WorldWideScience

Sample records for high b-carotene cucumber

  1. USDA, ARS EOM 402-10 high B-carotene cucumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    A high B-carotene cucumber (Cucumis sativus var. sativus L.) line EOM 402-10 is being released. This line was derived from a cross between the "Xishuangbanna gourd" (XIS; Cucumis sativus var. xishuangbannanesis Qi et Yuan; 2n = 2x = 14) that bears orange fruit and the non-orange-fruited cultivated c...

  2. High sequence conservation among cucumber mosaic virus isolates from lily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y K; Derks, A F; Langeveld, S; Goldbach, R; Prins, M

    2001-08-01

    For classification of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) isolates from ornamental crops of different geographical areas, these were characterized by comparing the nucleotide sequences of RNAs 4 and the encoded coat proteins. Within the ornamental-infecting CMV viruses both subgroups were represented. CMV isolates of Alstroemeria and crocus were classified as subgroup II isolates, whereas 8 other isolates, from lily, gladiolus, amaranthus, larkspur, and lisianthus, were identified as subgroup I members. In general, nucleotide sequence comparisons correlated well with geographic distribution, with one notable exception: the analyzed nucleotide sequences of 5 lily isolates showed remarkably high homology despite different origins.

  3. Quantitative secretion and maximal secretion capacity of retinol, b-carotene and a-tocopherol into cows' milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Krogh; Kjær, Anna Kirstin Bjørnbak; Hermansen, John Erik

    1999-01-01

    and stage of lactation. The quantitative secretion of a-tocopherol and b-carotene from blood into milk followed Michaelis±Menten kinetics for active transport across membranes. Values of maximum secretory capacity Vmax and the half-rate constant Km for both a-tocopherol and b-carotene varied according......Changes in the contents of retinol, a-tocopherol and b-carotene in plasma, milk and milk fat from 38 Holstein-Friesian cows were followed during their ®rst lactation, and the quantitative and kinetic relationships for secretion of a-tocopherol and b-carotene from blood into milk were determined...

  4. Phosphorus, Potassium and Nitrate Contents in Fruit of Pickling Cucumbers Grown in a High Tunnel

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Pickling cucumbers are highly important both for fresh consumption and for canning industry. This study aimed to compare differences in yield and quality of eight pickling cucumber cultivars, including ‘Cor 12004’, ‘IGG 2010’, ‘IGG 2020’, ‘SM 5322’, ‘SM 5323’, ‘Zayin 201’, ‘Zayin 175201’ and ‘Trilogy’. The cucumber cultivars were laid out in a high tunnel crop and evaluated for vegetative traits (i.e. vine length, nodes per vine and branches per vine), yield attributes (i.e. fruits per main s...

  5. Phosphorus, Potassium and Nitrate Contents in Fruit of Pickling Cucumbers Grown in a High Tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela NEAȚĂ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pickling cucumbers are highly important both for fresh consumption and for canning industry. This study aimed to compare differences in yield and quality of eight pickling cucumber cultivars, including ‘Cor 12004’, ‘IGG 2010’, ‘IGG 2020’, ‘SM 5322’, ‘SM 5323’, ‘Zayin 201’, ‘Zayin 175201’ and ‘Trilogy’. The cucumber cultivars were laid out in a high tunnel crop and evaluated for vegetative traits (i.e. vine length, nodes per vine and branches per vine, yield attributes (i.e. fruits per main stem, average weight of fruit and fruits weight per plant and fruits quality components (nitrate, phosphate and potassium mg kg-1. The results showed significant differences (P12 cm, revealed a declining value with increase in the cucumber length. The study findings suggest that irrespective of the cultivar, the amount of nitrate was higher in shorter cucumbers (6-9 cm length although all recorded values (between 192.7 and 364.3 mg kg-1 fresh matter being under maximum accepted limit concentrations. The amount of phosphate was higher in medium to long cucumbers, while the amount of potassium was higher in shorter cucumbers.

  6. Protective effects of b-carotene and silymarin on human lymphocytes

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Beta-carotene and silymarin have antioxidant properties against oxidative damage and are used as dietary supplements. The aim of this study was to assess the protective effects of b-carotene and silymarin on healthy human lymphocytes exposed to L-arginine-induced oxidative damage. Study samples were lymphocyte cultures set up from venous blood obtained from 6 healthy individuals (3 males and 3 females). Oxidative DNA damage was induced by L-arginine. b-Carotene and silymarin were added to the...

  7. Quantitative secretion and maximal secretion capacity of retinol, b-carotene and a-tocopherol into cows' milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Krogh; Kjær, Anna Kirstin Bjørnbak; Hermansen, John Erik

    1999-01-01

    and stage of lactation. The quantitative secretion of a-tocopherol and b-carotene from blood into milk followed Michaelis±Menten kinetics for active transport across membranes. Values of maximum secretory capacity Vmax and the half-rate constant Km for both a-tocopherol and b-carotene varied according...

  8. High-Value Components and Bioactives from Sea Cucumbers for Functional Foods—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazamid Saari

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Sea cucumbers, belonging to the class Holothuroidea, are marine invertebrates, habitually found in the benthic areas and deep seas across the world. They have high commercial value coupled with increasing global production and trade. Sea cucumbers, informally named as bêche-de-mer, or gamat, have long been used for food and folk medicine in the communities of Asia and Middle East. Nutritionally, sea cucumbers have an impressive profile of valuable nutrients such as Vitamin A, Vitamin B1 (thiamine, Vitamin B2 (riboflavin, Vitamin B3 (niacin, and minerals, especially calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc. A number of unique biological and pharmacological activities including anti-angiogenic, anticancer, anticoagulant, anti-hypertension, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antithrombotic, antitumor and wound healing have been ascribed to various species of sea cucumbers. Therapeutic properties and medicinal benefits of sea cucumbers can be linked to the presence of a wide array of bioactives especially triterpene glycosides (saponins, chondroitin sulfates, glycosaminoglycan (GAGs, sulfated polysaccharides, sterols (glycosides and sulfates, phenolics, cerberosides, lectins, peptides, glycoprotein, glycosphingolipids and essential fatty acids. This review is mainly designed to cover the high-value components and bioactives as well as the multiple biological and therapeutic properties of sea cucumbers with regard to exploring their potential uses for functional foods and nutraceuticals.

  9. High-value components and bioactives from sea cucumbers for functional foods--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordbar, Sara; Anwar, Farooq; Saari, Nazamid

    2011-01-01

    Sea cucumbers, belonging to the class Holothuroidea, are marine invertebrates, habitually found in the benthic areas and deep seas across the world. They have high commercial value coupled with increasing global production and trade. Sea cucumbers, informally named as bêche-de-mer, or gamat, have long been used for food and folk medicine in the communities of Asia and Middle East. Nutritionally, sea cucumbers have an impressive profile of valuable nutrients such as Vitamin A, Vitamin B1 (thiamine), Vitamin B2 (riboflavin), Vitamin B3 (niacin), and minerals, especially calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc. A number of unique biological and pharmacological activities including anti-angiogenic, anticancer, anticoagulant, anti-hypertension, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antithrombotic, antitumor and wound healing have been ascribed to various species of sea cucumbers. Therapeutic properties and medicinal benefits of sea cucumbers can be linked to the presence of a wide array of bioactives especially triterpene glycosides (saponins), chondroitin sulfates, glycosaminoglycan (GAGs), sulfated polysaccharides, sterols (glycosides and sulfates), phenolics, cerberosides, lectins, peptides, glycoprotein, glycosphingolipids and essential fatty acids. This review is mainly designed to cover the high-value components and bioactives as well as the multiple biological and therapeutic properties of sea cucumbers with regard to exploring their potential uses for functional foods and nutraceuticals.

  10. High sequence conservation among cucumber mosaic virus isolates from Lily

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Y.K.; Derks, A.F.L.M.; Langeveld, S.; Goldbach, R.; Prins, M.

    2001-01-01

    For classification of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) isolates from ornamental crops of different geographical areas, these were characterized by comparing the nucleotide sequences of RNAs 4 and the encoded coat proteins. Within the ornamental-infecting CMV viruses both subgroups were represented. CMV i

  11. High-throughput sequencing, characterization and detection of new and conserved cucumber miRNAs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Martínez

    Full Text Available Micro RNAS (miRNAs are a class of endogenous small non coding RNAs involved in the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. In plants, a great number of conserved and specific miRNAs, mainly arising from model species, have been identified to date. However less is known about the diversity of these regulatory RNAs in vegetal species with agricultural and/or horticultural importance. Here we report a combined approach of bioinformatics prediction, high-throughput sequencing data and molecular methods to analyze miRNAs populations in cucumber (Cucumis sativus plants. A set of 19 conserved and 6 known but non-conserved miRNA families were found in our cucumber small RNA dataset. We also identified 7 (3 with their miRNA* strand not previously described miRNAs, candidates to be cucumber-specific. To validate their description these new C. sativus miRNAs were detected by northern blot hybridization. Additionally, potential targets for most conserved and new miRNAs were identified in cucumber genome.In summary, in this study we have identified, by first time, conserved, known non-conserved and new miRNAs arising from an agronomically important species such as C. sativus. The detection of this complex population of regulatory small RNAs suggests that similarly to that observe in other plant species, cucumber miRNAs may possibly play an important role in diverse biological and metabolic processes.

  12. An autonomous robot for de-leafing cucumber plants in a high-wire cultivation system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henten, van E.J.; Tuijl, van B.A.J.; Hoogakker, G.J.; Weerd, van der M.J.; Hemming, J.; Kornet, J.G.; Bontsema, J.

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents an autonomous robot for removing the leaves from cucumber plants grown in a high-wire cultivation system. Leaves at the lower end of the plants are removed because of their reduced vitality, their negligible contribution to canopy photosynthesis and their increased sensitivity for

  13. High-Throughput Sequencing Identifies Novel and Conserved Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) microRNAs in Response to Cucumber Green Mottle Mosaic Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H W; Luo, L X; Liang, C Q; Jiang, N; Liu, P F; Li, J Q

    2015-01-01

    Seedlings of Cucumis sativus L. (cv. 'Zhongnong 16') were artificially inoculated with Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) at the three-true-leaf stage. Leaf and flower samples were collected at different time points post-inoculation (10, 30 and 50 d), and processed by high throughput sequencing analysis to identify candidate miRNA sequences. Bioinformatic analysis using screening criteria, and secondary structure prediction, indicated that 8 novel and 23 known miRNAs (including 15 miRNAs described for the first time in vivo) were produced by cucumber plants in response to CGMMV infection. Moreover, gene expression profiles (p-value cucumbers. Gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed that the predicted target genes of these 88 miRNAs, which were screened using the psRNATarget and miRanda algorithms, were involved in three functional categories: 2265 in molecular function, 1362 as cellular components and 276 in biological process. The subsequent Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis revealed that the predicted target genes were frequently involved in metabolic processes (166 pathways) and genetic information processes (40 pathways) and to a lesser degree the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites (12 pathways). These results could provide useful clues to help elucidate host-pathogen interactions in CGMMV and cucumber, as well as for the screening of resistance genes.

  14. Identification of fucans from four species of sea cucumber by high temperature 1H NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Nian; Chen, Shiguo; Ye, Xingqian; Li, Guoyun; Yin, Li'ang; Xue, Changhu

    2014-10-01

    Acidic polysaccharide, which has various biological activities, is one of the most important components of sea cucumber. In the present study, crude polysaccharide was extracted from four species of sea cucumber from three different geographical zones, Pearsonothuria graeffei ( Pg) from Indo-Pacific, Holothuria vagabunda ( Hv) from Norwegian Coast, Stichopus tremulu ( St) from Western Indian Ocean, and Isostichopus badionotu ( Ib) from Western Atlantic. The polysaccharide extract was separated and purified with a cellulose DEAE anion-exchange column to obtain corresponding sea cucumber fucans (SC-Fucs). The chemical property of these SC-Fucs, including molecular weight, monosaccharide composition and sulfate content, was determined. Their structure was compared simply with fourier infrared spectrum analyzer and identified with high temperature 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum analyzer (NMR) and room temperature 13C NMR. The results indicated that Fuc- Pg obtained from the torrid zone mainly contained 2,4-O-disulfated and non-sulfated fucose residue, whereas Fuc- Ib from the temperate zone contained non-, 2-O- and 2,4-O-disulfated fucose residue; Fuc- St from the frigid zone and Fuc- Hv from the torrid zone contained mainly non-sulfated fucose residue. The proton of SC-Fucs was better resolved via high temperature 1H NMR than via room temperature 1H NMR. The fingerprint of sea cucumber in different sea regions was established based on the index of anomer hydrogen signal in SC-Fucs. Further work will help to understand whether there exists a close relationship between the geographical area of sea cucumber and the sulfation pattern of SC-Fucs.

  15. A High-Density Genetic Map for Cucumber (Cucumis Sativus L. Based on Specific Length Amplified Fragment (SLAF Sequencing and QTL Analysis of Fruit Traits in Cucumber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenying eZhu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available High-density genetic linkage map plays an important role in genome assembly and QTL fine mapping. Since the coming of next-generation sequencing (NGS, makes the structure of high-density linkage maps much more convenient and practical, which simplifies SNP discovery and high-throughput genotyping. In this research, a high-density linkage map of cucumber was structured using specific length amplified fragment sequencing, using 153 F2 populations of S1000×S1002. The high-density genetic map composed 3,057 SLAFs, including 4,475 SNP markers on 7 chromosomes, and spanned 1061.19cM. The average genetic distance is 0.35cM. Based on this high-density genome map, QTL analysis was performed on two cucumber fruit traits, fruit length and fruit diameter. There are 15 QTLs for the two fruit traits were detected.

  16. A Minute Dose of 14C-b-Carotene is Absorbed and Converted to Retinoids in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    We dosed 8 adults with 14C-all-trans [10,10',11,11'-14C]-B-carotene (1.01 nmol) to quantify its absorption and metabolism. We used accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) to measure 14C eliminated in feces over 14 days, in urine over 30 days, and that was retained in plasma over 166 days since dose. We...

  17. Vitamin A Value of Spirulina B-carotene in Chinese Adults Assessed by Stable Isotope Dilution Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine the vitamin A value of spirulina B-carotene (B-C) in humans, spirulina was intrinsically labeled by growing the plant in 25 atom% 2H2O nutrient solution. Isotopomers of spirulina trans-B-C showed the highest aboundant enrichment at molecular mass plus 10 mass units (2H10 trans-B-C). Ten...

  18. High-Throughput Sequencing Identifies Novel and Conserved Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. microRNAs in Response to Cucumber Green Mottle Mosaic Virus Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H W Liu

    Full Text Available Seedlings of Cucumis sativus L. (cv. 'Zhongnong 16' were artificially inoculated with Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV at the three-true-leaf stage. Leaf and flower samples were collected at different time points post-inoculation (10, 30 and 50 d, and processed by high throughput sequencing analysis to identify candidate miRNA sequences. Bioinformatic analysis using screening criteria, and secondary structure prediction, indicated that 8 novel and 23 known miRNAs (including 15 miRNAs described for the first time in vivo were produced by cucumber plants in response to CGMMV infection. Moreover, gene expression profiles (p-value <0.01 validated the expression of 3 of the novel miRNAs and 3 of the putative candidate miRNAs and identified a further 82 conserved miRNAs in CGMMV-infected cucumbers. Gene ontology (GO analysis revealed that the predicted target genes of these 88 miRNAs, which were screened using the psRNATarget and miRanda algorithms, were involved in three functional categories: 2265 in molecular function, 1362 as cellular components and 276 in biological process. The subsequent Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathway analysis revealed that the predicted target genes were frequently involved in metabolic processes (166 pathways and genetic information processes (40 pathways and to a lesser degree the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites (12 pathways. These results could provide useful clues to help elucidate host-pathogen interactions in CGMMV and cucumber, as well as for the screening of resistance genes.

  19. High-resolution mapping of zym, a recessive gene for Zucchini yellow mosaic virus resistance in cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Masashi; Mochizuki, Akira; Kawagoe, Yumi; Iwahori, Keisuke; Niwa, Kaori; Svoboda, Jiri; Maeda, Takanori; Imura, Yoshiyuki

    2013-12-01

    Using a high-resolution mapping approach, we identified a candidate gene for ZYMV resistance in cucumber. Our findings should assist the development of high-versatility molecular markers for MAS for ZYMV resistance. Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) causes significant disease, which leads to fruit yield loss in cucurbit crops. Since ZYMV resistance is often inherited recessively in cucumber, marker-assisted selection (MAS) is a useful tool for the development of resistant cucumber cultivars. Using 128 families of an F2:3 population derived from a cross between susceptible 'CS-PMR1' and resistant 'A192-18' cucumber inbred lines, we confirmed that ZYMV resistance is conferred by a single recessive locus: zym (A192-18) . We constructed a cucumber genetic linkage map that included 125 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers segregating into 7 linkage groups (chromosomes). The zym (A192-18) locus was mapped to chromosome 6, at genetic distances of 0.9 and 1.3 cM from two closely linked SSR markers. For high-resolution genetic mapping, we identified new molecular markers cosegregating with the zym (A192-18) locus; using cucumber genomic and molecular marker resources and screening an F2 population of 2,429 plants, we narrowed down the zym (A192-18) locus to a <50-kb genomic region flanked by two SSR markers, which included six candidate genes. Sequence analysis of the candidate genes' coding regions revealed that the vacuolar protein sorting-associated protein 4-like (VPS4-like) gene had two SNPs between the parental lines. Based on SNPs of the VPS-4-like gene, we developed zym (A192-18) -linked DNA markers and found that genotypes associated with these markers were correlated with the ZYMV resistance phenotype in 48 cucumber inbred lines. According to our data, the gene encoding VPS4-like protein is a candidate for the zym (A192-18) locus. These results may be valuable for MAS for ZYMV resistance in cucumber.

  20. Escherichia coli O157:H7 bacteriophage (phi)241 isolated from an industrial cucumber fermentation at high acidity and salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel phage, (phi)241, specific for Escherichia coli O157:H7 was isolated from an industrial cucumber fermentation where both acidity (pH less than or equal to 3.7) and salinity (greater than or equal to 5% NaCl) were high. The phage belongs to the Myoviridae family. Its latent period was 15 min a...

  1. Cucumber cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Garg, Shankar

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for business and development personnel who want to use Cucumber for behavior-driven development and test automation. Readers with some familiarity with Cucumber will find this book of most benefit. Since the main objective of this book is to create test automation frameworks, previous experience in automation will be helpful.

  2. Effects of dietary n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) on growth, fatty acid profiles, antioxidant capacity and immunity of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haibo; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Shuanglin; Zhou, Jishu; Ye, Zhi; Lan, Ying

    2016-07-01

    The present study was conducted to understand the effects of dietary n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) on growth, fatty acid profiles, antioxidant capacity and the immunity of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka). Five experimental diets were prepared, containing graded levels of n-3 HUFAs (0.46%, 0.85%, 1.25%, 1.61% and 1.95%, respectively), and the 0.46% group was used as control group. The specific growth rates, fatty acid profiles, activities and gene expression of antioxidative enzymes and lysozyme of the sea cucumbers that were fed with the 5 experimental diets were determined. The results showed that the specific growth rate of sea cucumbers in all the treatment groups significantly increased compared to the control group (P sea cucumbers. The contents of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) in the body wall of the sea cucumbers gradually increased with the increasing levels of n-3 HUFAs in the diets. The suitable supplement of n-3 HUFAs in diets improved the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) of sea cucumbers by up-regulating the expression of SOD and CAT mRNA in sea cucumbers. However, excess n-3 HUFAs in diets caused lipid peroxidation, inhibited the expression of lysozyme (LSZ) mRNA and decreased the activities of LSZ in sea cucumbers. In summary, the suitable supplement levels of n-3 HUFAs in diets of sea cucumbers A. japonicus were estimated between 0.85% and 1.25% considering the growth performance, cost and the indicators of antioxidant capacity and immunity.

  3. Refinements of the attending equations for several spectral methods that provide improved quantification of B-carotene and/or lycopene in selected foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing and maintaining maximal levels of carotenoids in fruits and vegetables that contain them is a concern of the produce industry. Toward this end, reliable methods for quantifying lycopene and B-carotene, two of the major health-enhancing carotenoids, are necessary. The goal of this resear...

  4. A bulk segregant transcriptome analysis reveals metabolic and cellular processes associated with melon orange allelic variation and fruit B-carotene accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Melon fruit flesh color is primarily controlled by the “golden” single nucleotide polymorhism of the “Orange” gene, CmOr, which dominantly triggers the accumulation of the pro-vitamin A molecule, B-carotene, in the fruit mesocarp. The mechanism by which CmOr operates is not fully underst...

  5. Direct Analysis of Triterpenes from High-Salt Fermented Cucumbers Using Infrared Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Electrospray Ionization (IR-MALDESI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekelöf, Måns; McMurtrie, Erin K.; Nazari, Milad; Johanningsmeier, Suzanne D.; Muddiman, David C.

    2017-02-01

    High-salt samples present a challenge to mass spectrometry (MS) analysis, particularly when electrospray ionization (ESI) is used, requiring extensive sample preparation steps such as desalting, extraction, and purification. In this study, infrared matrix-assisted laser desorption electrospray ionization (IR-MALDESI) coupled to a Q Exactive Plus mass spectrometer was used to directly analyze 50-μm thick slices of cucumber fermented and stored in 1 M sodium chloride brine. From the several hundred unique substances observed, three triterpenoid lipids produced by cucumbers, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, and lupeol, were putatively identified based on exact mass and selected for structural analysis. The spatial distribution of the lipids were imaged, and the putative assignments were confirmed by tandem mass spectrometry performed directly on the same cucumber, demonstrating the capacity of the technique to deliver confident identifications from highly complex samples in molar concentrations of salt without the need for sample preparation.

  6. Construction of a High-Density Genetic Map and Quantitative Trait Locus Mapping in the Sea Cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Meilin; Li, Yangping; Jing, Jing; Mu, Chuang; Du, Huixia; Dou, Jinzhuang; Mao, Junxia; Li, Xue; Jiao, Wenqian; Wang, Yangfan; Hu, Xiaoli; Wang, Shi; Wang, Ruijia; Bao, Zhenmin

    2015-10-06

    Genetic linkage maps are critical and indispensable tools in a wide range of genetic and genomic research. With the advancement of genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) methods, the construction of a high-density and high-resolution linkage maps has become achievable in marine organisms lacking sufficient genomic resources, such as echinoderms. In this study, high-density, high-resolution genetic map was constructed for a sea cucumber species, Apostichopus japonicus, utilizing the 2b-restriction site-associated DNA (2b-RAD) method. A total of 7839 markers were anchored to the linkage map with the map coverage of 99.57%, to our knowledge, this is the highest marker density among echinoderm species. QTL mapping and association analysis consistently captured one growth-related QTL located in a 5 cM region of linkage group (LG) 5. An annotated candidate gene, retinoblastoma-binding protein 5 (RbBP5), which has been reported to be an important regulator of cell proliferation, was recognized in the QTL region. This linkage map represents a powerful tool for research involving both fine-scale QTL mapping and marker assisted selection (MAS), and will facilitate chromosome assignment and improve the whole-genome assembly of sea cucumber in the future.

  7. Continuous Production of Oils and B-Carotene from Marine Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    High intensity lighting lowered the fatty acid content of D. bardawil and D. salina strains while these levels remained essentially the same in both D. tertiolecta cultures. High light intensity significantly raised the amount of ß-carotene in D. bardawil samples with little impact on the other t...

  8. Identification of a highly sulfated fucoidan from sea cucumber Pearsonothuria graeffei with well-repeated tetrasaccharides units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yaqin; Li, Shan; Li, Junhui; Ye, Xingqian; Ding, Tian; Liu, Donghong; Chen, Jianchu; Ge, Zhiwei; Chen, Shiguo

    2015-12-10

    Sea cucumber fucoidan is a major bioactive component of sea cucumber. The structures of fucoidans have significant influences on their biological activities. The present study clarified the delicate structure of a fucoidan from Pearsonothuria graeffei. Fucoidan was obtained after papain digestion and purified by ion chromatography. The carbohydrate sequence of fucoidan was firstly determined by negative-ion electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (ES-MS) with collision-induced dissociation of the oligosaccharide fragments, which were obtained by mild acid hydrolysis, and completed by NMR for assignment of the anomeric conformation. It was unambiguously identified as a tetrasaccharide repeating unit with a backbone of [ → 3Fuc (2S, 4S) α1 → 3Fucα1→ 3Fuc (4S) α1 → 3Fuc#7 × 10#]n. The glycosidic bonds between the non-sulfated and 2,4-O-disulfated fucose residues were selectively cleaved, and highly ordered oligosaccharide fragments with a tetrasaccharide repeating unit were obtained. The highly 4-O- and 2, 4-di-O-sulfated polysaccharide deserves further developments for Pharmacia use.

  9. Exogenous glutathione improves high root-zone temperature tolerance by modulating photosynthesis, antioxidant and osmolytes systems in cucumber seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiaotao; Jiang, Yuping; He, Lizhong; Zhou, Qiang; Yu, Jizhu; Hui, Dafeng; Huang, Danfeng

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the physiological responses of plants to high root-zone temperature (HT, 35 °C) stress mitigated by exogenous glutathione (GSH), cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings were exposed to HT with or without GSH treatment for 4 days and following with 4 days of recovery. Plant physiological variables, growth, and gene expression related to antioxidant enzymes and Calvin cycle were quantified. The results showed that HT significantly decreased GSH content, the ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG), chlorophyll content, photosynthesis and related gene expression, shoot height, stem diameter, as well as dry weight. The exogenous GSH treatment clearly lessened the HT stress by increasing the above variables. Meanwhile, HT significantly increased soluble protein content, proline and malondialdehyde (MDA) content as well as O2•− production rate, the gene expression and activities of antioxidant enzymes. The GSH treatment remarkably improved soluble protein content, proline content, antioxidant enzymes activities, and antioxidant enzymes related gene expression, and reduced the MDA content and O2•− production rate compared to no GSH treatment in the HT condition. Our results suggest that exogenous GSH enhances cucumber seedling tolerance of HT stress by modulating the photosynthesis, antioxidant and osmolytes systems to improve physiological adaptation. PMID:27752105

  10. UV-B response of cucumber seedlings grown under metal halide and high pressure sodium/deluxe lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krizek, D.T.; Kramer, G.F.; Mirecki, R.M. (Climate Stress Laboratory, ARS, USDA, Beltsville, MD (United States)); Upadhyaya, A. (Center for Agricultural Biotechnology, Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States))

    1993-01-01

    UV-B-sensitive (Poinsett) and -insensitive (Ashley) cultivars of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) were grown in growth chambers at 600 [mu]mol m[sup -2] s[sup -1] of photosynthetically active radiation provided by metal halide (MH) or high pressure sodium/deluxe (HPS/DX) lamps. Plants were irradiated 15 days from seeding for 6 h per day under 18.2 kJ m[sup -2] day[sup -1] of biologically effective UV-B (UV-B[sub BE]) radiation. One of the most pronounced effects of UV-B was a 27 to 78% increase in phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL) activity. UV-B also increased total polyamines. Catalase and superoxide dismutase varied greatly in their response to UV-B. There were no interactive effects on PAL or catalase activity, or total polyamines. There was a UV x PAR source interaction for superoxide dismutase activity. UV-B increased chlorosis and decreased height, dry weight and leaf area. Stem elongation, biomass production leaf enlargement and chlorosis were greater under HPS/DX lamps than under MH lamps. Chlorosis was greater in Poinsett than in Ashley and in lower leaves than in upper ones. Aside from chlorosis, there were no interactive effects of UV-B, PAR source of cultivar on any of the growth parameters measured, suggesting that the grown response of cucumber seedlings to UV-B is unaffected by PAR source or cultivar. Similarly, except for SOD activity, the biochemical response to UV-B was also not influenced by Par source or cultivar. (au) (42 refs.)

  11. Highly acidic glycans from sea cucumbers. Isolation and fractionation of fucose-rich sulfated polysaccharides from the body wall of Ludwigothurea grisea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourão, P A; Bastos, I G

    1987-08-03

    The body wall of the sea cucumber contains high amounts of sulfated glycans, which differ in structure from glycosaminoglycans of animal tissues and also from the fucose-rich sulfated polysaccharides isolated from marine algae and from the jelly coat of sea urchin eggs. In Ludwigothurea grisea, glycans can be separated into three fractions which differ in molecular mass and chemical composition. The fraction containing a high-molecular-mass component has a high proportion of fucose and small amounts of amino sugars, whereas another fraction contains primarily a sulfated fucan. The third fraction, which represents the major portion of the sea cucumber polysaccharides, contains besides fucose, approximately equimolar proportions of glucuronic acid and amino sugars, and has a sulfate content higher than that in the other two fractions. Both D and L-isomers of fucose are found in these polysaccharides, and the sulfate is linked to the O-3 position of the fucose residues. The attachment position of the sulfate groups to the glucuronic acid units and amino sugars is still undetermined. It is possible that these compounds are involved in maintaining the integrity of the sea cucumber's body wall, in analogy with the role of other macromolecules in the vertebrate connective tissue.

  12. Dietary saponins of sea cucumber ameliorate obesity, hepatic steatosis, and glucose intolerance in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaoqian; Li, Zhaojie; Xue, Yong; Xu, Jie; Xue, Changhu; Wang, Jingfeng; Wang, Yuming

    2012-10-01

    Much attention has been focused on food components that may be beneficial in preventing lifestyle-related diseases. In this study, we investigated the effects of saponins of sea cucumber (SSC) on high-fat diet-induced obesity, insulin resistance, and fatty liver in mice. C57/BL6 mice were fed a high-fat diet, containing 0.03% SSC, or 0.1% SSC for 8 weeks. Both doses of SSC exhibited a weight-loss effect and significantly decreased adipose tissue weight, in both visceral and subcutaneous depots. Furthermore, 0.1% SSC treatment dramatically decreased the hepatic triglyceride and total cholesterol accumulation. Mice administrated with 0.1% SSC had significantly decreased serum glucose and insulin levels, lower homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance index, and area under the blood glucose curve, suggesting that insulin sensitivity is enhanced by dietary SSC. Dietary SSC also prevented adipokine imbalance, by increasing adiponectin production and decreasing tumor necrosis factor alpha level caused by high-fat diet. Overall, these data demonstrate that SSC could improve certain metabolic parameters associated with obesity.

  13. Identification of fruit related microRNAs in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) using high-throughput sequencing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xueling; Song, Tiefeng; Liu, Chang; Feng, Hui; Liu, Zhiyong

    2014-12-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are approximately 21 nt noncoding RNAs that influence the phenotypes of different species through the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Although many miRNAs have been identified in a few model plants, less is known about miRNAs specific to cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). In this study, two libraries of cucumber RNA, one based on fruit samples and another based on mixed samples from leaves, stems, and roots, were prepared for deep-sequencing. A total of 110 sequences were matched to known miRNAs in 47 families, while 56 sequences in 46 families are newly identified in cucumber. Of these, 77 known and 44 new miRNAs were differentially expressed, with a fold-change of at least 2 and p-value < 0.05. In addition, we predicted the potential targets of known and new miRNAs. The identification and characterization of known and new miRNAs will enable us to better understand the role of these miRNAs in the formation of cucumber fruit.

  14. A high-throughput approach for the determination of pesticide residues in cucumber samples using solid-phase microextraction on 96-well plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Habib; Es'haghi, Ali; Es-haghi, Ali; Mesbahi, Noushin

    2012-08-31

    A high-throughput solid-phase microextraction (SPME) on 96-well plate together with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed for the determination of some selected pesticides in cucumber samples. Pieces with the length of 1.0 cm of silicon tubing were precisely prepared and then coated on the end part of stainless steel wires. The prepared fibers were positioned in a home-made polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)-based constructed ninety-six holes block to have the possibility of simultaneous immersion of the SPME fibers into the center of individual wells. Pesticides such as diazinon, penconazol, tebuconazol, bitertanol, malathion, phosalone and chlorpyrifos-methyl were selected for their highly application in cucumber field. The performances of the SPME fibers, such as intra and inter-fibers reproducibility, were evaluated and the results showed a good similarity in extraction yields. A volume of 1 mL of the aquatic supernatant of the cucumber samples was transferred into the 96-well plate and the array of SPME fibers was applied for the extraction of the selected pesticides. The important parameters influencing the whole extraction process including, organic solvent percent, salt addition, dilution factor, stirring rate and extraction time were optimized. The inter- and intra-day RSD% were found to be less than 15.4%. Limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ) were below 60 and 180 μg kg(-1), respectively. The coefficient of determination was satisfactory (r(2)>0.99) for all the studied analytes. The developed method was successfully applied to the monitoring of several samples gathered from local markets.

  15. Effect of Heavy Metal Pollution on Cucumber POD Isoenzyme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The Experiment was carried out to study heavy metal pollution effect on cucumber POD isozyme in our experiment.The results showed that:the activities of POD in cucumber seeds increased in low concentration treatment,and decreased in high concentration treatment after being treated with heavy metal.The critical band patterns of POD isoenzyme was changed by heavy metal pollution.

  16. Grafting-responsive miRNAs in cucumber and pumpkin seedlings identified by high-throughput sequencing at whole genome level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chaohan; Li, Yansu; Bai, Longqiang; Zhang, Tieyao; He, Chaoxing; Yan, Yan; Yu, Xianchang

    2014-08-01

    Grafting is an important agricultural technique widely used for improving growth, yields and tolerance of crops to abiotic and biotic stresses. As one type of endogenous, non-coding small RNAs, microRNAs (miRNAs) regulate development and responsiveness to biotic and abiotic stresses by negatively mediating expression of target genes at the post-transcriptional level. However, there have been few detailed studies to evaluate the role of miRNAs in mediation of grafting-induced physiological processes in plants. Cucumis sativus and Cucurbita moschata are important vegetables worldwide. We constructed eight small RNA libraries from leaves and roots of seedlings that were grafted in the following four ways: (1) hetero-grafting, using cucumber as scion and pumpkin as rootstock; (2) hetero-grafting, with pumpkin as scion and cucumber as rootstock; (3) auto-grafting of cucumbers and (4) auto-grafting of pumpkins. High-throughput sequencing was employed, and more than 120 million raw reads were obtained. We annotated 112 known miRNAs belonging to 40 miRNA families and identified 48 new miRNAs in the eight libraries, and the targets of these known and novel miRNAs were predicted by bioinformatics. Grafting led to changes in expression of most miRNAs and their predicted target genes, suggesting that miRNAs may play significant roles in mediating physiological processes of grafted seedlings by regulating the expression of target genes. The potential role of the grafting-responsive miRNAs in seedling growth and long-distance transport of miRNA was discussed. These results are useful for functional characterization of miRNAs in mediation of grafting-dependent physiological processes.

  17. Integration of high-resolution physical and genetic map reveals differential recombination frequency between chromosomes and the genome assembling quality in cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Qunfeng; He, Yuhua; Cheng, Chunyan; Zhang, Zhonghua; Li, Ji; Huang, Sanwen; Chen, Jinfeng

    2013-01-01

    Cucumber is an important model crop and the first species sequenced in Cucurbitaceae family. Compared to the fast increasing genetic and genomics resources, the molecular cytogenetic researches in cucumber are still very limited, which results in directly the shortage of relation between plenty of physical sequences or genetic data and chromosome structure. We mapped twenty-three fosmids anchored by SSR markers from LG-3, the longest linkage group, and LG-4, the shortest linkage group on pachytene chromosomes 3 and 4, using uorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Integrated molecular cytogenetic maps of chromosomes 3 and 4 were constructed. Except for three SSR markers located on heterochromatin region, the cytological order of markers was concordant with those on the linkage maps. Distinct structural differences between chromosomes 3 and 4 were revealed by the high resolution pachytene chromosomes. The extreme difference of genetic length between LG-3 and LG-4 was mainly attributed to the difference of overall recombination frequency. The significant differentiation of heterochromatin contents in chromosomes 3 and 4 might have a direct correlation with recombination frequency. Meanwhile, the uneven distribution of recombination frequency along chromosome 4 was observed, and recombination frequency of the long arm was nearly 3.5 times higher than that of the short arm. The severe suppression of recombination was exhibited in centromeric and heterochromatin domains of chromosome 4. Whereas a close correlation between the gene density and recombination frequency was observed in chromosome 4, no significant correlation was observed between them along chromosome 3. The comparison between cytogenetic and sequence maps revealed a large gap on the pericentromeric heterochromatin region of sequence map of chromosome 4. These results showed that integrated molecular cytogenetic maps can provide important information for the study of genetic and genomics in cucumber.

  18. Integration of high-resolution physical and genetic map reveals differential recombination frequency between chromosomes and the genome assembling quality in cucumber.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qunfeng Lou

    Full Text Available Cucumber is an important model crop and the first species sequenced in Cucurbitaceae family. Compared to the fast increasing genetic and genomics resources, the molecular cytogenetic researches in cucumber are still very limited, which results in directly the shortage of relation between plenty of physical sequences or genetic data and chromosome structure. We mapped twenty-three fosmids anchored by SSR markers from LG-3, the longest linkage group, and LG-4, the shortest linkage group on pachytene chromosomes 3 and 4, using uorescence in situ hybridization (FISH. Integrated molecular cytogenetic maps of chromosomes 3 and 4 were constructed. Except for three SSR markers located on heterochromatin region, the cytological order of markers was concordant with those on the linkage maps. Distinct structural differences between chromosomes 3 and 4 were revealed by the high resolution pachytene chromosomes. The extreme difference of genetic length between LG-3 and LG-4 was mainly attributed to the difference of overall recombination frequency. The significant differentiation of heterochromatin contents in chromosomes 3 and 4 might have a direct correlation with recombination frequency. Meanwhile, the uneven distribution of recombination frequency along chromosome 4 was observed, and recombination frequency of the long arm was nearly 3.5 times higher than that of the short arm. The severe suppression of recombination was exhibited in centromeric and heterochromatin domains of chromosome 4. Whereas a close correlation between the gene density and recombination frequency was observed in chromosome 4, no significant correlation was observed between them along chromosome 3. The comparison between cytogenetic and sequence maps revealed a large gap on the pericentromeric heterochromatin region of sequence map of chromosome 4. These results showed that integrated molecular cytogenetic maps can provide important information for the study of genetic and genomics

  19. Transgenic cucumbers harboring the 54-kDa putative gene of Cucumber fruit mottle mosaic tobamovirus are highly resistant to viral infection and protect non-transgenic scions from soil infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal-On, Amit; Wolf, Dalia; Antignus, Yehezkel; Patlis, Larisa; Ryu, Ki Hyun; Min, Byoung Eun; Pearlsman, Malenia; Lachman, Oded; Gaba, Victor; Wang, Yongzeng; Shiboleth, Yoel Moshe; Yang, Jee; Zelcer, Aaron

    2005-02-01

    Cucumber fruit mottle mosaic tobamovirus (CFMMV) causes severe mosaic symptoms and yellow mottling on leaves and fruits and, occasionally, severe wilting of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants. No genetic source of resistance against this virus has been identified in cucumber. The gene coding for the putative 54-kDa replicase gene of CFMMV was cloned into an Agrobacterium tumefaciens binary vector, and transformation was performed on cotyledon explants of a parthenocarpic cucumber cultivar. R1 seedlings were screened for resistance to CFMMV by symptom expression, back inoculation on an alternative host and ELISA. From a total of 14 replicase-containing R1 lines, eight resistant lines were identified. Line 144--homozygous for the putative 54-kDa replicase gene--was immune to CFMMV infection by mechanical and graft inoculation, and to root infection following planting in CFMMV-infested soil. A substantial delay of symptom appearance was observed following infection by three additional cucurbit-infecting tobamoviruses. When used as a rootstock, line I44 protected susceptible cucumber scions from soil infection by CFMMV. This paper is the first report on protection of a susceptible cultivar against a soil-borne viral pathogen, by grafting onto a transgenic rootstock.

  20. rDNA-ITS sequence analysis of pathogens of cucumber downy mildew and cucumber powdery mildew

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Na WANG; Yajun MA; Cuiyun YANG; Guanghui DAI; Zhezhi WANG

    2008-01-01

    To determine the pathogens of cucumber downy mildew and cucumber powdery mildew by molecular marker,we amplified and sequenced the rDNA-ITS region of the pathogens of cucumber downy mildew and cucumber powdery mildew collected from the Shanghai region.The intra-/interspecific sequence difference was analyzed by rDNA-ITS sequence.The results show that the length of rDNA-ITS1 and rDNA-ITS2 of cucumber downy mildew's pathogen was 141 bp and 406 bp,respectively,with GC contents of 41.13% in ITS1 and 46.8% (Minhang and Jinshan District,sml and sm2) or 46.55% (Pudong District,sm3) in ITS2.The rDNA-ITS sequence was intraspecific conservation.The interspecific difference was related with their kin relationship.The pathogen of cucumber downy mildew was identified as Pseudoperonospora cubensis by molecular marker.The length of rDNA-ITS1 and rDNA-ITS2 of cucumber powdery mildew's pathogen was 136 bp and 89 bp,respectively,with GC contents being 59.56% and 66.29%,and rDNA-ITS sequence being highly conservative in this study that was the same as Sphaerotheca cucurbitae.But the sequence difference between the strains in the Shanghai region in this study with S.fuliginea was 4.5%,which was identified by morphology.It is suggested that the pathogen of cucumber powdery mildew should be further clarified and determined.

  1. Molds in Brined Cucumbers: Cause of Softening During Air-Purging of Fermentations †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costilow, Ralph N.; Gates, Karen; Lacy, Melvyn L.

    1980-01-01

    Softening of cucumbers in fermentations purged at high air-flow rates was caused by molds growing in the brined cucumbers, not in the brine. This conclusion is based on the following results: (i) no microorganisms were isolated in significant numbers from brines that caused softening of pasteurized brined cucumbers, (ii) no pectinolytic enzyme activities were produced in cucumber brines in the absence of cucumbers, (iii) the pickles in some air-purged fermentations became very soft without the appearance of any pectinolytic enzyme activity in the brine, (iv) mold hyphae were consistently observed in tissues of soft pickles, (v) molds consistently developed in cultures of slices of surface sterilized cucumbers taken from fermentations in which soft pickles were subsequently found, and (vi) molds belonging to the genera Alternaria, Fusarium, and Mucor isolated from slices all softened pasteurized brined cucumbers. Images PMID:16345619

  2. Acclimation to high CO/sub 2/ in monoecious cucumbers. I. Vegetative and reproductive growth. [Cucmuis sativus L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peet, M.M.

    1986-01-01

    CO/sub 2/ concentrations of 1000 compared to 350 microliters per liter in controlled environment chambers did not increase total fruit weight or number in a monoecious cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv Chipper) nor did it increase biomass, leaf area, or relative growth rates beyond the first 16 days after seeding. Average fruit weight was slightly, but not significantly greater in the 1000 microliters per liter CO/sub 2/ treatment because fruit numbers were changed more than total weight. Plants grown at 1000 and 350 microliters per liter CO/sub 2/ were similar in distribution of dry matter and leaf area between mainstem, axillary, and subaxillary branches. Early flower production was greater in 1000 microliters per liter plants. Subsequent flower numbers were either lower in enriched plants or similar in the two treatments, except for the harvest at fruiting when enriched plants produced many more male flowers than the 350 microliters per liter treatments.

  3. Cucumber vein yellowing virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucurbits are an important crop of temperate, subtropical and tropical regions of the world. Cucumber vein yellowing virus (CVYV) is a major viral pathogen of cucurbits. This chapter provides an overview of the biology of CVYV and the disease it causes....

  4. Functional compatibility in cucumber mycorrhizas in terms of plant growth performance and foliar nutrient composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravnskov, S; Larsen, J

    2016-09-01

    Functional compatibility in cucumber mycorrhizas in terms of plant and fungal growth, and foliar nutrient composition from all possible combinations of six cucumber varieties and three species of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi was evaluated. Measurements of foliar nutrient composition included N, P, K, Mg, Ca, Na, Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu. Growth of AM fungi was measured in terms of root colonisation, as examined with microscopy and the AM fungus biomarker fatty acid 16:1ω5 from both phospholipids and neutral lipids. Different responses of plant growth and foliar nutrient profiles were observed for the different AM symbioses examined. The AM fungus Claroideoglomus claroideum caused growth depression in association with four out of six cucumber varieties; Rhizophagus irregularis caused growth promotion in one of six cucumber varieties; whereas Funneliformis mosseae had no effect on the growth performance of any of the cucumber varieties examined. All three AM fungi markedly altered host plant shoot nutrient composition, with the strongest contrast observed between cucumber-R. irregularis symbioses and non-mycorrhizal cucumber plants, independent of cucumber variety. On the other hand, AM fungal growth in roots differed between the three AM fungi, but was unaffected by host genotype. Strong build-up of storage lipids was observed for R. irregularis, which was more moderate in the two other AM fungi. In conclusion, strong differential responses of cucumber varieties to inoculation with different AM fungi in terms of growth and shoot nutrient composition revealed high functional diversity in AM symbioses in cucumber plants.

  5. [Effects of rotation and intercropping on bacterial communities in rhizosphere soil of cucumber].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Feng-zhi; Wang, Shu; Yang, Yang

    2008-12-01

    By the method of PCR-DGGE, this paper studied the effects of rotation with wheat, soybean, villose vetch, clover, and alfalfa and intercropping with onion and garlic on the bacterial communities in rhizosphere soil of cucumber. The results showed that rotation and intercropping with test plants increased the diversity and evenness indices of bacterial communities in cucumber rhizosphere soil, and also, cucumber yield. The sequencing of DGGE bands indicated that most of the bands had high homology with uncultured bacterial species, and were of Sphingobacterium and Proteobacteria. High bacterium G+C was only detected when cucumber was intercropped with onion. The diversity of soil bacterial communities varied with the growth stages of cucumber, being the highest at vigorous fruiting stage. It was suggested that intercropping with onion and rotation with wheat were the best cultivation modes of cucumber.

  6. Sea Cucumber: New source of Protein for Human Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Vaz Pratas

    2014-01-01

    Aquaculture, probably the fastest growing food-producing sector, now accounts for nearly 50 percent of the world's food fish consumed by humans, and this share is expected to increase further to meet future demand. Sea cucumbers are considered highly marketable product and this has resulted in an increasing overfishing of natural sea cucumber stocks. Nevertheless, these resources are almost unexploited in the Mediterranean region. Many species of holothurians have been recognized as an altern...

  7. A highly regular fucosylated chondroitin sulfate from the sea cucumber Massinium magnum: Structure and effects on coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustyuzhanina, Nadezhda E; Bilan, Maria I; Dmitrenok, Andrey S; Borodina, Elizaveta Yu; Stonik, Valentin A; Nifantiev, Nikolay E; Usov, Anatolii I

    2017-07-01

    A fucosylated chondroitin sulfate MM was isolated from the sea cucumber Massinium magnum. Structure of this polysaccharide was determined using chemical and NMR spectroscopic methods. The backbone of MM was shown to consist mainly of chondroitin sulfate E units with a small portion (about 10%) of chondroitin sulfate A fragments. Practically one type of branches Fuc3S4S attached to O-3 of GlcA residues was found in the polysaccharide molecules. The main repeating units of MM are →4)-[α-l-Fuc3S4S-(1→3)]-β-d-GlcA-(1→3)-β-d-GalNAc4S6S-(1→, whereas the minor repeating units are →4)-[α-l-Fuc3S4S-(1→3)]-β-d-GlcA-(1→3)-β-d-GalNAc4S-(1→. Anticoagulant activity of MM determined in APTT and TT tests was shown to be lower than that of heparin, but higher than that of enoxaparin. In the experiments with purified proteins MM effectively potentiated inhibition of thrombin and factor Xa by ATIII. Besides, MM did not induce platelets aggregation in platelets rich plasma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. In situ localization and tissue distribution of the replication-associated proteins of Cucumber mosaic virus in tobacco and cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cillo, Fabrizio; Roberts, Ian M; Palukaitis, Peter

    2002-11-01

    The replication-associated proteins encoded by Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), the 1a and 2a proteins, were detected by immunogold labeling in two host species of this virus, tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus). In both hosts, the 1a and 2a proteins colocalized predominantly to the vacuolar membranes, the tonoplast. While plus-strand CMV RNAs were found distributed throughout the cytoplasm by in situ hybridization, minus-strand CMV RNAs were barely detectable but were found associated with the tonoplast. In both cucumber and tobacco, 2a protein was detected at higher densities than 1a protein. The 1a and 2a proteins also showed quantitative differences with regard to tissue distributions in tobacco and cucumber. About three times as much 2a protein was detected in CMV-infected cucumber tissues as in CMV-infected tobacco tissues. In tobacco, high densities of these proteins were observed only in vascular bundle cells of minor veins. In contrast, in cucumber, high densities of 1a and 2a proteins were observed in mesophyll cells, followed by epidermis cells, with only low levels being observed in vascular bundle cells. Differences were also observed in the distributions of 2a protein and capsid protein in vascular bundle cells of the two host species. These observations may represent differences in the relative rates of tissue infection in different hosts or differences in the extent of virus replication in vascular tissues of different hosts.

  9. Genetic diversity and population structure of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Lv

    Full Text Available Knowing the extent and structure of genetic variation in germplasm collections is essential for the conservation and utilization of biodiversity in cultivated plants. Cucumber is the fourth most important vegetable crop worldwide and is a model system for other Cucurbitaceae, a family that also includes melon, watermelon, pumpkin and squash. Previous isozyme studies revealed a low genetic diversity in cucumber, but detailed insights into the crop's genetic structure and diversity are largely missing. We have fingerprinted 3,342 accessions from the Chinese, Dutch and U.S. cucumber collections with 23 highly polymorphic Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR markers evenly distributed in the genome. The data reveal three distinct populations, largely corresponding to three geographic regions. Population 1 corresponds to germplasm from China, except for the unique semi-wild landraces found in Xishuangbanna in Southwest China and East Asia; population 2 to Europe, America, and Central and West Asia; and population 3 to India and Xishuangbanna. Admixtures were also detected, reflecting hybridization and migration events between the populations. The genetic background of the Indian germplasm is heterogeneous, indicating that the Indian cucumbers maintain a large proportion of the genetic diversity and that only a small fraction was introduced to other parts of the world. Subsequently, we defined a core collection consisting of 115 accessions and capturing over 77% of the SSR alleles. Insight into the genetic structure of cucumber will help developing appropriate conservation strategies and provides a basis for population-level genome sequencing in cucumber.

  10. Proteomic Analysis of Cucumber Defense Rresponses Induced by Propamocarb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Peng; QIN Zhi-wei; WU Tao; ZHOU Xiu-yan; XIN Ming; GUO Qian-qian

    2013-01-01

    Propamocarb is an agricultural chemical that has been widely used to protect cucumber plants from downy mildew. To understand the mechanisms of cucumber defense responses to propamocarb, we investigated the physiological and proteomic responses of the cucumber line D0351 with propamocarb application. We found that after treatment with propamocarb, the activities of detoxifying enzymes (glutathione reductase, GR; glutathione S-tramsferase, GST) and soluble sugar content of cucumber fruit were signiifcantly increased, but malonaldehyde (MDA) content was signiifcantly reduced. To identify components of propamocarb responsive signaling, we compared the high resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) protein proifles of control and propamocarb-treated fruits, and identiifed 18 differentially expressed (13 up-regulated and 5 down-regulated) proteins induced by propamocarb which were determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-lfight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). The majority of the proteins had functions related to detoxication, energy and transport, protein biosynthesis, regulating reactions and defending against stresses. A real-time quantitative reverse transcriptional-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to compare transcript and protein accumulation patterns for 18 candidate proteins, and the expression of 14 was consistent at both transcript and protein levels. The responses of cucumber proteome to propamocarb seemed complex; the identified proteins may play an important role in regulating adaptation activities following exposure to propamocarb. Data presented herein may shed light on understanding cucumber fruit defense responses under propamocarb treatment.

  11. Melatonin promotes seed germination under high salinity by regulating antioxidant systems, ABA and GA₄ interaction in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-Jun; Zhang, Na; Yang, Rong-Chao; Wang, Li; Sun, Qian-Qian; Li, Dian-Bo; Cao, Yun-Yun; Weeda, Sarah; Zhao, Bing; Ren, Shuxin; Guo, Yang-Dong

    2014-10-01

    Although previous studies have found that melatonin can promote seed germination, the mechanisms involved in perceiving and signaling melatonin remain poorly understood. In this study, it was found that melatonin was synthesized during cucumber seed germination with a peak in melatonin levels occurring 14 hr into germination. This is indicative of a correlation between melatonin synthesis and seed germination. Meanwhile, seeds pretreated with exogenous melatonin (1 μM) showed enhanced germination rates under 150 mM NaCl stress compared to water-pretreated seeds under salinity stress. There are two apparent mechanisms by which melatonin alleviated salinity-induced inhibition of seed germination. Exogenous melatonin decreased oxidative damage induced by NaCl stress by enhancing gene expression of antioxidants. Under NaCl stress, compared to untreated control, the activities of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) were significantly increased by approximately 1.3-5.0-fold, with a concomitant 1.4-2.0-fold increase of CsCu-ZnSOD, CsFe-ZnSOD, CsCAT, and CsPOD in melatonin-pretreated seeds. Melatonin also alleviated salinity stress by affecting abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellin acid (GA) biosynthesis and catabolism during seed germination. Compared to NaCl treatment, melatonin significantly up-regulated ABA catabolism genes (e.g., CsCYP707A1 and CsCYP707A2, 3.5 and 105-fold higher than NaCl treatment at 16 hr, respectively) and down-regulated ABA biosynthesis genes (e.g., CsNECD2, 0.29-fold of CK2 at 16 hr), resulting in a rapid decrease of ABA content during the early stage of germination. At the same time, melatonin positively up-regulated GA biosynthesis genes (e.g., GA20ox and GA3ox, 2.3 and 3.9-fold higher than NaCl treatment at 0 and 12 hr, respectively), contributing to a significant increase of GA (especially GA4) content. In this study, we provide new evidence suggesting that melatonin alleviates the

  12. Indoleacetaldehyde in Cucumber Seedlings 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, William K.; Brown, Hugh M.

