ray radiation. There is also a much weaker coronal emission in the optical part of the spectrum . The Sun is a normal star and X-ray observations from rockets and orbiting X-ray telescopes have shown that many other stars also possess coronae . But due to observational limits of the telescopes available so far, the much fainter optical emission from stellar coronae had never been detected. Now, however, an optical coronal line from iron ions that have lost 12 electrons (Fe XIII) has for the first time been observed in a star other than the Sun . The object, a cool star named CN Leonis , is located at a distance of 8 light-years. This impressive observational feat was performed with the UV-Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) on the VLT 8.2-m KUEYEN telescope at the ESO Paranal Observatory , within a programme by German astronomer Jürgen Schmitt and his collaborators at the University of Hamburg Observatory. The possibility to observe stellar coronae with ground-based telescopes opens up new and exciting research opportunities, including the detailed study of stellar cycles , similar to the 11-year solar period. PR Photo 24a/01 : The solar corona during the August 11, 1999, solar eclipse. PR Photo 24b/01 : The nearby star CN Leonis . PR Photo 24c/01 : Ultraviolet spectrum of CN Leonis , obtained with UVES at VLT KUEYEN. PR Photo 24d/01 : The coronal Fe XIII emission line at 3388 Ångstrom in CN Leonis . The 'coronium' mystery ESO PR Photo 24a/01 ESO PR Photo 24a/01 [Preview - JPEG: 450 x 400 pix - 26k] [Normal - JPEG: 899 x 800 pix - 328k] [HiRes - JPEG: 3000 x 2669 pix - 3.1Mk] Caption : Photo of the solar corona, obtained by Philippe Duhoux (ESO) on August 11

  13. [Statistical analysis of DNA sequences nearby splicing sites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzinov, O M; Astakhova, T V; Vlasov, P K; Roĭtberg, M A

    2008-01-01

    Recognition of coding regions within eukaryotic genomes is one of oldest but yet not solved problems of bioinformatics. New high-accuracy methods of splicing sites recognition are needed to solve this problem. A question of current interest is to identify specific features of nucleotide sequences nearby splicing sites and recognize sites in sequence context. We performed a statistical analysis of human genes fragment database and revealed some characteristics of nucleotide sequences in splicing sites neighborhood. Frequencies of all nucleotides and dinucleotides in splicing sites environment were computed and nucleotides and dinucleotides with extremely high\\low occurrences were identified. Statistical information obtained in this work can be used in further development of the methods of splicing sites annotation and exon-intron structure recognition.

  14. Positive Organizational Behavior: A Buffer for Bad News

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Sandra L.; Holden, Tracey Quigley

    2012-01-01

    Most communication research on bad news messages focuses on crisis communication, where attention is often limited to image repair strategies. The authors argue that a key indicator of an organization's effectiveness in communicating "bad news" messages is its organizational culture. Developing an organizational culture that values positive…

  15. Have we lost the ability to listen to bad news?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oorschot, Kim.E.; van Wassenhove, Luk; Sengupta, Kishore; Akkermans, Henk

    2016-01-01

    Research shows that project managers continuously prioritised good vibes (positive, but subjective signals) over bad news (negative, but objective signals), which resulted in decisions of poor quality. Without understanding the root causes that generate the bad news and the good vibes, managers coul

  16. Mentoring Graduate Students: The Good, Bad, and Gray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantine, Jeanne H.; Jolly-Ballantine, John-Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Good mentoring of graduate students influences their perseverance and success to completion, whereas bad mentoring can result in negative outcomes, including delayed degree completion or non-completion. What the authors refer to as the gray zone is that which falls between good and bad mentoring. Examples are partial mentoring or changes in…

  17. 48 CFR 2131.205-3 - Bad debts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Bad debts. 2131.205-3 Section 2131.205-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT, FEDERAL... PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 2131.205-3 Bad debts. Erroneous...

  18. 26 CFR 301.6657-1 - Bad checks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bad checks. 301.6657-1 Section 301.6657-1... Additions to the Tax and Additional Amounts § 301.6657-1 Bad checks. (a) In general. Except as provided in... district director that it was tendered in good faith with reasonable cause to believe that it would be...

  19. Breaking bad news: issues relating to nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnock, Clare

    2014-07-15

    The breaking of bad news was traditionally regarded to be the time when a doctor and nurse sat down with a patient and family members to provide information about, for example, a life-limiting diagnosis or a poor prognosis. However, breaking bad news is now generally accepted as a process, not a one-off event, and is considered to refer to any bad, sad or difficult information that alters patients' perceptions of their present and future. Nurses have an important role in the process of providing information and helping patients prepare for, receive, understand and cope with the bad news they have been given. This article aims to help nurses understand the process of breaking bad news and discuss the challenges and difficulties that nurses can face when they are involved with patients who have been given bad news. It also provides guidance with regard to preparing for breaking bad news, giving difficult information, responding to possible reactions, and supporting patients and their relatives after they have received bad news.

  20. 48 CFR 1631.205-71 - FEHBP bad debts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true FEHBP bad debts. 1631.205-71 Section 1631.205-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT FEDERAL... AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 1631.205-71 FEHBP bad debts. Erroneous...

  1. Influenza virus induces apoptosis via BAD-mediated mitochondrial dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Anh T; Cortens, John P; Du, Qiujiang; Wilkins, John A; Coombs, Kevin M

    2013-01-01

    Influenza virus infection results in host cell death and major tissue damage. Specific components of the apoptotic pathway, a signaling cascade that ultimately leads to cell death, are implicated in promoting influenza virus replication. BAD is a cell death regulator that constitutes a critical control point in the intrinsic apoptosis pathway, which occurs through the dysregulation of mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization and the subsequent activation of downstream apoptogenic factors. Here we report a novel proviral role for the proapoptotic protein BAD in influenza virus replication. We show that influenza virus-induced cytopathology and cell death are considerably inhibited in BAD knockdown cells and that both virus replication and viral protein production are dramatically reduced, which suggests that virus-induced apoptosis is BAD dependent. Our data showed that influenza viruses induced phosphorylation of BAD at residues S112 and S136 in a temporal manner. Viral infection also induced BAD cleavage, late in the viral life cycle, to a truncated form that is reportedly a more potent inducer of apoptosis. We further demonstrate that knockdown of BAD resulted in reduced cytochrome c release and suppression of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway during influenza virus replication, as seen by an inhibition of caspases-3, caspase-7, and procyclic acidic repetitive protein (PARP) cleavage. Our data indicate that influenza viruses carefully modulate the activation of the apoptotic pathway that is dependent on the regulatory function of BAD and that failure of apoptosis activation resulted in unproductive viral replication.

  2. 26 CFR 1.166-4 - Reserve for bad debts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reserve for bad debts. 1.166-4 Section 1.166-4...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations § 1.166-4 Reserve for bad debts. (a) Allowance of deduction. A taxpayer who has established the reserve method of treating...

  3. HOW TO MANAGE DATA BADLY (PART 1 & 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a landmark article in The American Statistician, Howard Wainer (1994) presented ideas for (a) "How to Display Data Badly," wherein good data are ruined by bad graphics. Wainer presumed too much. In this essay, I extend his concept by presenting ideas and examples of how scient...

  4. Mentoring Graduate Students: The Good, Bad, and Gray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantine, Jeanne H.; Jolly-Ballantine, John-Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Good mentoring of graduate students influences their perseverance and success to completion, whereas bad mentoring can result in negative outcomes, including delayed degree completion or non-completion. What the authors refer to as the gray zone is that which falls between good and bad mentoring. Examples are partial mentoring or changes in…

  5. Positive Organizational Behavior: A Buffer for Bad News

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Sandra L.; Holden, Tracey Quigley

    2012-01-01

    Most communication research on bad news messages focuses on crisis communication, where attention is often limited to image repair strategies. The authors argue that a key indicator of an organization's effectiveness in communicating "bad news" messages is its organizational culture. Developing an organizational culture that values positive…

  6. Freud's "bad conscience": The case of Nietzsche's Genealogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Scott

    2002-01-01

    This article develops the argument that Friedrich Nietzsche influenced several aspects of Freud's later writings by illustrating, in particular, the impact of Nietzsche's On the Genealogy of Morals on Freud's Civilization and its Discontents. The theoretical and conceptual schemes represented in Freud's Discontents are found to bear a remarkable similarity to Nietzsche's Genealogy on a number of highly specific points. It is suggested that "DAS ES," "Uber-ich," and "bad conscience," concepts central to Freud's moral theory of mind, are at least partly derived from Nietzsche. Moreover, Freud's phylogenetic theory of guilt is based upon premises found in Nietzsche, as are specific details relating to ideas on human prehistory and the ancestral family. Based on this evidence, a re-examination of the moral and social dimensions of Freud's "structural" model may be in order. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Displaying fairness while delivering bad news: Testing the effectiveness of organizational bad news training in the layoff context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Manuela; König, Cornelius J; Koppermann, Christopher; Schilling, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Although giving bad news at work is a stressful experience, managers are often underprepared for this challenging task. As a solution, we introduce organizational bad news training that integrates (a) principles of delivering bad news from the context of health care (i.e., bad news delivery component), and (b) principles of organizational justice theory (i.e., fairness component). We argue that both the formal and fair delivery of bad news at work can be enhanced with the help of training to mitigate distress both for the messenger and the recipient. We tested the effectiveness of training for the delivery of a layoff as a typical bad news event at work. In 2 studies, we compared the performance of a training group (receiving both components of training) with that of a control group (Study 1, Study 2) and a basics group (receiving the bad news delivery component only; Study 2) during a simulated dismissal notification meeting. In general, the results supported our hypotheses: Training improved the formal delivery of bad news and predicted indicators of procedural fairness during the conversation in both studies. In Study 2, we also considered layoff victims' negativity after the layoff and found that training significantly reduced negative responses. This relationship was fully mediated by layoff victims' fairness perceptions. Despite preparation, however, giving bad news remained a challenging task in both studies. In summary, we recommend that organizations provide managers with organizational bad news training in order to promote professional and fair bad news conversations at work. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. The Dragonfly Nearby Galaxies Survey: A Census of the Stellar Halos of Nearby Luminous Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Allison T.

    2017-01-01

    The Dragonfly Telephoto Array, comprised of 48 individual Canon telephoto lenses operating together as a single telescope, is an innovative approach to low surface brightness imaging and the study of galactic stellar halos in particular. Sub-nanometer coatings on each optical element reduce scattered light from nearby bright stars and compact galaxy centers - typically a key obstacle for integrated light observations - by an order of magnitude, and Dragonfly's large field of view (2x2.6 degrees for a single frame) provides a large-scale view of stellar halos free from substructure biases. Using extremely deep (>30 mag/arcsec^2) optical imaging in g and r bands from the Dragonfly Nearby Galaxies Survey (DNGS), we have characterized the stellar halos of a sample of ~20 nearby luminous galaxies. I will present measurements of the stellar halo mass fractions of these galaxies as a function of stellar mass, morphology, and environment, and discuss the scatter in halo fractions in the context of the galaxies' individual accretion histories.

  9. Knowing Our Neighbors: Six Young, Nearby Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Jennifer L.; Lurie, John C.; Ianna, Philip A.; Riedel, Adric R.; Winters, Jennifer G.; Finch, Charlie T.; Jao, Wei-Chun; Subasavage, John P.; Henry, Todd J.

    2016-06-01

    Obtaining a well-understood, volume-limited (and ultimately volume-complete) sample of nearby stars is necessary for determining a host of astrophysical quantities, including the stellar luminosity and mass functions, the stellar velocity distribution, and the stellar multiplicity fraction. Furthermore, such a sample provides insight into the local star formation history. Towards that end, the Research Consortium on Nearby Stars (RECONS) measures trigonometric parallaxes to establish which systems truly lie within the 25-pc radius of the Solar Neighborhood. Recent measurements with the CTIO/SMARTS 0.9-m telescope establish six new systems as members of the Solar Neighborhood and also potential members of young moving groups based on (a) CTIOPI astrometry and (b) radial velocities from the literature, where available: ● G 75-35 at a distance of 11.8±0.2 pc and G 161-71 at 13.5±0.3 pc are possible members of the Argus Association● LP 888-18 at a distance of 12.5±0.2 pc is a member of the AB Doradus Moving Group, while LP 834-32 at 17.3±0.6 pc and LP 870-65 at 18.2±0.5 pc are possible group members● LHS 6167AB at a distance of 9.68±0.09 pc is a possible member of the Hercules-Lyra Moving Group. To characterize these systems further, RECONS obtained VRI photometry for each, which range from 12.44-18.81 mag. in V. LP 834-32, LHS 6167AB, and G 161-71 demonstrated significant long-term variability in V-band; the first two appear to have flared in 2011 and 2012, respectively. Furthermore, CTIOPI 1.5-m spectroscopy identifies these systems as M3.5-M8.0 dwarfs. G 161-71 displayed strong Hα emission but weak sodium and potassium features.The Solar Neighborhood contains both young and old stars that can be observed more easily than their more distant counterparts, which allows their characteristics to be studied in greater detail.NSF grants AST 05-07711 and AST 09-08402, NASA-SIM, Georgia State University, the University of Virginia, Hampden-Sydney College, and

  10. [Breaking bad news in oncology: the Belgian experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delevallez, F; Lienard, A; Gibon, A-S; Razavi, D

    2014-10-01

    Breaking bad news is a complex and frequent clinical task for physicians working in oncology. It can have a negative impact on patients and their relatives who are often present during breaking bad news consultations. Many factors influence how the delivery of bad news will be experienced especially the communication skills used by physicians. A three-phase process (post-delivery phase, delivery phase, pre-delivery phase) has been developed to help physician to handle this task more effectively. Communication skills and specific breaking bad news training programs are both necessary and effective. A recent study conducted in Belgium has shown their impact on the time allocated to each of the three phases of this process, on the communication skills used, on the inclusion of the relative in the consultation and on physicians' physiological arousal. These results underscore the importance of promoting intensive communication skills and breaking bad news training programs for health care professionals.

  11. The Natural Selection of Bad Science

    CERN Document Server

    Smaldino, Paul E

    2016-01-01

    Poor research design and data analysis encourage false-positive findings. Such poor methods persist despite perennial calls for improvement, suggesting that they result from something more than just misunderstanding. The persistence of poor methods results partly from incentives that favor them, leading to the natural selection of bad science. This dynamic requires no conscious strategizing---no deliberate cheating nor loafing---by scientists, only that publication is a principle factor for career advancement. Some normative methods of analysis have almost certainly been selected to further publication instead of discovery. In order to improve the culture of science, a shift must be made away from correcting misunderstandings and towards rewarding understanding. We support this argument with empirical evidence and computational modeling. We first present a 60-year meta-analysis of statistical power in the behavioral sciences and show that power has not improved despite repeated demonstrations of the necessity...

  12. Drinking Tea May Lower Bad Cholesterol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christopher; Doering; 郑凤听

    2003-01-01

    喝茶,有益于健康。本文所说的是“红茶”(black tea),而非“绿茶”(green tea)。在美国喝茶者简直与时俱增:…total sales of tea in 2002 were$5.03 billion,up from$1.84 billion in 1990!本文用深入浅出的语言对喝茶的益处作了说明,同时,其文字表达也不乏可以品味处,如下句中的动词saw:Those who bad regular tea saw their LDL levels drop about 11 percent comparedwith the caffeine placebo.

  13. Pathologic overproduction: the bad side of adenosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borea, Pier Andrea; Gessi, Stefania; Merighi, Stefania; Vincenzi, Fabrizio; Varani, Katia

    2017-03-02

    Adenosine is an endogenous ubiquitous purine nucleoside, increased by hypoxia, ischemia and tissue damage that mediates a number of physiopathological effects by interacting with four G-protein-coupled receptors, identified as A1 , A2A , A2B , and A3 . Physiological and acutely-increased adenosine is associated with beneficial effects mostly including vasodilation and decrease of inflammation. In contrast chronic overproduction of adenosine occurs in important pathological states, where long lasting increases in the nucleoside levels are responsible for the bad side of adenosine associated with chronic inflammation, fibrosis and organ damage. In this review we describe and critically discuss the pathologic overproduction of adenosine analysing when, where and how adenosine exerts its detrimental effects through the body.

  14. Experimental geothermal well at Bad Schinznach. First results; Geothermiebohrung Bad Schinznach. Erste Resultate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haering, M.O. [Haering Geo-Project, Steinmaur (Switzerland)

    1997-12-01

    The spa of Bad Schinznach (Canton Argovia, Switzerland) endeavours to cover its heating requirements with geothermal energy. A recently drilled well to a depth of 890 meters encountered the regional acquifer of thermal water (Oberer Muschelkalk, Triassic) in three levels. Preliminary results indicate a productive aquifer in the uppermost level with a wellhead temperature of 42 C. An additional exploitation of the bottomhole formation temperature of 63 C is envisaged. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Bad Schinznach (Kanton Aargau, Schweiz) moechte im Rahmen der wirtschaftlichen Moeglichkeiten seinen Waermebedarf mit der Nutzung des Thermalwassers aus dem Oberen Muschelkalk (Trias) decken. Eine neulich abgeteufte Bohrung bis auf 890 Meter Tiefe hat die Formation auf drei Niveaus angetroffen. Erste Resultate deuten auf ein nutzbares Vorkommen im obersten Horizont mit einer Austrittstemperatur von 42 C. Eine zusaetzliche Nutzung der hohen Formationstemperatur von 63 C auf Endtiefe wird erwogen. (orig.)

  15. Molecular gas in nearby powerful radio galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Leon, S; Combes, F; Van Trung, D

    2001-01-01

    We report the detection of CO(1-0) and CO(2-1) emission from the central region of nearby 3CR radio galaxies (z$<$ 0.03). Out of 21 galaxies, 8 have been detected in, at least, one of the two CO transitions. The total molecular gas content is below 10$^9$ \\msun. Their individual CO emission exhibit, for 5 cases, a double-horned line profile that is characteristic of an inclined rotating disk with a central depression at the rising part of its rotation curve. The inferred disk or ring distributions of the molecular gas is consistent with the observed presence of dust disks or rings detected optically in the cores of the galaxies. We reason that if their gas originates from the mergers of two gas-rich disk galaxies, as has been invoked to explain the molecular gas in other radio galaxies, then these galaxies must have merged a long time ago (few Gyr or more) but their remnant elliptical galaxies only recently (last 10$^7$ years or less) become active radio galaxies. Instead, we argue the the cannibalism of g...

  16. Three Temperate Neptunes Orbiting Nearby Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Fulton, Benjamin J; Weiss, Lauren M; Sinukoff, Evan; Petigura, Erik A; Isaacson, Howard; Hirsch, Lea; Marcy, Geoffrey W; Henry, Gregory W; Grunblatt, Samuel K; Huber, Daniel; von Braun, Kaspar; Boyajian, Tabetha S; Kane, Stephen R; Wittrock, Justin; Horch, Elliott P; Ciardi, David R; Howell, Steve B; Wright, Jason T; Ford, Eric B

    2016-01-01

    We present the discovery of three modestly-irradiated, roughly Neptune-mass planets orbiting three nearby Solar-type stars. HD 42618 b has a minimum mass of $15.4 \\pm 2.4$ M$_{\\oplus}$, a semi-major axis of 0.55 AU, an equilibrium temperature of 337 K, and is the first planet discovered to orbit the solar analogue host star, HD 42618. We also discover new planets orbiting the known exoplanet host stars HD 164922 and HD 143761 ($\\rho$ CrB). The new planet orbiting HD 164922 has a minimum mass of $12.9 \\pm 1.6$ M$_{\\oplus}$ and orbits interior to the previously known Jovian mass planet orbiting at 2.1 AU. HD 164922 c has a semi-major axis of 0.34 AU and an equilibrium temperature of 418 K. HD 143761 c orbits with a semi-major axis of 0.44 AU, has a minimum mass of $25 \\pm 2$ M$_{\\oplus}$, and is the warmest of the three new planets with an equilibrium temperature of 445 K. It orbits exterior to the previously known warm Jupiter in the system. A transit search using space-based CoRoT data and ground-based photom...

  17. Mass distribution in nearby Abell clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Lokas, E L; Gottlöber, S; Mamon, G A; Prada, F; Lokas, Ewa L.; Wojtak, Radoslaw; Gottloeber, Stefan; Mamon, Gary A.; Prada, Francisco

    2006-01-01

    We study the mass distribution in six nearby (z<0.06) relaxed Abell clusters of galaxies A0262, A0496, A1060, A2199, A3158 and A3558. Given the dominance of dark matter in galaxy clusters we approximate their total density distribution by the NFW formula characterized by virial mass and concentration. We also assume that the anisotropy of galactic orbits is reasonably well described by a constant and that galaxy distribution traces that of the total density. Using the velocity and position data for 120-420 galaxies per cluster we calculate, after removal of interlopers, the profiles of the lowest-order even velocity moments, dispersion and kurtosis. We then reproduce the velocity moments by jointly fitting the moments to the solutions of the Jeans equations. Including the kurtosis in the analysis allows us to break the degeneracy between the mass distribution and anisotropy and constrain the anisotropy as well as the virial mass and concentration. The method is tested in detail on mock data extracted from ...

  18. Air quality nearby road traffic tunnel portals: BTEX monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fabio Murena

    2007-01-01

    A monitoring campaign of BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o- m- and p-xylene) was carried out nearby two tunnel portals in the urban area of Naples with the aim to verify air quality in this kind of urban sites. Sampling was carried out using the active adsorption technique. Sampling time was 1 h. Ambient temperature and traffic flow measurements were carried out during each sampling operation. The results indicate that average benzene concentrations at both sites exceed the limit value of 10 μg/Nm3 established by the European Community (EC) (Dir. 2000/69). Concentration levels of other BTEX are relatively high as well. A correlation between BTEX concentration and two wheeler vehicle flow was observed.

  19. Spectroscopic Observations of Nearby Cool Stars: The DUNES Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, J.; Eiroa, C.; Martínez-Arnáiz, R. M.; Montes, D.

    2010-10-01

    The detection of faint dusty exo-zodies and exo-EKBs around mature stars is a direct proof of planetesimal systems. Relating the properties of such structures with the hosting stars is fundamental to get clear clues concerning how common planetary systems are, and how the form and evolve. DUNES (DUst around NEarby Stars (see http://www.mpia-hd.mpg.de/DUNES/) is a Herschel Open Time Key Project with the aim of detecting cool faint exo-solar analogues to the Edgeworth-Kuiper Belt (EKB). Since the success of DUNES depends on very accurate determination of the stellar properties and age, we have started a high resolution observing program of the DUNES targets, with the first results are presented here.

  20. Dense Molecular Gas and Star Formation in Nearby Seyfert Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Kohno, K; Vila-Vilaro, B; Okumura, S K; Shibatsuka, T; Okiura, M; Ishizuki, S; Kawabe, R

    2002-01-01

    An imaging survey of CO(1-0), HCN(1-0), and HCO$^+$(1-0) lines in the centers of nearby Seyfert galaxies has been conducted using the Nobeyama Millimeter Array and the RAINBOW interferometer. Preliminary results reveal that 3 Seyferts out of 7 show abnormally high HCN/CO and HCN/HCO$^+$ ratios, which cannot occur even in nuclear starburst galaxies. We suggest that the enhanced HCN emission originated from X-ray irradiated dense obscuring tori, and that these molecular line ratios can be a new diagnostic tool to search for ``pure'' AGNs. According to our HCN diagram, we suggest that NGC 1068, NGC 1097, and NGC 5194 host ``pure'' AGNs, whereas Seyfert nuclei of NGC 3079, NGC 6764, and NGC 7469 may be ``composite'' in nature.

  1. Air quality nearby road traffic tunnel portals: BTEX monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murena, Fabio

    2007-01-01

    A monitoring campaign of BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o- m- and p-xylene) was carried out nearby two tunnel portals in the urban area of Naples with the aim to verify air quality in this kind of urban sites. Sampling was carried out using the active adsorption technique. Sampling time was 1 h. Ambient temperature and traffic flow measurements were carried out during each sampling operation. The results indicate that average benzene concentrations at both sites exceed the limit value of 10 microg/Nm3 established by the European Community (EC) (Dir. 2000/69). Concentration levels of other BTEX are relatively high as well. A correlation between BTEX concentration and two wheeler vehicle flow was observed.

  2. Spectroscopic Studies of Nearby Cool Stars: The DUNES Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, J.; Martinez-Arnáiz, R. M.; Eiroa, C.; Montes, D.

    At the universities of Madrid we are carrying out a systematic analysis of the spectroscopic properties of the nearby (dDUNES, a Herschel OTKP aiming at detecting and studying cold, faint dust disks around nearby stars. In this contribution we present some preliminary results on the kinematics of the DUNES sample.

  3. Overview of the nearby supernova factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldering, Greg; Adam, Gilles; Antilogus, Pierre; Astier, Pierre; Bacon, Roland; Bongard, S.; Bonnaud, C.; Copin, Yannick; Hardin, D.; Howell, D. Andy; Lemmonnier, Jean-Pierre; Levy, J.-M.; Loken, S.; Nugent, Peter; Pain, Reynald; Pecontal, Arlette; Pecontal, Emmanuel; Perlmutter, Saul; Quimby, Robert; Schahmaneche, Kyan; Smadja, Gerard; Wood-Vasey, W. Michael

    2002-07-29

    The Nearby Supernova Factory (SNfactory) is an international experiment designed to lay the foundation for the next generation of cosmology experiments (such as CFHTLS, wP, SNAP and LSST) which will measure the expansion history of the Universe using Type Ia supernovae. The SNfactory will discover and obtain frequent lightcurve spectrophotometry covering 3200-10000 {angstrom} for roughly 300 Type Ia supernovae at the low-redshift end of the smooth Hubble flow. The quantity, quality, breadth of galactic environments, and homogeneous nature of the SNfactory dataset will make it the premier source of calibration for the Type Ia supernova width-brightness relation and the intrinsic supernova colors used for K-correction and correction for extinction by host-galaxy dust. This dataset will also allow an extensive investigation of additional parameters which possibly influence the quality of Type Ia supernovae as cosmological probes. The SNfactory search capabilities and follow-up instrumentation include wide-field CCD imagers on two 1.2-m telescopes (via collaboration with the Near Earth Asteroid Tracking team at JPL and the QUEST team at Yale), and a two-channel integral-field-unit optical spectrograph/imager being fabricated for the University of Hawaii 2.2-m telescope. In addition to ground-based follow-up, UV spectra for a subsample of these supernovae will be obtained with HST. The pipeline to obtain, transfer via wireless and standard internet, and automatically process the search images is in operation. Software and hardware development is now underway to enable the execution of follow-up spectroscopy of supernova candidates at the Hawaii 2.2-m telescope via automated remote control of the telescope and the IFU spectrograph/imager.

  4. Hα kinematics of nearby galaxies using Fabry-Perot and IFU data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erroz-Ferrer, Santiago; S4G Team; MUSE-GTO Consortium

    2017-03-01

    I present here analysis of the shapes of the rotation curves of a large sample of nearby spiral galaxies with high angular and spectral resolution Hα (Fabry-Perot GHαFaS) kinematics, and the resulting constraints on their total mass distributions. In particular I discuss how their rotation curve shapes relate to key galaxy properties. Finally I present related results from the MUSE Atlas of Disks (MAD) program, which is dissecting the nearby disk population with IFU spectroscopy at ~100pc resolution.

  5. Carmencita, The CARMENES Input Catalogue of Bright, Nearby M Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, J. A.; Cortés-Contreras, M.; Alonso-Floriano, F. J.; Montes, D.; Quirrenbach, A.; Amado, P. J.; Ribas, I.; Reiners, A.; Abellan, F. J.; Béjar, V. J. S.; Brinkmöller, M.; Czesla, S.; Dorda, R.; Gallardo, I.; González-Álvarez, E.; Hidalgo, D.; Holgado, G.; Jeffers, S. V.; Kim, M.; Klutsch, A.; Lamert, A.; Llamas, M.; López-Santiago, J.; Martínez-Rodríguez, H.; Morales, J. C.; Mundt, R.; Passegger, V. M.; Schöfer, P.; Seifert, W.; Zechmeister, M.

    2016-08-01

    CARMENES, the brand-new, Spanish-German, two-channel, ultra-stabilised, high-resolution spectrograph at the 3.5 m Calar Alto telescope, started its science survey on 01 Jan 2016. In one shot, it covers from 0.52 to 1.71 μm with resolution R = 94,600 (λ 0.96 μm). During guaranteed time observations, CARMENES carries out the programme for which the instrument was designed: radial-velocity monitoring of bright, nearby, low-mass dwarfs with spectral types be- tween M0.0 V and M9.5 V. Carmencita is the "CARMEN(ES) Cool dwarf Information and daTa Archive", our input catalogue, from which we select the about 300 targets being observed during guaranteed time. Besides that, Carmencita is perhaps the most comprehensive database of bright, nearby M dwarfs ever built, as well as a useful tool for forthcoming exo-planet hunters: ESPRESSO, HPF, IRD, SPIRou, TESS or even PLATO. Carmencita contains dozens of parameters measured by us or compiled from the literature for about 2,200 M dwarfs in the solar neighbourhood brighter than J = 11.5 mag: accurate coordinates, spectral types, photometry from ultraviolet to mid-infrared, parallaxes and spectro-photometric distances, rotational and radial velocities, Hα pseudo-equivalent widths, X-ray count rates and hardness ratios, close and wide multiplicity data, proper motions, Galactocentric space velocities, metallicities, full references, homogeneously derived astrophysical parameters, and much more. In my talk at Cool Stars 19, I explained how we build Carmencita standing on the shoulders of giants and observing with 2-m class telescopes, and produce a dozen MSc theses and several PhD theses in the process (http://carmenes.caha.es).

  6. Limits on Planetary Companions from Doppler Surveys of Nearby Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Andrew W.; Fulton, Benjamin J.

    2016-11-01

    Most of our knowledge of planets orbiting nearby stars comes from Doppler surveys. For spaced-based, high-contrast imaging missions, nearby stars with Doppler-discovered planets are attractive targets. The known orbits tell imaging missions where and when to observe, and the dynamically determined masses provide important constraints for the interpretation of planetary spectra. Quantifying the set of planet masses and orbits that could have been detected will enable more efficient planet discovery and characterization. We analyzed Doppler measurements from Lick and Keck Observatories by the California Planet Survey. We focused on stars that are likely targets for three space-based planet imaging mission concepts studied by NASA—WFIRST-AFTA, Exo-C, and Exo-S. The Doppler targets are primarily F8 and later main sequence stars, with observations spanning 1987-2014. We identified 76 stars with Doppler measurements from the prospective mission target lists. We developed an automated planet search and a methodology to estimate the pipeline completeness using injection and recovery tests. We applied this machinery to the Doppler data and computed planet detection limits for each star as a function of planet minimum mass and semimajor axis. For typical stars in the survey, we are sensitive to approximately Saturn-mass planets inside of 1 au, Jupiter-mass planets inside of ˜3 au, and our sensitivity declines out to ˜10 au. For the best Doppler targets, we are sensitive to Neptune-mass planets in 3 au orbits. Using an idealized model of Doppler survey completeness, we forecast the precision of future surveys of non-ideal Doppler targets that are likely targets of imaging missions. Based on observations obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated jointly by the University of California and the California Institute of Technology. Keck time has been granted by NASA, the University of California, and the University of Hawaii.

  7. Driven polymer translocation in good and bad solvent: Effects of hydrodynamics and tension propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisio, J E; Piili, J; Linna, R P

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the driven polymer translocation through a nanometer-scale pore in the presence and absence of hydrodynamics both in good and bad solvent. We present our results on tension propagating along the polymer segment on the cis side that is measured for the first time using our method that works also in the presence of hydrodynamics. For simulations we use stochastic rotation dynamics, also called multiparticle collision dynamics. We find that in the good solvent the tension propagates very similarly whether hydrodynamics is included or not. Only the tensed segment is by a constant factor shorter in the presence of hydrodynamics. The shorter tensed segment and the hydrodynamic interactions contribute to a smaller friction for the translocating polymer when hydrodynamics is included, which shows as smaller waiting times and a smaller exponent in the scaling of the translocation time with the polymer length. In the bad solvent hydrodynamics has a minimal effect on polymer translocation, in contrast to the good solvent, where it speeds up translocation. We find that under bad-solvent conditions tension does not spread appreciably along the polymer. Consequently, translocation time does not scale with the polymer length. By measuring the effective friction in a setup where a polymer in free solvent is pulled by a constant force at the end, we find that hydrodynamics does speed up collective polymer motion in the bad solvent even more effectively than in the good solvent. However, hydrodynamics has a negligible effect on the motion of individual monomers within the highly correlated globular conformation on the cis side and hence on the entire driven translocation under bad-solvent conditions.

  8. Resolving the Milky Way and Nearby Galaxies with WFIRST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalirai, Jasonjot

    High-resolution studies of nearby stellar populations have served as a foundation for our quest to understand the nature of galaxies. Today, studies of resolved stellar populations constrain fundamental relations -- such as the initial mass function of stars, the time scales of stellar evolution, the timing of mass loss and amount of energetic feedback, the color-magnitude relation and its dependency on age and metallicity, the stellar-dark matter connection in galaxy halos, and the build up of stellar populations over cosmic time -- that represent key ingredients in our prescription to interpret light from the Universe and to measure the physical state of galaxies. More than in any other area of astrophysics, WFIRST will yield a transformative impact in measuring and characterizing resolved stellar populations in the Milky Way and nearby galaxies. The proximity and level of detail that such populations need to be studied at directly map to all three pillars of WFIRST capabilities - sensitivity from a 2.4 meter space based telescope, resolution from 0.1" pixels, and large 0.3 degree field of view from multiple detectors. Our WFIRST GO Science Investigation Team (F) will develop three WFIRST (notional) GO programs related to resolved stellar populations to fully stress WFIRST's Wide Field Instrument. The programs will include a Survey of the Milky Way, a Survey of Nearby Galaxy Halos, and a Survey of Star-Forming Galaxies. Specific science goals for each program will be validated through a wide range of observational data sets, simulations, and new algorithms. As an output of this study, our team will deliver optimized strategies and tools to maximize stellar population science with WFIRST. This will include: new grids of IR-optimized stellar evolution and synthetic spectroscopic models; pipelines and algorithms for optimal data reduction at the WFIRST sensitivity and pixel scale; wide field simulations of MW environments and galaxy halos; cosmological simulations

  9. Cycle of Bad Governance and Corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Nuruddeen Suleiman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that bad governance and corruption particularly in the Northern part of Nigeria have been responsible for the persistent rise in the activities of Jama’atu Ahlis Sunna Lidda’awati wal-Jihad (JASLWJ, Arabic for “people committed to the propagation of the tradition and jihad.” It is also known as “Boko Haram,” commonly translated as “Western education is sin.” Based on qualitative data obtained through interviews with Nigerians, this article explicates how poor governance in the country has created a vicious cycle of corruption, poverty, and unemployment, leading to violence. Although JASLWJ avows a religious purpose in its activities, it takes full advantage of the social and economic deprivation to recruit new members. For any viable short- or long-term solution, this article concludes that the country must go all-out with its anti-corruption crusade. This will enable the revival of other critical sectors such as agriculture and manufacturing, likely ensuring more employment. Should the country fail to stamp out corruption, it will continue to witness an upsurge in the activities of JASLWJ, and perhaps even the emergence of other violent groups. The spillover effects may be felt not only across Nigeria but also within the entire West African region.

  10. Scientific disintegrity as a public bad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Christoph

    2015-05-01

    In this article, I argue that scientific dishonesty essentially results from an incentive problem; I do so using a standard economic model-the public bad. Arguably, at least in the short run, most scientists would increase their personal utility by being sloppy with scientific standards. Yet, if they do, it becomes more difficult for all scientists to make their voice heard in society, to convince policy makers to assign public funds to academia, and to lead fulfilling academic lives. The nature of the ensuing governance problem (and appropriate policy intervention) hinges on the definition of scientists' utility function. The policy problem is less grave if society attaches disproportionally more weight to severe or widespread violations and if individual scientists do not precisely know in advance when they will quit their academic lives. If most scientists internalize most scientific standards, then the problem is alleviated. However, internalization is immaterial if honorable scientists dislike that others advance their careers by violating those standards. Sanctions are helpful, even if relatively mild. However, it is important to also punish those who do not punish others for breaking the rules or, alternatively, to put some centralized mechanism for vigilance and enforcement into place.

  11. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Sections Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes? Jul. 09, 2013 With the popularity of 3- ... if any, effect the technology has on your eyes. Is 3-D technology healthy for your or ...

  12. Soybean nutritional properties: The good and the bad about soy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soybean nutritional properties: The good and the bad about soy foods ... Nevertheless, data linking soy consumption to reduced risk of osteoporosis, prostate, ... due to its health benefits, African consumers are advised to take note of emerging ...

  13. Obesity May Be Bad for The Brain, Too

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160349.html Obesity May Be Bad for the Brain, Too Study ... that of a 60-year-old lean person. "Obesity is associated with a host of biological processes ...

  14. Breaking bad news: A communication competency for ophthalmology training programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilkert, Sarah M; Cebulla, Colleen M; Jain, Shelly Gupta; Pfeil, Sheryl A; Benes, Susan C; Robbins, Shira L

    As the ophthalmology accreditation system undergoes major changes, training programs must evaluate residents in the 6 core competencies, including appropriately communicating bad news. Although the literature is replete with recommendations for breaking bad news across various non-ophthalmology specialties, no formal training programs exist for ophthalmology. There are many valuable lessons to be learned from our colleagues regarding this important skill. We examine the historic basis for breaking bad news, explore current recommendations among other specialties, and then evaluate a pilot study in breaking bad news for ophthalmology residents. The results of this study are limited by a small number of residents at a single academic center. Future studies from multiple training programs should be conducted to further evaluate the need and efficacy of formal communication skills training in this area, as well as the generalizability of our pilot training program. If validated, this work could serve as a template for future ophthalmology resident training and evaluation in this core competency.

  15. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Sections Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes? Jul. 09, 2013 ... computer use and your eyes . Children and 3-D Technology Following the lead of Nintendo, several 3- ...

  16. Breaking bad news: structured training for family medicine residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, Lea; Alperin, Mordechai; Amiel, Gilad E; Beharier, Zvi; Reis, Shmuel

    2002-09-01

    Previous research has shown that physicians experience incompetence and difficulty in dealing with patients' feelings after they have broken bad news to them. During the past 10 years, we have implemented a longitudinal training program targeting these issues. The present article describes this training and discusses its contribution to doctors' skills at approaching distressed patients. In order to cope with breaking bad news to patients and their families, physicians should be skilled at crisis intervention and communication techniques. They should also be aware of their personal attitudes and emotional reactions when breaking bad news. Each session encompassed these areas, as well as the most prominent issues arising when breaking bad news. In a 1-5 Likert scale, the course received an overall score of 4.47 (S.D. 0.51). Participants noted that they had gained relevant communication skills for future patient encounters.

  17. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Health A-Z Symptoms Glasses & Contacts Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Sections Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your ...

  18. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Health A-Z Symptoms Glasses & Contacts Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Sections Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your ...

  19. Breaking Bad Habits | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... alcohol abuse, gambling and even compulsive use of computers and social media. Dr. Russell Poldrack, a neurobiologist ... they can replace a bad habit, even drug addiction, with another behavior, like exercising. "It doesn't ...

  20. US Intervention in Failed States: Bad Assumptions=Poor Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    NATIONAL DEFENSE UNIVERSITY NATIONAL WAR COLLEGE STRATEGIC LOGIC ESSAY US INTERVENTION IN FAILED STATES: BAD ASSUMPTIONS = POOR ...2002 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2002 to 00-00-2002 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE US Intervention in Failed States: Bad Assumptions= Poor ...country remains in the grip of poverty , natural disasters, and stagnation. Rwanda Rwanda, another small African country, is populated principally

  1. 76 FR 58784 - Bad Boy Enterprises, LLC, Provisional Acceptance of a Settlement Agreement and Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-22

    ... COMMISSION Bad Boy Enterprises, LLC, Provisional Acceptance of a Settlement Agreement and Order AGENCY... Agreement with Bad Boy Enterprises, LLC, containing a civil penalty of $715,000.00. DATES: Any interested... accordance with 16 CFR 1118.20, Bad Boy Enterprises, LLC (``Bad Boy'') and staff (``Staff'') of the...

  2. Bad Apples, Bad Barrel: Exploring Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse by Catholic Clergy in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi Death

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers constructions of institutional culture and power in the cover-up of child sexual abuse (CSA by clergy in the Roman Catholic Church of Australia. The issue of cover-up has previously been considered in international inquiries as an institutional failing that has caused significant harm to victims of CSA by Catholic Clergy. Evidence given by select representatives of the Catholic Church in two government inquiries into institutional abuse carried out in Australia is considered here. This evidence suggests that, where cover-up has occurred, it has been reliant on the abuse of institutional power and resulted in direct emotional, psychological and spiritual harm to victims of abuse. Despite international recognition of cover-up as institutional abuse, evidence presented by Roman Catholic Representatives to the Victorian Inquiry denied there was an institutionalised cover-up. Responding to this evidence, this paper queries whether the primary foundation of cover-up conforms to the ‘bad apple theory’ in that it relates only to a few individuals, or the ‘bad barrel theory’ of institutional structure and culture.

  3. Why good accountants do bad audits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazerman, Max H; Loewenstein, George; Moore, Don A

    2002-11-01

    On July 30, President Bush signed into law the Sarbanes-Oxley Act addressing corporate accountability. A response to recent financial scandals, the law tightened federal controls over the accounting industry and imposed tough new criminal penalties for fraud. The president proclaimed, "The era of low standards and false profits is over." If only it were that easy. The authors don't think corruption is the main cause of bad audits. Rather, they claim, the problem is unconscious bias. Without knowing it, we all tend to discount facts that contradict the conclusions we want to reach, and we uncritically embrace evidence that supports our positions. Accountants might seem immune to such distortions because they work with seemingly hard numbers and clear-cut standards. But the corporate-auditing arena is particularly fertile ground for self-serving biases. Because of the often subjective nature of accounting and the close relationships between accounting firms and their corporate clients, even the most honest and meticulous of auditors can unintentionally massage the numbers in ways that mask a company's true financial status, thereby misleading investors, regulators, and even management. Solving this problem will require far more aggressive action than the U.S. government has taken thus far. What's needed are practices and regulations that recognize the existence of bias and moderate its effects. True auditor independence will entail fundamental changes to the way the accounting industry operates, including full divestiture of consulting and tax services, rotation of auditing firms, and fixed-term contracts that prohibit client companies from firing their auditors. Less tangibly, auditors must come to appreciate the profound impact of self-serving biases on their judgment.

