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Sample records for high b-carotene cucumber

  1. Nonradiative transitions in the media of different polarity and their simulation for 12'-apo-b-caroten-12'-al and 8'-apo-b-caroten-8'-al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlovich, V.S.

    2014-01-01

    The theory of nonradiative transitions based on the model of orientation broadening of electronic levels has been used to interpret known data on the medium polarity and temperature effect on the S 1 (A g - ) state lifetime of 12'-apo-b-caroten-12'-al and 8'-apo-b-caroten-8'-al. The effect of promotion vibrations on the rate constant of the nonradiative transitions has been considered. The results allow assuming that the internal electric field produced by the environment heavily perturbs molecules of the pigments. In consequence of this, at both pigments in the excited S 1 (A g - ) state exist in the form of different conformers I and II. Their structure differs by 180° turn of the cyclohexene ring relative to the polyene chain. Conformer II dominates in the polar media, and it is in the intramolecular charge transfer state S 1 (A g - /ICT). In addition, it can also be in the charge separated state S 1 (A g - /CS) due to the fluctuations of internal electric field. (authors)

  2. High-throughput sequencing, characterization and detection of new and conserved cucumber miRNAs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Martínez

    Full Text Available Micro RNAS (miRNAs are a class of endogenous small non coding RNAs involved in the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. In plants, a great number of conserved and specific miRNAs, mainly arising from model species, have been identified to date. However less is known about the diversity of these regulatory RNAs in vegetal species with agricultural and/or horticultural importance. Here we report a combined approach of bioinformatics prediction, high-throughput sequencing data and molecular methods to analyze miRNAs populations in cucumber (Cucumis sativus plants. A set of 19 conserved and 6 known but non-conserved miRNA families were found in our cucumber small RNA dataset. We also identified 7 (3 with their miRNA* strand not previously described miRNAs, candidates to be cucumber-specific. To validate their description these new C. sativus miRNAs were detected by northern blot hybridization. Additionally, potential targets for most conserved and new miRNAs were identified in cucumber genome.In summary, in this study we have identified, by first time, conserved, known non-conserved and new miRNAs arising from an agronomically important species such as C. sativus. The detection of this complex population of regulatory small RNAs suggests that similarly to that observe in other plant species, cucumber miRNAs may possibly play an important role in diverse biological and metabolic processes.

  3. An autonomous robot for de-leafing cucumber plants in a high-wire cultivation system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henten, van E.J.; Tuijl, van B.A.J.; Hoogakker, G.J.; Weerd, van der M.J.; Hemming, J.; Kornet, J.G.; Bontsema, J.

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents an autonomous robot for removing the leaves from cucumber plants grown in a high-wire cultivation system. Leaves at the lower end of the plants are removed because of their reduced vitality, their negligible contribution to canopy photosynthesis and their increased sensitivity for

  4. Characterization of k-carrageenan/Locust bean gumbased films with b-carotene emulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Joana; Silva, H. D.; Rojas, R.; Aguilar, Cristóbal N.; Vicente, A. A.

    2014-01-01

    New bio-based materials have been exploited to develop biodegradable and edible films as an effort to extend shelf life and improve quality of food while reducing packaging waste. The objective of this study was to investigate physicochemical properties of k-carrageenan/locust bean gum (k-car/LBG) films with different bcarotene emulsion concentrations. To prepare oil-in-water emulsions, b-carotene (0.03% v/v) was dissolved in mediumchain triglycerides (MCTs), and the solution was mixed ...

  5. Identification of fucans from four species of sea cucumber by high temperature 1H NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Nian; Chen, Shiguo; Ye, Xingqian; Li, Guoyun; Yin, Li'ang; Xue, Changhu

    2014-10-01

    Acidic polysaccharide, which has various biological activities, is one of the most important components of sea cucumber. In the present study, crude polysaccharide was extracted from four species of sea cucumber from three different geographical zones, Pearsonothuria graeffei ( Pg) from Indo-Pacific, Holothuria vagabunda ( Hv) from Norwegian Coast, Stichopus tremulu ( St) from Western Indian Ocean, and Isostichopus badionotu ( Ib) from Western Atlantic. The polysaccharide extract was separated and purified with a cellulose DEAE anion-exchange column to obtain corresponding sea cucumber fucans (SC-Fucs). The chemical property of these SC-Fucs, including molecular weight, monosaccharide composition and sulfate content, was determined. Their structure was compared simply with fourier infrared spectrum analyzer and identified with high temperature 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum analyzer (NMR) and room temperature 13C NMR. The results indicated that Fuc- Pg obtained from the torrid zone mainly contained 2,4-O-disulfated and non-sulfated fucose residue, whereas Fuc- Ib from the temperate zone contained non-, 2-O- and 2,4-O-disulfated fucose residue; Fuc- St from the frigid zone and Fuc- Hv from the torrid zone contained mainly non-sulfated fucose residue. The proton of SC-Fucs was better resolved via high temperature 1H NMR than via room temperature 1H NMR. The fingerprint of sea cucumber in different sea regions was established based on the index of anomer hydrogen signal in SC-Fucs. Further work will help to understand whether there exists a close relationship between the geographical area of sea cucumber and the sulfation pattern of SC-Fucs.

  6. Quantitative secretion and maximal secretion capacity of retinol, b-carotene and a-tocopherol into cows' milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Krogh; Kjær, Anna Kirstin Bjørnbak; Hermansen, John Erik

    1999-01-01

    Changes in the contents of retinol, a-tocopherol and b-carotene in plasma, milk and milk fat from 38 Holstein-Friesian cows were followed during their ®rst lactation, and the quantitative and kinetic relationships for secretion of a-tocopherol and b-carotene from blood into milk were determined....... The cows were assigned to three groups such that all cows in the same group had the same sire. Milk yield and milk fat content differed with stage of lactation, but not according to sire. The plasma concentrations of retinol, a-tocopherol and b-carotene differed with stage of lactation; in addition...... on increasing milk and milk fat yield will result in a steady dilution in the milk fat of these vitamins and antioxidants important for the immune defence of the cows and oxidative stability of milk products. The genetic variation found offers the possibility of utilizing these variations in breeding systems....

  7. Sea cucumber saponin liposomes ameliorate obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance in high-fat-diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng; Han, Xiuqing; Dong, Ping; Li, Zhaojie; Yanagita, Teruyoshi; Xue, Changhu; Zhang, Tiantian; Wang, Yuming

    2018-02-21

    Obesity has become a worldwide concern in recent years, which may cause many diseases. Much attention has been paid to food components that are considered to be beneficial in preventing chronic metabolic diseases. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of sea cucumber saponin liposomes on certain metabolic markers associated with obesity. C57/BL6 mice fed with high-fat diet were treated with different forms of sea cucumber saponins for eight weeks. The results showed that liposomes exhibited better effects on anti-obesity and anti-hyperlipidemia activities than the common form of sea cucumber saponins. Sea cucumber saponin liposomes could also effectively alleviate adipose tissue inflammation by reducing pro-inflammatory cytokine releases and macrophage infiltration. Moreover, sea cucumber saponin liposomes improved insulin resistance by altering the uptake and utilization of glucose. Taken together, our results indicated that the intake of sea cucumber saponin liposomes might be able to ameliorate obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance.

  8. Transcriptome Analyses of Mosaic (MSC Mitochondrial Mutants of Cucumber in a Highly Inbred Nuclear Background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz L. Mróz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. has a large, paternally transmitted mitochondrial genome. Cucumber plants regenerated from cell cultures occasionally show paternally transmitted mosaic (MSC phenotypes, characterized by slower growth, chlorotic patterns on the leaves and fruit, lower fertility, and rearrangements in their mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs. MSC lines 3, 12, and 16 originated from different cell cultures all established using the highly inbred, wild-type line B. These MSC lines possess different rearrangements and under-represented regions in their mtDNAs. We completed RNA-seq on normalized and non-normalized cDNA libraries from MSC3, MSC12, and MSC16 to study their nuclear gene-expression profiles relative to inbred B. Results from both libraries indicated that gene expression in MSC12 and MSC16 were more similar to each other than MSC3. Forty-one differentially expressed genes (DEGs were upregulated and one downregulated in the MSC lines relative to B. Gene functional classifications revealed that more than half of these DEGs are associated with stress-response pathways. Consistent with this observation, we detected elevated levels of hydrogen peroxide throughout leaf tissue in all MSC lines compared to wild-type line B. These results demonstrate that independently produced MSC lines with different mitochondrial polymorphisms show unique and shared nuclear responses. This study revealed genes associated with stress response that could become selection targets to develop cucumber cultivars with increased stress tolerance, and further support of cucumber as a model plant to study nuclear-mitochondrial interactions.

  9. Cucumber cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Garg, Shankar

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for business and development personnel who want to use Cucumber for behavior-driven development and test automation. Readers with some familiarity with Cucumber will find this book of most benefit. Since the main objective of this book is to create test automation frameworks, previous experience in automation will be helpful.

  10. Biological characteristics and pathogenicity of a highly pathogenic Shewanella marisflavi infected sea cucumber (Apostichopus uaponicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewanella marisflavi isolate AP629 was characterized as a novel pathogen of sea cucumber. The LD50 values (14 days) in sea cucumber and swordtail fish were 3.89 × 106 and 4.85 × 104 CFU g-1 body weight, respectively. Studies on S. marisflavi had been conducted, including morphology, physiological a...

  11. Effects of dietary n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) on growth, fatty acid profiles, antioxidant capacity and immunity of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haibo; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Shuanglin; Zhou, Jishu; Ye, Zhi; Lan, Ying

    2016-07-01

    The present study was conducted to understand the effects of dietary n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) on growth, fatty acid profiles, antioxidant capacity and the immunity of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka). Five experimental diets were prepared, containing graded levels of n-3 HUFAs (0.46%, 0.85%, 1.25%, 1.61% and 1.95%, respectively), and the 0.46% group was used as control group. The specific growth rates, fatty acid profiles, activities and gene expression of antioxidative enzymes and lysozyme of the sea cucumbers that were fed with the 5 experimental diets were determined. The results showed that the specific growth rate of sea cucumbers in all the treatment groups significantly increased compared to the control group (P sea cucumbers. The contents of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) in the body wall of the sea cucumbers gradually increased with the increasing levels of n-3 HUFAs in the diets. The suitable supplement of n-3 HUFAs in diets improved the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) of sea cucumbers by up-regulating the expression of SOD and CAT mRNA in sea cucumbers. However, excess n-3 HUFAs in diets caused lipid peroxidation, inhibited the expression of lysozyme (LSZ) mRNA and decreased the activities of LSZ in sea cucumbers. In summary, the suitable supplement levels of n-3 HUFAs in diets of sea cucumbers A. japonicus were estimated between 0.85% and 1.25% considering the growth performance, cost and the indicators of antioxidant capacity and immunity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Structural Elucidation and Biological Activity of a Highly Regular Fucosylated Glycosaminoglycan from the Edible Sea Cucumber Stichopus herrmanni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaomei; Luo, Lan; Cai, Ying; Yang, Wenjiao; Lin, Lisha; Li, Zi; Gao, Na; Purcell, Steven W; Wu, Mingyi; Zhao, Jinhua

    2017-10-25

    Edible sea cucumbers are widely used as a health food and medicine. A fucosylated glycosaminoglycan (FG) was purified from the high-value sea cucumber Stichopus herrmanni. Its physicochemical properties and structure were analyzed and characterized by chemical and instrumental methods. Chemical analysis indicated that this FG with a molecular weight of ∼64 kDa is composed of N-acetyl-d-galactosamine, d-glucuronic acid (GlcA), and l-fucose. Structural analysis clarified that the FG contains the chondroitin sulfate E-like backbone, with mostly 2,4-di-O-sulfated (85%) and some 3,4-di-O-sulfated (10%) and 4-O-sulfated (5%) fucose side chains that link to the C3 position of GlcA. This FG is structurally highly regular and homogeneous, differing from the FGs of other sea cucumbers, for its sulfation patterns are simpler. Biological activity assays indicated that it is a strong anticoagulant, inhibiting thrombin and intrinsic factor Xase. Our results expand the knowledge on structural types of FG and illustrate its biological activity as a functional food material.

  13. Refinements of the attending equations for several spectral methods that provide improved quantification of B-carotene and/or lycopene in selected foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing and maintaining maximal levels of carotenoids in fruits and vegetables that contain them is a concern of the produce industry. Toward this end, reliable methods for quantifying lycopene and B-carotene, two of the major health-enhancing carotenoids, are necessary. The goal of this resear...

  14. Identification of microRNAs associated with the exogenous spermidine-mediated improvement of high-temperature tolerance in cucumber seedlings (Cucumis sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Guo, Shirong; Wang, Lei; Wang, Liwei; He, Xueying; Shu, Sheng; Sun, Jin; Lu, Na

    2018-04-24

    High-temperature stress inhibited the growth of cucumber seedlings. Foliar spraying of 1.0 mmol·L - 1 exogenous spermidine (Spd) to the sensitive cucumber cultivar 'Jinchun No. 2' grown at high-temperature (42 °C/32 °C) in an artificial climate box improved the high-temperature tolerance. Although there have been many reports on the response of microRNAs (miRNAs) to high-temperature stress, the mechanism by which exogenous Spd may mitigate the damage of high-temperature stress through miRNA-mediated regulation has not been studied. To elucidate the regulation of miRNAs in response to exogenous Spd-mediated improvement of high-temperature tolerance, four small RNA libraries were constructed from cucumber leaves and sequenced: untreated-control (CW), Spd-treated (CS), high-temperature stress (HW), and Spd-treated and high-temperature stress (HS). As a result, 107 known miRNAs and 79 novel miRNAs were identified. Eight common differentially expressed miRNAs (miR156d-3p, miR170-5p, miR2275-5p, miR394a, miR479b, miR5077, miR5222 and miR6475) were observed in CS/CW, HW/CW, HS/CW and HS/HW comparison pairs, which were the first set of miRNAs that responded to not only high-temperature stress but also exogenous Spd in cucumber seedlings. Five of the eight miRNAs were predicted to target 107 potential genes. Gene function and pathway analyses highlighted the integral role that these miRNAs and target genes probably play in the improvement of the high-temperature tolerance of cucumber seedlings through exogenous Spd application. Our study identified the first set of miRNAs associated with the exogenous Spd-mediated improvement of high-temperature tolerance in cucumber seedlings. The results could help to promote further studies on the complex molecular mechanisms underlying high-temperature tolerance in cucumber and provide a theoretical basis for the high-quality and efficient cultivation of cucumber with high-temperature resistance.

  15. Identification of a highly sulfated fucoidan from sea cucumber Pearsonothuria graeffei with well-repeated tetrasaccharides units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yaqin; Li, Shan; Li, Junhui; Ye, Xingqian; Ding, Tian; Liu, Donghong; Chen, Jianchu; Ge, Zhiwei; Chen, Shiguo

    2015-12-10

    Sea cucumber fucoidan is a major bioactive component of sea cucumber. The structures of fucoidans have significant influences on their biological activities. The present study clarified the delicate structure of a fucoidan from Pearsonothuria graeffei. Fucoidan was obtained after papain digestion and purified by ion chromatography. The carbohydrate sequence of fucoidan was firstly determined by negative-ion electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (ES-MS) with collision-induced dissociation of the oligosaccharide fragments, which were obtained by mild acid hydrolysis, and completed by NMR for assignment of the anomeric conformation. It was unambiguously identified as a tetrasaccharide repeating unit with a backbone of [ → 3Fuc (2S, 4S) α1 → 3Fucα1→ 3Fuc (4S) α1 → 3Fuc#7 × 10#]n. The glycosidic bonds between the non-sulfated and 2,4-O-disulfated fucose residues were selectively cleaved, and highly ordered oligosaccharide fragments with a tetrasaccharide repeating unit were obtained. The highly 4-O- and 2, 4-di-O-sulfated polysaccharide deserves further developments for Pharmacia use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Understanding regulation of microRNAs on intestine regeneration in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus using high-throughput sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lina; Sun, Jingchun; Li, Xiaoni; Zhang, Libin; Yang, Hongsheng; Wang, Qing

    2017-06-01

    The sea cucumber, as a member of the Echinodermata, has the capacity to restore damaged organs and body parts, which has always been a key scientific issue. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of short noncoding RNAs, play important roles in regulating gene expression. In the present study, we applied high-throughput sequencing to investigate alterations of miRNA expression in regenerative intestine compared to normal intestine. A total of 73 differentially expressed miRNAs were obtained, including 59 up-regulated miRNAs and 14 down-regulated miRNAs. Among these molecules, Aja-miR-1715-5p, Aja-miR-153, Aja-miR-252a, Aja-miR-153-5p, Aja-miR-252b, Aja-miR-2001, Aja-miR-64d-3p, and Aja-miR-252-5p were differentially expressed over 10-fold at 3days post-evisceration (dpe). Notably, real-time PCR revealed that Aja-miR-1715-5p was up-regulated 1390-fold at 3dpe. Moreover, putative target gene co-expression analyses, gene ontology, and pathway analyses suggest that these miRNAs play important roles in specific cellular events (cell proliferation, migration, and apoptosis), metabolic regulation, and energy redistribution. These results will provide a basis for future studies of miRNA regulation in sea cucumber regeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Differential gene expression in the intestine of sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) under low and high salinity conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Libin; Feng, Qiming; Sun, Lina; Ding, Kui; Huo, Da; Fang, Yan; Zhang, Tao; Yang, Hongsheng

    2018-03-01

    Sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus is an important species for aquaculture, and its behavior and physiology can change in response to changing salinity conditions. For this reason, it is important to understand the molecular responses of A. japonicus when exposed to ambient changes in salinity. In this study, RNA-Seq provided a general overview of the gene expression profiles in the intestine of A. japonicus exposed to high salinity (SD40), normal salinity (SD30) and low salinity (SD20) environments. Screening for differentially expressed genes (DEGs) using the NOISeq method identified 109, 100, and 89 DEGs based on a fold change of ≥2 and divergence probability ≥0.8 according to the comparisons of SD20 vs. SD30, SD20 vs.SD40, and SD30 vs. SD40, respectively. Gene ontology analysis showed that the terms "metabolic process" and "catalytic activity" comprised the most enriched DEGs. These fell into the categories of "biological process" and "molecular function". While "cell" and "cell part" had the most enriched DEGs in the category of "cellular component". With these DEGs mapping to 2119, 159, and 160 pathways in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database. Of these 51, 2, and 57 pathways were significantly enriched, respectively. The osmosis-specific DEGs identified in this study of A. japonicus will be important targets for further studies to understand the biochemical mechanisms involved with the adaption of sea cucumbers to changes in salinity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Sea cucumbers, the ocean of bioactive compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Ebrahimi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sea cucumbers are one of the most echinoderms and from the class Holothuroidea. Some of their specific biological activities are including anti-cancer, anticoagulant, antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-atherosclerosis and anti-tumor properties, as well as accelerate wound healing. The presence of different compounds such as saponins, chondroitin sulfates, glycosaminoglycans, sulfated Polysaccharides, glycoprotein, glycosphingolipids and essential and non essential fatty acids, are the causes of their biological properties. Saponins, which are produced for compatibility with the environment, are as theire secondary metabolites. These active compounds have biological properties like hemolytic, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antiviral, ichthyotoxic, cytostatic, anti neogenic, antineoplastic, and uric acid lowering effects. Sea cucumber, have high economic value. In East Asia, Since ancient times, it have been traditionally used for the treatment of fatigue, sexual impotence, impotence caused by aging, constipation due to intestinal dryness, urinary incontinence, asthma, hypertension, arthritis and anemia. Also, toxins obtained from sea cucumber, have anti-viral, anti-tumor, anti-cancer and anti-pregnancy properties. According to literatures, the aqueous extract and high molecular weight compounds from sea cucumbers can inhibit tumor activity, via the apoptosis induction. Sea cucumbers because of the high percentage of protein and the absence of cholesterol, classified as an invigorating food. Because of different species of sea cucumbers in the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea the identification of compounds and biological properties of sea cucumber species in these regions is recommended to the researchers.

  19. Escherichia coli O157:H7 bacteriophage 241 isolated from an industrial cucumber fermentation at high acidity and salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongjing eLu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A novel phage, 241, specific for Escherichia coli O157:H7 was isolated from an industrial cucumber fermentation where both acidity (pH  3.7 and salinity ( 5% NaCl were high. The phage belongs to the Myoviridae family. Its latent period was 15 min and average burst size was 53 phage particles per infected cell. The phage was able to lyse 48 E. coli O157:H7 strains, but none of the 18 non-O157 strains (including E. coli O104:H7 or the 2 O antigen-negative mutants of O157:H7 strain, 43895per (also lacking H7 antigen and F12 (still expressing H7 antigen. However, the phage was able to lyse a per-complemented strain (43895perComp which expresses O157 antigen. These results indicated that phage 241 is specific for O157 antigen, and E. coli strains lacking O157 antigen were resistant to the phage infection, regardless of the presence or absence of H7 antigen. SDS-PAGE profile revealed at least 13 structural proteins of the phage. The phage DNA was resistant to many commonly used restriction endonucleases, suggesting the presence of modified nucleotides in the phage genome. At the multiplicity of infection of 10, 3 or 0.3, the phage caused a rapid cell lysis within 1 or 2 h, resulting in 3.5- or 4.5-log-unit reduction in cell concentration. The high lytic activity, specificity and tolerance to low pH and high salinity make phage 241 a potentially ideal biocontrol agent of E. coli O157:H7 in various foods. To our knowledge, this is the first report on E. coli O157:H7 phage isolated from high acidity and salinity environment.

  20. Phytochemical and therapeutic potential of cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Pulok K; Nema, Neelesh K; Maity, Niladri; Sarkar, Birendra K

    2013-01-01

    Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is a member of the Cucurbitaceae family like melon, squash and pumpkins. It is a popular vegetable crop used in Indian traditional medicine since ancient times. This vegetable is very high in water content and very low in calories. It has potential antidiabetic, lipid lowering and antioxidant activity. Cucumber has a cleansing action within the body by removing accumulated pockets of old waste materials and chemical toxins. Fresh fruit juice is used for nourishing the skin. It gives a soothing effect against skin irritations and reduces swelling. Cucumber also has the power to relax and alleviate the sunburn's pain. The fruit is refrigerant, haemostatic, tonic and useful in hyperdipsia, thermoplegia etc. The seeds also have a cooling effect on the body and they are used to prevent constipation. Several bioactive compounds have been isolated from cucumber including cucurbitacins, cucumegastigmanes I and II, cucumerin A and B, vitexin, orientin, isoscoparin 2″-O-(6‴-(E)-p-coumaroyl) glucoside, apigenin 7-O-(6″-O-p-coumaroylglucoside) etc. Despite huge exploration of cucumber in agricultural field, comparatively very few studies have been published about its chemical profile and its therapeutic potential. This article reviews the therapeutic application, pharmacological and phytochemical profile of different parts of C. sativus. In this review we have explored the current phytochemical and pharmacological knowledge available with this well known plant and several promising aspects for research on cucumber. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Cucumber cultivars for container gardening and the value of field trials for predicting Cucumber performance in containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is one of the most popular vegetable crops grown in U.S. home and urban gardens. The objectives of this study were to identify cultivars and planting densities for high yield of container-grown cucumbers. Additional objectives were to determine the value of field trials...

  2. Speciation Analysis of Trace Mercury in Sea Cucumber Species of Apostichopus japonicus Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Conjunction With Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao; Luo, Jiaoyang; Ding, Tong; Gu, Shanyong; Yang, Shihai; Yang, Meihua

    2018-03-25

    In this paper, a simple and cost-effective method using high-performance liquid chromatography in conjunction with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with a rapid ultrasound-assisted extraction was used for analysis speciation of trace mercury in sea cucumber species of Apostichopus japonicus. The effective separation of inorganic mercury, methylmercury, and ethylmercury was achieved within 10 min using Agilent ZORBAX SB-C 18 analytical and guard columns with an isocratic mobile phase consisting of 8% methanol and 92% H 2 O containing 0.12% L-cysteine (m/v) and 0.01 mol/L ammonium acetate. Mercury species were extracted from A. japonicus samples using a solution containing 2-mercaptoethanol, L-cysteine, and hydrochloric acid and sonicating for 0.5 h. The limits of detection of inorganic mercury, methylmercury, and ethylmercury were 0.12, 0.08, and 0.20 μg/L, and the minimum detectable concentrations (measured at 0.500 g sample volume in 10.00 mL) were 2.4, 1.6, and 4.0 μg/kg, respectively. Analysis of a scallop certified reference material (GBW 10024) revealed accordance between the experimental and certified values. This study provides a reference for the evaluation of mercury speciation in sea cucumber and other seafood.

  3. Spontaneous polyploidization in cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Madera, Axel O; Miller, Nathan D; Spalding, Edgar P; Weng, Yiqun; Havey, Michael J

    2017-07-01

    This is the first quantitative estimation of spontaneous polyploidy in cucumber and we detected 2.2% polyploids in a greenhouse study. We provide evidence that polyploidization is consistent with endoreduplication and is an on-going process during plant growth. Cucumber occasionally produces polyploid plants, which are problematic for growers because these plants produce misshaped fruits with non-viable seeds. In this study, we undertook the first quantitative study to estimate the relative frequency of spontaneous polyploids in cucumber. Seeds of recombinant inbred lines were produced in different environments, plants were grown in the field and greenhouse, and flow cytometry was used to establish ploidies. From 1422 greenhouse-grown plants, the overall relative frequency of spontaneous polyploidy was 2.2%. Plants possessed nuclei of different ploidies in the same leaves (mosaic) and on different parts of the same plant (chimeric). Our results provide evidence of endoreduplication and polysomaty in cucumber, and that it is an on-going and dynamic process. There was a significant effect (p = 0.018) of seed production environment on the occurrence of polyploid plants. Seed and seedling traits were not accurate predictors of eventual polyploids, and we recommend that cucumber producers rogue plants based on stature and leaf serration to remove potential polyploids.

  4. Determination of Vitamin C, b-carotene and Riboflavin Contents in Five Green Vegetables Organically and Conventionally Grown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Amin; Cheah, Sook Fun

    2003-03-01

    As consumer interest in organically grown vegetables is increasing in Malaysia, there is a need to answer whether the vegetables are more nutritious than those conventionally grown. This study investigates commercially available vegetables grown organically and conventionally, purchased from retailers to analyse β-carotene, vitamin C and riboflavin contents. Five types of green vegetables were selected, namely Chinese mustard (sawi) (Brassica juncea), Chinese kale (kai-lan) (Brassica alboglabra), lettuce (daun salad) (Lactuca sativa), spinach (bayam putih) (Amaranthus viridis) and swamp cabbage (kangkung) (Ipomoea aquatica). For vitamin analysis, a reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography was used to identify and quantify β -carotene, vitamin C and riboflavin. The findings showed that not all of the organically grown vegetables were higher in vitamins than that conventionally grown. This study found that only swamp cabbage grown organically was highest in β -carotene, vitamin C and riboflavin contents among the entire samples studied. The various nutrients in organically grown vegetables need to be analysed for the generation of a database on nutritional value which is important for future research.

  5. Response of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The growth and yield of cucumber (Cucumus sativus L.) in response to application of goat ... The main plot treatment was organic manure source (goat dung and poultry dropping) while ... manure useful and important in soil fertility maintenance is their impact on soil fertility ... scarce and high cost of mineral fertilizer.

  6. Prospect of Sea Cucumber Culture in Indonesia as Potential Food Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Pangkey, Henneke; Lantu, Sartje; Manuand, Lusia; Mokolensang, JeffrieFredrik

    2012-01-01

    Sea cucumber is one of the sea treasures which has been used not only as luxury food for certain countries but also as medicines. Sea cucumber has become one of the most important products and it has high price in International market.For this reason, the exploitation of sea cucumber turns out to be excessive and disturbs its sustainability. Aquaculture is the best way to prevent this problem. The success of sea cucumber culture is very depend on seed availability and suitable food for larvae...

  7. Identification and Characterization of MicroRNAs from Longitudinal Muscle and Respiratory Tree in Sea Cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) Using High-Throughput Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongdi; Liu, Shikai; Cui, Jun; Li, Chengze; Hu, Yucai; Zhou, Wei; Chang, Yaqing; Qiu, Xuemei; Liu, Zhanjiang; Wang, Xiuli

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs), as a family of non-coding small RNAs, play important roles in the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) is an important economic species which is widely cultured in East Asia. The longitudinal muscle (LTM) and respiratory tree (RPT) are two important tissues in sea cucumber, playing important roles such as respiration and movement. In this study, we identified and characterized miRNAs in the LTM and RPT of sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) using Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. A total of 314 and 221 conserved miRNAs were identified in LTM and RPT, respectively. In addition, 27 and 34 novel miRNAs were identified in the LTM and RPT, respectively. A set of 58 miRNAs were identified to be differentially expressed between LTM and RPT. Among them, 9 miRNAs (miR-31a-3p, miR-738, miR-1692, let-7a, miR-72a, miR-100b-5p, miR-31b-5p, miR-429-3p, and miR-2008) in RPT and 7 miRNAs (miR-127, miR-340, miR-381, miR-3543, miR-434-5p, miR-136-3p, and miR-300-3p) in LTM were differentially expressed with foldchange value being greater than 10. A total of 14,207 and 12,174 target genes of these miRNAs were predicted, respectively. Functional analysis of these target genes of miRNAs were performed by GO analysis and pathway analysis. This result provided in this work will be useful for understanding biological characteristics of the LTM and RPT of sea cucumber and assisting molecular breeding of sea cucumber for aquaculture.

  8. Identification and Characterization of MicroRNAs from Longitudinal Muscle and Respiratory Tree in Sea Cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus Using High-Throughput Sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongdi Wang

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs, as a family of non-coding small RNAs, play important roles in the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus is an important economic species which is widely cultured in East Asia. The longitudinal muscle (LTM and respiratory tree (RPT are two important tissues in sea cucumber, playing important roles such as respiration and movement. In this study, we identified and characterized miRNAs in the LTM and RPT of sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus using Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. A total of 314 and 221 conserved miRNAs were identified in LTM and RPT, respectively. In addition, 27 and 34 novel miRNAs were identified in the LTM and RPT, respectively. A set of 58 miRNAs were identified to be differentially expressed between LTM and RPT. Among them, 9 miRNAs (miR-31a-3p, miR-738, miR-1692, let-7a, miR-72a, miR-100b-5p, miR-31b-5p, miR-429-3p, and miR-2008 in RPT and 7 miRNAs (miR-127, miR-340, miR-381, miR-3543, miR-434-5p, miR-136-3p, and miR-300-3p in LTM were differentially expressed with foldchange value being greater than 10. A total of 14,207 and 12,174 target genes of these miRNAs were predicted, respectively. Functional analysis of these target genes of miRNAs were performed by GO analysis and pathway analysis. This result provided in this work will be useful for understanding biological characteristics of the LTM and RPT of sea cucumber and assisting molecular breeding of sea cucumber for aquaculture.

  9. Characterization and comparison of proteomes of albino sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) by iTRAQ analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Chang-Ge; Zhang, Dijun; Ma, Chengnv; Zhou, Jun; He, Shan; Su, Xiu-Rong

    2016-04-01

    Sea cucumber is a commercially important marine organism in China. Of the different colored varieties sold in China, albino sea cucumber has the greatest appeal among consumers. Identification of factors contributing to albinism in sea cucumber is therefore likely to provide a scientific basis for improving the cultivability of these strains. In this study, two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry coupled with isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification labeling was used for the first time to quantitatively define the proteome of sea cucumbers and reveal proteomic characteristics unique to albino sea cucumbers. A total of 549 proteins were identified and quantified in albino sea cucumber and the functional annotations of 485 proteins have been exhibited based on COG database. Compared with green sea cucumber, 12 proteins were identified as differentially expressed in the intestine and 16 proteins in the body wall of albino sea cucumber. Among them, 5 proteins were up-regulated in the intestine and 8 proteins were down-regulated in body wall. Gene ontology annotations of these differentially expressed proteins consisted mostly of 'biological process'. The large number of differentially expressed proteins identified here should be highly useful in further elucidating the mechanisms underlying albinism in sea cucumber. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Methyl jasmonate-induced emission of biogenic volatiles is biphasic in cucumber: a high-resolution analysis of dose dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yifan; Ye, Jiayan; Li, Shuai; Niinemets, Ülo

    2017-07-20

    Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) is a key airborne elicitor activating jasmonate-dependent signaling pathways, including induction of stress-related volatile emissions, but how the magnitude and timing of these emissions scale with MeJA dose is not known. Treatments with exogenous MeJA concentrations ranging from mild (0.2 mM) to lethal (50 mM) were used to investigate quantitative relationships among MeJA dose and the kinetics and magnitude of volatile release in Cucumis sativus by combining high-resolution measurements with a proton-transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS) and GC-MS. The results highlighted biphasic kinetics of elicitation of volatiles. The early phase, peaking in 0.1-1 h after the MeJA treatment, was characterized by emissions of lipoxygenase (LOX) pathway volatiles and methanol. In the subsequent phase, starting in 6-12 h and reaching a maximum in 15-25 h after the treatment, secondary emissions of LOX compounds as well as emissions of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes were elicited. For both phases, the maximum emission rates and total integrated emissions increased with applied MeJA concentration. Furthermore, the rates of induction and decay, and the duration of emission bursts were positively, and the timing of emission maxima were negatively associated with MeJA dose for LOX compounds and terpenoids, except for the duration of the first LOX burst. These results demonstrate major effects of MeJA dose on the kinetics and magnitude of volatile response, underscoring the importance of biotic stress severity in deciphering the downstream events of biological impacts. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  11. Application of Sodium Silicate Enhances Cucumber Resistance to Fusarium Wilt and Alters Soil Microbial Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingang Zhou

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Exogenous silicates can enhance plant resistance to pathogens and change soil microbial communities. However, the relationship between changes in soil microbial communities and enhanced plant resistance remains unclear. Here, effects of exogenous sodium silicate on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. seedling resistance to Fusarium wilt caused by the soil-borne pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cucumerinum Owen (FOC were investigated by drenching soil with 2 mM sodium silicate. Soil bacterial and fungal community abundances and compositions were estimated by real-time PCR and high-throughput amplicon sequencing; then, feedback effects of changes in soil biota on cucumber seedling resistance to FOC were assessed. Moreover, effects of sodium silicate on the growth of FOC and Streptomyces DHV3-2, an antagonistic bacterium to FOC, were investigated both in vitro and in the soil environment. Results showed that exogenous sodium silicate enhanced cucumber seedling growth and resistance to FOC. In bare soil, sodium silicate increased bacterial and fungal community abundances and diversities. In cucumber-cultivated soil, sodium silicate increased bacterial community abundances, but decreased fungal community abundances and diversities. Sodium silicate also changed soil bacterial and fungal communality compositions, and especially, decreased the relative abundances of microbial taxa containing plant pathogens but increased these with plant-beneficial potentials. Moreover, sodium silicate increased the abundance of Streptomyces DHV3-2 in soil. Soil biota from cucumber-cultivated soil treated with sodium silicate decreased cucumber seedling Fusarium wilt disease index, and enhanced cucumber seedling growth and defense-related enzyme activities in roots. Sodium silicate at pH 9.85 inhibited FOC abundance in vitro, but did not affect FOC abundance in soil. Overall, our results suggested that, in cucumber-cultivated soil, sodium silicate increased cucumber seedling

  12. A highly selective electrochemical sensor based on molecularly imprinted polypyrrole-modified gold electrode for the determination of glyphosate in cucumber and tap water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; She, Yongxin; Li, Tengfei; Zhao, Fengnian; Jin, Maojun; Guo, Yirong; Zheng, Lufei; Wang, Shanshan; Jin, Fen; Shao, Hua; Liu, Haijin; Wang, Jing

    2017-12-01

    An electrochemical sensor based on molecularly imprinted polypyrrole (MIPPy) was developed for selective and sensitive detection of the herbicide glyphosate (Gly) in cucumber and tap water samples. The sensor was prepared via synthesis of molecularly imprinted polymers on a gold electrode in the presence of Gly as the template molecule and pyrrole as the functional monomer by cyclic voltammetry (CV). The sensor preparation conditions including the ratio of template to functional monomers, number of CV cycles in the electropolymerization process, the method of template removal, incubation time, and pH were optimized. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the DPV peak currents of hexacyanoferrate/hexacyanoferrite changed linearly with Gly concentration in the range from 5 to 800 ng mL -1 , with a detection limit of 0.27 ng mL -1 (S/N = 3). The sensor was used to detect the concentration of Gly in cucumber and tap water samples, with recoveries ranging from 72.70 to 98.96%. The proposed sensor showed excellent selectivity, good stability and reversibility, and could detect the Gly in real samples rapidly and sensitively. Graphical abstract Schematic illustration of the experimental procedure to detect Gly using the MIPPy electrode.

  13. Nitrate Increased Cucumber Tolerance to Fusarium Wilt by Regulating Fungal Toxin Production and Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyan Zhou

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cucumber Fusarium wilt, induced by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC, causes severe losses in cucumber yield and quality. Nitrogen (N, as the most important mineral nutrient for plants, plays a critical role in plant–pathogen interactions. Hydroponic assays were conducted to investigate the effects of different N forms (NH4+ vs. NO3‒ and supply levels (low, 1 mM; high, 5 mM on cucumber Fusarium wilt. The NO3‒-fed cucumber plants were more tolerant to Fusarium wilt compared with NH4+-fed plants, and accompanied by lower leaf temperature after FOC infection. The disease index decreased as the NO3‒ supply increased but increased with the NH4+ level supplied. Although the FOC grew better under high NO3− in vitro, FOC colonization and fusaric acid (FA production decreased in cucumber plants under high NO3− supply, associated with lower leaf membrane injury. There was a positive correlation between the FA content and the FOC number or relative membrane injury. After the exogenous application of FA, less FA accumulated in the leaves under NO3− feeding, accompanied with a lower leaf membrane injury. In conclusion, higher NO3− supply protected cucumber plants against Fusarium wilt by suppressing FOC colonization and FA production in plants, and increasing the plant tolerance to FA.

  14. Nitrate Increased Cucumber Tolerance to Fusarium Wilt by Regulating Fungal Toxin Production and Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jinyan; Wang, Min; Sun, Yuming; Gu, Zechen; Wang, Ruirui; Saydin, Asanjan; Shen, Qirong; Guo, Shiwei

    2017-03-11

    Cucumber Fusarium wilt, induced by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC), causes severe losses in cucumber yield and quality. Nitrogen (N), as the most important mineral nutrient for plants, plays a critical role in plant-pathogen interactions. Hydroponic assays were conducted to investigate the effects of different N forms (NH₄⁺ vs. NO₃ ‒ ) and supply levels (low, 1 mM; high, 5 mM) on cucumber Fusarium wilt. The NO₃ ‒ -fed cucumber plants were more tolerant to Fusarium wilt compared with NH₄⁺-fed plants, and accompanied by lower leaf temperature after FOC infection. The disease index decreased as the NO₃ ‒ supply increased but increased with the NH₄⁺ level supplied. Although the FOC grew better under high NO₃ - in vitro, FOC colonization and fusaric acid (FA) production decreased in cucumber plants under high NO₃ - supply, associated with lower leaf membrane injury. There was a positive correlation between the FA content and the FOC number or relative membrane injury. After the exogenous application of FA, less FA accumulated in the leaves under NO₃ - feeding, accompanied with a lower leaf membrane injury. In conclusion, higher NO₃ - supply protected cucumber plants against Fusarium wilt by suppressing FOC colonization and FA production in plants, and increasing the plant tolerance to FA.

  15. Habitat characteristic of two selected locations for sea cucumber ranching purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartati, Retno; Trianto, Agus; Widianingsih

    2017-02-01

    Sea cucumbers face heavily overfished because of their high prices and very strong market demand. One effort suggested to overcome this problem is sea ranching. The objectives of present works were to determine biological, physical, and chemical characteristics of prospective location for sea ranching of sea cucumber Holothuria atra. Two location at Jepara Waters (Teluk Awur and Bandengan WateRs of Jepara Regency) were selected. The determination of chemical (salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen of water, phosphate, nitrate, nitrite and ammonium of water and sediment, organic matters of sediment), physical (transparancy, sedimen grains size, water current direction and its velocity), biologycal characteristic (coverage of seagrass and its macroalgae associated, phytoplankton as well as chlorophyl-a and phaeopytin of water and sediment) ware determined. The result of present work showed that some characteristic were matched with requirement as sea ranching location of sea cucumber because the density of sea cucumber in the sea is a function of habitat features. For sediment feeding holothurians of the family Aspidochirotida, the biologycal characteristic act as very important considerations by providing sea cucumber food. High cholophyl-a and phaeopytin in sediment also represent a prosperous habitat for sea cucumber ranching.

  16. Economic and agronomic analysis of conventional and organic concept of cucumber growing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Nenad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary agro-technology enables high and stabile yield of slicing cucumber throughout the whole year. This study deals with total costs of production, yield per surface unit and the main parameters of profitability of producing slicing cucumber in the greenhouses and in the open field in conventional and organic farming system. Growing cucumbers in the greenhouses and in accordance with the principles of organic farming are the main conditions for higher prices in the market. The highest total costs (820.00 EUR/are but also the highest gain (225.00 EUR/are was realized in producing slicing cucumber both in the greenhouse in the organic farming system. Financial losses were recorded when growing cucumbers in the open field despite lower costs, both in organic and conventional system of growing: 29.00 EUR/are, i.e. -15.00 EUR/are, respectively. The business rate of profitability and the coefficient of cost-effectiveness were higher in growing cucumber in greenhouses in both concepts of production.

  17. [Effects of intercropping Chinese onion cultivars of different allelopathic potential on cucumber growth and soil micro-environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Wu, Feng-zhi

    2011-10-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of intercropping various Chinese onion cultivars of different allelopathic potential on the cucumber growth and rhizospheric soil environment. When intercropped with high allelopathic Chinese onion cultivars, the EC value and peroxidase activity of cucumber rhizospheric soil decreased, while the pH value, invertase and catalase activities, and bacterial community diversity increased. The cloning and sequencing results indicated that most DGGE bands amplified from cucumber rhizospheric soil samples showed a high homology to uncultured bacterial species. The common bands were affiliated with Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria, and the differential bacteria bands were affiliated with Proteobacteria and Anaerolineaceae. Rhodospirillales and Acidobacteria were only found in the cucumber rhizospheric soil intercropped with low allelopathic Chinese onion cultivars. Correlation analysis showed that there were significant positive correlations between rhizospheric soil urease activity and cucumber seedlings height, total dry biomass, leaf area, and DGGE band number. It was suggested that intercropping high allelopathic Chinese onion cultivars could establish a good rhizospheric soil micro-environment for cucumber growth, and promote the growth of cucumber seedlings markedly.

  18. IBT-based quantitative proteomics identifies potential regulatory proteins involved in pigmentation of purple sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Lili; Sun, Lina; Liu, Shilin; Li, Xiaoni; Zhang, Libin; Yang, Hongsheng

    2017-09-01

    Sea cucumbers are an important economic species and exhibit high yield value among aquaculture animals. Purple sea cucumbers are very rare and beautiful and have stable hereditary patterns. In this study, isobaric tags (IBT) were first used to reveal the molecular mechanism of pigmentation in the body wall of the purple sea cucumber. We analyzed the proteomes of purple sea cucumber in early pigmentation stage (Pa), mid pigmentation stage (Pb) and late pigmentation stage (Pc), resulting in the identification of 5580 proteins, including 1099 differentially expressed proteins in Pb: Pa and 339 differentially expressed proteins in Pc: Pb. GO and KEGG analyses revealed possible differentially expressed proteins, including"melanogenesis", "melanosome", "melanoma", "pigment-biosynthetic process", "Epidermis development", "Ras-signaling pathway", "Wnt-signaling pathway", "response to UV light", and "tyrosine metabolism", involved in pigment synthesis and regulation in purple sea cucumbers. The large number of differentially expressed proteins identified here should be highly useful in further elucidating the mechanisms underlying pigmentation in sea cucumbers. Furthermore, these results may also provide the base for further identification of proteins involved in resistance mechanisms against melanoma, albinism, UV damage, and other diseases in sea cucumbers. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. An outbreak of sea cucumbers hinders coral recruitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Yang; McCook, Laurence; Jiang, Lei; Lian, Jian-Sheng; Liu, Sheng; Huang, Hui

    2018-06-01

    An outbreak of a small sessile sea cucumber, Ocnus sanya, occurred on the degraded Luhuitou coral reef in Sanya Bay, Hainan, China. This study explored the pattern of distribution of O. sanya on the reef and the impacts of the high abundance of O. sanya on post-settlement mortality of Pocillopora damicornis recruits. The density of O. sanya ranged from about 500 to over 2000 individuals m-2 with 10.95-23.69% cover on hard substrate. Terracotta tiles with O. sanya on the surface accumulated 19.7% more surface sediment than those without sea cucumbers. Post-settlement P. damicornis recruits had significantly higher mortality on terracotta tiles with O. sanya than those without O. sanya after 21 d. Overall, O. sanya appears to increase sediment stress and inhibit coral recruitment, exacerbating the degradation of Luhuitou Reef. This study raises the possibility that such novel outbreak species could contribute significant additional stress on coral reefs at larger scales.

  20. Study on the effect of different fertilizer on the stable nitrogen isotope of soil, leaf and cucumber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Yuwei; Zhang Zhiheng; Xu Mingfei; Yang Guiling; Zheng Jici; Wang Qiang; Zhao Ming

    2010-01-01

    The effect of combined application of organic and chemical fertilizers on stable nitrogen isotope abundance (δ 15 N-%), nitrate and nitrate reductase active was studied for the soil, cucumber and leaf,respectively. The results showed that the δ 15 N of cucumber was with the trend of low, high and low as the application rate of organic manure decreased, and it was significantly different (P 0.05) for the other treatments. The δ 15 N of cucumber was not significantly different during different harvest time (P>0.05) for the same treatment. The correlation of δ 15 N between the cucumber and the leaf was 0.9836 for the different treatment, whose δ 15 N was more affected more by the fertilizer and less by the soil. The content of nitrate in cucumber was reducing with the rate of organic manure decreasing, which had a bad correlation (r=0.6568) with the δ 15 N of cucumber; however the active of nitrate reductase was increasing which had a positive correlation with the treatments of control treatment, 100%, 80% and 60% of organic manure applied (r=0.9187), and a negative correlation with the treatments of 60%, 40%, 20% of organic manure and 100% chemical fertilizer applied (r=-0.9773). To sum up, the δ 15 N can be used as marks to discriminate the cucumbers grown with organic manure and chemical fertilizer, but the pattern of fractionation and distribution of the stable nitrogen isotope should be further studied. (authors)

  1. Sea Cucumber (Holothuroidea Species of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet AYDIN

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available There are nearly 1200 sea cucumber species in the world oceans, while only 37 species from Holothuroidea class lives in the Mediterranean Sea. This preliminary study aims identification sea cucumbers species of the Turkish waters. The sea cucumber samples used in this study were obtained from a series of different studies between the years of 2008 and 2014. Identification of the species are mainly based on the morphometric characteristics while some of species are determined from their calcareous spicules. Eight sea species were identified in this research which are; Holothuria tubulosa, Holothuria polii, Holothuria mammata, Holothuria (Platyperona sanctori, Holothuria forskali, Stichopus regalis, Synaptula reciprocans and Stereoderma kirschbergi. There are limited number of studies in the literature focusing on the identification of the sea cucumber species spread in our seas. Therefore, this study is believed to play an important role in guiding future researches.

  2. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER FOR CUCUMBER (Cucumis sativus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dell

    2011-11-07

    Nov 7, 2011 ... affordable and sustainable Protected Intensive Produc- tion System (PIPS) to ... for the production and marketing of cucumber crop. MATERIALS AND ..... production, distribution, and consumption in Asia. {Mubarik A (ed.)}.

  3. Elemental composition of commercial sea cucumbers (holothurians).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, J; Hu, C

    2010-01-01

    Toxic and essential elements in 11 different sea cucumber species were determined and compared with daily intake recommendations and maximum allowed levels. The contents of macro-elements contents in dried sea cucumber samples were found to be 25,000-152,000 mg kg(-1) for Na, 4000-8600 mg kg(-1) for Mg, 1100-5200 mg kg(-1) for K, 15,000-68,000 mg kg(-1) and 36,300-251,000 mg kg(-1) for Cl. Trace element concentrations in dried sea cucumber samples were found to be 11-100 mg kg(-1) for Zn, 41-660 mg kg(-1) for Fe, 3-74 mg kg(-1) for Cu, 1.1-16 mg kg(-1) for Mn, 1.4-3.7 mg kg(-1) for Se, 1.1-9.6 mg kg(-1) for Cr, and 0.3-5.1 mg kg(-1) for Ni. All sea cucumber species were rich sources of Na, Cl, Mg, Ca, Fe, Cu, Se and Cr for human consumption. Regarding contaminants, As, Cd and Pb concentrations in dried sea cucumbers were in the ranges of 1.1-6.1, 0.03-0.06 and 0.11-0.69 mg kg(-1), respectively. Moreover, Hg values of 11 sea cucumbers were below the detection limit (0.01 mg kg(-1)).

  4. The sea cucumber genome provides insights into morphological evolution and visceral regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaojun; Sun, Lina; Yuan, Jianbo; Sun, Yamin; Gao, Yi; Zhang, Libin; Li, Shihao; Dai, Hui; Hamel, Jean-François; Liu, Chengzhang; Yu, Yang; Liu, Shilin; Lin, Wenchao; Guo, Kaimin; Jin, Songjun; Xu, Peng; Storey, Kenneth B; Huan, Pin; Zhang, Tao; Zhou, Yi; Zhang, Jiquan; Lin, Chenggang; Li, Xiaoni; Xing, Lili; Huo, Da; Sun, Mingzhe; Wang, Lei; Mercier, Annie; Li, Fuhua; Yang, Hongsheng; Xiang, Jianhai

    2017-10-01

    Apart from sharing common ancestry with chordates, sea cucumbers exhibit a unique morphology and exceptional regenerative capacity. Here we present the complete genome sequence of an economically important sea cucumber, A. japonicus, generated using Illumina and PacBio platforms, to achieve an assembly of approximately 805 Mb (contig N50 of 190 Kb and scaffold N50 of 486 Kb), with 30,350 protein-coding genes and high continuity. We used this resource to explore key genetic mechanisms behind the unique biological characters of sea cucumbers. Phylogenetic and comparative genomic analyses revealed the presence of marker genes associated with notochord and gill slits, suggesting that these chordate features were present in ancestral echinoderms. The unique shape and weak mineralization of the sea cucumber adult body were also preliminarily explained by the contraction of biomineralization genes. Genome, transcriptome, and proteome analyses of organ regrowth after induced evisceration provided insight into the molecular underpinnings of visceral regeneration, including a specific tandem-duplicated prostatic secretory protein of 94 amino acids (PSP94)-like gene family and a significantly expanded fibrinogen-related protein (FREP) gene family. This high-quality genome resource will provide a useful framework for future research into biological processes and evolution in deuterostomes, including remarkable regenerative abilities that could have medical applications. Moreover, the multiomics data will be of prime value for commercial sea cucumber breeding programs.

  5. The sea cucumber genome provides insights into morphological evolution and visceral regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Apart from sharing common ancestry with chordates, sea cucumbers exhibit a unique morphology and exceptional regenerative capacity. Here we present the complete genome sequence of an economically important sea cucumber, A. japonicus, generated using Illumina and PacBio platforms, to achieve an assembly of approximately 805 Mb (contig N50 of 190 Kb and scaffold N50 of 486 Kb, with 30,350 protein-coding genes and high continuity. We used this resource to explore key genetic mechanisms behind the unique biological characters of sea cucumbers. Phylogenetic and comparative genomic analyses revealed the presence of marker genes associated with notochord and gill slits, suggesting that these chordate features were present in ancestral echinoderms. The unique shape and weak mineralization of the sea cucumber adult body were also preliminarily explained by the contraction of biomineralization genes. Genome, transcriptome, and proteome analyses of organ regrowth after induced evisceration provided insight into the molecular underpinnings of visceral regeneration, including a specific tandem-duplicated prostatic secretory protein of 94 amino acids (PSP94-like gene family and a significantly expanded fibrinogen-related protein (FREP gene family. This high-quality genome resource will provide a useful framework for future research into biological processes and evolution in deuterostomes, including remarkable regenerative abilities that could have medical applications. Moreover, the multiomics data will be of prime value for commercial sea cucumber breeding programs.

  6. Genetic identification of a dwarf mutant in cucumber ( Cucumis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dwarf (compact) plant architecture is an important trait in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) breeding. A dwarf type mutant was selected from the cucumbers. The morphological and reproductive characteristics of the dwarf were compared with the vine plants. The dwarf type of cucumbers is characterized by its short ...

  7. Genetic architecture of downy mildew resistance in cucumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downy mildew (DM) caused by the obligate oomycete Pseudoperonospora cubensis is the most devastating fungal disease to cucumber production. The molecular mechanism of DM resistance in cucumber is not well understood. We conducted QTL mapping for DM resistances in four cucumber lines including WI7120...

  8. Measurement and Modeling of Cucumber Evapotranspiration Under Greenhouse Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Moazenzadeh

    2017-01-01

    growth period, high and considerable amounts of error occurred, as the difference between measured and predicted values of ET is approximately 2.86 mm day-1 which is noticeable. Overestimation of the cucumber ET in the first and last stages which will result in decreasing water use efficiency and underestimation in blooming and yielding fruit stages, when cucumber is more susceptible to water stress, are the other disadvantages of using one equation for the entire growth period to describe and predict cucumber ET. In contrast, when we divided growth period into four steps, the MLR method’s performance in prediction of ET was improved and the difference mentioned above between measured and predicted values of ET (2.86 mm day-1 decreased to about 1.32 mm day-1. The results showed that measured and predicted values of ET ranged from (0.08 to 4.75 and (0.13 to 4.25 when the whole growth period is considered as one step, respectively. These mentioned values were obtained (0.08 to 1.5 and (0.13 to 1.75; (0.71 to 2.64 and (1.31 to 4.25; (2.18 to 4.75 and (1.69 to 4.13; (1.32 to 2.61 and (2.66 to 3.74 for each of growth period stages, respectively. Also the value of total ET for the entire growth period is measured 273.45 mm and predicted 275.7 and 275.59 mm, when the whole growth period is considered as one step or divided into four stages, respectively. Although dividing the growth period improved ET prediction, the results in the first and especially the third stage are still discussable. Therefore, as with MLR method, the capability of ANN technique was investigated in prediction of cucumber ET. Comparison of measured and predicted values of ET confirms that ANN has better performance than MLR, even when growth period is divided. Conclusion: Determining cucumber evapotranspiration in the greenhouse was the main objective of this study. For this purpose we used Multiple Linear Regression (MLR and Artificial Neural Network (ANN techniques. In MLR, first we used one equation

  9. Assessment of the sea cucumber resource and fishery in the Bolinao-Anda reef system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Dionnie D. Olavides

    Full Text Available Fishery-independent and -dependent surveys were conducted to assess the status of the sea cucumber resource and fishery in Bolinao and Anda, Pangasinan. Thirty-five species of holothurians were recorded in 25 sampling stations within seagrass beds, coral reefs and mixed habitats. The estimated total population density of all aspidochirote sea cucumber species is 63 ind. ha-1. The artisanal multi-species fishery is at present primarily based on Holothuria scabra, Stichopus horrens and Bohadschia marmorata although there are indications that other high-value species were fished to local extinction. Taken together, the small sizes (<20 cm body length of the majority of aspidochirote sea cucumbers, their low population densities, and the continuous decrease in catches are clear signs of an overexploited fishery that will likely collapse without management intervention. Adaptive management strategies for Bolinao and Anda are recommended based on the findings of this survey.

  10. Effect of NAFTA, EUMFTA and China addition to WTO on the cucumber world market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Guajardo-Quiroga

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study empirically analyzed the potential effects of the complete operation of North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA, European Union and Mexico Free Trade Agreement (EUMFTA, and the integration of China to the World Trade Organization (WTO, on the cucumber world market. Special emphasis on the impact on Mexico was presented, from a worldwide perspective. A spatial equilibrium model with endogenous prices was constructed for this purpose. Among the findings are: (1 Mexican producers benefited from the complete implementation of NAFTA and EUMFTA. (2 The incorporation of China as a member of the WTO showed a negligible effect on the commercial flows and prices in the cucumber world market. (3 Mexican cucumber production is highly competitive, in the world market, because it has the lowest supply costs.

  11. Synthesis of Pyrimethanil-Loaded Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles and Its Distribution and Dissipation in Cucumber Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Pengyue; Cao, Lidong; Ma, Dukang; Zhou, Zhaolu; Huang, Qiliang; Pan, Canping

    2017-05-16

    Mesoporous silica nanoparticles are used as pesticide carries in plants, which has been considered as a novel method to reduce the indiscriminate use of conventional pesticides. In the present work, mesoporous silica nanoparticles with particle diameters of 200-300 nm were synthesized in order to obtain pyrimethanil-loaded nanoparticles. The microstructure of the nanoparticles was observed by scanning electron microscopy. The loading content of pyrimethanil-loaded nanoparticles was investigated. After treatment on cucumber leaves, the concentrations of pyrimethanil were determined in different parts of cucumber over a period of 48 days using high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. It was shown that the pyrimethanil-loaded mesoporous silica nanoparticles might be more conducive to acropetal, rather than basipetal, uptake, and the dosage had almost no effect on the distribution and dissipation rate in cucumber plants. The application of the pesticide-loaded nanoparticles in leaves had a low risk of pyrimethanil accumulating in the edible part of the plant.

  12. Ecological effects of co-culturing sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) with scallop Chlamys farreri in earthen ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yichao; Dong, Shuanglin; Qin, Chuanxin; Wang, Fang; Tian, Xiangli; Gao, Qinfeng

    2012-01-01

    Monthly changes in sedimentation and sediment properties were studied for three different culture treatments: sea cucumber monoculture (Mc), sea cucumber and scallop polyculture (Ps-c) and scallop monoculture (Ms). Results indicated that the survival rate of sea cucumber was significantly higher in Ps-c cultures than in Mc cultures. Sea cucumber yield was 69.6% higher in Ps-c culture than in Mc culture. No significant differences in body weight and scallop shell length were found between Ps-c and Ms cultures. The mean sedimentation rate of total particulate matter (TPM) was 72.2 g/(m2·d) in Ps-c cultures, with a maximum of 119.7 g/(m2·d), which was markedly higher than that of Mc (mean value). Sedimentation rates of organic matter (OM), total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) in Ps-c cultures were also significantly higher than those in Mc cultures. TOC and TN contents of sediment increased rapidly in the first 5 months in Ms cultures and remained at a high level. TOC and TN contents in Mc and Ps-c cultures decreased during sea cucumber feeding seasons and increased during sea cucumber dormancy periods (summer and winter). The study demonstrates that co-culture of sea cucumber and scallop in earthen ponds is an alternative way to alleviate nutrient loads and improve water quality in coastal aquaculture systems. Moreover, it provides the additional benefit of an increased sea cucumber yield.

  13. The role of abscisic acid in regulating cucumber fruit development and ripening and its transcriptional regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanping; Wang, Ya; Ji, Kai; Dai, Shengjie; Hu, Ying; Sun, Liang; Li, Qian; Chen, Pei; Sun, Yufei; Duan, Chaorui; Wu, Yan; Luo, Hao; Zhang, Dian; Guo, Yangdong; Leng, Ping

    2013-03-01

    Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), a kind of fruit usually harvested at the immature green stage, belongs to non-climacteric fruit. To investigate the contribution of abscisic acid (ABA) to cucumber fruit development and ripening, variation in ABA level was investigated and a peak in ABA level was found in pulp before fruit get fully ripe. To clarify this point further, exogenous ABA was applied to cucumber fruits at two different development stages. Results showed that ABA application at the turning stage promotes cucumber fruit ripening, while application at the immature green stage had inconspicuous effects. In addition, with the purpose of understanding the transcriptional regulation of ABA, two partial cDNAs of CsNCED1 and CsNCED2 encoding 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED), a key enzyme in ABA biosynthetic pathway; one partial cDNA of CsCYP707A1 for 8'-hydroxylase, a key enzyme in the oxidative catabolism of ABA and two partial cDNAs of CsBG1 and CsBG2 for β-glucosidase (BG) that hydrolyzes ABA glucose ester (ABA-GE) to release active ABA were cloned from cucumber. The DNA and deduced amino acid sequences of these obtained genes respectively showed high similarities to their homologous genes in other plants. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that ABA content may be regulated by its biosynthesis (CsNCEDs), catabolism (CsCYP707A1) and reactivation genes (CsBGs) at the transcriptional level during cucumber fruit development and ripening, in response to ABA application, dehydration and pollination, among which CsNCED1, CsCYP707A1 and CsBG1 were highly expressed in pulp and may play more important roles in regulating ABA metabolism. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Parental Effect of Long Acclimatization on Thermal Tolerance of Juvenile Sea Cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Lin Wang

    Full Text Available To evaluate the thermal resistance of marine invertebrates to elevated temperatures under scenarios of future climate change, it is crucial to understand parental effect of long acclimatization on thermal tolerance of offspring. To test whether there is parental effect of long acclimatization, adult sea cucumbers (Apostichopus japonicus from the same broodstock were transplanted southward and acclimatized at high temperature in field mesocosms. Four groups of juvenile sea cucumbers whose parents experienced different durations of high temperature acclimatization were established. Upper thermal limits, oxygen consumption and levels of heat shock protein mRNA of juveniles was determined to compare thermal tolerance of individuals from different groups. Juvenile sea cucumbers whose parents experienced high temperature could acquire high thermal resistance. With the increase of parental exposure duration to high temperature, offspring became less sensitive to high temperature, as indicated by higher upper thermal limits (LT50, less seasonal variations of oxygen consumption, and stable oxygen consumption rates between chronic and acute thermal stress. The relatively high levels of constitutive expression of heat-shock proteins should contribute to the high thermal tolerance. Together, these results indicated that the existence of a parental effect of long acclimatization would increase thermal tolerance of juveniles and change the thermal sensitivity of sea cucumber to future climate change.

  15. Bioactive Compounds from Omani Sea Cucumbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Dobretsov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial, anti-diatom and anti-larval activities of both water soluble (water  extracts and non-water soluble metabolites (methanol: chlorophorm, 1:1 extracts of the sea cucumbers Holothuria atra and Holothuria edulis  from Bander AL-Khiran region, Oman were tested in this study. There was no significant effect of  the extracts from sea cucumbers on bacterial (3 reference bacteria from seawater and pathogens  Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa,  Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus epidermidis and the diatom  Chaetoceros sp. growth. Both water extracts and methanol: chlorophorm extracts caused significant mortality of Artemia salina nauplia. This study suggests that Omani sea cucumbers might be a good  source of toxic anti-larval compounds.

  16. Nutritional components of the sea cucumber Holothuria scabra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morakot Sroyraya

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Holothuria scabrais one of the most commercially important species found in the Pacific region. The sea cucumber extracts have been widely reported to have beneficial health effects.The aim of this study was to determine the nutritional compositions of H. scabra, and compare its important nutritional contents with that of other species.Methods:The sea cucumbers were dissected, sliced into small pieces,and then freeze-dried. The nutritional compositions, including proximate composition, amino acids, fatty acids,collagen, GABA, Vitamin A, C, and E of the whole body and body wall of H. scabra,were analyzed.Results:H. scabra contained a high quantity of protein (22.50% in whole body and 55.18% in body wall and very low lipids (1.55% in whole body and 1.02% in body wall. The three most abundant amino acids found in both the whole body and body wall were glycine, glutamic acid, and proline. The main fatty acids found in the whole body were stearic acid and nervonic acid, and in the body wall were arachidonic acid and stearic acid. The whole body and body wall also contained high levels of essential amino acids, essential fatty acids, and collagen, in addition to moderate amounts of vitamin E and low amounts of GABA and vitamin C.Conclusions:The sea cucumber, H. scabra, contained high quantity of protein and very low lipid. It containedhigh essential amino acids, essential fatty acids, nervonic and arachidonic acids, and collagen, which also contained GABA, vitamin C, and vitamin E.

  17. Grafting improves cucumber water stress tolerance in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulaziz R. Al-Harbi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Water scarcity is a major limiting factor for crop productivity in arid and semi-arid areas. Grafting elite commercial cultivars onto selected vigorous rootstocks is considered as a useful strategy to alleviate the impact of environmental stresses. This study aims to investigate the feasibility of using grafting to improve fruit yield and quality of cucumber under water stress conditions. Alosama F1 cucumber cultivar (Cucumis sativus L. was grafted onto Affyne (Cucumis sativus L. and Shintoza A90 (Cucurbitamaxima × C. moschata rootstocks. Non-grafted plants were used as control. All genotypes were grown under three surface drip irrigation regimes: 50%, 75% and 100% of the crop evapotranspiration (ETc, which represent high-water stress, moderate-water stress and non-water stress conditions, respectively. Yield and fruit quality traits were analyzed and assessed. In comparison to the non-grafted plants, the best grafting treatment under water stress was Alosama F1 grafted onto Shintoza A90 rootstock. It had an overall improved yield and fruit quality under water stress owing to an increase in the total fruit yield by 27%, from 4.815 kg plant−1 in non-grafted treatment to 6.149 kg plant−1 in grafted treatment under moderate -water stress, total soluble solid contents (13%, titratable acidity (39% and vitamin C (33%. The soil water contents were low in soil surface and increase gradually with soil depth, while salt distribution showed an adverse trend. The positive effects of grafting on plant growth, productivity, and water use efficiency support this strategy as an useful tool for improving water stress tolerance in greenhouse grown cucumber in Saudi Arabia.

  18. Grafting improves cucumber water stress tolerance in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Harbi, Abdulaziz R; Al-Omran, Abdulrasoul M; Alharbi, Khadiga

    2018-02-01

    Water scarcity is a major limiting factor for crop productivity in arid and semi-arid areas. Grafting elite commercial cultivars onto selected vigorous rootstocks is considered as a useful strategy to alleviate the impact of environmental stresses. This study aims to investigate the feasibility of using grafting to improve fruit yield and quality of cucumber under water stress conditions. Alosama F 1 cucumber cultivar ( Cucumis sativus L.) was grafted onto Affyne ( Cucumis sativus L.) and Shintoza A90 ( Cucurbitamaxima × C. moschata ) rootstocks. Non-grafted plants were used as control. All genotypes were grown under three surface drip irrigation regimes: 50%, 75% and 100% of the crop evapotranspiration (ETc), which represent high-water stress, moderate-water stress and non-water stress conditions, respectively. Yield and fruit quality traits were analyzed and assessed. In comparison to the non-grafted plants, the best grafting treatment under water stress was Alosama F 1 grafted onto Shintoza A90 rootstock. It had an overall improved yield and fruit quality under water stress owing to an increase in the total fruit yield by 27%, from 4.815 kg plant -1 in non-grafted treatment to 6.149 kg plant -1 in grafted treatment under moderate -water stress, total soluble solid contents (13%), titratable acidity (39%) and vitamin C (33%). The soil water contents were low in soil surface and increase gradually with soil depth, while salt distribution showed an adverse trend. The positive effects of grafting on plant growth, productivity, and water use efficiency support this strategy as an useful tool for improving water stress tolerance in greenhouse grown cucumber in Saudi Arabia.

  19. Bioactive compounds, antioxidant potential, and hepatoprotective activity of sea cucumber (Holothuria atra) against thioacetamide intoxication in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmat, Amr Y; Said, Mahmoud M; Soliman, Amel A; El-Masry, Khaled S H; Badiea, Elham Abdel

    2013-01-01

    The identification of the active phenolic compounds in the mixed extract of sea cucumber (Holothuria atra) body wall by high-performance liquid chromatography and an assessment of its hepatoprotective activity against thioacetamide-induced liver fibrosis in rats. Female Swiss albino rats were divided into four groups: normal controls; oral administration of a sea cucumber mixed extract (14.4 mg/kg of body weight) on days 2, 4, and 6 weekly for 8 consecutive weeks; intoxication with thioacetamide (200 mg/kg of body weight, intraperitoneally) on days 2 and 6 weekly for 8 wk; and oral administration of a sea cucumber extract and then intoxication with thioacetamide 2 h later for 8 wk. High-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of the sea cucumber mixed extract revealed the presence of some phenolic components, such as chlorogenic acid, pyrogallol, rutin, coumaric acid, catechin, and ascorbic acid. In vitro studies have shown that the extract has a high scavenging activity for the nitric oxide radical, a moderate iron-chelating activity, and a weak inhibitory effect of lipid peroxidation. The subchronic oral administration of sea cucumber extract to the rats did not show any toxic side effects but increased hepatic superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities. The coadministration of sea cucumber extract and thioacetamide (protection modality) normalized serum direct bilirubin, alanine and aspartate aminotransferases, hepatic malondialdehyde, and hydroxyproline concentrations and antioxidant enzyme activities. In addition, the histologic examination of liver sections from the protection group that were stained with hematoxylin and eosin showed substantial attenuation of the degenerative cellular changes and regressions in liver fibrosis and necrosis induced by the thioacetamide intoxication. Sea cucumber mixed extract contains physiologically active phenolic compounds with antioxidant activity, which afforded a potential hepatoprotective activity

  20. Occurrence of Cucumber mosaic virus on vanilla

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) causing mosaic, leaf distortion and stunting of vanilla (Vanilla planifolia Andrews) in India was characterized on the basis of biological and coat protein (CP) nucleotide sequence properties. In mechanical inoculation tests, the virus was found to infect members of Chenopodiaceae, ...

  1. Cucurbits [Cucumber, melon, pumpkin and squash

    Science.gov (United States)

    The focus of this chapter is on the edible members of the Cucurbitaceae family. The three important food-grade cucurbit genera Citrullus, Cucumis, and Cucurbita include the species Citrullus lanatus watermelons), Cucumis melo (cantaloupes and other sweet melons), Cucumis sativa (cucumbers and pick...

  2. Impact of water temperature on the growth and fatty acid profiles of juvenile sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haibo; Zhang, Cheng; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Shuanglin; Ye, Zhi; Tian, Xiangli

    2016-08-01

    The present study determined the changes in the fatty acid (FA) profiles of juvenile sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus in response to the varied water temperature. Sea cucumbers with similar size (4.02±0.11g) were cultured for 8 weeks at 14°C, 18°C, 22°C and 26°C, respectively. At the end of the experiment, the specific growth rate (SGR) and the profiles of FAs in neutral lipids and phospholipids of the juvenile sea cucumbers cultured at different temperatures were determined. The SGRs of the sea cucumbers cultured at 26°C significantly decreased 46.3% compared to thos cultured at 18°C. Regression analysis showed that the SGR-temperature (T) relationship can be expressed as SGR=-0.0073T(2)+0.255T -1.0231 (R(2)=0.9936) and the highest SGR was predicted at 17.5°C. For the neutral lipids, the sum of saturated FAs (SFAs), monounsaturated FAs (MUFAs) or polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) of the sea cucumbers that were cultured at the water temperature from 18°C-26°C did not change significantly, indicating the insensitivity of FA profiles for the neutral lipids of sea cucumbers in response to increasing water temperature. For phospholipids, the sum of PUFAs in the sea cucumbers dramatically decreased with the gradually increased water temperature. The sum of SFAs and MUFAs of sea cucumbers, however, increased with the gradually elevated water temperature. In particular, the contents of highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs), including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in the phospholipids of the sea cucumbers decreased 37.2% and 26.1%, respectively, when the water temperature increased from 14°C to 26°C. In summary, the sea cucumbers A. japonicus can regulate the FA compositions, especially the contents of EPA and DHA, in the phospholipids so as to adapt to varied water temperature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A tiling microarray for global analysis of chloroplast genome expression in cucumber and other plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pląder Wojciech

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Plastids are small organelles equipped with their own genomes (plastomes. Although these organelles are involved in numerous plant metabolic pathways, current knowledge about the transcriptional activity of plastomes is limited. To solve this problem, we constructed a plastid tiling microarray (PlasTi-microarray consisting of 1629 oligonucleotide probes. The oligonucleotides were designed based on the cucumber chloroplast genomic sequence and targeted both strands of the plastome in a non-contiguous arrangement. Up to 4 specific probes were designed for each gene/exon, and the intergenic regions were covered regularly, with 70-nt intervals. We also developed a protocol for direct chemical labeling and hybridization of as little as 2 micrograms of chloroplast RNA. We used this protocol for profiling the expression of the cucumber chloroplast plastome on the PlasTi-microarray. Owing to the high sequence similarity of plant plastomes, the newly constructed microarray can be used to study plants other than cucumber. Comparative hybridization of chloroplast transcriptomes from cucumber, Arabidopsis, tomato and spinach showed that the PlasTi-microarray is highly versatile.