    1978-01-01

    The presence of indoleacetaldehyde in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) cotyledons was demonstrated by thin layer chromatographic RF values in three solvent systems, by the formation and hydrolysis of a bisulfite adduct, and by chemical reduction to indoleethanol and oxidation to indoleacetic acid. Bioassays indicated a minimum indoleacetaldehyde content in etiolated cotyledons of 0.7 μg per kg fresh weight. Tissue samples from all parts of both green and etiolated cucumber seedlings reduced exogenously supplied indoleacetaldehyde to indoleethanol. PMID:16660219

  13. Identification and Characterization of MicroRNAs from Longitudinal Muscle and Respiratory Tree in Sea Cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus Using High-Throughput Sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongdi Wang

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs, as a family of non-coding small RNAs, play important roles in the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus is an important economic species which is widely cultured in East Asia. The longitudinal muscle (LTM and respiratory tree (RPT are two important tissues in sea cucumber, playing important roles such as respiration and movement. In this study, we identified and characterized miRNAs in the LTM and RPT of sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus using Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. A total of 314 and 221 conserved miRNAs were identified in LTM and RPT, respectively. In addition, 27 and 34 novel miRNAs were identified in the LTM and RPT, respectively. A set of 58 miRNAs were identified to be differentially expressed between LTM and RPT. Among them, 9 miRNAs (miR-31a-3p, miR-738, miR-1692, let-7a, miR-72a, miR-100b-5p, miR-31b-5p, miR-429-3p, and miR-2008 in RPT and 7 miRNAs (miR-127, miR-340, miR-381, miR-3543, miR-434-5p, miR-136-3p, and miR-300-3p in LTM were differentially expressed with foldchange value being greater than 10. A total of 14,207 and 12,174 target genes of these miRNAs were predicted, respectively. Functional analysis of these target genes of miRNAs were performed by GO analysis and pathway analysis. This result provided in this work will be useful for understanding biological characteristics of the LTM and RPT of sea cucumber and assisting molecular breeding of sea cucumber for aquaculture.

  14. Sea Cucumber: New source of Protein for Human Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Vaz Pratas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture, probably the fastest growing food-producing sector, now accounts for nearly 50 percent of the world's food fish consumed by humans, and this share is expected to increase further to meet future demand. Sea cucumbers are considered highly marketable product and this has resulted in an increasing overfishing of natural sea cucumber stocks. Nevertheless, these resources are almost unexploited in the Mediterranean region. Many species of holothurians have been recognized as an alternative source of first quality protein and considered a putative functional food, like hypocholesterolemic proprieties and contain many other bioactive compounds. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine and compare the protein content of two sea cucumber species, Holothuria forskali and Stichopus regalis. The Kjeldahl method was used to determine the crude protein through the measurement of nitrogen amount in each sample. The obtained results demonstrated that both species contain high protein levels, with higher results for S. regalis, which revealed values between 19,1% and 20,4%. H. forskali showed a protein level among 12,1% and 15,4%. Holothurian protein levels reveal great potential for human consumption. Those resources can be used as a partial substitute of fish meal (eg. sea bream nutrition, either to intern market as well as for exportation to Asian countries. Sea cucumber farming could have lucrative potential in the Mediterranean, converting sea cucumbers into aquaculture value-added products bringing to this region profitable economic benefits.

  15. Sea cucumber cerebrosides and long-chain bases from Acaudina molpadioides protect against high fat diet-induced metabolic disorders in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaofang; Xu, Jie; Xue, Yong; Gao, Zhuang; Li, Zhaojie; Leng, Kailiang; Wang, Jingfeng; Xue, Changhu; Wang, Yuming

    2015-11-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a cluster of metabolic disorders such as abdominal obesity, hypertension, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia and hepatic steatosis that contribute to increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. There is an urgent need for strategies to prevent this emerging global epidemic. Recently, growing interest in discovering food functional nutrients for the prevention and treatment of MS has generated. In the present study, sea cucumber cerebrosides (SCC) and the main structural units, long-chain bases (LCB), were prepared from Acaudina molpadioides and then administered to high fat (HF) diet-induced obese C57BL/6J mice at a diet supplement dosage of 0.025% for 5 weeks to evaluate their effects on obesity-related metabolic disorders. SCC and LCB significantly decreased epididymal adipose tissue weights, lowered hepatic triacylglycerol levels, and reduced serum glucose, insulin levels and HOMA-IR index in mice. The activities of hepatic lipogenetic enzymes including FAS, ME and the mRNA levels of SREBP-1c and FAS were reduced by SCC and LCB treatment. However, SCC and LCB showed no effect on the hepatic lipolysis pathway. Besides, SCC and LCB also efficiently up-regulated the gene expression of SREBP-1c, FAS, ACC, ATGL and HSL, and down-regulated the gene expression of LPL and VLDL-r in the adipose tissue. These results demonstrated that SCC and LCB were efficacious in suppressing hepatic SREBP-1c mediated lipogenesis, inhibiting lipid uptake and increasing TG catabolism in the adipose tissue. The ameliorative degree and regulatory mechanisms of these two compounds were basically the same, suggesting that LCB are the key active structural units. Such findings would offer new insight into the application of SCC or LCB in the development of functional foods for preventing MS in humans.

  16. 高温诱导黄瓜抗黑星病研究%High Temperature Induced Resistance to Cladosporium cucumerinum in Cucumbers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宝聚; 彭霞薇; 王福建; 彭仁

    2001-01-01

    High temperature(40-50℃)for 1-2 hours induced resist ance to the scab pathogen,Cladosporium cucumerinum in cucumber plants.The h igh temperatures of 40℃ 2 hours or 45℃ 1 hour was found to be the optimal trea tment for the induction of resistance.Plants inoculated with C. cucumerinum just at the time of 4 hours after heat shock of high tempe rature exhibited increased resistance to the fungus.A 24 hours interval f rom heat shock of high temperature to inoculation allowed for development of max imum resistance.Eighteen cultivars were tested by heat shock of high temperature ,and it was found that different cultivars expressed distinct induction resista nce to C.cucumerinum.Some cultivars exhibited induced resistance in the trea tments of 40℃ 2 hours and 45℃ 1 hour.Some cultivars exhibited induced resistan ce in only one of the two treatments,while others had no expression of induced resistance.%利用高温(40~50℃)预先对黄瓜幼苗处理1~2 h,可以不同程度地诱导黄瓜苗对黑星病(Cladosporium cucumerinum Ell.and Arth.)的抗性,40℃ 2 h、45℃ 1 h高温诱导抗病性表达明显。高温热击后4h即开始表现出诱导抗病性,24 h诱导抗病性表现最明显。通过对18个黄瓜品种的高温热击试验发现,不同黄瓜品种经高温热击处理后表现出的诱导抗病效果不同,有些品种在40℃ 2 h、45℃ 1 h处理下诱导效果均较明显,有些品种在40℃ 2[ KG*9〗h处理下诱导效果明显,而有些品种则在45℃ 1 h处理下诱导效果较好,还有些品种高温处理后无效果。

  17. Study on Relationship Between Cucumber Germplasm and Propa-mocarb Residue Using Subjective Rating Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Peng; Qin Zhi-wei; Zhou Xiu-yan; Wu Tao; Xin Ming; Guo Qian-qian

    2014-01-01

    Propamocarb (PM) residue in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) receives little attention. As is well known to all, high PM residue of cucumber could lead to increase in the violation rates of maximum residue limits and ultimately cause harm to human health. Knowledge of PM residue could help cucumber breeders in developing cultivars with low PM residue and improving cucumber quality. In this study, 32 representative cucumber accessions (26 breeding lines and six cultivars) from different regions of China were evaluated for their PM residue in fruit and leaf to provide meaning to the subjective rating, which was highly correlated with PM residual content of fruit (r=0.97) and leaf (r=0.94). In addition, PM residual content of North China ecotype was the highest and Pickling ecotype was the lowest in fruit and leaf of cucumber. The leaf had significantly higher (P<0.01) PM residual content than the fruit, and poor correlation between leaf and fruit was represented. This study verified PM residual relationship between fruit and leaf, and laid the foundation for further identification of germplasm resources and breeding of new varieties for low PM residue of cucumber.

  18. Analysis of the systemic colonization of cucumber plants by Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, I M; Thompson, J R; García-Arenal, F

    2004-03-01

    Systemic movement of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) in cucumber plants was shown to be from photoassimilate source to sink, thus indicating phloem transport. Nevertheless, CGMMV was not detected by immunocytochemical procedures in the intermediary cell-sieve element complex in inoculated cotyledons, where photoassimilate loading occurs. In stem internodes, CGMMV was first localized in the companion cells of the external phloem and subsequently in all tissues except the medulla, therefore suggesting leakage of the virus from, and reloading into, the transport phloem during systemic movement. In systemically infected sink leaves, CGMMV was simultaneously detected in the xylem and phloem. Interestingly, CGMMV accumulated to high levels in the differentiating tracheids of young leaves implying that the xylem could be involved in the systemic movement of CGMMV. This possibility was tested using plants in which cell death was induced in a portion of the stem by steam treatment. At 24 degrees C, steam treatment effectively prevented the systemic movement of CGMMV, even though viral RNA was detected in washes of the xylem above the steamed internode suggesting that xylem circulation occurred. At 29 degrees C, CGMMV systemically infected steam-treated cucumber plants, indicating that CGMMV can move systemically via the xylem. Xylem transport of CGMMV was, however, less efficient than phloem transport in terms of the time required for systemic infection and the percentage of plants infected.

  19. U.S. Fresh and Pickling Cucumber Markets

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    As part of an effort to estimate the potential impact of downy mildew to U.S. growers of cucumbers, this report reviews historical trends in production and markets for cucumbers including slicing and pickling cucumbers.

  20. An integrated genetic and cytogenetic map of the cucumber genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Ren

    Full Text Available The Cucurbitaceae includes important crops such as cucumber, melon, watermelon, squash and pumpkin. However, few genetic and genomic resources are available for plant improvement. Some cucurbit species such as cucumber have a narrow genetic base, which impedes construction of saturated molecular linkage maps. We report herein the development of highly polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR markers originated from whole genome shotgun sequencing and the subsequent construction of a high-density genetic linkage map. This map includes 995 SSRs in seven linkage groups which spans in total 573 cM, and defines approximately 680 recombination breakpoints with an average of 0.58 cM between two markers. These linkage groups were then assigned to seven corresponding chromosomes using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH. FISH assays also revealed a chromosomal inversion between Cucumis subspecies [C. sativus var. sativus L. and var. hardwickii (R. Alef], which resulted in marker clustering on the genetic map. A quarter of the mapped markers showed relatively high polymorphism levels among 11 inbred lines of cucumber. Among the 995 markers, 49%, 26% and 22% were conserved in melon, watermelon and pumpkin, respectively. This map will facilitate whole genome sequencing, positional cloning, and molecular breeding in cucumber, and enable the integration of knowledge of gene and trait in cucurbits.

  1. Didymella bryoniae on glasshouse cucumbers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steekelenburg, van N.A.M.

    1986-01-01

    The increasing incidence of fruit rot, caused by Didymella bryoniae , in glasshouse cucumbers in the Netherlands gave rise to a study of the biology of the pathogen, the epidemiology of the disease, and control methods. Stems, leaves and growing tips may be attacked, and fruits ma

  2. Cucumber mosaic virus in Rubus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) has been reported on red raspberry in Chile, Scotland and the Soviet Union and in Chile on blackberry. Its occurrence in Rubus is rare and seems to cause little damage. Except for one early, unconfirmed report, CMV has not been reported on Rubus in North America. This vir...

  3. Chicken Porridge with Sea Cucumber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Main ingredients: 50 grams of chicken breast, 200 grams of gray sea cucumbers Supplementary ingredients: 100 grams of water chestnut, the whites of four eggs, MSG, salt, wine, meat soup, starch, sugar, scallions, ginger, soy sauce Directions: Chop up the chicken breast and water chestnut into small

  4. Didymella bryoniae on glasshouse cucumbers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steekelenburg, van N.A.M.

    1986-01-01

    The increasing incidence of fruit rot, caused by Didymella bryoniae , in glasshouse cucumbers in the Netherlands gave rise to a study of the biology of the pathogen, the epidemiology of the disease, and control methods. Stems, leaves and growing tips may be attacked, and fruits

  5. In vitro auxin binding to cellular membranes of cucumber fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, K R; Mudge, K W; Poovaiah, B W

    1981-04-01

    Specific binding of 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) to crude membrane preparations from cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) was demonstrated. This in vitro binding had a pH optimum of 3.75 and an equilibrium dissociation constant of 10 to 20 micromolar with 1250 picomoles binding sites per gram fresh weight. The NAA-binding sites were pronase sensitive. The supernatant from the fruit partially inhibited the in vitro NAA binding to fruit membranes. NAA, 2-naphthoxyacetic acid, 3-indoleacetic acid, 2-4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid, which are reported to be very good inducers of parthenocarpy in cucumber, showed a high degree of specific binding to cucumber fruit membranes. In comparison, 2-naphthaleneacetic acid and indolepropionic acid, which are reported to be very weak auxins in corn coleoptile, pea stem, and strawberry fruit growth bioassays, did not bind efficiently to cucumber fruit membranes. In vitro binding studies with fruit membranes suggest that auxin stimulated fruit growth may be mediated by membrane-associated, auxin-binding protein(s).

  6. Analysis of 50 Cucumber Accessions by RAPD Markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Genetic diversity of 50 cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) accessions from American, Holland, Japan and China was detected and evaluated using RAPD markers. 25 selected primers produced 215 scorable polymorphic RAPD bands and the ratio of polymorphism is 86.98%. Four main groups of cucumber accessions could be distinguished from UPGMA analysis: Occidental cucumber, South-China cucumber, North-China cucumber and Xishuangbanna cucumber. Our result confirmed that cucumber is a narrow-based germplasm, nevertheless RAPD analysis was still useful in cucumber genotypic differentiation. More significantly, Xishuangbanna cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. Var Xishuangbannanesis Qi et Yuan), a mutation of cucumber, was clustered together to a special group in the study, which implied its special status in cucumber germplasm.

  7. Proteomic Analysis of Fruit Bending in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-li; ZHANG Peng; QIN Zhi-wei; ZHOU Xiu-yan

    2014-01-01

    In cucumber, fruit shape is an important quality criterion, and fruit bending is known to limit growth, yield, and taste. To investigate the post-transcriptional changes that regulate fruit bending and to better understand the underlying molecular mechanisms, we generated a proteomic proifle of the abdomen and back of cucumber bending fruit. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) allowed the detection of approximately 900 distinct protein spots in each gel, 32 of which were differentially expressed in the abdomen and back of bending cucumber fruit. Ten of the differentially expressed proteins were analyzed using matrix-assisted laser ionization time of lfight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS). A search of primary databases showed that the identiifed proteins are involved in various metabolic processes and cellular responses, including photosynthesis metabolism, energy metabolism, defense and stress response, and regulation. The identiifed proteins included large subunits of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, which are involved in photosynthesis and photorespiratory metabolism, and isocitrate dehydrogenase, which is involved in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. It is possible that imbalances in catabolic and anabolic processes directly affect the bending of cucumber fruit. The predicted function of the cobalamin-independent methionine synthase isozyme is closely related to ethylene biosynthesis; fruit bending may be regulated by ethylene, or by ethylene signaling crosstalk during fruit development. The 14-3-3 protein is usually considered to be a regulation-related protein, which plays a role in regulating cell hyperplasia, cell differentiation during growth, and apoptosis during senescence. Involvement of guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding proteins in signal transmission is known to regulate the development of cells in cucumber fruits and to play a role in fruit shape variation. Patterns of protein expression showed high repeatability. We hypothesize

  8. Technological aspects of keeping and pickling qualities of cucumbers as influenced by fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakr, A A; Gawish, R A

    1993-07-01

    The effect of the interactions between K (potassium) and Ca (calcium) applications (preharvest treatment), packaging method and storage conditions on the keeping and pickling qualities of cucumber were investigated. Spraying with 100 ppm K and 5000 ppm Ca prolonged the shelf-life of cucumber, especially when packaged in perforated polyethylene and stored at refrigeration conditions. Packaging and refrigeration both reduced weight loss and decay percentages. Decay was greater in packaged fruits stored at high temperature. Packaging had only a slight effect on chemical composition. Packaged fruits from plants sprayed with 100 ppm K maintained their fresh appearance and firmness > or = 3 times longer than a control sample at ambient conditions and over 20 days under refrigeration. Sensory evaluation of pickled cucumbers revealed that both K and Ca applications on plants during growth improved substantially the pickling quality of cucumber.

  9. Current status of genetic transformation technology developed in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shun-li; Seong Sub Ku; YE Xing-guo; HE Cong-fen; Suk Yoon Kwon; Pil Son Choi

    2015-01-01

    Genetic transformation is an important technique for functional genomics study and genetic improvement of plants. Until now, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation methods using cotyledon as explants has been the major approach for cu-cumber, and its frequency has been up to 23%. For example, signiifcantly enhancement of the transformation efifciency of this plant species was achieved from the cotyledon explants of the cultivar Poinsett 76 infected by Agrobacterium strains EHA105 with efifcient positive selection system in lots of experiments. This review is to summarize some key factors in-lfuencing cucumber regeneration and genetic transformation, including target genes, selection systems and the ways of transgene introduction, and then to put forward some strategies for the increasing of cucumber transformation efifciency. In the future, it is high possible for cucumber to be potential bioreactor to produce vaccine and biomaterials for human beings.

  10. Influence of maturity at harvest, N fertiliser and postharvest storage on dry matter, ascorbic acid and B-carotene contents of vegetable amaranth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onyango, C.; Harbinson, J.; Imungi, J.K.; Kooten, van O.

    2011-01-01

    Vegetable amaranth is a leafy vegetable traditionally grown in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia where it is the most consumed traditional vegetable. It is considered to have high nutritional quality, containing relatively large amounts of vitamins A and C. We have assessed the influence of the maturity o

  11. Chicken Porridge with Sea Cucumber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Chicken Porridge with Sea Cucumber is a dish created according to a well-known story about Jia Chang, who raised cocks during the Tang Dynasty. Cockfighting was popular among commonfolk during the Tang Dynasty. Emperor Xuanzong selected 5,000 cocks in Chang’an, and 500 children to feed them and train them to fight. Jia Chang was one of the children. Sent to the

  12. Habitat characteristic of two selected locations for sea cucumber ranching purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartati, Retno; Trianto, Agus; Widianingsih

    2017-02-01

    Sea cucumbers face heavily overfished because of their high prices and very strong market demand. One effort suggested to overcome this problem is sea ranching. The objectives of present works were to determine biological, physical, and chemical characteristics of prospective location for sea ranching of sea cucumber Holothuria atra. Two location at Jepara Waters (Teluk Awur and Bandengan WateRs of Jepara Regency) were selected. The determination of chemical (salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen of water, phosphate, nitrate, nitrite and ammonium of water and sediment, organic matters of sediment), physical (transparancy, sedimen grains size, water current direction and its velocity), biologycal characteristic (coverage of seagrass and its macroalgae associated, phytoplankton as well as chlorophyl-a and phaeopytin of water and sediment) ware determined. The result of present work showed that some characteristic were matched with requirement as sea ranching location of sea cucumber because the density of sea cucumber in the sea is a function of habitat features. For sediment feeding holothurians of the family Aspidochirotida, the biologycal characteristic act as very important considerations by providing sea cucumber food. High cholophyl-a and phaeopytin in sediment also represent a prosperous habitat for sea cucumber ranching.

  13. Construction of a fosmid library of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and comparative analyses of the eIF4E and eIF(iso)4E regions from cucumber and melon (Cucumis melo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, J D F; Deleu, W; Garcia-Mas, J; Havey, M J

    2008-05-01

    A fosmid library of cucumber was synthesized as an unrestricted resource for researchers and used for comparative sequence analyses to assess synteny between the cucumber and melon genomes, both members of the genus Cucumis and the two most economically important plants in the family Cucurbitaceae. End sequencing of random fosmids produced over 680 kilobases of cucumber genomic sequence, of which 25% was similar to ribosomal DNAs, 25% to satellite sequences, 20% to coding regions in other plants, 4% to transposable elements, 13% to mitochondrial and chloroplast sequences, and 13% showed no hits to the databases. The relatively high frequencies of ribosomal and satellite DNAs are consistent with previous analyses of cucumber DNA. Cucumber fosmids were selected and sequenced that carried eukaryotic initiation factors (eIF) 4E and iso(4E), genes associated with recessively inherited resistances to potyviruses in a number of plants. Indels near eIF4E and eIF(iso)4E mapped independently of the zym, a recessive locus conditioning resistance to Zucchini yellow mosaic virus, establishing that these candidate genes are not zym. Cucumber sequences were compared with melon BACs carrying eIF4E and eIF(iso)4E and revealed extensive sequence conservation and synteny between cucumber and melon across these two independent genomic regions. This high degree of microsynteny will aid in the cloning of orthologous genes from both species, as well as allow for genomic resources developed for one Cucumis species to be used for analyses in other species.

  14. Acclimation to high CO/sub 2/ in monoecious cucumbers. II. Carbon exchange rates, enzyme activities, and starch and nutrient concentrations. [Cucumis sativus L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peet, M.M.; Huber, S.C.; Patterson, D.T.

    1986-01-01

    Carbon exchange capacity of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) germinated and grown in controlled environment chambers at 1000 microliters per liter CO/sub 2/ decreased from the vegetative growth stage to the fruiting stage, during which time capacity of plants grown at 350 microliters per liter increased. Carbon exchange rates (CERs) measured under growth conditions during the fruiting period were, in fact, lower in plants grown at 1000 microliters per liter CO/sub 2/ than those grown at 350. Progressive decreases in CERs in 1000 microliters per liter plants were associated with decreasing stomatal conductances and activities of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase and carbonic anhydrase. Leaf starch concentrations were higher in 1000 microliters per liter CO/sub 2/ grown-plants than in 350 microliters per liter grown plants but calcium and nitrogen concentrations were lower, the greatest difference occurring at flowering. Sucrose synthase and sucrose-P-synthase activities were similar in 1000 microliters per liter compared to 350 microliters per liter plants during vegetative growth and flowering but higher in 350 microliters per liter plants at fruiting. The decreased carbon exchange rates observed in this cultivar at 1000 microliters per liter CO/sub 2/ could explain the lack of any yield increase when compared with plants grown at 350 microliters per liter.

  15. Study on the Resistance of Cucumber to Temperature Stresses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Four cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. ) inbred lines with different resistances to temperature stress were used in this experiment. The seedlings of line Q10 and Q21 that have high resistance to chilling stress also have high resistance to heat stress. The seedlings of line T94 and T55 that have lower resistance to chilling stress also have lower resistance to heat stress. It seems that the resistance of cucumber seedlings to different temperature stresses was similar. The influences of chilling and heat stress on the germination ability of cucumber seeds were different. Under the chilling stress, the germination percentage decreased less, and the germination velocity decreased more,so the germination index decreased significantly. Under the heat stress, the germination percentage and velocity of the seeds with high resistance decreased less and those of the seeds with lower resistance decreased more. The differences among the lines became more evident under the extreme heat condition. The content of chlorophyll decreased under the different temperature stresses, the content of chlorophyll a decreased more than that of chlorophyll b, so the value of chlorophyll a/b decreased.The temperature stress inhibited the photosynthesis of cucumber seedlings significantly. After chilling or heat treatment, the net photosynthetic rate (Pn) decreased remarkably. With the stomatal conductance (Gs) decreased, the stomatal limited value (Is) decreased, the intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) increased, and both the apparent quantum efficiencies (AQE) and the carboxylation efficiencies (CE) decreased. Results showed that the non-stomatal factors were the main causes of Pn decrease, and the photosynthetic mechanism was destroyed remarkably.

  16. Enantioselective degradation of metalaxyl in cucumber, cabbage, spinach and pakchoi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meiyun; Zhang, Qing; Cong, Lujing; Yin, Wei; Wang, Minghua

    2014-01-01

    The enantioselective degradation behaviors of the acylamino acid fungicide metalaxyl in vegetables (cucumber, cabbage, spinach and pakchoi) under field and greenhouse conditions were elucidated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A cellulose tris (3-chloro-4-methyl phenyl carbamate) chiral column (Lux Cellulose-2) was used for the chiral separation of the enantiomers using acetonitrile-0.1% formic acid solution (40:60, v/v) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min(-1). The two enantiomers could be completely separated with a resolution (Rs) of 5.2. The linearity range, matrix effect, precision and recovery were evaluated. The method was successfully applied for the enantioselective analysis of metalaxyl in cucumber, cabbage, spinach and pakchoi under different conditions. The results showed that R-enantiomer dissipated faster than S-enantiomer in cucumber of greenhouse. Inversely, a preferential degradation of S-form was found in spinach and pakchoi under field and greenhouse conditions. No stereoselective degradation in cabbage was observed. These results can be applied for evaluating the environmental risk and food safety. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER FOR CUCUMBER (Cucumis sativus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dell

    2011-11-07

    Nov 7, 2011 ... This technology transfer trials have shown the advantages and ... Key words: Cucumber production, protected agriculture tunnels, cost benefit ratio, technology transfer, ... Use of PA can increase production by more than five.

  18. Allelopathic Potential of Cucumber Tissues Aqueous Extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Lin-lin; HAO Zhi-peng; ZUO Yuan-mei; LI Xiao-lin; WANG Qian

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective] The aim of this study was to explore allelopathic effects of the water-extracted crude of cucumber plant parts on seed germination and seedling growth of lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L. ), cabbage ( Brassica pekinensis L. ), radish ( Raphanus sativus L. ) and scallion ( Allium fistulosum L. ). [ Method] The allelopathic effects of different cucumber tissues aqueous extracts were investigated on lettuce, cabbage,radish and scallion using the water-soluble allelopathic principle by seedling bioassay tests. [ Result] The trends of inhibitory effects of different cucumber parts increased with increasing extract concentrations. The inhibition effects and the inhibition rate of three aqueous extracts were more significant on root growth than shoot length. Leaf aqueous extracts represented the most exhibited and root aqueous extracts representing the least inhibitory on seed germination, shoot length and root length of lettuce, cabbage, radish and scallion. [Conclusion] This study had provided basis for allelopathic character of different cucumber plant parts.

  19. Sea Cucumber Fishery and Trade in Sta. Cruz, Davao Del Sur, Philippines: Supply Chains and Cost-Benefit Analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Shuck, Vlademir A.; Rod Norbert D. Mondoyo; Acuňa, Thaddeus R.; Ruth U. Gamboa

    2013-01-01

    In the country, sea cucumbers are exploited almost exclusively for export. It is harvested in three ways; commercial fishing, artisanal fishing and gleaning. These methods provide disproportionate economic benefits to these players in the supply chain. In this study, sea ranching, a new culture system for sea cucumber was analyzed in terms of its economic and commercial viability. Under the sea ranching system Holothuriascabra(sandfish) is the species being raised mainly due to its high econo...

  20. 高浓度营养液对黄瓜和番茄下胚轴徒长的抑制作用%Inhibition effect of high strength nutrient solution on hypocotyl stretch of cucumber and tomato seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高晓旭; 张志刚; 段颖; 董春娟; 尚庆茂

    2014-01-01

    Objectives]Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) are main cultivated vegetable species in China. The seedling growth in breeding processes is vulnerable to disadvantageous environments, such as high temperature, high humidity and weak light, which lead to excessive hypocotyl stretch and reduce yield at later stage.Several methods such as plant growth regulators, mechanical stimulations, supplement of light, temperature modulation and water limitation are used to prevent excessive hypocotyl stretch, but the effects are always not satisfied due to complicated influence factors.To develop an effective method for controlling hypocotyl stretch in cucumber and tomato seedlings, this paper focused on the inhibition effect of high strength nutrient solution on hypocotyl stretch in cucumber and tomato seedlings.[Methods] A concentration of complete macroelement of 1.0 strength Hoagland nutrient solution was defined as fundamental formula ( 1.0 C ) . Other nutrient solution concentration gradients involved in this experiment were 0.5, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 and 12.5C by adding macroelement compositions proportionally without changing the microelements compositions.The 0.5C nutrient solution was set as the control group, and others were the treatment groups.After watering cucumber and tomato seedlings by different nutrient solutions in greenhouse conditions, the growth parameters were measured, and the nutrient solution effects on hypocotyl cortical cell length, growth rate and phytohrmone levels were determined at the cytoledon extending stage.Then seedlings were rewatered by the 0.5C nutrient solution to restore the inhibition growth of hypocotyl stretch.The growth parameters were measured at the first true leaves extending stage.The effects and mechanism of high nutrient solution on inhibiting hypocotyl stretch were determined, and the optimal strength was acquired by appropriate effect on cucumber and tomato seedlings.[Results]The effects of six

  1. Genome-wide characterization of simple sequence repeats in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Philipp W

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cucumber, Cucumis sativus L. is an important vegetable crop worldwide. Until very recently, cucumber genetic and genomic resources, especially molecular markers, have been very limited, impeding progress of cucumber breeding efforts. Microsatellites are short tandemly repeated DNA sequences, which are frequently favored as genetic markers due to their high level of polymorphism and codominant inheritance. Data from previously characterized genomes has shown that these repeats vary in frequency, motif sequence, and genomic location across taxa. During the last year, the genomes of two cucumber genotypes were sequenced including the Chinese fresh market type inbred line '9930' and the North American pickling type inbred line 'Gy14'. These sequences provide a powerful tool for developing markers in a large scale. In this study, we surveyed and characterized the distribution and frequency of perfect microsatellites in 203 Mbp assembled Gy14 DNA sequences, representing 55% of its nuclear genome, and in cucumber EST sequences. Similar analyses were performed in genomic and EST data from seven other plant species, and the results were compared with those of cucumber. Results A total of 112,073 perfect repeats were detected in the Gy14 cucumber genome sequence, accounting for 0.9% of the assembled Gy14 genome, with an overall density of 551.9 SSRs/Mbp. While tetranucleotides were the most frequent microsatellites in genomic DNA sequence, dinucleotide repeats, which had more repeat units than any other SSR type, had the highest cumulative sequence length. Coding regions (ESTs of the cucumber genome had fewer microsatellites compared to its genomic sequence, with trinucleotides predominating in EST sequences. AAG was the most frequent repeat in cucumber ESTs. Overall, AT-rich motifs prevailed in both genomic and EST data. Compared to the other species examined, cucumber genomic sequence had the highest density of SSRs (although

  2. Effects of Lactic Acid Bacteria Inoculated Fermentation on Pickled Cucumbers

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) fermentation on the texture and organic acid of pickled cucumbers. Texture and sensory evaluation as well as a microscopic observation were performed to study the textural differences among fresh cucumber, Spontaneous fermentation (SF) cucumber and LAB Inoculating Fermentation (LABIF) cucumber. Accumulation of seven organic acids i.e., oxalic, tartaric, malic, lactic, acetic, citric and succinic acid during cucum...

  3. THE EVOLUTION OF SOME CHEMICAL PARAMETERS DURING CUCUMBERS PICKLING

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of some chemical indices (salt content, pH and ascorbic acid content) during cucumbers pickling was the purpose of this paper. The experience materials used in this work were: cucumbers cornichon, iodized and non-iodized salt and tap water. The samples containing cucumbers in iodized and in non-iodized brine were left to ferment, and at 3-4 days were made determinations of above mentioned indices. During pickling process, non-iodized salt has accumulated in cucumber ...

  4. Effect of NAFTA, EUMFTA and China addition to WTO on the cucumber world market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Guajardo-Quiroga

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study empirically analyzed the potential effects of the complete operation of North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA, European Union and Mexico Free Trade Agreement (EUMFTA, and the integration of China to the World Trade Organization (WTO, on the cucumber world market. Special emphasis on the impact on Mexico was presented, from a worldwide perspective. A spatial equilibrium model with endogenous prices was constructed for this purpose. Among the findings are: (1 Mexican producers benefited from the complete implementation of NAFTA and EUMFTA. (2 The incorporation of China as a member of the WTO showed a negligible effect on the commercial flows and prices in the cucumber world market. (3 Mexican cucumber production is highly competitive, in the world market, because it has the lowest supply costs.

  5. Ecological effects of co-culturing sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) with scallop Chlamys farreri in earthen ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yichao; Dong, Shuanglin; Qin, Chuanxin; Wang, Fang; Tian, Xiangli; Gao, Qinfeng

    2012-01-01

    Monthly changes in sedimentation and sediment properties were studied for three different culture treatments: sea cucumber monoculture (Mc), sea cucumber and scallop polyculture (Ps-c) and scallop monoculture (Ms). Results indicated that the survival rate of sea cucumber was significantly higher in Ps-c cultures than in Mc cultures. Sea cucumber yield was 69.6% higher in Ps-c culture than in Mc culture. No significant differences in body weight and scallop shell length were found between Ps-c and Ms cultures. The mean sedimentation rate of total particulate matter (TPM) was 72.2 g/(m2·d) in Ps-c cultures, with a maximum of 119.7 g/(m2·d), which was markedly higher than that of Mc (mean value). Sedimentation rates of organic matter (OM), total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) in Ps-c cultures were also significantly higher than those in Mc cultures. TOC and TN contents of sediment increased rapidly in the first 5 months in Ms cultures and remained at a high level. TOC and TN contents in Mc and Ps-c cultures decreased during sea cucumber feeding seasons and increased during sea cucumber dormancy periods (summer and winter). The study demonstrates that co-culture of sea cucumber and scallop in earthen ponds is an alternative way to alleviate nutrient loads and improve water quality in coastal aquaculture systems. Moreover, it provides the additional benefit of an increased sea cucumber yield.

  6. Ecological effects of co-culturing sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) with scallop Chlamys farreri in earthen ponds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Yichao; DONG Shuanglin; QIN Chuanxin; WANG Fang; TIAN Xiangli; GAO Qinfeng

    2012-01-01

    Monthly changes in sedimentation and sediment properties were studied for three different culture treatments:sea cucumber monoculture (Mc),sea cucumber and scallop polyculture (Ps-c) and scallop monoculture (Ms).Results indicated that the survival rate of sea cucumber was significantly higher in Ps-c cultures than in Mc cultures.Sea cucumber yield was 69.6% higher in Ps-c culture than in Mc culture.No significant differences in body weight and scallop shell length were found between Ps-c and Ms cultures.The mean sedimentation rate of total particulate matter (TPM) was 72.2 g/(m2.d) in Ps-c cultures,with a maximum of 119.7 g/(m2.d),which was markedly higher than that of Mc (mean value).Sedimentation rates of organic matter (OM),total organic carbon (TOC),total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) in Ps-c cultures were also significantly higher than those in Mc cultures.TOC and TN contents of sediment increased rapidly in the first 5 months in Ms cultures and remained at a high level.TOC and TN contents in Mc and Ps-c cultures decreased during sea cucumber feeding seasons and increased during sea cucumber dormancy periods (summer and winter).The study demonstrates that co-culture of sea cucumber and scallop in earthen ponds is an alternative way to alleviate nutrient loads and improve water quality in coastal aquaculture systems.Moreover,it provides the additional benefit of an increased sea cucumber yield.

  7. SENSORY ANALYSIS OF CUCUMBER VARIETIES AT DIFFERENT HARVEST TIMES II. PICKLING CUCUMBERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina PEVICHAROVA

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available During the period 2001-2002 sensory analysis of Bulgarian pickling cucumber varieties Toni, Iren and Pobeda was carried out. The varieties had identical parent female breeding line G-3. Fresh and canned fruits were evaluated at three harvest times. It was established that sensory properties of canned fruits cannot be entirely prognosticated from panel test data of the fresh ones. For breeding purposes sensory analysis of pickling cucumbers for processing should be performed using sterilized pickling cucumbers but not only fresh ones. More precise information about visual and gustatory properties of new created lines and hybrids will be obtained by performing of sensory analysis at different harvest times.

  8. Mathematical modelling of cucumber (cucumis sativus) drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahari, N.; Hussein, S. M.; Nursabrina, M.; Hibberd, S.

    2014-07-01

    This paper investigates the applicability of using an experiment based mathematical model (empirical model) and a single phase mathematical model with shrinkage to describe the drying curve of cucumis sativus (cucumber). Drying experiments were conducted using conventional air drying and data obtained from these experiments were fitted to seven empirical models using non-linear least square regression based on the Levenberg Marquardt algorithm. The empirical models were compared according to their root mean square error (RMSE), sum of square error (SSE) and coefficient of determination (R2). A logarithmic model was found to be the best empirical model to describe the drying curve of cucumber. The numerical result of a single phase mathematical model with shrinkage was also compared with experiment data for cucumber drying. A good agreement was obtained between the model predictions and the experimental data.

  9. Nutritional components of the sea cucumber Holothuria scabra

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    Morakot Sroyraya

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Holothuria scabrais one of the most commercially important species found in the Pacific region. The sea cucumber extracts have been widely reported to have beneficial health effects.The aim of this study was to determine the nutritional compositions of H. scabra, and compare its important nutritional contents with that of other species.Methods:The sea cucumbers were dissected, sliced into small pieces,and then freeze-dried. The nutritional compositions, including proximate composition, amino acids, fatty acids,collagen, GABA, Vitamin A, C, and E of the whole body and body wall of H. scabra,were analyzed.Results:H. scabra contained a high quantity of protein (22.50% in whole body and 55.18% in body wall and very low lipids (1.55% in whole body and 1.02% in body wall. The three most abundant amino acids found in both the whole body and body wall were glycine, glutamic acid, and proline. The main fatty acids found in the whole body were stearic acid and nervonic acid, and in the body wall were arachidonic acid and stearic acid. The whole body and body wall also contained high levels of essential amino acids, essential fatty acids, and collagen, in addition to moderate amounts of vitamin E and low amounts of GABA and vitamin C.Conclusions:The sea cucumber, H. scabra, contained high quantity of protein and very low lipid. It containedhigh essential amino acids, essential fatty acids, nervonic and arachidonic acids, and collagen, which also contained GABA, vitamin C, and vitamin E.

  10. SENSORY ANALYSIS OF CUCUMBER VARIETIES AT DIFFERENT HARVEST TIMES II. PICKLING CUCUMBERS

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    During the period 2001-2002 sensory analysis of Bulgarian pickling cucumber varieties Toni, Iren and Pobeda was carried out. The varieties had identical parent female breeding line G-3. Fresh and canned fruits were evaluated at three harvest times. It was established that sensory properties of canned fruits cannot be entirely prognosticated from panel test data of the fresh ones. For breeding purposes sensory analysis of pickling cucumbers for processing should be performed using sterilized p...

  11. Hyperspectral imaging-based classification and wavebands selection for internal defect detection of pickling cucumbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperspectral imaging is useful for detecting internal defect of pickling cucumbers. The technique, however, is not yet suitable for high-speed online implementation due to the challenges for analyzing large-scale hyperspectral images. This research was aimed to select the optimal wavebands from the...

  12. Cucumber as a model plant to study mitochondrial-nuclear interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The three genomes of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) show different modes of transmission: maternal for plastid, paternal for mitochondrial (mt), and biparental for nuclear DNA. When the highly inbred line ‘B’ is passed through cell cultures, paternally transmitted mosaic (MSC) phenotypes appear after re...

  13. Effects of Lactic Acid Bacteria Inoculated Fermentation on Pickled Cucumbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyi Ji

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effects of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB fermentation on the texture and organic acid of pickled cucumbers. Texture and sensory evaluation as well as a microscopic observation were performed to study the textural differences among fresh cucumber, Spontaneous fermentation (SF cucumber and LAB Inoculating Fermentation (LABIF cucumber. Accumulation of seven organic acids i.e., oxalic, tartaric, malic, lactic, acetic, citric and succinic acid during cucumber pickling were also studied. The disruption extent of the middle lamella in SF cucumber displayed more obviously than that in LABIF cucumber, implying that LABIF contributed to keep the cucumber original structure intact. Based on the organic acid accumulation pattern, in SF LAB and Acetic Acid Bacteria (AAB fermented simultaneously, while in LABIF LAB fermented beforehand thus being in dominant position, then AAB fermented vigorously in a acidic condition created by LAB. The acetic acid accumulaton pattern could be regarded as the distinctive feature between SF and LABIF. The orgnic acids produced in LABIF were higher than that in SF. The final score of sensory evaluation combining texture analysis demonstrated that LABIF overmatched SF. It was concluded that LABIF could obviously enhance the quality of pickled cucumber and overwhelming SF, due to LABIF more beneficial to keep the cucumber original structure intact and organic acids accumulation.

  14. Genetic basis of mitochondrial sorting in cucumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regeneration of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) from cell cultures produces plants with distinct mosaic (MSC) phenotypes, misshapen cotyledons and leaves, reduced fertility, and low seed germination. The MSC phenotypes are paternally transmitted and associated with deletions or under-representations of s...

  15. Cucurbits [Cucumber, melon, pumpkin and squash

    Science.gov (United States)

    The focus of this chapter is on the edible members of the Cucurbitaceae family. The three important food-grade cucurbit genera Citrullus, Cucumis, and Cucurbita include the species Citrullus lanatus watermelons), Cucumis melo (cantaloupes and other sweet melons), Cucumis sativa (cucumbers and pick...

  16. [Salt stress tolerance of cucumber-grafted rootstocks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Ping; Sun, Jin; Guo, Shi-Rong; Liu, Shu-Ren; Liu, Chao-Jie; Tian, Jing

    2012-05-01

    Taking 4 different Cucurbita maxima x C. moschata rootstocks for cucumber (Cucumis sativus) as test materials, a solution culture experiment was conducted to study their growth and antioxidative enzyme activities under the stresses of Ca(NO3)2 and NaCl, with the salt stress tolerance of the rootstocks evaluated by subordinate function. At 30 mmol x L(-1) of Ca (NO3)2 or 45 mmol x L(-1) of NaCl, the growth of the rootstock seedlings was improved; but at 60 and 120 mmol x L(-1) of Ca(NO3)2 or 90 and 180 mmol x L(-1) of NaCl, the growth and the antioxidative systems of the seedlings were inhibited, and the salt injury index of 'Qingzhen No. 1' was the smallest, with the decrement of biomass and SOD, POD and CAT activities and the increment of relative conductance being significantly lower than those of the others. Under the stress of high concentration Ca(NO3)2, the SOD, POD and CAT activities of test rootstocks were higher, and the salt injury index and relative conductance were lower, as compared with those under high concentration NaCl, suggesting that the damage of Ca(NO3)2 stress to cucumber-grafted rootstock were smaller than that of NaCl stress. Among the 4 rootstocks, 'Qingzhen No. 1' had the strongest salt stress tolerance, followed by 'Zuomu Nangua', 'Fengyuan Tiejia', and 'Chaoba Nangua'.

  17. Integrative Analyses of Nontargeted Volatile Profiling and Transcriptome Data Provide Molecular Insight into VOC Diversity in Cucumber Plants (Cucumis sativus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Guo; Tian, Peng; Zhang, Fengxia; Qin, Hao; Miao, Han; Chen, Qingwen; Hu, Zhongyi; Cao, Li; Wang, Meijiao; Gu, Xingfang; Huang, Sanwen; Chen, Mingsheng; Wang, Guodong

    2016-09-01

    Plant volatile organic compounds, which are generated in a tissue-specific manner, play important ecological roles in the interactions between plants and their environments, including the well-known functions of attracting pollinators and protecting plants from herbivores/fungi attacks. However, to date, there have not been reports of holistic volatile profiling of the various tissues of a single plant species, even for the model plant species. In this study, we qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed 85 volatile chemicals, including 36 volatile terpenes, in 23 different tissues of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) plants using solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Most volatile chemicals were found to occur in a highly tissue-specific manner. The consensus transcriptomes for each of the 23 cucumber tissues were generated with RNA sequencing data and used in volatile organic compound-gene correlation analysis to screen for candidate genes likely to be involved in cucumber volatile biosynthetic pathways. In vitro biochemical characterization of the candidate enzymes demonstrated that TERPENE SYNTHASE11 (TPS11)/TPS14, TPS01, and TPS15 were responsible for volatile terpenoid production in the roots, flowers, and fruit tissues of cucumber plants, respectively. A functional heteromeric geranyl(geranyl) pyrophosphate synthase, composed of an inactive small subunit (type I) and an active large subunit, was demonstrated to play a key role in monoterpene production in cucumber. In addition to establishing a standard workflow for the elucidation of plant volatile biosynthetic pathways, the knowledge generated from this study lays a solid foundation for future investigations of both the physiological functions of cucumber volatiles and aspects of cucumber flavor improvement.

  18. SCREENING FOR CUCUMBER MOSAIC RESISTANT LINES FROM THE OVULE CULTURE DERIVED DOUBLE HAPLOID CUCUMBERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parichat Plapung

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available CMV is one of the major destructive viruses worldwide and commercial CMV resistant cucumber is very rare. Therefore we aimed to establish the ovule derived resistant lines used for the breeding program. Haploid plants of sixty-eight cucumber lines were successfully obtained by culturing the un pollinated ovaries harvested one day before an thesis on a modified MS medium supplemented with BAP and IAA at the ratio of 2:1 which was optimal to induce embryogenesis in most of the tested lines. For whole plant regeneration, another modified MS medium was used supplemented with a combination of 6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP and Indole-3-Acetic Acid (IAA (2:1 or BAP and IAA/6-(gamma, gamma-dimethylallylamino purine (2ip and IAA (5:1 and 5 ppm AgNO3. Ploidy levels of the regenerants were determined by cytological analysis. Thirteen out of 42 clones derived from 14 accessions showed a chromosome number of n = 7 and chloroplast number of 6/pair of guard cell, 24 lines were auto-dihaploid with n = 14 and a chloroplast number of 11-12/pair of guard cell. Twenty-eight Double Haploid (DH lines were mechanically inoculated with CMV and the level of resistance was evaluated by using DAS-ELISA. Ten highly Resistant lines (R included 70S2, 91e, 91.1, 93S4-1, 93S42-, 95S1-2, 95S2 DHS1, 117S2-1-3, 136.1 and 194S1 did not show any virus symptom and gave negative ELISA results. Twelve moderately resistant clones were identified including two clones from line 11, three clones from line 93, four clones from line 91 and one clone each from line 117S2 and 123, whereas clone 11.4 was moderately susceptible. Five DH clones; 117S2-1-1, 117S2-2, 117S2-4, 117S2-7 and 117S2-8were classified as highly susceptible.

  19. Transcriptome sequencing and comparative analysis of cucumber flowers with different sex types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobral Bruno W

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cucumber, Cucumis sativus L., is an economically and nutritionally important crop of the Cucurbitaceae family and has long served as a primary model system for sex determination studies. Recently, the sequencing of its whole genome has been completed. However, transcriptome information of this species is still scarce, with a total of around 8,000 Expressed Sequence Tag (EST and mRNA sequences currently available in GenBank. In order to gain more insights into molecular mechanisms of plant sex determination and provide the community a functional genomics resource that will facilitate cucurbit research and breeding, we performed transcriptome sequencing of cucumber flower buds of two near-isogenic lines, WI1983G, a gynoecious plant which bears only pistillate flowers, and WI1983H, a hermaphroditic plant which bears only bisexual flowers. Result Using Roche-454 massive parallel pyrosequencing technology, we generated a total of 353,941 high quality EST sequences with an average length of 175bp, among which 188,255 were from gynoecious flowers and 165,686 from hermaphroditic flowers. These EST sequences, together with ~5,600 high quality cucumber EST and mRNA sequences available in GenBank, were clustered and assembled into 81,401 unigenes, of which 28,452 were contigs and 52,949 were singletons. The unigenes and ESTs were further mapped to the cucumber genome and more than 500 alternative splicing events were identified in 443 cucumber genes. The unigenes were further functionally annotated by comparing their sequences to different protein and functional domain databases and assigned with Gene Ontology (GO terms. A biochemical pathway database containing 343 predicted pathways was also created based on the annotations of the unigenes. Digital expression analysis identified ~200 differentially expressed genes between flowers of WI1983G and WI1983H and provided novel insights into molecular mechanisms of plant sex determination

  20. Climatic Risk of Field Cultivation of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. in Poland

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    Robert KALBARCZYK

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present work was to separate zones of pickling cucumber field cultivation in Poland according to the various degrees of climatic risk. The study used 40-years of (1966-2005 data from 28 experimental stations of the Research Centre for Cultivar Testing. The data characterised the course of the growth, development, cucumber crop productivity and also the agrotechnical dates. Additionally, the work considered agrometeorological data of 7 development stages of the analysed plant: sunshine duration, soil temperature at a height of 5 cm, air temperature at a height of 2 m and 5 cm above ground level and atmospheric precipitation. The agrometeorological data was collected from 53 meteorological stations, in the Polish network of the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management. Weather-yield regression equations were used to determine unfavourable agrometeorological elements which is the best way to determined the quantity of the cucumber total and marketable yield. The highest climatic risk of pickling cucumber field cultivation occurred in about 7% of Poland’s area. This is the area covering the southwestern, southeastern, the northern and northeastern parts of the country. In these areas, very high occurrence frequency of agrometeorological elements was noted. These elements were: air and soil temperatures that were too low during the whole growing season and, too short of a duration of the period without frost, lasting ≤120 days.

  1. Characterization of a protein kinase gene responsive to auxin and gibberellin in cucumber hypocotyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chono, M; Nemoto, K; Yamane, H; Yamaguchi, I; Murofushi, N

    1998-09-01

    By means of the PCR, cDNA clones encoding putative protein kinases have been obtained from cucumber hypocotyls. The abundance of the transcript of one of these genes, which was named CsPK3, increased on treatment with gibberellin (GA4) and/or auxin (IAA). We screened a cucumber cDNA library to clone CsPK3 cDNA. The cDNA clone (cCsPK3) encodes an open reading frame of 1,413 bp (471 amino acids), and its predicted amino acid sequence showed homology with those of serine/threonine protein kinases. Northern blot analysis indicated that IAA was more active than GA4 in increasing the level of CsPK3 mRNA in cucumber hypocotyls and that the increase in the level of CsPK3 mRNA on treatment with IAA was not inhibited by pretreatment with a protein synthesis inhibitor. The level of CsPK3 mRNA was high in hypocotyls of dark-grown cucumber seedlings and decreased to less than 50% of the original level within 15 min of the start of irradiation with white light.

  2. The Psm locus controls paternal sorting of the cucumber mitochondrial genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havey, M J; Park, Y H; Bartoszewski, G

    2004-01-01

    The mitochondrial genome of cucumber shows paternal transmission and there are no reports of variation for mitochondrial transmission in cucumber. We used a mitochondrially encoded mosaic (MSC) phenotype to reveal phenotypic variation for mitochondrial-genome transmission in cucumber. At least 10 random plants from each of 71 cucumber plant introductions (PIs) were crossed as the female with an inbred line (MSC16) possessing the MSC phenotype. Nonmosaic F1 progenies were observed at high frequencies (greater than 50%) in F1 families from 10 PIs, with the greatest proportions being from PI 401734. Polymorphisms near the mitochondrial cox1 gene and JLV5 region revealed that nonmosaic hybrid progenies from crosses of PI 401734 with MSC16 as the male possessed the nonmosaic-inducing mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from the paternal parent. F2) F3, and backcross progenies from nonmosaic F1 plants from PI 401734 x MSC16 were testcrossed with MSC16 as the male parent to reveal segregation of a nuclear locus (Psm for Paternal sorting of mitochondria) controlling sorting of mtDNA from the paternal parent. Psm is a unique locus at which the maternal genotype affects sorting of paternally transmitted mtDNA.

  3. In Vitro Auxin Binding to Cellular Membranes of Cucumber Fruits 123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Komaratchi R.; Mudge, Kenneth W.; Poovaiah, B. W.

    1981-01-01

    Specific binding of 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) to crude membrane preparations from cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) was demonstrated. This in vitro binding had a pH optimum of 3.75 and an equilibrium dissociation constant of 10 to 20 micromolar with 1250 picomoles binding sites per gram fresh weight. The NAA-binding sites were pronase sensitive. The supernatant from the fruit partially inhibited the in vitro NAA binding to fruit membranes. NAA, 2-naphthoxyacetic acid, 3-indoleacetic acid, 2-4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid, which are reported to be very good inducers of parthenocarpy in cucumber, showed a high degree of specific binding to cucumber fruit membranes. In comparison, 2-naphthaleneacetic acid and indolepropionic acid, which are reported to be very weak auxins in corn coleoptile, pea stem, and strawberry fruit growth bioassays, did not bind efficiently to cucumber fruit membranes. In vitro binding studies with fruit membranes suggest that auxin stimulated fruit growth may be mediated by membrane-associated, auxin-binding protein(s). PMID:16661764

  4. Sea Cucumbers Metabolites as Potent Anti-Cancer Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Janakiram, Naveena B; Altaf Mohammed; RAO, CHINTHALAPALLY V.

    2015-01-01

    Sea cucumbers and their extracts have gained immense popularity and interest among researchers and nutritionists due to their nutritive value, potential health benefits, and use in the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases. Many areas of the world use sea cucumbers in traditional foods and folk medicine. Though the actual components and their specific functions still remain to be investigated, most sea cucumber extracts are being studied for their anti-inflammatory functions, immunostimu...

  5. Arsenic speciation in xylem sap of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihucz, Victor G. [Joint Research Group of Environmental Chemistry of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and L. Eoetvoes University, Budapest (Hungary); Hungarian Satellite Centre of Trace Elements Institute to UNESCO, Budapest (Hungary); Tatar, Eniko [Hungarian Satellite Centre of Trace Elements Institute to UNESCO, Budapest (Hungary); L. Eoetvoes University, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Budapest (Hungary); Virag, Istvan [L. Eoetvoes University, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Budapest (Hungary); Cseh, Edit; Fodor, Ferenc [L. Eoetvoes University, Department of Plant Physiology, Budapest (Hungary); Zaray, Gyula [Joint Research Group of Environmental Chemistry of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and L. Eoetvoes University, Budapest (Hungary); Hungarian Satellite Centre of Trace Elements Institute to UNESCO, Budapest (Hungary); L. Eoetvoes University, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Budapest (Hungary)

    2005-10-01

    Flow injection analysis (FIA) and high-performance liquid chromatography double-focusing sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-DF-ICP-MS) were used for total arsenic determination and arsenic speciation of xylem sap of cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L.) grown in hydroponics containing 2 {mu}mol dm{sup -3} arsenate or arsenite, respectively. Arsenite [As(III)], arsenate [As(V)] and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) were identified in the sap of the plants. Arsenite was the predominant arsenic species in the xylem saps regardless of the type of arsenic treatment, and the following concentration order was determined: As(III) > As(V) > DMA. The amount of total As, calculated taking into consideration the mass of xylem sap collected, was almost equal for both treatments. Arsenite was taken up more easily by cucumber than arsenate. Partial oxidation of arsenite to arsenate (<10% in 48 h) was observed in the case of arsenite-containing nutrient solutions, which may explain the detection of arsenate in the saps of plants treated with arsenite. (orig.)