  4. MAPPING DUST THROUGH EMISSION AND ABSORPTION IN NEARBY GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreckel, Kathryn; Groves, Brent; Schinnerer, Eva; Meidt, Sharon E.; Tabatabaei, Fatemeh S. [Max Planck Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Johnson, Benjamin D. [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095, 98 bis Bvd Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Aniano, Gonzalo [Institut d' Astrophysique Spatiale (IAS), Batiment 121, Universite Paris-Sud 11 and CNRS (UMR 8617), F-91405 Orsay (France); Calzetti, Daniela [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Croxall, Kevin V. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Draine, Bruce T. [Princeton University Observatory, Peyton Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544-1001 (United States); Gordon, Karl D. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Crocker, Alison F.; Smith, J. D. T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Dale, Daniel A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Hunt, Leslie K. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Kennicutt, Robert C., E-mail: kreckel@mpia.de [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    Dust has long been identified as a barrier to measuring inherent galaxy properties. However, the link between dust and attenuation is not straightforward and depends on both the amount of dust and its distribution. Herschel imaging of nearby galaxies undertaken as part of the KINGFISH project allows us to map the dust as seen in emission with unprecedented sensitivity and {approx}1 kpc resolution. We present here new optical integral field unit spectroscopy for eight of these galaxies that provides complementary 100-200 pc scale maps of the dust attenuation through observation of the reddening in both the Balmer decrement and the stellar continuum. The stellar continuum reddening, which is systematically less than that observed in the Balmer decrement, shows no clear correlation with the dust, suggesting that the distribution of stellar reddening acts as a poor tracer of the overall dust content. The brightest H II regions are observed to be preferentially located in dusty regions, and we do find a correlation between the Balmer line reddening and the dust mass surface density for which we provide an empirical relation. Some of the high-inclination systems in our sample exhibit high extinction, but we also find evidence that unresolved variations in the dust distribution on scales smaller than 500 pc may contribute to the scatter in this relation. We caution against the use of integrated A{sub V} measures to infer global dust properties.

  5. From nearby to distant galaxies: kinematical and dynamical studies

    CERN Document Server

    Epinat, Benoit

    2009-01-01

    Kinematical studies of low and high redshift galaxies enables to probe galaxy formation and evolution scenarios. Integral field spectroscopy is a powerful tool to study with accuracy nearby galaxies kinematics. Recent observations also gives a new 2D vision of high redshift galaxies kinematics. This work mostly relies on the kinematical sample of galaxies GHASP. This control sample, composed of 203 local spiral and irregular galaxies in low density environments observed with Fabry-Perot techniques in the Ha line (6563 A), is by now the largest sample of Fabry-Perot data. After a revue on Fabry-Perot interferometry and a presentation of new data reduction procedures, my implications on both 3D-NTT Fabry-Perot instrument and the wide field spectrograph project (WFSpec) for galaxy evolution study with the european ELT are developed. The second section is dedicated to GHASP data. This sample have been fully reduced and analysed using new methods. The kinematical analysis of 2D kinematical maps has been undertaken...

  6. 一种新型 NAND Flash 坏块管理算法的研究与实现%The realization of a novel bad block management algorithm for NAND Flash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔立岩; 张鹏; 魏德宝; 王世元

    2015-01-01

    A FPGA based NAND Flash bad block management scheme is presented ,on the basis of common bad block management of the non‐volatile NAND Flash memory .The scheme uses bad block replacement strategy to divide all blocks into Data block area and Good block reserved area . T he bad block identification and replacement is realized through the establishment of index‐based bad block marking tables BBT (bad block table) and the bad block map RT T (reserved translate table) .At the same time ,the two tables are saved in the NAND Flash to guarantee the non‐volatile storage of bad block information and the high‐speed performance query of bad blocks .Taking into account the bad block emerging ,bad block identification ,bad block information storage and high‐speed replacement of bad block ,this scheme is the complete solution for bad block management .Experiments showed that this strategy has the advantages of small bad block information capacity ,fast replacement and high reliability .%本文在研究NAND Flash常用坏块管理方法的基础上,提出了一种基于FPGA 的NAND Flash坏块管理方案。该方案运用坏块替换策略,将所有块分为数据块区和好块保留区,通过在FPGA片内RAM建立基于位索引的坏块位标记表BBT (bad block table)和块保留映射表RT T (reserved translate table)实现坏块的识别和替换,同时将两表保存于NAND Flash中,保证了坏块信息的非易失存储和坏块查询的高速性能。本方案全面考虑了坏块产生、坏块识别、坏块信息存储、坏块高速替换,是坏块管理的完整解决方案。经实验表明该方案具有坏块信息容量小、替换速度快、实现可靠等优点。

  7. Libros bilingues, traducciones desparpajadas y traducciones pobres: libros en espanol publicados en los Estados Unidos (Bilingual Books, Careless Translations, and Bad Translations: Books in Spanish Published in the United States).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schon, Isabel

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the importance of providing Spanish-speaking students with high-quality reading materials in Spanish and avoiding materials that have been badly translated into Spanish. Provides an annotated list of 10 books recommended for young children and a Spanish grammar for more advanced readers. Lists 29 badly translated books. Describes a Web…

  8. Libros bilingues, traducciones desparpajadas y traducciones pobres: libros en espanol publicados en los Estados Unidos (Bilingual Books, Careless Translations, and Bad Translations: Books in Spanish Published in the United States).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schon, Isabel

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the importance of providing Spanish-speaking students with high-quality reading materials in Spanish and avoiding materials that have been badly translated into Spanish. Provides an annotated list of 10 books recommended for young children and a Spanish grammar for more advanced readers. Lists 29 badly translated books. Describes a Web…

  9. How to Break Bad News: Physicians’ and Nurses’ Attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali-Akbar Nejatisafa

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available "nObjective: Bad news disclosure is one of the most complex tasks of physicians. Recent evidences indicate that patients' and physicians' attitude toward breaking bad news has been changed since few years ago. The evidence of breaking bad news is different across cultures. The aim of this study is to evaluate the attitude of medical staff toward breaking bad news to provide a clinical guideline in Iran."nMethods: A descriptive study was conducted during 2008-2009 on a sample of 100 medical staff (50 physicians and 50 nurses at Cancer Institute of Imam Khomeini hospital. The subjects' demographic characteristics and their attitudes toward the manner of revealing the diagnosis were registered in a questionnaire."nResults: The majority of the physicians (86%, n=43 and nurses (74%, n=37 , mostly the older and more experienced, tended to reveal the diagnosis to patients . Only a few physicians (8%, n=4 had been trained how to disclose bad news, which discloused diagnosis more than non trained ones."nPhysicians and nurses preferred to inform the patients about the diagnosis when either the patients were alone or in the presence of their spouse respectively .Only a few physicians (14% and nurses (24% agreed to explain life expectancy to patients."nConclusion: Compared to past, physicians and nurses are more willing to share cancer diagnosis with patients. However, lack of adequate communication skills in caregivers, and their concerns about managing patients' emotional reactions reduce their tendency to disclose bad news to the patients. Therefore, training physicians and nurses to expose bad news to the patients seems to be necessary.

  10. The Impact of "Bad" Argo Profiles on Ocean Data Assimilation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Chang-Xiang; ZHU Jiang

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have found cold biases in a fraction of Argo profiles (hereinafter referred to as bad Array for Real-time Geostrophic Oceanography (Argo) profiles) due to the pressure drifts during 2003 and 2006. These bad Argo profiles have had an important impact on in situ observation-based global ocean heat content estimates. This study investigated the impact of bad Argo profiles on ocean data assimilation results that were based on observations from diverse ocean observation systems, such as in situ profiles (e.g., Argo, expendable bathythermograph (XBT), and Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO), remote-sensing sea surface temperature products and satellite altimetry between 2004 and 2006. Results from this work show that the upper ocean heat content analysis is vulnerable to bad Argo profiles and demonstrate a cooling trend in the studied period despite the multiple independent data types that were assimilated. When the bad Argo profiles were excluded from the assimilation, the decreased heat content disappeared and a warming occurred. Combination of satellite altimetry and mass variation data from gravity satellite demonstrated an increase, which agrees well with the increased heat content. Additionally, when an additional Argo profile quality control procedure was utilized that simply removed the profiles that presented static unstable water columns, the results were very similar to those obtained when the bad Argo profiles were excluded from the assimilation. This indicates that an ocean data assimilation that uses multiple data sources with improved quality control could be less vulnerable to a major observation system failure, such as a bad Argo event.

  11. Comparative Study of the Critical Chain and PERT Planning Methods: No Bad Human Behaviors Involved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Ling Huang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Since 1997, Critical Chain Project Management (CCPM method has received a lot of attention and hundreds of successful cases have also been reported and all claims that it is possible to rapidly achieve highly reliable on-time delivery (OTD with short project lead time (PLT in multi-project environment. The main reason that CCPM can achieve highly reliable OTD and short PLT in multi-project environment can be contributed to that CCPM makes good use of safety time imbedded in tasks by two changes: logistical change and bad human behaviors change. However, if no bad human behaviors involved, does the mere emphasis on logistical change contributed to the success of project time reduction and OTD improvement? This is the key question still remained. A comparative study of the critical chain and Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT planning methods, no bad human behaviors involved, was performed in this study. The simulation results showed that in terms of mean project time, CCPM is no significantly better than PERT. However, in terms of plan reliability, CCPM achieve higher reliable than PERT did and this is the contribution of CCPM logistical change.

  12. The Host Galaxies of Nearby, Optically Luminous, AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petric, Andreea

    2016-01-01

    Coevolution of galaxies and their central black holes (BH) has been the central theme of much of recent extragalactic astronomical research. Observations of the dynamics of stars and gas in the nuclear regions of nearby galaxies suggest that the majority of spheroidal galaxies in the local Universe contain massive BHs and that the masses of those central BH correlate with the velocity dispersions of the stars in the spheroid and the bulge luminosity. Cold ISM is the basic fuel for star-formation and BH growth so its study is essential to understanding how galaxies evolve.I will present high sensitivity observations taken with the Herschel Space Observatory to measure the cold dust content in a sample of 85 nearby (z measurements from the Two Micron All Sky Survey and the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer to determine their IR spectral energy distributions which we use to assess and compare the aggregate dust properties of QSO1s and QSO2s. I will also present NIR spectroscopy obtained with Gemini's Near-Infrared Spectrograph of a sub-sample of QSO2s and QSO1s which I use to compare the ratio of cold to warm H2 gas that emits in the NIR in the hosts of QSO1s and QSO2s.Finally I will present a comparison of star-formation in QSO1s and QSO2s. For both QSO1s and QSO2s 3stimates of star-formation rates that are based on the total IR continuum emission correlate with those based on the 11.3 micron PAH feature. However, for the QSO1s, star-formation rates estimated from the FIR continuum are higher than those estimated from the 11.3 micron PAH emission. This result can be attributed to a variety of factors including the possible destruction of the PAHs and that, in some sources, a fraction of the FIR originates from dust heated by the active galactic nucleus and by old stars. For QSO2s the SFR derived from the 11.3 micron PAH feature match those derived from the 160micron emission.

  13. UVES Abundances of Stars in Nearby Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstoy, Eline; Venn, Kim; Shetrone, Matt; Primas, Francesca; Hill, Vanessa; Kaufer, Andreas; Szeifert, Thomas

    2002-07-01

    It is a truth universally acknowledged, that a galaxy in possession of a good quantity of gas must want to form stars. It is the details of how and why that baffle us all. The simplest theories either would have this process a carefully self-regulated affair, or one that goes completely out of control and is capable of wrecking the galaxy which hosts it. Of course the majority of galaxies seem to amble along somewhere between these two extremes, and the mean properties tend to favour a quiescent self-regulated evolutionary scenario. But there area variety of observations which require us to invoke transitory ‘bursts’ of star-formation at one time or another in most galaxy types. Several nearby dwarf spheroidal galaxies have clearly determined star-formation histories with apparent periods of zero star formation followed by periods of fairly active star formation. If we are able to understand what separated these bursts we would understand several important phenomena in galaxy evolution. Were these galaxies able to clear out their gas reservoir in a burst of star formation? How did this gas return? or did it? Have these galaxies receieved gas from the IGM instead? Could stars from these types of galaxy contribute significantly to the halo population in our Galaxy? To answer these questions we need to combine accurate stellar photometry and Colour-Magnitude Diagram interpretation with detailed metal abundances to combine a star-formation rate versus time with a range of element abundances with time. Different elements trace different evolutionary process (e.g., relative contributions of type I and II supernovae). We often aren't even sure of the abundance spread in these galaxies. We have collected detailed high resolution UVES spectra of four nearby dwarf spheroidal galaxies (Sculptor, Fornax, Leo I & Carina) to begin to answer these questions. This is a precursor study to a more complete study with FLAMES. We presented at this meeting the initial results for

  14. Breaking Bad News: Can We Get It Right?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurer MA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The health service involves a spectrum of personnel working together towards achieving a common goal, namely the delivery of high quality health care. This involves a large volume of communication between members of staff and patients and their relatives. Doctors are trained to deal with various clinical situations but receive little or no training in communication skills and therefore their communication skills are predominantly instinctive. Patients and their relatives are understandably anxious and vulnerable and it is not surprising that things can go wrong if effective communication is not practiced. Although most doctors communicate effectively, there is increasing evidence that a large number of patients remain unhappy with the amount of information given and the manner of its delivery [1]. Maguire and colleagues found that when doctors use communication skills effectively, both they and their patients benefit [2]. Furthermore, ineffective communication is an important source of complaints and litigations. In a recent Japanese study 81% of litigation involved insufficient or incorrect explanations by the physician [3]. Moreover, in 26% of cases poorly delivered information was found to be the reason that prompted individuals to file a malpractice claim [4]. This article looks into a specific area of communication between doctors, on the one hand, and patients and their relatives on the other; namely “breaking bad news”. It highlights the importance of equipping doctors to effectively communicate with patients and their relatives.

  15. The Mitchell Spectrograph: Studying Nearby Galaxies with the VIRUS Prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Blanc, Guillermo A

    2014-01-01

    The Mitchell Spectrograph (a.k.a. VIRUS-P) on the 2.7m Harlan J. Smith telescope at McDonald Observatory is currently the largest field of view (FOV) integral field unit (IFU) spectrograph in the world (1.7'x1.7'). It was designed as a prototype for the highly replicable VIRUS spectrograph which consists of a mosaic of IFUs spread over a 16' diameter FOV feeding 150 spectrographs similar to the Mitchell. VIRUS will be deployed on the 9.2 meter Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) and will be used to conduct the HET Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX). Since seeing first light in 2007 the Mitchell Spectrograph has been widely used, among other things, to study nearby galaxies in the local universe where their internal structure and the spatial distribution of different physical parameters can be studied in great detail. These observations have provided important insight into many aspects of the physics behind the formation and evolution of galaxies and have boosted the scientific impact of the 2.7 meter telescope enormous...

  16. A young SNR illuminating nearby Molecular Clouds with cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Cui, Y; Santangelo, A

    2016-01-01

    The Supernova Remnant (SNR) HESS J1731-347 displays strong non-thermal TeV gamma-ray and X-ray emission, thus the object is at present time accelerating particles to very high energies. A distinctive feature of this young SNR is the nearby (~30 pc in projection) extended source HESS J1729-345, which is currently unidentified but is in spatial projection coinciding with known molecular clouds (MC). We model the SNR evolution to explore if the TeV emission from HESS J1729-345 can be explained as emission from runaway hadronic cosmic rays (CRs) that are illuminating these MCs. The observational data of HESS J1729-345 and HESS J1731-347 can be reproduced using core-collapse SN models for HESS J1731-347. Starting with different progenitor stars and their pre-supernova environment, we model potential SNR evolution histories along with the CR acceleration in the SNR and the diffusion of the CRs. A simplified 3-dimensional structure of the MCs is introduced based on 12CO data, adopting a distance of 3.2 kpc to the so...

  17. The Nature of Accreting Black Holes in Nearby Galaxy Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Colbert, E J M

    1999-01-01

    We have found compact X-ray sources in the center of 21 (54%) of 39 nearby face-on spiral and elliptical galaxies with available ROSAT HRI data. ROSAT X-ray luminosities (0.2 - 2.4 keV) of these compact X-ray sources are ~ 1e37 - 1e40 erg/s (with a mean of 3e39 erg/s. The mean displacement between the location of the compact X-ray source and the optical photometric center of the galaxy is ~ 390 pc. The fact that compact nuclear sources were found in nearly all (five of six) galaxies with previous evidence for a black hole or an AGN indicates that at least some of the X-ray sources are accreting supermassive black holes. ASCA spectra of six of the 21 galaxies show the presence of a hard component with relatively steep (Gamma approx 2.5) spectral slope. A multicolor disk blackbody model fits the data from the spiral galaxies well, suggesting that the X-ray object in these galaxies may be similar to a Black Hole Candidate in its soft (high) state. ASCA data from the elliptical galaxies indicate that hot (kT appr...

  18. The magnetic environment in the central region of nearby galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Lang, Cornelia C

    2008-01-01

    The central regions of galaxies harbor some of the most extreme physical phenomena, including dense stellar clusters, non-circular motions of molecular clouds and strong and pervasive magnetic field structures. In particular, radio observations have shown that the central few hundred parsecs of our Galaxy has a striking magnetic field configuration. It is not yet clear whether these magnetic structures are unique to our Milky Way or a common feature of all similar galaxies. Therefore, we report on (a) a new radio polarimetric survey of the central 200 pc of the Galaxy to better characterize the magnetic field structure and (b) a search for large-scale and organized magnetized structure in the nuclear regions of nearby galaxies using data from the Very Large Array (VLA) archive. The high angular resolution of the VLA allows us to study the central 1 kpc of the nearest galaxies to search for magnetized nuclear features similar to what is detected in our own Galactic center. Such magnetic features play a importa...

  19. The Red and Featureless Outer Disks of Nearby Spiral Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Watkins, Aaron E; Harding, Paul

    2016-01-01

    We present results from deep, wide-field surface photometry of three nearby (D=4--7 Mpc) spiral galaxies: M94 (NGC 4736), M64 (NGC 4826), and M106 (NGC 4258). Our imaging reaches limiting surface brightnesses of $\\mu_{B} \\sim$ 28 -- 30 mag arcsec$^{-2}$ and probes colors down to $\\mu_{B} \\sim$ 27.5 mag arcsec$^{-2}$. We compare our broadband optical data to available ultraviolet and high column-density HI data to better constrain the star forming history and stellar populations of the outermost parts of each galaxy's disk. Each galaxy has a well-defined radius beyond which little star formation occurs and the disk light appears both azimuthally smooth and red in color, suggestive of old, well-mixed stellar populations. Given the lack of ongoing star formation or blue stellar populations in these galaxies' outer disks, the most likely mechanisms for their formation are dynamical processes such as disk heating or radial migration, rather than inside-out growth of the disks. This is also implied by the similarit...

  20. Evidence of nearby supernovae affecting life on Earth

    CERN Document Server

    Svensmark, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Observations of open star clusters in the solar neighborhood are used to calculate local supernova (SN) rates for the past 510 million years (Myr). Peaks in the SN rates match passages of the Sun through periods of locally increased cluster formation which could be caused by spiral arms of the Galaxy. A statistical analysis indicates that the Solar System has experienced many large short-term increases in the flux of Galactic cosmic rays (GCR) from nearby supernovae. The hypothesis that a high GCR flux should coincide with cold conditions on the Earth is borne out by comparing the general geological record of climate over the past 510 million years with the fluctuating local SN rates. Surprisingly a simple combination of tectonics (long-term changes in sea level) and astrophysical activity (SN rates) largely accounts for the observed variations in marine biodiversity over the past 510 Myr. An inverse correspondence between SN rates and carbon dioxide (CO$_2$) levels is discussed in terms of a possible drawdow...

  1. Broad Ly alpha Emission from Three Nearby BL Lacertae Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Stocke, John T; Perlman, Eric S

    2011-01-01

    We present far-UV HST/COS spectra of four nearby BL Lac Objects. BL Lac spectra are dominated by a smooth, power-law continuum which arises in a relativistic jet. However, the spectra are not necessarily featureless; weak, broad- and/or narrow-line emission is sometimes seen in high-quality optical spectra. We present detections of Lya emission in HST/COS spectra of Mrk421 (z=0.030) and PKS2005-489 (z=0.071) as well as an archival HST/GHRS observation of Mrk501 (z=0.0337). Archival HST/STIS observations of PKS2155-304 (z=0.116) show no Lya emission to a very low upper limit. Using the assumption that the broad-line region (BLR) clouds are asymmetrically placed around the AGN, we use these measured Lya emission features to constrain either the relativistic Gamma values for the ionizing continuum produced by the jet (in the ionization-bounded case) or the mass of warm gas (in the density-bounded case). While realistic Gamma values can be obtained for all four cases, the values for Mrk421 and PKS2155-304 are hig...

  2. Ultraviolet Radiative Transfer Modeling of Nearby Galaxies with Extraplanar Dusts

    CERN Document Server

    Shinn, Jong-Ho

    2015-01-01

    In order to examine their relation to the host galaxy, the extraplanar dust of six nearby galaxies are modeled, employing a three dimensional Monte Carlo radiative transfer code. The targets are from the highly-inclined galaxies that show dust-scattered ultraviolet halos, and the archival Galaxy Evolution Explorer FUV band images were fitted with the model. The observed images are in general well reproduced by two dust layers and one light-source layer, whose vertical and radial distributions have exponential profiles. We obtained several important physical parameters, such as star formation rate (SFR_UV), face-on optical depth, and scale-heights. Three galaxies (NGC 891, NGC 3628, and UGC 11794) show clear evidence for the existence of extraplanar dust layer. However, it is found that the rest three targets (IC 5249, NGC 24, and NGC 4173) do not necessarily need a thick dust disk to model the ultraviolet (UV) halo, because its contribution is too small and the UV halo may be caused by the wing part of the GA...

  3. Scaling Relations between Gas and Star Formation in Nearby Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Bigiel, F; Walter, F

    2010-01-01

    High resolution, multi-wavelength maps of a sizeable set of nearby galaxies have made it possible to study how the surface densities of HI, H2 and star formation rate (Sigma_HI, Sigma_H2, Sigma_SFR) relate on scales of a few hundred parsecs. At these scales, individual galaxy disks are comfortably resolved, making it possible to assess gas-SFR relations with respect to environment within galaxies. Sigma_H2, traced by CO intensity, shows a strong correlation with Sigma_SFR and the ratio between these two quantities, the molecular gas depletion time, appears to be constant at about 2Gyr in large spiral galaxies. Within the star-forming disks of galaxies, Sigma_SFR shows almost no correlation with Sigma_HI. In the outer parts of galaxies, however, Sigma_SFR does scale with Sigma_HI, though with large scatter. Combining data from these different environments yields a distribution with multiple regimes in Sigma_gas - Sigma_SFR space. If the underlying assumptions to convert observables to physical quantities are m...

  4. Are Stellar Storms Bad News for M-Dwarf Planets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-09-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs), enormous releases of energy from the Sun, can have significant space-weather implications for Earth. Do similar storms from smaller stars M dwarfs like V374 Peg, or the nearby Proxima Centauri mean bad news for the planets that these stars host?Volatile StarsDifference in habitable-zone sizes for different stellar types. [NASA]When plasma is released from the Sun in the form of a CME traveling toward Earth, these storms can be powerful enough to disrupt communications and navigational equipment, damage satellites, and cause blackouts even with our planetary magnetic field to protect us! How might planets in the habitable zone of M-dwarf stars fare against similar storms?The first danger for an M dwarfs planets is that the habitable zone lies much closer to the star: it can range from 0.03 to 0.4 AU (i.e., within Mercurys orbit). Being so close to the star definitely makes a planet in an M dwarfs habitable zone vulnerable to storms.Colors indicate the probability of CME impact, for different different stellar latitudes where the CME originated vs. orbital inclination of the planet, (a) without any deflection, and (b) taking into account the CME deflection by the stars magnetic field. Hanging out in an orbit aligned with the current sheet turns out to be a bad idea. [Adapted from Kay et al. 2016]What about the storms themselves? You might think that because M dwarfs are cooler stars, they would be quieter, releasing fewer CMEs with less energy. Surprisingly, the opposite is true: M dwarfs are significantly more active than solar-type stars, and the CMEs are typically ten times more massive than those released from the Sun. Impacts from these powerful outbursts could easily strip any existing planet atmosphere, making a planet much less likely to be habitable. To make matters worse, M dwarfs can remain magnetically active for billions of years: even a star like Proxima Centauri, which is nearly 5 billion years old, isstill relatively

  5. Star Formation and Supercluster Environment of 107 nearby Galaxy Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Seth A.; Hickox, Ryan C.; Wegner, Gary A.; Einasto, Maret; Vennik, Jaan

    2017-01-01

    We analyze the relationship between star formation (SF), substructure, and supercluster environment in a sample of 107 nearby galaxy clusters using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Previous works have investigated the relationships between SF and cluster substructure, and cluster substructure and supercluster environment, but definitive conclusions relating all three of these variables has remained elusive. We find an inverse relationship between cluster SF fraction (fSF) and supercluster environment density, calculated using the Galaxy luminosity density field at a smoothing length of 8 h‑1 Mpc (D8). The slope of fSF versus D8 is ‑0.008 ± 0.002. The fSF of clusters located in low-density large-scale environments, 0.244 ± 0.011, is higher than for clusters located in high-density supercluster cores, 0.202 ± 0.014. We also divide superclusters, according to their morphology, into filament- and spider-type systems. The inverse relationship between cluster fSF and large-scale density is dominated by filament- rather than spider-type superclusters. In high-density cores of superclusters, we find a higher fSF in spider-type superclusters, 0.229 ± 0.016, than in filament-type superclusters, 0.166 ± 0.019. Using principal component analysis, we confirm these results and the direct correlation between cluster substructure and SF. These results indicate that cluster SF is affected by both the dynamical age of the cluster (younger systems exhibit higher amounts of SF); the large-scale density of the supercluster environment (high-density core regions exhibit lower amounts of SF); and supercluster morphology (spider-type superclusters exhibit higher amounts of SF at high densities).

  6. THE INFLUENCE OF PROGRAMMED CORRECTIVE EXERCISES ON KIFOTIC BAD BODY POSITION AT PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Bogdanović

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of the research was the influence of specially programmed physical education instruction with specific complexes of exercises of corrective gymnastics at the 5th grade pupils, on the territory of the city Kragujevac, at those with kifotic bad body position established by measuring. After forming of experimental and control subjects groups, the experiment began. The subjects had the task to do the complete set of corrective exercises, determined before hand, three times a week during one class time. That programme was carried out continuously during the entire school year and the first semester of the following year, except during summer and winter vacation break. It can be concluded that the contents of experimental section of corrective gymnastics had the positive influence on the correction of kifotic bad body position at all the subjects, but with the more effective results at male population where the high percentage of corrected postural disturbance was attained. It can be said that the time period of eighteen months was enough for correction of kifotic bad body position at great number of the subjects. It can be also assumed that the more qualitative and complete improvement will be attained in the case of further continual exercises.

  7. Universal quantum gates for photon-atom hybrid systems assisted by bad cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guan-Yu; Liu, Qian; Wei, Hai-Rui; Li, Tao; Ai, Qing; Deng, Fu-Guo

    2016-01-01

    We present two deterministic schemes for constructing a CNOT gate and a Toffoli gate on photon-atom and photon-atom-atom hybrid quantum systems assisted by bad cavities, respectively. They are achieved by cavity-assisted photon scattering and work in the intermediate coupling region with bad cavities, which relaxes the difficulty of their implementation in experiment. Also, bad cavities are feasible for fast quantum operations and reading out information. Compared with previous works, our schemes do not need any auxiliary qubits and measurements. Moreover, the schematic setups for these gates are simple, especially that for our Toffoli gate as only a quarter wave packet is used to interact the photon with each of the atoms every time. These atom-cavity systems can be used as the quantum nodes in long-distance quantum communication as their relatively long coherence time is suitable for multi-time operations between the photon and the system. Our calculations show that the average fidelities and efficiencies of our two universal hybrid quantum gates are high with current experimental technology.

  8. The application of genetic fuzzy clustering in bad data identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yunjing; Gu, Deying

    2006-11-01

    Power system static state estimation is aimed at providing modern electric control centers with accurate and reliable real-time databases. To this end, not only should the state estimator be able to filter out random observation noise but it should also be able to detect the existence, identify the locations and remove the effects of bad data. Detecting and identifying bad data is very important in state estimation of power system. A new method presented in this paper is fuzzy clustering with genetic search. And simulation data proves that error contamination and submergence can be reduced so that real bad data can be detected and identified. A key advantage of the proposed method is that the clustering is independent of the space distribution of input samples. This method possesses characteristics so faster convergence rate and more exact clustering results than some typical clustering algorithms.

  9. Stability analysis for bad cavity lasers with inhomogeneously broadened gain

    CERN Document Server

    Kazakov, Georgy A

    2016-01-01

    Bad cavity lasers are experiencing renewed interest in the context of active optical frequency standards, due to their enhanced robustness against fluctuations of the laser cavity. The gain medium would consist of narrow-linewidth atoms, either trapped inside the cavity or intersecting the cavity mode dynamically. A finite velocity distribution, atomic interactions, or interactions of realistic multilevel atoms with external field leads to an inhomogeneous broadening of the atomic gain profile. This can bring the bad cavity laser to operate in unstable regimes characterized by complex temporal patterns of the field amplitude. We present a new and efficient method for the stability analysis of bad cavity lasers with inhomogeneously broadened gain. We apply this method to identify the steady-state solutions for the metrology-relevant case of spin-1/2 atoms interacting with an external magnetic field.

  10. Analysis of the Effect of High Yield of Feizixiao Litchi after Implements Spiral Girdling techniques Under the Bad Weather Condition%不良天气条件下妃子笑荔枝螺旋环剥增产效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏小曼; 黄汝红; 杨兰英; 谢仁忠

    2011-01-01

    When the Litchi Chinese Sonn.cv. Feizixiao is going to enter the flower bud differentiation period , implements the spiral girdling, observes its growth periods and the yields and its components. The results showed that the effec of high yield is obvious after implements spiral girdling techniques under the bad aweather conditions, the reasons are as follow: ( 1 ) when the fall and the winter temperature is exceptionally, the spiral girdleing can inhibit the growing of the winter shoots and promote the flower bud differentiation, beneficial to the blossom and the bear fruit; (2) the spiral girdleing can postpone the flowering season, evading the adverse effec for the low temperature and continuous rainning; (3) when the Spring temperature is exceptionally high, the spiral girdling can inhibit blossom clusters form leaf lets and promote the flower formation.%在妃子笑荔枝将要进入花芽分化期时实施螺旋环剥,观测其各生育期及产量构成要素。结果表明螺旋环剥在不良天气条件下的增产效果明显.其原因是:在秋、冬季气温偏高的天气条件下,螺旋环剥能抑制冬梢抽发,促进花芽分化,有利开花结果;螺旋环剥能推迟花期,有利于避过花期低温连阴雨天气的不良影响;春季气温偏高的天气条件下,螺旋环剥能抑制“冲梢”,利于花穗发育。

  11. MACROECONOMIC DETERMINANTS OF BAD LOANS IN BALTIC COUNTRIES AND ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana DONATH

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The 2008–09 global crisis raised debates concerning the determinants of financial vulnerability. Among these, bad loans have been identified as significantly influencing financial imbalances. After a decade in which borrowing has constantly grown mainly because of the deregulation of financial markets, the crisis highlighted the importance of an effective credit risk management. The purpose of the paper is to study the evolution of bad loans ratio in relation with selected macroeconomic indicators in the Baltic countries (Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania and Romania.

  12. Combating bad weather part I rain removal from video

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Sudipta

    2015-01-01

    Current vision systems are designed to perform in normal weather condition. However, no one can escape from severe weather conditions. Bad weather reduces scene contrast and visibility, which results in degradation in the performance of various computer vision algorithms such as object tracking, segmentation and recognition. Thus, current vision systems must include some mechanisms that enable them to perform up to the mark in bad weather conditions such as rain and fog. Rain causes the spatial and temporal intensity variations in images or video frames. These intensity changes are due to the

  13. An Updated Ultraviolet Catalog of GALEX Nearby Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Yu; Liu, JiFeng; Wang, Song

    2015-01-01

    The ultraviolet catalog of nearby galaxies made by \\citet{Gil07} presents the integrated photometry and surface brightness profiles for 1034 nearby galaxies observed by \\textit{Galaxy Evolution Explorer} (\\textit{GALEX}). We provide an updated catalog of 4138 nearby galaxies based on the latest Genral Release (GR6/GR7) of \\textit{GALEX}. These galaxies are selected from HyperLeda with apparent diameter larger than 1{\\arcmin}. From the surface brightness profiles accurately measured with the deep NUV and FUV images, we have calculated asymptotic magnitudes, aperture (D25) magnitudes, colors, structural parameters (effective radii and concentration indices), luminosities, and effective surface brightness. Archival optical and infrared photometry from HyperLeda, 2MASS, and IRAS are also integrated into the catalog. Our parameter measurements and some analyses are consistent with those of \\citet{Gil07}. The (FUV $- K$) color provides a good criterion to distinguish early and late-type galaxies, which can be impro...

  14. Evolution of Dusty Disks in Nearby Young Stellar Groups

    CERN Document Server

    Jayawardhana, R

    2001-01-01

    Given their proximity and age differences, nearby groups of young stars are valuable laboratories for investigations of disk evolution and diversity. The estimated 10-Myr age of groups like the TW Hydrae Association provides a strong constraint on disk evolution timescales and fills a significant gap in the age sequence between 1-Myr-old T Tauri stars in molecular clouds and 50-Myr-old nearby open clusters. I review the results of recent and on-going studies of dusty disks in three nearby groups --TW Hya, $\\eta$ Cha and MBM 12-- that suggest rapid evolution of inner disks. However, it is unlikely that there is a universal evolutionary timescale for protoplanetary disks, especially when the influence of companion stars is taken into account.

  15. The catalog of nearby black hole candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Caramete, Laurentiu I

    2011-01-01

    Context. In order to study the association of the origin of ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) with active galactic nuclei (AGN) at all levels of their activity we require an unbiased sample of black holes. Aims. Here we describe such a sample, of about 6 000 black holes, within the local Universe, inside the GZK (Greisen Zatsepin Kuzmin) limit, around 100 Mpc. Methods. The starting point is the 2 micron all sky survey, with the next steps as: test its com- pleteness down to low flux densities, confine it to redshifts z < 0.025, limit it to early Hubble type galaxies, test with B-V colors and with the FIR/Radio ratio the possible separation in classes of sources for the ultra high energy cosmic rays, use the spheroidal stellar component - black hole mass relationship to derive black hole masses, and test them with known black hole masses. Results. The statistics are consistent with the mass function of black hole masses, with a rel- atively flat distribution to about 10^8 Msol, and thereafter a very ste...

  16. Discovery of path nearby clusters in spatial networks

    KAUST Repository

    Shang, Shuo

    2015-06-01

    The discovery of regions of interest in large cities is an important challenge. We propose and investigate a novel query called the path nearby cluster (PNC) query that finds regions of potential interest (e.g., sightseeing places and commercial districts) with respect to a user-specified travel route. Given a set of spatial objects O (e.g., POIs, geo-tagged photos, or geo-tagged tweets) and a query route q , if a cluster c has high spatial-object density and is spatially close to q , it is returned by the query (a cluster is a circular region defined by a center and a radius). This query aims to bring important benefits to users in popular applications such as trip planning and location recommendation. Efficient computation of the PNC query faces two challenges: how to prune the search space during query processing, and how to identify clusters with high density effectively. To address these challenges, a novel collective search algorithm is developed. Conceptually, the search process is conducted in the spatial and density domains concurrently. In the spatial domain, network expansion is adopted, and a set of vertices are selected from the query route as expansion centers. In the density domain, clusters are sorted according to their density distributions and they are scanned from the maximum to the minimum. A pair of upper and lower bounds are defined to prune the search space in the two domains globally. The performance of the PNC query is studied in extensive experiments based on real and synthetic spatial data. © 2014 IEEE.

  17. Investigating nearby exoplanets via interstellar radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffer, Louis K.

    2014-01-01

    Interstellar radar is a potential intermediate step between passive observation of exoplanets and interstellar exploratory missions. Compared with passive observation, it has the traditional advantages of radar astronomy. It can measure surface characteristics, determine spin rates and axes, provide extremely accurate ranges, construct maps of planets, distinguish liquid from solid surfaces, find rings and moons, and penetrate clouds. It can do this even for planets close to the parent star. Compared with interstellar travel or probes, it also offers significant advantages. The technology required to build such a radar already exists, radar can return results within a human lifetime, and a single facility can investigate thousands of planetary systems. The cost, although too high for current implementation, is within the reach of Earth's economy.

  18. Investigating Nearby Exoplanets via Interstellar Radar

    CERN Document Server

    Scheffer, Louis K

    2013-01-01

    Interstellar radar is a potential intermediate step between passive observation of exoplanets and interstellar exploratory missions. Compared to passive observation, it has the traditional advantages of radar astronomy. It can measure surface characteristics, determine spin rates and axes, provide extremely accurate ranges, construct maps of planets, distinguish liquid from solid surfaces, find rings and moons, and penetrate clouds. It can do this even for planets close to the parent star. Compared to interstellar travel or probes, it also offers significant advantages. The technology required to build such a radar already exists, radar can return results within a human lifetime, and a single facility can investigate thousands of planetary systems. The cost, although high, is within the reach of Earth's economy, so it is cheaper as well.

  19. GRB 130427A: a Nearby Ordinary Monster

    CERN Document Server

    Maselli, A; Nava, L; Mundell, C G; Kawai, N; Campana, S; Covino, S; Cummings, J R; Cusumano, G; Evans, P A; Ghirlanda, G; Ghisellini, G; Guidorzi, C; Kobayashi, S; Kuin, P; La Parola, V; Mangano, V; Oates, S; Sakamoto, T; Serino, M; Virgili, F; Zhang, B -B; Barthelmy, S; Beardmore, A; Bernardini, M G; Bersier, D; Burrows, D; Calderone, G; Capalbi, M; Chiang, J; D'Avanzo, P; D'Elia, V; De Pasquale, M; Fugazza, D; Gehrels, N; Gomboc, A; Harrison, R; Hanayama, H; Japelj, J; Kennea, J; Kopac, D; Kouveliotou, C; Kuroda, D; Levan, A; Malesani, D; Marshall, F; Nousek, J; O'Brien, P; Osborne, J P; Pagani, C; Page, K L; Page, M; Perri, M; Pritchard, T; Romano, P; Saito, Y; Sbarufatti, B; Salvaterra, R; Steele, I; Tanvir, N; Vianello, G; Weigand, B; Wiersema, K; Yatsu, Y; Yoshii, T; Tagliaferri, G

    2014-01-01

    Long-duration Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) are an extremely rare outcome of the collapse of massive stars, and are typically found in the distant Universe. Because of its intrinsic luminosity ($L\\sim 3 \\times 10^{53}$ erg s$^{-1}$) and its relative proximity ($z=0.34$), GRB 130427A was a unique event that reached the highest fluence observed in the gamma-ray band. Here we present a comprehensive multiwavelength view of GRB 130427A with Swift, the 2-m Liverpool and Faulkes telescopes and by other ground-based facilities, highlighting the evolution of the burst emission from the prompt to the afterglow phase. The properties of GRB 130427A are similar to those of the most luminous, high-redshift GRBs, suggesting that a common central engine is responsible for producing GRBs in both the contemporary and the early Universe and over the full range of GRB isotropic energies.

  20. GRB 130427A: A Nearby Ordinary Monster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maselli, A.; Melandri, A.; Nava, L.; Mundell, C. G.; Kawai, N.; Campana, S.; Covino, S.; Cummings, J. R.; Cusumano, G.; Evans, P. A.; Ghirlanda, G.; Ghisellini, G.; Guidorzi, C.; Kobayashi, S.; Kuin, P.; La Parola, V.; Mangano, V.; Oates, S.; Sakamoto, T.; Serino, M.; Virgili, F.; Zhang, B.-B.; Barthelmy, S.; Beardmore, A.; Bernardini, M. G.; Bersier, D.; Burrows, D.; Calderone, G.; Capalbi, M.; Chiang, J.; D'Avanzo, P.; D'Elia, V.; De Pasquale, M.; Fugazza, D.; Gehrels, N.; Gomboc, A.; Harrison, R.; Hanayama, H.; Japelj, J.; Kennea, J.; Kopac, D.; Kouveliotou, C.; Kuroda, D.; Levan, A.; Malesani, D.; Marshall, F.; Nousek, J.; O'Brien, P.; Osborne, J. P.; Pagani, C.; Page, K. L.; Page, M.; Perri, M.; Pritchard, T.; Romano, P.; Saito, Y.; Sbarufatti, B.; Salvaterra, R.; Steele, I.; Tanvir, N.; Vianello, G.; Weigand, B.; Wiersema, K.; Yatsu, Y.; Yoshii, T.; Tagliaferri, G.

    2014-01-01

    Long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are an extremely rare outcome of the collapse of massive stars and are typically found in the distant universe. Because of its intrinsic luminosity (L ˜ 3 × 1053 ergs per second) and its relative proximity (z = 0.34), GRB 130427A reached the highest fluence observed in the γ-ray band. Here, we present a comprehensive multiwavelength view of GRB 130427A with Swift, the 2-meter Liverpool and Faulkes telescopes, and by other ground-based facilities, highlighting the evolution of the burst emission from the prompt to the afterglow phase. The properties of GRB 130427A are similar to those of the most luminous, high-redshift GRBs, suggesting that a common central engine is responsible for producing GRBs in both the contemporary and the early universe and over the full range of GRB isotropic energies.

  1. Mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway-dependent tumor-specific survival signaling in melanoma cells through inactivation of the proapoptotic protein bad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmann, Kathryn M; VanBrocklin, Matthew W; Staffend, Nancy A; Kitchen, Susan M; Koo, Han-Mo

    2003-12-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling regulates fundamental cellular functions including proliferation, differentiation, and survival. We have demonstrated previously that inhibiting MAPK signaling induces apoptosis in melanoma cells but not in normal melanocytes, suggesting that the MAPK pathway propagates essential survival signals in melanoma cells. Here, we report that the 90-kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK), a downstream effector in the MAPK signaling cascade, phosphorylates and inactivates the Bcl-2 homology 3-only proapoptotic protein Bad, thereby mediating a MAPK-dependent tumor-specific survival signal in melanoma cells. The MAPK kinase (MEK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/RSK MAPK signaling module is constitutively hyperactivated, and Bad is maintained in its inactive state by phosphorylation at Ser(75) in a MEK/ERK/RSK-dependent manner in melanoma cells. In contrast, in normal melanocytes, Bad is highly phosphorylated at multiple residues (Ser(75), Ser(99), and Ser(118)) in a MAPK pathway-independent manner. Importantly, ectopic expression of a constitutively activated RSK mutant abrogates Bad activation and renders melanoma cells resistant to apoptosis induced by a MEK inhibitor. Furthermore, overexpressing alanine-substituted (S75A) Bad further sensitizes melanoma cells to MEK inhibitor-induced apoptosis. Our results suggest that the MAPK pathway mediates melanoma-specific survival signaling by differentially regulating RSK-mediated phosphorylation of the proapoptotic protein Bad and may present potentially selective therapeutic targets for the treatment of melanomas.

  2. Expression of the Bcl-2 protein BAD promotes prostate cancer growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne J Smith

    Full Text Available BAD, a pro-apoptotic protein of the Bcl-2 family, has recently been identified as an integrator of several anti-apoptotic signaling pathways in prostate cancer cells. Thus, activation of EGFR, GPCRs or PI3K pathway leads to BAD phosphorylation and inhibition of apoptosis. Increased levels of BAD in prostate carcinomas have also been reported. It appears contradictory that instead of limiting expression of pro-apoptotic protein, prostate cancer cells choose to increase BAD levels while keeping it under tight phosphorylation control. Analysis of the effect of BAD on prostate cancer xenografts has shown that increased BAD expression enhances tumor growth, while knockdown of BAD expression by shRNA inhibits tumor growth. Tissue culture experiments demonstrated that increased BAD expression stimulates proliferation of prostate cancer cells. These results suggest that increased expression of BAD provides a proliferative advantage to prostate tumors, while BAD dephosphorylation increases sensitivity of prostate cancer cells to apoptosis. Combination of proliferative and apoptotic properties prompts prostate cancer cells to be "addicted" to increased levels of phosphorylated BAD. Thus, kinases that phosphorylate BAD are plausible therapeutic targets; while monitoring BAD phosphorylation could be used to predict tumor response to treatments.