  4. [Salt stress tolerance of cucumber-grafted rootstocks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Ping; Sun, Jin; Guo, Shi-Rong; Liu, Shu-Ren; Liu, Chao-Jie; Tian, Jing

    2012-05-01

    Taking 4 different Cucurbita maxima x C. moschata rootstocks for cucumber (Cucumis sativus) as test materials, a solution culture experiment was conducted to study their growth and antioxidative enzyme activities under the stresses of Ca(NO3)2 and NaCl, with the salt stress tolerance of the rootstocks evaluated by subordinate function. At 30 mmol x L(-1) of Ca (NO3)2 or 45 mmol x L(-1) of NaCl, the growth of the rootstock seedlings was improved; but at 60 and 120 mmol x L(-1) of Ca(NO3)2 or 90 and 180 mmol x L(-1) of NaCl, the growth and the antioxidative systems of the seedlings were inhibited, and the salt injury index of 'Qingzhen No. 1' was the smallest, with the decrement of biomass and SOD, POD and CAT activities and the increment of relative conductance being significantly lower than those of the others. Under the stress of high concentration Ca(NO3)2, the SOD, POD and CAT activities of test rootstocks were higher, and the salt injury index and relative conductance were lower, as compared with those under high concentration NaCl, suggesting that the damage of Ca(NO3)2 stress to cucumber-grafted rootstock were smaller than that of NaCl stress. Among the 4 rootstocks, 'Qingzhen No. 1' had the strongest salt stress tolerance, followed by 'Zuomu Nangua', 'Fengyuan Tiejia', and 'Chaoba Nangua'.

  5. Developing methods of strip cropping cucumbers with rye/vetch

    OpenAIRE

    Ogutu, Maurice Okendo

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this research carried out in 1998 and 1999 was to develop methods for strip cropping of cucumbers with rye/vetch and black plastic mulch. Effects of planting methods, weed control measures, and cover crop management techniques on pest and beneficial insects, petiole sap nitrate-nitrogen, soil moisture, yields and economic viability were assessed. Four treatments, namely cucumber direct seeded in black plastic mulch on tilled bare ground (conventional); cucumber d...

  6. Arsenic speciation in xylem sap of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihucz, Victor G. [Joint Research Group of Environmental Chemistry of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and L. Eoetvoes University, Budapest (Hungary); Hungarian Satellite Centre of Trace Elements Institute to UNESCO, Budapest (Hungary); Tatar, Eniko [Hungarian Satellite Centre of Trace Elements Institute to UNESCO, Budapest (Hungary); L. Eoetvoes University, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Budapest (Hungary); Virag, Istvan [L. Eoetvoes University, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Budapest (Hungary); Cseh, Edit; Fodor, Ferenc [L. Eoetvoes University, Department of Plant Physiology, Budapest (Hungary); Zaray, Gyula [Joint Research Group of Environmental Chemistry of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and L. Eoetvoes University, Budapest (Hungary); Hungarian Satellite Centre of Trace Elements Institute to UNESCO, Budapest (Hungary); L. Eoetvoes University, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Budapest (Hungary)

    2005-10-01

    Flow injection analysis (FIA) and high-performance liquid chromatography double-focusing sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-DF-ICP-MS) were used for total arsenic determination and arsenic speciation of xylem sap of cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L.) grown in hydroponics containing 2 {mu}mol dm{sup -3} arsenate or arsenite, respectively. Arsenite [As(III)], arsenate [As(V)] and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) were identified in the sap of the plants. Arsenite was the predominant arsenic species in the xylem saps regardless of the type of arsenic treatment, and the following concentration order was determined: As(III) > As(V) > DMA. The amount of total As, calculated taking into consideration the mass of xylem sap collected, was almost equal for both treatments. Arsenite was taken up more easily by cucumber than arsenate. Partial oxidation of arsenite to arsenate (<10% in 48 h) was observed in the case of arsenite-containing nutrient solutions, which may explain the detection of arsenate in the saps of plants treated with arsenite. (orig.)

  7. Ectopic Expression of CsCTR1, a Cucumber CTR-Like Gene, Attenuates Constitutive Ethylene Signaling in an Arabidopsis ctr1-1 Mutant and Expression Pattern Analysis of CsCTR1 in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beibei Bie

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The gaseous plant hormone ethylene regulates many aspects of plant growth, development and responses to the environment. Constitutive triple response 1 (CTR1 is a central regulator involved in the ethylene signal transduction pathway. To obtain a better understanding of this particular pathway in cucumber, the cDNA-encoding CTR1 (designated CsCTR1 was isolated from cucumber. A sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses revealed that CsCTR1 has a high degree of homology with other plant CTR1 proteins. The ectopic expression of CsCTR1 in the Arabidopsis ctr1-1 mutant attenuates constitutive ethylene signaling of this mutant, suggesting that CsCTR1 indeed performs its function as negative regulator of the ethylene signaling pathway. CsCTR1 is constitutively expressed in all of the examined cucumber organs, including roots, stems, leaves, shoot apices, mature male and female flowers, as well as young fruits. CsCTR1 expression gradually declined during male flower development and increased during female flower development. Additionally, our results indicate that CsCTR1 can be induced in the roots, leaves and shoot apices by external ethylene. In conclusion, this study provides a basis for further studies on the role of CTR1 in the biological processes of cucumber and on the molecular mechanism of the cucumber ethylene signaling pathway.

  8. High-level soluble expression of the functional peptide derived from the C-terminal domain of the sea cucumber lysozyme and analysis of its antimicrobial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Cong

    2014-11-01

    Conclusion: These results indicate that the expressed rSjLys-C is a highly soluble product and has a strong antimicrobial activity. Therefore, gaining a large quantity of biologically active rSjLys-C will be used for further biochemical and structural studies and provide a potential use in aquaculture and medicine.

  9. Direct analysis of triterpenes from high-salt fermented cucumbers using infrared matrix-assisted laser desorption electrospray ionization (IR-MALDESI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    High-salt samples present a challenge to mass spectrometry (MS) analysis, particularly when electrospray ionization (ESI) is used, requiring extensive sample preparation steps such as desalting, extraction, and purification. In this study, infrared matrix-assisted laser desorption electrospray ioniz...

  10. Colorimetric detection of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus using unmodified gold nanoparticles as colorimetric probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Liu, Zhanmin; Xia, Xueying; Yang, Cuiyun; Huang, Junyi; Wan, Sibao

    2017-05-01

    Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV)causes a severe mosaic symptom of watermelon and cucumber, and can be transmitted via infected cucumber seeds, leaves and soil. It remains a challenge to detect this virus to prevent its introduction and infection and spread in fields. For this purpose, a simple and sensitive label-free colorimetric detection method for CGMMV has been developed with unmodified gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as colorimetric probes. The method is based on the finding that the presence of RT-PCR target products of CGMMV and species-specific probes results in color change of AuNPs from red to blue after NaCl induction. Normally, species-specific probes attach to the surface of AuNPs and thereby increasing their resistance to NaCl-induced aggregation. The concentration of sodium, probes in the reaction system and evaluation of specificity and sensitivity of a novel assay, visual detection of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus using unmodified AuNPs has been carried out with simple preparation of samples in our study. Through this assay, as low as 30pg/μL of CGMMV RNA was thus detected visually, by the naked eye, without the need for any sophisticated, expensive instrumentation and biochemical reagents. The specificity was 100% and exhibited good reproducibility in our assays. The results note that this assay is highly species-specific, simple, low-cost, and visual for easy detection of CGMMV in plant tissues. Therefore, visual assay is a potentially useful tool for middle or small-scales corporations and entry-exit inspection and quarantine bureau to detect CGMMV in cucumber seeds or plant tissues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Novel Use of PIT Tags in Sea Cucumbers: Promising Results with the Commercial Species Cucumaria frondosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno L Gianasi

    Full Text Available The lack of a reliable and innocuous mark-recapture method has limited studies that would provide essential information for the management of commercial sea cucumbers. Tagging sea cucumbers is notoriously difficult because of their plastic nature and autolysis capacities. The markers that have so far been tested, mainly on or through the body wall, were either lost rapidly or had major drawbacks (e.g. suitable only for batch identification, requiring complex analysis, causing infections, necrosis, behavioural changes and mortality. The present study explored the efficacy of passive integrated transponder (PIT tags for individually marking sea cucumbers by assessing retention rates and long-term side effects of tags inserted in previously unstudied tissues/organs. Individuals of the species Cucumaria frondosa were tagged in the body wall, aquapharyngeal bulb and at the base of the oral tentacles. They were monitored closely for evidence of stress, infection, change in feeding and spawning behaviour and tag retention rate. Implanting the tag in an oral tentacle to reach the hydrovascular system of the aquapharyngeal bulb achieved the best retention rates in full-size individuals: from a maximum of 92% after 30 days to 68% at the end of the experimental period (300 days. Efficacy was lower in smaller individuals (84% after 30 d and 42% after 300 d. Following a slight increase in cloacal movements for 15 h post tagging, no side effect was noted in sea cucumbers tagged in the aquapharyngeal bulb via the tentacles. Feeding and spawning behaviours were not affected and no signs of infections or abnormal cell development in the vicinity of the tags were observed. This study indicates that marking sea cucumbers with 8.2 mm long PIT tags implanted via the oral tentacle is an effective technique, yielding relatively high retention rates over long periods without any detectable physiological or behavioural effects.

  12. economics of cucumber production in rivers state, nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-02

    May 2, 2016 ... Faculty of Agriculture, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria ... The study aimed to determine the profitability of cucumber production in two local government .... more amenable to risk taking and change than non- ..... improve cucumber value chain, attract better prices ... management practices.

  13. Root oxygen use determination of propagated cucumber on rockwool cubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gérard, S.; Blok, C.

    2013-01-01

    Cucumbers were propagated in rockwool cubes in a climate cell for four weeks. The complete root system of each cucumber was enclosed in an airtight box. Each box was connected to an air bag, which acted as an air reservoir. A peristaltic pump ensured air circulation in the system. Treatments

  14. Biosynthesis, regulation, and domestication of bitterness in cucumber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shang, Y.; Ma, Y.; Bouwmeester, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Cucurbitacins are triterpenoids that confer a bitter taste in cucurbits such as cucumber, melon, watermelon, squash, and pumpkin. These compounds discourage most pests on the plant and have also been shown to have antitumor properties. With genomics and biochemistry, we identified nine cucumber

  15. An Integrated Genetic and Cytogenetic Map of the Cucumber Genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cucurbitaceae includes important crops as cucumber, melon, watermelon, and squash and pumpkin. However, few genetic and genomic resources are available for plant improvement. Some cucurbit species such as cucumber have a narrow genetic base, which impedes construction of saturated molecular li...

  16. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis reveals potential genes involved in early metamorphosis process in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongxin; Kikuchi, Mani; Li, Xueyan; Gao, Qionghua; Xiong, Zijun; Ren, Yandong; Zhao, Ruoping; Mao, Bingyu; Kondo, Mariko; Irie, Naoki; Wang, Wen

    2018-01-01

    Sea cucumbers, one main class of Echinoderms, have a very fast and drastic metamorphosis process during their development. However, the molecular basis under this process remains largely unknown. Here we systematically examined the gene expression profiles of Japanese common sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) for the first time by RNA sequencing across 16 developmental time points from fertilized egg to juvenile stage. Based on the weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA), we identified 21 modules. Among them, MEdarkmagenta was highly expressed and correlated with the early metamorphosis process from late auricularia to doliolaria larva. Furthermore, gene enrichment and differentially expressed gene analysis identified several genes in the module that may play key roles in the metamorphosis process. Our results not only provide a molecular basis for experimentally studying the development and morphological complexity of sea cucumber, but also lay a foundation for improving its emergence rate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Crop modelling and water use efficiency of protected cucumber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Moujabber, M.; Atallah, Th.; Darwish, T.

    2002-01-01

    Crop modelling is considered an essential tool of planning. The automation of irrigation scheduling using crop models would contribute to an optimisation of water and fertiliser use of protected crops. To achieve this purpose, two experiments were carried. The first one aimed at determining water requirements and irrigation scheduling using climatic data. The second experiment was to establish the influence of irrigation interval and fertigation regime on water use efficiency. The results gave a simple model for the determination of the water requirements of protected cucumber by the use of climatic data: ETc=K* Ep. K and Ep are calculated using climatic data outside the greenhouse. As for water use efficiency, the second experiment highlighted the fact that a high frequency and continuous feeding are highly recommended for maximising yield. (author)

  18. Bioactive compounds of sea cucumbers and their therapeutic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shujuan; Feng, Wenjing; Hu, Song; Liang, Shixiu; An, Nina; Mao, Yongjun

    2016-05-01

    Sea cucumbers belong to the Class Holothuroidea of marine invertebrates. They are commercially valuable and prized as a food and folk medicine in Asia. Nutritionally, sea cucumbers have an impressive profile of valuable nutrients such as vitamins, minerals and amino acids. A number of unique biological and pharmacological activities/properties, including anticancer, anticoagulant/antithrombotic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antihyperlipidemic, antihyperglycemic, anti-inflammatory, antihypertension and radioprotective, have been ascribed to various compounds isolated from sea cucumbers. The therapeutic properties and medicinal benefits of sea cucumbers can be linked to the presence of a wide array of bioactives, especially triterpene glycosides, acid mucopolysaccharide, sphingoid bases, glycolipids, fucosylated chondroitin sulfate, polysaccharides, phospholipids, cerebrosides, phosphatidylcholines, and other extracts and hydrolysates. This review highlights the valuable bioactive components as well as the multiple therapeutic properties of sea cucumbers with a view to exploring their potential uses as functional foods and a natural source of new multifunctional drugs.

  19. STAYGREEN (CsSGR) is a candidate for the anthracnose (Colletotrichum orbiculare) resistance locus cla in Gy14 cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Junsong; Tan, Junyi; Wang, Yuhui; Zheng, Xiangyang; Owens, Ken; Li, Dawei; Li, Yuhong; Weng, Yiqun

    2018-04-21

    Map-based cloning identified a candidate gene for resistance to the anthracnose fungal pathogen Colletotrichum orbiculare in cucumber, which reveals a novel function for the highly conserved STAYGREEN family genes for host disease resistance in plants. Colletotrichum orbiculare is a hemibiotrophic fungal pathogen that causes anthracnose disease in cucumber and other cucurbit crops. No host resistance genes against the anthracnose pathogens have been cloned in crop plants. Here, we reported fine mapping and cloning of a resistance gene to the race 1 anthracnose pathogen in cucumber inbred lines Gy14 and WI 2757. Phenotypic and QTL analysis in multiple populations revealed that a single recessive gene, cla, was underlying anthracnose resistance in both lines, but WI2757 carried an additional minor-effect QTL. Fine mapping using 150 Gy14 × 9930 recombinant inbred lines and 1043 F 2 individuals delimited the cla locus into a 32 kb region in cucumber Chromosome 5 with three predicted genes. Multiple lines of evidence suggested that the cucumber STAYGREEN (CsSGR) gene is a candidate for the anthracnose resistance locus. A single nucleotide mutation in the third exon of CsSGR resulted in the substitution of Glutamine in 9930 to Arginine in Gy14 in CsSGR protein which seems responsible for the differential anthracnose inoculation responses between Gy14 and 9930. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that CsSGR was significantly upregulated upon anthracnose pathogen inoculation in the susceptible 9930, while its expression was much lower in the resistant Gy14. Investigation of allelic diversities in natural cucumber populations revealed that the resistance allele in almost all improved cultivars or breeding lines of the U.S. origin was derived from PI 197087. This work reveals an unknown function for the highly conserved STAYGREEN (SGR) family genes for host disease resistance in plants.

  20. Selective solid-phase extraction based on molecularly imprinted technology for the simultaneous determination of 20 triazole pesticides in cucumber samples using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fengnian; She, Yongxin; Zhang, Chao; Cao, Xiaolin; Wang, Shanshan; Zheng, Lufei; Jin, Maojun; Shao, Hua; Jin, Fen; Wang, Jing

    2017-10-01

    A selective analytical method for the simultaneous determination of 20 triazole fungicides and plant growth regulators in cucumber samples was developed using solid-phase extraction with specific molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) as adsorbents. The MIPs were successfully prepared by precipitation polymerization using triadimefon as the template molecule, methacrylic acid as the functional monomer, trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate as the crosslinker, and acetonitrile as the porogen. The performance and recognition mechanism for both the MIPs and non-molecularly imprinted polymers were evaluated using adsorption isotherms and adsorption kinetics. Liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry was used to identify and quantify the target analytes. The solid-phase extraction using the MIPs was rapid, convenient, and efficient for extraction and enrichment of the 20 triazole pesticides from cucumber samples. The recoveries obtained at three concentration levels (1, 2, and 10μgL -1 ) ranged from 82.3% to 117.6% with relative standard deviations of less than 11.8% (n=5) for all analytes. The limits of detection for the 20 triazole pesticides were all less than 0.4μgL -1 , and were sufficient to meet international standards. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Role of cucurbitacin C in resistance to spider mite (Tetranychus urticae) in cucumber (Cucumber sativus L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balkema-Boomstra, A.G.; Zijlstra, S.; Verstappen, F.W.A.; Inggamer, H.; Mercke, P.

    2003-01-01

    Cucurbitacins are bitter triterpenoid compounds that are toxic to most organisms and occur widely in wild and cultivated Cucurbitaceae. The only cucurbitacin identified in Cucumis sativus is cucurbitacin C. The bitter taste of cucumber has been correlated with resistance to the spider mite

  2. Sea cucumbers reduce chromophoric dissolved organic matter in aquaculture tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi-Nassaj, Seyed Mohammad; Catalá, Teresa S; Álvarez, Pedro A; Reche, Isabel

    2018-01-01

    Mono-specific aquaculture effluents contain high concentrations of nutrients and organic matter, which affect negatively the water quality of the recipient ecosystems. A fundamental feature of water quality is its transparency. The fraction of dissolved organic matter that absorbs light is named chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM). A sustainable alternative to mono-specific aquaculture is the multitrophic aquaculture that includes species trophically complementary named "extractive" species that uptake the waste byproducts. Sea cucumbers are recognized as efficient extractive species due to the consumption of particulate organic matter (POM). However, the effects of sea cucumbers on CDOM are still unknown. During more than one year, we monitored CDOM in two big-volume tanks with different trophic structure. One of the tanks (-holothurian) only contained around 810 individuals of Anemonia sulcata , whereas the other tank (+holothurian) also included 90 individuals of Holothuria tubulosa and Holothuria forskali . We routinely analyzed CDOM absorption spectra and determined quantitative (absorption coefficients at 325 nm) and qualitative (spectral slopes) optical parameters in the inlet waters, within the tanks, and in their corresponding effluents. To confirm the time-series results, we also performed three experiments. Each experiment consisted of two treatments: +holothurians (+H) and -holothurians (-H). We set up three +H tanks with 80 individuals of A. sulcata and 10 individuals of H. tubulosa in each tank and four -H tanks that contained only 80 individuals of A. sulcata . In the time-series, absorption coefficients at 325 nm ( a 325 ) and spectral slopes from 275 to 295 nm ( S 275-295 ) were significantly lower in the effluent of the +holothurian tank (average: 0.33 m -1 and 16 µm -1 , respectively) than in the effluent of the -holothurian tank (average: 0.69 m -1 and 34 µm -1 , respectively), the former being similar to those found in the inlet

  3. The Sea Cucumber Body Wall Extract Promoted in Vitro Maturation of NMRI Mice Follicles at Germinal Vesicle Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Khalilzadeh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background IVM (in vitro maturation appear to be certified high pregnancy outcome. Therefore, attempt to find an appropriate culture system using natural products for increasing developmental competencies fascinating. Objectives This experiment is aimed to evaluate the effect of sea cucumber methanol extract on in vitro maturation of immature mouse oocyte. Methods In this experimental study, Preantral follicles at germinal vesicle stage were collected from 24 - 26 days NMRI female mouse ovaries and transferred to IVM medium supplemented with different concentration of sea cucumber methanol extract (5, 10, 20, 30 µg/mL. Antioxidant capacity of sea cucumber extract was evaluated using DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay. Further, oocyte maturation and TNF-α expression were recorded till day 10th. Data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA through SPSS 16. Results The percentage of arrested oocyte at germinal vesicle stage in the control group was significantly (P < 0.05 higher than treated group (20 µg/mL. There were significant (P < 0.01 differences in percentage of maturated oocyte to metaphase II (MII stage between treated and control group. DPPH radical scavenging capacity and reduction of TNF-α expression in treated oocyte demonstrated that sea cucumber increased rate of oocyte maturation. In addition, the treated oocyte (20 µg/mL achieved the highest percentage of MII stage. Conclusions It was concluded that the sea cucumber extract with optimum concentration can improve oocyte maturation. Sea cucumber extract treatment can be suggested as a novel therapeutic strategy to be used in infertility modality in the future.

  4. Effects of water depth and substrate color on the growth and body color of the red sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Senhao; Dong, Shuanglin; Gao, Qinfeng; Ren, Yichao; Wang, Fang

    2015-05-01

    Three color variants of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus are recognized, the red one is highly valued in the market. When the red variant is cultured in ponds in China, its body color changes from red to celadon in 3-6 months. The effects of water depth and substrate color on the growth and body color of this animal were investigated. Juveniles of red A. japonicus were cultured in cages suspended at a range of water depths (20, 50, 100, 150 and 200 cm). The specific growth rate of red sea cucumbers was significantly higher in animals cultured at deeper water layers compared with those grown at shallowers. Body weights were greatest for sea cucumbers cultured at a depth of 150 cm and their survival rates were highest at a depth of 200 cm. A scale to evaluate the color of red sea cucumbers ( R value) was developed using a Pantone standard color card. All stocked animals in the 9-month trial retained a red color, however the red body color was much more intense in sea cucumbers cultured at shallower depths, while animals suspended in deeper layers became pale. In a separate trial, A. japonicus were cultured in suspended cages with seven different colored substrates. Substrate color had a significant effect on the growth and body-color of red A. japonicus. The yield were greatest for A. japonicus cultured on a yellow substrate, followed by green > white > orange > red > black and blue. All sea cucumbers in the 7-month trial retained a red color, although the red was most intense (highest R value) in animals cultured on a blue substrate and pale (lowest R value) for animals cultured on a green substrate.

  5. Molecular cloning and characterization of violaxanthin de-epoxidase (CsVDE in cucumber.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Li

    Full Text Available Violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE plays an important role in protecting the photosynthetic apparatus from photo-damage by dissipating excessively absorbed light energy as heat, via the conversion of violaxanthin (V to intermediate product antheraxanthin (A and final product zeaxanthin (Z under high light stress. We have cloned a violaxanthin de-epoxidase gene (CsVDE from cucumber. The amino acid sequence of CsVDE has high homology with VDEs in other plants. RT-PCR analysis and histochemical staining show that CsVDE is expressed in all green tissues in cucumber and Arabidopsis. Using GFP fusion protein and immunogold labeling methods, we show that CsVDE is mainly localized in chloroplasts in cucumber. Under high light stress, relative expression of CsVDE and the de-epoxidation ratio (A+Z/(V+A+Z is increased rapidly, and abundance of the gold particles was also increased. Furthermore, CsVDE is quickly induced by cold and drought stress, reaching maximum levels at the 2(nd hour and the 9(th day, respectively. The ratio of (A+Z/(V+A+Z and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ is reduced in transgenic Arabidopsis down-regulated by the antisense fragment of CsVDE, compared to wild type (WT Arabidopsis under high light stress. This indicates decreased functionality of the xanthophyll cycle and increased sensitivity to photoinhibition of photosystem II (PSII in transgenic Arabidopsis under high light stress.

  6. Genotype X Environment Interaction for Yield of Pickling Cucumber in 24 U.S. Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dia Mahendra

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Reliable yield performance is important in cucumber because seed companies prefer to market cultivars adapted to multiple rather than single regions of the U.S. Also, growers benefit by using a cultivar that performs well in many environments. Future performance of cultivars is also important. The objectives of the study were to (i evaluate the yield of cucumber genotypes over successive years and in different locations, and (ii identify cucumber genotypes with high stability for yield. A diverse set of 22 pickling genotypes was evaluated over 3 years (1986, 1987 and 1988 and in 7 locations across the United States. Yield traits were evaluated using once-over harvest and counting the number of fruit that were marketable, culled or oversize. Total yield, marketable yield (total minus culled fruit, early yield (number of oversize fruit, percent culls and fruit per plant were calculated. Data were analyzed with SASGxE and RGxE programs using SAS and R programming languages, respectively. There were strong effects of environment(E as well as genotype(G xE interaction for all traits. Genotypes ‘Regal F1’, ‘Calypso F1’, ‘Carolina F1’, ‘Gy 3’, ‘Gy 14’ and ‘Fremont F1’ had high marketable yield and medium to high stability for all traits. There was an advantage of hybrids over inbreds for trait performance. Hybrids fell into a single cluster with large prediction intervals. Based on the stability statistics and divisive clusters, it appears possible to breed stable cucumber genotypes with high yield. The genotype with highest performance for marketable yield, greatest stability for yield, lowest 1-R2 ratio value (diverse and representative were ‘Marbel F1’ and Gy 14.

  7. Sex Determination in Sea Cucumbers: Holothuria forskali and Stichopus regalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipa Pinheiro Santos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sea cucumber aquaculture is underexploited in temperate regions, and it is inexistent in Portugal. However, there are some species with a large potential for this sector, namely Stichopus regalis and Holothuria forskali, as it their nutritional value. S. regalis is a common sea cucumber that is found in a wide depth range and is currently consumed all over the world, majority in Asia, with a high commercial value. On the other hand, H. forskali is the most plentiful specie of the Portuguese coast. The purpose of this study is to evaluate sex ratio on both species through biopsy method, using biopsy needle to collect a piece of gonad. Holothurian specimens were sampled coastwise in Peniche, Portugal (39° 21′ 32″ N, 9° 22′ 40″ W. A total of 45 H. forskali were collected in the low tide and 48 S. regalis were caught by trawl method. Both species were kept in captivity during 8 months, the rearing conditions are maintained close as possible to the natural habitat, and they were placed in a sand bottom. Mortality was evaluated during conditioning period, and it was verified approximately 19% of mortality in S. regalis, although in H. forskali it was not observed. Sex identification was performed with success only in H. forskali, and sexual ratio found was 1:1. All S. regalis specimens arrived eviscerated to the Aquaculture Laboratory and it was caused by the trawl capture method. For that reason, it was not possible to assess the sexual ratio. The possibility to distinguish holothurian genre is essential to realize sexual behavior, and to ease the understanding of reproductive cycle in attempt to introduce these new species for aquaculture rearing.

  8. Cucumber nitrogen utilization as affected by compost levels and nitrogen rates using 15N technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sherif, M.F.; Abdalla, A.A.; Abdalla, M.M.F.; El-Oksh, I.I.

    2005-01-01

    The beneficial effect of compost application to the sandy soil on dry matter production of shoots and fruits as well as its effect on l5N-uptake and nitrogen utilization percent of cucumber plant (Cucumis sativus L.) were studied under field conditions. Two types of natural compost (i.e. sugar cane bagasse (SC) and beet compost (BC)) with three levels (2, 4, 6 ton/fed) in addition to check treatment for each kind of compost (sheep manure with rate of 20 in/fed) combined with three rates of nitrogen fertilizer rates (50, 75, 100% from the recommended rate, i.e. 75 kg /fed) were used. The bagasse compost in both seasons gave a significantly higher response than the beet compost. There was a greet reduction in cucumber dry weight, N yield, Ndff%, FN yield and N utilization % of shoots and fruits as the level of compost application decreased. However, cucumber plants grown on high compost application level (6 ton/fed) were similar in their responses to plants grown on the check treatment. The results of N utilization indicated that the fertilizer utilization by the cucumber shoots and fruits during both seasons was significantly higher for the medium N rate (75% N) in comparison to the lowest fertigation treatment (50% N) and similar to the highest N fertigation rate (100% N). Generally, the results showed that under the experimental conditions to reach an acceptable yield with a high fertilizer utilization, it could be suggested to apply relatively medium rates of N fertigation (56.25 kg N/fed) combined with the high level ofSC compost application (6 t/fed) keeping in mind the regional site conditions

  9. Assessment of Salicylic Acid Impacts on Seedling Characteristic of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. under Water Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein MARDANI

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Impacts of various concentrations of salicylic acid (SA on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. seedling characteristic were evaluated under different water stress levels by using a factorial arrangement based on completely randomized design with three replications at experimental greenhouse of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. The studied factors included three water deficit levels (100% FC, 80% FC, and 60% FC considered as first factor and five levels of SA concentrations (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1 mM as second factor. Results showed that foliar application of SA at the highest concentration enhanced leaf area, leaf and dry weight while decreased stomatal conductance under high level of water deficit stress. Though, severe water deficit stress sharply raised the SPAD reading values. In general, exogenous SA application could develop cucumber seedling characteristic and improve water stress tolerance.

  10. Applications Research of Microbial Ecological Preparation in Sea Cucumber Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jiahui; Wang, Guangyu

    2017-12-01

    At present, micro ecological preparation is widely applied in aquaculture with good effect. The application of micro ecological preparation in sea cucumber culture can effectively improve the economic benefits. The micro ecological preparation can play the role of inhibiting harmful bacteria, purifying water quality and saving culture cost in the process of sea cucumber culture. We should select appropriate bacteria, guarantee stable environment and use with long-term in the applications of microbial ecological preparation in sea cucumber culture to obtain good effects.

  11. Design of portable diagnostic system of cucumber leaf mildew

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Chang, R. K.; Wang, Y. H.; Liu, H.; Tang, G. C.

    2015-12-01

    Powdery mildew is one of the major diseases of facilities vegetables. In order to achieve early, fast, and accurate diagnosis of powdery mildew, with TCS3200 color sensor and infrared sensor as detecting port and 12864 dot matrix LCD as display, the system explores the external change such as the color change of the blade in health and disease stage and change of reflection spectra. Through tracking experiment of different stages of cucumber leaves infected, the results show that the system can identify change of optical frequency values and the RGB values in the health cucumber leaves and infected cucumber leaves and thus provides effective warning alarm for controlling early disease occurrence.

  12. Anticancer Activity of Sea Cucumber Triterpene Glycosides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry L. Aminin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Triterpene glycosides are characteristic secondary metabolites of sea cucumbers (Holothurioidea, Echinodermata. They have hemolytic, cytotoxic, antifungal, and other biological activities caused by membranotropic action. These natural products suppress the proliferation of various human tumor cell lines in vitro and, more importantly, intraperitoneal administration in rodents of solutions of some sea cucumber triterpene glycosides significantly reduces both tumor burden and metastasis. The anticancer molecular mechanisms include the induction of tumor cell apoptosis through the activation of intracellular caspase cell death pathways, arrest of the cell cycle at S or G2/M phases, influence on nuclear factors, NF-κB, and up-down regulation of certain cellular receptors and enzymes participating in cancerogenesis, such as EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor, Akt (protein kinase B, ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinases, FAK (focal adhesion kinase, MMP-9 (matrix metalloproteinase-9 and others. Administration of some glycosides leads to a reduction of cancer cell adhesion, suppression of cell migration and tube formation in those cells, suppression of angiogenesis, inhibition of cell proliferation, colony formation and tumor invasion. As a result, marked growth inhibition of tumors occurs in vitro and in vivo. Some holothurian triterpene glycosides have the potential to be used as P-gp mediated MDR reversal agents in combined therapy with standard cytostatics.

  13. Pathogenic Fungi Transmitted Through Cucumber Seeds and Safely Elimination by Application of Peppermint Extract and Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman S.H. FARRAG

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Diseases induced by Fusarium, like damping-off and wilt on cucumber, are serious problems around the world. Samples of cucumber seeds were collected from commercial markets in Egypt and tested for seed-borne fungi. In order to detect the maximum number of internal and external seed-borne fungi, agar plate examination of disinfected and non-disinfected seeds were used. Two species of Fusarium were the most frequent and predominant fungi. Facultative parasites of the genera Alternaria, Rhizoctonia, Helminthosporium and Penicillium were also found. A total 33 isolates of Fusarium spp. were obtained using Komada�s selective medium. Fusarium oxysporum and F. solani were highly frequent. Pathogenicity test indicated that, F. oxysporum isolate (Fem8 was the main causal organism of pre- and post-emergence damping off. Furthermore, it occurred in all seed parts tested. Some infected seeds germinate, but they were either rapidly overgrown by F. oxysporum or they developed into a diseased seedling. The water extract of garlic, peppermint and rheum completely inhibited the conidiospore germination and mycelial growth of F. oxysporum at tested conc. 3, 2 and 3%, respectively. Soaked seeds in 2% peppermint extract and evaporated seeds by vapor of peppermint oil caused a highly reduction in the infection and reduced transmission of the referred fungi from seeds to the growing seedlings. The vigor of cucumber seedlings raised from the treated seeds was better than that developed from untreated ones.

  14. Pathogenic Fungi Transmitted Through Cucumber Seeds and Safely Elimination by Application of Peppermint Extract and Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman S.H. FARRAG

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Diseases induced by Fusarium, like damping-off and wilt on cucumber, are serious problems around the world. Samples of cucumber seeds were collected from commercial markets in Egypt and tested for seed-borne fungi. In order to detect the maximum number of internal and external seed-borne fungi, agar plate examination of disinfected and non-disinfected seeds were used. Two species of Fusarium were the most frequent and predominant fungi. Facultative parasites of the genera Alternaria, Rhizoctonia, Helminthosporium and Penicillium were also found. A total 33 isolates of Fusarium spp. were obtained using Komadas selective medium. Fusarium oxysporum and F. solani were highly frequent. Pathogenicity test indicated that, F. oxysporum isolate (Fem8 was the main causal organism of pre- and post-emergence damping off. Furthermore, it occurred in all seed parts tested. Some infected seeds germinate, but they were either rapidly overgrown by F. oxysporum or they developed into a diseased seedling. The water extract of garlic, peppermint and rheum completely inhibited the conidiospore germination and mycelial growth of F. oxysporum at tested conc. 3, 2 and 3%, respectively. Soaked seeds in 2% peppermint extract and evaporated seeds by vapor of peppermint oil caused a highly reduction in the infection and reduced transmission of the referred fungi from seeds to the growing seedlings. The vigor of cucumber seedlings raised from the treated seeds was better than that developed from untreated ones.

  15. TERMS OF CULTIVATION FOR BEE-POLLINATED CUCUMBER KARAMBOL F1 IN WINTER GLASS GREENHOUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Korol

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The group of bee-pollinated hybrids of cucumber is one of the most demanded for growing in greenhouses in winterspring period. There are ‘Atlet F1’ ‘Karambol F1’ ‘Magnit F1’ ‘Kartel  F1’  and  also  hybrids  pollinators  ‘Kazanova  F1’, ‘Begunok  F1’  ‘Bodriyachok  F1’,  which  occupy  about  800 hectares of  area in  winter  greenhouses. All  hybrids  have attractive appearance, high taste qualities, and are transportable. Buttons are in a great demand and have a high price during  all  the  time  of  cultivation,  from  February to  July. However, the bee-pollinated  cucumbers in later period are also in need, particularly for end of year celebrations. The possibility  to  grow  these  bee  pollinated  cucumbers  like ‘Karambol F1’ in these terms of cultivation is regarded in the article.

  16. Consumer Acceptability of Cucumber Pickles Produced by Fermentation in Calcium Chloride Brine for Reduced Environmental Impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Emily M; Johanningsmeier, Suzanne D; Osborne, Jason A

    2015-06-01

    Fermentation of cucumbers in calcium chloride (CaCl2 ) brine has been proposed as an alternative process to reduce the environmental impact of traditional, high salt fermentations. The objective of this research was to determine whether consumer acceptability of pickle products would be impacted by fermentation and storage of cucumbers in CaCl2 brine. Cucumbers were fermented and stored with 0.1M CaCl2 or 1M sodium chloride (NaCl) in open-air, 3000 gal tanks at a commercial facility and processed into hamburger dill chips containing 0.38M NaCl. Cucumbers fermented in CaCl2 required additional desalting to reduce CaCl2 concentrations to that of current products. Consumers (n = 101) showed no significant preference for pickles from different fermentation treatments, whether stored for 2 mo (P = 0.75) or 8 mo (P = 0.68) prior to processing. In contrast, NaCl fermented pickles were preferred over CaCl2 fermented pickles stored for 10 mo and desalted only once (P consumer preference, and the 50% detection threshold of CaCl2 in dill pickle chips was found to be 61.8 ± 7.6 mM, indicating that processors could potentially use CaCl2 fermentations with a single desalting step. Consumer liking of flavor (n = 73) was not influenced by fermentation in CaCl2 or by 23 or 35 mM CaCl2 in finished products (P > 0.05), but variability in texture decreased consumer liking (P < 0.05). Although promising, individual fermentation variability and texture quality of CaCl2 fermented products should be further evaluated prior to broad implementation of this process. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  17. Growth and yield of grafted cucumbers in soil infested with root-knot nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smiljana Goreta Ban

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of rootstocks on the growth and yield of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. plants in soils infested with root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp. Cucumber 'Adrian' was grown with its own roots or was grafted onto three rootstocks of Lagenariasiceraria (Molina Standi. ('Emphasis', 'S-1', and 'Gourd', two interspecific hybrid rootstocks of Cucurbita maxima Duchesne x C. moschata Duchesne ('Strong Tosa' and 'RS 841 Improved' and zucchini Cucurbita pepo L. ('Romanesco Zucchini'. The experiments were conducted in commercial greenhouse, with cucumber grafted onto three rootstocks in the first season and onto six rootstocks in the second spring-summer season. The number of leaves was considerably affected by the rootstock in both seasons, and was the highest for the plants grafted onto interspecific rootstocks (28.0 in the first and 44.9 in the second season. The plants grafted onto 'Strong Tosa' had higher total number of fruits (19.9 and yield (5.38 kg compared to other rootstocks or non-grafted plants in first season, and the same result was found for two interspecific rootstocks in the second season (6.96 kg and more than 28.9 fruits per plant. The total soluble solids, pH and electrical conductivity of the fruit were not affected by rootstock, while titratable acidity changed with the rootstock type. The grafting of cucumber plants onto different rootstocks was confirmed as an acceptable non-chemical method to compete with the limitations of soils infected with root-knot nematodes, but the effect was highly dependent on the choice of the rootstock.

  18. REFUSE OF FERMENTATION BRINES IN THE CUCUMBER PICKLING INDUSTRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The project evaluated on a commercial scale the technological and economic feasibility of recycling spent cucumber fermentation brine. Two brine treatment procedures, heat treatment and chemical treatment, were used. The results showed that brine recycling was practical on a comm...

  19. the effect of cucumber ( ) extract on acid induced corneal burn

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LIVINGSTON

    The groups were CB group treated with cucumber bark extract only,. CP group treated with .... maintenance of healthy bone, teeth and gums. It actsasanantioxidant . ... burn in the eyes of the guinea pigs included; slight hyperemia, lid edema ...

  20. Phase Characterization of Cucumber Growth: A Chemical Gel Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cucumber grows with complex phenomena by changing its volume and shape, which is not fully investigated and challenges agriculture and food safety industry. In order to understand the mechanism and to characterize the growth process, the cucumber is modeled as a hydrogel in swelling and its development is studied in both preharvest and postharvest stages. Based on thermodynamics, constitutive equations, incorporating biological quantities, are established. The growth behavior of cucumber follows the classic theory of continuous or discontinuous phase transition. The mechanism of bulged tail in cucumber is interpreted by phase coexistence and characterized by critical conditions. Conclusions are given for advances in food engineering and novel fabrication techniques in mechanical biology.

  1. Genetic relationship of a cucumber germplasm collection revealed ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SSR is a new marker system which is commonly developed ... A web tool, SSRIT (http://www.gramene.org/db/markers/ssrtool), was used for searching SSRs in the unigenes with the crite- ..... genomic library of cucumber (Cucumis sativus).

  2. Outbreak of Salmonella Oslo Infections Linked to Persian Cucumbers - United States, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottichio, Lyndsay; Medus, Carlota; Sorenson, Alida; Donovan, Danielle; Sharma, Reeti; Dowell, Natasha; Williams, Ian; Wellman, Allison; Jackson, Alikeh; Tolar, Beth; Griswold, Taylor; Basler, Colin

    2016-12-30

    In April 2016, PulseNet, the national molecular subtyping network for foodborne disease surveillance, detected a multistate cluster of Salmonella enterica serotype Oslo infections with an indistinguishable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern (XbaI PFGE pattern OSLX01.0090).* This PFGE pattern was new in the database; no previous infections or outbreaks have been identified. CDC, state and local health and agriculture departments and laboratories, and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) conducted epidemiologic, traceback, and laboratory investigations to identify the source of this outbreak. A total of 14 patients in eight states were identified, with illness onsets occurring during March 21-April 9, 2016. Whole genome sequencing, a highly discriminating subtyping method, was used to further characterize PFGE pattern OSLX01.0090 isolates. Epidemiologic evidence indicates Persian cucumbers as the source of Salmonella Oslo infections in this outbreak. This is the fourth identified multistate outbreak of salmonellosis associated with cucumbers since 2013. Further research is needed to understand the mechanism and factors that contribute to contamination of cucumbers during growth, harvesting, and processing to prevent future outbreaks.

  3. Structure and rheological characteristics of fucoidan from sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Long; Xue, Changhu; Chang, Yaoguang; Hu, Yanfang; Xu, Xiaoqi; Ge, Lei; Liu, Guanchen

    2015-08-01

    Sea cucumber is a traditional health food consumed in East Asia. In this study, fucoidan from sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Aj-FUC) was isolated, and its structure and rheological characteristics were elucidated for the first time. Aj-FUC was a branched polysaccharide mainly composed of a novel repeating unit [α-L-Fucp2(OSO3(-))-1 → 3,(α-L-Fucp-1 → 4-α-L-Fucp-1 →)4-α-L-Fucp2(OSO3(-))-1 → 3-α-L-Fucp2(OSO3(-))], clarified by using a combination of infrared spectroscopy, methylation analysis, enzymatic degradation and nuclear magnetic resonance. In steady shear measurement, Aj-FUC manifested a non-Newtonian shear-thinning behaviour at low shear rate (1-100 S(-1)) while exhibiting a non-Newtonian shear-thickening behaviour at high shear rate (100-1000 S(-1)); salts had limited impact on its flow curve. Comparative study on viscosity and rheological behaviour of Aj-FUC and a linear fucoidan extracted from sea cucumber Acaudina molpadioides suggested that the presence of branch structure might significantly influence the rheological characteristics of fucoidan. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Compositional analysis of sulfated polysaccharides from sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus) released by autolysis reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shuang; Wu, Sufeng; Ai, Chunqing; Xu, Xin; Zhu, Zhenjun; Cao, Chunyang; Yang, Jingfeng; Wen, Chengrong

    2018-07-15

    Autolysis is not only a major reason for postharvest quality deterioration of sea cucumber, but also a promising alternative for exogenous protease to produce peptides or polysaccharides. However, little has been known about the effects of autolysis on bioactive polysaccharides of sea cucumber. Concerning the quality and safety of sea cucumber products involved autolysis reaction, the present study focused on the chemical composition of sulfated polysaccharides (SPs) released by autolysis reaction. Chemical analysis indicated that after 3-day autolysis 63% of sulfated polysaccharides were liberated but with protein chains at their reducing ends. Then the composition of SP obtained by autolysis (A-SP) was compared with that of total SPs (T-SP) via a series of analysis techniques, including FTIR, 1 H NMR, HPLC and mass spectroscopy. As indicated by the results, fucan to fucosylated chondroitin sulfate ratio was found high in A-SP compared to T-SP, fucan with a lower molecular weight was the major fraction in A-SP, and the di-sulfated Fuc residue observed in T-SP was absent in A-SP. To conclude, A-SP differed greatly from T-SP in the chemical composition, suggesting possible changes on their bioactivities. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Response of wild bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Anthophila) to surrounding land cover in Wisconsin pickling cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstein, D M; Huseth, A S; Groves, R L

    2012-06-01

    Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is among the plants highly dependent on insect-mediated pollination, but little is known about its unmanaged pollinators. Both domestic and wild bee populations in central Wisconsin pickling cucumber fields were assessed using a combination of pan trapping and floral observations before and during bloom. Together with land cover analyses extending 2,000 m from field centers, the relationship of land cover components and bee abundance and diversity were examined. Over a 2-yr sample interval distributed among 18 experimental sites, 3,185 wild bees were collected representing >60 species. A positive association was found between both noncrop and herbaceous areas with bee abundance and diversity only during bloom. Response of bee abundance and diversity to land cover was strongest at larger buffers presumably because of the heterogeneous nature of the landscape and connectivity between crop and noncrop areas. These results are consistent with previous research that has found a weak response of wild bees to surrounding vegetation in moderately fragmented areas. A diverse community of wild bees is present within the fields of a commercial cucumber system, and there is evidence of floral visitation by unmanaged bees. This evidence emphasizes the importance of wild pollinators in fragmented landscapes and the need for additional research to investigate the effectiveness of individual species in pollen deposition.

  6. Evaluating the Potential Value of Natural Product Cuminic Acid against Plant Pathogenic Fungi in Cucumber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium wilt and anthracnose are two major diseases which limit the yield and quality of cucumber worldwide. Cuminic acid was extracted from the seed of Cuminum cyminum L. The mean EC50 values of cuminic acid for inhibiting mycelial growth and zoospore germination of five Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum strains were 25.66 ± 3.02 μg/mL and 15.99 ± 2.19 μg/mL, and of four Colletotrichum lagenarium (Pass. Ellis and Halsted strains were 29.53 ± 3.18 μg/mL and 18.41 ± 2.78 μg/mL, respectively. In greenhouse experiments, cuminic acid at 2000 μg/mL exhibited 70.77% protective and 62.63% curative efficacies against F. oxysporum, and 65.43% protective and 55.46% curative efficacies against C. lagenarium. Moreover, the translocation behavior of cuminic acid, determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, showed that it could be readily absorbed and transported upward and downward in cucumber. Importantly, superoxide dismutase (SOD and pyphenol oxidase (PPO activities of cucumber leaves treated with cuminic acid increased significantly. All results indicated that cuminic acid showed antifungal activity, and could be used as a botanical fungicide in disease management. This study encourages further investigation on the mechanism of action of cuminic acid and the development of alternative antifungal drugs.

  7. Gravitropism interferes with hydrotropism via counteracting auxin dynamics in cucumber roots: clinorotation and spaceflight experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morohashi, Keita; Okamoto, Miki; Yamazaki, Chiaki; Fujii, Nobuharu; Miyazawa, Yutaka; Kamada, Motoshi; Kasahara, Haruo; Osada, Ikuko; Shimazu, Toru; Fusejima, Yasuo; Higashibata, Akira; Yamazaki, Takashi; Ishioka, Noriaki; Kobayashi, Akie; Takahashi, Hideyuki

    2017-09-01

    Roots of land plants show gravitropism and hydrotropism in response to gravity and moisture gradients, respectively, for controlling their growth orientation. Gravitropism interferes with hydrotropism, although the mechanistic aspects are poorly understood. Here, we differentiated hydrotropism from gravitropism in cucumber roots by conducting clinorotation and spaceflight experiments. We also compared mechanisms regulating hydrotropism and auxin-regulated gravitropism. Clinorotated or microgravity (μG)-grown cucumber seedling roots hydrotropically bent toward wet substrate in the presence of moisture gradients, but they grew straight in the direction of normal gravitational force at the Earth's surface (1G) on the ground or centrifuge-generated 1G in space. The roots appeared to become hydrotropically more sensitive to moisture gradients under μG conditions in space. Auxin transport inhibitors significantly reduced the hydrotropic response of clinorotated seedling roots. The auxin efflux protein CsPIN5 was differentially expressed in roots of both clinorotated and μG-grown seedlings; with higher expression in the high-humidity (concave) side than the low-humidity (convex) side of hydrotropically responding roots. Our results suggest that roots become hydrotropically sensitive in μG, and CsPIN5-mediated auxin transport has an important role in inducing root hydrotropism. Thus, hydrotropic and gravitropic responses in cucumber roots may compete via differential auxin dynamics established in response to moisture gradients and gravity. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  8. Sea Cucumbers Metabolites as Potent Anti-Cancer Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveena B. Janakiram

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Sea cucumbers and their extracts have gained immense popularity and interest among researchers and nutritionists due to their nutritive value, potential health benefits, and use in the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases. Many areas of the world use sea cucumbers in traditional foods and folk medicine. Though the actual components and their specific functions still remain to be investigated, most sea cucumber extracts are being studied for their anti-inflammatory functions, immunostimulatory properties, and for cancer prevention and treatment. There is large scope for the discovery of additional bioactive, valuable compounds from this natural source. Sea cucumber extracts contain unique components, such as modified triterpene glycosides, sulfated polysaccharides, glycosphingolipids, and esterified phospholipids. Frondanol A5, an isopropyl alcohol/water extract of the enzymatically hydrolyzed epithelia of the edible North Atlantic sea cucumber, Cucumaria frondosa, contains monosulfated triterpenoid glycoside Frondoside A, the disulfated glycoside Frondoside B, the trisulfated glycoside Frondoside C, 12-methyltetradecanoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and fucosylated chondroitin sulfate. We have extensively studied the efficacy of this extract in preventing colon cancer in rodent models. In this review, we discuss the anti-inflammatory, immunostimulatory, and anti-tumor properties of sea cucumber extracts.

  9. Comparative proteomic analysis reveals the positive effect of exogenous spermidine on photosynthesis and salinity tolerance in cucumber seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Ting; Shan, Xi; Li, Bin; Shu, Sheng; Sun, Jin; Guo, Shirong

    2016-08-01

    Our results based on proteomics data and physiological alterations proposed the putative mechanism of exogenous Spd enhanced salinity tolerance in cucumber seedlings. Current studies showed that exogenous spermidine (Spd) could alleviate harmful effects of salinity. It is important to increase our understanding of the beneficial physiological responses of exogenous Spd treatment, and to determine the molecular responses underlying these responses. Here, we combined a physiological analysis with iTRAQ-based comparative proteomics of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) leaves, treated with 0.1 mM exogenous Spd, 75 mM NaCl and/or exogenous Spd. A total of 221 differentially expressed proteins were found and involved in 30 metabolic pathways, such as photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, amino acid metabolism, stress response, signal transduction and antioxidant. Based on functional classification of the differentially expressed proteins and the physiological responses, we found cucumber seedlings treated with Spd under salt stress had higher photosynthesis efficiency, upregulated tetrapyrrole synthesis, stronger ROS scavenging ability and more protein biosynthesis activity than NaCl treatment, suggesting that these pathways may promote salt tolerance under high salinity. This study provided insights into how exogenous Spd protects photosynthesis and enhances salt tolerance in cucumber seedlings.

  10. Anticancer potency of black sea cucumber (Holothuria atra) from Mentawai Islands, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Mieke Hemiawati Satari; Utmi Arma; Syafruddin Ilyas; Dian Handayani

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: The source of bioactive compounds believed to have strong anticancer potency is derived from sea cucumber. Black sea cucumber (Holothuria atra) is a dominant species in Mentawai Islands, West Sumatera, Indonesia. Key factor compound that acts as anticancer in sea cucumber extract is tritepenoid also known as Frondoside A. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the active compound taken from black sea cucumber as anticancer. Methods: Methods u...

  11. The Cytotoxicity of Dacarbazine Potentiated by Sea Cucumber Saponin in Resistant B16F10 Melanoma Cells through Apoptosis Induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharara, Javad; Amini, Elaheh; Nikdel, Najme; Salek-Abdollahi, Farzaneh

    2016-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is a highly aggressive malignant melanocytic neoplasm which resists against the most conventional therapies. Sea cucumber as one of marine organisms contains bioactive compounds such as polysaccharide, terpenoid and other metabolites which have anti-cancer, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. The present study was designed to investigate the anticancer potential of saponin extracted from sea cucumber Holothuria leucospilata alone and in combination with dacarbazine on B16F10 melanoma cell line. The B16F10 cell line was treated with different concentrations of saponin (0, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 μg/ml), dacarbazine (0, 1200, 1400, 1600, 18000, 1200, 1400, 1600, 2000 μg/ml) and co-administration of saponin-dacarbazine (1200 da+8 sp, 1200 da+4 sp) for 24 and 48 hr and the cytotoxic effect was examined by MTT, DAPI, acridine orange/propodium iodide, flow cytometry and caspase colorimetric assay. The results exhibited that sea cucumber saponin, dacarbazine, and co-administration of saponin-dacarbazine inhibited the proliferation of melanoma cells in a dose and time dependent manner with IC50 values of 10, 1400 and 4+1200 μg/ml, respectively. Morphological observation of DAPI and acridine orange/propodium iodide staining documented typical characteristics of apoptotic cell death. Flow cytometry assay indicated accumulation of IC50 treated cells in sub-G1 peak. Additionally, saponin extracted induced intrinsic apoptosis via up-regulation of caspase-3 and caspase-9. These results revealed that the saponin extracted from sea cucumber as a natural anti-cancer compound may be a new treatment modality for metastatic melanoma and the application of sea cucumber saponin in combination with dacarbazine demonstrated the strongest anti-cancer activity as compared with the drug alone.

  12. B-Carotene-a long road to commercial implementation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gardiner, NS

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available ) • Animal feed supplements • Food supplements – colorant, Vitamin A supplement • OTC pharmaceuticals (health supplements) – anti-oxidant, Vitamin A supplement © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.zaSlide 4 Production • Chemical synthesis... • BASF, DSM (formerly Roche) • Algal production (Dunaliella salina) • Betatene (Cognis), Koor Foods, NCSA • Extraction from natural sources (carrots, palm oil) • DSM (formerly Roche), Hanson and Darius • Fungal production (Blakeslea trispora) • DSM...

  13. Sea cucumbers reduce chromophoric dissolved organic matter in aquaculture tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Sadeghi-Nassaj

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Mono-specific aquaculture effluents contain high concentrations of nutrients and organic matter, which affect negatively the water quality of the recipient ecosystems. A fundamental feature of water quality is its transparency. The fraction of dissolved organic matter that absorbs light is named chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM. A sustainable alternative to mono-specific aquaculture is the multitrophic aquaculture that includes species trophically complementary named “extractive” species that uptake the waste byproducts. Sea cucumbers are recognized as efficient extractive species due to the consumption of particulate organic matter (POM. However, the effects of sea cucumbers on CDOM are still unknown. Methods During more than one year, we monitored CDOM in two big-volume tanks with different trophic structure. One of the tanks (−holothurian only contained around 810 individuals of Anemonia sulcata, whereas the other tank (+holothurian also included 90 individuals of Holothuria tubulosa and Holothuria forskali. We routinely analyzed CDOM absorption spectra and determined quantitative (absorption coefficients at 325 nm and qualitative (spectral slopes optical parameters in the inlet waters, within the tanks, and in their corresponding effluents. To confirm the time-series results, we also performed three experiments. Each experiment consisted of two treatments: +holothurians (+H and –holothurians (−H. We set up three +H tanks with 80 individuals of A. sulcata and 10 individuals of H. tubulosa in each tank and four –H tanks that contained only 80 individuals of A. sulcata. Results In the time-series, absorption coefficients at 325 nm (a325 and spectral slopes from 275 to 295 nm (S275−295 were significantly lower in the effluent of the +holothurian tank (average: 0.33 m−1 and 16 µm−1, respectively than in the effluent of the −holothurian tank (average: 0.69 m−1 and 34 µm−1, respectively, the former

  14. A review of the immune molecules in the sea cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Zhuang; Li, Hui; Wang, Xiuli; Li, Xia; Liu, Yang; Sun, Jing; Liu, Cenjie

    2015-05-01

    It is very important to identify and characterize the immune-related genes that respond to pathogens. Until recently, only some of the immune-related genes in sea cucumbers had been characterized. Their expression patterns after pathogen challenges have been analyzed via expressed sequence tag libraries, microarray studies and proteomic approaches. These genes include lectins, antimicrobial peptides, lysozyme, enzymes, clotting protein, pattern recognition proteins, Toll receptors, complement C3 and other humoral factors that might participate in the innate immune system of sea cucumbers. Although the participation of some of these immune molecules in the sea cucumber's innate immune defense against invading pathogens has been demonstrated, the functions of many of the molecules remain unclear. This review focuses on the discovery and functional characterization of the immune-related molecules from the sea cucumber for the first time and provides new insights into the immune mechanisms of the sea cucumber, which opens new possibilities for developing drugs for novel anti-bacterial and antiviral applications in fisheries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Protective effects of chicken egg yolk antibody (IgY) against experimental Vibrio splendidus infection in the sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyu; Jing, Kailin; Wang, Xitao; Li, Yuan; Zhang, Meixia; Li, Zhen; Xu, Le; Wang, Lili; Xu, Yongping

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio splendidus is one of the most harmful pathogens associated with skin ulceration syndrome in the sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) due to its high virulence and frequency of appearance. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of chicken egg yolk antibody (IgY) against V. splendidus infection in the sea cucumber. Whole V. splendidus cells were used as an immunogen to immunize 20 White Leghorn hens (25 weeks old). IgY was produced from egg yolks obtained from these immunized hens using water dilution, two-step salt precipitation and ultrafiltration. The purity of the IgY produced was approximately 83%. Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay indicated a high specificity for IgY with a maximum antibody titer of 320,000. The growth of V. splendidus in liquid medium was significantly inhibited by IgY in a dose-dependent manner at concentrations ranging from 1 to 10 mg/mL. The protective effects of IgY were evaluated in sea cucumber by intraperitoneally injecting anti-V. splendidus IgY antibodies (10 mg/mL) or immersing the sea cucumber in aqueous IgY (1 g/L) after an intraperitoneal injection of V. splendidus. Intraperitoneal injection resulted in an 80% survival while immersion resulted in a 75% survival during the 11-day experimental period. The survival rates were significantly higher than the positive control and the non-specific IgY group (P sea cucumber treated with specific IgY than those treated with non-specific IgY. The phagocytosis of coelomocytes for V. splendidus in the presence of specific IgY was significantly (P sea cucumbers against V. splendidus infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A fragment substitution in the promoter of CsHDZIV11/CsGL3 is responsible for fruit spine density in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiyang; Wang, Lina; Zheng, Shuangshuang; Liu, Zezhou; Wu, Xiaoqin; Gao, Zhihui; Cao, Chenxing; Li, Qiang; Ren, Zhonghai

    2016-07-01

    The indel in the promoter of CsHDZIV11 co-segregates with fruit spine density and could be used for molecular breeding in cucumber. Fruit spine density is an important quality trait for marketing in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). However, the molecular basis of fruit spine density in cucumber remains unclear. In this study, we isolated a mutant, few spines 1 (fs1), from CNS2 (wild type, WT), a North China-type cucumber with a high density of fruit spines. Genetic analysis showed that fs1 was controlled by a single recessive Mendelian factor. Bulked segregant analysis combined with genome resequencing were used for mapping fs1 in the F2 population derived from a cross between the fs1 mutant and WT, and it was located on chromosome 6 through association analysis. To develop more polymorphic markers to locate fs1, another F2 population was constructed from the cross between fs1 and 'Chinese long' 9930. Then, fs1 was narrowed down to a 110.4-kb genomic region containing 25 annotated genes. A fragment substitution was identified in the promoter region of Csa6M514870 between fs1 and WT. This fragment in fs1 was also present in wild cucumber. Csa6M514870 encodes a PDF2-related protein, a homeodomain-leucine zipper IV transcription factor (CsHDZIV11/CsGL3) sharing high identity and similarity with proteins related to trichome formation or epidermal cell differentiation. Quantitative reverse-transcription PCR revealed a higher expression level of CsHDZIV11 in young fruits from fs1 compared to WT. A molecular marker based on this indel co-segregated with the spine density. This work provides a solid foundation not only for understanding the molecular mechanism of fruit spine density, but also for molecular breeding in cucumber.

  17. Nitrogen Requirements and Balance of Protected Cucumber in Coastal Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atallah, T.

    2003-01-01

    Protected cultures are widespread along the Lebanese narrow coastline, encouraged by mild winter conditions. Although one of the most intensive production systems, water and nutrients managements are mostly empirical, based on the experience of the grower himself or of his workers. So far, water has been available in Lebanon, but it will become scarce within ten years. The conservation of water quality by a rational addition of nutrients is particularly relevant to protected cultures. This is important as greenhouses are developed on imported shallow soils that could be fragile and highly vulnerable to pollution. Sound management includes the amount and the forms of fertilizers as well as the modality of fertigation. An experiment was conducted during two spring seasons in a location along the northern coast in a typical unheated greenhouse. The cucumber response to two frequencies and modalities of fertigation was followed: continuous T2C and T3C and discontinuous T2D and T3D every two and three days respectively. Nitrogen recovery by the crop was possible through the use of 15 N-labeled fertilizers. An evaluation of the nitrogen fertilizer fate in the plant-soil system was undertaken in 1999, despite large proportions of Ndff(%) plant N fertilizer recovery was smaller than in the previous season and did not exceed 55% of N inputs

  18. A 1,681-locus consensus genetic map of cultivated cucumber including 67 NB-LRR resistance gene homolog and ten gene loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Luming; Li, Dawei; Li, Yuhong; Gu, Xingfang; Huang, Sanwen; Garcia-Mas, Jordi; Weng, Yiqun

    2013-03-25

    Cucumber is an important vegetable crop that is susceptible to many pathogens, but no disease resistance (R) genes have been cloned. The availability of whole genome sequences provides an excellent opportunity for systematic identification and characterization of the nucleotide binding and leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR) type R gene homolog (RGH) sequences in the genome. Cucumber has a very narrow genetic base making it difficult to construct high-density genetic maps. Development of a consensus map by synthesizing information from multiple segregating populations is a method of choice to increase marker density. As such, the objectives of the present study were to identify and characterize NB-LRR type RGHs, and to develop a high-density, integrated cucumber genetic-physical map anchored with RGH loci. From the Gy14 draft genome, 70 NB-containing RGHs were identified and characterized. Most RGHs were in clusters with uneven distribution across seven chromosomes. In silico analysis indicated that all 70 RGHs had EST support for gene expression. Phylogenetic analysis classified 58 RGHs into two clades: CNL and TNL. Comparative analysis revealed high-degree sequence homology and synteny in chromosomal locations of these RGH members between the cucumber and melon genomes. Fifty-four molecular markers were developed to delimit 67 of the 70 RGHs, which were integrated into a genetic map through linkage analysis. A 1,681-locus cucumber consensus map including 10 gene loci and spanning 730.0 cM in seven linkage groups was developed by integrating three component maps with a bin-mapping strategy. Physically, 308 scaffolds with 193.2 Mbp total DNA sequences were anchored onto this consensus map that covered 52.6% of the 367 Mbp cucumber genome. Cucumber contains relatively few NB-LRR RGHs that are clustered and unevenly distributed in the genome. All RGHs seem to be transcribed and shared significant sequence homology and synteny with the melon genome suggesting conservation of

  19. Genetic variation in jasmonic acid- and spider mite-induced plant volatile emission of cucumber accessions and attraction of the predator Phytoseiulus persimilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappers, Iris F; Verstappen, Francel W A; Luckerhoff, Ludo L P; Bouwmeester, Harro J; Dicke, Marcel

    2010-05-01

    Cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L.) respond to spider-mite (Tetranychus urticae) damage with the release of specific volatiles that are exploited by predatory mites, the natural enemies of the spider mites, to locate their prey. The production of volatiles also can be induced by exposing plants to the plant hormone jasmonic acid. We analyzed volatile emissions from 15 cucumber accessions upon herbivory by spider mites and upon exposure to jasmonic acid using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Upon induction, cucumber plants emitted over 24 different compounds, and the blend of induced volatiles consisted predominantly of terpenoids. The total amount of volatiles was higher in plants treated with jasmonic acid than in those infested with spider mites, with (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene, (E,E)-alpha-farnesene, and (E)-beta-ocimene as the most abundant compounds in all accessions in both treatments. Significant variation among the accessions was found for the 24 major volatile compounds. The accessions differed strongly in total amount of volatiles emitted, and displayed very different odor profiles. Principal component analysis performed on the relative quantities of particular compounds within the blend revealed clusters of highly correlated volatiles, which is suggestive of common metabolic pathways. A number of cucumber accessions also were tested for their attractiveness to Phytoseiulus persimilis, a specialist predator of spider mites. Differences in the attraction of predatory mites by the various accessions correlated to differences in the individual chemical profiles of these accessions. The presence of genetic variation in induced plant volatile emission in cucumber shows that it is possible to breed for cucumber varieties that are more attractive to predatory mites and other biological control agents.

  20. Teripang Pasir Meningkatkan Kandungan Antioksidan Superoksida Dismutase pada Pankreas Tikus Diabetes (SEA CUCUMBER INCREASED ANTIOXIDANT SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE IN THE PANCREATIC TISSUE OF DIABETIC RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tutik Wresdiyati

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available High level of blood glucose is an indicator for diabetes mellitus (DM condition. The condition iscaused by low level of insulin secretion or impairement of insulin receptor. The number of DM patientincreases every year. The World Health Organization reported that the number of DM patient in Indonesiawas the 4th highest in the world, after following China, India, and the United States of America, respectively.This study was conducted to analyze the effect of sea cucumber (Holothuria scabra J on the profile ofantioxidant copper, zinc-superoxide dismutase (Cu, Zn-SOD in the pancreatic tissues of diabetic rats. Atotal of 25 male white rats (Sprague Dawley were used in this study. They were divided into five groups;(1 negative control (KN, (2 positive control, diabetic rats (KP, (3 diabetic rats treated with hydrolyzatedprotein of sea cucumber (HDL, (4 diabetic rats treated with concentrated protein of sea cucumber (KST,and (5 diabetic rats treated with isolated protein of sea cucumber (ISL, respectively. Diabetic conditionwas obtained by alloxan injection 110 mg/kg bw. The treatments were done for 28 days. At the end oftreatment period, the rats were sacrificed and pancreatic tissues were collected and fixed in Bouin solution and then processed to paraffin embedding standard method. The tissues were then stained withimmunohistochemical staining techniques using monoclonal antibody of Cu, Zn-SOD. The results showedthat treatment of HDL, KST, and ISL of sea cucumber (Holothuria scabra J increased the content ofantioxidant Cu, Zn-SOD either in Langerhans islets and acinar cells of pancreatic tissues-diabetic rats.The HDL of sea cucumber treatment gave the best effect in increasing the antioxidant content of Cu, Zn-SOD in pancreatic tissue of diabetic rats.

  1. Diversity of Sex Types and Seasonal Sexual Plasticity in a Cucumber Germplasm Collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dou Xinxin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The sex type of a cucumber plant is determined by the proportion of male, female and hermaphrodite flowers that it bears and is an important factor that affects fruit yield. In this paper, the sex types and seasonal sexual stabilities of 322 accessions of cucumber germplasm were identified. This germplasm collection displayed a great variety of sex types. We used an updated 10-type sex classification system based on the flower types present and the proportion of nodes with pistillate flowers (PNPF. The PNPF ranges of all the accessions were 2.12%–100% in spring and 0–100% in autumn. A total of 81.37% of the accessions had PNPFs of 10%–50% in spring, but most (84.78% accessions were reduced to 0–20% PNPF in autumn. The range of reduction of PNPF from spring to autumn was 0–67.91%. In other words, most of the germplasm was normal monoecious (31.68% or subandroecious (62.73% in spring, but 94.10% of the accessions were subandroecious in autumn. According to the statistical evaluation of the difference in PNPFs between the two seasons, each accession could be classified into one of three groups: seasonally stable, seasonally sensitive and highly seasonally sensitive, accounting for 10.56%, 20.50% and 68.94% of the accessions, respectively. With a few exceptions, the seasonal PNPF differences were positively correlated with the PNPFs in a given season for most accessions. These results provided useful information and materials for sex expression mechanism research and for breeding cucumbers with high and stable yields.

  2. Characterisation of Lysobacter enzymogenes (Christensen and Cook 1978) strain 3.1T8, a powerful antagonist of fungal diseases of cucumber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folman, L.B.; Postma, J.; Veen, van J.A.

    2003-01-01

    Isolate 3.1T8 of Lysobacter enzymogenes (Christensen and Cook 1978), originating from the rhizosphere of cucumber and shown to have the potential to control Pythium aphanidermatum, is described. The strain produces extracellular proteases and lipases and shows high levels of resistance against

  3. Characterisation of Lysobacter enzymogenes ( Christensen and Cook 1978) strain 3.1 T8, a powerful antagonist of fungal diseases of cucumber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folman, L.B.; Postma, J.; Van Veen, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    Isolate 3.1T8 of Lysobacter enzymogenes (Christensen and Cook 1978), originating from the rhizosphere of cucumber and shown to have the potential to control Pythium aphanidermatum, is described. The strain produces extracellular proteases and lipases and shows high levels of resistance against

  4. Differential Expression of miRNAs in the Respiratory Tree of the Sea Cucumber Apostichopus japonicus Under Hypoxia Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Da; Sun, Lina; Li, Xiaoni; Ru, Xiaoshang; Liu, Shilin; Zhang, Libin; Xing, Lili; Yang, Hongsheng

    2017-11-06

    The sea cucumber, an important economic species, has encountered high mortality since 2013 in northern China because of seasonal environmental stress such as hypoxia, high temperature, and low salinity. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important in regulating gene expression in marine organisms in response to environmental change. In this study, high-throughput sequencing was used to investigate alterations in miRNA expression in the sea cucumber under different levels of dissolved oxygen (DO). Nine small RNA libraries were constructed from the sea cucumber respiratory trees. A total of 26 differentially expressed miRNAs, including 12 upregulated and 14 downregulated miRNAs, were observed in severe hypoxia (DO 2 mg/L) compared with mild hypoxia (DO 4 mg/L) and normoxic conditions (DO 8 mg/L). Twelve differentially expressed miRNAs were clustered in severe hypoxia. In addition, real-time PCR revealed that 14 randomly selected differentially expressed miRNAs showed significantly increased expressions in severe hypoxia and the expressions of nine miRNAs, including key miRNAs such as Aja-miR-1, Aja-miR-2008, and Aja-miR-184, were consistent with the sequencing results. Moreover, gene ontology and pathway analyses of putative target genes suggest that these miRNAs are important in redox, transport, transcription, and hydrolysis under hypoxia stress. Notably, novel-miR-1, novel-miR-2, and novel-miR-3 were specifically clustered and upregulated in severe hypoxia, which may provide new insights into novel "hypoxamiR" identification. These results will provide a basis for future studies of miRNA regulation and molecular adaptive mechanisms in sea cucumbers under hypoxia stress. Copyright © 2017 Huo et al.

  5. Reduction of bacterial growth by a vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus in the rhizosphere of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, H.; Jakobsen, I.

    1993-01-01

    Cucumber was grown in a partially sterilized sand-soil mixture with the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungus Glomus fasciculatum or left uninoculated. Fresh soil extract was places in polyvinyl chloride tubes without propagules of mycorrhizal fungi. Root tips and root segments...... and top of tubes, and of cocci with a diameter of 0.55-0.78 mum in the bulk soil in the center of tubes, were significantly reduced by VAM fungi. The extremely high bacterial biomass (1-7 mg C g-1 dry weight soil) was significant reduced by mycorrhizal colonization on root segments and in bulk soil...... biomass, and changed the spatial pattern of bacterial growth compared to non-mycorrhizal cucumbers. The [H-3]-thymidine incorporation was significantly higher on root tips in the top of tubes, and on root segments and bulk soil in the center of tubes on non-mycorrhizal plants compared to mycorrhizal...

  6. Discovery of Novel Saponins from the Viscera of the Sea Cucumber Holothuria lessoni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Yadollah; Zhang, Wei; Franco, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Sea cucumbers, sometimes referred to as marine ginseng, produce numerous compounds with diverse functions and are potential sources of active ingredients for agricultural, nutraceutical, pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical products. We examined the viscera of an Australian sea cucumber Holothuria lessoni Massin et al. 2009, for novel bioactive compounds, with an emphasis on the triterpene glycosides, saponins. The viscera were extracted with 70% ethanol, and this extract was purified by a liquid-liquid partition process and column chromatography, followed by isobutanol extraction. The isobutanol saponin-enriched mixture was further purified by high performance centrifugal partition chromatography (HPCPC) with high purity and recovery. The resultant purified polar samples were analyzed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS)/MS and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS)/MS to identify saponins and characterize their molecular structures. As a result, at least 39 new saponins were identified in the viscera of H. lessoni with a high structural diversity, and another 36 reported triterpene glycosides, containing different aglycones and sugar moieties. Viscera samples have provided a higher diversity and yield of compounds than observed from the body wall. The high structural diversity and novelty of saponins from H. lessoni with potential functional activities presents a great opportunity to exploit their applications for industrial, agricultural and pharmaceutical use. PMID:24821624

  7. Discovery of Novel Saponins from the Viscera of the Sea Cucumber Holothuria lessoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadollah Bahrami

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Sea cucumbers, sometimes referred to as marine ginseng, produce numerous compounds with diverse functions and are potential sources of active ingredients for agricultural, nutraceutical, pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical products. We examined the viscera of an Australian sea cucumber Holothuria lessoni Massin et al. 2009, for novel bioactive compounds, with an emphasis on the triterpene glycosides, saponins. The viscera were extracted with 70% ethanol, and this extract was purified by a liquid-liquid partition process and column chromatography, followed by isobutanol extraction. The isobutanol saponin-enriched mixture was further purified by high performance centrifugal partition chromatography (HPCPC with high purity and recovery. The resultant purified polar samples were analyzed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS/MS and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS to identify saponins and characterize their molecular structures. As a result, at least 39 new saponins were identified in the viscera of H. lessoni with a high structural diversity, and another 36 reported triterpene glycosides, containing different aglycones and sugar moieties. Viscera samples have provided a higher diversity and yield of compounds than observed from the body wall. The high structural diversity and novelty of saponins from H. lessoni with potential functional activities presents a great opportunity to exploit their applications for industrial, agricultural and pharmaceutical use.