  6. High-level soluble expression of the functional peptide derived from the C-terminal domain of the sea cucumber lysozyme and analysis of its antimicrobial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Cong

    2014-11-01

    Conclusion: These results indicate that the expressed rSjLys-C is a highly soluble product and has a strong antimicrobial activity. Therefore, gaining a large quantity of biologically active rSjLys-C will be used for further biochemical and structural studies and provide a potential use in aquaculture and medicine.

  7. Ectopic Expression of CsCTR1, a Cucumber CTR-Like Gene, Attenuates Constitutive Ethylene Signaling in an Arabidopsis ctr1-1 Mutant and Expression Pattern Analysis of CsCTR1 in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beibei Bie

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The gaseous plant hormone ethylene regulates many aspects of plant growth, development and responses to the environment. Constitutive triple response 1 (CTR1 is a central regulator involved in the ethylene signal transduction pathway. To obtain a better understanding of this particular pathway in cucumber, the cDNA-encoding CTR1 (designated CsCTR1 was isolated from cucumber. A sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses revealed that CsCTR1 has a high degree of homology with other plant CTR1 proteins. The ectopic expression of CsCTR1 in the Arabidopsis ctr1-1 mutant attenuates constitutive ethylene signaling of this mutant, suggesting that CsCTR1 indeed performs its function as negative regulator of the ethylene signaling pathway. CsCTR1 is constitutively expressed in all of the examined cucumber organs, including roots, stems, leaves, shoot apices, mature male and female flowers, as well as young fruits. CsCTR1 expression gradually declined during male flower development and increased during female flower development. Additionally, our results indicate that CsCTR1 can be induced in the roots, leaves and shoot apices by external ethylene. In conclusion, this study provides a basis for further studies on the role of CTR1 in the biological processes of cucumber and on the molecular mechanism of the cucumber ethylene signaling pathway.

  8. Transcriptome profiling reveals roles of meristem regulators and polarity genes during fruit trichome development in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chunhua; Liu, Meiling; Jiang, Li; Liu, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Jianyu; Yan, Shuangshuang; Yang, Sen; Ren, Huazhong; Liu, Renyi; Zhang, Xiaolan

    2014-09-01

    Trichomes are epidermal hair-like structures that function in plant defence against biotic and abiotic stresses. Extensive studies have been performed on foliar trichomes development in Arabidopsis and tomato, but the molecular mechanism of fruit trichome formation remains elusive. Cucumber fruit is covered with trichomes (spines) that directly affect the appearance and quality of cucumber products. Here, we characterized the fruit spine development in wild-type (WT) cucumber and a spontaneous mutant, tiny branched hair (tbh). Our data showed that the cucumber trichome was multicellular and non-glandular, with malformed organelles and no endoreduplication. Fruit spine development was generally homogenous and marked by a rapid base expansion stage. Trichomes in the tbh mutant were tiny and branched, with increased density and aberrant cell shape. Transcriptome profiling indicated that meristem-related genes were highly enriched in the upregulated genes in the tbh versus the WT, as well as in WT spines after versus before base expansion, and that polarity regulators were greatly induced during spine base expansion. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR and in situ hybridization confirmed the differential expression of CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON3 (CUC3) and SHOOT MERISTEMLESS (STM) during spine development. Therefore, cucumber trichomes are morphologically different from those of Arabidopsis and tomato, and their development may be regulated by a distinct pathway involving meristem genes and polarity regulators.

  9. Genome-Wide Mapping of Structural Variations Reveals a Copy Number Variant That Determines Reproductive Morphology in Cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhonghua; Mao, Linyong; Chen, Huiming; Bu, Fengjiao; Li, Guangcun; Sun, Jinjing; Li, Shuai; Sun, Honghe; Jiao, Chen; Blakely, Rachel; Pan, Junsong; Cai, Run; Luo, Ruibang; Van de Peer, Yves; Jacobsen, Evert; Fei, Zhangjun; Huang, Sanwen

    2015-06-01

    Structural variations (SVs) represent a major source of genetic diversity. However, the functional impact and formation mechanisms of SVs in plant genomes remain largely unexplored. Here, we report a nucleotide-resolution SV map of cucumber (Cucumis sativas) that comprises 26,788 SVs based on deep resequencing of 115 diverse accessions. The largest proportion of cucumber SVs was formed through nonhomologous end-joining rearrangements, and the occurrence of SVs is closely associated with regions of high nucleotide diversity. These SVs affect the coding regions of 1676 genes, some of which are associated with cucumber domestication. Based on the map, we discovered a copy number variation (CNV) involving four genes that defines the Female (F) locus and gives rise to gynoecious cucumber plants, which bear only female flowers and set fruit at almost every node. The CNV arose from a recent 30.2-kb duplication at a meiotically unstable region, likely via microhomology-mediated break-induced replication. The SV set provides a snapshot of structural variations in plants and will serve as an important resource for exploring genes underlying key traits and for facilitating practical breeding in cucumber.

  10. Colorimetric detection of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus using unmodified gold nanoparticles as colorimetric probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Liu, Zhanmin; Xia, Xueying; Yang, Cuiyun; Huang, Junyi; Wan, Sibao

    2017-05-01

    Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV)causes a severe mosaic symptom of watermelon and cucumber, and can be transmitted via infected cucumber seeds, leaves and soil. It remains a challenge to detect this virus to prevent its introduction and infection and spread in fields. For this purpose, a simple and sensitive label-free colorimetric detection method for CGMMV has been developed with unmodified gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as colorimetric probes. The method is based on the finding that the presence of RT-PCR target products of CGMMV and species-specific probes results in color change of AuNPs from red to blue after NaCl induction. Normally, species-specific probes attach to the surface of AuNPs and thereby increasing their resistance to NaCl-induced aggregation. The concentration of sodium, probes in the reaction system and evaluation of specificity and sensitivity of a novel assay, visual detection of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus using unmodified AuNPs has been carried out with simple preparation of samples in our study. Through this assay, as low as 30pg/μL of CGMMV RNA was thus detected visually, by the naked eye, without the need for any sophisticated, expensive instrumentation and biochemical reagents. The specificity was 100% and exhibited good reproducibility in our assays. The results note that this assay is highly species-specific, simple, low-cost, and visual for easy detection of CGMMV in plant tissues. Therefore, visual assay is a potentially useful tool for middle or small-scales corporations and entry-exit inspection and quarantine bureau to detect CGMMV in cucumber seeds or plant tissues.

  11. Characterization of siRNAs derived from cucumber green mottle mosaic virus in infected cucumber plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongqiang; Deng, Congliang; Shang, Qiaoxia; Zhao, Xiaoli; Liu, Xingliang; Zhou, Qi

    2016-02-01

    Virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs) of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV), a member of the genus Tobamovirus, were characterised in cucumber plants by deep sequencing. CGMMV vsiRNAs of 21-22 nt in length predominated, suggesting that there might be a conserved mechanism of DCL2 and DCL4 involvement in the biogenesis of vsiRNAs, as well as a common RNA silencing pathway in CGMMV-infected cucumber plants. The 5'-terminal base of vsiRNAs was biased towards C/A/U, suggesting that CGMMV vsiRNAs might be loaded into diverse AGO-containing RISCs to disturb the gene expression of host plants. Possible targets for some of the vsiRNAs were also predicted.

  12. Multiple amine oxidases in cucumber seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percival, F W; Purves, W K

    1974-10-01

    Cell-free extracts of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv. National Pickling) seedlings were found to have amine oxidase activity when assayed with tryptamine as a substrate. Studies of the effect of lowered pH on the extract indicated that this activity was heterogeneous, and three amine oxidases could be separated by ion exchange chromatography. The partially purified enzymes were tested for their activities with several substrates and for their sensitivities to various amine oxidase inhibitors. One of the enzymes may be a monoamine oxidase, although it is inhibited by some diamine oxidase inhibitors. The other two enzymes have properties more characteristic of the diamine oxidases. The possible relationship of the amine oxidases to indoleacetic acid biosynthesis in cucumber seedlings is discussed.

  13. Dissipation kinetics of metalaxyl in cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattan, G S; Sharma, Neeraj

    2012-05-01

    Residues of metalaxyl were estimated in cucumber fruits using Gas Liquid Chromatography (GLC) with Nitrogen phosphorus detector (NPD). Following three applications of Ridomil-MZ @ 0.3% and 0.6%, the average initial deposits of metalaxyl were observed to be 0.19 and 0.24 mg kg(-1), respectively. The residues dissipated below the limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.02 mg kg(-1) after 10 days at both the dosages. The half-life values (T(1/2)) of metalaxyl was worked out to be 3.5 and 3.0 days, respectively at 0.3% and 0.6% concentration. Thus, a waiting period of 1 day was suggested for the safe consumption of metalaxyl treated cucumber.

  14. Bacterial contamination of cucumber fruit through adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reina, Laura D; Fleming, Henry P; Breidt, Frederick

    2002-12-01

    In this study, the adhesion of bacteria to fresh cucumber surfaces in aqueous suspension was shown to be dependent on time of incubation, inoculum species and concentration, and temperature. The adhesion of bacteria to the fruit in wash water was less extensive at lower temperatures and shorter exposure times. Various species of bacteria were adsorbed to cucumber surfaces in the following relative order: Salmonella Typhimurium > Staphylococcus aureus > Lactobacillus plantarum > Listeria monocytogenes. Cells were adsorbed at all temperatures tested (5, 15, 25, and 35 degrees C) at levels that depended on incubation time, but the numbers of cells adsorbed were larger at higher incubation temperatures. Levels of adhesion of bacteria to dewaxed fruit were higher for L. monocytogenes and lower for Salmonella Typhimurium, L. plantarum, and S. aureus than were levels of adhesion to waxed fruit.

  15. Ultrahigh-density linkage map for cultivated cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. using a single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping array.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mor Rubinstein

    Full Text Available Genotyping arrays are tools for high-throughput genotyping, which is beneficial in constructing saturated genetic maps and therefore high-resolution mapping of complex traits. Since the report of the first cucumber genome draft, genetic maps have been constructed mainly based on simple-sequence repeats (SSRs or on combinations of SSRs and sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP. In this study, we developed the first cucumber genotyping array consisting of 32,864 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. These markers cover the cucumber genome with a median interval of ~2 Kb and have expected genotype calls in parents/F1 hybridizations as a training set. The training set was validated with Fluidigm technology and showed 96% concordance with the genotype calls in the parents/F1 hybridizations. Application of the genotyping array was illustrated by constructing a 598.7 cM genetic map based on a '9930' × 'Gy14' recombinant inbred line (RIL population comprised of 11,156 SNPs. Marker collinearity between the genetic map and reference genomes of the two parents was estimated at R2 = 0.97. We also used the array-derived genetic map to investigate chromosomal rearrangements, regional recombination rate, and specific regions with segregation distortions. Finally, 82% of the linkage-map bins were polymorphic in other cucumber variants, suggesting that the array can be applied for genotyping in other lines. The genotyping array presented here, together with the genotype calls of the parents/F1 hybridizations as a training set, should be a powerful tool in future studies with high-throughput cucumber genotyping. An ultrahigh-density linkage map constructed by this genotyping array on RIL population may be invaluable for assembly improvement, and for mapping important cucumber QTLs.

  16. Imaging technique for detection of internal defects of pickling cucumbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickling cucumbers are susceptible to damage during harvest and postharvest handling and processing. While it is easier to detect external defects, it is difficult to detect internal defects such as bruises and hollow or split cucumbers. Hyperspectral imaging technique under transmittance mode was i...

  17. Detection of defect in pickling cucumbers using hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickling cucumbers are susceptible to damage due to adverse growth condition, improper harvest timing, and inappropriate harvesting and postharvest handling operations. There are typically five to 10 percentages of harvested pickling cucumbers that are not suitable for pickling and hence should be r...

  18. Hyperspectral Imaging for Defect Detection of Pickling Cucumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book chapter reviews the recent progress on hyperspectral imaging technology for defect inspection of pickling cucumbers. The chapter first describes near-infrared hyperspectral reflectance imaging technique for the detection of bruises on pickling cucumbers. The technique showed good detection...

  19. USDA, ARS beit alpha cucumber inbred backcross line population

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of Beit Alpha cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) market type inbred backcross were released in January 2010 by the Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture. The IBL were made available to U.S. cucumber breeders to supply a source from which they may develop Beit Al...

  20. Genetic diversity and population structure of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding genetic variation in germplasm collection is essential for the conservation and their efficient use in plant breeding. Cucumber is an important vegetable crop worldwide. Previous studies revealed a low genetic diversity in cucumber, but detailed insights into the crop’s genetic structu...

  1. Biosynthesis, regulation, and domestication of bitterness in cucumber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shang, Y.; Ma, Y.; Bouwmeester, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Cucurbitacins are triterpenoids that confer a bitter taste in cucurbits such as cucumber, melon, watermelon, squash, and pumpkin. These compounds discourage most pests on the plant and have also been shown to have antitumor properties. With genomics and biochemistry, we identified nine cucumber gene

  2. Bioactive compounds of sea cucumbers and their therapeutic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shujuan; Feng, Wenjing; Hu, Song; Liang, Shixiu; An, Nina; Mao, Yongjun

    2016-05-01

    Sea cucumbers belong to the Class Holothuroidea of marine invertebrates. They are commercially valuable and prized as a food and folk medicine in Asia. Nutritionally, sea cucumbers have an impressive profile of valuable nutrients such as vitamins, minerals and amino acids. A number of unique biological and pharmacological activities/properties, including anticancer, anticoagulant/antithrombotic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antihyperlipidemic, antihyperglycemic, anti-inflammatory, antihypertension and radioprotective, have been ascribed to various compounds isolated from sea cucumbers. The therapeutic properties and medicinal benefits of sea cucumbers can be linked to the presence of a wide array of bioactives, especially triterpene glycosides, acid mucopolysaccharide, sphingoid bases, glycolipids, fucosylated chondroitin sulfate, polysaccharides, phospholipids, cerebrosides, phosphatidylcholines, and other extracts and hydrolysates. This review highlights the valuable bioactive components as well as the multiple therapeutic properties of sea cucumbers with a view to exploring their potential uses as functional foods and a natural source of new multifunctional drugs.

  3. Role of cucurbitacin C in resistance to spider mite (Tetranychus urticae) in cucumber (Cucumber sativus L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balkema-Boomstra, A.G.; Zijlstra, S.; Verstappen, F.W.A.; Inggamer, H.; Mercke, P.

    2003-01-01

    Cucurbitacins are bitter triterpenoid compounds that are toxic to most organisms and occur widely in wild and cultivated Cucurbitaceae. The only cucurbitacin identified in Cucumis sativus is cucurbitacin C. The bitter taste of cucumber has been correlated with resistance to the spider mite

  4. Effects of exogenous spermidine on lipid peroxidation and membrane proton pump activity of cucumber seedling leaves under high temperature stress%外源Spd对高温胁迫下黄瓜幼苗叶片膜脂过氧化及质子泵活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田婧; 郭世荣; 孙锦; 王丽萍; 阳燕娟; 李斌

    2011-01-01

    以较为耐热的黄瓜品种‘津春4号’为试材,在人工气候箱中,采用石英砂培养加营养液浇灌的栽培方式,研究了叶面喷施外源亚精胺(Spd)对高温胁迫下黄瓜幼苗叶片膜脂过氧化程度、质子泵活性及其基因表达的影响.结果表明:高温胁迫下,外源Spd促进黄瓜幼苗株高、茎粗、干、鲜质量和叶面积显著增加,有效抑制叶片相对电导率、丙二醛(MDA)含量和脂氧合酶(LOX)活性的升高,有助于提高叶片细胞质膜和液泡膜H+ -ATPase活性,但在基因表达水平上无显著差异.外源Spd可显著降低黄瓜幼苗叶片膜脂过氧化程度,提高质子泵活性,从而稳定膜的结构和功能,缓解高温胁迫对黄瓜幼苗造成的伤害,提高幼苗对高温胁迫的耐性.%Taking a relatively heat-resistant cucumber (Cucumis sativus) cultivar ' Jinchun No. 4' as test material, a sand culture experiment was conducted in growth chamber to investigate the effects of foliar spraying spermidine (Spd) on the lipid peroxidation, membrane proton pump activity , and corresponding gene expression of cucumber seedling leaves under high temperature stress. Compared with the control, foliar spraying Spd increased the plant height, stem diameter, dry and fresh mass, and leaf area significantly, and inhibited the increase of leaf relative conductivity, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and lipoxygenase ( LOX) activity effectively. Foliar spraying Spd also helped to the increase of leaf plasma membrane- and tonoplast H+-ATPase activity, but no significant difference was observed in the gene expression levels. These results suggested that exogenous Spd could significantly decrease the leaf lipid peroxidation and increase the proton pump activity , and thus, stabilize the leaf membrane structure and function, alleviate the damage induced by high temperature stress, and enhance the heat tolerance of cucumber seedlings.

  5. Heterogeneity in pepper isolates of cucumber mosaic virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Alvarado, G.; Kurath, G.; Dodds, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    Twenty-four cucumber mosaic cucumovirus (CMV) field isolates from pepper crops in Cali-fornia were characterized and compared by nucleic acid hybridization subgrouping, virion electrophoresis, and biological effects in several hosts. Isolates, belonging to subgroup I or subgroup II, were found that induced severe symptoms in mechanically inoculated bell pep-pers. Only two isolates, both from subgroup II, were mild. A group of 19 isolates collected from a single field were all in subgroup II and appeared identical by virion electrophoresis, but they exhibited varying degrees of symptom severity in peppers. As a more detailed indicator of heterogeneity, these 19 isolates were examined by RNase protection assays to delect sequence variation in the coat protein gene region of their genomes. The patterns of bands observed were complex and a high degree of genomic heterogeneity was detected between isolates, with no apparent correlation to symptomatology in bell pepper.

  6. Molecular cloning and characterization of violaxanthin de-epoxidase (CsVDE in cucumber.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Li

    Full Text Available Violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE plays an important role in protecting the photosynthetic apparatus from photo-damage by dissipating excessively absorbed light energy as heat, via the conversion of violaxanthin (V to intermediate product antheraxanthin (A and final product zeaxanthin (Z under high light stress. We have cloned a violaxanthin de-epoxidase gene (CsVDE from cucumber. The amino acid sequence of CsVDE has high homology with VDEs in other plants. RT-PCR analysis and histochemical staining show that CsVDE is expressed in all green tissues in cucumber and Arabidopsis. Using GFP fusion protein and immunogold labeling methods, we show that CsVDE is mainly localized in chloroplasts in cucumber. Under high light stress, relative expression of CsVDE and the de-epoxidation ratio (A+Z/(V+A+Z is increased rapidly, and abundance of the gold particles was also increased. Furthermore, CsVDE is quickly induced by cold and drought stress, reaching maximum levels at the 2(nd hour and the 9(th day, respectively. The ratio of (A+Z/(V+A+Z and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ is reduced in transgenic Arabidopsis down-regulated by the antisense fragment of CsVDE, compared to wild type (WT Arabidopsis under high light stress. This indicates decreased functionality of the xanthophyll cycle and increased sensitivity to photoinhibition of photosystem II (PSII in transgenic Arabidopsis under high light stress.

  7. Molecular cloning and characterization of violaxanthin de-epoxidase (CsVDE) in cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Zhao, Wenchao; Sun, Xiyan; Huang, Hongyu; Kong, Lingcui; Niu, Dandan; Sui, Xiaolei; Zhang, Zhenxian

    2013-01-01

    Violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE) plays an important role in protecting the photosynthetic apparatus from photo-damage by dissipating excessively absorbed light energy as heat, via the conversion of violaxanthin (V) to intermediate product antheraxanthin (A) and final product zeaxanthin (Z) under high light stress. We have cloned a violaxanthin de-epoxidase gene (CsVDE) from cucumber. The amino acid sequence of CsVDE has high homology with VDEs in other plants. RT-PCR analysis and histochemical staining show that CsVDE is expressed in all green tissues in cucumber and Arabidopsis. Using GFP fusion protein and immunogold labeling methods, we show that CsVDE is mainly localized in chloroplasts in cucumber. Under high light stress, relative expression of CsVDE and the de-epoxidation ratio (A+Z)/(V+A+Z) is increased rapidly, and abundance of the gold particles was also increased. Furthermore, CsVDE is quickly induced by cold and drought stress, reaching maximum levels at the 2(nd) hour and the 9(th) day, respectively. The ratio of (A+Z)/(V+A+Z) and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) is reduced in transgenic Arabidopsis down-regulated by the antisense fragment of CsVDE, compared to wild type (WT) Arabidopsis under high light stress. This indicates decreased functionality of the xanthophyll cycle and increased sensitivity to photoinhibition of photosystem II (PSII) in transgenic Arabidopsis under high light stress.

  8. Risk of field cultivation of pickling cucumber caused by unfavorable sunshine duration conditions

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Solar energy, accessible to plants during sunshine from the sunrise to the sunset is of key importance in productivity of agrocenoses. The aim of the work was to determine risk of pickling cucumber cultivation caused by an unfavorable course of sunshine duration in Poland on the basis of a 40-year research period 1966-2005. The research into the subject was undertaken due to frequent occurrence of sunshine deficiency in Poland and its high temporal and spatial variability. Effect of solar con...

  9. Aquaculture, Biotechnological and Seafood Resource Potential of Sea Cucumbers from the Peniche coast (Portugal)

    OpenAIRE

    Rita Alves Santos

    2014-01-01

    Sea cucumbers are highly marketable as food and medicinal product. This has resulted in an increasing overfishing and in a new interest in European species. In this work, the reproductive biology of Holothuria forskali and Holothuria mammata was performed by evaluating the gonadosomatic index and histological analyzes of the gonadal tubules. The biotechnological potential was assessed through the evaluation of the antioxidant, antimicrobial and antitumor potential. The antioxidant activity wa...

  10. Laser-based trace gas detection of ethane as a result of photo-oxidative damage in chilled cucumber leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santosa, I.E.; Laarhoven, L.J.; Harbinson, J.; Driscoll, S.; Harren, F.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    At low temperatures, high light intensity induces strong photooxidative lipid peroxidation in chilling sensitive cucumber leaves. A sensitive laser-based photoacoustic detector was employed to monitor on-line the evolution of ethane, one of the end products of lipid peroxidation. The Deltav=2 CO las

  11. Pure Culture Fermentation of Brined Cucumbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etchells, J L; Costilow, R N; Anderson, T E; Bell, T A

    1964-11-01

    The relative abilities of Pediococcus cerevisiae, Lactobacillus plantarum, L. brevis, and several other species of lactic acid bacteria to grow and produce acid in brined cucumbers were evaluated in pure culture fermentations. Such fermentations were made possibly by the use of two techniques, gamma radiation (0.83 to 1.00 Mrad) and hot-water blanching (66 to 80 C for 5 min), designed first to rid the cucumbers of naturally occurring, interfering, and competitive microbial groups prior to brining, followed by inoculation with the desired lactic acid bacteria. Of the nine species tested, strains of the three common to cucumber fermentations, P. cerevisiae, L. plantarum, and L. brevis, grew to the highest populations, and produced the highest levels of brine acidity and the lowest pH values in fermentations at 5.4 to 5.6% NaCl by weight; also, their sequence of active development in fermentations, with the use of a three-species mixture for inoculation, was in the species order just named. This sequence of occurrence was similar to that estimated by others for natural fermentations. The rates of growth and acid production in fermentations with a mixture of P. cerevisiae, L. plantarum, and L. brevis increased as the incubation temperature was increased from 21 to 27 to 32 C; however, the maximal populations and acidities attained were essentially the same for fermentations at each temperature. Further, these same three species were found to be the most salt tolerant of those tested; their upper limit for appreciable growth and measurable acid production was about 8% salt, whereas thermophilic species such as L. thermophilus, L. lactis, L. helveticus, L. fermenti, and L. delbrueckii exhibited a much lower salt tolerance, ranging from about 2.5 to 4.0%. However, certain strains of L. delbrueckii grew very rapidly in cucumbers brined at 2.5 to 3.0% salt, and produced sufficient acid in about 30 hr at 48 C to reduce the brine pH from above 7.0 to below 4.0. An inexpensive

  12. Rhizobacterial exopolysaccharides elicit induced resistance on cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyungseok; Kloepper, Joseph W; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2008-06-01

    The role of exopolysaccharides (EPSs) from a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium, Burkholderia gladioli IN26, on elicitation of induced systemic resistance was investigated. A purified EPS induced expression of PR- 1a::GUS on tobacco and elicited induced resistance against Colletotrichum orbiculare on cucumber. The maximum level of disease protection was noted when seeds were soaked in 200 ppm of the EPS. Our results indicate that EPS from specific rhizobacteria can elicit induced resistance and suggest that bacterial EPS might be a useful elicitor of resistance under field conditions.

  13. Sex Determination in Sea Cucumbers: Holothuria forskali and Stichopus regalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipa Pinheiro Santos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sea cucumber aquaculture is underexploited in temperate regions, and it is inexistent in Portugal. However, there are some species with a large potential for this sector, namely Stichopus regalis and Holothuria forskali, as it their nutritional value. S. regalis is a common sea cucumber that is found in a wide depth range and is currently consumed all over the world, majority in Asia, with a high commercial value. On the other hand, H. forskali is the most plentiful specie of the Portuguese coast. The purpose of this study is to evaluate sex ratio on both species through biopsy method, using biopsy needle to collect a piece of gonad. Holothurian specimens were sampled coastwise in Peniche, Portugal (39° 21′ 32″ N, 9° 22′ 40″ W. A total of 45 H. forskali were collected in the low tide and 48 S. regalis were caught by trawl method. Both species were kept in captivity during 8 months, the rearing conditions are maintained close as possible to the natural habitat, and they were placed in a sand bottom. Mortality was evaluated during conditioning period, and it was verified approximately 19% of mortality in S. regalis, although in H. forskali it was not observed. Sex identification was performed with success only in H. forskali, and sexual ratio found was 1:1. All S. regalis specimens arrived eviscerated to the Aquaculture Laboratory and it was caused by the trawl capture method. For that reason, it was not possible to assess the sexual ratio. The possibility to distinguish holothurian genre is essential to realize sexual behavior, and to ease the understanding of reproductive cycle in attempt to introduce these new species for aquaculture rearing.

  14. Microsatellite DNA polymorphisms and the relation with body weight in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiuli; SHAN Xue; QIU Xuemei; MENG Xiangying; CHANG Yaqing

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between microsatellite polymorphism and body weight of captive bred Chinese sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus was investigated in two local populations in Dalian.Among ten loci discovered, nine show changes except for A J07 loci. Seven loci were found highly polymorphic in both populations. For each locus in two populations, the average number of alleles is 6.428 6 and 6.285 7, the average observed heterozygosity at 0.225 7 and 0.245 9, the expected heterozygosity at 0.776 8 and 0.748 8, the polymorphism information content (PIC) at 0.709 2 and 0.674 6, respectively. Further analysis show significant correlation between A. japonicus body weight and occurrence markers AJ02 and AJ04. The findings of the relation may be helpful for molecular breeding,as well as the marker-assisted selection of sea cucumbers.

  15. Assessment of Salicylic Acid Impacts on Seedling Characteristic of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. under Water Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein MARDANI

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Impacts of various concentrations of salicylic acid (SA on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. seedling characteristic were evaluated under different water stress levels by using a factorial arrangement based on completely randomized design with three replications at experimental greenhouse of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. The studied factors included three water deficit levels (100% FC, 80% FC, and 60% FC considered as first factor and five levels of SA concentrations (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1 mM as second factor. Results showed that foliar application of SA at the highest concentration enhanced leaf area, leaf and dry weight while decreased stomatal conductance under high level of water deficit stress. Though, severe water deficit stress sharply raised the SPAD reading values. In general, exogenous SA application could develop cucumber seedling characteristic and improve water stress tolerance.

  16. Study on the Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Sea Cucumber (Paracaudina chinens var.) Gelatin Hydrolysate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Gelatin from the sea cucumber (Paracaudina chinens var.) was hydrolyzed by bromelain and the hydrolysate was found to have a high free radical scavenging activity. The hydrolysate was fractionated through an ultrafiltration membrane with 5 kDa molecular weight cutoff (MWCO). The portion (less than 5 kDa) was further separated by Sephadex G-25. The active peak was collected and assayed for free radical scavenging activity. The scavenging rates for superoxide anion radicals (O2·-) and hydroxyl radicals (·OH) of the fraction with the highest activity were 29.02% and 75.41%, respectively. A rabbit liver mitochondrial free radical damage model was adopted to study the free radical scavenging activity of the fraction. The results showed that the sea cucumber gelatin hydrolysate can prevent the damage of rabbit liver and mitochondria.

  17. The genome of the cucumber, Cucumis sativus L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Sanwen; Li, Ruiqiang; Zhang, Zhonghua

    2009-01-01

    ancestral chromosomes after divergence from Cucumis melo. The sequenced cucumber genome affords insight into traits such as its sex expression, disease resistance, biosynthesis of cucurbitacin and 'fresh green' odor. We also identify 686 gene clusters related to phloem function. The cucumber genome provides......Cucumber is an economically important crop as well as a model system for sex determination studies and plant vascular biology. Here we report the draft genome sequence of Cucumis sativus var. sativus L., assembled using a novel combination of traditional Sanger and next-generation Illumina GA...

  18. The entry of cucumber mosaic virus into cucumber xylem is facilitated by co-infection with zucchini yellow mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Tomofumi; Nobuhara, Shinya; Nishimura, Miho; Ryang, Bo-Song; Naoe, Masaki; Matsumoto, Tadashi; Kosaka, Yoshitaka; Ohki, Satoshi T

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the synergistic effects of co-infection by zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) and cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) on viral distribution in the vascular tissues of cucumber. Immunohistochemical observations indicated that ZYMV was present in both the phloem and xylem tissues. ZYMV-RNA was detected in both the xylem wash and guttation fluid of ZYMV-inoculated cucumber. Steam treatment at a stem internode indicated that ZYMV enters the xylem vessels and moves through them but does not cause systemic infection in the plant. CMV distribution in singly infected cucumbers was restricted to phloem tissue. By contrast, CMV was detected in the xylem tissue of cotyledons in plants co-infected with CMV and ZYMV. Although both ZYMV-RNA and CMV-RNA were detected in the xylem wash and upper internodes of steam-treated, co-infected cucumbers grown at 24 °C, neither virus was detected in the upper leaves using an ELISA assay. Genetically modified CMV harboring the ZYMV HC-Pro gene was distributed in the xylem and phloem tissues of singly inoculated cucumber cotyledons. These results indicate that the ZYMV HC-Pro gene facilitates CMV entry into the xylem vessels of co-infected cucumbers.

  19. Pathogenic Fungi Transmitted Through Cucumber Seeds and Safely Elimination by Application of Peppermint Extract and Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman S.H. FARRAG

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Diseases induced by Fusarium, like damping-off and wilt on cucumber, are serious problems around the world. Samples of cucumber seeds were collected from commercial markets in Egypt and tested for seed-borne fungi. In order to detect the maximum number of internal and external seed-borne fungi, agar plate examination of disinfected and non-disinfected seeds were used. Two species of Fusarium were the most frequent and predominant fungi. Facultative parasites of the genera Alternaria, Rhizoctonia, Helminthosporium and Penicillium were also found. A total 33 isolates of Fusarium spp. were obtained using Komadas selective medium. Fusarium oxysporum and F. solani were highly frequent. Pathogenicity test indicated that, F. oxysporum isolate (Fem8 was the main causal organism of pre- and post-emergence damping off. Furthermore, it occurred in all seed parts tested. Some infected seeds germinate, but they were either rapidly overgrown by F. oxysporum or they developed into a diseased seedling. The water extract of garlic, peppermint and rheum completely inhibited the conidiospore germination and mycelial growth of F. oxysporum at tested conc. 3, 2 and 3%, respectively. Soaked seeds in 2% peppermint extract and evaporated seeds by vapor of peppermint oil caused a highly reduction in the infection and reduced transmission of the referred fungi from seeds to the growing seedlings. The vigor of cucumber seedlings raised from the treated seeds was better than that developed from untreated ones.

  20. Pathogenic Fungi Transmitted Through Cucumber Seeds and Safely Elimination by Application of Peppermint Extract and Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman S.H. FARRAG

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Diseases induced by Fusarium, like damping-off and wilt on cucumber, are serious problems around the world. Samples of cucumber seeds were collected from commercial markets in Egypt and tested for seed-borne fungi. In order to detect the maximum number of internal and external seed-borne fungi, agar plate examination of disinfected and non-disinfected seeds were used. Two species of Fusarium were the most frequent and predominant fungi. Facultative parasites of the genera Alternaria, Rhizoctonia, Helminthosporium and Penicillium were also found. A total 33 isolates of Fusarium spp. were obtained using Komada�s selective medium. Fusarium oxysporum and F. solani were highly frequent. Pathogenicity test indicated that, F. oxysporum isolate (Fem8 was the main causal organism of pre- and post-emergence damping off. Furthermore, it occurred in all seed parts tested. Some infected seeds germinate, but they were either rapidly overgrown by F. oxysporum or they developed into a diseased seedling. The water extract of garlic, peppermint and rheum completely inhibited the conidiospore germination and mycelial growth of F. oxysporum at tested conc. 3, 2 and 3%, respectively. Soaked seeds in 2% peppermint extract and evaporated seeds by vapor of peppermint oil caused a highly reduction in the infection and reduced transmission of the referred fungi from seeds to the growing seedlings. The vigor of cucumber seedlings raised from the treated seeds was better than that developed from untreated ones.

  1. Anticancer Activity of Sea Cucumber Triterpene Glycosides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry L. Aminin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Triterpene glycosides are characteristic secondary metabolites of sea cucumbers (Holothurioidea, Echinodermata. They have hemolytic, cytotoxic, antifungal, and other biological activities caused by membranotropic action. These natural products suppress the proliferation of various human tumor cell lines in vitro and, more importantly, intraperitoneal administration in rodents of solutions of some sea cucumber triterpene glycosides significantly reduces both tumor burden and metastasis. The anticancer molecular mechanisms include the induction of tumor cell apoptosis through the activation of intracellular caspase cell death pathways, arrest of the cell cycle at S or G2/M phases, influence on nuclear factors, NF-κB, and up-down regulation of certain cellular receptors and enzymes participating in cancerogenesis, such as EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor, Akt (protein kinase B, ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinases, FAK (focal adhesion kinase, MMP-9 (matrix metalloproteinase-9 and others. Administration of some glycosides leads to a reduction of cancer cell adhesion, suppression of cell migration and tube formation in those cells, suppression of angiogenesis, inhibition of cell proliferation, colony formation and tumor invasion. As a result, marked growth inhibition of tumors occurs in vitro and in vivo. Some holothurian triterpene glycosides have the potential to be used as P-gp mediated MDR reversal agents in combined therapy with standard cytostatics.

  2. Cucumber disease diagnosis using multispectral images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jie; Li, Hongning; Shi, Junsheng; Yang, Weiping; Liao, Ningfang

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, multispectral imaging technique for plant diseases diagnosis is presented. Firstly, multispectral imaging system is designed. This system utilizes 15 narrow-band filters, a panchromatic band, a monochrome CCD camera, and standard illumination observing environment. The spectral reflectance and color of 8 Macbeth color patches are reproduced between 400nm and 700nm in the process. In addition, spectral reflectance angle and color difference is obtained through measurements and analysis of color patches using spectrometer and multispectral imaging system. The result shows that 16 narrow-bands multispectral imaging system realizes good accuracy in spectral reflectance and color reproduction. Secondly, a horticultural plant, cucumber' familiar disease are the researching objects. 210 multispectral samples are obtained by multispectral and are classified by BP artificial neural network. The classification accuracies of Sphaerotheca fuliginea, Corynespora cassiicola, Pseudoperonospora cubensis are 100%. Trichothecium roseum and Cladosporium cucumerinum are 96.67% and 90.00%. It is confirmed that the multispectral imaging system realizes good accuracy in the cucumber diseases diagnosis.

  3. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of the ethylene insensitive3 (EIN3) gene in cucumber (Cucumis sativus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bie, B B; Pan, J S; He, H L; Yang, X Q; Zhao, J L; Cai, R

    2013-10-07

    The plant gaseous hormone ethylene regulates many aspects of plant growth, development, and responses to the environment. Ethylene insensitive3 (EIN3) is a key transcription factor involved in the ethylene signal transduction pathway. To gain a better understanding of this particular pathway in cucumber, the full-length cDNA encoding EIN3 (designated as CsEIN3) was cloned from cucumber for the first time by rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The full length of CsEIN3 was 2560 bp, with an open reading frame of 1908 bp encoding 635 amino acids. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses revealed that CsEIN3 has high homology with other plant EIN3/EIL proteins that were derived from a common ancestor during evolution, and CsEIN3 was grouped into a cluster along with melon. Homology modeling demonstrated that CsEIN3 has a highly similar structure to the specific DNA-binding domain contained in EIN3/EIL proteins. Based on quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis, we found that CsEIN3 was constitutively expressed in all organs examined, and was increased during flower development and maturation in both male and female flowers. Our results suggest that CsEIN3 is involved in processes of flower development. In conclusion, this study will provide the basis for further study on the role of EIN3 in relevant biological processes of cucumber and on the molecular mechanism of the cucumber ethylene signaling pathway.

  4. Endogenous salicylic acid accumulation is required for chilling tolerance in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chun-Juan; Li, Liang; Shang, Qing-Mao; Liu, Xin-Yan; Zhang, Zhi-Gang

    2014-10-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is an important plant hormone, and its exogenous application can induce tolerance to multiple environmental stresses in plants. In this study, we examine the potential involvement of endogenous SA in response to chilling in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings. A low temperature of 8 °C induces a moderate increase in endogenous SA levels. Chilling stimulates the enzymatic activities and the expression of genes for phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and benzoic acid-2-hydroxylase rather than isochorismate synthase. This indicates that the PAL enzymatic pathway contributes to chilling-induced SA production. Cucumber seedlings pretreated with SA biosynthesis inhibitors accumulate less endogenous SA and suffer more from chilling damage. The expression of cold-responsive genes is also repressed by SA inhibitors. The reduction in stress tolerance and in gene expression can be restored by the exogenous application of SA, confirming the critical roles of SA in chilling responses in cucumber seedlings. Furthermore, the inhibition of SA biosynthesis under chilling stress results in a prolonged and enhanced hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accumulation. The application of exogenous SA and the chemical scavenger of H2O2 reduces the excess H2O2 and alleviates chilling injury. In contrast, the protective effects of SA are negated by foliar spraying with high concentrations of H2O2 and an inhibitor of the antioxidant enzyme. These results suggest that endogenous SA is required in response to chilling stress in cucumber seedlings, by modulating the expression of cold-responsive genes and the precise induction of cellular H2O2 levels.

  5. Development of broad virus resistance in non-transgenic cucumber using CRISPR/Cas9 technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Jeyabharathy; Brumin, Marina; Wolf, Dalia; Leibman, Diana; Klap, Chen; Pearlsman, Mali; Sherman, Amir; Arazi, Tzahi; Gal-On, Amit

    2016-09-01

    Genome editing in plants has been boosted tremendously by the development of CRISPR/Cas9 (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats) technology. This powerful tool allows substantial improvement in plant traits in addition to those provided by classical breeding. Here, we demonstrate the development of virus resistance in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) using Cas9/subgenomic RNA (sgRNA) technology to disrupt the function of the recessive eIF4E (eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E) gene. Cas9/sgRNA constructs were targeted to the N' and C' termini of the eIF4E gene. Small deletions and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were observed in the eIF4E gene targeted sites of transformed T1 generation cucumber plants, but not in putative off-target sites. Non-transgenic heterozygous eif4e mutant plants were selected for the production of non-transgenic homozygous T3 generation plants. Homozygous T3 progeny following Cas9/sgRNA that had been targeted to both eif4e sites exhibited immunity to Cucumber vein yellowing virus (Ipomovirus) infection and resistance to the potyviruses Zucchini yellow mosaic virus and Papaya ring spot mosaic virus-W. In contrast, heterozygous mutant and non-mutant plants were highly susceptible to these viruses. For the first time, virus resistance has been developed in cucumber, non-transgenically, not visibly affecting plant development and without long-term backcrossing, via a new technology that can be expected to be applicable to a wide range of crop plants.

  6. Growth and yield of grafted cucumbers in soil infested with root-knot nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smiljana Goreta Ban

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of rootstocks on the growth and yield of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. plants in soils infested with root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp. Cucumber 'Adrian' was grown with its own roots or was grafted onto three rootstocks of Lagenariasiceraria (Molina Standi. ('Emphasis', 'S-1', and 'Gourd', two interspecific hybrid rootstocks of Cucurbita maxima Duchesne x C. moschata Duchesne ('Strong Tosa' and 'RS 841 Improved' and zucchini Cucurbita pepo L. ('Romanesco Zucchini'. The experiments were conducted in commercial greenhouse, with cucumber grafted onto three rootstocks in the first season and onto six rootstocks in the second spring-summer season. The number of leaves was considerably affected by the rootstock in both seasons, and was the highest for the plants grafted onto interspecific rootstocks (28.0 in the first and 44.9 in the second season. The plants grafted onto 'Strong Tosa' had higher total number of fruits (19.9 and yield (5.38 kg compared to other rootstocks or non-grafted plants in first season, and the same result was found for two interspecific rootstocks in the second season (6.96 kg and more than 28.9 fruits per plant. The total soluble solids, pH and electrical conductivity of the fruit were not affected by rootstock, while titratable acidity changed with the rootstock type. The grafting of cucumber plants onto different rootstocks was confirmed as an acceptable non-chemical method to compete with the limitations of soils infected with root-knot nematodes, but the effect was highly dependent on the choice of the rootstock.

  7. Response of wild bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Anthophila) to surrounding land cover in Wisconsin pickling cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstein, D M; Huseth, A S; Groves, R L

    2012-06-01

    Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is among the plants highly dependent on insect-mediated pollination, but little is known about its unmanaged pollinators. Both domestic and wild bee populations in central Wisconsin pickling cucumber fields were assessed using a combination of pan trapping and floral observations before and during bloom. Together with land cover analyses extending 2,000 m from field centers, the relationship of land cover components and bee abundance and diversity were examined. Over a 2-yr sample interval distributed among 18 experimental sites, 3,185 wild bees were collected representing >60 species. A positive association was found between both noncrop and herbaceous areas with bee abundance and diversity only during bloom. Response of bee abundance and diversity to land cover was strongest at larger buffers presumably because of the heterogeneous nature of the landscape and connectivity between crop and noncrop areas. These results are consistent with previous research that has found a weak response of wild bees to surrounding vegetation in moderately fragmented areas. A diverse community of wild bees is present within the fields of a commercial cucumber system, and there is evidence of floral visitation by unmanaged bees. This evidence emphasizes the importance of wild pollinators in fragmented landscapes and the need for additional research to investigate the effectiveness of individual species in pollen deposition.

  8. HANABA TARANU regulates the shoot apical meristem and leaf development in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Lian; Yan, Shuangshuang; Jiang, Li; Liu, Meiling; Zhang, Juan; Zhao, Jianyu; Zhao, Wensheng; Han, Ying-Yan; Wang, Qian; Zhang, Xiaolan

    2015-12-01

    The shoot apical meristem (SAM) is essential for continuous organogenesis in higher plants, while the leaf is the primary source organ and the leaf shape directly affects the efficiency of photosynthesis. HANABA TARANU (HAN) encodes a GATA3-type transcription factor that functions in floral organ development, SAM organization, and embryo development in Arabidopsis, but is involved in suppressing bract outgrowth and promoting branching in grass species. Here the function of the HAN homologue CsHAN1 was characterized in cucumber, an important vegetable with great agricultural and economic value. CsHAN1 is predominantly expressed at the junction of the SAM and the stem, and can partially rescue the han-2 floral organ phenotype in Arabidopsis. Overexpression and RNAi of CsHAN1 transgenic cucumber resulted in retarded growth early after embryogenesis and produced highly lobed leaves. Further, it was found that CsHAN1 may regulate SAM development through regulating the WUSCHEL (WUS) and SHOOT MERISTEMLESS (STM) pathways, and mediate leaf development through a complicated gene regulatory network in cucumber.

  9. Infectivity and complete nucleotide sequence of cucumber fruit mottle mosaic virus isolate Cm cDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Sun-Ju; Hong, Jin-Sung; Lee, Gung Pyo

    2014-07-01

    Three isolates of cucumber fruit mottle mosaic virus (CFMMV) were collected from melon, cucumber, and pumpkin plants in Korea. A full-length cDNA clone of CFMMV-Cm (melon isolate) was produced and evaluated for infectivity after T7 transcription in vitro (pT7CF-Cmflc). The complete CFMMV genome sequence of the infectious clone pT7CF-Cmflc was determined. The genome of CFMMV-Cm consisted of 6,571 nucleotides and shared high nucleotide sequence identity (98.8 %) with the Israel isolate of CFMMV. Based on the infectious clone pT7CF-Cmflc, a CaMV 35S-promoter driven cDNA clone (p35SCF-Cmflc) was subsequently constructed and sequenced. Mechanical inoculation with RNA transcripts of pT7CF-Cmflc and agro-inoculation with p35SCF-Cmflc resulted in systemic infection of cucumber and melon, producing symptoms similar to those produced by CFMMV-Cm. Progeny virus in infected plants was detected by RT-PCR, western blot assay, and transmission electron microscopy.

  10. Occurrence and molecular characterization of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus in cucurbit crops of KPK, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asad Ali

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Field survey of the cucurbit crops revealed a high incidence of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province (KPK, Pakistan. Among the seven districts surveyed, average percent incidence of CGMMV was recorded up to 58.1% in district Nowshera, followed by 51.1% in district Charsada, 40.5% in district Swabi and 37.3% in district Mardan. In Swat and Dir districts average incidence CGMMV was recorded upto 31.2% and 29.4%, respectively. Among the different crops highest incidence in plain areas of KPK was recorded in bottle gourd (59.3% followed by 56.3% in Squash, 54.5% in Pumpkin, 45.5% in Melon, 41.7% in Cucumber and 29.9% in Sponge gourd. In Northern hilly areas highest incidence of CGMMV (52.9% was observed in pumpkin, followed by 49.6% in bottle gourd, 47.3% in squash, 45.1% in Melon 42.3% in cucumber and 41.6% in sponge gourd. Little variability was observed in the coat protein amino acid sequence identities of CGMMV Pakistan isolate, when compared with other reported isolates.

  11. UV-B radiation does not limit carbohydrate level and carbohydrate metabolism in cucumber leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Rybus-Zając

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Cucumber is a vegetable exhibiting relatively high sensitivity to environmental stress factors. When it is grown outdoors, from early stages of development there is a real risk of exposure to elevated UV-B radiation. In order to explain the effects of time-dependent UV-B doses on carbohydrate level and metabolism, the photosynthetic activity, accumulation of carbohydrates and activities of carbohydrate-related enzymes were determined in the cucumber leaves. Elevated UV-B radiation led to an increase in the rate of photosynthesis, which was reflected by an increase in SPAD values. Higher photosynthetic activity resulted in an increase in levels of soluble sugars. In view of the above-mentioned results, radiation stress led to a UV-B time-dependent dose increase in the activity of two enzymes decomposing carbohydrate: invertase and glucosidase. Our results suggest that the exposure of cucumber plants to supplemental UV-B doses does not limit the availability of the photoassimilate. Carbohydrates are required to provide not only respiratory energy for protection, maintenance (and repair of plant activity and structure, but also provide biosynthetic carbon skeletons for secondary metabolite synthesis

  12. Outbreak of Salmonella Oslo Infections Linked to Persian Cucumbers - United States, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottichio, Lyndsay; Medus, Carlota; Sorenson, Alida; Donovan, Danielle; Sharma, Reeti; Dowell, Natasha; Williams, Ian; Wellman, Allison; Jackson, Alikeh; Tolar, Beth; Griswold, Taylor; Basler, Colin

    2016-12-30

    In April 2016, PulseNet, the national molecular subtyping network for foodborne disease surveillance, detected a multistate cluster of Salmonella enterica serotype Oslo infections with an indistinguishable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern (XbaI PFGE pattern OSLX01.0090).* This PFGE pattern was new in the database; no previous infections or outbreaks have been identified. CDC, state and local health and agriculture departments and laboratories, and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) conducted epidemiologic, traceback, and laboratory investigations to identify the source of this outbreak. A total of 14 patients in eight states were identified, with illness onsets occurring during March 21-April 9, 2016. Whole genome sequencing, a highly discriminating subtyping method, was used to further characterize PFGE pattern OSLX01.0090 isolates. Epidemiologic evidence indicates Persian cucumbers as the source of Salmonella Oslo infections in this outbreak. This is the fourth identified multistate outbreak of salmonellosis associated with cucumbers since 2013. Further research is needed to understand the mechanism and factors that contribute to contamination of cucumbers during growth, harvesting, and processing to prevent future outbreaks.

  13. Reducing whiteflies on cucumber using intercropping with less preferred vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effectiveness of four less preferred vegetables – celery, asparagus lettuce, Malabar spinach, and edible amaranth – were investigated for suppression of two biotypes of sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on cucumber, Cucumis sativus L. (Cucurbitaceae). Int...

  14. Phase Characterization of Cucumber Growth: A Chemical Gel Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cucumber grows with complex phenomena by changing its volume and shape, which is not fully investigated and challenges agriculture and food safety industry. In order to understand the mechanism and to characterize the growth process, the cucumber is modeled as a hydrogel in swelling and its development is studied in both preharvest and postharvest stages. Based on thermodynamics, constitutive equations, incorporating biological quantities, are established. The growth behavior of cucumber follows the classic theory of continuous or discontinuous phase transition. The mechanism of bulged tail in cucumber is interpreted by phase coexistence and characterized by critical conditions. Conclusions are given for advances in food engineering and novel fabrication techniques in mechanical biology.

  15. Genetic Analysis on Bent Characters of Cucumber Fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Peng; QIN Zhiwei; WANG Lili; ZHOU Xiuyan

    2011-01-01

    Bent varieties and straight varieties were made as parents for the genetic analysis to investigate cucumber bending genetic mechanism. The results showed that the bent characters of the cucumber fruit (BCCF) were quantitative inheritance controlled by multiple genes and major genes. The additive effect played the main role and the dominance effect played the lesser role. Compared with the additive environmental variance, the dominant-environmental variance was more important and the cucumber fruit was more easily affected by the additive effect. The broad heritability and the narrow heritability of BCCF were both higher. The varieties of D0455 and D07299 could be used as parents which were benefit for improving the straight characters of the cucumber fruit

  16. THE EFFECT OF CUCUMBER ( ) EXTRACT ON ACID INDUCED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LIVINGSTON

    ... of corneal acid burn. Cucumber extract, corneal acid burn, guinea pigs, alpha hydroxyl acids, beta hydroxyl ..... cholesterol arteriosclerosis in rabbits. Circulation.12:696 ... production in human skin fibroblast cultures in vitro. Dermatol. Surg.

  17. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and melon (C. melo) have numerous wild relatives in Asia and Australia, and the sister species of melon is from Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Patrizia; Schaefer, Hanno; Telford, Ian R H; Renner, Susanne S

    2010-08-10

    Among the fundamental questions regarding cultivated plants is their geographic origin and region of domestication. The genus Cucumis, which includes cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and melon (Cucumis melo), has numerous wild African species, and it has therefore been assumed that melon originated in Africa. For cucumber, this seemed less likely because wild cucumbers exist in India and a closely related species lives in the Eastern Himalayas. Using DNA sequences from plastid and nuclear markers for some 100 Cucumis accessions from Africa, Australia, and Asia, we show here that melon and cucumber are of Asian origin and have numerous previously overlooked species-level relatives in Australia and around the Indian Ocean. The wild progenitor of C. melo occurs in India, and our data confirm that the Southeast Asian Cucumis hystrix is the closest relative of cucumber. Most surprisingly, the closest relative of melon is Cucumis picrocarpus from Australia. C. melo diverged from this Australian sister species approximately 3 Ma, and both diverged from the remaining Asian/Australian species approximately 10 Ma. The Asian/Australian Cucumis clade comprises at least 25 species, nine of them new to science, and diverged from its African relatives in the Miocene, approximately 12 Ma. Range reconstruction under maximum likelihood suggests Asia as the ancestral area for the most recent common ancestor of melon and cucumber, fitting with both having progenitor populations in the Himalayan region and high genetic diversity of C. melo landraces in India and China. Future investigations of wild species related to melon and cucumber should concentrate on Asia and Australia.

  18. Sea Cucumbers Metabolites as Potent Anti-Cancer Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveena B. Janakiram

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Sea cucumbers and their extracts have gained immense popularity and interest among researchers and nutritionists due to their nutritive value, potential health benefits, and use in the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases. Many areas of the world use sea cucumbers in traditional foods and folk medicine. Though the actual components and their specific functions still remain to be investigated, most sea cucumber extracts are being studied for their anti-inflammatory functions, immunostimulatory properties, and for cancer prevention and treatment. There is large scope for the discovery of additional bioactive, valuable compounds from this natural source. Sea cucumber extracts contain unique components, such as modified triterpene glycosides, sulfated polysaccharides, glycosphingolipids, and esterified phospholipids. Frondanol A5, an isopropyl alcohol/water extract of the enzymatically hydrolyzed epithelia of the edible North Atlantic sea cucumber, Cucumaria frondosa, contains monosulfated triterpenoid glycoside Frondoside A, the disulfated glycoside Frondoside B, the trisulfated glycoside Frondoside C, 12-methyltetradecanoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and fucosylated chondroitin sulfate. We have extensively studied the efficacy of this extract in preventing colon cancer in rodent models. In this review, we discuss the anti-inflammatory, immunostimulatory, and anti-tumor properties of sea cucumber extracts.