  3. Hierarchical Star Formation in Nearby LEGUS Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Elmegreen, Debra Meloy; Adamo, Angela; Aloisi, Alessandra; Andrews, Jennifer; Annibali, Francesca; Bright, Stacey N; Calzetti, Daniela; Cignoni, Michele; Evans, Aaron S; Gallagher, John S; Gouliermis, Dimitrios A; Grebel, Eva K; Hunter, Deidre A; Johnson, Kelsey; Kim, Hwi; Lee, Janice; Sabbi, Elena; Smith, Linda; Thilker, David; Tosi, Monica; Ubeda, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    Hierarchical structure in ultraviolet images of 12 late-type LEGUS galaxies is studied by determining the numbers and fluxes of nested regions as a function of size from ~1 to ~200 pc, and the number as a function of flux. Two starburst dwarfs, NGC 1705 and NGC 5253, have steeper number-size and flux-size distributions than the others, indicating high fractions of the projected areas filled with star formation. Nine subregions in 7 galaxies have similarly steep number-size slopes, even when the whole galaxies have shallower slopes. The results suggest that hierarchically structured star-forming regions several hundred parsecs or larger represent common unit structures. Small galaxies dominated by only a few of these units tend to be starbursts. The self-similarity of young stellar structures down to parsec scales suggests that star clusters form in the densest parts of a turbulent medium that also forms loose stellar groupings on larger scales. The presence of super star clusters in two of our starburst dwarf...

  4. HI absorption in nearby compact radio galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacki, M.; Allison, J. R.; Sadler, E. M.; Moss, V. A.; Curran, S. J.; Musaeva, A.; Deng, C.; Parry, R.; Sligo, M. C.

    2017-01-01

    HI absorption studies yield information on both AGN feeding and feedback processes. This AGN activity interacts with the neutral gas in compact radio sources, which are believed to represent the young or recently re-triggered AGN population. We present the results of a survey for HI absorption in a sample of 66 compact radio sources at 0.040 100 km s-1) features, indicative of disturbed gas kinematics. Such broad, shallow and offset features are also found within low-excitation radio galaxies which is attributed to disturbed circumnuclear gas, consistent with early-type galaxies typically devoid of a gas-rich disk. Comparing mid-infrared colours of our galaxies with HI detections indicates that narrow and deep absorption features are preferentially found in late-type and high-excitation radio galaxies in our sample. These features are attributed to gas in galactic disks. By combining XMM-Newton archival data with 21-cm data, we find support that absorbed X-ray sources may be good tracers of HI content within the host galaxy. This sample extends previous HI surveys in compact radio galaxies to lower radio luminosities and provides a basis for future work exploring the higher redshift universe.

  5. Galaxy Clustering Around Nearby Luminous Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Karl B.; Bahcall, John N.; Kirhakos, Sofia; Schneider, Donald P.

    1996-01-01

    We examine the clustering of galaxies around a sample of 20 luminous low redshift (z approx. less than 0.30) quasars observed with the Wide Field Camera-2 on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The HST resolution makes possible galaxy identification brighter than V = 24.5 and as close as 1 min or 2 min to the quasar. We find a significant enhancement of galaxies within a projected separation of approx. less than 100 1/h kpc of the quasars. If we model the QSO/galaxy correlation function as a power law with a slope given by the galaxy/galaxy correlation function, we find that the ratio of the QSO/galaxy to galaxy/galaxy correlation functions is 3.8 +/- 0.8. The galaxy counts within r less than 15 1/h kpc of the quasars are too high for the density profile to have an appreciable core radius (approx. greater than 100 1/h kpc). Our results reinforce the idea that low redshift quasars are located preferentially in groups of 10-20 galaxies rather than in rich clusters. We see no significant difference in the clustering amplitudes derived from radio-loud and radio-quiet subsamples.

  6. Patients with high quality care for patients in operation roomThe inlfuence of bad mood and physiological stress state%手术室患者实施优质护理对患者不良情绪、生理应激状态的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张家蓉

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨手术室患者实施优质护理对患者不良情绪及生理应激状态的影响。方法选取我院自2014年6月至2015年6月间接受择期手术118例患者的临床资料。结果护理后,观察组患者胰岛素、空腹血糖水平等生理应激状态指标优于对照组(P<0.05),且患者焦虑自评量表(SAS)、抑郁自评量表(SDS)评分低于对照组(P<0.05)。结论手术室护理中应用优质护理可有效缓解患者生理应激状态及焦虑、抑郁等不良情绪,临床应用价值显著。%Objective:To investigate the effect of nursing care on the patients with bad mood and physiological state of the patients.Methods: The clinical data of 118 patients undergoing elective surgery were selected from June 2015 to June 2014 in our hospital.Results: After nursing and observation groups of patients with insulin, fasting glucose levels and other physiological indexes of stress state is better than that of the control group (P < 0.05) and patients with anxiety self rating scale (SAS) and Zung Depression self rating scale (SDS) score was lower than that of control group (P < 0.05).Conclusion: The application of high quality nursing in operation room nursing can effectively relieve patients with physiological stress state and anxiety, depression and other negative emotions, clinical application value is significant.

  7. ULTRAVIOLET RADIATIVE TRANSFER MODELING OF NEARBY GALAXIES WITH EXTRAPLANAR DUSTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinn, Jong-Ho; Seon, Kwang-Il, E-mail: jhshinn@kasi.re.kr [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776 Daeduk-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-348 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-20

    In order to examine their relation to the host galaxy, the extraplanar dusts of six nearby galaxies are modeled, employing a three-dimensional Monte Carlo radiative transfer code. The targets are from the highly inclined galaxies that show dust-scattered ultraviolet halos, and the archival Galaxy Evolution Explorer FUV band images were fitted with the model. The observed images are generally well-reproduced by two dust layers and one light source layer, whose vertical and radial distributions have exponential profiles. We obtained several important physical parameters, such as star formation rate (SFR{sub UV}), face-on optical depth, and scale-heights. Three galaxies (NGC 891, NGC 3628, and UGC 11794) show clear evidence for the existence of an extraplanar dust layer. However, it is found that the remaining three targets (IC 5249, NGC 24, and NGC 4173) do not necessarily need a thick dust disk to model the ultraviolet (UV) halo, because its contribution is too small and the UV halo may be caused by the wing part of the GALEX point spread function. This indicates that the galaxy samples reported to have UV halos may be contaminated by galaxies with negligible extraplanar (halo) dust. The galaxies showing evidence of an extraplanar dust layer fall within a narrow range on the scatter plots between physical parameters such as SFR{sub UV} and extraplanar dust mass. Several mechanisms that could possibly produce the extraplanar dust are discussed. We also found a hint that the extraplanar dust scale-height might not be much different from the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission characteristic height.

  8. The Red and Featureless Outer Disks of Nearby Spiral Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Aaron E.; Mihos, J. Christopher; Harding, Paul

    2016-07-01

    We present results from deep, wide-field surface photometry of three nearby (D = 4-7 Mpc) spiral galaxies: M94 (NGC 4736), M64 (NGC 4826), and M106 (NGC 4258). Our imaging reaches a limiting surface brightness of {μ }B ˜ 28-30 mag arcsec-2 and probes colors down to {μ }B ˜ 27.5 mag arcsec-2. We compare our broadband optical data to available ultraviolet and high column density H i data to better constrain the star-forming history and stellar populations of the outermost parts of each galaxy’s disk. Each galaxy has a well-defined radius beyond which little star formation occurs and the disk light appears both azimuthally smooth and red in color, suggestive of old, well-mixed stellar populations. Given the lack of ongoing star formation or blue stellar populations in these galaxies’ outer disks, the most likely mechanisms for their formation are dynamical processes such as disk heating or radial migration, rather than inside-out growth of the disks. This is also implied by the similarity in outer disk properties despite each galaxy showing distinct levels of environmental influence, from a purely isolated galaxy (M94) to one experiencing weak tidal perturbations from its satellite galaxies (M106) to a galaxy recovering from a recent merger (M64), suggesting that a variety of evolutionary histories can yield similar outer disk structure. While this suggests a common secular mechanism for outer disk formation, the large extent of these smooth, red stellar populations—which reach several disk scale lengths beyond the galaxies’ spiral structure—may challenge models of radial migration given the lack of any nonaxisymmetric forcing at such large radii.

  9. Recoiling supermassive black holes: a search in the nearby universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lena, D.; Robinson, A.; Axon, D. J.; Merritt, D. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Rochester Institute of Technology, 84 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623-5603 (United States); Marconi, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Firenze, Largo E. Fermi 2, I-50125, Firenze (Italy); Capetti, A. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Torino, Strada Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese (Italy); Batcheldor, D., E-mail: dxl1840@g.rit.edu [Department of Physics and Space Sciences, Florida Institute of Technology, 150 West University Boulevard, Melbourne, FL 32901 (United States)

    2014-11-10

    The coalescence of a binary black hole can be accompanied by a large gravitational recoil due to anisotropic emission of gravitational waves. A recoiling supermassive black hole (SBH) can subsequently undergo long-lived oscillations in the potential well of its host galaxy, suggesting that offset SBHs may be common in the cores of massive ellipticals. We have analyzed Hubble Space Telescope archival images of 14 nearby core ellipticals, finding evidence for small (≲ 10 pc) displacements between the active galactic nucleus (AGN; the location of the SBH) and the center of the galaxy (the mean photocenter) in 10 of them. Excluding objects that may be affected by large-scale isophotal asymmetries, we consider six galaxies to have detected displacements, including M87, where a displacement was previously reported by Batcheldor et al. In individual objects, these displacements can be attributed to residual gravitational recoil oscillations following a major or minor merger within the last few gigayears. For plausible merger rates, however, there is a high probability of larger displacements than those observed, if SBH coalescence took place in these galaxies. Remarkably, the AGN-photocenter displacements are approximately aligned with the radio source axis in four of the six galaxies with displacements, including three of the four having relatively powerful kiloparsec-scale jets. This suggests intrinsic asymmetries in radio jet power as a possible displacement mechanism, although approximate alignments are also expected for gravitational recoil. Orbital motion in SBH binaries and interactions with massive perturbers can produce the observed displacement amplitudes but do not offer a ready explanation for the alignments.

  10. A Man Caught Between Bad Anthropology and Good Theology?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Else Marie Wiberg

    2010-01-01

    Martin Luther's view of women is as complex as his authorship is vast, encompassing a diversity of gneres and purposes. Luther seems ambivalent toward women like the tradition before and after him. In his reformation enterprise he appears as torn between his good theology and a bad anthropology...

  11. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Sections Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes? Leer en Español: ¿Son Malas para los Ojos las Películas en ...

  12. Computer Slide Shows: A Trap for Bad Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemm, W. R.

    2007-01-01

    Slide shows presented with software such as PowerPoint or WordPerfect Presentations can trap instructors into bad teaching practices. Research on memory suggests that slide-show instruction can actually be less effective than traditional lecturing when the teacher uses a blackboard or overhead projector. The author proposes a model of classroom…

  13. The Good and the Bad – Bicyclists’ Experiences In Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snizek, Bernhard; Skov-Petersen, Hans; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick

    The Good and the Bad – Bicyclists’ Experiences In Copenhagen In order to design livable cities, a strategy of substituting motorized travel modes with non-motorized ones can be a solution to the problems of crowding/queuing and CO2 emissions. Prior to investing into bike infrastructure, knowledge...

  14. Adult Graduate Student Voices: Good and Bad Learning Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiff, Marianne; Ballin, Amy

    2016-01-01

    During their master's degree work, cohorts of adult graduate students participated in a common learning task in which they listed their factors of good and bad learning experiences. The lead author collected these factors from students over the course of 3 years. The purpose of our inquiry was to examine and document what adult graduate students…

  15. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health / Tips & Prevention Sections Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes? Jul. 09, 2013 With the popularity of 3-D movies, it's natural to wonder what, if any, effect the technology has on your eyes. Is 3- ...

  16. Japanese cancer patients' communication style preferences when receiving bad news.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimori, Maiko; Parker, Patricia A; Akechi, Tatsuo; Sakano, Yuji; Baile, Walter F; Uchitomi, Yosuke

    2007-07-01

    This study describes the communication style preferences of Japanese patients when receiving bad news, examines the factor structure of the measure for patients' preferences (MPP) in a Japanese population, and explores variables that may be associated with patients' communication style preferences. Five hundred twenty-nine cancer outpatients completed several psychosocial measures including the Japanese version of the MPP (MPP-J), the Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale (MAC), and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The patients desired detailed information and a supportive environment when receiving bad news. The MPP-J demonstrated a 5-factor structure: support, facilitation, medical information, clear explanation, and encouraging question-asking. Regression analyses indicated that a female gender, the fighting spirit and anxious preoccupation dimensions of the MAC were positively associated with all 5 MPP-J factors. In conclusion, Japanese cancer patients' preferences for communication when receiving bad news differ somewhat from those of American patients. Japanese physicians should encourage patients to ask questions and should consider the demographic (e.g. gender), medical (disease status) and psychosocial characteristics (fighting spirit and anxious preoccupation) of patients when delivering bad news.

  17. Adult Graduate Student Voices: Good and Bad Learning Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiff, Marianne; Ballin, Amy

    2016-01-01

    During their master's degree work, cohorts of adult graduate students participated in a common learning task in which they listed their factors of good and bad learning experiences. The lead author collected these factors from students over the course of 3 years. The purpose of our inquiry was to examine and document what adult graduate students…

  18. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Sections Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes? Leer en Español: ¿ ... computer use and your eyes . Children and 3-D Technology Following the lead of Nintendo, several 3- ...

  19. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Sections Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes? Leer en Español: ¿Son Malas para los Ojos ... if any, effect the technology has on your eyes. Is 3-D technology healthy for your or ...

  20. Curiosity Is Not Good--But It's Not Bad, Either

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, David

    2012-01-01

    Curiosity is vital quality of the creative work. However, in the classroom, educators seem to view curiosity as alternately amoral, virtuous, or dangerous. Education's stance towards curiosity is, in a word, curious. Conversely, the author says, curiosity is inherently amoral--neither good nor bad--and the subject is ripe for an exploration of the…

  1. 78 FR 35091 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel BAD INFLUENCE; Invitation for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel BAD INFLUENCE... of the vessel BAD INFLUENCE is: INTENDED COMMERCIAL USE OF VESSEL: ``6 pack fishing...

  2. High-Intensity Exercise May Be Bad for The Bowels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a senior researcher with the department of nutrition, dietetics and food at Monash University in Australia. Researchers ... D., senior lecturer and researcher, department of nutrition, dietetics and food, Monash University, Notting Hill, Australia; Elena ...

  3. AN UPDATED ULTRAVIOLET CATALOG OF GALEX NEARBY GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Yu; Zou, Hu; Liu, JiFeng; Wang, Song, E-mail: ybai@nao.cas.cn, E-mail: zouhu@nao.cas.cn, E-mail: jfliu@nao.cas.cn, E-mail: songw@nao.cas.cn [Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20A Datun Road, Chaoyang Distict, 100012 Beijing (China)

    2015-09-15

    The ultraviolet (UV) catalog of nearby galaxies compiled by Gil de Paz et al. presents the integrated photometry and surface brightness profiles for 1034 nearby galaxies observed by GALEX. We provide an updated catalog of 4138 nearby galaxies based on the latest Genral Release (GR6/GR7) of GALEX. These galaxies are selected from HyperLeda with apparent diameters larger than 1′. From the surface brightness profiles accurately measured using the deep NUV and FUV images, we have calculated the asymptotic magnitudes, aperture (D25) magnitudes, colors, structural parameters (effective radii and concentration indices), luminosities, and effective surface brightness for these galaxies. Archival optical and infrared photometry from HyperLeda, 2MASS, and IRAS are also integrated into the catalog. Our parameter measurements and some analyses are consistent with those of Paz et al. The (FUV − K) color provides a good criterion to distinguish between early- and late-type galaxies, which can be improved further using the concentration indices. The IRX–β relation is reformulated with our UV-selected nearby galaxies.

  4. Compact X-ray Sources in Nearby Galaxy Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Colbert, E J M

    1998-01-01

    We have found compact, near-nuclear X-ray sources in 21 (54\\%) of a complete sample of 39 nearby face-on spiral and elliptical galaxies with available ROSAT HRI data. ROSAT X-ray luminosities (0.2 $-$ 2.4 keV) of these compact X-ray sources are $\\sim$10$^{37}

  5. Hydrozoa, La Ciotat and nearby areas, Mediterranean coast of France.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galea, H. R.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The shallow-water hydrozoan fauna of La Ciotat and nearby areas, Mediterranean coast of France, was surveyedover a period of 6 years; 41 species, belonging to 10 families of Athecata and 13 families of Thecata were identified.

  6. A Hipparcos census of the nearby OB associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeuw, P. T.; Hoogerwerf, R. D; Bruijne, J. H. J. de; Brown, A. G. A.; Blaauw, A.

    1999-01-01

    Published in: Astron. J. 117 (1999) 354 citations recorded in [Science Citation Index] Abstract: A comprehensive census of the stellar content of the nearby OB associations is presented, based on Hipparcos positions, proper motions, and parallaxes. Moving groups are identified by combining de Bruijn

  7. Computational implications of cooperative plasticity induction at nearby dendritic sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Kenji

    2009-01-06

    Recent studies have revealed that plasticity is not regulated independently at individual synapses but rather that there is cooperativity or associativity between nearby synapses in the dendritic tree of individual cortical pyramidal cells. Here, I summarize experimental results regarding such cooperative plasticity and its underlying mechanisms and consider their computational implications.

  8. Impacts of agricultural irrigation on nearby freshwater ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorente, Carmen; Causape, Jesus; Glud, Ronnie N.

    2015-01-01

    impacted the nearby freshwater ecosystems via runoff Specifically, we assessed the toxicity of three triazine herbicides, terbuthylazine, atrazine and simazine on the photosynthetic efficiency and structure of algal benthic biofilms (i.e., phototropic periphyton) in the small creek draining the basin...

  9. Constraints on decaying dark matter from Fermi observations of nearby galaxies and clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dugger, Leanna; Profumo, Stefano [Department of Astronomy and Department of Physics, University of California Berkeley, 601 Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA (United States); Jeltema, Tesla E., E-mail: greentee01@gmail.com, E-mail: tesla@ucolick.org, E-mail: profumo@scipp.ucsc.edu [UCO/Lick Observatories, 1156 High St., Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2010-12-01

    We analyze the impact of Fermi gamma-ray observations (primarily non-detections) of selected nearby galaxies, including dwarf spheroidals, and of clusters of galaxies on decaying dark matter models. We show that the fact that galaxy clusters do not shine in gamma rays puts the most stringent limits available to-date on the lifetime of dark matter particles for a wide range of particle masses and decay final states. In particular, our results put strong constraints on the possibility of ascribing to decaying dark matter both the increasing positron fraction reported by PAMELA and the high-energy feature in the electron-positron spectrum measured by Fermi. Observations of nearby dwarf galaxies and of the Andromeda Galaxy (M31) do not provide as strong limits as those from galaxy clusters, while still improving on previous constraints in some cases.

  10. Constraints on Decaying Dark Matter from Fermi Observations of Nearby Galaxies and Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Dugger, Leanna; Profumo, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the impact of Fermi gamma-ray observations (primarily non-detections) of selected nearby galaxies, including dwarf spheroidals, and of clusters of galaxies on decaying dark matter models. We show that the fact that galaxy clusters do not shine in gamma rays puts the most stringent limits available to-date on the lifetime of dark matter particles for a wide range of particle masses and decay final states. In particular, our results rule out the possibility of ascribing to decaying dark matter both the increasing positron fraction reported by PAMELA and the high-energy feature in the electron-positron spectrum measured by Fermi. Observations of nearby dwarf galaxies and of the Andromeda Galaxy (M31) do not provide as strong constraints as those from galaxy clusters, while still improving on previous limits in some cases.

  11. SKA studies of nearby galaxies: star-formation, accretion processes and molecular gas across all environments

    CERN Document Server

    Beswick, R J; Perez-Torres, M A; Richards, A M S; Aalto, S; Alberdi, A; Argo, M K; van Bemmel, I; Conway, J E; Dickinson, C; Fenech, D M; Gray, M D; Klockner, H-R; Murphy, E J; Muxlow, T W B; Peel, M; Rushton, A P; Schinnerer, E

    2014-01-01

    The SKA will be a transformational instrument in the study of our local Universe. In particular, by virtue of its high sensitivity (both to point sources and diffuse low surface brightness emission), angular resolution and the frequency ranges covered, the SKA will undertake a very wide range of astrophysical research in the field of nearby galaxies. By surveying vast numbers of nearby galaxies of all types with $\\mu$Jy sensitivity and sub-arcsecond angular resolutions at radio wavelengths, the SKA will provide the cornerstone of our understanding of star-formation and accretion activity in the local Universe. In this chapter we outline the key continuum and molecular line science areas where the SKA, both during phase-1 and when it becomes the full SKA, will have a significant scientific impact.

  12. Breaking bad news issues: A survey among radiation oncologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milind Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Discussion of bad news and resuscitation in terminal cancer is an important but difficult and often neglected issue in day-to-day oncology practice. Materials and Methods: We interviewed 35 radiation oncologists using an indigenous 15-item questionnaire on their beliefs about breaking bad news and resuscitation to terminal cancer patients. Results: Most responders had an oncology experience of three to seven years (20/35.Thirty-two were comfortable discussing cancer diagnosis, prognosis and life expectancy-related issues. A similar number believed all cancer-related information should be disclosed, while only four believed in imparting all information in one visit. All agreed that disclosing sensitive information did not affect survival. When requested by relatives to withhold truth from patients, 11 said they would not comply, 22 agreed to tell the truth only if asked and two agreed to avoid difficult questions. Twenty responders denied having been adequately trained in breaking bad news and were keen on dedicated classes or sessions in this area of practice. Most (33/35 believed that Indian patients were keen on knowing their diagnosis and prognosis. Although all agreed to the importance of discussing resuscitation, only 17 believed patients should be involved. Majority (20/35 agreed that the issue needs to be discussed while the patient was conscious. Patients with unsalvageable disease were deemed unsuitable for aggressive resuscitation by 30 responders while the rest believed it should be offered to all. Most (21/35 admitted to feeling depressed after breaking bad news though only seven felt disclosure was more stressful than untruthful statements. Only four knew of a law regarding resuscitation in cancer. Conclusion: Observing the widely varied beliefs and practices for disclosing bad news, it is recommended that such training be a regular part of medicine curriculum, especially in the Oncology setting.

  13. 42 CFR 413.89 - Bad debts, charity, and courtesy allowances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... under the program. (b) Definitions—(1) Bad debts. Bad debts are amounts considered to be uncollectible... the definition of a “full-benefit dual eligible individual” at § 423.772 of this chapter. (i) Exception. Bad debts arising from covered services paid under a reasonable charge-based methodology or a...

  14. 26 CFR 1.593-5 - Addition to reserves for bad debts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Addition to reserves for bad debts. 1.593-5... bad debts. (a) Amount of addition. As an alternative to a deduction from gross income under section... a deduction under section 166(c) for a reasonable addition to a reserve for bad debts. In the...

  15. 19 CFR 125.34 - Countersigning of documents and notation of bad order or discrepancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Countersigning of documents and notation of bad... and Receipt § 125.34 Countersigning of documents and notation of bad order or discrepancy. When a... and shall note thereon any bad order or discrepancy. When available, the importing carrier's...

  16. 26 CFR 1.593-7 - Establishment and treatment of reserves for bad debts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Establishment and treatment of reserves for bad... Establishment and treatment of reserves for bad debts. (a) Establishment of reserves—(1) In general. A taxpayer...) accumulated for taxable years beginning after December 31, 1951, in the taxpayer's reserve for bad...

  17. 26 CFR 1.585-5 - Denial of bad debt reserves for large banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Denial of bad debt reserves for large banks. 1...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Banking Institutions § 1.585-5 Denial of bad debt... other section for an addition to a reserve for bad debts. However, for these years, except as...

  18. 26 CFR 1.593-1 - Additions to reserve for bad debts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Additions to reserve for bad debts. 1.593-1... bad debts. (a) In general. A mutual savings bank not having capital stock represented by shares, a... reserve for bad debts in the manner and under the circumstances prescribed in this section and §...

  19. Impacts of the May 2015 bad weather in Western Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voumard, Jérémie; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2016-04-01

    Strong precipitations occurred on Western Switzerland in the beginning of May 2015, especially on May 1st. Over 100 mm of rain fell in about 24 hours in some places in Western Switzerland, with a maximum of 130 mm at La Dôle, Canton of Vaud. Those heavy rains caused different damages as debris flow, floods and landslides. Several roads and railway have been closed, preventively or due to tracks obstructions in the Alps, the Jura mountains and in the Swiss Plateau. Two landslides have disrupted two main railway tracks, causing high traffic disturbances due to deviations and affecting the railway traffic during more than one week. In the village of St-Gingolph in the Canton of Valais, the Morge river overflowed two restaurants with debris flows. Their ground floor levels have been totally destroyed. In the town of Monthey, Canton of Valais, about 300 residents along the Viège river have been evacuated during the night because of the high risk of floods. The Arve river -which flows through the Chamonix Valley in the French Alps- has reached a flow rate record with 903 m3/s compared to its standard flow of 77 m3/s at its mouth into the Rhône river in Geneva on 2nd May. Several bridges in the town had to be closed, affecting the urban traffic of the second biggest town of Switzerland. North-east of the Western Switzerland, the lakes of Neuchâtel (Canton of Neuchâtel), Biel (Canton of Bern) and Morat (Canton of Fribourg), overflowed because of the high flow rate of the Aare river. The maximum height of water level has been reached about 8 days after the first heavy rain with a water level increase of 1 meter. A lot of wood has been carried by the rivers to the shores of the lakes. The damages are only material, no injuries were identified. Financial and temporal damages consequences are high for the two destroyed restaurants. The return to normality for river flows and water levels of the lakes took several weeks. The aim of this study is to document the natural

  20. Interpreting the extended emission around three nearby debris disc host stars

    CERN Document Server

    Marshall, Jonathan P; Ertel, S; Augereau, J -C; Kennedy, G M; Booth, M; Wolf, S; Montesinos, B; Eiroa, C; Matthews, B

    2014-01-01

    Cool debris discs are a relic of the planetesimal formation process around their host star, analogous to the solar system's Edgeworth-Kuiper belt. As such, they can be used as a proxy to probe the origin and formation of planetary systems like our own. The Herschel Open Time Key Programmes "DUst around NEarby Stars" (DUNES) and "Disc Emission via a Bias-free Reconnaissance in the Infrared/Submillimetre" (DEBRIS) observed many nearby, sun-like stars at far-infrared wavelengths seeking to detect and characterize the emission from their circumstellar dust. Excess emission attributable to the presence of dust was identified from around $\\sim$ 20% of stars. Herschel's high angular resolution ($\\sim$ 7" FWHM at 100 $\\mu$m) provided the capacity for resolving debris belts around nearby stars with radial extents comparable to the solar system (50 to 100 au). As part of the DUNES and DEBRIS surveys, we obtained observations of three debris disc stars, HIP 22263 (HD 30495), HIP 62207 (HD 110897), and HIP 72848 (HD 1315...

  1. TeV Gamma Ray Emission from Nearby Pulsar Wind Nebulae with HAWC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hao; Salesa Greus, Francisco; López-Coto, Rubén; Benzvi, Segev; Casanova, Sabrina; HAWC Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Pulsar wind nebulae are considered efficient electron/positron accelerators in our Galaxy. It has been suggested that particles accelerated by nearby pulsar wind nebulae, such as Geminga, would possibly account for the observed multi-GeV positron excess. The Geminga pulsar is one of the closest middle-aged pulsars and its pulsations were first discovered in X-rays. Milagro reported an extended TeV source spatially coincident with the Geminga pulsar, but IACT observations using standard analysis techniques have only provided upper limits. The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Observatory, located in central Mexico at 4100 m above sea level, is sensitive to gamma rays between 100 GeV and 100 TeV. With a field of view of 2 steradians, HAWC has a good sensitivity to extended sources such as pulsar wind nebulae. Early data collected with HAWC reveals an extended source coincident with the Geminga pulsar, similar to what Milagro has reported. We will present results of spectral and morphological analyses on extended TeV gamma-ray emission from Geminga and other nearby pulsar wind nebulae with HAWC data. The interpretation of whether positrons from nearby pulsar wind nebulae can explain the observed positron excess will be discussed as well.

  2. A spectroscopy study of nearby late-type stars, possible members of stellar kinematic groups

    CERN Document Server

    Maldonado, J; Eiroa, C; Montes, D; Montesinos, B; 10.1051/0004-6361/201014948

    2010-01-01

    Nearby late-type stars are excellent targets for seeking young objects in stellar associations and moving groups. The origin of these structures is still misunderstood, and lists of moving group members often change with time and also from author to author. Most members of these groups have been identified by means of kinematic criteria, leading to an important contamination of previous lists by old field stars. We attempt to identify unambiguous moving group members among a sample of nearby-late type stars by studying their kinematics, lithium abundance, chromospheric activity, and other age-related properties. High-resolution echelle spectra ($R \\sim 57000$) of a sample of nearby late-type stars are used to derive accurate radial velocities that are combined with the precise Hipparcos parallaxes and proper motions to compute galactic-spatial velocity components. Stars are classified as possible members of the classical moving groups according to their kinematics. The spectra are also used to study several a...

  3. ARSENIC ADSORPTION AND REDUCTION IN IRON-RICH SOILS NEARBY LANDFILLS IN NORTHWEST FLORIDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongqin Xue

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In Florida, soils are mainly composed of Myakka, an acid soil characterized by a subsurface accumulation of humus and Al(III and Fe(III oxides. Downgradient of the landfills in Northwest Florida, elevated levels of iron and arsenic observations had been made in the groundwater from monitoring wells, which was attributed to the geomicrobial iron and arsenic reduction. There is thus an immediate research need for a better understanding of the reduction reactions that are responsible for the mobilization of iron and arsenic in the subsurface soil nearby landfills. Owing to the high Fe(III oxide content, As(V adsorption reactions with Fe(III oxide surfaces are particularly important, which may control As(V reduction. This research focused on the investigation of the biogeochemical processes of the subsurface soil nearby landfills of Northwest Florida. Arsenic and iron reduction was studied in batch reactors and quantified based on Monod-type microbial kinetic growth simulations. As(V adsorption in iron-rich Northwest Floridian soils was further investigated to explain the reduction observations. It was demonstrated in this research that solubilization of arsenic in the subsurface soil nearby landfills in Northwest Florida would likely occur under conditions favoring Fe(III dissimilatory reduction.

  4. BCL-2 family protein, BAD is down-regulated in breast cancer and inhibits cell invasion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cekanova, Maria, E-mail: mcekanov@utk.edu [Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Fernando, Romaine I. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Graduate School of Medicine, Medical Center, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Siriwardhana, Nalin [Department of Animal Science, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Sukhthankar, Mugdha [Department of Biomedical and Diagnostics Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Parra, Columba de la [Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, University of Puerto Rico, Medical Sciences Campus, San Juan, PR (United States); Woraratphoka, Jirayus [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Graduate School of Medicine, Medical Center, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Malone, Christine [Laboratory of Molecular Carcinogenesis, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Ström, Anders [Center for Nuclear Receptors and Cell Signaling, Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Baek, Seung J. [Department of Biomedical and Diagnostics Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Wade, Paul A. [Laboratory of Molecular Carcinogenesis, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Saxton, Arnold M. [Department of Animal Science, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Donnell, Robert M. [Department of Biomedical and Diagnostics Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Pestell, Richard G. [Department of Cancer Biology, Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); and others

    2015-02-01

    We have previously demonstrated that the anti-apoptotic protein BAD is expressed in normal human breast tissue and shown that BAD inhibits expression of cyclin D1 to delay cell-cycle progression in breast cancer cells. Herein, expression of proteins in breast tissues was studied by immunohistochemistry and results were analyzed statistically to obtain semi-quantitative data. Biochemical and functional changes in BAD-overexpressing MCF7 breast cancer cells were evaluated using PCR, reporter assays, western blotting, ELISA and extracellular matrix invasion assays. Compared to normal tissues, Grade II breast cancers expressed low total/phosphorylated forms of BAD in both cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments. BAD overexpression decreased the expression of β-catenin, Sp1, and phosphorylation of STATs. BAD inhibited Ras/MEK/ERK and JNK signaling pathways, without affecting the p38 signaling pathway. Expression of the metastasis-related proteins, MMP10, VEGF, SNAIL, CXCR4, E-cadherin and TlMP2 was regulated by BAD with concomitant inhibition of extracellular matrix invasion. Inhibition of BAD by siRNA increased invasion and Akt/p-Akt levels. Clinical data and the results herein suggest that in addition to the effect on apoptosis, BAD conveys anti-metastatic effects and is a valuable prognostic marker in breast cancer. - Highlights: • BAD and p-BAD expressions are decreased in breast cancer compared with normal breast tissue. • BAD impedes breast cancer invasion and migration. • BAD inhibits the EMT and transcription factors that promote cancer cell migration. • Invasion and migration functions of BAD are distinct from the BAD's role in apoptosis.

  5. The Social Consequences of Bad Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Daniel

    1998-01-01

    Too many researchers have built careers on the quantitative/qualitative research debate. Social scientists have largely abandoned their responsibility for popular education, focusing primarily on schooling's limitations, rather than its potential for furthering social progress. Standard-setting is highly politicized; research is becoming too…

  6. Trait-agreeableness influences individual reactions to a physician's affiliative behavior in a simulated bad news delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousin, Gaëtan; Schmid Mast, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    We tested whether the personality trait of agreeableness predicts different individual reactions to the level of nonverbal affiliativeness shown by a physician, in the context of a simulated bad news delivery. We predicted that individuals with high levels of agreeableness would react better to a physician adopting a highly affiliative communication style compared to individuals with low levels of agreeableness. We used an experimental design with analogue patients. Eighty participants (40 men/40 women) were randomly assigned to watch a video of a physician who communicated a bad diagnosis either in a highly affiliative or in a less affiliative way. Participants reported their reactions of anger and trust in the physician, and completed the agreeableness scale of the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). In accordance with our predictions, the higher the agreeableness score of the participants, the less anger and the more trust they reported after viewing the high as compared to the low affiliative physician. These results suggest that people with high levels of agreeableness may be especially sensitive to highly affiliative physician nonverbal behavior when receiving bad news.

  7. Common Proper Motion Companions to Nearby Stars: Ages and Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Makarov, V V; Hennessy, G S

    2008-01-01

    A set of 41 nearby stars (closer than 25 pc) is investigated which have very wide binary and common proper motion (CPM) companions at projected separations between 1000 and $200 000$ AU. These companions are identified by astrometric positions and proper motions from the NOMAD catalog. Based mainly on measures of chromospheric and X-ray activity, age estimation is obtained for most of 85 identified companions. Color -- absolute magnitude diagrams are constructed to test if CPM companions are physically related to the primary nearby stars and have the same age. Our carefully selected sample includes three remote white dwarf companions to main sequence stars and two systems (55 Cnc and GJ 777A) of multiple planets and distant stellar companions. Ten new CPM companions, including three of extreme separations, are found. Multiple hierarchical systems are abundant; more than 25% of CPM components are spectroscopic or astrometric binaries or multiples themselves. Two new astrometric binaries are discovered among ne...

  8. A Star-Formation Rate Atlas of the Nearby Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Tristan; Pooley, David; Rappaport, Saul A.

    2017-01-01

    We present our work in constructing a star-formation rate (SFR) atlas of nearby galaxies. We utilize GALEX far-ultraviolet (FUV) data and Spitzer 24 micron data to compute the SFR map of each galaxy using the relation described in Leroy et al. (2008). For each galaxy, the 24 micron data were downloaded from the Spitzer Heritage Archive and subjected to outlier and overlap corrections through the automated Spitzer pipeline MOPEX. The FUV images were constructing using gphoton, and we then performed background subtraction using source-free regions away from the galaxy. These SFR maps represent an attempt to systematically characterize the local SFR in nearby galaxies, which we will then use to explore the relationship of SFR to the incidence of other phenomena such as supernovae and ultraluminous X-ray sources. We will make all SFR maps available to the community.

  9. The Moon as a Recorder of Nearby Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Crawford, Ian A

    2016-01-01

    The lunar geological record is expected to contain a rich record of the galactic environment of the Solar System, including records of nearby (i.e. less than a few tens of parsecs) supernova explosions. This record will be composed of two principal components: (i) cosmogenic nuclei produced within, as well as radiation damage to, surface materials caused by increases in the galactic cosmic ray flux resulting from nearby supernovae; and (ii) the direct collection of supernova ejecta, likely enriched in a range of unusual and diagnostic isotopes, on the lunar surface. Both aspects of this potentially very valuable astrophysical archive will be best preserved in currently buried, but nevertheless near-surface, layers that were directly exposed to the space environment at known times in the past and for known durations. Suitable geological formations certainly exist on the Moon, but accessing them will require a greatly expanded programme of lunar exploration.

  10. Han Yong edify temperament books---from the analysis of junior middle school students' bad psychological reading of junior high school Chinese Reading Teaching%涵咏书海熏陶性情--从剖析初中学生不良阅读心理谈初中语文阅读教学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敏

    2014-01-01

    The improvement of students' Chinese quality, the key lies in the accumulation of students, and the main channel is the accumulation of reading. This paper tries to talk from the bad phenomenon of reading for today's students, analyzes its bad reading psychology. According to the bad reading psychology among middle school students, and puts forward some rational suggestions from the reading guidance teachers, the teaching method of reading material, reading three. Affirms that reading in middle school Chinese teaching position.%学生语文素养的提高,关键在于学生平时的积累,而积累的主要渠道是阅读。本文试图从当今中学生的不良阅读现象谈起,分析其不良的阅读心理。根据中学生的不良阅读心理,本文从指导阅读的教师、阅读的材料、阅读的教学方法三方面提出了合理化建议,肯定阅读在中学语文教学中的地位。

  11. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) KidsHealth > For Teens > Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) Print ... rest temperature diet emotions posture medicines Why Is High Blood Pressure Bad? High blood pressure means a person's heart ...

  12. The Galactic Center compared with nuclei of nearby galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Combes, F

    2016-01-01

    Understanding our Galactic Center is easier with insights from nearby galactic nuclei. Both the star formation activity in nuclear gas disks, driven by bars and nuclear bars, and the fueling of low-luminosity AGN, followed by feedback of jets, driving molecular outflows, were certainly present in our Galactic Center, which appears now quenched. Comparisons and diagnostics are reviewed, in particular of m=2 and m=1 modes, lopsidedness, different disk orientations, and fossil evidences of activity and feedback.

  13. A Survey of nearby, nearly face-on spiral galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmire, Gordon

    2014-09-01

    This is a continuation of a survey of nearby, nearly face-on spiral galaxies. The main purpose is to search for evidence of collisions with small galaxies that show up in X-rays by the generation of hot shocked gas from the collision. Secondary objectives include study of the spatial distribution point sources in the galaxy and to detect evidence for a central massive blackhole.

  14. Nearby boundaries create eddies near microscopic filter feeders

    OpenAIRE

    Pepper, Rachel E.; Roper, Marcus; Ryu, Sangjin; Matsudaira, Paul; Stone, Howard A.

    2009-01-01

    We show through calculations, simulations and experiments that the eddies often observed near sessile filter feeders are frequently due to the presence of nearby boundaries. We model the common filter feeder Vorticella, which is approximately 50 µm across and which feeds by removing bacteria from ocean or pond water that it draws towards itself. We use both an analytical stokeslet model and a Brinkman flow approximation that exploits the narrow-gap geometry to predict the size of the eddy cau...

  15. FIR colours and SEDs of nearby galaxies observed with Herschel

    OpenAIRE

    Boselli, A.; Bock, J.; Bradford, M; Fadda, D.; Levenson, L.; Lu, N.; Schulz, B.; Wright, G.

    2010-01-01

    We present infrared colours (in the 25−500 μm spectral range) and UV to radio continuum spectral energy distributions of a sample of 51 nearby galaxies observed with SPIRE on Herschel. The observed sample includes all morphological classes, from quiescent ellipticals to active starbursts. Active galaxies have warmer colour temperatures than normal spirals. In ellipticals hosting a radio galaxy, the far-infrared (FIR) emission is dominated by the synchrotron nuclear emission. The colour temper...

  16. STT Doubles with Large Delta_M - Objects Nearby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanson, John; Knapp, Wilfried

    2017-07-01

    Following our series of reports on STT doubles with large delta_M, we are submitting measurements of WDS objects which were by chance found nearby in the images taken of the STT doubles. In these cases we did not suspect any issues with the current WDS catalog data, but wanted to make use of existing image material as any double star visited is worth a current measurement.

  17. The Galactic Center compared with nuclei of nearby galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combes, Francoise

    2017-01-01

    Understanding our Galactic Center is easier with insights from nearby galactic nuclei. Both the star formation activity in nuclear gas disks, driven by bars and nuclear bars, and the fueling of low-luminosity AGN, followed by feedback of jets, driving molecular outflows, were certainly present in our Galactic Center, which appears now quenched. Comparisons and diagnostics are reviewed, in particular of m = 2 and m = 1 modes, lopsidedness, different disk orientations, and fossil evidences of activity and feedback.

  18. FIR colours and SEDs of nearby galaxies observed with Herschel

    OpenAIRE

    Boselli, A.; Ciesla, L.; Buat, V.; Cortese, L.; Auld, R.; Baes, Maarten; Bendo, GJ; S. Bianchi; Bock, J.; Bomans, DJ; Bradford, M; Castro-Rodriguez, N.; Chanial, P.; Charlot, S.; Clemens, M.

    2010-01-01

    We present infrared colours (in the 25-500 mu m spectral range) and UV to radio continuum spectral energy distributions of a sample of 51 nearby galaxies observed with SPIRE on Herschel. The observed sample includes all morphological classes, from quiescent ellipticals to active starbursts. Active galaxies have warmer colour temperatures than normal spirals. In ellipticals hosting a radio galaxy, the far-infrared (FIR) emission is dominated by the synchrotron nuclear emission. The colour temp...

  19. Loss of Bad expression confers poor prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi; Liu, Dan; Chen, Bojiang; Zeng, Jing; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Shangfu; Mo, Xianming; Li, Weimin

    2012-09-01

    Proapoptotic BH-3-only protein Bad (Bcl-Xl/Bcl-2-associated death promoter homolog, Bad) initiates apoptosis in human cells, and contributes to tumorigenesis and chemotherapy resistant in malignancies. This study explored association between the Bad expression level and prognosis in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In our study, a cohort of 88 resected primary NSCLC cases were collected and analyzed. Bad expression level was determined via immunohistochemical staining assay. The prognostic significances of Bad expression were evaluated with univariate and multivariate survival analysis. The results showed that compared with normal lung tissues, Bad expression level significantly decreased in NSCLC (P Bad expression was associated with adjuvant therapy status. Loss of Bad independently predicted poor prognosis in whole NSCLC cohort and early stage subjects (T1 + T2 and N0 + N1) (all P Bad negative phenotype in NSCLC patients with smoking history, especially lung squamous cell carcinoma (all P Bad is an independent and powerful predictor of adverse prognosis in NSCLC. Bad protein could be a new biomarker for selecting individual therapy strategies and predicting therapeutic response in subjects with NSCLC.