  8. Glass foam granulate as growing medium for tomato and cucumber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, C.; Winkel, van A.; Chizhmak, S.

    2011-01-01

    Glass foam granulate was evaluated for use as a horticultural rooting medium with laboratory tests and cultivation experiments. The laboratory tests included moisture characteristics, rehydration rate and pH buffering analyses. Cucumbers and later on tomatoes were propagated in rockwool propagation

  9. Field test of an autonomous cucumber picking robot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henten, van E.J.; Tuijl, van B.A.J.; Hemming, J.; Kornet, J.G.; Bontsema, J.; Os, van E.A.

    2003-01-01

    At the Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering (IMAG B.V.) an autonomous harvesting robot for cucumbers was developed and tested in a greenhouse in autumn 2001. Analysis of the harvest process had revealed that at a 2 ha Dutch production facility four robots are needed to replace the

  10. Maturity Gonad Sea Cucumber Holothuria scabra Under The Month Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penina Tua Rahantoknam, Santi

    2017-10-01

    Gonad maturity level of the sea cucumber Holothuria scabra is important to note for selection of parent ready spawn. Sea cucumbers are giving a reaction to the treatment of excitatory spawn mature individuals only. For the determination of the level of maturity of gonads of sea cucumbers, the necessary observation of the gonads are microscopic, macroscopic and gonad maturity gonado somatic indeks (GSI). GSI value is important to know the changes that occur in the gonads quantitatively, so that time can be presumed spawning (Effendie, 1997). Reproductive cycle can be determined by observing the evolution of GSI. The study of sea cucumbers Holothuria scabra gonad maturity conducted in Langgur, Southeast Maluku. Observations were made at every cycle of the moon is the full moon phase (BP) and new moon (BB) in the period January 29, 2017 until July 23, 2017. Observations H. scabra gonad maturity level is done with surgery, observation and calculation GSI gonad histology. GSI highest value obtained in May that full moon cycle at 90% of individuals that are in the spawning stage (phase 5), then 70% of the individuals that are in the spawning stage (phase 5) in March that the full moon cycle. The results obtained show that the peak spawning H. scabra period January 2017 to July 2017 occurred on the full moon cycle in May.

  11. Neiella marinum gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from sea cucumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel strain, designated J221**T, was isolated from the intestine of a sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus, collected from earthen ponds in Qingdao, China. The strain is Gram-negative, oxidase-positive, aerobic, and rod-shaped cell. Growth of strain J221T was observed at temperatures between 10...

  12. Coat protein sequence shows that Cucumber mosaic virus isolate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A viral disease was identified on geraniums (Pelargonium spp.) grown in a greenhouse at the Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology (IHBT), Palampur, exhibiting mild mottling and stunting. The causal virus (Cucumber mosaic virus, CMV) was identified and characterized on the basis of host range, aphid ...

  13. The genome of the cucumber, Cucumis sativus L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, S.W.; Li, R.Q.; Vossen, van der E.A.G.

    2009-01-01

    Cucumber is an economically important crop as well as a model system for sex determination studies and plant vascular biology. Here we report the draft genome sequence of Cucumis sativus var. sativus L., assembled using a novel combination of traditional Sanger and next-generation Illumina GA

  14. Hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of peptide from sea cucumber ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    enzyme complex, sea cucumber protein hydrolysis was carried out to obtain hydrolysates that have hydroxyl-radical-scavenging activity (HRSA). The hydrolytic process was monitored by HRSA and conditions for this process were optimized as follows: pH 6.5, temperature 35°C, 12 mg enzyme complex in a reaction solution ...

  15. The genome of the cucumber, Cucumis sativus L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Sanwen; Li, Ruiqiang; Zhang, Zhonghua

    2009-01-01

    Cucumber is an economically important crop as well as a model system for sex determination studies and plant vascular biology. Here we report the draft genome sequence of Cucumis sativus var. sativus L., assembled using a novel combination of traditional Sanger and next-generation Illumina GA seq...

  16. An autonomous robot for harvesting cucumbers in greenhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henten, van E.J.; Hemming, J.; Tuijl, van B.A.J.; Kornet, J.G.; Meuleman, J.; Bontsema, J.; Os, van E.A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the concept of an autonomous robot for harvesting cucumbers in greenhouses. A description is given of the working environment of the robot and the logistics of harvesting. It is stated that for a 2 ha Dutch nursery, 4 harvesting robots and one docking station are needed during

  17. Response of maize and cucumber intercrop to soil moisture control ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Replicate field plots were used in experiments aimed at evaluating the yield potentials of maize and cucumber intercrop resulting from the control of soil moisture through irrigation and mulching, for a period of eleven weeks. Three irrigation depths, 2.5, 3.5 and 4.5 mm; and two mulch levels, zero mulch and 10 ton/ha of oil ...

  18. Rationalization of a genebank cucumber collection with SSR markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dooijeweert, van W.; Treuren, van R.

    2012-01-01

    The CGN cucumber (Cucumis sativus) collection consists of 937 accessions. The majority of accessions originated from the working collection of the former Institute for Horticultural Plant Breeding (IVT), where they were used for breeding. The collection mainly includes old cultivars received from

  19. Improvement of Soil Properties, Growth of Cucumber and Protection against Fusarium Wilt by Piriformospora indica and Two Industrial Organic Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa Hemdan Ahmed MOHARAM

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The current work was focused on characterizing bagasse ash (BA and press mud (PM as soil amendments and to study their effect in combination with the endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica on Fusarium wilt (FW of cucumber caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (Fo. Whereas BA and PM improved almost all physico-chemical properties of the soil evaluated, seed treatment with P. indica had no such effect. In shake culture in potato dextrose broth (PDB medium amended with aqueous extracts of BA and PM, alone or in combination, production mycelial mass of Fo was significantly decreased by PM extract, while production mycelial mass of P. indica was highly improved. The colonization rate of cucumber roots by P. indica as determined by microscopy was highly increased by increasing amounts of BA, PM and BA+PM added to the soil. Seed treatment of cucumber with P. indica before plant cultivation in non-amended soil significantly decreased the disease severity of FW and improved plant growth. When seed treated with P. indica was sown into soil amended with BA, PM or the combination of both, the disease severity was even more reduced than after seed treatment with P. indica alone. In this respect, amendment with PM was more effective than with BA, and the combinations were more effective than the single treatments. Hence, there is a scope to integrate PM and BA as soil amendments in combination with P. indica for eco-friendly FW management, improving soil properties and growth of cucumber plants.

  20. Evidence for a Saponin Biosynthesis Pathway in the Body Wall of the Commercially Significant Sea Cucumber Holothuria scabra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitu, Shahida Akter; Bose, Utpal; Suwansa-Ard, Saowaros; Turner, Luke H; Zhao, Min; Elizur, Abigail; Ogbourne, Steven M; Shaw, Paul Nicholas; Cummins, Scott F

    2017-11-07

    The sea cucumber (phylum Echinodermata) body wall is the first line of defense and is well known for its production of secondary metabolites; including vitamins and triterpenoid glycoside saponins that have important ecological functions and potential benefits to human health. The genes involved in the various biosynthetic pathways are unknown. To gain insight into these pathways in an echinoderm, we performed a comparative transcriptome analysis and functional annotation of the body wall and the radial nerve of the sea cucumber Holothuria scabra ; to define genes associated with body wall metabolic functioning and secondary metabolite biosynthesis. We show that genes related to signal transduction mechanisms were more highly represented in the H. scabra body wall, including genes encoding enzymes involved in energy production. Eight of the core triterpenoid biosynthesis enzymes were found, however, the identity of the saponin specific biosynthetic pathway enzymes remains unknown. We confirm the body wall release of at least three different triterpenoid saponins using solid phase extraction followed by ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight-mass spectrometry. The resource we have established will help to guide future research to explore secondary metabolite biosynthesis in the sea cucumber.

  1. Evidence for a Saponin Biosynthesis Pathway in the Body Wall of the Commercially Significant Sea Cucumber Holothuria scabra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahida Akter Mitu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The sea cucumber (phylum Echinodermata body wall is the first line of defense and is well known for its production of secondary metabolites; including vitamins and triterpenoid glycoside saponins that have important ecological functions and potential benefits to human health. The genes involved in the various biosynthetic pathways are unknown. To gain insight into these pathways in an echinoderm, we performed a comparative transcriptome analysis and functional annotation of the body wall and the radial nerve of the sea cucumber Holothuria scabra; to define genes associated with body wall metabolic functioning and secondary metabolite biosynthesis. We show that genes related to signal transduction mechanisms were more highly represented in the H. scabra body wall, including genes encoding enzymes involved in energy production. Eight of the core triterpenoid biosynthesis enzymes were found, however, the identity of the saponin specific biosynthetic pathway enzymes remains unknown. We confirm the body wall release of at least three different triterpenoid saponins using solid phase extraction followed by ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight-mass spectrometry. The resource we have established will help to guide future research to explore secondary metabolite biosynthesis in the sea cucumber.

  2. The Roles of Two miRNAs in Regulating the Immune Response of Sea Cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pengjuan; Li, Chenghua; Zhang, Ran; Zhang, Weiwei; Jin, Chunhua; Wang, Lingling; Song, Linsheng

    2015-12-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as key regulators in many pathological processes by suppressing the transcriptional and post-transcriptional expression of target genes. MiR-2008 was previously found to be significantly up-regulated in diseased sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus by high-through sequencing, whereas the reads of miR-137, a well-documented tumor repressor, displayed no significant change. In the present study, we found that miR-137 expression was slightly attenuated and miR-2008 was significantly enhanced after Vibrio splendidus infection or Lipopolysaccharides application. Further target screening and dual-luciferase reporter assay revealed that the two important miRNAs shared a common target gene of betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase (AjBHMT), which exhibited noncorrelated messenger RNA and protein expression patterns after bacterial challenge. In order to fully understand their regulatory mechanisms, we conducted the functional experiments in vitro and in vivo. The overexpression of miR-137 in sea cucumber or primary coelomocytes significantly decreased, whereas the inhibition of miR-137 increased the mRNA and protein expression levels of AjBHMT. In contrast, miR-2008 overexpression and inhibition showed no effect on AjBHMT mRNA levels, but the concentration of AjBHMT protein displayed significant changes both in vitro and in vivo. Consistently, the homocysteine (Hcy) contents were also accordingly altered in the aberrant expression analysis of both miRNAs, consistent with the results of the AjBHMT silencing assay in vitro and in vivo. More importantly, small interfering RNA mediated AjBHMT knockdown and Hcy exposure analyses both significantly increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and decreased the number of surviving invasive pathogen in sea cucumber coelomocytes. Taken together, these findings confirmed the differential roles of sea cucumber miR-137 and miR-2008 in regulating the common target AjBHMT to promote ROS production

  3. Combined Inoculation with Multiple Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Improves Growth, Nutrient Uptake and Photosynthesis in Cucumber Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuangchen Chen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Mycorrhizal inoculation stimulates growth, photosynthesis and nutrient uptake in a wide range of host plants. However, the ultimate effects of arbuscular mycorrhyzal (AM symbiosis vary with the plants and fungal species involved in the association. Therefore, identification of the appropriate combinations of AM fungi (AMF that interact synergistically to improve their benefits is of high significance. Here, three AM fungal compositions namely VT (Claroideoglomus sp., Funneliformis sp., Diversispora sp., Glomus sp., and Rhizophagus sp. and BF (Glomus intraradices, G. microageregatum BEG and G. Claroideum BEG 210, and Funneliformis mosseae (Fm were investigated with respect to the growth, gas exchange parameters, enzymes activities in Calvin cycles and related gene expression in cucumber seedlings. The results showed that VT, BF and Fm could successfully colonize cucumber root to a different degree with the colonization rates 82.38, 74.65, and 70.32% at 46 days post inoculation, respectively. The plant height, stem diameter, dry weight, root to shoot ratio of cucumber seedlings inoculated with AMF increased significantly compared with the non-inoculated control. Moreover, AMF colonization greatly increased the root activity, chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate, light saturated rate of the CO2 assimilation (Asat, maximum carboxylation rate (Vcmax and maximum ribulose-1,5-bis-phosphate (RuBP regeneration rate (Jmax, which were increased by 52.81, 30.75, 58.76, 47.00, 69.15, and 65.53% when inoculated with VT, respectively. The activities of some key enzymes such RuBP carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO, D-fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase, D-fructose-6-phosphatase (F6P and ribulose-5-phosphate kinase (Ru5PK, and related gene expression involved in the Calvin cycle including RCA, FBPase, FBPA, SBPase, rbcS and rbcL were upregulated by AMF colonization. AMF inoculation also improved macro- and micro nutrient contents such as N, P, K, S, Ca, Cu

  4. Revisiting the iron pools in cucumber roots: identification and localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Krisztina; Pechoušek, Jiří; Machala, Libor; Zbořil, Radek; Klencsár, Zoltán; Solti, Ádám; Tóth, Brigitta; Müller, Brigitta; Pham, Hong Diep; Kristóf, Zoltán; Fodor, Ferenc

    2016-07-01

    Fe deficiency responses in Strategy I causes a shift from the formation of partially removable hydrous ferric oxide on the root surface to the accumulation of Fe-citrate in the xylem. Iron may accumulate in various chemical forms during its uptake and assimilation in roots. The permanent and transient Fe microenvironments formed during these processes in cucumber which takes up Fe in a reduction based process (Strategy I) have been investigated. The identification of Fe microenvironments was carried out with (57)Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy and immunoblotting, whereas reductive washing and high-resolution microscopy was applied for the localization. In plants supplied with (57)Fe(III)-citrate, a transient presence of Fe-carboxylates in removable forms and the accumulation of partly removable, amorphous hydrous ferric oxide/hydroxyde have been identified in the apoplast and on the root surface, respectively. The latter may at least partly be the consequence of bacterial activity at the root surface. Ferritin accumulation did not occur at optimal Fe supply. Under Fe deficiency, highly soluble ferrous hexaaqua complex is transiently formed along with the accumulation of Fe-carboxylates, likely Fe-citrate. As (57)Fe-citrate is non-removable from the root samples of Fe deficient plants, the major site of accumulation is suggested to be the root xylem. Reductive washing results in another ferrous microenvironment remaining in the root apoplast, the Fe(II)-bipyridyl complex, which accounts for ~30 % of the total Fe content of the root samples treated for 10 min and rinsed with CaSO4 solution. When (57)Fe(III)-EDTA or (57)Fe(III)-EDDHA was applied as Fe-source higher soluble ferrous Fe accumulation was accompanied by a lower total Fe content, confirming that chelates are more efficient in maintaining soluble Fe in the medium while less stable natural complexes as Fe-citrate may perform better in Fe accumulation.

  5. Growth and mebrane lipid composition in cucumber : Morphological and physiological differences between two low temperature tolerant cucumber lines and a control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulder, Hermana Adriana Maria

    1992-01-01

    The aim of the investigation was to get more insight into the physiological background of a better fuctioning of cucumber plants under a suboptimal temperature regime (20/12˚C day/night instead of 25/20˚C day/night) and low light condtitions. Young cucumber platns were uesd with the goals of

  6. cDNA cloning, expression and immune function analysis of a novel Rac1 gene (AjRac1) in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kaiquan; Liu, Lin; Shang, Shengnan; Wang, Yi; Zhan, Yaoyao; Song, Jian; Zhang, Xiangxiang; Chang, Yaqing

    2017-10-01

    The ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1) belongs to Ras homolog (Rho) small GTPases subfamily. As an important molecular switch, Rac1 regulates various processes in the cell, especially in cellular immune response. With attempt to clarify characters and functions of Rac1 in sea cucumbers, full length cDNA of a Rac1 homolog in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (AjRac1) was cloned by transcriptome database mining and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) techniques. The open reading frame of AjRac1 is 579 bp encoding a protein with a length of 192 aa. Sequence analysis showed that AjRac1 is highly conserved as compared to those from other eukaryotic species. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that amino acid sequence of AjRac1 closely related to those from Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Results of expression analysis showed that AjRac1 exhibited a relative high expression in blastula stage, adult coelomocytes and respiratory tree in A. japonicus. The transcription of AjRac1 in adult coelomocytes altered significantly at 4 h- and 12 h-after Vibrio splendidus infection, respectively, which indicated that AjRac1 involved in sea cucumber innate immunity. All data presented in this study will deepen our understanding of characterizations and immunological functions of Rac1 in sea cucumbers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Benefits from Bio and organic fertilization by cucumber (Cucumis Sativus) with application of 15N stable isotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galal, Y. G. M.; Soliman, S. M.; Ahmed, F. A.; El-Sherbiny, A. E. A.; Dahdouh, S. M.

    2012-12-01

    Benefits from bio and organic fertilizer were evaluated under cucumber (Cucumis Sativus) crop grown on sandy soil at a field scale. The experiment was conducted under drip irrigation system. Fertilization treatment indicated that the combination of 50% mineral fertilizer (MF) + 50% organic compost (OC) was superior over all other fertilization treatment when the fresh weight of cucumber biomass or fruits was considered. It means that half of the recommended dose of of mineral fertilizer is enough to meet the requirement of cucumber crop when supplemented with organic compost. Nitrogen derived from mineral fertilizer (Ndff) by cucumber at different plant growth stages was significantly affected by the rate of addition and enhanced with microbial inoculation. Arbuscular mycorrhizea (AMF) was superior over Azospirillum and Rhizobium inoculations. The enhancement of Ndff uptake by plants was more pronounced at the fruit stage than at vegetative, flowering and hay growth stages. The highest values of Ndfa were induced by Rhizobium at hay stage followed by fruit. Similar trend, but to different extents was noticed with AMF and Azospirillum inoculum s. Most of nitrogen derived from compost (Ndfc) was occurred by addition of 50% MF + 50% Oc. Rhizobium and AMF were more effective than Azospirilum. High quantities of Ndfc were recognized at hay stage compared to other growth stages.The efficient use of mineral fertilizer-N (%NUE) was increased by addition of half:half mineral and organic fertilizer. Similarly, it seems that microbial inoculation in general has a synergistic effect on enhancement of %NUE. Higher NUE occurred at hay growth stage than others. (Author)

  8. Intestinal microbiota and immune related genes in sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) response to dietary β-glucan supplementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Gang; Xu, Zhenjiang; Tian, Xiangli; Dong, Shuanglin; Peng, Mo

    2015-01-01

    β-glucan is a prebiotic well known for its beneficial outcomes on sea cucumber health through modifying the host intestinal microbiota. High-throughput sequencing techniques provide an opportunity for the identification and characterization of microbes. In this study, we investigated the intestinal microbial community composition, interaction among species, and intestinal immune genes in sea cucumber fed with diet supplemented with or without β-glucan supplementation. The results show that the intestinal dominant classes in the control group are Flavobacteriia, Gammaproteobacteria, and Alphaproteobacteria, whereas Alphaproteobacteria, Flavobacteriia, and Verrucomicrobiae are enriched in the β-glucan group. Dietary β-glucan supplementation promoted the proliferation of the family Rhodobacteraceae of the Alphaproteobacteria class and the family Verrucomicrobiaceae of the Verrucomicrobiae class and reduced the relative abundance of the family Flavobacteriaceae of Flavobacteria class. The ecological network analysis suggests that dietary β-glucan supplementation can alter the network interactions among different microbial functional groups by changing the microbial community composition and topological roles of the OTUs in the ecological network. Dietary β-glucan supplementation has a positive impact on immune responses of the intestine of sea cucumber by activating NF-κB signaling pathway, probably through modulating the balance of intestinal microbiota. - Highlights: • Dietary β-glucan supplementation increases the abundance of Rhodobacteraceae and Verrucomicrobiaceae in the intestine. • Dietary β-glucan supplementation changes the topological roles of OTUs in the ecological network. • Dietary β-glucan supplementation has a positive impact on the immune response of intestine of sea cucumber

  9. Intestinal microbiota and immune related genes in sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) response to dietary β-glucan supplementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Gang [The Key Laboratory of Mariculture, Ministry of Education, Fisheries College, Ocean University of China (China); Xu, Zhenjiang [Biofrontiers Institute, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Tian, Xiangli, E-mail: xianglitian@ouc.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Mariculture, Ministry of Education, Fisheries College, Ocean University of China (China); Dong, Shuanglin [The Key Laboratory of Mariculture, Ministry of Education, Fisheries College, Ocean University of China (China); Peng, Mo [School of Animal Science and Technology, Jiangxi Agricultural University (China)

    2015-02-27

    β-glucan is a prebiotic well known for its beneficial outcomes on sea cucumber health through modifying the host intestinal microbiota. High-throughput sequencing techniques provide an opportunity for the identification and characterization of microbes. In this study, we investigated the intestinal microbial community composition, interaction among species, and intestinal immune genes in sea cucumber fed with diet supplemented with or without β-glucan supplementation. The results show that the intestinal dominant classes in the control group are Flavobacteriia, Gammaproteobacteria, and Alphaproteobacteria, whereas Alphaproteobacteria, Flavobacteriia, and Verrucomicrobiae are enriched in the β-glucan group. Dietary β-glucan supplementation promoted the proliferation of the family Rhodobacteraceae of the Alphaproteobacteria class and the family Verrucomicrobiaceae of the Verrucomicrobiae class and reduced the relative abundance of the family Flavobacteriaceae of Flavobacteria class. The ecological network analysis suggests that dietary β-glucan supplementation can alter the network interactions among different microbial functional groups by changing the microbial community composition and topological roles of the OTUs in the ecological network. Dietary β-glucan supplementation has a positive impact on immune responses of the intestine of sea cucumber by activating NF-κB signaling pathway, probably through modulating the balance of intestinal microbiota. - Highlights: • Dietary β-glucan supplementation increases the abundance of Rhodobacteraceae and Verrucomicrobiaceae in the intestine. • Dietary β-glucan supplementation changes the topological roles of OTUs in the ecological network. • Dietary β-glucan supplementation has a positive impact on the immune response of intestine of sea cucumber.

  10. Identifying optimal reference genes for the normalization of microRNA expression in cucumber under viral stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chaoqiong; Hao, Jianjun; Meng, Yan; Luo, Laixin; Li, Jianqiang

    2018-01-01

    Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) is an economically important pathogen and causes significant reduction of both yield and quality of cucumber (Cucumis sativus). Currently, there were no satisfied strategies for controlling the disease. A better understanding of microRNA (miRNA) expression related to the regulation of plant-virus interactions and virus resistance would be of great assistance when developing control strategies for CGMMV. However, accurate expression analysis is highly dependent on robust and reliable reference gene used as an internal control for normalization of miRNA expression. Most commonly used reference genes involved in CGMMV-infected cucumber are not universally expressed depending on tissue types and stages of plant development. It is therefore crucial to identify suitable reference genes in investigating the role of miRNA expression. In this study, seven reference genes, including Actin, Tubulin, EF-1α, 18S rRNA, Ubiquitin, GAPDH and Cyclophilin, were evaluated for the most accurate results in analyses using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Gene expression was assayed on cucumber leaves, stems and roots that were collected at different days post inoculation with CGMMV. The expression data were analyzed using algorithms including delta-Ct, geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper as well as the comparative tool RefFinder. The reference genes were subsequently validated using miR159. The results showed that EF-1α and GAPDH were the most reliable reference genes for normalizing miRNA expression in leaf, root and stem samples, while Ubiquitin and EF-1α were the most suitable combination overall. PMID:29543906

  11. Structural Elucidation of Novel Saponins in the Sea Cucumber Holothuria lessoni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Yadollah; Zhang, Wei; Chataway, Tim; Franco, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Sea cucumbers are prolific producers of a wide range of bioactive compounds. This study aimed to purify and characterize one class of compound, the saponins, from the viscera of the Australian sea cucumber Holothuria lessoni. The saponins were obtained by ethanolic extraction of the viscera and enriched by a liquid-liquid partition process and adsorption column chromatography. A high performance centrifugal partition chromatography (HPCPC) was applied to the saponin-enriched mixture to obtain saponins with high purity. The resultant purified saponins were profiled using MALDI-MS/MS and ESI-MS/MS which revealed the structure of isomeric saponins to contain multiple aglycones and/or sugar residues. We have elucidated the structure of five novel saponins, Holothurins D/E and Holothurinosides X/Y/Z, along with seven reported triterpene glycosides, including sulfated and non-sulfated saponins containing a range of aglycones and sugar moieties, from the viscera of H. lessoni. The abundance of novel compounds from this species holds promise for biotechnological applications. PMID:25110919

  12. Biological activities and biomedical potential of sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gun-Woo Oh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Members of the phylum Echinodermata, commonly known as echinoderms, are exclusively marine invertebrates. Among the Echinodermata, sea cucumber belongs to the family Holothuroidea. The sea cucumber Stichopus (Apostichous japonicus (Selenka is an invertebrate animal inhabiting the coastal sea around Korean, Japan, China, and Russia. Sea cucumber has a significant commercial value, because it contains valuable nutrients such as vitamins and minerals. They possess a number of distinctive biologically and pharmacologically important compounds. In particular, the body wall of sea cucumber is a major edible part. It consists of peptide, collagen, gelatin, polysaccharide, and saponin, which possess several biological activities such as anti-cancer, anti-coagulation, anti-oxidation, and anti-osteoclastogenesis. Furthermore, the regenerative capacity of sea cucumber makes it a medically important organism. This review presents the various biological activities and biomedical potential of sea cucumber S. japonicus.

  13. Sea cucumber species identification of family Caudinidae from Surabaya based on morphological and mitochondrial DNA evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Muhammad Hilman Fu'adil; Pidada, Ida Bagus Rai; Sugiharto, Widyatmoko, Johan Nuari; Irawan, Bambang

    2016-03-01

    Species identification and taxonomy of sea cucumber remains a challenge problem in some taxa. Caudinidae family of sea cucumber was comerciallized in Surabaya, and it was used as sea cucumber chips. Members of Caudinid sea cucumber have similiar morphology, so it is hard to identify this sea cucumber only from morphological appearance. DNA barcoding is useful method to overcome this problem. The aim of this study was to determine Caudinid specimen of sea cucumber in East Java by morphological and molecular approach. Sample was collected from east coast of Surabaya, then preserved in absolute ethanol. After DNA isolation, Cytochrome Oxydase I (COI) gene amplification was performed using Echinoderm universal primer and PCR product was sequenced. Sequencing result was analyzed and identified in NCBI database using BLAST. Results showed that Caudinid specimen in have closely related to Acaudina molpadioides sequence in GenBank with 86% identity. Morphological data, especially based on ossicle, also showed that the specimen is Acaudina molpadioides.

  14. Identification of differentially expressed genes in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) root under waterlogging stress by digital gene expression profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xiao-Hua; Xu, Xue-Wen; Lin, Xiao-Jian; Zhang, Wen-Jie; Chen, Xue-Hao

    2012-03-01

    High-throughput tag-sequencing (Tag-seq) analysis based on the Solexa Genome Analyzer platform was applied to analyze the gene expression profiling of cucumber plant at 5 time points over a 24h period of waterlogging treatment. Approximately 5.8 million total clean sequence tags per library were obtained with 143013 distinct clean tag sequences. Approximately 23.69%-29.61% of the distinct clean tags were mapped unambiguously to the unigene database, and 53.78%-60.66% of the distinct clean tags were mapped to the cucumber genome database. Analysis of the differentially expressed genes revealed that most of the genes were down-regulated in the waterlogging stages, and the differentially expressed genes mainly linked to carbon metabolism, photosynthesis, reactive oxygen species generation/scavenging, and hormone synthesis/signaling. Finally, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction using nine genes independently verified the tag-mapped results. This present study reveals the comprehensive mechanisms of waterlogging-responsive transcription in cucumber. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Colored polyethylene soil covers and grafting effects on cucumber flowering and yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fonseca Inês Cristina de Batista

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. is one of the most cultivated vegetable crops in plastic greenhouses in Brazil because of the short cycle and its high economic value in off-season harvests. To better understand this management technique the effect of different colored polyethylene soil covers was evaluated in relation to flowering and yield of the hybrid cucumber 'Yoshinari' grafted or not on the hybrid squash 'Ikky'. The polyethylene cover colors were black, white on black and green plus a control without cover. Covered but not grafted crops had a more uniform flowering distribution. The number of flowers was greater for the white/black grafted treatment. All the polyethylene covers favored flowering for the non grafted plants. Grafting reduced flowering for the black or green polyethylene covers treatments. The fruit set increased with the use of polyethylene cover but was not influenced by grafting. The uniform distribution of flowering remained during fruiting only for grafted plants and soil covered with black or green polyethylene. Both polyethylene cover and grafting favored early harvesting. The 'Yoshinari'/'Ikky' graft caused taller plants but fruit were thicker and smaller and did not meet the commercial standard. The best quality fruit and highest yields were obtained in the black and white/black treatments, without grafting.

  16. Effects of environment factors on initiation of sperm motility in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Li; Shao, Mingyu; Bao, Zhenmin; Hu, Jingjie; Zhang, Zhifeng

    2011-06-01

    Sperm of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) were quiescent in electrolyte NaCl solution and artificial seawater (ASW) and nonelectrolyte glucose and mannitol solutions when the osmolality was less than 200 mOsm kg-1. The sperm started to be motile as a result of increased osmolality, indicating an osmolality-dependent initiation of sperm motility in sea cucumber. After a brief incubation in hypotonic NaCl and glucose solutions with osmolalities of 200 and 400 mOsm kg-1, sperm lost partial motile ability. Sperm became immobilized when pH was 6.0 in NaCl, glucose and mannitol solutions, suggesting that an H+ release is involved in sperm activation. The decreased pH had no effect on the percentage of motile sperm in ASW, whereas it delayed the time period to reach the maximum motility (motilitymax). Extracellular Ca2+ in electrolyte solutions was not essential for motility stimulation but shortened the time of reaching motilitymax. When Ca2+ was mixed in nonelectrolyte solutions the sperm motility was completely suppressed. The K+ channel blocker, quinine, suppressed the sperm motility in electrolyte solution, showing a possible involvement of K+ transport in the process. High K+ concentration did not affect the sperm motility in NaCl solution, but decreased it in ASW and almost entirely suppressed it in nonelectrolyte solutions. The different effects of pH and K+ in ASW and NaCl solution indicate that external ions may also regulate sperm motility.

  17. Growth and yield of Dutch cucumber grown in a protected environment and with alternative organic substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthya Meneses Fernández

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The replacement of imported substrates by local materials is a trend in severaltechnifiedproduction systems, given the cost reduction and the importance of agricultural by-products, formerly considered to be waste. The main objective of this work was to validate the effect of different substrates on the growth and productivity of Dutch cucumber plants under greenhouse conditions. The study took place from October 2012 to January 2013, at the Agricultural Experiment Station Fabio Baudrit, Alajuela, Costa Rica. Variety Fuerte was used and four mixed substrates (volume ratio made of local raw materials as coconut fiber (FC, oil palm leaf fiber (FP, organic compost (ABO, and sawdust (AS as well as a commercial treatment (control constituted by coco coir slabs were analyzed. Substrate water content, plant growth (vegetative phase, and yield were evaluated according to commercial size (S, M, L, XL, and rejected. The growth of Dutch cucumber plants, variety Fuerte, was higher on substrates with coconut fiber 40% + oil palm leaf fiber 40% + organic compost 20%, and coconut fiber 70% + organic compost 30%, while yield of the same two substrates was 15.57 and 15.44 kg/m2, respectively. Both treatments were statistically equal to the commercial coco coir substrate slabs with a yield of 14.77 kg/m2. Result attributed to the nutritional contribution of the organic compost (high K, Ca, and Mg along with and to the effects of aeration and water retention of fibers.

  18. Correlation between soil chemical characteristics and soil-borne mycoflora in cucumber tunnels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qudsia, H.; Javaid, A.; Mahmood, R.; Akhtar, N.

    2017-01-01

    Twelve soil samples were collected from fields of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) tunnels from various localities of Lahore and Shekhupura districts, Pakistan. Soil samples were analyzed for various characteristics viz. pH, EC/sub e/, organic matter, nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). Soil mycoflora was isolated using dilution plate method. Soil pH, EC/sub e/, organic matter, N, P and K were in the range of 7.42-8.13, 107-2520 (meu S cm-1), 0.98-1.40%, 0.039-0.070%, 7-357 mg kg/sup -1/ and 88-946 mg kg/sup -1/ in different soil samples, respectively. A total of 18 fungal species belonging to 10 genera viz. Aspergillus, Alternaria, Cladosporium, Drechslera, Emericella, Fusarium, Mortierella, Mucor, Penicillium and Sclerotium were isolated from various soil samples. Saprophytic fungi were more prevalent than pathogenic ones. Number of colonies of saprophytic fungi ranged from 360-2754 g/sup -1/ soil in different samples. In contrast, number of pathogenic fungal colonies were limited to 1-234 g/sup -1/ soil. Number of colonies of pathogenic fungi were positively and significantly correlated with soil organic matter and nitrogen contents. This study concludes that high nitrogen and organic matter in cucumber tunnels favour population of pathogenic fungi. (author)

  19. Selective extraction of dimethoate from cucumber samples by use of molecularly imprinted microspheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao-Jiao Du

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Molecularly imprinted polymers for dimethoate recognition were synthesized by the precipitation polymerization technique using methyl methacrylate (MMA as the functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA as the cross-linker. The morphology, adsorption and recognition properties were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, static adsorption test, and competitive adsorption test. To obtain the best selectivity and binding performance, the synthesis and adsorption conditions of MIPs were optimized through single factor experiments. Under the optimized conditions, the resultant polymers exhibited uniform size, satisfactory binding capacity and significant selectivity. Furthermore, the imprinted polymers were successfully applied as a specific solid-phase extractants combined with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC for determination of dimethoate residues in the cucumber samples. The average recoveries of three spiked samples ranged from 78.5% to 87.9% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs less than 4.4% and the limit of detection (LOD obtained for dimethoate as low as 2.3 μg/mL. Keywords: Molecularly imprinted polymer, Precipitation polymerization, Dimethoate, Cucumber, HPLC

  20. Standardization of a molecular diagnostic method for Cucumber mosaic virus (cmv in Ecuadorian bananas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Liseth Buitrón-Bustamante

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Several pests and diseases affect banana crop in Ecuador and Cucumber mosaic virus (cmv is one of the most important pathogens. The aim of this research was to standardize a new molecular approach to achieve a sensitive and highly specific detection of cmv in Ecuadorian bananas. Specific primers were designed from the sequence encodingResumoA cultura da banana no Equador vê-se afetada por uma série de doenças, das quais o cucumber mosaic vírus(cmv é um dos fitopatógenos mais impor-tantes. Com este estudo procurou-se padronizar uma técnica molecular para a detecção sensível e altamente específica deste agente viral na banana equatoriana. Para este fim, realizou-se o desenho de primers específicos, a partir da sequência que se codifica para a proteína da cápside do vírus. for the virus capsid protein. PC-F1, PC-R D1 and K-F primers, obtained from cDNA replicated from R NA of infected banana, allowed accurate virus detection by Reverse transcription and Hemi-nested PCR. Virus detection was possible even in asymptomatic plants, providing a tech-nology with potential use for the Ecuadorian banana producers.

  1. A new distributional record for the sea cucumber Holothuria (Semperothuria) cinerascens (Brandt) from Goa coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shirwaikar, P.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Occurrence of sea cucumber, Holothuria (Semperothuria) cinerascens from intertidal region of Anjuna (Goa) along central west coast of India is reported. Notes on morphological characteristics are given...

  2. Whole-Body Microbiota of Sea Cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) from South Korea for Improved Seafood Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Yoon; Lee, Jin-Jae; Kim, Bong-Soo; Choi, Sang Ho

    2017-10-28

    Sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus ) is a popular seafood source in Asia, including South Korea, and its consumption has recently increased with recognition of its medicinal properties. However, because raw sea cucumber contains various microbes, its ingestion can cause foodborne illness. Therefore, analysis of the microbiota in the whole body of sea cucumber can extend our understanding of foodborne illness caused by microorganisms and help to better manage products. We collected 40 sea cucumbers from four different sites in August and November, which are known as the maximum production areas in Korea. The microbiota was analyzed by an Illumina MiSeq system, and bacterial amounts were quantified by real-time PCR. The diversity and bacterial amounts in sea cucumber were higher in August than in November. Alpha-, Beta-, and Gammaproteobacteria were common dominant classes in all samples. However, the microbiota composition differed according to sampling time and site. Staphylococcus warneri and Propionibacterium acnes were commonly detected potential pathogens in August and November samples, respectively. The effect of experimental Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection on the indigenous microbiota of sea cucumber was analyzed at different temperatures, revealing clear alterations of Psychrobacter and Moraxella ; thus, these shifts can be used as indicators for monitoring infection of sea cucumber. Although further studies are needed to clarify and understand the virulence and mechanisms of the identified pathogens of sea cucumber, our study provides a valuable reference for determining the potential of foodborne illness caused by sea cucumber ingestion and to develop monitoring strategies of products using microbiota information.

  3. [Effects of exogenous silicon on physiological characteristics of cucumber seedlings under ammonium stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qing-Hai; Wang, Ya-Kun; Lu, Xiao-Min; Jia, Shuang-Shuang

    2014-05-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of exogenous silicon on growth and physiological characteristics of hydroponically cultured cucumber seedlings under ammonium stress. The results showed that the growth, especially the aerial part growth of cucumber seedlings cultured with ammonium were significantly inhibited than those with nitrate, especially after treatment for 10 d, the aerial part fresh mass of cucumber seedlings were reduced 6.17 g per plant. The accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was also promoted in cucumber seedlings under ammonium, and the contents of O2*- and H2O2 were significantly increased in cucumber leaves. With the exogenous silicon treatment, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) were significantly improved, the ability to remove reactive oxygen species was enhanced, the contents of O2*- and H2O2 were significantly reduced in cucumber leaves, decreasing the reactive oxygen damage to the cell membrane, and the ratio of electrolyte leakage and the content of MDA in cucumber leaves. Also, with exogenous silicon treatment, the plasma membrane and activity of vacuolar membrane H(+)-ATP was significantly increased, transport capacity of intracellular proton was improved, and the level of ammonium in cucumber body was significantly reduced, thereby reducing the toxicity of ammonium. In conclusion, exogenous silicon could relieve ammonium stress, by increasing the antioxidant enzyme activity, H(+)-ATP activity, and decreasing the ammonium content in cucumber seedlings.

  4. In vitro and in vivo effects of Pseudomonas spp. and Bacillus sp. on Fusarium acuminatum, Botrytis cinerea and Aspergillus niger infecting cucumber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina Zdravković

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L is an important member of the Cucurbitaceae family. Production of healthy nursery is necessary for high-quality production of this crop in greenhouses and in fields. With the idea of minimizing the use of pesticides and mineral fertilizers to preserve soil quality, we investigated the effects of plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB on growth promotion and protection of cucumber plants from phytopathogenic fungi. The effects of Pseudomonas spp. strains with different antifungal activities and Bacillus sp. Q10 strain with PGP activity were tested on cucumber plants. Antagonistic activity of Pseudomonas spp. against the growth of several phytopathogenic fungi isolated from cucumber: F. acuminatum, B. cinerea and A. niger, was observed. The influences of overnight cultures, supernatants and heat-stable antifungal factors were tested on the phytopathogenic fungi in vitro. Pseudomonas sp. K35 and K24 strains were more effective than P. chlororaphis Q16 and Pseudomonas sp. K27, showing 70-80% of fungal growth inhibition regardless of culture or fraction applied. The good antagonists that belong to pseudomonads and Bacillus sp. Q10 strain were used as mixtures for estimation of plant growth and health promoting effects on cucumber plants. Growth dynamics differed depending on the applied strain of Pseudomonas sp. The M3 treatment (a mixture of Bacillus sp. Q10 and P. chlororaphis Q16 stimulated the initial phase of growth, while M4 (a mixture of Bacillus sp. Q10 and Pseudomonas sp. K24 resulted in the maximal height at the final measurement. Significant differences in leaf and plant weight (M4, and leaf weight (M5, containing K35 strain were found after the treatments. No significant differences in chlorophyll and NBI level were observed in any of the tested combinations. The obtained results suggested that M3 was suitable for stimulation of the early phase of cucumber growth, while the mixtures M4 and M5 improved plant

  5. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and kabocha squash (Cucurbita moschata Duch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanasato, Yoshihiko; Tabei, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    We established improved methods for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and kabocha squash (Cucurbita moschata Duch). Vacuum infiltration of cotyledonary explants with Agrobacterium suspension enhanced the Agrobacterium infection efficiency in the proximal regions of explants. Wounding treatment was also essential for kabocha squash. Cocultivation on filter paper wicks suppressed necrosis of explants, keeping regeneration efficacy. Putative transgenic plants were screened by kanamycin resistance and green fluorescent protein (GFP) fluorescence. These putative transgenic plants grew normally and T1 seeds were obtained, and stable integration and transmission of the transgene in T1 generations were confirmed by Southern hybridization and PCR. The average transgenic efficiency for cucumber and kabocha squash was 11.9 ± 3.5 and 9.2 ± 2.9 %, respectively.

  6. Low temperature {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer study of cucumber root

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacs, K; Kuzmann, E; Homonnay, Z; Vertes, A [Institute of Chemistry, Eoetvoes Lorand University, PO Box 32, 1512 Budapest (Hungary); Fodor, F [Department of Plant Physiology and Molecular Plant Biology, Eoetvoes Lorand University, PO Box 32, 1512 Budapest (Hungary); Machala, L, E-mail: kkriszti@chem.elte.h [Centre for Nanomaterial Research, Palacky University, Svobody 26, Olomouc 771 46 (Czech Republic)

    2010-03-01

    Iron uptake and distribution in cucumber root were studied with the help of {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy at low temperature applying external magnetic field. Cucumber was grown in iron sufficient modified Hoagland nutrient solution. Moessbauer spectra of the frozen roots taken at 4.2 and 1.5 K, at 5 T external magnetic field support the identification of the main iron species (Fe{sup III}-carboxylates, hydrous ferric oxides, Fe{sup III}-sulfate-hydroxide) suggested according to its Moessbauer spectra taken between 35-200 K [1]. The magnetic ordering temperature of the hydrous ferric oxide and Fe{sup III}-sulfate-hydroxide was found to be in the range of 4.2-1.5 K, which suggests the incorporation of H{sub 3}O{sup +}, PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} and citrate into these minerals.

  7. Acinetobacter calcoaceticus CSY-P13 Mitigates Stress of Ferulic and p-Hydroxybenzoic Acids in Cucumber by Affecting Antioxidant Enzyme Activity and Soil Bacterial Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenghui Wu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Ferulic acid (FA and p-hydroxybenzoic acid (PHBA are main phenolic compounds accumulated in rhizosphere of continuously cropped cucumber, causing stress in plants. Microbial degradation of a mixture of FA and PHBA is not well understood in soil. We isolated a strain CSY-P13 of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, inoculated it into soil to protect cucumber from FA and PHBA stress, and explored a mechanism underlying the protection. CSY-P13 effectively degraded a mixture of FA and PHBA in culture solution under conditions of 39.37°C, pH 6.97, and 21.59 g L-1 potassium dihydrogen phosphate, giving rise to 4-vinyl guaiacol, vanillin, vanillic acid, and protocatechuic acid. During FA and PHBA degradation, activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and dehydroascorbate reductase in CSY-P13 were induced. Inoculated into cucumber-planted soil containing 220 μg g-1 mixture of FA and PHBA, CSY-P13 degraded FA and PHBA in soil, increased plant height, and decreased malonaldehyde, superoxide radical, and hydrogen peroxide levels in leaves. CSY-P13 also enhanced SOD, guaiacol peroxidase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase, monodehydroascorbate reductase, dehydroascorbate reductase, and glutathione reductase activities; increased ascorbate and glutathione contents; and elevated transcript levels of copper/zinc SOD, manganese SOD, and catalase in leaves under FA and PHBA. Moreover, CSY-P13 increased phosphatase, catalase, urease, and sucrase activities and changed bacterial richness, diversity, and community composition by high throughput sequencing in cucumber-planted soil supplemented with the mixture of FA and PHBA. So CSY-P13 degrades the mixture of FA and PHBA in soil and mitigates stress from the two phenolic compounds in cucumber by activating antioxidant enzymes, changing soil bacterial community, and inducing soil enzymes.

  8. 7 CFR 319.56-36 - Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from... QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-36 Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from the Republic of Korea. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), squash (Cucurbita maxima), cucumber (Cucumis...

  9. Absorption and Transport of Sea Cucumber Saponins from Apostichopus japonicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study is focused on the intestinal absorption of sea cucumber saponins. We determined the pharmacokinetic characteristics and bioavailability of Echinoside A and Holotoxin A1; the findings indicated that the bioavailability of Holotoxin A1 was lower than Echinoside A. We inferred that the differences in chemical structure between compounds was a factor that explained their different characteristics of transport across the intestine. In order to confirm the absorption characteristics of Echinoside A and Holotoxin A1, we examined their transport across Caco-2 cell monolayer and effective permeability by single-pass intestinal perfusion. The results of Caco-2 cell model indicate that Echinoside A is transported by passive diffusion, and not influenced by the exocytosis of P-glycoprotein (P-gp, expressed in the apical side of Caco-2 monolayers as the classic inhibitor. The intestinal perfusion also demonstrated well the absorption of Echinoside A and poor absorption of Holotoxin A1, which matched up with the result of the Caco-2 cell model. The results demonstrated our conjecture and provides fundamental information on the relationship between the chemical structure of these sea cucumber saponins and their absorption characteristics, and we believe that our findings build a foundation for the further metabolism study of sea cucumber saponins and contribute to the further clinical research of saponins.

  10. Feeding behavior and digestive physiology in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiamin; Zhang, Libin; Pan, Yang; Lin, Chenggang; Wang, Fang; Kan, Rentao; Yang, Hongsheng

    2015-02-01

    The feeding behavior and digestive physiology of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus are not well understood. A better understanding may provide useful information for the development of the aquaculture of this species. In this article the tentacle locomotion, feeding rhythms, ingestion rate (IR), feces production rate (FPR) and digestive enzyme activities were studied in three size groups (small, medium and large) of sea cucumber under a 12h light/12h dark cycle. Frame-by-frame video analysis revealed that all size groups had similar feeding strategies using a grasping motion to pick up sediment particles. The tentacle insertion rates of the large size group were significantly faster than those of the small and medium-sized groups (Psea cucumber were nocturnal and their feeding peaks occurred at 02:00-04:00. The medium and large-sized groups also had a second feeding peak during the day. Both IR and FPR in all groups were significantly higher at night than those during the daytime (P<0.05). Additionally, the peak activities of digestive enzymes were 2-4h earlier than the peak of feeding. Taken together, these results demonstrated that the light/dark cycle was a powerful environment factor that influenced biological rhythms of A. japonicus, which had the ability to optimize the digestive processes for a forthcoming ingestion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Absorption and Transport of Sea Cucumber Saponins from Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuai; Wang, Yuanhong; Jiang, Tingfu; Wang, Han; Yang, Shuang; Lv, Zhihua

    2016-06-17

    The present study is focused on the intestinal absorption of sea cucumber saponins. We determined the pharmacokinetic characteristics and bioavailability of Echinoside A and Holotoxin A₁; the findings indicated that the bioavailability of Holotoxin A₁ was lower than Echinoside A. We inferred that the differences in chemical structure between compounds was a factor that explained their different characteristics of transport across the intestine. In order to confirm the absorption characteristics of Echinoside A and Holotoxin A₁, we examined their transport across Caco-2 cell monolayer and effective permeability by single-pass intestinal perfusion. The results of Caco-2 cell model indicate that Echinoside A is transported by passive diffusion, and not influenced by the exocytosis of P-glycoprotein (P-gp, expressed in the apical side of Caco-2 monolayers as the classic inhibitor). The intestinal perfusion also demonstrated well the absorption of Echinoside A and poor absorption of Holotoxin A₁, which matched up with the result of the Caco-2 cell model. The results demonstrated our conjecture and provides fundamental information on the relationship between the chemical structure of these sea cucumber saponins and their absorption characteristics, and we believe that our findings build a foundation for the further metabolism study of sea cucumber saponins and contribute to the further clinical research of saponins.

  12. Comparisons of dioxin levels of cucumber varieties and cultivation periods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eun, H.; Watanabe, E.; Ishii, Y.; Ueji, M. [National Inst. for Agro-Environmental Sciences, Tsukuba (Japan); Narita, I.; Nakamura, K. [Saitama Prefecture Agriculture and Forestry Research Center, Saitama (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    According to a 2001 survey on Daily Intake in Japan, the total dioxins intake of a person in Japan amounts to 1.68 pg-TEQ per kg of body weight/day on average. The sharing a percentage of agricultural crops was about 3%in Japanese TDI amounts. However, all cases collect samples from supermarkets to estimate TDI of dioxins, which make it difficult to understand under what environment, food samples were pretreated and cultivated. Especially, TDI values in agricultural crops are probably dependent on the collection situation. In the agricultural environment, some reports indicate that dioxins have accumulated in paddy and upland in Japan due to the past use of some types of agricultural chemicals, which contained dioxins as impurities. Furthermore, taking the atmospheric pathway, for example, dioxins in the ambient air are associated with particulate matter and fall to the ground, contaminating agricultural land. Thus, it has been emphasized that dioxin compounds have a possibility to have adverse effect on vegetables. However, there is little understanding related to this fact in the country and worldwide. Empirical studies conducted in Japan and abroad have reported low residual concentrations of dioxins in cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L.), a member of the gourd family. However, there have been extremely few instances of research involving overall comparisons of cultivation environments. Thus, we studied the persistence of dioxins in cucumbers of different varieties cultivated outdoors over varying cultivation periods, conducting thorough experiments to elucidate the actual conditions and mechanisms of dioxin contamination of cucumbers.

  13. Reproducibility of suppression of Pythium wilt of cucumber by compost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauritz Vilhelm Vestberg

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing global interest in using compost to suppress soil-borne fungal and bacterial diseases and nematodes. We studied the reproducibility of compost suppressive capacity (SC against Pythium wilt of cucumber using nine composts produced by the same composting plant in 2008 and 2009. A bioassay was set up in a greenhouse using cucumber inoculated with two strains of Pythium. The composts were used as 20% mixtures (v:v of a basic steam-sterilized light Sphagnum peat and sand (3:1, v:v. Shoot height was measured weekly during the 5-week experiment. At harvest, the SC was calculated as the % difference in shoot dry weight (DW between non-inoculated and inoculated cucumbers. The SC was not affected by year of production (2008 or 2009, indicating reproducibility of SC when the raw materials and the composting method are not changed. Differences in shoot height were not as pronounced as those for shoot DW. The results were encouraging, but further studies are still needed for producing compost with guaranteed suppressiveness properties.

  14. Thick root of cucumber: other susceptible plants and the effect of pH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaag, van der D.J.; Paternotte, P.; Hamelink, R.

    2002-01-01

    Thick root is a relatively new disorder of cucumber grown in artificial substrates. Plants of cucumber, tomato, sweet pepper, lupin, anthurium, Cucurbita ficifolia, C. maxima and two lines from crosses between C. maxima and C. moschata were grown in thick root disease (TRD)-infested nutrient

  15. Effect of pesticide mixture on value of fresh, fermented and pickles cucumbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna WElkner

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In years 1998-1999 effects of fungicides (azoxystrobin and copper hydroxide, insecticides (etafenproks and pirimicarb and their mixtures on chemical composition and organoleptic quality of fresh, fermented and pickled cucumbers were studied_ To analyses fruits were taken after 7 and 12 days from treatment. Fresh cucumber fruits after 7 days from treatment with investigated pesticides contained less carbohydrates and ascorbic acids and higher level of nitrates in compare to untreated fruits (control. After 12 days from treatment the differences between treated and untreated fruits dissapeared. Cucumber fruits harvested 7 and 12 days after treatment were processed separately. Quality evaluation of fermented and pickled cucumbers was carried out 4 months after processing. In most of cucumber fruits (7 days after treatment with pesticides treated with pesticides empty cavities were found, and not in control (untreated. Number of cavities was highest in fresh and pickled cucumbers treated with mixture of fungicide and insecticide. In case of fermented cucumbers highest number of empty cavities occurred in fruits treated with fungicide azoxystrobin. Cucumber fruits taken to fermentation process 7 days after day of treatment had darker green colour, lowered haIdness, and larger empty cavities than untreated fruits. In fruits harvested 12 days after pesticides application such differencess were not observed.

  16. Individual variation in growth in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenck) housed individually

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Miao; Dong, Shuanglin; Gao, Qinfeng; Wang, Fang; Tian, Xiangli

    2010-09-01

    The exceptionally large individual growth variation has been previously recognized in several sea cucumber cohorts. However, there is a lack of information regarding the mechanism of such individual differences. In this study, the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) was reared individually in order to eliminate possible effects of social interaction, stocking density, etc. The results showed that there were substantial differences in growth among the sea cucumber individuals during the 100-day experiment. The special growth rate of the sea cucumber individuals differed by up to three folds (from 0.40% to 1.01%), and the coefficient of variation in body weight increased from 12.04% to 40.51%. The final wet body weight, food intake and food conversion efficiency for each sea cucumber were generally positively correlated with their initial wet body weight ( Psea cucumber individuals, largely accounting for the individual growth variation of the cohort sea cucumber. These results will provide some basic data for promoting selective breeding and farming of the sea cucumber.

  17. [Effects of wheat root exudates on cucumber growth and soil fungal community structure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Feng-Zhi; Li, Min; Cao, Peng; Ma, Ya-Fei; Wang, Li-Li

    2014-10-01

    With wheat as the donor plant and cucumber as the receptor plant, this study investigated the effects of root exudates from wheat cultivars with different allelopathic potentials (positive or negative) and companion cropping with wheat on soil fungal community structure by PCR-DGGE method and cucumber growth. Results showed that the wheat root exudates with positive allelopathic potential increased height and stem diameter of cucumber seedlings significantly, compared to the control seedlings (W) after 6 days and 12 days treatment, respectively. Also, wheat root exudates with both positive and negative allelopathic potential increased the seedling height of cucumber significantly after 18 days treatment. The wheat root exudates with different allelopathic potentials decreased the band number, Shannon and evenness indices of soil fungal community significantly in cucumber seedling rhizosphere, and those in the soil with the control seedlings (W) were also significantly higher than that in the control soil without seedlings (Wn) after 6 days treatment. The band number, Shannon and evenness indices in all the treatments were significantly higher than those in the control soil without seedlings (Wn) after 18 days treatment. Companion cropping with negative allelopathic potential wheat decreased the Shannon and evenness indices of soil fungi community significantly in the cucumber seedling rhizosphere, suggesting the wheat root exudates and companion cropping with wheat changed soil fungal community structure in the cucumber seedling rhizosphere. The results of DGGE map and the principal component analysis showed that companion cropping with wheat cultivars with different allelopathic potentials changed soil fungal community structure in cucumber seedling rhizosphere.

  18. A truncated F-box protein confers the dwarfism in cucumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwarfism is an important plant architecture trait for cucumber breeding. In the present study, we identified a dwarf mutant 406M in cucumber which showed a shorter internode length as compared with its wild type. In a BC1F2 population from the cross of 406M with its wild type parental line 406, the ...

  19. Induction of resistance in cucumber against seedling damping-off by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacillus megaterium L8, a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR), was isolated and evaluated for its ability to induce resistance in cucumber against seedling damping-off caused by Pythium aphanidermatum. Root-splitting challenge experiments showed that L8 treatment of cucumber roots more effectively ...

  20. Effects of Wax Coating on the Moisture Loss of Cucumbers at Different Storage Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of wax coating on moisture loss of cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L., cv. Jinglv were investigated at different temperatures. Cucumbers were treated with 10% (volume : volume wax and then stored at 15, 20, 25, or 30°C and 55% relative humidity. The changes in the mass of samples were recorded every 6 h. Results showed that wax coating along with low temperature was very effective in preventing moisture loss of cucumbers during simulated distribution. After 48 h storage, moisture loss in wax treated cucumbers at 15°C was 45% lower than the control at 30°C. Furthermore, a kinetic model was developed to study the influence of temperature on moisture loss based on the Arrhenius law. The model successfully described changes in cucumber moisture loss at different temperatures during storage. The shelf life of cucumber was also predicted using the kinetic model. A synergistic effect was found between wax coating and storage temperature on cucumber shelf life. Wax coating combined with low storage temperature was an effective method to extend the shelf life of cucumber fruit.

  1. Preparation of a Lactobacillus plantarum starter culture for cucumber fermentations that can meet kosher guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    A method is described for growth of a Lactobacillus plantarum starter culture in jars of commercially available pasteurized fresh-pack kosher dill cucumbers so that jars can be used to inoculate commercial scale cucumber fermentation tanks. A procedure is also described to transfer lactic acid bacte...

  2. Multispectral fluorescence imaging technique for discrimination of cucumber (Cucumis Sativus) seed viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we developed a nondestructive method for discriminating viable cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seeds based on hyperspectral fluorescence imaging. The fluorescence spectra of cucumber seeds in the 420–700 nm range were extracted from hyperspectral fluorescence images obtained using 365 nm u...

  3. Identification of five sea cucumber species through PCR-RFLP analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yingchun; Zheng, Rong; Zuo, Tao; Wang, Yuming; Li, Zhaojie; Xue, Yong; Xue, Changhu; Tang, Qingjuan

    2014-10-01

    Sea cucumbers are traditional marine food and Chinese medicine in Asia. The rapid expansion of sea cucumber market has resulted in various problems, such as commercial fraud and mislabeling. Conventionally, sea cucumber species could be distinguished by their morphological and anatomical characteristics; however, their identification becomes difficult when they are processed. The aim of this study was to develop a new convenient method of identifying and distinguishing sea cucumber species. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene ( COI) was used to identifing five sea cucumber species ( Apostichopus japonicus, Cucumaria frondosa, Thelenota ananas, Parastichopus californicus and Actinopyga lecanora). A 692 bp fragment of COI was searched for BamHI, KpnI, PstI, XbaI and Eco31I restriction sites with DNAMAN 6.0, which were then used to PCR-RFLP analysis. These five sea cucumber species can be discriminated from mixed sea cucumbers. The developed PCR-RFLP assay will facilitate the identification of sea cucumbers, making their source tracing and quality controlling feasible.

  4. The effect of storage temperature of cucumber fruit on chlorophyll fluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Kosson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of three storage temperature levels: 12,5°C, 20°C, and 1,5°C on basic indexes of chlorophyll fluorescence of cucumber fruits was studied. The greenhouse grown cucumber fruits cv. Wiktor F1 were stored in perforated polyethylene bags or without packages. The minimum chlorophyll fluorescence (Fo, maximum chlorophyll fluorescence (Fm, variable chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv and relative variable fluorescence (Fv/Fm of the cucumber peel were measured. Relative variable fluorescence was decTeasing when cucumbers were stored at temperature lower or higher than optimum level. The chlorophyll fluorescence measurements can be helpful for determination of appropriate temperature parameters of cucumber storage.

  5. Lactobacilli and tartrazine as causative agents of red-color spoilage in cucumber pickle products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Díaz, I M; Kelling, R E; Hale, S; Breidt, F; McFeeters, R F

    2007-09-01

    The cucumber pickling industry has sporadically experienced spoilage outbreaks in pickled cucumber products characterized by development of red color on the surface of the fruits. Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus paracasei were isolated from 2 outbreaks of this spoilage that occurred about 15 y apart during the last 3 decades. Both organisms were shown to produce this spoilage when inoculated into pickled cucumbers while concomitantly degrading the azo dye tartrazine (FD&C yellow nr 5). This food dye is used as a yellow coloring in the brine cover solutions of commercial pickled cucumber products. The red color does not occur in the absence of tartrazine, nor when turmeric is used as a yellow coloring in the pickles. Addition of sodium benzoate to the brine cover solutions of a pickled cucumber product, more specifically hamburger dill pickles, prevented growth of these lactic acid bacteria and the development of the red spoilage.

  6. Boron toxicity is alleviated by hydrogen sulfide in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bao-Lan; Shi, Lei; Li, Yin-Xing; Zhang, Wen-Hao

    2010-05-01

    Boron (B) is an essential micronutrient for plants, which when occurs in excess in the growth medium, becomes toxic to plants. Rapid inhibition of root elongation is one of the most distinct symptoms of B toxicity. Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is emerging as a potential messenger molecule involved in modulation of physiological processes in plants. In the present study, we investigated the role of H(2)S in B toxicity in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seedlings. Root elongation was significantly inhibited by exposure of cucumber seedlings to solutions containing 5 mM B. The inhibitory effect of B on root elongation was substantially alleviated by treatment with H(2)S donor sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS). There was an increase in the activity of pectin methylesterase (PME) and up-regulated expression of genes encoding PME (CsPME) and expansin (CsExp) on exposure to high B concentration. The increase in PME activity and up-regulation of expression of CsPME and CsExp induced by high B concentration were markedly reduced in the presence of H(2)S donor. There was a rapid increase in soluble B concentrations in roots on exposure to high concentration B solutions. Treatment with H(2)S donor led to a transient reduction in soluble B concentration in roots such that no differences in soluble B concentrations in roots in the absence and presence of NaHS were found after 8 h exposure to the high concentration B solutions. These findings suggest that increases in activities of PME and expansin may underlie the inhibition of root elongation by toxic B, and that H(2)S plays an ameliorative role in protection of plants from B toxicity by counteracting B-induced up-regulation of cell wall-associated proteins of PME and expansins.

  7. Scanning ion-selective electrode technique and X-ray microanalysis provide direct evidence of contrasting Na+ transport ability from root to shoot in salt-sensitive cucumber and salt-tolerant pumpkin under NaCl stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Bo; Huang, Yuan; Sun, Jingyu; Xie, Junjun; Niu, Mengliang; Liu, Zhixiong; Fan, Molin; Bie, Zhilong

    2014-12-01

    Grafting onto salt-tolerant pumpkin rootstock can increase cucumber salt tolerance. Previous studies have suggested that this can be attributed to pumpkin roots with higher capacity to limit the transport of Na(+) to the shoot than cucumber roots. However, the mechanism remains unclear. This study investigated the transport of Na(+) in salt-tolerant pumpkin and salt-sensitive cucumber plants under high (200 mM) or moderate (90 mM) NaCl stress. Scanning ion-selective electrode technique showed that pumpkin roots exhibited a higher capacity to extrude Na(+), and a correspondingly increased H(+) influx under 200 or 90 mM NaCl stress. The 200 mM NaCl induced Na(+)/H(+) exchange in the root was inhibited by amiloride (a Na(+)/H(+) antiporter inhibitor) or vanadate [a plasma membrane (PM) H(+) -ATPase inhibitor], indicating that Na(+) exclusion in salt stressed pumpkin and cucumber roots was the result of an active Na(+)/H(+) antiporter across the PM, and the Na(+)/H(+) antiporter system in salt stressed pumpkin roots was sufficient to exclude Na(+) X-ray microanalysis showed higher Na(+) in the cortex, but lower Na(+) in the stele of pumpkin roots than that in cucumber roots under 90 mM NaCl stress, suggesting that the highly vacuolated root cortical cells of pumpkin roots could sequester more Na(+), limit the radial transport of Na(+) to the stele and thus restrict the transport of Na(+) to the shoot. These results provide direct evidence for pumpkin roots with higher capacity to limit the transport of Na(+) to the shoot than cucumber roots. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  8. Detection of mechanical injury on pickling cucumbers using near-infrared hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariana, D.; Lu, R.; Guyer, D.

    2005-11-01

    Automated detection of defects on freshly harvested pickling cucumbers will help the pickle industry provide higher quality pickle products and reduce potential economic losses. Research was conducted on using a hyperspectral imaging system for detecting defects on pickling cucumbers caused by mechanical stress. A near-infrared hyperspectral imaging system was used to capture both spatial and spectral information from cucumbers in the spectral region of 900 - 1700 nm. The system consisted of an imaging spectrograph attached to an InGaAs camera with line-light fiber bundles as an illumination source. Cucumber samples were subjected to two forms of mechanical loading, dropping and rolling, to simulate stress caused by mechanical harvesting. Hyperspectral images were acquired from the cucumbers over time periods of 0, 1, 2, 3, and 6 days after mechanical stress. Hyperspectral image processing methods, including principal component analysis and wavelength selection, were developed to separate normal and mechanically injured cucumbers. Results showed that reflectance from normal or non-bruised cucumbers was consistently higher than that from bruised cucumbers. The spectral region between 950 and 1350 nm was found to be most effective for bruise detection. The hyperspectral imaging system detected all mechanically injured cucumbers immediately after they were bruised. The overall detection accuracy was 97% within two hours of bruising and it was lower as time progressed. Lower detection accuracies for the prolonged times after bruising were attributed to the self- healing of the bruised tissue after mechanical injury. This research demonstrated that hyperspectral imaging is useful for detecting mechanical injury on pickling cucumbers.

  9. Do benthic sediment characteristics explain the distribution of juveniles of the deposit-feeding sea cucumber Australostichopus mollis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Matthew J.; Jeffs, Andrew G.

    2010-10-01

    Despite the economic importance of many deposit-feeding sea cucumbers, the ecology of their juveniles is poorly understood and factors influencing juvenile habitat selection remain largely unexplained. We investigated the importance of the characteristics of the available sediment in determining the highly localised distribution of juveniles of the deposit-feeding Australasian sea cucumber Australostichopus mollis. Wild-caught juveniles were displaced to non-juvenile habitats with surface sediments characterised by lower total organic content (TOM) and nitrogen content, higher chlorophyll- a content and coarser grain size profiles compared to juvenile sites. The growth of displaced individual animals was monitored over 9 months and compared to control animals caged in the juvenile habitats. Displaced juvenile sea cucumbers had high survival rates that did not differ significantly from juvenile habitats. Displaced juveniles exhibited significantly higher specific growth rate (SGR) than those at juvenile sites ( p < 0.001), although the growth of individuals was highly variable within individual cages and among sites. The lower TOM and nitrogen content, and coarser grain size profiles at non-juvenile sites did not result in reductions in juvenile survival or growth. Higher microphytobenthic activity may have resulted in the higher growth rates observed at shallow non-juvenile sites. The SGR of juveniles over the first 6 months of the experiment ranged between 0.45% d - 1 and 0.74% d - 1 for all sites. This was followed by marked growth limitation between 6 and 9 months either as a result of increasing juvenile biomass in cages or seasonal growth limitation. A subsequent reduction in juvenile density resulted in markedly increased growth over the following 3 month period. Juvenile A. mollis show an ability to exploit a variety of benthic sediment food sources, indicating that their highly localised distribution is not due to differences in the food quality of

  10. The influence of different concentrations of bio-organic fertilizer on cucumber Fusarium wilt and soil microflora alterations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Huang

    Full Text Available Fusarium wilt is one of the main diseases of cucumber, and bio-organic fertilizer has been used to control Fusarium wilt. In this study, a pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of bio-organic fertilizer applied at four levels on the suppression of Fusarium wilt disease in cucumber, the soil physico-chemical properties and the microbial communities. In comparison with the control (CK, low concentrations of bio-organic fertilizer (BIO2.5 and BIO5 did not effectively reduce the disease incidence and had little effect on soil microorganisms. High concentrations of bio-organic fertilizer (BIO10 and BIO20 significantly reduced the disease incidence by 33.3%-66.7% and the production was significantly improved by 83.8%-100.3%. The soil population of F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum was significantly lower in bio-organic fertilizer treatments, especially in BIO10 and BIO20. The microorganism activity increased with the bio-organic fertilizer concentration. High-throughput sequencing demonstrated that, at the order level, Sphingomonadales, Bacillales, Solibacterales and Xylariales were significantly abundant in BIO10 and BIO20 soils. At the genus level, the abundance and composition of bacterial and fungal communities in BIO10 and BIO20 were similar, illustrating that high concentrations of bio-organic fertilizer activated diverse groups of microorganisms. Redundancy analysis (RDA showed that Xanthomonadales, Sphingomonadales, Bacillales, Orbiliales, Sordariales, and Mucorales occurred predominantly in the BIO10 and BIO20. These microorganisms were related to the organic matter, available potassium and available phosphorus contents. In conclusion, a high concentration of bio-organic fertilizer application suppressed the Fusarium wilt disease and increased cucumber production after continuous cropping might through improving soil chemical condition and manipulating the composition of soil microbial community.

  11. What is the most prominent factor limiting photosynthesis in different layers of a greenhouse cucumber canopy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tsu-Wei; Henke, Michael; de Visser, Pieter H B; Buck-Sorlin, Gerhard; Wiechers, Dirk; Kahlen, Katrin; Stützel, Hartmut

    2014-09-01

    Maximizing photosynthesis at the canopy level is important for enhancing crop yield, and this requires insights into the limiting factors of photosynthesis. Using greenhouse cucumber (Cucumis sativus) as an example, this study provides a novel approach to quantify different components of photosynthetic limitations at the leaf level and to upscale these limitations to different canopy layers and the whole plant. A static virtual three-dimensional canopy structure was constructed using digitized plant data in GroIMP. Light interception of the leaves was simulated by a ray-tracer and used to compute leaf photosynthesis. Different components of photosynthetic limitations, namely stomatal (S(L)), mesophyll (M(L)), biochemical (B(L)) and light (L(L)) limitations, were calculated by a quantitative limitation analysis of photosynthesis under different light regimes. In the virtual cucumber canopy, B(L) and L(L) were the most prominent factors limiting whole-plant photosynthesis. Diffusional limitations (S(L) + M(L)) contributed Photosynthesis in the lower canopy was more limited by the biochemical capacity, and the upper canopy was more sensitive to light than other canopy parts. Although leaves in the upper canopy received more light, their photosynthesis was more light restricted than in the leaves of the lower canopy, especially when the light condition above the canopy was poor. An increase in whole-plant photosynthesis under diffuse light did not result from an improvement of light use efficiency but from an increase in light interception. Diffuse light increased the photosynthesis of leaves that were directly shaded by other leaves in the canopy by up to 55%. Based on the results, maintaining biochemical capacity of the middle-lower canopy and increasing the leaf area of the upper canopy would be promising strategies to improve canopy photosynthesis in a high-wire cucumber cropping system. Further analyses using the approach described in this study can be expected to

  12. Antioxidation activities of low-molecular-weight gelatin hydrolysate isolated from the sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingfeng; Wang, Yuming; Tang, Qingjuan; Wang, Yi; Chang, Yaoguang; Zhao, Qin; Xue, Changhu

    2010-03-01

    Gelatin extracted from the body wall of the sea cucumber ( Stichopus japonicus) was hydrolyzed with flavourzyme. Low-molecular-weight gelatin hydrolysate (LMW-GH) of 700-1700 Da was produced using an ultrafiltration membrane bioreactor system. Chemiluminescence analysis revealed that LMW-GH scavenges high free radicals in a concentration-dependent manner; IC50 value for superoxide and hydroxyl radicals was 442 and 285 μg mL-1, respectively. LMW-GH exhibited excellent inhibitory characteristics against melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity in B16 cells. Furthermore, LMW-GH notably increased intracellular glutathione (GSH), which in turn suppressed melanogenesis. LMW-GH performs antioxidation activity, holding the potential of being used as a valuable ingredient in function foods, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals or nutriceuticals.

  13. Transcriptome and Small RNAome Dynamics during a Resistant and Susceptible Interaction between Cucumber and Downy Mildew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa Burkhardt

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cucumber ( L. downy mildew, caused by the obligate oomycete pathogen (Berk. and Curt. Rostov., is the primary factor limiting cucumber production. Although sources of resistance have been identified, such as plant introduction line PI 197088, the genes and processes involved in mediating resistance are still unknown. In the current study, we conducted a comprehensive transcriptome and small RNAome analysis of a resistant (PI 197088 and susceptible (‘Vlaspik’ cucumber during a time course of infection using Illumina sequencing. We identified significantly differentially expressed (DE genes within and between resistant and susceptible cucumber leaves over a time course of infection. Weighted gene correlation network analyses (WGCNA created coexpression modules containing genes with unique expression patterns between Vlaspik and PI 197088. Recurring data trends indicated that resistance to cucumber downy mildew is associated with earlier response to the pathogen, hormone signaling, and regulation of nutrient supply. Candidate resistance genes were identified from multiple transcriptome analyses and literature support. Additionally, parallel sequencing of small RNAs (sRNAs from cucumber and during the infection time course was used to identify and quantify novel and existing microRNA (miRNA in both species. Predicted miRNA targets of cucumber transcripts suggest a complex interconnectedness of gene expression regulation in this plant–pathogen system. This work bioinformatically uncovered gene expression patterns involved in the mediation of or response to resistance. Herein, we provide the foundation for future work to validate candidate resistance genes and miRNA-based regulation proposed in this study.

  14. [Principal component analysis and cluster analysis of inorganic elements in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Fang; Xue, Chang-Hu; Wang, Yu-Ming; Li, Zhao-Jie; Xue, Yong; Xu, Jie

    2011-11-01

    The present study is to investigate the feasibility of multi-elements analysis in determination of the geographical origin of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus, and to make choice of the effective tracers in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus geographical origin assessment. The content of the elements such as Al, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Cd, Hg and Pb in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus samples from seven places of geographical origin were determined by means of ICP-MS. The results were used for the development of elements database. Cluster analysis(CA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were applied to differentiate the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus geographical origin. Three principal components which accounted for over 89% of the total variance were extracted from the standardized data. The results of Q-type cluster analysis showed that the 26 samples could be clustered reasonably into five groups, the classification results were significantly associated with the marine distribution of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus samples. The CA and PCA were the effective methods for elements analysis of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus samples. The content of the mineral elements in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus samples was good chemical descriptors for differentiating their geographical origins.