  19. Sea Cucumbers Metabolites as Potent Anti-Cancer Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janakiram, Naveena B; Mohammed, Altaf; Rao, Chinthalapally V

    2015-05-12

    Sea cucumbers and their extracts have gained immense popularity and interest among researchers and nutritionists due to their nutritive value, potential health benefits, and use in the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases. Many areas of the world use sea cucumbers in traditional foods and folk medicine. Though the actual components and their specific functions still remain to be investigated, most sea cucumber extracts are being studied for their anti-inflammatory functions, immunostimulatory properties, and for cancer prevention and treatment. There is large scope for the discovery of additional bioactive, valuable compounds from this natural source. Sea cucumber extracts contain unique components, such as modified triterpene glycosides, sulfated polysaccharides, glycosphingolipids, and esterified phospholipids. Frondanol A5, an isopropyl alcohol/water extract of the enzymatically hydrolyzed epithelia of the edible North Atlantic sea cucumber, Cucumaria frondosa, contains monosulfated triterpenoid glycoside Frondoside A, the disulfated glycoside Frondoside B, the trisulfated glycoside Frondoside C, 12-methyltetradecanoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and fucosylated chondroitin sulfate. We have extensively studied the efficacy of this extract in preventing colon cancer in rodent models. In this review, we discuss the anti-inflammatory, immunostimulatory, and anti-tumor properties of sea cucumber extracts.

  20. Transcriptomic analysis reveals the roles of microtubule-related genes and transcription factors in fruit length regulation in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li; Yan, Shuangshuang; Yang, Wencai; Li, Yanqiang; Xia, Mengxue; Chen, Zijing; Wang, Qian; Yan, Liying; Song, Xiaofei; Liu, Renyi; Zhang, Xiaolan

    2015-01-26

    Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) fruit is a type of fleshy fruit that is harvested immaturely. Early fruit development directly determines the final fruit length and diameter, and consequently the fruit yield and quality. Different cucumber varieties display huge variations of fruit length, but how fruit length is determined at the molecular level remains poorly understood. To understand the genes and gene networks that regulate fruit length in cucumber, high throughout RNA-Seq data were used to compare the transcriptomes of early fruit from two near isogenic lines with different fruit lengths. 3955 genes were found to be differentially expressed, among which 2368 genes were significantly up-regulated and 1587 down-regulated in the line with long fruit. Microtubule and cell cycle related genes were dramatically activated in the long fruit, and transcription factors were implicated in the fruit length regulation in cucumber. Thus, our results built a foundation for dissecting the molecular mechanism of fruit length control in cucumber, a key agricultural trait of significant economic importance.

  1. Predicting keeping quality of batches of numbers of cucumber fruit based on a physiological mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, R.E.; Tijskens, L.M.M.; Kooten, van O.

    2002-01-01

    The keeping quality for a cucumber, defined as the time the colour remains acceptable to the consumer, depends on the state of the chlorophyll metabolism. By building a physiological model of the chlorophyll metabolism for cucumbers and using colour data from cucumbers stored at 12, 20 and 28 °C,

  2. Detection of fruit fly infestation in pickling cucumbers using a hyperspectral reflectance/transmittance imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruit fly infestation can be a serious problem in pickling cucumber production. In the United States and many other countries, there is zero tolerance for fruit flies in pickled cucumber products. Currently, processors rely on manual inspection to detect and remove fruit fly-infested cucumbers, whic...

  3. Development of automated inspection technology for quality grading of pickling cucumbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickling cucumbers are susceptible to external and internal damage during growth, harvest, transport, and postharvest handling. It is estimated that approximately 5-10% of harvested pickling cucumbers fall into the defect category. Pickling cucumber quality defect can occur in the form of soft or wa...

  4. QTL mapping of parthenocarpic fruit set in North American processing cucumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthenocarpy is a desirable trait with potential for increasing yield and quality in US processing cucumber production. Many successful parthenocarpic fresh market cucumber varieties have been developed, but the genetic and molecular mechanisms for parthenocarpic expression in cucumber is largely u...

  5. Lactobacilli and tartrazine as causative agents of a red colored spoilage in cucumber pickle products

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cucumber pickling industry has sporadically experienced spoilage outbreaks in fermented cucumber products characterized by development of red color on the surface of the cucumbers. Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus paracasei were isolated from two outbreaks of this spoilage which occurred a...

  6. Predicting keeping quality of batches of numbers of cucumber fruit based on a physiological mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, R.E.; Tijskens, L.M.M.; Kooten, van O.

    2002-01-01

    The keeping quality for a cucumber, defined as the time the colour remains acceptable to the consumer, depends on the state of the chlorophyll metabolism. By building a physiological model of the chlorophyll metabolism for cucumbers and using colour data from cucumbers stored at 12, 20 and 28 °C, th

  7. B-Carotene-a long road to commercial implementation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gardiner, NS

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available layers after solvent extraction • “Green layer” containing chlorophyll and mixed carotenoids • De-emulsification step introduced • Solvent removal • Product specification < 50ppm food grade solvent • Difficult to achieve in two phase product (solid...) • Animal feed supplements • Food supplements – colorant, Vitamin A supplement • OTC pharmaceuticals (health supplements) – anti-oxidant, Vitamin A supplement © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.zaSlide 4 Production • Chemical synthesis...

  8. Influence of Fertilization System on the Quality of Cucumbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe CÎMPEANU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Different types of cucumbers culture, respectively organic system and the system of chemical and organic fertilization can influence vegetable quality. The present study was carried out in a solarium on a farm, in six experimental variants, three replications. Three variants for fertilization systems with two cucumbers cultivars were used. The biological material used in the experiments consisted of the cultivars ‘Triumf’ F1 and ‘Mirabelle’ F1. Fertilization systems used were organic with manure, classic with chemical fertilizers and soluble complex fertilizers with fertigation. In the present research agrochemical and biochemical characteristics were analysed and also weight of fruits and yield on plants and kg/m2 were measured. Agrochemical characteristics were: contents of nitrates, phosphorus and potassium from cucumbers and the biochemical characteristics measured were: acidity, soluble carbohydrates, vitamin C and dry matter. The results showed that the fertilization with soluble complex fertilizers in addition with fertigation assured the entire necessary for the growth and fructification of cucumbers. The presence of chemical fertilizers do not influence in a negative way the nitrates, phosphorus and potassium content and the quality of consumption of cucumbers was assured. Regarding the cultivars the best yield and quality results were obtained to ‘Mirabelle’ F1.

  9. Polymer mobility in cell walls of cucumber hypocotyls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenwick, K. M.; Apperley, D. C.; Cosgrove, D. J.; Jarvis, M. C.

    1999-01-01

    Cell walls were prepared from the growing region of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) hypocotyls and examined by solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy, in both enzymically active and inactivated states. The rigidity of individual polymer segments within the hydrated cell walls was assessed from the proton magnetic relaxation parameter, T2, and from the kinetics of cross-polarisation from 1H to 13C. The microfibrils, including most of the xyloglucan in the cell wall, as well as cellulose, behaved as very rigid solids. A minor xyloglucan fraction, which may correspond to cross-links between microfibrils, shared a lower level of rigidity with some of the pectic galacturonan. Other pectins, including most of the galactan side-chain residues of rhamnogalacturonan I, were much more mobile and behaved in a manner intermediate between the solid and liquid states. The only difference observed between the enzymically active and inactive cell walls, was the loss of a highly mobile, methyl-esterified galacturonan fraction, as the result of pectinesterase activity.

  10. Biological and Molecular Characterization of Cucumber mosaic virus Subgroup II Isolate Causing Severe Mosaic in Cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Reenu; Bhardwaj, Pooja; Singh, Lakhmir; Zaidi, Aijaz A; Hallan, Vipin

    2013-06-01

    Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) has a wide host range causing severe damage in many important agricultural and ornamental crops. Earlier reports showed the prevalence of CMV subgroup I isolates in India. However, some recent reports point towards increasing incidence of subgroup II isolates in the country. The complete genome of a CMV isolate causing severe mosaic in cucumber was characterized and its phylogenetic analysis with other 21 CMV isolates reported worldwide clustered it with subgroup II strains. The genome comprised of RNA 1 (3,379 nucleotides), RNA 2 (3,038 nucleotides) and RNA 3 (2,206 nucleotides). The isolate showed highest homology with subgroup II isolates: 95.1-98.7, 87.7-98.0, and 85.4-97.1 % within RNA1, RNA2, and RNA3, respectively. RNA1 and RNA2 were closely related to the Japanese isolate while RNA3 clustered with an American isolate. Host range studies revealed that isolate showed severe mosaic symptoms on Nicotiana spp. and Cucumis spp. The isolate induced leaf deformation and mild filiform type symptoms in tomato. To best of our knowledge this is the first report of complete genome of CMV subgroup II isolate from India.

  11. THE IMPACT OF SILICON ON TRANSCRIPTS RELATED TO CUCUMBER MOSAIC VIRUS INFECTION IN CUCUMBER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holz, S; Kube, M; Bartoszewski, G; Büttner, C

    2015-01-01

    The role of soluble silicon (Si) in alleviating viral plant infections is largely unknown. In order to analyse this gap in knowledge, this study provides insights into the relative gene expression data obtained from 1) control, 2) Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV)-infected and 3) sodium silica-treated, CMV-infected Cucumis sativus line B10 tissue cultures regenerated plants. The absence or presence of CMV was determined through RT-PCR, six days' post-inoculation. qRT-PCR was performed on five selected host genes related to CMV-defence (argonaute protein, WRKY transcription factor) and replication (chaperone, heat shock cognate protein, aquaporin). Relative gene expressions from Si-treated, CMV-infected clones were not significantly different from CMV-infected clones, but they were significantly different from the control plants. The upregulation of the chaperone, and heat shock cognate genes in Si-treated clones, is associated with enhanced virus replication, while the gene expression of the transcription factor increases and is related to defence, in contrast to decreased expression in CMV-infected clones. Aquaporin gene expression was downregulated and the argonaute expression was unaffected in both Si-treated, CMV-infected as well as CMV-infected clones. Since both alleviating and supportive gene shifts are observed in Si-treated plantlets for key genes related to the virus infection examined herein, sodium silica is suggested to have a neutral and limited impact on CMV infection in cucumber cultures.

  12. An Improved Bioassay for Cytokinins Using Cucumber Cotyledons 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, R. A.; Kallidumbil, V.; Steele, P.

    1982-01-01

    The cucumber cotyledon greening bioassay is frequently used for detecting cytokinins. Beneficial modifications of the original technique included using 5-day-old cucumber (Cucumus sativus L., cv. National Pickling) cotyledons treated with combinations of 40 millimolar KCl and various concentrations of cytokinins. A dark incubation period of 20 hours was followed by an exposure to light for 3.5 hours. Under these conditions, extremely low (0.0001 milligram per liter) concentrations of N6-benzyladenine, zeatin, kinetin, or zeatin riboside can be detected. Of the four cytokinins tested, kinetin appeared to be the least active. With these improvements, the assay is 10 times more sensitive than is the previously described cucumber cotyledon greening bioassay for cytokinins. PMID:16662273

  13. An improved bioassay for cytokinins using cucumber cotyledons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, R A; Kallidumbil, V; Steele, P

    1982-03-01

    The cucumber cotyledon greening bioassay is frequently used for detecting cytokinins. Beneficial modifications of the original technique included using 5-day-old cucumber (Cucumus sativus L., cv. National Pickling) cotyledons treated with combinations of 40 millimolar KCl and various concentrations of cytokinins. A dark incubation period of 20 hours was followed by an exposure to light for 3.5 hours. Under these conditions, extremely low (0.0001 milligram per liter) concentrations of N(6)-benzyladenine, zeatin, kinetin, or zeatin riboside can be detected. Of the four cytokinins tested, kinetin appeared to be the least active. With these improvements, the assay is 10 times more sensitive than is the previously described cucumber cotyledon greening bioassay for cytokinins.

  14. Teripang Pasir Meningkatkan Kandungan Antioksidan Superoksida Dismutase pada Pankreas Tikus Diabetes (SEA CUCUMBER INCREASED ANTIOXIDANT SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE IN THE PANCREATIC TISSUE OF DIABETIC RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tutik Wresdiyati

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available High level of blood glucose is an indicator for diabetes mellitus (DM condition. The condition iscaused by low level of insulin secretion or impairement of insulin receptor. The number of DM patientincreases every year. The World Health Organization reported that the number of DM patient in Indonesiawas the 4th highest in the world, after following China, India, and the United States of America, respectively.This study was conducted to analyze the effect of sea cucumber (Holothuria scabra J on the profile ofantioxidant copper, zinc-superoxide dismutase (Cu, Zn-SOD in the pancreatic tissues of diabetic rats. Atotal of 25 male white rats (Sprague Dawley were used in this study. They were divided into five groups;(1 negative control (KN, (2 positive control, diabetic rats (KP, (3 diabetic rats treated with hydrolyzatedprotein of sea cucumber (HDL, (4 diabetic rats treated with concentrated protein of sea cucumber (KST,and (5 diabetic rats treated with isolated protein of sea cucumber (ISL, respectively. Diabetic conditionwas obtained by alloxan injection 110 mg/kg bw. The treatments were done for 28 days. At the end oftreatment period, the rats were sacrificed and pancreatic tissues were collected and fixed in Bouin solution and then processed to paraffin embedding standard method. The tissues were then stained withimmunohistochemical staining techniques using monoclonal antibody of Cu, Zn-SOD. The results showedthat treatment of HDL, KST, and ISL of sea cucumber (Holothuria scabra J increased the content ofantioxidant Cu, Zn-SOD either in Langerhans islets and acinar cells of pancreatic tissues-diabetic rats.The HDL of sea cucumber treatment gave the best effect in increasing the antioxidant content of Cu, Zn-SOD in pancreatic tissue of diabetic rats.

  15. Alleviating Effect of Phenol Compounds on Cucumber Fusarium Wilt and Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Fei; ZHANG Chun-lan; SHEN Qi-rong

    2003-01-01

    The amount of phenol compounds in the soil increased after adding organic material into the soil. It was found that p-hydroxybenzoic acid, p-coumaric acid and frulic acid alleviated Fusarium wilt of cucumber, the alleviating effect of p-hydroxybenzoic acid was the best, followed by p-coumaric acid and frulic acid. The total amount of bacterial, actinomyces and fungus in high phenol compounds treatment decreased than that of control treatment, while the microorganisms' amount in low phenol compounds treatment increased. Phenol compounds inhibit the growth of pathogen.

  16. Plant science. Biosynthesis, regulation, and domestication of bitterness in cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yi; Ma, Yongshuo; Zhou, Yuan; Zhang, Huimin; Duan, Lixin; Chen, Huiming; Zeng, Jianguo; Zhou, Qian; Wang, Shenhao; Gu, Wenjia; Liu, Min; Ren, Jinwei; Gu, Xingfang; Zhang, Shengping; Wang, Ye; Yasukawa, Ken; Bouwmeester, Harro J; Qi, Xiaoquan; Zhang, Zhonghua; Lucas, William J; Huang, Sanwen

    2014-11-28

    Cucurbitacins are triterpenoids that confer a bitter taste in cucurbits such as cucumber, melon, watermelon, squash, and pumpkin. These compounds discourage most pests on the plant and have also been shown to have antitumor properties. With genomics and biochemistry, we identified nine cucumber genes in the pathway for biosynthesis of cucurbitacin C and elucidated four catalytic steps. We discovered transcription factors Bl (Bitter leaf) and Bt (Bitter fruit) that regulate this pathway in leaves and fruits, respectively. Traces in genomic signatures indicated that selection imposed on Bt during domestication led to derivation of nonbitter cucurbits from their bitter ancestors.

  17. Mechanistic study of programmed cell death of root border cells of cucumber (Cucumber sativus L.) induced by copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lijuan; Song, Jie; Peng, Cheng; Xu, Chen; Yuan, Xiaofeng; Shi, Jiyan

    2015-12-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) in root border cells (RBCs) induced by Copper (Cu) has been little studied. This study explored whether Cu induced PCD in RBCs of cucumber or not and investigated the possible mechanisms. The results showed that the percentage of apoptotic and necrotic RBCs increased with increasing concentration of Cu treatment. A quick burst of ROS in RBCs was detected, while mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) decreased sharply with Cu treatment. Caspase-3 like protease activity showed a tendency of increase with Cu treatment. The potential of Cu to induce PCD in RBCs of cucumber was first proved. Our results showed that ROS generation and mitochondrial membrane potential loss played important roles in Cu-induced caspase-3-like activation and PCD in RBCs of cucumber, which provided new insight into the signaling cascades that modulate Cu phytotoxicity mechanism.

  18. 海参的干制技术及其研究进展%Research progress of dry-cure technology of sea cucumber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段续; 王辉; 任广跃; 朱克瑞

    2012-01-01

    The sea cucumber is an invertebrate animal living in sea water belonging to the phylum Echinodermata.Up to now,more than 50 kinds of nutrition contents had been found in the sea cucumber.Sea cucumber is looked on as a delicious and expense dish for its high nutrition and tonic function.There are many valuable active components in the sea cucumber.The sea cucumber can autolyze after leaving sea water,it is difficult to preserve and transport.As a result,most of the fresh sea cucumber all over the world is processed to dehydrated product.Up to now,most of sea cucumbers are dehydrated by traditional techniques which need to add salt,boil again and again and expose to solar radiation.In this paper,some new drying methods of sea cucumbers were introduced and the development direction of the drying technology was also shown.%海参是归属于无脊椎动物棘皮动物门(Echinodermata)的无脊椎动物,截止目前已发现海参体内含有50多种对人体生理活动有益的营养成分,具有极高的食疗价值,是珍贵的海产美味。但海参离开海水会自溶,所以必须尽快加工以便流通。市场上流通的海参大多是干制品,所采用的干燥脱水方法主要还是传统的蒸煮、挂盐、晾晒等手段,急需新型的干燥脱水加工技术。本文介绍了当前利用现代食品加工手段来干燥海参的方法以及相关的研究进展,指出了海参干燥技术的发展方向。

  19. Discovery of Novel Saponins from the Viscera of the Sea Cucumber Holothuria lessoni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Yadollah; Zhang, Wei; Franco, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Sea cucumbers, sometimes referred to as marine ginseng, produce numerous compounds with diverse functions and are potential sources of active ingredients for agricultural, nutraceutical, pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical products. We examined the viscera of an Australian sea cucumber Holothuria lessoni Massin et al. 2009, for novel bioactive compounds, with an emphasis on the triterpene glycosides, saponins. The viscera were extracted with 70% ethanol, and this extract was purified by a liquid-liquid partition process and column chromatography, followed by isobutanol extraction. The isobutanol saponin-enriched mixture was further purified by high performance centrifugal partition chromatography (HPCPC) with high purity and recovery. The resultant purified polar samples were analyzed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS)/MS and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS)/MS to identify saponins and characterize their molecular structures. As a result, at least 39 new saponins were identified in the viscera of H. lessoni with a high structural diversity, and another 36 reported triterpene glycosides, containing different aglycones and sugar moieties. Viscera samples have provided a higher diversity and yield of compounds than observed from the body wall. The high structural diversity and novelty of saponins from H. lessoni with potential functional activities presents a great opportunity to exploit their applications for industrial, agricultural and pharmaceutical use. PMID:24821624

  20. Discovery of Novel Saponins from the Viscera of the Sea Cucumber Holothuria lessoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadollah Bahrami

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Sea cucumbers, sometimes referred to as marine ginseng, produce numerous compounds with diverse functions and are potential sources of active ingredients for agricultural, nutraceutical, pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical products. We examined the viscera of an Australian sea cucumber Holothuria lessoni Massin et al. 2009, for novel bioactive compounds, with an emphasis on the triterpene glycosides, saponins. The viscera were extracted with 70% ethanol, and this extract was purified by a liquid-liquid partition process and column chromatography, followed by isobutanol extraction. The isobutanol saponin-enriched mixture was further purified by high performance centrifugal partition chromatography (HPCPC with high purity and recovery. The resultant purified polar samples were analyzed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS/MS and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS to identify saponins and characterize their molecular structures. As a result, at least 39 new saponins were identified in the viscera of H. lessoni with a high structural diversity, and another 36 reported triterpene glycosides, containing different aglycones and sugar moieties. Viscera samples have provided a higher diversity and yield of compounds than observed from the body wall. The high structural diversity and novelty of saponins from H. lessoni with potential functional activities presents a great opportunity to exploit their applications for industrial, agricultural and pharmaceutical use.

  1. Biological Mode of Action of Dimethomorph on Pseudoperonospora cubensis and Its Systemic Activity in Cucumber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Han-cheng; ZHOU Ming-guo; WANG Jian-xin; CHEN Chang-jun; LI Hong-xia; SUN Hai-yan

    2009-01-01

    Dimethomorph is a fungicide with high activity against Peronosporomycetes plant pathogens. The present study showed that dimethomorph is effective on controlling the oomycete fungal pathogen Pseudoperonospora cubensis causing downy mildew on cucumber. The fungicide did not affect zoospores discharge from sporangia of P. cubensis, but it strongly inhibited mycelial growth and sporangial production in vitro and increased lysis of zoospores. Dose of 2 mg L-1 of dimethomorph was sufficient to inhibit mycelial growth and sporangial production of P. cubensis on leaf disks, 5 mg L-1 was enough to lyse zoospores of P. cubensis, and 25 mg L-1 was required to inhibit sporangial production on detached leaves. In whole plant tests, dimethomorph exhibited strong protective and curative activity. Dimethomorph when applied at a dose of 300 mg L-1 for 1, 3, 5, 7 days before inoculation exhibited 100% efficacy on disease control. Onthe other hand, efficacies of 67.1 and 31.5% were obtained when the same dose of dimethomorph was applied for 1 and 3 days after inoculation, respectively. So dimethomorph had persistence effect on leaves for 7 days at least and exhibited strong protective and curative activity. Bioassay analyses showed that dimethomorph could be translocated in the xylem system, redistributed in the leaf, and penetrated from the upper surface to the lower surface of the leaf but could not be translocated in phloem system or transferred from the roots to leaves of cucumber plants in sufficient amounts for disease control. The biocharacteristics of dimethomorph make it well suitable for integration of a control programme against downy mildew disease on cucumber and as a component to delay other peronosporomycetes fungicide-resistance development.

  2. Low Root Zone Temperature Limits Nutrient Effects on Cucumber Seedling Growth and Induces Adversity Physiological Response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Qiu-yan; DUAN Zeng-qiang; MAO Jing-dong; LI Xun; DONG Fei

    2013-01-01

    Effects of root-zone temperatures (RZT) (12°C-RZT and 20°C-RZT) and different N, P, and K nutrient regimes on the growth, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and antioxidant enzyme in cucumber seedlings were investigated in hydroponics. Strong interactions were observed between RZT and nutrient on the dry weight (P=0.001), root length (P=0.001) and leaf area (P=0.05). Plant dry weights were suppressed at low RZT of 12°C, while higher biomass and growth of cucumber seedlings were produced at elevated RZT of 20°C under each nutrient treatment. Growth indexes (plant height, internode length, root length, and leaf area) at 12°C-RZT had less difference among nutrient treatments, but greater response was obtained for different nutrients at high RZT. RZT had larger effects (P=0.001) on cucumber seedling growth than nutrients. In addition, N was more effective nutrients to plant growth than P and K under low root temperature to plant growth. Higher hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), malondialdehyde (MDA), soluble sugar (SS) contents in leaves were observed at 12°C-RZT in all nutrient treatments than those at 20°C-RZT, indicating the chilling adversity damaged to plant growth. In general, antioxidant enzyme had larger response under low root-zone temperature. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were higher in both leaves and roots while peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) showed large different action in leaves and roots at both the two root-zone temperature.

  3. Survival of Salmonella Newport on Whole and Fresh-Cut Cucumbers Treated with Lytic Bacteriophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manan; Dashiell, Gwendolyn; Handy, Eric T; East, Cheryl; Reynnells, Russell; White, Chanelle; Nyarko, Esmond; Micallef, Shirley; Hashem, Fawzy; Millner, Patricia D

    2017-04-01

    Salmonella enterica associated with consumption of cucumbers ( Cucumis sativus ) has led to foodborne outbreaks in the United States. Whole and fresh-cut cucumbers are susceptible to S. enterica contamination during growing, harvesting, and postharvest handling. The application of lytic bacteriophages specific for S. enterica was evaluated to reduce Salmonella populations on cucumbers. Unwaxed cucumbers ('Lisboa' variety, or mini-cucumbers purchased at retail) were inoculated with Salmonella Newport (5 log CFU per cucumber) and were sprayed with 3.2 mL of phosphate-buffered saline (control) or 10 log PFU/ml of SalmoFresh, a Salmonella-specific bacteriophage preparation (phage), to deliver 4.76 × 10(7) PFU/cm(2). Cucumbers were stored at 10 or 22°C for 7 days. Inoculated mini-cucumbers were sliced with a sterile knife to investigate Salmonella transfer to mesocarp, and cut pieces were stored at 4°C for 2 days. Populations (log CFU per cucumber) of Salmonella Newport on phage-treated whole cucumbers were significantly (P cucumbers (4.27 ± 0.37) on day 0. Populations on phage-treated cucumbers stored at 10°C were 1.72 ± 0.77 and 1.56 ± 0.46, which were significantly lower than those on control-treated cucumbers (3.20 ± 0.48 and 2.33 ± 0.25) on days 1 and 4, respectively. Between days 0 and 1, populations on control-treated cucumbers stored at 10 and 22°C declined by 1.07 and 2.47 log CFU per cucumber, respectively. At 22°C, Salmonella Newport populations declined by 2.37 log CFU per cucumber between days 0 and 1. Phage application to whole cucumbers before slicing did not reduce the transfer of Salmonella Newport to fresh-cut slices. Lytic phage application may be a potential intervention to reduce Salmonella populations on whole cucumbers.

  4. Effects of nitrogen form on growth, CO₂ assimilation, chlorophyll fluorescence, and photosynthetic electron allocation in cucumber and rice plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan-hong; Zhang, Yi-li; Wang, Xue-min; Cui, Jin-xia; Xia, Xiao-jian; Shi, Kai; Yu, Jing-quan

    2011-02-01

    Cucumber and rice plants with varying ammonium (NH(4)(+)) sensitivities were used to examine the effects of different nitrogen (N) sources on gas exchange, chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence quenching, and photosynthetic electron allocation. Compared to nitrate (NO(3)(-))-grown plants, cucumber plants grown under NH(4)(+)-nutrition showed decreased plant growth, net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, intercellular carbon dioxide (CO(2)) level, transpiration rate, maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem II, and O(2)-independent alternative electron flux, and increased O(2)-dependent alternative electron flux. However, the N source had little effect on gas exchange, Chl a fluorescence parameters, and photosynthetic electron allocation in rice plants, except that NH(4)(+)-grown plants had a higher O(2)-independent alternative electron flux than NO(3)(-)-grown plants. NO(3)(-) reduction activity was rarely detected in leaves of NH(4)(+)-grown cucumber plants, but was high in NH(4)(+)-grown rice plants. These results demonstrate that significant amounts of photosynthetic electron transport were coupled to NO(3)(-) assimilation, an effect more significant in NO(3)(-)-grown plants than in NH(4)(+)-grown plants. Meanwhile, NH(4)(+)-tolerant plants exhibited a higher demand for the reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) for NO(3)(-) reduction, regardless of the N form supplied, while NH(4)(+)-sensitive plants had a high water-water cycle activity when NH(4)(+) was supplied as the sole N source.

  5. Impact of atmospheric CO2 on growth, photosynthesis and nitrogen metabolism in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agüera, Eloísa; Ruano, David; Cabello, Purificación; de la Haba, Purificación

    2006-07-01

    Expression and activity of nitrate reductase (NR; EC 1.6.6.1) and glutamine synthetase (GS; EC 6.3.1.2) were analysed in relation to the rate of CO(2) assimilation in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) leaves. Intact plants were exposed to different atmospheric CO(2) concentrations (100, 400 and 1200microLL(-1)) for 14 days. A correlation between the in vivo rates of net CO(2) assimilation and the atmospheric CO(2) concentrations was observed. Transpiration rate and stomatal conductance remained unaffected by CO(2) levels. The exposure of the cucumber plants to rising CO(2) concentrations led to a concomitant increase in the contents of starch and soluble sugars, and a decrease in the nitrate content in leaves. At very low CO(2), NR and GS expression decreased, in spite of high nitrate contents, whereas at normal and elevated CO(2) expression and activity were high although the nitrate content was very low. Thus, in cucumber, NR and GS expression appear to be dominated by sugar levels, rather than by nitrate contents.

  6. SENSORY ANALYSIS OF CUCUMBER VARIETIES AT DIFFERENT HARVEST TIMES I. SALAD CUCUMBERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina PEVICHAROVA

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available During the period 2001-2002 sensory analysis of six salad cucumber varieties was carried out. The aim of this experiment was to assess the influence of the harvest time on the fruit sensory properties. Flesh colour was the most stable character while appearance, skin colour, aroma, texture, taste and total sensory evaluation varied during the three investigated harvest periods. Two-way analysis of variance proved significant effect of the varieties, harvest time and its interaction on all sensory characters. Depending on the harvest time some of the varieties changed their places one toward other by total sensory evaluation. Therefore, it could not be made reliable conclusions of data obtained from one harvest time. The number of harvest times as well as the number of vegetations should be more then one in order to receive more accurate information for sensory characteristics.

  7. The genome of the cucumber, Cucumis sativus L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, S.W.; Li, R.Q.; Vossen, van der E.A.G.

    2009-01-01

    Cucumber is an economically important crop as well as a model system for sex determination studies and plant vascular biology. Here we report the draft genome sequence of Cucumis sativus var. sativus L., assembled using a novel combination of traditional Sanger and next-generation Illumina GA sequen

  8. In vitro flowering and pollen viability of cucumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers were produced on sterile cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants grown in vitro from seed or from micropropagated shoots from stem fragments. Highest numbers of flowers on plants from both sources were produced on hormone-free MS medium as well as with 6 µM of kinetin (MSK). Plants cultured on ...

  9. A sequencing-based linkage map of cucumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic maps are important tools for molecular breeding, gene cloning, and study of meiotic recombination. In cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), the marker density, resolution and genome coverage of previously developed genetic maps using PCR-based molecular markers are relatively low. In this study we ...

  10. An autonomous robot for harvesting cucumbers in greenhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henten, van E.J.; Hemming, J.; Tuijl, van B.A.J.; Kornet, J.G.; Meuleman, J.; Bontsema, J.; Os, van E.A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the concept of an autonomous robot for harvesting cucumbers in greenhouses. A description is given of the working environment of the robot and the logistics of harvesting. It is stated that for a 2 ha Dutch nursery, 4 harvesting robots and one docking station are needed during t

  11. Rationalization of a genebank cucumber collection with SSR markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dooijeweert, van W.; Treuren, van R.

    2012-01-01

    The CGN cucumber (Cucumis sativus) collection consists of 937 accessions. The majority of accessions originated from the working collection of the former Institute for Horticultural Plant Breeding (IVT), where they were used for breeding. The collection mainly includes old cultivars received from Du

  12. Fine mapping of paternal sorting of mitochondria (psm) in cucumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucumber is unique among plants because its mitochondrial DNA shows paternal transmission, is one of the largest known among all plants, due largely to short repetitive DNA motifs, and undergoes recombination among repeats to produce rearranged mitochondrial DNAs associated with strongly mosaic (MSC...

  13. An autonomous robot for harvesting cucumbers in greenhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henten, van E.J.; Hemming, J.; Tuijl, van B.A.J.; Kornet, J.G.; Meuleman, J.; Bontsema, J.; Os, van E.A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the concept of an autonomous robot for harvesting cucumbers in greenhouses. A description is given of the working environment of the robot and the logistics of harvesting. It is stated that for a 2 ha Dutch nursery, 4 harvesting robots and one docking station are needed during t

  14. Genetic diversity and population structure of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lv, J.; Qi, J.; Shi, Q.; Shen, D.; Zhang, S.; Shao, G.; Li, H.; Sun, Z.; Weng, Y.; Shang, Y.; Gu, X.; Li, X.; Zhu, X.; Zhang, J.; Treuren, van R.; Dooijeweert, van W.; Zhang, Z.; Huang, S.

    2012-01-01

    Knowing the extent and structure of genetic variation in germplasm collections is essential for the conservation and utilization of biodiversity in cultivated plants. Cucumber is the fourth most important vegetable crop worldwide and is a model system for other Cucurbitaceae, a family that also incl

  15. Inheritance of Powdery Mildew Resistance in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and Development of an AFLP Marker for Resistance Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Cucumber powdery mildew is one of the most destructive diseases of cucumber throughout the world. In the present study, inheritance of powdery mildew resistance in three crosses, and linkage of resistance with amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers are studied to formulate efficient strategies for breeding cultivars resistant to powdery mildew. The joint analysis of multiple generations and AFLP technique has been applied in this study. The best model is the one with two major genes, additive, dominant, and epistatic effects, plus polygenes with additive, dominant, and epistatic effects (E-1-0 model). The heritabilities of the major genes varied from 64.26% to 97.82%, and susceptibility was incompletely dominant for the two major genes in the three crosses studied. The additive effects of the two major genes and the dominant effect of the second major gene were high, and the epistatic effect of the additive-dominant between the two major genes was the highest in cross Ⅰ. In cross Ⅱ, the absolute value of the additive effect, dominant effect, and potential ratio of the first major gene were far higher than those of the second major gene, and the epistatic effect of the additive-additive was the highest. The genetic parameters of the two major genes in cross Ⅲ were similar to those in cross Ⅱ. Correlation and regression analyses showed that marker E25/M63-103 was linked to a susceptible gene controlling powdery mildew resistance. The marker could account for 19.98% of the phenotypic variation. When the marker was tested on a diverse set of 29 cucumber lines, the correlation between phenotype and genotype was not significant, which suggested cultivar specialty of gene expression or different methods of resistance to powdery mildew. The target DNA fragment was 103 bp in length, and only a small part was found to be homologous to DNA in the other species evaluated,which indicated that it was unique to the cucumber genome.

  16. Intestinal microbiota and immune related genes in sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) response to dietary β-glucan supplementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Gang [The Key Laboratory of Mariculture, Ministry of Education, Fisheries College, Ocean University of China (China); Xu, Zhenjiang [Biofrontiers Institute, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Tian, Xiangli, E-mail: xianglitian@ouc.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Mariculture, Ministry of Education, Fisheries College, Ocean University of China (China); Dong, Shuanglin [The Key Laboratory of Mariculture, Ministry of Education, Fisheries College, Ocean University of China (China); Peng, Mo [School of Animal Science and Technology, Jiangxi Agricultural University (China)

    2015-02-27

    β-glucan is a prebiotic well known for its beneficial outcomes on sea cucumber health through modifying the host intestinal microbiota. High-throughput sequencing techniques provide an opportunity for the identification and characterization of microbes. In this study, we investigated the intestinal microbial community composition, interaction among species, and intestinal immune genes in sea cucumber fed with diet supplemented with or without β-glucan supplementation. The results show that the intestinal dominant classes in the control group are Flavobacteriia, Gammaproteobacteria, and Alphaproteobacteria, whereas Alphaproteobacteria, Flavobacteriia, and Verrucomicrobiae are enriched in the β-glucan group. Dietary β-glucan supplementation promoted the proliferation of the family Rhodobacteraceae of the Alphaproteobacteria class and the family Verrucomicrobiaceae of the Verrucomicrobiae class and reduced the relative abundance of the family Flavobacteriaceae of Flavobacteria class. The ecological network analysis suggests that dietary β-glucan supplementation can alter the network interactions among different microbial functional groups by changing the microbial community composition and topological roles of the OTUs in the ecological network. Dietary β-glucan supplementation has a positive impact on immune responses of the intestine of sea cucumber by activating NF-κB signaling pathway, probably through modulating the balance of intestinal microbiota. - Highlights: • Dietary β-glucan supplementation increases the abundance of Rhodobacteraceae and Verrucomicrobiaceae in the intestine. • Dietary β-glucan supplementation changes the topological roles of OTUs in the ecological network. • Dietary β-glucan supplementation has a positive impact on the immune response of intestine of sea cucumber.

  17. Structural Elucidation of Novel Saponins in the Sea Cucumber Holothuria lessoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadollah Bahrami

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Sea cucumbers are prolific producers of a wide range of bioactive compounds. This study aimed to purify and characterize one class of compound, the saponins, from the viscera of the Australian sea cucumber Holothuria lessoni. The saponins were obtained by ethanolic extraction of the viscera and enriched by a liquid-liquid partition process and adsorption column chromatography. A high performance centrifugal partition chromatography (HPCPC was applied to the saponin-enriched mixture to obtain saponins with high purity. The resultant purified saponins were profiled using MALDI-MS/MS and ESI-MS/MS which revealed the structure of isomeric saponins to contain multiple aglycones and/or sugar residues. We have elucidated the structure of five novel saponins, Holothurins D/E and Holothurinosides X/Y/Z, along with seven reported triterpene glycosides, including sulfated and non-sulfated saponins containing a range of aglycones and sugar moieties, from the viscera of H. lessoni. The abundance of novel compounds from this species holds promise for biotechnological applications.

  18. Structural Elucidation of Novel Saponins in the Sea Cucumber Holothuria lessoni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Yadollah; Zhang, Wei; Chataway, Tim; Franco, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Sea cucumbers are prolific producers of a wide range of bioactive compounds. This study aimed to purify and characterize one class of compound, the saponins, from the viscera of the Australian sea cucumber Holothuria lessoni. The saponins were obtained by ethanolic extraction of the viscera and enriched by a liquid-liquid partition process and adsorption column chromatography. A high performance centrifugal partition chromatography (HPCPC) was applied to the saponin-enriched mixture to obtain saponins with high purity. The resultant purified saponins were profiled using MALDI-MS/MS and ESI-MS/MS which revealed the structure of isomeric saponins to contain multiple aglycones and/or sugar residues. We have elucidated the structure of five novel saponins, Holothurins D/E and Holothurinosides X/Y/Z, along with seven reported triterpene glycosides, including sulfated and non-sulfated saponins containing a range of aglycones and sugar moieties, from the viscera of H. lessoni. The abundance of novel compounds from this species holds promise for biotechnological applications. PMID:25110919

  19. Antisense suppression of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) sucrose synthase 3 (CsSUS3) reduces hypoxic stress tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongyun; Sui, Xiaolei; Guo, Jinju; Wang, Zhenyu; Cheng, Jintao; Ma, Si; Li, Xiang; Zhang, Zhenxian

    2014-03-01

    Sucrose synthase (SUS; EC 2.4.1.13) plays important roles in sugar metabolism and abiotic stress response. But the genes encoding SUS in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) have not been well studied. Here, we isolated four cucumber sucrose synthase genes (CsSUS). Among them, CsSUS3, which highly expressed in the roots, was chosen for further study. Immunolocalization and subcellular localization analysis indicated that CsSUS3 localized in the cytosol and the plasma membrane, and mainly existed in the companion cells of phloem in the roots. When suffering hypoxia stress from flooding, CsSUS3 expression and SUS activity in roots increased, especially in the lateral roots; moreover, the soluble SUS activity increased clearly, but the membrane fraction hardly changed. Compared with the wild-type cucumbers, the transgenic lines with antisense expression of CsSUS3 were more sensitive to flooding. After 6 d of flooding, the SUS activity, soluble sugar and uridine 5'-diphosphate glucose (UDPG) content and the ratio of ATP/ADP in the roots of transgenic plants were significantly lower than that in wild-type plants. Moreover, the transgenic lines grew more slowly with more yellow necrosis in the leaves. These findings suggested CsSUS3 participated in resisting hypoxic stress. Furthermore, the mechanism of CsSUS3 in resisting hypoxic stress was also discussed.

  20. Intestinal microbiota and immune related genes in sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) response to dietary β-glucan supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gang; Xu, Zhenjiang; Tian, Xiangli; Dong, Shuanglin; Peng, Mo

    2015-02-27

    β-glucan is a prebiotic well known for its beneficial outcomes on sea cucumber health through modifying the host intestinal microbiota. High-throughput sequencing techniques provide an opportunity for the identification and characterization of microbes. In this study, we investigated the intestinal microbial community composition, interaction among species, and intestinal immune genes in sea cucumber fed with diet supplemented with or without β-glucan supplementation. The results show that the intestinal dominant classes in the control group are Flavobacteriia, Gammaproteobacteria, and Alphaproteobacteria, whereas Alphaproteobacteria, Flavobacteriia, and Verrucomicrobiae are enriched in the β-glucan group. Dietary β-glucan supplementation promoted the proliferation of the family Rhodobacteraceae of the Alphaproteobacteria class and the family Verrucomicrobiaceae of the Verrucomicrobiae class and reduced the relative abundance of the family Flavobacteriaceae of Flavobacteria class. The ecological network analysis suggests that dietary β-glucan supplementation can alter the network interactions among different microbial functional groups by changing the microbial community composition and topological roles of the OTUs in the ecological network. Dietary β-glucan supplementation has a positive impact on immune responses of the intestine of sea cucumber by activating NF-κB signaling pathway, probably through modulating the balance of intestinal microbiota.

  1. Allelopathic effects of redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L. on germination & growth of cucumber, alfalfa, common bean and bread wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamideh BAKHSHAYESHAN-AGDAM

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Allelopathy is one of the important interactions among plants. Weeds can reduce crops productions in farms by their allelopathic effects. Redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L. is the most common weed in Iran with well-known allelopathic potential. In the presented experiment, the allelopathic effects of redroot pigweed on germination and growth of four important crop species including cucumber (Cucumis sativus L., alfalfa (Medicago sativa L., common bean (Phaseulus vulgaris L. and bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. was studied. The effect of different concentrations of redroot pigweed leachate on seed germination and seedlings growth parameters of tested plants was significant, but not same in all studied species. Bread wheat and cucumber were more resistance in seed germination stage in comparison to common bean and alfalfa. Except alfalfa, all plant species showed certain rate of resistance in the most measured parameters. According to the obtained results, bread wheat and common bean were the most resistant species, cucumber was resistant at low concentration but sensitive at high concentration, and alfalfa was the most sensitive species to the redroot pigweed leachate treatments. Therefore, the cultivation of resistant plant species (such as bread wheat and common bean plants in the regions with redroot pigweed’s invasion is appropriate way in management of the farms.

  2. Sea cucumber species identification of family Caudinidae from Surabaya based on morphological and mitochondrial DNA evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Muhammad Hilman Fu'adil; Pidada, Ida Bagus Rai; Sugiharto, Widyatmoko, Johan Nuari; Irawan, Bambang

    2016-03-01

    Species identification and taxonomy of sea cucumber remains a challenge problem in some taxa. Caudinidae family of sea cucumber was comerciallized in Surabaya, and it was used as sea cucumber chips. Members of Caudinid sea cucumber have similiar morphology, so it is hard to identify this sea cucumber only from morphological appearance. DNA barcoding is useful method to overcome this problem. The aim of this study was to determine Caudinid specimen of sea cucumber in East Java by morphological and molecular approach. Sample was collected from east coast of Surabaya, then preserved in absolute ethanol. After DNA isolation, Cytochrome Oxydase I (COI) gene amplification was performed using Echinoderm universal primer and PCR product was sequenced. Sequencing result was analyzed and identified in NCBI database using BLAST. Results showed that Caudinid specimen in have closely related to Acaudina molpadioides sequence in GenBank with 86% identity. Morphological data, especially based on ossicle, also showed that the specimen is Acaudina molpadioides.

  3. Relationship between dieldrin uptake in cucumber and solvent-extractable residue in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Mizuki; Seike, Nobuyasu; Murano, Hirotatsu; Otani, Takashi

    2009-12-09

    To prevent the distribution of cucumbers with dieldrin contamination exceeding the limit set by the Japanese Food Sanitation Law, the extraction solvent for dieldrin-contaminated soil was selected prior to cultivation so that the dieldrin residue level in cucumber could be predicted. The exhaustive extraction from soil could not explain the dieldrin uptake by cucumber plants. However, significant correlation (R(2) = 0.966, P dieldrin concentrations in cucumber and dieldrin concentrations extracted with 50% (v/v) methanol-water solution from soils. This was a result of the phytoavailability of dieldrin to the cucumber plants. The extractability of soil dieldrin with the methanol-water solution decreased as the organic carbon content in the soils increased. This suggested that a 50% (v/v) methanol-water solution is the optimal solution for predicting dieldrin concentrations in cucumbers by soil analysis.

  4. Analysis and comparison of glucocerebroside species from three edible sea cucumbers using liquid chromatography-ion trap-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jie; Duan, Jingjing; Xue, Changhu; Feng, Tingyu; Dong, Ping; Sugawara, Tatsuya; Hirata, Takashi

    2011-11-23

    Sphingolipids constitute a highly diverse and complex class of molecules and exhibit important physiological functions. Glucocerebrosides are anticipated to play a positive role in human nutrition. In this study, complicated glucocerebrosides from three specimens of edible sea cucumbers, specifically, Acaudina molpadioides, Cucumaria frondosa, and Apostichopus japonicus, were rapidly identified using liquid chromatography-ion trap-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LCMS-IT-TOF), which is a powerful analysis tool. [M + H](+), [M + Na](+), and [M + H - H(2)O](+) in positive electrospray ionization (ESI) mode were used for MS/MS analysis to obtain product ion spectra. Various long-chain bases of glucocerebrosides were found in these sea cucumbers. Two of the most common long-chain bases were 2-amino-1,3-dihydroxy-4-heptadecene (d17:1) and 4,8-sphingadienine (d18:2), which were acylated to form saturated and monounsaturated nonhydroxy and monohydroxy fatty acids with 18-25 carbon atoms. The glucocerebroside molecular species were the most complicated in the sea cucumber C. frondosa and were the simplest in the sea cucumber A. molpadioides.

  5. Progresses in the Mechanism of Resistance to Fusarium Wilt in Cucumber(Cucumis sativus L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xingang; WU Fengzhi; WANG Xuezheng; YUAN Ye

    2008-01-01

    Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp.cucumerinum (Owen) is one of the most devastating diseases in cucumber production worldwide.Recent progresses in the mechanism of resistance to Fusarium wilt in cucumber were reviewed in this paper,including pathogenic mechanism of Fusarium oxysporum,the resistance mechanism of cucumber,the heredity of resistance,and the location of resistance genes.Following works should be the location and cloning of resistance genes with molecular biologic methods.

  6. Biological control mechanisms of D-pinitol against powdery mildew in cucumber

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, J; Fernandez, Diana; Wang, D. D.; Chen, Y. J.; Dai, G. H.

    2014-01-01

    D-pinitol is an effective agent for controlling powdery mildew (Podosphaera xanthii) in cucumber. In this study, we determined the mechanisms of D-pinitol in controlling powdery mildew in cucumber plants. We compared P. xanthii development on cucumber leaf surface treated with D-pinitol or water (2 mg ml(-1)) at different time points after inoculation. The germinating conidia, hyphae, and conidiophores of the pathogen were severely damaged by D-pinitol at any time of application tested. The h...

  7. Primary structure and chain conformation of fucoidan extracted from sea cucumber Holothuria tubulosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yaoguang; Hu, Yanfang; Yu, Long; McClements, David Julian; Xu, Xiaoqi; Liu, Guanchen; Xue, Changhu

    2016-01-20

    Knowledge of the structure of polysaccharides is essential for understanding and controlling their functional properties. In this study, fucoidan was extracted from Holothuria tubulosa, a species of sea cucumber that has recently become commercially important. The primary structure of the H. tubulosa fucoidan was clarified using a combination of enzymatic degradation, methylation analysis, and NMR, and its chain conformation was further elucidated by utilizing high performance size exclusion chromatography combined with multiple angle laser light scattering and viscometry. The fucoidan was composed of a tetrafucose repeating unit [ → 3-α-L-Fucp2(OSO3(-))-1 → 3-α-L-Fucp2,4(OSO3(-))-1 → 3-α-L-Fucp-1 → 3-α-L-Fucp2(OSO3(-))-1 → ]. Its sulfate content was determined to be 31.2 ± 1.6% and the weight-average molecular mass was 1567.6 ± 34.1 kDa. The molecule adapted a random coil conformation in 0.15M NaCl solution (pH 7.4) at 25 °C, with a root-mean-square radius of 63.9 ± 1.8 nm and a hydrodynamic radius of 44.5 ± 4.5 nm. This is the first report on the chain conformation of sea cucumber fucoidan.

  8. Effects of Environment Factors on Initiation of Sperm Motility in Sea Cucumber Apostichopusjaponicus (Selenka)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Li; SHAO Mingyu; BAO Zhenmin; HU Jingjie; ZHANG Zhifeng

    2011-01-01

    Sperm of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) were quiescent in electrolyte NaCI solution and artificial seawater (ASW) and nonelectrolyte glucose and mannitol solutions when the osmolality was less than 200 mOsm kg-1 The sperm started to be motile as a result of increased osmolality, indicating an osmolality-dependent initiation of sperm motility in sea cucumber. After a brief incubation in hypotonic NaCI and glucose solutions with osmolalities of 200 and 400 mOsm kg-1, sperm lost partial motile ability. Sperm became immobilized when pH was 6.0 in NaCI, glucose and mannitol solutions, suggesting that an H+ release is involved in sperm activation. The decreased pH had no effect on the percentage of motile sperm in ASW, whereas it delayed the time period to reach the maximum motility (motilitymax). Extracellular Ca2+ in electrolyte solutions was not essential for motility stimulation but shortened the time of reaching motilitymax,. When Ca2+ was mixed in nonelectrolyte solutions the sperm motility was completely suppressed. The K+ channel blocker, quinine, suppressed the sperm motility in electrolyte solution, showing a possible involvement of K+ transport in the process. High K+ concentration did not affect the sperm motility in NsC1 solution, but decreased it in ASW and almost entirely suppressed it in nonelectrolyte solutions. The different effects of pH and K+ in ASW and NaCI solution indicate that external ions may also regulate sperm motility.

  9. Arabidopsis LOS5 Gene Enhances Chilling and Salt Stress Tolerance in Cucumber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Li-ying; DUAN Liu-sheng; ZHANG Jia-chang; MI Guo-quan; ZHANG Xiao-lan; ZHANG Zhen-xian; REN Hua-zhong

    2013-01-01

    Low temperature and high salinity are the major abiotic stresses that restrict cucumber growth and production, breeding materials with multiple abiotic resistance are in greatly need. Here we investigated the effect of introducing the LOS5 gene, a key regulator of ABA biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana, under the stress-responsive RD29A promoter into cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv. S516). We found that T1 RD29A-LOS5 transgenic lines have enhanced tolerance to cold and salt stresses. Specifically, transgenic lines exhibited dwarf phenotypes with reduced leaf number, shorter internode, decreased length of the biggest leaf, fewer female flowers, shorter fruit neck and lower vitamin C (Vc). The increased cold tolerance can be reflected from the significantly decreased cold index, the reduced electrolyte leakage index and the MDA content upon cold treatment as compared to those in the control. This may result from the accumulation of internal ABA, soluble sugars and proline, and the enhanced activities of protective enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) in the transgenic lines. Under salt treatment, the transgenic lines exhibited increased germination index, vigor index, more lateral roots and increased root fresh weight. Moreover, RD29A-LOS5 transgenic plants displayed quicker responses in salt stress than that in low-temperature stress.

  10. Colored polyethylene soil covers and grafting effects on cucumber flowering and yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fonseca Inês Cristina de Batista

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. is one of the most cultivated vegetable crops in plastic greenhouses in Brazil because of the short cycle and its high economic value in off-season harvests. To better understand this management technique the effect of different colored polyethylene soil covers was evaluated in relation to flowering and yield of the hybrid cucumber 'Yoshinari' grafted or not on the hybrid squash 'Ikky'. The polyethylene cover colors were black, white on black and green plus a control without cover. Covered but not grafted crops had a more uniform flowering distribution. The number of flowers was greater for the white/black grafted treatment. All the polyethylene covers favored flowering for the non grafted plants. Grafting reduced flowering for the black or green polyethylene covers treatments. The fruit set increased with the use of polyethylene cover but was not influenced by grafting. The uniform distribution of flowering remained during fruiting only for grafted plants and soil covered with black or green polyethylene. Both polyethylene cover and grafting favored early harvesting. The 'Yoshinari'/'Ikky' graft caused taller plants but fruit were thicker and smaller and did not meet the commercial standard. The best quality fruit and highest yields were obtained in the black and white/black treatments, without grafting.

  11. Effect of Low Concentration of Yttrium on Physiological Characteristics of Cucumber (Cucumis Sativus L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Shuo; Chen Dan; Qin Zhaojiang; Dong Zhenyu; Ju Mingchao; Xie Bingning

    2007-01-01

    There is no doubt that rare earth elements stand an important position among the essential elements of plant growth and it is long time since they are first used as plant growth promoters. Given their effects on microstructure, most reports are focused on the toxicology rather than promotion. Using cucumis sativus L. (Jin Chun No.5) as experiment material, we try to find out the nutritional effects of low Y3+ concentrations on cucumber seedlings' leaves. The present paper suggests that the rare earth elements act as micronutrients at low concentrations while they give rise to toxicity at high concentration. Benefits defeat toxicity with concentration ranging from 5 to 25μmol·L-1. Through careful study, at the Y (N03)3 concentration of 10μmol·L1 the content of chlorophyll as well as the activities of SOD, Cu-Zn SOD and the POD are the highest. It indicates 10μmol·L-1 is the optimum concentration of yttrium for promoting the cucumber growth.

  12. Outbreak of Salmonella Newport infections linked to cucumbers--United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelo, Kristina M; Chu, Alvina; Anand, Madhu; Nguyen, Thai-An; Bottichio, Lyndsay; Wise, Matthew; Williams, Ian; Seelman, Sharon; Bell, Rebecca; Fatica, Marianne; Lance, Susan; Baldwin, Deanna; Shannon, Kyle; Lee, Hannah; Trees, Eija; Strain, Errol; Gieraltowski, Laura

    2015-02-20

    In August 2014, PulseNet, the national molecular subtyping network for foodborne disease surveillance, detected a multistate cluster of Salmonella enterica serotype Newport infections with an indistinguishable pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern (XbaI PFGE pattern JJPX01.0061). Outbreaks of illnesses associated with this PFGE pattern have previously been linked to consumption of tomatoes harvested from Virginia's Eastern Shore in the Delmarva region and have not been linked to cucumbers or other produce items. To identify the contaminated food and find the source of the contamination, CDC, state and local health and agriculture departments and laboratories, and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) conducted epidemiologic, traceback, and laboratory investigations. A total of 275 patients in 29 states and the District of Columbia were identified, with illness onsets occurring during May 20-September 30, 2014. Whole genome sequencing (WGS), a highly discriminating subtyping method, was used to further characterize PFGE pattern JJPX01.0061 isolates. Epidemiologic, microbiologic, and product traceback evidence suggests that cucumbers were a source of Salmonella Newport infections in this outbreak. The epidemiologic link to a novel outbreak vehicle suggests an environmental reservoir for Salmonella in the Delmarva region that should be identified and mitigated to prevent future outbreaks.