  20. Are Empathy and Compassion Bad for the Professional Social Worker?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Nilsson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that social workers and other professional helpers who work with traumatized individuals run a risk of developing compassion fatigue or secondary traumatic stress. Some researchers have hypothesized that helpers do this as a result of feeling too much empathy or too much compassion for their clients, thereby implying that empathy and compassion may be bad for the professional social worker. This paper investigates these hypotheses. Based on a review of current research about empathy and compassion it is argued that these states are not the causes of compassion fatigue. Hence, it is argued that empathy and compassion are not bad for the professional social worker in the sense that too much of one or the other will lead to compassion fatigue.

  1. Direct detection of brown dwarf companions of nearby stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, Ben R.

    This thesis presents the first direct detection of a substellar companion of a star other than the Sun. This object, a brown dwarf called Gliese 229B, presented a unique opportunity to characterize low-temperature brown dwarfs for the first time. The discovery and initial spectrum of Gliese 229B show that the object must be substellar based on its intrinsic luminosity of 6.4×10-6Lsolar and its cool surface temperature, 900 K. Detailed study of Gliese 229B includes extensive photometric measurements from 0.5 to 12 μm, high signal-to-noise ratio spectroscopy from 0.84 to 5.0 μm and the detection of 0'' t; yr-1 of orbital motion. These results are presented in Chapters 2 and 3. A detailed review of brown dwarf science leads to a complete and scientifically meaningful definition of the classes ``planet'' and ``brown dwarf''' in Chapter 1. After the discovery of Gliese 229B, which was found in a survey for companions of young stars, we began an extensive search for brown dwarf companions in orbit about all known stars within 8 pc of the Sun and with δ > -35°. The search includes optical coronagraphic and infrared direct imaging of these stars, conducted on the Palomar 60' and 200' telescopes respectively. The search was designed to find companions of each star without color bias. While the search revealed no other brown dwarf companions of these stars, it did uncover 6 new stellar companions. The sensitivity limits of the survey permit the detection of brown dwarfs up to four magnitudes fainter than Gliese 229B around 90% of the stars. The sensitivity is, however, not uniform spatially or from star to star. This limits our ability to make strong statements about the prevalence of brown dwarf companions of nearby stars. The survey does have sensitivity to all stellar companions between 3 and 30' from the survey stars, however. Chapter 5 describes related work on very low-mass stars in the Pleiades star cluster. This optical spectroscopy involved trying to find a

  2. Doses of Nearby Nature Simultaneously Associated with Multiple Health Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T. C. Cox

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to nature provides a wide range of health benefits. A significant proportion of these are delivered close to home, because this offers an immediate and easily accessible opportunity for people to experience nature. However, there is limited information to guide recommendations on its management and appropriate use. We apply a nature dose-response framework to quantify the simultaneous association between exposure to nearby nature and multiple health benefits. We surveyed ca. 1000 respondents in Southern England, UK, to determine relationships between (a nature dose type, that is the frequency and duration (time spent in private green space and intensity (quantity of neighbourhood vegetation cover of nature exposure and (b health outcomes, including mental, physical and social health, physical behaviour and nature orientation. We then modelled dose-response relationships between dose type and self-reported depression. We demonstrate positive relationships between nature dose and mental and social health, increased physical activity and nature orientation. Dose-response analysis showed that lower levels of depression were associated with minimum thresholds of weekly nature dose. Nearby nature is associated with quantifiable health benefits, with potential for lowering the human and financial costs of ill health. Dose-response analysis has the potential to guide minimum and optimum recommendations on the management and use of nearby nature for preventative healthcare.

  3. Tracing Cold HI Gas in Nearby, Low-Mass Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Warren, Steven R; Stilp, Adrienne M; Dalcanton, Julianne J; Ott, Juergen; Walter, Fabian; Petersen, Eric A; Koribalski, Baerbel; West, Andrew A

    2012-01-01

    We analyze line-of-sight atomic hydrogen (HI) line profiles of 31 nearby, low-mass galaxies selected from the Very Large Array - ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury (VLA-ANGST) and The HI Nearby Galaxy Survey (THINGS) to trace regions containing cold (T $\\lesssim$ 1400 K) HI from observations with a uniform linear scale of 200 pc/beam. Our galaxy sample spans four orders of magnitude in total HI mass and nine magnitudes in M_B. We fit single and multiple component functions to each spectrum to isolate the cold, neutral medium given by a low dispersion (<6 km/s) component of the spectrum. Most HI spectra are adequately fit by a single Gaussian with a dispersion of 8-12 km/s. Cold HI is found in 23 of 27 (~85%) galaxies after a reduction of the sample size due to quality control cuts. The cold HI contributes ~20% of the total line-of-sight flux when found with warm HI. Spectra best fit by a single Gaussian, but dominated by cold HI emission (i.e., have velocity dispersions <6 km/s) are found primarily beyon...

  4. Doses of Nearby Nature Simultaneously Associated with Multiple Health Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Daniel T C; Shanahan, Danielle F; Hudson, Hannah L; Fuller, Richard A; Anderson, Karen; Hancock, Steven; Gaston, Kevin J

    2017-02-09

    Exposure to nature provides a wide range of health benefits. A significant proportion of these are delivered close to home, because this offers an immediate and easily accessible opportunity for people to experience nature. However, there is limited information to guide recommendations on its management and appropriate use. We apply a nature dose-response framework to quantify the simultaneous association between exposure to nearby nature and multiple health benefits. We surveyed ca. 1000 respondents in Southern England, UK, to determine relationships between (a) nature dose type, that is the frequency and duration (time spent in private green space) and intensity (quantity of neighbourhood vegetation cover) of nature exposure and (b) health outcomes, including mental, physical and social health, physical behaviour and nature orientation. We then modelled dose-response relationships between dose type and self-reported depression. We demonstrate positive relationships between nature dose and mental and social health, increased physical activity and nature orientation. Dose-response analysis showed that lower levels of depression were associated with minimum thresholds of weekly nature dose. Nearby nature is associated with quantifiable health benefits, with potential for lowering the human and financial costs of ill health. Dose-response analysis has the potential to guide minimum and optimum recommendations on the management and use of nearby nature for preventative healthcare.

  5. The distribution of Infrared point sources in nearby elliptical galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogoi, Rupjyoti; Misra, Ranjeev; Puthiyaveettil, Shalima

    Infra-red point sources in nearby early-type galaxies are often counterparts of sources in other wavebands such as optical and X-rays. In particular, the IR counterpart of X-ray sources may be due to a globular cluster hosting the X-ray source or could be associated directly with the binary, providing crucial information regarding their environment. In general, the IR sources would be from globular clusters and their IR colors would provide insight into their stellar composition. However, many of the IR sources maybe background objects and it is important to identify them or at least quantify the level of background contamination. Archival Spitzer IRAC images provide a unique opportunity to study these sources in nearby Ellipticals and in particular to estimate the distributions of their IR luminosity, color and distance from the center. We will present the results of such an analysis for three nearby galaxies. We have also estimated the background contamination using several blank fields. Our preliminary results suggest that IR colors can be effectively used to differentiate between the background and sources in the galaxy, and that the distribution of sources are markedly different for different Elliptical galaxies.

  6. Meetings-the good, the bad, and the ugly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukes, Eileen

    2011-12-01

    Much has been written about how to facilitate an effective meeting, but apparently not every meeting facilitator has read the literature because every occupational health nurse has endured a "bad" meeting. Individuals who chair meetings have a responsibility to create meetings that are worthwhile to the attendees; attendees have a responsibility to be prepared for meetings so meetings are productive. This article reviews key meeting strategies, providing readers with ways to improve meetings they attend or facilitate.

  7. Asset Return Dynamics under Bad Environment Good Environment Fundamentals

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a "bad environment-good environment" technology for consumption growth in a consumption- based asset pricing model. Using the preference structure from Campbell and Cochrane (1999), the model generates realistic time-varying volatility, skewness and kurtosis in fundamentals while still permitting closed-form solutions for asset prices. The model not only fits standard salient asset prices features including means and volatilities for equity returns and risk free rates, but also g...

  8. A Distance Function Model with Good and Bad Outputs

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    We present an approach that pursues an adequate representation of product transformation possibilities for a technology generating, in addition to marketed (good) products, some environmentally detrimental non-marketed byproducts (bad outputs). As the shadow price of a non-marketed output depends on its marginal transformation rates with marketed outputs, representation of technological relationships between different groups of outputs deserves a particular attention. We model the technology ...

  9. Delivering Bad News: An Approach According to Jewish Scriptures

    OpenAIRE

    Naimer, Sody A.; Moshe Pero

    2014-01-01

    Despite a preoccupation in the medical literature with developing an effective approach for breaking bad news, the sources are based on personal opinion alone and only in some instances on qualitative research. Recognizing the gravity of this topic coupled with respect for the wisdom of the written and oral Jewish scriptures, this work is an attempt to delve into the diverse ancient writings to draw conclusions regarding a recommended methodology to guide and inform this task. It is inter...

  10. In Praise of Bad Codes for Multi-Terminal Communications

    CERN Document Server

    Bennatan, Amir; Calderbank, A Robert

    2010-01-01

    We examine the Gaussian interference channel and the erasure relay channel. We focus on codes that are non-capacity-achieving ("bad") over appropriate point-to-point (two-terminal) channels. Over Gaussian point-to-point channels, for example, such codes require greater SNR than "good" ones to achieve reliable communications, but often exhibit lower estimation errors whenever the SNR is below the Shannon limit. Over multi-terminal channels, this advantage of "bad" codes at lower SNRs can be exploited by strategies that apply estimation, at various network nodes, to achieve partial decoding. Such strategies include soft partial interference cancelation (soft-IC) and soft decode-and-forward (soft-DF). We develop variants of these two approaches, which are susceptible to rigorous analysis. We focus on applications of "bad" LDPC codes. We develop analysis tools for soft-DF, including simultaneous density evolution (sim-DE), and use standard density evolution to analyze soft-IC. We apply our analysis to the design ...

  11. 26 CFR 1.582-1 - Bad debts, losses, and gains with respect to securities held by financial institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Bad debts, losses, and gains with respect to... § 1.582-1 Bad debts, losses, and gains with respect to securities held by financial institutions. (a) Bad debt deduction for banks. A bank, as defined in section 581, is allowed a deduction for bad...

  12. Pigeons can discriminate "good" and "bad" paintings by children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shigeru

    2010-01-01

    Humans have the unique ability to create art, but non-human animals may be able to discriminate "good" art from "bad" art. In this study, I investigated whether pigeons could be trained to discriminate between paintings that had been judged by humans as either "bad" or "good". To do this, adult human observers first classified several children's paintings as either "good" (beautiful) or "bad" (ugly). Using operant conditioning procedures, pigeons were then reinforced for pecking at "good" paintings. After the pigeons learned the discrimination task, they were presented with novel pictures of both "good" and "bad" children's paintings to test whether they had successfully learned to discriminate between these two stimulus categories. The results showed that pigeons could discriminate novel "good" and "bad" paintings. Then, to determine which cues the subjects used for the discrimination, I conducted tests of the stimuli when the paintings were of reduced size or grayscale. In addition, I tested their ability to discriminate when the painting stimuli were mosaic and partial occluded. The pigeons maintained discrimination performance when the paintings were reduced in size. However, discrimination performance decreased when stimuli were presented as grayscale images or when a mosaic effect was applied to the original stimuli in order to disrupt spatial frequency. Thus, the pigeons used both color and pattern cues for their discrimination. The partial occlusion did not disrupt the discriminative behavior suggesting that the pigeons did not attend to particular parts, namely upper, lower, left or right half, of the paintings. These results suggest that the pigeons are capable of learning the concept of a stimulus class that humans name "good" pictures. The second experiment showed that pigeons learned to discriminate watercolor paintings from pastel paintings. The subjects showed generalization to novel paintings. Then, as the first experiment, size reduction test

  13. Extrasolar Comets in our Solar System Captured During Close Encounters with Nearby Stars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, M. C. L.; Acevedo, R. D.

    2014-09-01

    It is a fact that many nearby Sun like stars have their own cometary clouds. Close encounters with passing nearby stars may induce to the capture and exchange of cometary nuclei between the Sun and the coming star.

  14. The flaring HI disk of the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 2683

    OpenAIRE

    Vollmer, B.; Nehlig, F.; Ibata, R.

    2015-01-01

    New deep VLA D array HI observations of the highly inclined nearby spiral galaxy NGC 2683 are presented. Archival C array data were processed and added to the new observations. To investigate the 3D structure of the atomic gas disk, we made different 3D models for which we produced model HI data cubes. The main ingredients of our best-fit model are (i) a thin disk inclined by 80 degrees; (ii) a crude approximation of a spiral and/or bar structure by an elliptical surface density distribution ...

  15. Inductive coupling between overhead power lines and nearby metallic pipelines. A neural network approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levente Czumbil

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The current paper presents an artificial intelligence based technique applied in the investigation of electromagnetic interference problems between high voltage power lines (HVPL and nearby underground metallic pipelines (MP. An artificial neural network (NN solution has been implemented by the authors to evaluate the inductive coupling between HVPL and MP for different constructive geometries of an electromagnetic interference problem considering a multi-layer soil structure. Obtained results are compared to solutions provided by a finite element method (FEM based analysis and considered as reference. The advantage of the proposed method yields in a simplified computation model compared to FEM, and implicitly a lower computational time.

  16. SDSS1133: An Unusually Persistent Transient in a Nearby Dwarf Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Koss, Michael; Mushotzky, Richard; Hung, Chao Ling; Veilleux, Sylvain; Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Schawinski, Kevin; Stern, Daniel; Smith, Nathan; Li, Yanxia; Man, Allison; Filippenko, Alexei V; Mauerhan, Jon C; Stanek, Kris; Sanders, David

    2014-01-01

    We have discovered an unusual source offset by 0.8 kpc from a nearby dwarf galaxy while performing a survey to detect recoiling black holes. The object, SDSS J113323.97+550415.8, exhibits broad emission lines and strong variability. While originally classified as a supernova (SN) because of its nondetection in 2005, we detect it in recent and past observations over 63 yr. Using high-resolution adaptive optics observations, we constrain the source emission region to be 10 yr), larger than that of unusually luminous supernovae such as SN 1988Z, suggesting one of the most extreme episodes of pre-SN mass loss ever discovered.

  17. The core of the nearby S0 galaxy NGC 7457 imaged with the HST planetary camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, Tod R.; Faber, S. M.; Holtzman, Jon A.; Baum, William A.; Currie, Douglas G.; Ewald, S. P.; Groth, Edward J.; Hester, J. Jeff; Kelsall, T.

    1991-01-01

    A brief analysis is presented of images of the nearby S0 galaxy NGC 7457 obtained with the HST Planetary Camera. While the galaxy remains unresolved with the HST, the images reveal that any core most likely has r(c) less than 0.052 arcsec. The light distribution is consistent with a gamma = -1.0 power law inward to the resolution limit, with a possible stellar nucleus with luminosity of 10 million solar. This result represents the first observation outside the Local Group of a galaxy nucleus at this spatial resolution, and it suggests that such small, high surface brightness cores may be common.

  18. The core of the nearby S0 galaxy NGC 7457 imaged with the HST planetary camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauer, T.R.; Faber, S.M.; Holtzman, J.A.; Baum, W.A.; Currie, D.G.; Ewald, S.P.; Groth, E.J.; Hester, J.J.; Kelsall, T. (Kitt Peak National Observatory, Tucson, AZ (USA) Lick Observatory, Santa Cruz, CA (USA) Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, AZ (USA) Washington Univ., Seattle (USA) Maryland Univ., College Park (USA) Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD (USA) Princeton Univ., NJ (USA) California Institute of Technology, Pasadena (USA) NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (USA))

    1991-03-01

    A brief analysis is presented of images of the nearby S0 galaxy NGC 7457 obtained with the HST Planetary Camera. While the galaxy remains unresolved with the HST, the images reveal that any core most likely has r(c) less than 0.052 arcsec. The light distribution is consistent with a gamma = -1.0 power law inward to the resolution limit, with a possible stellar nucleus with luminosity of 10 million solar. This result represents the first observation outside the Local Group of a galaxy nucleus at this spatial resolution, and it suggests that such small, high surface brightness cores may be common. 20 refs.

  19. An IceCube Search for Dark Matter Annihilation in nearby Galaxies and Galaxy Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Aartsen, M G; Abdou, Y; Ackermann, M; Adams, J; Aguilar, J A; Ahlers, M; Altmann, D; Auffenberg, J; Bai, X; Baker, M; Barwick, S W; Baum, V; Bay, R; Beatty, J J; Bechet, S; Tjus, J Becker; Becker, K -H; Benabderrahmane, M L; BenZvi, S; Berghaus, P; Berley, D; Bernardini, E; Bernhard, A; Bertrand, D; Besson, D Z; Binder, G; Bindig, D; Bissok, M; Blaufuss, E; Blumenthal, J; Boersma, D J; Bohaichuk, S; Bohm, C; Bose, D; Böser, S; Botner, O; Brayeur, L; Bretz, H -P; Brown, A M; Bruijn, R; Brunner, J; Carson, M; Casey, J; Casier, M; Chirkin, D; Christov, A; Christy, B; Clark, K; Clevermann, F; Coenders, S; Cohen, S; Cowen, D F; Silva, A H Cruz; Danninger, M; Daughhetee, J; Davis, J C; Day, M; De Clercq, C; De Ridder, S; Desiati, P; de Vries, K D; de With, M; DeYoung, T; D'\\iaz-Vélez, J C; Dunkman, M; Eagan, R; Eberhardt, B; Eisch, J; Ellsworth, R W; Euler, S; Evenson, P A; Fadiran, O; Fazely, A R; Fedynitch, A; Feintzeig, J; Feusels, T; Filimonov, K; Finley, C; Fischer-Wasels, T; Flis, S; Franckowiak, A; Frantzen, K; Fuchs, T; Gaisser, T K; Gallagher, J; Gerhardt, L; Gladstone, L; Glüsenkamp, T; Goldschmidt, A; Golup, G; Gonzalez, J G; Goodman, J A; Góra, D; Grandmont, D T; Grant, D; Groß, A; Ha, C; Ismail, A Haj; Hallen, P; Hallgren, A; Halzen, F; Hanson, K; Heereman, D; Heinen, D; Helbing, K; Hellauer, R; Hickford, S; Hill, G C; Hoffman, K D; Hoffmann, R; Homeier, A; Hoshina, K; Huelsnitz, W; Hulth, P O; Hultqvist, K; Hussain, S; Ishihara, A; Jacobi, E; Jacobsen, J; Jagielski, K; Japaridze, G S; Jero, K; Jlelati, O; Kaminsky, B; Kappes, A; Karg, T; Karle, A; Kelley, J L; Kiryluk, J; Kläs, J; Klein, S R; Köhne, J -H; Kohnen, G; Kolanosk, H; Köpke, L; Kopper, C; Kopper, S; Koskinen, D J; Kowalski, M; Krasberg, M; Krings, K; Kroll, G; Kunnen, J; Kurahashi, N; Kuwabara, T; Labare, M; Landsman, H; Larson, M J; Lesiak-Bzdak, M; Leuermann, M; Leute, J; Lünemann, J; Macías, O; Madsen, J; Maggi, G; Maruyama, R; Mase, K; Matis, H S; McNally, F; Meagher, K; Merck, M; Meures, T; Miarecki, S; Middell, E; Milke, N; Miller, J; Mohrmann, L; Montaruli, T; Morse, R; Nahnhauer, R; Naumann, U; Niederhausen, H; Nowicki, S C; Nygren, D R; Obertacke, A; Odrowski, S; Olivas, A; Omairat, A; O'Murchadha, A; Paul, L; Pepper, J A; Heros, C Pérez de los; Pfendner, C; Pieloth, D; Pinat, E; Posselt, J; Price, P B; Przybylski, G T; Rädel, L; Rameez, M; Rawlins, K; Redl, P; Reimann, R; Resconi, E; Rhode, W; Ribordy, M; Richman, M; Riedel, B; Rodrigues, J P; Rott, C; Ruhe, T; Ruzybayev, B; Ryckbosch, D; Saba, S M; Salameh, T; Sander, H -G; Santander, M; Sarkar, S; Schatto, K; Scheriau, F; Schmidt, T; Schmitz, M; Schoenen, S; Schöneberg, S; Schönwald, A; Schukraft, A; Schulte, L; Schulz, O; Seckel, D; Sestayo, Y; Seunarine, S; Shanidze, R; Sheremata, C; Smith, M W E; Soldin, D; Spiczak, G M; Spiering, C; Stamatikos, M; Stanev, T; Stasik, A; Stezelberger, T; Stokstad, R G; Stößl, A; Strahler, E A; Ström, R; Sullivan, G W; Taavola, H; Taboada, I; Tamburro, A; Tepe, A; Ter-Antonyan, S; Tešić, G; Tilav, S; Toale, P A; Toscano, S; Unger, E; Usner, M; Vallecorsa, S; van Eijndhoven, N; Van Overloop, A; van Santen, J; Vehring, M; Voge1, M; Vraeghe, M; Walck, C; Waldenmaier, T; Wallraff, M; Weaver, Ch; Wellons, M; Wendt, C; Westerhoff, S; Whitehorn, N; Wiebe, K; Wiebusch, C H; Williams, D R; Wissing, H; Wolf, M; Wood, T R; Woschnagg, K; Xu, D L; Xu, X W; Yanez, J P; Yodh, G; Yoshida, S; Zarzhitsky, P; Ziemann, J; Zierke, S; Zoll, M

    2013-01-01

    We present the results of a first search for self-annihilating dark matter in nearby galaxies and galaxy clusters using a sample of high energy neutrinos acquired in 339.8 days of livetime during 2009/10 with the IceCube neutrino observatory in its 59-string configuration. The targets of interest include the Virgo and Coma galaxy clusters, the Andromeda galaxy and several dwarf galaxies. We obtain upper limits on the cross section as function of the WIMP mass between 300 GeV and 100 TeV for the annihilation into b bbar, W+W-, \\tau+\\tau-, \\mu+\\mu- and \

  20. HUBBLE PEEKS INTO A STELLAR NURSERY IN A NEARBY GALAXY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    HUBBLE PEEKS INTO A STELLAR NURSERY IN A NEARBY GALAXY NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has peered deep into a neighboring galaxy to reveal details of the formation of new stars. Hubble's target was a newborn star cluster within the Small Magellanic Cloud, a small galaxy that is a satellite of our own Milky Way. The new images show young, brilliant stars cradled within a nebula, or glowing cloud of gas, cataloged as N 81. These massive, recently formed stars inside N 81 are losing material at a high rate, sending out strong stellar winds and shock waves and hollowing out a cocoon within the surrounding nebula. The two most luminous stars, seen in the Hubble image as a very close pair near the center of N 81, emit copious ultraviolet radiation, causing the nebula to glow through fluorescence. Outside the hot, glowing gas is cooler material consisting of hydrogen molecules and dust. Normally this material is invisible, but some of it can be seen in silhouette against the nebular background, as long dust lanes and a small, dark, elliptical-shaped knot. It is believed that the young stars have formed from this cold matter through gravitational contraction. Few features can be seen in N 81 from ground-based telescopes, earning it the informal nick-name 'The Blob.' Astronomers were not sure if just one or a few hot stars were embedded in the cloud, or if it was a stellar nursery containing a large number of less massive stars. Hubble's high-resolution imaging shows the latter to be the case, revealing that numerous young, white-hot stars---easily visible in the color picture---are contained within N 81. This crucial information bears strongly on theories of star formation, and N 81 offers a singular opportunity for a close-up look at the turbulent conditions accompanying the birth of massive stars. The brightest stars in the cluster have a luminosity equal to 300,000 stars like our own Sun. Astronomers are especially keen to study star formation in the Small Magellanic

  1. Chandra ACIS Observations of the Nearby Spiral Galaxy NGC 300

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobar, Dale; Turner, Kevin; Schlegel, Eric M.

    2017-01-01

    The ACIS detector (Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer) onboard the Chandra X-ray Observatory has imaged the nearby spiral NGC 300 over three epochs for a total exposure of 1.885x102 ksec. We describe each observation as well as the merged data set. Each exposure contains 132 individual sources. We focus on the time variability and luminosity distributions of the sources. Initial results show no diffuse emissions in the galaxy. Finally, we compare the merged data set and the detected sources with other wavebands.

  2. Central Mass Concentration and Bar Dissolution in Nearby Spiral Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Das, M; Vogel, S N; Regan, M W; Sheth, K; Harris, A I; Jefferys, W H; Das, Mousumi; Teuben, Peter J.; Vogel, Stuart N.; Regan, Michael W.; Sheth, Kartik; Harris, Andrew I.; Jefferys, William H.

    2003-01-01

    We use data from the BIMA Survey of Nearby Galaxies (SONG) to investigate the relationship between ellipticity and central mass concentration in barred spirals. Existing simulations predict that bar ellipticity decreases as inflowing mass driven by the bar accumulates in the central regions, ultimately destroying the bar. Using the ratio of the bulge mass to the mass within the bar radius as an estimate of the central mass concentration, we obtain dynamical mass estimates from SONG CO 1-0 rotation curve data. We find an inverse correlation between bar ellipticity and central mass concentration, consistent with simulations of bar dissolution.

  3. Gamma-rays Associated with Nearby Thunderstorms at Ground Level

    CERN Document Server

    Ringuette, Rebecca; Granger, Douglas; Guzik, T Gregory; Stewart, Michael; Wefel, John P

    2014-01-01

    The TGF and Energetic Thunderstorm Rooftop Array (TETRA) is an array of NaI scintillators located at rooftop level on the campus of Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. From July 2010 through March 2014, TETRA has detected 28 millisecond-duration bursts of gamma-rays at energies 50 keV - 2 MeV associated with nearby (< 8 km) thunderstorms. The ability to observe ground-level Terrestrial Gamma Flashes from close to the source allows a unique analysis of the storm cells producing these events. The results of the initial analysis will be presented.

  4. From Jāhiliyyah to Badīciyyah: Orality, Literacy, and the Transformations of Rhetoric in Arabic Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Pinckney Stetkevych

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Starting with the mnemonic imperative governing the use of rhetoric in pre- and early Islamic Arabic oral poetry, this essay proposes that in the later literary periods, rhetorical devices, now free of their mnemonic obligation, took on further communicative or expressive functions. In the High CAbbāsid age, rhetorical devices are “retooled” to serve as the “linguistic correlative” of Islamic hegemony as witnessed in caliphal court panegyrics of the rhetorically complex _badīc_ style. Finally, the “rhetorical excess” of the post-classical _badīciyyah_ (a poem to the Prophet Muḥammad in which each line must exhibit a particular rhetorical device is interpreted as a memorial structure typical of the medieval manuscript (as opposed to modern print tradition.

  5. Bad eating habits as the main cause of obesity among children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuźbicka, Karolina; Rachoń, Dominik

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is undoubtedly one of the biggest medical problems of the 21st century. Regrettably, the problem affects more and more children and adolescents. 10% of world's school-aged children have an excess body weight and a quarter of these children are obese. In Europe every fifth school-aged child suffers from an excess body weight. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among Polish adolescents is about 14%. An excess body weight can be the consequence of genetic factors, endocrine disorders or certain drugs. However, "simple obesity" is the most common, consequence of providing too much energy from food products in comparison to energy expenditure (caloric excess). Today's lifestyle promotes the development of obesity. The lack of physical activity, sedentary lifestyle and energy-rich diet are the main causes of an excess body fat accumulation. Because of improper eating behaviours children consume an excess amount of energy; and their diet is deficient in elements necessary for proper development. The examples of such bad eating habits are: snacking highly processed and calorie-rich foods between meals eating in front of the TV screen, skipping breakfasts, drinking sugar-sweetened beverages, "eating out" frequently and "emotional eating". Bad eating behaviours are crucial factors for the development of obesity. Eating habits are usually formed in early childhood and parents play a very important role in their development.

  6. Communicative competence in the delivery of bad news.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillotti, Cathy; Thompson, Teresa; McNeilis, Kelly

    2002-04-01

    Grounded in the Cegala and Waldron (Communication Studies 43 (1992) 105) model of communicative competence, the present study applied the McNeilis (Health Communication 13 (2001) 5) provider-patient coding scheme to video tapes of 3rd year medical students delivering bad news to a standardized patient. The goal of the study was to understand the specific communicative moves that are associated with perceptions of competence during bad news delivery. The coding scheme assesses Content, Acknowledgment Tokens, Interruptions, Alignment, and Function of the message. Naïve observers also evaluated the tapes on several items, assessing empathy and communicative effectiveness. Nonmedical talk was the most common type of content, followed by discussion of the current health problem. Neither acknowledgment tokens nor interruptions were frequent. The most common function of a message was a closed question, followed by explanations, assertions, and open questions. Summing across the functions indicated that information giving was the nost common behavior. The perceivers' data showed fairly neutral assessments of the medical students--they were generally not evaluated very positively, although they were not disliked. Regression analyses indicated numerous specific communicative behaviors that were associated with judgments of competence. Statements falling into the Nonspecific Content category were associated with more positive perceptions, while relational statements, moderately closed questions, solicited answers, expansions, restatements, assertions, explanations, open questions, bracketing, and small talk as well as information verifying, seeking, and giving (summed functions) led to more negative perceptions. The results indicate that the delivery of bad news requires communicative moves that differ from other kinds of medical communication. Depending on the results of future analyses of this topic health are providers may be well advised to focus little of their

  7. Searching for Outflows from the central kpc of nearby ULIRGs with OSIRIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudy, Alexander R.; Max, Claire E.; Srinath, Srikar

    2016-01-01

    We present integral field spectroscopy of the central kiloparsec of 4 nearby ultra-luminous infrared-galaxies which are known to have high velocity (v≤100 km/s) molecular outflows. These observations were performed with the OH-Suppressing Infra-red Imaging Spectrograph (OSIRIS) assisted by the Keck I and II Adaptive Optics systems, which enables spatial resolutions of a few 10s of parsecs. We present the preliminary results of a survey designed to explore the relationship between AGN luminosity fraction (αAGN) and outflow properties among lower-redshift (z≤0.15) systems that we know host high velocity outflows. Our data allow us to examine the opening angle and launching point of the outflow, excitation and temperature of outflowing components (through H2 lines and high-excitation lines such as [SiIV] and [AlIX]), and molecular outflow mass in these systems. This work provides a nearby, spatially resolved analogue to higher-redshift outflows, allowing us to study the physical processes which launch outflows on their smallest scales, and relate that to the outflows which must govern the evolution of the most massive galaxies.

  8. A Survey of the Molecular ISM Properties of Nearby Galaxies using the Herschel FTS

    CERN Document Server

    Kamenetzky, J; Glenn, J; Maloney, P R; Conley, A

    2014-01-01

    The 12CO J=4-3 to J=13-12 lines of the interstellar medium from nearby galaxies, newly observable with the Herschel SPIRE Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS), offer an opportunity to study warmer, more luminous molecular gas than that traced by 12CO J=1-0. Here we present a survey of 17 nearby infrared-luminous galaxy systems (21 pointings). In addition to photometric modeling of dust, we modeled full 12CO spectral line energy distributions from J=1-0 to J=13-12 with two components of warm and cool CO gas, and included LTE analysis of [CI], [CII], [NII] and H2 lines. CO is emitted from a low-pressure/high-mass component traced by the low-J lines and a high-pressure/low-mass component which dominates the luminosity. We found that, on average, the ratios of the warm/cool pressure, mass, and 12CO luminosity are 60 +/- 30, 0.11 +/- 0.02, and 15.6 +/- 2.7. The gas-to-dust-mass ratios are < 120 throughout the sample. The 12CO luminosity is dominated by the high-J lines and is 4 $\\times 10^{-4}$ LFIR on average....

  9. Search for a habitable terrestrial planet transiting the nearby red dwarf GJ 1214

    CERN Document Server

    Gillon, M; Madhusudhan, N; Deming, D; Seager, S; Knutson, H A; Lanotte, A; Bonfils, X; Desert, J -M; Delrez, L; Jehin, E; Fraine, J D; Magain, P; Triaud, A H M J

    2013-01-01

    High-precision eclipse spectrophotometry of transiting terrestrial exoplanets represents a promising path for the first atmospheric characterizations of habitable worlds and the search for life outside our solar system. The detection of terrestrial planets transiting nearby late-type M-dwarfs could make this approach applicable within the next decade, with near-to-come general facilities. In this context, we previously identified GJ 1214 as a high-priority target for a transit search, as the transit probability of a habitable planet orbiting this nearby M4.5 dwarf would be significantly enhanced by the transiting nature of GJ 1214 b, the super-Earth already known to orbit the star. Basing on this observation, we have set-up an ambitious high-precision photometric monitoring of GJ 1214 with the Spitzer Space Telescope to probe its entire habitable zone in search of a transiting planet as small as Mars. We present here the results of this transit search. Unfortunately, we did not detect any second transiting pl...

  10. The good, the bad and the ugly .... of Horava gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Padilla, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    I review the good, the bad and the ugly of the non-projectable versions of Horava gravity. I explain how this non-relativistic theory was constructed and why it was touted with such excitement as a quantum theory of gravity. I then review some of the issues facing the theory, explaining how strong coupling occurs and why this is such a problem for both phenomenology and the question of renormalisability. Finally I comment on possible violations of Equivalence Principle, and explain why these could be an issue for Blas et al's "healthy extension". This paper was presented as a talk at PASCOS 2010 in Valencia.

  11. Spiral structure in nearby galaxies II. comparative analysis and conclusions

    CERN Document Server

    Kendall, S; Kennicutt, R C

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed analysis of two-armed spiral structure in a sample of galax- ies from the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS), with particular focus on the relationships between the properties of the spiral pattern in the stellar disc and the global struc- ture and environment of the parent galaxies. Following Paper I we have used a combination of Spitzer Space Telescope mid-infrared imaging and visible multi-colour imaging to isolate the spiral pattern in the underlying stellar discs, and we examine the systematic behaviours of the observed amplitudes and shapes (pitch angles) of these spirals. In general, spiral morphology is found to correlate only weakly at best with morphological parameters such as stellar mass, gas fraction, disc/bulge ratio, and vflat. In contrast to weak correlations with galaxy structure a strong link is found between the strength of the spiral arms and tidal forcing from nearby companion galaxies. This appears to support the longstanding suggestion that ei...

  12. Environments of Nearby Quasars in Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Lietzen, H; Nurmi, P; Tago, E; Saar, E; Liivamagi, J; Tempel, E; Einasto, M; Einasto, J; Gramann, M; Takalo, L O

    2009-01-01

    For the first time spectroscopic galaxy redshift surveys are reaching the scales where galaxies can be studied together with the nearest quasars. This gives an opportunity to study the dependence between the activity of a quasar and its environment in a more extensive way than before. We study the spatial distribution of galaxies and groups of galaxies in the environments of low redshift quasars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Our aim is to understand how the nearby quasars are embedded in the local and global density field of galaxies and how the environment affects quasar activity. We analyse the environments of nearby quasars using number counts of galaxies. We also study the dependence of group properties to their distance to the nearest quasar. The large scale environments are studied by analysing the locations of quasars in the luminosity density field. Our study of the number counts of galaxies in quasar environments shows an underdensity of bright galaxies at a few Mpc from quasars. Also, the ...

  13. Nearby boundaries create eddies near microscopic filter feeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, Rachel E; Roper, Marcus; Ryu, Sangjin; Matsudaira, Paul; Stone, Howard A

    2010-05-06

    We show through calculations, simulations and experiments that the eddies often observed near sessile filter feeders are frequently due to the presence of nearby boundaries. We model the common filter feeder Vorticella, which is approximately 50 microm across and which feeds by removing bacteria from ocean or pond water that it draws towards itself. We use both an analytical stokeslet model and a Brinkman flow approximation that exploits the narrow-gap geometry to predict the size of the eddy caused by two parallel no-slip boundaries that represent the slides between which experimental observations are often made. We also use three-dimensional finite-element simulations to fully solve for the flow around a model Vorticella and analyse the influence of multiple nearby boundaries. Additionally, we track particles around live feeding Vorticella in order to determine the experimental flow field. Our models are in good agreement both with each other and with experiments. We also provide approximate equations to predict the experimental eddy sizes owing to boundaries both for the case of a filter feeder between two slides and for the case of a filter feeder attached to a perpendicular surface between two slides.

  14. The Effect of Nearby Voids on Galaxy Number Counts

    CERN Document Server

    Bucklein, Brian K; Hintz, Eric G

    2016-01-01

    The size, shape and degree of emptiness of void interiors sheds light on the details of galaxy formation. A particularly interesting question is whether void interiors are completely empty or contain a dwarf population. However the nearby voids that are most conducive for dwarf searches have large angular diameters, on the order of a steradian, making it difficult to redshift-map a statistically significant portion of their volume to the magnitude limit of dwarf galaxies. As part of addressing this problem, we investigate here the usefulness of number counts in establishing the best locations to search inside nearby (d < 300 Mpc) galaxy voids, utilizing Wolf plots of log(n < m) vs. m as the basic diagnostic. To illustrate expected signatures, we consider the signature of three void profiles, "cut out", "built up", and "universal profile" carved into Monte-Carlo Schechter function models. We then investigate the signatures of voids in the Millennium Run dark matter simulation and the Sloan Digital Sky Su...

  15. Herschel DUNES Observations of Cold Debris Disks Around Nearby Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberge, Aki; Eiroa, C.; DUNES Team

    2011-01-01

    The DUNES (DUst discs around NEarby Stars) Open Time Key Programme for the Herschel Space Observatory is a sensitivity-limited photometric survey for faint, cold debris disks around nearby FGK stars. It takes advantage of the PACS and SPIRE instruments to detect and characterize cold disks as faint as Ldust/Lstar 10-7 - 10-6, at dust temperatures around 30 - 40 K. Such systems are extrasolar analogues of Solar System's Edgeworth-Kuiper Belt (EKB). DUNES will observe a statistically significant, volume-limited (d Stars at larger distances (d DUNES sample has been observed to date. Our goal of detecting very faint, cold dust disks has been achieved; many disks are also spatially resolved. The unresolved disks show a variety of spectral energy distributions, some suggesting the presence of cold EKB-like dust rings. A number of previously unknown debris disks have been detected, including the coldest disks yet found. Preliminary results relating disk properties to the host star parameters will be shown.

  16. HI emission and absorption in nearby, gas-rich galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Reeves, S N; Allison, J R; Koribalski, B S; Curran, S J; Pracy, M B

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of a targeted search for intervening HI absorption in six nearby, gas-rich galaxies using the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA). The sightlines searched have impact parameters of 10-20 kpc. By targeting nearby galaxies we are also able to map their HI emission, allowing us to directly relate the absorption-line detection rate to the extended HI distribution. The continuum sightlines intersect the HI disk in four of the six galaxies, but no intervening absorption was detected. Of these four galaxies, we find that three of the non-detections are the result of the background source being too faint. In the fourth case we find that the ratio of the spin temperature to the covering factor ($T_{\\mathrm{S}}/f$) must be much higher than expected ($\\gtrsim$5700 K) in order to explain the non-detection. We discuss how the structure of the background continuum sources may have affected the detection rate of HI absorption in our sample, and the possible implications for future surveys. Future...

  17. Rapamycin induces Bad phosphorylation in association with its resistance to human lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Sun, Shi-Yong; Owonikoko, Taofeek K; Sica, Gabriel L; Curran, Walter J; Khuri, Fadlo R; Deng, Xingming

    2012-01-01

    Inhibition of mTOR signaling by rapamycin has been shown to activate extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 or 2 (ERK1/2) and Akt in various types of cancer cells, which contributes to rapamycin resistance. However, the downstream effect of rapamycin-activated ERKs and Akt on survival or death substrate(s) remains unclear. We discovered that treatment of human lung cancer cells with rapamycin results in enhanced phosphorylation of Bad at serine (S) 112 and S136 but not S155 in association with activation of ERK1/2 and Akt. A higher level of Bad phosphorylation was observed in rapamycin-resistant cells compared with parental rapamycin-sensitive cells. Thus, Bad phosphorylation may contribute to rapamycin resistance. Mechanistically, rapamycin promotes Bad accumulation in the cytosol, enhances Bad/14-3-3 interaction, and reduces Bad/Bcl-XL binding. Rapamycin-induced Bad phosphorylation promotes its ubiquitination and degradation, with a significant reduction of its half-life (i.e., from 53.3-37.5 hours). Inhibition of MEK/ERK by PD98059 or depletion of Akt by RNA interference blocks rapamycin-induced Bad phosphorylation at S112 or S136, respectively. Simultaneous blockage of S112 and S136 phosphorylation of Bad by PD98059 and silencing of Akt significantly enhances rapamycin-induced growth inhibition in vitro and synergistically increases the antitumor efficacy of rapamycin in lung cancer xenografts. Intriguingly, either suppression of Bad phosphorylation at S112 and S136 sites or expression of the nonphosphorylatable Bad mutant (S112A/S136A) can reverse rapamycin resistance. These findings uncover a novel mechanism of rapamycin resistance, which may promote the development of new strategies for overcoming rapamycin resistance by manipulating Bad phosphorylation at S112 and S136 in human lung cancer.

  18. [Historical study on traditional Chinese formulations and crude drugs used for bad breath].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Megumi; Murata, Kazuya; Matsuda, Hideaki; Honda, Mami; Honda, Shun-Ichi; Tani, Tadato

    2011-01-01

    Bad breath is a topic of general interest. In this study, the treatment for bad breath in traditional Chinese medicine was reviewed with a special focus on pathologic diagnosis and crude drug prescriptions. It was shown that bad breath developed based on both systemic and local diseases. Some systemic conditions, including nasal, paranasal, pulmonary and digestive diseases, are considered to cause bad breath. The morbid state of a patient with bad breath has been recognized as being based on "heat syndrome" and "Qi-stagnation syndrome." Bad breath based on "heat syndrome" is manifested as thirst and ulceration of the oral cavity, and has been treated with crude drugs such as Coptis rhizome, Scutellaria root and gypsum. One case study reported that bad breath resulting from a dry mouth was treated with byakkokaninjinto, a Kampo formulation containing gypsum. "Qi" is considered to be the vital energy of all life forms including for the functioning of organs and mental and emotional activity. "Qi-stagnation syndrom," referring to the dysfunction of organs, is manifested as psychosomatic symptoms such as irritability, a flushed face and restlessness. Bad breath based on "Qi-stagnation syndrome" has been treated with crude drugs such as Cnidium rhizome, clove and cinnamon bark. Modern dental and medical treatment both accept the participation of psychogenic agents in the development of bad breath. Bad breath also develops based on periodontal and oral diseases. This type of bad breath has been treated with mouth-wash (collutorium) containing Asiasarum root, Angelica dahurica root and Cnidium rhizome. This historical evidence regarding crude drug prescriptions contributes to the development of mouth care products for preventing and treating bad breath.