  15. Growth and yield of cucumber under no-tillage cultivation using rye as a cover crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Jelonkiewicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the first two years of study, method of cultivation did not affect the emergence of cucumber seedlings. In the third year, a drought occurring during the spring was the cause of poor seedling emergence on no-tilled plots. Six weeks after seed sowing, the shoots of cucumbers grown on the no-tilled plots were much shorter, especially in the last study year. At the time of cucumber seed sowing, no-tilled soil contained less phosphorus and potassium and in the middle of the fructification period the content of these elements in cucumber leaves was higher under no-tillage cultivation. Additional spring fertilization of rye with ammonium nitrate resulted in a higher N-NO3 content in soil and later in a higher nitrogen content of cucumber leaves. The content of calcium and magnesium in soil and than in cucumber leaves was independent of the cultivation method. In the first two years, method of cultivation did not affect the yield of cucumber fruits and in the third year the yield was much lower under no-tillage because of poor seedling emergence. Moreover, in the third year the fruits were smaller and dry matter content of the fruit was significantly higer under no-tillage cultivation.

  16. Melatonin Has the Potential to Alleviate Cinnamic Acid Stress in Cucumber Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanqi Li

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cinnamic acid (CA, which is a well-known major autotoxin secreted by the roots in cucumber continuous cropping, has been proven to exhibit inhibitory regulation of plant morphogenesis and development. Melatonin (MT has been recently demonstrated to play important roles in alleviating plant abiotic stresses. To investigate whether MT supplementation could improve cucumber seedling growth under CA stress, we treated cucumber seeds and seedlings with/without MT under CA- or non-stress conditions, and then tested their effects on cucumber seedling growth, morphology, nutrient element content, and plant hormone. Overall, 10 μM MT best rescued cucumber seedling growth under 0.4 mM CA stress. MT was found to alleviate CA-stressed seedling growth by increasing the growth rates of cotyledons and leaves and by stimulating lateral root growth. Additionally, MT increased the allocation of newly gained dry weight in roots and improved the tolerance of cucumber seedlings to CA stress by altering the nutrient elements and hormone contents of the whole plant. These results strongly suggest that the application of MT can effectively improve cucumber seedling tolerance to CA stress through the perception and integration of morphology, nutrient element content and plant hormone signaling crosstalk.

  17. Value, market preferences and trade of Beche-de-mer from Pacific Island sea cucumbers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven W Purcell

    Full Text Available Market preferences of natural resources contribute to shape their exploitation and production. Beche-de-mer, the product after gutting, cooking, salting and drying sea cucumbers, is exported worldwide to Asian dried seafood markets. A better understanding of the trade, value and market preferences of Pacific island beche-de-mer could identify critical postharvest processing techniques and management strategies for fisheries and aquaculture. Data were collected on export prices and trade of beche-de-mer from Kiribati, Fiji, Tonga and New Caledonia, and the selling prices, respective sizes and organoleptic properties of the products in stores in China. Export prices varied considerably within and among the four countries and low-value species were the most exported by volume. Most of the beche-de-mer from the four Pacific islands is exported to Hong Kong, where quality products are sold and others are distributed to mainland China. Prices of the beche-de-mer in Chinese stores varied up to ten-fold and were mostly influenced by species, body size and, to a lesser extent, physical damage to the products. Market prices across species (averaging US$15-385 kg-1 appear to have mostly increased six- to twelve-fold over the past decade. The data allude that fisheries for Holothuria scabra, H. lessoni, H. fuscogilva, H. whitmaei and Thelenota ananas should be most carefully managed because they were the highest-value species and under greatest demand. The relationships between size of beche-de-mer and sale price were species specific and highly varied. This study also highlights the need for better regulations and/or enforcement of minimum size limits in sea cucumber fisheries, which can help to maximise economic benefits of wild stocks.

  18. Occidental diffusion of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) 500–1300 CE: two routes to Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Harry S.; Daunay, Marie-Christine; Janick, Jules

    2012-01-01

    Background The cucumber, Cucumis sativus, is one of the most widely consumed fruit vegetables the world over. The history of its dispersal to the Occident from its centre of origin, the Indian subcontinent, has been incorrectly understood for some time, due to the confusion of cucumbers with vegetable melons. Iconographic and literary evidence has shown that cucumber was absent in Roman times, up to 500 CE, but present in Europe by late medieval times, 1300. The objective of the present investigation was to determine more accurately when the cucumber arrived in Europe and by what route. Findings and Conclusions The evidence for the movement of C. sativus westward is entirely lexicographical until the 10th century. Syriac, Persian and Byzantine Greek sources suggest the presence of cucumbers, to the east and north-east of the Mediterranean Sea (modern Iran, Iraq and Turkey), by the 6th or 7th century. Arabic medical writings suggest the presence of cucumbers in Spain as early as the mid-9th century and in Tunisia by the early 10th century. Descriptive evidence in Arabic establishes the presence of cucumbers in Andalusia by the second half of the 10th century. Latin translations from Arabic sources indicate the presence of cucumbers in southern Italy by the second half of the 11th century. These writings, together with lexicographical discrepancies in names of cucurbits in late medieval Latin writings, suggest that cucumber was introduced to Europe by two independent diffusions. One diffusion appears to have been overland from Persia into eastern and northern Europe and preceded the Islamic conquests. The other, subsequent diffusion into western and southern Europe, was probably by a mostly maritime route from Persia or the Indian subcontinent into Andalusia. PMID:22104164

  19. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Growth-Related Genes in Juvenile Chinese Sea Cucumber, Russian Sea Cucumber, and Their Hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhicheng; Cui, Jun; Song, Jian; Wang, Haoze; Gao, Kailun; Qiu, Xuemei; Gou, Meng; Li, Xin; Hu, Ziwen; Wang, Xiuli; Chang, Yaqing

    2018-04-01

    Heterosis is important for sea cucumber breeding, but its molecular mechanism remains largely unexplored. In this study, parental lines of Apostichopus japonicus from Russia (R) and China (C) were used to construct hybrids (CR and RC) by reciprocal crossing. We examined the transcriptional profiles of the hybrids (CR and RC) and the purebreds (CC and RR) at different developmental times. A total of 60.27 Gb of clean data was obtained, and 176,649 unigenes were identified, of which 50,312 unigenes were annotated. A total of 414,536 SNPs were identified. A total of 7011 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were obtained between the purebreds and hybrids at 45 days after fertilization (DAF), and a total of 8218 DEGs were obtained between the purebreds and hybrids at 75 DAF. In addition, a total of 7652 DEGs were obtained between 45 DAF and 75 DAF. The significant DEGs were mainly involved in the MAPK and FOXO signaling pathways, especially in the Ras-Raf-MEK1/2-ERK module, which may be a key regulator of development and growth in juvenile A. japonicus. In addition, we also identified key growth-related genes, such as fgfs, igfs, megfs and hgfs, which were upregulated in the hybrids (RC and CR); these genes may play important roles in heterosis in A. japonicus. Our study provides fundamental information on the molecular mechanisms underlying heterosis in sea cucumber and might suggest strategies for the selection of rapidly growing strains of sea cucumber in aquaculture.

  20. QTL mapping of downy and powdery mildew resistances in PI 197088 cucumber with genotyping-by-sequencing in RIL population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuhui; VandenLangenberg, Kyle; Wen, Changlong; Wehner, Todd C; Weng, Yiqun

    2018-03-01

    Host resistances in PI 197088 cucumber to downy and powdery mildew pathogens are conferred by 11 (3 with major effect) and 4 (1 major effect) QTL, respectively, and three of which are co-localized. The downy mildew (DM) and powdery mildew (PM) are the two most important foliar diseases of cucurbit crops worldwide. The cucumber accession PI 197088 exhibits high-level resistances to both pathogens. Here, we reported QTL mapping results for DM and PM resistances with 148 recombinant inbred lines from a cross between PI 197088 and the susceptible line 'Coolgreen'. Phenotypic data on responses to natural DM and PM infection were collected in multi-year and multi-location replicated field trials. A high-density genetic map with 2780 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from genotyping-by-sequencing and 55 microsatellite markers was developed, which revealed genomic regions with segregation distortion and mis-assemblies in the '9930' cucumber draft genome. QTL analysis identified 11 and 4 QTL for DM and PM resistances accounting for more than 73.5 and 63.0% total phenotypic variance, respectively. Among the 11 DM resistance QTL, dm5.1, dm5.2, and dm5.3 were major-effect contributing QTL, whereas dm1.1, dm2.1, and dm6.2 conferred susceptibility. Of the 4 QTL for PM resistance, pm5.1 was the major-effect QTL explaining 32.4% phenotypic variance and the minor-effect QTL pm6.1 contributed to disease susceptibility. Three PM QTL, pm2.1, pm5.1, and pm6.1, were co-localized with DM QTL dm2.1, dm5.2, and dm6.1, respectively, which was consistent with the observed linkage of PM and DM resistances in PI 197088. The genetic architecture of DM resistance in PI 197088 and another resistant line WI7120 (PI 330628) was compared, and the potential of using PI 197088 in cucumber breeding for downy and powdery mildew resistances is discussed.

  1. The genome sequence of the North-European cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) unravels evolutionary adaptation mechanisms in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wóycicki, Rafał; Witkowicz, Justyna; Gawroński, Piotr; Dąbrowska, Joanna; Lomsadze, Alexandre; Pawełkowicz, Magdalena; Siedlecka, Ewa; Yagi, Kohei; Pląder, Wojciech; Seroczyńska, Anna; Śmiech, Mieczysław; Gutman, Wojciech; Niemirowicz-Szczytt, Katarzyna; Bartoszewski, Grzegorz; Tagashira, Norikazu; Hoshi, Yoshikazu; Borodovsky, Mark; Karpiński, Stanisław; Malepszy, Stefan; Przybecki, Zbigniew

    2011-01-01

    Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), a widely cultivated crop, has originated from Eastern Himalayas and secondary domestication regions includes highly divergent climate conditions e.g. temperate and subtropical. We wanted to uncover adaptive genome differences between the cucumber cultivars and what sort of evolutionary molecular mechanisms regulate genetic adaptation of plants to different ecosystems and organism biodiversity. Here we present the draft genome sequence of the Cucumis sativus genome of the North-European Borszczagowski cultivar (line B10) and comparative genomics studies with the known genomes of: C. sativus (Chinese cultivar--Chinese Long (line 9930)), Arabidopsis thaliana, Populus trichocarpa and Oryza sativa. Cucumber genomes show extensive chromosomal rearrangements, distinct differences in quantity of the particular genes (e.g. involved in photosynthesis, respiration, sugar metabolism, chlorophyll degradation, regulation of gene expression, photooxidative stress tolerance, higher non-optimal temperatures tolerance and ammonium ion assimilation) as well as in distributions of abscisic acid-, dehydration- and ethylene-responsive cis-regulatory elements (CREs) in promoters of orthologous group of genes, which lead to the specific adaptation features. Abscisic acid treatment of non-acclimated Arabidopsis and C. sativus seedlings induced moderate freezing tolerance in Arabidopsis but not in C. sativus. This experiment together with analysis of abscisic acid-specific CRE distributions give a clue why C. sativus is much more susceptible to moderate freezing stresses than A. thaliana. Comparative analysis of all the five genomes showed that, each species and/or cultivars has a specific profile of CRE content in promoters of orthologous genes. Our results constitute the substantial and original resource for the basic and applied research on environmental adaptations of plants, which could facilitate creation of new crops with improved growth and yield in

  2. Effect of acute salinity stress on ion homeostasis, Na+/K+-ATPase and histological structure in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Chenfan; Tian, Yi; Shang, Yanpeng; Wang, Liqiang; Jiang, Yanan; Chang, Yaqing

    2016-01-01

    Sea cucumbers ( Apostichopus japonicus ) are an imperiled fauna exposed to a variety of environmental condition such as salinity and studies are urgently needed to assess their effects to guide aquaculture efforts. The effects of acute salinity stress on coelomic fluid osmotic pressure, ion concentrations, the activity of Na + /K + -ATPase in respiratory trees and the histological variations were measured to evaluate the salinity tolerance of sea cucumbers. Significant correlations in osmotic pressure were observed between coelomic fluid and ambient environmental salinity. In coelomic fluid, Na + concentration was observed fluctuated during salinity 18 psu and the inflection point presented at the 6 h. The Na + /K + -ATPase activity in respiratory trees indicated the "U-shaped" fluctuant change and the change trend was opposite with the Na + concentration. The ions (K + , Cl - ) concentration decreased and showed the same tendency at salinity 40 psu with salinity 18 psu. The total coelomocytes counts and phagocytosis of coelomic fluid Na + /K + -ATPase activity indicated fluctuating changes under different salinity stress. Histological variation revealed a negative relation between decreasing salt concentration and tissue integrity. Tissue damages were significantly observed in intestines, muscles and tube feet under low salinity environment (18, 23 and 27 psu). The connective tissue in intestines of A. japonicus exposed to 18 and 23 psu damaged and partly separated from the mucosal epithelium. The significant variations occurred in tube feet, which presented the swelling in connective tissue and a fracture in longitudinal muscles under low salinity (18 psu). The morphological change of tube feet showed the shrinkage of connective tissue under high salinity (40 psu). The amount of infusoria in the respiratory trees decreased or even disappeared in salinity treatment groups (18 and 23 psu). The results inferred that osmoconformity and ionoregulation were

  3. Sea Cucumber Resources At Tanjung Pai Waters Padaido Biak Numfor Papua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddy Yusron

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Observation on sea cucumber diversity was carried out at coastal waters of Pai and Imbeyomi Islands in the Padaido Island Biak Numfor. Sampling was done by using a transect quadrant of 1 m x 1 m. This sampling and observation on its microhabitat were conducted by snorkling. Analyses on the sea cucumber community structure were based on its frequency of occurance, diversity, and density. The results showed that at both locations 10 species of sea cucumber were found where Holothuria edulis, H. atra, and H. nobilis were predominant common and more evenly distributed than the other species.

  4. Autolysis and extension of isolated walls from growing cucumber hypocotyls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, D. J.; Durachko, D. M.

    1994-01-01

    Walls isolated from cucumber hypocotyls retain autolytic activities and the ability to extend when placed under the appropriate conditions. To test whether autolysis and extension are related, we treated the walls in various ways to enhance or inhibit long-term wall extension ('creep') and measured autolysis as release of various saccharides from the wall. Except for some non-specific inhibitors of enzymatic activity, we found no correlation between wall extension and wall autolysis. Most notably, autolysis and extension differed strongly in their pH dependence. We also found that exogenous cellulases and pectinases enhanced extension in native walls, but when applied to walls previously inactivated with heat or protease these enzymes caused breakage without sustained extension. In contrast, pretreatment of walls with pectinase or cellulase, followed by boiling in methanol to inactivate the enzymes, resulted in walls with much stronger expansin-mediated extension responses. Crude protein preparations from the digestive tracts of snails enhanced extension of both native and inactivated walls, and these preparations contained expansin-like proteins (assessed by Western blotting). Our results indicate that the extension of isolated cucumber walls does not depend directly on the activity of endogenous wall-bound autolytic enzymes. The results with exogenous enzymes suggest that the hydrolysis of matrix polysaccharides may not induce wall creep by itself, but may act synergistically with expansins to enhance wall extension.

  5. Involvement of Polyamines in the Chilling Tolerance of Cucumber Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wenyun; Nada, Kazuyoshi; Tachibana, Shoji

    2000-01-01

    The possible involvement of polyamines (PAs) in the chilling tolerance of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv Jinchun No. 3 and cv Suyo) was investigated. Plants with the first expanded leaves were exposed to 3°C or 15°C in the dark for 24 h (chilling), and then transferred to 28°C/22°C under a 12-h photoperiod for another 24 h (rewarming). Chilling-tolerant cv Jinchun No. 3 showed a marked increase of free spermidine (Spd) in leaves, once during chilling and again during rewarming. Putrescine increased significantly during rewarming, but the increase of spermine was slight. Any of these PAs did not increase in chilling-sensitive cv Suyo during either period. PA-biosynthetic enzyme activities appear to mediate these differences between cultivars. Pretreatment of Spd to cv Suyo prevented chill-induced increases in the contents of hydrogen peroxide in leaves and activities of NADPH oxidases and NADPH-dependent superoxide generation in microsomes and alleviated chilling injury. Pretreatment of methylglyoxal-bis-(guanylhydrazone), a PA biosynthesis inhibitor, to chilled cv Jinchun No. 3 prevented Spd increase and enhanced microsomal NADPH oxidase activity and chilling injury. The results suggest that Spd plays important roles in chilling tolerance of cucumber, probably through prevention of chill-induced activation of NADPH oxidases in microsomes. PMID:10982456

  6. Chain conformational and physicochemical properties of fucoidans from sea cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoqi; Xue, Changhu; Chang, Yaoguang; Wang, Jun; Jiang, Kunhao

    2016-11-05

    Although fucoidans from sea cucumber (SC-FUCs) have been proven as potential bioactive polysaccharides and functional food ingridents, their chain conformation and physicochemical properties were still poorly understood. This study investigated the chain conformation of fucoidans from sea cucumber Acaudina molpadioides (Am-FUC), Isostichopus badionotus (Ib-FUC) and Apostichopus japonicus (Aj-FUC), of which primary structure has been recently clarified. Chain conformation parameters demonstrated that studied SC-FUCs adopted random coil conformation in 150mM NaCl solution (pH 7.4). Based on the worm-like cylinder model and atomic force microscopy, the chain stiffness of SC-FUCs was further evaluated as Am-FUC≈Ib-FUC>Aj-FUC. It was suggested that the existence of branch structure increased the chain flexibility, while sulfated pattern exerted limited influence. SC-FUCs demonstrated shear-thinning rheological behavior and negative charge. Am-FUC possessed a higher thermostability than Ib-FUC and Aj-FUC. These results have important implications for understanding the molecular characteristics of SC-FUCs, which could facilitate their further application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Two fucosylated chondroitin sulfates from the sea cucumber Eupentacta fraudatrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustyuzhanina, Nadezhda E; Bilan, Maria I; Dmitrenok, Andrey S; Nifantiev, Nikolay E; Usov, Anatolii I

    2017-05-15

    Two fucosylated chondroitin sulfates EF1 and EF2 were isolated from the sea cucumber Eupentacta fraudatrix. Separation of the polysaccharides was performed using anion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sephacel by elution of 0.75M and 1.0M NaCl solutions. The structures of biopolymers were determined by chemical and NMR spectroscopic methods. The backbone of EF1 was found to be composed of chondroitin sulfate A and E units in a ratio of about 1:1. The core of EF2 along with chondroitin sulfate A and E fragments contained unusual disaccharide repeating units →4)-β-d-GlcpA2S3S-(1→3)-β-d-GalpNAc6S-(1→. The main type of branches in both polysaccharides was α-l-Fucp3S4S unit attached to O-3 of GlcA residues. Another type of branches was found to be the disaccharide fragment α-l-Fucp-(1→2)-α-l-Fucp3S4S-(1→ linked to O-3 of GlcA. The presence of structurally different fucosylated chondroitin sulfates in one species of sea cucumber is rather unusual and has not been described previously. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Anticancer Activity from Active Fraction of Sea Cucumber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Mutia Putram

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Sea Cucumber Holothuria atra is one of marine organisms has been used as a new source of novel bioactive compounds. Many of them have been used as the lead compounds in discovery of new anticancer drugs. The objective of this study was to determine the active fractions of sea cucumber (H. atra which have anticancer activity. H. atra was macerated using ethanol and the extract was freezedried using a freeze dryer. The crude extract was partitioned using n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol-water (3:1:1:1. Cytotoxicity test was performed using HeLa (cervic cancer cell line and MCF-7 (breast cancer cell line based on the MTT assay. The crude extract of H. atra showed the best cytotoxic activity against HeLa cells (IC50 = 12.48 µg/mL and MCF-7 cells (IC50 = 17.90 µg/mL. The toxicity tests showed the IC50 value of the n-hexane fraction, ethyl acetate fraction, and methanol-water fraction against HeLa cells HeLa (IC50 = 76.45 µg/mL; 77.95 µg/mL;  14.27 µg/mL and MCF-7 cells (IC50 = 58.50 µg/mL; 59.59 µg/mL; 14.33 µg/mL.

  9. Pollen irradiation method to obtain mutants in cucumber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, S.; Amano, E.

    1988-01-01

    Seed irradiation for mutation induction in dioecious crops like cucumber is not very useful because chimerism of the mutated tissues makes the segregation of mutants in the M 2 generation nearly impossible. This problem does not exist with pollen irradiation. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. var. Nishikisuyo) was used for a model experiment. The petals of male and female flowers were closed by pinching with binding wire before flowering to prevent pollination by insects. On the flowering day, the male flowers were collected and irradiated with 1kR to 10 kR of acute gamma rays (137-Cs), then used to pollinate the female flowers. The M 1 seeds thus obtained are not chimeric but heterozygous for induced mutations. When planted, no mutant phenotype appeared. Selfing within a plant lead to segregation of mutants in the M 2 generation. Seedling examination revealed eight mutants. One mutant line, in which the shape of leaves changed from pentagonal to round heart shape, was found under field conditions. The optimal dose for pollen irradiation seems to be between 2 kR and 4kR

  10. Extraction and Characterization of Collagen from Sea Cucumber Flesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alhana

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sea cucumber (Stichopus variegatus is one of the Echinodermata phylum that grows along Indonesian coastal. Sea cucumber is potential source of collagen. The purposes of this research were to determine the optimal concentration of NaOH and CH3COOH solution in collagen production and analyze the physicochemical characteristics of collagen from S. variegatus. Yield of the collagen was 1.5% (based on wet weight basis, produced by pretreatment with NaOH 0,30%, hydrolysis with CH3COOH 0.10% and extracted using distilled water. Protein, moisture, and ash content of the collagen was 67.68%, 13.64%, and 4.15%, respectively. Collagen was extracted using distilled water at 45°C during 2h and still had triple helix structure ; pH 7.37 ; melting temperature 163.67°C and whiteness 69.25%. The major amino acid content of collagen were glycine, alanine, proline and glutamic acid.

  11. Large-scale identification and comparative analysis of miRNA expression profile in the respiratory tree of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus during aestivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Muyan; Storey, Kenneth B

    2014-02-01

    The sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus withstands high water temperatures in the summer by suppressing its metabolic rate and entering a state of aestivation. We hypothesized that changes in the expression of miRNAs could provide important post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression during hypometabolism via control over mRNA translation. The present study analyzed profiles of miRNA expression in the sea cucumber respiratory tree using Solexa deep sequencing technology. We identified 279 sea cucumber miRNAs, including 15 novel miRNAs specific to sea cucumber. Animals sampled during deep aestivation (DA; after at least 15 days of continuous torpor) were compared with animals from a non-aestivation (NA) state (animals that had passed through aestivation and returned to an active state). We identified 30 differentially expressed miRNAs ([RPM (reads per million) >10, |FC| (|fold change|)≥1, FDR (false discovery rate)<0.01]) during aestivation, which were validated by two other miRNA profiling methods: miRNA microarray and real-time PCR. Among the most prominent miRNA species, miR-124, miR-124-3p, miR-79, miR-9 and miR-2010 were significantly over-expressed during deep aestivation compared with non-aestivation animals, suggesting that these miRNAs may play important roles in metabolic rate suppression during aestivation. High-throughput sequencing data and microarray data have been submitted to the GEO database with accession number: 16902695. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Enrichment, Distribution of Vanadium-Containing Protein in Vanadium-Enriched Sea Cucumber Apostichopus japonicus and the Ameliorative Effect on Insulin Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanjun; Zhou, Qingxin; Zhao, Yanlei; Wang, Yiming; Wang, Yuming; Wang, Jingfeng; Xu, Jie; Xue, Changhu

    2016-05-01

    Sea cucumbers are a potential source of natural organic vanadium that may improve insulin resistance. In this work, vanadium was accumulated rapidly in blood, body wall, and intestine by sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. Furthermore, water-soluble vanadium-containing proteins, the main form of the organic vanadium, were tentatively accumulated and isolated by a bioaccumulation experiment. It was also designed to evaluate the beneficial effect of vanadium-containing proteins (VCPs) from sea cucumber rich in vanadium on the development of hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in C57BL/6J mice fed with a high-fat high-sucrose diet (HFSD). HFSD mice treated with VCPs significantly decreased fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, and HOMA-IR values as compared to HFSD mice, respectively. Serum adiponectin, resistin, TNF-α, and leptin levels in insulin-resistant mice were dramatically reduced by a VCP supplement. These results show an ameliorative effect on insulin resistance by treatment with VCPs. Such compound seems to be a valuable therapy to achieve and/or maintain glycemic control and therapeutic agents in the treatment arsenal for insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.

  13. Decompression sickness among diving fishermen in Mexico: observational retrospective analysis of DCS in three sea cucumber fishing seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huchim-Lara, Oswaldo; Chin, Walter; Salas, Silvia; Rivera-Canul, Normando; Cordero-Romero, Salvador; Tec, Juan; Joo, Ellie; Mendez-Dominguez, Nina

    2017-01-01

    The probabilities of decompression sickness (DCS) among diving fishermen are higher than in any other group of divers. Diving behavior of artisanal fishermen has been directed mainly to target high-value species. The aim of this study was to learn about the occurrence of DCS derived from sea cucumber harvesting in the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico. We conducted a retrospective chart review of diving fishermen treated at a multiplace hyperbaric chamber in Tizimín, Mexico. In total, 233 recompression therapies were rendered to 166 diving fishermen from 2014 to 2016. The average age was 36.7 ± 9.2 years (range: 20-59 years); 84.3% had experienced at least one DCS event previously. There was a correlation between age and DCS incidents (F: 8.3; R2: 0.07) and differences in the fishing depth between seasons (H: 9.99; p⟨0.05). Musculoskeletal pain was the most frequently reported symptom. Three divers, respectively, suffered permanent hearing loss, spinal cord injury and fatal outcome. Diving fishermen experience DCS at an alarmingly high rate, probably due to the type of species targeted, given the requirements in each case. Understanding divers' behaviors and their incentives while in pursuit of high-value species such as sea cucumber could help to find ways to mitigate health risks and help enforce regulation. Copyright© Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society.

  14. Antioxidant and antiapoptotic effects of sea cucumber and valsartan against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in rats: The role of low dose gamma irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Doaa M; Radwan, Rasha R; Abdel Fattah, Salma M

    2017-05-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is a highly effective antineoplastic drug; however, the clinical use of DOX is limited by its dose dependent cardiotoxicity. This study was conducted to evaluate the cardioprotective effect of sea cucumber and valsartan against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity in rats. Also, the role of exposure to low dose γ radiation (LDR) on each of them was investigated, since LDR could suppress various reactive oxygen species-related diseases. Rats received DOX (2.5mg/kg, ip) in six equal injections over a period of 2weeks, sea cucumber (14.4mg/kg, p.o) and valsartan (30mg/kg, p.o) for 8 successive weeks. Exposure to LDR (0.5Gy) was performed one day prior to DOX. Results revealed that DOX administration elevated serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK-MB) and troponin-I as well as increased cardiac lipid peroxide content and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Additionally, it increased cardiac expressions of iNOS and caspase-3, accompanied by reduction in cardiac total protein and glutathione (GSH) contents. Treatment with sea cucumber or valsartan improved the cardiotoxicity of DOX. Their adjuvant therapy with LDR offers an additional benefit to the cardioprotection of the therapeutic drugs. These results confirmed by histopathological examination. In conclusion, sea cucumber and valsartan alone or combined with LDR attenuated DOX-induced cardiotoxicity via their antioxidant and anti-apoptotic activities and thus might be useful in the treatment of human patients under doxorubicin chemotherapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Echinoside-B from the Lakshadweep sea cucumber Actinopyga mauritiana (Quoy and Gaimard)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parameswaran, P.S.; Naik, C.G.; Das, B.; Kamat, S.Y.

    Brine-shrimp assay guided purification of the methanolic extract of the sea cucumber Actinopyga mauritiana yields echinoside-B as a major toxic constituent. The compound has been characterized based on its spectral data....

  16. Growth and morphological changes of cucumber cotyledons as influenced by fluorine exhalations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niznansky, A; Erdelska, O

    1964-01-01

    The biological effects of particulate air pollution which was rich in fluorine compounds was studied. Cucumber cotyledons were used as experimental organisms, and the types of injuries they received were categorized.

  17. Analysis of fatty acid composition of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus using multivariate statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qinzeng; Gao, Fei; Xu, Qiang; Yang, Hongsheng

    2014-11-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) provide energy and also can be used to trace trophic relationships among organisms. Sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus goes into a state of aestivation during warm summer months. We examined fatty acid profiles in aestivated and non-aestivated A. japonicus using multivariate analyses (PERMANOVA, MDS, ANOSIM, and SIMPER). The results indicate that the fatty acid profiles of aestivated and non-aestivated sea cucumbers differed significantly. The FAs that were produced by bacteria and brown kelp contributed the most to the differences in the fatty acid composition of aestivated and nonaestivated sea cucumbers. Aestivated sea cucumbers may synthesize FAs from heterotrophic bacteria during early aestivation, and long chain FAs such as eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) that produced from intestinal degradation, are digested during deep aestivation. Specific changes in the fatty acid composition of A. japonicus during aestivation needs more detailed study in the future.

  18. Alleviation of cadmium toxicity in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seedlings by the application of selenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, H.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Wei, T.; Wang, G.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the role of selenium in cadmium toxicity was investigated in cucumber seedlings by hydroponic experiments. The application of Se for cucumber exposed to Cd significantly reduced Cd accumulation in all tissues, elevated Cd-depressed chlorophyll content, and improved photosynthetic performance. External Se significantly reduced ·OH, H2O2 and malondialdehyde content. Exogenous Se balanced Cd-depressed elements (e.g., Se enhanced Cd-induced decreases in root Zn, leaf/stem/root Mn concentrations) and carbohydrate contents. External Se also significantly decreased the Cd-induced increases in Na+K+-, Ca2+Mg2+- and total ATPase activities, which recovered almost to control level. Results indicate that application of Se can alleviate Cd toxicity in cucumber seedlings by reducing Cd uptake and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, moreover protecting photosynthetic machinery from damaging, balancing elements and carbohydrate contents, and improving ATPase activities in cucumber.

  19. Use of species-specific PCR for the identification of 10 sea cucumber species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jing; Zeng, Ling

    2014-11-01

    We developed a species-specific PCR method to identify species among dehydrated products of 10 sea cucumber species. Ten reverse species-specific primers designed from the 16S rRNA gene, in combination with one forward universal primer, generated PCR fragments of ca. 270 bp length for each species. The specificity of the PCR assay was tested with DNA of samples of 21 sea cucumber species. Amplification was observed in specific species only. The species-specific PCR method we developed was successfully applied to authenticate species of commercial products of dehydrated sea cucumber, and was proven to be a useful, rapid, and low-cost technique to identify the origin of the sea cucumber product.

  20. Alleviation of cadmium toxicity in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seedlings by the application of selenium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, H.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Wei, T.; Wang, G.

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, the role of selenium in cadmium toxicity was investigated in cucumber seedlings by hydroponic experiments. The application of Se for cucumber exposed to Cd significantly reduced Cd accumulation in all tissues, elevated Cd-depressed chlorophyll content, and improved photosynthetic performance. External Se significantly reduced ·OH, H2O2 and malondialdehyde content. Exogenous Se balanced Cd-depressed elements (e.g., Se enhanced Cd-induced decreases in root Zn, leaf/stem/root Mn concentrations) and carbohydrate contents. External Se also significantly decreased the Cd-induced increases in Na+K+-, Ca2+Mg2+- and total ATPase activities, which recovered almost to control level. Results indicate that application of Se can alleviate Cd toxicity in cucumber seedlings by reducing Cd uptake and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, moreover protecting photosynthetic machinery from damaging, balancing elements and carbohydrate contents, and improving ATPase activities in cucumber.

  1. Borniopsis mortoni sp. n. (Heterodonta, Galeommatoidea, Galeommatidae sensu lato, a new bivalve commensal with a synaptid sea cucumber from Japan

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    Ryutaro Goto

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Galeommatoidea is a bivalve superfamily that exhibits high species diversity in shallow waters. Many members of this superfamily are associated commensally with burrowing marine invertebrates in benthic sediments. The genus Borniopsis is known only from eastern Asia and exhibits high host diversity (e.g., mantis shrimps, crabs, holothurians, sipunculans and echiurans. A new species, Borniopsis mortoni sp. n., is described from mud flats at the mouth of the Souzu River, southwestern Shikoku Island, Japan. This species has elongate-ovate shells covered by a tan to dark brown periostracum, and lives attached by both its foot and byssal threads to the body surface of the synaptid sea cucumber Patinapta ooplax. Several individuals of B. mortoni are often found on the same host, but sometimes more than 10 individuals can occur together. Borniopsis mortoni is one of the smallest species in this genus. Probably, its small body size is an adaptation to the mode of life in a narrow host burrow. Until now, only two other Borniopsis species were known to have commensal associations with synaptids. Thus, this is the third example of a synaptid-associated species from this genus. In addition, we briefly review the galeommatoideans commensal with apodid sea cucumbers.

  2. Characterization of Metabolic Pathways and Absorption of Sea Cucumber Saponins, Holothurin A and Echinoside A, in Vitro and in Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shanshan; Zhang, Lingyu; Cao, Jian; Xiang, Gao; Cong, Peixu; Dong, Ping; Li, Zhaojie; Xue, Changhu; Xue, Yong; Wang, Yuming

    2017-08-01

    Sea cucumber saponins (SCSs) exhibit a wide spectrum of bioactivities, but their metabolic characteristics are not well elucidated. In this study, the metabolism of holothurin A (HA) and echinoside A (EA), 2 major saponins in sea cucumber, by gut microflora were investigated. First, we conducted an in vitro study, where in the SCSs were incubated with intestinal microflora and the metabolites were detected by high pressure liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry. We also conducted an in vivo study on rats, where in the intestinal contents, serum, urine, and feces were collected and evaluated after oral administration of SCSs. In the in vitro study, we identified 6 deglycosylated metabolites of HA and EA, assigned M1-M6. In the in vivo study, we found all the deglycosylated metabolites in the intestinal contents after oral administration, and both the metabolites and their prototype components could be absorbed. Four metabolites were identified in the serum, 6 in the urine, and 4 in the feces. The saponins with different structures showed different absorption characteristics in rats. According to our results, deglycosylation is the main intestinal microflora-mediated metabolic pathway for SCSs, and both the SCSs and deglycosylated metabolites can be absorbed by intestine. This study improves the understanding of the metabolism of HA and EA by gut flora, which will be useful for further analysis of the bioactivity mechanism of SCSs. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  3. Exocarp Properties and Transcriptomic Analysis of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Fruit Expressing Age-Related Resistance to Phytophthora capsici.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Kaori; Carr, Kevin M; Colle, Marivi; Mansfeld, Ben N; Grumet, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Very young cucumber (Cucumis sativus) fruit are highly susceptible to infection by the oomycete pathogen, Phytophthora capsici. As the fruit complete exponential growth, at approximately 10-12 days post pollination (dpp), they transition to resistance. The development of age-related resistance (ARR) is increasingly recognized as an important defense against pathogens, however, underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Peel sections from cucumber fruit harvested at 8 dpp (susceptible) and 16 dpp (resistant) showed equivalent responses to inoculation as did whole fruit, indicating that the fruit surface plays an important role in defense against P. capsici. Exocarp from 16 dpp fruit had thicker cuticles, and methanolic extracts of peel tissue inhibited growth of P. capsici in vitro, suggesting physical or chemical components to the ARR. Transcripts specifically expressed in the peel vs. pericarp showed functional differentiation. Transcripts predominantly expressed in the peel were consistent with fruit surface associated functions including photosynthesis, cuticle production, response to the environment, and defense. Peel-specific transcripts that exhibited increased expression in 16 dpp fruit relative to 8 dpp fruit, were highly enriched (Pfunctions. Specific transcripts included genes associated with potential physical barriers (i.e., cuticle), chemical defenses (flavonoid biosynthesis), oxidative stress, penetration defense, and molecular pattern (MAMP)-triggered or effector-triggered (R-gene mediated) pathways. The developmentally regulated changes in gene expression between peels from susceptible- and resistant- age fruits suggest programming for increased defense as the organ reaches full size.

  4. Effect of Bacillus baekryungensis YD13 supplemented in diets on growth performance and immune response of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fajun; Tian, Xiangli; Dong, Shuanglin

    2014-10-01

    The effect of a potential probiotic on the growth performance and immune response of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) was investigated. Bacillus baekryungensis YD13 isolated from sea cucumber culturing ponds was added to sea cucumber basal feed as a probiotic in different doses (0, the control; 1×104 (YD134), 1×106 (YD136) and 1×108 (YD138) CFU g-1 of diet), and administered orally to A. japonicus (initial mean wet weight 5.44 g ± 0.17 g). The sea cucumbers were fed in 20 aquaria, 5 each treatment, for 60 d. At the end of growth trial, 20 sea cucumbers from each treatment were challenged with Vibrio splendidus. A. japonicus in YD134 and YD136 exhibited significantly better growth performance than control ( P sea cucumbers of YD136. Accordingly, 1×106 CFU g-1 of YD13 in diet was recommended for the growth promotion and immune enhancement of A. japonicus.

  5. Transcriptional changes in epigenetic modifiers associated with gene silencing in the intestine of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka), during aestivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianming; Yang, Hongsheng; Zhao, Huan; Chen, Muyan; Wang, Bing

    2011-11-01

    The sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus, undergoes aestivation to improve survival during periods of high-temperature. During aestivation, the metabolic rate is depressed to reduce the consumption of reserved energy. We evaluated the role of epigenetic modification on global gene silencing during metabolic rate depression in the sea cucumber. We compared the expression of epigenetic modifiers in active and aestivating sea cucumbers. The expression of three genes involved in DNA methylation and chromatin remodeling (DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 1, Methyl-CpG-binding domain protein 2), and Chromodomain-helicase-DNA-binding protein 5) was significantly higher during aestivation (Days 20 and 40). Similarly, we observed an increase in the expression of genes involved in histone acetylation (Histone deacetylase 3) and Histone-binding protein RBBP4) during the early (Days 5 and 10) and late phases (Days 20 and 40) of aestivation. There was no change in the expression of KAT2B, a histone acetyltransferase. However, the expression of histone methylation associated modifiers (Histone-arginine methyltransferase CARMER and Histone-lysine N-methyltransferase MLL5) was significantly higher after 5 d in the aestivating group. The results suggest that the expression of epigenetic modifiers involved in DNA methylation, chromatin remodeling, histone acetylation, and histone methylation is upregulated during aestivation. We hypothesize that these changes regulate global gene silencing during aestivation in A. japonicus.

  6. Dry Heat Treatment Reduces the Occurrence of Cladosporium cucumerinum, Ascochyta citrullina, and Colletotrichum orbiculare on the Surface and Interior of Cucumber Seeds

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    Yanxia Shi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dry heat treatment has been identified as a method for disinfecting seed-borne pathogens in vegetable seeds. This study demonstrated that three seed-borne pathogens of cucumber (Cladosporium cucumerinum that causes scabs, Ascochyta citrullina that results in gummy stem blight, and Colletotrichum orbiculare that induces anthracnose could be effectively eradicated from cucumber seeds by dry heat treatment. In vitro growth of these three pathogens was inhibited by dry heat treatment at 70 °C for 40 min. These pathogens were inactivated after exposing infected seeds to 70 °C dry heat for at least 90 min. Seed infection was significantly reduced by exposing the seeds to 70 °C dry heat for at least 40 min. Seed moisture content and germination were slightly reduced after 70 °C heat treatment for 40–120 min. Seed vigor remained at a high level after dry heat treatment at 70 °C for 90 min. In conclusion, 70 °C dry heat treatment for 90 min was determined to be the optimal method for eradication of C. cucumerinum, Didymella bryoniae, and C. orbiculare from cucumber seeds.

  7. Effect of potential probiotic Rhodotorula benthica D30 on the growth performance, digestive enzyme activity and immunity in juvenile sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji-hui; Zhao, Liu-qun; Liu, Jin-feng; Wang, Han; Xiao, Shan

    2015-04-01

    The effects of dietary addition of yeast Rhodotorula benthica (R. benthica) D30 which isolated from local sea mud at levels of 0 (control), 10(5), 10(6) and 10(7) CFU/g feed on the growth performance, digestive enzyme activity, immunity and disease resistance of juvenile sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus were investigated. It was shown that dietary addition of R. benthica D30 significantly increased the growth rates of sea cucumbers (p  0.05). It was observed that adding R. benthica D30 could significantly decrease the cumulative mortality of sea cucumbers. The present study demonstrated that dietary addition of R. benthica D30 could increase growth performance and some digestive enzyme activities, improve immunity and disease resistance of A. japonicus. And the medium (10(6) CFU) and high (10(7) CFU) additional levels showed better effects. It suggests that yeast R. benthica D30 could be a good probiotic for aquaculture. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Immunological comparison of the NADH:nitrate reductase from different cucumber tissues

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    Jolanta Marciniak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Soluble nitrate reductase from cucumber roots (Cucumis sativus L. was isolated and purified with blue-Sepharose 4B. Specific antibodies against the NR protein were raised by immunization of a goat. Using polyclonal antibodies anti-NR properties of the nitrate reductase from various cucumber tissues were examined. Experiments showed difference in immuno-logical properties of nitrate reductase (NR from cotyledon roots and leaves.

  9. Residues and Analysis of Degradation of Novel Fungicide Picoxystrobin in Cucumber and Soil Under Field Conditions

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    SUN Yang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The analytical method for the residues of picoxystrobin in cucumber vegetable and soil matrices was developed and the dissipation of picoxystrobin under field conditions was studied. The limit of detection(LODof picoxystrobin was 3.5×10 -11 g and the limit of quantifica-tion(LOQwas found to be 0.005 mg·kg -1 in cucumber and soil. At three different spiking levels(0.005, 0.05, 0.25 mg·kg -1, mean recoveries and relative standard deviation(RSDfrom fortified samples in five replicated experiments for each matrix were in the range of 68.61%-122.4% and 1.06%-17.2%, respectively. The results showed that the half-lives of picoxystrobin in cucumber and soil from Tianjin City were 5.71 d and 12.9 d, respectively, the half-lives of picoxystrobin in cucumber and soil from Shandong Province were 2.70 d and 10.3 d, respec-tively, and the half-lives of picoxystrobin in cucumber and soil from Jiangsu Province were 9.76 d and 14.9 d, respectively. The maximum residual concentration of picoxystrobin on the 5th day after the last application was 0.014 mg· kg -1, much lower than the Maximum Residue Limits(MRLsfor picoxystrobin in cucumber according to the standards of EU(0.05 mg·kg-1.

  10. Mechanical stress induces neuroendocrine and immune responses of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jie; Li, Fenghui; Sun, Huiling; Gao, Fei; Yan, Jingping; Gai, Chunlei; Chen, Aihua; Wang, Qingyin

    2015-04-01

    Grading procedure in routine sea cucumber hatchery production is thought to affect juvenile sea cucumber immunological response. The present study investigated the impact of a 3-min mechanical perturbation mimicking the grading procedure on neuroendocrine and immune parameters of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. During the application of stress, concentrations of noradrenaline and dopamine in coelomic fluid increased significantly, indicating that the mechanical perturbation resulted in a transient state of stress in sea cucumbers. Coelomocytes concentration in coelomic fluid increased transiently after the beginning of stressing, and reached the maximum in 1 h. Whereas, coelomocytes phagocytosis at 3 min, superoxide anion production from 3 min to 0.5 h, acid phosphatase activity at 0.5 h, and phenoloxidase activity from 3 min to 0.5 h were all significantly down-regulated. All of the immune parameters recovered to baseline levels after the experiment was conducted for 8 h, and an immunostimulation occurred after the stress considering the phagocytosis and acid phosphatase activity. The results suggested that, as in other marine invertebrates, neuroendocrine/immune connections exist in sea cucumber A. japonicus. Mechanical stress can elicit a profound influence on sea cucumber neuroendocrine system. Neuroendocrine messengers act in turn to modulate the immunity functions. Therefore, these effects should be considered for developing better husbandry procedures.

  11. Underwater image quality enhancement of sea cucumbers based on improved histogram equalization and wavelet transform

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    Xi Qiao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sea cucumbers usually live in an environment where lighting and visibility are generally not controllable, which cause the underwater image of sea cucumbers to be distorted, blurred, and severely attenuated. Therefore, the valuable information from such an image cannot be fully extracted for further processing. To solve the problems mentioned above and improve the quality of the underwater images of sea cucumbers, pre-processing of a sea cucumber image is attracting increasing interest. This paper presents a new method based on contrast limited adaptive histogram equalization and wavelet transform (CLAHE-WT to enhance the sea cucumber image quality. CLAHE was used to process the underwater image for increasing contrast based on the Rayleigh distribution, and WT was used for de-noising based on a soft threshold. Qualitative analysis indicated that the proposed method exhibited better performance in enhancing the quality and retaining the image details. For quantitative analysis, the test with 120 underwater images showed that for the proposed method, the mean square error (MSE, peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR, and entropy were 49.2098, 13.3909, and 6.6815, respectively. The proposed method outperformed three established methods in enhancing the visual quality of sea cucumber underwater gray image.

  12. Economical analysis and relation between energy inputs and yield of greenhouse cucumber production in Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammadi, Ali; Omid, Mahmoud [Department of Agricultural Machinery Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, University of Tehran, Karaj (Iran)

    2010-01-15

    This paper studies the energy balance between the input and the output per unit area for greenhouse cucumber production. For this purpose, the data on 43 cucumber production greenhouses in the Tehran province, Iran, were collected and analyzed. The results indicated that a total energy input of 148836.76 MJ ha{sup -1} was consumed for cucumber production. Diesel fuel (with 41.94%) and chemical fertilizers (with 19.69%) were amongst the highest energy inputs for cucumber production. The energy productivity was estimated as 0.80 kg MJ{sup -1}. The ratio of energy output to energy input was approximately 0.64. Results indicate 10.93% and 89.07% of total energy input was in renewable and non-renewable forms, respectively. The regression results revealed that the contribution of energy inputs on crop yield (except for fertilizers and seeds energies) was significant. The human labour energy had the highest impact (0.35) among the other inputs in greenhouse cucumber production. Econometric analysis indicated that the total cost of production for one hectare of cucumber production was around 33425.70$. Accordingly, the benefit-cost ratio was estimated as 2.58. (author)

  13. Determination of Micronutrient Accumulation in Greenhouse Cucumber Crop Using a Modeling Approach

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    Lino J. Ramírez-Pérez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The control of micronutrient application in cucumber cultivation has great importance as they participate in many functions of metabolism. In addition, micronutrient application efficiency is fundamental to avoid periods of overconsumption or deficits in the crop. To determine micronutrient accumulation using a dynamic model, two cycles of Vitaly and Luxell cucumber crops were grown. During the development of the crop, micronutrient content (Fe, B, Mn, Cu, and Zn in the different organs of the cucumber plant was quantified. The model dynamically simulated the accumulation of biomass and micronutrients using climatic variables recorded inside the greenhouse as inputs. It was found that a decrease in photosynthetically active radiation and temperature significantly diminished the accumulation of biomass by the cucumber plants. On the other hand, the results demonstrated that the model efficiently simulated both the accumulation of biomass and micronutrients in a cucumber crop. The efficiency evaluation showed values higher than R2 > 0.95. This dynamic model can be useful to define adequate strategies for the management of cucumber cultivation in greenhouses as well as the application of micronutrients.

  14. Silicon enhanced salt tolerance by improving the root water uptake and decreasing the ion toxicity in cucumber

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    Shiwen eWang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Although the effects of silicon application on enhancing plant salt tolerance have been widely investigated, the underlying mechanism has remained unclear. In this study, seedlings of cucumber, a medium silicon accumulator plant, grown in 0.83 mM silicon solution for two weeks were exposed to 65 mM NaCl solution for another one week. The dry weight and shoot/root ratio were reduced by salt stress, but silicon application significantly alleviated these decreases. The chlorophyll concentration, net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and leaf water content were higher in plants treated with silicon than in untreated plants under salt stress conditions. Further investigation showed that salt stress decreased root hydraulic conductance (Lp, but that silicon application moderated this salt-induced decrease in Lp. The higher Lp in silicon-treated plants may account for the superior plant water balance. Moreover, silicon application significantly decreased Na+ concentration in the leaves while increasing K+ concentration. Simultaneously, both free and conjugated types of polyamines were maintained at high levels in silicon-treated plants, suggesting that polyamines may be involved in the ion toxicity. Our results indicate that silicon enhances the salt tolerance of cucumber through improving plant water balance by increasing the Lp and reducing Na+ content by increasing polyamine accumulation.

  15. Effects of dietary nucleotides on growth, non-specific immune response and disease resistance of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zehong; Yi, Lina; Xu, Wei; Zhou, Huihui; Zhang, Yanjiao; Zhang, Wenbing; Mai, Kangsen

    2015-11-01

    A 9-week feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary nucleotides (NT) on growth, immune response and disease resistance of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicas (initial weight: 5.87 ± 0.03 g). Four graded levels of dietary NT were designed as 0, 150, 375 and 700 mg/kg, respectively. After the feeding trial, sea cucumbers were challenged with Vibrio splendidus for the determination of disease resistance. The results showed that the specific growth rates were significantly higher in sea cucumber fed the diet with 375 mg/kg NT than those fed the basal diet without NT supplementation (P sea cucumber fed diets with nucleotides (≥ 375 mg/kg) had significantly higher phagocytic activities in coelomic fluid (P 0.05). After being challenged with V. splendidus, the cumulative mortalities of sea cucumber fed diets with 150 and 375 mg/kg NT were significantly lower than that in the treatment without dietary nucleotide supplementation (P sea cucumber in vivo. In conclusion, it was showed that dietary NT does increase the growth performance, non-specific immunity and disease resistance of sea cucumber. The optimum dietary NT supplementation level for sea cucumber was found to be 375 mg/kg. The application of dietary NT may present a novel strategy for health management in sea cucumber's aquaculture. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cytoprotective Effects of Lysophospholipids from Sea Cucumber Holothuria atra.

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    Yoshifumi Nishikawa

    Full Text Available Lysophospholipids are important signaling molecules in animals and metazoan cells. They are widely distributed among marine invertebrates, where their physiological roles are unknown. Sea cucumbers produce unique lysophospholipids. In this study, two lysophospholipids were detected in Holothuria atra for the first time, lyso-platelet activating factor and lysophosphatidylcholine, with nuclear magnetic resonance and liquid chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometric analyses. The lipid fraction of H. atra contained lyso-platelet activating factor and lysophosphatidylcholine, and inhibited H2O2-induced apoptosis in the macrophage cell line J774A.1. The antioxidant activity of the lysophospholipid-containing lipid fraction of H. atra was confirmed with the oxygen radical absorbance capacity method. Our results suggest that the lysophospholipids from H. atra are potential therapeutic agents for the inflammation induced by oxidative stress.

  17. Diploidization of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. haploids by colchicine treatment

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    Vesselina Nikolova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Haploid cucumber plants are totally infertile and do not undergo spontaneous diploidization. The use of haploids depends on the possibility of doubling the chromosome number and the obtaining of stable doubled haploids (DH. Four haploids of different genotypes propagated vegetatively were treated with colchicine in order to obtain DH. The following procedures were used: 1 apical shoot meristem treatment, 2 soaking of shoot explants, 3 placing of shoot explants on medium with colchicine. Plants of the C1 generation were evaluated in respect to morphological and cytological characters and fertility. The best result of 20.9% DH was obtained after repeated treatment of the meristem with colchicine. A large group of chimeras (28.5% was also distinguished as were haploids and tetraploids. DH plants were fertile and gave uniform progeny. Chimeras had a decreased fertility and showed disturbances in meiotic divisions.

  18. Estimation of Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7 prevalence and levels in naturally contaminated rocket and cucumber samples by deterministic and stochastic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjilouka, Agni; Mantzourani, Kyriaki-Sofia; Katsarou, Anastasia; Cavaiuolo, Marina; Ferrante, Antonio; Paramithiotis, Spiros; Mataragas, Marios; Drosinos, Eleftherios H

    2015-02-01

    The aims of the present study were to determine the prevalence and levels of Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in rocket and cucumber samples by deterministic (estimation of a single value) and stochastic (estimation of a range of values) approaches. In parallel, the chromogenic media commonly used for the recovery of these microorganisms were evaluated and compared, and the efficiency of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based protocol was validated. L. monocytogenes and E. coli O157:H7 were detected and enumerated using agar Listeria according to Ottaviani and Agosti plus RAPID' L. mono medium and Fluorocult plus sorbitol MacConkey medium with cefixime and tellurite in parallel, respectively. Identity was confirmed with biochemical and molecular tests and the ELISA. Performance indices of the media and the prevalence of both pathogens were estimated using Bayesian inference. In rocket, prevalence of both L. monocytogenes and E. coli O157:H7 was estimated at 7% (7 of 100 samples). In cucumber, prevalence was 6% (6 of 100 samples) and 3% (3 of 100 samples) for L. monocytogenes and E. coli O157:H7, respectively. The levels derived from the presence-absence data using Bayesian modeling were estimated at 0.12 CFU/25 g (0.06 to 0.20) and 0.09 CFU/25 g (0.04 to 0.170) for L. monocytogenes in rocket and cucumber samples, respectively. The corresponding values for E. coli O157:H7 were 0.59 CFU/25 g (0.43 to 0.78) and 1.78 CFU/25 g (1.38 to 2.24), respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the culture media differed for rocket and cucumber samples. The ELISA technique had a high level of cross-reactivity. Parallel testing with at least two culture media was required to achieve a reliable result for L. monocytogenes or E. coli O157:H7 prevalence in rocket and cucumber samples.

  19. Development of an embryonic skeletogenic mesenchyme lineage in a sea cucumber reveals the trajectory of change for the evolution of novel structures in echinoderms

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    McCauley Brenna S

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mechanisms by which the conserved genetic “toolkit” for development generates phenotypic disparity across metazoans is poorly understood. Echinoderm larvae provide a great resource for understanding how developmental novelty arises. The sea urchin pluteus larva is dramatically different from basal echinoderm larval types, which include the auricularia-type larva of its sister taxon, the sea cucumbers, and the sea star bipinnaria larva. In particular, the pluteus has a mesodermally-derived larval skeleton that is not present in sea star larvae or any outgroup taxa. To understand the evolutionary origin of this structure, we examined the molecular development of mesoderm in the sea cucumber, Parastichopus parvimensis. Results By comparing gene expression in sea urchins, sea cucumbers and sea stars, we partially reconstructed the mesodermal regulatory state of the echinoderm ancestor. Surprisingly, we also identified expression of the transcription factor alx1 in a cryptic skeletogenic mesenchyme lineage in P. parvimensis. Orthologs of alx1 are expressed exclusively within the sea urchin skeletogenic mesenchyme, but are not expressed in the mesenchyme of the sea star, which suggests that alx1+ mesenchyme is a synapomorphy of at least sea urchins and sea cucumbers. Perturbation of Alx1 demonstrates that this protein is necessary for the formation of the sea cucumber spicule. Overexpression of the sea star alx1 ortholog in sea urchins is sufficient to induce additional skeleton, indicating that the Alx1 protein has not evolved a new function during the evolution of the larval skeleton. Conclusions The proposed echinoderm ancestral mesoderm state is highly conserved between the morphologically similar, but evolutionarily distant, auricularia and bipinnaria larvae. However, the auricularia, but not bipinnaria, also develops a simple skelotogenic cell lineage. Our data indicate that the first step in acquiring these novel

  20. Occurrence, characterization and management of fruit rot of immature cucumber fruits under arid greenhouse conditions

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    ABDULLAH M AL-SADI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was undertaken to characterize and manage pathogens associated with fruit rot of immature cucumber fruits in greenhouses in Oman. A survey over 5 growing seasons from 2008 to 2010 in 99 different greenhouses in Oman showed that the disease is prevalent in 91 (92% greenhouses and results in losses of 10 to 60% (avg. 33% of immature fruits per plant. Incidence of the disease was not found to be affected by growing seasons, which could be attributed to the limited fluctuations in ambient temperatures in greenhouses. Isolations from diseased cucumber fruits yielded Alternaria alternata (isolation frequency = 52%, Fusarium equiseti (40%, Cladosporium tenuissium (27%, Botrytis cinerea (6%, Fusarium solani (6%, Corynespora cassiicola (3%, Aspergillus spp. (2%, Curvularia sp. (1% and Bipolaris sp. (1%. With the exception of Curvularia and Bipolaris species, all other fungi were pathogenic on cucumber fruits, with Fusarium equiseti being the most aggressive, followed by Corynespora cassiicola, Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria alternata. Cladosporium and Aspergillus spp. were found to be weakly pathogenic. Comparing the efficacy of foliar and soil applications of carbendazim fungicide on fruit rot of cucumber showed that foliar applications significantly reduced fruit rot and increased cucumber yield when compared to soil application or to control (P < 0.01. This appears to be the first report of the association of Corynespora cassiicola and Fusarium equiseti with fruit rot of immature greenhouse cucumbers. This is also the first report in Oman for the association of Cladosporium tenuissimum with fruit rot of immature cucumbers. Findings are discussed in terms of factors affecting disease control in greenhouses using carbendazim.

  1. Evaluation of the Yield and Water Use Efficiency of the Cucumber Inside Greenhouses

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    Ahmed Abied Hamza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The need to provide fresh and good quality products during long periods throughout the year lead to the adoption of using greenhouses technology, so protected cropping has become a very popular production system in horticulture especially nowadays in Iraq. Evaluation the crop’s yield, water use efficiency and the irrigation system performance became essential. The main objectives of this research were to evaluate the yield index and the water use efficiency for the cucumber inside the greenhouses, and evaluate the performance of the drip irrigation efficiency inside the greenhouses. To accomplish these goals an experiment was conducted in the field located in AL-Mahawil Township in Babylon province .A set of measurements were recorded daily inside the greenhouses planting with cucumber for two consecutive seasons 2014 and 2015 related to weather parameters, crop evapotranspiration, drip system’s performance, and crop’s production. From the conducted field work inside the greenhouses and the analysis of the field data, the following conclusions were withdrawn: daily cucumber’s crop evapotranspiration was measured using the watermarks sensors, the total crop evapotranspiration for the seasons 2014 and 2015 were: 218.21mm and 281.86mm, respectively. The increasing in the crop evapotranspiration was due to change in weather parameters inside the greenhouses. The cucumber’s yield index for seasons 2014 and 2015 was: 8.87 and 8.53 kg/m2, respectively, which was close values between the two seasons. In this study, the yield index was high comparing with others approaches. The water use efficiency for the seasons 2014 and 2015 were: 23.23 and 18.22 kg/m3, respectively, which were low values comparing with other approaches. The reduction in the water use efficiency was due to the huge quantities of water applied through the seasons. Additionally, the irrigation efficiency for the drip system in this study for the seasons 2014 and 2015 were: 65

  2. Assessment of General and Specific Combining Ability and Heterosis of Some Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. Lines for Vegetative Traits

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    Fatemeh Moradipour

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. is one of the most widely cultivated vegetables. Plant length is a quantitative trait is controlled by many genes. These traits are difficult to study due to the complex nature of their inheritance. The combining ability estimation is useful in determining the breeding value of cucumber lines by suggesting the appropriate use in a breeding program. In studying combining ability, the most commonly utilized experimental approach is the diallel design. General combining ability is a measure of additive genetic action; and specific combining ability (SCA is deviation from additivity. General combining ability is a main effect and SCA is an interaction. The aim is to determine the breeding value of the cross. Heterosis has been utilized to exploit dominance variance through production of hybrids. There are reports on positive and negative heterosis in cucumber however, there are differences between reports. This research was conducted to estimate general and specific combining ability and heterosis in cucumber inbred lines and hybrids to produce hybrids with high yield and quality. Material and Methods: In the spring of 2014, the seven parental lines and their 21 F1 hybrid were planted at the University of Guilan, in loamy sand field. Three replications were arranged in a randomized complete block design. The sandy loam soil was prepared by plowing and disking and formed into raised beds by plowed and harrow prior to plant establishment. Rows were on 1 m centers and plants were about 25 cm apart in the row. Prior to planting 150 kg·ha-1 of nitrogen from urea and 100 kg·ha-1 of phosphorous from triple superphosphate and 80 kg·ha-1 of potassium sulfate was applied. Side dressing with the same amount of nitrogen and phosphorus occurred at 50% flowering stage. Irrigation with 250 m3·ha-1, three times weekly, was begun at plant first flowering. In each replication, 12 individuals of each line or hybrid were

  3. Effects of different algae in diet on growth and interleukin (IL-10 production of juvenile sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Anisuzzaman

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of different algae in diet on growth, survival, and interleukin-10 productions of sea cucumber. At first, a 9-week feeding trail was conducted to evaluate the growth performance and survival of the sea cucumber fed one of the six experimental diets containing ST (Sargassum thunbergii, UL (Ulva lactuca, UP (Undaria pinnatifida, LJ (Laminaria japonica, SS (Schizochytrium sp., and NO (Nannochloropsis oculata in a recirculating aquaculture system. The result showed that survival was not significantly different among the dietary treatments, and the specific growth rate (SGR of sea cucumber fed the UL diet (1.58% d−1 was significantly higher than that of sea cucumber fed the other diets (P < 0.05, except for the LJ and NO diets. Secondly, interleukin (IL-10 gene expression was determined where mice splenocytes were stimulated with 10 μg ml−1 of sea cucumber extracts for 2 h. The result showed that IL-10 gene expression levels were significantly increased in UL, LJ, and NO diets fed sea cucumber extracts compared to other experimental diets. The results suggest that dietary inclusion with Ulva lactuca, Laminaria japonica, and Nannochloropsis oculata algae may improve the growth of juvenile sea cucumber and could upregulate IL-10 gene expression in mice splenocytes. Such detailed information could be helpful in further development of more appropriate diets for sea cucumber culture.

  4. Non-destructive root oxygen use measurement III : cucumber propagation in rockwool in a climate chamber, July-August 2001

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gérard, S.; Blok, C.

    2001-01-01

    Cucumbers were propagated in rockwool cubes in a climate cell for four weeks. The complete root system of each cucumber was enclosed in an airtight box. Each box was connected to an air bag, which acted as an air reservoir. A peristaltic pump ensured air circulation in the system. The goal of this

  5. Qualitative and Quantitative Saponin Contents in Five Sea Cucumbers from the Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyck, Séverine; Gerbaux, Pascal; Flammang, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    To avoid predation, holothuroids produce feeding-deterrent molecules in their body wall and viscera, the so-called saponins. Five tropical sea cucumber species of the family Holothuriidae were investigated in order to study their saponin content in two different organs, the body wall and the Cuvierian tubules. Mass spectrometry techniques (MALDI- and ESI-MS) were used to detect and analyze saponins. The smallest number of saponins was observed in Holothuria atra, which contained a total of four congeners, followed by Holothuria leucospilota, Pearsonothuria graeffei and Actinopyga echinites with six, eight and ten congeners, respectively. Bohadschia subrubra revealed the highest saponin diversity (19 congeners). Saponin mixtures also varied between the two body compartments within a given animal. A semi-quantitative approach completed these results and showed that a high diversity of saponins is not particularly correlated to a high saponin concentration. Although the complexity of the saponin mixtures described makes the elucidation of their respective biological roles difficult, the comparisons between species and between body compartments give some clues about how these molecules may act as predator repellents. PMID:20161976

  6. Evaluation of body weight of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus by computer vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Xu, Qiang; Liu, Shilin; Zhang, Libin; Yang, Hongsheng

    2015-01-01

    A postichopus japonicus (Holothuroidea, Echinodermata) is an ecological and economic species in East Asia. Conventional biometric monitoring method includes diving for samples and weighing above water, with highly variable in weight measurement due to variation in the quantity of water in the respiratory tree and intestinal content of this species. Recently, video survey method has been applied widely in biometric detection on underwater benthos. However, because of the high flexibility of A. japonicus body, video survey method of monitoring is less used in sea cucumber. In this study, we designed a model to evaluate the wet weight of A. japonicus, using machine vision technology combined with a support vector machine (SVM) that can be used in field surveys on the A. japonicus population. Continuous dorsal images of free-moving A. japonicus individuals in seawater were captured, which also allows for the development of images of the core body edge as well as thorn segmentation. Parameters that include body length, body breadth, perimeter and area, were extracted from the core body edge images and used in SVM regression, to predict the weight of A. japonicus and for comparison with a power model. Results indicate that the use of SVM for predicting the weight of 33 A. japonicus individuals is accurate ( R 2=0.99) and compatible with the power model ( R 2 =0.96). The image-based analysis and size-weight regression models in this study may be useful in body weight evaluation of A. japonicus in lab and field study.

  7. Qualitative and Quantitative Saponin Contents in Five Sea Cucumbers from the Indian Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Flammang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To avoid predation, holothuroids produce feeding-deterrent molecules in their body wall and viscera, the so-called saponins. Five tropical sea cucumber species of the family Holothuriidae were investigated in order to study their saponin content in two different organs, the body wall and the Cuvierian tubules. Mass spectrometry techniques (MALDI- and ESI-MS were used to detect and analyze saponins. The smallest number of saponins was observed in Holothuria atra, which contained a total of four congeners, followed by Holothuria leucospilota, Pearsonothuria graeffei and Actinopyga echinites with six, eight and ten congeners, respectively. Bohadschia subrubra revealed the highest saponin diversity (19 congeners. Saponin mixtures also varied between the two body compartments within a given animal. A semi-quantitative approach completed these results and showed that a high diversity of saponins is not particularly correlated to a high saponin concentration. Although the complexity of the saponin mixtures described makes the elucidation of their respective biological roles difficult, the comparisons between species and between body compartments give some clues about how these molecules may act as predator repellents.

  8. Identification and bioinformatics comparison of two novel phosphatases in monoecious and gynoecious cucumber lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawełkowicz, Magdalena E.; Wojcieszek, Michał; Osipowski, Paweł; Krzywkowski, Tomasz; PlÄ der, Wojciech; Przybecki, Zbigniew

    2016-09-01

    Two Arabidopsis thaliana genes from the PP2C family of protein phosphatases (AtABI1 and AtABI2) were used to find orthologous genes in the Cucumis sativus L. cv. Borszczagowski (cucumber) genome. Cucumber has been used as a model plant for sex expression studies because although it has been defined as a monoecious species, numerous genotypes are known to produce only female, only male, or hermaphroditic flowers. We identified two new orthologous genes of AtABI1 and AtABI2 in the cucumber genome and named them CsABI1 and CsABI2. To determine the relationships between the regulation of CsABI1 and CsABI2 and flower morphogenesis in cucumber, we performed various computational analyses to define the structure of the genes, and to predict regulatory elements and protein motifs in their sequences. We also performed an expression analysis to identify differences in the expression levels of CsABI1 and CsABI2 in vegetative and generative tissues (leaf, shoot apex, and flower buds) of monoecious (B10) and gynoecious (2gg) cucumber lines. We found that the expressions of CsABI1 and CsABI2 differed in male and female floral buds, and correlated these findings with the abscisic acid signaling pathways in male and female flowers.

  9. Selection Of Suitable Particle Size And Particle Ratio For Japanese Cucumber Cucumis Sativus L. Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galahitigama GAH

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to select the best particle size of coco peat for cucumber nurseries as well as best particle ratio for optimum plant growth and development of cucumber. The experiment was carried out in International Foodstuff Company and Faculty of Agriculture University of Ruhuna Sri Lanka during 2015 to 2016. Under experiment one three types of different particle sizes were used namely fine amp88040.5mm T2 medium 3mm-0.5mm T3 and coarse 4mm T4 with normal coco peat T1 as treatments. Complete Randomized Design CRD used as experimental design with five replicates. Germination percentage number of leaves per seedling seedling height in frequent day intervals was taken as growth parameters. Analysis of variance procedure was applied to analyze the data at 5 probability level. The results revealed that medium size particle media sieve size 0.5mm -3mm of coco peat was the best particle size for cucumber nursery practice when considered the physical and chemical properties of medium particles of coco peat. In the experiment of selecting of suitable particle ratio for cucumber plants the compressed mixture of coco peat particles that contain 70 ww unsieved coco peat 20 ww coarse particles and 10 ww coconut husk chips 5 12mm has given best results for growth performances compared to other treatments and cucumber grown in this mixture has shown maximum growth and yield performances.

  10. Development of Efficient Screening Methods for Resistant Cucumber Plants to Meloidogyne incognita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Min Hwang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Root-knot nematodes represent a significant problem in cucumber, causing reduction in yield and quality. To develop screening methods for resistance of cucumber to root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita, development of root-knot nematode of four cucumber cultivars (‘Dragonsamchuk’, ‘Asiastrike’, ‘Nebakja’ and ‘Hanelbakdadaki’ according to several conditions such as inoculum concentration, plant growth stage and transplanting period was investigated by the number of galls and egg masses produced in each seedling 45 days after inoculation. There was no difference in galls and egg masses according to the tested condition except for inoculum concentration. Reproduction of the nematode on all the tested cultivars according to inoculum concentration increased in a dose-dependent manner. On the basis of the result, the optimum conditions for root-knot development on the cultivars is to transplant period of 1 week, inoculum concentration of 5,000 eggs/plant and plant growth stage of 3-week-old in a greenhouse (25 ± 5°C. In addition, under optimum conditions, resistance of 45 commercial cucumber cultivars was evaluated. One rootstock cultivar, Union was moderately resistant to the root-knot nematode. However, no significant difference was in the resistance of the others cultivar. According to the result, we suggest an efficient screening method for new resistant cucumber to the root-knot nematode, M. incognita.

  11. Growth, metabolism and physiological response of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus Selenka during periods of inactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Rongbin; Zang, Yuanqi; Tian, Xiangli; Dong, Shuanglin

    2013-03-01

    The growth, metabolism and physiological response of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus, were investigated during periods of inactivity. The body weight, oxygen consumption rate (OCR), activities of acidic phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and content of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) in the body wall and coelomic fluid of A. japonicus were measured during starvation, experimental aestivation and aestivation. The results showed that the body weight of sea cucumber in the three treatments decreased significantly during the experimental period ( P sea cucumber reduced in starvation and experimental aestivation treatments, but increased gradually in natural aestivation treatment. The activities of ACP and AKP of sea cucumber decreased gradually in all treatments, whereas those of SOD and CAT as well as Hsp70 content decreased in the starvation and experimental aestivation treatments and increased in natural aestivation treatment. The sea cucumber entered a state of aestivation at 24°C. To some extent, the animals in experimental aestivation were different from those in natural aestivation in metabolism and physiological response. These findings suggested that the aestivation mechanism of A. japonicus is complex and may not be attributed to the elevated temperature only.

  12. Sea Cucumber Glycosides: Chemical Structures, Producing Species and Important Biological Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondol, Muhammad Abdul Mojid; Shin, Hee Jae; Rahman, M Aminur; Islam, Mohamad Tofazzal

    2017-10-17

    Sea cucumbers belonging to echinoderm are traditionally used as tonic food in China and other Asian countries. They produce abundant biologically active triterpene glycosides. More than 300 triterpene glycosides have been isolated and characterized from various species of sea cucumbers, which are classified as holostane and nonholostane depending on the presence or absence of a specific structural unit γ(18,20)-lactone in the aglycone. Triterpene glycosides contain a carbohydrate chain up to six monosaccharide units mainly consisting of d-xylose, 3-O-methy-d-xylose, d-glucose, 3-O-methyl-d-glucose, and d-quinovose. Cytotoxicity is the common biological property of triterpene glycosides isolated from sea cucumbers. Besides cytotoxicity, triterpene glycosides also exhibit antifungal, antiviral and hemolytic activities. This review updates and summarizes our understanding on diverse chemical structures of triterpene glycosides from various species of sea cucumbers and their important biological activities. Mechanisms of action and structural-activity relationships (SARs) of sea cucumber glycosides are also discussed briefly.

  13. Effect of mycorrhizas application on plant growth and nutrient uptake in cucumber production under field conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortas, I.

    2010-07-01

    Mycorrhizas application in horticultural production in the Eastern Mediterranean region of Turkey has been studied under field conditions for several years. The effects of different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have been evaluated under field conditions for cucumber production. The parameters measured were seedling survival, plant growth and yield, and root colonization. In 1998 and 1999, Glomus mosseae and Glomus etunicatum inoculated cucumber seedlings were treated with and without P (100 kg P2O5 ha-1) application. A second experiment was set up to evaluate the response of cucumber to the inoculation with a consortia of indigenous mycorrhizae, G. mosseae, G. etunicatum, Glomus clarum, Glomus caledonium and a mixture of these four species. Inoculated and control non inoculated cucumber seedlings were established under field conditions in 1998, 2001, 2002 and 2004. Seedling quality, seedling survival under field conditions and yield response to mycorrhiza were tested. Fruits were harvested periodically; at blossom, plant leaves and root samples were taken for nutrient content and mycorrhizal colonization analysis respectively. The field experiment results showed that mycorrhiza inoculation significantly increased cucumber seedling survival, fruit yield, P and Zn shoot concentrations. Indigenous mycorrhiza inoculum was successful in colonizing plant roots and resulted in better plant growth and yield. The relative effectiveness of each of the inocula tested was not consistent in the different experiments, although inoculated plants always grew better than control no inoculated. The most relevant result for growers was the increased survival of seedlings. (Author) 20 refs.