  13. A new distributional record for the sea cucumber Holothuria (Semperothuria) cinerascens (Brandt) from Goa coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shirwaikar, P.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Occurrence of sea cucumber, Holothuria (Semperothuria) cinerascens from intertidal region of Anjuna (Goa) along central west coast of India is reported. Notes on morphological characteristics are given...

  14. Whole-body Microbiota of Sea Cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) from South Korea for Improved Seafood Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Yoon; Lee, Jin-Jae; Kim, Bong-Soo; Choi, Sang Ho

    2017-08-31

    Sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) is a popular seafood source in Asia, including South Korea, and its consumption has recently increased with recognition of its medicinal properties. However, because raw sea cucumber contains various microbes, its ingestion can cause foodborne illness. Therefore, analysis of the microbiota in the whole body of sea cucumber can extend our understanding of foodborne illness caused by microorganisms and help to better manage products. We collected 40 sea cucumbers from four different sites in August and November, which are known as the maximum production areas in Korea. The microbiota was analyzed by an Illumina Miseq system, and bacterial amounts were quantified by real-time PCR. The diversity and bacterial amounts in sea cucumber were higher in August than in November. Alpha-, Beta-, and Gammaproteobacteria were common dominant classes in all samples. However, the microbiota composition differed according to sampling time and site. Staphylococcus warneri and Propionibacterium acnes were commonly detected potential pathogens in August and November samples, respectively. The effect of experimental Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection on the indigenous microbiota of sea cucumber was analyzed at different temperatures, revealing clear alterations of Psychrobacter and Moraxella; thus, these shifts can be used as indicators for monitoring infection of sea cucumber. Although further studies are needed to clarify and understand the virulence and mechanisms of the identified pathogens of sea cucumber, our study provides a valuable reference for determining the potential of foodborne illness caused by sea cucumber ingestion and to develop monitoring strategies of products using microbiota information.

  15. The status of Cucumber vein yellowing virus in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaveh BANANEJ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Yellowing symptoms of greenhouse- and open field-grown cucurbit crops are becoming increasingly important in many cucurbit growing regions of the world, and particularly in Iran. A survey was conducted from 2011 to 2012 in eight major cucurbit growing regions in Iran. Yellowing and specifically vein clearing symptoms were observed in many cucumber plants grown in greenhouses and open fields, suggesting the presence of Cucumber vein yellowing virus (CVYV, genus Ipomovirus, family Potyviridae. The identification of CVYV was carried out with a specific triple-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (TAS-ELISA and reverse transcription (RT-PCR. CVYV was detected in 42% of the collected samples, in all surveyed provinces, except Bushehr. CVYV was also detected in melon and cucumber crops grown in open fields. These results indicate that CVYV is widely distributed on these two cucurbit species in the major cucumber growing areas of Iran. CVYV positive samples were also tested, using DAS-ELISA, for the presence of Cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus (CCYV and Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV, two criniviruses reported previously to occur in Iran. Double or triple infections of CCYV and CYSDV occurred in 49 of 166 of the CVYV-infected plants. The CVYV and CCYV combined infections were more prevalent than CVYV and CYSDV combined infections. TAS-ELISA positive samples were used to mechanically inoculate healthy cucumber plants, and mild vein yellowing was observed on the inoculated leaves. Identical symptoms were also observed on whitefly inoculated healthy cucumber plants. The presence of CVYV in mechanically and whitefly inoculated plants was confirmed by TAS-ELISA and RT-PCR. Sequence analysis revealed that the Iranian isolate of CVYV was more closely related to Spanish isolates than to isolates from Jordan. Phylogenetic analysis showed that CVYV isolates can be divided into two phylogenetic groups (I and II. Despite the close

  16. Isolation and identification of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria from cucumber rhizosphere and their effect on plant growth promotion and disease suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikhul eIslam

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR are the rhizosphere bacteria that may be utilized to augment plant growth and suppress plant diseases. The objectives of this study were to identify and characterize PGPR indigenous to cucumber rhizosphere in Bangladesh, and to evaluate their ability to suppress Phytophthora crown rot in cucumber. A total of sixty six isolates were isolated, out of which ten (PPB1, PPB2, PPB3, PPB4, PPB5, PPB8, PPB9, PPB10, PPB11 and PPB12 were selected based on their in vitro plant growth promoting attributes and antagonism of phytopathogens. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA sequences identified these isolates as new strains of Pseudomonas stutzeri, Bacillus subtilis, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and B. amyloliquefaciens. The selected isolates produced high levels (26.78 to 51.28 μg mL−1 of indole-3-acetic acid, while significant acetylene reduction activities (1.79 to 4.9 µmole C2H4 mg-1 protein h-1 were observed in eight isolates. Cucumber plants grown from seeds that were treated with these PGPR strains displayed significantly higher levels of germination, seedling vigor, growth, and N content in root and shoot tissue compared to non-treated control plants. All selected isolates were able to successfully colonize the cucumber roots. Moreover, treating cucumber seeds with these isolates significantly suppressed Phytophthora crown rot caused by Phytophthora capsici, and characteristic morphological alterations in Ph. capsici hyphae that grew towards PGPR colonies were observed. Since these PGPR inoculants exhibited multiple traits beneficial to the host plants, they may be applied in the development of new, safe, and effective seed treatments as an alternative to chemical fungicides.

  17. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and kabocha squash (Cucurbita moschata Duch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanasato, Yoshihiko; Tabei, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    We established improved methods for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and kabocha squash (Cucurbita moschata Duch). Vacuum infiltration of cotyledonary explants with Agrobacterium suspension enhanced the Agrobacterium infection efficiency in the proximal regions of explants. Wounding treatment was also essential for kabocha squash. Cocultivation on filter paper wicks suppressed necrosis of explants, keeping regeneration efficacy. Putative transgenic plants were screened by kanamycin resistance and green fluorescent protein (GFP) fluorescence. These putative transgenic plants grew normally and T1 seeds were obtained, and stable integration and transmission of the transgene in T1 generations were confirmed by Southern hybridization and PCR. The average transgenic efficiency for cucumber and kabocha squash was 11.9 ± 3.5 and 9.2 ± 2.9 %, respectively.

  18. Variation of Plant Electrophysiology in Cucumber under Different Water Status

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guo-chen; YU Hai-ye; MA Cheng-lin; WANG Rui

    2005-01-01

    AP and VP were measured in cucumbers under water sufficiency and water stress. The results indicated that, the AP would be evoked by electrical impulse, for water-stressed cucumber, its amplitude could reached more than 40 mV which was obviously greater than that (about 10-20 mV) of plant under well-watered,and no VP came out. Along with the intensity of light increased, the VP appeared going-up trend, and accompanied by evidently spiking electrical signal, for plant under water stress, the VP increased more clearly, but the change of spiking amplitude of AP (about 3 mY) was rather smaller than that (8-10 mY) of plant under well-watered.

  19. Silicon-mediated accumulation of flavonoid phytoalexins in cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawe, A; Abou-Zaid, M; Menzies, J G; Bélanger, R R

    1998-05-01

    ABSTRACT The controversial role of silicon in plant disease resistance, described mostly as a passive mechanical protection, has been addressed. Conclusive evidence is presented that silicon is involved in the increased resistance of cucumber to powdery mildew by enhancing the antifungal activity of infected leaves. This antifungal activity was attributable to the presence of low-molecular-weight metabolites. One of these metabolites, described here as a phytoalexin, was identified as a flavonol aglycone rhamnetin (3,5,3',4'-tetrahydroxy-7-O-methoxyflavone). This is the first report of a phytoalexin for this chemical group in the plant kingdom and of a flavonol phytoalexin in cucumber, a chemical defense long believed to be nonexistent in the family Cucurbitaceae. The antifungal activity of leaf extracts was better expressed after acid hydrolysis, extending to another plant species the concept that some phytoalexins are synthesized as glycosylated phytoalexins or their precursors.

  20. A sulfated alpha-L-fucan from sea cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, A C; Vieira, R P; Mourão, P A; Mulloy, B

    1994-03-04

    A purified sulfated alpha-L-fucan from the sea cucumber body wall was studied, before and after almost complete desulfation, using methylation analysis and NMR spectroscopy. NMR analysis indicates that 2,4-di-O-sulfo-L-fucopyranose and unsubstituted fucopyranose are present in equal proportions, and that 2-O-sulfo-L-fucopyranose is present in twice that proportion. There is some NMR evidence that a regular repeating sequence of four residues comprises most or all of the polysaccharide chain.

  1. Fruit removal increases root-zone respiration in cucumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kläring, H.-P.; Hauschild, I.; Heißner, A.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Many attempts have been made to avoid the commonly observed fluctuations in fruit initiation and fruit growth in crop plants, particularly in cucumber (Cucumis sativus). Weak sinks of the fruit have been assumed to result in low sink/source ratios for carbohydrates, which may inhibit photosynthesis. This study focuses on the effects of low sink–source ratios on photosynthesis and respiration, and in particular root-zone respiration. Methods Mature fruit-bearing cucumber plants were grown in an aerated nutrient solution. The root containers were designed as open chambers to allow measurement of CO2 gas exchange in the root zone. A similar arrangement in a gas-exchange cuvette enabled simultaneous measurements of CO2 exchange in the shoot and root zones. Key Results Reducing the sinks for carbohydrates by removing all fruit from the plants always resulted in a doubling of CO2 exchange in the root zone within a few hours. However, respiration of the shoot remained unaffected and photosynthesis was only marginally reduced, if at all. Conclusions The results suggest that the increased level of CO2 gas exchange in the root zone after removing the carbon sinks in the shoot is due primarily to the exudation of organic compounds by the roots and their decomposition by micro-organisms. This hypothesis must be tested in further experiments, but if proved correct it would make sense to include carbon leakage by root exudation in cucumber production models. In contrast, inhibition of photosynthesis was measurable only at zero fruit load, a situation that does not occur in cucumber production systems, and models that estimate production can therefore ignore (end-product) inhibition of photosynthesis. PMID:25301817

  2. Fine genetic mapping of Cp, a recessive gene for compact (dwarf) plant architecture in cucumber, cucumis sativus L

    Science.gov (United States)

    The compact or dwarf plant architecture is an important trait in cucumber breeding. Compact cucumber has the potential to be used in once-over mechanical harvest of pickling cucumber production. Compact growth habit is controlled by a simply inherited recessive gene. To facilitate markers assisted s...

  3. 40 CFR 174.516 - Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus...-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.516 Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Cucumber Mosaic Virus are...

  4. Subtropical Modern Greenhouse Cucumber Canopy Transpiration Under Summer Climate Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Wei-hong; WANG Xiao-han; DING Wei-min; CHEN Yu-qing; DAI Jian-feng

    2002-01-01

    Greenhouse canopy transpiration not only has effects on greenhouse air temperature and humidity, but also is important for determining the set-point of fertigation. In this study, Penman-Monteith equation was used to calculate the greenhouse cucumber canopy transpiration under summer climate condition.The effects of greenhouse environmental factors on canopy transpiration were analyzed based on the measurements of greenhouse microclimate factors and canopy transpiration. The results showed that Penman-Monteith equation was reliable and robust in estimating greenhouse cucumber canopy transpiration under summer climate condition. Greenhouse cucumber canopy transpiration rate increased linearly with the increase of net radiation and water vapor pressure deficit (VPD) above the canopy. But the maximum value of the canopy transpiration rate occurred at the same time as that of VPD whereas about two hours later than that of net radiation. Based on the results, it was concluded that in addition to radiation, air humidity should also be considered when determine the set-point of fertigation.

  5. Comparisons of dioxin levels of cucumber varieties and cultivation periods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eun, H.; Watanabe, E.; Ishii, Y.; Ueji, M. [National Inst. for Agro-Environmental Sciences, Tsukuba (Japan); Narita, I.; Nakamura, K. [Saitama Prefecture Agriculture and Forestry Research Center, Saitama (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    According to a 2001 survey on Daily Intake in Japan, the total dioxins intake of a person in Japan amounts to 1.68 pg-TEQ per kg of body weight/day on average. The sharing a percentage of agricultural crops was about 3%in Japanese TDI amounts. However, all cases collect samples from supermarkets to estimate TDI of dioxins, which make it difficult to understand under what environment, food samples were pretreated and cultivated. Especially, TDI values in agricultural crops are probably dependent on the collection situation. In the agricultural environment, some reports indicate that dioxins have accumulated in paddy and upland in Japan due to the past use of some types of agricultural chemicals, which contained dioxins as impurities. Furthermore, taking the atmospheric pathway, for example, dioxins in the ambient air are associated with particulate matter and fall to the ground, contaminating agricultural land. Thus, it has been emphasized that dioxin compounds have a possibility to have adverse effect on vegetables. However, there is little understanding related to this fact in the country and worldwide. Empirical studies conducted in Japan and abroad have reported low residual concentrations of dioxins in cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L.), a member of the gourd family. However, there have been extremely few instances of research involving overall comparisons of cultivation environments. Thus, we studied the persistence of dioxins in cucumbers of different varieties cultivated outdoors over varying cultivation periods, conducting thorough experiments to elucidate the actual conditions and mechanisms of dioxin contamination of cucumbers.

  6. [Thermal dissipation pathway in cucumber seedling leaves under hypoxia stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yong-xi; Sun, Jin; Wang, Li-ping; Shu, Sheng; Guo, Shi-rong

    2011-03-01

    A water culture experiment was conducted to study the relationship between photosynthetic thermal dissipation and xanthophyll cycle in cucumber seedling leaves under hypoxia stress (the dissolved oxygen concentration in nutrient solution was 0.9-1.1 mg x L(-1)). Under the hypoxia stress, there was a significant decrease in the quantum yield of PS II photochemistry rate (phi(PS II)), net photosynthetic rate (Pn) under saturation light intensity, quanta yield (AQY), and maximal photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), suggesting that the photoinhibition of the seedling leaves was induced. Meanwhile, the thermal dissipation (NPQ) and the allocation of dissipation energy (D) by antenna increased, but the photochemical quenching apparent (q(p)) decreased, suggesting the enhancement of thermal dissipation in cucumber leaves under hypoxia stress. A positive correlation was observed between NPQ and xanthophyll de-epoxidation state (DEPS), and both of them were promoted by ascorbic acid (AsA) and inhibited by 1,4-dithiothreitol (DTT), suggesting that xanthophyll cycle was the major pathway of photosynthetic thermal dissipation in cucumber seedling leaves under hypoxia stress.

  7. Transcriptome profile analysis of floral sex determination in cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tao; Qin, Zhiwei; Zhou, Xiuyan; Feng, Zhuo; Du, Yalin

    2010-07-15

    Cucumber has been widely studied as a model for floral sex determination. In this investigation, we performed genome-wide transcriptional profiling of apical tissue of a gynoecious mutant (Csg-G) and the monoecious wild-type (Csg-M) of cucumber in an attempt to isolate genes involved in sex determination, using the Solexa technology. The profiling analysis revealed numerous changes in gene expression attributable to the mutation, which resulted in the down-regulation of 600 genes and the up-regulation of 143 genes. The Solexa data were confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). Gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed that the differentially expressed genes were mainly involved in biogenesis, transport and organization of cellular component, macromolecular and cellular biosynthesis, localization, establishment of localization, translation and other processes. Furthermore, the expression of some of these genes depended upon the tissue and the developmental stage of the flowers of gynoecious mutant. The results of this study suggest two important concepts, which govern sex determination in cucumber. First, the differential expression of genes involved in plant hormone signaling pathways, such as ACS, Asr1, CsIAA2, CS-AUX1 and TLP, indicate that phytohormones and their crosstalk might play a critical role in the sex determination. Second, the regulation of some transcription factors, including EREBP-9, may also be involved in this developmental process.

  8. Identification a coat protein region of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) essential for long-distance movement in cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salánki, Katalin; Kiss, László; Gellért, Akos; Balázs, Ervin

    2011-12-01

    To characterise the long-distance movement determinant of cucumoviral coat proteins (CPs), five mutants were engineered into the CMV CP bearing the corresponding tomato aspermy virus (TAV) loops exposed on the surface of the virion. Both viruses can move long-distance in Nicotiana clevelandii, but only CMV can move long-distance in cucumber. Investigation of the CMV chimeras identified three amino acids of the βB-βC loop that were essential for the CMV long-distance movement in cucumber. Introducing these mutations into the TAV CP was not sufficient for long-distance movement, indicating that this is not the sole region causing long-distance movement deficiency.

  9. Effect of pesticide mixture on value of fresh, fermented and pickles cucumbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna WElkner

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In years 1998-1999 effects of fungicides (azoxystrobin and copper hydroxide, insecticides (etafenproks and pirimicarb and their mixtures on chemical composition and organoleptic quality of fresh, fermented and pickled cucumbers were studied_ To analyses fruits were taken after 7 and 12 days from treatment. Fresh cucumber fruits after 7 days from treatment with investigated pesticides contained less carbohydrates and ascorbic acids and higher level of nitrates in compare to untreated fruits (control. After 12 days from treatment the differences between treated and untreated fruits dissapeared. Cucumber fruits harvested 7 and 12 days after treatment were processed separately. Quality evaluation of fermented and pickled cucumbers was carried out 4 months after processing. In most of cucumber fruits (7 days after treatment with pesticides treated with pesticides empty cavities were found, and not in control (untreated. Number of cavities was highest in fresh and pickled cucumbers treated with mixture of fungicide and insecticide. In case of fermented cucumbers highest number of empty cavities occurred in fruits treated with fungicide azoxystrobin. Cucumber fruits taken to fermentation process 7 days after day of treatment had darker green colour, lowered haIdness, and larger empty cavities than untreated fruits. In fruits harvested 12 days after pesticides application such differencess were not observed.

  10. Inheritance of Beta-Carotene-Associated Flesh Color in Cucumber (Cucumis Sativus L.) Fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nutritional value of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) can be improved by the introgression of ß-carotene (i.e., provitamin A and/or orange flesh) genes from “Xishuangbanna gourd” (XIS; Cucumis sativus var. xishuangbannanesis Qi et Yuan) into U.S. pickling cucumber. However, the genetics of ß-carote...

  11. On-Line Hyperspectral Transmittance Imaging for Internal Defect Detection of Pickling Cucumbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperspectral imaging technique under transmittance mode was investigated for detection of internal defect in pickling cucumbers such as carpel suture separation or hollow cucumbers caused by mechanical stress. A prototype of on-line hyperspectral transmittance imaging system was developed for real...

  12. Engineering Research on Quality Detection of Pickling Cucumbers: 2009 Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report briefly summarizes the three studies performed in 2009 on cucumber defect detection. Hyperspectral imaging transmittance mode has demonstrated great potential for online sorting and grading of cucumbers and pickles. However, the technique is still limited by its speed in acquiring and pr...

  13. QTL mapping of powdery mildew resistance in WI 2757 cucumber (Cucumis sativus L)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powdery mildew is a serious fungal disease of cucumber and other cucurbot crops in the US and many other parts of the world. Resistant cultivars have been deployed in production for a long time, but the genetic mechanisms of powdery mildew resistance in cucumber are not well understood. In a three-y...

  14. Reduction of Salmonella populations on cucumber fruit by application of lytic bacteriophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Foodborne illness outbreaks of Salmonella enterica associated with consumption of cucumbers (Cucumis sativus) in the U.S. in 2014 and 2015 sickened over 1000 people and caused 5 deaths. Whole and fresh-cut cucumbers are susceptible to Salmonella contamination during growing and harvestin...

  15. Determination of germination quality of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seed by LED-induced hyperspectral reflectance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose: We developed a viability evaluation method for cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seed using hyperspectral reflectance imaging. Methods: Reflectance spectra of cucumber seeds in the 400 to 1000 nm range were collected from hyperspectral reflectance images obtained using blue, green, and red LED ill...

  16. Transcriptomic and QTL analysis suggest candidate fruit shape factors in cucumber (Cucumis sativus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruit size and shape are important determinants of market class and value in cucumber; however, underlying mechanisms regulating size and shape have not been identified. To gain insight into possible factors regulating cucumber fruit growth, we used a combined QTL and transcriptome approach to exami...

  17. Pentatricopeptide repeat 336 as the candidate gene for paternal sorting of mitochondria (Psm) in cucumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is a useful plant to study organellar-nuclear interactions because its three genomes show differential transmission: bi-parental nuclear, maternal chloroplast and paternal mitochondrial (mt). The mt DNA of cucumber is relatively large due in part to accumulation of rep...

  18. Comparative mapping of ZYMV resistances in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and melon (Cucumis melo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Y; Katzir, N; Brotman, Y; King, J; Bertrand, F; Havey, M

    2004-08-01

    Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) routinely causes significant losses in cucumber ( Cucumis sativus L.) and melon ( Cucumis melo L.). ZYMV resistances from the cucumber population 'TMG1' and the melon plant introduction (PI) 414723 show different modes of inheritance and their genetic relationships are unknown. We used molecular markers tightly linked to ZYMV resistances from cucumber and melon for comparative mapping. A 5-kb genomic region (YCZ-5) cosegregating with the zym locus of cucumber was cloned and sequenced to reveal single nucleotide polymorphisms and indels distinguishing alleles from ZYMV-resistant (TMG1) and susceptible (Straight 8) cucumbers. A low-copy region of the YCZ-5 clone was hybridized to bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones of melon and a 180-kb contig assembled. One end of this melon contig was mapped in cucumber and cosegregated with ZYMV resistance, demonstrating that physically linked regions in melon show genetic linkage in cucumber. However the YCZ-5 region segregated independently of ZYMV resistance loci in two melon families. These results establish that these sources of ZYMV resistances from cucumber TMG1 and melon PI414723 are likely non-syntenic.

  19. Thick root of cucumber: other susceptible plants and the effect of pH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaag, van der D.J.; Paternotte, P.; Hamelink, R.

    2002-01-01

    Thick root is a relatively new disorder of cucumber grown in artificial substrates. Plants of cucumber, tomato, sweet pepper, lupin, anthurium, Cucurbita ficifolia, C. maxima and two lines from crosses between C. maxima and C. moschata were grown in thick root disease (TRD)-infested nutrient solutio

  20. Identification of five sea cucumber species through PCR-RFLP analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yingchun; Zheng, Rong; Zuo, Tao; Wang, Yuming; Li, Zhaojie; Xue, Yong; Xue, Changhu; Tang, Qingjuan

    2014-10-01

    Sea cucumbers are traditional marine food and Chinese medicine in Asia. The rapid expansion of sea cucumber market has resulted in various problems, such as commercial fraud and mislabeling. Conventionally, sea cucumber species could be distinguished by their morphological and anatomical characteristics; however, their identification becomes difficult when they are processed. The aim of this study was to develop a new convenient method of identifying and distinguishing sea cucumber species. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene ( COI) was used to identifing five sea cucumber species ( Apostichopus japonicus, Cucumaria frondosa, Thelenota ananas, Parastichopus californicus and Actinopyga lecanora). A 692 bp fragment of COI was searched for BamHI, KpnI, PstI, XbaI and Eco31I restriction sites with DNAMAN 6.0, which were then used to PCR-RFLP analysis. These five sea cucumber species can be discriminated from mixed sea cucumbers. The developed PCR-RFLP assay will facilitate the identification of sea cucumbers, making their source tracing and quality controlling feasible.

  1. Multispectral fluorescence imaging technique for discrimination of cucumber (Cucumis Sativus) seed viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we developed a nondestructive method for discriminating viable cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seeds based on hyperspectral fluorescence imaging. The fluorescence spectra of cucumber seeds in the 420–700 nm range were extracted from hyperspectral fluorescence images obtained using 365 nm u...

  2. A truncated F-box protein confers the dwarfism in cucumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwarfism is an important plant architecture trait for cucumber breeding. In the present study, we identified a dwarf mutant 406M in cucumber which showed a shorter internode length as compared with its wild type. In a BC1F2 population from the cross of 406M with its wild type parental line 406, the ...

  3. First complete genome sequence of an emerging cucumber green mottle mosaic virus isolate in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    The complete genome sequence (6,423 nt) of an emerging Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) isolate on cucumber in North America was determined through deep sequencing of sRNA and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. It shares 99% nucleotide sequence identity to the Asian genotype, but only 90% t...

  4. Metabolic footprinting of Lactobacillus buchneri strain LA1147 during anaerobic spoilage of fermented cucumbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lactobacillus buchneri has recently been associated with anaerobic spoilage of fermented cucumbers due to its ability to metabolize lactic acid into acetic acid and 1,2-propanediol. However, we have limited knowledge of other chemical components in fermented cucumber that may be related to spoilage ...

  5. Fine genetic mapping of target leaf spot resistance gene cca-3 in cucumber, Cucumis sativus L

    Science.gov (United States)

    The target leaf spot (TLS) is a very important fungal disease in cucumber. In this study, we conducted fine genetic mapping of a recessively inherited resistance gene, cca-2 against TLS with 1,083 F2 plants derived from the resistant cucumber inbred line D31 and the susceptible line D5. Initial mapp...

  6. [Effects of wheat root exudates on cucumber growth and soil fungal community structure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Feng-Zhi; Li, Min; Cao, Peng; Ma, Ya-Fei; Wang, Li-Li

    2014-10-01

    With wheat as the donor plant and cucumber as the receptor plant, this study investigated the effects of root exudates from wheat cultivars with different allelopathic potentials (positive or negative) and companion cropping with wheat on soil fungal community structure by PCR-DGGE method and cucumber growth. Results showed that the wheat root exudates with positive allelopathic potential increased height and stem diameter of cucumber seedlings significantly, compared to the control seedlings (W) after 6 days and 12 days treatment, respectively. Also, wheat root exudates with both positive and negative allelopathic potential increased the seedling height of cucumber significantly after 18 days treatment. The wheat root exudates with different allelopathic potentials decreased the band number, Shannon and evenness indices of soil fungal community significantly in cucumber seedling rhizosphere, and those in the soil with the control seedlings (W) were also significantly higher than that in the control soil without seedlings (Wn) after 6 days treatment. The band number, Shannon and evenness indices in all the treatments were significantly higher than those in the control soil without seedlings (Wn) after 18 days treatment. Companion cropping with negative allelopathic potential wheat decreased the Shannon and evenness indices of soil fungi community significantly in the cucumber seedling rhizosphere, suggesting the wheat root exudates and companion cropping with wheat changed soil fungal community structure in the cucumber seedling rhizosphere. The results of DGGE map and the principal component analysis showed that companion cropping with wheat cultivars with different allelopathic potentials changed soil fungal community structure in cucumber seedling rhizosphere.

  7. Preparation of a Lactobacillus plantarum starter culture for cucumber fermentations that can meet kosher guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    A method is described for growth of a Lactobacillus plantarum starter culture in jars of commercially available pasteurized fresh-pack kosher dill cucumbers so that jars can be used to inoculate commercial scale cucumber fermentation tanks. A procedure is also described to transfer lactic acid bacte...

  8. Expression patterns of genes encoding plasma membrane aquaporins during fruit development in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jin; Wang, Jinfang; Li, Ren; Li, Dianbo; Xu, Fengfeng; Sun, Qianqian; Zhao, Bin; Mao, Ai-Jun; Guo, Yang-Dong

    2015-11-01

    Aquaporins are membrane channels precisely regulating water movement through cell membranes in most living organisms. Despite the advances in the physiology of fruit development, their participation during fruit development in cucumber still barely understood. In this paper, the expressions of 12 genes encoding plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs) were analyzed during cucumber fruit development in our work. Based on the homology search with known PIPs from rice, Arabidopsis and strawberry, 12 cucumber PIP genes subfamily members were identified. Cellular localization assays indicated that CsPIPs were localized in the plasma membrane. The qRT-PCR analysis of CsPIPs showed that 12 CsPIPs were differentially expressed during fruit development. These results suggest that 12 genes encoding plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (CsPIPs) play very important roles in cucumber life cycle and the data generated will be helpful in understanding their precise roles during fruit development in cucumber.

  9. Induction and mechanism of cucumber resistance to anthracnose induced by Pieris rapae extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Pieris rapae extract was sprayed on the surface of cucumber leaf to determine the induction of resistance to anthracnose.The enzyme activities of peroxidase (POD) and polyphenoloxidase (PPO) were detected on cucumber leaves after P.rapae extract induction and pathogen challenge.The results showed that the disease index of cucumber anthracnose was significantly decreased after the cucumber was induced with the P.rapae extract at a concentration of 5.0 mg·mL-1.The POD and PPO activities in foliar-applied P.rapae extract without pathogen inoculation (PETO) or with pathogen inoculation (PETI) were relatively higher than those with no-P.rapae extract treatment and without pathogen inoculation (CONO) or with pathogen inoculation (CONI),respectively.The results suggested that the increased levels of POD and PPO activities in PETO and PETI play an important role in the induction of resistance to cucumber anthracnose.

  10. Economics of Peppers and Salad Cucumbers Production on an Open Land and in a Protected Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Pozderec

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The research is based on the economic analysis of growing peppers (Capsicum annum L. and salad cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L. in an open land and in a protected space. For this purpose the simulation models were developed for the growing of the peppers and salad cucumbers that were based on the technological-economic input data for two growing systems, in the open and in the protected space. The results of the economic analysis show that the growing of peppers and salad cucumbers in the protected space is more profi table than growing them in the open land. The growing of salad cucumbers in the protected space has proven to be more reasonable than growing peppers, as the coefficient of economics (Ce of growing salad cucumbers reached the value Ce = 1.4, while the value in growing peppers was Ce = 1.1. This was also confirmed with two scenarios that were analysed using the sensitivity analysis.

  11. Economics of Peppers and Salad Cucumbers Production on an Open Land and in a Protected Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Pozderec

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The research is based on the economic analysis of growing peppers (Capsicum annum L. and salad cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L. in an open land and in a protected space. For this purpose the simulation models were developed for the growing of the peppers and salad cucumbers that were based on the technological-economic input data for two growing systems, in the open and in the protected space. The results of the economic analysis show that the growing of peppers and salad cucumbers in the protected space is more profi table than growing them in the open land. The growing of salad cucumbers in the protected space has proven to be more reasonable than growing peppers, as the coefficient of economics (Ce of growing salad cucumbers reached the value Ce = 1.4, while the value in growing peppers was Ce = 1.1. This was also confirmed with two scenarios that were analysed using the sensitivity analysis.

  12. Lactobacilli and tartrazine as causative agents of red-color spoilage in cucumber pickle products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Díaz, I M; Kelling, R E; Hale, S; Breidt, F; McFeeters, R F

    2007-09-01

    The cucumber pickling industry has sporadically experienced spoilage outbreaks in pickled cucumber products characterized by development of red color on the surface of the fruits. Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus paracasei were isolated from 2 outbreaks of this spoilage that occurred about 15 y apart during the last 3 decades. Both organisms were shown to produce this spoilage when inoculated into pickled cucumbers while concomitantly degrading the azo dye tartrazine (FD&C yellow nr 5). This food dye is used as a yellow coloring in the brine cover solutions of commercial pickled cucumber products. The red color does not occur in the absence of tartrazine, nor when turmeric is used as a yellow coloring in the pickles. Addition of sodium benzoate to the brine cover solutions of a pickled cucumber product, more specifically hamburger dill pickles, prevented growth of these lactic acid bacteria and the development of the red spoilage.

  13. A New Cucumber Rootstock Ft Hybrid —'Weisheng No.1'%黄瓜专用砧木新品种威盛1号的选育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永成; 刘爱群; 赵丽丽; 王国政; 赵越

    2013-01-01

    'Weisheng No.l' is a new cucumber rootstock F1 hybrid bred by crossing S0703 as female parent with S0704 as male parent. It has stronger graft compatibility and symbiotic affinity. When grafted with cucumber scion, its seedling has high survival rate. Grafted seedlings are highly resistant to seedling damping-off, resistant to downy mildew and Fusarium wilt. Especially after grafting with cucumber, its fruit has shiny green skin, and the fruit is straight up. All these have obviously improved its external appearance quality. At the same time, the contents of soluble sugar in cucumber fruit is increased. Grafted seedlings can yield 11.49% higher than self-rooted cucumber, and 8.32% higher than grafted with ' Heizinangua'. It is suitable to be cultivated in open field in northern China, and protected facility grafted with cucumber.%威盛1号是以自交系S0703为母本,自交系S0704为父本配制而成的中国南瓜(Cucurbita moschata Duch.)黄瓜专用砧木一代杂种.该砧木与黄瓜的嫁接亲和性和共生亲和力都很强,嫁接苗成活率高,高抗黄瓜猝倒病,抗霜霉病和枯萎病.特别是嫁接后可使黄瓜瓜皮表面光亮无蜡粉、瓜条顺直,明显地提高外观品质;同时瓜条中可溶性糖含量有所增加,黄瓜产量比自根苗提高11.49%,比用黑籽南瓜嫁接提高8.32%.适宜我国北方露地和保护地黄瓜嫁接栽培.

  14. Scanning ion-selective electrode technique and X-ray microanalysis provide direct evidence of contrasting Na+ transport ability from root to shoot in salt-sensitive cucumber and salt-tolerant pumpkin under NaCl stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Bo; Huang, Yuan; Sun, Jingyu; Xie, Junjun; Niu, Mengliang; Liu, Zhixiong; Fan, Molin; Bie, Zhilong

    2014-12-01

    Grafting onto salt-tolerant pumpkin rootstock can increase cucumber salt tolerance. Previous studies have suggested that this can be attributed to pumpkin roots with higher capacity to limit the transport of Na(+) to the shoot than cucumber roots. However, the mechanism remains unclear. This study investigated the transport of Na(+) in salt-tolerant pumpkin and salt-sensitive cucumber plants under high (200 mM) or moderate (90 mM) NaCl stress. Scanning ion-selective electrode technique showed that pumpkin roots exhibited a higher capacity to extrude Na(+), and a correspondingly increased H(+) influx under 200 or 90 mM NaCl stress. The 200 mM NaCl induced Na(+)/H(+) exchange in the root was inhibited by amiloride (a Na(+)/H(+) antiporter inhibitor) or vanadate [a plasma membrane (PM) H(+) -ATPase inhibitor], indicating that Na(+) exclusion in salt stressed pumpkin and cucumber roots was the result of an active Na(+)/H(+) antiporter across the PM, and the Na(+)/H(+) antiporter system in salt stressed pumpkin roots was sufficient to exclude Na(+) X-ray microanalysis showed higher Na(+) in the cortex, but lower Na(+) in the stele of pumpkin roots than that in cucumber roots under 90 mM NaCl stress, suggesting that the highly vacuolated root cortical cells of pumpkin roots could sequester more Na(+), limit the radial transport of Na(+) to the stele and thus restrict the transport of Na(+) to the shoot. These results provide direct evidence for pumpkin roots with higher capacity to limit the transport of Na(+) to the shoot than cucumber roots.

  15. Boron toxicity is alleviated by hydrogen sulfide in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bao-Lan; Shi, Lei; Li, Yin-Xing; Zhang, Wen-Hao

    2010-05-01

    Boron (B) is an essential micronutrient for plants, which when occurs in excess in the growth medium, becomes toxic to plants. Rapid inhibition of root elongation is one of the most distinct symptoms of B toxicity. Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is emerging as a potential messenger molecule involved in modulation of physiological processes in plants. In the present study, we investigated the role of H(2)S in B toxicity in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seedlings. Root elongation was significantly inhibited by exposure of cucumber seedlings to solutions containing 5 mM B. The inhibitory effect of B on root elongation was substantially alleviated by treatment with H(2)S donor sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS). There was an increase in the activity of pectin methylesterase (PME) and up-regulated expression of genes encoding PME (CsPME) and expansin (CsExp) on exposure to high B concentration. The increase in PME activity and up-regulation of expression of CsPME and CsExp induced by high B concentration were markedly reduced in the presence of H(2)S donor. There was a rapid increase in soluble B concentrations in roots on exposure to high concentration B solutions. Treatment with H(2)S donor led to a transient reduction in soluble B concentration in roots such that no differences in soluble B concentrations in roots in the absence and presence of NaHS were found after 8 h exposure to the high concentration B solutions. These findings suggest that increases in activities of PME and expansin may underlie the inhibition of root elongation by toxic B, and that H(2)S plays an ameliorative role in protection of plants from B toxicity by counteracting B-induced up-regulation of cell wall-associated proteins of PME and expansins.

  16. The influence of different concentrations of bio-organic fertilizer on cucumber Fusarium wilt and soil microflora alterations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Nan; Wang, Weiwei; Yao, Yanlai; Zhu, Fengxiang; Wang, Weiping; Chang, Xiaojuan

    2017-01-01

    Fusarium wilt is one of the main diseases of cucumber, and bio-organic fertilizer has been used to control Fusarium wilt. In this study, a pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of bio-organic fertilizer applied at four levels on the suppression of Fusarium wilt disease in cucumber, the soil physico-chemical properties and the microbial communities. In comparison with the control (CK), low concentrations of bio-organic fertilizer (BIO2.5 and BIO5) did not effectively reduce the disease incidence and had little effect on soil microorganisms. High concentrations of bio-organic fertilizer (BIO10 and BIO20) significantly reduced the disease incidence by 33.3%-66.7% and the production was significantly improved by 83.8%-100.3%. The soil population of F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum was significantly lower in bio-organic fertilizer treatments, especially in BIO10 and BIO20. The microorganism activity increased with the bio-organic fertilizer concentration. High-throughput sequencing demonstrated that, at the order level, Sphingomonadales, Bacillales, Solibacterales and Xylariales were significantly abundant in BIO10 and BIO20 soils. At the genus level, the abundance and composition of bacterial and fungal communities in BIO10 and BIO20 were similar, illustrating that high concentrations of bio-organic fertilizer activated diverse groups of microorganisms. Redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that Xanthomonadales, Sphingomonadales, Bacillales, Orbiliales, Sordariales, and Mucorales occurred predominantly in the BIO10 and BIO20. These microorganisms were related to the organic matter, available potassium and available phosphorus contents. In conclusion, a high concentration of bio-organic fertilizer application suppressed the Fusarium wilt disease and increased cucumber production after continuous cropping might through improving soil chemical condition and manipulating the composition of soil microbial community. PMID:28166302

  17. The influence of different concentrations of bio-organic fertilizer on cucumber Fusarium wilt and soil microflora alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Nan; Wang, Weiwei; Yao, Yanlai; Zhu, Fengxiang; Wang, Weiping; Chang, Xiaojuan

    2017-01-01

    Fusarium wilt is one of the main diseases of cucumber, and bio-organic fertilizer has been used to control Fusarium wilt. In this study, a pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of bio-organic fertilizer applied at four levels on the suppression of Fusarium wilt disease in cucumber, the soil physico-chemical properties and the microbial communities. In comparison with the control (CK), low concentrations of bio-organic fertilizer (BIO2.5 and BIO5) did not effectively reduce the disease incidence and had little effect on soil microorganisms. High concentrations of bio-organic fertilizer (BIO10 and BIO20) significantly reduced the disease incidence by 33.3%-66.7% and the production was significantly improved by 83.8%-100.3%. The soil population of F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum was significantly lower in bio-organic fertilizer treatments, especially in BIO10 and BIO20. The microorganism activity increased with the bio-organic fertilizer concentration. High-throughput sequencing demonstrated that, at the order level, Sphingomonadales, Bacillales, Solibacterales and Xylariales were significantly abundant in BIO10 and BIO20 soils. At the genus level, the abundance and composition of bacterial and fungal communities in BIO10 and BIO20 were similar, illustrating that high concentrations of bio-organic fertilizer activated diverse groups of microorganisms. Redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that Xanthomonadales, Sphingomonadales, Bacillales, Orbiliales, Sordariales, and Mucorales occurred predominantly in the BIO10 and BIO20. These microorganisms were related to the organic matter, available potassium and available phosphorus contents. In conclusion, a high concentration of bio-organic fertilizer application suppressed the Fusarium wilt disease and increased cucumber production after continuous cropping might through improving soil chemical condition and manipulating the composition of soil microbial community.

  18. Detection of mechanical injury on pickling cucumbers using near-infrared hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariana, D.; Lu, R.; Guyer, D.

    2005-11-01

    Automated detection of defects on freshly harvested pickling cucumbers will help the pickle industry provide higher quality pickle products and reduce potential economic losses. Research was conducted on using a hyperspectral imaging system for detecting defects on pickling cucumbers caused by mechanical stress. A near-infrared hyperspectral imaging system was used to capture both spatial and spectral information from cucumbers in the spectral region of 900 - 1700 nm. The system consisted of an imaging spectrograph attached to an InGaAs camera with line-light fiber bundles as an illumination source. Cucumber samples were subjected to two forms of mechanical loading, dropping and rolling, to simulate stress caused by mechanical harvesting. Hyperspectral images were acquired from the cucumbers over time periods of 0, 1, 2, 3, and 6 days after mechanical stress. Hyperspectral image processing methods, including principal component analysis and wavelength selection, were developed to separate normal and mechanically injured cucumbers. Results showed that reflectance from normal or non-bruised cucumbers was consistently higher than that from bruised cucumbers. The spectral region between 950 and 1350 nm was found to be most effective for bruise detection. The hyperspectral imaging system detected all mechanically injured cucumbers immediately after they were bruised. The overall detection accuracy was 97% within two hours of bruising and it was lower as time progressed. Lower detection accuracies for the prolonged times after bruising were attributed to the self- healing of the bruised tissue after mechanical injury. This research demonstrated that hyperspectral imaging is useful for detecting mechanical injury on pickling cucumbers.

  19. What is the most prominent factor limiting photosynthesis in different layers of a greenhouse cucumber canopy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tsu-Wei; Henke, Michael; de Visser, Pieter H B; Buck-Sorlin, Gerhard; Wiechers, Dirk; Kahlen, Katrin; Stützel, Hartmut

    2014-09-01

    Maximizing photosynthesis at the canopy level is important for enhancing crop yield, and this requires insights into the limiting factors of photosynthesis. Using greenhouse cucumber (Cucumis sativus) as an example, this study provides a novel approach to quantify different components of photosynthetic limitations at the leaf level and to upscale these limitations to different canopy layers and the whole plant. A static virtual three-dimensional canopy structure was constructed using digitized plant data in GroIMP. Light interception of the leaves was simulated by a ray-tracer and used to compute leaf photosynthesis. Different components of photosynthetic limitations, namely stomatal (S(L)), mesophyll (M(L)), biochemical (B(L)) and light (L(L)) limitations, were calculated by a quantitative limitation analysis of photosynthesis under different light regimes. In the virtual cucumber canopy, B(L) and L(L) were the most prominent factors limiting whole-plant photosynthesis. Diffusional limitations (S(L) + M(L)) contributed Photosynthesis in the lower canopy was more limited by the biochemical capacity, and the upper canopy was more sensitive to light than other canopy parts. Although leaves in the upper canopy received more light, their photosynthesis was more light restricted than in the leaves of the lower canopy, especially when the light condition above the canopy was poor. An increase in whole-plant photosynthesis under diffuse light did not result from an improvement of light use efficiency but from an increase in light interception. Diffuse light increased the photosynthesis of leaves that were directly shaded by other leaves in the canopy by up to 55%. Based on the results, maintaining biochemical capacity of the middle-lower canopy and increasing the leaf area of the upper canopy would be promising strategies to improve canopy photosynthesis in a high-wire cucumber cropping system. Further analyses using the approach described in this study can be expected to

  20. The Effect of Cu2+ on Seed Sprouts and Seedlings Growth of Cucumber and Radish%铜对黄瓜和萝卜种子萌发和生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜成; 申晓慧; 李春丰; 丛慧颖; 赵永勋; 穆丹; 刘方明; 吴恒梅

    2012-01-01

    利用Cu2+对黄瓜、萝卜种子进行处理,观察种子的萌发率以及萌发后根芽的生长情况.结果表明:不同浓度的Cu2+对黄瓜、萝卜种子的发芽率、根长、幼苗生长具有不同的作用.低浓度Cu2+促进种子萌发,高浓度Cu2+抑制种子萌发.Cu2+对黄瓜、萝卜根长的影响表现为先促进后抑制,对幼苗芽长的影响不大.Cu2+对黄瓜、萝卜根的影响要显著高于对芽的影响.黄瓜和萝卜种子对Cu2+毒害具有较强的耐性,并且萝卜的耐性要强于黄瓜.%To observed the germination rate and growth of root and sprout, cucumber and radish were treated with Cu2+ . The results showed; different concentrations of Cu2+ have different impact on cucumber and radish seed germination, root length and seedling growth. Low concentrations of Cu2+ promoted seed germination, but high concentrations of Cu2+ inhibited seed germination. The effect on root length of cucumber and radish represented that first promote and late inhibit,and the effect on seedlings sprout length was little. The effect of Cu2+ on root of cucumber and radish were higher than on sprout. The seed of cucumber and radish have strong endurance to Cu2+ , and the endurance of radish was stronger than cucumber.

  1. Use of the SLW index to calculate growth function in the sea cucumber Isostichopus badionotus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poot-Salazar, Alicia; Hernández-Flores, Álvaro; Ardisson, Pedro-Luis

    2014-06-09

    Age and growth analysis is essential to fisheries management. Indirect methods to calculate growth are widely used; however, length frequency data analysis in sea cucumbers is complicated by high data variability caused by body wall elasticity. Here we calculated Isostichopus badionotus parameters of the von Bertalanffy growth function. In order to address bias produced by body wall elasticity, we compared the performance of four measurements and one compound index that combines different biometric parameters: the square root of the length-width product (SLW). Results showed that variability in length data due to body wall elasticity was controlled by using body length (Le) from the SLW compound index. Growth in I. badionotus follows a negative allometric tendency. Slow or zero growth periods were observed during October and November, when weather conditions were adverse.

  2. Use of the SLW index to calculate growth function in the sea cucumber Isostichopus badionotus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poot-Salazar, Alicia; Hernández-Flores, Álvaro; Ardisson, Pedro-Luis

    2014-01-01

    Age and growth analysis is essential to fisheries management. Indirect methods to calculate growth are widely used; however, length frequency data analysis in sea cucumbers is complicated by high data variability caused by body wall elasticity. Here we calculated Isostichopus badionotus parameters of the von Bertalanffy growth function. In order to address bias produced by body wall elasticity, we compared the performance of four measurements and one compound index that combines different biometric parameters: the square root of the length-width product (SLW). Results showed that variability in length data due to body wall elasticity was controlled by using body length (Le) from the SLW compound index. Growth in I. badionotus follows a negative allometric tendency. Slow or zero growth periods were observed during October and November, when weather conditions were adverse. PMID:24909262

  3. Recombination with coat protein transgene in a complemen-tation system based on Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI; Wanli

    2001-01-01

    [1]Palukaitis, P., Roossinck, M. J., Dietzgen, R. G. et al., Cucumber mosaic virus, Adv. Virus Res., 1992, 41: 281-348.[2]Hayes, R. J., Buck, K. W., Complete replication of an eukaryotic virus RNA in vitro by a purified RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, Cell, 1990, 63: 363-369.[3]Nitta, N., Takanami, Y., Kuwata, S. et al., Inoculation with RNAs 1 and 2 of cucumber mosaic virus induces viral RNA replicase activity in tobacco mesophyll protoplasts, J. Gen. Virol., 1988, 69: 2695-2700.[4]Suzuki, M., Kuwata, S., Kataoda, J. et al., Functional analysis of deletion mutants of cucumber mosaic virus RNA3 using an in vitro transcription system, Virology, 1991, 183: 106-113.[5]Canto, T., Prior, D. A. M., Hellwald, K. H. et al., Characterization of cucumber mosaic virus (IV)--Movement protein and coat protein are both essential for cell-to-cell movement of cucumber mosaic virus, Virology, 1997, 237:237-248.[6]Takanami, Y., A striking change in symptoms on cucumber mosaic virus-infected tobacco plants induced by a satellite RNA, Virology, 1981, 109: 120-126.[7]DeBorde, D. C., Naeve, C. W., Herlocher, M. L. et al., Resolution of a common RNA sequencing ambiguity by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase, Anal. Biochem., 1986, 157: 275-282.[8]Haseloff, J., Siemering, K. R., Prasher, D. C. et al., Removal of a cryptic intron and subcellular localization of green fluo-rescent protein are required to mark transgenic Arabidopsis plants brightly, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 1997, 94: 2122-2127.[9]Shi, B. J., Ding, S. W., Symons, R. H., Plasmid vector for cloning infectious cDNAs from plant RNA viruses: high infec-tivity of cDNA clones of tomato aspermy cucumovirus, J. Gen. Virol., 1997, 78: 1181-1185.[10]Rizzo, T. M., Palukaitis, P., Construction of full-length cDNA clones of cucumber mosaic virus RNAs 1, 2 and 3: Genera-tion of infectious RNA transcripts, Mol. Gen. Genet., 1990, 222: 249-256.[11]Hall, R. D., The initiation and maintenance of

  4. Whole-Genome Resequencing of a Cucumber Chromosome Segment Substitution Line and Its Recurrent Parent to Identify Candidate Genes Governing Powdery Mildew Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ting; Xu, Xuewen; Yan, Yali; Qi, Xiaohua; Chen, Xuehao

    2016-01-01

    Cucumber is an economically important vegetable crop worldwide. Powdery mildew (PM) is one of the most severe diseases that can affect cucumber crops. There have been several research efforts to isolate PM resistance genes for breeding PM-resistant cucumber. In the present study, we used a chromosome segment substitution line, SSL508-28, which carried PM resistance genes from the donor parent, JIN5-508, through twelve generations of backcrossing with a PM-susceptible inbred line, D8. We performed whole-genome resequencing of SSL508-28 and D8 to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and insertions and deletions (indels). When compared against the reference genome of the inbred cucumber line 9930, a total of 468,616 SNPs and 67,259 indels were identified in SSL508-28, and 537,352 SNPs and 91,698 indels were identified in D8. Of these, 3,014 non-synonymous SNPs and 226 frameshift indels in SSL508-28, and 3,104 non-synonymous SNPs and 251 frameshift indels in D8, were identified. Bioinformatics analysis of these variations revealed a total of 15,682 SNPs and 6,262 indels between SSL508-28 and D8, among which 120 non-synonymous SNPs and 30 frameshift indels in 94 genes were detected between SSL508-28 and D8. Finally, out of these 94 genes, five resistance genes with nucleotide-binding sites and leucine-rich repeat domains were selected for qRT-PCR analysis. This revealed an upregulation of two transcripts, Csa2M435460.1 and Csa5M579560.1, in SSL508-28. Furthermore, the results of qRT-PCR analysis of these two genes in ten PM resistant and ten PM susceptible cucumber lines showed that when exposed to PM, Csa2M435460.1 and Csa5M579560.1 exhibited a higher expression level of resistant lines than susceptible lines. This indicates that Csa2M435460.1 and Csa5M579560.1 are candidate genes for PM resistance in cucumber. In addition, the non-synonymous SNPs in Csa2M435460.1 and Csa5M579560.1, identified in SSL508-28 and D8, might be the key to high PM-resistance in

  5. Heterogeneity Analysis of Cucumber Canopy in the Solar Greenhouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Ting-ting; LU Sheng-lian; ZHAO Chun-jiang; GUO Xin-yu; WEN Wei-liang; DU jian-jun

    2014-01-01

    Detailed analysis of canopy structural heterogeneity is an essential step in conducting parameters for a canopy structural model. This paper aims to analyze the structural heterogeneity of a cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) canopy by means of analyzing leaf distribution in a greenhouse environment with natural sunlight and also to assess the effect of structural canopy heterogeneity on light interception and photosynthesis. Two experiments and four measurements were carried out in autumn 2011 and spring 2012. A static virtual three-dimensional (3D) canopy structure was reconstructed using a 3D digitizing method. The diurnal variation of photosynthesis rate was measured using CIRAS-2 photosynthesis system. The results showed that, leaf azimuth as tested with the Rayleigh-test was homogeneous at vine tip over stage but turned heterogeneous at fruit harvest stage. After eliminating the inlfuence of the environment on the azimuth using the von Mises-Fisher method, the angle between two successive leaves was 144°;at the same time, a rule for the azimuth distribution in the canopy was established, stating that the azimuth distribution in cucumber followed a law which was positive spin and anti-spin. Leaf elevation angle of south-oriented leaves was on average 13.8° higher than that of north-oriented leaves. The horizontal distribution of light interception and photosynthesis differed signiifcantly between differently oriented leaves. East-and west-oriented leaves exhibited the highest photosynthetic rate. In conclusion, detailed analysis of canopy structural heterogeneity in this study indicated that leaf azimuth and elevation angle were heterogeneous in cucumber canopy and they should be explicitly described as they have a great impact both on light distribution and photosynthesis.

  6. Ultraviolet-C Light Sanitization of English Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Packaged in Polyethylene Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarek, Abdussamad R; Rasco, Barbara A; Sablani, Shyam S

    2016-06-01

    Food safety is becoming an increasing concern in the United States. This study investigated the effects of ultraviolet-C (UV-C) light as a postpackaging bactericidal treatment on the quality of English cucumber packaged in polyethylene (PE) film. Escherichia coli k-12 was used as a surrogate microbe. The microbial growth and physical properties of packaged cucumbers were analyzed during a 28-d storage period at 5 °C. Inoculating packaged cucumbers treated at 23 °C for 6 min with UV-C (560 mJ/cm(2) ) resulted in a 1.60 log CFU/g reduction. However, this treatment had no significant effect (P > 0.05) on the water vapor transmission rate or oxygen transmission rate of the PE film. Results show that UV-C light treatment delayed the loss of firmness and yellowing of English cucumber up to 28 d at 5 °C. In addition, UV-C light treatment extended the shelf life of treated cucumber 1 wk longer compared to untreated cucumbers. Electron microscopy images indicate that UV-C light treatment influences the morphology of the E. coli k-12 cells. Findings demonstrate that treating cucumbers with UV-C light following packaging in PE film can reduce bacterial populations significantly and delay quality loss. This technology may also be effective for other similarly packaged fresh fruits and vegetables.

  7. Large-Scale Transcriptome Analysis of Cucumber and Botrytis cinerea during Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwen Kong

    Full Text Available Cucumber gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea is considered one of the most serious cucumber diseases. With the advent of Hi-seq technology, it is possible to study the plant-pathogen interaction at the transcriptome level. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first application of RNA-seq to identify cucumber and B. cinerea differentially expressed genes (DEGs before and after the plant-pathogen interaction. In total, 248,908,688 raw reads were generated; after removing low-quality reads and those containing adapter and poly-N, 238,341,648 clean reads remained to map the reference genome. There were 3,512 cucumber DEGs and 1,735 B. cinerea DEGs. GO enrichment and KEGG enrichment analysis were performed on these DEGs to study the interaction between cucumber and B. cinerea. To verify the reliability and accuracy of our transcriptome data, 5 cucumber DEGs and 5 B. cinerea DEGs were chosen for RT-PCR verification. This is the first systematic transcriptome analysis of components related to the B. cinerea-cucumber interaction. Functional genes and putative pathways identified herein will increase our understanding of the mechanism of the pathogen-host interaction.