  19. BCL-2 family protein, BAD is down-regulated in breast cancer and inhibits cell invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cekanova, Maria; Fernando, Romaine I; Siriwardhana, Nalin; Sukhthankar, Mugdha; De la Parra, Columba; Woraratphoka, Jirayus; Malone, Christine; Ström, Anders; Baek, Seung J; Wade, Paul A; Saxton, Arnold M; Donnell, Robert M; Pestell, Richard G; Dharmawardhane, Suranganie; Wimalasena, Jay

    2015-02-01

    We have previously demonstrated that the anti-apoptotic protein BAD is expressed in normal human breast tissue and shown that BAD inhibits expression of cyclin D1 to delay cell-cycle progression in breast cancer cells. Herein, expression of proteins in breast tissues was studied by immunohistochemistry and results were analyzed statistically to obtain semi-quantitative data. Biochemical and functional changes in BAD-overexpressing MCF7 breast cancer cells were evaluated using PCR, reporter assays, western blotting, ELISA and extracellular matrix invasion assays. Compared to normal tissues, Grade II breast cancers expressed low total/phosphorylated forms of BAD in both cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments. BAD overexpression decreased the expression of β-catenin, Sp1, and phosphorylation of STATs. BAD inhibited Ras/MEK/ERK and JNK signaling pathways, without affecting the p38 signaling pathway. Expression of the metastasis-related proteins, MMP10, VEGF, SNAIL, CXCR4, E-cadherin and TlMP2 was regulated by BAD with concomitant inhibition of extracellular matrix invasion. Inhibition of BAD by siRNA increased invasion and Akt/p-Akt levels. Clinical data and the results herein suggest that in addition to the effect on apoptosis, BAD conveys anti-metastatic effects and is a valuable prognostic marker in breast cancer.

  20. Interpreting the extended emission around three nearby debris disc host stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, J. P.; Kirchschlager, F.; Ertel, S.; Augereau, J.-C.; Kennedy, G. M.; Booth, M.; Wolf, S.; Montesinos, B.; Eiroa, C.; Matthews, B.

    2014-10-01

    Context. Cool debris discs are a relic of the planetesimal formation process around their host star, analogous to the solar system's Edgeworth-Kuiper belt. As such, they can be used as a proxy to probe the origin and formation of planetary systems like our own. Aims: The Herschel open time key programmes "DUst around NEarby Stars" (DUNES) and "Disc Emission via a Bias-free Reconnaissance in the Infrared/Submillimetre" (DEBRIS) observed many nearby, sun-like stars at far-infrared wavelengths seeking to detect and characterize the emission from their circumstellar dust. Excess emission attributable to the presence of dust was identified from around ~20% of stars. Herschel's high angular resolution (~7'' FWHM at 100 μm) provided the capacity for resolving debris belts around nearby stars with radial extents comparable to the solar system (50-100 au). Methods: As part of the DUNES and DEBRIS surveys, we obtained observations of three debris disc stars, HIP 22263 (HD 30495), HIP 62207 (HD 110897), and HIP 72848 (HD 131511), at far-infrared wavelengths with the Herschel PACS instrument. Combining these new images and photometry with ancilliary data from the literature, we undertook simultaneous multi-wavelength modelling of the discs' radial profiles and spectral energy distributions using three different methodologies: single annulus, modified black body, and a radiative transfer code. Results: We present the first far-infrared spatially resolved images of these discs and new single-component debris disc models. We characterize the capacity of the models to reproduce the disc parameters based on marginally resolved emission through analysis of two sets of simulated systems (based on the HIP 22263 and HIP 62207 data) with the noise levels typical of the Herschel images. We find that the input parameter values are recovered well at noise levels attained in the observations presented here.

  1. The JCMT Nearby Galaxies Legacy Survey VII: H\\alpha{} imaging and massive star formation properties

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez-Gallego, J R; Wilson, C D; Barmby, P; Azimlu, M; Courteau, S

    2012-01-01

    We present H\\alpha{} fluxes, star formation rates (SFRs) and equivalent widths (EWs) for a sample of 156 nearby galaxies observed in the 12CO J=3-2 line as part of the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope Nearby Galaxies Legacy Survey. These are derived from images and values in the literature and from new H\\alpha{} images for 72 galaxies which we publish here. We describe the sample, observations and procedures to extract the H\\alpha{} fluxes and related quantities. We discuss the SFR properties of our sample and confirm the well-known correlation with galaxy luminosity, albeit with high dispersion. Our SFRs range from 0.1 to 11 Msun yr-1 with a median SFR value for the complete sample of 0.2 Msun yr-1. This median values is somewhat lower than similar published measurements, which we attribute, in part, to our sample being HI-selected and, thus, not biased towards high SFRs as has frequently been the case in previous studies. Additionally, we calculate internal absorptions for the H\\alpha{} line, A(H\\alpha{}), whi...

  2. Nuclear mid-infrared properties of nearby low-luminosity AGN

    CERN Document Server

    Asmus, D; Gandhi, P; Smette, A; Duschl, W J

    2011-01-01

    We present ground-based high-spatial resolution mid-infrared (MIR) observations of 20 nearby low-luminosity AGN (LLAGN) with VLT/VISIR and the preliminary analysis of a new sample of 10 low-luminosity Seyferts observed with Gemini/Michelle. LLAGN are of great interest because these objects are the most common among active galaxies, especially in the nearby universe. Studying them in great detail makes it possible to investigate the AGN evolution over cosmic timescale. Indeed, many LLAGN likely represent the final stage of an AGN's lifetime. We show that even at low luminosities and accretion rates nuclear unresolved MIR emission is present in most objects. Compared to lower spatial resolution Spitzer/IRS spectra, the high-resolution MIR photometry exhibits significantly lower fluxes and different PAH emission feature properties in many cases. By using scaled Spitzer/IRS spectra of typical starburst galaxies, we show that the star formation contribution to the 12 micron emission is minor in the central parsecs...

  3. In ‘prison-house of love’: The Bad Girl and bad girls of Mario Vargas Llosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajuddin Ahmed

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Mario Vargas Llosa’s recent novel The Bad Girl centers around a sexually liberated woman whois in search of individual emancipation through transgressions of all social norms. The issue offemale sexuality and its relation with woman liberation occupies an important and debatableposition in Feminist discourse. Llosa’s own attitude to liberated female sexuality had been anambivalent one. In this paper I would like analyse and explore the question of woman’s liberationin the novel of Mario Vargas Llosa, taking into account the major conflicting Feminist discoursesas well as the presence and erasure of female sexuality in the history of Latin American novels.

  4. The Bad Bugs Book Club: Science, Literacy, and Engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Verran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Bad Bugs Bookclub was launched in 2009. It comprises scientists and non-scientists. The aim of the Bookclub is to read and discuss novels where infectious disease forms part of the plot, in order to enhance learning about microbiology. The focus of the discussion is on appreciation of the novel, its scientific (microbiologic accuracy and relevance to contemporary microbiology. There are several potential audiences for the Bad Bugs Bookclub, for example students in a classroom setting, or in a more social environment, and/or the general public.  Meeting reports and reading guides have been posted on a dedicated website. For education purposes, additional project work for assessment is suggested for students reading each novel. Bookclub meetings may be held on particular dates in the microbiologic calendar, coupled with additional public engagement activities and student participation. The approach has significant flexibility in terms of intended audience, assessment and extension work, and provides a refreshing and stimulating alternative means for talking about microbiology.

  5. Reversing one's fortune by pushing away bad luck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Risen, Jane L; Hosey, Christine

    2014-06-01

    Across cultures, people try to "undo" bad luck with superstitious rituals such as knocking on wood, spitting, or throwing salt. We suggest that these rituals reduce the perceived likelihood of anticipated negative outcomes because they involve avoidant actions that exert force away from one's representation of self, which simulates the experience of pushing away bad luck. Five experiments test this hypothesis by having participants tempt fate and then engage in avoidant actions that are either superstitious (Experiment 1, knocking on wood) or nonsuperstitious (Experiments 2-5, throwing a ball). We find that participants who knock down (away from themselves) or throw a ball think that a jinxed negative outcome is less likely than participants who knock up (toward themselves) or hold a ball. Experiments 3 and 4 provide evidence that after tempting fate, engaging in an avoidant action leads to less clear mental representations for the jinxed event, which, in turn, leads to lower perceived likelihoods. Finally, we demonstrate that engaging in an avoidant action-rather than creating physical distance-is critical for reversing the perceived effect of the jinx. Although superstitions are often culturally defined, the underlying psychological processes that give rise to them may be shared across cultures. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Delivering Bad News: An Approach According to Jewish Scriptures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sody A. Naimer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite a preoccupation in the medical literature with developing an effective approach for breaking bad news, the sources are based on personal opinion alone and only in some instances on qualitative research. Recognizing the gravity of this topic coupled with respect for the wisdom of the written and oral Jewish scriptures, this work is an attempt to delve into the diverse ancient writings to draw conclusions regarding a recommended methodology to guide and inform this task. It is interesting to learn that most elements related to this topic have previously been raised in various forms in the scriptures. The issues range from where, when, and how the bearer of bad news should undertake this duty, to details such as the environment, the format, the speed, and depth of the details to be disclosed. The essence of this paper is to enrich the reader using both positive and negative examples found in the Jewish heritage. Adopting these principles will hopefully provide an effective method for performing this unpleasant obligation, with the goal of limiting harmful consequences as much as possible.

  7. Delivering bad news: an approach according to jewish scriptures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimer, Sody A; Prero, Moshe

    2014-07-01

    Despite a preoccupation in the medical literature with developing an effective approach for breaking bad news, the sources are based on personal opinion alone and only in some instances on qualitative research. Recognizing the gravity of this topic coupled with respect for the wisdom of the written and oral Jewish scriptures, this work is an attempt to delve into the diverse ancient writings to draw conclusions regarding a recommended methodology to guide and inform this task. It is interesting to learn that most elements related to this topic have previously been raised in various forms in the scriptures. The issues range from where, when, and how the bearer of bad news should undertake this duty, to details such as the environment, the format, the speed, and depth of the details to be disclosed. The essence of this paper is to enrich the reader using both positive and negative examples found in the Jewish heritage. Adopting these principles will hopefully provide an effective method for performing this unpleasant obligation, with the goal of limiting harmful consequences as much as possible.

  8. Cytokines: The Good, the Bad, and the Deadly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramani, Thulasi; Auletta, Carol S; Weinstock, Daniel; Mounho-Zamora, Barbara; Ryan, Patricia C; Salcedo, Theodora W; Bannish, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, the world of pharmaceutical toxicology has seen an explosion in the area of cytokines. An overview of the many aspects of cytokine safety evaluation currently in progress and evolving strategies for evaluating these important entities was presented at this symposium. Cytokines play a broad role to help the immune system respond to diseases, and drugs which modulate their effect have led to some amazing therapies. Cytokines may be "good" when stimulating the immune system to fight a foreign pathogen or attack tumors. Other "good" cytokine effects include reduction of an immune response, for example interferon β reduction of neuron inflammation in patients with multiple sclerosis. They may be "bad" when their expression causes inflammatory diseases, such as the role of tumor necrosis factor α in rheumatoid arthritis or asthma and Crohn's disease. Therapeutic modulation of cytokine expression can help the "good" cytokines to generate or quench the immune system and block the "bad" cytokines to prevent damaging inflammatory events. However, care must be exercised, as some antibody therapeutics can cause "ugly" cytokine release which can be deadly. Well-designed toxicology studies should incorporate careful assessment of cytokine modulation that will allow effective therapies to treat unmet needs. This symposium discussed lessons learned in cytokine toxicology using case studies and suggested future directions.

  9. FIR colours and SEDs of nearby galaxies observed with Herschel

    CERN Document Server

    Boselli, A; Buat, V; Cortese, L; Auld, R; Baes, M; Bendo, G J; Bianchi, S; Bock, J; Bomans, D J; Bradford, M; Castro-Rodriguez, N; Chanial, P; Charlot, S; Clemens, M; Clements, D; Corbelli, E; Cooray, A; Cormier, D; Dariush, A; Davies, J; De Looze, I; Alighieri, S di Serego; Dwek, E; Eales, S; Elbaz, D; Fadda, D; Fritz, J; Galametz, M; Galliano, F; Garcia-Appadoo, D A; Gavazzi, G; Gear, W; Giovanardi, C; Glenn, J; Gomez, H; Griffin, M; Grossi, M; Hony, S; Hughes, T M; Hunt, L; Isaak, K; Jones, A; Levenson, L; Lu, N; Madden, S C; O'Halloran, B; Okumura, K; Oliver, S; Page, M; Panuzzo, P; Papageorgiou, A; Parkin, T; Perez-Fournon, I; Pierini, D; Pohlen, M; Rangwala, N; Rigby, E; Roussel, H; Rykala, A; Sabatini, S; Sacchi, N; Sauvage, M; Schulz, B; Schirm, M; Smith, M W L; Spinoglio, L; Stevens, J; Sundar, S; Symeonidis, M; Trichas, M; Vaccari, M; Verstappen, J; Vigroux, L; Vlahakis, C; Wilson, C; Wozniak, H; Wright, G; Xilouris, E M; Zeilinger, W; Zibetti, S

    2010-01-01

    We present infrared colours (in the 25-500 mic spectral range) and UV to radio continuum spectral energy distributions of a sample of 51 nearby galaxies observed with SPIRE on Herschel. The observed sample includes all morphological classes, from quiescent ellipticals to active starbursts. Active galaxies have warmer colour temperatures than normal spirals. In ellipticals hosting a radio galaxy, the far-infrared (FIR) emission is dominated bynthe synchrotron nuclear emission. The colour temperature of the cold dust is higher in quiescent E-S0a than in star-forming systems probably because of the different nature of their dust heating sources (evolved stellar populations, X-ray, fast electrons) and dust grain properties. In contrast to the colour temperature of the warm dust, the f350/f500 index sensitive to the cold dust decreases with star formation and increases with metallicity, suggesting an overabundance of cold dust or an emissivity parameter beta<2 in low metallicity, active systems.

  10. Radioactive Iron Rain: Evidence of a Nearby Supernova Explosion

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    A very close supernova explosion could have caused a mass extinction of life in Earth. In 1996, Brian Fields, the late Dave Schramm and the speaker proposed looking for unstable isotopes such as Iron 60 that could have been deposited by a recent nearby supernova explosion. A group from the Technical University of Munich has discovered Iron 60 in deep-ocean sediments and ferromanganese crusts due to one or more supernovae that exploded O(100) parsecs away about 2.5 million years ago. These results have recently been confirmed by a group from the Australian National University, and the Munich group has also discovered supernova Iron 60 in lunar rock samples. This talk will discuss the interpretation of these results in terms of supernova models, and the possible implications for life on Earth.

  11. Star Formation and Gas Accretion in Nearby Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Yim, Kijeong

    2016-01-01

    In order to quantify the relationship between gas accretion and star formation, we analyse a sample of 29 nearby galaxies from the WHISP survey which contains galaxies with and without evidence for recent gas accretion. We compare combined radial profiles of FUV (GALEX) and IR 24 {\\mu}m (Spitzer) characterizing distributions of recent star formation with radial profiles of CO (IRAM, BIMA, or CARMA) and HI (WSRT) tracing molecular and atomic gas contents to examine star formation efficiencies in symmetric (quiescent), asymmetric (accreting), and interacting (tidally disturbed) galaxies. In addition, we investigate the relationship between star formation rate and HI in the outer discs for the three groups of galaxies. We confirm the general relationship between gas surface density and star formation surface density, but do not find a significant difference between the three groups of galaxies.

  12. The Hierarchical Distribution of Young Stellar Clusters in Nearby Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasha, Kathryn; Calzetti, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the spatial distributions of young stellar clusters in six nearby galaxies to trace the large scale hierarchical star-forming structures. The six galaxies are drawn from the Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey (LEGUS). We quantify the strength of the clustering among stellar clusters as a function of spatial scale and age to establish the survival timescale of the substructures. We separate the clusters into different classes, compact (bound) clusters and associations (unbound), and compare the clustering among them. We find that younger star clusters are more strongly clustered over small spatial scales and that the clustering disappears rapidly for ages as young as a few tens of Myr, consistent with clusters slowly losing the fractal dimension inherited at birth from their natal molecular clouds.

  13. Nearby Galaxy is a Hotbed of Star Birth Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This new image taken with NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is of the nearby dwarf galaxy NGC 1569. This galaxy is a hotbed of vigorous star birth activity which blows huge bubbles that riddle its main body. The bubble structure is sculpted by the galactic super-winds and outflows caused by a colossal input of energy from collective supernova explosions that are linked with a massive episode of star birth. The bubbles seen in this image are made of hydrogen gas that glows when hit by the fierce wind and radiation from hot young stars and is racked by supernova shocks. Its 'star factories' are also manufacturing brilliant blue star clusters. NGC 1569 had a sudden onset of star birth about 25 million years ago, which subsided about the time the very earliest human ancestors appeared on Earth. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for the design, development, and construction of the HST.

  14. Fast and flexible: argentine ants recruit from nearby trails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Tatiana P; Pinter-Wollman, Noa M; Moses, Melanie E; Gordon, Deborah M

    2013-01-01

    Argentine ants (Linepithema humile) live in groups of nests connected by trails to each other and to stable food sources. In a field study, we investigated whether some ants recruit directly from established, persistent trails to food sources, thus accelerating food collection. Our results indicate that Argentine ants recruit nestmates to food directly from persistent trails, and that the exponential increase in the arrival rate of ants at baits is faster than would be possible if recruited ants traveled from distant nests. Once ants find a new food source, they walk back and forth between the bait and sometimes share food by trophallaxis with nestmates on the trail. Recruiting ants from nearby persistent trails creates a dynamic circuit, like those found in other distributed systems, which facilitates a quick response to changes in available resources.

  15. The environment of nearby Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez-Sanchez, Angel R; van Eymeren, Janine; Esteban, Cesar; Popping, Attila; Hibbard, John

    2009-01-01

    We are obtaining deep multiwavelength data of a sample of nearby blue compact dwarf galaxies (BCDGs) combining broad-band optical/NIR and H$\\alpha$ photometry, optical spectroscopy and 21-cm radio observations. Here we present HI results obtained with the Australia Telescope Compact Array for some BCDGs, all showing evident interaction features in their neutral gas component despite the environment in which they reside. Our analysis strongly suggests that interactions with or between low-luminosity dwarf galaxies or HI clouds are the main trigger mechanism of the star-forming bursts in BCDGs; however these dwarf objects are only detected when deep optical images and complementary HI observations are performed. Are therefore BCDGs real isolated systems?

  16. The disruption of nearby galaxies by the Milky Way

    CERN Document Server

    Putman, M E; Staveley-Smith, L; Banks, G D; Barnes, D G; Bhathal, R; Disney, M J; Ekers, R D; Freeman, K C; Haynes, R F; Henning, P; Jerjen, H; Kilborn, V A; Koribalski, B S; Knezek, P M; Malin, D F; Mould, J R; Oosterloo, T A; Price, R M; Ryder, S D; Sadler, E M; Stewart, I W; Stootman, F; Vaile, R A; Webster, R L; Wright, A E

    1998-01-01

    Interactions between galaxies are common and are an important factor in determining their physical properties such as position along the Hubble sequence and star-formation rate. There are many possible galaxy interaction mechanisms, including merging, ram-pressure stripping, gas compression, gravitational interaction and cluster tides. The relative importance of these mechanisms is often not clear, as their strength depends on poorly known parameters such as the density, extent and nature of the massive dark halos that surround galaxies. A nearby example of a galaxy interaction where the mechanism is controversial is that between our own Galaxy and two of its neighbours -- the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds. Here we present the first results of a new HI survey which provides a spectacular view of this interaction. In addition to the previously known Magellanic Stream, which trails 100 degrees behind the Clouds, the new data reveal a counter-stream which lies in the opposite direction and leads the motion o...

  17. Grassland birds orient nests relative to nearby vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekman, S.T.; Ball, I.J.; Fondell, T.E.

    2002-01-01

    We studied orientation of nest sites relative to nearby vegetation for dabbling ducks (Cinnamon Teal, Anas cyanoptera; Blue-winged Teal, A. discors; Gadwall, A. strepera; Mallard, A. platyrhynchos; and Northern Shoveler, A. clypeata) and Short-eared Owls (Asio flammeus) in ungrazed grassland habitat during 1995-1997 in westcentral Montana. We estimated an index of vegetation height and density in intercardinal directions (NE, SE, SW, NW) immediately around nests. All species oriented nests with the least vegetation to the southeast and the most vegetation to either the southwest or northwest. Furthermore, maximum vegetation around nests shifted from the southwest to the northwest with increasing nest initiation date, apparently as a response of individuals tracking seasonal change in the afternoon solar path. Thus, nests were relatively exposed to solar insolation during cool morning hours but were shaded from intense insolation in the afternoon throughout the breeding season. We suggest that nest microhabitat was selected in part to moderate the thermal environment.

  18. Mid-J CO Emission in Nearby Seyfert Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Pereira-Santaella, M; Busquet, G; Glenn, J; Isaak, K; Kamenetzky, J; Rangwala, N; Schirm, M R P; Baes, M; Barlow, M J; Boselli, A; Cooray, A; Cormier, D

    2013-01-01

    We study for the first time the complete sub-millimeter spectra (450 GHz to 1550 GHz) of a sample of nearby active galaxies observed with the SPIRE Fourier Transform Spectrometer (SPIRE/FTS) onboard Herschel. The CO ladder (from Jup = 4 to 12) is the most prominent spectral feature in this range. These CO lines probe warm molecular gas that can be heated by ultraviolet photons, shocks, or X-rays originated in the active galactic nucleus or in young star-forming regions. In these proceedings we investigate the physical origin of the CO emission using the averaged CO spectral line energy distribution (SLED) of six Seyfert galaxies. We use a radiative transfer model assuming an isothermal homogeneous medium to estimate the molecular gas conditions. We also compare this CO SLED with the predictions of photon and X-ray dominated region (PDR and XDR) models.

  19. An Integrated Spectrophotometric Survey of Nearby Star-Forming Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Moustakas, J

    2005-01-01

    We present integrated optical spectrophotometry for a sample of 417 nearby galaxies. Our observations consist of spatially integrated, S/N=10-100 spectroscopy between 3600 and 6900 Angstroms at ~8 Angstroms FWHM resolution. In addition, we present nuclear (2.5"x2.5") spectroscopy for 153 of these objects. Our sample targets a diverse range of galaxy types, including starbursts, peculiar galaxies, interacting/merging systems, dusty, infrared-luminous galaxies, and a significant number of normal galaxies. We use population synthesis to model and subtract the stellar continuum underlying the nebular emission lines. This technique results in emission-line measurements reliably corrected for stellar absorption. Here, we present the integrated and nuclear spectra, the nebular emission-line fluxes and equivalent widths, and a comprehensive compilation of ancillary data available in the literature for our sample. In a series of subsequent papers we use these data to study optical star-formation rate indicators, nebul...

  20. Environmental Effects on Late-Type Galaxies in Nearby Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Boselli, A

    2006-01-01

    The transformations taking place in late-type galaxies in the environment of rich clusters of galaxies at z=0 are reviewed. From the handful of late-type galaxies that inhabit local clusters, whether they were formed in-situ and survived as such, avoiding transformation or even destruction or if they are newcomers that recently infall from outside, we can learn an important lesson on the latest stages of galaxy evolution. We start by reviewing the observational scenario, covering the broadest possible stretch of the electromagnetic spectrum, from the gas tracers, the star formation tracers, the old star tracers and the dust. Strong emphasis is given to the three nearby, well studied clusters Virgo, A1367 and Coma, representative of different evolutionary stages, from unrelaxed, spiral rich (Virgo) to relaxed, spiral poor clusters (Coma). We continue by providing a review of models of galaxy interactions relevant to clusters of galaxies. Prototypes of various mechanisms and processes are discussed and their ty...

  1. Fast and Flexible: Argentine Ants Recruit from Nearby Trails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Tatiana P.; Pinter-Wollman, Noa M.; Moses, Melanie E.; Gordon, Deborah M.

    2013-01-01

    Argentine ants (Linepithema humile) live in groups of nests connected by trails to each other and to stable food sources. In a field study, we investigated whether some ants recruit directly from established, persistent trails to food sources, thus accelerating food collection. Our results indicate that Argentine ants recruit nestmates to food directly from persistent trails, and that the exponential increase in the arrival rate of ants at baits is faster than would be possible if recruited ants traveled from distant nests. Once ants find a new food source, they walk back and forth between the bait and sometimes share food by trophallaxis with nestmates on the trail. Recruiting ants from nearby persistent trails creates a dynamic circuit, like those found in other distributed systems, which facilitates a quick response to changes in available resources. PMID:23967129

  2. Fast and flexible: argentine ants recruit from nearby trails.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana P Flanagan

    Full Text Available Argentine ants (Linepithema humile live in groups of nests connected by trails to each other and to stable food sources. In a field study, we investigated whether some ants recruit directly from established, persistent trails to food sources, thus accelerating food collection. Our results indicate that Argentine ants recruit nestmates to food directly from persistent trails, and that the exponential increase in the arrival rate of ants at baits is faster than would be possible if recruited ants traveled from distant nests. Once ants find a new food source, they walk back and forth between the bait and sometimes share food by trophallaxis with nestmates on the trail. Recruiting ants from nearby persistent trails creates a dynamic circuit, like those found in other distributed systems, which facilitates a quick response to changes in available resources.

  3. Spectroscopic Observations of the Star Formation Regions in Nearby Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, KONG; Lin, LIN; Jin-rong, LI; Xu, ZHOU; Hu, ZOU; Hong-yu, LI; Fu-zhen, CHEN; Wei, DU; Zhou, FAN; Ye-wei, MAO; Jing, WANG; Yi-nan, ZHU; Zhi-min, ZHOU

    2014-10-01

    In recent years the number of worldwide 8∼10 m-class ground-based telescopes is continually increased, the 4 m-diameter or smaller telescopes have become the small and medium-sized telescopes. In order to obtain some noticeable scientific results by using these existing small and medium-sized telescopes, we have to consider very carefully what we can do, and what we can not. For this reason, the Time Allocation Committee of the 2.16 m telescope of the National Astronomical observatories of China (NAOC) has decided to support some key projects since 2013. The long-term project “Spectroscopic Observations of the Star Formation Regions in Nearby Galaxies” proposed by us is one of three key projects, it is supported by the committee with 30 dark/grey nights in each of three years. The primary goal of this project is to make the spectroscopic observations of the star formation regions along the directions parallel and perpendicular to the main-axes of 20 nearby galaxies with the NAO 2.16 m telescope and the Hec-tospec multi-fiber spectrograph on the 6.5 m MMT (Multiple Mirror Telescope) via the Telescope Access Program (TAP). With the spectra of a large sample of star formation regions, combining with the exising multi-wavelength data from UV to IR, we can study the galaxy dust extinction, star formation rate, metal abundance, and the two-dimensional distributions of stellar population proper-ties, as well as the relationships of the galaxy two-dimensional properties with the galaxy morphologies and environments. As the first paper of this project, we describe here the scientific objectives, sample selection, observation strategy, and present the preliminary result of the spectroscopic observation towards the galaxy NGC 2403.

  4. When bad moods may not be so bad: Valuing negative affect is associated with weakened affect-health links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, Gloria; Wrzus, Cornelia; Wagner, Gert G; Riediger, Michaela

    2016-04-01

    Bad moods are considered "bad" not only because they may be aversive experiences in and of themselves, but also because they are associated with poorer psychosocial functioning and health. We propose that people differ in their negative affect valuation (NAV; the extent to which negative affective states are valued as pleasant, useful/helpful, appropriate, and meaningful experiences) and that affect-health links are moderated by NAV. These predictions were tested in a life span sample of 365 participants ranging from 14-88 years of age using reports of momentary negative affect and physical well-being (via experience sampling) and assessments of NAV and psychosocial and physical functioning (via computer-assisted personal interviews and behavioral measures of hand grip strength). Our study demonstrated that the more individuals valued negative affect, the less pronounced (and sometimes even nonexistent) were the associations between everyday experiences of negative affect and a variety of indicators of poorer psychosocial functioning (i.e., emotional health problems, social integration) and physical health (i.e., number of health conditions, health complaints, hand grip strength, momentary physical well-being). Exploratory analyses revealed that valuing positive affect was not associated with the analogous moderating effects as NAV. These findings suggest that it may be particularly important to consider NAV in models of affect-health links.

  5. Probe-Scale Mission Concepts for Direct Imaging and Spectroscopy of Nearby Exoplanet Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unwin, Stephen C.; Seager, Sara; Stapelfeldt, Karl R.; Warfield, Keith; Dekens, Frank G.; Blackwood, Gary; Exo-S Science; Technology Definition Team, Exo-C Science; Technology Definition Team, JPL Probe Study Design Teams

    2015-01-01

    Two mission concepts are now under study for detecting visible light from exoplanets orbiting nearby stars through high-contrast imaging and for characterizing them through spectroscopy. Exo-S uses a starshade (external occulter) that flies in front of a telescope to block out the central starlight; Exo-C uses a coronagraph with an internal occulter to accomplish the suppression of starlight. Both concepts have the objective of taking optical spectra of nearby exoplanets in reflected light, searching for previously undetected planets, and imaging structure in circumstellar debris disks.The concepts are being developed by two NASA-selected community-led Science and Technology Definition Teams (STDTs), supported by study design teams from NASA's Exoplanet Exploration Program. In addition to developing concepts with an estimated cost ~1B, the Teams are identifying key enabling technologies needed for their designs. These concepts complement existing NASA missions that do exoplanet science (such as transit spectroscopy and debris disk imaging with HST and Spitzer) or are under development or active study (TESS, JWST, WFIRST-AFTA).Final Reports from the two studies will be published in early 2015. This poster serves as an introduction to a series of posters featuring the two studies. At the conclusion of the studies in early 2015, NASA will evaluate them for further technology development and possible development as flight missions. This research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  6. Hydrogen fluoride toward luminous nearby galaxies: NGC 253 and NGC 4945

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monje, R. R.; Lis, D. C.; Phillips, T. G. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125-4700 (United States); Lord, S. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, MS 100-22, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Falgarone, E. [LERMA/LRA, Ecole Normale Supérieure and Observatoire de Paris, 24 rue Lhomond, F-75005 Paris (France); Neufeld, D. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Güsten, R., E-mail: raquel@caltech.edu [Max-Planck Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)

    2014-04-10

    We present the detection of hydrogen fluoride (HF) in two luminous nearby galaxies, NGC 253 and NGC 4945 using the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared on board the Herschel Space Observatory. The HF line toward NGC 253 has a P-Cygni profile, while an asymmetric absorption profile is seen toward NGC 4945. The P-Cygni profile in NGC 253 suggests an outflow of molecular gas with a mass of M(H{sub 2}){sub out} ∼ 1 × 10{sup 7} M {sub ☉} and an outflow rate as large as M-dot ∼6.4 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. In the case of NGC 4945, the axisymmetric velocity components in the HF line profile are compatible with the interpretation of a fast-rotating nuclear ring surrounding the nucleus and the presence of inflowing gas. The gas falls into the nucleus with an inflow rate of ≤1.2 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, inside an inner radius of ≤200 pc. The gas accretion rate to the central active galactic nucleus is much smaller, suggesting that the inflow may be triggering a nuclear starburst. From these results, the HF J = 1-0 line is seen to provide an important probe of the kinematics of absorbing material along the sight-line to nearby galaxies with bright dust continuum and a promising new tracer of molecular gas in high-redshift galaxies.

  7. The resolved star-formation relation in nearby active galactic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Casasola, Viviana; Combes, Francoise; Garcia-Burillo, Santiago

    2015-01-01

    We present an analysis of the relation between star formation rate (SFR) surface density (sigmasfr) and mass surface density of molecular gas (sigmahtwo), commonly referred to as the Kennicutt-Schmidt (K-S) relation, at its intrinsic spatial scale, i.e. the size of giant molecular clouds (10-150 pc), in the central, high-density regions of four nearby low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGN). We used interferometric IRAM CO(1-0) and CO(2-1), and SMA CO(3-2) emission line maps to derive sigmahtwo and HST-Halpha images to estimate sigmasfr. Each galaxy is characterized by a distinct molecular SF relation at spatial scales between 20 to 200 pc. The K-S relations can be sub-linear, but also super-linear, with slopes ranging from 0.5 to 1.3. Depletion times range from 1 and 2Gyr, compatible with results for nearby normal galaxies. These findings are valid independently of which transition, CO(1-0), CO(2-1), or CO(3-2), is used to derive sigmahtwo. Because of star-formation feedback, life-time of clouds, turbule...

  8. A low-luminosity type-1 QSO sample - A morphological study of nearby AGN hosts

    CERN Document Server

    Busch, Gerold; Valencia-S., Mónica; Moser, Lydia; Eckart, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    There is growing evidence that every galaxy with a considerable spheroidal component hosts a supermassive black hole (SMBH) at its center. Strong correlations between the SMBH and the spheroidal component suggest a physical connection through a coevolutionary scenario. For very massive galaxies a merger-driven scenario is preferred, resulting in elliptical galaxies. In the nearby universe, we find many disk galaxies, showing no signs of recent interaction. Alternative secular evolutionary scenarios for such galaxies involve internal triggers like bars and spiral arms or minor mergers. We analyze a sample of 99 nearby galaxies (0.02 < z < 0.06) from the Hamburg/ESO survey in order to get insight into structural and dynamical properties of the hosts to trace the origin of the bulge-SMBH correlation. In this work, we first collect images of sample members to get an impression of the morphological distribution in the sample. In a second step, we start to analyze sensitive, high resolution near-infrared imag...

  9. A Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Survey of 886 Nearby M Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrien, Ryan C.; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Deshpande, Rohit; Bender, Chad F.

    2015-09-01

    We present a catalog of near-infrared (NIR) spectra and associated measurements for 886 nearby M dwarfs. The spectra were obtained with the NASA-Infrared Telescope Facility SpeX Spectrograph during a two-year observing campaign; they have high signal-to-noise ratios (S/N > 100-150), span 0.8-2.4 μm, and have R˜ 2000. Our catalog of measured values contains useful Teff and composition-sensitive features, empirical stellar parameter measurements, and kinematic, photometric, and astrometric properties compiled from the literature. We focus on measurements of M dwarf abundances ([Fe/H] and [M/H]), capitalizing on the precision of recently published empirical NIR spectroscopic calibrations. We explore systematic differences between different abundance calibrations, and from other similar M dwarf catalogs. We confirm that the M dwarf abundances we measure show the expected inverse dependence with kinematic-, activity-, and color-based age indicators. Finally, we provide updated [Fe/H] and [M/H] for 16 M dwarf planet hosts. This catalog represents the largest published compilation of NIR spectra and associated parameters for M dwarfs. It provides a rich and uniform resource for nearby M dwarfs, and will be especially valuable for measuring Habitable Zone locations and comparative abundances of the M dwarf planet hosts that will be uncovered by upcoming exoplanet surveys.

  10. Rotational Dynamics and Star Formation in the Nearby Dwarf Galaxy NGC 5238

    CERN Document Server

    Cannon, John M; Teich, Yaron G; Ball, Catherine; Banovetz, John; Brock, Annika; Eisner, Brian A; Fitzgibbon, Kathleen; Miazzo, Masao; Nizami, Asra; Reilly, Bridget; Ruvolo, Elizabeth; Singer, Quinton

    2016-01-01

    We present new HI spectral line images of the nearby low-mass galaxy NGC 5238, acquired with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA). Located at a distance of 4.51+/-0.04 Mpc, NGC 5238 is an actively star-forming galaxy with widespread H-alpha and UV continuum emission. The source is included in many ongoing and recent nearby galaxy surveys, but until this work the spatially resolved qualities of its neutral interstellar medium have remained unstudied. Our HI images resolve the disk on physical scales of ~400 pc, allowing us to undertake a detailed comparative study of the gaseous and stellar components. The HI disk is asymmetric in the outer regions, and the areas of high HI mass surface density display a crescent-shaped morphology that is slightly offset from the center of the stellar populations. The HI column density exceeds 10^21 cm^-2 in much of the disk. We quantify the degree of co-spatiality of dense HI gas and sites of ongoing star formation as traced by far-UV and H-alpha emission. The neutral ga...

  11. Spectrophotometric time series of SN 2011fe from the Nearby Supernova Factory

    CERN Document Server

    Pereira, R; Aldering, G; Antilogus, P; Baltay, C; Benitez-Herrera, S; Bongard, S; Buton, C; Canto, A; Cellier-Holzem, F; Chen, J; Childress, M; Chotard, N; Copin, Y; Fakhouri, H K; Fink, M; Fouchez, D; Gangler, E; Guy, J; Hillebrandt, W; Hsiao, E Y; Kerschhaggl, M; Kowalski, M; Kromer, M; Nordin, J; Nugent, P; Paech, K; Pain, R; Pécontal, E; Perlmutter, S; Rabinowitz, D; Rigault, M; Runge, K; Saunders, C; Smadja, G; Tao, C; Taubenberger, S; Tilquin, A; Wu, C

    2013-01-01

    We present 32 epochs of optical (3300-9700 \\AA) spectrophotometric observations of the nearby quintessential "normal" type Ia supernova (SN Ia) SN 2011fe in the galaxy M101, extending from -15 to +97 d with respect to B-band maximum, obtained by the Nearby Supernova Factory collaboration. SN 2011fe is the closest (\\mu = 29.04) and brightest (Bmax = 9.94 mag) SN Ia observed since the advent of modern large scale programs for the intensive periodic followup of supernovae. Both synthetic light curve measurements and spectral feature analysis attest to the normality of SN 2011fe. There is very little evidence for reddening in its host galaxy. The homogeneous calibration, intensive time sampling, and high signal-to-noise ratio of the data set make it unique. Thus it is ideal for studying the physics of SN Ia explosions in detail, and for furthering the use of SNe Ia as standardizable candles for cosmology. Several such applications are shown, from the creation of a bolometric light curve and measurement of the 56N...

  12. Spectroscopic properties of nearby late-type stars, members of stellar kinematic groups

    CERN Document Server

    Maldonado, J; Eiroa, C; Montes, D; Montesinos, B

    2010-01-01

    Nearby late-type stars are excellent targets to look for young objects in stellar associations and moving groups. The study of these groups goes back more than one century ago however, their origin is still misunderstood. Although their existence have been confirmed by statistical studies of large sample of stars, the identification of a group of stars as member of moving groups, is not an easy task, list of members often change with time and most members have been identified by means of kinematics criteria which is not sufficient since many old stars can share the same spatial motion of those stars in moving groups. In this contribution we attempt to identify unambiguous moving groups members, among a sample of nearby-late type stars. High resolution echelle spectra is used to i) derive accurate radial velocities which allow us to study the stars' kinematics and make a first selection of moving groups members; and ii) analyze several age-related properties for young late-type stars (i.e., lithium LiI 6707.8 ...

  13. The Cold Dust Content of Broad and Narrow-Line, Optically Luminous, nearby QSO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petric, A.

    2015-09-01

    Observations of the dynamics of stars and gas in the nuclear regions of nearby galaxies suggest that the overwhelming majority of spheroidal galaxies in the local Universe contain massive BHs and that, with some important caveats, the masses of those central BH correlate with the velocity dispersions of the stars in the spheroid and the bulge luminosities. Much research has been dedicated to understanding the mechanisms responsible for such a fundamental perhaps causal relation. An accurate census of the basic properties of the cold interstellar medium (ISM) in AGN host is pertinent to those investigations because cold molecular gas is the basic fuel for star-formation and black hole growth. We present high sensitivity observations taken with the Herschel Space Observatory to measure the cold dust content in a sample of 85 nearby (z measurements from the Two Micron All Sky Survey and the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer to determine their IR spectral energy distributions which we use to assess aggregate dust properties. We investigate the relation between star-formation rates (SFRs) estimated from the IR luminosities and SFRs determined from measurements of the 11.3 micron PAH. The differences between the cold dust properties of narrow and broad line AGN will be discussed in the context of models that envision that quasar activity is triggered by gas-rich galaxy mergers.

  14. Do the nearby BHB stars belong to the Thick Disk or the Halo?

    CERN Document Server

    Kinman, T D; Brown, Warren R

    2008-01-01

    We study the Milky Way region Z<3.0 kpc, where the thick disk and inner halo overlap, by using the kinematics of local blue horizontal branch (BHB) stars (within 1 kpc) and new samples of BHB stars and A-type stars from the Century Survey. We derive Galactic U,V,W velocities for these BHB and A-type star samples using proper motions from the NOMAD catalog. The mean velocities and the velocity dispersions of the BHB samples (Z<3 kpc) are characteristic of the halo, while those of the Century Survey A-type stars are characteristic of the thick disk. There is no evidence from our samples that the BHB stars rotate with the thick disk in the region Z<3 kpc. Nearly a third of the nearby local RR Lyrae stars have disk kinematics and are more metal-rich than [Fe/H]~-1. Only a few percent of the Century Survey BHB stars have these properties. Only one nearby BHB star (HD 130201) is likely to be such a disk star but selection based on high proper motions will have tended to exclude such stars from the local sa...

  15. Structure and Evolution of Nearby Stars with Planets II. Physical Properties of ~1000 Cool Stars from the SPOCS Catalog

    CERN Document Server

    Takeda, G; Sills, A; Rasio, F A; Fischer, D A; Valenti, J A; Takeda, Genya; Ford, Eric B.; Sills, Alison; Rasio, Frederic A.; Fischer, Debra A.; Valenti, Jeff A.

    2006-01-01

    We derive detailed theoretical models for 1074 nearby stars from the SPOCS (Spectroscopic Properties of Cool Stars) Catalog. The California and Carnegie Planet Search has obtained high-quality echelle spectra of over 1000 nearby stars taken with the Hamilton spectrograph at Lick Observatory, the HIRES spectrograph at Keck, and UCLES at the Anglo Australian Observatory. A uniform analysis of the high-resolution spectra has yielded precise stellar parameters, enabling systematic error analyses and accurate theoretical stellar modeling. We have created a large database of theoretical stellar evolution tracks using the Yale Stellar Evolution Code (YREC) to match the observed parameters of the SPOCS stars. Our very dense grids of evolutionary tracks eliminate the need for interpolation between stellar evolutionary tracks and allow precise determinations of physical stellar parameters (mass, age, radius, size and mass of the convective zone, etc.). Combining our stellar models with the observed stellar atmospheric ...

  16. Communicating bad news: an integrative review of the nursing literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Cassiana Mendes Bertoncello; Menezes, Daniele Vieira de; Borgato, Maria Helena; Luiz, Marcos Roberto

    2017-01-01

    describe how the process of breaking bad news is established and identify how nurses approach the task of giving bad news. integrative review of the literature for articles in Portuguese and English published between 1993-2014, in the databases: Bireme, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, CINAHL and Embase. Nine articles were included using the selection flow chart. A digital form was completed for each article according to the Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Research checklist and the level of scientific evidence was determined. Of the 99 articles in identified, nine were included after applying the selection flowchart. breaking bad news is frequent in the area of oncology and palliative care, with a strong cultural influence on the autonomy of nurses in this process. the approach and skills of the nurse during this task influences the patient's reaction to the message. The theme is scarce in the literature and merits further investigation. Descrever como se estabelece o processo de comunicação de más notícias e identificar como o enfermeiro pratica a comunicação de más notícias. Revisão integrativa da literatura com artigos em português e inglês referente ao período 1993-2014 nas bases de dados Bireme, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, CINAHL e Embase. Elegeram-se nove artigos pelo fluxograma de seleção. Para cada artigo foi preenchida uma ficha eletrônica, elaborado um checklist do Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Research e verificado o nível de evidência científica. Foram identificados 99 artigos e incluídos nove pelo fluxograma de seleção. Transmitir más notícias é frequente nas áreas de oncologia e cuidados paliativos, com forte influência cultural na autonomia do enfermeiro nesse processo. O modo e a habilidade do enfermeiro durante a ação influenciarão a reação do paciente acerca da mensagem. O tema é escasso na literatura, necessitando ser explorado.