  14. Modification of the cellular heat sensitivity of cucumber by growth under supplemental ultraviolet-B radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, C.R.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of ultraviolet B (UV-B) radiation on the thermal sensitivity of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) was studied using UV-B-sensitive cv Poinsett 76 and UV-B-resistant cv Ashley grown under control and elevated (300 mW m -2 ) UV-B radiation levels. Using both cotyledon and leaf discs, the ability of the tissue to reduce triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) was determined after treatment at 50 degrees C for various times. Semilogarithmic plots of TTC reduction as a function of time at 50 degrees were curvilinear. They were monophasic for the control cucumber and biphasic for cucumber grown in the presence of elevated UV-B. Treatment of cucumber plants at 37 degrees C for 24 h or of tissue discs at acute UV-B levels for 1 h further modified their response to elevated temperature. These results suggest that growth of cucumber under enhanced UV-B radiation levels increased its ability to withstand elevated temperatures. 19 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Nitrate Protects Cucumber Plants Against Fusarium oxysporum by Regulating Citrate Exudation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Sun, Yuming; Gu, Zechen; Wang, Ruirui; Sun, Guomei; Zhu, Chen; Guo, Shiwei; Shen, Qirong

    2016-09-01

    Fusarium wilt causes severe yield losses in cash crops. Nitrogen plays a critical role in the management of plant disease; however, the regulating mechanism is poorly understood. Using biochemical, physiological, bioinformatic and transcriptome approaches, we analyzed how nitrogen forms regulate the interactions between cucumber plants and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC). Nitrate significantly suppressed Fusarium wilt compared with ammonium in both pot and hydroponic experiments. Fewer FOC colonized the roots and stems under nitrate compared with ammonium supply. Cucumber grown with nitrate accumulated less fusaric acid (FA) after FOC infection and exhibited increased tolerance to chemical FA by decreasing FA absorption and transportation in shoots. A lower citrate concentration was observed in nitrate-grown cucumbers, which was associated with lower MATE (multidrug and toxin compound extrusion) family gene and citrate synthase (CS) gene expression, as well as lower CS activity. Citrate enhanced FOC spore germination and infection, and increased disease incidence and the FOC population in ammonium-treated plants. Our study provides evidence that nitrate protects cucumber plants against F. oxysporum by decreasing root citrate exudation and FOC infection. Citrate exudation is essential for regulating disease development of Fusarium wilt in cucumber plants. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Evapotranspiration Modeling by Linear, Nonlinear Regression and Artificial Neural Network in Greenhouse (Case study Reference Crop, Cucumber and Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    vahid Rezaverdinejad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Greenhouse cultivation is a steadily developing agricultural sector throughout the world. In addition, it is known that water is a major issue almost all part of the world especially for countries which have insufficient water source. With this great expansion of greenhouse cultivation, the need of appropriate irrigation management has a great importance. Accurate determination of irrigation scheduling (irrigation timing and frequency is one of the main factors in achieving high yields and avoiding loss of quality in greenhouse tomato and cucumber. To do this, it is fundamental to know the crop water requirements or real evapotranspiration. Accurate estimation on crop water requirement is needed to avoid the excess or deficit water application, with consequent impacts on nutrient availability for plants. This can be done by using appropriate method to determine the crop evapotranspiration (ETc. In greenhouse cultivation, crop transpiration is the most important energy dissipation mechanisms that influence ETc rate. There are a large number of literatures on methods to estimate ETc in greenhouses. ETc can be measured or estimated by direct or indirect methods. The most common direct method estimates ETc from measurements with weighing lysimeters. Thisalsoincludes the evaporation measuring equipment, class A pan, Piche atmometer and modified atmometer. Indirect method includes the measurement of net radiation, temperature, relative humidity, and air vapour pressure deficit. A large number of models have been developed from these measurements to estimate ETc. Due to the fast development of under greenhouse cultivation all around the world, the needs of information on how it affects ETc in greenhouses has to be known and summarized. The existing models for ETc calculation have to be studied to know whether it is reliable for greenhouse climate (hereafter, microclimate or not. Regression and artificial neural network models are two

  17. Elevated and super-elevated CO2 differ in their interactive effects with nitrogen availability on fruit yield and quality of cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jinlong; Xu, Qiao; Gruda, Nazim; Chu, Wenying; Li, Xun; Duan, Zengqiang

    2018-02-25

    Elevated carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and nitrogen (N) availability can interactively promote cucumber yield, but how the yield increase is realized remains unclear, whilst the interactive effects on fruit quality are unknown. In this study, cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Jinmei No. 3) were grown in a paddy soil under three CO 2 concentrations - 400 (ambient CO 2 ), 800 (elevated CO 2 , eCO 2 ) and 1200 µmol mol -1 (super-elevated CO 2 ) - and two N applications - 0.06 (low N) and 0.24 g N kg -1 soil (high N). Compared with ambient CO 2 , eCO 2 increased yield by 106% in high N but the increase in total biomass was only 33%. This can result from greater carbon translocation to fruits from other organs, indicated by the increased biomass allocation from stems and leaves, particularly source leaves, to fruits and the decreased concentrations of fructose and glucose in source leaves. Super-elevated CO 2 reduced the carbon allocation to fruits thus yield increase (71%). Additionally, eCO 2 also increased the concentrations of fructose and glucose in fruits, maintained the concentrations of dietary fiber, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulfur, manganese, copper, molybdenum and sodium, whilst it decreased the concentrations of nitrate, protein, iron, and zinc in high N. Compared with eCO 2 , super-elevated CO 2 can still improve the fruit quality to some extent in low N availability. Elevated CO 2 promotes cucumber yield largely by carbon allocation from source leaves to fruits in high N availability. Besides a dilution effect, carbon allocation to fruits, carbohydrate transformation, and nutrient uptake and assimilation can affect the fruit quality. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Sustainability evaluation of different systems for sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) farming based on emergy theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guodong; Dong, Shuanglin; Tian, Xiangli; Gao, Qinfeng; Wang, Fang

    2015-06-01

    Emergy analysis is effective for analyzing ecological economic systems. However, the accuracy of the approach is affected by the diversity of economic level, meteorological and hydrological parameters in different regions. The present study evaluated the economic benefits, environmental impact, and sustainability of indoor, semi-intensive and extensive farming systems of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) in the same region. The results showed that A. japonicus indoor farming system was high in input and output (yield) whereas pond extensive farming system was low in input and output. The output/input ratio of indoor farming system was lower than that of pond extensive farming system, and the output/input ratio of semi-intensive farming system fell in between them. The environmental loading ratio of A. japonicus extensive farming system was lower than that of indoor farming system. In addition, the emergy yield and emergy exchange ratios, and emergy sustainability and emergy indexes for sustainable development were higher in extensive farming system than those in indoor farming system. These results indicated that the current extensive farming system exerted fewer negative influences on the environment, made more efficient use of available resources, and met more sustainable development requirements than the indoor farming system. A. japonicus farming systems showed more emergy benefits than fish farming systems. The pond farming systems of A. japonicus exploited more free local environmental resources for production, caused less potential pressure on the local environment, and achieved higher sustainability than indoor farming system.

  19. Amino acid composition and functional properties of giant red sea cucumber ( Parastichopus californicus) collagen hydrolysates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zunying; Su, Yicheng; Zeng, Mingyong

    2011-03-01

    Giant red sea cucumber ( Parastichopus californicus) is an under-utilized species due to its high tendency to autolysis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional properties of collagen hydrolysates from this species. The degree of hydrolysis (DH), amino acid composition, SDS-PAGE, emulsion activity index (EAI), emulsion stability index (ESI), foam expansion (FE), and foam stability (FS) of hydrolysates were investigated. The effects of pH on the EAI, ESI FE and FS of hydrolysates were also investigated. The results indicated that the β and α 1 chains of the collagen were effectively hydrolyzed by trypsin at 50°c with an Enzyme/Substrate (E/S) ration of 1:20 (w:w). The DH of collagen was up to 17.3% after 3 h hydrolysis with trypsin. The hydrolysates had a molecular weight distribution of 1.1-17 kDa, and were abundant in glycine (Gly), proline (Pro), glutamic acid (Glu), alanine (Ala) and hydroxyproline (Hyp) residues. The hydrolysates were fractionated into three fractions ( 10 kDa), and the fraction of 3-10 kDa exhibited a higher EAI value than the fraction of > 10 kDa ( P 10 kDa had higher FE and FS values than other fractions ( P 10 kDa showed higher FE value, respectively. They are hoped to be utilized as functional ingredients in food and nutraceutical industries.

  20. Phosphorylation of glyoxysomal malate synthase from castor oil seed endosperm and cucumber cotyledon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Y.P; Randall, D.D.

    1989-01-01

    Glyoxysomal malate synthase (MS) was purified to apparent homogeneity from 3-d germinating castor oil seed endosperm by a relatively simple procedure including two sucrose density gradient centrifugations. Antibodies raised to the caster oil seed MS crossreacted with MS from cucumber cotyledon. MS was phosphorylated in both tissues in an MgATP dependent reaction. The phosphorylation pattern was similar for both enzymes and both enzymes were inhibited by NaF, NaMo, (NH 4 )SO 4 , glyoxylate and high concentration of MgCl 2 (60 mM), but was not inhibited by NaCl and malate. Further characterization of the phosphorylation of MS from castor oil seed endosperms showed that the 5S form of MS is the form which is labelled by 32 P. The addition of exogenous alkaline phosphatase to MS not only decreased enzyme activity, but could also dephosphorylate phospho-MS. The relationship between dephosphorylation of MS and the decrease of MS activity is currently under investigation

  1. Influence of light, UV-B radiation, and herbicides on wax biosynthesis of cucumber seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tevini, M.; Steinmüller, D.

    1987-01-01

    The behavior of cuticular alkane-1-ols and alkanes were studied in different developmental stages of cucumber seedlings grown in the dark or under white light, with or without UV-B radiation or in presence of wax biosynthesis inhibitors, trichloroacetic acid and metolachlor. Accumulation of alkane-1-ols increased light independently with seedling age. Synthesis of alkanes was strictly light and dose dependent. Addition of UV-B radiation did not alter the amounts of alkanes or alcohols, however, the distribution of homologues was shifted towards shorter chain homologues. Treatments with Cl 3 AcOH resulted in strong inhibition of alkane accumulation, whereas the amount of alkane-1-ols was changed neither at low nor at moderate concentrations of Cl 3 AcOH but their homologue distribution shifted towards longer chain lengths. This shifting was depressed in the presence of UV-B. At high concentrations of Cl 3 Ac0H similar homologue distributions as produced by UV-B (shift to shorter homologues) were observed. Metolachlor treatment resulted in an inhibition of alkane-1-ol production connected with rising amounts of alkanes, predominantly of short chain species. A simple model of wax biosynthesis is proposed which describes the interactions with white light, UV-B radiation and herbicides. (author)

  2. Effect of adding wood vinegar on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L) seed germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Ming; Liu, Bingjie; Wang, Xiao

    2018-03-01

    Wood vinegar, a liquid by-product that was obtained from the condensed vapor generated during the biomass pyrolysis, had been reported as plant growth promotor, but the impact on the plant seeds was still not clear. Thus, we investigated the effects of wood vinegar on the germination and seedling growth of cucumber seeds through the germination experiments. The results showed that the different diluted wood vinegar addition showed no significant difference in the germination rates of cucumber seeds compared to those of the CK treatment (P > 0.05). However, the added wood vinegar at the 10000-time dilution significantly increased the root length and dry biomass of cucumber by 20.9 % and 5.92 %, respectively (P < 0.05). Therefore, the wood vinegar at an optimal time of dilution could be used a promising soaking agent for the seeds germination, and further enhance crop yields.

  3. Lindane residues in cultivated cucumber and in the most consumed fish in Caspian Sea (Iran).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokrzadeh, M; Saeedi Saravi, S S; Zehtab Yazdi, Y

    2009-09-01

    In this study, the concentrations of lindane residues (organochlorine pesticides) were analyzed in samples of cultivated cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L.) and four species of most consumed fish (Sefid, Koli, Kilca and Kafal fish). Samples of cucumber were collected from five sites in Sari city (north, south, east, west and central areas) and samples of fish were caught using electric fishing from four major fishing centers (Chalous and Babolsar cities, Khazar Abad and Miankaleh regions) in Mazandaran province of Iran. Quantitative determination of the lindane content was performed by gas chromatography electron-capture detection (GC-ECD). The results showed that the concentration of lindane in cucumber samples and in the dorsal muscle of the selected fish were less than the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) recommended intake.

  4. Characteristics of the Japanese sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus's population in the Sea of Japan (Kievka Bay)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilova, G. S.; Sukhin, I. Yu.

    2011-06-01

    In Kievka Bay of the Sea of Japan, the population of the Japanese sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus inhabits the areas of coarse sediments and complex bottom topography. These distributional patterns are closely related to the species' ecology, i.e., to the demand for protection against the wave turbulence. The aggregationing coverage of the sea cucumber population is about 80 hectares, where ˜200 thousand animals were accounted for in the last years. The aggregation's area varies during the year, which is closely related to the species' biological peculiarities, such as their behavioral patterns and the redistribution of their food resources. A significant increase of the juvenile population occurred after the farm-reared sea cucumber spat were released in 2003.

  5. Use of phages to control Vibrio splendidus infection in the juvenile sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Li, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Jiancheng; Wang, Xitao; Wang, Lili; Cao, Zhenhui; Xu, Yongping

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, we isolated 3 bacteriophages with the ability to control Vibrio splendidus, a bacterium known to cause disease in the juvenile sea cucumber. These bacteriophages were designated as vB_VspS_VS-ABTNL-1 (PVS-1), vB_VspS_VS-ABTNL-2 (PVS-2) and vB_VspS_VS-ABTNL-3 (PVS-3). The ability of the 3 phages to inhibit the growth of V. splendidus VS-ABTNL was tested in vitro using each of the 3 phages individually or in the form of a cocktail of all 3 phages in the proportion of 1:1:1. All treated cultures produced a significant (P sea cucumbers (23 ± 2 g) were randomly assigned to 1 of 6 treatments. Each treatment was housed in 3 PVC tanks (38 cm × 54 cm × 80 cm) with 20 sea cucumbers per tank. Six diets were prepared including an unsupplemented control diet, antibiotic treatment diet, 3 diets containing 1 of the 3 phages individually and a diet containing a cocktail of all 3 phages. After 60 days of feeding, all sea cucumber were challenged with V. splendidus VS-ABTNL by immersion in sea water containing a bacterial concentration of 6 × 10(6) CFU/mL for 2 days. The survival rate of sea cucumbers during the next 10 days was 18% for the unsupplemented diet, 82% for the antibiotic treatment, 82% for the phage cocktail, 65% for phage PVS-1, 58% for phage PVS-2 and 50% for phage PVS-3. There were no significant differences in weight gain, ingestion rate or feed conversion among sea cucumber fed the 4 phage treatments compared with those fed the unsupplemented diet (P > 0.05). The levels of nitric oxide synthase and acid phosphatase of sea cucumbers fed phage-containing diets were significantly (P  0.05) were detected among the 4 phage-fed treatments. An additional study was conducted in which 60 healthy sea cucumbers (23 ± 2 g) were randomly assigned to a control, an untreated group and a test group to investigate the effects of injecting phages by coelomic injection on the survival rate and enzyme activities in the coelomic fluid

  6. iTRAQ reveals proteomic changes during intestine regeneration in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lina; Xu, Dongxue; Xu, Qinzeng; Sun, Jingchun; Xing, Lili; Zhang, Libin; Yang, Hongsheng

    2017-06-01

    Sea cucumbers have a striking capacity to regenerate most of their viscera after evisceration, which has drawn the interest of many researchers. In this study, the isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) was utilized to investigate protein abundance changes during intestine regeneration in sea cucumbers. A total of 4073 proteins were identified, and 2321 proteins exhibited significantly differential expressions, with 1100 upregulated and 1221 downregulated proteins. Our results suggest that intestine regeneration constitutes a complex life activity regulated by the cooperation of various biological processes, including cytoskeletal changes, extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling and ECM-receptor interactions, protein synthesis, signal recognition and transduction, energy production and conversion, and substance transport and metabolism. Additionally, real-time PCR showed mRNA expression of differentially expressed genes correlated positively with their protein levels. Our results provided a basis for studying the regulatory mechanisms associated with sea cucumber regeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Effect of Spermidine on Cold Tolerance Induction in Cucumber Seedlings ‘Cv. Super-Dominus’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golnar GhazianTafrishi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Plants native to tropical and subtropical climates which grown in the temperate climate zone, suffer chilling injury when exposed to non-freezing temperatures for a certain period of time. The optimum growth temperature for cucumber (a tropical plant is 20 to 25°C. Cucumber is sensitive to temperatures lower than 10 °C. Cucumber area of production exposes to late spring and early autumn cold weather in Khorasan-e-Razavai, Iran. Studies showed that chilling leads to an alteration in fatty acid composition of membrane lipids and its permeability, changes in photosynthetic pigments content and decrease in photosynthesis. Many researchers pointed to a possible role of polyamine compounds in plant defense against environmental stresses. Exog enous application Spd could prevent the electrolyte and amino acid leakage or recovering the plasma membrane damage in rice and cucumber in response to salinity, chilling and water stressed conditions. Materials and methods: A factorial experiment, based on completely randomized design was conducted to investigate the effect of short-term chilling on cucumber plantlets which was earlier treated with spermidine. Factors were included two levels of temperature (6 and 12°C and four levels of spermidine (0, 0.25, 0.5 and .0.75 mg/L. The studied cultivar was ‘Super-Dominus’. In order to determine the extent of chilling injury, plants of each treatment were rated based on visual symptoms. By assigning values of 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 while 1: no visible symptoms 2:5% of leaf area necrotic, 3: 5-25% of leaf area necrotic, 4: 26-50% of leaf area necrotic but plant still alive, 5: lost, entire plant necrotic and collapsed. Measured traits were root and shoot length, root and shoot dry weight, root and leaf electrical leakage, and leaf chlorophyll content. Results and discussion: Plants which exposed to low temperature showed chilling injury symptoms (5-25% leaf area necrotic. The symptoms reduced (less

  8. Proteomic Analysis of Differentially Accumulated Proteins in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Fruit Peel in Response to Pre-storage Cold Acclimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Shen, Fei; Zhu, Shijiang

    2017-01-01

    Harvested fruits are still living organs and respond to environmental stimuli. Low temperature storage is effective in extending life of harvested fruit, but it may also cause chilling injury. Cold acclimation has been shown to induce chilling tolerance in plants, but what proteomic changes caused by cold acclimation are related to defense against chilling stress remains largely unclear. Here, 3 d of pre-storage cold acclimation (PsCA) at 10°C reduced chilling injury and secondary disease severity in cucumber stored at 5°C by 51 and 94%, respectively, compared with the control which was directly stored at 5°C. Proteomic analysis of cucumber peel identified 21 significant differentially-accumulated proteins (SDAPs) right after PsCA treatment and 23 after the following cold storage (PsCA+CS). These proteins are mainly related to stress response and defense (SRD), energy metabolism, protein metabolism, signal transduction, primary metabolism, and transcription. The SRD proteins, which made up 37% of the 21 and 47% of the 23, respectively, represented the largest class of SDAPs, and all but one protein were up-regulated, suggesting accumulation of proteins involved in defense response is central feature of proteomic profile changes brought about by PsCA. In fruit just after PsCA treatment, the identified SDAPs are related to responses to various stresses, including chilling, salt stress, dehydration, fungi, bacteria, insects, and DNA damage. However, after prolonged cold storage, the targeted proteins in acclimated fruit were narrowed down in scope to those involved in defense against chilling and pathogens. The change patterns at the transcription level of the majority of the up-regulated differentially-accumulated proteins were highly consistent with those at protein level. Taken all, the results suggest that the short-time cold acclimation initiated comprehensive defense responses in cucumber fruit at first, while the long term storage thereafter altered the

  9. Proteomic Analysis of Differentially Accumulated Proteins in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus Fruit Peel in Response to Pre-storage Cold Acclimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Harvested fruits are still living organs and respond to environmental stimuli. Low temperature storage is effective in extending life of harvested fruit, but it may also cause chilling injury. Cold acclimation has been shown to induce chilling tolerance in plants, but what proteomic changes caused by cold acclimation are related to defense against chilling stress remains largely unclear. Here, 3 d of pre-storage cold acclimation (PsCA at 10°C reduced chilling injury and secondary disease severity in cucumber stored at 5°C by 51 and 94%, respectively, compared with the control which was directly stored at 5°C. Proteomic analysis of cucumber peel identified 21 significant differentially-accumulated proteins (SDAPs right after PsCA treatment and 23 after the following cold storage (PsCA+CS. These proteins are mainly related to stress response and defense (SRD, energy metabolism, protein metabolism, signal transduction, primary metabolism, and transcription. The SRD proteins, which made up 37% of the 21 and 47% of the 23, respectively, represented the largest class of SDAPs, and all but one protein were up-regulated, suggesting accumulation of proteins involved in defense response is central feature of proteomic profile changes brought about by PsCA. In fruit just after PsCA treatment, the identified SDAPs are related to responses to various stresses, including chilling, salt stress, dehydration, fungi, bacteria, insects, and DNA damage. However, after prolonged cold storage, the targeted proteins in acclimated fruit were narrowed down in scope to those involved in defense against chilling and pathogens. The change patterns at the transcription level of the majority of the up-regulated differentially-accumulated proteins were highly consistent with those at protein level. Taken all, the results suggest that the short-time cold acclimation initiated comprehensive defense responses in cucumber fruit at first, while the long term storage thereafter

  10. Moessbauer study of iron uptake in cucumber root

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacs, K.; Kuzmann, E., E-mail: kuzmann@para.chem.elte.hu [Eoetvoes Lorand University, Research Group for Nuclear Methods in Structural Chemistry, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Department of Nuclear Chemistry (Hungary); Fodor, F. [Eoetvoes Lorand University, Department of Plant Physiology and Molecular Plant Biology (Hungary); Vertes, A. [Eoetvoes Lorand University, Research Group for Nuclear Methods in Structural Chemistry, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Department of Nuclear Chemistry (Hungary); Kamnev, A. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Biochemistry and Physiology of Plants and Microorganisms (Russian Federation)

    2005-09-15

    {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy was used to study the uptake and distribution of iron in the root of cucumber plants grown in iron-deficient modified Hoagland nutrient solution and put into iron-containing solution with 10 {mu}M Fe citrate enriched with {sup 57}Fe (90%) only before harvesting. The Moessbauer spectra of the frozen roots exhibited two Fe{sup 3+} components with typical average Moessbauer parameters of {delta} = 0.5 mm s{sup -1}, {Delta} = 0.46 mm s{sup -1} and {delta} = 0.5 mm s{sup -1}, {Delta} = 1.2 mm s{sup -1} at 78 K and the presence of an Fe{sup 2+} doublet, assigned to the ferrous hexaaqua complex. This finding gives a direct evidence for the existence of Fe{sup 2+} ions produced via root-associated reduction according to the mechanism proposed for iron uptake for dicotyledonous plants. Monotonous changes in the relative content of the components were found with the time period of iron supply. The Moessbauer results are interpreted in terms of iron uptake and transport through the cell wall and membranes.

  11. Adventitious staminate flower formation in gibberellin treated gynoecious cucumber plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, E.; Atsmon, D.; Halevy, A.H.

    1977-01-01

    Single gibberellin (A sub(4 + 7)) treatments induced the appearance of staminate floral buds in several consecutive nodes on the main stem of genetically female cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). The staminate buds appeared next to pistillate buds which showed various degrees of degeneration. Similarly, repeated GA treatments induced the appearance of staminate flowers in otherwise strictly hermaphrodite plants, next to bisexual flowers. However, the bisexual buds, unlike the pistillate ones, did not show any deleterious effects of the GA treatment. Therefore, it is inferred that the hormonally induced staminate buds did not develop by sexual reversion of would-be pistillate or bisexual buds, but rather, represent adventitious buds which, in normally grown female or hermaphrodite plants, never develop. It thus seems that predetermined pistillate or bisexual buds do not change into staminate ones, while change in the reverse direction has been demonstrated in the past (at least for the gynoecious ones). The effectiveness of the GA treatment in the gynoecious plants showed an acropetal gradient both within the affected region, as well as along the main stem. Autoradiographic histological examinations showed that the course of development of the induced staminate floral bud did not differ from that of normally developing buds. (auth.)

  12. Pasteuria penetrans for Control of Meloidogyne incognita on Tomato and Cucumber, and M. arenaria on Snapdragon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokalis-Burelle, Nancy

    2015-09-01

    Meloidogyne incognita and Meloidogyne arenaria are important parasitic nematodes of vegetable and ornamental crops. Microplot and greenhouse experiments were conducted to test commercial formulations of the biocontrol agent Pasteuria penetrans for control of M. incognita on tomato and cucumber and M. arenaria on snapdragon. Three methods of application for P. penetrans were assessed including seed, transplant, and post-plant treatments. Efficacy in controlling galling and reproduction of the two root-knot nematode species was evaluated. Seed treatment application was assessed only for M. incognita on cucumber. Pasteuria treatment rates of a granular transplant formulation ranged from 1.5 × 10(5) endospores/cm(3) to 3 × 10(5) endospores/cm(3) of transplant mix applied at seeding. Additional applications of 1.5 × 10(5) endospores/cm(3) of soil were applied as a liquid formulation to soil post-transplant for both greenhouse and microplot trials. In greenhouse cucumber trials, all Pasteuria treatments were equivalent to steamed soil for reducing M. incognita populations in roots and soil, and reducing nematode reproduction and galling. In cucumber microplot trials there were no differences among treatments for M. incognita populations in roots or soil, eggs/g root, or root condition ratings. Nematode reproduction on cucumber was low with Telone II and with the seed treatment plus post-plant application of Pasteuria, which had the lowest nematode reproduction. However, galling for all Pasteuria treatments was higher than galling with Telone II. Root-knot nematode control with Pasteuria in greenhouse and microplot trials varied on tomato and snapdragon. Positive results were achieved for control of M. incognita with the seed treatment application on cucumber.

  13. Influence of flow velocity on motor behavior of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yang; Zhang, Libin; Lin, Chenggang; Sun, Jiamin; Kan, Rentao; Yang, Hongsheng

    2015-05-15

    The influence of flow velocity on the motor behavior of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus was investigated in the laboratory. Cameras were used to record sea cucumber movements and behavior analysis software was used to measure the distance traveled, time spent, upstream or downstream of the start position and the speed of movements. In general, the mean velocity of A. japonicus was below 0.7mms(-1). The maximum velocity recorded for all the sea cucumbers tested was for a large individual (89.25±17.11g), at a flow rate of 4.6±0.5cms(-1). Medium sized (19.68±5.53g) and large individuals moved significantly faster than small individuals (2.65±1.24g) at the same flow rate. A. japonicus moved significantly faster when there was a moderate current (4.6±0.5cms(-1) and 14.7±0.3cms(-1)), compared with the fast flow rate (29.3±3.7cms(-1)) and when there was no flow (0cms(-1)). Sea cucumbers did not show positive rheotaxis in general, but did move in a downstream direction at faster current speeds. Large, medium and small sized individuals moved downstream at the fastest current speed tested, 29.3±3.7cms(-1). When there was no water flow, sea cucumbers tended to move in an irregular pattern. The movement patterns show that the sea cucumber, A. japonicus can move across the direction of flow, and can move both upstream and downstream along the direction of flow. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Understanding mechanism of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus aestivation: Insights from TMT-based proteomic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Muyan; Li, Xingke; Zhu, Aijun; Storey, Kenneth B; Sun, Lina; Gao, Tianxiang; Wang, Tianming

    2016-09-01

    Marine invertebrate aestivation is a unique strategy for summer survival in response to hot marine conditions. The sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus, is an excellent model marine invertebrate for studies of environmentally-induced aestivation. In the present study, we used a tandem mass tag (TMT)-coupled LC-MS/MS approach to identify and quantify the global proteome expression profile over the aestivation-arousal cycle of A. japonicus. A total of 3920 proteins were identified from the intestine of sea cucumber. Among them, 630 proteins showed significant differential expression when comparing three conditions of sea cucumbers: non-aestivating (active), deep-aestivation (at least 15days of continuous aestivation), and arousal after aestivation (renewed moving and feeding). Sea cucumbers in deep aestivation showed substantial differentially expressed proteins (143 up-regulated and 267 down-regulated proteins compared with non-aestivating controls). These differentially expressed proteins suggested that protein and phospholipid probably are major fuel sources during hypometabolism and a general attenuation of carbohydrate metabolism was observed during deep aestivation. Differentially expressed proteins also provided the first global picture of a shift in protein synthesis, protein folding, DNA binding, apoptosis, cellular transport and signaling, and cytoskeletal proteins during deep aestivation in sea cucumbers. A comparison of arousal from aestivation with deep aestivation, revealed a general reversal of the changes that occurred in aestivation for most proteins. Western blot detection further validated the significant up-regulation of HSP70 and down-regulation of methyltransferase-like protein 7A-like in deep-aestivation. Our results suggest that there is substantial post-transcriptional regulation of proteins during the aestivation-arousal cycle in sea cucumbers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Multiple Factors Affect Socioeconomics and Wellbeing of Artisanal Sea Cucumber Fishers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngaluafe, Poasi; Foale, Simon J.; Cocks, Nicole; Cullis, Brian R.; Lalavanua, Watisoni

    2016-01-01

    Small-scale fisheries are important to livelihoods and subsistence seafood consumption of millions of fishers. Sea cucumbers are fished worldwide for export to Asia, yet few studies have assessed factors affecting socioeconomics and wellbeing among fishers. We interviewed 476 men and women sea cucumber fishers at multiple villages within multiple locations in Fiji, Kiribati, Tonga and New Caledonia using structured questionnaires. Low rates of subsistence consumption confirmed a primary role of sea cucumbers in income security. Prices of sea cucumbers sold by fishers varied greatly among countries, depending on the species. Gender variation in landing prices could be due to women catching smaller sea cucumbers or because some traders take advantage of them. Dissatisfaction with fishery income was common (44% of fishers), especially for i-Kiribati fishers, male fishers, and fishers experiencing difficulty selling their catch, but was uncorrelated with sale prices. Income dissatisfaction worsened with age. The number of livelihood activities averaged 2.2–2.5 across countries, and varied significantly among locations. Sea cucumbers were often a primary source of income to fishers, especially in Tonga. Other common livelihood activities were fishing other marine resources, copra production in Kiribati, agriculture in Fiji, and salaried jobs in New Caledonia. Fishing other coastal and coral reef resources was the most common fall-back livelihood option if fishers were forced to exit the fishery. Our data highlight large disparities in subsistence consumption, gender-related price equity, and livelihood diversity among parallel artisanal fisheries. Improvement of supply chains in dispersed small-scale fisheries appears as a critical need for enhancing income and wellbeing of fishers. Strong evidence for co-dependence among small-scale fisheries, through fall-back livelihood preferences of fishers, suggests that resource managers must mitigate concomitant effects on

  16. Evolutionary relationship of alfalfa mosaic virus with cucumber mosaic virus and brome mosaic virus

    OpenAIRE

    Savithri, HS; Murthy, MRN

    1983-01-01

    The amino acid sequences of the non-structural protein (molecular weight 35,000; 3a protein) from three plant viruses - cucumber mosaic, brome mosaic and alfalfa mosaic have been systematically compared using the partial genomic sequences for these three viruses already available. The 3a protein of cucumber mosaic virus has an amino acid sequence homology of 33.7% with the corresponding protein of brome mosaic virus. A similar protein from alfalfa mosaic virus has a homology of 18.2% and 14.2...

  17. The Measurement of Technical Efficiency and Effective Factors in Cucumber Greenhouse (Case Study: Eastern Azarbayjan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Abdollahi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to estimate technical efficiency of cucumber greenhouses in Eastern Azarbayjan. In economic literature, it means the ratio of maximum output to the inputs. The objective of this research was to determinate the effective factors influencing it's inefficiency. The method of determination of deterministic and stochastic technical efficiency is corrected ordinary least squares (COLS and maximum likelihood (ML respectively. The average of technical efficiency in province’s cucumber greenhouse is approximately about 57 and 93 percent for deterministic and stochastic frontier method respectively. Production types had positive influence on technical inefficiency whereas experience of manager have negative influence on technical inefficiency.

  18. Heterorhabditis sp. (Nematoda: Heterorhabditidae): A Nematode Parasite Isolated from the Banded Cucumber Beetle Diabrotica balteata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creighton, C. S.; Fassuliotis, G.

    1985-01-01

    A nematode identified as Heterorhabditis sp. was discovered in June 1982 in larval cadavers of the banded cucumber beetle, Diabrotica balteata, in soil on wooded land. Effective beetle control (over 95%) was obtained when larvae were exposed to potted soil containing infective stage nematode juveniles or infected larval cadavers. The nematode was propagated in vivo on larvae of D. balteata, Diaphania nitidalis (the pickleworm), and Galleria mellonella (the greater wax moth). This Heterorhabditis sp. has promising potential as a biocontrol agent for the banded cucumber beetle. PMID:19294074

  19. Differential effects of organic compounds on cucumber damping-off and biocontrol activity of antagonistic bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Bin; Ravnskov, Sabine; Guanlin, X.

    2011-01-01

    The influence of the organic compounds tryptic soy broth, cellulose, glucose and chitosan on cucumber damping-off caused by Pythium aphanidermatum and biocontrol efficacy of the biocontrol agents (BCAs) Paenibacillus macerans and P. polymyxa were examined in a seedling emergence bioassay. Results...... showed that the organic compounds differentially affected both pathogen and BCAs. Tryptic soy broth, glucose and chitosan increased Pythium damping-off of cucumber, compared to the control treatment without organic compounds, whereas cellulose had no effect. Both Paenibacillus species had biocontrol...

  20. Mining candidate genes associated with powdery mildew resistance in cucumber via super-BSA by specific length amplified fragment (SLAF) sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Zhu, Yuqiang; Wang, Lili; Chen, Liping; Zhou, Shengjun

    2015-12-14

    Powdery mildew (PM) is the most common fungal disease of cucumber and other cucurbit crops, while breeding the PM-resistant materials is the effective way to defense this disease, and the recent development of modern genetics and genomics make us aware of that studying the resistance genes is the essential way to breed the PM high-resistance plant. With the ever increasing throughput of next-generation sequencing (NGS), the development of specific length amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) as a high-resolution strategy for large-scale de novo SNP discovery is gradually applied for functional gene mining. Here we combined the bulked segregant analysis (BSA) with SLAF-seq to identify candidate genes associated with PM resistance in cucumber. A segregating population comprising 251 F2 individuals was developed using H136 (female parent) as susceptible parent and BK2 (male parent) as resistance donor. After PMR test, total genomic DNA was prepared from each plant. Systemic genomic analysis of the GC content, repeat sequence, etc. was carried out by prediction software SLAF_Predict to establish condition to ensure the uniformity and density of the molecular markers. After samples were gel purified, SLAFs were generated at Biomarker Technologies Corporation in Beijing. Based on SLAF tags and the PMR test result, the hot region were annotated. A total of 73,100 high-quality SLAF tags with an average depth of 99.11× were sequenced. Among these, 5,355 polymorphic tags were identified with a polymorphism rate of 7.34 %, including 7.09 % SNPs and other polymorphism types. Finally, 140 associated SLAFs were identified, and two main Hot Regions were detected on chromosome 1 and 6, which contained five genes invovled in defense response, toxin metabolism, cell stress response, and injury response in cucumber. Associated markers identified by super-BSA in this study, could not only speed up the study of the PMR genes, but also provide a feasible solution for breeding the

  1. Application of wet waste from shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) with or without sea mud to feeding sea cucumber ( Stichopus monotuberculatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanfeng; Hu, Chaoqun; Ren, Chunhua

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, the applicability of the wet waste collected from shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) to the culture of sea cucumber ( Stichopus monotuberculatus) was determined. The effects of dietary wet shrimp waste on the survival, specific growth rate (SGR), fecal production rate (FPR), ammonia- and nitrite-nitrogen productions of sea cucumber were studied. The total organic matter (TOM) level in the feces of sea cucumber was compared with that in corresponding feeds. Diet C (50% wet shrimp waste and 50% sea mud mash) made sea cucumber grow faster than other diets. Sea cucumber fed with either diet D (25% wet shrimp waste and 75% sea mud mash) or sole sea mud exhibited negative growth. The average lowest total FPR of sea cucumber occurred in diet A (wet shrimp waste), and there was no significant difference in total FPR between diet C and diet E (sea mud mash) ( P > 0.05). The average ammonia-nitrogen production of sea cucumber in different diet treatments decreased gradually with the decrease of crude protein content in different diets. The average highest nitrite-nitrogen production occurred in diet E treatment, and there was no significant difference in nitrite-nitrogen production among diet A, diet B (75% wet shrimp waste and 25% sea mud mash) and diet C treatments ( P > 0.05). In each diet treatment, the total organic matter (TOM) level in feces decreased to different extent compared with that in corresponding feeds.

  2. Characterization and phylogenetic analysis of lectin gene cDNA isolated from sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) body wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Zhuang; Li, Hui; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Wei; Sun, Jing; Wang, Xiuli

    2017-12-01

    As a `living fossil' of species origin and `rich treasure' of food and nutrition development, sea cucumber has received a lot of attentions from researchers. The cDNA library construction and EST sequencing of blood had been conducted previously in our lab. The bioinformatic analysis provided a gene fragment which is highly homologous with the genes of lectin family, named AjL ( Apostichopus japonicus lectin). To characterize and determine the phylogeny of AjL genes in early evolution, we isolated a full-length cDNA of lectin gene from the body wall of A. japonicus. The open reading frame of this gene contained 489 bp and encoded a 163 amino acids secretory protein being homologous to lectins of mammals and aquatic organisms. The deduced protein included a lectin-like domain. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that AjL migrated as a specific band (about 36.09 kDa under reducing), and agglutinated against rabbit red blood cells. AjL was similar to chain A of CEL-IV in space structure. We predicted that AjL may play the same role of CEL-IV. Our results suggested that more than one lectin gene functioned in sea cucumber and most of other species, which was fused by uncertain sequences during the evolution and encoded different proteins with diverse functions. Our findings provided the insights into the function and characteristics of lectin genes invertebrates. The results will also be helpful for the identification and structural, functional, and evolutionary analyses of lectin genes.

  3. RNA sequencing analysis to capture the transcriptome landscape during skin ulceration syndrome progression in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Aifu; Zhou, Zunchun; Pan, Yongjia; Jiang, Jingwei; Dong, Ying; Guan, Xiaoyan; Sun, Hongjuan; Gao, Shan; Chen, Zhong

    2016-06-14

    Sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus is an important economic species in China, which is affected by various diseases; skin ulceration syndrome (SUS) is the most serious. In this study, we characterized the transcriptomes in A. japonicus challenged with Vibrio splendidus to elucidate the changes in gene expression throughout the three stages of SUS progression. RNA sequencing of 21 cDNA libraries from various tissues and developmental stages of SUS-affected A. japonicus yielded 553 million raw reads, of which 542 million high-quality reads were generated by deep-sequencing using the Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 platform. The reference transcriptome comprised a combination of the Illumina reads, 454 sequencing data and Sanger sequences obtained from the public database to generate 93,163 unigenes (average length, 1,052 bp; N50 = 1,575 bp); 33,860 were annotated. Transcriptome comparisons between healthy and SUS-affected A. japonicus revealed greater differences in gene expression profiles in the body walls (BW) than in the intestines (Int), respiratory trees (RT) and coelomocytes (C). Clustering of expression models revealed stable up-regulation as the main pattern occurring in the BW throughout the three stages of SUS progression. Significantly affected pathways were associated with signal transduction, immune system, cellular processes, development and metabolism. Ninety-two differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were divided into four functional categories: attachment/pathogen recognition (17), inflammatory reactions (38), oxidative stress response (7) and apoptosis (30). Using quantitative real-time PCR, twenty representative DEGs were selected to validate the sequencing results. The Pearson's correlation coefficient (R) of the 20 DEGs ranged from 0.811 to 0.999, which confirmed the consistency and accuracy between these two approaches. Dynamic changes in global gene expression occur during SUS progression in A. japonicus. Elucidation of these changes is important

  4. Polyethylene mulch modifies greenhouse microclimate and reduces infection of phytophthora infestans in tomato and Pseudoperonospora cubensis in cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtienberg, D; Elad, Y; Bornstein, M; Ziv, G; Grava, A; Cohen, S

    2010-01-01

    The individual and joint effects of covering the soil with polyethylene mulch before planting and fungicides commonly used by organic growers on tomato late blight (caused by Phytophthora infestans) were studied in three experiments conducted from 2002 to 2005. Application of fungicides resulted in inconsistent and insufficient late blight suppression (control efficacy +/- standard error of 34.5 +/- 14.3%) but the polyethylene mulch resulted in consistent, effective, and highly significant suppression (control efficacy of 83.6 +/- 5.5%) of the disease. The combined effect of the two measures was additive. In a second set of three experiments carried out between 2004 and 2006, it was found that the type of polyethylene mulch used (bicolor aluminized, clear, or black) did not affect the efficacy of late blight suppression (control efficacy of 60.1 to 95.8%) and the differences in the effects among the different polyethylene mulches used were insignificant. Next, the ability of the mulch to suppress cucumber downy mildew (caused by Pseudoperonospora cubensis) was studied in four experiments carried out between 2006 and 2008. The mulch effectively suppressed cucumber downy mildew but the effect was less substantial (control efficacy of 34.9 +/- 4.8%) than that achieved for tomato late blight. The disease-suppressing effect of mulch appeared to come from a reduction in leaf wetness duration, because mulching led to reductions in both the frequency of nights when dew formed and the number of dew hours per night when it formed. Mulching also reduced relative humidity in the canopy, which may have reduced sporulation.

  5. Effects of grafting with pumpkin rootstock on carbohydrate metabolism in cucumber seedlings under Ca(NO3)2 stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Wen-wen; Li, Lin; Gao, Pan; Li, He; Shao, Qiao-sai; Shu, Sheng; Sun, Jin; Guo, Shi-rong

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of grafting on the carbohydrate status and the enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in self-grafted and grafted cucumber seedlings using the salt-tolerant pumpkin rootstock 'Qingzhen 1' (Cucurbita maxima × Cucurbita moschata) under 80 mM Ca(NO3)2 stress for 6 d. The growth of self-grafted seedlings was significantly inhibited after the treatment of Ca(NO3)2 stress, whereas the inhibition of growth was alleviated in pumpkin rootstock-grafted seedlings. Ca(NO3)2 stress increased the contents of the total soluble sugar, sucrose and fructose, but decreased the starch content in rootstock-grafted leaves. However, compared with self-grafted plants, rootstock-grafted seedlings were observed with a higher content of sucrose and total soluble sugar (TSS) under salt stress. Rootstock-grafted seedlings exhibited higher activities of acid invertase (AI), neutral invertase (NI) and phosphate sucrose synthase (SPS) of sucrose metabolism in leaves than that of self-grafted seedlings under salinity. Moreover, the activities of fructokinase (FK), hexokinase (HK), phosphofructokinase (PFK) and pyruvate kinase (PK) of glycolysis were maintained at a higher level in leaves of rootstock-grafted seedlings after Ca(NO3)2 stress. Additionally, rootstock-grafting decrease the high percentage enhancement of key enzymes gene expression in glycolysis in the scion leaves of cucumber seedlings induced by salt stress. These results suggest that the rootstock-grafting improved salt tolerance, which might play a role in elevated sucrose metabolism and a glycolytic pathway regulated by the pumpkin rootstock. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Medieval herbal iconography and lexicography of Cucumis (cucumber and melon, Cucurbitaceae) in the Occident, 1300-1458.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Harry S; Janick, Jules; Daunay, Marie-Christine

    2011-09-01

    The genus Cucumis contains two species of important vegetable crops, C. sativus, cucumber, and C. melo, melon. Melon has iconographical and textual records from lands of the Mediterranean Basin dating back to antiquity, but cucumber does not. The goal of this study was to obtain an improved understanding of the history of these crops in the Occident. Medieval images purportedly of Cucumis were examined, their specific identity was determined and they were compared for originality, accuracy and the lexicography of their captions. The manuscripts having accurate, informative images are derived from Italy and France and were produced between 1300 and 1458. All have an illustration of cucumber but not all contain an image of melon. The cucumber fruits are green, unevenly cylindrical with an approx. 2:1 length-to-width ratio. Most of the images show the cucumbers marked by sparsely distributed, large dark dots, but images from northern France show them as having densely distributed, small black dots. The different size, colour and distribution reflect the different surface wartiness and spininess of modern American and French pickling cucumbers. The melon fruits are green, oval to serpentine, closely resembling the chate and snake vegetable melons, but not sweet melons. In nearly all manuscripts of Italian provenance, the cucumber image is labelled with the Latin caption citruli, or similar, plural diminuitive of citrus (citron, Citrus medica). However, in manuscripts of French provenance, the cucumber image is labelled cucumeres, which is derived from the classical Latin epithet cucumis for snake melon. The absence of melon in some manuscripts and the expropriation of the Latin cucumis/cucumer indicate replacement of vegetable melons by cucumbers during the medieval period in Europe. One image, from British Library ms. Sloane 4016, has a caption that allows tracing of the word 'gherkin' back to languages of the geographical nativity of C. sativus, the Indian

  7. Medieval herbal iconography and lexicography of Cucumis (cucumber and melon, Cucurbitaceae) in the Occident, 1300–1458

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Harry S.; Janick, Jules; Daunay, Marie-Christine

    2011-01-01

    Background The genus Cucumis contains two species of important vegetable crops, C. sativus, cucumber, and C. melo, melon. Melon has iconographical and textual records from lands of the Mediterranean Basin dating back to antiquity, but cucumber does not. The goal of this study was to obtain an improved understanding of the history of these crops in the Occident. Medieval images purportedly of Cucumis were examined, their specific identity was determined and they were compared for originality, accuracy and the lexicography of their captions. Findings The manuscripts having accurate, informative images are derived from Italy and France and were produced between 1300 and 1458. All have an illustration of cucumber but not all contain an image of melon. The cucumber fruits are green, unevenly cylindrical with an approx. 2:1 length-to-width ratio. Most of the images show the cucumbers marked by sparsely distributed, large dark dots, but images from northern France show them as having densely distributed, small black dots. The different size, colour and distribution reflect the different surface wartiness and spininess of modern American and French pickling cucumbers. The melon fruits are green, oval to serpentine, closely resembling the chate and snake vegetable melons, but not sweet melons. In nearly all manuscripts of Italian provenance, the cucumber image is labelled with the Latin caption citruli, or similar, plural diminuitive of citrus (citron, Citrus medica). However, in manuscripts of French provenance, the cucumber image is labelled cucumeres, which is derived from the classical Latin epithet cucumis for snake melon. The absence of melon in some manuscripts and the expropriation of the Latin cucumis/cucumer indicate replacement of vegetable melons by cucumbers during the medieval period in Europe. One image, from British Library ms. Sloane 4016, has a caption that allows tracing of the word ‘gherkin’ back to languages of the geographical nativity of C

  8. The chlorophyll-deficient golden leaf mutation in cucumber is due to a single nucleotide substitution in CsChlI for magnesium chelatase I subunit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Meiling; Hu, Liangliang; Li, Yuhong; Weng, Yiqun

    2016-10-01

    The cucumber chlorophyll-deficient golden leaf mutation is due to a single nucleotide substitution in the CsChlI gene for magnesium chelatase I subunit which plays important roles in the chlorophyll biosynthesis pathway. The Mg-chelatase catalyzes the insertion of Mg(2+) into the protoporphyrin IX in the chlorophyll biosynthesis pathway, which is a protein complex encompassing three subunits CHLI, CHLD, and CHLH. Chlorophyll-deficient mutations in genes encoding the three subunits have played important roles in understanding the structure, function and regulation of this important enzyme. In an EMS mutagenesis population, we identified a chlorophyll-deficient mutant C528 with golden leaf color throughout its development which was viable and able to set fruits and seeds. Segregation analysis in multiple populations indicated that this leaf color mutation was recessively inherited and the green color showed complete dominance over golden color. Map-based cloning identified CsChlI as the candidate gene for this mutation which encoded the CHLI subunit of cucumber Mg-chelatase. The 1757-bp CsChlI gene had three exons and a single nucleotide change (G to A) in its third exon resulted in an amino acid substitution (G269R) and the golden leaf color in C528. This mutation occurred in the highly conserved nucleotide-binding domain of the CHLI protein in which chlorophyll-deficient mutations have been frequently identified. The mutant phenotype, CsChlI expression pattern and the mutated residue in the CHLI protein suggested the mutant allele in C528 is unique among mutations identified so far in different species. This golden leaf mutant not only has its potential in cucumber breeding, but also provides a useful tool in understanding the CHLI function and its regulation in the chlorophyll biosynthesis pathway as well as chloroplast development.

  9. Optimising Nitrogen utilization by fertigated protected cucumber in coastal Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atallah, Therese; Darwich, Talal; Awad, Souhail; El-Moujabber, Maroun

    1999-01-01

    Full text.In Lebanon, protected cultures are in expansion with indications of new greenhouses installed every year, particularly at altitudes between 400 and 500 m. In these intensive systems, few studies looked at the crop requirements, the management practices and their consequences on the soil and water. This study was carried out under field conditions in Jbeil (lebanon) at 100 m of altitude for a spring cucumber. For the follow-up of the nitrogen use efficiency, labelled nitrogen fertilizer (with the heavy isotope 15 N) was used. Treatments consisted of combining two irrigation frequencies: every 2 or 3 days with two modalities of fertigation: continuous and discontinuous, with every other irrigation. Otherwise, the levels of water and nutrients were equal among all treatments. Results focused on the plant performance under these modalities and also on the nitrogen balance in the plant-soil system. The plants fertigated continuously, every two days, presented higher fresh fruit yield and above-ground dry ,matter production. In addition, the number of non-commercial fruits were significantly smaller than in the other treatments. This suggests less stressful conditions under the continuous input of nutrients and the stable EC of the fertigation solution. Concerning the nitrogen balance, it was calculated by the difference between input removal for each treatment. These values were compared with the nitrate-nitrogen build-up in the soil. Very close correspondence was found, which indicates minimal nitrogen losses for all treatments which could be related to the amount accumulated in the soil as nitrates. Overall, under the experimental conditions the continuous fertigation at a 2-day frequency was the most adequate in promoting plant production and minimizing losses from the soil-plant system

  10. Fermentation cover brine reformulation for cucumber processing with low salt to reduce bloater defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reformulation of calcium chloride cover brine for cucumber fermentation was explored as a mean to minimize the incidence of bloater defect. This study particularly focused on cover brine supplementation with calcium hydroxide, sodium chloride (NaCl), and acids to enhance buffer capacity, inhibit the...

  11. Silicon enhances leaf remobilization of iron in cucumber under limited iron conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavlovic, Jelena; Samardzic, Jelena; Kostic, Ljiljana

    2016-01-01

    leaves and the subsequent retranslocation of Fe to young leaves of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) plants growing under Fe-limiting conditions was investigated. METHODS: Iron ((57)Fe or naturally occurring isotopes) was measured in leaves at different positions on plants hydroponically growing with or without...

  12. Collision-free inverse kinematics of a 7 link cucumber picking robot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henten, van E.J.; Schenk, E.J.J.; Willigenburg, van L.G.; Meuleman, J.; Barreiro, P.

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents results of research on inverse kinematics algorithms to be used in a functional model of a cucumber harvesting robot consisting of a redundant manipulator with one prismatic and six rotational joints (P6R). Within a first generic approach, the inverse kinematics problem was

  13. Influence of activated charcoal amendment to contaminated soil on dieldrin and nutrient uptake by cucumbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilber, Isabel [Research Institute of Organic Agriculture, Ackerstrasse, CH-5070 Frick (Switzerland); Wyss, Gabriela S., E-mail: gabriela.wyss@fibl.or [Research Institute of Organic Agriculture, Ackerstrasse, CH-5070 Frick (Switzerland); Maeder, Paul [Research Institute of Organic Agriculture, Ackerstrasse, CH-5070 Frick (Switzerland); Bucheli, Thomas D. [Agroscope Reckenholz-Taenikon Research Station ART, Reckenholzstr. 191, CH-8046 Zuerich (Switzerland); Meier, Isabel; Vogt, Lea; Schulin, Rainer [Institute of Terrestrial Ecosystems, ETH Zuerich, Universitaetstr. 16, CH-8092 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2009-08-15

    Activated charcoal (AC) amendments have been suggested as a promising, cost-effective method to immobilize organic contaminants in soil. We performed pot experiments over two years with cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) grown in agricultural soil with 0.07 mg kg{sup -1} of weathered dieldrin and 0, 200, 400, and 800 mg AC per kg soil. Dieldrin fresh weight concentrations in cucumber fruits were significantly reduced from 0.012 to an average of 0.004 mg kg{sup -1}, and total uptake from 2 to 1 mug in the 800 mg kg{sup -1} AC treatment compared to the untreated soil. The treatment effects differed considerably between the two years, due to different meteorological conditions. AC soil treatments did neither affect the availability of nutrients to the cucumber plants nor their yield (total fruit wet weight per pot). Thus, some important prerequisites for the successful application of AC amendments to immobilize organic pollutants in agricultural soils can be considered fulfilled. - The addition of activated charcoal to soil reduced dieldrin residues in cucumbers and did not affect nutrients availability.

  14. Influence of activated charcoal amendment to contaminated soil on dieldrin and nutrient uptake by cucumbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilber, Isabel; Wyss, Gabriela S.; Maeder, Paul; Bucheli, Thomas D.; Meier, Isabel; Vogt, Lea; Schulin, Rainer

    2009-01-01

    Activated charcoal (AC) amendments have been suggested as a promising, cost-effective method to immobilize organic contaminants in soil. We performed pot experiments over two years with cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) grown in agricultural soil with 0.07 mg kg -1 of weathered dieldrin and 0, 200, 400, and 800 mg AC per kg soil. Dieldrin fresh weight concentrations in cucumber fruits were significantly reduced from 0.012 to an average of 0.004 mg kg -1 , and total uptake from 2 to 1 μg in the 800 mg kg -1 AC treatment compared to the untreated soil. The treatment effects differed considerably between the two years, due to different meteorological conditions. AC soil treatments did neither affect the availability of nutrients to the cucumber plants nor their yield (total fruit wet weight per pot). Thus, some important prerequisites for the successful application of AC amendments to immobilize organic pollutants in agricultural soils can be considered fulfilled. - The addition of activated charcoal to soil reduced dieldrin residues in cucumbers and did not affect nutrients availability.

  15. Effects of different fruit juices used as carbon source on cucumber ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-25

    Jul 25, 2011 ... In this study, the effect of various commercial fruit juices (used as plant carbon source) was assessed on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) cv. Liza at seedling stage under aseptic conditions. Seeds were germinated on ½MS medium (within 2-days) under dark conditions. They were sub-cultured on MS0 (MS.

  16. Cucumber rhizosphere microbial community response to biocontrol agent Bacillus subtilis B068150

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis B068150 has been used as a biocontrol agent against the pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Cucumerinum. However, their survival ability in cucumber rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere as well as their influence on native microbial communities has not been fully i...

  17. Asynchronous meiosis in Cucumis hystrix-cucumber synthetic tetraploids resulting in low male fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wide hybridization is an important tool for crop improvement. Recently, we successfully developed a synthetic allotetraploid from interspecific cross between cucumber and its relative Cucumis hystrix-(2n = 2x =24) followed by chemical induction of chromosome doubling. The resulting allotetraploid wa...

  18. Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate is covalently associated with collagen fibrils in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus body wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Chang, Yaoguang; Wu, Fanxiu; Xu, Xiaoqi; Xue, Changhu

    2018-04-15

    Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (fCS) is the major carbohydrate constituent of sea cucumber. However, the distribution of fCS in the sea cucumber body wall has not been fully described. We addressed this in the present study employing Apostichopus japonicus as the material, a sea cucumber species with significant commercial importance. It was found that fCS was covalently attached to collagen fibrils via O-glycosidic linkages. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed that fCS precipitate was present in gap regions of collagen fibrils as roughly globular or ellipsoidal dots. The fCS dots arranged circumferentially around the fibrils with an axial repeat period that matched the periodicity of the fibrils. Physicochemical analysis indicated that the presence of fCS significantly increased the negative charge of the fibrils. These findings provide novel insight into fCS distribution in the sea cucumber body wall and its supramolecular organization with other macromolecules. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Hemolytic and cytotoxic properties of saponin purified from Holothuria leucospilota sea cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Mozhgan; Parivar, Kazem; Baharara, Javad; Kerachian, Mohammad Amin; Asili, Javad

    2014-10-01

    Holothuroids (sea cucumbers) are members of the phylum echinodermata, which produce saponins. Saponins exhibit a wide spectrum of pharmacological and biological activities. In this study, we isolated the crude saponins from the body wall of the dominant Iranian species of sea cucumber, Holothuria leucospilota (H. leucospilota). The purpose of this study was to confirm the presence of saponins in the Persian Gulf H. leucospilota and study the hemolytic and cytotoxic activities of these compounds. The body wall of sea cucumber was dried and powdered and the crude saponins were isolated using various solvents. The crude saponins were further purified by column chromatography using HP-20 resin. The foam test, Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC), hemolytic assay, and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the presence of saponins. Cytotoxicity was analyzed using a 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay on A549 cells, a human lung cancer cell line. The foam test, hemolytic assay, and TLC supported the presence of saponin compounds in the 80% ethanol fraction of H. leucospilota. The infrared (IR) spectrum of the extract showed hydroxyl (-OH), alkyl (C-H), ether (C-O) and ester (-C=O) absorption characteristic of teriterpenoid saponins. The C-O-C absorption indicated glycoside linkages to the sapogenins. The crude saponin extracted from sea cucumber was cytotoxic to A549 cells. The 80% ethanol fraction of saponin isolated from H. leucospilota exhibited hemolytic activity and offers promise as an anti-cancer candidate.

  20. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of cathepsin D from sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Cuiping; Cha, Yue; Wu, Fan; Xu, Xianbing; Qin, Lei; Du, Ming

    2017-11-01

    Cathepsin D (CTSD, EC 3.4.23.5) belongs to aspartic protease family, which is located in lysosomes and is distributed in diverse tissues and cells. CTSD has a wide variety of physiological functions, owing to its proteolytic activity in degradating proteins and peptides. In the current study, the full length cDNA of sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) cathepsin D (AjCTSD) was firstly cloned, then the association between AjCTSD and sea cucumber autolysis was investigated. The full length cDNA of AjCTSD was 2896 bp, with an open reading frame (ORF) for 391 amino acids. AjCTSD was widely expressed in body wall, muscle and intestine; the expression level was the highest in intestine, followed by muscle and body wall. Compared to fresh tissues, AjCTSD expression levels were significantly increased in all examined autolytic tissues. The purified recombinant AjCTSD promoted the degradation of sea cucumber muscle. In conclusion, AjCTSD contributed to sea cucumber muscle autolysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Preventive Intra Oral Treatment of Sea Cucumber Ameliorate OVA-Induced Allergic Airway Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Da-In; Park, Mi-Kyung; Kang, Shin Ae; Choi, Jun-Ho; Kang, Seok-Jung; Lee, Jeong-Yeol; Yu, Hak Sun

    2016-01-01

    Sea cucumber extracts have potent biological effects, including anti-viral, anti-cancer, antibacterial, anti-oxidant, and anti-inflammation effects. To understand their anti-asthma effects, we induced allergic airway inflammation in mice after 7 oral administrations of the extract. The hyper-responsiveness value in mice with ovalbumin (OVA)-alum-induced asthma after oral injection of sea cucumber extracts was significantly lower than that in the OVA-alum-induced asthma group. In addition, the number of eosinophils in the lungs of asthma-induced mice pre-treated with sea cucumber extract was significantly decreased compared to that of PBS pre-treated mice. Additionally, CD4[Formula: see text]CD25[Formula: see text]Foxp3[Formula: see text]T (regulatory T; Treg) cells significantly increased in mesenteric lymph nodes after 7 administrations of the extract. These results suggest that sea cucumber extract can ameliorate allergic airway inflammation via Treg cell activation and recruitment to the lung.

  2. Systems pharmacology-based drug discovery for marine resources: an example using sea cucumber (Holothurians).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yingying; Ding, Yan; Xu, Feifei; Liu, Baoyue; Kou, Zinong; Xiao, Wei; Zhu, Jingbo

    2015-05-13

    Sea cucumber, a kind of marine animal, have long been utilized as tonic and traditional remedies in the Middle East and Asia because of its effectiveness against hypertension, asthma, rheumatism, cuts and burns, impotence, and constipation. In this study, an overall study performed on sea cucumber was used as an example to show drug discovery from marine resource by using systems pharmacology model. The value of marine natural resources has been extensively considered because these resources can be potentially used to treat and prevent human diseases. However, the discovery of drugs from oceans is difficult, because of complex environments in terms of composition and active mechanisms. Thus, a comprehensive systems approach which could discover active constituents and their targets from marine resource, understand the biological basis for their pharmacological properties is necessary. In this study, a feasible pharmacological model based on systems pharmacology was established to investigate marine medicine by incorporating active compound screening, target identification, and network and pathway analysis. As a result, 106 candidate components of sea cucumber and 26 potential targets were identified. Furthermore, the functions of sea cucumber in health improvement and disease treatment were elucidated in a holistic way based on the established compound-target and target-disease networks, and incorporated pathways. This study established a novel strategy that could be used to explore specific active mechanisms and discover new drugs from marine sources. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seed performance as influenced by ovary and ovule position

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jing, H.C.; Jalink, H.; Bergervoet, J.W.; Klooster, M.; Du, S.L.; Bino, R.J.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.; Groot, S.P.C.

    2000-01-01

    The performance of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seeds in relation to ovary and ovule position was monitored during seed production. Seeds from three (first, seventh and tenth nodes) fruit positions and three (stylar, intermediate and peduncular) ovule positions were harvested serially during

  4. Technique and effects of pre-sowing laser biostimulation of cucumber seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gładyszewska, B.; Koper, R.; Kornarzyński, K.

    1998-01-01

    Laser treatment of seeds before sowing at selected irradiation doses was described. Particular attention was paid to determining energy doses for biostimulation. Results obtained at experimental irradiation of short green-house cucumber seeds, Pasandra and Picobello cultivars, were presented. Considerable increase in yields was observed as a result of applied method

  5. What is the most prominent factor limiting photosynthesis in different layers of a greenhouse cucumber canopy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, T.W.; Henke, M.; Visser, de P.H.B.; Buck-Sorlin, G.H.; Wiechers, D.; Kahlen, K.; Stützel, H.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Maximizing photosynthesis at the canopy level is important for enhancing crop yield, and this requires insights into the limiting factors of photosynthesis. Using greenhouse cucumber (Cucumis sativus) as an example, this study provides a novel approach to quantify different

  6. Population studies of echinoderms and growth and mortality of sea cucumbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebert, T.A.

    1979-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following studies: methods of collecting sea cucumbers; determination of growth rates of plates of the calcareous ring; use of growth parameters and a length-frequency distribution to estimate mortality and population turnover; movement of materials through the atoll ecosystem; and autoradiographic studies on spines of sea urchins

  7. Stimulation of growth and yield of cucumber plant through seeds treatments with x rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez Fernandez, R.; Gonzalez Nunez, L.M.; Garcia Rodriguez, B.; Licea Castro, L.; Porras Leon, E.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of seed irradiation with low doses of x rays on several growth and yield indicators of cucumbers plants was studied in laboratory and in organoponic conditions. The results showed that the stimulation doses for this crop were between 6-18 Gy, and the better dose for the stimulation of plant yield was 8.58 Gy

  8. Importance of prumycin produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SD-32 in biocontrol against cucumber powdery mildew disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Keijitsu; Fukuda, Mutsumi; Amaki, Yusuke; Sakaguchi, Takatoshi; Inai, Koji; Ishihara, Atsushi; Nakajima, Hiromitsu

    2017-12-01

    Powdery mildew disease of cucurbits is caused mainly by Podosphaera fusca, which is one of the most important limiting factors in cucurbit production worldwide. Previously we reported that Bacillus amyloliquefaciens biocontrol strain SD-32 produces C 17 bacillomycin D and [Ile 2002]surfactin, and that these metabolites play important roles in SD-32's biocontrol over cucumber gray mold disease. Our further investigation demonstrated that the culture broth and its supernatant suppressed cucumber powdery mildew disease in greenhouse experiments. However, the active principle(s) remained unknown. The active compound was isolated from the culture supernatant after anti-powdery mildew disease activity-guided purification and identified as prumycin. Prumycin significantly suppressed the disease, whereas bacillomycin D and [Ile 2002]surfactin did not. Prumycin did not induce the expression of plant defense genes (PR1a and VSP1), suggesting that it does not act via plant defense response. Light microscopic observations of prumycin-treated cucumber cotyledon suggested that prumycin inhibits the conidial germination of P. fusca. This study demonstrates that prumycin is a major factor in SD-32's suppression of cucumber powdery mildew disease. Our findings shed light for the first time on prumycin's role in biocontrol by Bacillus against this disease. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Silicon alleviates iron deficiency in cucumber by promoting mobilization of iron in the root apoplast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavlovic, Jelena; Samardzic, Jelena; Maksimović, Vuk

    2013-01-01

    Root responses to lack of iron (Fe) have mainly been studied in nutrient solution experiments devoid of silicon (Si). Here we investigated how Si ameliorates Fe deficiency in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) with focus on the storage and utilization of Fe in the root apoplast. A combined approach...

  10. The Effect of Washing and Peeling on Reduction of Dithiocarbamates Residues in Cucumber and Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Mehrasebi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dithiocarbamates, the main group of fungicides, are used to control about 400 pathogens in more than 70 crops. These pesticides are widely applied to crops including potato, cereal, apple, pear and leafy vegetables throughout the world since 1960. From the late 1980s, using these fungicides has caused much debate among regulators about their long-term effects on consumers and occupational users. Method: In this study the residues of Dithiocarbamates in cucumber and tomato using the colorimetric method (Keppel method was measured. Respectively 80 and 45 samples of greenhouse cucumber and tomato were collected from Zanjan vegetables center in autumns and winter 2013. The samples were analyzed in 4 treatments of: unwashed, washing with water, washing whit detergent and peeling. Result: The results showed that the average concentration of Dithiocarbamates residues in unwashed greenhouse cucumber and tomatoes were 384.5 µg/kg and 65 µg/kg respectively. 35% and 5% of unwashed and water washed cucumber and tomato samples (respectively had higher Dithiocarbamates residue than MRL recommended by Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran (0.5mg/kg. Conclusion: The treatments of washing and peeling had significant effect on the reduction of Dithiocarbamates residues in the all samples.

  11. [Effects of Ca2+ on nitric oxide-induced adventitious rooting in cucumber under drought stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun Lan; Niu, Li Juan; Hu, Lin Li; Liao, Wei Biao; Chen, Yue

    2017-11-01

    Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. 'Xinchun 4') was used to explore the relationship between nitric oxide (NO) and calcium (Ca 2+ ) during adventitious rooting under drought stress. Rooting parameters, endogenous Ca 2+ fluorescent intensity and the antioxidant enzymes activity (SOD, CAT and APX) in cucumber explants under drought stress were investigated. The results showed that treatment with 200 μmol·L -1 CaCl 2 and 0.05% PEG significantly improved the number and length of adventitious root in cucumber explants under drought stress, while the application of Ca 2+ chelating agent (EGTA) and channel inhibitor (BAPTA/AM) significantly decreased NO-induced number and length of adventitious root under drought stress. Under drought stress, the fluorescence intensity of Ca 2+ in hypocotyls treated with NO and CaCl 2 was improved, however, the Ca 2+ fluorescence intensity in the hypocotyls treated with NO scavenger (cPTIO) was significantly lower than that in the hypocotyls treated with NO. Under drought stress, the activities of antioxidant enzymes in the cucumber explants were significantly promoted by the treatments with NO and CaCl 2 , however, Ca 2+ chelating agent and channel inhibitor significantly decreased the activity of antioxidant enzymes induced by NO. In conclusion, Ca 2+ might be involved in the process of NO-adjusted antioxidant enzymes activity during adventitious rooting under drought stress, which alleviated the negative effects of drought on the adventitious rooting and promoted the formation of adventitious roots.

  12. Genetic and environmental effects on production of spontaneous tetraploids in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The appearance of spontaneous tetraploid (4x) plants is a serious problem for cucumber growers and the seed industry. These plants produce unacceptable fruits with poor quality that do not meet market standards, and result in substantial losses. A higher frequency of spontaneous 4x plants has been a...

  13. Hot-fill pasteurization of cucumber pickle spears: an alternative to tunnel pasteurizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    For commercial production of acidified vegetable products, thermal processes (71°C to 74°C for 10 min to 15 min) are typically done using a tunnel pasteurizer. To reduce energy costs and water usage, we developed a hot-fill method for pasteurization of cucumber pickle spears in 0.7 L (24 oz) jars. T...

  14. Effect of (+)-pulegone and other oil components of Mentha x piperita on cucumber respiration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mucciarelli, M.; Camusso, W.; Bertea, C.M.; Bossi, S.; Maffei, M.

    2001-01-01

    Peppermint (Menthaxpiperita L.) essential oil and main components were assessed for their ability to interfere with plant respiratory functions. Tests were conducted on both root segments and mitochondria isolated by etiolated seedlings of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Total essential oil inhibited

  15. Comprehensive analysis of NAC transcription factors and their expression during cucumber fruit spine development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is an important vegetable crop worldwide, and fruit trichomes ir spines are an important trait for external fruit quality. The mechanisms underlying spine formation are not well understood, but there is evidence of the involvement of the plant-specific NAC family of tra...

  16. Effect of Staking and Pruning on the Growth and Yield of Cucumber ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of pruning and staking on the vegetative growth and yield of cucumber ( Cucumis sativus L.). The experiment was a 3 x 2 factorial laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with five replications. The results showed that vine length, number of flowers, total ...

  17. Nitrate transport in cucumber leaves is an inducible process involving an increase in plasma membrane H+-ATPase activity and abundance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolic Miroslav

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mechanisms by which nitrate is transported into the roots have been characterized both at physiological and molecular levels. It has been demonstrated that nitrate is taken up in an energy-dependent way by a four-component uptake machinery involving high- and low- affinity transport systems. In contrast very little is known about the physiology of nitrate transport towards different plant tissues and in particular at the leaf level. Results The mechanism of nitrate uptake in leaves of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Chinese long plants was studied and compared with that of the root. Net nitrate uptake by roots of nitrate-depleted cucumber plants proved to be substrate-inducible and biphasic showing a saturable kinetics with a clear linear non saturable component at an anion concentration higher than 2 mM. Nitrate uptake by leaf discs of cucumber plants showed some similarities with that operating in the roots (e.g. electrogenic H+ dependence via involvement of proton pump, a certain degree of induction. However, it did not exhibit typical biphasic kinetics and was characterized by a higher Km with values out of the range usually recorded in roots of several different plant species. The quantity and activity of plasma membrane (PM H+-ATPase of the vesicles isolated from leaf tissues of nitrate-treated plants for 12 h (peak of nitrate foliar uptake rate increased with respect to that observed in the vesicles isolated from N-deprived control plants, thus suggesting an involvement of this enzyme in the leaf nitrate uptake process similar to that described in roots. Molecular analyses suggest the involvement of a specific isoform of PM H+-ATPase (CsHA1 and NRT2 transporter (CsNRT2 in root nitrate uptake. At the leaf level, nitrate treatment modulated the expression of CsHA2, highlighting a main putative role of this isogene in the process. Conclusions Obtained results provide for the first time evidence that a saturable

  18. Reducing environmental risk of excessively fertilized soils and improving cucumber growth by Caragana microphylla-straw compost application in long-term continuous cropping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yongqiang; Wang, Qing; Zhang, Weihua; Gao, Lihong

    2016-02-15

    Continuous cropping is a common agricultural practice in the word. In China, farmers often apply excessive fertilizers to fields in an attempt to maintain yields in continuous cropping systems. However, this practice often results in high nutrient concentrations in soils, nutrient pollution in leaching water and more crop disease. Here, we investigated 8 different soils from continuously cropped cucumbers in Northern China that grouped into those with extremely high nutrient levels (EHNL) and those with lower nutrient levels (LNL). All soils were treated with Caragana microphylla-straw (CMS) compost addition, and then were used to measure soil physiochemical and microbial properties, leaching water quality, plant root growth and cucumber fruit yield. In general, the EHNL-soil showed higher nitrate, phosphorus and potassium concentrations in the leaching water compared to the LNL-soil. However, the CMS compost application increased soil nutrient and water holding capacities, total microbial biomass (bacteria and fungi), root length, plant biomass and fruit yields, but decreased nutrient concentrations in the leaching water from the EHNL-soil. In addition, the CMS compost decreased the number of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum in soils with very high concentration of mineral nitrogen. Our results infer that CMS compost application was an effective method for reducing environmental risk of excessively fertilized soils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The Different Physiological and Antioxidative Responses of Zucchini and Cucumber to Sewage Sludge Application.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Wyrwicka

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the effect of soil amended with sewage sludge on oxidative changes in zucchini and cucumber plants (Cucurbitaceae and the consequent activation of their antioxidative systems and detoxification mechanisms. The plants were grown in pots containing soil amended with three concentrations of sewage sludge (1.8 g, 5.4 g and 10.8 g per pot, while controls were potted with vegetable soil. The activities of three antioxidative enzymes, ascorbate peroxidase (APx, catalase (CAT and guaiacol peroxidase (POx, were assessed, as well as of the detoxifying enzyme S-glutathione transferase (GST. Lipid peroxidation was evaluated by measuring the extent of oxidative damage; α-tocopherol content, the main lipophilic antioxidant, was also measured. Visible symptoms of leaf blade damage after sewage sludge application occurred only on the zucchini plants. The zucchini and cucumber plants showed a range of enzymatic antioxidant responses to sewage sludge application. While APx and POx activities increased significantly with increasing sludge concentration in the zucchini plants, they decreased in the cucumber plants. Moreover, although the activity of these enzymes increased gradually with increasing doses of sewage sludge, these levels fell at the highest dose. An inverse relationship between peroxidases activity and CAT activity was observed in both investigated plant species. In contrast, although GST activity increased progressively with sludge concentration in both the zucchini and cucumber leaves, the increase in GST activity was greater in the zucchini plants, being visible at the lowest dose used. The results indicate that signs of sewage sludge toxicity were greater in zucchini than cucumber, and its defense reactions were mainly associated with increases in APx, POx and GST activity.