  8. Transcriptome and Small RNAome Dynamics during a Resistant and Susceptible Interaction between Cucumber and Downy Mildew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa Burkhardt

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cucumber ( L. downy mildew, caused by the obligate oomycete pathogen (Berk. and Curt. Rostov., is the primary factor limiting cucumber production. Although sources of resistance have been identified, such as plant introduction line PI 197088, the genes and processes involved in mediating resistance are still unknown. In the current study, we conducted a comprehensive transcriptome and small RNAome analysis of a resistant (PI 197088 and susceptible (‘Vlaspik’ cucumber during a time course of infection using Illumina sequencing. We identified significantly differentially expressed (DE genes within and between resistant and susceptible cucumber leaves over a time course of infection. Weighted gene correlation network analyses (WGCNA created coexpression modules containing genes with unique expression patterns between Vlaspik and PI 197088. Recurring data trends indicated that resistance to cucumber downy mildew is associated with earlier response to the pathogen, hormone signaling, and regulation of nutrient supply. Candidate resistance genes were identified from multiple transcriptome analyses and literature support. Additionally, parallel sequencing of small RNAs (sRNAs from cucumber and during the infection time course was used to identify and quantify novel and existing microRNA (miRNA in both species. Predicted miRNA targets of cucumber transcripts suggest a complex interconnectedness of gene expression regulation in this plant–pathogen system. This work bioinformatically uncovered gene expression patterns involved in the mediation of or response to resistance. Herein, we provide the foundation for future work to validate candidate resistance genes and miRNA-based regulation proposed in this study.

  9. Estimating Time of Weed Emergence in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihat Tursun

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Modelling is carried out for eleven major weeds in cucumber to develop estimated models for weed emergence time. Weed species were grouped according to their emergence patterns. Amaranthus retroflexus, Chenopodium album, Heliotropium europaeum, Polygonum aviculare and Solanum nigrum were early emerging, Convolvulus arvensis, Cyperus rotundus, Cynodon dactylon, Portulaca oleracea and Sorghum halepense were season long emerging Tribulus terrestris was the late emerging weed species. Different non-linear growth curves (Chapman-Richard, Weibull, logistic, Gompertz and cubic spline fitted to the data of cumulative percent emergence for the different species and years. Cubic spline seemed the best model for many species.

  10. Two triterpene glycosides from the sea cucumber Bohadschia marmorata Jaeger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Hua Yuan; Yang Hua Yi; Ling Li; Bao Shu Liu; Hong Wei Zhang; Peng Sun

    2008-01-01

    Further studies on the sea cucumber Bohadschia marmorata Jaeger led to the isolation of a new holostan-type triterpene glycoside,Marmoroside C (1) together with a known triterpene glycoside (2).On the basis of spectroscopic analyses,including twodimensional NMR techniques,and chemical reactions,the structure of the new triterpene glycoside was elucidated as 3-0-[3-O-methyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→3)-13-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-quinovopyranosyl-(1→2)-4-O-sodium-sulfato-β-D-xylo-pyranosyl]-25-acetoxy-22-oxo-9(11)-holostene-3β,12α,17α-triol.

  11. Susceptibility level of cucumber downy mildew (Pseudoperonospora cubensis to metalaxyl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagi Ferenc F.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Level of susceptibility of Pseudoperonospora cubensis isolate from Ratkovo to metalaxyl in concentrations 50, 100, 200, 400 and 800 μg/ml was investigated. The trials were conducted on cotyledon and fully developed young leaves using cucumber cultivar Haroš. Reduced level of susceptibility was detected in metalaxyl concentrations of 50, 100 and 200 μg/ml because the intensity of sporulation in these treatments was on the same level as in control. Sporulation was also observed on developed leaves treated with metalaxyl in concentrations of 400 and 800 μg/ml.

  12. Silicon facilitates manganese phytoextraction by cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Dragišić-Maksimović, Jelena; Mojović, Miloš; Maksimović, Vuk

    2016-01-01

    The effect of excess nutrient levels of manganese (Mn, 50 and 100 mM) on the growth inhibition and the appearance of Mn-toxicity symptoms in the leaves was studied in cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Chinese long). Silicon (Si), when supplied as 1.5 mM silicic acid, clearly decreased symptoms of Mn-toxicity despite approximately the same total Mn content in the leaves. In treated plants, Si improves growth and biomass production compared with that of non-Si treated plants. Inert deposi...

  13. Hpyerglycemic Effect of a Mixture of Sea Cucumber and Cordyceps Sinensis in Streptozotocin- Induced Diabetic Rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Shiwei; WANG Jingfeng; LI Zhaojie; FU Jia; WANG Yuming; XUE Changhu

    2014-01-01

    Sea cucumber and cordyceps sinensis are used as both food and traditional medicines in Asia. This study was carried out in order to investigate the hpyerglycemic effect of a mixture of sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicas) and cordyceps sinensis (Cor-dyceps militaris) (SCC) in diabetic rat and explore the mechanism underlining such an effect. The diabetic model rat was induced with intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ). The diabetic model rats were randomly divided into control group (0.9%NaCl), low dose group (300 mg SCC·(kg body weight)-1) and high dose group (1200 mg SCC (kg body weight)-1). Sodium chloride and SCC were intragastrically administered once a day for 35 d. Changes in fasting serum glucose and serum insulin content, oral glucose tolerance and liver and muscle glycogen content were routinely evaluated. Pancreas tissue andβ-cells of islets were observed under both optical and transmission electronic microscope, respectively. The abundance of glucose metabolism-relating genes in gastrocnemius and epididymal adipose tissue was determined with either reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) or western blotting. Results showed that SCC significantly decreased fasting serum glucose content, improved glucose tolerance and increased serum insulin and glycogen content; repaired STZ-injured β-cells of diabetic rat, and increased the expression of phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI(3)K), protein kinase B (PKB) and glucose transporter 4 (Glut4) encoding protein in both gastrocnemius and adipose tissue, and Glut4 encoding gene in peripheral tissue. Our findings demonstrated that SCC exerted an anti-hyperglycemic effect by repairingβ-cells and promoting insulin-mediated signal transduction pathway in insulin-sensitive gastrocnemius and adipose tissue.

  14. Value, market preferences and trade of Beche-de-mer from Pacific Island sea cucumbers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven W Purcell

    Full Text Available Market preferences of natural resources contribute to shape their exploitation and production. Beche-de-mer, the product after gutting, cooking, salting and drying sea cucumbers, is exported worldwide to Asian dried seafood markets. A better understanding of the trade, value and market preferences of Pacific island beche-de-mer could identify critical postharvest processing techniques and management strategies for fisheries and aquaculture. Data were collected on export prices and trade of beche-de-mer from Kiribati, Fiji, Tonga and New Caledonia, and the selling prices, respective sizes and organoleptic properties of the products in stores in China. Export prices varied considerably within and among the four countries and low-value species were the most exported by volume. Most of the beche-de-mer from the four Pacific islands is exported to Hong Kong, where quality products are sold and others are distributed to mainland China. Prices of the beche-de-mer in Chinese stores varied up to ten-fold and were mostly influenced by species, body size and, to a lesser extent, physical damage to the products. Market prices across species (averaging US$15-385 kg-1 appear to have mostly increased six- to twelve-fold over the past decade. The data allude that fisheries for Holothuria scabra, H. lessoni, H. fuscogilva, H. whitmaei and Thelenota ananas should be most carefully managed because they were the highest-value species and under greatest demand. The relationships between size of beche-de-mer and sale price were species specific and highly varied. This study also highlights the need for better regulations and/or enforcement of minimum size limits in sea cucumber fisheries, which can help to maximise economic benefits of wild stocks.

  15. Value, market preferences and trade of Beche-de-mer from Pacific Island sea cucumbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Steven W

    2014-01-01

    Market preferences of natural resources contribute to shape their exploitation and production. Beche-de-mer, the product after gutting, cooking, salting and drying sea cucumbers, is exported worldwide to Asian dried seafood markets. A better understanding of the trade, value and market preferences of Pacific island beche-de-mer could identify critical postharvest processing techniques and management strategies for fisheries and aquaculture. Data were collected on export prices and trade of beche-de-mer from Kiribati, Fiji, Tonga and New Caledonia, and the selling prices, respective sizes and organoleptic properties of the products in stores in China. Export prices varied considerably within and among the four countries and low-value species were the most exported by volume. Most of the beche-de-mer from the four Pacific islands is exported to Hong Kong, where quality products are sold and others are distributed to mainland China. Prices of the beche-de-mer in Chinese stores varied up to ten-fold and were mostly influenced by species, body size and, to a lesser extent, physical damage to the products. Market prices across species (averaging US$15-385 kg-1) appear to have mostly increased six- to twelve-fold over the past decade. The data allude that fisheries for Holothuria scabra, H. lessoni, H. fuscogilva, H. whitmaei and Thelenota ananas should be most carefully managed because they were the highest-value species and under greatest demand. The relationships between size of beche-de-mer and sale price were species specific and highly varied. This study also highlights the need for better regulations and/or enforcement of minimum size limits in sea cucumber fisheries, which can help to maximise economic benefits of wild stocks.

  16. The genome sequence of the North-European cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) unravels evolutionary adaptation mechanisms in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wóycicki, Rafał; Witkowicz, Justyna; Gawroński, Piotr; Dąbrowska, Joanna; Lomsadze, Alexandre; Pawełkowicz, Magdalena; Siedlecka, Ewa; Yagi, Kohei; Pląder, Wojciech; Seroczyńska, Anna; Śmiech, Mieczysław; Gutman, Wojciech; Niemirowicz-Szczytt, Katarzyna; Bartoszewski, Grzegorz; Tagashira, Norikazu; Hoshi, Yoshikazu; Borodovsky, Mark; Karpiński, Stanisław; Malepszy, Stefan; Przybecki, Zbigniew

    2011-01-01

    Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), a widely cultivated crop, has originated from Eastern Himalayas and secondary domestication regions includes highly divergent climate conditions e.g. temperate and subtropical. We wanted to uncover adaptive genome differences between the cucumber cultivars and what sort of evolutionary molecular mechanisms regulate genetic adaptation of plants to different ecosystems and organism biodiversity. Here we present the draft genome sequence of the Cucumis sativus genome of the North-European Borszczagowski cultivar (line B10) and comparative genomics studies with the known genomes of: C. sativus (Chinese cultivar--Chinese Long (line 9930)), Arabidopsis thaliana, Populus trichocarpa and Oryza sativa. Cucumber genomes show extensive chromosomal rearrangements, distinct differences in quantity of the particular genes (e.g. involved in photosynthesis, respiration, sugar metabolism, chlorophyll degradation, regulation of gene expression, photooxidative stress tolerance, higher non-optimal temperatures tolerance and ammonium ion assimilation) as well as in distributions of abscisic acid-, dehydration- and ethylene-responsive cis-regulatory elements (CREs) in promoters of orthologous group of genes, which lead to the specific adaptation features. Abscisic acid treatment of non-acclimated Arabidopsis and C. sativus seedlings induced moderate freezing tolerance in Arabidopsis but not in C. sativus. This experiment together with analysis of abscisic acid-specific CRE distributions give a clue why C. sativus is much more susceptible to moderate freezing stresses than A. thaliana. Comparative analysis of all the five genomes showed that, each species and/or cultivars has a specific profile of CRE content in promoters of orthologous genes. Our results constitute the substantial and original resource for the basic and applied research on environmental adaptations of plants, which could facilitate creation of new crops with improved growth and yield in

  17. Competition for in vitro ( sup 3 H)gibberellin A sub 4 binding in cucumber by substituted phthalimides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yalpani, N.; Suttle, J.C.; Hultstrand, J.F. (Department of Agriculture, Fargo, ND (USA)); Rodaway, S.J. (American Cyanamid Company, Princeton, NJ (USA))

    1989-11-01

    Certain N-substituted phthalimides (NSPs) have gibberellin (GA)-like activity in a number of GA bioassays. The interaction between representative NSPs and a protein fraction from cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) hypocotyls that has GA-binding characteristics consistent with those expected of GA receptors was studied. Analysis of in vitro equilibrium saturation data indicated the presence of only one class of high affinity ({sup 3}H)GA{sub 4} binding sites (K{sub d} {approximately}30 nanomolar, n = 0.25 picomole per milligram of protein). In the presence of 6 or 60 micromolar 1-(3-chlorophthalimido)-cyclohexanecarboximide (AC-94,377), the K{sub d} for ({sup 3}H)GA{sub 4} increased, whereas the maximum number of saturable ({sup 3}H)GA{sub 4} binding sites did not change significantly. The dissociation of ({sup 3}H)GA{sub 4} from its binding sites was complex and was best described by a bi-exponential equation. AC-94,377 did not affect the rates of ({sup 3}H)GA{sub 4} dissociation from its binding sites. These results implied that AC-94,377 and ({sup 3}H)GA{sub 4} compete for binding to the same sites. A correlation was observed between the activity of over 20 NSPs in the cucumber hypocotyl bioassay and their in vitro affinity for the GA binding sites. Our observations lend further support to the notion that certain GA binding proteins in cucumber cytosol are GA receptors and also provide a molecular explanation for the GA-like in vivo activity of some NSPs.

  18. The genome sequence of the North-European cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. unravels evolutionary adaptation mechanisms in plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Wóycicki

    Full Text Available Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L., a widely cultivated crop, has originated from Eastern Himalayas and secondary domestication regions includes highly divergent climate conditions e.g. temperate and subtropical. We wanted to uncover adaptive genome differences between the cucumber cultivars and what sort of evolutionary molecular mechanisms regulate genetic adaptation of plants to different ecosystems and organism biodiversity. Here we present the draft genome sequence of the Cucumis sativus genome of the North-European Borszczagowski cultivar (line B10 and comparative genomics studies with the known genomes of: C. sativus (Chinese cultivar--Chinese Long (line 9930, Arabidopsis thaliana, Populus trichocarpa and Oryza sativa. Cucumber genomes show extensive chromosomal rearrangements, distinct differences in quantity of the particular genes (e.g. involved in photosynthesis, respiration, sugar metabolism, chlorophyll degradation, regulation of gene expression, photooxidative stress tolerance, higher non-optimal temperatures tolerance and ammonium ion assimilation as well as in distributions of abscisic acid-, dehydration- and ethylene-responsive cis-regulatory elements (CREs in promoters of orthologous group of genes, which lead to the specific adaptation features. Abscisic acid treatment of non-acclimated Arabidopsis and C. sativus seedlings induced moderate freezing tolerance in Arabidopsis but not in C. sativus. This experiment together with analysis of abscisic acid-specific CRE distributions give a clue why C. sativus is much more susceptible to moderate freezing stresses than A. thaliana. Comparative analysis of all the five genomes showed that, each species and/or cultivars has a specific profile of CRE content in promoters of orthologous genes. Our results constitute the substantial and original resource for the basic and applied research on environmental adaptations of plants, which could facilitate creation of new crops with improved growth

  19. Effects of Different Rootstocks on the Growth and Fruit Quality of Greenhouse Cucumber in Early Spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bing; ZHANG Tianwei; ZHAO Jiayu; JIANG Xinmei

    2009-01-01

    Different pumpkin rootstocks were used to study the effects of different rootstocks on the growth and fruit quality of greenhouse cucumber in early spring. The results showed that the grafted cucumber could significantly improve the production, and different rootstock had a certain effect on the survival rate and fruit quality. Jinhuanghou and Fengyijiajiewang as rootstock had the highest survival rate, which were 79.0% and 70.7%, respectively. As rootstocks of greenhouse cucumber, Jinhuanghou, Lvzhoujuxing,Fengyi, Huofenghuang, and Dawei No.17 were better than others according to taste, and Heizinangua, Jinhuanghou, Fengyi,Huofenghuang, and Dawei No. 17 were better according to output.

  20. A single base substitution in BADH/AMADH is responsible for fragrance in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), and development of SNAP markers for the fragrance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yundaeng, Chutintorn; Somta, Prakit; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke; Chankaew, Sompong; Srinives, Peerasak

    2015-09-01

    Sequence analysis revealed that an SNP (A1855G) in CsBADH of cucumber accession PK2011T202 causes amino acid change in a highly conserved motif, Y163C. Gene mapping showed association between the SNP and the fragrance. Pandan-like fragrance is a value-added trait in several food crops such as rice, vegetable soybean and sorghum. The fragrance is caused by the volatile chemical 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP). Mutation(s) in betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (BADH2; also known as aminoaldehyde dehydrogenase 2) gene causes defective BADH2 and results in biosynthesis of 2AP. Recently, cucumber cultivars possessing pandan-like fragrance were discovered in Thailand. In this study, we report an association between CsBADH and the fragrance in cucumber accession "PK2011T202". Gene expression analysis of CsBADH in leaves of PK2011T202 and "301176" (non-fragrant) at various growth stages revealed that CsBADH was expressed in both accessions. Sequence comparison of CsBADH showed that PK2011T202 possesses a single base substitution (A1855G) in exon 5 which causes an amino acid change in a highly conserved motif of BADH, Y163C. Single nucleotide-amplified polymorphism markers were developed to detect the SNP polymorphism between the wild-type and fragrance alleles. Since CsBADH is located on chromosome 1, quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping was conducted for this chromosome using an F2 and a backcross populations developed from the cross between PK2011T202 and 301176. QTL analysis in both populations showed that the major QTL for fragrance, qFgr, was co-localized with the CsBADH. We concluded that the defect function of CsBADH is responsible for fragrance in cucumber PK2011T202.

  1. Enrichment, Distribution of Vanadium-Containing Protein in Vanadium-Enriched Sea Cucumber Apostichopus japonicus and the Ameliorative Effect on Insulin Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanjun; Zhou, Qingxin; Zhao, Yanlei; Wang, Yiming; Wang, Yuming; Wang, Jingfeng; Xu, Jie; Xue, Changhu

    2016-05-01

    Sea cucumbers are a potential source of natural organic vanadium that may improve insulin resistance. In this work, vanadium was accumulated rapidly in blood, body wall, and intestine by sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. Furthermore, water-soluble vanadium-containing proteins, the main form of the organic vanadium, were tentatively accumulated and isolated by a bioaccumulation experiment. It was also designed to evaluate the beneficial effect of vanadium-containing proteins (VCPs) from sea cucumber rich in vanadium on the development of hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in C57BL/6J mice fed with a high-fat high-sucrose diet (HFSD). HFSD mice treated with VCPs significantly decreased fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, and HOMA-IR values as compared to HFSD mice, respectively. Serum adiponectin, resistin, TNF-α, and leptin levels in insulin-resistant mice were dramatically reduced by a VCP supplement. These results show an ameliorative effect on insulin resistance by treatment with VCPs. Such compound seems to be a valuable therapy to achieve and/or maintain glycemic control and therapeutic agents in the treatment arsenal for insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.

  2. Occurrence of Sclerotium Rot of Cucumber Caused by Sclerotium rolfsii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Hyeuk Kwon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sclerotium rot of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. occurred at the experimental field of Gyeongsangnam-do Agricultural Research and Extension Services in July 2012. The typical symptoms included wilt, rot, and water-soaking on stems and fruits and severely infected plants eventually died. White mycelial mats spread over lesions, and then sclerotia were formed on fruit and near soil line. The sclerotia were globoid in shape, white to brown in color and 1−3 mm in size and the hyphal width was 4−8 μm. The optimum temperature for mycelial growth and sclerotia formation on PDA was 30oC. The typical clamp connections were observed in the hyphae of the fungus grown on PDA. For further identification, the complete internal transcribed spacer (ITS rDNA region was amplified and sequenced. On the basis of mycological characteristics, ITS rDNA region comparison, and pathogenicity to host plants, this fungus was identified as Sclerotium rolfsii Saccardo. This is the first report of sclerotium rot on cucumber caused by S. rolfsii in Korea.

  3. [Allelopathy of different plants on wheat, cucumber and radish seedlings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Huimin; Guo, Hongru; Huang, Gaobao

    2005-04-01

    By means of bioassay in laboratory and field, this paper studied the allelopathy of 18 kinds of plants in Gansu Province on the seedlings of wheat, cucumber and radish. The results showed that the aqueous extract of the stems and leaves of Artemisia annua, Solanum nigrum and Datura stramonium had the strongest allelopathy on test receptor plants, and their synthetic inhibitory effect (SE) was 47.66%, 32.89% and 26.63%, respectively. The SE of Xanthium sibiricum, Portulaca oleraca, Cephalanoplos segetum, and Chenopodium album was 21.71%, 20.93%, 20.83% and 20.2%, respectively, while Vicia amoena (SE 3.5%), Setaria viridis (SE 2.2%), and Cymamchum chinense (SE 1.97%) had a weaker allelopathy. Chenopodium ambrosioides (SE - 1.03%), Polygonum caespitosum (SE - 1.63%) and Avena fatua (SE 5.33%) had no evident allelopathy, but Artemisia annua affected the seedling height and fresh weight of radish, cucumber, wheat and maize, with the SE being 54.07%, 38.46%, 33.35% and 20.88%, respectively. Artemisia annua had a 44.70% of SE on wheat growth, and thus, had a certain value to develop and use.

  4. Anticancer Activity from Active Fraction of Sea Cucumber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Mutia Putram

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Sea Cucumber Holothuria atra is one of marine organisms has been used as a new source of novel bioactive compounds. Many of them have been used as the lead compounds in discovery of new anticancer drugs. The objective of this study was to determine the active fractions of sea cucumber (H. atra which have anticancer activity. H. atra was macerated using ethanol and the extract was freezedried using a freeze dryer. The crude extract was partitioned using n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol-water (3:1:1:1. Cytotoxicity test was performed using HeLa (cervic cancer cell line and MCF-7 (breast cancer cell line based on the MTT assay. The crude extract of H. atra showed the best cytotoxic activity against HeLa cells (IC50 = 12.48 µg/mL and MCF-7 cells (IC50 = 17.90 µg/mL. The toxicity tests showed the IC50 value of the n-hexane fraction, ethyl acetate fraction, and methanol-water fraction against HeLa cells HeLa (IC50 = 76.45 µg/mL; 77.95 µg/mL;  14.27 µg/mL and MCF-7 cells (IC50 = 58.50 µg/mL; 59.59 µg/mL; 14.33 µg/mL.

  5. Autolysis and extension of isolated walls from growing cucumber hypocotyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, D J; Durachko, D M

    1994-11-01

    Walls isolated from cucumber hypocotyls retain autolytic activities and the ability to extend when placed under the appropriate conditions. To test whether autolysis and extension are related, we treated the walls in various ways to enhance or inhibit long-term wall extension ('creep') and measured autolysis as release of various saccharides from the wall. Except for some non-specific inhibitors of enzymatic activity, we found no correlation between wall extension and wall autolysis. Most notably, autolysis and extension differed strongly in their pH dependence. We also found that exogenous cellulases and pectinases enhanced extension in native walls, but when applied to walls previously inactivated with heat or protease these enzymes caused breakage without sustained extension. In contrast, pretreatment of walls with pectinase or cellulase, followed by boiling in methanol to inactivate the enzymes, resulted in walls with much stronger expansin-mediated extension responses. Crude protein preparations from the digestive tracts of snails enhanced extension of both native and inactivated walls, and these preparations contained expansin-like proteins (assessed by Western blotting). Our results indicate that the extension of isolated cucumber walls does not depend directly on the activity of endogenous wall-bound autolytic enzymes. The results with exogenous enzymes suggest that the hydrolysis of matrix polysaccharides may not induce wall creep by itself, but may act synergistically with expansins to enhance wall extension.

  6. Extraction and Characterization of Collagen from Sea Cucumber Flesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alhana

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sea cucumber (Stichopus variegatus is one of the Echinodermata phylum that grows along Indonesian coastal. Sea cucumber is potential source of collagen. The purposes of this research were to determine the optimal concentration of NaOH and CH3COOH solution in collagen production and analyze the physicochemical characteristics of collagen from S. variegatus. Yield of the collagen was 1.5% (based on wet weight basis, produced by pretreatment with NaOH 0,30%, hydrolysis with CH3COOH 0.10% and extracted using distilled water. Protein, moisture, and ash content of the collagen was 67.68%, 13.64%, and 4.15%, respectively. Collagen was extracted using distilled water at 45°C during 2h and still had triple helix structure ; pH 7.37 ; melting temperature 163.67°C and whiteness 69.25%. The major amino acid content of collagen were glycine, alanine, proline and glutamic acid.

  7. Transcriptional regulation of abscisic acid signal core components during cucumber seed germination and under Cu²⁺, Zn²⁺, NaCl and simulated acid rain stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanping; Wang, Ya; Kai, Wenbin; Zhao, Bo; Chen, Pei; Sun, Liang; Ji, Kai; Li, Qian; Dai, Shengjie; Sun, Yufei; Wang, Yidong; Pei, Yuelin; Leng, Ping

    2014-03-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an important phytohormone that regulates lots of physiological and biochemical processes in plant life cycle, especially in seed germination and stress responses. For exploring the transcriptional regulation of ABA signal transduction during cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seed germination and under Cu(2+), Zn(2+), NaCl and simulated acid rain stresses, nine CsPYLs, three group A CsPP2Cs and two subclass III CsSnRK2s were identified from cucumber genome, which respectively showed high sequence similarities and highly conserved domains with homologous genes in Arabidopsis. Based on Real-time PCR analysis, most of the tested genes' expression decreased during cucumber seed germination, which was in accordance with the ABA level variation. In addition, according to the absolute expression, CsPYL1, CsPYL3, CsPP2C5, CsABI1, CsSnRK2.3 and CsSnRK2.4 were highly expressed, indicating that they may play more important roles in ABA signaling during cucumber seed germination. Moreover, most of these highly expressed genes, except CsPYL3, were up-regulated by ABA treatment. Meanwhile, most of the tested genes' expression dramatically changed at the initial water uptake phase, indicating that this period may be critical in the regulation of ABA on seed germination. Under Cu(2+), Zn(2+), NaCl and simulated acid rain stresses, cucumber seed germination percentage decreased and ABA content increased. Meanwhile, the expression of ABA signal transduction core components genes showed specific response to a particular stress and was not always consist with ABA variation. Generally, the expression of CsPYL1, CsPYL3, CsABI1, CsSnRK2.3 and CsSnRK2.4 was sensitive to 120 mM NaCl and 0.5 mM Cu(2+) treatments.

  8. Enhancement of Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase, Polyphenoloxidase, and Peroxidase in Cucumber Seedlings by Bemisia tabaci(Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Infestation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), polyphenoloxidase (PPO), and peroxidase (POD) were assayed in cucumber seedlings (Cucumis sativus L.) at 0, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after they were infested by Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) using spectrophotometric analysis. The results indicated that herbivore infestation increased the activities of PAL, PPO, and POD. The enzymes showed different activity levels at different times after the infestation. The PAL activity reached the first high peak by 23.1% at 6 h and the highest peak by 29.1% at 48 h compared to the control. The PPO activity reached the first high peak by 22.7% at 6 h and the highest peak by 52.6% at 24 h, and the POD activity reached the highest peak by 213.2% at 6 h and another higher peak value by 135.2% at 96 h. The results suggest that the enhanced activities of the enzymes may contribute to bioprotection of cucumber plants against B. Tabaci infestation.

  9. Borniopsis mortoni sp. n. (Heterodonta, Galeommatoidea, Galeommatidae sensu lato, a new bivalve commensal with a synaptid sea cucumber from Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryutaro Goto

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Galeommatoidea is a bivalve superfamily that exhibits high species diversity in shallow waters. Many members of this superfamily are associated commensally with burrowing marine invertebrates in benthic sediments. The genus Borniopsis is known only from eastern Asia and exhibits high host diversity (e.g., mantis shrimps, crabs, holothurians, sipunculans and echiurans. A new species, Borniopsis mortoni sp. n., is described from mud flats at the mouth of the Souzu River, southwestern Shikoku Island, Japan. This species has elongate-ovate shells covered by a tan to dark brown periostracum, and lives attached by both its foot and byssal threads to the body surface of the synaptid sea cucumber Patinapta ooplax. Several individuals of B. mortoni are often found on the same host, but sometimes more than 10 individuals can occur together. Borniopsis mortoni is one of the smallest species in this genus. Probably, its small body size is an adaptation to the mode of life in a narrow host burrow. Until now, only two other Borniopsis species were known to have commensal associations with synaptids. Thus, this is the third example of a synaptid-associated species from this genus. In addition, we briefly review the galeommatoideans commensal with apodid sea cucumbers.

  10. Occurrence of a unique fucose-branched chondroitin sulfate in the body wall of a sea cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, R P; Mourão, P A

    1988-12-05

    The sulfated polysaccharides in the body wall of the sea cucumber occur as three fractions that differ markedly in molecular mass and chemical composition. The fraction containing a high molecular mass component has a high proportion of fucose and small amounts of galactose and amino sugars, whereas another fraction contains primarily a sulfated fucan. The third fraction (F-2), which represents the major portion of the sea cucumber-sulfated polysaccharides, contains approximately equimolar quantities of glucuronic acid, N-acetyl galactosamine, and fucose, and has a sulfate content higher than that in the other two fractions. The structure of fraction F-2 was examined in detail. This polysaccharide has an unusual structure composed of a chondroitin sulfate-like core, containing side chain disaccharide units of sulfated fucopyranosyl linked to approximately half of the glucuronic acid moieties through the O-3 position of the acid. These unusual fucose branches obstruct the access of chondroitinases to the chondroitin sulfate core of F-2. However, after partial acid hydrolysis, which removes the sulfated fucose residues from the polymer, fraction F-2 is degraded by chondroitinases into 6-sulfated and nonsulfated disaccharides.

  11. Sea Cucumber Fishery and Trade in Sta. Cruz, Davao Del Sur, Philippines: Supply Chains and Cost-Benefit Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlademir A. Shuck

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In the country, sea cucumbers are exploited almost exclusively for export. It is harvested in three ways; commercial fishing, artisanal fishing and gleaning. These methods provide disproportionate economic benefits to these players in the supply chain. In this study, sea ranching, a new culture system for sea cucumber was analyzed in terms of its economic and commercial viability. Under the sea ranching system Holothuriascabra(sandfish is the species being raised mainly due to its high economic value. Under the traditional method, labor comprises the largest share in the total cost, while the cost of juvenile and labor (monitoring cost accounts to almost 87% in the sea ranching system. Based on the results of the study, selling dried sandfish would gain positive net profit, while selling wet sandfish will incur a net loss. A significant difference in income was also observed between fishers who rely on traditional method and those who will adopt the new system. Sea ranching system is a very promising method that is expected to be beneficial both to the community and the environment. However, high capital requirement, uninformed community and the lack of support from the government and concerned agencies remains to be a big challenge

  12. Exocarp Properties and Transcriptomic Analysis of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Fruit Expressing Age-Related Resistance to Phytophthora capsici.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Kaori; Carr, Kevin M; Colle, Marivi; Mansfeld, Ben N; Grumet, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Very young cucumber (Cucumis sativus) fruit are highly susceptible to infection by the oomycete pathogen, Phytophthora capsici. As the fruit complete exponential growth, at approximately 10-12 days post pollination (dpp), they transition to resistance. The development of age-related resistance (ARR) is increasingly recognized as an important defense against pathogens, however, underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Peel sections from cucumber fruit harvested at 8 dpp (susceptible) and 16 dpp (resistant) showed equivalent responses to inoculation as did whole fruit, indicating that the fruit surface plays an important role in defense against P. capsici. Exocarp from 16 dpp fruit had thicker cuticles, and methanolic extracts of peel tissue inhibited growth of P. capsici in vitro, suggesting physical or chemical components to the ARR. Transcripts specifically expressed in the peel vs. pericarp showed functional differentiation. Transcripts predominantly expressed in the peel were consistent with fruit surface associated functions including photosynthesis, cuticle production, response to the environment, and defense. Peel-specific transcripts that exhibited increased expression in 16 dpp fruit relative to 8 dpp fruit, were highly enriched (P<0.0001) for response to stress, signal transduction, and extracellular and transport functions. Specific transcripts included genes associated with potential physical barriers (i.e., cuticle), chemical defenses (flavonoid biosynthesis), oxidative stress, penetration defense, and molecular pattern (MAMP)-triggered or effector-triggered (R-gene mediated) pathways. The developmentally regulated changes in gene expression between peels from susceptible- and resistant- age fruits suggest programming for increased defense as the organ reaches full size.

  13. Borniopsis mortoni sp. n. (Heterodonta, Galeommatoidea, Galeommatidae sensu lato), a new bivalve commensal with a synaptid sea cucumber from Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Ryutaro; Ishikawa, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Galeommatoidea is a bivalve superfamily that exhibits high species diversity in shallow waters. Many members of this superfamily are associated commensally with burrowing marine invertebrates in benthic sediments. The genus Borniopsis is known only from eastern Asia and exhibits high host diversity (e.g., mantis shrimps, crabs, holothurians, sipunculans and echiurans). A new species, Borniopsis mortoni sp. n., is described from mud flats at the mouth of the Souzu River, southwestern Shikoku Island, Japan. This species has elongate-ovate shells covered by a tan to dark brown periostracum, and lives attached by both its foot and byssal threads to the body surface of the synaptid sea cucumber Patinapta ooplax. Several individuals of Borniopsis mortoni are often found on the same host, but sometimes more than 10 individuals can occur together. Borniopsis mortoni is one of the smallest species in this genus. Probably, its small body size is an adaptation to the mode of life in a narrow host burrow. Until now, only two other Borniopsis species were known to have commensal associations with synaptids. Thus, this is the third example of a synaptid-associated species from this genus. In addition, we briefly review the galeommatoideans commensal with apodid sea cucumbers. PMID:27667939

  14. Residues of penconazole in cucumber and soil%戊菌唑在黄瓜和土壤中的残留

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志勇; 单炜力; 龚勇; 宋稳成; 刘贤进

    2012-01-01

    为探明戊菌唑在黄瓜中的安全性,采用气相色谱-电子捕获器法对戊菌唑在江苏南京、北京和吉林长春3个试验点黄瓜和土壤中的残留消解动态和最终残留进行了研究.结果表明,在0.01mg/kg、0.10mg/kg和1.oomg/kg3个添加水平下,戊菌唑在黄瓜中的添加回收率为82.5%~94.2%,相对标准偏差为4.8%~7.5%;在土壤中平均回收率为81.2%~93.2%,相对标准偏差为6.2%~9.1%;戊菌唑在黄瓜和土壤中的最低检测浓度均为0.01mg/kg.戊菌唑在3个试验点黄瓜中的半衰期为1.6~1.9d,在土壤中的半衰期为1.82.3d.戊菌唑按低剂量(57.0g/hm2,a.i.)或高剂量(85.5g/hm2,a.i.)施药2次或3次,在最后一次施药1d、3d和5d后采收,黄瓜中戊菌唑的残留量均低于0.080mg/kg.按试验推荐施药剂量和次数施用戊菌唑,参照CAC、欧盟或日本制订的黄瓜中戊菌唑的最大残留限量标准(0.1mg/kg),所采收的黄瓜是安全的.%To investigate the safety of penconazole in cucumber, degradation and final residues of penconazole in cucumber and soil on three experimental sites ( Nanjing, Beijing and Changchun) were determined by means of meteorological chromatographic-electronic capture device. Al the penconazole addtion levels of 0. 01 mg/kg, 0.10 mg/kg and 1.00 mg/kg, the recoveries in cucumbers were 82. 5% -94. 2% , with RSD 4. 2% -7.5% , and the recoveries in soil were 81.2% -93. 2% , with RSD of 6. 2% -9. 1%. The limits of detection of penconazole in cucumber and soil were both 0.01 mg/kg. The half-lives of penconazole in cucumbers on three sites were 1.6-1. 9 d,and in soil were 1. 8-3.2 d. When cucumbers were treated 2-3 times with low (57.0 g/hm2, a. i. ) or high (85. 5 g/hm2, a. i. ) dosage of penconazole, the residues in cucumbers after the last application for 1 d, 3 d and 5 d, were under 0.080 mg/kg, which was safe according to the MRL (minimum required performance level) standard (0. 1 mg/kg) in cucumber from CAC (Codex Alimentarius

  15. Molecular cloning and expression of a cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) heme oxygenase-1 gene, CsHO1, which is involved in adventitious root formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mei-Yue; Cao, Ze-Yu; Shen, Wen-Biao; Cui, Jin

    2011-10-15

    Our previous work showed that in cucumber (Cucumis sativus), auxin rapidly induces heme oxygenase (HO) activity and the product of HO action, carbon monoxide (CO), then triggers the signal transduction events leading to adventitious root formation. In this study, the cucumber HO-1 gene (named as CsHO1) was isolated and sequenced. It contains four exons and three introns and encodes a polypeptide of 291 amino acids. Further results show that CsHO1 shares a high homology with plant HO-1 proteins and codes a 33.3 kDa protein with a 65-amino transit peptide, predicting a mature protein of 26.1 kDa. The mature CsHO1 was expressed in Escherichia coli to produce a fusion protein, which exhibits HO activity. The CsHO1:GFP fusion protein was localized in the chloroplast. Related biochemical analyses of mature CsHO1, including Vmax, Km, Topt and pHopt, were also investigated. CsHO1 mRNA was found in germinating seeds, roots, stem, and especially in leaf tissues. Several well-known adventitious root inducers, including auxin, ABA, hemin, nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP), CaCl(2), and sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), differentially up-regulate CsHO1 transcripts and corresponding protein levels. These results suggest that CsHO1 may be involved in cucumber adventitious rooting.

  16. Expression analysis of argonaute, Dicer-like, and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase genes in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) in response to abiotic stress

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    DEFANG GAN; MENGDAN ZHAN; FENG YANG; QIQI ZHANG; KELING HU; WENJUAN XU; QINGHUI LU; LING ZHANG; DANDI LIANG

    2017-06-01

    Posttranscriptional control of gene expression can be achieved through RNA interference when the activities of Dicer-like (DCL), argonaute (AGO) and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RDR) proteins are significant. In this study, we analysed the expression of seven AGO, five DCL and eight RDR genes in cucumber under cold, heat, hormone, salinity and dehydration treatments using quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). All CsAGO, CsDCL and CsRDR genes were differentially expressed under abiotic stress treatment. In response to abiotic stress treatment, most genes were expressed at higher levels in flowers or stems than in other organs, whereas some CsAGOs (CsAGO1c, CsAGO6 and CsAGO7) and CsRDRs (CsRDR1d andCsRDR2) were highly expressed in roots during dehydration treatment. The expression patterns indicate that most CsDCLs, CsAGOs and CsRDRs respond to abiotic stress, and stems or flowers are the most sensitive organs, followed by roots. This is the first report of expression analysis of all CsDCL, CsAGO and CsRDR family genes in cucumber under abiotic stress, whichprovides basic information and insights into the putative roles of these genes in abiotic stress. The results of this study should serve as a basis for further functional characterization of these gene families in cucumber and related Cucurbitaceae species.

  17. Transcriptional changes in epigenetic modifiers associated with gene silencing in the intestine of the sea cucumber,Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka), during aestivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Tianming; YANG Hongsheng; ZHAO Huan; CHEN Muyan; WANG Bing

    2011-01-01

    The sea cucumber,Apostichopusjaponicus,undergoes aestivation to improve survival during periods of high-temperature.During aestivation,the metabolic rate is depressed to reduce the consumption of reserved energy.We evaluated the role of epigenetic modification on global gene silencing during metabolic rate depression in the sea cucumber.We compared the expression of epigenetic modifiers in active and aestivating sea cucumbers.The expression of three genes involved in DNA methylation and chromatin remodeling (DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 1,Methyl-CpG-binding domain protein 2),and Chromodomain-helicase-DNA-binding protein 5) was significantly higher during aestivation (Days 20 and 40).Similarly,we observed an increase in the expression of genes involved in histone acetylation (Histone deacetylase 3) and Histone-binding protein RBBP4) during the early (Days 5 and 10) and late phases (Days 20 and 40) of aestivation.There was no change in the expression of KAT2B,a histone acetyltransferase.However,the expression of histone methylation associated modifiers (Histone-arginine methyltransferase CARMER and Histone-lysine N-methyltransferase MLL5) was significantly higher after 5 d in the aestivating group.The results suggest that the expression of epigenetic modifiers involved in DNA methylation,chromatin remodeling,histone acetylation,and histone methylation is upregulated during aestivation.We hypothesize that these changes regulate global gene silencing during aestivation in A.japonicus.

  18. Gene Expression and Activities of SOD in Cucumber Seedlings Were Related with Concentrations of Mn2+,Cu2+,or Zn2+ Under Low Temperature Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Jun-jie; LI Tao; YU Xian-chang

    2009-01-01

    Effects of increasing Mn2+,Cu2+,or Zn2+ on SOD expressions were studied in cucumber seedlings under low temperature stress.Both gene expressions and activities of Cu/Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD in cucumber seedling leaves were induced by increasing Mn2+,Cu2+,or Zn2+ under low temperature stress,especially 48 h afterwards.The activities of Cu/Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD at 0 and 48 h after treatment were in accordance with their gene expression levels,which implied that the transcriptional regulation plays key roles in regulating their activities at the early stage of low temperature stress.Gene expressions of Cu/Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD declined at 96 h,but Cu/Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD activities still remain high,which suggested that Cu/Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD activities might be regulated by other factors after transcription at the later stage of low temperature stress.Therefore,we concluded that the increasing Mn2+,Cu2+,or Zn2+ could increase the capacity of scavenging ROS in cucumber seedlings under low temperature stress by inducing gene expressions of Cu/Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD,elevating activities of Cu/Zn-SOD,Mn-SOD,or regulating other factors after transcription.

  19. Echinoside-B from the Lakshadweep sea cucumber Actinopyga mauritiana (Quoy and Gaimard)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parameswaran, P.S.; Naik, C.G.; Das, B.; Kamat, S.Y.

    Brine-shrimp assay guided purification of the methanolic extract of the sea cucumber Actinopyga mauritiana yields echinoside-B as a major toxic constituent. The compound has been characterized based on its spectral data....

  20. Microbiological preservation of cucumbers for bulk storage using acetic acid and food preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Díaz, I M; McFeeters, R F

    2008-08-01

    Microbial growth did not occur when cucumbers were preserved without a thermal process by storage in solutions containing acetic acid, sodium benzoate, and calcium chloride to maintain tissue firmness. The concentrations of acetic acid and sodium benzoate required to ensure preservation were low enough so that stored cucumbers could be converted to the finished product without the need to wash out and discard excess acid or preservative. Since no thermal process was required, this method of preservation would be applicable for storing cucumbers in bulk containers. Acid tolerant pathogens died off in less than 24 h with the pH, acetic acid, and sodium benzoate concentrations required to assure the microbial stability of cucumbers stored at 30 degrees C. Potassium sorbate as a preservative in this application was not effective. Yeast growth was observed when sulfite was used as a preservative.

  1. A hyperspectral imaging prototype for online quality evaluation of pickling cucumbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    A hyperspectral imaging prototype was developed for online evaluation of external and internal quality of pickling cucumbers. The prototype had several new, unique features including simultaneous reflectance and transmittance imaging and inline, real time calibration of hyperspectral images of each ...

  2. Putative paternal factors controlling chilling tolerance in Korean market-type cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilling temperatures (Cucumis sativus L.) plants during winter and early spring growing seasons. Inheritance to chilling in U.S. processing cucumber is controlled by cytoplasmic (maternally) and nuclear factors. To understand inherit...

  3. Odontonema cuspidatum and Psychotria punctata, two new cucumber mosaic virus hosts identified in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    The wide host range of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) has been expanded by the identification of Odontonema cuspidatum (firespike) and Psychotria punctata (dotted wild coffee) as CMV hosts in Florida....

  4. The Physiologic Reaction of Cucumber to Low Temperature and Low Light Intensity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Qing-jun; ZHANG Fu-man; WANG Yong-jian; Kurata Kenji

    2003-01-01

    The dynamics of chlorophyll content, leaf area and photosynthesis of cucumber seedlings were studied under sole stress of two low temperatures and low light intensity as well as combined stresses of low light intensity and the two low temperatures. The results showed that low light intensity reduced sensitivity of cucumber to low temperature and improved chlorophyll content, leaf area and chlorophyll fluorescence quantum yield. The photosynthesis rate was reduced under low light intensity. The intensity of light played the leading role in growth of cucumber under the low temperature condition, while the low temperature played the leading role under the critical low temperature condition. There were differences in reaction to light and temperature among different varieties. The tolerance to low temperature and low light intensity was not always synergetic for the same cucumber variety.

  5. [Effects of bio-fertilizer on organically cultured cucumber growth and soil biological characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Dan; Zong, Liang-gang; Xiao, Jun; Zhang, Qian; Zhao, Yan

    2010-10-01

    Field trials of organic farming were conducted to examine the effects of different bio-fertilizers on the organically cultured cucumber growth, soil enzyme activities, and soil microbial biomass. Four treatments were installed, i. e., organic fertilizer only (CK), bio-fertilizer "Zhonghe" combined with organic fertilizer (ZHH), bio-fertilizer "NST" combined with organic fertilizer (NST), and bio-fertilizer "Bio" combined with organic fertilizer (BIO). Bio-fertilizers combined with organic fertilizer increased the cucumber yield significantly, and improved the root growth and leaf chlorophyll content. Comparing with that in CK, the cucumber yield in treatments ZHH, NST, and BIO was increased by 10.4%, 12.4%, and 29.2%, respectively. At the seedling stage, early flowering stage, and picking time of cucumber, the soil microbial biomass C and N in treatments ZHH, NST, and BIO were significantly higher than that in CK, and the activities of soil urease, acid phosphatase, and catalase were also higher.

  6. Analysis of fatty acid composition of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus using multivariate statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qinzeng; Gao, Fei; Xu, Qiang; Yang, Hongsheng

    2014-11-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) provide energy and also can be used to trace trophic relationships among organisms. Sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus goes into a state of aestivation during warm summer months. We examined fatty acid profiles in aestivated and non-aestivated A. japonicus using multivariate analyses (PERMANOVA, MDS, ANOSIM, and SIMPER). The results indicate that the fatty acid profiles of aestivated and non-aestivated sea cucumbers differed significantly. The FAs that were produced by bacteria and brown kelp contributed the most to the differences in the fatty acid composition of aestivated and nonaestivated sea cucumbers. Aestivated sea cucumbers may synthesize FAs from heterotrophic bacteria during early aestivation, and long chain FAs such as eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) that produced from intestinal degradation, are digested during deep aestivation. Specific changes in the fatty acid composition of A. japonicus during aestivation needs more detailed study in the future.

  7. Construction of a BAC library from cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and identification of linkage group specific clones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Guan; Qi Chen; Junsong Pan; Zheng Li; Huanle He; Aizhong Wu; Rentao Song; Run Cai

    2008-01-01

    A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library consisting of 19,200 clones with an average insert size of 105 kb has been constructed from a cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) inbred line S94, derived from a cultivar in North China. The entire library was equivalent to approximately 5 haploid cucumber genomes. To facilitate chromosome engineering and anchor the cucumber genetic linkage map to its chromosomes, 15 sequence-characterized amplified regions (SCAR) and seven simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers from each link-age group of cucumber were used to screen an ordered array of pooled BAC DNA with polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Fifteen mark-ers gave at least two positive clones. As a result, 22 BAC clones representing 7 linkage groups of cucumber were identified, which further validated the genome coverage and utility of the library. This BAC library and linkage group specific clones provide essential resources for future research of the cucumber genome.

  8. Detection of fruit fly infestation in pickling cucumbers using hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Renfu; Ariana, Diwan P.

    2011-06-01

    Fruit fly infestation can be a serious problem in pickling cucumber production. In the United States and many other countries, there is zero tolerance for fruit flies in pickled products. Currently, processors rely on manual inspection to detect and remove fruit fly-infested cucumbers, which is labor intensive and also prone to error due to human fatigue and the difficulty of visually detecting infestation that is hidden inside the fruit. In this research, a laboratory hyperspectral imaging system was used to detect fruit fly-infested pickling cucumbers. Hyperspectral reflectance (450-740 nm) and transmittance (740-1,000 nm) images were acquired simultaneously for 329 normal (infestation free) and fruit flyinfested pickling cucumbers of three size classes with the mean diameters of 16.8, 22.1, and 27.6 mm, respectively. Mean spectra were extracted from the hyperspectral image of each cucumber, and they were then corrected for the fruit size effect using a diameter correction equation. Partial least squares discriminant analyses for the reflectance, transmittance and their combined data were performed for differentiating normal and infested pickling cucumbers. With reflectance mode, the overall classification accuracies for the three size classes and mixed class were between 82% and 88%, whereas transmittance achieved better classification results with the overall accuracies of 88%-93%. Integration of reflectance and transmittance did not result in noticeable improvements, compared to transmittance mode. Overall, the hyperspectral imaging system performed better than manual inspection, which had an overall accuracy of 75% and decreased significantly for smaller size cucumbers. This research demonstrated that hyperspectral imaging is potentially useful for detecting fruit fly-infested pickling cucumbers.

  9. Necrotrophic fungi associated with epidermal microcracking caused by chilling injury in pickling cucumber fruit

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this work was to visualize the association between microcracking and other epidermal chilling injury symptoms, and to identify rots in cucumber fruit (Cucumis sativus L.) by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Depressed epidermal areas and surface cracking due to damages of subepidermal cells characterized the onset of pitting in cucumber fruit. The germination of conidia of Alternaria alternata, with some of them evident on the fractures in the cultivar Trópico, occurred aft...

  10. Climatic Risk of Field Cultivation of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the present work was to separate zones of pickling cucumber field cultivation in Poland according to the various degrees of climatic risk. The study used 40-years of (1966-2005) data from 28 experimental stations of the Research Centre for Cultivar Testing. The data characterised the course of the growth, development, cucumber crop productivity and also the agrotechnical dates. Additionally, the work considered agrometeorological data of 7 development stages of the analysed plant:...

  11. Two biologically distinct isolates of Zucchini yellow mosaic virus lack seed transmissibility in cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasa, M; Kollerova, E

    2007-01-01

    The seed transmission of the Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) was studied in cucumber using two isolates unrelated in their biological characteristics. Although the virus could be readily detected in mature seeds harvested from infected cucumbers, the seedlings obtained from infected germinated seeds tested negative for ZYMV using both ELISA and RT-PCR assays. No evidence was obtained for transmission of two ZYMV isolates through seeds.

  12. Dynamics of Microbial Communities in Bulk and Developing Cucumber Rhizosphere Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Yuan-sen; WU Kun; LIU Na; CHEN Hong-ge; JIA Xin-cheng

    2004-01-01

    The microbial population dynamics in bulk and developing cucumber rhizospheres were studied by cultivation and cultivation-independent approach based on directly extracted DNA to provide baseline data. Soil and rhizosphere samples were taken from tested field 2, 4, 7 and 10 weeks after the seeds were planted, which was positively related to the corresponding date of cucumber growth stages. The plate culture amount showed that total number of bacteria,fungi and actinomyces began to rise when cucumber planted and quickly reached peak at seedling or blossom period, but decreased slightly later. Bacterial population in rhizosphere was higher by comparison with that of counterpart except for seedling and flowering stages, but the shift trend of them were quite similar all the time. Nitrogen fixating, nitrobacter and ammonifying bacteria showed the same change tendency in population as bacteria and actinomyces did, however, cellulose-decomposing bacteria had the contrary rhizosphere effect as cucumber developed. Data revealed that positive relevance existed between the dominant rhizosphere microbe population and cucumber development. PCR was employed to amolify the V3 region of 16S rDNA, then the products were subjected to denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis(DGGE). DGGE profile indicated that a few microbe species lived stable in farmland soil, but some were influenced by population due to cucumber roots growth. Significant difference was observed in bulk and rhizosphere soils especially for the seedling and flowering samples. Few prominent bands in DGGE patterns, which displayed stronger or less illumination, means the representative bacteria had great population variation in that period. These phenomena indicated that flowering cucumber heavily affected rhizosphere bacteria, or the bacteria, most probably the uncultured bacteria, functioned specially to cucumber blossom. Most detected bands with no illumination change in DGGE quite possibly represent the indigenous

  13. Effect of vinegar residue compost amendments on cucumber growth and Fusarium wilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Nanshan; Shi, Lu; Du, Lantian; Yuan, Yinghui; Li, Bin; Sang, Ting; Sun, Jin; Shu, Sheng; Guo, Shirong

    2015-12-01

    Fusarium wilt of cucumber caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum J. H. Owen is one of the major destructive soilborne diseases and results in considerable yield losses. Methyl bromide was once the most effective disease control method but has been confirmed as harmful to the environment. Using suppressive media as biological controls to assist crop growth is becoming popular. In this study, Fusarium wilt of cucumber was successfully controlled by a newly identified suppressive media: vinegar residue compost-amended media (vinegar residue compost mixed with peat and vermiculite in a 6:3:1 ratio (v/v) vinegar residue substrate (VRS). Greenhouse experiments were carried out to evaluate the effect of VRS on the growth of cucumber seedlings and disease suppression. The control was peat/vermiculite (2:1, v/v). To identify the mixed media most suitable for the growth of plants and their suppressiveness indicators, we evaluated the biological characteristics of cucumber, the physicochemical and biochemical properties of the growth media, and the enzyme activities. Total organic C (C(org)), microbial biomass C (C(mic)), basal respiration (R(mic)), and enzyme (catalase, invertase, urease, proteinase, phosphatase, β-glucosidase, and hydrolysis of fluorescein diacetate) activities increased significantly after vinegar waste compost amendment. The compost media also showed a significantly positive effect on the growth of cucumber seedlings and the suppression of the disease severity index (DSI, 38% reduction). The cucumber rhizosphere population of F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC) was significantly lower in VRS than in the control. These results demonstrate convincingly that vinegar residue compost-amended media has a beneficial effect on cucumber growth and could be applied as a method for biological control of cucumber Fusarium wilt.

  14. Immunological comparison of the NADH:nitrate reductase from different cucumber tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Marciniak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Soluble nitrate reductase from cucumber roots (Cucumis sativus L. was isolated and purified with blue-Sepharose 4B. Specific antibodies against the NR protein were raised by immunization of a goat. Using polyclonal antibodies anti-NR properties of the nitrate reductase from various cucumber tissues were examined. Experiments showed difference in immuno-logical properties of nitrate reductase (NR from cotyledon roots and leaves.