  17. Does emotional intelligence predict breaking bad news skills in pediatric interns? A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Reed

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: While both patients and physicians identify communication of bad news as an area of great challenge, the factors underlying this often complex task remain largely unknown. Emotional intelligence (EI has been positively correlated with good general communication skills and successful leadership, but there is no literature relating EI to the delivery of bad news. Purpose: Our objectives were to determine: 1 performance of first-year pediatric residents in the delivery of bad news in a standardized patient (SP setting; and 2 the role of EI in these assessments. Our hypothesis was that pediatric trainees with higher EI would demonstrate more advanced skills in this communication task. Methods: Forty first- year residents participated. Skill in bad news delivery was assessed via SP encounters using a previously published assessment tool (GRIEV_ING Death Notification Protocol. Residents completed the Emotional and Social Competency Inventory (ESCI as a measure of EI. Results: Residents scored poorly on bad news delivery skills but scored well on EI. Intraclass correlation coefficients indicated moderate to substantial inter-rater reliability among raters using the delivering bad news assessment tool. However, no correlation was found between bad news delivery performance and EI. Conclusions: We concluded that first-year pediatric residents have inadequate skills in the delivery of bad news. In addition, our data suggest that higher EI alone is not sufficient to effectively deliver death news and more robust skill training is necessary for residents to gain competence and acquire mastery in this important communication domain.

  18. Cue-responding in a simulated bad news situation: exploring a stress hypothesis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valck, C. de; Bruynooghe, R.; Bensing, J.; Kerssens, J.J.; Hulsman, R.L.

    2001-01-01

    The stress-coping paradigm of Folkman and Lazarus (1984) was applied to investigate if the communicative reactions of the physician in a bad news transaction are related to the stressfulness of the situation. A standardized video bad news consultation was presented to 88 medical students. To examine

  19. Breaking Bad Habits: Teaching Effective PowerPoint Use to Working Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vik, Gretchen N.

    2004-01-01

    One interesting aspect of teaching students to use PowerPoint and similar graphics packages effectively is that graduate students who are already in the workforce often have bad presentation habits that they need to break. In this article, the author discusses ways of breaking these bad habits. Using storyboards is one way to keep students from…

  20. Educating the delivery of bad news in medicine: Preceptorship versus simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Andrew P; Adkins, Eric J; Knepel, Sheri; Boulger, Creagh; Miller, Jessica; Bahner, David P

    2011-07-01

    Simulation experiences have begun to replace traditional education models of teaching the skill of bad news delivery in medical education. The tiered apprenticeship model of medical education emphasizes experiential learning. Studies have described a lack of support in bad news delivery and inadequacy of training in this important clinical skill as well as poor familial comprehension and dissatisfaction on the part of physicians in training regarding the resident delivery of bad news. Many residency training programs lacked a formalized training curriculum in the delivery of bad news. Simulation teaching experiences may address these noted clinical deficits in the delivery of bad news to patients and their families. Unique experiences can be role-played with this educational technique to simulate perceived learner deficits. A variety of scenarios can be constructed within the framework of the simulation training method to address specific cultural and religious responses to bad news in the medical setting. Even potentially explosive and violent scenarios can be role-played in order to prepare physicians for these rare and difficult situations. While simulation experiences cannot supplant the model of positive, real-life clinical teaching in the delivery of bad news, simulation of clinical scenarios with scripting, self-reflection, and peer-to-peer feedback can be powerful educational tools. Simulation training can help to develop the skills needed to effectively and empathetically deliver bad news to patients and families in medical practice.

  1. Cyclin A-Cdk2 Phosphorylates BH3 only Protein Bad in vitro and in vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Kan; CHEN Yue; LI Jing-hua; ZHAN Zhuo; WU Yong-ge; KONG Wei; JIN Ying-hua

    2007-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that Cyclin A-Cdk2 activity is required in the apoptosis process induced by various stimuli. To determine a specific substrate of Cyclin A-Cdk2 for apoptosis, in this study, we carried out anin vitro kinase assay using immunoprecipitated complex Cyclin A-Cdk2 as an enzyme source, and recombinant protein GST-Bad as a substrate. Our study showed that Bad was clearly phosphorylated by Cyclin A-Cdk2 in vitro. To examine whether protein Bad can also be phosphorylated by Cyclin A-Cdk2 kinase in vivo, we transiently overexpressed protein Bad with Cyclin A or Cdk2-dn, a dominant negative version of Cdk2, in Hela cells and determined the phosphorylation status of protein Bad. The test showed that protein Bad was clearly phosphorylated in Cyclin A overexpressed cells,but not in Cdk2-dn or mock transfectent. Moreover, etoposide also caused the phosphorylation of endogenetic Bad. In conclusion, here we provide first time evidence that protein Bad can be a substrate of Cyclin A-Cdk2 apoptosis for in vitro and in vivo.

  2. Reconsiderations: We Got the Wrong Gal--Rethinking the "Bad" Academic Writing of Judith Butler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkenstein, Cathy

    2010-01-01

    It is hard to think of a writer whose work has been more prominently upheld as an example of bad academic writing than the philosopher and literary theorist Judith Butler. In 1998, Butler was awarded first prize in the annual Bad Writing Contest established by the journal "Philosophy and Literature," and early in 1999, was lampooned in an…

  3. Leading by Example? Investment Decisions in a Mixed Sequential-Simultaneous Public Bad Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, E.C.M.; Moxnes, E.

    2003-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of having a leader in a laboratory public bad experiment with five subjects in each group.The control treatment is a standard public bad experiment, while in the leader treatments the design is such that in each group the leader decides first on his or her

  4. Public bads and private firms: efficiency and sustainability with different allocations of voting rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prinz, Aloys; Burg, van der Tsjalle

    2013-01-01

    A number of authors have proposed that firms can internalize externalities through their shareholders. This paper investigates this proposition, focusing on public bads. Theoretically it is, indeed, possible that shareholders decide that the firm reduces its public bads at the cost of profits, there

  5. Medical students' attitudes towards breaking bad news: an empirical test of the World Health Organization model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valck, C. de; Bensing, J.; Bruynooghe, R.

    2001-01-01

    The literature regarding breaking bad news distinguishes three disclosure models: non-disclosure, full-disclosure and individualized disclosure. In this study, we investigated the relations between attitudes regarding disclosure of bad news and global professional attitudes regarding medical care in

  6. The “Bad Labor” Footprint: Quantifying the Social Impacts of Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moana S. Simas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The extent to what bad labor conditions across the globe are associated with international trade is unknown. Here, we quantify the bad labor conditions associated with consumption in seven world regions, the “bad labor” footprint. In particular, we analyze how much occupational health damage, vulnerable employment, gender inequality, share of unskilled workers, child labor, and forced labor is associated with the production of internationally traded goods. Our results show that (i as expected, there is a net flow of bad labor conditions from developing to developed regions; (ii the production of exported goods in lower income regions contributes to more than half of the bad labor footprints caused by the wealthy lifestyles of affluent regions; (iii exports from Asia constitute the largest global trade flow measured in the amount bad labor, while exports from Africa carry the largest burden of bad labor conditions per unit value traded and per unit of total labor required; and (IV the trade of food products stands out in both volume and intensity of bad labor conditions.

  7. Dynamics of self-esteem in "poor-me" and "bad-me" paranoia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udachina, Alisa; Varese, Filippo; Oorschot, Margreet; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Bentall, Richard P

    2012-09-01

    The dynamics of self-esteem and paranoia were examined in 41 patients with past or current paranoia and 23 controls using questionnaires and the Experience Sampling Method (a structured diary technique). For some analyses, patients were further divided into three groups: a) individuals who believed that persecution is underserved ("poor me"; PM), b) individuals who believed that persecution is justified ("bad me"; BM), and c) remitted patients. The results revealed that PM and especially BM patients had highly unstable psychological profiles. Beliefs about deservedness of persecution fluctuated over 6 days. BM beliefs were associated with low self-esteem and depression. Measured concurrently, paranoia predicted lower self-esteem in the BM patients. Prospectively, paranoia predicted lower subsequent self-esteem in BM patients but higher subsequent self-esteem in PM patients. Our results suggest that paranoia can serve a defensive function in some circumstances. The reasons for inconsistencies in self-esteem research in relation to paranoia are discussed.

  8. Biological and physiological role of reactive oxygen species--the good, the bad and the ugly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, L; Zhou, T; Pannell, B K; Ziegler, A C; Best, T M

    2015-07-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are chemically reactive molecules that are naturally produced within biological systems. Research has focused extensively on revealing the multi-faceted and complex roles that ROS play in living tissues. In regard to the good side of ROS, this article explores the effects of ROS on signalling, immune response and other physiological responses. To review the potentially bad side of ROS, we explain the consequences of high concentrations of molecules that lead to the disruption of redox homeostasis, which induces oxidative stress damaging intracellular components. The ugly effects of ROS can be observed in devastating cardiac, pulmonary, neurodegenerative and other disorders. Furthermore, this article covers the regulatory enzymes that mitigate the effects of ROS. Glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase are discussed in particular detail. The current understanding of ROS is incomplete, and it is imperative that future research be performed to understand the implications of ROS in various therapeutic interventions.

  9. Toroidal Variable-Line-Space Gratings: The Good, the Bad and The Ugly

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Edward A.; Kobayashi, Ken; Cirtain, Jonathan; Gary, Allen; Davis, John; Reader, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Toroidal variable-line-space (VLS) gratings are an important factor in the design of an efficient VUV solar telescope that will measure the CIV (155nm) and MgII (280nm) emissions lines in the Sun's transition region. In 1983 Kita and Harada described spherical VLS gratings but the technology to commercially fabricate these devices is a recent development, especially for toroidal surfaces. This paper will describe why this technology is important in the development of the Solar Ultraviolet Magnetograph Investigation (SUMI) sounding rocket program (the good), the delays due to the conversion between the TVLS grating design and the optical fabrication (the bad), and finally the optical testing, alignment and tolerancing of the gratings (the ugly). The Solar Ultraviolet Magnetograph Investigation, SUMI, has been reported in several papers since this program began in 2000. The emphasis of this paper is to describe SUMI's Toroidal Variable-Line-Space (TVLS) gratings. These gratings help SUMI meet its scientific goals which require both high spectral resolution and high optical efficiency for magnetic field measurements in the vacuum ultraviolet wavelength band of the solar spectrum (the good). Unfortunately, the technology readiness level of these gratings has made their implementation difficult, especially for a sounding rocket payload (the bad). Therefore, this paper emphasizes the problems and solutions that were developed to use these gratings in SUMI (the ugly). Section 2 contains a short review of the scientific goals of SUMI and why this mission is important in the understanding of the 3D structure of the magnetic field on the Sun. The flight hardware that makes up the SUMI payload is described in Section 3 with emphasis on those components that affect the TVLS gratings. Section 4 emphasizes the alignment, testing and optical modeling that were developed to optimize the performance of these gratings.

  10. Bad splits in bilateral sagittal split osteotomy: systematic review of fracture patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenen, S A; Becking, A G

    2016-07-01

    An unfavourable and unanticipated pattern of the mandibular sagittal split osteotomy is generally referred to as a 'bad split'. Few restorative techniques to manage the situation have been described. In this article, a classification of reported bad split pattern types is proposed and appropriate salvage procedures to manage the different types of undesired fracture are presented. A systematic review was undertaken, yielding a total of 33 studies published between 1971 and 2015. These reported a total of 458 cases of bad splits among 19,527 sagittal ramus osteotomies in 10,271 patients. The total reported incidence of bad split was 2.3% of sagittal splits. The most frequently encountered were buccal plate fractures of the proximal segment (types 1A-F) and lingual fractures of the distal segment (types 2A and 2B). Coronoid fractures (type 3) and condylar neck fractures (type 4) have seldom been reported. The various types of bad split may require different salvage approaches.

  11. A New Efficient Algorithm for the All Sorting Reversals Problem with No Bad Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Biing-Feng

    2016-01-01

    The problem of finding all reversals that take a permutation one step closer to a target permutation is called the all sorting reversals problem (the ASR problem). For this problem, Siepel had an O(n (3))-time algorithm. Most complications of his algorithm stem from some peculiar structures called bad components. Since bad components are very rare in both real and simulated data, it is practical to study the ASR problem with no bad components. For the ASR problem with no bad components, Swenson et al. gave an O (n(2))-time algorithm. Very recently, Swenson found that their algorithm does not always work. In this paper, a new algorithm is presented for the ASR problem with no bad components. The time complexity is O(n(2)) in the worst case and is linear in the size of input and output in practice.

  12. Bilateral bad pixel and Stokes image reconstruction for microgrid polarimetric imagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMaster, Daniel A.; Ratliff, Bradley M.

    2015-09-01

    Uncorrected or poorly corrected bad pixels reduce the effectiveness of polarimetric clutter suppression. In conventional microgrid processing, bad pixel correction is accomplished as a separate step from Stokes image reconstruction. Here, these two steps are combined to speed processing and provide better estimates of the entire image, including missing samples. A variation on the bilateral filter enables both edge preservation in the Stokes imagery and bad pixel suppression. Understanding the newly presented filter requires two key insights. First, the adaptive nature of the bilateral filter is extended to correct for bad pixels by simply incorporating a bad pixel mask. Second, the bilateral filter for Stokes estimation is the sum of the normalized bilateral filters for estimating each analyzer channel individually. This paper describes the new approach and compares it to our legacy method using simulated imagery.

  13. Structure, dynamical impact and origin of magnetic fields in nearby galaxies in the SKA era

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, Rainer; Colafrancesco, Sergio; Dettmar, Ralf-Jürgen; Ferrière, Katia; Fletcher, Andrew; Heald, George; Heesen, Volker; Horellou, Cathy; Krause, Marita; Lou, Yu-Qing; Mao, Sui Ann; Paladino, Rosita; Schinnerer, Eva; Sokoloff, Dmitry; Stil, Jeroen; Tabatabaei, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic fields are an important ingredient of the interstellar medium (ISM). Besides their importance for star formation, they govern the transport of cosmic rays, relevant to the launch and regulation of galactic outflows and winds, which in turn are pivotal in shaping the structure of halo magnetic fields. Mapping the small-scale structure of interstellar magnetic fields in many nearby galaxies is crucial to understand the interaction between gas and magnetic fields, in particular how gas flows are affected. Elucidation of the magnetic role in, e.g., triggering star formation, forming and stabilising spiral arms, driving outflows, gas heating by reconnection and magnetising the intergalactic medium has the potential to revolutionise our physical picture of the ISM and galaxy evolution in general. Radio polarisation observations in the very nearest galaxies at high frequencies (>= 3 GHz) and with high spatial resolution (<= 5") hold the key here. The galaxy survey with SKA1 that we propose will also be a...

  14. Optical Polarimetry of the Jets of Nearby Radio Galaxies: I. The Data

    CERN Document Server

    Perlman, E S; Georganopoulos, M; Sparks, W B; Biretta, J A; O'Dea, C P; Baum, S A; Birkinshaw, M; Worrall, D M; Dulwich, F; Jester, S; Martel, A; Capetti, A; Leahy, J P; Perlman, Eric S.; Georganopoulos, Markos; Sparks, William B.; Biretta, John A.; Dea, Christopher P. O'; Baum, Stefi A.; Birkinshaw, Mark; Dulwich, Fred; Jester, Sebastian; Martel, Andre; Capetti, Alessandro

    2006-01-01

    We present an overview of new HST imaging polarimetry of six nearby radio galaxies with optical jets. These observations triple the number of extragalactic jets with subarcsecond-resolution optical polarimetry. We discuss the polarization characteristics and optical morphology of each jet. We find evidence of high optical polarization, averaging 20%, but reaching upwards of $\\sim 50%$ in some objects, confirming that the optical emission is synchrotron, and that the components of the magnetic fields perpendicular to the line of sight are well ordered. We find a wide range of polarization morphologies, with each jet having a somewhat different relationship between total intensity and polarized flux and the polarization position angle. We find two trends in all of these jets. First, jet ``edges'' are very often associated with high fractional optical polarizations, as also found in earlier radio observations of these and other radio jets. In these regions, the magnetic field vectors appear to track the jet dire...

  15. SILICON ABUNDANCES IN NEARBY STARS FROM THE Si I INFRARED LINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, J. R.; Tan, K. F.; Zhao, G. [Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Takada-Hidai, M. [Liberal Arts Education Center, Tokai University, 4-1-1 Kitakaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan); Takeda, Y. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Hu, S. M.; Cao, C., E-mail: sjr@bao.ac.cn [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy and Solar-Terrestrial Environment, Shandong University at Weihai 264209 (China)

    2012-08-10

    We have used high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio infrared spectra from the Subaru Telescope atop Mauna Kea. Line formation calculations of Si I infrared lines in the atmospheres of nearby stars are presented. All abundance results of [Si/Fe] are derived from local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) and NLTE statistical equilibrium calculations and spectrum synthesis methods. We found that NLTE effects for Si I infrared lines are important even for metal-rich stars (>0.1 dex), and the NLTE effects may depend on the surface gravities. A good agreement of silicon abundances between the optical and infrared lines is obtained when the NLTE effects are included, while a large difference is found for the LTE results. The derived silicon abundances are overabundant for metal-poor stars.

  16. An Ultraviolet-to-Radio Broadband Spectral Atlas of Nearby Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Dale, D A; Gordon, K D; Hanson, H M; Armus, L; Bendo, G J; Bianchi, L; Block, M; Boissier, S; Boselli, A; Buckalew, B A; Buat, V; Burgarella, D; Calzetti, D; Cannon, J M; Engelbracht, C W; Helou, G; Hollenbach, D J; Jarrett, T H; Kennicutt, R C; Leitherer, C; Li, A; Madore, B F; Meyer, M J; Murphy, E J; Regan, M W; Roussel, H; Smith, J D T; Sosey, M L; Thilker, D A; Walter, F

    2006-01-01

    The ultraviolet-to-radio continuum spectral energy distributions are presented for all 75 galaxies in the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS). A principal component analysis of the sample shows that most of the sample's spectral variations stem from two underlying components, one representative of a galaxy with a low infrared-to-ultraviolet ratio and one representative of a galaxy with a high infrared-to-ultraviolet ratio. The influence of several parameters on the infrared-to-ultraviolet ratio is studied (e.g., optical morphology, disk inclination, far-infrared color, ultraviolet spectral slope, and star formation history). Consistent with our understanding of normal star-forming galaxies, the SINGS sample of galaxies in comparison to more actively star-forming galaxies exhibits a larger dispersion in the infrared-to-ultraviolet versus ultraviolet spectral slope correlation. Early type galaxies, exhibiting low star formation rates and high optical surface brightnesses, have the most discrepant in...

  17. Pluto behaving badly: false beliefs and their consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Shari R; Laney, Cara; Morris, Erin K; Garry, Maryanne; Loftus, Elizabeth F

    2008-01-01

    We exposed college students to suggestive materials in order to lead them to believe that, as children, they had a negative experience at Disneyland involving the Pluto character. A sizable minority of subjects developed a false belief or memory that Pluto had uncomfortably licked their ear. Suggestions about a positive experience with Pluto led to even greater acceptance of a lovable ear-licking episode. False beliefs and memories had repercussions; those seduced by the bad suggestions were not willing to pay as much for a Pluto souvenir. These findings are among the first to demonstrate that false beliefs can have repercussions for people, meaning that they can influence their later thoughts, beliefs, and behaviors.

  18. Wrapping up the bad news – HIV assembly and release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Bo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The late Nobel Laureate Sir Peter Medawar once memorably described viruses as ‘bad news wrapped in protein’. Virus assembly in HIV is a remarkably well coordinated process in which the virus achieves extracellular budding using primarily intracellular budding machinery and also the unusual phenomenon of export from the cell of an RNA. Recruitment of the ESCRT system by HIV is one of the best documented examples of the comprehensive way in which a virus hijacks a normal cellular process. This review is a summary of our current understanding of the budding process of HIV, from genomic RNA capture through budding and on to viral maturation, but centering on the proteins of the ESCRT pathway and highlighting some recent advances in our understanding of the cellular components involved and the complex interplay between the Gag protein and the genomic RNA.

  19. EXERCISE WITH BAD FAITH OF SUBJECTIVE CIVIL RIGHTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLAE GRADINARU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The abuse of rights is qualified as civil offence and it may not be different from that of aquilian responsibility, the purpose of its sanction is to protect the victim and not to punish the author. In the Romanian legal doctrine, the abuse of rights was defined as “the exercise of a civil subjective right by breaching the principles of its exercise.” The Constitutional Court held that the person exercising in bad faith and abusively his/her subjective or procedural rights is punishable by appropriate penalties, such as: dismissal of his/her legal action, obligation to bear the costs, application of certain court fines, etc.

  20. Spreadsheets - the Good, the Bad and the Downright Ugly

    CERN Document Server

    Dunn, Angus

    2010-01-01

    Spreadsheets are ubiquitous, heavily relied on throughout vast swathes of finance, commerce, industry, academia and Government. They are also acknowledged to be extraordinarily and unacceptably prone to error. If these two points are accepted, it has to follow that their uncontrolled use has the potential to inflict considerable damage. One approach to controlling such error should be to define as "good practice" a set of characteristics that a spreadsheet must possess and as "bad practice" another set that it must avoid. Defining such characteristics should, in principle, perfectly do-able. However, being able to say with authority at a definite moment that any particular spreadsheet complies with these characteristics is very much more difficult. The author asserts that the use of automated spreadsheet development could markedly help in ensuring and demonstrating such compliance.

  1. The Fine Structure of Dyadically Badly Approximable Numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsson, Johan

    2010-01-01

    We consider badly approximable numbers in the case of dyadic diophantine approximation. For the unit circle $\\mathbb{S}$ and the smallest distance to an integer $\\|\\cdot\\|$ we give elementary proofs that the set $F(c) = \\{x \\in \\mathbb{S}: \\|2^nx\\| \\geq c, n\\geq 0\\}$ is a fractal set whose Hausdorff dimension depends continuously on $c$, is constant on intervals which form a set of Lebesgue measure 1 and is self-similar. Hence it has a fractal graph. Moreover, the dimension of $F(c)$ is zero if and only if $c\\geq 1-2\\tau$, where $\\tau$ is the Thue-Morse constant. We completely characterise the intervals where the dimension remains unchanged. As a consequence we can completely describe the graph of $ c\\mapsto \\dim_H \\{x\\in[0,1]: \\|x-\\frac{m}{2^n}\\|< \\frac{c}{2^n} \\textnormal{finitely often}\\}$.

  2. BAD-mediated apoptotic pathway is associated with human cancer development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickles, Xiaomang B; Marchion, Douglas C; Bicaku, Elona; Al Sawah, Entidhar; Abbasi, Forough; Xiong, Yin; Bou Zgheib, Nadim; Boac, Bernadette M; Orr, Brian C; Judson, Patricia L; Berry, Amy; Hakam, Ardeshir; Wenham, Robert M; Apte, Sachin M; Berglund, Anders E; Lancaster, Johnathan M

    2015-04-01

    The malignant transformation of normal cells is caused in part by aberrant gene expression disrupting the regulation of cell proliferation, apoptosis, senescence and DNA repair. Evidence suggests that the Bcl-2 antagonist of cell death (BAD)-mediated apoptotic pathway influences cancer chemoresistance. In the present study, we explored the role of the BAD-mediated apoptotic pathway in the development and progression of cancer. Using principal component analysis to derive a numeric score representing pathway expression, we evaluated clinico-genomic datasets (n=427) from corresponding normal, pre-invasive and invasive cancers of different types, such as ovarian, endometrial, breast and colon cancers in order to determine the associations between the BAD-mediated apoptotic pathway and cancer development. Immunofluorescence was used to compare the expression levels of phosphorylated BAD [pBAD (serine-112, -136 and -155)] in immortalized normal and invasive ovarian, colon and breast cancer cells. The expression of the BAD-mediated apoptotic pathway phosphatase, PP2C, was evaluated by RT-qPCR in the normal and ovarian cancer tissue samples. The growth-promoting effects of pBAD protein levels in the immortalized normal and cancer cells were assessed using siRNA depletion experiments with MTS assays. The expression of the BAD-mediated apoptotic pathway was associated with the development and/or progression of ovarian (n=106, pcancers, as well as with ovarian endometriosis (n=20, pcancer cells compared to the immortalized normal cells, whereas PP2C gene expression was lower in the cancer compared to the ovarian tumor tissue samples (n=76, pcancer cells. The BAD-mediated apoptotic pathway is thus associated with the development of human cancers likely influenced by the protein levels of pBAD.

  3. Bad and Bid - potential background players in preneoplastic to neoplastic shift in human endometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driak, D; Dvorska, M; Bolehovska, P; Svandova, I; Novotny, J; Halaska, M

    2014-01-01

    The most common malignancies of the female genital tract are endometrial carcinomas, whose are generally proceeded by hyperplasia. The maintenance of tissue homeostasis is to great extent governed by apoptosis, whose defects can lead to the preneoplastic and/or cancerous changes. Endometrial apoptosis involves among others three groups of proteins of the Bcl-2 family. First group contains anti-apoptotic proteins (e. g. Bcl-2, Bcl-xL). The other two groups belong to the pro-apoptotic proteins with three (e. g. Bax, Bak) or one (e. g. Bad, Bid) so-called BH domains. Bad and Bid trigger the oligomerization of Bak and Bax protein, which permeabilize the outer mitochondrial wall. Unlike Bid, Bad cannot directly trigger apoptosis. Instead, Bad lowers the threshold at which apoptosis is induced, by binding anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins. However, their mutual counterbalance or synergism in the human endometrium has not been reported yet.In this study, the levels of Bid and Bad were measured using SDS-PAGE and Western blotting with specific antibodies, with the aim to analyse expression of Bid and Bad proteins in normal (NE), hyperplastic (HE) and cancerous (CE) endometrium. We demonstrated that Bid expression in CE reached only 47% and 50% of this observed in NE and HE. Conversely, Bad expression in HE reached only 40% and 36% of this observed in NE and CE, respectively. We detected no significant changes of Bid expression between HE and NE, and levels of Bad protein were not different between CE and NE.Trend of Bid and Bad protein expression is clearly opposite in HE and CE. We hypothesise that disrupted apoptotic program in CE seems to be reduced further by lowering levels of direct apoptotic trigger protein Bid. We suggest that the adenocarcinoma tissue of human endometrium thus tries to strengthen its apoptotic effort by lowering the apoptotic threshold via higher Bad levels.

  4. Targeting proapoptotic protein BAD inhibits survival and self-renewal of cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastry, K S R; Al-Muftah, M A; Li, Pu; Al-Kowari, M K; Wang, E; Ismail Chouchane, A; Kizhakayil, D; Kulik, G; Marincola, F M; Haoudi, A; Chouchane, L

    2014-12-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that the resistance of cancer stem cells (CSC) to many conventional therapies is one of the major limiting factors of cancer therapy efficacy. Identification of mechanisms responsible for survival and self-renewal of CSC will help design new therapeutic strategies that target and eliminate both differentiated cancer cells and CSC. Here we demonstrated the potential role of proapoptotic protein BAD in the biology of CSC in melanoma, prostate and breast cancers. We enriched CD44(+)/CD24(-) cells (CSC) by tumorosphere formation and purified this population by FACS. Both spheres and CSC exhibited increased potential for proliferation, migration, invasion, sphere formation, anchorage-independent growth, as well as upregulation of several stem cell-associated markers. We showed that the phosphorylation of BAD is essential for the survival of CSC. Conversely, ectopic expression of a phosphorylation-deficient mutant BAD induced apoptosis in CSC. This effect was enhanced by treatment with a BH3-mimetic, ABT-737. Both pharmacological agents that inhibit survival kinases and growth factors that are involved in drug resistance delivered their respective cytotoxic and protective effects by modulating the BAD phosphorylation in CSC. Furthermore, the frequency and self-renewal capacity of CSC was significantly reduced by knocking down the BAD expression. Consistent with our in vitro results, significant phosphorylation of BAD was found in CD44(+) CSC of 83% breast tumor specimens. In addition, we also identified a positive correlation between BAD expression and disease stage in prostate cancer, suggesting a role of BAD in tumor advancement. Our studies unveil the role of BAD in the survival and self-renewal of CSC and propose BAD not only as an attractive target for cancer therapy but also as a marker of tumor progression.

  5. A Series of Medium and High Copy Number Arabinose-Inducible Escherichia coli Expression Vectors Compatible with pBR322 and pACYC184

    OpenAIRE

    Chakravartty, Vandana; Cronan, John E.

    2015-01-01

    The original pBAD24 plasmid and the derived lower copy number (the pBAD322 series) expression vectors have been widely used in Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, and related bacteria. However, a flexible pBAD expression system has been available only in pMB1 (ColE1) vectors. We report a series of pBAD vectors that replicate using the origin of plasmid RSF1030 that are compatible with pMB1 (ColE1) and p15A (pACYC) vectors. Both high (≥pBAD24) and medium (~pBAD322) copy number plasmids enco...

  6. Kinematics of nearby K-M dwarfs: first results .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upgren, A. R.; Boyle, R. P.; Sperauskas, J.; Bartašiūtė, S.

    The lists of stars selected spectroscopically by Vyssotsky at the McCormick Observatory and the 4th version of the Catalogue of Nearby Stars (CNS4) are two major sources of nearby K-M dwarfs, which complement each other and provide a kinematically unbiased sample of about 1400 such stars. With the addition of Hipparcos and Tycho astrometry, this stellar sample offers perhaps best insight on the kinematical properties of the lower main sequence stars in the immediate solar neighborhood. Until recently, however, the main limitation in observational data for this sample was the lack of well determined radial velocities, especially for fainter magnitude stars. Therefore our first goal was to perform radial velocity observations for one-third of the sample stars which had no accurate or any radial velocity data. Using the CORAVEL spectrometer of Vilnius University Observatory, attached to the 1.5-m NASA and 1.6-m Kuiper telescopes at Steward Observatory, US, and the 1.6-m telescope at Molėtai Observatory, Lithuania, radial velocities have been recently measured for 475 K-M dwarfs. These observations, together with previous radial-velocity data and available astrometry, are used to derive complete kinematical information on the sample stars. Preliminary analysis shows the presence of different age populations which dominate in different regions of the asymmetric drift: from the young disk component, showing no lag behind the rotational motion of the Sun, to the thick disk stars which make up an extended asymmetric tail. Assuming that the U and W velocity components have zero motion relative to the LSR, and that the asymmetric drift is proportional to sigma 2_U, we find the peculiar motion of the Sun relative to the LSR (U_⊙, V_⊙, W_⊙)= (9.3± 1.3, 5.9± 0.8, 6.9±0.7) km s-1. No attempt was made at this stage of work to determine V_⊙ directly from the mean V-motion of the young disk stars. After completion of the radial-velocity program, the next step will be to

  7. Full stellar kinematical profiles of central parts of nearby galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vudragović, A.; Samurović, S.; Jovanović, M.

    2016-09-01

    Context. We present the largest catalog of detailed stellar kinematics of the central parts of nearby galaxies, which includes higher moments of the line-of-sight velocity distribution (LOSVD) function represented by the Gauss-Hermite series. The kinematics is measured on a sample of galaxies selected from the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (Alfalfa) survey using spectroscopy from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS DR7). Aims: The SDSS DR7 offers measurements of the LOSVD based on the assumption of a pure Gaussian shape of the broadening function caused by the combination of rotational and random motion of the stars in galaxies. We discuss the consequences of this oversimplification since the velocity dispersion, one of the measured quantities, often serves as the proxy to important modeling parameters such as the black-hole mass and the virial mass of galaxies. Methods: The publicly available pPXF code is used to calculate the full kinematical profile for the sample galaxies including higher moments of their LOSVD. Both observed and synthetic stellar libraries were used and the related template mismatch problem is discussed. Results: For the whole sample of 2180 nearby galaxies reflecting morphological distribution characteristic for the local Universe, we successfully recovered stellar kinematics of their central parts, including higher order moments of the LOSVD function, for signal-to-noise above 50. Conclusions: We show the consequences of the oversimplification of the LOSVD function with Gaussian function on the velocity dispersion for the empirical and the synthetic stellar library. For the empirical stellar library, this approximation leads to an increase in the virial mass of 13% on average, while for the synthetic library the effect is weaker, with an increase of 9% on average. Systematic erroneous estimates of the velocity dispersion comes from the use of the synthetic stellar library instead of the empirical one and is much larger than the value imposed by

  8. Spatial analysis of IRAS observations of nearby spirals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Roger; Lo, R. Y.

    1990-01-01

    The unbiased survey of the infrared sky carried out by the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) satellite has greatly accelerated advances in understanding the dust component of our own and external galaxies. However, most extragalactic studies to date have been based on the IRAS Point Source Catalog (PSC), which has two serious limitations. First, in sources where a significant fraction of the flux is extended, significant errors may result from using PSC fluxes in comparative studies, and these errors could be systematic if the tendency to be non-pointlike depends on physical properties of the galaxy. Additionally, use of PSC fluxes rules out any direct investigation of the spatial distribution of the IRAS emission from disks in external galaxies. Since work on the Galactic IRAS results has shown that very different physical processes can make varying contributions to the observed flux, it is important to look at a wide sample of galaxies with some spatial resolution to study the relative dominance of these processes under a variety of conditions. Here, researchers report on work they are doing to carry out this program for many nearby spirals, using an analysis package that was developed for this purpose. Researchers carried out analysis for a sample of 121 nearby spirals. The fraction of the flux contained in a point source varies from 0 to 1 across the sample, all of which are well resolved at their nominal optical diameters. There is no evidence that the galaxies of smaller angular size are less likely to be resolved by IRAS at this level. The program gives results which are quite repeatable from scan to scan; the fraction f (point source flux over total flux) at 60 microns has typical errors of 0.03 when different scans are combined. Approximately two-thirds of the sample have more flux in the extended than in the nuclear component. There is a tendency for earlier-type spirals to be less centrally concentrated, but this effect is slight and the degree of

  9. The Dharma Planet Survey of Low-mass and Habitable Rocky Planets around Nearby Solar-type Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jian; Ma, Bo; Jeram, Sarik; Sithajan, Sirinrat; Singer, Michael; Muterspaugh, Matthew W.; Varosi, Frank; Schofield, Sidney; Liu, Jian; Kimock, Benjamin; Powell, Scott; Williamson, Michael W.; Herczeg, Aleczander; Grantham, Jim; Stafford, Greg; Hille, Bruce; Rosenbaum, Gary; Savage, David; Bland, Steve; Hoscheidt, Joseph; Swindle, Scott; Waidanz, Melanie; Petersen, Robert; Grieves, Nolan; Zhao, Bo; Cassette, Anthony; Chun, Andrew; Avner, Louis; Barnes, Rory; Tan, Jonathan C.; Lopez, Eric; Dai, Ruijia

    2017-01-01

    The Dharma Planet Survey (DPS) aims to monitor ~150 nearby very bright FGK dwarfs (most of them brighter than V=7) during 2016-2019 using the TOU optical very high resolution spectrograph (R~100,000, 380-900nm) at the dedicated 50-inch Robotic Telescope on Mt. Lemmon. Operated in high vacuum (measurement precision for bright survey targets. With very high RV precision and high cadence (~100 observations per target randomly spread over 450 days), a large number of rocky planets, including possible habitable ones, are expected to be detected. The discovery of a Neptune mass planet and early survey results will be announced.

  10. Factors Influencing Readmission After Pancreaticoduodenectomy: Is there a List of Bad and Very Bad?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Generoso Uomo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Pancreaticoduodenectomy is the most common operation performed for cancer of the head of the pancreas, periampullary tumors, benign neoplasms and other non-neoplastic conditions such as chronic pancreatitis. Morbidity, mortality, and length of hospital stay after pancreaticoduodenectomy have significantly decreased over recent decades. Despite this progress, early readmission rates after pancreaticoduodenectomy have been reported as high as 50%. Clinical-pathological factors associated with readmission after pancreaticoduodenectomy have been poorly investigated with few studies available on this topic. Recently, a well-powered multicentre study coordinated by the Department of Surgery, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, USA, was published with the aim to better understood factors influencing readmission after pancreaticoduodenectomy [1]. The study was retrospective with the medical records of 6 high-volume institutions reviewed for patients who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy between 2005 and 2010. Data collection included patient characteristics, medical comorbidities, and perioperative factors. Analysis included readmissions up to 90 days after pancreaticoduodenectomy. A total of 1,302 patients underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy across all institutions. The 30-day and 90-day readmission rates were 15% and 19%, respectively. The most common reasons for 30- day readmission included infectious complications (n=65 and delayed gastric emptying (n=29. The most common reasons for readmission after 90 days included wound infections and intra-abdominal abscess (n=75 and failure to thrive (n=38. On multivariate analysis, factors associated with higher readmission rates included a preoperative diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis, higher transfusion requirements, and postoperative complications including intra-abdominal abscess and pancreatic fistula (all P<0.02. Factors not associated with higher readmission rates included

  11. Mid-UV HST Imaging of Nearby Late-Type, Irregular, and Peculiar Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, V. A.; Windhorst, R. A.; Chiarenza, C. A. T.; Odewahn, S. C.; Conselice, C. J.; MacKenty, J.; de Jong, R. S.; de Grijs, R.; Eskridge, P. B.; Frogel, J. A.; Gallagher, J. S.; Kobulnicky, H.; Hibbard, J. E.; Matthews, L. D.; O'Connell, R. W.

    2000-12-01

    Distant galaxies observed by HST appear to have primarily late-type, irregular, or peculiar morphologies. However, because of their high redshift they are observed in their restframe mid-UV. Nearby galaxies can look dramatically different in the rest-frame mid- and far-UV. We must therefore ask if these high redshift morphologies are due to real evolutionary effects or band-pass shifting and surface brightness dimming at high redshift. To address this, we have conducted a survey with HST of 37 nearby galaxies of various Hubble types and inclinations in two mid-UV bands. Most of these galaxies have supporting ground based data in UBVRJHK. A comparison of the photometric properties of these galaxies in these different band-passes will lead to a better ability to separate true evolutionary effects from the morphological K-correction. We will present and discuss preliminary results from the HST survey and ground-based observations in UBVR. Our preliminary results suggest that the late-types imaged so far are a heterogeneous mixture. More than half of the few irregulars/peculiars/mergers show a mid-UV F300W morphology that is similar to I-band F814W, but with important differences due to recognizable dust-lanes blocking out UV light, star-formation ``ridges,'' and hot stars or star-clusters that are mostly visible in F300W but not in F814W. Others yield significantly different classifications in F300W and F814W. We acknowledge NASA grant GO-8645.01-99A from STScI and the NASA Space Grant. This project is based on observations with the VATT: the Alice P. Lennon Telescope and the Thomas J. Bannan Astrophysics Facility.

  12. An Ultraviolet-to-Radio Broadband Spectral Atlas of Nearby Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, D. A.; Gil de Paz, A.; Gordon, K. D.; Hanson, H. M.; Armus, L.; Bendo, G. J.; Bianchi, L.; Block, M.; Boissier, S.; Boselli, A.; Buckalew, B. A.; Buat, V.; Burgarella, D.; Calzetti, D.; Cannon, J. M.; Engelbracht, C. W.; Helou, G.; Hollenbach, D. J.; Jarrett, T. H.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Leitherer, C.; Li, A.; Madore, B. F.; Martin, D. C.; Meyer, M. J.; Murphy, E. J.; Regan, M. W.; Roussel, H.; Smith, J. D. T.; Sosey, M. L.; Thilker, D. A.; Walter, F.

    2007-02-01

    The ultraviolet-to-radio continuum spectral energy distributions are presented for all 75 galaxies in the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS). A principal component analysis of the sample shows that most of the sample's spectral variations stem from two underlying components, one representative of a galaxy with a low infrared-to-ultraviolet ratio and one representative of a galaxy with a high infrared-to-ultraviolet ratio. The influence of several parameters on the infrared-to-ultraviolet ratio is studied (e.g., optical morphology, disk inclination, far-infrared color, ultraviolet spectral slope, and star formation history). Consistent with our understanding of normal star-forming galaxies, the SINGS sample of galaxies in comparison to more actively star-forming galaxies exhibits a larger dispersion in the infrared-to-ultraviolet versus ultraviolet spectral slope correlation. Early-type galaxies, exhibiting low star formation rates and high optical surface brightnesses, have the most discrepant infrared-to-ultraviolet correlation. These results suggest that the star formation history may be the dominant regulator of the broadband spectral variations between galaxies. Finally, a new discovery shows that the 24 μm morphology can be a useful tool for parameterizing the global dust temperature and ultraviolet extinction in nearby galaxies. The dust emission in dwarf/irregular galaxies is clumpy and warm accompanied by low ultraviolet extinction, while in spiral galaxies there is typically a much larger diffuse component of cooler dust and average ultraviolet extinction. For galaxies with nuclear 24 μm emission, the dust temperature and ultraviolet extinction are relatively high compared to disk galaxies.

  13. A survey of the molecular ISM properties of nearby galaxies using the Herschel FTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamenetzky, J. [Also at Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA. (United States); Rangwala, N. [Visiting Scientist, Space Science and Astrobiology Division, NASA Ames Research Center. (United States); Glenn, J.; Maloney, P. R.; Conley, A., E-mail: jkamenetzky@as.arizona.edu [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado at Boulder, 389-UCB, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2014-11-10

    The {sup 12}CO J = 4 → 3 to J = 13 → 12 lines of the interstellar medium from nearby galaxies, newly observable with the Herschel SPIRE Fourier transform spectrometer, offer an opportunity to study warmer, more luminous molecular gas than that traced by {sup 12}CO J = 1 → 0. Here we present a survey of 17 nearby infrared-luminous galaxy systems (21 pointings). In addition to photometric modeling of dust, we modeled full {sup 12}CO spectral line energy distributions from J = 1 → 0 to J = 13 → 12 with two components of warm and cool CO gas, and included LTE analysis of [C I], [C II], [N II], and H{sub 2} lines. CO is emitted from a low-pressure/high-mass component traced by the low-J lines and a high-pressure/low-mass component that dominates the luminosity. We found that, on average, the ratios of the warm/cool pressure, mass, and {sup 12}CO luminosity are 60 ± 30, 0.11 ± 0.02, and 15.6 ± 2.7. The gas-to-dust-mass ratios are <120 throughout the sample. The {sup 12}CO luminosity is dominated by the high-J lines and is 4 × 10{sup –4} L {sub FIR} on average. We discuss systematic effects of single-component and multi-component CO modeling (e.g., single-component J ≤ 3 models overestimate gas pressure by ∼0.5 dex), as well as compare to Galactic star-forming regions. With this comparison, we show the molecular interstellar medium of starburst galaxies is not simply an ensemble of Galactic-type giant molecular clouds. The warm gas emission is likely dominated by regions resembling the warm extended cloud of Sgr B2.

  14. Dissecting the assembly and star formation history of disks and bulges in nearby spirals using the VENGA IFU survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Andreia Jessica; Jogee, Shardha; Kaplan, Kyle; Weinzirl, Tim; Blanc, Guillermo A.

    2017-06-01

    Integral field spectroscopy of nearby galaxies provides a powerful and unparalleled tool for studying how galaxies assemble the different components -- the bulge, bar, and disk-- that define the Hubble sequence. We explore the assembly and star formation history of these components using galaxies in the VIRUS-P Exploration of Nearby Galaxies (VENGA) survey of 30 nearby spiral galaxies. Compared to other integral field spectroscopy studies of spirals, our study benefits from high spatial sampling and resolution (typically a few 100 pc), large coverage from the bulge to the outer disk, broad wavelength range (3600-6800 A), and medium spectral resolution (120 km/s at 5000 A). In this poster, we present the methodology and data illustrating the exquisite, high-quality, spatially-resolved spectra out to large radii, and the distribution, kinematics, and metallicity of stars and ionized gas. We discuss the next steps in deriving the star formation history (SFH) of bulge, bar, and disk components, and elucidating their assembly pathway by comparing their SFH and structural properties to theoretical models of galaxy evolution. This project is supported by the NSF grants AST-1614798 and AST-1413652.