  20. Comparative transcriptome analysis of papilla and skin in the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoxu; Cui, Jun; Liu, Shikai; Kong, Derong; Sun, He; Gu, Chenlei; Wang, Hongdi; Qiu, Xuemei; Chang, Yaqing; Liu, Zhanjiang; Wang, Xiuli

    2016-01-01

    Papilla and skin are two important organs of the sea cucumber. Both tissues have ectodermic origin, but they are morphologically and functionally very different. In the present study, we performed comparative transcriptome analysis of the papilla and skin from the sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) in order to identify and characterize gene expression profiles by using RNA-Seq technology. We generated 30.6 and 36.4 million clean reads from the papilla and skin and de novo assembled in 156,501 transcripts. The Gene Ontology (GO) analysis indicated that cell part, metabolic process and catalytic activity were the most abundant GO category in cell component, biological process and molecular funcation, respectively. Comparative transcriptome analysis between the papilla and skin allowed the identification of 1,059 differentially expressed genes, of which 739 genes were expressed at higher levels in papilla, while 320 were expressed at higher levels in skin. In addition, 236 differentially expressed unigenes were not annotated with any database, 160 of which were apparently expressed at higher levels in papilla, 76 were expressed at higher levels in skin. We identified a total of 288 papilla-specific genes, 171 skin-specific genes and 600 co-expressed genes. Also, 40 genes in papilla-specific were not annotated with any database, 2 in skin-specific. Development-related genes were also enriched, such as fibroblast growth factor, transforming growth factor-β, collagen-α2 and Integrin-α2, which may be related to the formation of the papilla and skin in sea cucumber. Further pathway analysis identified ten KEGG pathways that were differently enriched between the papilla and skin. The findings on expression profiles between two key organs of the sea cucumber should be valuable to reveal molecular mechanisms involved in the development of organs that are related but with morphological differences in the sea cucumber.

  1. Development of fatty acid biomarkers for the identification of wild and aquacultured sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadorozhnyj, P. A.; Pivnenko, T. N.; Kovalev, N. N.

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the fatty acids (FAs) of the organs and tissues of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) were profiled in order to compare the FA composition of sea cucumber collected from natural habitat (wild) and cages (cultured). The differences in FA contents in dermomuscular tube, peripharyngeal annulus, gonad and intestine (with or without content) between the wild and the cultured were determined. The main fatty acids in all organs and tissues were 20:5n-3, 16:1n-7, 20:4n-6, 22:6n-3, 18:0, and 18:1n-7. The basically different FAs of body wall and digestive tube were 16:1n-7, 18:1n-9 and 20:1n-11. The ratio of saturated to mono- and polyunsaturated FAs in digestive tube was independent on inside content while there was a redistribution of the total amount of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids. The comparison of FA composition of the wild and the cultured sea cucumber showed that 20:5n-3, 16:1n-7 and 18:1n-7 predominated the wild while 20:4n-6 predominated the cultured. The content of branched-chain fatty acids in the wild was 3%-4% and about 9% in the cultured. The possible FAs for identifying the wild and the cultured sea cucumbers were selected. It was suggested that the indexes such as the ratio of either (n-3:n-6) to (n-7:n-6) or (n-3) + (n-7) to (n-6) may serve as the biomarkers distinguishing the wild and the cultured sea cucumber.

  2. Comparative transcriptome analysis of papilla and skin in the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxu Zhou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Papilla and skin are two important organs of the sea cucumber. Both tissues have ectodermic origin, but they are morphologically and functionally very different. In the present study, we performed comparative transcriptome analysis of the papilla and skin from the sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus in order to identify and characterize gene expression profiles by using RNA-Seq technology. We generated 30.6 and 36.4 million clean reads from the papilla and skin and de novo assembled in 156,501 transcripts. The Gene Ontology (GO analysis indicated that cell part, metabolic process and catalytic activity were the most abundant GO category in cell component, biological process and molecular funcation, respectively. Comparative transcriptome analysis between the papilla and skin allowed the identification of 1,059 differentially expressed genes, of which 739 genes were expressed at higher levels in papilla, while 320 were expressed at higher levels in skin. In addition, 236 differentially expressed unigenes were not annotated with any database, 160 of which were apparently expressed at higher levels in papilla, 76 were expressed at higher levels in skin. We identified a total of 288 papilla-specific genes, 171 skin-specific genes and 600 co-expressed genes. Also, 40 genes in papilla-specific were not annotated with any database, 2 in skin-specific. Development-related genes were also enriched, such as fibroblast growth factor, transforming growth factor-β, collagen-α2 and Integrin-α2, which may be related to the formation of the papilla and skin in sea cucumber. Further pathway analysis identified ten KEGG pathways that were differently enriched between the papilla and skin. The findings on expression profiles between two key organs of the sea cucumber should be valuable to reveal molecular mechanisms involved in the development of organs that are related but with morphological differences in the sea cucumber.

  3. The Different Physiological and Antioxidative Responses of Zucchini and Cucumber to Sewage Sludge Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyrwicka, Anna; Urbaniak, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates the effect of soil amended with sewage sludge on oxidative changes in zucchini and cucumber plants (Cucurbitaceae) and the consequent activation of their antioxidative systems and detoxification mechanisms. The plants were grown in pots containing soil amended with three concentrations of sewage sludge (1.8 g, 5.4 g and 10.8 g per pot), while controls were potted with vegetable soil. The activities of three antioxidative enzymes, ascorbate peroxidase (APx), catalase (CAT) and guaiacol peroxidase (POx), were assessed, as well as of the detoxifying enzyme S-glutathione transferase (GST). Lipid peroxidation was evaluated by measuring the extent of oxidative damage; α-tocopherol content, the main lipophilic antioxidant, was also measured. Visible symptoms of leaf blade damage after sewage sludge application occurred only on the zucchini plants. The zucchini and cucumber plants showed a range of enzymatic antioxidant responses to sewage sludge application. While APx and POx activities increased significantly with increasing sludge concentration in the zucchini plants, they decreased in the cucumber plants. Moreover, although the activity of these enzymes increased gradually with increasing doses of sewage sludge, these levels fell at the highest dose. An inverse relationship between peroxidases activity and CAT activity was observed in both investigated plant species. In contrast, although GST activity increased progressively with sludge concentration in both the zucchini and cucumber leaves, the increase in GST activity was greater in the zucchini plants, being visible at the lowest dose used. The results indicate that signs of sewage sludge toxicity were greater in zucchini than cucumber, and its defense reactions were mainly associated with increases in APx, POx and GST activity.

  4. The Effects of Foliar Application of Urea, Calcium Nitrate and Boric Acid on Growth and Yield of Greenhouse Cucumber (cv. Khassib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Nasrolahzadehasl

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cucumis sativus L. is one of the most eminent and consuming vegetables which is widely cultivated in the Middle East. Using the controlled and greenhouse cultivation is one of the most appropriate methods to increase production per unit area. In this method, controlling the effective factors of production such as plant nutrition is the important factor to achieve high performance. Besides the accuracy applied in nutritional regulation of plant roots (both in soil and hypothermic environments, in many cases, foliar nutrition is considered by breeder of greenhouse productions. Foliar nutrition is more effective on young leaves, and deficiency of macro and micro nutrients can be removed by this factor. Khassib is one of the most important cultivar of greenhouse cucumber which is widely cultivated in Iran. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of foliar application on greenhouse cucumber. Materials and Methods: The experiment was performed on greenhouse cucumber (cv. Khassib for five months (from March 2007 to July 2008 in Ziba Dasht Technical Instruction Center which is located near Karaj, Iran. For this reason the experiment was conducted based on split-split-plot design with three replications. Eight experimental treatments were applied for foliar application including U1C1B1: urea + calcium nitrate +boric acid, U1C1B0: urea + calcium nitrate, U1C0B1: urea + boric acid, U1C0B0: urea, U0C1B1: calcium nitrate + boric acid, U0C1B0: calcium nitrate, U0C0B1: boric acid, U0C0B0: control. The effects of urea, calcium nitrate and boric acid in concentrations 3, 10 and 0.5 (gL-1 respectively on qualitative and quantitative characteristics of greenhouse cucumber, including fruit yield, yield of first class fruit, number of fruits, percentage of first class fruit, fruits T.S.S, plant length, percentage of leaf dry matter, and leaf weight ratio were studied. Results and Discussion: The results showed that calcium nitrate had a

  5. Effects of Hanseniaspora opuntiae C21 on the growth and digestive enzyme activity of juvenile sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuexin; Liu, Zhiming; Yang, Zhiping; Bao, Pengyun; Zhang, Congyao; Ding, Jianfeng

    2014-07-01

    The effects of a diet containing Hanseniaspora opuntiae C21 on growth and digestive enzyme activity were estimated in juvenile Apostichopus japonicus. Groups of sea cucumbers were fed diets containing H. opuntiae C21 at 0 (control), 104, 105, and 106 CFU (colony-forming units)/g feed. Results showed that after 45 d the specific growth rate (SGR) of sea cucumbers fed a C21-supplemented diet at 10 4 CFU/g feed was significantly higher than that of the control ( P sea cucumbers. In addition, after feeding the C21-supplemented diets for 15 d, the sea cucumbers were switched to an unsupplemented diet and C21 was confirmed to be capable of colonizing the intestine for at least 31 d after cessation of feeding. In conclusion, C21 was shown to successfully colonize the intestine of juvenile A. japonicus via dietary supplementation, and improve growth and digestive enzyme activity.

  6. Effects of endogenous cysteine proteinases on structures of collagen fibres from dermis of sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Xin; Zhou, Da-Yong; Ma, Dong-Dong; Liu, Zi-Qiang; Liu, Yan-Fei; Song, Liang; Dong, Xiu-Ping; Li, Dong-Mei; Zhu, Bei-Wei; Konno, Kunihiko; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2017-10-01

    Autolysis of sea cucumber, caused by endogenous enzymes, leads to postharvest quality deterioration of sea cucumber. However, the effects of endogenous proteinases on structures of collagen fibres, the major biologically relevant substrates in the body wall of sea cucumber, are less clear. Collagen fibres were prepared from the dermis of sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus), and the structural consequences of degradation of the collagen fibres caused by endogenous cysteine proteinases (ECP) from Stichopus japonicus were examined. Scanning electron microscopic images showed that ECP caused partial disaggregation of collagen fibres into collagen fibrils by disrupting interfibrillar proteoglycan bridges. Differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared analysis revealed increased structural disorder of fibrillar collagen caused by ECP. SDS-PAGE and chemical analysis indicated that ECP can liberate glycosaminoglycan, hydroxyproline and collagen fragments from collagen fibres. Thus ECP can cause disintegration of collagen fibres by degrading interfibrillar proteoglycan bridges. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Some physiological and biochemical responses to copper of detached cucumber (cucumis sativus l.) cotyledons pre-floated in salicylic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulengul, S.C.; Yildiz, T.; Deveci, D.

    2017-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a growth regulator that promotes growth of plants under stress and non-stress conditions. In the present investigation we studied the role of salicylic acid in copper induced physiological and biochemical changes and the possible induction of oxidative stress in detached cucumber cotyledons. Detached cotyledons of young cucumber seedlings were floated in 150 ppm SA. Then, the responses of these cotyledons to different concentrations (0, 10, 20 ve 50 mM) of copper (CuCl2. H2O) were investigated. In detached cucumber cotyledons exposed to increasing Cu concentrations, the fresh weight accumulation and the photosynthetic pigment content were decreased. Furthermore, the levels of some important parameters regarding oxidative stress in the cotyledons, namely lipid peroxidation (MDA), glutathione (GSH) and proline were increased. In the detached cucumber cotyledons pre-floation process with SA alleviated the negative effect of Cu ( 20 mM and 50 mM Cu) on growth parameters. (author)

  8. Reaction of tomato [Lycopersicon esculentum], cucumber [Cucumis sativus] and eggplant [Solanum melongena] cultured under the film altered the ratio of red and far-red photon flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hotta, Y.; Hayashi, G.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of covering films which altered the ratio of red (R 600-700nm) and far-red (FR 700-800nm) photon flux to control succulent growth of seedlings on character of tomato, cucumber and eggplant seedlings Were determined. Also the effects on growth and yield of eggplant cultured in plastic greenhouse covered with the same films were investigated. The results were as follows: 1) The stem length of tomato, cucumber and eggplant seedlings cultured under the high R/FR ratio (2.28) film which intercepted far-red photon flux in the greenhouse got shorter than for cheesecloth (1.00) which had sane level of photosynthetic photon flux transmittance, especially evident on eggplant. There was no difference in the number of leaves on these seedlings between tested film and the cheesecloth, but the top and root dry weight of these seedlings cultured under tested film got lighter than the one using cheesecloth. The leaves got smaller in eggplant too. 2) The stem of eggplant cultured under the high R/FR ratio (2.28) film got shorter and thicker than the control PVC film; but there was no difference on the yield. But eggplant cultured under the low R/FR ratio (0.66) film which intercepted red photon flux grew similarly as control, but its yield decreased

  9. Influence of sodium chloride, pH, and lactic acid bacteria on anaerobic lactic acid utilization during fermented cucumber spoilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johanningsmeier, Suzanne D; Franco, Wendy; Perez-Diaz, Ilenys; McFeeters, Roger F

    2012-07-01

    Cucumbers are preserved commercially by natural fermentations in 5% to 8% sodium chloride (NaCl) brines. Occasionally, fermented cucumbers spoil after the primary fermentation is complete. This spoilage has been characterized by decreases in lactic acid and a rise in brine pH caused by microbial instability. Objectives of this study were to determine the combined effects of NaCl and pH on fermented cucumber spoilage and to determine the ability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) spoilage isolates to initiate lactic acid degradation in fermented cucumbers. Cucumbers fermented with 0%, 2%, 4%, and 6% NaCl were blended into slurries (FCS) and adjusted to pH 3.2, 3.8, 4.3, and 5.0 prior to centrifugation, sterile-filtration, and inoculation with spoilage organisms. Organic acids and pH were measured initially and after 3 wk, 2, 6, 12, and 18 mo anaerobic incubation at 25 °C. Anaerobic lactic acid degradation occurred in FCS at pH 3.8, 4.3, and 5.0 regardless of NaCl concentration. At pH 3.2, reduced NaCl concentrations resulted in increased susceptibility to spoilage, indicating that the pH limit for lactic acid utilization in reduced NaCl fermented cucumbers is 3.2 or lower. Over 18 mo incubation, only cucumbers fermented with 6% NaCl to pH 3.2 prevented anaerobic lactic acid degradation by spoilage bacteria. Among several LAB species isolated from fermented cucumber spoilage, Lactobacillus buchneri was unique in its ability to metabolize lactic acid in FCS with concurrent increases in acetic acid and 1,2-propanediol. Therefore, L. buchneri may be one of multiple organisms that contribute to development of fermented cucumber spoilage. Microbial spoilage of fermented cucumbers during bulk storage causes economic losses for producers. Current knowledge is insufficient to predict or control these losses. This study demonstrated that in the absence of oxygen, cucumbers fermented with 6% sodium chloride to pH 3.2 were not subject to spoilage. However, lactic acid was degraded

  10. Research on possibilities of utilization of chosen Brassicaceae plants in protection of cucumber against damping-off caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kühn and Fusarium culmorum (W.G.SmithSacc.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew J. Burgieł

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was to determine the usefulness of dried leaves of savoy cabbage, red cabbage, horse radish and fringed cabbage in protection of cucumber against damping-off caused by fungi Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium culmorum. In the laboratory experiments, pathogens were grown on PDA containing dried leaves (3g·100 cm-3 and in atmosphere containing volatile substances evolved from plant material. The addition of radish horse leaves into PDA caused total inhibition of R. solani development. Remaining plants were also characterized by high fungistatic activity (% of growth inhibition about 85%. F. culmorum was less sensitive. The horse radish leaves showed the strongest activity (65 %, weakest in combination with fringed cabbage leaves (38,9%. The similar regularity in the case of fumigation activity was observed. The effectiveness of dried leaves in protection of cucumber against damping-off was confirmed in greenhouse experiment. The amendment of soil inoculated with R. solani in dose 2 g per 500 cm3 of soil significantly increased the number of cucumber sprouts compared to the control. In the experiment with F. culmorum only in combination with horse radish and red cabbage leaves significant action was observed.

  11. Long-chain bases from sea cucumber mitigate endoplasmic reticulum stress and inflammation in obesity mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiwei Hu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress and inflammation can induce hyperglycemia. Long-chain bases (LCBs from sea cucumber exhibit antihyperglycemic activities. However, their effects on ER stress and inflammation are unknown. We investigated the effects of LCBs on ER stress and inflammatory response in high-fat, fructose diet-induced obesity mice. Reactive oxygen species and free fatty acids were measured. Inflammatory cytokines in serum and their mRNA expressions in epididymal adipose tissues were investigated. Hepatic ER stress-related key genes were detected. c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase and nuclear factor κB inflammatory pathways were also evaluated in the liver. Results showed that LCBs reduced serum and hepatic reactive oxygen species and free fatty acids concentrations. LCBs decreased serum proinflammatory cytokines levels, namely interleukin (IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-6, macrophage inflammatory protein 1, and c-reactive protein, and increased anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 concentration. The mRNA and protein expressions of these cytokines in epididymal adipose tissues were regulated by LCBs as similar to their circulatory contents. LCBs inhibited phosphorylated c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase and inhibitor κ kinase β, and nuclear factor κB nuclear translocation. LCBs also inhibited mRNA expression of ER stress markers glucose regulated protein, activating transcription factor 6, double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase, and X-box binding protein 1, and phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor-α and inositol requiring enzyme 1α. These results indicate that LCBs can alleviate ER stress and inflammatory response. Nutritional supplementation with LCBs may offer an adjunctive therapy for RE stress-associated inflammation.

  12. Stiparin: a glycoprotein from sea cucumber dermis that aggregates collagen fibrils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotter, J A; Lyons-Levy, G; Luna, D; Koob, T J; Keene, D R; Atkinson, M A

    1996-07-01

    The interactions between collagen fibrils in many echinoderm connective tissues are rapidly altered by the secretions of resident neurosecretory cells. Recent evidence has suggested that a secreted protein is responsible for the interactions that lead to an increase in tissue stiffness (Trotter and Koob, 1995). Structurally intact collagen fibrils have been isolated from such a connective tissue- the dermis of the sea cucumber Cucumaria frondosa- and used in an assay in vitro to identify a protein that binds to them and causes them to aggregate. This protein has been purified by anion-exchange and molecular sieve chromatography. It is eluted from a MonoQ column at approximately 0.55 M NaCl. Its isoelectric point is 5.2. It elutes from a Superose-6 column in a position corresponding to a molecule with a Stokes radius of 11.5 nm. Its native molecular weight estimated from sedimentation equilibrium analysis under non-denaturing conditions is 375,000, and its monomer molecular weight, estimated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate, is approximately 350,000. Sedimentation velocity measurements indicated for the native molecule a sedimentation coefficient of 11 x 10(-13)s, a diffusion coefficient of 3.274 x 10(-7) cm2s-1, and a frictional ratio of 1.95, which corresponds to a prolate ellipsoid of revolution with an axial ratio of 19. The highly asymmetric structure suggested by the above correlated well with the images obtained by transmission electron microscopy following rotary shadowing, which revealed a flexible structure approximately 125 nm long. Based on its ability to aggregate collagen fibrils, this protein has been named "stiparin," from the Latin stipare, "to pack together."

  13. Structural elucidation of fucosylated chondroitin sulfates from sea cucumber using FTICR-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agyekum, Isaac; Pepi, Lauren; Yu, Yanlei; Li, Junhui; Yan, Lufeng; Linhardt, Robert J; Chen, Shiguo; Amster, I Jonathan

    2018-02-01

    Fucosylated chondroitin sulfates are complex polysaccharides extracted from sea cucumber. They have been extensively studied for their anticoagulant properties and have been implicated in other biological activities. While nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy has been used to extensively characterize fucosylated chondroitin sulfate oligomers, we herein report the first detailed mass characterization of fucosylated chondroitin sulfate using high-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. The two species of fucosylated chondroitin sulfates considered for this work include Pearsonothuria graeffei (FCS-Pg) and Isostichopus badionotus (FCS-Ib). Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate oligosaccharides were prepared by N-deacetylation-deaminative cleavage of the two fucosylated chondroitin sulfates and purified by repeated gel filtration. Accurate mass measurements obtained from electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry measurements confirmed the oligomeric nature of these two fucosylated chondroitin sulfate oligosaccharides with each trisaccharide repeating unit averaging four sulfates per trisaccharide. Collision-induced dissociation of efficiently deprotonated molecular ions through Na/H + exchange proved useful in providing structurally relevant glycosidic and cross-ring product ions, capable of assigning the sulfate modifications on the fucosylated chondroitin sulfate oligomers. Careful examination of the tandem mass spectrometry of both species deferring in the positions of sulfate groups on the fucose residue (FCS-Pg-3,4- OS) and (FCS-Ib-2,4- OS) revealed cross-ring products 0,2 A αf and 2,4 X 2αf which were diagnostic for (FCS-Pg-3,4- OS) and 0,2 X 2αf diagnostic for (FCS-Ib-2,4- OS). Mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry data acquired for both species varying in oligomer length (dp3-dp15) are presented.

  14. Characterization of Cucumber Mosaic Virus Originating from Cucurbits in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Vučurović

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV is considered one of the most economically importantplant viruses and has a worldwide distribution and a very wide host range including plantsfrom family Cucurbitaceae. In Serbia, on cucurbits CMV was detected in single and mixedinfections with Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV and Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV. Viruses,including CMV, are constantly present in cucurbit crops, but their frequency changesby year and locality. Surveys and sample collections were conducted in cucurbit crops inthe period from 2008 to 2009 at 15 localities in Vojvodina province, and sample testing wascarried out using the DAS-ELISA method and commercially available antisera for six economicallymost important cucurbit viruses. In 2008, a total of 51 samples were collected from13 cucurbit crops of oilseed pumpkin Olinka variety, squash, and bottle gourd and CMV wasdetected in a total of 55% of tested samples with symptoms of viral infection. The most commoninfectious type was mixed infection with ZYMV and WMV (35.3%, and then mixedinfection with ZYMV (17.7% and WMV (2%. A total of 599 symptomatic samples of oilseedpumpkin Olinka variety, zucchini squash varieties Beogradska and Tosca, squash, and wintersquash were collected in 15 cucurbits crops in 2009. CMV was present in 4.4% of totalcollected samples, in single infections in 1.3%, and in mixed with WMV or ZYMV in 1.3%, and1.8%. Five CMV isolates were obtained by mechanical inoculations of N. glutinosa and oneof them was selected for further biological characterization. Test plants which were describedto be hosts of CMV expressed symptoms characteristic for those caused by CMV afterinoculations by isolate 115-08. CMV specific primers Au1u/Au2d were used to amplify an850 bp fragment using RT-PCR method. Amplified fragment encodes the entire viral coatprotein (CP gene and partial 5’ and 3’ UTRs of two selected CMV isolates. Amplified fragmentswere sequenced and deposited in the NCBI, where

  15. Characterization of phenoloxidase from the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jingwei; Zhou, Zunchun; Dong, Ying; Guan, Xiaoyan; Wang, Bai; Jiang, Bei; Yang, Aifu; Chen, Zhong; Gao, Shan; Sun, Hongjuan

    2014-06-01

    Phenoloxidase (PO) is a crucial immune-related enzyme in invertebrates. In this study, three POs of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus were detected in coelomic fluid using linear-gradient native-PAGE combined with catechol staining and then partially purified by gel excising. The results showed that the three POs had a color of mahogany (AjPO1), yellow (AjPO2) and purple (AjPO3) respectively with molecular weights smaller than 21kDa in native-PAGE after staining with catechol. Enzymatic activities analysis revealed that AjPO1, AjPO2 and AjPO3 had optimal temperature of 45, 95 and 85°C and pH of 5.0, 8.0 and 8.0, respectively. Kinetic analysis showed that the Km values of AjPO1 for catechol, l-DOPA, dopamine and hydroquinone were 3.23, 0.86, 3.98 and 1.20mmol/l, respectively, those of AjPO2 were 0.31, 0.38, 2.05 and 1.30mmol/l, respectively, and those of AjPO3 were 5.95, 1.28, 5.81 and 0.62mmol/l, respectively. These results suggest that the three POs are laccase-type phenoloxidase. The activities of all three A. japonicus POs were significantly promoted by Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and Mn(2+), and strongly inhibited by ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid disodium (EDTA), sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (DETC) and some common antioxidants. The inhibitions by EDTA and DETC suggest that the three A. japonicus POs are copper-containing metalloenzymes. Immune-responsive analysis showed that the total PO activities in coelomocytes (TPAC) increased greatly after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge and declined significantly after polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (PolyI:C) challenge, implying that A. japonicus PO immune system, which is composed of several isoenzymes with different characteristics, is closely involved in the defense against the infection of Gram-negative bacteria and double-stranded RNA viruses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Validation of pestice multi residue analysis method on cucumber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    In this study we aimed to validate the method of multi pesticide residue analysis on cucumber. Before real sample injection, system suitability test was performed in gas chromatography (GC). For this purpose, a sensitive pesticide mixture was used for GC-NPD and estimated the performance parameters such as number of effective theoretical plates, resolution factor, asymmetry, tailing and selectivity. It was detected that the system was suitable for calibration and sample injection. Samples were fortified at the level of 0.02, 0.2, 0.8 and 1 mg/kg with mixture of dichlorvos, malathion and chloropyrifos pesticides. In the fortification step 1 4C-carbaryl was also added on homogenized analytical portions to make use of 1 4C labelled pesticides for the determining extraction efficiency. Then the basic analytical process, such as ethyl acetate extraction, filtration, evaporation and cleanup, were performed. The GPC calibration using 1 4C- carbaryl and fortification mixture (dichlorvos, malathion and chloropyrifos) showed that pesticide fraction come through the column between the 8-23 ml fractions. The recovery of 1 4C-carbaryl after the extraction and cleanup step were 92.63-111.73 % and 74.83-102.22 %, respectively. The stability of pesticides during analysis is an important factor. In this study, stability test was performed including matrix effect. Our calculation and t test results showed that above mentioned pesticides were not stabile during sample processing in our laboratory conditions and it was found that sample comminution with dry ice may improve stability. In the other part of the study, 1 4C-chloropyrifos was used to determine homogeneity of analytical portions taken from laboratory samples. Use of 1 4C labelled pesticides allows us for quick quantification analyte, even with out clean-up. The analytical results show that after sample processing with waring blender, analytical portions were homogenous. Sample processing uncertainty depending on quantity of

  17. Abundance of sea cucumbers on the ecosystem of seagrasses Inunggeh island, Tapanuli Tengah Regency North Sumatera Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisesa, M. M.; Bakti, D.; Fadhilah, A.

    2018-02-01

    Unggeh Island is one area that has the potential of Sea Cucumber in the North Sumatra. Sea cucumbers have an important role in ecosystem waters, namely as a deposit feeder. Sea cucumbers can live in shallow waters, such as seagrass ecosystems. The purpose of this study is to knowing the abundance of sea cucumbers in the seagrass ecosystems on the island of Unggeh and to knowing the type of Sea Cucumber. The method used is a transect quadrant method with a size of 5x5 meters, on a transect line with a length of 100 meters. Sampling was done at three points observations, station 1 was at coordinate point 01°34’26,88 "LU and 098°45’40,25" BT, station 2 was at coordinate point 01°34’32,71 "LU and 098°45’37, 58 "BT, station 3 is at the coordinate point 01°34’24,22" LU and 098°45’38,06 "BT. The type of sea cucumber found in the seagrass ecosystem on the Unggeh island Actinopyga ecinites, A. Miliaris, Holothuria scabra. The density at station 1 was 0.16 ind / m2, at station II a density was0.12 ind / m2, at station III a density was 0.08 ind / m2, and the total density at the research location was 0, 32 ind / m2.

  18. Effects of Pseudoalteromonas sp. BC228 on digestive enzyme activity and immune response of juvenile sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuexin; Sun, Feixue; Zhang, Congyao; Bao, Pengyun; Cao, Shuqing; Zhang, Meiyan

    2014-12-01

    A marine bacterium, Pseudoalteromonas sp. BC228 was supplemented to feed in a feeding experiment aiming to determine its ability of enhancing the digestive enzyme activity and immune response of juvenile Apostichopus japonicus. Sea cucumber individuals were fed with the diets containing 0 (control), 105, 107 and 109 CFU g-1 diet of BC228 for 45 days. Results showed that intestinal trypsin and lipase activities were significantly enhanced by 107 and 109 CFU g-1 diet of BC228 in comparison with control ( P sea cucumber fed the diet supplemented with 107 CFU g-1 diet of BC228 was significantly higher than that of those fed control diet ( P sea cucumber, respectively, in comparison with other diets ( P Sea cucumbers, 10 each diet, were challenged with Vibrio splendidus NB13 after 45 days of feeding. It was found that the cumulative incidence and mortality of sea cucumber fed with BC228 containing diets were lower than those of animals fed control diet. Our findings evidenced that BC228 supplemented in diets improved the digestive enzyme activity of juvenile sea cucumber, stimulated its immune response and enhanced its resistance to the infection of V. splendidus.

  19. Ultraviolet-Ray-Induced Sea Cucumber (Stichopus japonicus) Melting Is Mediated by the Caspase-Dependent Mitochondrial Apoptotic Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Li; Yang, Jing-Feng; Fu, Xi; Dong, Liang; Zhou, Da-Yong; Sun, Li-Ming; Gong, Zhenwei

    2018-01-10

    Sea cucumber body-wall melting occurs under certain circumstances. We have shown that apoptosis but not autolysis plays a critical role in the initial stage. However, it is still unclear how apoptosis is triggered in this process. In this study, we examined the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the levels of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and Bcl-2-associated X (Bax) proteins, the depolarization of mitochondrial transmembrane potentials, and cytochrome c (Cyt c) release during sea cucumber melting induced by ultraviolet (UV) exposure. We also investigated the contribution of caspase in this process by injecting a pan-caspase inhibitor. Our data showed that UV exposure stimulates ROS production, dysfunction of mitochondria, and the release of Cyt c in sea cucumber coelomic fluid cells and body walls. We found a decrease of Bcl-2 and increase of Bax in the mitochondria after UV exposure. We also demonstrated that these changes are associated with elevated caspase-9 and -3 activity. Finally, our data showed that the inhibition of caspases-9 and -3 using an inhibitor suppresses UV-induced sea cucumber melting. These results suggest that apoptosis during sea cucumber melting is mediated by mitochondrial dysfunction and follows the activation of the caspase-signaling pathway. This study presents a novel insight into the mechanism of sea cucumber melting.

  20. Low coverage sequencing of three echinoderm genomes: the brittle star Ophionereis fasciata, the sea star Patiriella regularis, and the sea cucumber Australostichopus mollis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Kyle A; Nossa, Carlos W; Sewell, Mary A; Putnam, Nicholas H; Ryan, Joseph F

    2016-01-01

    There are five major extant groups of Echinodermata: Crinoidea (feather stars and sea lillies), Ophiuroidea (brittle stars and basket stars), Asteroidea (sea stars), Echinoidea (sea urchins, sea biscuits, and sand dollars), and Holothuroidea (sea cucumbers). These animals are known for their pentaradial symmetry as adults, unique water vascular system, mutable collagenous tissues, and endoskeletons of high magnesium calcite. To our knowledge, the only echinoderm species with a genome sequence available to date is Strongylocentrotus pupuratus (Echinoidea). The availability of additional echinoderm genome sequences is crucial for understanding the biology of these animals. Here we present assembled draft genomes of the brittle star Ophionereis fasciata, the sea star Patiriella regularis, and the sea cucumber Australostichopus mollis from Illumina sequence data with coverages of 12.5x, 22.5x, and 21.4x, respectively. These data provide a resource for mining gene superfamilies, identifying non-coding RNAs, confirming gene losses, and designing experimental constructs. They will be important comparative resources for future genomic studies in echinoderms.

  1. Wilted cucumber plants infected by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum do not suffer from water shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuming; Wang, Min; Li, Yingrui; Gu, Zechen; Ling, Ning; Shen, Qirong; Guo, Shiwei

    2017-09-01

    Fusarium wilt is primarily a soil-borne disease and results in yield loss and quality decline in cucumber (Cucumis sativus). The main symptom of fusarium wilt is the wilting of entire plant, which could be caused by a fungal toxin(s) or blockage of water transport. To investigate whether this wilt arises from water shortage, the physiological responses of hydroponically grown cucumber plants subjected to water stress using polyethylene glycol (PEG, 6000) were compared with those of plants infected with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC). Parameters reflecting plant water status were measured 8d after the start of treatment. Leaf gas exchange parameters and temperature were measured with a LI-COR portable open photosynthesis system and by thermal imaging. Chlorophyll fluorescence and chloroplast structures were assessed by imaging pulse amplitude-modulated fluorometry and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. Cucumber water balance was altered after FOC infection, with decreased water absorption and hydraulic conductivity. However, the responses of cucumber leaves to FOC and PEG differed in leaf regions. Under water stress, measures of lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde) and chlorophyll fluorescence indicated that the leaf edge was more seriously injured, with a higher leaf temperature and disrupted leaf water status compared with the centre. Here, abscisic acid (ABA) and proline were negatively correlated with water potential. In contrast, under FOC infection, membrane damage and a higher temperature were observed in the leaf centre while ABA and proline did not vary with water potential. Cytologically, FOC-infected cucumber leaves exhibited circular chloroplasts and swelled starch grains in the leaf centre, in which they again differed from PEG-stressed cucumber leaves. This study illustrates the non-causal relationship between fusarium wilt and water transport blockage. Although leaf wilt occurred in both water stress and FOC infection, the

  2. Validation of a residue method to determine pesticide residues in cucumber by using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baysoyu, D.; Tiryaki, O.; Secer, E.; Aydin, G.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, a multi-residue method using ethyl acetate for extraction and gel permeation chromatography for clean-up was validated to determine chlorpyrifos, malathion and dichlorvos in cucumber by gas chromatography. For this purpose, homogenized cucumber samples were fortified with pesticides at 0.02 0.2, 0.8 and 1 mg/kg levels. The efficiency and repeatability of the method in extraction and cleanup steps were performed using 1 4C-carbaryl by radioisotope tracer technique. 1 4C-carbaryl recoveries after the extraction and cleanup steps were between 92.63-111.73 % with a repeatability of 4.85% (CV) and 74.83-102.22 % with a repeatability of 7.19% (CV), respectively. The homogeneity of analytical samples and the stability of pesticides during homogenization were determined using radio tracer technique and chromatographic methods, respectively.

  3. First Report of Cucumber mosaic virus Isolated from Sambungai (Gynura procumbens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    June Kwon

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In March 2016, an isolate of Cucumber mosaic virus (named Gyp-CMV was isolated from the Sambungai (Gynura procumbens showing the symptoms of mosaic and chlorosis. The isolate Gyp-CMV was characterized by disease reactions in several indicator plants, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism, and sequence analysis of movement protein (3a and coat protein (CP genes. Tobacco, tomato, pepper, ground cherry, and lambsquarters (Chenopodium quinoa and C. amaranticolor appeared typical CMV symptoms, but zucchini and cucumber were not infected. Phylogenetic analysis of the 3a and CP gene indicated that Gyp-CMV belongs to the CMV subgroup II. Sequence identities of the Gyp-CMV 3a and CP genes showed 99.3% and 100% to that of Hnt-CMV at amino acid level. To our knowledge, this is the first report of CMV infection in Gynura procumbens.

  4. Rheological and structural properties of sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus during heat treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xin; Xue, Dongmei; Zhang, Zhaohui; Xu, Jiachao; Xue, Changhu

    2005-07-01

    Changes in tissue structure, rheological properties and water content of raw and heated sea cucumber meat were studied. Sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus was heated at 25°C , 70°C and 100°C water for 5 min. The structural changes were observed using a light microscope and the rheological parameters (rupture strength, adhesive strength and deformation) determined using a texture meter. Microscopic photograph revealed that the structural change of heated meat was greater than that of raw meat. The rupture strength, adhesive strength and deformation of raw meat were smaller than those of the heated meat. Meanwhile, rheological parameters showed positive correlation with heating temperature. These changes are mainly caused by thermal denaturation and gelatinization of collagen during heating. These changes were also evidenced in observations using a light microscope and differential scanning calorimetry.

  5. Antithrombotic activities of fucosylated chondroitin sulfates and their depolymerized fragments from two sea cucumbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoxiao; Hao, Jiejie; Shan, Xindi; Zhang, Xiao; Zhao, Xiaoliang; Li, Qinying; Wang, Xiaojiang; Cai, Chao; Li, Guoyun; Yu, Guangli

    2016-11-05

    Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FCS), a glycosaminoglycan extracted from the body wall of sea cucumber, is a promising antithrombotic agent. The chemical structures of FCSc isolated from sea cucumber Cucumaria frondosa and its depolymerized fragment (dFCSc) were characterized for the first time. Additionally, anticoagulant and antithrombotic activities were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The results demonstrated that dFCSc exhibited better antithrombotic-hemorrhagic ratio than native FCSc on the electrical induced arterial thrombosis model in rats. Compared to FCSt obtained from Thelenota ananas, FCSc possessed different sulfation patterns but similar antithrombotic effects. Therefore, sulfation pattern of FCS might not affect anticoagulation and antithrombosis as much as molecular weight may. Our results proposed a new point of view to understand the structure-activity relationship of FCS as alternative agents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Hemolytic and Cytotoxic Properties of Saponin Purified from Holothuria leucospilota Sea Cucumber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhgan Soltani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Holothuroids (sea cucumbers are members of the phylum echinodermata, which produce saponins. Saponins exhibit a wide spectrum of pharmacological and biological activities. In this study, we isolated the crude saponins from the body wall of the dominant Iranian species of sea cucumber, Holothuria leucospilota (H. leucospilota. The purpose of this study was to confirm the presence of saponins in the Persian Gulf H. leucospilota and study the hemolytic and cytotoxic activities of these compounds. Methods: The body wall of sea cucumber was dried and powdered and the crude saponins were isolated using various solvents. The crude saponins were further purified by column chromatography using HP-20 resin. The foam test, Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC, hemolytic assay, and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR confirmed the presence of saponins. Cytotoxicity was analyzed using a 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay on A549 cells, a human lung cancer cell line. Results: The foam test, hemolytic assay, and TLC supported the presence of saponin compounds in the 80% ethanol fraction of H. leucospilota. The infrared (IR spectrum of the extract showed hydroxyl (-OH, alkyl (C-H, ether (C-O and ester (–C=O absorption characteristic of teriterpenoid saponins. The C-O-C absorption indicated glycoside linkages to the sapogenins. The crude saponin extracted from sea cucumber was cytotoxic to A549 cells. Conclusion: The 80% ethanol fraction of saponin isolated from H. leucospilota exhibited hemolytic activity and offers promise as an anti-cancer candidate.

  7. Sulfated polysaccharides with antioxidant and anticoagulant activity from the sea cucumber Holothuria fuscogliva

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rongfeng; Yu, Huahua; Yue, Yang; Liu, Song; Xing, Rong'e.; Chen, Xiaolin; Li, Pengcheng

    2017-07-01

    Sea cucumber is a traditional nutritional food and medicinal resource with many bioactive components in China. Holothuria fuscogliva is a big sea cucumber with a rich of bioactive polysaccharides. To investigate the bioactivities of the polysaccharides from sea cucumber H. fuscogliva, we prepared the sulfated polysaccharides (HfP) from sea cucumber H. fuscogliva using a protease hydrolysis method. Antioxidant activities of HfP were investigated, including hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and superoxide radical scavenging activity. And, the anticoagulant activities of HfP were studied, including the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT) and thrombin time (TT). The average molecular weight was 1 867.1 Da, with a sulfate content of 20.7%. In addition, the molar ratio of monosaccharide composition of HfP was Man: Rha: Glc A: Glc: Gal: Xyl: Fuc=0.083 6: 0.437: 0.134: 0:1.182: 0.748: 1. It had a strong antioxidant activity, the hydroxyl and superoxide radical scavenging activity EC50 of HfP was 3.74 and 0.037 mg/mL, respectively. It also showed a good anticoagulant activity in our study. The APTT of HfP was much higher than that of heparin sodium, and the PT and TT of HfP was close to that of heparin sodium at a low concentration. Therefore, HfP shows a good antioxidant and anticoagulant activity and it may become a potential candidate of the natural antioxidant and anticoagulant and will have a good application future in health product or medicine industry.

  8. A New Triterpene Glycoside from the Sea Cucumber Holothuria Scabra Collected in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Van Thanh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Bioassay guided fractionation led to the isolation of a new triterpene glycoside, holothurinogenin B (1 along with three known compounds, holothurin B (2, holothurin A (3, and holothurin A2 (4, from the methanol extract of the Vietnamese sea cucumber Holothuria scabra. Their structures were deduced from the spectral analysis (1D-NMR, 2D-NMR, MS and chemical evidences.

  9. Sea Cucumber Lipid-Soluble Extra Fraction Prevents Ovalbumin-Induced Allergic Airway Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Da-In; Kang, Shin Ae; Md, Anisuzzaman; Jeong, U-Cheol; Jin, Feng; Kang, Seok-Joong; Lee, Jeong-Yeol; Yu, Hak Sun

    2018-01-01

    In a previous study, our research group demonstrated that sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) extracts ameliorated allergic airway inflammation through CD4 + CD25 + Foxp3 + T (regulatory T; Treg) cell activation and recruitment to the lung. In this study, we aimed to determine which components of sea cucumber contribute to the amelioration of airway inflammation. We used n-hexane fractionation to separate sea cucumber into three phases (n-hexane, alcohol, and solid) and evaluated the ability of each phase to elevate Il10 expression in splenocytes and ameliorate symptoms in mice with ovalbumin (OVA)/alum-induced asthma. Splenocytes treated with the n-hexane phase showed a significant increase in Il10 expression. In the n-hexane phase, 47 fatty acids were identified. Individual fatty acids that comprised at least 5% of the total fatty acids were 16:0, 16:1n-7, 18:0, 18:1n-7, 20:4n-6, and 20:5n-3 (eicosapentaenoic acid). After administering the n-hexane phase to mice with OVA/alum-induced asthma, their asthma symptoms were ameliorated. Several immunomodulatory effects were observed in the n-hexane phase-pretreated group, compared with a vehicle control group. First, eosinophil infiltration and goblet cell hyperplasia were significantly reduced around the airways. Second, the concentrations of Th2-related cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13) and Th17-related cytokines (IL-17) were significantly decreased in the spleen and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Finally, the concentrations of TGF-β and IL-10, which are associated with Treg cells, were significantly increased in the BALF and splenocyte culture medium. In conclusion, a fatty acid-rich fraction (n-hexane phase) of sea cucumber extract ameliorated allergic airway inflammation in a mouse model.

  10. Effect of NAFTA, EUMFTA and China addition to WTO on the cucumber world market

    OpenAIRE

    Ramon Guajardo-Quiroga

    2010-01-01

    This study empirically analyzed the potential effects of the complete operation of North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), European Union and Mexico Free Trade Agreement (EUMFTA), and the integration of China to the World Trade Organization (WTO), on the cucumber world market. Special emphasis on the impact on Mexico was presented, from a worldwide perspective. A spatial equilibrium model with endogenous prices was constructed for this purpose. Among the findings are: (1) Mexican produce...

  11. Enhanced production of parthenocarpic cucumbers pollinated with stingless bees and Africanized honey bees in greenhouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euclides Braga Malheiros

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Crops have different levels of dependence on pollinators; this holds true even for cultivars of the same species, as in the case of cucumber (Cucumis sativus. The aim of this research was to assess the attractiveness of flowers of three Japanese parthenocarpic cucumber cultivars and evaluate the importance of Africanized bees (Apis mellifera, and the Brazilian native stingless bees, Jataí (Tetragonisca angustula and Iraí (Nannotrigona testaceicornis on fruit production. Several parameters, including frequency of bee visits to flowers as well as duration of nectar collection and fruit set were examined; additionally, fruit weight, length and diameter were evaluated. Three greenhouses located in Ribeirão Preto, SP, were used for planting three cucumber cultivars (Hokushin, Yoshinari and Soudai. The female flowers were more attractive than male flowers; however, Jataí bees were not observed visiting the flowers. The Africanized and the Iraí bees collected only nectar, with a visitation peak between 10 and 12h. Visits to female flowers had a longer duration than visits to male flower visits in all three cultivars. Africanized bee colonies declined due to loss of bees while in the greenhouse; the native stingless bee colonies did not suffer these losses. When bees were excluded, fruit set was 78%; however, when bees had access to the flowers, fruit set was significantly (19.2% higher. Fruit size and weight did not differ with and without bees. This demonstrates that even in parthenocarpic cucumber cultivars, which do not require pollination in order to from fruits, fruit production is significantly increased by bee pollination.

  12. Introduction of Endophytic Pseudomonas rhodesiae and Acinetobacter sp. Effective on Seed Germination and Cucumber Growth Factors Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farkhondeh Amini

    2017-03-01

    microorganisms could have emerged as a result of the clear positive selection exerted on these associations. The current study is conducted in order to evaluate the effectiveness of cucumber root endophytic bacteria on increasing plant growth indexes. Materials and Methods: In this study, 45 strains were isolated from cucumber roots as mentioned in the literature. In the first step, all of them subjected to seed germination assay in lab conditions. Furthermore, they are evaluated for vigor index according to references. Seven strains (En 1 to En7 are selected for complementary research in greenhouse trials using randomized block design with 4 repetitions. Statistical analysis is done using SPSS v.22‌ by Duncan methods under 5% possibility levels. To detect preferred bacterial species, 16S rDNA-PCR product is sent for sequencing to Macrogen, Korea. The sequences are checked in BLAST program in NCBI database. Results and Discussion: Based on medians comparison, cucumber seed cultivar Negin, are treated by 45 endophytic bacteria separately. Among them, seven strains showed a significant difference at 1% possibility level in comparison to control. These strains presented high vigor index from 1954.6 to 572 compared to control. They also showed better seed germination percentage rather than control in the range of 95 to 45 %, and selected for greenhouse trials. The results of medians comparison in pot experiments demonstrated that En1 strains leads to 60% root and shoot length enhancement comparing to control. Furthermore, highest shoot (84.6% and root (55.8% wet weight are recorded for En6 in comparison to control. Molecular data revealed that strains En1 and En6 belonging to Acinetobacter sp. and Pseudomonas rhodesiae, respectively. It is known that variation in endophytic bacteria may reflect differences in agriculture management methods. The P. rhodesiae is categorized in Pseudomonas fluorescent group and is isolated from mineral water for the first time. The positive effect of

  13. Optimization of the Different Variables for the Development of a Cucumber-Based Blended Herbal Beverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heena

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cucumber is a nutritious vegetable containing a large amount of nutrients. Due to its numerous health benefits, and even after the blind taste test, it can be used as a beverage by blending it with other suitable juices. Therefore, an attempt has been made in the present study for the development of a cucumber-based blended herbal beverage using sugarcane juice, citric acid, mint and coriander extract (30:30:30 along with salt (white salt:black salt 1:1 at varying concentrations using the response surface methodology. The physicochemical (TSS, titratable acidity, pH, reducing sugars, total sugars, total proteins, total phenols, ascorbic acid, tannins and antioxidant activity and sensory analysis revealed that the best blend was obtained with a sugarcane juice concentration (of 30.14%, a salt concentration of 1.5%, citric acid, mint and a coriander extract concentration of 1%. It is apparent from the study that cucumber juice can be successfully blended with sugarcane juice to enhance its sensory properties, as well as the phytochemical potential with 0.953 desirability, which will open a new door in the beverage industry.

  14. Cucumber Rhizosphere Microbial Community Response to Biocontrol Agent Bacillus subtilis B068150

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    Lihua Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis B068150 has been used as a biocontrol agent against the pathogen Fusarium oxysporum cucumerinum. Cucumber was grown in three soils with strain B068150 inoculated in a greenhouse for 90 days, and the colonization ability of strain B068150 in cucumber rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils was determined. Changes in total bacteria and fungi community composition and structures using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE and sequencing were determined. Colony counts showed that B068150 colonization in the rhizosphere was significantly higher (p < 0.001 than in non-rhizosphere soils. Based on our data, the introduction of B. bacillus B068150 did not change the diversity of microbial communities significantly in the rhizosphere of three soils. Our data showed that population density of B068150 in clay soil had a significant negative correlation on bacterial diversity in cucumber rhizosphere in comparison to loam and sandy soils, suggesting that the impact of B068150 might be soil specific.

  15. Impact of Methyl Jasmonate on Enhancing Chilling Tolerance of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Saydpour

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cucumber is a warm season crop that suffers from chilling injury at temperatures below 10°C. In recent years, jasmonates have been used for reduction of chilling injuries in plants. An experiment was, therefore, conducted to test whether methyl jasmonate (MeJA application at various concentrations (0, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.15 mM through seed soaking or foliar spray would protect cucumber seedlings, subjected to chilling stress. Results showed that MeJA application decreased chilling index, ion leakage, malondialdehyde content and hydrogen peroxide free radical and increased growth parameters, proline contents, chlorophylls contents and antioxidant activity. Although, seed soaking method provided better protection compared to foliar spray method, the highest cold tolerance was obtained with 0.15mM MeJA application in both application methods that caused low level of chilling index (1.67, malondialdehyde content (0.11 nm g-1 FW, hydrogen peroxide free radical (0.22 nm g-1 FW and ion leakage (32.87%. In general, it may be concluded that MeJA could be used effectively to protect cucumber seedling from damaging effects of chilling stress at the early stages of growth.

  16. Transcriptome analysis of the sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) with variation in individual growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lei; He, Chongbo; Bao, Xiangbo; Tian, Meilin; Ma, Zhen

    2017-01-01

    The sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) is an economically important aquaculture species in China. However, the serious individual growth variation often caused financial losses to farmers and the genetic mechanisms are poorly understood. In the present study, the extensively analysis at the transcriptome level for individual growth variation in sea cucumber was carried out. A total of 118946 unigenes were assembled from 255861 transcripts, with N50 of 1700. Of all unigenes, about 23% were identified with at least one significant match to known databases. In all four pair of comparison, 1840 genes were found to be expressed differently. Global hypometabolism was found to be occurred in the slow growing population, based on which the hypothesis was raised that growth retardation in individual growth variation of sea cucumber is one type of dormancy which is used to be against to adverse circumstances. Besides, the pathways such as ECM-receptor interaction and focal adhesion were enriched in the maintenance of cell and tissue structure and communication. Further, 76645 SSRs, 765242 SNPs and 146886 ins-dels were detected in the current study providing an extensive set of data for future studies of genetic mapping and selective breeding. In summary, these results will provides deep insight into the molecular basis of individual growth variation in marine invertebrates, and be valuable for understanding the physiological differences of growth process.

  17. The effects of dietary lead on growth, bioaccumulation and antioxidant capacity in sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Ren, Tongjun; Han, Yuzhe; Zhao, Yang; Liao, Mingling; Wang, Fuqiang; Jiang, Zhiqiang

    2015-09-01

    Three different diets amended with lead nitrate [Pb(NO3)2] (100, 500 and 1000mg Pb/kg dry weight) and a Pb-free control diet (1.03mg Pb/kg dry weight) were fed to sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) for 30 days. The patterns of Pb accumulation over time were determined in various tissues (body wall, intestine and respiratory tree), as well as growth performance and antioxidant enzymes activities. Pb accumulation in body wall and intestine increased with time in all dietary Pb treatments. When fed the highest Pb diet, the body wall exhibited the greatest Pb burden (16.37mg Pb/kg tissue wet weight), while Pb content in the intestine (2.68mg Pb/kg tissue wet weight) and the respiratory tree (1.78mg Pb/kg tissue wet weight) were lower than Pb content in the body wall by day 30. The body weight gain (BWG), specific growth rate (SGR) and survival rate (SR) had not been affected by 30 days oral administration of Pb supplemented diet. However, the antioxidant enzymes activities [superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px)] of test groups were lower than control group in body wall and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration in the body wall was opposite after 30 days in sea cucumbers. In summary, this work reports toxic effects in sea cucumber, A. japonicus, after dietary exposure to Pb. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of different microbes on fermenting feed for sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yan; Wang, Yingeng; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Zheng; Liao, Meijie; Rong, Xiaojun

    2015-10-01

    The effects of different microbes on fermenting feed for sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) were compared to select the optimal fermentation strain in this study. Saccharomgces cerevisae, Candida utilis, Bacillus subtilis and Geotrichum candidum were independently added into the experimental compound feed, while only saline was mixed with the control feed. The fermentation treatments were inoculated with 10% seed solution under the condition of 25°C and 70% water content, which lasted for 5 days to elucidate the optimal microbe strain for fermenting effect. Physicochemical indexes and sensorial characteristics were measured per day during the fermentation. The indexes included dry matter recovery (DMR), crude protein (CP), the percentage of amino acid nitrogen to total nitrogen (AA-N/tN), the percentage of ammonia nitrogen to total nitrogen (NH3-N/tN), and the ratio of fermentation strains and vibrios to the total microbes, color, smell and viscosity. The results showed that DMR, CP and AA-N/tN of the S. cerevisae group reached the highest level on day 3, but the ratio of fermentation strain was second to C. utilis group. In addition, its NH3-N/tN and the ratio of vibrios were maintained at low levels, and the sensory evaluation score including smell, color and viscosity was the highest in S. cerevisae group on day 3. Therefore, S. cerevisae could be the optimal strain for the feed fermentation for sea cucumber. This research developed a new production method of fermentation feed for sea cucumber.

  19. Production, optimisation and characterisation of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory peptides from sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus) gonad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Chan; Sun, Le-Chang; Yan, Long-Jie; Lin, Yi-Chen; Liu, Guang-Ming; Cao, Min-Jie

    2018-01-24

    In this study, production of bioactive peptides with angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity from sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus) gonad using commercial protamex was optimised by response surface methodology (RSM). As a result, the optimal condition to achieve the highest ACE inhibitory activity in sea cucumber gonad hydrolysate (SCGH) was hydrolysis for 1.95 h and E/S of 0.75%. For further characterisation, three individual peptides (EIYR, LF and NAPHMR) were purified and identified. The peptide NAPHMR showed the highest ACE inhibitory activity with IC 50 of 260.22 ± 3.71 μM. NAPHMR was stable against simulated gastrointestinal digestion and revealed no significant cytotoxicity toward Caco-2 cells. Molecular docking study suggested that Arg, His and Asn residues in NAPHMR interact with the S2 pocket or Zn 2+ binding motifs of ACE via hydrogen or π-bonds, potentially contributing to ACE inhibitory effect. Sea cucumber gonad is thus a potential resource to produce ACE inhibitory peptides for preparation of functional foods.

  20. Structural analysis and anticoagulant activities of two sulfated polysaccharides from the sea cucumber Holothuria coluber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenjiao; Cai, Ying; Yin, Ronghua; Lin, Lisha; Li, Zhongkun; Wu, Mingyi; Zhao, Jinhua

    2018-05-01

    Sulfated polysaccharides such as fucosylated glycosaminoglycan and fucan sulfate from echinoderm possess complex chemical structure and various biological activities. The two sulfated polysaccharides were purified from the low-value sea cucumber Holothuria coluber. Their physicochemical properties and chemical structures were analyzed and characterized by chemical and instrumental methods. Structural analysis clarified that the sea cucumber fucosylated glycosaminoglycan contains a chondroitin sulfate-like backbone and fucosyl branches with four various sulfation patterns. The fucan sulfate with molecular weight of 64.6 kDa comprises a central core of regular α(1 → 4)-linked tetrasaccharide repeating units, each of which is linked by a 4-O-sulfated fucose residue. Anticoagulant assays indicated that these sulfated polysaccharides possessed strong APTT prolonging activities and intrinsic factor Xase inhibitory activities, both of which decreased with the reduction of their molecular weights. Our results expand knowledge on the structural types of sulfated polysaccharides from sea cucumbers and further illustrate their functionality. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Transcriptome analysis of the sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus with variation in individual growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Gao

    Full Text Available The sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus is an economically important aquaculture species in China. However, the serious individual growth variation often caused financial losses to farmers and the genetic mechanisms are poorly understood. In the present study, the extensively analysis at the transcriptome level for individual growth variation in sea cucumber was carried out. A total of 118946 unigenes were assembled from 255861 transcripts, with N50 of 1700. Of all unigenes, about 23% were identified with at least one significant match to known databases. In all four pair of comparison, 1840 genes were found to be expressed differently. Global hypometabolism was found to be occurred in the slow growing population, based on which the hypothesis was raised that growth retardation in individual growth variation of sea cucumber is one type of dormancy which is used to be against to adverse circumstances. Besides, the pathways such as ECM-receptor interaction and focal adhesion were enriched in the maintenance of cell and tissue structure and communication. Further, 76645 SSRs, 765242 SNPs and 146886 ins-dels were detected in the current study providing an extensive set of data for future studies of genetic mapping and selective breeding. In summary, these results will provides deep insight into the molecular basis of individual growth variation in marine invertebrates, and be valuable for understanding the physiological differences of growth process.

  2. Yield and Chemical Composition of Cucumber Treated by Nitrogen Levels and Doses of Gamma Rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fath El-Bab, T.Sh.; Abo El-Khier, Om.M.; Abdallah, A.A.G.

    2013-01-01

    Two field experiments were performed at the Atomic Energy Authority, Experimental farm, Inshas, Egypt during 2010 and 2011 summer growing seasons in sandy soil. The experiments were conducted to study the effect of pre-sowing seeds which treated by gamma irradiation with different doses of 0, 2, 4 and 6 Gy. This was in combination with three rates of nitrogen, fertilizer i.e., 30, 60 and 90 Kg N/fed. The experiments were laid out using drip irrigation system. The obtained results indicated that gamma rays doses showed significant differences on cucumber yield per plot or per Fed., increasing doses of gamma rays gradually increased cucumber yield per plot up to highest dose, i.e., (6 Gy). The highest value of total yield was obtained with the highest nitrogen rate (90 Kg N/fed.). Doses of gamma rays significantly increased total soluble solids (T.S.S.), total Carbohydrates, fats, total protein, NPK and Ca of cucumber fruits. Application of 60 Kg N/fed. recorded the highest values of all above mentioned chemical characters except of total protein with 90 kg N/fed. every all dose treatments. The effect of interaction between doses and fertilizer levels on chemical characters were significant therefore, the highest values was found at 4 Gy and 60 Kg N/fed. treatment for protein, fat, nitrogen and potassium contents while the carbohydrate and calcium contents had the highest value with the treatment of 6 Gy and 60 Kg N/fed

  3. Diets containing sea cucumber (Isostichopus badionotus meals are hypocholesterolemic in young rats.

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    Leticia Olivera-Castillo

    Full Text Available Sea cucumber is widely consumed as a putative functional food. It contains many biologically-active substances, but only limited research on its properties in vivo has been done. The effects of different meals containing Isostichopus badionotus, a sea cucumber from southeast Mexico, on growth performance and body lipid profile in young rats were analyzed. Sea cucumber body wall was either lyophilized, cooked (100 °C, 1 h in water and lyophilized, or oven-dried (70 °C for 12 h. It was then ground and incorporated into cholesterol-containing diets. I. badionotus meals supported growth and improved lipid profile in rats. In particular, serum cholesterol, low density lipoproteins, triglycerides concentration and atherogenic index values were greatly reduced by some I. badionotus containing diets. Liver total lipids, triglycerides and cholesterol were also reduced. Cooking or heat-treatment of the meals lowered but did not abolish their hypolipidemic potency. Gene expression analysis of several key genes involved in cholesterol and lipid metabolism in liver showed that diets containing I. badionotus repressed the induction of key genes associated with dyslipidemia exerted by cholesterol supplementation. Consumption of I. badionotus from the Yucatan Peninsula is beneficial for dyslipidemia, although biological effect is clearly dependent on preparation method.

  4. Near-UV radiation acts as a beneficial factor for physiological responses in cucumber plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitani-Sano, Makiko; Tezuka, Takafumi

    2013-11-05

    Effects of near-UV radiation on the growth and physiological activity of cucumber plants were investigated morphologically, physiologically and biochemically using 3-week-old seedlings grown under polyvinyl chloride films featuring transmission either above 290 nm or above 400 nm in growth chambers. The hypocotyl length and leaf area of cucumber seedlings were reduced but the thickness of leaves was enhanced by near-UV radiation, due to increased upper/lower epidermis thickness, palisade parenchyma thickness and volume of palisade parenchyma cells. Photosynthetic and respiratory activities were also promoted by near-UV radiation, associated with general enhancement of physiological/biochemical responses. Particularly, metabolic activities in the photosynthetic system of chloroplasts and the respiratory system of mitochondria were analyzed under the conditions of visible light with and without near-UV radiation. For example, the activities of NAD(P)-dependent enzymes such as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH) in chloroplasts and isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH) in mitochondria were elevated, along with levels of pyridine nucleotides (nicotinamide coenzymes) [NAD(H) and NADP(H)] and activity of NAD kinase (NADP forming enzyme). Taken together, these data suggest that promotion of cucumber plant growth by near-UV radiation involves activation of carbon and nitrogen metabolism in plants. The findings of this research showed that near-UV radiation reaching the Earth's surface is a beneficial factor for plant growth. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Partial purification of elicitors from Lentinula edodes basidiocarps protecting cucumber seedlings against Colletotrichum lagenarium

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    Di Piero Robson M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes has been used in research involving the prevention and the control of human and plant diseases. In cucumber plants, treated with aqueous extracts from mushroom basidiocarps, there was a reduction in anthracnose severity caused by Colletotrichum lagenarium, and an increase in peroxidase activity in the leaves. With the aim of obtaining molecules of agronomic interest, the crude aqueous extract from L. edodes basidiocarp was fractioned with ammonium sulfate. The fraction corresponding to 40-80% of saturation (p40-80, the most effective in reducing anthracnose on cucumber cotyledons, was submitted to anion exchange chromatography (AEC. After AEC, six protein peaks were obtained and the peak V, containing 34% of the proteins present in p40-80, induced peroxidase increase in the cucumber cotyledons besides reducing anthracnose severity. Separation of peak V proteins by SDS-gel electrophoresis revealed the presence of more than one band in the gel. Thus, a partial purification of elicitors present in the L. edodes basidiocarp was achieved.

  6. Fate and effect of tire rubber ash nano-particles (RANPs) in cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddasi, Sahar; Hossein Khoshgoftarmanesh, Amir; Karimzadeh, Fatholah; Chaney, Rufus

    2015-05-01

    There are growing interests on effects of nano-materials on living organisms including higher plants. No report is available on positive and negative effects of rubber ash nano-particles (RANPs) on edible plants. Recently, we reported the possibility of using waste tire rubber and rubber ash as zinc (Zn) fertilizer for plants. In this nutrient solution culture study, for the first time, root uptake and the effects of RANPs on growth and Zn, cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) concentration in cucumber was investigated. Various Zn levels (0, 1, 5, 25, 125mgL(-1)) were applied in the form of RANPs or ZnSO4. The root RANPs uptake was visualized by light (LA), scanning electron (SEM), and transmission electron microcopies (TEM). At all Zn levels, cucumber plants supplied with RANPs produced higher shoot and root biomass compared with those supplied with ZnSO4. In addition, the RANPs resulted in higher accumulation of Zn in cucumber tissues in comparison with ZnSO4; although phytotoxicity of Zn from ZnSO4 was greater than that from RANPs. Clear evidence of the RANPs penetration into the root cells was obtained by using SEM and TEM. Filaments of RANPs were also observed at the end of roots by LM and TEM. Further research is needed to clarify the fate of the RANPs in plant cells and their possible risks for food chain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Characteristics of the Copper,Zinc Superoxide Dismutase of a Hadal Sea Cucumber (Paelopatides sp.) from the Mariana Trench.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanan; Kong, Xue; Chen, Jiawei; Liu, Helu; Zhang, Haibin

    2018-05-18

    Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are among the most important antioxidant enzymes and show great potential in preventing adverse effects during therapeutic trials. In the present study, cloning, expression, and characterization of a novel Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (Ps-Cu,Zn-SOD) from a hadal sea cucumber ( Paelopatides sp.) were reported. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Ps-Cu,Zn-SOD belonged to a class of intracellular SOD. Its K m and V max were 0.0258 ± 0.0048 mM and 925.1816 ± 28.0430 units/mg, respectively. The low K m value of this enzyme represents a high substrate affinity and can adapt to the low metabolic rate of deep sea organisms. The enzyme functioned from 0 °C to 80 °C with an optimal temperature of 40 °C. Moreover, the enzyme activity was maintained up to 87.12% at 5 °C. The enzyme was active at pH 4 to 12 with an optimal pH of 8.5. Furthermore, Ps-Cu,Zn-SOD tolerated high concentration of urea and GuHCl, resisted hydrolysis by proteases, and maintained stability at high pressure. All these features demonstrated that the deep sea Ps-Cu,Zn-SOD is a potential candidate for application to the biopharmaceutical field.

  8. Aquaculture, Biotechnological and Seafood Resource Potential of Sea Cucumbers from the Peniche coast (Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Alves Santos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sea cucumbers are highly marketable as food and medicinal product. This has resulted in an increasing overfishing and in a new interest in European species. In this work, the reproductive biology of Holothuria forskali and Holothuria mammata was performed by evaluating the gonadosomatic index and histological analyzes of the gonadal tubules. The biotechnological potential was assessed through the evaluation of the antioxidant, antimicrobial and antitumor potential. The antioxidant activity was evaluated through the quantification of the total phenolic content, DPPH radical scavenging activity and ORAC method. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella enteritidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli through growth inhibition tests. The antitumor potential was performed on HepG-2 and MCF-7 human cells lines using the MTT and Calcein - AM methods. Finally, the fatty acid profile was evaluated through gas-chromatography analysis. The gonadosomatic index and histology revealed that the range from February to April corresponds to the peak of gonad maturation for both species. No significant antioxidant activity was detected. The methanolic fraction of H. forskali revealed the highest antimicrobial potential against Candida albicans with an IC50 of 233.2 µg ml-1 and also presented the highest cytotoxic and anti-proliferative activities through the MTT method in both cells lines, with an IC50 of 238.2 and 396.0 µg ml-1 for MCF-7 cells, respectively and 260.3 and 218.7 µg ml-1 for HepG-2 cells, respectively. Regarding the fatty acid profile, the total fat content was 1%, 3.36% and 4.83% for H. forskali, H. mammata and S. regalis, respectively and the highest values were obtained for C16:0 (9.96% and ARA (20.36% for H. forskali and C18:0 (12.43%, C18:1 n-7 (5.13%, EPA (12.49% and DHA (7.35% for S. regalis. These findings showed the potential

  9. Round fruit shape in WI7239 cucumber is controlled by two interacting quantitative trait loci with one putatively encoding a tomato SUN homolog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruit size and shape is an important quality trait in cucumber breeding, yet its genetic basis remains poorly understood. In the present study, we conducted QTL mapping on round fruit shape in cucumber with F2 and F2:3 segregating populations from the cross between WI7238 (long fruit) and WI7239 (ro...

  10. Consistency of control of damping-off of cucumber is improved by combining ethanol extract of Serratia marcescens with other biologically based technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmentally friendly disease control tactics are needed that are consistently effective in soils that vary with regard to their biotic and abiotic components. An ethanol extract of Serratia marcescens N4-5, when applied as a cucumber seed treatment, effectively suppressed damping-off of cucumbe...

  11. A transposable element insertion in the susceptibility gene CsaMLO8 results in hypocotyl resistance to powdery mildew in cucumber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, J.A.; Appiano, M.; Santillán Martínez, M.I.; Hemans, F.W.K.; Vriezen, W.H.; Visser, R.G.F.; Bai, Y.; Schouten, H.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background - Powdery mildew (PM) is an important disease of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). CsaMLO8 was previously identified as a candidate susceptibility gene for PM in cucumber, for two reasons: 1) This gene clusters phylogenetically in clade V, which has previously been shown to harbour all known

  12. Preservation of acidified cucumbers with a natural preservative combination of fumaric acid and allyl isothiocyanate that target lactic acid bacteria and yeasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Without the addition of preservative compounds cucumbers acidified with 150 mM acetic acid with pH adjusted to 3.5 typically undergo fermentation by lactic acid bacteria. Fumaric acid (20 mM) inhibited growth of Lactobacillus plantarum and the lactic acid bacteria present on fresh cucumbers, but sp...

  13. Reassessment of the succession of lactic acid bacteria in commercial cucumber fermentations and physiological and genomic features associated with their dominance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current cucumber pickling practices differ significantly from those in the 1940s, when most of the microbiological studies of cucumber fermentations were completed, using culture dependent and biochemical testing. It is the objective of this study to conduct a compositional re-assessment of the micr...

  14. Biological control of Pythium aphanidermatum in cucumber with a combined application of Lysobacter enzymogenes strain 3.1T8 and chitosan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, J.; Stevens, L.H.; Wiegers, G.L.; Davelaar, E.; Nijhuis, E.H.

    2009-01-01

    Pythium aphanidermatum (Edson) Fitzp., causing root and crown rot in cucumber, was successfully managed by Lysobacter enzymogenes strain 3.1T8. Greenhouse experiments were performed with cucumber plants grown in rockwool blocks up to 5 weeks with a recirculated nutrient solution. Application of L.

  15. Effect of low doses gamma irradiation on the yield of cucumber grown under field and protected conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Oudat, M.; Ayyoubi, Z.; Razzouk, A.K.