  15. The Syndrome of Sea Cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) Infected by Virus and Bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huan DENG; Zun-chun ZHOU; Nian-bin WANG; Chang LIU

    2008-01-01

    A outbreak of disease with symptoms of evisceration and skin ulteration led to mass mortality in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus cultivated in indoor ponds near the Dalian coast from December 2004 to April 2005. Spherical virus particles with a diameter of 75-200 nm were found in the cytoplasm of cells in the water-system, the alimentary canal and in the respiratory trees of the diseased and dying sea cucumber individuals by electron microscopic observation of ultrathin sections. Examination by negative stained samples revealed that all the diseased sea cucumbers were infected by the virus, while the healthly ones cultivated outside the contagious area were not. Two bacterial strains were also isolated from the diseased animals. When exposed to a medium containing the virus particles, regardless of whether the bacterial suspension was added,healthy sea cucumbers exhibited identical disease symptoms as the ones in the indoor ponds, and had a mortality of 90%-100%. However, when exposed to a medium in which there was only one of the two bacterial strains, 30%-80% of the sea cucumbers were infected and nearly 20% died. Negative staining showed that the viral particles were detected only in the bodies of the tested animals that were exposed to the viral medium. Histopathologically, the diseased sea cucumbers are characterized by karyopycnosis, and disintegration of the endoplasmic reticula and mitochondria in the epithelial cells in the water-system, the respiratory tree and the alimentary canal.

  16. Identification of differentially expressed genes related to aphid resistance in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Danna; Liu, Min; Hu, Qijing; He, Min; Qi, Xiaohua; Xu, Qiang; Zhou, Fucai; Chen, Xuehao

    2015-05-11

    Cucumber, a very important vegetable crop worldwide, is easily damaged by pests. Aphids (Aphis gossypii Glover) are among the most serious pests in cucumber production and often cause severe loss of yield and make fruit quality get worse. Identifying genes that render cucumbers resistant to aphid-induced damage and breeding aphid-resistant cucumber varieties have become the most promising control strategies. In this study, a Illumina Genome Analyzer platform was applied to monitor changes in gene expression in the whole genome of the cucumber cultivar 'EP6392' which is resistant to aphids. Nine DGE libraries were constructed from infected and uninfected leaves. In total, 49 differentially expressed genes related to cucumber aphid resistance were screened during the treatment period. These genes are mainly associated with signal transduction, plant-pathogen interactions, flavonoid biosynthesis, amino acid metabolism and sugar metabolism pathways. Eight of the 49 genes may be associated with aphid resistance. Finally, expression of 9 randomly selected genes was evaluated by qRT-PCR to verify the results for the tag-mapped genes. With the exception of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase homolog 6, the expression of the chosen genes was in agreement with the results of the tag-sequencing analysis patterns.

  17. Residues and Analysis of Degradation of Novel Fungicide Picoxystrobin in Cucumber and Soil Under Field Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUN Yang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The analytical method for the residues of picoxystrobin in cucumber vegetable and soil matrices was developed and the dissipation of picoxystrobin under field conditions was studied. The limit of detection(LODof picoxystrobin was 3.5×10 -11 g and the limit of quantifica-tion(LOQwas found to be 0.005 mg·kg -1 in cucumber and soil. At three different spiking levels(0.005, 0.05, 0.25 mg·kg -1, mean recoveries and relative standard deviation(RSDfrom fortified samples in five replicated experiments for each matrix were in the range of 68.61%-122.4% and 1.06%-17.2%, respectively. The results showed that the half-lives of picoxystrobin in cucumber and soil from Tianjin City were 5.71 d and 12.9 d, respectively, the half-lives of picoxystrobin in cucumber and soil from Shandong Province were 2.70 d and 10.3 d, respec-tively, and the half-lives of picoxystrobin in cucumber and soil from Jiangsu Province were 9.76 d and 14.9 d, respectively. The maximum residual concentration of picoxystrobin on the 5th day after the last application was 0.014 mg· kg -1, much lower than the Maximum Residue Limits(MRLsfor picoxystrobin in cucumber according to the standards of EU(0.05 mg·kg-1.

  18. Silicon Application Effects on Yield and Growth of Two Cucumber Genotypes in Hydroponics System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Mohaghegh

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Silicon (Si has beneficial effects on the growth, yield, and tolerance of some crops against biotic and abiotic stresses. Considering the absence of Si in the nutrient solutions used in hydroponically-grown cucumber, the present study was conducted to investigate the influence of Si on the growth and yield of two cucumber genotypes (Cucumis sativus L. cvs. Dominus GRC and Super Dominus. In a hydroponic experiment, two cucumber cultivars were exposed to three Si levels (0, 100, and 200 mg L-1 Si in the form of sodium silicate. The results showed that supplement of Si in the nutrient solution increased Si concentration in cucumber root and shoot. The root and shoot dry weight, crop height, and root length of cucumber plants were significantly (P< 0.05 greater in the presence of Si in comparison with the free- Si treatments. Most of the growth parameters, did not have significant difference at the 100 and 200 mg L-1 silicate levels. According to the results of the present study, it seems that the application of 100 mg/L Si in the nutrient solution could improve the growth and yield of cucumber.

  19. Laser ablation ICP-MS reveals patterns of copper differing from zinc in growth zones of cucumber roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jiyan; Gras, Michelle A; Silk, Wendy K

    2009-03-01

    Laser ablation coupled with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry was used to find Cu and Zn concentration in surface tissue along a longitudinal developmental gradient with meristem, rapidly elongating tissue, and nongrowing tissue in a model system of seedling roots of Cucumis sativus L. (cucumber). Tissue metal accumulation was determined for roots of seedlings growing on cellulosic germination paper treated with nutrient solution (controls), and also treated with concentrations of Zn (40 ppm) and Cu (10 ppm) that reduced growth. Cu content of all roots is highest at the apex and falls sharply to lower values by 2 mm from the root tip. In contrast, at moderate Zn availability (0.07 ppm), Zn content rises from the apex to 2 mm then falls throughout the remainder of the growth zone. At high external Zn the spatial pattern resembles that of Cu. Cucumber root growth zones accumulate more of each metal with higher external availability. Metal deposition rates were calculated using a continuity equation with data on local metal content and growth velocity. Deposition rates of both metals are generally highest in the rapidly elongating region, 1.5-3.5 mm, even where metal concentration is decreasing with position and root age and even when the accumulation is inhibitory to growth.

  20. Relationship between in vitro characterization and comparative efficacy of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria for improving cucumber salt tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Sajid Mahmood; Ahmad, Maqshoof; Naveed, Muhammad; Imran, Muhammad; Zahir, Zahir Ahmad; Crowley, David E

    2016-05-01

    Phosphate solubilization, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC)-deaminase activity and production of siderophores and indole acetic acid (IAA) are well-known traits of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Here we investigated the expression of these traits as affected by salinity for three PGPR strains (Pseudomonas fluorescens, Bacillus megaterium and Variovorax paradoxus) at two salinity levels [2 and 5 % NaCl (w/v)]. Among the three strains, growth of B. megaterium was the least affected by high salinity. However, P. fluorescens was the best strain for maintaining ACC-deaminase activity, siderophore and IAA production under stressed conditions. V. paradoxus was the least tolerant to salts and had minimal growth and low PGPR trait expression under salt stress. Results of experiment examining the impact of bacterial inoculation on cucumber growth at three salinity levels [1 (normal), 7 and 10 dS m(-1)] revealed that P. fluorescens also had good rhizosphere competence and was the most effective for alleviating the negative impacts of salinity on cucumber growth. The results suggest that in addition to screening the PGPR regarding their effect on growth under salinity, PGPR trait expression is also an important aspect that may be useful for selecting the most promising PGPR bacterial strains for improving plant tolerance to salinity stress.

  1. Completion sequence and cloning of the infectious cDNA of a chb isolate of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, M; Zhao, X; Liu, Y; Wang, Y; Cao, K

    2015-03-01

    Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) is an important and widespread seed-borne virus that infects Cucurbitaceous plants. It is a member of the genus Tobamovirus in the family Virgaviridae with a monopartite (+) ssRNA genome. Here we report the complete genome sequence, construction and testing of the infectious clones of a chb isolate of CGMMV. Full-length CGMMV cDNA was cloned into the vector pUC19. The linearized vector containing full-length cDNA was used as template for in vitro transcription, and the synthesized capped transcript was highly infectious in Chenopodium amaranticolor and cucumber (Cucumis sativus). Inoculated plants showed symptoms typical of CGMMV infection. The infectivity was confirmed by mechanical transmission to new plants, RT-PCR and western blot. Progeny virus derived from infectious transcripts had the same biological and biochemical properties as wild-type virus. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed report of a biologically active transcript from CGMMV.

  2. Monitoring and Varietal Screening Cucurbit Fruit Fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae on Cucumber in Bhaktapur and Kathmandu, Nepal

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    Ranju Maharjan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of cucurbit fruit fly by using four different types of traps was conducted in Sipadole VDC of Bhaktapur district during 2012 to observe the population dynamics. Three different types of fruit flies were recorded, in which the number of B. cucurbitae dominated to other species. Only B. cucurbitae damaged the cucumber, which was trapped 92.68%, 87.05%, 90.61%, and 69.38% in cue-lure, banana pulp bait, sticky traps and fly catcher, respectively. The highest number of fruit flies (167.5 male fruit flies/3traps was recorded in cue-lure trap during the first week of September, which coincided with 85.45% RH and 21.67°C and 25.04°C minimum and maximum temperature, respectively. Positive relation of temperature, relative humidity and fruit fly catches was observed. Thus, cue-lure was the most effective traps for monitoring of fruit fly population. In varietal screening, among the six different varieties of cucumber, i.e. Kathmandu local, Kusle, Kamini, Malini, Kasinda and Mahyco Green Long, they were highly significant difference in yield. Kamini gave the highest marketable fruit 26.66 mt/ha yield and the lowest by Kusle (5.05 mt/ha. All the varieties were affected by cucurbit fruit fly. The highest number of unmarketable fruit set was observed in Kamini (22.29 fruits/plant.

  3. 7 CFR 319.56-36 - Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the Republic of Korea. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), squash (Cucurbita maxima), cucumber (Cucumis sativus), and oriental melon (Cucumis melo) may be imported into the United States from the Republic...

  4. Diploidization of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. haploids by colchicine treatment

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    Vesselina Nikolova

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Haploid cucumber plants are totally infertile and do not undergo spontaneous diploidization. The use of haploids depends on the possibility of doubling the chromosome number and the obtaining of stable doubled haploids (DH. Four haploids of different genotypes propagated vegetatively were treated with colchicine in order to obtain DH. The following procedures were used: 1 apical shoot meristem treatment, 2 soaking of shoot explants, 3 placing of shoot explants on medium with colchicine. Plants of the C1 generation were evaluated in respect to morphological and cytological characters and fertility. The best result of 20.9% DH was obtained after repeated treatment of the meristem with colchicine. A large group of chimeras (28.5% was also distinguished as were haploids and tetraploids. DH plants were fertile and gave uniform progeny. Chimeras had a decreased fertility and showed disturbances in meiotic divisions.

  5. Triterpene Glycosides from Sea Cucumber Holothuria scabra with Cytotoxic Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Hua; LI Ling; YI Yang-hua; WANG Xiao-hua; PAN Min-xiang

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the new triterpene glycosides from sea cucumber Holothuria scabra with cytotoxic activity.Methods Triterpene glycosides from H.scabra were separated and purified by chromatography on DA-101,silica gel,and reversed-phase silica gel column,as well as RP-HPLC.Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectral data and chemical evidence.Results Three triterpene glycosides were identified as scabraside D (1),fuscocineroside C (2),and 24-dehydroechinoside A (3).Their inhibition on P-388,A549,MKN-28,HCT116,and MCF-7 cells were significant.Conclusion Scabraside D (1) is a new triterpene glycoside,and compounds 2 and 3 are isolated from H.scabra for the first time.The glycosides 1-3 show the in vitro cytotoxicity against five human tumor cell lines in comparison to 10-hydroxycamptothecin.

  6. Differential permeation of artemia cysts and cucumber seeds by alcohols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C. W.; Siegel, S. M.

    1975-01-01

    The rate of penetration of the simpler alcohols into brine shrimp cysts and cucumber seeds was studied. In solutions below 70% the rate of penetration is related to lipid solvent capacity of the alcohol. In concentrations above 70%, particularly in absolute alcohols, methanol penetrates brine shrimp rapidly and ethanol penetrates slowly. All the other alcohols tested did not penetrate the dormant structures. Ethionine and deuteroxy-methanol did not affect the rate of penetration of methanol. It is suggested that in dehydrated membranes the lipid moiety is protected by a continuous sheet of protein. Methanol, which is fairly similar to water, is probably able to penetrate the membrane by initiating a conformation change in the protein, exposing the lipid which subsequently dissolves in the methanol thus destroying the membrane.

  7. Cytoprotective Effects of Lysophospholipids from Sea Cucumber Holothuria atra.

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    Yoshifumi Nishikawa

    Full Text Available Lysophospholipids are important signaling molecules in animals and metazoan cells. They are widely distributed among marine invertebrates, where their physiological roles are unknown. Sea cucumbers produce unique lysophospholipids. In this study, two lysophospholipids were detected in Holothuria atra for the first time, lyso-platelet activating factor and lysophosphatidylcholine, with nuclear magnetic resonance and liquid chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometric analyses. The lipid fraction of H. atra contained lyso-platelet activating factor and lysophosphatidylcholine, and inhibited H2O2-induced apoptosis in the macrophage cell line J774A.1. The antioxidant activity of the lysophospholipid-containing lipid fraction of H. atra was confirmed with the oxygen radical absorbance capacity method. Our results suggest that the lysophospholipids from H. atra are potential therapeutic agents for the inflammation induced by oxidative stress.

  8. Propagation of Cucumber Seedlings in Different Organic and Inorganic Media

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    H. Cinkilİc

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate the possibility of using grape marc and cinder an alternative media to peat for cucumber propagation and find out the results.In the study;normal grape marc, normal grape marc+25% süper coarse perlite, ground grape marc+25% süper coarse perlite, cinder+25% süper coarse perlite, peat+25% süper coarse perlite and peat were used, the best results were obtained from grape marc + 25% super coarse perlite in stem diameter, number of true leaves, weight of seedling, width of seedling, length of leaves and width of leaves; from peat + 25% super coarse perlite in length of seedling, length of seedling with root, weight of root, weight of seedling with root and length of root. The cinder which is the residue of burned coal, gave the worst results in all seedling properties.

  9. Backcross introgression of plastomic factors controlling chilling tolerance into elite cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) germplasm: Early generation recovery of recurrent parent phenotytpe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental stresses such as chilling temperatures can decrease germination, emergence, flower and fruit development, marketable yield, and postharvest fruit storage longevity in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). While response to chilling injury in cucumber is controlled by simple plastidic (matern...

  10. Evapotranspiration Modeling by Linear, Nonlinear Regression and Artificial Neural Network in Greenhouse (Case study Reference Crop, Cucumber and Tomato

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    vahid Rezaverdinejad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Greenhouse cultivation is a steadily developing agricultural sector throughout the world. In addition, it is known that water is a major issue almost all part of the world especially for countries which have insufficient water source. With this great expansion of greenhouse cultivation, the need of appropriate irrigation management has a great importance. Accurate determination of irrigation scheduling (irrigation timing and frequency is one of the main factors in achieving high yields and avoiding loss of quality in greenhouse tomato and cucumber. To do this, it is fundamental to know the crop water requirements or real evapotranspiration. Accurate estimation on crop water requirement is needed to avoid the excess or deficit water application, with consequent impacts on nutrient availability for plants. This can be done by using appropriate method to determine the crop evapotranspiration (ETc. In greenhouse cultivation, crop transpiration is the most important energy dissipation mechanisms that influence ETc rate. There are a large number of literatures on methods to estimate ETc in greenhouses. ETc can be measured or estimated by direct or indirect methods. The most common direct method estimates ETc from measurements with weighing lysimeters. Thisalsoincludes the evaporation measuring equipment, class A pan, Piche atmometer and modified atmometer. Indirect method includes the measurement of net radiation, temperature, relative humidity, and air vapour pressure deficit. A large number of models have been developed from these measurements to estimate ETc. Due to the fast development of under greenhouse cultivation all around the world, the needs of information on how it affects ETc in greenhouses has to be known and summarized. The existing models for ETc calculation have to be studied to know whether it is reliable for greenhouse climate (hereafter, microclimate or not. Regression and artificial neural network models are two

  11. Gravitropism of cucumber hypocotyls: biophysical mechanism of altered growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, D. J.

    1990-01-01

    The biophysical basis for the changes in cell elongation rate during gravitropism was examined in aetiolated cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) hypocotyls. Bulk osmotic pressures on the two sides of the stem and in the epidermal cells were not altered during the early time course of gravitropism. By the pressure-probe technique, a small increase in turgor (0.3 bar, 30 kPa) was detected on the upper (inhibited) side, whereas there was a negligible decrease in turgor on the lower (stimulated) side. These small changes in turgor and water potential appeared to be indirect, passive consequences of the altered growth and the small resistance for water movement from the xylem, and indicated that the change in growth was principally due to changes in wall properties. The results indicate that the hydraulic conductance of the water-transport pathway was large (.25 h-1 bar-1) and the water potential difference supporting cell expansion was no greater than 0.3 bar (30 kPa). From pressure-block experiments, it appeared that upon gravitropic stimulation (1) the yield threshold of the lower half of the stem did not decrease and (2) the wall on the upper side of the stem was not made more rigid by a cross-linking process. Mechanical measurements of the stress/strain properties of the walls showed that the initial development of gravitropism did not involve an alteration of the mechanical behaviour of the isolated walls. Thus, gravitropism in cucumber hypocotyls occurs principally by an alteration of the wall relaxation process, without a necessary change in wall mechanical properties.

  12. Effect of biofertilizers on yield and yield components of cucumber

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    Faranak Moshabaki Isfahani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofertilizer is defined as a substance which contains living organisms which, when applied to seed, plant surface, or soil, colonize the rhizosphere or interior of the plant and promote growth by increasing the supply or availability of primary nutrients to the host plant. Biofertilizers are well recognized as an important component of integrated plant nutrient management for sustainable agriculture and hold a great promise improve crop yield. The present study for the sake of evaluating the use of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria produced by Pseudomonas sp. and phosphate bio fertilizers produced by Pseudomonas putida strain P13 and Pantoea agglomerans strain P5 and chemical fertilizers in the separate treatments on yield and yield components of cucumber by using a factorial experiment in completely randomized block design with three repetition were performed in the field. The symbol of P represents chemical fertilizer by amount of respectively (0, 25%, 50%, 75%, 100%, B1 shows plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR and B2 indicates bio fertilizer-2. The results showed that P1B0 has the most yield, and control treatments has the least yield. P100B1 has the most length of plant and P100B0 has the least length of plant, P25B1 has the most amount of chlorophyll and P75B2 has the least chlorophyll. P75B2 has the most shoots dry weight and P100B0 has the least shoots dry weight. B1P50 has the most shoots fresh weight and P25B2 has the least shoots fresh weight. B1P50 has the most roots dry weight and P100B0 has the least roots dry weight. B1P50 has the most roots fresh weight and P25B2 has the least roots fresh weight. So the results indicate that use of biological fertilizers have caused increase yield and components yield of cucumber.

  13. Shelf life extension of minimally processed cabbage and cucumber through gamma irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattak, Amal Badshah; Bibi, Nizakat; Chaudry, Muhammad Ashraf; Khan, Misal; Khan, Maazullah; Qureshi, Muhammad Jamil

    2005-01-01

    The influence of irradiation of minimally processed cabbage and cucumber on microbial safety, texture, and sensory quality was investigated. Minimally processed, polyethylene-packed, and irradiated cabbage and cucumber were stored at refrigeration temperature (5 degrees C) for 2 weeks. The firmness values ranged from 3.23 kg (control) to 2.82 kg (3.0-kGy irradiated samples) for cucumbers, with a gradual decrease in firmness with increasing radiation dose (0 to 3 kGy). Cucumbers softened just after irradiation with a dose of 3.0 kGy and after 14 days storage, whereas the texture remained within acceptable limits up to a radiation dose of 2.5 kGy. The radiation treatment had no effect on the appearance scores of cabbage; however, scores decreased from 7.0 to 6.7 during storage. The appearance and flavor scores of cucumbers decreased with increasing radiation dose, and overall acceptability was better after radiation doses of 2.5 and 3.0 kGy. The aerobic plate counts per gram for cabbage increased from 3 to 5 log CFU (control), from 1.85 to 2.93 log CFU (2.5 kGy), and from a few colonies to 2.6 log CFU (3.0 kGy) after 14 days of storage at 5 degrees C. A similar trend was noted for cucumber samples. No coliform bacteria were detected at radiation doses greater than 2.0 kGy in either cabbage or cucumber samples. Total fungal counts per gram of sample were within acceptable limits for cucumbers irradiated at 3.0 kGy, and for cabbage no fungi were detected after 2.0-kGy irradiation. The D-values for Escherichia coli in cucumber and cabbage were 0.19 and 0.17 kGy, and those for Salmonella Paratyphi A were 0.25 and 0.29 kGy for cucumber and cabbage, respectively.

  14. Development of an embryonic skeletogenic mesenchyme lineage in a sea cucumber reveals the trajectory of change for the evolution of novel structures in echinoderms

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    McCauley Brenna S

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mechanisms by which the conserved genetic “toolkit” for development generates phenotypic disparity across metazoans is poorly understood. Echinoderm larvae provide a great resource for understanding how developmental novelty arises. The sea urchin pluteus larva is dramatically different from basal echinoderm larval types, which include the auricularia-type larva of its sister taxon, the sea cucumbers, and the sea star bipinnaria larva. In particular, the pluteus has a mesodermally-derived larval skeleton that is not present in sea star larvae or any outgroup taxa. To understand the evolutionary origin of this structure, we examined the molecular development of mesoderm in the sea cucumber, Parastichopus parvimensis. Results By comparing gene expression in sea urchins, sea cucumbers and sea stars, we partially reconstructed the mesodermal regulatory state of the echinoderm ancestor. Surprisingly, we also identified expression of the transcription factor alx1 in a cryptic skeletogenic mesenchyme lineage in P. parvimensis. Orthologs of alx1 are expressed exclusively within the sea urchin skeletogenic mesenchyme, but are not expressed in the mesenchyme of the sea star, which suggests that alx1+ mesenchyme is a synapomorphy of at least sea urchins and sea cucumbers. Perturbation of Alx1 demonstrates that this protein is necessary for the formation of the sea cucumber spicule. Overexpression of the sea star alx1 ortholog in sea urchins is sufficient to induce additional skeleton, indicating that the Alx1 protein has not evolved a new function during the evolution of the larval skeleton. Conclusions The proposed echinoderm ancestral mesoderm state is highly conserved between the morphologically similar, but evolutionarily distant, auricularia and bipinnaria larvae. However, the auricularia, but not bipinnaria, also develops a simple skelotogenic cell lineage. Our data indicate that the first step in acquiring these novel

  15. Suitability of Zucchini and Cucumber Genotypes to Populations of Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Gómez, Manuel; Flor-Peregrín, Elena; Talavera, Miguel; Verdejo-Lucas, Soledad

    2015-03-01

    The host suitability of five zucchini and three cucumber genotypes to Meloidogyne incognita (MiPM26) and M. javanica (Mj05) was determined in pot experiments in a greenhouse. The number of egg masses (EM) did not differ among the genotypes of zucchini or cucumber, but the eggs/plant and reproduction factor (Rf) did slightly. M. incognita MiPM26 showed lower EM, eggs/plant, and Rf than M. javanica Mj05. Examination of the zucchini galls for nematode postinfection development revealed unsuitable conditions for M. incognita MiPM26 as only 22% of the females produced EM compared to 95% of the M. javanica females. As far as cucumber was concerned, 86% of the M. incognita and 99% of the M. javanica females produced EM, respectively. In a second type of experiments, several populations of M. arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica were tested on zucchini cv. Amalthee and cucumber cv. Dasher II to assess the parasitic variation among species and populations of Meloidogyne. A greater parasitic variation was observed in zucchini than cucumber. Zucchini responded as a poor host for M. incognita MiPM26, MiAL09, and MiAL48, but as a good host for MiAL10 and MiAL15. Intraspecific variation was not observed among the M. javanica or M. arenaria populations. Cucumber was a good host for all the tested populations. Overall, both cucurbits were suitable hosts for Meloidogyne but zucchini was a poorer host than the cucumber.

  16. Occurrence, characterization and management of fruit rot of immature cucumber fruits under arid greenhouse conditions

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    ABDULLAH M AL-SADI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was undertaken to characterize and manage pathogens associated with fruit rot of immature cucumber fruits in greenhouses in Oman. A survey over 5 growing seasons from 2008 to 2010 in 99 different greenhouses in Oman showed that the disease is prevalent in 91 (92% greenhouses and results in losses of 10 to 60% (avg. 33% of immature fruits per plant. Incidence of the disease was not found to be affected by growing seasons, which could be attributed to the limited fluctuations in ambient temperatures in greenhouses. Isolations from diseased cucumber fruits yielded Alternaria alternata (isolation frequency = 52%, Fusarium equiseti (40%, Cladosporium tenuissium (27%, Botrytis cinerea (6%, Fusarium solani (6%, Corynespora cassiicola (3%, Aspergillus spp. (2%, Curvularia sp. (1% and Bipolaris sp. (1%. With the exception of Curvularia and Bipolaris species, all other fungi were pathogenic on cucumber fruits, with Fusarium equiseti being the most aggressive, followed by Corynespora cassiicola, Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria alternata. Cladosporium and Aspergillus spp. were found to be weakly pathogenic. Comparing the efficacy of foliar and soil applications of carbendazim fungicide on fruit rot of cucumber showed that foliar applications significantly reduced fruit rot and increased cucumber yield when compared to soil application or to control (P < 0.01. This appears to be the first report of the association of Corynespora cassiicola and Fusarium equiseti with fruit rot of immature greenhouse cucumbers. This is also the first report in Oman for the association of Cladosporium tenuissimum with fruit rot of immature cucumbers. Findings are discussed in terms of factors affecting disease control in greenhouses using carbendazim.

  17. Potential involvement of a cucumber homolog of phloem protein 1 in the long-distance movement of Cucumber mosaic virus particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requena, A; Simón-Buela, L; Salcedo, G; García-Arenal, F

    2006-07-01

    The systemic movement of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) in cucumber plants was analyzed. The structure that is translocated and its putative interactions with phloem components were analyzed in phloem exudate (PE) samples, which reflect sieve tubes stream composition. Rate zonal centrifugation and electron-microscopy analyses of PE from CMV-infected plants showed that CMV moves through sieve tubes as virus particles. Gel overlay assays revealed that CMV particles interact with a PE protein, p48. The amino-acid sequence of several tryptic peptides of p48 was determined. Partial amino-acid sequence of p48 showed it was a cucumber homolog of phloem protein 1 (PP1) from pumpkin, with which p48 also shares several chemical properties. PP1 from pumpkin has plasmodesmata-gating ability and translocates in sieve tubes. Encapsidated CMV RNA in PE samples from infected plants was less accessible to digestion by RNase A than RNA in purified CMV particles, a property that was reconstituted by the in vitro interaction of purified CMV particles and protein p48. These results indicate that the interaction with p48 modifies CMV particle structure and suggest that CMV particles interact with the cucumber homolog of PP1 during translocation in the sieve tubes.

  18. Resistance to Cucumber mosaic virus in Gladiolus plants transformed with either a defective replicase of coat protein subgroup II gene from Cucumber mosaic virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgenic Gladiolus plants that contain either Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) subgroup I coat protein, CMV subgroup II coat protein, CMV replicase, a combination of the CMV subgroups I and II coat proteins, or a combination of the CMV subgroup II coat protein and replicase genes were developed. These...

  19. Syntenic relationships between cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and melon (C. melo L.) chromosomes as revealed by comparative genetic mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucumber and melon are two economically important vegetable species. Both species have an Asian origin that diverged approximately nine million years ago. Cucumber is believed to have evolved from melon, where twelve melon chromosomes are thought to have undergone chromosome fusion to result in the ...

  20. Persistence and protection of mitochondrial DNA in the generative cell of cucumber is consistent with its paternal transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucumber, unlike most plants, shows paternal inheritance of its mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA); however, the mechanisms regulating this unique transmission mode are unclear. Here we monitored the amounts of mtDNA through the development of cucumber microspores to pollen and observed that mtDNA decreases ...

  1. Combined transcript and metabolite analysis reveals genes involved in spider mite induced volatile formation in cucumber plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mercke, P.; Kappers, I.F.; Verstappen, F.W.A.; Vorst, O.F.J.; Dicke, M.; Bouwmeester, H.J.

    2004-01-01

    Many plants have an indirect defense against herbivores by emitting volatiles that attract carnivorous enemies of the herbivores. In cucumber (Cucumis sativus) the production of carnivore attractants can be induced by herbivory or jasmonic acid spraying. From the leaves of cucumber plants with and

  2. Studies on biological control of powdery mildew in cucumber (Sphaerotheca fuliginea) and rose (Sphaerotheca pannosa) by means of mycoparasites.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaar, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    Powdery mildew on rose ( Sphaerotheca pannosa ) and cucumber ( Sphaerotheca fuliginea ) are two serious diseases in glasshouses. Intensive control by fungicides is needed. The research presented here deals with biocontrol of powdery mildew on cucumber and rose by means of mycoparasites.The mycoparas

  3. Metabolism of lactic acid in fermented cucumbers by Lactobacillus buchneri and related species, potential spoilage organisms in reduced salt fermentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent evidence suggests that Lactobacillus buchneri may play an important role in spoilage-associated secondary fermentation of cucumbers. Lactic acid degradation during fermented cucumber spoilage is influenced by sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration, pH, and presence of oxygen. Objectives were to...

  4. A method of genotyping by pedigree-based training-set for identification of QTLs associated with cucumber fruit size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Large sets of genomic data are becoming available for cucumber (Cucumis sativus), yet there is no tool for whole genome genotyping. Creation of saturated genetic maps depends on development of good markers. The present cucumber genetic maps are based on several hundreds of markers. However they are ...

  5. Effect of shrink wrap packaging for maintaining quality of cucumber during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhall, Rajinder Kumar; Sharma, Sanjeev R; Mahajan, B V C

    2012-08-01

    Immature green cucumber cv. 'Padmini' fruits were individually shrink wrapped with Cryovac D955 (60 guage) film and stored at 12 ± 1 °C, 90-95% RH as well as ambient conditions (29-33 °C, 65-70% RH). At 12 ± 1 °C and 90-95% RH, individual shrink wrapped cucumber recorded minimum Physiological loss in weight (0.66%) as compared with unwrapped fruits (11.11%) at the end of refrigerated storage (15 days). The softening (loss of firmness) was maximum (1304.6-876.6 g force) in unwrapped cucumbers whereas in shrink wrapping, minimum loss in firmness (1304.6-1065.3 g force) was observed after 12 days storage at 12 ± 1 °C and 90-95% RH but greater loss of weight and firmness makes the control cucumbers unmarketable after 9 days of storage. There were no rotting at all both in shrink wrapped and unwrapped cucumbers upto 15 days of storage at 12 ± 1 °C and 90-95% RH. After 15 days storage of shrink wrapped cucumbers at 12 ± 1 °C and 90-95% RH, there was loss of green colour and development of yellowness and decay. The sensory attributes score was highest in shrink wrapped cucumbers as compared to unwrapped cucumbers at end of both storage conditions. Thus it can be concluded that individual shrink wrapped cucumber can be stored well upto 15 days at 12 ± 1 °C and 90-95% RH and for 5 days at ambient conditions (29-33 °C, 65-70% RH) with maximum retention of green colour, no spoilage, minimum weight and firmness loss and very good sensory quality attributes whereas, unwrapped fruits can be stored well upto 9 days at 12 ± 1 °C and 90-95% RH and for 2 days at ambient conditions with maximum retention of physico-chemical quality attributes.

  6. Effects of Grafting on Root Exudates of Cucumber and Rhizosphere Environment under Copper Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua LI; Hongjun HE; Tengfei LI; Xin LI; Zikun ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] This study to aimed to investigate the effects of Cu stress on root exudates and microbial activities in rhizosphere of grafted and ungrafted cucum-ber seedlings, and therefore to elucidate the microbial mechanism of grafting for in-creasing cucumber plants tolerance to Cu stress [Method] Four treatments: (1) un-grafted seedlings + test soil (U0); (2) ungrafted seedlings + test soil + CuSO4·5H2O (U1); (3) grafted seedlings + test soil (G0); (4) grafted seedlings + test soil + Cu-SO4·5H2O (G1) were set in the pot culture experiment. The contents of free amino acids, organic acids, phenolic acid and sugars, microbial population and enzyme ac-tivity in the four treatment were measured, respectively. [Result] The secretion of amino acids and organic acids were increased under Cu stress. The amino acids secretions of grafted seedlings roots were obviously higher than ungrafted seedlings except for Phe and Val. At the same time, the secretion of oxalic acid, malic acid, acetic acid, citric acid, cinnamic acid, ρ-hydroxybenzoic acid and benzoic acid of grafted seedlings were significantly higher than ungrafted seedlings as wel . There-fore, more Cu2+ were restricted in soil by chelating, complexing and precipitation with root exudates, and its toxicity was decreased. The soil microbial biomass C and N in grafted cucumber rhizosphere were significantly higher than those in ungrafted cu-cumber rhizosphere, whereas basal respiration and metabolic quotient were signifi-cantly lower. Under Cu stress, the numbers of actinomyces and nitrogen fixing bac-teria decreased and the number of fungi increased significantly, whereas there was no significant difference in amounts of bacteria. The numbers of bacteria, actino-myces, and nitrogen fixing bacteria in grafted cucumber rhizosphere were significant-ly higher than those in ungrafted cucumber rhizosphere, but the number of fungi was opposite. The activities of soil urease, phosphatase, sucrase and catalase in grafted

  7. Modification of the cellular heat sensitivity of cucumber by growth under supplemental ultraviolet-B radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, C.R. [Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD (United States)

    1994-02-01

    The effect of ultraviolet B (UV-B) radiation on the thermal sensitivity of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) was studied using UV-B-sensitive cv Poinsett 76 and UV-B-resistant cv Ashley grown under control and elevated (300 mW m{sup -2}) UV-B radiation levels. Using both cotyledon and leaf discs, the ability of the tissue to reduce triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) was determined after treatment at 50{degrees}C for various times. Semilogarithmic plots of TTC reduction as a function of time at 50{degrees}were curvilinear. They were monophasic for the control cucumber and biphasic for cucumber grown in the presence of elevated UV-B. Treatment of cucumber plants at 37{degrees}C for 24 h or of tissue discs at acute UV-B levels for 1 h further modified their response to elevated temperature. These results suggest that growth of cucumber under enhanced UV-B radiation levels increased its ability to withstand elevated temperatures. 19 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Genome-wide identification and phylogenetic analysis of the ERF gene family in cucumbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifang Hu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Members of the ERF transcription-factor family participate in a number of biological processes, viz., responses to hormones, adaptation to biotic and abiotic stress, metabolism regulation, beneficial symbiotic interactions, cell differentiation and developmental processes. So far, no tissue-expression profile of any cucumber ERF protein has been reported in detail. Recent completion of the cucumber full-genome sequence has come to facilitate, not only genome-wide analysis of ERF family members in cucumbers themselves, but also a comparative analysis with those in Arabidopsis and rice. In this study, 103 hypothetical ERF family genes in the cucumber genome were identified, phylogenetic analysis indicating their classification into 10 groups, designated I to X. Motif analysis further indicated that most of the conserved motifs outside the AP2/ERF domain, are selectively distributed among the specific clades in the phylogenetic tree. From chromosomal localization and genome distribution analysis, it appears that tandem-duplication may have contributed to CsERF gene expansion. Intron/exon structure analysis indicated that a few CsERFs still conserved the former intron-position patterns existent in the common ancestor of monocots and eudicots. Expression analysis revealed the widespread distribution of the cucumber ERF gene family within plant tissues, thereby implying the probability of their performing various roles therein. Furthermore, members of some groups presented mutually similar expression patterns that might be related to their phylogenetic groups.

  9. Effects of Different Preceding Crops on Soil Micro-ecological Environment and Yield of Cucumber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shouwei; LIU Shuqin; PAN Kai; WANG Lili; WU Fengzhi

    2011-01-01

    Pepper, celery, eggplant and tomato were used as preceding crops to study their effects on the yield, soil microorganism quantity and soil enzyme activities of cucumber. Results showed that four preceding crops all increased soil microorganism quantity in cucumber, but decreased population of Fusarium oxysporum. The effect of pepper was more significant than that of the others Populations of soil bacteria, fungi and actinomyces of pepper treatment were significantly higher than those of the other treatments, except that the populations of fungi had no significant difference with celery and eggplant treatments on 50 days after transplanting, while that of Fusarium oxysporum was fewer than that of the other treatments. The soil microorganism quantity in celery and eggplant treatment was more significant than tomato, but lower population of Fusarium oxysporum. Four preceding crops all increased sol enzyme activities, lnvertase and urease activities of pepper treatment were significantly higher than those of the other treatments, catalase activities of pepper, celery and eggplant treatments were significantly higher than those of tomato and the control treatments All preceding crops remarkably increased cucumber yield, with pepper as the highest. Comparing with the control, cucumber yields of pepper, celery and eggplant treatments increased by 24.9%, 13.6% and 11.9%, respectively. Results suggested that four preceding crops all improved soil microbial ecology and increased cucumber yield. The pepper was the most suitable preceding crop, then followed by celery and eggplant. Tomato had the similar effect as the control.

  10. Identification and characterisation of Dof transcription factors in the cucumber genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Chang-Long; Cheng, Qing; Zhao, Liqun; Mao, Aijun; Yang, Jingjing; Yu, Shuancang; Weng, Yiqun; Xu, Yong

    2016-03-16

    Cucumber is vulnerable to many foliage diseases. Recent studies reported cloning of candidate genes for several diseases in cucumber; however, the exact defence mechanisms remain unclear. Dof genes have been shown to play significant roles in plant growth, development, and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Dof genes coding for plant-specific transcription factors can promote large-scale expression of defence-related genes at whole genome level. The genes in the family have been identified and characterized in several plant species, but not in cucumber. In the present study, we identified 36 CsDof members from the cucumber draft genomes which could be classified into eight groups. The proportions of the CsDof family genes, duplication events, chromosomal locations, cis-elements and miRNA target sites were comprehensively investigated. Consequently, we analysed the expression patterns of CsDof genes in specific tissues and their response to two biotic stresses (watermelon mosaic virus and downy mildew). These results indicated that CsDof may be involved in resistance to biotic stresses in cucumber.

  11. Nitrate Protects Cucumber Plants Against Fusarium oxysporum by Regulating Citrate Exudation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Sun, Yuming; Gu, Zechen; Wang, Ruirui; Sun, Guomei; Zhu, Chen; Guo, Shiwei; Shen, Qirong

    2016-09-01

    Fusarium wilt causes severe yield losses in cash crops. Nitrogen plays a critical role in the management of plant disease; however, the regulating mechanism is poorly understood. Using biochemical, physiological, bioinformatic and transcriptome approaches, we analyzed how nitrogen forms regulate the interactions between cucumber plants and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC). Nitrate significantly suppressed Fusarium wilt compared with ammonium in both pot and hydroponic experiments. Fewer FOC colonized the roots and stems under nitrate compared with ammonium supply. Cucumber grown with nitrate accumulated less fusaric acid (FA) after FOC infection and exhibited increased tolerance to chemical FA by decreasing FA absorption and transportation in shoots. A lower citrate concentration was observed in nitrate-grown cucumbers, which was associated with lower MATE (multidrug and toxin compound extrusion) family gene and citrate synthase (CS) gene expression, as well as lower CS activity. Citrate enhanced FOC spore germination and infection, and increased disease incidence and the FOC population in ammonium-treated plants. Our study provides evidence that nitrate protects cucumber plants against F. oxysporum by decreasing root citrate exudation and FOC infection. Citrate exudation is essential for regulating disease development of Fusarium wilt in cucumber plants. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Effect of mycorrhizas application on plant growth and nutrient uptake in cucumber production under field conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortas, I.

    2010-07-01

    Mycorrhizas application in horticultural production in the Eastern Mediterranean region of Turkey has been studied under field conditions for several years. The effects of different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have been evaluated under field conditions for cucumber production. The parameters measured were seedling survival, plant growth and yield, and root colonization. In 1998 and 1999, Glomus mosseae and Glomus etunicatum inoculated cucumber seedlings were treated with and without P (100 kg P2O5 ha-1) application. A second experiment was set up to evaluate the response of cucumber to the inoculation with a consortia of indigenous mycorrhizae, G. mosseae, G. etunicatum, Glomus clarum, Glomus caledonium and a mixture of these four species. Inoculated and control non inoculated cucumber seedlings were established under field conditions in 1998, 2001, 2002 and 2004. Seedling quality, seedling survival under field conditions and yield response to mycorrhiza were tested. Fruits were harvested periodically; at blossom, plant leaves and root samples were taken for nutrient content and mycorrhizal colonization analysis respectively. The field experiment results showed that mycorrhiza inoculation significantly increased cucumber seedling survival, fruit yield, P and Zn shoot concentrations. Indigenous mycorrhiza inoculum was successful in colonizing plant roots and resulted in better plant growth and yield. The relative effectiveness of each of the inocula tested was not consistent in the different experiments, although inoculated plants always grew better than control no inoculated. The most relevant result for growers was the increased survival of seedlings. (Author) 20 refs.

  13. Identification and bioinformatics comparison of two novel phosphatases in monoecious and gynoecious cucumber lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawełkowicz, Magdalena E.; Wojcieszek, Michał; Osipowski, Paweł; Krzywkowski, Tomasz; PlÄ der, Wojciech; Przybecki, Zbigniew

    2016-09-01

    Two Arabidopsis thaliana genes from the PP2C family of protein phosphatases (AtABI1 and AtABI2) were used to find orthologous genes in the Cucumis sativus L. cv. Borszczagowski (cucumber) genome. Cucumber has been used as a model plant for sex expression studies because although it has been defined as a monoecious species, numerous genotypes are known to produce only female, only male, or hermaphroditic flowers. We identified two new orthologous genes of AtABI1 and AtABI2 in the cucumber genome and named them CsABI1 and CsABI2. To determine the relationships between the regulation of CsABI1 and CsABI2 and flower morphogenesis in cucumber, we performed various computational analyses to define the structure of the genes, and to predict regulatory elements and protein motifs in their sequences. We also performed an expression analysis to identify differences in the expression levels of CsABI1 and CsABI2 in vegetative and generative tissues (leaf, shoot apex, and flower buds) of monoecious (B10) and gynoecious (2gg) cucumber lines. We found that the expressions of CsABI1 and CsABI2 differed in male and female floral buds, and correlated these findings with the abscisic acid signaling pathways in male and female flowers.

  14. Selection Of Suitable Particle Size And Particle Ratio For Japanese Cucumber Cucumis Sativus L. Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galahitigama GAH

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to select the best particle size of coco peat for cucumber nurseries as well as best particle ratio for optimum plant growth and development of cucumber. The experiment was carried out in International Foodstuff Company and Faculty of Agriculture University of Ruhuna Sri Lanka during 2015 to 2016. Under experiment one three types of different particle sizes were used namely fine amp88040.5mm T2 medium 3mm-0.5mm T3 and coarse 4mm T4 with normal coco peat T1 as treatments. Complete Randomized Design CRD used as experimental design with five replicates. Germination percentage number of leaves per seedling seedling height in frequent day intervals was taken as growth parameters. Analysis of variance procedure was applied to analyze the data at 5 probability level. The results revealed that medium size particle media sieve size 0.5mm -3mm of coco peat was the best particle size for cucumber nursery practice when considered the physical and chemical properties of medium particles of coco peat. In the experiment of selecting of suitable particle ratio for cucumber plants the compressed mixture of coco peat particles that contain 70 ww unsieved coco peat 20 ww coarse particles and 10 ww coconut husk chips 5 12mm has given best results for growth performances compared to other treatments and cucumber grown in this mixture has shown maximum growth and yield performances.

  15. Growth, Metabolism and Physiological Response of the Sea Cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus Selenka During Periods of Inactivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Rongbin; ZANG Yuanqi; TIAN Xiangli; DONG Shuanglin

    2013-01-01

    The growth,metabolism and physiological response of the sea cucumber,Apostichopus japonicus,were investigated during periods of inactivity.The body weight,oxygen consumption rate (OCR),activities of acidic phosphatase (ACP),alkaline phosphatase (AKP),catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD),and content of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) in the body wall and coelomic fluid of A.japonicus were measured during starvation,experimental aestivation and aestivation.The results showed that the body weight of sea cucumber in the three treatments decreased significantly during the experimental period (P<0.05).The OCR of sea cucumber reduced in starvation and experimental aestivation treatments,but increased gradually in natural aestivation treatment.The activities of ACP and AKP of sea cucumber decreased gradually in all treatments,whereas those of SOD and CAT as well as Hsp70 content decreased in the starvation and experimental aestivation treatments and increased in natural aestivation treatment.The sea cucumber entered a state of aestivation at 24℃.To some extent,the animals in experimental aestivation were different from those in natural aestivation in metabolism and physiological response.These findings suggested that the aestivation mechanism ofA.japonicus is complex and may not be attributed to the elevated temperature only.

  16. [Effects of nutrition medium on cucumber growth and soil microenvironment in greenhouse under continuous cropping].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chun-Cheng; Li, Tian-Lai; Cao, Xia; Meng, Si-Da; Zhang, Yong-Yong; Yang, Li-Juan

    2014-05-01

    An experiment of continuous cropping of cucumber in nutrition medium (composted with straw, rural soil and puffed chicken manure) or soil was conducted in greenhouse in order to study the effects of medium type on the cucumber growth and soil microenvironment, respectively. The results showed that the two treatments both displayed different levels of obstacles resulted from continuous cropping. In the same cropping season, the nutrient content, soil invertase and urease activities and B/F (bacteria/fungi) ratio in the nutrition medium were obviously higher but fungi quantity was lower than in the soil medium, suggesting the use of nutrition medium changed the bacterial population structure as to improve the cucumber growth and yield. Under continuous cropping, correlation analysis showed that the bacterial quantity was significantly positively related with plant height and root dry mass, and markedly significantly positive correlation exited between the aboveground dry mass and yield of cucumber. The urease activity was also significantly positively related with the cucumber yield. Compared with the soil medium, the nutrition medium could greatly improve soil microenvironment and alleviate the continuous cropping obstacle.

  17. Difference of Low Temperature and Low Irradiance-Resistance between Figleaf Gourd and Cucumber Seedlings Related to Mineral Elements Uptake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jian-Yong; GUO Shang-Jing; LI Xin-Guo; MENG Jing-Jinga; HE Qi-Wei

    2009-01-01

    We have repotted that the roots of fig, leaf gourd (Cucurbita ficifolia, as rootstock) could improve the resistance of cucumber seedlings (Cucumis sativus L.cv. Jinyan 4, as scion) to 6 h stress at low temperature and low irradiance [1]. In this experiment, the relationship between the mineral elements uptake and photosynthetic activity of photosystems in figleaf gourd and cucumber seedlings were to be studied during low temperature (8 C) stress under low irradiance (100 μ. mol m-2 s-1 PFD) for 5 days. Compared with control seedlings, the maximal photochemical efficiency of PS2 (Fv/Fm) and the oxidizable P700 (P700+) of both figleaf gourd and cucumber seedlings decreased, and beth Fv/Fm and P700+ were lower in cucumber leaves than in figleaf gourd seedlings at the end of the stress. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was higher in beth leaves and roots of figleaf gourd than in leaves and roots of cucumber at both room temperature and low temperature. However, the product rate of O 2 was lower in figleaf gourd leaves than in cucumber leaves. Upon ex-posure to the stress, the malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased markedly in leaves and roots of figleaf gourd and cucumber seedlings, and it grew faster in cucumber seedlings than that in figleaf gourd seedlings. Under adaptive conditions, some mineral elements (Such as Cu, Zn, Mn and Mg) have different contents in leaves and roots between figleaf gourd seedlings and cucumber seedlings. However, at the end of the stress these elements were accumulated apparently in both leaves and roots of figleaf gourd accompanied by no obvious change in cucumber seedlings.

  18. Sequence analysis and genetic diversity of five new Indian isolates of cucumber mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S; Gautam, K K; Raj, S K

    2015-12-01

    Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) is an important virus since it causes severe losses to many economically important crops worldwide. Five new isolates of CMV were isolated from naturally infected Hippeastrum hybridum, Dahlia pinnata, Hemerocallis fulva, Acorus calamus and Typhonium trilobatum plants, all exhibiting severe leaf mosaic symptoms. For molecular identification and sequence analyses, the complete coat protein (CP) gene of these isolates was amplified by RT-PCR. The resulting amplicons were cloned and sequenced and isolates were designated as HH (KP698590), DP (JF682239), HF (KP698589), AC (KP698588) and TT (JX570732). For study of genetic diversity among these isolates, the sequence data were analysed by BLASTn, multiple alignment and generating phylogenetic trees along with the respective sequences of other CMV isolates available in GenBank Database were done. The isolates under study showed 82-99% sequence diversity among them at nucleotide and amino acid levels; however they showed close relationships with CMV isolates of subgroup IB. In alignment analysis of amino acid sequences of HH and AC isolates, we have found fifteen and twelve unique substitutions, compared to HF, DP and TT isolates, suggesting the cause of high genetic diversity.

  19. Selective extraction of dimethoate from cucumber samples by use of molecularly imprinted microspheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao-Jiao Du

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Molecularly imprinted polymers for dimethoate recognition were synthesized by the precipitation polymerization technique using methyl methacrylate (MMA as the functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA as the cross-linker. The morphology, adsorption and recognition properties were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, static adsorption test, and competitive adsorption test. To obtain the best selectivity and binding performance, the synthesis and adsorption conditions of MIPs were optimized through single factor experiments. Under the optimized conditions, the resultant polymers exhibited uniform size, satisfactory binding capacity and significant selectivity. Furthermore, the imprinted polymers were successfully applied as a specific solid-phase extractants combined with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC for determination of dimethoate residues in the cucumber samples. The average recoveries of three spiked samples ranged from 78.5% to 87.9% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs less than 4.4% and the limit of detection (LOD obtained for dimethoate as low as 2.3 μg/mL.

  20. Selective extraction of dimethoate from cucumber samples by use of molecularly imprinted microspheres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiao-Jiao Du; Rui-Xia Gao; Hu Yu; Xiao-Jing Li; Hui Mu

    2015-01-01

    Molecularly imprinted polymers for dimethoate recognition were synthesized by the precipitation polymerization technique using methyl methacrylate (MMA) as the functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as the cross-linker. The morphology, adsorption and recognition properties were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), static adsorption test, and competitive adsorption test. To obtain the best selectivity and binding performance, the synthesis and adsorption conditions of MIPs were optimized through single factor experiments. Under the optimized conditions, the resultant polymers exhibited uniform size, satisfactory binding capacity and significant selectivity. Furthermore, the imprinted polymers were successfully applied as a specific solid-phase extractants combined with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for determination of dimethoate residues in the cucumber samples. The average recoveries of three spiked samples ranged from 78.5% to 87.9% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 4.4% and the limit of detection (LOD) obtained for dimethoate as low as 2.3μg/mL.

  1. Sustainability evaluation of different systems for sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) farming based on emergy theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guodong; Dong, Shuanglin; Tian, Xiangli; Gao, Qinfeng; Wang, Fang

    2015-06-01

    Emergy analysis is effective for analyzing ecological economic systems. However, the accuracy of the approach is affected by the diversity of economic level, meteorological and hydrological parameters in different regions. The present study evaluated the economic benefits, environmental impact, and sustainability of indoor, semi-intensive and extensive farming systems of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) in the same region. The results showed that A. japonicus indoor farming system was high in input and output (yield) whereas pond extensive farming system was low in input and output. The output/input ratio of indoor farming system was lower than that of pond extensive farming system, and the output/input ratio of semi-intensive farming system fell in between them. The environmental loading ratio of A. japonicus extensive farming system was lower than that of indoor farming system. In addition, the emergy yield and emergy exchange ratios, and emergy sustainability and emergy indexes for sustainable development were higher in extensive farming system than those in indoor farming system. These results indicated that the current extensive farming system exerted fewer negative influences on the environment, made more efficient use of available resources, and met more sustainable development requirements than the indoor farming system. A. japonicus farming systems showed more emergy benefits than fish farming systems. The pond farming systems of A. japonicus exploited more free local environmental resources for production, caused less potential pressure on the local environment, and achieved higher sustainability than indoor farming system.

  2. Chilling Tolerance of Cucumber During Germination is Related to Expression of Lysine Decarboxylase Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Ming-hui; LI Xiao-ming; CHEN Jin-feng; CHEN Long-zheng; QIAN Chun-tao

    2005-01-01

    Using cDNA-AFLP technique, a specific fragment was isolated from cucumber cultivar Changchun mici possessing chilling tolerance induced at low temperature (15℃). This fragment, named cctr 132, could not be induced in the chilling sensitive cucumber cultivar Beijing jietou. After recovering the fragment, sequencing and translating, the results of blastx and blastp in GenBank of NCBI indicated that CCTR132 had 88.37% identities and 100% positives with Oryza sativa putative lysine decarboxylase-like protein respectively, and PGGXGTXXE, the putative conserved domain of lysine decarboxylase family, was detected from CCTR132, suggesting the cucumber chilling tolerance during germination is related to the expression of the lysine decarboxylase gene.

  3. Heavy metals in sea cucumber juveniles from coastal areas of Bohai and Yellow seas, north China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Haifeng; Tang, Shizhan; Qin, Dongli; Chen, Zhongxiang; Wang, Jinlong; Bai, Shuyan; Mou, Zhenbo

    2015-05-01

    The study was undertaken to assess the contents of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb, Cd, As and Hg) in sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) juveniles from coastal areas of Bohai and Yellow seas in northern China. Sea cucumber juveniles were collected from twenty commercial hatcheries distributed in five coastal cities. The mean concentrations obtained for heavy metals in mg/kg were as follows: Cu (0.179), Zn (2.634), Cr (0.108), Pb (0.065), Cd (0.161), As (0.372), Hg (0.034). All the mean concentrations were below the maximum residual limits set by Chinese legislation, but As in 10 % samples exceeded the safety threshold. Significant differences in contents of Cr, Pb and Hg were found among the five investigated areas. Overall, the heavy metal levels in sea cucumber juveniles were relatively low and more attention should be paid to toxic metals Pb, Cd, As and Hg in future routine monitoring program.