  15. Origins Space Telescope: Interstellar Medium, Milky Way, and Nearby Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battersby, Cara; Origins Space Telescope Study Team

    2017-01-01

    The Origins Space Telescope (OST) is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, a study in development by NASA in preparation for the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey. Origins is planned to be a large aperture, actively-cooled telescope covering a wide span of the mid- to far-infrared spectrum. Its imagers and spectrographs will enable a variety of surveys of the sky that will discover and characterize the most distant galaxies, Milky-Way, exoplanets, and the outer reaches of our Solar system. Origins will enable flagship-quality general observing programs led by the astronomical community in the 2030s. The Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) would like to hear your science needs and ideas for this mission. The team can be contacted at firsurveyor_info@lists.ipac.caltech.edu.This presentation will provide a summary of the science case related to the Interstellar Medium (ISM), the Milky Way, and Nearby Galaxies. Origins will enable a comprehensive view of magnetic fields, turbulence, and the multi-phase ISM; connecting physics at all scales, from galaxies to protostellar cores. With unprecedented sensitivity, Origins will measure and characterize the mechanisms of feedback from star formation and Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) over cosmic time and trace the trail of water from interstellar clouds, to protoplanetary disks, to Earth itself in order to understand the abundance and availability of water for habitable planets.

  16. The Nuclear Activities of Nearby S0 Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, Mengyuan; Chen, Yanmei; Zhou, Luwenjia

    2016-01-01

    We present a study of nuclear activities in nearby S0 galaxies. After cross-matching the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 (SDSS DR7) with the Third Reference Catalog of Bright Galaxies (RC3) and visually checking the SDSS images, we derive a sample of 583 S0 galaxies with the central spectrophotometric information. In order to separate nebular emission lines from the underlying stellar contribution, we fit the stellar population model to the SDSS spectra of these S0 galaxies. According to the BPT diagram, we find that $8\\%$ of S0 galaxies show central star-forming activity, while the fractions of Seyfert, Composite and LINERs are 2\\%, 8\\%, and 21.4\\%, respectively. We also find that star-forming S0s have the lowest stellar masses, over one magnitude lower than the others, and that the active S0s locate mainly in the sparse environment, while the normal S0s in the dense environment, which might suggest that the environment plays an important role in quenching star formation and/or AGN activity in S0 gal...

  17. Starbursts versus Truncated Star Formation in Nearby Clusters of Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Rose, J A; Caldwell, N; Chaboyer, B; Rose, James A.; Gaba, Alejandro E.; Caldwell, Nelson; Chaboyer, Brian

    2001-01-01

    We present long-slit spectroscopy, B and R bandpass imaging, and 21 cm observations of a sample of early-type galaxies in nearby clusters which are known to be either in a star-forming phase or to have had star formation which recently terminated. From the long-slit spectra, obtained with the Blanco 4-m telescope, we find that emission lines in the star-forming cluster galaxies are significantly more centrally concentrated than in a sample of field galaxies. The broadband imaging reveals that two currently star-forming early-type galaxies in the Pegasus I cluster have blue nuclei, again indicating that recent star formation has been concentrated. In contrast, the two galaxies for which star formation has already ended show no central color gradient. The Pegasus I galaxy with the most evident signs of ongoing star formation (NGC7648), exhibits signatures of a tidal encounter. Neutral hydrogen observations of that galaxy with the Arecibo radiotelescope reveal the presence of ~4 x 10^8 solar masses of HI. Arecib...

  18. Molecular Gas and Star Formation in Nearby Disk Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Leroy, Adam K; Sandstrom, Karin; Schruba, Andreas; Munoz-Mateos, Juan-Carlos; Bigiel, Frank; Bolatto, Alberto; Brinks, Elias; de Blok, W J G; Meidt, Sharon; Rix, Hans-Walter; Rosolowsky, Erik; Schinnerer, Eva; Schuster, Karl-Friedrich; Usero, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    We compare molecular gas traced by 12CO(2-1) maps from the HERACLES survey, with tracers of the recent star formation rate (SFR) across 30 nearby disk galaxies. We demonstrate a first-order linear correspondence between Sig_mol and Sig_SFR but also find important second-order systematic variations in the apparent molecular gas depletion time, t_dep^mol = Sig_mol / Sig_SFR. At our 1 kpc common resolution, CO correlates closely with many tracers of the recent SFR. Weighting each line of sight equally and using a fixed, Milky Way alpha_CO, our data yield a molecular gas depletion time, t_dep^mol=Sig_mol/Sig_SFR ~ 2.2 Gyr with 0.3 dex scatter, in good agreement with literature data. We apply a forward-modeling approach to constrain the power-law index, N, that relates the SFR surface density and the molecular gas surface density and find N=1+/-0.15 for our full data set with some variation from galaxy to galaxy. However, we caution that a power law treatment oversimplifies the topic given that we observe correlat...

  19. Could a nearby supernova explosion have caused a mass extinction?

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Jonathan Richard

    1995-01-01

    We examine the possibility that a nearby supernova explosion could have caused one or more of the mass extinctions identified by palaeontologists. We discuss the likely rate of such events in the light of the recent identification of Geminga as a supernova remnant less than 100 pc away and the discovery of a millisecond pulsar about 150 pc away, and observations of SN 1987A. The fluxes of $\\gamma$ radiation and charged cosmic rays on the Earth are estimated, and their effects on the Earth's ozone layer discussed. A supernova explosion of the order of 10 pc away could be expected every few hundred million years, and could destroy the ozone layer for hundreds of years, letting in potentially lethal solar ultraviolet radiation. In addition to effects on land ecology, this could entail mass destruction of plankton and reef communities, with disastrous consequences for marine life as well. A supernova extinction should be distinguishable from a meteorite impact such as the one that presumably killed the dinosaurs.

  20. Resolved Near-Infrared Stellar Populations in Nearby Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Dalcanton, Julianne J; Melbourne, Jason L; Girardi, Léo; Dolphin, Andy; Rosenfield, Philip A; Boyer, Martha L; de Jong, Roelof S; Gilbert, Karoline; Marigo, Paola; Olsen, Knut; Seth, Anil C; Skillman, Evan

    2011-01-01

    We present near-infrared (NIR) color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) for the resolved stellar populations within 26 fields of 23 nearby galaxies (<4 Mpc), based on F110W and F160W images from Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The CMDs sample both old dormant and young star-forming populations. We match key NIR CMD features with their counterparts in optical CMDs, and identify the red core Helium burning (RHeB) sequence as a significant contributor to the NIR flux in stellar populations younger than a few 100 Myrs old, suggesting that star formation can drive surprisingly rapid variations in the NIR mass-to-light ratio. The NIR luminosity of star forming galaxies is therefore not necessarily proportional to the stellar mass. We note that these individual bright RHeB stars may be misidentified as old stellar clusters in low resolution imaging. We also discuss the CMD location of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, and the separation of AGB sub-populations using a combination of optic...

  1. Cosmic flows in the nearby universe from Type Ia Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Turnbull, Stephen J; Feldman, Hume A; Hicken, Malcolm; Kirshner, Robert P; Watkin, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Peculiar velocities are one of the only probes of very large-scale mass density fluctuations in the nearby Universe. We present new "minimal variance" bulk flow measurements based upon the "First Amendment" compilation of 245 Type Ia supernovae (SNe) peculiar velocities and find a bulk flow of 249 +/- 76 km/s in the direction l= 319 +/- 18 deg, b = 7 +/- 14 deg. The SNe bulk flow is consistent with the expectations of \\Lambda CDM. However, it is also marginally consistent with the bulk flow of a larger compilation of non-SNe peculiar velocities (Watkins, Feldman, & Hudson 2009). By comparing the SNe peculiar velocities to predictions of the IRAS Point Source Catalog Redshift survey (PSCz) galaxy density field, we find \\Omega_{m}^{0.55} \\sigma_{8,lin} = 0.40 +/- 0.07, which is in agreement with \\Lambda CDM. However, we also show that the PSCz density field fails to account for 150 +/- 43 km/s of the SNe bulk motion.

  2. Excesses of Cosmic Ray Spectra from A Single Nearby Source

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Wei; Lin, Su-Jie; Wang, Bing-Bing; Yin, Peng-Fei

    2016-01-01

    Growing evidence reveals universal hardening on various cosmic ray spectra, e.g. proton, positron, as well as antiproton fraction. Such universality may indicate they have a common origin. In this paper, we argue that these widespread excesses can be accounted for by a nearby supernova remnant surrounded by a giant molecular cloud. Secondary cosmic rays ($\\rm p$, $\\rm e^+$) are produced through the collisions between the primary cosmic ray nuclei from this supernova remnant and the molecular gas. Different from the background, which is produced by the ensemble of large amount of sources in the Milky Way, the local injected spectrum can be harder. The time-dependent transport of particles would make the propagated spectrum even harder. Under this scenario, the anomalies of both primary ($\\rm p$, $\\rm e^-$) and secondary ($\\rm e^+$, $\\rm \\bar{p}/p$) cosmic rays can be properly interpreted. We further show that the TeV to sub-PeV anisotropy of proton is consistent with the observations if the local source is rel...

  3. H{\\alpha} Imaging of Nearby Seyfert Host Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Theios, R L; Ross, N R

    2016-01-01

    We used narrowband interference filters with the CCD imaging camera on the Nickel 1.0 meter telescope at Lick Observatory to observe 31 nearby (z < 0.03) Seyfert galaxies in the 12 {\\mu}m Active Galaxy Sample. We obtained pure emission line images of each galaxy in order to separate H{\\alpha} emission from the nucleus from that of the host galaxy. The extended H{\\alpha} emission is expected to be powered by newly formed hot stars, and correlates well with other indicators of current star formation in these galaxies: 7.7 {\\mu}m PAH, far-infrared, and radio luminosity. Relative to what would be expected from recent star formation, there is a 0.8 dex excess of radio emission in our Seyfert galaxies. The nuclear H{\\alpha} luminosity is dominated by the AGN, and is correlated with the hard X-ray luminosity. There is an upward offset of 1 dex in this correlation for the Seyfert 1s due to a strong contribution from the Broad Line Region. We found a correlation between star formation rate and AGN luminosity. In sp...

  4. The Nuclear Near-Infrared Spectral Properties of Nearby Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Mason, R E; Martins, L; Riffel, R; Martin, O Gonzalez; Almeida, C Ramos; Dutra, D Ruschel; Ho, L C; Thanjavur, K; Flohic, H; Alonso-Herrero, A; Lira, P; McDermid, R; Riffel, R A; Schiavon, R P; Winge, C; Hoenig, M D; Perlman, E

    2015-01-01

    We present spectra of the nuclear regions of 50 nearby (D = 1 - 92 Mpc, median = 20 Mpc) galaxies of morphological types E to Sm. The spectra, obtained with the Gemini Near-IR Spectrograph on the Gemini North telescope, cover a wavelength range of approximately 0.85-2.5 microns at R~1300--1800. There is evidence that most of the galaxies host an active galactic nucleus (AGN), but the range of AGN luminosities (log (L2-10 keV [erg/s]) = 37.0-43.2) in the sample means that the spectra display a wide variety of features. Some nuclei, especially the Seyferts, exhibit a rich emission-line spectrum. Other objects, in particular the type 2 Low Ionisation Nuclear Emission Region galaxies, show just a few, weak emission lines, allowing a detailed view of the underlying stellar population. These spectra display numerous absorption features sensitive to the stellar initial mass function, as well as molecular bands arising in cool stars, and many other atomic absorption lines. We compare the spectra of subsets of galaxie...

  5. Search for bright nearby M dwarfs with Virtual Observatory tools

    CERN Document Server

    Aberasturi, M; Montesinos, B; Gálvez-Ortiz, M C; Solano, E; Martín, E L

    2014-01-01

    Using Virtual Observatory tools, we cross-matched the Carlsberg Meridian 14 and the 2MASS Point Source catalogs to select candidate nearby bright M dwarfs distributed over ~ 25,000 deg^2. Here, we present reconnaissance low-resolution optical spectra for 27 candidates that were observed with the Intermediate Dispersion Spectrograph at the 2.5m Isaac Newton Telescope (R ~ 1600). We derived spectral types from a new spectral index, R, which measures the ratio of fluxes at 7485-7015 A and 7120-7150 A. We also used VOSA, a Virtual Observatory tool for spectral energy distribution fitting, to derive effective temperatures and surface gravities for each candidate. The resulting 27 targets were M dwarfs brighter than J = 10.5 mag, 16 of which were completely new in the Northern hemisphere and 7 of which were located at less than 15 pc. For all of them, we also measured H{\\alpha} and Na I pseudo-equivalent widths, determined photometric distances, and identified the most active stars. The targets with the weakest sod...

  6. Low-mass visual companions to nearby G-dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Tokovinin, Andrei

    2010-01-01

    Complete census of wide visual companions to nearby G-dwarf stars can be achieved by selecting candidates from the 2MASS Point-Source Catalog and checking their status by second-epoch imaging. Such data are obtained for 124 candidates with separations up to 20", 47 of which are shown to be new physical low-mass stellar companions. A list of visual binaries with G-dwarf primaries is produced by combining newly found companions with historical data. Maximum likelihood analysis leads to the companion frequency of 0.13+-0.015 per decade of separation. The mass ratio is distributed almost uniformly, with a power-law index between -0.4 and 0. The remaining uncertainty in the index is related to modeling of the companion detection threshold in 2MASS. These findings are confirmed by alternative analysis of wider companions in 2MASS, removing the contamination by background stars statistically. Extension of this work will lead to a complete detection of visual companions - a necessary step towards reaching unbiased mu...

  7. A new nearby PWN overlapping the Vela Jr SNR

    CERN Document Server

    Acero, F; Terrier, R; Renaud, M; Ballet, J

    2011-01-01

    PSR J0855-4644 is an energetic pulsar (Edot = 1.1x10^36 erg/s, P=65 ms) discovered near the South-East rim of the supernova remnant (SNR) RX J0852.0-4622 (aka Vela Jr) by the Parkes Multibeam Survey. The position of the pulsar is in spatial coincidence with an enhancement in X-rays and TeV gamma-rays, which could represent its pulsar wind nebula (PWN). We have revealed with an XMM-Newton observation the X-ray counterpart of the pulsar together with a surrounding extended emission thus confirming the suggestion of a PWN. The comparison of the absorption column density derived in X-rays from the pulsar with 12CO observations (tracing the dense gas) is used to derive an upper limit to the distance of the pulsar (d< 900 pc) and to discuss a possible association of the pulsar with the Vela Jr SNR. This new distance estimate implies that the pulsar is nearby and could therefore significantly contribute to the observed spectrum of cosmic-ray leptons (e-/e+).

  8. Multicolor Photometry of the Nearby Galaxy Cluster A119

    CERN Document Server

    Tian, Jin-Tao; Zhou, Xu; Jiang, Zhao-Ji; Ma, Jun; Wu, Jiang-Hua; Wu, Zhen-Yu; Fan, Zhou; Zhang, Tian-Meng; Zou, Hu

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents multicolor optical photometry of the nearby galaxy cluster Abell 119 (z = 0:0442) with the Beijing-Arizona-Taiwan-Connecticut (BATC) system of 15 intermediate bands. Within the BATC viewing field of 58'* 58', there are 368 galaxies with known spectroscopic redshifts, including 238 member galaxies (called sample I). Based on the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 1376 galaxies brighter than iBATC = 19:5, photometric redshift technique and the color-magnitude relation of earlytype galaxies are applied to select faint member galaxies. As a result, 117 faint galaxies were selected as new member galaxies. Combined with sample I, an enlarged sample (called sample II) of 355 member galaxies is obtained. Spatial distribution and localized velocity structure for two samples demonstrate that A119 is a dynamically complex cluster with at least three prominent substructures in the central region within 1 Mpc. A large velocity dispersion for the central clump indicates a merging along the line of ...

  9. Black Holes at the Centers of Nearby Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Moran, Edward C; Sugarman, Hannah R; Velez, Darik O; Eracleous, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Using a distance-limited portion of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7, we have identified 28 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in nearby (d < 80 Mpc) low-mass, low-luminosity dwarf galaxies. The accreting objects at the galaxy centers are expected to be intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) with M_BH < 1e6 M_sun. The AGNs were selected using several optical emission-line diagnostics after careful modeling of the continuum present in the spectra. We have limited our survey to objects with spectral characteristics similar to those of Seyfert nuclei, excluding emission-line galaxies with ambiguous spectra that could be powered by stellar processes. The host galaxies in our sample are thus the least massive objects in the very local universe certain to contain central black holes. Given our focus on the nearest objects included in the SDSS, our survey is more sensitive to low-luminosity emission than previous optical searches for AGNs in low-mass galaxies. The [O III] lambda5007 luminosities of...

  10. Nearby low-mass triple system GJ795

    CERN Document Server

    Malogolovets, E V; Rastegaev, D A; Balega, Yu.Yu.

    2007-01-01

    We report the results of our optical speckle-interferometric observations of the nearby triple system GJ795 performed with the 6-m BTA telescope with diffraction-limited angular resolution. The three components of the system were optically resolved for the first time. Position measurements allowed us to determine the elements of the inner orbit of the triple system. We use the measured magnitude differences to estimate the absolute magnitudes and spectral types of the components of the triple: $M_{V}^{Aa}$=7.31$\\pm$0.08, $M_{V}^{Ab}$=8.66$\\pm$0.10, $M_{V}^{B}$=8.42$\\pm$0.10, $Sp_{Aa}$ $\\approx$K5, $Sp_{Ab}$ $\\approx$K9, $Sp_{B}$ $\\approx$K8. The total mass of the system is equal to $\\Sigma\\mathcal{M}_{AB}$=1.69$\\pm0.27\\mathcal{M}_{\\odot}$. We show GJ795 to be a hierarchical triple system which satisfies the empirical stability criteria.

  11. Excesses of cosmic ray spectra from a single nearby source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Bi, Xiao-Jun; Lin, Su-Jie; Wang, Bing-Bing; Yin, Peng-Fei

    2017-07-01

    Growing evidence reveals universal hardening on various cosmic ray spectra, e.g., proton, positron, as well as antiproton fractions. Such universality may indicate they have a common origin. In this paper, we argue that these widespread excesses can be accounted for by a nearby supernova remnant surrounded by a giant molecular cloud. Secondary cosmic rays (p , e+ ) are produced through the collisions between the primary cosmic-ray nuclei from this supernova remnant and the molecular gas. Different from the background, which is produced by the ensemble of a large number of sources in the Milky Way, the local injected spectrum can be harder. The time-dependent transport of particles would make the propagated spectrum even harder. Under this scenario, the anomalies of both primary (p , e-) and secondary (e+, p ¯ /p ) cosmic rays can be properly interpreted. We further show that the TeV to sub-PeV anisotropy of the proton is consistent with the observations if the local source is relatively young and lying at the anti-Galactic center direction.

  12. Structure and Kinematics of the Nearby Dwarf Galaxy UGCA 105

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Philip; Gentile, Gianfranco; Oh, Se-Heon; Schuberth, Ylva; Bekhti, Nadya Ben; Winkel, Benjamin; Klein, Uli

    2013-01-01

    Owing to their shallow stellar potential, dwarf galaxies possess thick gas disks, which makes them good candidates for studies of the galactic vertical kinematical structure. We present 21 cm line observations of the isolated nearby dwarf irregular galaxy UGCA 105, taken with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT), and analyse the geometry of its neutral hydrogen (HI) disk and its kinematics. The galaxy shows a fragmented HI distribution. It is more extended than the optical disk, and hence allows one to determine its kinematics out to very large galacto-centric distances. The HI kinematics and morphology are well-ordered and symmetric for an irregular galaxy. The HI is sufficiently extended to observe a substantial amount of differential rotation. Moreover, UGCA 105 shows strong signatures for the presence of a kinematically anomalous gas component. Performing tilted-ring modelling by use of the least-squares fitting routine TiRiFiC, we found that the HI disk of UGCA 105 has a moderately warped and ...

  13. The Observational Mass Function of Nearby Galaxy Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Girardi, M; Giuricin, G; Mardirossian, F; Mezzetti, M

    1998-01-01

    We present a new determination of the mass function of galaxy clusters, based on optical virial mass estimates for a large sample of 152 nearby (z M_lim)=(6.3\\pm 1.2) 10^{-6} (h^{-1} Mpc)^{-3} for cluster masses estimated within a 1.5 h^{-1} Mpc radius. Our mass function is intermediate between the two previous estimates by Bahcall & Cen (1993) and by Biviano et al. (1993). Based on the Press--Schechter approach, we use this mass function to constrain the amplitude of the fluctuation power spectrum at the cluster scale. After suitably convolving the PS predictions with observational errors on cluster masses and COBE--normalizing the fluctuation power spectrum, we find sigma_8=(0.60\\pm 0.04) Omega_0^{-0.46+0.09Omega_0} for flat low--density models and \\sigma_8=(0.60\\pm 0.04) Omega_0^{-0.48+0.17Omega_0} for open models (at the 90% c.l.).

  14. Dust evolution processes constrained by extinction curves in nearby galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Hou, Kuan-Chou; Michałowski, Michał J

    2016-01-01

    Extinction curves, especially those in the Milky Way (MW), the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), and the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), have provided us with a clue to the dust properties in the nearby Universe. We examine whether or not these extinction curves can be explained by well known dust evolution processes. We treat the dust production in stellar ejecta, destruction in supernova shocks, dust growth by accretion and coagulation, and dust disruption by shattering. To make a survey of the large parameter space possible, we simplify the treatment of the grain size distribution evolution by adopting the `two-size approximation', in which we divide the grain population into small ($\\lesssim 0.03~\\mu$m) and large ($\\gtrsim 0.03~\\mu$m) grains. It is confirmed that the MW extinction curve can be reproduced in reasonable ranges for the time-scale of the above processes with a silicate-graphite mixture. This indicates that the MW extinction curve is a natural consequence of the dust evolution through the above proc...

  15. Galaxy Distances in the Nearby Universe Corrections For Peculiar Motions

    CERN Document Server

    Marinoni, C; Giuricin, G; Costantini, B

    1998-01-01

    By correcting the redshift--dependent distances for peculiar motions through a number of peculiar velocity field models, we recover the true distances of a wide, all-sky sample of nearby galaxies (~ 6400 galaxies with velocities cz<5500 km/s), which is complete up to the blue magnitude B=14 mag. Relying on catalogs of galaxy groups, we treat ~2700 objects as members of galaxy groups and the remaining objects as field galaxies. We model the peculiar velocity field using: i) a cluster dipole reconstruction scheme; ii) a multi--attractor model fitted to the Mark II and Mark III catalogs of galaxy peculiar velocities. According to Mark III data the Great Attractor has a smaller influence on local dynamics than previously believed, whereas the Perseus-Pisces and Shapley superclusters acquire a specific dynamical role. Remarkably, the Shapley structure, which is found to account for nearly half the peculiar motion of the Local Group, is placed by Mark III data closer to the zone of avoidance with respect to its ...

  16. Radial Star Formation Histories in Fifteen Nearby Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Dale, Daniel A; Egan, Arika A; Hatlestad, Alan J; Herzog, Laura J; Leung, Andrew S; McLane, Jacob N; Phenicie, Christopher; Roberts, Jareth S; Barnes, Kate L; Boquien, Mederic; Calzetti, Daniela; Cook, David O; Kobulnicky, Henry A; Staudaher, Shawn M; van Zee, Liese

    2015-01-01

    New deep optical and near-infrared imaging is combined with archival ultraviolet and infrared data for fifteen nearby galaxies mapped in the Spitzer Extended Disk Galaxy Exploration Science survey. These images are particularly deep and thus excellent for studying the low surface brightness outskirts of these disk-dominated galaxies with stellar masses ranging between 10^8 and 10^11 Msun. The spectral energy distributions derived from this dataset are modeled to investigate the radial variations in the galaxy colors and star formation histories. Taken as a whole, the sample shows bluer and younger stars for larger radii until reversing near the optical radius, whereafter the trend is for redder and older stars for larger galacto-centric distances. These results are consistent with an inside-out disk formation scenario coupled with an old stellar outer disk population formed through radial migration and/or the cumulative history of minor mergers and accretions of satellite dwarf galaxies. However, these trends...

  17. [Nearby nature as a moderator of stress during childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corraliza, José Antonio; Collado, Silvia

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this investigation is to study the relation between the amount of nature existing in children's daily environments and the way children deal with stressful events. Every day, children are exposed to situations that cause stress. Taking into account previous studies, it is thought that the greener the place where children spend their time, the better they cope with adversities. Thus, when comparing the stress level of children who are exposed to the same amount of adverse situations, the children who have more frequent daily contact with nature will show less stress than those who do not spend time in nature. This effect from nearby nature is called a buffering effect. The present study provides empirical evidence of the buffering effect caused by the existence of Nature in the residential and the school environment. Therefore, our results show that children who have more access to nature increase their resilience, showing a lower stress level than children whose contact with nature is less frequent.

  18. DUst Around NEarby Stars. The survey observational results

    CERN Document Server

    Eiroa, C; Mora, A; Montesinos, B; Absil, O; Augereau, J Ch; Bayo, A; Bryden, G; Danchi, W; del Burgo, C; Ertel, S; Fridlund, M; Heras, A M; Krivov, A V; Launhardt, R; Liseau, R; Löhne, T; Maldonado, J; Pilbratt, G L; Roberge, A; Rodmann, J; Sanz-Forcada, J; Solano, E; Stapelfeldt, K; Thébault, P; Wolf, S; Ardila, D; Arévalo, M; Beichmann, C; Faramaz, V; González-García, B M; Gutiérrez, R; Lebreton, J; Martínez-Arnáiz, R; Meeus, G; Montes, D; Olofsson, G; Su, K Y L; White, G J; Barrado, D; Fukagawa, M; Grün, E; Kamp, I; Lorente, R; Morbidelli, A; Müller, S; Mutschke, H; Nakagawa, T; Ribas, I; Walker, H

    2013-01-01

    Debris discs are a consequence of the planet formation process and constitute the fingerprints of planetesimal systems. Their solar system's counterparts are the asteroid and Edgeworth-Kuiper belts. The DUNES survey aims at detecting extra-solar analogues to the Edgeworth-Kuiper belt around solar-type stars, putting in this way the solar system into context. The survey allows us to address some questions related to the prevalence and properties of planetesimal systems. We used {\\it Herschel}/PACS to observe a sample of nearby FGK stars. Data at 100 and 160 $\\mu$m were obtained, complemented in some cases with observations at 70 $\\mu$m, and at 250, 350 and 500 $\\mu$m using SPIRE. The observing strategy was to integrate as deep as possible at 100 $\\mu$m to detect the stellar photosphere. Debris discs have been detected at a fractional luminosity level down to several times that of the Edgeworth-Kuiper belt. The incidence rate of discs around the DUNES stars is increased from a rate of $\\sim$ 12.1% $\\pm$ 5% befo...

  19. New debris disks in nearby young moving groups

    CERN Document Server

    Moór, A; Ábrahám, P; Balog, Z; Csengeri, T; Henning, Th; Juhász, A; Kiss, Cs

    2016-01-01

    A significant fraction of nearby young moving group members harbor circumstellar debris dust disks. Due to their proximity and youth, these disks are attractive targets for studying the early evolution of debris dust and planetesimal belts. Here we present 70 and 160$\\mu$m observations of 31 systems in the $\\beta$ Pic moving group, and in the Tucana-Horologium, Columba, Carina and Argus associations, using the Herschel Space Observatory. None of these stars were observed at far-infrared wavelengths before. Our Herschel measurements were complemented by photometry from the WISE satellite for the whole sample, and by submillimeter/millimeter continuum data for one source, HD 48370. We identified six stars with infrared excess, four of them are new discoveries. By combining our new findings with results from the literature, we examined the incidence and general characteristics of debris disks around Sun-like members of the selected groups. With their dust temperatures of <45 K the newly identified disks aroun...

  20. The effect of nearby bubbles on array gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culver, R Lee; Park, J Daniel; Leighton, Timothy G; Coles, David G H

    2011-12-01

    The coherent processing of signals from multiple hydrophones in an array offers improvements in angular resolution and signal-to-noise ratio. When the array is steered in a particular direction, the signals arriving from that direction are added in phase, and any signals arriving from other directions are not. Array gain (AG) is a measure of how much the signal arriving from the steering direction is amplified relative to signals arriving from all other directions. The subject of this paper is the manner in which the AG of an acoustic array operating in water that contains air bubbles is affected by scattering from nearby bubbles. The effects of bubbles on acoustic attenuation and dispersion are considered separately from their effects on AG. Acoustic measurements made in bubbly water using the AB Wood tank at the Institute of Sound and Vibration Research, University of Southampton, in June 2008 show that as bubble density increases, relative phase shifts in individual hydrophone signals increase and signal correlation among the hydrophones is reduced. A theory and numerical simulation linking bubble density at the hydrophone to the AG is in good agreement with the measurements up to the point where multiple scattering becomes important.

  1. A Comprehensive Census of Nearby Infrared Excess Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Cotten, Tara H

    2016-01-01

    The conclusion of the WISE mission presents an opportune time to summarize the history of using excess emission in the infrared as a tracer of circumstellar material and exploit all available data for future missions such as JWST. We have compiled a catalog of infrared excess stars from peer-reviewed articles and perform an extensive search for new infrared excess stars by cross-correlating the Tycho-2 and AllWISE catalogs. We define a significance of excess in four spectral type divisions and select stars showing greater than either 3$\\sigma$ or 5$\\sigma$ significance of excess in the mid- and far-infrared. Through procedures including SED fitting and various image analyses, each potential excess source was rigorously vetted to eliminate false-positives. The infrared excess stars from the literature and the new stars found through the Tycho-2 and AllWISE cross-correlation produced nearly 500 `Prime' infrared excess stars and $\\geq$1200 `Reserved' stars. The main catalog of infrared excess stars are nearby, b...

  2. How bad were British prison hulks in the Napolenic wars? Evidence from captured Danish and Norwegian seamen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leunig, Timothy; Lottum, Jelle van; Poulsen, Bo

    2016-01-01

    This article uses a novel data source to test whether British Napoleonic prison hulks were as bad as many claim, and whether they were perceived to be bad by seamen who risked ending up in them. We find that they were not so bad: death rates of imprisoned Danish and Norwegian seamen were low. We...

  3. 26 CFR 1.381(c)(12)-1 - Recovery of bad debts, prior taxes, or delinquency amounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recovery of bad debts, prior taxes, or...(c)(12)-1 Recovery of bad debts, prior taxes, or delinquency amounts. (a) Carryover requirement. (1... corporation is entitled to the recovery of a bad debt, prior tax, or delinquency amount on account of which...

  4. 26 CFR 301.6511(d)-1 - Overpayment of income tax on account of bad debts, worthless securities, etc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Overpayment of income tax on account of bad... bad debts, worthless securities, etc. (a)(1) If the claim for credit or refund relates to an... the deductibility of a bad debt under section 166 or section 832(c), or of a loss from...

  5. Bad Jobs, Bad Health? How Work and Working Conditions Contribute to Health Disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgard, Sarah A; Lin, Katherine Y

    2013-08-01

    In this review, we touch on a broad array of ways that work is linked to health and health disparities for individuals and societies. First focusing on the health of individuals, we discuss the health differences between those who do and do not work for pay, and review key positive and negative exposures that can generate health disparities among the employed. These include both psychosocial factors like the benefits of a high status job or the burden of perceived job insecurity, as well as physical exposures to dangerous working conditions like asbestos or rotating shift work. We also provide a discussion of the ways differential exposure to these aspects of work contributes to social disparities in health within and across generations. Analytic complexities in assessing the link between work and health for individuals, such as health selection, are also discussed. We then touch on several contextual level associations between work and the health of populations, discussing the importance of the occupational structure in a given society, the policy environment that prevails there, and the oscillations of the macroeconomy for generating societal disparities in health. We close with a discussion of four areas and associated recommendations that draw on this corpus of knowledge but would push the research on work, health and inequality toward even greater scholarly and policy relevance.

  6. The nearby eclipsing stellar system delta Velorum. II. First reliable orbit for the eclipsing pair

    CERN Document Server

    Pribulla, T; Kervella, P; Vaňko, M; Stevens, I R; Chini, R; Hoffmeister, V; Stahl, O; Berndt, A; Mugrauer, M; Eiff, M Ammler-von

    2010-01-01

    Context. The nearby multiple system delta Velorum contains a widely detached eclipsing binary and a third component. Aims. The system offers an opportunity to determine the set of fundamental parameters (masses, luminosities, and radii) of three coeval stars with sufficient precision to test models of stellar evolution. Methods. Extensive high-resolution spectroscopy is analyzed by the broadening function technique to provide the first spectroscopic orbit for the eclipsing pair. Simultaneous analysis of the spectroscopic data and the SMEI satellite light curve is performed to provide astrophysical parameters for the components. Modified Roche model assuming eccentric orbit and asynchronous rotation is used. Results. The observations show that components of the eclipsing pair rotate at about 2/3 of the break-up velocity which prevents any chemical peculiarity and results in non-uniform surface brightness. Although the inner orbit is eccentric, no apsidal motion is seen during the SMEI photometric observations....

  7. New insights into the X-ray properties of the nearby barred spiral galaxy NGC 1672

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, L P; Colbert, E J M; Levan, A J; Roberts, T P; Ward, M J; Zezas, A

    2008-01-01

    We present some preliminary results from new Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray observations of the nearby barred spiral galaxy NGC1672. It shows dramatic nuclear and extra-nuclear star formation activity, including starburst regions located near each end of its strong bar, both of which host ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs). With the new high-spatial-resolution Chandra imaging, we show for the first time that NGC1672 possesses a faint ($L(X)~10^39 erg/s), hard central X-ray source surrounded by an X-ray bright circumnuclear starburst ring that dominates the X-ray emission in the region. The central source may represent low-level AGN activity, or alternatively the emission from X-ray binaries associated with star-formation in the nucleus.

  8. AMS-02 data confront acceleration of cosmic ray secondaries in nearby sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertsch, Philipp; Sarkar, Subir

    2014-01-01

    We revisit the model proposed earlier to account for the observed increase in the positron fraction in cosmic rays with increasing energy, in the light of new data from the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS-02) experiment. The model accounts for the production and acceleration of secondary electrons...... and positrons in nearby supernova remnants which results in an additional, harder component that becomes dominant at high energies. By fitting this to AMS-02 data we can calculate the expected concomitant rise of the boron-to-carbon ratio, as well as of the fraction of antiprotons. If these predictions...... are confirmed by the forthcoming AMS-02 data it would conclusively rule out all other proposed explanations, in particular, dark matter annihilations or decays....

  9. The Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey. III. The Three-Component Structure of Nearby Elliptical Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Song; Peng, Chien Y; Li, Zhao-Yu; Barth, Aaron J

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by recent developments in our understanding of the formation and evolution of massive galaxies, we explore the detailed photometric structure of a representative sample of 94 bright, nearby elliptical galaxies, using high-quality optical images from the Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey. The sample spans a range of environments and stellar masses, from M* = 10^{10.2} to 10^{12.0} solar mass. We exploit the unique capabilities of two-dimensional image decomposition to explore the possibility that local elliptical galaxies may contain photometrically distinct substructure that can shed light on their evolutionary history. Compared with the traditional one-dimensional approach, these two-dimensional models are capable of consistently recovering the surface brightness distribution and the systematic radial variation of geometric information at the same time. Contrary to conventional perception, we find that the global light distribution of the majority (>75%) of elliptical galaxies is not well described by ...

  10. Improving distances to nearby bright stars: Combining astrometric data from Hipparcos, Nano-JASMINE and Gaia

    CERN Document Server

    Michalik, Daniel; Hobbs, David; Lammers, Uwe; Yamada, Yoshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    Starting in 2013, Gaia will deliver highly accurate astrometric data, which eventually will supersede most other stellar catalogues in accuracy and completeness. It is, however, lim- ited to observations from magnitude 6 to 20 and will therefore not include the brightest stars. Nano-JASMINE, an ultrasmall Japanese astrometry satellite, will observe these bright stars, but with much lower accuracy. Hence, the Hipparcos catalogue from 1997 will likely remain the main source of accurate distances to bright nearby stars. We are investigating how this might be improved by optimally combining data from all three missions in a joint astrometric solu- tion. This would take advantage of the unique features of each mission: the historic bright-star measurements of Hipparcos, the updated bright-star observations of Nano-JASMINE, and the very accurate reference frame of Gaia. The long temporal baseline between the missions pro- vides additional benefits for the determination of proper motions and binary detection, which ...

  11. Close Companions to Nearby Young Stars from Adaptive Optics Imaging on VLT and Keck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haisch, Karl E.; Jayawardhana, Ray; Brandeker, Alexis; Mardones, Diego

    We report the results of VLT and Keck adaptive optics surveys of known members of the η Chamaeleontis, MBM 12, and TW Hydrae (TWA) associations to search for close companions. The multiplicity statistics of η Cha, MBM 12, and TWA are quite high compared with other clusters and associations, although our errors are large due to small number statistics. We have resolved S18 in MBM 12 and RECX 9 in η Cha into triples for the first time. The tight binary TWA 5Aab in the TWA offers the prospect of measuring the dynamical masses of both components as well as an independent distance to the system within a few years. The AO detection of the close companion to the nearby young star χ1 Orionis, previously inferred from radial velocity and astrometric observations, has already made it possible to derive the dynamical masses of that system without any astrophysical assumption.

  12. Close Companions to Nearby Young Stars from Adaptive Optics Imaging on VLT and Keck

    CERN Document Server

    Haisch, K E; Brandeker, A; Mardones, D; Jr., Karl E. Haisch; Jayawardhana, Ray; Brandeker, Alexis; Mardones, Diego

    2003-01-01

    We report the results of VLT and Keck adaptive optics surveys of known members of the Eta Chamaeleontis, MBM 12, and TW Hydrae (TWA) associations to search for close companions. The multiplicity statistics of Eta Cha, MBM 12, and TWA are quite high compared with other clusters and associations, although our errors are large due to small number statistics. We have resolved S18 in MBM 12 and RECX 9 in Eta Cha into triples for the first time. The tight binary TWA 5Aab in the TWA offers the prospect of measuring the dynamical masses of both components as well as an independent distance to the system within a few years. The AO detection of the close companion to the nearby young star Chi^1 Orionis, previously inferred from radial velocity and astrometric observations, has already made it possible to derive the dynamical masses of that system without any astrophysical assumption.

  13. Nurses' perspectives on breaking bad news to patients and their families: a qualitative content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Ehsani, Seyyedeh Roghayeh; Begjani, Jamal; Kaji, Mohammad Akbari; Dopolani, Fatemeh Nemati; Nejati, Amir; Mohammadnejad, Esmaeil

    2014-01-01

    Breaking bad news is quite often not done in an effective manner in clinical settings due to the medical staff lacking the skills necessary for speaking to patients and their families. Bad news is faced with similar reactions on the part of the news receiver in all cultures and nations. The purpose of this study was to explore the perspectives of Iranian nurses on breaking bad news to patients and their families. In this research, a qualitative approach was adopted. In-depth and semi-structured interviews were conducted with 19 nurses who had at least one year work experience in the ward, and content analysis was performed to analyze the data. Five major categories emerged from data analysis, including effective communication with patients and their families, preparing the ground for delivering bad news, minimizing the negativity associated with the disease, passing the duty to physicians, and helping patients and their families make logical treatment decisions. The results of this study show that according to the participants, it is the physicians' duty to give bad news, but nurses play an important role in delivering bad news to patients and their companions and should therefore be trained in clinical and communicative skills to be able to give bad news in an appropriate and effective manner.

  14. Negative regulation of NaF-induced apoptosis by Bad-CAII complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuki, S; Sugiyama, K; Amano, O; Yasui, T; Sakagami, H

    2011-09-05

    Fluoride is used to prevent caries in dentistry. However, its mechanism of cytotoxicity induction is unclear. This study was undertaken to determine whether sodium fluoride (NaF) induces apoptosis in human oral cells and if so, whether Bad protein is involved in the process. NaF showed higher cytotoxicity and apoptosis-inducing activity against human oral squamous cell carcinoma cells (HSC-2) than against human gingival fibroblasts (HGF). Western blot analysis showed that NaF enhanced the expression and dephosphorylation of Bad protein. This study demonstrates for the first time that Bad protein forms a complex with carbonic anhydrase II (CAII), and NaF stimulates the detachment of CAII from the Bad-CAII complex and the replacement by the formation of Bad-Bcl-2 complex. Knockdown of Bad and CAII mRNA by siRNA inhibited and enhanced the NaF-induced caspase activation, respectively. The present study suggests that CAII negatively regulates the NaF-induced apoptosis by forming a complex with Bad.

  15. Involvement of the Ventrolateral Prefrontal Cortex in Learning Others' Bad Reputations and Indelible Distrust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Atsunobu; Ito, Yuichi; Kiyama, Sachiko; Kunimi, Mitsunobu; Ohira, Hideki; Kawaguchi, Jun; Tanabe, Hiroki C; Nakai, Toshiharu

    2016-01-01

    A bad reputation can persistently affect judgments of an individual even when it turns out to be invalid and ought to be disregarded. Such indelible distrust may reflect that the negative evaluation elicited by a bad reputation transfers to a person. Consequently, the person him/herself may come to activate this negative evaluation irrespective of the accuracy of the reputation. If this theoretical model is correct, an evaluation-related brain region will be activated when witnessing a person whose bad reputation one has learned about, regardless of whether the reputation is deemed valid or not. Here, we tested this neural hypothesis with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants memorized faces paired with either a good or a bad reputation. Next, they viewed the faces alone and inferred whether each person was likely to cooperate, first while retrieving the reputations, and then while trying to disregard them as false. A region of the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC), which may be involved in negative evaluation, was activated by faces previously paired with bad reputations, irrespective of whether participants attempted to retrieve or disregard these reputations. Furthermore, participants showing greater activity of the left ventrolateral prefrontal region in response to the faces with bad reputations were more likely to infer that these individuals would not cooperate. Thus, once associated with a bad reputation, a person may elicit evaluation-related brain responses on their own, thereby evoking distrust independently of their reputation.

  16. Use of interactive theater and role play to develop medical students' skills in breaking bad news.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skye, Eric P; Wagenschutz, Heather; Steiger, Jeffrey A; Kumagai, Arno K

    2014-12-01

    Creative arts have been increasingly implemented in medical education. This study investigated the use of interactive theater and role play with professional actors in teaching breaking bad news to medical students. The objectives were to explore the contexts, approaches, experiences, and reactions in giving and receiving bad news. Second-year medical students participated in a required educational session that utilized interactive theater which helps students learn about the issues of breaking bad news to a patient with cancer. Following the interactive theater piece, professional actors provided students role play experiences in small groups with breaking bad news. Anonymous evaluation surveys were given out to all second-year medical students at the conclusion of the breaking bad news session. Surveys contained quantitative and qualitative responses. Three years of evaluations were analyzed. A total of 451 (88 %) students completed the evaluations. Comments were thematically analyzed. Ninety-four percent agreed that the theater piece prompted reflection on patient-provider communications, and 89 % agreed that it stimulated discussion on complex issues with breaking bad news. The two most common themes in student comments concerned the importance of realism in the theater piece, and the value of experiencing multiple perspectives. Use of professional actors during the role play exercises enhances the realism and pushed the students out of their own "comfort zones" in ways that may more closely approximate real life clinical situations. Interactive theater can be a potentially powerful tool to teach breaking bad news during medical school.