    1994-08-01

    Presowing seed irradiation has been reported as a useful application of radiation in agriculture to stimulate growth and increase the yield of certain field crops. To the best of our knowledge the feasibility of this treatment has not yet been tested on cucumber in Syria. Our experiments were carried out in field and greenhouse conditions. Two experiments were under field conditions, the first at Der-El-Hajar (Unfertile soil with high mean temperature), and the second at Khan-El-Sheeh (fertile soil with lower mean temperature), in these two experiments local variety was used. The third experiment was under greenhouse condition using two varieties, F1 Hybrid Taha and Sahara. Samples of air dried seeds of previous season were irradiated by gamma rays from a 60 Co source using doses of 2, 3, 4, 5, 7.5, 10 and 15 Gy at dose rate of 0.8 Gy/min. Seeds were planted after two days from irradiation and replicated 4 times. The data revealed that gamma irradiation at interval doses of 3-7.5 Gy led to increase the number of leaves and plant height. The radiation treatment had stimulating effects on earliness especially for doses of 4-7.5 Gy in Khan-El-Sheeh (14-31%) and 7.5 Gy in Der-El-Hajar (28%). In greenhouse dose of 2-4 Gy and 2-7.5 Gy stimulate the earliness by 12-36% and 11-18% for Sahara and Taha varieties respectively. The results of total yield (as well as fruits number) were significantly increased when doses of 7.5 Gy in Der-El-Hajar (25%) and 4 and 5 Gy in Khan-El-Sheeh (28-30%). The optimum doses in greenhouse condition ranged between 32-4 Gy for Taha var. and 4-5 Gy for Sahara var., and the percentage of increment was 19 and 16% respectively. In view of all above mentioned results, the use of radiation might be recommended as easy tool for seed treatment to stimulate earliness and increase productivity of cucumber. (author). 17 refs., 23 tabs

  16. Regulation of dietary glutamine on the growth, intestinal function, immunity and antioxidant capacity of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haibo; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Shuanglin; Lan, Ying; Ye, Zhi; Wen, Bin

    2016-03-01

    The present study examined the effects of dietary glutamine (Gln) on the growth, intestinal function, immunity and antioxidant capacity of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka). The specific growth rate, intestinal morphology, activity of digestive enzymes, activity and gene expression of lysozyme and antioxidative enzymes of the sea cucumbers were determined after feeding 5 experimental diets with additions of increasing levels of Gln (at 0%, 0.4%, 0.8%,1.2% and 1.6%, respectively) for 60 days. We discovered that the specific growth rate of the sea cucumbers in 0.4%, 0.8% and 1.2% groups increased 35.3%, 27.3% and 24.1%, respectively, compared to the control (0%) group with significant differences. Dietary Gln can improve the intestinal function of the sea cucumbers by increasing the activities of trypsin and lipase in the intestine and the villus height and villus density of the intestine, eventhough significant differences were not observed in some groups. 0.4%-0.8% of dietary Gln can significantly increase the activity of lysozyme (LSZ) in the coelomic fluid of the sea cucumbers. Significant improvements were observed on the SOD activity in coelomic fluid of the sea cucumbers fed diets supplemented with 0.4%-1.6% of Gln compared to the control group. Similarly, the CAT activity in coelomic fluid of the sea cucumbers significantly increased in 0.8%, 1.2% and 1.6% groups compared to the control and 0.4% groups. Change pattern of the activity of CAT was consistent with the change pattern of the expression of CAT gene, indicating the dietary Gln can up-regulate the expression of CAT gene and consequently promote the secretion of CAT. However, the down-regulation of the expression of SOD gene by dietary Gln were observed in almost all of the treatment groups, which is in contrast with the change pattern of the activity of SOD, indicating the negative feedback regulation of the secretion of SOD on the expression of SOD gene. In summary, the suitable

  17. Undergraduate Sustainable Learning: Effects of Sustainable Soilless Media on Production and Sensory Evaluation of Cucumbers, Basil, Parsley, and Lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Russell

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Modern greenhouse production has been ~100% reliant on fossil fuels for all inputs (glazing, heating, fertilization, lighting, post-harvest. Recent innovations may reduce fossil fuel dependence but their effectiveness may not be thoroughly tested. To promote education in sustainable production, undergraduate students in Greenhouse Management class (Hort 3002W; University of Minnesota tested the effectiveness of two organic or ‘sustainable’ soilless media (Sunshine Natural and Organic Growing Mix, Sungro Metro-Mix Special Blend with a control (Sunshine LC8 Professional for crop production (height, leaf/flower number, yield and sensory evaluations (appearance, texture, taste, purchase of cucumbers (‘Big Burpless Hybrid’, ‘Sweet Burpless Hybrid’, basil (‘Opal Purple’, ‘Redleaf’, parsley (‘Green River’, ‘Extra Curled Dwarf’, ‘Hamburg’, and lettuce (Flying Saucer ‘Green’, ‘Red’. Significant differences between sustainable vs. control soils occurred for plant growth, depending on vegetative or reproductive traits, crops, and cultivars. These differences occasionally disappeared for sensory evaluation of edible components. In most crops, however, cultivars were highly significant factors. Undergraduate research can be used to provide directionality for future vegetable and herb plant breeding to focus on creating cultivars with increased yield and high consumer acceptance when grown in sustainable greenhouse soilless mixes.

  18. Effect of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) on the fruit quality of cucumber and the health risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Sun, Xin; Chang, Qin; Tao, Yue; Wang, Lihua; Dong, Junwei; Lin, Yulong; Zhang, Ying

    2016-12-01

    Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) widely used as plastic films' plasticizer, can cause agricultural pollution which is of increasing concern because of the food safety issues. Cucumber ( Cucumis sativus Linn.), commonly cultured in greenhouse, was exposed to DBP stress to gain more information about the ecological risk of DBP in this study. Changes of DBP residues and fruit quality of cucumber at different DBP concentrations (0, 5, 10, 20, 40 mg/kg of dry soil) were investigated in pot experiments using an agricultural soil under greenhouse condition, respectively. DBP residue in cucumber fruits ranged from 0.5326 to 1.8938 mg/kg, and the quality of cucumber fruits (organic acids, vitamin C, soluble protein, and soluble sugar) were influenced by DBP stress. Moreover, the health risk assessment was evaluated by estimate daily intakes (EDI) and the target hazard quotient (THQ) was analyzed. Under 40 mg/kg DBP condition, the highest value of EDI was 2.49 μg/kg bw/day and the THQ ranged from 0.000700 to 0.0249. Although the risk of DBP in cucumber fruits was lower than the threshold limit value of risk, the potential health risk was not a negligible issue.

  19. Decreased TK activity alters growth, yield and tolerance to low temperature and low light intensity in transgenic cucumber plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Huangai; Dong, Xubing; Wu, Guoxiu; Wang, Meiling; Ai, Xizhen

    2015-02-01

    Four CsTK antisense transgenic cucumber plants were obtained. Decreased TK activity decreased the photosynthetic rate, seed germination rate, growth yield, and the tolerance to low temperature and weak light stress. Transketolase (TK, EC 2.2.1.1) is a key enzyme in the photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle (Calvin cycle). A cDNA fragment (526 bp) encoding transketolase was cloned from cucumber plants (Cucumis sativa L. cv 'Jinyou 3') by RT-PCR. The antisense expression [(PBI-CsTK(-)] vector containing the CsTK gene fragment was constructed. The resulting plasmid was introduced into the cucumber inbred lines '08-1' using the agrobacterium-mediated method, and four antisense transgenic cucumber plants were obtained. Decreased CsTK expression either unaltered or slightly increased the mRNA abundance and activities of the other main enzymes in the Calvin cycle, however, it decreased the TK activity and net photosynthetic rate (Pn) in antisense transgenic cucumber leaves. Antisense plants showed decreases in the growth, ratio of female flowers and yield compared with the wild-type (WT) plants. The decrease in Pn, stomatal conductance (Gs), transpiration rate (Tr), photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm) and actual photochemical efficiency of PSII (ΦPSII) and the increase in electrolyte leakage (EL) were greater in antisense transgenic plants than in WT plants under low temperature (5 °C) and low light intensity (100 μmol m(-2) s(-1)).

  20. Determination of Benzoate Level in Canned Pickles and Pickled Cucumbers in Food Producing Factories in Markazi Province and those that their Products were Sold in Arak City, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Delavar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anecdotal information has suggested that sodium benzoate is used with more than permissible doses during production steps of food products especially pickles and pickled cucumbers in food producing factories in Markazi province and other food producing factories . The present study was done to evaluate factual concentration of sodium benzoate in these products. Methods: In this study, 8 samples from canned pickled cucumbers and 10 samples from canned pickles were randomly gathered from food production factories in Markazi province between March and September 2010. Also, 25 samples from canned pickled cucumbers and 15 samples from canned pickles and 7 samples of bulk cargo pickled cucumbers were collected from the other provinces in Arak city. Sodium benzoate level was determined in the samples using UV-VIS spectrophotometry method. The determined values were analyzed by N-par test using SPSS software version 16.0. Results: Sodium benzoate level was near zero in the samples of canned pickles and pickled cucumbers from producing factories. This was 200-400 PPM in 7 samples from bulk cargo pickled cucumbers which was higher than permissible dose. There was not a statistically significant difference between mean benzoate level of canned pickles and pickled cucumbers produced in Markazi providence factories and other food factories. Benzoate level was significantly higher than permissible dose in bulk cargo pickled cucumbers. Conclusion: Food products from production factories do not have higher than permissible level of sodium benzoate; however, this is higher in bulk cargo pickled cucumbers. Hence, stricter control on bulk cargo pickled cucumber products is recommended.

  1. Daily light integral and day light quality: Potentials and pitfalls of nighttime UV treatments on cucumber powdery mildew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suthaparan, Aruppillai; Solhaug, Knut Asbjørn; Stensvand, Arne; Gislerød, Hans Ragnar

    2017-10-01

    Nighttime ultraviolet (UV) radiation, if applied properly, has a significant potential for management of powdery mildews in many crop species. In this study, the role of growth light duration, irradiance, a combination of both (daily light integral) and light spectral quality (blue or red) on the efficacy of UV treatments against powdery mildew caused by Podosphaera xanthii and the growth performance of cucumber plants was studied in growth chambers. Increasing daily light integral provided by high-pressure sodium lamps (HPS) decreased efficacy of nighttime UV treatments against P. xanthii, but it increased plant growth. Furthermore, the efficacy of nighttime UV decreased when day length was increased from 16 to 20h at a constant daily light integral. The efficacy of nighttime UV increased if red light was applied after UV treatment, showing the possibility of day length extension without reducing the effect of UV. Increasing the dose of blue light during daytime reduced the efficacy of nighttime UV in controlling the disease, whereas blue deficient growth light (light after nighttime UV reduced its disease control efficacy. This showed the importance of maintaining a minimum of blue light in the growth light before nighttime UV treatment. Findings from this study showed that optimization of nighttime UV for management of powdery mildew is dependent on the spectral composition of the photosynthetically active radiation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Arsenate impact on the metabolite profile, production and arsenic loading of xylem sap in cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalle eUroic

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic uptake and translocation studies on xylem sap focus generally on the concentration and speciation of arsenic in the xylem. Arsenic impact on the xylem sap metabolite profile and its production during short term exposure has not been reported in detail. To investigate this, cucumbers were grown hydroponically and arsenate (AsV and DMA were used for plant treatment for 24 h. Total arsenic and arsenic speciation in xylem sap was analysed including a metabolite profiling under arsenate stress. Produced xylem sap was quantified and absolute arsenic transported was determined. AsV exposure has a significant impact on the metabolite profile of xylem sap. Four m/z values corresponding to four compounds were up regulated, one compound down regulated by arsenate exposure. The compound down regulated was identified to be isoleucine. Furthermore, arsenate has a significant influence on sap production, leading to a reduction of up to 96 % sap production when plants are exposed to 1000 μg kg-1 arsenate. No difference to control plants was observed when plants were exposed to 1000 μg kg-1 DMA. Absolute arsenic amount in xylem sap was the lowest at high arsenate exposure. These results show that AsV has a significant impact on the production and metabolite profile of xylem sap. The physiological importance of isoleucine needs further attention.

  3. Characterization and identification of enzyme-producing microflora isolated from the gut of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fenghui; Gao, Fei; Tan, Jie; Fan, Chaojing; Sun, Huiling; Yan, Jingping; Chen, Siqing; Wang, Xiaojun

    2016-01-01

    Gut microorganisms play an important role in the digestion of their host animals. The purpose of this research was to isolate and assess the enzyme-producing microbes from the Apostichopus japonicus gut. Thirty-nine strains that can produce at least one of the three digestive enzymes (protease, amylase, and cellulase) were qualitatively screened based on their extracellular enzyme-producing abilities. The enzyme-producing strains clustered into eight groups at the genetic similarity level of 100% by analyzing the restriction patterns of 16S rDNA amplified with Mbo I. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that 37 strains belonged to the genus Bacillus and two were members of the genus Virgibacillus. Enzyme-producing capability results indicate that the main enzyme-producing microflora in the A. japonicus gut was Bacillus, which can produce protease, amylase, and cellulase. Virgibacillus, however, can only produce protease. The high enzyme-producing capability of the isolates suggests that the gut microbiota play an important role in the sea cucumber digestive process.

  4. Effect of elevated manganese on the ultraviolet- and blue light-absorbing compounds of cucumber cotyledons and leaf tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, C.R.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of manganese [Mn(II)] on the pigments of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L., cv Poinsett 76) leaf and cotyledon tissues was investigated. Tissue disks (7 mm) were exposed to increasing Mn(II) concentrations from 100 micromolar to 2.5 mM. Acetone (carotenoid-rich fraction) and acidified methanol (flavonoid-rich fraction) extracts were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. Although none of the Mn(II)-treated tissues showed visible damage, Mn(II) at concentrations of 250 micromolar and above significantly reduced (60%) the beta-carotene levels of light-incubated leaf tissues. A major Mn(II)-induced, UV-absorbing compound was observed in methanol extracts of cotyledonary tissues exposed to Mn(II) in the dark. In leaf tissues, Mn(II) reduced the levels of certain UV-absorbing compounds under both light conditions. These results demonstrate that excess leaf Mn(II) can rapidly impair isoprenoid metabolism, altering tissue carotenoid composition. Furthermore, Mn(II) may also modify phenylpropanoid metabolism, changing the tissue flavonoid composition. Both situations could sensitize plant tissues to oxidative stresses, particularly enhanced solar UV-B radiation, and may reduce the nutritional quality of leafy vegetables

  5. Effect of silver nanoparticles on concentration of silver heavy element and growth indexes in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. negeen)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shams, Gholamabbas; Ranjbar, Morteza; Amiri, Aliasghar

    2013-01-01

    The tremendous progress on nanoparticle research area has been made significant effects on the economy, society, and the environment. Silver nanoparticle is one of the most important particles in these categories. Silver nanoparticles can be converted to the heavy silver metal in water by oxidation. Moreover, in the high amounts of silver concentration, they will be accumulated in different parts of the plant. However, by changing the morphology of the plant, the production will be harmful for human consumptions. In this study, nano-powders with average 50 nm silver particles are mixed with deionized distilled water in a completely randomized design. Seven treatments with various concentrations of suspension silver nanoparticles were prepared and repeated in four different parts of the plant in a regular program of spraying. Samples were analyzed to study the growth indexes and concentration of silver in different parts of the plant. It was observed that with increasing concentration of silver nanoparticles on cucumber, the growth indexes (except pH fruit), and the concentration of silver heavy metal are increased significantly. The incremental concentration had the linear relationship with correlation coefficient 0.95 and an average of 0.617 PPM by increasing of each unit in one thousand concentration of nanosilver. Although, by increasing concentration of silver nanoparticles as spraying form, the plant morphological characteristics were improved, the concentration of silver heavy metal in various plant organs was increased. These results open a new pathway to consider the effect of nanoparticles on plant’s productions for human consumptions.

  6. Arsenate Impact on the Metabolite Profile, Production, and Arsenic Loading of Xylem Sap in Cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uroic, M. Kalle; Salaün, Pascal; Raab, Andrea; Feldmann, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic uptake and translocation studies on xylem sap focus generally on the concentration and speciation of arsenic in the xylem. Arsenic impact on the xylem sap metabolite profile and its production during short term exposure has not been reported in detail. To investigate this, cucumbers were grown hydroponically and arsenate (AsV) and DMA were used for plant treatment for 24 h. Total arsenic and arsenic speciation in xylem sap was analyzed including a metabolite profiling under AsV stress. Produced xylem sap was quantified and absolute arsenic transported was determined. AsV exposure had a significant impact on the metabolite profile of xylem sap. Four m/z values corresponding to four compounds were up-regulated, one compound down-regulated by AsV exposure. The compound down-regulated was identified to be isoleucine. Furthermore, AsV exposure had a significant influence on sap production, leading to a reduction of up to 96% sap production when plants were exposed to 1000 μg kg−1 AsV. No difference to control plants was observed when plants were exposed to 1000 μg kg−1 DMA. Absolute arsenic amount in xylem sap was the lowest at high AsV exposure. These results show that AsV has a significant impact on the production and metabolite profile of xylem sap. The physiological importance of isoleucine needs further attention. PMID:22536187

  7. Structural and biochemical changes in dermis of sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus) during autolysis in response to cutting the body wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Xin; Zhou, Da-Yong; Liu, Zi-Qiang; Lu, Ting; Song, Liang; Li, Dong-Mei; Dong, Xiu-Ping; Qi, Hang; Zhu, Bei-Wei; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2018-02-01

    The autolysis of sea cucumber body wall is caused by endogenous proteolysis of its structural elements. However, changes in collagen fibrils, collagen fibres and microfibrils, the major structural elements in sea cucumber body wall during autolysis are less clear. Autolysis of sea cucumber (S. japonicus) was induced by cutting the body wall, and the structural and biochemical changes in its dermis were investigated using electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, infrared spectroscopy, electrophoresis, and chemical analysis. During autolysis, both collagen fibres and microfibrils gradually degraded. In contrast, damage to microfibrils was more pronounced. Upon massive autolysis, collagen fibres disaggregated into collagen fibril bundles and individual fibrils due to the fracture of interfibrillar bridges. Meanwhile, excessive unfolding of collagen fibrils occurred. However, there was only slight damage to collagen monomers. Therefore, structural damage in collagen fibres, collagen fibrils and microfibrils rather than monomeric collagen accounts for autolysis of S. japonicus dermis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Seasonal temperatures have more influence than nitrogen fertilizer rates on cucumber yield and nitrogen uptake in a double cropping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Ruiying; Li Xiaolin; Christie, Peter; Chen Qing; Zhang Fusuo

    2008-01-01

    Two-year greenhouse cucumber experiments were conducted to investigate seasonal effects on fruit yield, dry matter allocation, and N uptake in a double-cropping system with different fertilizer management. Seasonal effects were much greater than fertilizer effects, and winter-spring (WS) cucumber attained higher fruit yields and N uptake than autumn-winter (AW) cucumber due to lower cumulative air temperatures during fruit maturation in the AW season. Fertilizer N application and apparent N loss under recommended N management (Nmr) decreased by 40-78% and 33-48% without yield loss compared to conventional N management (Nmt) over four growing seasons. However, there were no seasonal differences in N recommendations, taking into consideration seasonal differences in crop N demand, critical nutrient supply in the root zone and N mineralization rate. - Nitrogen inputs can be reduced to minimize N losses to the environment while maintaining yields but N recommendations must reflect seasonal temperature effects

  9. Seasonal temperatures have more influence than nitrogen fertilizer rates on cucumber yield and nitrogen uptake in a double cropping system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Ruiying; Li Xiaolin [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, No. 2 Yuanmingyuan Xilu, Haidian District, Beijing 100094 (China); Christie, Peter [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, No. 2 Yuanmingyuan Xilu, Haidian District, Beijing 100094 (China); Agricultural and Environmental Science Department, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT9 5PX (United Kingdom); Chen Qing [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, No. 2 Yuanmingyuan Xilu, Haidian District, Beijing 100094 (China)], E-mail: qchen@cau.edu.cn; Zhang Fusuo [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, No. 2 Yuanmingyuan Xilu, Haidian District, Beijing 100094 (China)

    2008-02-15

    Two-year greenhouse cucumber experiments were conducted to investigate seasonal effects on fruit yield, dry matter allocation, and N uptake in a double-cropping system with different fertilizer management. Seasonal effects were much greater than fertilizer effects, and winter-spring (WS) cucumber attained higher fruit yields and N uptake than autumn-winter (AW) cucumber due to lower cumulative air temperatures during fruit maturation in the AW season. Fertilizer N application and apparent N loss under recommended N management (Nmr) decreased by 40-78% and 33-48% without yield loss compared to conventional N management (Nmt) over four growing seasons. However, there were no seasonal differences in N recommendations, taking into consideration seasonal differences in crop N demand, critical nutrient supply in the root zone and N mineralization rate. - Nitrogen inputs can be reduced to minimize N losses to the environment while maintaining yields but N recommendations must reflect seasonal temperature effects.

  10. Structures of Two Yellow Dyes Found in Cucumbers Pickled in Soy Sauce Colored with Tartrazine (Y4).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Asamoe; Shindo, Tetsuya; Kyoko, Hitomi; Sadamasu, Yuki; Sakamaki, Narue; Uematsu, Yoko; Monma, Kimio

    2017-01-01

    Two yellow dyes, together with tartrazine (Y4), were found in cucumbers pickled in soy sauce, for which the use of tartrazine is permitted, by TLC, LC-DAD, and LC-MS. The retention times on LC chromatograms and the maximum absorbance wavelengths measured by LC-DAD of the two dyes were different from those of tartrazine. Mass spectra of the dyes indicated that these dyes lacked one sulfonyl group of tartrazine. The presence of two less sulfonated dyes in tartrazine has been reported. Hence, the two less sulfonated dyes were synthesized. The two dyes found in cucumbers were compared with the synthesized dyes by LC-DAD and LC-MS. Since the retention times of the dyes in cucumbers on the LC chromatograms, as well as their LC-DAD spectra and mass spectra, were found to be identical with those of the synthesized dyes, we concluded these dyes are the less sulfonated subsidiary dyes of tartrazine.

  11. Effects of heat treatment on the gel properties of the body wall of sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Hou, Hu; Bu, Lin; Li, Bafang; Xue, Changhu; Peng, Zhe; Su, Shiwei

    2017-03-01

    The sensory texture of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus ) was dramatically affected by heat treatment. In this study, sea cucumbers were heated under different thermal conditions (HSC), and divided into five groups (HSC-80, HSC-90, HSC-100, HSC-110, and HSC-120) according to the heating temperature (from 80 to 120 °C). The changes in texture, moisture, gel structure, and biochemical parameters of the HSC were investigated. With increasing heating time (from 10 to 80 min), the hardness and gel structure changed slightly, and the water activity decreased as the proportion of T 21 increased by 133.33, 55.56, and 59.09% in the HSC-80, HSC-90, and HSC-100 groups, respectively. This indicated that moderate heating conditions (below 100 °C) caused gelation of sea cucumbers in HSC-80, HSC-90, and HSC-100 groups. However, as the water activity increased, the hardness declined rapidly by 2.56 and 2.7% in the HSC-110 and HSC-120 groups, with heating time increased from 10 to 80 min. Meanwhile, free hydroxyproline and ammonia nitrogen contents increased by 81.24 and 63.16% in the HSC-110 group; and by 63.09 and 54.99% in the HSC-120 group, as the gel structure of the sea cucumbers decomposed in these two groups. These results demonstrated that, severe heat treatment (above 100 °C) destroyed the chemical bonds, triggered the disintegration of collagen fibers and the gel structure of sea cucumbers, and transformed the migration and distribution of moisture, finally causing the deterioration of the sensory texture of the sea cucumbers.

  12. Quantification and role of organic acids in cucumber root exudates in Trichoderma harzianum T-E5 colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fengge; Meng, Xiaohui; Yang, Xingming; Ran, Wei; Shen, Qirong

    2014-10-01

    The ability to colonize on plant roots is recognized as one of the most important characteristics of the beneficial fungi Trichoderma spp. The aim of this study is to prove that the utilization of organic acids is a major trait of Trichoderma harzianum T-E5 for colonization of cucumber roots. A series experiments in split-root hydroponic system and in vitro were designed to demonstrate the association between the utilization of organic acids and T-E5 colonization on cucumber roots. In the split-root hydroponic system, inoculation with T-E5 (T) significantly increased the biomass of cucumber plants compared with CK (non-inoculation with T-E5). The T-E5 hyphae densely covering the cucumber root surface were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Three organic acids (oxalic acid, malic acid and citric acid) were identified from both the CK and T treatments by HPLC and LC/ESI-MS procedures. The amounts of oxalic acid and malic acid in T were significantly higher than those in CK. All the organic acids exhibited different and significant stimulation effects on the mycelial growth and conidial germination of T-E5 in vitro. An additional hydroponic experiment demonstrated the positive effects of organic acids on the T-E5 colonization of cucumber roots. In conclusion, the present study revealed that certain organic acids could be used as nutritional sources for Trichoderma harzianum T-E5 to reinforce its population on cucumber roots. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of pesticides on the uptake and transport of radiophosphorus in horse-bean and cucumber plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanker, I; Taimr, L; Kudelova, A [Vyzkumne Ustavy Rostlinne Vyroby, Prague (Czechoslovakia). Ustav Ochrany Rostlin

    1977-01-01

    During the treatment of the roots of intact bean and cucumber plants with the preparation Pirimor (pirimicarb) and on the second day after application of the insecticides Bi 58 (dimethoate), Pirimor and Lannate (methomyl) to roots diminished /sup 32/P uptake was also noted after treatment of overground parts of bean plants with the preparation Pirimor. On the other hand, on the second day after application of the fungicide Folcidin (cypendazole) to the roots of cucumber plants /sup 32/P uptake was significantly stimulated, radioactivity being accumulated in the overground parts of plants.

  14. Cucumber seedling dependence on cotyledonary leaves for early growth Dependência das folhas cotiledonares para o crescimento inicial de pepino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilson Antônio Bisognin

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the dependence of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. seedlings on cotyledonary leaves for early growth and establishment. Sets of two uniform emerging seedlings were used to quantify the initial growth and dry matter accumulation, as well as the intensity and stage of cotyledon damage in seedling establishment and to determine cotyledon protein, amino acid and carbohydrate contributions to the growing seedling. Cucumber seedling establishment was found to be highly dependent on cotyledonary leaves. Root system establishment was highly dependent on the health of the aerial part. One cotyledon was enough to maintain aerial growth of seedlings after unfolding the first true leaf. Cucumber seedlings depended on both cotyledons to keep root system growth at least until leaf area was equivalent to cotyledon area. Covering one or both cotyledons of seedlings with one unfolded leaf increased carbohydrate content of uncovered cotyledon and leaves compared with control seedlings. Cucumber seedlings are highly dependent on cotyledonary leaves and aerial parts are less dependent than root system. Cotyledon damage at early stages of plant establishment would adversely impact crop yield by reducing plant density, an important yield component, or slowing down seedling growth and establishment.O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o desempenho das folhas cotiledonares no crescimento inicial e estabelecimento de plântulas de pepino (Cucumis sativus L.. Grupos de duas plântulas uniformemente emergidas foram utilizados para quantificar o crescimento inicial e acúmulo de matéria seca, o efeito da intensidade e época de remoção dos cotilédones sobre o estabelecimento da plântula, e a contribuição de proteínas, aminoácidos e carboidratos dos cotilédones para o crescimento inicial. O estabelecimento das plântulas de pepino foi altamente dependente das folhas cotiledonares. As folhas cotiledonares foram fundamentais

  15. Draft genome of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus and genetic polymorphism among color variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Jihoon; Oh, Jooseong; Lee, Hyun-Gwan; Hong, Hyun-Hee; Lee, Sung-Gwon; Cheon, Seongmin; Kern, Elizabeth M A; Jin, Soyeong; Cho, Sung-Jin; Park, Joong-Ki; Park, Chungoo

    2017-01-01

    The Japanese sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus Selenka 1867) is an economically important species as a source of seafood and ingredient in traditional medicine. It is mainly found off the coasts of northeast Asia. Recently, substantial exploitation and widespread biotic diseases in A. japonicus have generated increasing conservation concern. However, the genomic knowledge base and resources available for researchers to use in managing this natural resource and to establish genetically based breeding systems for sea cucumber aquaculture are still in a nascent stage. A total of 312 Gb of raw sequences were generated using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform and assembled to a final size of 0.66 Gb, which is about 80.5% of the estimated genome size (0.82 Gb). We observed nucleotide-level heterozygosity within the assembled genome to be 0.986%. The resulting draft genome assembly comprising 132 607 scaffolds with an N50 value of 10.5 kb contains a total of 21 771 predicted protein-coding genes. We identified 6.6-14.5 million heterozygous single nucleotide polymorphisms in the assembled genome of the three natural color variants (green, red, and black), resulting in an estimated nucleotide diversity of 0.00146. We report the first draft genome of A. japonicus and provide a general overview of the genetic variation in the three major color variants of A. japonicus. These data will help provide a comprehensive view of the genetic, physiological, and evolutionary relationships among color variants in A. japonicus, and will be invaluable resources for sea cucumber genomic research. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  16. Comparative transcriptome analysis of three color variants of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Jihoon; Park, Jongsun; Lee, Hyun-Gwan; Kern, Elizabeth M A; Cheon, Seongmin; Jin, Soyeong; Park, Joong-Ki; Cho, Sung-Jin; Park, Chungoo

    2016-08-01

    The sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus Selenka 1867 represents an important resource in biomedical research, traditional medicine, and the seafood industry. Much of the commercial value of A. japonicus is determined by dorsal/ventral color variation (red, green, and black), yet the taxonomic relationships between these color variants are not clearly understood. We performed the first comparative analysis of de novo assembled transcriptome data from three color variants of A. japonicus. Using the Illumina platform, we sequenced nearly 177,596,774 clean reads representing a total of 18.2Gbp of sea cucumber transcriptome. A comparison of over 0.3 million transcript scaffolds against the Uniprot/Swiss-Prot database yielded 8513, 8602, and 8588 positive matches for green, red, and black body color transcriptomes, respectively. Using the Panther gene classification system, we assessed an extensive and diverse set of expressed genes in three color variants and found that (1) among the three color variants of A. japonicus, genes associated with RNA binding protein, oxidoreductase, nucleic acid binding, transferase, and KRAB box transcription factor were most commonly expressed; and (2) the main protein functional classes are differently regulated in all three color variants (extracellular matrix protein and phosphatase for green color, transporter and potassium channel for red color, and G-protein modulator and enzyme modulator for black color). This work will assist in the discovery and annotation of novel genes that play significant morphological and physiological roles in color variants of A. japonicus, and these sequence data will provide a useful set of resources for the rapidly growing sea cucumber aquaculture industry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Genetic diversity of cucumber estimated by morpho-physiological and EST-SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Sudhakar; Ansari, Waquar Akhter; Pandey, Maneesh; Singh, Bijendra

    2018-02-01

    In the present study, genetic variation among 40 cucumber genotypes was analyzed by means of morpho-physiological traits and 21 EST-SSR markers. Diversity was observed for morpho-physiological characters like days to 50% female flowering (37-46.9, number of fruits/plant (1.33-5.80), average fruit weight (41-333), vine length (36-364), relative water content (58.5-92.7), electrolyte leakage (15.9-37.1), photosynthetic efficiency (0.40-0.75) and chlorophyll concentration index (11.1-28.6). The pair wise Jaccard similarity coefficient ranged from 0.00 to 0.27 for quantitative traits and 0.24 to 0.96 for EST-SSR markers indicating that the accessions represent genetically diverse populations. With twenty-one EST-SSR markers, polymorphism revealed among 40 cucumber genotypes, number of alleles varied 2-6 with an average 3.05. Polymorphism information content varied from 0.002 to 0.989 (mean = 0.308). The number of effective allele (Ne), expected heterozygosity (He) and unbiased expected heterozygosity (uHe) of these EST-SSRs were 1.079-1.753, 0.074-0.428 and 0.074-0.434, respectively. Same 21 EST-SSR markers transferability checked in four other Cucumis species: snapmelon ( Cucumis melo var. momordica ), muskmelon ( Cucumis melo L.), pickling melon ( Cucumis melo var. conomon ) and wild muskmelon ( Cucumis melo var. agrestis ) with frequency of 61.9, 95.2, 76.2, and 76.2%, respectively. Present study provides useful information on variability, which can assist geneticists with desirable traits for cucumber germplasm utilization. Observed physiological parameters may assists in selection of genotype for abiotic stress tolerance also, EST-SSR markers may be useful for genetic studies in related species.

  18. Physiological characteristics of cucumber seed production plants by presowing laser and gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cholakov, D.; Petkova, V.

    1994-01-01

    Seeds from G-3 maternal line of hybrid cucumber cultivar Pobeda F 1 were treated with helium-neon 632.8 nm laser-exit power 20 mW and gamma-rays ( 60 Co) in a field experiment under conditions suitable for hybrid seed production. The irradiation was carried out a week before sowing and the following variants were investigated: 1. sevenfold laser irradiation; 2. 10 Gy gamma irradiation; 3. combined laser + gamma rays irradiation. Seeds from the parent line were not irradiated. A positive effect of irradiation on the photosynthetic intensity, content of plastid pigments in leaves and activity of catalase and peroxidase has been observed. (author)

  19. The impact of cucumber nitrogen nutrition on life history traits of Tetranychus urticae (Koch) (Acari: Tetranychidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Motahari , M.; Kheradmand , K.; Roustaee , A.M.; Talebi , A.A.

    2014-01-01

    International audience; The nutritional quality of the host plant is one of the most important factors of growth and reproduction for crop pests. In order to investigate the impact of nitrogen on the biology and demography of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), cucumber plants were nourished by four levels of nitrogen: N1 (10 meq /L NO3-), N2 (12 meq/L NO3-), N3 (15 meq/L NO3-) and N4 (20 meq /L NO3-). The experiments were performed under laboratory conditions at 25+/-1 °C, 60+/-...

  20. Vinegar residue compost as a growth substrate enhances cucumber resistance against the Fusarium wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum by regulating physiological and biochemical responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lu; Du, Nanshan; Yuan, Yinghui; Shu, Sheng; Sun, Jin; Guo, Shirong

    2016-09-01

    Fusarium wilt caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC) is the most severe soil-borne disease attacking cucumber. To assess the positive effects of vinegar residue substrate (VRS) on the growth and incidence of Fusarium wilt on cucumber, we determined the cucumber growth parameters, disease severity, defense-related enzyme and pathogenesis-related (PR) protein activities, and stress-related gene expression levels. In in vitro and pot experiments, we demonstrated the following results: (i) the VRS extract exhibited a higher biocontrol activity than that of peat against FOC, and significantly improved the growth inhibition of FOC, with values of 48.3 %; (ii) in response to a FOC challenge, antioxidant enzymes and the key enzymes of phenylpropanoid metabolic activities, as well as the PR protein activities in the roots of cucumber, were significantly increased. Moreover, the activities of these proteins were higher in VRS than in peat; (iii) the expression levels of stress-related genes (including glu, pal, and ethylene receptor) elicited responses to the pathogens inoculated in cucumber leaves; and (iv) the FOC treatment significantly inhibited the growth of cucumber seedlings. Moreover, all of the growth indices of plants grown in VRS were significantly higher than those grown in peat. These results offer a new strategy to control cucumber Fusarium wilt, by upregulating the activity levels of defense-related enzymes and PR proteins and adjusting gene expression levels. They also provide a theoretical basis for VRS applications.

  1. [Effects of different NO3--N/NH4+-N ratios on cucumber seedlings growth, nitrogen absorption and metabolism under suboptimal temperature and light intensity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao Cui; Liu, Yu Mei; Bai, Long Qiang; He, Chao Xing; Yu, Xian Chang; Li, Yan Su

    2016-08-01

    Cucumber (cv. Zhongnong 26) was used as material, the effects of NO 3 - -N/NH 4 + -N ratios on growth and physiological characteristics of cucumber seedlings under suboptimal temperature and light intensity (18 ℃/10 ℃,180 ± 20 μmol·m -2 ·s -1 ) were studied. Total nitrogen in the nutrient solution was equal and three NO 3 - -N/NH 4 + -N ratios, 26:2, 21:7 and 14:14, were applied as treatments. The results showed that cucumber treated by NO 3 - -N/NH 4 + -N=21:7 had the longest total root length, the biggest root volume and root surface area, and the maximum number of root tips. H + -ATPase activity and relative expression of genes encoding nitrate transporter (NRT) and ammonium transporter (AMT) in cucumber roots were increased significantly by the treatment of NO 3 - -N/NH 4 + -N=21:7. In addition, nitrate reductase (NR), glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamate synthase (GOGAT) in cucumber leaves under the treatment of NO 3 - -N/NH 4 + -N=21:7 were higher. As a result, the nitrogen content and biomass of cucumber were significantly increased. Compared with the plants under the treatment of NO 3 - -N/NH 4 + -N=26:2 or 14:14, cucumber seedlings under the treatment of NO 3 - -N/NH 4 + -N=21:7 had the highest biomass and total dry mass (DM) which were increased by 14.0% and 19.3% respectively under suboptimal temperature and light intensity. In conclusion, under suboptimal environmental conditions, NO 3 - -N/NH 4 + -N ratio could be adjusted to increase nitrogen absorption and metabolism of cucumber and alleviate the de-trimental effects caused by suboptimal conditions and promoted the cucumber growth.

  2. Use of molecular markers aids in the development of diverse inbred backcross lines in Beit Alpha cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beit Alpha cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is a Mediterranean fresh-market type with a relatively narrow genetic base. To broaden its base for plant improvement, 42 diverse accessions were compared employing a previously defined standard marker array to choose wide-based parental lines for use in bac...

  3. Collision-free inverse kinematics of the redundant seven link manipulator used in a cucumber harvesting robot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henten, van E.J.; Schenk, E.J.J.; Willigenburg, van L.G.; Meuleman, J.; Barreiro, P.

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents results of research on an inverse kinematics algorithm that has been used in a functional model of a cucumber-harvesting robot consisting of a redundant P6R manipulator. Within a first generic approach, the inverse kinematics problem was reformulated as a non-linear programming

  4. Phenotypic and genetic characterization of bacteria isolated from diseased cultured sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) in Northeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    During the winter–spring from 2004 to 2006 in northeastern China cultured Japanese sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus suffered from a serious disease. Clinical signs included swollen mouth, skin ulceration and massive mortality. Clinical samples taken during this period were studied. Thirty-one bac...

  5. Effect of culture methods on individual variation in the growth of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus within a cohort and family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Tianlong; Zhang, Libin; Zhang, Tao; Bai, Yucen; Yang, Hongsheng

    2014-07-01

    There is substantial individual variation in the growth rates of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus individuals. This necessitates additional work to grade the seed stock and lengthens the production period. We evaluated the influence of three culture methods (free-mixed, isolated-mixed, isolated-alone) on individual variation in growth and assessed the relationship between feeding, energy conversion efficiency, and individual growth variation in individually cultured sea cucumbers. Of the different culture methods, animals grew best when reared in the isolated-mixed treatment (i.e., size classes were held separately), though there was no difference in individual variation in growth between rearing treatment groups. The individual variation in growth was primarily attributed to genetic factors. The difference in food conversion efficiency caused by genetic differences among individuals was thought to be the origin of the variance. The level of individual growth variation may be altered by interactions among individuals and environmental heterogeneity. Our results suggest that, in addition to traditional seed grading, design of a new kind of substrate that changes the spatial distribution of sea cucumbers would effectively enhance growth and reduce individual variation in growth of sea cucumbers in culture.

  6. Effect of shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) farming waste on the growth, digestion, ammonium-nitrogen excretion of sea cucumber ( Stichopus monotuberculatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanfeng; Luo, Peng; Hu, Chaoqun; Ren, Chunhua

    2015-06-01

    In this study, specific growth rate (SGR), ingestion rate (IR), food conversion ratio (FCR), apparent digestion ratio (ADR) and ammonium-nitrogen excretion were determined for sea cucumber ( Stichopus monotuberculatus) reared in plastic containers (70 L; 4 containers each diet treatment). Sea cucumbers were fed with five diets containing different amounts of farming waste from shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) (100%, 75%, 50%, 25% and 0) and a formulated compound (20% sea mud and 80% powdered algae). Sea cucumbers grew faster when they were fed with diet D (25% shrimp waste and 75% formulated compound) than those fed with other diets. Although IR value of sea cucumber fed with diet A (shrimp waste) was higher than those fed with other diets, both the lowest SGR and the highest FCR occurred in this diet group. The highest and the lowest ADR occurred in diet E (formulated compound) and diet A group, respectively, and the same to ammonium-nitrogen excretion. The contents of crude protein, crude lipid and total organic matter (TOM) in feces decreased in comparison with corresponding diets. In the feces from different diet treatments, the contents of crude protein and TOM increased gradually as the contents of crude protein and TOM in diets increased, while crude lipid content decreased gradually as the crude lipid content in diets increased.

  7. Non-destructive geographical traceability of sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) using near infrared spectroscopy combined with chemometric methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiuhan; Cai, Rui; Wang, Shisheng; Tang, Bo; Li, Yueqing; Zhao, Weijie

    2018-01-01

    Sea cucumber is the major tonic seafood worldwide, and geographical origin traceability is an important part of its quality and safety control. In this work, a non-destructive method for origin traceability of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus ) from northern China Sea and East China Sea using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and multivariate analysis methods was proposed. Total fat contents of 189 fresh sea cucumber samples were determined and partial least-squares (PLS) regression was used to establish the quantitative NIRS model. The ordered predictor selection algorithm was performed to select feasible wavelength regions for the construction of PLS and identification models. The identification model was developed by principal component analysis combined with Mahalanobis distance and scaling to the first range algorithms. In the test set of the optimum PLS models, the root mean square error of prediction was 0.45, and correlation coefficient was 0.90. The correct classification rates of 100% were obtained in both identification calibration model and test model. The overall results indicated that NIRS method combined with chemometric analysis was a suitable tool for origin traceability and identification of fresh sea cucumber samples from nine origins in China.

  8. Effect of co-culture of Chinese shrimp ( Fenneropenaeus chinensis) and sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus Selenka) on pond environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haibo; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Shuanglin; Sun, Yongjun; Wang, Fang

    2016-10-01

    Monoculture of sea cucumber (pond S) and polyculture of shrimp with sea cucumber (pond SS) were established to evaluate the effect of shrimp on the environmental conditions of sea cucumber farming pond. Contributions of sediment organic matter (SOM2) resuspended from benthic sediment and the suspended particulate organic matter (SPOM) deposited from the water column to the precipitated organic matter (SOM1) collected with sediment traps were estimated with carbon stable isotope analysis. The results showed that the levels of SPOM and SOM2 in pond SS significantly decreased in comparison with those in pond S at the end of experiment ( P sea cucumber farming pond could purify the farming water. Carbon stable isotope analysis showed that the proportion of SOM2 in SOM1 in pond SS (84.97% ± 0.38%) was significantly lower than that in pond S (95.20% ± 0.30%) ( P < 0.05), suggesting that the resuspension of organic matter from benthic sediment into overlying water was reduced in polyculture pond. In contrast, the proportion of SPOM in SOM1 in pond SS (15.03% ± 0.38%) was significantly higher than that in pond S (4.80% ± 0.30%) ( P < 0.05), indicating that the sedimentation of SPOM from water column was enhanced in pond SS owing to the biodeposition effect of shrimp.

  9. Effect of food on specific dynamic action (SDA) of green and red types of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus Selenka)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Jie; Jiang, Hongbo; Dong, Shuanglin; Tian, Xiangli

    2017-10-01

    Specific dynamic action (SDA), the energy expended on all physiological processes that is associated with meal digestion and absorption, is strongly affected by food type. Effects of formulated diet (FMD), macroalgae (ALG) and sea mud (SMD) diets on the postprandial metabolic response of the green type and the red type of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) were studied in order to understand their feeding physiology. Food offered to A. japonicus was different in protein, lipid content and energy but not in meal mass. SDA of A. japonicus resulted in a 1.3-2.7 folds of increase in oxygen consumption that can persist for up to 4.8-31.7 h after digesting three different diets. In a given type of sea cucumber, the magnitude of SDA was the highest when fed with FMD, medium with ALG, and the lowest with SMD, which is probably due to the differences in diet components and protein contents. The red type sea cucumber showed greater SDA magnitude than the green type with each diet treatment, which might result from the difference in factorial scope between the two types of sea cucumber. However, the smallest magnitude or even no difference was observed between the two types of A. japonicus in SMD group, perhaps owing to the poor nutrition and digestion of sea mud.

  10. Nitrogen and phosphorus budget of a polyculture system of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus), jellyfish ( Rhopilema esculenta) and shrimp ( Fenneropenaeus chinensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junwei; Dong, Shuanglin; Gao, Qinfeng; Zhu, Changbo

    2014-06-01

    The nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) budget and the ecological efficiency of a polyculture system of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus), jellyfish ( Rhopilema esculenta) and shrimp ( Fenneropenaeus chinensis) were studied in a cofferdam, 120.2 ha in size. The nutrients were supplied by spring tide inflow. In total, 139600 kg N yr-1 and 9730 kg P yr-1 input to the system; while 118900 kg N yr-1 and 2840 kg P yr-1 outflowed from the system concurrently, thus the outflow was 85.7% (N) and 29.2% (P) of inflow. The production of N and P was 889.5 kg yr-1 and 49.28 kg yr-1 (sea cucumber) and 204 kg yr-1 and 18.03 kg yr-1 (jellyfish and shrimp), respectively. The utilization rate of N and P by polycultured animals was 7.8‰ and 6.9‰, respectively, 21.9% and 38% higher than that of monocultured sea cucumber. Our results indicated that the polyculture system was an efficient culture system of animals and a remediation system of coastal environment as well; it scavenged 14.3% and 70.8% of N and P, respectively. Such an ecological efficiency may be improved further by increasing either the stocking density or the size of sea cucumber or both.

  11. Determination of Pesticides Residues in Cucumbers Grown in Greenhouse and the Effect of Some Procedures on Their Residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leili, Mostafa; Pirmoghani, Amin; Samadi, Mohammad Taghi; Shokoohi, Reza; Roshanaei, Ghodratollah; Poormohammadi, Ali

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the residual concentrations of ethion and imidacloprid in cucumbers grown in greenhouse. The effect of some simple processing procedures on both ethion and imidacloprid residues were also studied. Ten active greenhouses that produce cucumber were randomly selected. Ethion and imidacloprid as the most widely used pesticides were measured in cucumber samples of studied greenhouses. Moreover, the effect of storing, washing, and peeling as simple processing procedures on both ethion and imidacloprid residues were investigated. One hour after pesticide application; the maximum residue levels (MRLs) of ethion and imidacloprid were higher than that of Codex standard level. One day after pesticide application, the levels of pesticides were decreased about 35 and 31% for ethion and imidacloprid, respectively, which still were higher than the MRL. Washing procedure led to about 51 and 42.5% loss in ethion and imidacloprid residues, respectively. Peeling procedure also led to highest loss of 93.4 and 63.7% in ethion and imidacloprid residues, respectively. The recovery for both target analytes was in the range between 88 and 102%. The residue values in collected samples one hour after pesticides application were higher than standard value. The storing, washing, and peeling procedures lead to the decrease of pesticide residues in greenhouse cucumbers. Among them, the peeling procedure has the greatest impact on residual reduction. Therefore, these procedures can be used as simple and effective processing techniques for reducing and removing pesticides from greenhouse products before their consumption.

  12. Chitosan-limonene coating in combination with modified atmosphere packaging preserve postharvest quality of cucumber during storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maleki, Gisoo; Sedaghat, Naser; Woltering, Ernst J.; Farhoodi, Mehdi; Mohebbi, Mohebbat

    2018-01-01

    Since cucumbers suffer from a short postharvest life, applying different technologies is increasingly used as effective ways to increase their shelf life and quality. In this study a combination of chitosan-limonene coating and MAP storage has been used as a postharvest treatment to maintain

  13. First record of the swimming sea cucumber Enypniastes eximia Théel, 1882 (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea in Peruvian waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Alonso Solís-Marín

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Enypniastes eximia Théel, 1882 (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea a swimming sea cucumber is reported for the first time from Peru. The species was collected in the Continental rise (563-1,201 m off Trujillo Department. Reference material has been deposited in the Coleccion Cientifica del Instituto del Mar del Peru (IMARPE, Lima, Peru.

  14. Induced systemic resistance in cucumber and Arabidopsis thaliana by the combination of Trichoderma harzianum Tr6 and Pseudomonas sp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alizadeh, H.; Behboudi, K.; Amadzadeh, M.; Javan-Nikkhah, M.; Zamioudis, C; Pieterse, C.M.J.; Bakker, P.A.H.M.

    2013-01-01

    Trichoderma species and fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. have been reported to induce systemic resistance in plants. In this study the effectiveness of a combination of these biological control agents on the efficacy of induced resistance was investigated in cucumber and the model plant Arabidopsis

  15. Insights into salicylic acid responses in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) cotyledons based on a comparative proteomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, J H; Dong, C J; Zhang, Z G; Wang, X L; Shang, Q M

    2012-05-01

    To investigate the response of cucumber seedlings to exogenous salicylic acid (SA) and gain a better understanding of SA action mechanism, we generated a proteomic profile of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) cotyledons treated with exogenous SA. Analysis of 1500 protein spots from each gel revealed 63 differentially expressed proteins, 59 of which were identified successfully. Of the identified proteins, 97% matched cucumber proteins using a whole cucumber protein database based on the newly completed genome established by our laboratory. The identified proteins were involved in various cellular responses and metabolic processes, including antioxidative reactions, cell defense, photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, respiration and energy homeostasis, protein folding and biosynthesis. The two largest functional categories included proteins involved in antioxidative reactions (23.7%) and photosynthesis (18.6%). Furthermore, the SA-responsive protein interaction network revealed 13 key proteins, suggesting that the expression changes of these proteins could be critical for SA-induced resistance. An analysis of these changes suggested that SA-induced resistance and seedling growth might be regulated in part through pathways involving antioxidative reactions and photosynthesis. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Wild bees visiting cucumber on midwestern U.S. organic farms benefit from near-farm semi-natural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A A; Bentley, M; Reynolds, H L

    2013-02-01

    Wild bees that provide pollination services to vegetable crops depend on forage resources, nesting sites, and overwintering sites in the agricultural landscape. The scale at which crop-visiting bees use resources in the landscape can vary regionally, and has not been characterized in the Midwestern United States. We investigated the effects of seminatural land cover on wild bee visitation frequency to cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and on wild bee species richness on 10 organic farms in Indiana. We estimated the spatial scale at which the effects of land cover were strongest, and also examined the effects of nonlandscape factors on wild bees. The visitation frequency of wild bees to cucumber was positively related to the proportion of seminatural land in the surrounding landscape, and this relationship was strongest within 250 m of the cucumber patch. The species richness of wild cucumber visitors was not affected by land cover at any spatial scale, nor by any of the nonlandscape factors we considered. Our results indicate that wild, crop visiting bees benefit from seminatural areas in the agricultural landscape, and benefit most strongly from seminatural areas within 250 m of the crop field. This suggests that setting aside natural areas in the near vicinity of vegetable fields may be an effective way to support wild, crop-visiting bees and secure their pollination services.

  17. Genome-Wide Mapping of Structural Variations Reveals a Copy Number Variant That Determines Reproductive Morphology in Cucumber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Z.; Mao, L.; Chen, Junshi; Bu, F.; Li, G.; Sun, J.; Li, S.; Sun, H.; Jiao, C.; Blakely, R.; Pan, J.; Cai, R.; Luo, R.; Peer, Van de Y.; Jacobsen, E.; Fei, Z.; Huang, S.

    2015-01-01

    Structural variations (SVs) represent a major source of genetic diversity. However, the functional impact and formation mechanisms of SVs in plant genomes remain largely unexplored. Here, we report a nucleotide-resolution SV map of cucumber (Cucumis sativas) that comprises 26,788 SVs based on deep

  18. Expression of a cucumber class III chitinase and Nicotiana plumbaginifolia class I glucanase genes in transgenic potato plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moravcikova, J.; Matusikova, I.; Libantova, J.; Bauer, M.; Mlynarova, L.

    2004-01-01

    The genes encoding for a cucumber class III chitinase and Nicotiana plumbaginifolia class I glucanase were co-introduced into Slovak potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) breeding line 116/86 using Agrobacterium tumefaciens. For both transgenes the number of integrated copies and level of RNA expression

  19. Detection of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus-infected watermelon seeds using short wave infrared (SWIR) hyperspectral imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cucurbit diseases caused by cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) have led to a serious problem to growers and seed producers because it is difficult to prevent spreading through causal agent of seeds. Conventional detection methods for infected seed such as a biological, serological, and m...

  20. 40 CFR 174.516 - Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 174.516 Section 174.516 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance...

  1. Effects of Heat Shock on Photosynthetic Properties, Antioxidant Enzyme Activity, and Downy Mildew of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaotao Ding

    Full Text Available Heat shock is considered an abiotic stress for plant growth, but the effects of heat shock on physiological responses of cucumber plant leaves with and without downy mildew disease are still not clear. In this study, cucumber seedlings were exposed to heat shock in greenhouses, and the responses of photosynthetic properties, carbohydrate metabolism, antioxidant enzyme activity, osmolytes, and disease severity index of leaves with or without the downy mildew disease were measured. Results showed that heat shock significantly decreased the net photosynthetic rate, actual photochemical efficiency, photochemical quenching coefficient, and starch content. Heat shock caused an increase in the stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, antioxidant enzyme activities, total soluble sugar content, sucrose content, soluble protein content and proline content for both healthy leaves and downy mildew infected leaves. These results demonstrate that heat shock activated the transpiration pathway to protect the photosystem from damage due to excess energy in cucumber leaves. Potential resistance mechanisms of plants exposed to heat stress may involve higher osmotic regulation capacity related to an increase of total accumulations of soluble sugar, proline and soluble protein, as well as higher antioxidant enzymes activity in stressed leaves. Heat shock reduced downy mildew disease severity index by more than 50%, and clearly alleviated downy mildew development in the greenhouses. These findings indicate that cucumber may have a complex physiological change to resist short-term heat shock, and suppress the development of the downy mildew disease.

  2. Effects of Edible Chitosan Coating on Quality and Increasing Storage Life of Cucumber cv.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghasemi Tavallaiy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan, is non-toxic, biodegradable and biocompatible material, which can be used as edible coatings to maintain quality and enhance postharvest life of fruits and vegetables. In this study, the effect of chitosan at 0, 0.5, 1 and 2% concentrations on storage life of cucumber cv. "Zomorod" was investigated. After treatment and keeping in an incubator at 12 °C and 90% relative humidity, the fruits were assessed in 5-days intervals to determine parameters such as firmness, weight loss, vitamin C, titratable acidity, soluble solids and chlorophyll content. Experiment was performed as a split-plot design in time in a completely randomized design with three replications. The results of the experiment showed that chitosan coating, had a significant effect on all traits except titrable acidity. The lowest weight loss and the highest firmness were recorded with 1% chitosan treatment which significantly differed from the control. It is appeared that chitosan coatings could be used to increase the storage life of cucumber fruit and to maintain its quality for a longer period.

  3. Investigation of Cd Uptake and Transfer in Different Parts of Wheat, Spinach, Cucumber and Carrot Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahman Yargholi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution due to the accumulation of heavy metals in soil and their subsequent transfer to crops is a global concern that arises from improper application of industrial wastewaters. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of different levels of soil Cd on its accumulation rate in the various organs of four common crops in Iran (namely, wheat, spinach, cucumber, and carrot. The experiment was performed in a factorial design with random blocks including 3 treatments with 0 (control, 50, and 100 mg/kg.soil in 4 replicates. Soil was collected from the farm belonging to the Research Institute for Plant and Seed Breeding (Karaj and filtered twice using 2-mm sieves before Cadmium Nitrate (Cd(NO32 was added and completely mixed. Crops were planted in plastic pots 40 cm in diameter and 60 cm in height. The water demand was determined using the Jenman Mantite method. At the end of the growing season, samples were taken from various organs of the crops and their Cd concentrations were measured. The results revealed a direct relationship between Cd accumulation and Cd concentration in the root region. All the treatments other than the control exhibited Cd concentrations higher than the standard limits for human consumption. Cadmium accumulation in the different organs of the crops exhibited the following orders: Root: Cucumber

  4. Apoptosis induction is involved in UVA-induced autolysis in sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Hang; Fu, Hui; Dong, Xiufang; Feng, Dingding; Li, Nan; Wen, Chengrong; Nakamura, Yoshimasa; Zhu, Beiwei

    2016-05-01

    Autolysis easily happens to sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus, S. japonicus) for external stimulus like UV exposure causing heavy economic losses. Therefore, it is meaningful to reveal the mechanism of S. japonicas autolysis. In the present study, to examine the involvement of apoptosis induction in UVA-induced autolysis of S. japonicas, we investigated the biochemical events including the DNA fragmentation, caspase-3 activation, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) phosphorylation and free radical formation. Substantial morphological changes such as intestine vomiting and dermatolysis were observed in S. japonicus during the incubation after 1-h UVA irradiation (10W/m(2)). The degradation of the structural proteins and enhancement of cathepsin L activity were also detected, suggesting the profound impact of proteolysis caused by the UVA irradiation even for 1h. Furthermore, the DNA fragmentation and specific activity of caspase-3 was increased up to 12h after UVA irradiation. The levels of phosphorylated p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphorylated c-Jun.-N-terminal kinase (JNK) were significantly increased by the UVA irradiation for 1h. An electron spin resonance (ESR) analysis revealed that UVA enhanced the free radical formation in S. japonicas, even through we could not identify the attributed species. These results suggest that UVA-induced autolysis in S. japonicas at least partially involves the oxidative stress-sensitive apoptosis induction pathway. These data present a novel insight into the mechanisms of sea cucumber autolysis induced by external stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Action of trypsin on structural changes of collagen fibres from sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zi-Qiang; Tuo, Feng-Yan; Song, Liang; Liu, Yu-Xin; Dong, Xiu-Ping; Li, Dong-Mei; Zhou, Da-Yong; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2018-08-01

    Trypsin, a representative serine proteinase, was used to hydrolyse the collagen fibres from sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus) to highlight the role of serine proteinase in the autolysis of sea cucumber. Partial disaggregation of collagen fibres into collagen fibrils upon trypsin treatment occurred. The trypsin treatment also caused a time-dependent release of water-soluble glycosaminoglycans and proteins. Therefore, the degradation of the proteoglycan bridges between collagen fibrils might account for the disaggregation of collagen fibrils. For trypsin-treated collagen fibres (72 h), the collagen fibrils still kept their structural integrity and showed characteristic D-banding pattern, and the dissolution rate of hydroxyproline was just 0.21%. Meanwhile, Fourier transform infrared analysis showed the collagen within trypsin-treated collagen fibres (72 h) still retaining their triple-helical conformation. These results suggested that serine proteinase participated in the autolysis of S. japonicus body wall by damaging the proteoglycan bridges between collagen fibrils and disintegrating the latter. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Hepatoprotective activity of sea cucumber Phyllophorus sp. extract in carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulmartiwi, Laksmi; Triastuti, Juni; Andriyono, Sapto; Umami, Mardiah Rahma

    2017-02-01

    Many procedures continuously in aquaculture and scientific research like tagging and vaccinating cause pain, involving damaging tissue and also cause stress responses in fish. Stress responses in fish influence liver because liver have vital role to supply energy and metabolism. Histology alteration in liver is caused by stress response like changes of vacuolation hepatocyte and characteristic colour. Triterpenoid was known had hepatoprotective activity. One of marine organism contained triterpenoid was sea cucumber. Result of research showed that liver tissue in fish with injected acetic acid 5 % (in upper lip) as pain stimulus have histopathology damages such as pyknosis (medium damage level) and oedema (heavy damage level) after 8 hour injection. Injected Lidocaine 1mg/fish as analgesic drug have histopathology damages such as oedema (heavy damages level), necrosis and pyknosis (low damages level). Injected acetic acid 5 % (in upper lip) and ethanolic extract of sea cucumber Phyllophorus sp. dose 5 mg/50 gr body weight shown histopathology damages such as necrosis, edema (medium damage level) and pyknosis (low damage level).

  7. Cerebrosides from Sea Cucumber Protect Against Oxidative Stress in SAMP8 Mice and PC12 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Hongxia; Du, Lei; Cong, Peixu; Tao, Suyuan; Ding, Ning; Wu, Fengjuan; Xue, Changhu; Xu, Jie; Wang, Yuming

    2017-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder. Emerging evidence implicates β-amyloid (Aβ) plays a critical role in the progression of AD. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of cerebrosides obtained from sea cucumber against senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) mice in vivo. We also studied the effect of cerebrosides on Aβ-induced cytotoxicity on the rat pheochromocytoma cell (PC12) and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Cerebrosides ameliorated learning and memory deficits and the Aβ accumulation in demented mice, decreased the content of malondialdehyde (MDA), 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-G), and nitric oxide (NO), and enhanced the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity significantly. The neuroprotective effect of sea cucumber cerebrosides (SCC) was also verified in vitro: the cerebrosides increased the survival rate of PC12 cells, recovered the cellular morphology, downregulated the protein levels of Caspase-9, cleaved Caspase-3, total Caspase-3, and Bax, and upregulated the protein level of Bcl-2, revealing that cerebrosides could inhibit Aβ-induced cell apoptosis. The results showed the protective effect of SCC was regulated by the mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway. Our results provide a new approach to developing the marine organisms as functional foods for neuroprotection.

  8. The effect of exogenous spermidine on cucumber plant (Cucumis sativus L. growth in drought stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbyszek K. Blamowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of exogenous spermidine (0; 1 and 2 mmol·dm-3 on cucumber plant subjected lo seven day drought (30% f.w.c. were studied. Growth rate of plants, gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, water saturation deficit in tissue (WSD. leakage electrolytes (El as well as the content of free proline were determined. The results showed that drought inhibited growth and gas exchange, decreased the potential efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm but increased the value of WSD, EL and the level of free proline in tissue. The spermidine treatment of plants immediately before drought influenced the decrease concentration of free proline, water deficit and leakage of electrolytes but the increase of stomatal conductance (gs, intensity of photosynthesis (Pn and transpiration (E. Greater change on the course of primary photosynthetic reactions in PSII (Fv/Fm., ΦPSII, qP, qN were not detected. The autors concluded, that in drought. conditions exogenous speimidine together with proline induced by stress, contribute to increase of water content in tissue and maintenance of the enzymatic activity of cells as well as they guaIantee the integrity of cell membranes. Profitable effect of spermidine on the condition of cucumber in drought period shorted the time necessary for plants to come back to level of control treatment.

  9. Carbohydrate distribution and 14C-photosynthates uptake in the curved fruits of cucumber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanahama, K. [Yamagata univ., Tsuruoka (Japan); Saito, T.

    1988-12-15

    The major carbohydrates in cucumber fruit were reducing sugars, which increased to the highest concentration of about 2.0% of fresh weight at harvest for fresh fruit, that is, 6-8 days after flowering and 73-116g in fresh weight. Starch was highest in concentration at flowering although it was negligible as compared with sugars. Reducing sugar concentration was higher in the core (septum and placenta) than in the flesh (receptacle and pericarp). Moreover, it was higher outside than inside the curvature at the curvature increasing stage, while the reverse was true at the curvature decreasing stage. Labelled carbon was fed to the single leaf on the same node as the fruit. Twenty hours after feeding, {sup 14}C-activity was higher in carpel II (outside the curvature and opposite to the tendril) than in carpels I (facing the stem) and III (inside the curvature and facing the tendril) when fed at the curvature increasing stage. When fed at the curvature decreasing stage after the curvature maximum stage had been attained, {sup 14}C-activity was higher in carpel III than in carpels I and II. From these results, it was suggested that the curvature of cucumber fruit occurred due to the competition among the carpels, in uptake of carbohydrates under limited photosynthesis. Each carpel is presumed to be different in sink activity according to its congenital developmental order and stages. Differential carbohydrate translocation due to localization of vascular bundle connections between leaves and fruit is improbable.

  10. Control of downy mildew in greenhouse-grown cucumbers using blue photoselective polyethylene sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuveni, R.; Raviv, M.

    1997-01-01

    Six types of polyethylene sheets with or without a blue pigment, having an absorption peak at the yellow part of the spectrum (580 nm), in combination with three levels of UV-B (280 to 320 nm) absorbance, were investigated for their effects on sporangial production and colonization of Pseudoperonospora cubensis on cucumbers in growth chambers. The effect of these photoselective sheets on the epidemiology of downy mildew in greenhouse-grown cucumbers has been investigated in several locations. The addition of the blue pigment to the films resulted in a significant inhibition of colonization and sporangial production of P. cubensis, whereas filtration of the UV spectrum enhanced the colonization but had no effect on the sporangial production. The appearance of the first symptom-bearing plants was delayed under the blue covers, and consequently, a significant reduction in the disease incidence of downy mildew was recorded under all blue sheets at each corresponding level of UV-B transmittance in five different field experiments through four seasons. Regardless of the differences in disease incidence, there were no significant differences among the yields that were obtained under the various sheets, probably due to the lower photosynthetically active radiation transmissivity of the blue films. The optimal features required for a desirable commercial sheet are discussed

  11. Concentration of lead and zinc in greenhouse cucumbers of Hamadan province in 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z BigMohammadi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metal pollution of agricultural soils is a major environmental problem that can affect plant production, food safety and human health. Soil contamination with heavy metals occurs as a result of human activities. Heavy metals can easily accumulate in edible tissues of leafy vegetables, fruits and seeds. Few studies have been conducted on heavy metals concentration in soil and greenhouse crops. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the concentrations of lead (Pb and zinc (Zn in greenhouse cucumbers produced in Hamadan province. The concentrations of heavy metals were measured using atomic emission method. Results showed that the mean concentrations of Pb and Zn in cucumber samples were 0.33 and 3.14 mg/kg, respectively. Also the results of the statistical analysis revealed a negative correlation between the measured concentrations. Moreover, the concentration of Zn in the samples obtained from Hamadan greenhouses and lead concentration in Tuyserkan, Famenin, as well as Malayer samples were above the recommended limits. Daily intake amounts of Pb and Zn from vegetables consumption for three age categories (children, adolescents, and adults were calculated. In conclusion, daily intake of Pb and Zn were determined below the recommended limits.

  12. Phytotoxicity of effluents from swine slaughterhouses using lettuce and cucumber seeds as bioindicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Michel David; Lucia, Thomaz; Correa, Luciara; Neto, José Eduardo Pereira; Correa, Érico Kunde

    2017-08-15

    This study evaluated the phytotoxic effects of raw and treated effluents from a swine slaughterhouse on cucumber and lettuce seeds and determined correlations among physicochemical characteristics of such effluents and the germination of seeds used as bioindicators. Physicochemical parameters were characterized for both effluents and their phytotoxicity was determined through the germination index (GI), the root length (RL) and the number of germinated seeds (SG) for both plant species. The effluents treatment system was efficient to reduce the concentration of some physicochemical parameters to levels within those recommended by the Brazilian legislation, except for P, ammoniacal N and TKN concentration. Although phytotoxicity of the treated effluent was less in comparison to the raw effluent, the GI for cucumber and lettuce seeds submitted to each of the tested effluents was lower than 80%. Thus, both effluents were phytotoxic for the tested bioindicators (peffluent. The Zn concentration in the treated effluent showed a negative correlation (peffluents from swine slaughterhouses may impair the germination of the evaluated plant species if used for agricultural purposes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Exploration of Sea Cucumbers Stichopus hermanii from Karimunjawa Islands as Production of Marine Biological Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringgenies, Delianis; Rudiyanti, Siti; Yudiati, Ervia

    2018-02-01

    This research aim was to study the potential of Stichopus hermanii to determine the amino acid, chondroitin, and glucosamine contents, to discover its antibacterial and anti-cancer agent. The samples were rinsed prior to separation, with only the corpus being used in the study. Sea cucumber extract was then processed using HPLC to trace contents of amino acid, chondroitin, and glucosamine contents. The samples were then put into test against several strains of pathogenic bacteria by means of diffusion for any biological activity. The anti-cancer test was performed by human ovarian cancer cell line (KOC7C) method. The study showed that the extract of Stichopus hermanii has the potency to inhibit the growth of active ovarian cancer cells. The qualitative test of the sea cucumber extract showed that it is capable of suppressing the growth of several strains of pathogenic bacteria identified as Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Vibrio voinivica, and Pseudomonas sp. HPLC results showed that the extract contained amino acid (mg/100g), the highest being Collagen (11200), followed by Glycine (3760), Glutamic Acid (3700), Aspartic Acid (2540), Alanine (2140), Proline (2050), Arginine (2050), Tyrosine (1430), Threonine (1270), Leucine (1170), Valine (1050), Serine (971), Isoleucine (816), Phenylalanine (713), Lysine (639), Methionine (383), Cystine (263) and Histidine (208). The extract also contained Chondroitin Sulfate (4200) and Glucosamine Hydrochloride (acids, as well as chondroitin and glucosamine.

  14. CaCO3 dissolution by holothurians (sea cucumber): a case study from One Tree Reef, Great Barrier Reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, K.; Silverman, J.; Kravitz, B.; Woolsey, E.; Eriksson, H.; Schneider-Mor, A.; Barbosa, S.; Rivlin, T.; Byrne, M.; Caldeira, K.

    2012-12-01

    Holothurians (sea cucumbers) are among the largest and most important deposit feeder in coral reefs. They play a role in nutrient and CaCO3 cycling within the reef structure. As a result of their digestive process they secrete alkalinity due to CaCO3 dissolution and organic matter degradation forming CO2 and ammonium. In a survey at station DK13 on One Three Reef we found that the population density of holothurians was > 1 individual m-2. The dominant sea cucumber species Holothuria leucospilota was collected from DK13. The increase in alkalinity due to CaCO3 dissolution in aquaria incubations was measured to be 47±7 μmol kg-1 in average per individual. Combining this dissolution rate with the sea cucumbers concentrations at DK13 suggest that they may account for a dissolution rate of 34.9±17.8 mmol m-2 day-1, which is equivalent to about half of night time community dissolution measured in DK13. This indicates that in reefs where the sea cucumber population is healthy and protected from fishing they can be locally important in the CaCO3 cycle. Preliminary result suggests that the CaCO3 dissolution rates are not affected by the chemistry of the sea water they are incubated in. Measurements of the empty digestive track volume of two sea cucumbers H. atra and Stichopus herrmanni were 36 ± 4 ml and 151 ± 14 ml, respectively. Based on these measurements it is estimated that these species process 19 ± 2kg and 80 ± 7kg CaCO3 sand yr-1 per individual, respectively. The annual dissolution rates of H. atra and S. herrmanni are 6.5±1.9g and 9.6±1.4g, respectively, suggest that 0.05±0.02% and 0.1±0.02% of the CaCO3 processed through their gut annually is dissolved. During the incubations the CaCO3 dissolution was 0.07±0.01%, 0.04±0.01% and 0.21±0.05% of the fecal casts for H. atra, H. leucospilota and S. herrmanni, respectively. Our result that the primary parameter determining the CaCO3 dissolution by sea cucumber is the amount of carbonate send in their gut

  15. Gibberellin Is Involved in Inhibition of Cucumber Growth and Nitrogen Uptake at Suboptimal Root-Zone Temperatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longqiang Bai

    Full Text Available Suboptimal temperature stress often causes heavy yield losses of vegetables by suppressing plant growth during winter and early spring. Gibberellin acid (GA has been reported to be involved in plant growth and acquisition of mineral nutrients. However, no studies have evaluated the role of GA in the regulation of growth and nutrient acquisition by vegetables under conditions of suboptimal temperatures in greenhouse. Here, we investigated the roles of GA in the regulation of growth and nitrate acquisition of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. plants under conditions of short-term suboptimal root-zone temperatures (Tr. Exposure of cucumber seedlings to a Tr of 16°C led to a significant reduction in root growth, and this inhibitory effect was reversed by exogenous application of GA. Expression patterns of several genes encoding key enzymes in GA metabolism were altered by suboptimal Tr treatment, and endogenous GA concentrations in cucumber roots were significantly reduced by exposure of cucumber plants to 16°C Tr, suggesting that inhibition of root growth by suboptimal Tr may result from disruption of endogenous GA homeostasis. To further explore the mechanism underlying the GA-dependent cucumber growth under suboptimal Tr, we studied the effect of suboptimal Tr and GA on nitrate uptake, and found that exposure of cucumber seedlings to 16°C Tr led to a significant reduction in nitrate uptake rate, and exogenous application GA can alleviate the down-regulation by up regulating the expression of genes associated with nitrate uptake. Finally, we demonstrated that N accumulation in cucumber seedlings under suboptimal Tr conditions was improved by exogenous application of GA due probably to both enhanced root growth and nitrate absorption activity. These results indicate that a reduction in endogenous GA concentrations in roots due to down-regulation of GA biosynthesis at transcriptional level may be a key event to underpin the suboptimal Tr

  16. Patterning of anteroposterior body axis displayed in the expression of Hox genes in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Mani; Omori, Akihito; Kurokawa, Daisuke; Akasaka, Koji

    2015-09-01

    The presence of an anteroposterior body axis is a fundamental feature of bilateria. Within this group, echinoderms have secondarily evolved pentameral symmetric body plans. Although all echinoderms present bilaterally symmetric larval stages, they dramatically rearrange their body axis and develop a pentaradial body plan during metamorphosis. Therefore, the location of their anteroposterior body axis in adult forms remains a contentious issue. Unlike other echinoderms, sea cucumbers present an obvious anteroposterior axis not rearranged during metamorphosis, thus representing an interesting group to study their anteroposterior axis patterning. Hox genes are known to play a broadly conserved role in anteroposterior axis patterning in deuterostomes. Here, we report the expression patterns of Hox genes from early development to pentactula stage in sea cucumber. In early larval stages, five Hox genes (AjHox1, AjHox7, AjHox8, AjHox11/13a, and AjHox11/13b) were expressed sequentially along the archenteron, suggesting that the role of anteroposterior patterning of the Hox genes is conserved in bilateral larvae of echinoderms. In doliolaria and pentactula stages, eight Hox genes (AjHox1, AjHox5, AjHox7, AjHox8, AjHox9/10, AjHox11/13a, AjHox11/13b, and AjHox11/13c) were expressed sequentially along the digestive tract, following a similar expression pattern to that found in the visceral mesoderm of other bilateria. Unlike other echinoderms, pentameral expression patterns of AjHox genes were not observed in sea cucumber. Altogether, we concluded that AjHox genes are involved in the patterning of the digestive tract in both larvae and metamorphosis of sea cucumbers. In addition, the anteroposterior axis in sea cucumbers might be patterned like that of other bilateria.

  17. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens L-S60 Reforms the Rhizosphere Bacterial Community and Improves Growth Conditions in Cucumber Plug Seedling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxuan Qin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable plug seedling has become the most important way to produce vegetable seedlings in China. This seedling method can significantly improve the quality and yield of vegetables compared to conventional methods. In the process of plug seedling, chemical fertilizers or pesticides are often used to improve the yield of the seedlings albeit with increasing concerns. Meanwhile, little is known about the impact of beneficial bacteria on the rhizosphere microbiota and the growth conditions of vegetables during plug seedling. In this study, we applied a culture-independent next-generation sequencing-based approach and investigated the impact of a plant beneficial bacterium, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens L-S60, on the composition and dynamics of rhizosphere microbiota and the growth conditions of cucumbers during plug seedling. Our results showed that application of L-S60 significantly altered the structure of the bacterial community associated with the cucumber seedling; presence of beneficial rhizosphere species such as Bacillus, Rhodanobacter, Paenibacillus, Pseudomonas, Nonomuraea, and Agrobacterium was higher upon L-S60 treatment than in the control group. We also measured the impact of L-S60 application on the physiological properties of the cucumber seedlings as well as the availability of main mineral elements in the seedling at different time points during the plug seedling. Results from those measurements indicated that L-S60 application promoted growth conditions of cucumber seedlings and that more available mineral elements were detected in the cucumber seedlings from the L-S60 treated group than from the control group. The findings in this study provided evidence for the beneficial effects of plant growth-promoting rhizosphere bacteria on the bacterial community composition and growth conditions of the vegetables during plug seedling.

  18. Validation of a method for the determination of 120 pesticide residues in apples and cucumbers by LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Gouda; Al Jabir, Muna; Alabdulmalik, Najat; Mohammed, Ali

    2016-05-01

    Most countries have clearly defined regulations governing the use of pesticides in agricultural activity. The application of pesticides in agriculture usually leads to a residual amount of these pesticides on food products such as fruit and vegetables. The presence of pesticide residues on these foods destined for human consumption may pose food safety risks to consumers. To protect consumers, national authorities have established maximum limits for pesticide residues in foods. These limits can only be enforced if there are methods available to detect and monitor their concentrations in the applicable food products. To support the enforcement of this legislation, we have developed a multi-residue liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the analysis of 120 pesticide residues in apples and cucumbers which has been validated and implemented in the routine monitoring and surveillance programme for these pesticides. In this method, apple and cucumber samples are extracted using the QuEChERS method (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) and the extracts were analyzed directly by LC-MS/MS. The mean recoveries at three different concentrations of 0.01 µg/g , 0.05 µg/g, and 0.1 µg/g over the analytical range varied between 70 and 120%. The repeatability of the method expressed as %RSD was less than 20%. The limit of detection (LOD) of the method ranged between 0.0014 and 0.0110 µg/g for apples and between 0.0012 and 0.0075 µg/g for cucumbers. The limit of quantification (LOQ) of the method was 0.01 µg/g for apples and cucumbers. The method has been used for the analysis of over 600 apple and 550 cucumber samples over the past two years. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Induction of drought tolerance in cucumber plants by a consortium of three plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Juan Wang

    Full Text Available Our previous work showed that a consortium of three plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR strains (Bacillus cereus AR156, Bacillus subtilis SM21, and Serratia sp. XY21, termed as BBS for short, was a promising biocontrol agent. The present study investigated its effect on drought tolerance in cucumber plants. After withholding watering for 13 days, BBS-treated cucumber plants had much darker green leaves and substantially lighter wilt symptoms than control plants. Compared to the control, the BBS treatment decreased the leaf monodehydroascorbate (MDA content and relative electrical conductivity by 40% and 15%, respectively; increased the leaf proline content and the root recovery intension by 3.45-fold and 50%, respectively; and also maintained the leaf chlorophyll content in cucumber plants under drought stress. Besides, in relation to the control, the BBS treatment significantly enhanced the superoxide dismutase (SOD activity and mitigated the drought-triggered down-regulation of the expression of the genes cAPX, rbcL, and rbcS encoding cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase, and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxy/oxygenase (Rubisco large and small subunits, respectively, in cucumber leaves. However, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC deaminase activity was undetected in none of the culture solutions of three BBS constituent strains. These results indicated that BBS conferred induced systemic tolerance to drought stress in cucumber plants, by protecting plant cells, maintaining photosynthetic efficiency and root vigor and increasing some of antioxidase activities, without involving the action of ACC deaminase to lower plant ethylene levels.

  20. Cucumber Plants Baited with Methyl Salicylate Accelerates Scymnus (Pullus) sodalis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Visiting to Reduce Cotton Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Y J; Hwang, S Y

    2017-10-01

    The cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii (Glover) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is a major pest of many crops worldwide and a major cucumber plant pest in Taiwan. Because cotton aphids rapidly develop insecticide resistance and because of the insecticide residue problem, a safe and sustainable method is required to replace conventional chemical control methods. Methyl salicylate (MeSA), a herbivore-induced plant volatile, has been shown to affect aphids' behavior and attract the natural enemies of aphids for reducing their population. Therefore, this study examined the direct effects of MeSA on cotton aphids' settling preference, population development, and attractiveness to natural enemies. The efficiency of using MeSA and the commercial insecticide pymetrozine for reducing the cotton aphid population in laboratory and outdoor cucumber plant pot was also examined. The results showed no difference in winged aphids' settling preference and population development between the MeSA and blank treatments. Cucumber plants infested with cotton aphids and baited with 0.1% or 10% MeSA contained significantly higher numbers of the natural enemy of cotton aphids, namely Scymnus (Pullus) sodalis (Weise) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), and MeSA-treated cucumber plants contained a lower number of aphids. Significantly lower cotton aphid numbers were found on cucumber plants within a 10-m range of MeSA application. In addition, fruit yield showed no difference between the MeSA and pymetrozine treatments. According to our findings, 0.1% MeSA application can replace insecticides as a cotton aphid control tool. However, large-scale experiments are necessary to confirm its efficiency and related conservation biological control strategies before further use. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. T-antigen binding lectin with antibacterial activity from marine invertebrate, sea cucumber (Holothuria scabra): Possible involvement in differential recognition of bacteria

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gowda, N.M.; Goswami, U.; Khan, M.I.

    report a study of a lectin (HSL) involved in immune response in the echinoderm, sea cucumber (Holothuria scabra). Correlative studies indicate that the expression of this defensive lectin is induced by bacterial challenge, wherein cell wall...

  2. The relationship between powdery mildew (Sphaerotheca fuliginea) resistance and leaf chlorosis sensitivity in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) studied in single seed descent lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, S.; Jansen, R.C.; Groot, S.P.C.

    1995-01-01

    The genetic relation between powdery mildew resistance and sensitivity for leaf chlorosis of glasshouse cucumber was investigated. The powdery mildew resistant, leaf chlorosis sensitive hybrid variety 'Profito' was crossed with the powdery mildew susceptible, non chlorosis sensitive hybrid variety

  3. In situ analyses of Ag speciation in tissues of cucumber and wheat using synchrotron-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — In situ analyses of Ag speciation in tissues of cucumber and wheat using synchrotron-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy showing spectral fitting and linear...

  4. Aspects of reproductive ecology and benthic-pelagic coupling in the sub-antarctic sea cucumber Pseudostichopus mollis (Theel)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Andrew; Neal, Lance

    2012-07-01

    For deeper regions of the continental shelf environmental cues entraining reproduction in echinoderms are often absent, which contributes to adoption of continuous reproduction, having larger eggs, and a lecithotrophic mode of larval development. In the present study the sub-Antarctic sea cucumber Pseudostichopus mollis from the family Synallactidae was obtained during June (winter) and September (spring) from a depth of approximately 300 m north of the Auckland Islands in an area abundant in biogenic sediments. Samples were processed for body indices and gonad development. Features characteristic of non-continuous reproduction were exhibited. Although a larger egg size was found (212±14 μm), two distinct winter cohorts of oocytes occurred (41-81 and 161-201 μm) and body wall weight fluctuations (7.6% increase in males and 27.5% reduction in females) coincided with changes in gonad indices between sample dates. For males gonad as a proportion of body wall weight decreased from 3.31±0.9 to 2.11±0.37% and for females it increased from 1.59±0.28 to 2.5±0.30%. For both sample dates the gonad of males maintained mature spermatozoa whereas female gonad shifted from mainly recovery and growth of oocytes to growth and advanced growth of mature oocytes. In habitats with low or variable food availability intermittent reproduction is predicted as resources are too low for a high reproductive effort and too erratic for synchrony. A pattern of reproduction where fluctuations in seasonal organic input into an accumulated benthic food source initiates and synchronises gametogenesis for future spawning is proposed.

  5. Structure of Sphingolipids From Sea Cucumber Cucumaria frondosa and Structure-Specific Cytotoxicity Against Human HepG2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zicai; Song, Yu; Tao, Suyuan; Cong, Peixu; Wang, Xiaoxu; Xue, Changhu; Xu, Jie

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the relationship between structure and activity, three glucocerebroside series (CFC-1, CFC-2 and CFC-3), ceramides (CF-Cer) and long-chain bases (CF-LCB) of sea cucumber Cucumaria frondosa (C. frondosa) were isolated and evaluated in HepG2 cells. The molecular species of CFC-1, CFC-2 and CFC-3 and CF-Cer were identified using reversed-phase liquid chromatography with heated electrospray ionization coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (RPLC-HESI-HRMS), and determined on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic evidence: For the three glucocerebroside series, fatty acids (FA) were mainly saturated (18:0 and 22:0), monounsaturated (22:1, 23:1 and 24:1) and 2-hydroxyl FA (2-HFA) (23:1 h and 24:1 h), the structure of long-chain bases (LCB) were dihydroxy (d17:1, d18:1 and d18:2) and trihydroxy (t16:0 and t17:0), and the glycosylation was glucose; For CF-Cer, FA were primarily saturated (17:0) and monounsaturated (16:1 and 19:1), the structure of LCB were dihydroxy (d17:1 and d18:1), and trihydroxy (t16:0). The results of cell experiment indicated that all of three glucocerebroside series, CF-Cer and CF-LCB exhibited an inhibitory effects on cell proliferation. Moreover, CFC-3 was most effective in three glucocerebrosides to HepG-2 cell viability. The inhibition effect of CF-LCB was the strongest, and the inhibition effect of CF-Cer was much stronger than glucocerebrosides.

  6. Control of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. tolerance to chilling stress – evaluating the role of ascorbic acid and glutathione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander S. Lukatkin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Chilling temperatures (1-10 ºC are known to disturb cellular physiology, cause oxidative stress via creating imbalance between generation and metabolism of reactive oxygen species (ROS leading finally to cell and/or plant death. Owing to known significance of low molecular antioxidants - ascorbic acid (AsA and glutathione (GSH in plant stress-tolerance, this work analyzes the role of exogenously applied AsA and GSH in the alleviation of chilling stress (3°C-impact in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Vjaznikowskij 37 plants. Results revealed AsA and GSH concentration dependent metabolism of ROS such as superoxide (O2•‾ and the mitigation of ROS-effects such as lipid peroxidation (LPO as well as membrane permeability (measured as electrolyte leakage in C. sativus leaf discs. AsA concentration (750 µM and GSH (100 µM exhibited maximum reduction in O2•‾ generation, LPO intensity as well as electrolyte leakage, all of these were increased in cold water (3°C and 25°C-treated leaf discs. However, AsA, in particular, had a pronounced antioxidative effect, more expressed in case of leaf discs during chilling (3°C; whereas, at temperature 25°C, some AsA concentrations (such as 50 and 100 mM AsA exhibited a prooxidative effect that requires molecular-genetic studies. Overall, it is inferred that AsA and GSH have high potential for sustainably increasing chilling-resistance in plants.

  7. Effect of silver nanoparticles on concentration of silver heavy element and growth indexes in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. negeen)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shams, Gholamabbas, E-mail: ghs@iaushiraz.net; Ranjbar, Morteza [Shiraz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Department of Physics (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Amiri, Aliasghar [Shiraz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Department of Chemistry (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The tremendous progress on nanoparticle research area has been made significant effects on the economy, society, and the environment. Silver nanoparticle is one of the most important particles in these categories. Silver nanoparticles can be converted to the heavy silver metal in water by oxidation. Moreover, in the high amounts of silver concentration, they will be accumulated in different parts of the plant. However, by changing the morphology of the plant, the production will be harmful for human consumptions. In this study, nano-powders with average 50 nm silver particles are mixed with deionized distilled water in a completely randomized design. Seven treatments with various concentrations of suspension silver nanoparticles were prepared and repeated in four different parts of the plant in a regular program of spraying. Samples were analyzed to study the growth indexes and concentration of silver in different parts of the plant. It was observed that with increasing concentration of silver nanoparticles on cucumber, the growth indexes (except pH fruit), and the concentration of silver heavy metal are increased significantly. The incremental concentration had the linear relationship with correlation coefficient 0.95 and an average of 0.617 PPM by increasing of each unit in one thousand concentration of nanosilver. Although, by increasing concentration of silver nanoparticles as spraying form, the plant morphological characteristics were improved, the concentration of silver heavy metal in various plant organs was increased. These results open a new pathway to consider the effect of nanoparticles on plant's productions for human consumptions.

  8. Fucosylated chondroitin sulfates from the body wall of the sea cucumber Holothuria forskali: conformation, selectin binding, and biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagos, Charalampos G; Thomson, Derek S; Moss, Claire; Hughes, Adam D; Kelly, Maeve S; Liu, Yan; Chai, Wengang; Venkatasamy, Radhakrishnan; Spina, Domenico; Page, Clive P; Hogwood, John; Woods, Robert J; Mulloy, Barbara; Bavington, Charlie D; Uhrín, Dušan

    2014-10-10

    Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (fCS) extracted from the sea cucumber Holothuria forskali is composed of the following repeating trisaccharide unit: → 3)GalNAcβ4,6S(1 → 4) [FucαX(1 → 3)]GlcAβ(1 →, where X stands for different sulfation patterns of fucose (X = 3,4S (46%), 2,4S (39%), and 4S (15%)). As revealed by NMR and molecular dynamics simulations, the fCS repeating unit adopts a conformation similar to that of the Le(x) blood group determinant, bringing several sulfate groups into close proximity and creating large negative patches distributed along the helical skeleton of the CS backbone. This may explain the high affinity of fCS oligosaccharides for L- and P-selectins as determined by microarray binding of fCS oligosaccharides prepared by Cu(2+)-catalyzed Fenton-type and photochemical depolymerization. No binding to E-selectin was observed. fCS poly- and oligosaccharides display low cytotoxicity in vitro, inhibit human neutrophil elastase activity, and inhibit the migration of neutrophils through an endothelial cell layer in vitro. Although the polysaccharide showed some anti-coagulant activity, small oligosaccharide fCS fragments had much reduced anticoagulant properties, with activity mainly via heparin cofactor II. The fCS polysaccharides showed prekallikrein activation comparable with dextran sulfate, whereas the fCS oligosaccharides caused almost no effect. The H. forskali fCS oligosaccharides were also tested in a mouse peritoneal inflammation model, where they caused a reduction in neutrophil infiltration. Overall, the data presented support the action of fCS as an inhibitor of selectin interactions, which play vital roles in inflammation and metastasis progression. Future studies of fCS-selectin interaction using fCS fragments or their mimetics may open new avenues for therapeutic intervention. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. The effects of golden sea cucumber extract (Stichopus hermanii on the number of lymphocytes during the healing process of traumatic ulcer on wistar rat’s oral mucous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira Arundina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Indonesia is a country with the world’s biggest potential and producer of sea cucumbers. Golden sea cucumber contains glicosaminoglycans, such as heparan sulphate and chondroitin sulphate, which could have a positive implication on wound healing process. This acceleration of wound healing process could be observed through the increasing of lymphocytes on ulcus traumaticus. Purpose: This study aims to analyze the effects of golden sea cucumber extract on the number of lymphocytes during the healing process of traumatic ulcer on Wistar rat’s oral mucous. Method: Golden sea cucumber extrat was made with freeze-dried method, and then gel was prepared using PEG 400 and PEG 4000 solvent. Twenty male rats with mucosal ulcus made were divided into a control group and three treatment groups with 20%, 40% and 80% golden sea cucumber extracts. All samples were euthanized on day 4 and then a preparation for histopathological examination was made to examine the number of lymphocytes. Result: The biggest number of lymphocytes was found in the treatment group with 40% golden sea cucumber extract, while the lowest one was found in the control group. The results of one way Anova test then showed a significant difference between the control group and the treatment groups. And, the results of Tukey HSD showed a significant difference between the control group and the treatment group with 40% golden sea cucumber extract. Conclusion: It can be concluded that 40% golden sea cucumber (Stichopus hermanii extract can increase the number of lymphocytes during the healing process of traumatic ulcer on Wistar rat’s oral mucous.

  10. QTL mapping in multiple populations and development stages reveals dynamic quantitative trait loci for fruit size in cucumbers of different market classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Yiqun; Colle, Marivi; Wang, Yuhui; Yang, Luming; Rubinstein, Mor; Sherman, Amir; Ophir, Ron; Grumet, Rebecca

    2015-09-01

    QTL analysis in multi-development stages with different QTL models identified 12 consensus QTLs underlying fruit elongation and radial growth presenting a dynamic view of genetic control of cucumber fruit development. Fruit size is an important quality trait in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) of different market classes. However, the genetic and molecular basis of fruit size variations in cucumber is not well understood. In this study, we conducted QTL mapping of fruit size in cucumber using F2, F2-derived F3 families and recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from a cross between two inbred lines Gy14 (North American picking cucumber) and 9930 (North China fresh market cucumber). Phenotypic data of fruit length and diameter were collected at three development stages (anthesis, immature and mature fruits) in six environments over 4 years. QTL analysis was performed with three QTL models including composite interval mapping (CIM), Bayesian interval mapping (BIM), and multiple QTL mapping (MQM). Twenty-nine consistent and distinct QTLs were detected for nine traits from multiple mapping populations and QTL models. Synthesis of information from available fruit size QTLs allowed establishment of 12 consensus QTLs underlying fruit elongation and radial growth, which presented a dynamic view of genetic control of cucumber fruit development. Results from this study highlighted the benefits of QTL analysis with multiple QTL models and different mapping populations in improving the power of QTL detection. Discussion was presented in the context of domestication and diversifying selection of fruit length and diameter, marker-assisted selection of fruit size, as well as identification of candidate genes for fruit size QTLs in cucumber.

  11. Characteristics of light and heat conditions of a chamber with prism light guides and electrodeless discharge lamps and its effect on growth of tomato and cucumber seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashide, T.; Shimaji, H.; Hamamoto, H.; Shimazu, T.; Takaichi, M.

    2004-01-01

    Summary Light and heat conditions were measured in a growth chamber with prism light guides and electrolodeless discharge lamps (LP chamber) , a growth chamber with metal halide lamps (MH chamber) and a glasshouse. In the LP chamber, photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) was larger and heat radiation was smaller than in the others. Growth of tomato seedlings increased in high PPF condition. However, the growth with high PPF in the MH chamber was restricted. Leaf temperature with high PPF in the MH chamber was higher than that in the LP chamber. We thought that excessive heat had restricted the growth with high PPF in the MH chamber. There were no differences in nutrient or water absorption, except with conditions of the largest heat radiation and the lowest PPF. Cucumber seedlings were grown with high PPF in the LP chamber. The growth at high temperatures was smaller than that at the optimum temperature. However the leaf number at high temperatures was higher than that at the optimum temperature

  12. Can Adverse Effects of Acidity and Aluminum Toxicity be Alleviated by Appropriate Rootstock Selection in Cucumber?

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    Youssef Rouphael

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Low-pH and aluminium (Al stresses are the major constraints that limit crop yield in acidic soils. Grafting vegetable elite cultivars onto appropriate rootstocks may represent an effective tool to improve crop tolerance to acidity and Al toxicity. Two greenhouse hydroponic experiments were performed to evaluate growth, yield, biomass production, chlorophyll index, electrolyte leakage, mineral composition and assimilate partitioning in plant tissues of cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L.‘Ekron’ either non-grafted or grafted onto ‘P360’ (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne × Cucurbita moschata Duchesne; E/C or figleaf gourd (Cucurbita ficifolia Bouché; E/F. Cucumber plants were cultured in pots and supplied with nutrient solutions having different pH and Al concentrations: pH 6, pH 3.5, pH 3.5 + 1.5 mM Al and pH 3.5 + 3 mM Al (Exp. 1, 14 d and pH 6, pH 3.5 and pH 3.5 +0.75 mM Al (Exp. 2, 67 d. Significant depression in shoot and root biomass was observed in response to acidity and Al concentrations, with Al-stress being more phytotoxic than low pH treatment. Significant decrease in yield, shoot and root biomass, leaf area, SPAD index, N, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, and B concentration in aerial parts (leaves and stems in response to low pH with more detrimental effects at pH 3.5 + Al. Grafted E/C plants grown under low pH and Al had higher yield, shoot and root biomass compared to E/F and non-grafted plants. This better crop performance of E/C plants in response to Al stress was related to i a reduced translocation of Al from roots to the shoot, ii a better shoot and root nutritional status in K, Ca, Mg, Mn, and Zn concentration, iii a higher chlorophyll synthesis, as well as iv the ability to maintain cell membrane stability and integrity (lower electrolyte leakage. Data provide insight into the role of grafting on Al stress tolerance in cucumber.

  13. Effects of a Potential Autochthonous Probiotic Bacillus subtilis 2-1 on the Growth and Intestinal Microbiota of Juvenile Sea Cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus Selenka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yancui; Yuan, Lei; Wan, Junli; Sun, Hushan; Wang, Yiyan; Zhang, Qin

    2018-04-01

    The effects of Bacillus subtilis 2-1 from the intestine of healthy sea cucumber on the growth, digestive enzyme activities and intestinal microbiota of juvenile sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) were determined in the present study. Sea cucumber was fed with Sargassum thunbergii powder supplemented with B. subtilis 2-1 at different concentrations varying among 0 (control), 105, 107, and 109 CFU g-1 for 8 weeks. Results showed that the growth performance and intestinal amylase and trypsin activities were significantly increased by dietary B. subtilis 2-1 at 109 CFU g-1 ( P subtilis 2-1 had no significant influence on the lipase activity in sea cucumber ( P > 0.05). The polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis indicated that dietary B. subtilis 2-1 at 105 and 107 CFU g-1 inhibited most of the Proteobacteria including those in genus Vibrio. Dietary B. subtilis 2-1 at 109 CFU g-1 not only decreased the abundance and species of genus Vibrio, but also increased the intensity of genera Psychrobacter and Bacillus. A specific dosage of dietary B. subtilis 2-1 could increase the growth and modulate the intestinal microbiota of sea cucumber; thus it might be a novel probiotic for keeping the health of sea cucumber.

  14. Profiling and comparison of color body wall transcriptome of normal juvenile sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) and those produced by crossing albino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Deyou; Yang, Hongsheng; Sun, Lina

    2014-12-01

    Sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) is one of the most important aquaculture animals in China. Usually its normal body color is black that fits its living environment. The juvenile individuals obtained by crossing albino sea cucumber segregated in body color. To document the transcriptome difference between albino associating sea cucumber and the control, we sequenced their transcriptomes with RNA-seq. Approximately, 4.790 million (M) and 4.884 M reads, 200 nt in length, were generated from the body wall of albino associating sea cucumber and the control, respectively, from them, 9550 (46.81%) putative genes were identified. In total, 583 genes were found to express differentially between albino associating sea cucumber and the control. Of these differentially expressed genes (DEGs), 4.8% changed more than five-folds. The expression levels of eight DEGs were confirmed with real-time PCR. The changing trend of these DEGs detected with real-time PCR agreed well with that detected with RNA-seq, although the change degree of some DEGs was different. Four significantly enriched pathways were identified for DEGs, which included phagocytosis, Staphylococcus aureus infection, ECM-receptor interaction and focal adhesion. These pathways were helpful for understanding the physiological difference between albino associating sea cucumber and the control.

  15. The Effect of Different Cucurbit Rootstocks on Some Morphological and Physiological Traits of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus cv. Super Dominus

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    reihane Mesgari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cucumber is one of the most important vegetable crops for the local consumption and exportation. The use of grafted vegetable seedlings has been popular in many countries during recent years. Growing fruit-bearing vegetables, chiefly tomato, cucumber and watermelon through grafted seedlings become a widespread practice worldwide. Grafting is a valuable technique to avoid soil-borne diseases, provide biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, enhance nutrient uptake, optimize water use, and increase fruit yield and quality. Vegetable grafting is a new topic in Iran and there are a limited number of studies on grafted vegetable production. However, attention to grafting by researchers has recently increased. Suitable rootstocks should be identified and characterized for the effective utilization of grafting. The rootstock's vigorous root system increases the efficiency of water and nutrient absorption, and may also serve as a source of endogenous plant hormones, thus leading to increased growth and yield in addition to disease control. In the present study, we investigated the response of two Cucurbita sp. and an Iranian melon as rootstocks for cucumber. Materials and methods: In order to study the effect of cucurbit rootstocks and grafting method on growth, yield and fruit quality of cucumber (Cucumis sativus cv. Super Dominus, an experiment was conducted as a factorial design in the base of RCBD with three replications in the greenhouse and research farm, University of Zanjan. Treatments were included three rootstocks (Cucurbita moschata L., Lagenaria siceraria and Cucumis melo L. and ungrafted plants (control and two grafting method (hole insertion and splice grafting. Seeds were sown simultaneously in plastic pots. For obtaining the same stem diameter of scion and rootstocks, cucumber seeds were planted four days earlier than rootstocks seeds. The seedlings were grown in an environment-controlled greenhouse with 25/20 day

  16. Succession and seasonal variation in epilithic biofilms on artificial reefs in culture waters of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liming; Du, Rongbin; Zhang, Xiaoling; Dong, Shuanglin; Sun, Shichun

    2017-01-01

    Periphytic biofilms in aquaculture waters are thought to improve water quality, provide an additional food source, and improve the survival and growth of some reared animals. In the Asia- Pacific region, particularly in China, artificial reefs are commonly used in the commercial farming of sea cucumbers. However, few studies have examined the epilithic biofilms on the artificial reefs. To gain a better understanding of the succession of epilithic biofilms and their ecological processes in sea cucumber culture waters, two experiments were conducted in culture waters of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus in Rongcheng, China, using artificial test panels. On the test panels of succession experiment, more than 67 species were identified in the biofilms. On the test panels of seasonal variation experiment, more than 46 species were recorded in the biofilms. In both experiments, communities of epilithic biofilms were dominated by diatoms, green algae and the annelid Spirorbis sp. In the initial colonization, the dominant diatoms were Cocconeis sp., Amphora spp. and Nitzschia closterium in June, which were succeeded by species of Navicula, Cocconeis and Nitzschia (July to September), and then by Licmophora abbreviata, Nitzschia closterium and Synedra spp. in the following months. A diatom bloom in the autumn and filamentous green algae burst in the summer were also observed. Ecological indices well annotated the succession and seasonal changes in epilithic communities. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis found significant differences in diatom community composition among months and seasons. Fast growth of biofilms was observed in the summer and autumn, whereas the biomass of summer biofilms was largely made up of filamentous green algae. Present results show that the components of epilithic biofilms are mostly optimal foods of A. japonicus, suggesting that biofilms on artificial reefs may contribute important nutritional sources for sea cucumbers during their

  17. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) embryo development in situ after pollination with irradiated pollen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faris, N.M.; Niemirowicz-Szczytt, K.

    1999-01-01

    Embryological studies were undertaken to compare the normal development of cucumber endosperm and embryo with that observed after pollination with gamma-irradiated pollen (0.1 and 0.3 kGy). Delayed penetration of the pollen tube occurred at both irradiation doses. Endosperm and embryo development was also delayed, but was initiated within 6 days after pollination in 100% of embryo sacs at 0.1 kGy and in 70-80% at 0.3 kGy. Various abnormalities in endosperm and embryo cell structure confirmed progressive degeneration, which occurred earlier with the higher dose of irradiation. Degeneration increased dramatically; only 30-40% of the embryos reached the globular stage 15 days after pollination. (author)

  18. Infeksi Cucumber mosaic virus dan Chilli veinal mottle virus pada Cabai di Kabupaten Rejang Lebong, Bengkulu

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    Mimi Sutrawati

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mosaic disease caused by Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV and Chilli veinal mottle Virus (ChiVMV has been distributed widely in chilli in Indonesia and considered as important disease. A research was conducted to investigate the spread and incidence of CMV and ChiVMV in Rejang Lebong, Bengkulu and to identify its insect vector. Symptomatic and asymptomatic leaf samples were collected systematically from several chillipepper fields for further detection by DAS-ELISA (Double antibody sandwich-enzyme linked immunosorbant assay using specific antibody for CMV and ChiVMV. The result showed that infection of both CMV and ChiVMV was found with disease incidence reached 20-50%, whereas infection only by ChiVMV or CMV were 50-80% and 20-50%, respectively. One species of aphid, i.e. Aphis gossypii was found from the fields.Key words: Aphis gossypii, CMV, ChiVMV, disease incidence

  19. Solanum americanum: reservoir for Potato virus Y and Cucumber mosaic virus in sweet pepper crops

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    Monika Fecury Moura

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Weeds can act as important reservoirs for viruses. Solanum americanum (Black nightshade is a common weed in Brazil and samples showing mosaic were collected from sweet pepper crops to verify the presence of viruses. One sample showed mixed infection between Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV and Potato virus Y (PVY and one sample showed simple infection by PVY. Both virus species were transmitted by plant extract and caused mosaic in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Santa Clara, sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum cv. Magda, Nicotiana benthamiana and N. tabaccum TNN, and local lesions on Chenopodium quinoa, C. murale and C. amaranticolor. The coat protein sequences for CMV and PVY found in S. americanum are phylogenetically more related to isolates from tomato. We conclude that S. americanum can act as a reservoir for different viruses during and between sweet pepper crop seasons.

  20. A Newly Recorded Sea Cucumber (Holothuroidea: Aspidochirotida: Synallactidae from East Sea, Korea

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    Lee, Taekjun

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Five sea cucumbers were collected from Gisamun and Gonghyeonjin of Gangwon-do, in the East Sea, Korea from 27 December 2009 to 14 November 2012. These specimens were classified as Synallactes nozawai Mitsukuri, 1912 belonging to the family Synallactidae of order Aspidochirotida based on morphological characteristics. The family, genus and species are recorded for the first time from Korea. The distinct morphological characteristics of this species are as follows: body flexible, with thin gelatinous body wall; presence of numerous tubercles along dorsal ambulacra table of body wall consisted of three- or four-armed disk and a spire-form pillar. This species usually inhabits the deep sea and is distributed in the Northwest Pacific from northern Japan to Bering Sea.

  1. Classification of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) infected watermelon seeds using Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hoonsoo; Lim, Hyoun-Sub; Cho, Byoung-Kwan

    2016-05-01

    The Cucumber Green Mottle Mosaic Virus (CGMMV) is a globally distributed plant virus. CGMMV-infected plants exhibit severe mosaic symptoms, discoloration, and deformation. Therefore, rapid and early detection of CGMMV infected seeds is very important for preventing disease damage and yield losses. Raman spectroscopy was investigated in this study as a potential tool for rapid, accurate, and nondestructive detection of infected seeds. Raman spectra of healthy and infected seeds were acquired in the 400 cm-1 to 1800 cm-1 wavenumber range and an algorithm based on partial least-squares discriminant analysis was developed to classify infected and healthy seeds. The classification model's accuracies for calibration and prediction data sets were 100% and 86%, respectively. Results showed that the Raman spectroscopic technique has good potential for nondestructive detection of virus-infected seeds.

  2. Characterization, genetic diversity, and evolutionary link of Cucumber mosaic virus strain New Delhi from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koundal, Vikas; Haq, Qazi Mohd Rizwanul; Praveen, Shelly

    2011-02-01

    The genome of Cucumber mosaic virus New Delhi strain (CMV-ND) from India, obtained from tomato, was completely sequenced and compared with full genome sequences of 14 known CMV strains from subgroups I and II, for their genetic diversity. Sequence analysis suggests CMV-ND shares maximum sequence identity at the nucleotide level with a CMV strain from Taiwan. Among all 15 strains of CMV, the encoded protein 2b is least conserved, whereas the coat protein (CP) is most conserved. Sequence identity values and phylogram results indicate that CMV-ND belongs to subgroup I. Based on the recombination detection program result, it appears that CMV is prone to recombination, and different RNA components of CMV-ND have evolved differently. Recombinational analysis of all 15 CMV strains detected maximum recombination breakpoints in RNA2; CP showed the least recombination sites.

  3. Determination of element distributions between symplasm and apoplasm of cucumber plant parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varga, A.; Zaray, G.; Fodor, F.

    2000-01-01

    Total reflection x-ray fluorescence analysis (TXRF) is a suitable method for determination of trace elements in biological samples due to its low detection limits, small sample demand, simple quantification and the absence of memory effects. In the present work the concentration of Pb, Cd, Ni, Mn and Fe was determined inside the cells (symplasm) and in the space among the cells (apoplasm) of cucumber plants. The cucumber seeds were grown in different nutrient solutions containing iron as Fe(III)-EDTA or Fe(III)-citrate, as well as Pb, Cd or Ni as contaminants in concentration of 10 -5 M. After growing period and the appropriate pretreatment (infiltration, leaching, washing and drying) the roots and the leaves were prepared for the analysis using a microwave assisted digestion system. The solutions obtained were spiked with Ni (in the case of the experiments with Pb) or Ga as internal standard. It was established that in the root the relative amount of lead in the symplasm related to the total absorbed amount (symplasm + apoplasm) is 2.5 % in presence of EDTA and 24% in presence of citrate. Studying its transport to the shoots, the amount of lead shows a decreasing tendency towards the young leaves and the symplasm/apoplasm ratio also changes: the ratio increased up to 66 % and 50 % in case of EDTA and citrate, respectively. Investigating of iron content similar phenomenon could be observed, however the presence of lead and complex forming agents did not result in any significant changes of the manganese distribution between symplasm and apoplasm. The results of experiments with Ni and Cd contaminants will be presented and discussed in the lecture. (author)

  4. Gene structure, expression, and DNA methylation characteristics of sea cucumber cyclin B gene during aestivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Aijun; Chen, Muyan; Zhang, Xiumei; Storey, Kenneth B

    2016-12-05

    The sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus, is a good model for studying environmentally-induced aestivation by a marine invertebrate. One of the central requirements of aestivation is the repression of energy-expensive cellular processes such as cell cycle progression. The present study identified the gene structure of the cell cycle regulator, cyclin B, and detected the expression levels of this gene over three stages of the annual aestivation-arousal cycle. Furthermore, the DNA methylation characteristics of cyclin B were analyzed in non-aestivation and deep-aestivation stages of sea cucumbers. We found that the cyclin B promoter contains a CpG island, three CCAAT-boxes and three cell cycle gene homology regions (CHRs). Application of qRT-PCR analysis showed significant downregulation of cyclin B transcript levels during deep-aestivation in comparison with non-aestivation in both intestine and longitudinal muscle, and these returned to basal levels after arousal from aestivation. Methylation analysis of the cyclin B core promoter revealed that its methylation level showed significant differences between non-aestivation and deep-aestivation stages (p<0.05) and interestingly, a positive correlation between Cyclin B transcripts expression and methylation levels of the core promoter was also observed. Our findings suggest that cell cycle progression may be reversibly arrested during aestivation as indicated by the changes in cyclin B expression levels and we propose that DNA methylation is one of the regulatory mechanisms involved in cyclin B transcriptional variation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Extraction, Identification and Biological Activities of Saponins in Sea Cucumber Pearsonothuria graeffei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattab, Rafat Afifi; Elbandy, Mohamed; Lawrence, Andrew; Paget, Tim; Rae-Rho, Jung; Binnaser, Yaser S; Ali, Imran

    2018-01-01

    Secondary metabolism in marine organisms produces a diversity of biologically important natural compounds that are not present in terrestrial species. Sea cucumbers belong to the invertebrate Echinodermata and are famous for their nutraceutical, medical and food values. They are known for possession triterpenoid glycosides (saponins) with various ecological roles. The current work aimed to separate, identify and test various biological activities (antibacterial, antifungal, antileishmanial and anticancer properties) of saponins produced by the holothurian Pearsonothuria graeffei from the Red Sea, Egypt. The structures were identified by 1D and 2D NMR (1H, 13C, TOCSY, COSY, HSQC, HMBC, and ROESY) experiments and acid hydrolysis. The crude and purified fractions was analyzed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS)/MS to identify saponins and characterize their molecular structures. Partially purified fraction, mainly containing compounds 1 and 2, was screened for its antifungal activity against three clinical isolates of Candida albicans (Candida 580 (1), Candida 581(2) and Candida MEO47228. Antileishmanial activity against Leishmania major and toxicity on colon cell-line were also evaluated. Two lanostane type sulfated triterpene monoglycosides were isolated from the Holothurian Pearsonothuria graeffei from the Red Sea, Egypt. Holothurin A (1) and echinoside A (2) triterpene saponins were separated by reversed phase semi-preparative HPLC. LC50 values (µg/mL); calculated for the fraction containing saponins 1 and 2 as major constituents; against Candida albicans, Leishmania major and colon cell-line were 10, 20 and 0.50, respectively. Consequently, this study demonstrated the potential use of sea cucumber Pearsonothuria graeffei not only as appreciated functional food or nutraceuticals but also as the source of functional ingredients for pharmaceutical products with antifungal, antileishmanial and anticancer properties

  6. Transcriptome sequencing and characterization for the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka, 1867.

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    Huixia Du

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sea cucumbers are a special group of marine invertebrates. They occupy a taxonomic position that is believed to be important for understanding the origin and evolution of deuterostomes. Some of them such as Apostichopus japonicus represent commercially important aquaculture species in Asian countries. Many efforts have been devoted to increasing the number of expressed sequence tags (ESTs for A. japonicus, but a comprehensive characterization of its transcriptome remains lacking. Here, we performed the large-scale transcriptome profiling and characterization by pyrosequencing diverse cDNA libraries from A. japonicus. RESULTS: In total, 1,061,078 reads were obtained by 454 sequencing of eight cDNA libraries representing different developmental stages and adult tissues in A. japonicus. These reads were assembled into 29,666 isotigs, which were further clustered into 21,071 isogroups. Nearly 40% of the isogroups showed significant matches to known proteins based on sequence similarity. Gene ontology (GO and KEGG pathway analyses recovered diverse biological functions and processes. Candidate genes that were potentially involved in aestivation were identified. Transcriptome comparison with the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus revealed similar patterns of GO term representation. In addition, 4,882 putative orthologous genes were identified, of which 202 were not present in the non-echinoderm organisms. More than 700 simple sequence repeats (SSRs and 54,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were detected in the A. japonicus transcriptome. CONCLUSION: Pyrosequencing was proven to be efficient in rapidly identifying a large set of genes for the sea cucumber A. japonicus. Through the large-scale transcriptome sequencing as well as public EST data integration, we performed a comprehensive characterization of the A. japonicus transcriptome and identified candidate aestivation-related genes. A large number of potential genetic

  7. LPS-induced genes in intestinal tissue of the sea cucumber Holothuria glaberrima.

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    Francisco Ramírez-Gómez

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Metazoan immunity is mainly associated with specialized cells that are directly involved with the immune response. Nevertheless, both in vertebrates and invertebrates other organs might respond to immune activation and participate either directly or indirectly in the ongoing immune process. However, most of what is known about invertebrate immunity has been restricted to immune effector cells and little information is available on the immune responses of other tissues or organs. We now focus on the immune reactions of the intestinal tissue of an echinoderm. Our study employs a non-conventional model, the echinoderm Holothuria glaberrima, to identify intestinal molecules expressed after an immune challenge presented by an intra-coelomic injection of lipopolysaccharides (LPS. The expression profiles of intestinal genes expressed differentially between LPS-injected animals and control sea water-injected animals were determined using a custom-made Agilent microarray with 7209 sea cucumber intestinal ESTs. Fifty (50 unique sequences were found to be differentially expressed in the intestine of LPS-treated sea cucumbers. Seven (7 of these sequences represented homologues of known proteins, while the remaining (43 had no significant similarity with any protein, EST or RNA database. The known sequences corresponded to cytoskeletal proteins (Actin and alpha-actinin, metabolic enzymes (GAPDH, Ahcy and Gnmt, metal ion transport/metabolism (major yolk protein and defense/recognition (fibrinogen-like protein. The expression pattern of 11 genes was validated using semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Nine of these corroborated the microarray results and the remaining two showed a similar trend but without statistical significance. Our results show some of the molecular events by which the holothurian intestine responds to an immune challenge and provide important information to the study of the evolution of the immune response.

  8. Composts containing fluorescent pseudomonads suppress fusarium root and stem rot development on greenhouse cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Geoffrey G; Punja, Zamir K

    2010-11-01

    Three composts (Ball, dairy, and greenhouse) were tested for the ability to suppress the development of Fusarium root and stem rot (caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-cucumerinum) on greenhouse cucumber. Dairy and greenhouse composts significantly reduced disease severity (P = 0.05), while Ball compost had no effect. Assessment of total culturable microbes in the composts showed a positive relationship between disease suppressive ability and total population levels of pseudomonads. In vitro antagonism assays between compost-isolated bacterial strains and the pathogen showed that strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa exhibited the greatest antagonism. In growth room trials, strains of P. aeruginosa and nonantagonistic Pseudomonas maculicola, plus 2 biocontrol strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens, were tested for their ability to reduce (i) survival of F. oxysporum, (ii) colonization of plants by the pathogen, and (iii) disease severity. Cucumber seedlings grown in compost receiving P. aeruginosa and P. fluorescens had reduced disease severity index scores after 8 weeks compared with control plants without bacteria. Internal stem colonization by F. oxysporum was significantly reduced by P. aeruginosa. The bacteria colonized plant roots at 1.9 × 10(6) ± 0.73 × 10(6) CFU·(g root tissue)-1 and survival was >107 CFU·(g compost)-1 after 6 weeks. The locus for 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol production was detected by Southern blot analysis and confirmed by PCR. The production of the antibiotic 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol in liquid culture by P. aeruginosa was confirmed by thin layer chromatography. These results demonstrate that composts containing antibiotic-producing P. aeruginosa have the potential to suppress diseases caused by Fusarium species.

  9. Transformation of ceria nanoparticles in cucumber plants is influenced by phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rui, Yukui; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Yanbei; Ma, Yuhui; He, Xiao; Gui, Xin; Li, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Jing; Zheng, Lirong; Chu, Shengqi; Guo, Zhi; Chai, Zhifang; Zhao, Yuliang; Zhang, Zhiyong

    2015-01-01

    Transformation is a critical factor that affects the fate and toxicity of manufactured nanoparticles (NPs) in the environment and living organisms. This paper aims to investigate the effect of phosphate on the transformation of CeO 2 NPs in hydroponic plants. Cucumber seedlings were treated with 2000 mg/L CeO 2 NPs in nutrient solutions with or without adding phosphate (+P or –P) for 3 weeks. Large quantities of needle-like CePO 4 was found outside the epidermis in the +P group. While in the –P group, CePO 4 only existed in the intercellular spaces and vacuole of root cells. X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) indicates that content and percentage of Ce-carboxylates in the shoots of –P group (418 mg/kg, 67.5%) were much higher than those in the +P group (30.1 mg/kg, 21%). The results suggest that phosphate might influence the transformation process of CeO 2 NPs in plants and subsequently their ultimate fate in the ecosystem. - Highlights: • We compared the transformation of CeO 2 NPs in cucumber plants with and without phosphate in nutrient solutions. • Results of TEM and STXM show that CePO 4 located differently in roots between +P and –P group. • The chemical species distributions of Ce in shoots were different between +P and –P group by XANES. • Phosphate significantly affected the transformation of CeO 2 NPs in plants. - CeO 2 NPs can be partially transformed to CePO 4 and Ce carboxylates in hydroponic plants. Phosphate significantly affected the transformation of CeO 2 NPs and subsequent translocation of Ce species

  10. Genome-wide identification, characterization and evolutionary analysis of long intergenic noncoding RNAs in cucumber.

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    Zhiqiang Hao

    Full Text Available Long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs are intergenic transcripts with a length of at least 200 nt that lack coding potential. Emerging evidence suggests that lincRNAs from animals participate in many fundamental biological processes. However, the systemic identification of lincRNAs has been undertaken in only a few plants. We chose to use cucumber (Cucumis sativus as a model to analyze lincRNAs due to its importance as a model plant for studying sex differentiation and fruit development and the rich genomic and transcriptome data available. The application of a bioinformatics pipeline to multiple types of gene expression data resulted in the identification and characterization of 3,274 lincRNAs. Next, 10 lincRNAs targeted by 17 miRNAs were also explored. Based on co-expression analysis between lincRNAs and mRNAs, 94 lincRNAs were annotated, which may be involved in response to stimuli, multi-organism processes, reproduction, reproductive processes, and growth. Finally, examination of the evolution of lincRNAs showed that most lincRNAs are under purifying selection, while 16 lincRNAs are under natural selection. Our results provide a rich resource for further validation of cucumber lincRNAs and their function. The identification of lincRNAs targeted by miRNAs offers new clues for investigations into the role of lincRNAs in regulating gene expression. Finally, evaluation of the lincRNAs suggested that some lincRNAs are under positive and balancing selection.

  11. A New Strategy in Observer Modeling for Greenhouse Cucumber Seedling Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Quan; Zheng, Chenfei; Wang, Wenping; Qiao, Xiaojun; Bai, He; Yu, Jingquan; Shi, Kai

    2017-01-01

    State observer is an essential component in computerized control loops for greenhouse-crop systems. However, the current accomplishments of observer modeling for greenhouse-crop systems mainly focus on mass/energy balance, ignoring physiological responses of crops. As a result, state observers for crop physiological responses are rarely developed, and control operations are typically made based on experience rather than actual crop requirements. In addition, existing observer models require a large number of parameters, leading to heavy computational load and poor application feasibility. To address these problems, we present a new state observer modeling strategy that takes both environmental information and crop physiological responses into consideration during the observer modeling process. Using greenhouse cucumber seedlings as an instance, we sample 10 physiological parameters of cucumber seedlings at different time point during the exponential growth stage, and employ them to build growth state observers together with 8 environmental parameters. Support vector machine (SVM) acts as the mathematical tool for observer modeling. Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) is used to select the dominant environmental and physiological parameters in the modeling process. With the dominant parameters, simplified observer models are built and tested. We conduct contrast experiments with different input parameter combinations on simplified and un-simplified observers. Experimental results indicate that physiological information can improve the prediction accuracies of the growth state observers. Furthermore, the simplified observer models can give equivalent or even better performance than the un-simplified ones, which verifies the feasibility of CCA. The current study can enable state observers to reflect crop requirements and make them feasible for applications with simplified shapes, which is significant for developing intelligent greenhouse control systems for modern

  12. A New Strategy in Observer Modeling for Greenhouse Cucumber Seedling Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Qiu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available State observer is an essential component in computerized control loops for greenhouse-crop systems. However, the current accomplishments of observer modeling for greenhouse-crop systems mainly focus on mass/energy balance, ignoring physiological responses of crops. As a result, state observers for crop physiological responses are rarely developed, and control operations are typically made based on experience rather than actual crop requirements. In addition, existing observer models require a large number of parameters, leading to heavy computational load and poor application feasibility. To address these problems, we present a new state observer modeling strategy that takes both environmental information and crop physiological responses into consideration during the observer modeling process. Using greenhouse cucumber seedlings as an instance, we sample 10 physiological parameters of cucumber seedlings at different time point during the exponential growth stage, and employ them to build growth state observers together with 8 environmental parameters. Support vector machine (SVM acts as the mathematical tool for observer modeling. Canonical correlation analysis (CCA is used to select the dominant environmental and physiological parameters in the modeling process. With the dominant parameters, simplified observer models are built and tested. We conduct contrast experiments with different input parameter combinations on simplified and un-simplified observers. Experimental results indicate that physiological information can improve the prediction accuracies of the growth state observers. Furthermore, the simplified observer models can give equivalent or even better performance than the un-simplified ones, which verifies the feasibility of CCA. The current study can enable state observers to reflect crop requirements and make them feasible for applications with simplified shapes, which is significant for developing intelligent greenhouse control

  13. A New Strategy in Observer Modeling for Greenhouse Cucumber Seedling Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Quan; Zheng, Chenfei; Wang, Wenping; Qiao, Xiaojun; Bai, He; Yu, Jingquan; Shi, Kai

    2017-01-01

    State observer is an essential component in computerized control loops for greenhouse-crop systems. However, the current accomplishments of observer modeling for greenhouse-crop systems mainly focus on mass/energy balance, ignoring physiological responses of crops. As a result, state observers for crop physiological responses are rarely developed, and control operations are typically made based on experience rather than actual crop requirements. In addition, existing observer models require a large number of parameters, leading to heavy computational load and poor application feasibility. To address these problems, we present a new state observer modeling strategy that takes both environmental information and crop physiological responses into consideration during the observer modeling process. Using greenhouse cucumber seedlings as an instance, we sample 10 physiological parameters of cucumber seedlings at different time point during the exponential growth stage, and employ them to build growth state observers together with 8 environmental parameters. Support vector machine (SVM) acts as the mathematical tool for observer modeling. Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) is used to select the dominant environmental and physiological parameters in the modeling process. With the dominant parameters, simplified observer models are built and tested. We conduct contrast experiments with different input parameter combinations on simplified and un-simplified observers. Experimental results indicate that physiological information can improve the prediction accuracies of the growth state observers. Furthermore, the simplified observer models can give equivalent or even better performance than the un-simplified ones, which verifies the feasibility of CCA. The current study can enable state observers to reflect crop requirements and make them feasible for applications with simplified shapes, which is significant for developing intelligent greenhouse control systems for modern

  14. Transformation of pickling cucumber with chitinase-encoding genes using Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raharjo, S H; Hernandez, M O; Zhang, Y Y; Punja, Z K

    1996-04-01

    Transformation of cucumber cv. Endeavor was attempted using three Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains (a supervirulent leucinopine type, an octopine type and a nopaline type), each harbouring one of three binary vectors which contained an acidic chitinase gene from petunia, and basic chitinase genes from tobacco and bean, respectively, driven by the CaMV 35S promoter. Petiole explants were inoculated with a bacterial suspension (10(8) cells·ml(-1)), cocultivated for 48-96 h and placed on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with 5.0 μM each of 2,4-D and BA, 50 mg·l(-1) kanamycin and 500 mg·l(-1) carbenicillin. The frequency of embryogenic callus formation ranged from 0 to 12%, depending on strains/vectors used and length of cocultivation, with the highest being obtained using the leucinopine strain with petunia acidic chitinase gene. The kanamycin-resistant embryogenic calli were used to initiate suspension cultures (in liquid MS medium with 1.0/1.0 μM 2,4-D/BA, 50 mg·l(-1) kanamycin) for multiplication of embryogenic cell aggregates. Upon plating of cell aggregates onto solid MS medium with 1.0/1.0 μM NAA/BA and 50 mg·l(-1) kanamycin, calli continued to grow and later differentiated into plantlets. Transformation by the leucinopine strain and all three vectors was confirmed by PCR amplification of the NPT II gene in transgenic calli and plants, in addition to Southern analysis. Expression of the acidic chitinase gene (from petunia) and both basic chitinase genes (from tobacco and bean) in different transgenic cucumber lines was confirmed by Western analyses.

  15. Monoclonal antibody-based serological methods for detection of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus

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    Qian Yajuan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV, a member of the genus Tobamovirus, can be transmitted by seeds and infects many cucurbit species, causing serious yield losses in cucumber and watermelon plants. In this paper, five serological methods including antigen-coated plate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ACP-ELISA, triple antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (TAS-ELISA, Dot-immunobinding assay (DBIA, direct tissue blot immunoassay (DTBIA and immunocapture reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (IC-RT-PCR were described for detection and diagnosis of CGMMV. Results Using the purified CGMMV particles as immunogens, six murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs were produced. Five serological methods were established using the MAb 4H1 and detection sensitivity was compared using purified preparations and infected-plant tissue extracts. The detection sensitivity of ACP-ELISA was 0.16 ng of purified CGMMV, whereas TAS-ELISA was more sensitive than ACP-ELISA with a minimum detection of 0.04 ng of purified CGMMV. The sensitivities of TAS-ELISA and DBIA were similar for detecting CGMMV in infected-plant tissue extracts, and were four times higher than ACP-ELISA. The IC-RT-PCR was the most sensitive method, which could detect as little as 0.1 pg of purified virus. The detection sensitivity of IC-RT-PCR for CGMMV-infected plant tissues was about 400 times higher than that of TAS-ELISA and DBIA. Conclusions The established ACP-ELISA, TAS-ELISA, DBIA and DTBIA are suitable for routine CGMMV detection of large-scale samples in the field survey, while IC-RT-PCR is more sensitive and suitable for acquiring information about the viral genome.

  16. Proteomic and Physiological Analyses Reveal Putrescine Responses in Roots of Cucumber Stressed by NaCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinghui Yuan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity is a major environmental constraint that threatens agricultural productivity. Different strategies have been developed to improve crop salt tolerance, among which the effects of polyamines have been well reported. To gain a better understanding of the cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. responses to NaCl and unravel the underlying mechanism of exogenous putrescine (Put alleviating salt-induced damage, comparative proteomic analysis was conducted on cucumber roots treated with NaCl and/or Put for 7 days. The results showed that exogenous Put restored the root growth inhibited by NaCl. 62 differentially expressed proteins implicated in various biological processes were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. The four largest categories included proteins involved in defense response (24.2%, protein metabolism (24.2%, carbohydrate metabolism (19.4% and amino acid metabolism (14.5%. Exogenous Put up-regulated most identified proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism, implying an enhancement in energy generation. Proteins involved in defense response and protein metabolism were differently regulated by Put, which indicated the roles of Put in stress resistance and proteome rearrangement. Put also increased the abundance of proteins involved in amino acid metabolism. Meanwhile, physiological analysis showed that Put could further up-regulated the levels of free amino acids in salt stressed-roots. In addition, Put also improved endogenous polyamines contents by regulating the transcription levels of key enzymes in polyamine metabolism. Taken together, these results suggest that Put may alleviate NaCl-induced growth inhibition through degradation of misfolded/damaged proteins, activation of stress defense, and the promotion of carbohydrate metabolism to generate more energy.

  17. Evaluation of Sensorial, Chemical, and Microbial Characteristics of Pickled Cucumber Supplied in Shiraz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Sadeghizadeh Yazdi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cucumber is one of the vegetables that are widely preserved by fermentation in brine. Vegetables such as cucumber are normally not washed in the commercial centers and this causes microbial growth during fermentation. At the beginning of the fermentation process, lactic acid bacteria, depending on the environmental conditions, begin to grow. The aim of this study was to compare the microbial, chemical, and sensorial characteristics of canned and bulk pickles. Methods: In this study, a random sampling was implemented from the pickles of three locations in Shiraz city as suppliers of pickles. The sensorial evaluation was also conducted by 60 members of the hospital staff. Data was collected through questionnaires. Sensorial evaluation was performed using a hedonic scale of nine points. For microbial assessment, Iran National Standards 2326 was used. Results: The results of the microbiological tests showed that bulk pickles were infected with mesophilic aerobic bacteria at 26.6%, aerobic thermophilic bacteria at 6.6%, and 43.3% by mold and yeast; while canned pickles (with license the Ministry of Health were infected 13.3% by mesophilic aerobic bacteria. The average pH of the bulk samples based on the national standard was more than the maximum allowed level. The results of the sensorial evaluation of taste, texture, color, and overall acceptability showed that canned pickles had the most overall acceptance and texture acceptance points and bulk pickles had the most points of flavor and color acceptance. Conclusions: According to the findings, it seems that the use of herbs in bulk pickles is the main cause of increase in the microbial load and rated the taste, because fragrant fresh vegetables have a greater impact on the microbial load than dried vegetables.

  18. Spermidine-mediated hydrogen peroxide signaling enhances the antioxidant capacity of salt-stressed cucumber roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianqiang; Shu, Sheng; Li, Chengcheng; Sun, Jin; Guo, Shirong

    2018-07-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) is a key signaling molecule that mediates a variety of physiological processes and defense responses against abiotic stress in higher plants. In this study, our aims are to clarify the role of H 2 O 2 accumulation induced by the exogenous application of spermidine (Spd) to cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seedlings in regulating the antioxidant capacity of roots under salt stress. The results showed that Spd caused a significant increase in endogenous polyamines and H 2 O 2 levels, and peaked at 2 h after salt stress. Spd-induced H 2 O 2 accumulation was blocked under salt stress by pretreatment with a H 2 O 2 scavenger and respective inhibitors of cell wall peroxidase (CWPOD; EC: 1.11.1.7), polyamine oxidase (PAO; EC: 1.5.3.11) and NADPH oxidase (NOX; EC: 1.6.3.1); among these three inhibitors, the largest decrease was found in response to the addition of the inhibitor of polyamine oxidase. In addition, we observed that exogenous Spd could increase the activities of the enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD; EC: 1.15.1.1), peroxidase (POD; EC: 1.11.1.7) and catalase (CAT; EC: 1.11.1.6) as well as the expression of their genes in salt-stressed roots, and the effects were inhibited by H 2 O 2 scavengers and polyamine oxidase inhibitors. These results suggested that, by regulating endogenous PAs-mediated H 2 O 2 signaling in roots, Spd could enhance antioxidant enzyme activities and reduce oxidative damage; the main source of H 2 O 2 was polyamine oxidation, which was associated with improved tolerance and root growth recovery of cucumber under salt stress. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Skin whitening and anti-corrugation activities of glycoprotein fractions from liquid extracts of boiled sea cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So Jung; Park, So Yun; Hong, Sun-Mee; Kwon, Eun-Hye; Lee, Taek-Kyun

    2016-10-01

    To determine skin whitening and wrinkle improvement efficacy, glycoprotein fractions were extracted from liquid extracts of boiled sea cucumber and their effects on tyrosine and elastase inhibitory activities were assayed. Fractions above and below 50 kDa (>50 kDa and 50 kDa enhanced tyrosinase and elastase inhibitory activities by 50.84% and 28.78%, respectively. Correlations of the >50 kDa concentration with tyrosinase inhibitory (R2 = 0.968) and elastase inhibitory (R2 = 0.983) efficacy were significant. >50 kDa glycoprotein fraction isolated from liquid extracts of boiled sea cucumber, which can serve as a functional cosmetic ingredient for whitening and wrinkle improvement of skin. Copyright © 2016 Hainan Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Anti-fatigue activity of sea cucumber peptides prepared from Stichopus japonicus in an endurance swimming rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jing; Shen, Caihong; Huang, Yayan; Zhang, Xueqin; Xiao, Meitian

    2017-10-01

    Sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus) is a well-known nutritious and luxurious seafood in Asia which has attracted increasing attention because of its nutrition and bioactivities in recent years. In this study, the anti-fatigue activity of sea cucumber peptides (SCP) prepared from S. japonicus was evaluated in a load-induced endurance swimming model. The SCP prepared in this study was mainly made up of low-molecular-weight peptides (fatigue was significantly improved by SCP treatment. Meanwhile, the remarkable alterations of energy metabolic markers, antioxidant enzymes, antioxidant capacity and oxidative stress biomarkers were normalized. Moreover, administration of SCP could modulate alterations of inflammatory cytokines and downregulate the overexpression of TRL4 and NF-κB. SCP has anti-fatigue activity and it exerted its anti-fatigue effect probably through normalizing energy metabolism as well as alleviating oxidative damage and inflammatory responses. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. The novel ethylene-responsive factor CsERF025 affects the development of fruit bending in cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunhua; Xin, Ming; Zhou, Xiuyan; Liu, Chunhong; Li, Shengnan; Liu, Dong; Xu, Yuan; Qin, Zhiwei

    2017-11-01

    Overexpression of CsERF025 induces fruit bending by promoting the production of ethylene. Cucumber fruit bending critically affects cucumber quality, but the mechanism that causes fruit bending remains unclear. To better understand this mechanism, we performed transcriptome analyses on tissues from the convex (C1) and concave (C2) sides of bending and straight (S) fruit at 2 days post anthesis (DPA). We identified a total of 281 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) from both the convex and concave sides of bent fruit that showed significantly different expression profiles relative to straight fruits. Of these 281 DEGs, 196 were up-regulated (C1/S_C2/S) and 85 were down-regulated (C1/S_C2/S). Among the 196 up-regulated DEGs, the transcriptional levels of genes related to ethylene biosynthesis and signaling pathways were significantly higher in bending fruit compared with straight fruit. CsERF025 showed the largest difference in expression between bending and straight fruit. CsERF025 is an AP2/ERF gene encoding a protein that localizes to the nucleus. Overexpression of this gene increased the bending rate of cucumber fruits and increased the angle of bending. CsERF025 increased both the expression of ethylene biosynthesis-related genes and the production of ethylene. The application of exogenous 1-aminocyclopropane-l-carboxylic acid (ACC) to straight fruits from control plants promoted fruit bending. Thus, CsERF025 enhances the production of ethylene and thereby promotes fruit bending in cucumber.

  2. Facile Template-Free Fabrication of the hollow sea cucumber-like TbF{sub 3} and luminescent properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Yu, E-mail: gaoy777@126.com [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenyang University of Chemical Technology, Shenyang, 100142 (China); Shi, Shan; Fang, Qinghong; Yang, Feng [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenyang University of Chemical Technology, Shenyang, 100142 (China); Xu, Zhenhe [College of Applied Chemistry, Shenyang University of Chemical Technology, Shenyang, 100142 (China)

    2014-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Hollow sea cucumber-like TbF{sub 3} has been prepared via a facile hydrothermal route. The possible growth mechanism and the luminescent properties of the as-prepared sample have been discussed. - Highlights: • TbF3 particles were prepared by a facile hydrothermal route. • TbF3 product show strong green emission. • This method may be more widely applicable in the design of other rare-earth compounds. - Abstract: Hollow sea cucumber-like TbF{sub 3} was successfully fabricated by a self-assembled hydrothermal method. The crystal structure, morphology and photoluminescence properties of the as-prepared TbF{sub 3} crystals were investigated. The results revealed that the as-prepared TbF{sub 3} sample has orthorhombic structure and composed of monodispersed 3D hollow sea cucumber-like particles. The possible formation mechanism for sea cucumber-like TbF{sub 3} is presented in detail. Additionally, the as-prepared sample possesses property of down-conversion photoluminescence. The excitation spectrum of TbF{sub 3} sample was obtained by monitoring the emission of Tb{sup 3+} at 545 nm was composed of the characteristics f–f transition lines within the Tb{sup 3+} 4f{sup 8} configuration. Under the UV light irradiation, the emission spectrum exhibited four obvious lines centered at 491, 545, 588, and 620 nm, which was corresponding to the {sup 5}D{sub 4} → {sup 7}F{sub J} (J = 6, 5, 4, 3) transitions of the Tb{sup 3+} ions in the TbF{sub 3} nanoparticles.

  3. Transcriptome analysis of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) fruits in response to Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) infection

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiaodong; An, Mengnan; Xia, Zihao; Bai, Xiaojiao; Wu, Yuanhua

    2017-01-01

    Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) belongs to the Tobamovirus genus and is a major global plant virus on cucurbit plants. It causes severe disease symptoms on infected watermelon plants (Citrullus lanatus), particularly inducing fruit decay. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism of CGMMV-induced watermelon fruit decay. For this study, comparative analysis of transcriptome profiles of CGMMV-inoculated and mock-inoculated watermelon fruits were conducted via RNA-Seq. A ...

  4. Methane-rich water induces cucumber adventitious rooting through heme oxygenase1/carbon monoxide and Ca(2+) pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Weiti; Qi, Fang; Zhang, Yihua; Cao, Hong; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Ren; Shen, Wenbiao

    2015-03-01

    Methane-rich water triggered adventitious rooting by regulating heme oxygenase1/carbon monoxide and calcium pathways in cucumber explants. Heme oxygenase1/carbon monoxide (HO1/CO) and calcium (Ca(2+)) were reported as the downstream signals in auxin-induced cucumber adventitious root (AR) formation. Here, we observed that application of methane-rich water (MRW; 80% saturation) obviously induced AR formation in IAA-depleted cucumber explants. To address the universality, we checked adventitious rooting in soybean and mung bean explants, and found that MRW (50 and 10% saturation, respectively) exhibited the similar inducing results. To further determine if the HO1/CO system participated in MRW-induced adventitious rooting, MRW, HO1 inducer hemin, its activity inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP), and its catalytic by-products CO, bilirubin, and Fe(2+) were used to detect their effects on cucumber adventitious rooting in IAA-depleted explants. Subsequent results showed that MRW-induced adventitious rooting was blocked by ZnPP and further reversed by 20% saturation CO aqueous solution. However, the other two by-products of HO1, bilirubin and Fe(2+), failed to induce AR formation. Above responses were consistent with the MRW-induced increases of HO1 transcript and corresponding protein level. Further molecular evidence indicted that expression of marker genes, including auxin signaling-related genes and cell cycle regulatory genes, were modulated by MRW alone but blocked by the cotreatment with ZnPP, the latter of which could be significantly rescued by the addition of CO. By using the Ca(2+)-channel blocker and Ca(2+) chelator, the involvement of Ca(2+) pathway in MRW-induced adventitious rooting was also suggested. Together, our results indicate that MRW might serve as a stimulator of adventitious rooting, which was partially mediated by HO1/CO and Ca(2+) pathways.

  5. Involvement of heme oxygenase-1 in β-cyclodextrin-hemin complex-induced cucumber adventitious rooting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuting; Li, Meiyue; Huang, Liqin; Shen, Wenbiao; Ren, Yong

    2012-09-01

    Our previous results showed that β-cyclodextrin-hemin complex (CDH) exhibited a vital protective role against cadmium-induced oxidative damage and toxicity in alfalfa seedling roots by the regulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) gene expression. In this report, we further test whether CDH exhibited the hormonal-like response. The application of CDH and an inducer of HO-1, hemin, were able to induce the up-regulation of cucumber HO-1 gene (CsHO1) expression and thereafter the promotion of adventitious rooting in cucumber explants. The effect is specific for HO-1 since the potent HO-1 inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP) blocked the above responses triggered by CDH, and the inhibitory effects were reversed further when 30% saturation of CO aqueous solution was added together. Further, molecular evidence showed that CDH triggered the increases of the HO-1-mediated target genes responsible for adventitious rooting, including one DnaJ-like gene (CsDNAJ-1) and two calcium-dependent protein kinase (CDPK) genes (CsCDPK1 and CsCDPK5), and were inhibited by ZnPP and reversed by CO. The calcium (Ca2+) chelator ethylene glycol-bis (2-aminoethylether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) and the Ca2+ channel blocker lanthanum chloride (LaCl3) not only compromised the induction of adventitious rooting induced by CDH but also decreased the transcripts of above three target genes. However, the application of ascorbic acid (AsA), a well-known antioxidant in plants, failed to exhibit similar inducible effect on adventitious root formation. In short, above results illustrated that the response of CDH in the induction of cucumber adventitious rooting might be through HO-1-dependent mechanism and calcium signaling. Physiological, pharmacological and molecular evidence showed that β-cyclodextrin-hemin complex (CDH) was able to induce cucumber adventitious rooting through heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1)-dependent mechanism and calcium signaling.

  6. NUTRITIONAL VALUE AND HEAVY METALS CONTENTS OF THE DRIED SEA CUCUMBER Stichopus vastus FROM SALEMO ISLAND, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Rasyid

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The dried sea cucumber Stichopus vastus is one of the commercially species harvested in Indonesian waters. This study aims to highlight the nutritional value and heavy metals content of dried sea cucumber S. vastus. Proximate (moisture, ash, protein, fat and carbohydrate, mineral (sodium, calcium, potassium and iron and heavy metal (mercury, cadmium, arsenic and lead were determined by standard method of AOAC, while phosphorous was determined by spectrophotometric method. Chondroitin sulphate was determined by UPLC method, glucosamine sulphate and vitamin (A, B1, B2 and E by HPLC method. Results show that protein was the major component in proximate analysis of dried sea cucumber S. vastus in the present study. The protein content was 38.70%. Moisture, ash, fat and carbohydrate content were 19.46%, 34.04%, 0.38% and 7.42% respectively. All vitamins and heavy metals examined in this study were not detected. The sodium content was 8054.36 mg/100 g higher than other minerals. Calcium, potassium, phosphorus and iron content were 2449.9 mg/100 g, 159.77 mg/100 g, 5085.2 mg/100 g and 520.8 mg/100 g respectively. Glucosamine sulphate content was found to be 2.429 g/100 g, whereas chondroitin sulphate was found to be 1.115 g/100 g. It can therefore, be concluded that the dried sea cucumber S. vastus from Salemo Island is safe for human consumption and hence can be used as a source of food supplement in the future. Keywords: food supplement, Salemo island, Stichopus vastus

  7. [An early warning method of cucumber downy mildew in solar greenhouse based on canopy temperature and humidity modeling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Li, Mei-lan; Xu, Jian-ping; Chen, Mei-xiang; Li, Wen-yong; Li, Ming

    2015-10-01

    The greenhouse environmental parameters can be used to establish greenhouse nirco-climate model, which can combine with disease model for early warning, with aim of ecological controlling diseases to reduce pesticide usage, and protecting greenhouse ecological environment to ensure the agricultural product quality safety. Greenhouse canopy leaf temperature and air relative humidity, models were established using energy balance and moisture balance principle inside the greenhouse. The leaf temperature model considered radiation heat transfer between the greenhouse crops, wall, soil and cover, plus the heat exchange caused by indoor net radiation and crop transpiration. Furthermore, the water dynamic balance in the greenhouse including leaf transpiration, soil evaporation, cover and leaf water vapor condensation, was considered to develop a relative humidity model. The primary infection and latent period warning models for cucumber downy mildew (Pseudoperonospora cubensis) were validated using the results of the leaf temperature and relative humidity model, and then the estimated disease occurrence date of cucumber downy mildew was compared with actual disease occurrence date of field observation. Finally, the results were verified by the measured temperature and humidity data of September and October, 2014. The results showed that the root mean square deviations (RMSDs) of the measured and estimated leaf temperature were 0.016 and 0.024 °C, and the RMSDs of the measured and estimated air relative humidity were 0.15% and 0.13%, respectively. Combining the result of estimated temperature and humidity models, a cucumber disease early warning system was established to forecast the date of disease occurrence, which met with the real date. Thus, this work could provide the micro-environment data for the early warning system of cucumber diseases in solar greenhouses.

  8. Effects of dietary β-glucan and glycyrrhizin on non-specific immunity and disease resistance of the sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus Selenka) challenged with Vibrio splendidus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jie; Zhang, Wenbing; Mai, Kangsen; Ma, Hongming; Xu, Wei

    2010-12-01

    Sea cucumbers, Apostichopus japonicus Selenka, were fed diets containing non-immunostimulant (basal diet), 0.2% β-glucan and 0.02% glycyrrhizin in a recirculatory water system for 45 days, and subsequently challenged with Vibrio splendidus by injection at 1.0×108 cfu / sea cucumber for 15 days. Phagocytic capacity (PC), intracellular superoxide anion production (ISAP), lysozyme (LSZ) activity and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the coelomic fluid were analyzed on the 0th, 5th, 10th and 15th days after injection. Results showed that after the 45-day feeding period, PC, ISAP, LSZ activity and SOD activity in sea cucumbers fed with dietary β-glucan or glycyrrhizin were significantly higher than in those fed with the basal diet. On the 5th day after infection, all the immune parameters examined in the sea cucumbers injected with V. splendidus decreased in value significantly. On the 15th day, PC, ISAP and LSZ activity returned to levels similar to those on the 0th day. For the sea cucumbers injected with saline, there were no significant differences in all the immune parameters examined and in the cumulative morbidity during the 15-day challenging trial. After injecting with V. splendidus, the cumulative morbidity of sea cucumbers fed with the basal diet was significantly higher than those fed with dietary β-glucan or glycyrrhizin when challenged with V. splendidus challenged sea cucumber fed with the basal diet was significantly higher than those fed with dietary β-glucan or glycyrrhizin. There was no significant difference in cumulative morbidity between the dietary β-glucan and glycyrrhizin treatments over time.

  9. Beneficial Effects of Rhodotorula sp. C11 on Growth and Disease Resistance of Juvenile Japanese Spiky Sea Cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, ZhiPing; Sun, JianMing; Xu, Zhe

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary administration of the live yeast, Rhodotorula sp. C11, on growth and disease resistance against Vibrio splendidus infection in juvenile Japanese spiky sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. Sea cucumbers were fed diets containing Rhodotorula sp. C11 at 0 (control), 10⁴, 10⁵, and 10⁶ CFU/g of feed for 45 d. There were three replicate tanks per dietary treatment. The specific growth rates were higher in all sea cucumbers treated with Rhodotorula sp. C11 than in the controls. Following a challenge with V. splendidus NB13, the cumulative prevalence and mortality of sea cucumbers fed diets supplemented with Rhodotorula sp. C11 were lower than in animals fed the basal diet. In sea cucumbers fed diets supplemented with Rhodotorula sp. C11 for 42 d, the only viable yeast found in the intestine was Rhodotorula sp. C11, which had counts of 1.58-1.98 × 10⁴CFU/g. No yeast was isolated from the intestine of animals fed the basal diet. For the colonization study, 20 sea cucumbers from each dietary treatment were removed to separate tanks and fed the control diet from day 16 to day 46. The viable yeast (Rhodotorula sp. C11) counts in the intestine decreased to 60-80 CFU/g by day 37. Moreover,