  17. Sloan Digital Sky Survey IV: Mapping the Milky Way, Nearby Galaxies, and the Distant Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanton, Michael R.; Bershady, Matthew A.; Abolfathi, Bela; Albareti, Franco D.; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Almeida, Andres; Alonso-García, Javier; Anders, Friedrich; Anderson, Scott F.; Andrews, Brett; Aquino-Ortíz, Erik; Aragón-Salamanca, Alfonso; Argudo-Fernández, Maria; Armengaud, Eric; Aubourg, Eric; Avila-Reese, Vladimir; Badenes, Carles; Bailey, Stephen; Barger, Kathleen A.; Barrera-Ballesteros, Jorge; Bartosz, Curtis; Bates, Dominic; Baumgarten, Falk; Bautista, Julian; Beaton, Rachael; Beers, Timothy C.; Belfiore, Francesco; Bender, Chad F.; Berlind, Andreas A.; Bernardi, Mariangela; Beutler, Florian; Bird, Jonathan C.; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Blanc, Guillermo A.; Blomqvist, Michael; Bolton, Adam S.; Boquien, Médéric; Borissova, Jura; van den Bosch, Remco; Bovy, Jo; Brandt, William N.; Brinkmann, Jonathan; Brownstein, Joel R.; Bundy, Kevin; Burgasser, Adam J.; Burtin, Etienne; Busca, Nicolás G.; Cappellari, Michele; Delgado Carigi, Maria Leticia; Carlberg, Joleen K.; Carnero Rosell, Aurelio; Carrera, Ricardo; Chanover, Nancy J.; Cherinka, Brian; Cheung, Edmond; Gómez Maqueo Chew, Yilen; Chiappini, Cristina; Doohyun Choi, Peter; Chojnowski, Drew; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Chung, Haeun; Cirolini, Rafael Fernando; Clerc, Nicolas; Cohen, Roger E.; Comparat, Johan; da Costa, Luiz; Cousinou, Marie-Claude; Covey, Kevin; Crane, Jeffrey D.; Croft, Rupert A. C.; Cruz-Gonzalez, Irene; Garrido Cuadra, Daniel; Cunha, Katia; Damke, Guillermo J.; Darling, Jeremy; Davies, Roger; Dawson, Kyle; de la Macorra, Axel; Dell'Agli, Flavia; De Lee, Nathan; Delubac, Timothée; Di Mille, Francesco; Diamond-Stanic, Aleks; Cano-Díaz, Mariana; Donor, John; José Downes, Juan; Drory, Niv; du Mas des Bourboux, Hélion; Duckworth, Christopher J.; Dwelly, Tom; Dyer, Jamie; Ebelke, Garrett; Eigenbrot, Arthur D.; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Emsellem, Eric; Eracleous, Mike; Escoffier, Stephanie; Evans, Michael L.; Fan, Xiaohui; Fernández-Alvar, Emma; Fernandez-Trincado, J. G.; Feuillet, Diane K.; Finoguenov, Alexis; Fleming, Scott W.; Font-Ribera, Andreu; Fredrickson, Alexander; Freischlad, Gordon; Frinchaboy, Peter M.; Fuentes, Carla E.; Galbany, Lluís; Garcia-Dias, R.; García-Hernández, D. A.; Gaulme, Patrick; Geisler, Doug; Gelfand, Joseph D.; Gil-Marín, Héctor; Gillespie, Bruce A.; Goddard, Daniel; Gonzalez-Perez, Violeta; Grabowski, Kathleen; Green, Paul J.; Grier, Catherine J.; Gunn, James E.; Guo, Hong; Guy, Julien; Hagen, Alex; Hahn, ChangHoon; Hall, Matthew; Harding, Paul; Hasselquist, Sten; Hawley, Suzanne L.; Hearty, Fred; Gonzalez Hernández, Jonay I.; Ho, Shirley; Hogg, David W.; Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Holtzman, Jon A.; Holzer, Parker H.; Huehnerhoff, Joseph; Hutchinson, Timothy A.; Hwang, Ho Seong; Ibarra-Medel, Héctor J.; da Silva Ilha, Gabriele; Ivans, Inese I.; Ivory, KeShawn; Jackson, Kelly; Jensen, Trey W.; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Jones, Amy; Jönsson, Henrik; Jullo, Eric; Kamble, Vikrant; Kinemuchi, Karen; Kirkby, David; Kitaura, Francisco-Shu; Klaene, Mark; Knapp, Gillian R.; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Kollmeier, Juna A.; Lacerna, Ivan; Lane, Richard R.; Lang, Dustin; Law, David R.; Lazarz, Daniel; Lee, Youngbae; Le Goff, Jean-Marc; Liang, Fu-Heng; Li, Cheng; Li, Hongyu; Lian, Jianhui; Lima, Marcos; Lin, Lihwai; Lin, Yen-Ting; Bertran de Lis, Sara; Liu, Chao; de Icaza Lizaola, Miguel Angel C.; Long, Dan; Lucatello, Sara; Lundgren, Britt; MacDonald, Nicholas K.; Deconto Machado, Alice; MacLeod, Chelsea L.; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Geimba Maia, Marcio Antonio; Maiolino, Roberto; Majewski, Steven R.; Malanushenko, Elena; Malanushenko, Viktor; Manchado, Arturo; Mao, Shude; Maraston, Claudia; Marques-Chaves, Rui; Masseron, Thomas; Masters, Karen L.; McBride, Cameron K.; McDermid, Richard M.; McGrath, Brianne; McGreer, Ian D.; Medina Peña, Nicolás; Melendez, Matthew; Merloni, Andrea; Merrifield, Michael R.; Meszaros, Szabolcs; Meza, Andres; Minchev, Ivan; Minniti, Dante; Miyaji, Takamitsu; More, Surhud; Mulchaey, John; Müller-Sánchez, Francisco; Muna, Demitri; Munoz, Ricardo R.; Myers, Adam D.; Nair, Preethi; Nandra, Kirpal; Correa do Nascimento, Janaina; Negrete, Alenka; Ness, Melissa; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Nichol, Robert C.; Nidever, David L.; Nitschelm, Christian; Ntelis, Pierros; O'Connell, Julia E.; Oelkers, Ryan J.; Oravetz, Audrey; Oravetz, Daniel; Pace, Zach; Padilla, Nelson; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Alonso Palicio, Pedro; Pan, Kaike; Parejko, John K.; Parikh, Taniya; Pâris, Isabelle; Park, Changbom; Patten, Alim Y.; Peirani, Sebastien; Pellejero-Ibanez, Marcos; Penny, Samantha; Percival, Will J.; Perez-Fournon, Ismael; Petitjean, Patrick; Pieri, Matthew M.; Pinsonneault, Marc; Pisani, Alice; Poleski, Radosław; Prada, Francisco; Prakash, Abhishek; Queiroz, Anna Bárbara de Andrade; Raddick, M. Jordan; Raichoor, Anand; Barboza Rembold, Sandro; Richstein, Hannah; Riffel, Rogemar A.; Riffel, Rogério; Rix, Hans-Walter; Robin, Annie C.; Rockosi, Constance M.; Rodríguez-Torres, Sergio; Roman-Lopes, A.; Román-Zúñiga, Carlos; Rosado, Margarita; Ross, Ashley J.; Rossi, Graziano; Ruan, John; Ruggeri, Rossana; Rykoff, Eli S.; Salazar-Albornoz, Salvador; Salvato, Mara; Sánchez, Ariel G.; Aguado, D. S.; Sánchez-Gallego, José R.; Santana, Felipe A.; Santiago, Basílio Xavier; Sayres, Conor; Schiavon, Ricardo P.; da Silva Schimoia, Jaderson; Schlafly, Edward F.; Schlegel, David J.; Schneider, Donald P.; Schultheis, Mathias; Schuster, William J.; Schwope, Axel; Seo, Hee-Jong; Shao, Zhengyi; Shen, Shiyin; Shetrone, Matthew; Shull, Michael; Simon, Joshua D.; Skinner, Danielle; Skrutskie, M. F.; Slosar, Anže; Smith, Verne V.; Sobeck, Jennifer S.; Sobreira, Flavia; Somers, Garrett; Souto, Diogo; Stark, David V.; Stassun, Keivan; Stauffer, Fritz; Steinmetz, Matthias; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa; Streblyanska, Alina; Stringfellow, Guy S.; Suárez, Genaro; Sun, Jing; Suzuki, Nao; Szigeti, Laszlo; Taghizadeh-Popp, Manuchehr; Tang, Baitian; Tao, Charling; Tayar, Jamie; Tembe, Mita; Teske, Johanna; Thakar, Aniruddha R.; Thomas, Daniel; Thompson, Benjamin A.; Tinker, Jeremy L.; Tissera, Patricia; Tojeiro, Rita; Hernandez Toledo, Hector; de la Torre, Sylvain; Tremonti, Christy; Troup, Nicholas W.; Valenzuela, Octavio; Martinez Valpuesta, Inma; Vargas-González, Jaime; Vargas-Magaña, Mariana; Vazquez, Jose Alberto; Villanova, Sandro; Vivek, M.; Vogt, Nicole; Wake, David; Walterbos, Rene; Wang, Yuting; Weaver, Benjamin Alan; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Weinberg, David H.; Westfall, Kyle B.; Whelan, David G.; Wild, Vivienne; Wilson, John; Wood-Vasey, W. M.; Wylezalek, Dominika; Xiao, Ting; Yan, Renbin; Yang, Meng; Ybarra, Jason E.; Yèche, Christophe; Zakamska, Nadia; Zamora, Olga; Zarrouk, Pauline; Zasowski, Gail; Zhang, Kai; Zhao, Gong-Bo; Zheng, Zheng; Zheng, Zheng; Zhou, Xu; Zhou, Zhi-Min; Zhu, Guangtun B.; Zoccali, Manuela; Zou, Hu

    2017-07-01

    We describe the Sloan Digital Sky Survey IV (SDSS-IV), a project encompassing three major spectroscopic programs. The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment 2 (APOGEE-2) is observing hundreds of thousands of Milky Way stars at high resolution and high signal-to-noise ratios in the near-infrared. The Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory (MaNGA) survey is obtaining spatially resolved spectroscopy for thousands of nearby galaxies (median z˜ 0.03). The extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (eBOSS) is mapping the galaxy, quasar, and neutral gas distributions between z˜ 0.6 and 3.5 to constrain cosmology using baryon acoustic oscillations, redshift space distortions, and the shape of the power spectrum. Within eBOSS, we are conducting two major subprograms: the SPectroscopic IDentification of eROSITA Sources (SPIDERS), investigating X-ray AGNs and galaxies in X-ray clusters, and the Time Domain Spectroscopic Survey (TDSS), obtaining spectra of variable sources. All programs use the 2.5 m Sloan Foundation Telescope at the Apache Point Observatory; observations there began in Summer 2014. APOGEE-2 also operates a second near-infrared spectrograph at the 2.5 m du Pont Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory, with observations beginning in early 2017. Observations at both facilities are scheduled to continue through 2020. In keeping with previous SDSS policy, SDSS-IV provides regularly scheduled public data releases; the first one, Data Release 13, was made available in 2016 July.

  18. The 2RE J0241-525: A Nearby Post T-Tauri Visual Binary System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, R. D.; Buckley, D. A. H.; James, D. J.; Stauffer, J. R.

    1995-01-01

    We present high spatial resolution X-ray observations, photometry and spectroscopy of the two low mass, active stars proposed as optical counterparts to the extreme ultraviolet source 2RE J0241-525 (equal to EUVE J0241-530). It is confirmed that both stars, which are of types dK7e and dM3e and separated by 22 arcsecs, are sources of soft X-ray emission and exhibit substantial chromospheric activity. Radial velocity measurements indicate that the two components are physically associated and most probably single. The projected equatorial velocities are measured as (75 +/- 3) km/s and (11.7 +/- 0.7) km/s for the hotter and cooler components, respectively, and whilst the hotter component has a relatively high photospheric lithium abundance, log N(Li) equal to 1.5 +/- 0.2, we are unable to detect any lithium in the cooler star. Isochrone fitting to this 'mini-cluster' yields an age of (3-70) Myr and a distance of (19-60) pc. An empirical comparison of the lithium abundances with those for similar stars in young clusters and associations narrows this age range to (5-30) Myr and a corresponding distance of (26-50) pc. We conclude that this object is a nearby post T-Tauri system, but we cannot locate any possible birth site. It appears unlikely that the system can have been ejected from a nearby open cluster in a two or three body encounter.

  19. The ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury. X. Quantifying the Star Cluster Formation Efficiency of Nearby Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Cook, David O; Dale, Daniel A; Johnson, L Clifton; Weisz, Daniel R; Fouesneau, Morgan; Olsen, Knut A G; Engelbracht, Charles W; Dalcanton, Julianne J

    2012-01-01

    We study the relationship between the field star formation and cluster formation properties in a large sample of nearby dwarf galaxies. We use optical data from the Hubble Space Telescope and from ground-based telescopes to derive the ages and masses of the young (t_age < 100Myr) cluster sample. Our data provides the first constraints on two proposed relationships between the star formation rate of galaxies and the properties of their cluster systems in the low star formation rate regime. The data show broad agreement with these relationships, but significant galaxy-to-galaxy scatter exists. In part, this scatter can be accounted for by simulating the small number of clusters detected from stochastically sampling the cluster mass function. However, this stochasticity does not fully account for the observed scatter in our data suggesting there may be true variations in the fraction of stars formed in clusters in dwarf galaxies. Comparison of the cluster formation and the brightest cluster in our sample gala...

  20. Ionospheric Alfvén resonator excitation due to nearby thunderstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surkov, V. V.; Hayakawa, M.; Schekotov, A. Y.; Fedorov, E. N.; Molchanov, O. A.

    2006-01-01

    A theory of midlatitude Ionospheric Alfvén Resonator (IAR) excitation due to random cloud-to-ground lightning discharges is developed. Electromagnetic wave radiated from the lightning discharges penetrates into the ionosphere, thereby exciting the shear Alfvén and magnetosonic waves in the F region of ionosphere. The IAR arises due to wave reflection from the Alfvén velocity gradients in the topside ionosphere. Typically, the ionospheric resonance cavity accumulates the shear Alfvén wave energy with periods from 1 s to a few tenths of seconds. To proceed analytically, a suitably idealized plane-stratified model of the medium was used that ignores the magnetic field line curvature and dip angle but includes plasma conductivity variations with altitude. The thunderstorm centers distributed around a ground-recording station is assumed to be statistically independent sources of the lightning activity, which is a stochastic Poisson process. The lightning onset time and the current moment is supposed to be a random value, while the shape and duration of return strokes are deterministic. Model calculations of the IAR spectrum due to nearby thunderstorm activity were applied to interpret ULF observation made at Karimshino station (52.94°N, 158.25°E) in Kamchatka peninsula. It is shown that the sharp impulses which are in one-to-one correspondence with the appearance of the spectral resonance structure (SRS) in dynamic spectrograms can be the result from nearby lightning discharges followed by impulse IAR excitation. The correlation functions and power spectra of the IAR due to random lightning discharge process is studied both analytically and numerically. We found that the nearby thunderstorms in the range of 1000-2000 km make a main contribution to the SRS signature of the midlatitude IAR, whereas the remote/tropic thunderstorm activity is of minor importance. It is not inconceivable that there may exist other permanent mechanisms of the midlatitude IAR excitation

  1. An Unbiased Survey of 500 Nearby Stars for Debris Disks: A JCMT Legacy Program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthews, B.C.; Greaves, J.S.; Holland, W.S.; Wyatt, M.C.; Barlow, M.J.; Bastien, P.; Beichman, C.A.; Biggs, A.; Butner, H.M.; Dent, W.R.F.; Di Francesco, J.; Dominik, C.; Fissel, L.; Friberg, P.; Gibb, A.G.; Halpern, M.; Ivison, R.J.; Jayawardhana, R.; Jenness, T.; Johnstone, D.; Kavelaars, J.J.; Marshall, J.L.; Phillips, N.; Schieven, G.; Snellen, I.A.G.; Walker, H.J.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Weferling, B.; White, G.J.; Yates, J.; Zhu, M.; Craigon, A.

    2007-01-01

    We present the scientific motivation and observing plan for an upcoming detection survey for debris disks using the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. The SCUBA-2 Unbiased Nearby Stars (SUNS) survey will observe 500 nearby main-sequence and subgiant stars (100 of each of the A, F, G, K, and M spectral c

  2. An Unbiased Survey of 500 Nearby Stars for Debris Disks : A JCMT Legacy Program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthews, B.C.; Greaves, J.S.; Holland, W.S.; Wyatt, M.C.; Barlow, M.J.; Bastien, P.; Beichman, C.A.; Biggs, A.; Butner, H.M.; Dent, W.R.F.; Francesco, J. Di; Dominik, C.; Fissel, L.; Friberg, P.; Gibb, A.G.; Halpern, M.; Ivison, R.J.; Jayawardhana, R.; Jenness, T.; Johnstone, D.; Kavelaars, J.J.; Marshall, J.L.; Phillips, N.; Schieven, G.; Snellen, I.A.G.; Walker, H.J.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Weferling, B.; White, G.J.; Yates, J.; Zhu, M.

    2007-01-01

    We present the scientific motivation and observing plan for an upcoming detection survey for debris disks using the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. The SCUBA-2 Unbiased Nearby Stars (SUNS) survey will observe 500 nearby main-sequence and subgiant stars (100 of each of the A, F, G, K, and M spectral c

  3. An Unbiased Survey of 500 Nearby Stars for Debris Disks: A JCMT Legacy Program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthews, B.C.; Greaves, J.S.; Holland, W.S.; Wyatt, M.C.; Barlow, M.J.; Bastien, P.; Beichman, C.A.; Biggs, A.; Butner, H.M.; Dent, W.R.F.; Di Francesco, J.; Dominik, C.; Fissel, L.; Friberg, P.; Gibb, A.G.; Halpern, M.; Ivison, R.J.; Jayawardhana, R.; Jenness, T.; Johnstone, D.; Kavelaars, J.J.; Marshall, J.L.; Phillips, N.; Schieven, G.; Snellen, I.A.G.; Walker, H.J.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Weferling, B.; White, G.J.; Yates, J.; Zhu, M.; Craigon, A.

    2007-01-01

    We present the scientific motivation and observing plan for an upcoming detection survey for debris disks using the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. The SCUBA-2 Unbiased Nearby Stars (SUNS) survey will observe 500 nearby main-sequence and subgiant stars (100 of each of the A, F, G, K, and M spectral c

  4. An Unbiased Survey of 500 Nearby Stars for Debris Disks : A JCMT Legacy Program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthews, B.C.; Greaves, J.S.; Holland, W.S.; Wyatt, M.C.; Barlow, M.J.; Bastien, P.; Beichman, C.A.; Biggs, A.; Butner, H.M.; Dent, W.R.F.; Francesco, J. Di; Dominik, C.; Fissel, L.; Friberg, P.; Gibb, A.G.; Halpern, M.; Ivison, R.J.; Jayawardhana, R.; Jenness, T.; Johnstone, D.; Kavelaars, J.J.; Marshall, J.L.; Phillips, N.; Schieven, G.; Snellen, I.A.G.; Walker, H.J.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Weferling, B.; White, G.J.; Yates, J.; Zhu, M.

    2007-01-01

    We present the scientific motivation and observing plan for an upcoming detection survey for debris disks using the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. The SCUBA-2 Unbiased Nearby Stars (SUNS) survey will observe 500 nearby main-sequence and subgiant stars (100 of each of the A, F, G, K, and M spectral c

  5. Search for bright nearby M dwarfs with virtual observatory tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aberasturi, M.; Caballero, J. A.; Montesinos, B.; Gálvez-Ortiz, M. C.; Solano, E.; Martín, E. L. [Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Departamento de Astrofísica, P.O. Box 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid (Spain)

    2014-08-01

    Using Virtual Observatory tools, we cross-matched the Carlsberg Meridian 14 and the 2MASS Point Source catalogs to select candidate nearby bright M dwarfs distributed over ∼25,000 deg{sup 2}. Here, we present reconnaissance low-resolution optical spectra for 27 candidates that were observed with the Intermediate Dispersion Spectrograph at the 2.5 m Isaac Newton Telescope (R≈ 1600). We derived spectral types from a new spectral index, R, which measures the ratio of fluxes at 7485-7015 Å and 7120-7150 Å. We also used VOSA, a Virtual Observatory tool for spectral energy distribution fitting, to derive effective temperatures and surface gravities for each candidate. The resulting 27 targets were M dwarfs brighter than J = 10.5 mag, 16 of which were completely new in the Northern hemisphere and 7 of which were located at less than 15 pc. For all of them, we also measured Hα and Na I pseudo-equivalent widths, determined photometric distances, and identified the most active stars. The targets with the weakest sodium absorption, namely, J0422+2439 (with X-ray and strong Hα emissions), J0435+2523, and J0439+2333, are new members in the young Taurus-Auriga star-forming region based on proper motion, spatial distribution, and location in the color-magnitude diagram, which reopens the discussion on the deficit of M2-4 Taurus stars. Finally, based on proper motion diagrams, we report on a new wide M dwarf binary system in the field, LSPM J0326+3929EW.

  6. DUst around NEarby Stars. The Survey Observational Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiroa, C.; Marshall, J. P.; Mora, A.; Montesinos, B.; Absil, O.; Augereau, J. Ch.; Bayo, A.; Bryden, G.; Danchi, W.; delBurgo, C.; Ertel, S..; Fridlund, M.; Heras, A. M.; Krivov, A. V.; Launhardt, R.; Liseau, R.; Lohne, T.; Maldonado, J.; Pilbratt, G. L.; Roberge, A.; Rodman, J.; Sanz-Forcada, J.; Stapelfeldt, K.; Ardila, D.; Beichmann, C.

    2013-01-01

    Context. Debris discs are a consequence of the planet formation process and constitute the fingerprints of planetesimal systems. Their solar system counterparts are the asteroid and Edgeworth-Kuiper belts.Aims. The DUNES survey aims at detecting extra-solar analogues to the Edgeworth-Kuiper belt around solar-type stars, putting in this way the solar system into context. The survey allows us to address some questions related to the prevalence and properties of planetesimal systems.Methods. We used Herschel PACS to observe a sample of nearby FGK stars. Data at 100 and 160 micron were obtained, complemented in some cases with observations at 70 micron, and at 250, 350 and 500 micron using SPIRE. The observing strategy was to integrate as deep as possible at 100 micron to detect the stellar photosphere. Results. Debris discs have been detected at a fractional luminosity level down to several times that of the Edgeworth-Kuiper belt. The incidence rate of discs around the DUNES stars is increased from a rate of approx. 12.1% +/- 5% before Herschel to approx 20.2 % +/- % 2. A significant fraction (approx. 52%) of the discs are resolved, which represents an enormous step ahead from the previously known resolved discs. Some stars are associated with faint far-IR excesses attributed to a new class of cold discs. Although it cannot be excluded that these excesses are produced by coincidental alignment of background galaxies, statistical arguments suggest that at least some of them are true debris discs. Some discs display peculiar SEDs with spectral indexes in the 70-160 micron range steeper than the Rayleigh-Jeans one. An analysis of the debris disc parameters suggests that a decrease might exist of the mean black body radius from the F-type to the K-type stars. In addition, a weak trend is suggested for a correlation of disc sizes and an anticorrelation of disc temperatures with the stellar age.

  7. Detection of lithium in nearby young late-M dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan-Bao, N.; Bessell, M. S.; Nguyen-Thanh, D.; Martín, E. L.; Ho, P. T. P.; Lee, C. F.; Parsons, H.

    2017-03-01

    Context. Late M-type dwarfs in the solar neighborhood include a mixture of very low-mass stars and brown dwarfs that is difficult to disentangle due to the lack of constraints on their age, such as trigonometric parallax, lithium detection, and space velocity. Aims: We search for young brown dwarf candidates among a sample of 28 nearby late-M dwarfs with spectral types between M5.0 and M9.0, and we also search for debris disks around three of them. Methods: Based on theoretical models, we used the color I-J, the J-band absolute magnitude, and the detection of the Li I 6708 Å doublet line as a strong constraint to estimate masses and ages of our targets. For the search of debris disks, we observed three targets at submillimeter wavelength of 850 μm. Results: We report here the first clear detections of lithium absorption in four targets and a marginal detection in one target. Our mass estimates indicate that two of them are young brown dwarfs, two are young brown dwarf candidates, and one is a young very low-mass star. The closest young field brown dwarf in our sample at only 15 pc is an excellent benchmark for further studying physical properties of brown dwarfs in the range 100-150 Myr. We did not detect any debris disks around three late-M dwarfs, and we estimated upper limits to the dust mass of debris disks around them. The reduced spectra (FITS files) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/600/A19

  8. Texas Supernova Search: A Wide Field Search for Nearby SNe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quimby, R. M.; Castro, F.; Gerardy, C. L.; Hoeflich, P.; Kannappan, S. J.; Mondol, P.; Sellers, M.; Wheeler, J. C.

    2005-12-01

    ROTSE-IIIb is one four robotic telescopes built by the University of Michigan to observe the prompt optical afterglows associated with gamma-ray bursts. At just 0.45m in diameter, it is the smallest research telescope at McDonald, but its 1.85 x 1.85 deg field of view and autonomous operation make it an excellent survey instrument for rare transient phenomena. We have been using ROTSE-IIIb for the past year to search for supernovae in nearby galaxy clusters such as the Virgo, Coma, and Ursa Major clusters. ROTSE-IIIb's wide field of view allows us to search the thousands of galaxies in these clusters, which cover hundreds of square degrees on the sky, in just a few tens of exposures. We can therefore observe all of these fields in a single night, and repeat the search every night. When we identify a new supernova candidate, we invoke our target of opportunity time on the neighboring 9.2m Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) the following night to obtain a spectrum. Because of the rolling search and the quick spectral turn-around possible with the HET, we are able to capture spectra of the earliest phases of the explosion. By combining this information with spectra taken at later epochs, we can construct a complete description of the explosion. Through this work we aim to better understand the physical conditions of supernova explosions, identify any systematic effects that may affect how Type Ia supernovae are calibrated as standard candles and used to probe cosmology, and also to better calibrate Type II supernovae as standard candles.

  9. A Comprehensive Census of Nearby Infrared Excess Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotten, Tara H.; Song, Inseok

    2016-07-01

    The conclusion of the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mission presents an opportune time to summarize the history of using excess emission in the infrared as a tracer of circumstellar material and exploit all available data for future missions such as the James Webb Space Telescope. We have compiled a catalog of infrared excess stars from peer-reviewed articles and perform an extensive search for new infrared excess stars by cross-correlating the Tycho-2 and all-sky WISE (AllWISE) catalogs. We define a significance of excess in four spectral type divisions and select stars showing greater than either 3σ or 5σ significance of excess in the mid- and far-infrared. Through procedures including spectral energy distribution fitting and various image analyses, each potential excess source was rigorously vetted to eliminate false positives. The infrared excess stars from the literature and the new stars found through the Tycho-2 and AllWISE cross-correlation produced nearly 500 “Prime” infrared excess stars, of which 74 are new sources of excess, and >1200 are “Reserved” stars, of which 950 are new sources of excess. The main catalog of infrared excess stars are nearby, bright, and either demonstrate excess in more than one passband or have infrared spectroscopy confirming the infrared excess. This study identifies stars that display a spectral energy distribution suggestive of a secondary or post-protoplanetary generation of dust, and they are ideal targets for future optical and infrared imaging observations. The final catalogs of stars summarize the past work using infrared excess to detect dust disks, and with the most extensive compilation of infrared excess stars (˜1750) to date, we investigate various relationships among stellar and disk parameters.

  10. What sparks the radio-loud phase of nearby quasars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coziol, Roger; Andernach, Heinz; Torres-Papaqui, Juan Pablo; Ortega-Minakata, René Alberto; Moreno del Rio, Froylan

    2017-04-01

    To better constrain the hypotheses proposed to explain why only a few quasars are radio loud (RL), we compare the characteristics of 1958 nearby (z ≤ 0.3) SDSS (Sloan Digital Sky Survey) quasars, covered by the FIRST (Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty-centimeters) and NVSS (NRAO VLA Sky Survey) radio surveys. Only 22 per cent are RL with log (L1.4 GHz) ≥ 22.5 W Hz-1, the majority being compact (C), weak radio sources (WRS), with log (L1.4 GHz) radio morphologies: 3 per cent have a core and a jet (J), 2 per cent have a core with one lobe (L), and 10 per cent have a core with two lobes (T), the majority being powerful radio sources (PRS), with log (L1.4 GHz) ≥ 24.5 W Hz-1. In general, RL quasars have higher bolometric luminosities and ionization powers than radio-quiet (RQ) quasars. The WRS have comparable black hole (BH) masses as the RQ quasars, but higher accretion rates or radiative efficiencies. The PRS have higher BH masses than the WRS, but comparable accretion rates or radiative efficiencies. The WRS also have higher FWHM_{[O iii]} than the PRS, consistent with a coupling of the spectral characteristics of the quasars with their radio morphologies. Inspecting the SDSS images and applying a neighbour search algorithm reveal no difference between the RQ and RL quasars of their host galaxies, environments, and interaction. Our results prompt the conjecture that the phenomenon that sparks the RL phase in quasars is transient, intrinsic to the active galactic nuclei, and stochastic, due to the chaotic nature of the accretion process of matter on to the BHs.

  11. A rocky planet transiting a nearby low-mass star.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berta-Thompson, Zachory K; Irwin, Jonathan; Charbonneau, David; Newton, Elisabeth R; Dittmann, Jason A; Astudillo-Defru, Nicola; Bonfils, Xavier; Gillon, Michaël; Jehin, Emmanuël; Stark, Antony A; Stalder, Brian; Bouchy, Francois; Delfosse, Xavier; Forveille, Thierry; Lovis, Christophe; Mayor, Michel; Neves, Vasco; Pepe, Francesco; Santos, Nuno C; Udry, Stéphane; Wünsche, Anaël

    2015-11-12

    M-dwarf stars--hydrogen-burning stars that are smaller than 60 per cent of the size of the Sun--are the most common class of star in our Galaxy and outnumber Sun-like stars by a ratio of 12:1. Recent results have shown that M dwarfs host Earth-sized planets in great numbers: the average number of M-dwarf planets that are between 0.5 to 1.5 times the size of Earth is at least 1.4 per star. The nearest such planets known to transit their star are 39 parsecs away, too distant for detailed follow-up observations to measure the planetary masses or to study their atmospheres. Here we report observations of GJ 1132b, a planet with a size of 1.2 Earth radii that is transiting a small star 12 parsecs away. Our Doppler mass measurement of GJ 1132b yields a density consistent with an Earth-like bulk composition, similar to the compositions of the six known exoplanets with masses less than six times that of the Earth and precisely measured densities. Receiving 19 times more stellar radiation than the Earth, the planet is too hot to be habitable but is cool enough to support a substantial atmosphere, one that has probably been considerably depleted of hydrogen. Because the host star is nearby and only 21 per cent the radius of the Sun, existing and upcoming telescopes will be able to observe the composition and dynamics of the planetary atmosphere.

  12. Rock Outcrops Redistribute Organic Carbon and Nutrients to Nearby Soil Patches in Three Karst Ecosystems in SW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dianjie; Shen, Youxin; Li, Yuhui; Huang, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Emergent rock outcrops are common in terrestrial ecosystems. However, little research has been conducted regarding their surface function in redistributing organic carbon and nutrient fluxes to soils nearby. Water that fell on and ran off 10 individual rock outcrops was collected in three 100 × 100 m plots within a rock desertification ecosystem, an anthropogenic forest ecosystem, and a secondary forest ecosystem between June 2013 and June 2014 in Shilin, SW China. The concentrations of total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (N), total phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) in the water samples were determined during three seasons, and the total amounts received by and flowing out from the outcrops were calculated. In all three ecosystems, TOC and N, P, and K were found throughout the year in both the water received by and delivered to nearby soil patches. Their concentrations and amounts were generally greater in forested ecosystems than in the rock desertification ecosystem. When rock outcrops constituted a high percentage (≥ 30%) of the ground surface, the annual export of rock outcrop runoff contributed a large amount of organic carbon and N, P, and K nutrients to soil patches nearby by comparison to the amount soil patches received via atmospheric deposition. These contributions may increase the spatial heterogeneity of soil fertility within patches, as rock outcrops of different sizes, morphologies, and emergence ratios may surround each soil patch.

  13. Nearby Hot Stars May Change Our View of Distant Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-07-01

    As if it werent enough that quasars distant and bright nuclei of galaxies twinkle of their own accord due to internal processes, nature also provides another complication: these distant radio sources can also appear to twinkle because of intervening material between them and us. A new study has identified a possible source for the material getting in the way.Unexplained VariabilityA Spitzer infrared view of the Helix nebula, which contains ionized streamers of gas extending radially outward from the central star. [NASA/JPL-Caltech/Univ. of Ariz.]Distant quasars occasionally display extreme scintillation, twinkling with variability timescales shorter than a day. This intra-day variability is much greater than we can account for with standard models of the interstellar medium lying between the quasar and us. So what could cause this extreme scattering instead?The first clue to this mystery came from the discovery of strong variability in the radio source PKS 1322110. In setting up follow-up observations of this object, Mark Walker (Manly Astrophysics, Australia) and collaborators noticed that, in the plane of the sky, PKS 1322110 lies very near the bright star Spica. Could this be coincidence, or might this bright foreground star have something to do with the extreme scattering observed?Diagram explaining the source of the intra-day radio source variability as intervening filaments surrounding a hot star. [M. Walker/CSIRO/Manly Astrophysics]Swarms of ClumpsWalker and collaborators put forward a hypothesis: perhaps the ultraviolet photons of nearby hot stars ionize plasma around them, which in turn causes the extreme scattering of the distant background sources.As a model, the authors consider the Helix Nebula, in which a hot, evolved star is surrounded by cool globules of molecular hydrogen gas. The radiation from the star hits these molecular clumps, dragging them into long radial streamers and ionizing their outer skins.Though the molecular clumps in the Helix

  14. Bridging the Gap from Galactic to Extragalactic: Star Formation and Giant Molecular Clouds within the Nearby Spiral Galaxy NGC 300

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faesi, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    The questions surrounding the origins of stars are of key importance in astrophysics across a huge range in physical scales. However, until recently, investigations have been restricted to either detailed studies targeting a few nearby regions in the Milky Way, or kpc- or larger-scale studies of entire galaxies. Between these two scales lies a crucial gap in understanding. In this thesis work, I have taken steps in bridging this gap between Galactic and extragalactic star formation. I will present the results of a campaign of observations and modeling targeting the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 300. Using an extensive suite of multi-wavelength data I have characterized the star formation activity and molecular gas in a large sample of star-forming regions within this galaxy. Additionally, I have assembled an extensive (300 clouds) and high resolution (10 pc) catalog of Giant Molecular Clouds (GMCs) based on ALMA CO observations. This unprecedented look at the population of GMCs in a nearby spiral galaxy reveals an astonishing range of morphologies and properties in the Molecular Gas as well as providing a key testbed for comparison with GMCs in the Milky Way and other nearby galaxies. The GMCs in NGC 300 appear to have similar global properties and show scaling relations consistent with those seen in the Milky Way. Furthermore, the star formation rate appears to correlate with the mass of molecular gas with approximately 250 Gyr depletion time, extending the relation discovered in the Milky Way linearly to larger scales. These results suggest a level of universality in the star formation process within spiral galaxy disks like our own Milky Way.

  15. Media constructions of dying alone: a form of 'bad death'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seale, Clive

    2004-03-01

    In this study, newspaper accounts of people who die alone are analysed, drawing on a sample of 90 articles in the anglophone press that appeared in October 1999. Dying alone is represented as a fearful fate and a moral affair, often being the outcome of an undesirable personal character, either of the deceased or of onlookers, or involving the failings of society at large. It is frequently portrayed as occurring to people who are either geographically or socially distant from 'home', so that an imagined community of readers is encouraged to contemplate a death alone as the consequence of personal or societal breakdown. A degree of stigmatisation, sometimes of those who die alone, sometimes of those perceived to have caused this event, was evident. The negative evaluation of death alone parallels that found in some traditional societies where a death far from home is considered 'bad'. Dying alone contrasts significantly with the sociable, 'good', confessional deaths of newspaper columnists and other media celebrities facing terminal illness.

  16. Halitosis: could it be more than mere bad breath?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campisi, Giuseppina; Musciotto, Anna; Di Fede, Olga; Di Marco, Vito; Craxì, Antonio

    2011-08-01

    Halitosis is a generic term used to describe unpleasant odor emanating from the mouth air and breath, independent of the source where the odor substances originate. It affects between 50 and 65% of the population, but despite its frequency, this problem is often unaccepted and declared as taboo. Ninety percent of patients suffering from halitosis have oral causes: a small, but important percentage, of oral malodor cases have an extra-oral etiology, very often falling into the category of "blood-borne halitosis". Several systemic diseases have been found to provoke malodor or to be a cofactor; bad breath may be an early sign of a serious local or systemic condition. A psychogenic halitosis also exists including the variant "pseudo-halitosis", when the oral malodor does not exist, but the patient believes he or she is suffering severely from it, and the halitophobia, when, instead, there is an exaggerated fear of having halitosis. The aims of this paper are to review both oral and extra-oral causes of halitosis, especially those related to underlying systemic diseases, and to provide the primary care clinician a helpful means for its diagnosis and management. In fact, it is important to determine quickly whether the odor comes from an oral cause or not: if so, it requires referral to a dentist; if not (extra-oral origin alone or combined), its management requires the treatment of the underlying causes. Extra-oral disorders can be the cause in up to 15% of cases.

  17. Is gall bladder cancer a bad cancer per se ?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Gall bladder cancer (GBC) has one of the poorestoutcomes of all cancers. Early GBC is difficult todiagnose on even computed tomography. GB has nosubmucosa and the cancer infiltrates directly into themuscularis propria. GB wall is thin and important adjacentorgans viz. liver, duodenum and pancreas get easilyinfiltrated. Tumor in the GB neck often needs extendedright hepatectomy. Infiltration of duodenum/pancreasmay necessitate pancreato-duodenectomy or evenhepato-pancreato-duodenectomy. Mortality of surgicalprocedures, when performed for GBC, is higher thanwhen performed for other cancers. Survival in GBC,even after R0 resection, is poor. There is no proven roleof neo-adjuvant or adjuvant therapy for loco-regionallyadvanced GBC. There is no role of palliative surgeryin metastatic GBC. Early GBC is diagnosed incidentallyafter cholecystectomy for stones and requires reoperationfor completion extended cholecystectomy butunfortunately, most surgeons are not aware of this. GBChas a peculiar epidemiology and is uncommon in theWest and has, therefore, not received much attention.Preventive cholecystectomy for asymptomatic stonesis not recommended and there is no serum marker forscreening. With all factors pitched against it, it doesappear that GBC is a bad cancer per se !

  18. Good Use of a `Bad' Metaphor. Entropy as Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haglund, Jesper

    2017-05-01

    Entropy is often introduced to students through the use of the disorder metaphor. However, many weaknesses and limitations of this metaphor have been identified, and it has therefore been argued that it is more harmful than useful in teaching. For instance, under the influence of the disorder metaphor, students tend to focus on spatial configuration with regard to entropy but disregard the role of energy, which may lead their intuition astray in problem solving. Albeit so, a review of research of students' ideas about entropy in relation to the disorder metaphor shows that students can use the metaphor in developing a more nuanced, complex view of the concept, by connecting entropy as disorder to other concepts such as microstates and spreading. The disorder metaphor—in combination with other explanatory approaches—can be used as a resource for learning, in giving students an early flavour of what entropy means, so long as we acknowledge its limitations; we can put this "bad" metaphor to good use in teaching.

  19. The Dragonfly nearby Galaxies Survey. I. Substantial Variation in the Diffuse Stellar Halos around Spiral Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Allison; van Dokkum, Pieter; Abraham, Roberto; Zhang, Jielai

    2016-10-01

    Galaxies are thought to grow through accretion; as less massive galaxies are disrupted and merge over time, their debris results in diffuse, clumpy stellar halos enveloping the central galaxy. Here we present a study of the variation in the stellar halos of galaxies, using data from the Dragonfly Nearby Galaxies Survey (DNGS). The survey consists of wide field, deep ({μ }g\\gt 31 mag arcsec‑2) optical imaging of nearby galaxies using the Dragonfly Telephoto Array. Our sample includes eight spiral galaxies with stellar masses similar to that of the Milky Way, inclinations of 16-19 degrees and distances between 7-18 Mpc. We construct stellar mass surface density profiles from the observed g-band surface brightness in combination with the g ‑ r color as a function of radius, and compute the halo fractions from the excess stellar mass (relative to a disk+bulge fit) beyond 5 half-mass radii. We find a mean halo fraction of 0.009 ± 0.005 and a large rms scatter of {1.01}-0.26+0.9 dex. The peak-to-peak scatter of the halo fraction is a factor of \\gt 100—while some galaxies feature strongly structured halos resembling that of M31, three of the eight have halos that are completely undetected in our data. We conclude that spiral galaxies as a class exhibit a rich variety in stellar halo properties, implying that their assembly histories have been highly non-uniform. We find no convincing evidence for an environmental or stellar mass dependence of the halo fraction in the sample.

  20. Healthy environment--indoor air quality of Brazilian elementary schools nearby petrochemical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoi, Ricardo H M; Godoi, Ana F L; Gonçalves Junior, Sérgio J; Paralovo, Sarah L; Borillo, Guilherme C; Gonçalves Gregório Barbosa, Cybelli; Arantes, Manoela G; Charello, Renata C; Rosário Filho, Nelson A; Grassi, Marco T; Yamamoto, Carlos I; Potgieter-Vermaak, Sanja; Rotondo, Giuliana G; De Wael, Karolien; van Grieken, Rene

    2013-10-01

    The mitigation of pollution released to the environment originating from the industrial sector has been the aim of all policy-makers and its importance is evident if the adverse health effects on the world population are considered. Although this concern is controversial, petroleum refinery has been linked to some adverse health effects for people living nearby. Apart from home, school is the most important indoor environment for children and there is increasing concern about the school environment and its impact on health, also in developing countries where the prevalence of pollution is higher. As most of the children spend more than 40% of their time in schools, it is critical to evaluate the pollution level in such environment. In the metropolitan region of Curitiba, South Brazil, five schools nearby industries and highways with high density traffic, were selected to characterize the aerosol and gaseous compounds indoor and outdoor of the classrooms, during 2009-2011. Size segregated aerosol samples were collected for analyses of bulk and single particle elemental profiles. They were analyzed by electron probe X-ray micro-analysis (EPXMA), and by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF), to investigate the elemental composition of individual particles and bulk samples. The concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX); NO2; SO2; acetic acid; and formic acid were assessed indoor and outdoor using passive diffusion tubes. BTEX were analyzed by GC-MS and other collected gasses by ion chromatography. Individual exposition of BTEX was assessed by personal passive diffusion tubes. Results are interpreted separately and as a whole with the specific aim of identifying compounds that could affect the health of the scholars. In view of the chemical composition and size distribution of the aerosol particles, local deposition efficiencies in the children's respiratory systems were calculated, revealing the deposition of particles at extrathoracic