  4. Influence of activated charcoal amendment to contaminated soil on dieldrin and nutrient uptake by cucumbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilber, Isabel; Wyss, Gabriela S; Mäder, Paul; Bucheli, Thomas D; Meier, Isabel; Vogt, Lea; Schulin, Rainer

    2009-01-01

    Activated charcoal (AC) amendments have been suggested as a promising, cost-effective method to immobilize organic contaminants in soil. We performed pot experiments over two years with cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) grown in agricultural soil with 0.07 mg kg(-1) of weathered dieldrin and 0, 200, 400, and 800 mg AC per kg soil. Dieldrin fresh weight concentrations in cucumber fruits were significantly reduced from 0.012 to an average of 0.004 mg kg(-1), and total uptake from 2 to 1 microg in the 800 mg kg(-1) AC treatment compared to the untreated soil. The treatment effects differed considerably between the two years, due to different meteorological conditions. AC soil treatments did neither affect the availability of nutrients to the cucumber plants nor their yield (total fruit wet weight per pot). Thus, some important prerequisites for the successful application of AC amendments to immobilize organic pollutants in agricultural soils can be considered fulfilled.

  5. The Effect of Spermidine on Cold Tolerance Induction in Cucumber Seedlings ‘Cv. Super-Dominus’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golnar GhazianTafrishi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Plants native to tropical and subtropical climates which grown in the temperate climate zone, suffer chilling injury when exposed to non-freezing temperatures for a certain period of time. The optimum growth temperature for cucumber (a tropical plant is 20 to 25°C. Cucumber is sensitive to temperatures lower than 10 °C. Cucumber area of production exposes to late spring and early autumn cold weather in Khorasan-e-Razavai, Iran. Studies showed that chilling leads to an alteration in fatty acid composition of membrane lipids and its permeability, changes in photosynthetic pigments content and decrease in photosynthesis. Many researchers pointed to a possible role of polyamine compounds in plant defense against environmental stresses. Exog enous application Spd could prevent the electrolyte and amino acid leakage or recovering the plasma membrane damage in rice and cucumber in response to salinity, chilling and water stressed conditions. Materials and methods: A factorial experiment, based on completely randomized design was conducted to investigate the effect of short-term chilling on cucumber plantlets which was earlier treated with spermidine. Factors were included two levels of temperature (6 and 12°C and four levels of spermidine (0, 0.25, 0.5 and .0.75 mg/L. The studied cultivar was ‘Super-Dominus’. In order to determine the extent of chilling injury, plants of each treatment were rated based on visual symptoms. By assigning values of 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 while 1: no visible symptoms 2:5% of leaf area necrotic, 3: 5-25% of leaf area necrotic, 4: 26-50% of leaf area necrotic but plant still alive, 5: lost, entire plant necrotic and collapsed. Measured traits were root and shoot length, root and shoot dry weight, root and leaf electrical leakage, and leaf chlorophyll content. Results and discussion: Plants which exposed to low temperature showed chilling injury symptoms (5-25% leaf area necrotic. The symptoms reduced (less

  6. Destruction of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus by heat treatment and rapid detection of virus inactivation by RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Min; Nam, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Jung-Myung; Yim, Kyu-Ock; Kim, Kook-Hyung

    2003-12-31

    Heat treatment is commonly used to control viral contamination of seeds. To study virus inactivation, virus was purified from seeds contaminated with Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) after various heat treatments. CGMMV particles were observed to be physically disrupted by high temperature. Analysis of viral RNA revealed that the 5' and 3' termini of the genome were protected whereas regions between 2-2.5, 3.2-3.7 and 4-4.8 kb from the 5' terminus were not. Heat inactivation of virus on seeds was confirmed by RT-PCR using primers for a heat-sensitive region. The RT-PCR approach developed here may prove preferable to time- and labor-intensive bioassays for assessing virus heat inactivation.

  7. Mössbauer study of iron uptake in cucumber root

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, K.; Kuzmann, E.; Fodor, F.; Vértes, A.; Kamnev, A. A.

    2005-09-01

    57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy was used to study the uptake and distribution of iron in the root of cucumber plants grown in iron-deficient modified Hoagland nutrient solution and put into iron-containing solution with 10 μM Fe citrate enriched with 57Fe (90%) only before harvesting. The Mössbauer spectra of the frozen roots exhibited two Fe3+ components with typical average Mössbauer parameters of δ = 0.5 mm s-1, Δ = 0.46 mm s-1 and δ = 0.5 mm s-1, Δ = 1.2 mm s-1 at 78 K and the presence of an Fe2+ doublet, assigned to the ferrous hexaaqua complex. This finding gives a direct evidence for the existence of Fe2+ ions produced via root-associated reduction according to the mechanism proposed for iron uptake for dicotyledonous plants. Monotonous changes in the relative content of the components were found with the time period of iron supply. The Mössbauer results are interpreted in terms of iron uptake and transport through the cell wall and membranes.

  8. Understanding mechanism of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus aestivation: Insights from TMT-based proteomic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Muyan; Li, Xingke; Zhu, Aijun; Storey, Kenneth B; Sun, Lina; Gao, Tianxiang; Wang, Tianming

    2016-09-01

    Marine invertebrate aestivation is a unique strategy for summer survival in response to hot marine conditions. The sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus, is an excellent model marine invertebrate for studies of environmentally-induced aestivation. In the present study, we used a tandem mass tag (TMT)-coupled LC-MS/MS approach to identify and quantify the global proteome expression profile over the aestivation-arousal cycle of A. japonicus. A total of 3920 proteins were identified from the intestine of sea cucumber. Among them, 630 proteins showed significant differential expression when comparing three conditions of sea cucumbers: non-aestivating (active), deep-aestivation (at least 15days of continuous aestivation), and arousal after aestivation (renewed moving and feeding). Sea cucumbers in deep aestivation showed substantial differentially expressed proteins (143 up-regulated and 267 down-regulated proteins compared with non-aestivating controls). These differentially expressed proteins suggested that protein and phospholipid probably are major fuel sources during hypometabolism and a general attenuation of carbohydrate metabolism was observed during deep aestivation. Differentially expressed proteins also provided the first global picture of a shift in protein synthesis, protein folding, DNA binding, apoptosis, cellular transport and signaling, and cytoskeletal proteins during deep aestivation in sea cucumbers. A comparison of arousal from aestivation with deep aestivation, revealed a general reversal of the changes that occurred in aestivation for most proteins. Western blot detection further validated the significant up-regulation of HSP70 and down-regulation of methyltransferase-like protein 7A-like in deep-aestivation. Our results suggest that there is substantial post-transcriptional regulation of proteins during the aestivation-arousal cycle in sea cucumbers.

  9. Effect of cypermethrin insecticide on the microbial community in cucumber phyllosphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Baoguo; ZHANG Hongxun; JIN Bo; TANG Ling; YANG Jianzhou; LI Baoju; ZHUANG Guoqiang; BAI Zhihui

    2008-01-01

    Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) is one of the most widely used vegetable in the world, and different pesticides have been extensively used for controlling the insects and disease pathogens of this plant. However, little is known about how the pesticides affect the microbial community in cucumber phyllosphere. This study was the first attempt to assess the impact of pyrethroid insecticide cyperemethrin on the microbial communities of cucumber phyllosphere using biochemical and genetic approaches. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) assay indicated that cyperemethrin insecticide treatment led to a significant increase in both total and bacterial biomass and a decrease in fungal biomass and the ratio of Gram-positive (GP) bacteria to Gram-negative (GN) bacteria within the cucumber phyllosphere. Principal-component analyses (PCA) suggested that the number of unsaturated and cyclopropane PLFAs (16:1ω9t,18:1ω7, cy17:0, cy19:0) increased with the insecticide treatment, whereas the saturated PLFA i16:0, i17:0 decreased. The increase of GN bacteria implied that the cypermethrin insecticide might be a nutrient for the growth of these phyllosphere microbes. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) reinforced the PLFA results. A significant change of bacterial community structure was observed in the separate dendrogram cluster between control and treated samples with the cucumber phyllosphere following cypermethrin insecticide treatment. Moreover, the increased terminal restriction fragments (T-RFs) (58, 62, 89, 99, 119, 195, 239,311,340, and 473 bp) indicated that some bacteria might play a significant role in the insecticide degradation within the cucumber phylosphere, whereas the disappeared T-RFs (44, 51, 96, 223, 306, and 338 bp) implied that some other bacteria might potentially serve as microbial indicator of cyperemethrin insecticide exposure.

  10. Wilted cucumber plants infected by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum do not suffer from water shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuming; Wang, Min; Li, Yingrui; Gu, Zechen; Ling, Ning; Shen, Qirong; Guo, Shiwei

    2017-09-01

    Fusarium wilt is primarily a soil-borne disease and results in yield loss and quality decline in cucumber (Cucumis sativus). The main symptom of fusarium wilt is the wilting of entire plant, which could be caused by a fungal toxin(s) or blockage of water transport. To investigate whether this wilt arises from water shortage, the physiological responses of hydroponically grown cucumber plants subjected to water stress using polyethylene glycol (PEG, 6000) were compared with those of plants infected with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC). Parameters reflecting plant water status were measured 8d after the start of treatment. Leaf gas exchange parameters and temperature were measured with a LI-COR portable open photosynthesis system and by thermal imaging. Chlorophyll fluorescence and chloroplast structures were assessed by imaging pulse amplitude-modulated fluorometry and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. Cucumber water balance was altered after FOC infection, with decreased water absorption and hydraulic conductivity. However, the responses of cucumber leaves to FOC and PEG differed in leaf regions. Under water stress, measures of lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde) and chlorophyll fluorescence indicated that the leaf edge was more seriously injured, with a higher leaf temperature and disrupted leaf water status compared with the centre. Here, abscisic acid (ABA) and proline were negatively correlated with water potential. In contrast, under FOC infection, membrane damage and a higher temperature were observed in the leaf centre while ABA and proline did not vary with water potential. Cytologically, FOC-infected cucumber leaves exhibited circular chloroplasts and swelled starch grains in the leaf centre, in which they again differed from PEG-stressed cucumber leaves. This study illustrates the non-causal relationship between fusarium wilt and water transport blockage. Although leaf wilt occurred in both water stress and FOC infection, the

  11. Development of an agroinoculation system for full-length and GFP-tagged cDNA clones of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hongying; Xiao, Caili; Han, Kelei; Peng, Jiejun; Lin, Lin; Lu, Yuwen; Xie, Li; Wu, Xiaohua; Xu, Pei; Li, Guojing; Chen, Jianping; Yan, Fei

    2015-11-01

    The complete 6243-nucleotide sequence of a cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) isolate from bottle gourd in Zhejiang province, China, was determined. A full-length cDNA clone of this isolate was constructed by inserting the cDNA between the 35S promoter and the ribozyme in the binary plasmid pCB301-CH. A suspension of an Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA105 clone carrying this construct was highly infectious in Nicotiana benthamiana and bottle gourd. Another infectious clone containing the green fluorescence protein (GFP) reporter gene was also successfully constructed. This study is the first report of the efficient use of agroinoculation for generating CGMMV infections.

  12. Fluorescence imaging and chlorophyll fluorescence to evaluate the role of EDU in UV-B protection in cucumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Ravinder K.; Kim, Moon S.; Krizek, Donald T.; Middleton, Elizabeth M.

    1997-07-01

    A fluorescence imaging system and chlorophyll fluorescence emissions were used to evaluate whether EDU, N-[2-(2-oxo-1- imidazolidinyl) ethyl]-N'-phenylurea, provided protection against ultraviolet-B (UV-B) irradiation (290 - 320 nm) in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) leaves. Plants were grown in growth chambers illuminated for 14 h per day with 400 W high pressure sodium and metal halide lamps. Photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) for 1 hr at the beginning and end of each cycle was provided at 270 micrometers ol m-2 s-1 PAR; during the other 12 hr of the photoperiod, the plants received 840 micrometers ol m-2 s-1 PAR. Beginning on the twelfth day, the plants were exposed to UV-B radiation (0.2 & 18.0 kJ m-2d-1) for 2 days at 8 h per day centered in the photoperiod. Rapidly acquired (less than 1 s), high spatial resolution (less than 1 mm2) images were obtained for whole adaxial leaf surfaces using a fluorescence imaging system. The steady-state fluorescence images were acquired in four spectral regions: blue (F450 nm), green (F550 nm), red (F680 nm), and far-red (F740 nm). Fluorescence emission spectra for leaf pigments extracted in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) were obtained by excitation at 280 and 380 nm (280EX 300 - 530 nm; 380EX 400 - 800 nm). Both UV-B and EDU induced stress responses in cucumber leaves that altered the fluorescence emissions obtained from extracts. In the fluorescence images only UV-B induced stress responses were observed but this damage was detected before it was visually apparent. There was no evidence that EDU afforded protection against UV-B irradiation. Use of fluorescence imaging may provide an early stress detection capability for helping to assess damage to the photosynthetic apparatus of plants.

  13. Exocarp Properties and Transcriptomic Analysis of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus Fruit Expressing Age-Related Resistance to Phytophthora capsici.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Ando

    Full Text Available Very young cucumber (Cucumis sativus fruit are highly susceptible to infection by the oomycete pathogen, Phytophthora capsici. As the fruit complete exponential growth, at approximately 10-12 days post pollination (dpp, they transition to resistance. The development of age-related resistance (ARR is increasingly recognized as an important defense against pathogens, however, underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Peel sections from cucumber fruit harvested at 8 dpp (susceptible and 16 dpp (resistant showed equivalent responses to inoculation as did whole fruit, indicating that the fruit surface plays an important role in defense against P. capsici. Exocarp from 16 dpp fruit had thicker cuticles, and methanolic extracts of peel tissue inhibited growth of P. capsici in vitro, suggesting physical or chemical components to the ARR. Transcripts specifically expressed in the peel vs. pericarp showed functional differentiation. Transcripts predominantly expressed in the peel were consistent with fruit surface associated functions including photosynthesis, cuticle production, response to the environment, and defense. Peel-specific transcripts that exhibited increased expression in 16 dpp fruit relative to 8 dpp fruit, were highly enriched (P<0.0001 for response to stress, signal transduction, and extracellular and transport functions. Specific transcripts included genes associated with potential physical barriers (i.e., cuticle, chemical defenses (flavonoid biosynthesis, oxidative stress, penetration defense, and molecular pattern (MAMP-triggered or effector-triggered (R-gene mediated pathways. The developmentally regulated changes in gene expression between peels from susceptible- and resistant- age fruits suggest programming for increased defense as the organ reaches full size.

  14. Evolutionary relationship of alfalfa mosaic virus with cucumber mosaic virus and brome mosaic virus

    OpenAIRE

    Savithri, HS; Murthy, MRN

    1983-01-01

    The amino acid sequences of the non-structural protein (molecular weight 35,000; 3a protein) from three plant viruses - cucumber mosaic, brome mosaic and alfalfa mosaic have been systematically compared using the partial genomic sequences for these three viruses already available. The 3a protein of cucumber mosaic virus has an amino acid sequence homology of 33.7% with the corresponding protein of brome mosaic virus. A similar protein from alfalfa mosaic virus has a homology of 18.2% and 14.2...

  15. Effects of Exogenous Cinnamic Acids on the Growth and Physiological Characteristics of Cucumber Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In order to study the effects of exogenous cinnamic acids on plant growth, contents of photosynthetic pigment, root activities and ATPase activities of root membrane at cucumber seedling stage, the seedlings of Shandong Mici cucumber were tested. The results showed that seedlings growth, contents of photosynthetic pigment, root activities and ATPase activities of root membrane were inhibited by cinnamic acids. The growth and root activities of seedlings were significantly cinnamic acids, whereas ATPase activities exhibited a higher sensitivity and greatly decreased in the soil amended with 50 mg kg-1 cinnamic acids. These results suggested that cinnamic acids could induce a stress condition, and the stress intensities increased with enhanced cinnamic acid concentration.

  16. The Measurement of Technical Efficiency and Effective Factors in Cucumber Greenhouse (Case Study: Eastern Azarbayjan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Abdollahi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to estimate technical efficiency of cucumber greenhouses in Eastern Azarbayjan. In economic literature, it means the ratio of maximum output to the inputs. The objective of this research was to determinate the effective factors influencing it's inefficiency. The method of determination of deterministic and stochastic technical efficiency is corrected ordinary least squares (COLS and maximum likelihood (ML respectively. The average of technical efficiency in province’s cucumber greenhouse is approximately about 57 and 93 percent for deterministic and stochastic frontier method respectively. Production types had positive influence on technical inefficiency whereas experience of manager have negative influence on technical inefficiency.

  17. Transgenic accumulation of a defective cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) replicase derived double stranded RNA modulates plant defence against CMV strains O and Y in potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntui, Valentine Otang; Kynet, Kong; Azadi, Pejman; Khan, Raham Sher; Chin, Dong Poh; Nakamura, Ikuo; Mii, Masahiro

    2013-12-01

    Cucumber mosaic virus is an important plant pathogen with a broad host range encompassing many plant species. This study demonstrates the production of transgenic potato lines exhibiting complete resistance to cucumber mosaic virus strain O and Y by post transcriptional gene silencing. Two constructs were used, one, pEKH2IN2CMVai, contains inverted repeat of 1,138 bp fragment of a defective CMV replicase gene derived from RNA2 of cucumber mosaic virus strain O (CMV-O), while the other, TRV-based VIGS vector (pTRV2CMVai), contains the same fragment of the replicase gene, but without inverted repeat. These constructs were used to produce transgenic potato lines of cultivar 'Danshaku', a susceptible genotype to CMV. Transgenic lines derived from pEKH2IN2CMVai accumulated small interfering RNA (siRNA) before and after virus challenge, whereas those derived from pTRV2CMVai showed siRNA expression after virus challenge. When transgenic lines were challenged with CMV-O or CMV-Y, four lines exhibited complete (100%) resistance to both strains, whereas the other lines had high levels of resistance. Infectivity of CMV-O was lower than that of CMV-Y in the highly resistant plants. There were no significant differences with regard to resistance between plants derived from pEKH2IN2CMVai and those obtained from pTRV2CMVai. The presence of CMV-specific siRNA in the resistant phenotypes indicates that the resistance was acquired through RNA silencing.

  18. Effects of nitrogen form on growth,CO2 assimilation,chlorophyll fluorescence,and photosynthetic electron allocation in cucumber and rice plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-hong ZHOU; Yi-li ZHANG; Xue-min WANG; Jin-xia CUI; Xiao-jian XIA; Kai SHI; Jing-quan YU

    2011-01-01

    Cucumber and rice plants with varying ammonium(NH4+)sensitivities were used to examine the effects of different nitrogen(N)sources on gas exchange,chlorophyll(ChI)fluorescence quenching,and photosynthetic electron allocation.Compared to nitrate(NO3-)-grown plants,cucumber plants grown under NH4+-nutdtion showed decreased plant growth,net photosynthetic rate,stomatal conductance,intercellular carbon dioxide(CO2)level,transpiration rate,maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem Ⅱ,and O2-independent alternative electron flux,and increased O2-dependent alternative electron flux.However,the N source had little effect on gas exchange,ChI a fluorescence parameters,and photosynthetic electron allocation in rice plants,except that NH4+-grown plants had a higher O2-independent alternative electron flux than NO3--grown plants.NO3-reduction activity was rarely detected in leaves of NH4+-grown cucumber plants,but was high in NH4+-grown rice plants.These results demonstrate that significant amounts of photosynthetic electron transport were coupled to NO3-assimilation,an effect more significant in NO3--grown plants than in NH4+-grown plants.Meanwhile,NH4+-tolerant plants exhibited a higher demand for the reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate(NADPH)for NO3-reduction,regardless of the N form supplied,while NH4+-sensitive plants had a high water-water cycle activity when NH4+was supplied as the sole N source.

  19. Down-Regulating CsHT1, a Cucumber Pollen-Specific Hexose Transporter, Inhibits Pollen Germination, Tube Growth, and Seed Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jintao; Wang, Zhenyu; Yao, Fengzhen; Gao, Lihong; Ma, Si; Sui, Xiaolei; Zhang, Zhenxian

    2015-06-01

    Efficient sugar transport is needed to support the high metabolic activity of pollen tubes as they grow through the pistil. Failure of transport results in male sterility. Although sucrose transporters have been shown to play a role in pollen tube development, the role of hexoses and hexose transporters is not as well established. The pollen of some species can grow in vitro on hexose as well as on sucrose, but knockouts of individual hexose transporters have not been shown to impair fertilization, possibly due to transporter redundancy. Here, the functions of CsHT1, a hexose transporter from cucumber (Cucumis sativus), are studied using a combination of heterologous expression in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), histochemical and immunohistochemical localization, and reverse genetics. The results indicate that CsHT1 is a plasma membrane-localized hexose transporter with high affinity for glucose, exclusively transcribed in pollen development and expressed both at the levels of transcription and translation during pollen grain germination and pollen tube growth. Overexpression of CsHT1 in cucumber pollen results in a higher pollen germination ratio and longer pollen tube growth than wild-type pollen in glucose- or galactose-containing medium. By contrast, antisense suppression of CsHT1 leads to inhibition of pollen germination and pollen tube elongation in the same medium and results in a decrease of seed number per fruit and seed size when antisense transgenic pollen is used to fertilize wild-type or transgenic cucumber plants. The important role of CsHT1 in pollen germination, pollen tube growth, and seed development is discussed. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Application of Wet Waste from Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) with or Without Sea Mud to Feeding Sea Cucumber (Stichopus monotuberculatus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yanfeng; HU Chaoqun; RENChunhua

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the applicability of the wet waste collected from shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) to the culture of sea cucumber (Stichopus monotuberculatus) was determined. The effects of dietary wet shrimp waste on the survival, specific growth rate (SGR), fecal production rate (FPR), ammonia- and nitrite-nitrogen productions of sea cucumber were studied. The total organic matter (TOM) level in the feces of sea cucumber was compared with that in corresponding feeds. Diet C (50% wet shrimp waste and 50% sea mud mash) made sea cucumber grow faster than other diets. Sea cucumber fed with either diet D (25% wet shrimp waste and 75% sea mud mash) or sole sea mud exhibited negative growth. The average lowest total FPR of sea cucumber occurred in diet A (wet shrimp waste), and there was no significant difference in total FPR between diet C and diet E (sea mud mash) (P>0.05). The average ammonia-nitrogen production of sea cucumber in different diet treatments decreased gradually with the decrease of crude protein content in different diets. The average highest nitrite-nitrogen production occurred in diet E treatment, and there was no sig-nificant difference in nitrite-nitrogen production among diet A, diet B (75% wet shrimp waste and 25% sea mud mash) and diet C treatments (P>0.05). In each diet treatment, the total organic matter (TOM) level in feces decreased to different extent compared with that in corresponding feeds.

  1. Application of wet waste from shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) with or without sea mud to feeding sea cucumber ( Stichopus monotuberculatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanfeng; Hu, Chaoqun; Ren, Chunhua

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, the applicability of the wet waste collected from shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) to the culture of sea cucumber ( Stichopus monotuberculatus) was determined. The effects of dietary wet shrimp waste on the survival, specific growth rate (SGR), fecal production rate (FPR), ammonia- and nitrite-nitrogen productions of sea cucumber were studied. The total organic matter (TOM) level in the feces of sea cucumber was compared with that in corresponding feeds. Diet C (50% wet shrimp waste and 50% sea mud mash) made sea cucumber grow faster than other diets. Sea cucumber fed with either diet D (25% wet shrimp waste and 75% sea mud mash) or sole sea mud exhibited negative growth. The average lowest total FPR of sea cucumber occurred in diet A (wet shrimp waste), and there was no significant difference in total FPR between diet C and diet E (sea mud mash) ( P > 0.05). The average ammonia-nitrogen production of sea cucumber in different diet treatments decreased gradually with the decrease of crude protein content in different diets. The average highest nitrite-nitrogen production occurred in diet E treatment, and there was no significant difference in nitrite-nitrogen production among diet A, diet B (75% wet shrimp waste and 25% sea mud mash) and diet C treatments ( P > 0.05). In each diet treatment, the total organic matter (TOM) level in feces decreased to different extent compared with that in corresponding feeds.

  2. Effects of grafting with pumpkin rootstock on carbohydrate metabolism in cucumber seedlings under Ca(NO3)2 stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Wen-wen; Li, Lin; Gao, Pan; Li, He; Shao, Qiao-sai; Shu, Sheng; Sun, Jin; Guo, Shi-rong

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of grafting on the carbohydrate status and the enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in self-grafted and grafted cucumber seedlings using the salt-tolerant pumpkin rootstock 'Qingzhen 1' (Cucurbita maxima × Cucurbita moschata) under 80 mM Ca(NO3)2 stress for 6 d. The growth of self-grafted seedlings was significantly inhibited after the treatment of Ca(NO3)2 stress, whereas the inhibition of growth was alleviated in pumpkin rootstock-grafted seedlings. Ca(NO3)2 stress increased the contents of the total soluble sugar, sucrose and fructose, but decreased the starch content in rootstock-grafted leaves. However, compared with self-grafted plants, rootstock-grafted seedlings were observed with a higher content of sucrose and total soluble sugar (TSS) under salt stress. Rootstock-grafted seedlings exhibited higher activities of acid invertase (AI), neutral invertase (NI) and phosphate sucrose synthase (SPS) of sucrose metabolism in leaves than that of self-grafted seedlings under salinity. Moreover, the activities of fructokinase (FK), hexokinase (HK), phosphofructokinase (PFK) and pyruvate kinase (PK) of glycolysis were maintained at a higher level in leaves of rootstock-grafted seedlings after Ca(NO3)2 stress. Additionally, rootstock-grafting decrease the high percentage enhancement of key enzymes gene expression in glycolysis in the scion leaves of cucumber seedlings induced by salt stress. These results suggest that the rootstock-grafting improved salt tolerance, which might play a role in elevated sucrose metabolism and a glycolytic pathway regulated by the pumpkin rootstock.

  3. Hpyerglycemic effect of a mixture of sea cucumber and cordyceps sinensis in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shiwei; Wang, Jingfeng; Li, Zhaojie; Fu, Jia; Wang, Yuming; Xue, Changhu

    2013-11-01

    Sea cucumber and cordyceps sinensis are used as both food and traditional medicines in Asia. This study was carried out in order to investigate the hpyerglycemic effect of a mixture of sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicas) and cordyceps sinensis (Cordyceps militaris) (SCC) in diabetic rat and explore the mechanism underlining such an effect. The diabetic model rat was induced with intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ). The diabetic model rats were randomly divided into control group (0.9% NaCl), low dose group (300 mg SCC·(kg body weight)-1) and high dose group (1200 mg SCC (kg body weight)-1). Sodium chloride and SCC were intragastrically administered once a day for 35 d. Changes in fasting serum glucose and serum insulin content, oral glucose tolerance and liver and muscle glycogen content were routinely evaluated. Pancreas tissue and β-cells of islets were observed under both optical and transmission electronic microscope, respectively. The abundance of glucose metabolism-relating genes in gastrocnemius and epididymal adipose tissue was determined with either reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) or western blotting. Results showed that SCC significantly decreased fasting serum glucose content, improved glucose tolerance and increased serum insulin and glycogen content; repaired STZ-injured β-cells of diabetic rat, and increased the expression of phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI(3)K), protein kinase B (PKB) and glucose transporter 4 (Glut4) encoding protein in both gastrocnemius and adipose tissue, and Glut4 encoding gene in peripheral tissue. Our findings demonstrated that SCC exerted an anti-hyperglycemic effect by repairing β-cells and promoting insulin-mediated signal transduction pathway in insulin-sensitive gastrocnemius and adipose tissue.

  4. Gibberellin production and plant growth promotion from pure cultures of Cladosporium sp. MH-6 isolated from cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamayun, Muhammad; Khan, Sumera Afzal; Khan, Abdul Latif; Rehman, Gauhar; Kim, Youn-Ha; Iqbal, Ilyas; Hussain, Javid; Sohn, Eun-Young; Lee, In-Jung

    2010-01-01

    Gibberellin (GA) production by soil fungi has received little attention, although substantial work has been carried out on other aspects of plant growth promoting fungi (PGPF). In our studies we investigated GA production and growth-promoting capacity of a novel fungal strain isolated from the roots of soil-grown cucumber. Pure cultures of 19 endophytic fungi were tested for shoot length promotion of Waito-C rice to identify the GA production capacity of these fungal isolates. Isolate MH-6 significantly increased shoot length (12.9 cm) of Waito-C, in comparison to control treatments. Bioassay with culture filtrate (CF) of MH-6 also significantly promoted growth attributes of cucumber plants. Analysis of MH-6 CF showed the presence of physiologically active (GA1, 1.97 ng/mL; GA3, 5.18 ng/mL; GA4, 13.35 ng/mL and GA7, 2.4 ng/ mL) in conjunction with physiologically inactive (GA9 [0.69 ng/mL], GA12 [0.24 ng/mL], GA15 [0.68 ng/ mL, GA19 [1.94 ng/mL and GA20 [0.78 ng/mL]) gibberellins. The CF of MH-6 produced greater amounts of GA3, GA4, GA7 and GA19 than wild type Fusarium fujikuroi, a fungus known for high production of GA. The fungal isolate MH-6 was identified as a new strain of Cladosporium sp. on the basis of sequence homology (99%) and phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA sequence.

  5. Medieval herbal iconography and lexicography of Cucumis (cucumber and melon, Cucurbitaceae) in the Occident, 1300–1458

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Harry S.; Janick, Jules; Daunay, Marie-Christine

    2011-01-01

    Background The genus Cucumis contains two species of important vegetable crops, C. sativus, cucumber, and C. melo, melon. Melon has iconographical and textual records from lands of the Mediterranean Basin dating back to antiquity, but cucumber does not. The goal of this study was to obtain an improved understanding of the history of these crops in the Occident. Medieval images purportedly of Cucumis were examined, their specific identity was determined and they were compared for originality, accuracy and the lexicography of their captions. Findings The manuscripts having accurate, informative images are derived from Italy and France and were produced between 1300 and 1458. All have an illustration of cucumber but not all contain an image of melon. The cucumber fruits are green, unevenly cylindrical with an approx. 2:1 length-to-width ratio. Most of the images show the cucumbers marked by sparsely distributed, large dark dots, but images from northern France show them as having densely distributed, small black dots. The different size, colour and distribution reflect the different surface wartiness and spininess of modern American and French pickling cucumbers. The melon fruits are green, oval to serpentine, closely resembling the chate and snake vegetable melons, but not sweet melons. In nearly all manuscripts of Italian provenance, the cucumber image is labelled with the Latin caption citruli, or similar, plural diminuitive of citrus (citron, Citrus medica). However, in manuscripts of French provenance, the cucumber image is labelled cucumeres, which is derived from the classical Latin epithet cucumis for snake melon. The absence of melon in some manuscripts and the expropriation of the Latin cucumis/cucumer indicate replacement of vegetable melons by cucumbers during the medieval period in Europe. One image, from British Library ms. Sloane 4016, has a caption that allows tracing of the word ‘gherkin’ back to languages of the geographical nativity of C

  6. The Test Report about Kresoxim 50% WP Against Cucumber Powdery Mildew%50%醚菌酯可湿性粉剂防治黄瓜白粉病药效试验报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李易初; 刘佳

    2012-01-01

    50%醚菌酯可湿性粉剂对黄瓜白粉病有较高的防效,试验中的防效为77.0%~88.6%,没有药害现象。使用时推荐剂量为50%醚菌酯可湿性粉剂247g/hm2,于黄瓜白粉病发病前或初开始喷药,间隔7天喷药2次以上。%50% Kresoxim WP on cucumber powdery mildew with high control effect,test the efficacy was 77.0%-88.6%,no injury phenomenon.Use the recommended dose is 50% Kresoxim WP 247g/hm2,cucumber powdery mildew in the beginning before the onset or spraying interval of 7 days of spraying 2 times.

  7. Functional characterization and expression analysis of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) hexose transporters, involving carbohydrate partitioning and phloem unloading in sink tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jin-Tao; Li, Xiang; Yao, Feng-Zhen; Shan, Nan; Li, Ya-Hui; Zhang, Zhen-Xian; Sui, Xiao-Lei

    2015-08-01

    Many hexose transporters (HTs) have been reported to play roles in sucrose-transporting plants. However, little information about roles of HTs in RFOs (raffinose family oligosaccharides)-transporting plants has been reported. Here, three hexose transporters (CsHT2, CsHT3, and CsHT4) were cloned from Cucumis sativus L. Heterologous expression in yeast demonstrated that CsHT3 transported glucose, galactose and mannose, with a K(m) of 131.9 μM for glucose, and CsHT4 only transported galactose, while CsHT2 was non-functional. Both CsHT3 and CsHT4 were targeted to the plasma membrane of cucumber protoplasts. Spatio-temporal expression indicated that transcript level of CsHT3 was much higher than that of CsHT2 and CsHT4 in most tissues, especially in peduncles and fruit tissues containing vascular bundles. GUS staining of CsHT3-promoter-β-glucuronidase (GUS) transgenic Arabidopsis plants revealed CsHT3 expression in tissues with high metabolic turnover, suggesting that CsHT3 is involved in sugar competition among different sink organs during plant development. The transcript levels of CsHT3 and cell wall invertase genes increased in peduncles and fruit tissues along with cucumber fruit enlargement, and CsHT3 localized to phloem tissues by immunohistochemical localization; These results suggest that CsHT3 probably plays an important role in apoplastic phloem unloading of cucumber fruit.

  8. AGROBOTANICAL ILLUSTRATION OF TURBAN FORMS OF CUCUMBER, AS A SOURCE OF INFORMATION OF DISTRIBUTION, EVOLUTION AND USE OF THIS CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsatsenko L. V.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article considers turban cucumber forms, we have also described the origin of this characteristic, briefly overviewed turban forms in species of the family of Cucurbitaceae. We have given the agro-botanical iconography of this trait in pumpkin cultures for cucumis. In Europe, China and America turbanoformis cucumber forms are used as a vegetable, there are some varieties. It is shown that turbanoformis forms are found in the fruit of the cucumber with hermaphrodite flower, polunina ovaries, short or shareplace the melon, and also in forms with the ongoing evolutionary process

  9. 野生黄瓜代换系的构建%Construction of Wild Cucumber Substitution Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李学峰; 胡晓文; 张圣平; 顾兴芳; 张忠华; 黄三文

    2011-01-01

    Cucumis sativus var. hardwickii Royle is the only extant wild subspecies of domesticated cucumber ( Cucumis sativus var. sativus L. ). The wild cucumber contains several favorable traits including root-knot nematodes and CMV resistance, etc. It has a strong branching capability. The fruit shape of wild cucumber is oval and it tastes very bitter. In this study, we created a set of substitution lines using wild cucumber accession lines PI183967 as the donor and domesticated cucumber inbred Xintaimici as the receptor. During the process of backcrossing and self crossing, the wild cucumber genomic fragments were tracked using 62 SSR markers distributed in the cucumber genome. Subsequently, 21 single-segment substitution lines and 10 double-segment substitution lines were obtained, which in total cover 96.81% of the wild cucumber genome. These substitution lines provided a new resource for the utilization of genes from wild cucumber and also the materials basis for the precise genetic analysis of quantitative traits in cucumber, as well as for the investigation of molecular mechanism of evolution from wild cucumber to domesticated cucumber.%野牛黄瓜(Cucumis sativus var.hardwickii Royle)是目前唯一被发现的黄瓜野生变种,具有抗根结线虫和CMV等优异性状,分枝性强,果实为卵圆形,味极苦.利用野生黄瓜品系PI183967为供体材料,栽培黄瓜(Cucumis sativus var.sativus L.)‘新泰密刺'纯系为受体材料,经过3次回交和1次自交,创造了一套代换系材料.在回交和自交过程中,利用均匀分布在全基凶组上的62个SSR标记,跟踪野生黄瓜的基因组片段,共选择出21份单片段和10份双片段代换系材料,共得到代换片段41个.这些野生代换片段重叠累加覆盖野生黄瓜染色体组96.81%.这套代换系材料为利用野生黄瓜的优异基因提供了新的种质资源,也为精确分析黄瓜数量性状奠定了材料基础.

  10. Effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Communities on Soil Quality and the Growth of Cucumber Seedlings in a Greenhouse Soil of Continuously Planting Cucumber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yan; CHEN Ying-Long; LI Min; LIN Xian-Gui; LIU Run-Jin

    2012-01-01

    A pot experiment was performed to determine the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) communities on soil properties and the growth of cucumber seedlings in a degraded soil that had been used for continuous cucumber monoculture in a greenhouse for 15 years.In the experiment,AMF communities (created by combining various AMF species that were found to be dominant in natural farm soil) were inoculated into the degraded soil,and then the soil was planted with cucumber.Inoculation with AMF communities did not affect soil pH but increased soil aggregate stability and decreased the concentrations of salt ions and electrical conductivity (EC) in the soil.Inoculation with AMF communities increased the numbers of culturable bacteria and actinomycetes but reduced the number of fungi. AMF communities increased plant growth,soluble sugar content,chlorophyll content,and root activity compared to non-mycorrhizal or a single AMF species treatments. Improvements of soil quality and plant growth were greatest with the following two communities:Glomus etunicatum + G.mosseae + Gigaspora margarita + Acaulospora lacunosa and G.aggregatum + G.etunicatum +G.mosseae + G.versiforme + G.margarita + A.lacunosa.The results suggested that certain AMF communities could substantially improve the quality of degraded soil.

  11. SSR Inheritance Analysis and Screening for Linked Marker of Powdery Mildew Resistance in Cucumber(Cucumis sativus L.)%黄瓜白粉病抗性遗传分析与连锁标记筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂京涛; 潘俊松; 何欢乐; 司龙亭; 蔡润

    2011-01-01

    In order to accelerate molecular marker assisted breeding process of powdery mildew resistance in cucumber ( Cucumis sativus L.) , in this paper, high susceptible cucumber inbred line M 12,abd high resistant inbred line M3 to powdery mildew were taken as parent and their hybrid, F2 populations and BC1 populations were used as experimental materials.We identified the seedlings inoculated with powdery mildew fungus and probed into the genetic regulation of powdery mildew resistance in cucumber.Combing with BSA method and SSR technology, SSR markers linked to the major resistant gene of powdery mildew in cucumber was obtained.The results showed that the resistance to powdery mildew was mainly controlled by a single recessive gene.By analyzing F2 single plant with SSR technique, a marker SSR15592 linked to the resistant gene was identified.The genetic distance between this marker and resistant gene was 7.62 cM.%以黄瓜高感、高抗白粉病自交系M12、M3为亲本组合得到的F2群体和BC1群体为试材,采用苗期接种鉴定,探讨了黄瓜白粉病抗性的遗传规律;结合BSA法和SSR技术,获得了与黄瓜白粉病抗性主效基因连锁的SSR标记.结果表明,供试亲本间白粉病抗性主要受一隐性单基因控制.对F2单株进行SSR分析,鉴定出1个与黄瓜白粉病抗性基因连锁的标记SSR15592,该标记与抗性基因间的遗传距离为7.62 cM.

  12. Effect of (+)-pulegone and other oil components of Mentha x piperita on cucumber respiration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mucciarelli, M.; Camusso, W.; Bertea, C.M.; Bossi, S.; Maffei, M.

    2001-01-01

    Peppermint (Menthaxpiperita L.) essential oil and main components were assessed for their ability to interfere with plant respiratory functions. Tests were conducted on both root segments and mitochondria isolated by etiolated seedlings of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Total essential oil inhibited

  13. Hyperspectral Imaging for Determining Pigment Contents in Cucumber Leaves in Response to Angular Leaf Spot Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan-Ru; Li, Xiaoli; Yu, Ke-Qiang; Cheng, Fan; He, Yong

    2016-06-10

    Hyperspectral imaging technique was employed to determine spatial distributions of chlorophyll (Chl), and carotenoid (Car) contents in cucumber leaves in response to angular leaf spot (ALS). Altogether, 196 hyperspectral images of cucumber leaves with five infection severities of ALS were captured by a hyperspectral imaging system in the range of 380-1,030 nm covering 512 wavebands. Mean spectrum were extracted from regions of interest (ROIs) in the hyperspectral images. Partial least square regression (PLSR) models were used to develop quantitative analysis between the spectra and the pigment contents measured by biochemical analyses. In addition, regression coefficients (RCs) in PLSR models were employed to select important wavelengths (IWs) for modelling. It was found that the PLSR models developed by the IWs provided the optimal measurement results with correlation coefficient (R) of prediction of 0.871 and 0.876 for Chl and Car contents, respectively. Finally, Chl and Car distributions in cucumber leaves with the ALS infection were mapped by applying the optimal models pixel-wise to the hyperspectral images. The results proved the feasibility of hyperspectral imaging for visualizing the pigment distributions in cucumber leaves in response to ALS.

  14. Systems pharmacology-based drug discovery for marine resources: an example using sea cucumber (Holothurians).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yingying; Ding, Yan; Xu, Feifei; Liu, Baoyue; Kou, Zinong; Xiao, Wei; Zhu, Jingbo

    2015-05-13

    Sea cucumber, a kind of marine animal, have long been utilized as tonic and traditional remedies in the Middle East and Asia because of its effectiveness against hypertension, asthma, rheumatism, cuts and burns, impotence, and constipation. In this study, an overall study performed on sea cucumber was used as an example to show drug discovery from marine resource by using systems pharmacology model. The value of marine natural resources has been extensively considered because these resources can be potentially used to treat and prevent human diseases. However, the discovery of drugs from oceans is difficult, because of complex environments in terms of composition and active mechanisms. Thus, a comprehensive systems approach which could discover active constituents and their targets from marine resource, understand the biological basis for their pharmacological properties is necessary. In this study, a feasible pharmacological model based on systems pharmacology was established to investigate marine medicine by incorporating active compound screening, target identification, and network and pathway analysis. As a result, 106 candidate components of sea cucumber and 26 potential targets were identified. Furthermore, the functions of sea cucumber in health improvement and disease treatment were elucidated in a holistic way based on the established compound-target and target-disease networks, and incorporated pathways. This study established a novel strategy that could be used to explore specific active mechanisms and discover new drugs from marine sources. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Microbiological preservation of cucumbers for bulk storage by the use of acetic acid and food preservatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbial growth did not occur when cucumbers were preserved without a thermal process by storage in solutions containing acetic acid, sodium benzoate, and calcium chloride to maintain tissue firmness. The concentrations of acetic acid and sodium benzoate required to assure preservation were low en...

  16. Development of a Hyperspectral Imaging System for Online Quality Inspection of Pickling Cucumbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper reports on the development of a hyperspectral imaging prototype for evaluation of external and internal quality of pickling cucumbers. The prototype consisted of a two-lane round belt conveyor, two illumination sources (one for reflectance and one for transmittance), and a hyperspectral i...

  17. Optical Absorption and Scattering Properties of Normal and Defective Pickling Cucumbers for 700-1000 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Internal defect in pickling cucumbers can cause bloater damage during brining, which lowers the quality of final pickled products and results in economic loss for the pickle industry. Hence it is important to have an effective optical inspection system for detection and segregation of defective pick...

  18. Characterization of the Optical Properties of Normal and Defective Pickling Cucumbers and Whole Pickles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Internal defect in pickling cucumbers can cause bloater damage during brining, which lowers the quality of final pickled products and results in economic loss for the pickle industry. Hence it is important to have an effective optical inspection system for detection and segregation of defective pick...

  19. Assessment of chilling injury and molecular marker analysis in cucumber cultivars (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The responses to chilling temperature of 12 Korean cucumber varieties were compared to those of two U.S.A. (previously determined cold tolerant NC76 and 'Chipper'), and Chinese and Japanese germplasms. Seedlings of each entry were exposed to 4 degrees C (Experiment 1) and 1 degree C (Experiments 2 ...

  20. Genetic and environmental effects on production of spontaneous tetraploids in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The appearance of spontaneous tetraploid (4x) plants is a serious problem for cucumber growers and the seed industry. These plants produce unacceptable fruits with poor quality that do not meet market standards, and result in substantial losses. A higher frequency of spontaneous 4x plants has been a...

  1. Gladiolus plants transformed with single-chain variable fragment antibodies to Cucumber mosaic virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgenic plants of Gladiolus ‘Peter Pears’ or ‘Jenny Lee’ were developed that contain single-chain variable fragments (scFv) to Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) subgroup I or II. The CMV subgroup I heavy and light chain scFv fragments were placed under control of either the duplicated CaMV 35S or suga...

  2. Inter- and Intramolecular recombinations in the Cucumber Mosaic Virus genome related to adaptation to Alstroemeria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Y.K.; Goldbach, R.W.; Prins, M.W.

    2002-01-01

    In four distinct alstroemeria-infecting cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) isolates, additional sequences of various lengths were present in the 3' nontranslated regions of their RNAs 2 and 3, apparently the result of intra- and intermolecular recombination events. Competition experiments revealed that the

  3. Occurence of Cucumber Mosaic Virus in Ornamental Plants and Perspectives of Transgenic Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Y.K.

    2003-01-01

    This thesis described the characterization of a range of ornamental-infecting Cucumber mosaic virus strains and the development of novel transgene constructs to improve the efficiency of obtaining resistant transformants which is essential for most ornamental plants that are diffi

  4. Alstroemeria-infecting cucumber mosaic virus isolates contain additional sequences in the RNA 3 segment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Y.K.; Prins, M.W.; Derks, A.F.L.M.; Langeveld, S.A.; Goldbach, R.W.

    2002-01-01

    The coat protein (CP) genes and flanking regions of three alstroemeria-infecting cucumber mosaic virus isolates (CMV-ALS), denoted ALS-LBO, ALS-IPO, and ALS-NAK, were cloned and their nucleotide sequence determined and compared at both nucleic acid and deduced protein level with the published sequen

  5. Effect of vermicompost and cucumber cultivar on population growth attributes of the melon aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razmjou, J; Mohammadi, M; Hassanpour, M

    2011-08-01

    Worldwide, the developing industry of cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L.) grown in greenhouses is threatened by damage from sucking pests, especially aphids. Among these, the melon aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is the most serious. We tested the effect of two cucumber cultivars ('Royal' and'Storm') and three vermicompost concentrations (0 [control], 20, and 30%) in field soil on the development and fecundity rates of A. gossypii, by using a randomized complete block design with four replicates as a factorial experiment. The developmental times of nymphs reared on plants grown into the three vermicompost concentrations ranged from 5.5 (0%) to 8.7 (30%) d (on Storm) and from 4.3 (0%) to 7 (30%) d (on Royal). The developmental time of melon aphid's nymphs was greatest on plants grown in the culture medium with 30% vermicompost rate and least on plants reared in the soil without vermicompost. The intrinsic rate of natural increase (r,,) of A. gossypii ranged from 0.204 d(-1) on plants grown in the soil amended with 30% vermicompost rate (on Storm seedlings) to 0.458 d(-1) on plants grown in the soil without vermicompost (on Royal seedlings). Accordingly, our findings confirm that a combination of a low level of vermicompost and a partially resistant cucumber cultivar might play an important role in managing this aphid on cucumbers in greenhouses.

  6. Preventive Intra Oral Treatment of Sea Cucumber Ameliorate OVA-Induced Allergic Airway Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Da-In; Park, Mi-Kyung; Kang, Shin Ae; Choi, Jun-Ho; Kang, Seok-Jung; Lee, Jeong-Yeol; Yu, Hak Sun

    2016-01-01

    Sea cucumber extracts have potent biological effects, including anti-viral, anti-cancer, antibacterial, anti-oxidant, and anti-inflammation effects. To understand their anti-asthma effects, we induced allergic airway inflammation in mice after 7 oral administrations of the extract. The hyper-responsiveness value in mice with ovalbumin (OVA)-alum-induced asthma after oral injection of sea cucumber extracts was significantly lower than that in the OVA-alum-induced asthma group. In addition, the number of eosinophils in the lungs of asthma-induced mice pre-treated with sea cucumber extract was significantly decreased compared to that of PBS pre-treated mice. Additionally, CD4[Formula: see text]CD25[Formula: see text]Foxp3[Formula: see text]T (regulatory T; Treg) cells significantly increased in mesenteric lymph nodes after 7 administrations of the extract. These results suggest that sea cucumber extract can ameliorate allergic airway inflammation via Treg cell activation and recruitment to the lung.

  7. Fermentation cover brine reformulation for cucumber processing with low salt to reduce the incidence of bloaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reformulation of cucumber fermentation cover brines containing calcium chloride instead of sodium chloride (NaCl) was explored as a mean to minimize the incidence of bloater defect. This study particularly focused on cover brine supplementation with calcium hydroxide, NaCl, and acids to enhance buff...

  8. The Effect of Washing and Peeling on Reduction of Dithiocarbamates Residues in Cucumber and Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Mehrasebi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dithiocarbamates, the main group of fungicides, are used to control about 400 pathogens in more than 70 crops. These pesticides are widely applied to crops including potato, cereal, apple, pear and leafy vegetables throughout the world since 1960. From the late 1980s, using these fungicides has caused much debate among regulators about their long-term effects on consumers and occupational users. Method: In this study the residues of Dithiocarbamates in cucumber and tomato using the colorimetric method (Keppel method was measured. Respectively 80 and 45 samples of greenhouse cucumber and tomato were collected from Zanjan vegetables center in autumns and winter 2013. The samples were analyzed in 4 treatments of: unwashed, washing with water, washing whit detergent and peeling. Result: The results showed that the average concentration of Dithiocarbamates residues in unwashed greenhouse cucumber and tomatoes were 384.5 µg/kg and 65 µg/kg respectively. 35% and 5% of unwashed and water washed cucumber and tomato samples (respectively had higher Dithiocarbamates residue than MRL recommended by Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran (0.5mg/kg. Conclusion: The treatments of washing and peeling had significant effect on the reduction of Dithiocarbamates residues in the all samples.

  9. Bacterial Diversity of Gut Content in Sea Cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) and Its Habitat Surface Sediment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Fei; TAN Jie; SUN Huiling; YAN Jingping

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the bacterial diversity of gut content of sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) and its habitat surface sediment in a bottom enhancement area using PCR-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) technique. Bacte-rial diversity evaluation showed that the value of the Shannon-Wiener index of gut content in different intestinal segments of A. ja-ponicus varied between 2.88 and 3.00, lower than that of the surrounding sediment (3.23). Phylogenetic analysis showed that bacte-rial phylotypes in gut content and the surrounding sediment of A. japonicus were closely related to Proteobacteria includingγ-,α-,δ-andε-proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicute, and Actinobacteria, of whichγ-proteobacteria were predominant. These results sug-gested that the sea cucumber A. japonicus was capable of feeding selectively, and PCR-DGGE was applicable for characterizing the bacterial community composition in gut content and the surrounding sediment of sea cucumber. Further investigation targeting longer 16S rDNA gene fragments and/or functional genes was recommended for obtaining more information of the diversity and function of bacterial community in the gut content of sea cucumber.

  10. Asynchronous meiosis in Cucumis hystrix-cucumber synthetic tetraploids resulting in low male fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wide hybridization is an important tool for crop improvement. Recently, we successfully developed a synthetic allotetraploid from interspecific cross between cucumber and its relative Cucumis hystrix-(2n = 2x =24) followed by chemical induction of chromosome doubling. The resulting allotetraploid wa...

  11. Identification and transcriptional profiling of differentially expressed genes associated with resistance to Pseudoperonospora cubensis in cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Wu; Liu, Jun; Zhang, He; Xie, Cong-Hua

    2011-03-01

    To identify genes induced during Pseudoperonospora cubensis (Berk. and Curk.) Rostov. infection in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was performed using mixed cDNAs prepared from cucumber seedlings inoculated with the pathogen as a tester and cDNA from uninfected cucumber seedlings as a driver. A forward subtractive cDNA library (FSL) and a reverse subtractive cDNA library (RSL) were constructed, from which 1,416 and 1,128 recombinant clones were isolated, respectively. Differential screening of the preferentially expressed recombinant clones identified 58 unique expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from FSL and 29 from RSL. The ESTs with significant protein homology were sorted into 13 functional categories involved in nearly the whole process of plant defense such as signal transduction and cell defense, transcription, cell cycle and DNA processing, protein synthesis, protein fate, proteins with binding functions, transport, metabolism and energy. The expressions of twenty-five ESTs by real-time quantitative RT-PCR confirmed that differential gene regulation occurred during P. cubensis infection and inferred that higher and earlier expression of transcription factors and signal transduction associated genes together with ubiquitin/proteasome and polyamine biosynthesis pathways may contribute to the defense response of cucumber to P. cubensis infection. The transcription profiling of selected down-regulated genes revealed that suppression of the genes in reactive oxygen species scavenging system and photosynthesis pathway may inhibit disease development in the host tissue.

  12. Silicon enhances leaf remobilization of iron in cucumber under limited iron conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavlovic, Jelena; Samardzic, Jelena; Kostic, Ljiljana

    2016-01-01

    leaves and the subsequent retranslocation of Fe to young leaves of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) plants growing under Fe-limiting conditions was investigated. METHODS: Iron ((57)Fe or naturally occurring isotopes) was measured in leaves at different positions on plants hydroponically growing with or without...

  13. Effects of two different formulations of metalaxyl on their residues in cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talebi, Khalil

    2002-01-01

    Investigations were carried out on the presence of metalaxyl residues in field grown cucumbers. In one experiment, cucumber plants underwent once and twice sprayings by Ridomil-MZ 72 WP at 2.5 g/litre. In another, single and double applications of metalaxyl granule (5G) were carried out at 5 g/m2. Fungicide application performed every 14 days. Samples were taken at different time intervals and metalaxyl level was determined by HPLC. The results showed variable dissipation rates of metalaxyl residues in cucumber. In samples from single and double sprayed plots, the residues were 0.19 and 0.08 mg/kg 14 days after treatment respectively. In single granulated plots, the residues increased during the first 7 days and then decreased to 0.85 mg/kg, 14 days after granule application. However, in double granulated plots, the residues decreased to 0.02 mg/kg after the same period of time. In all treatments except single granulated plots, the residues declined below the MRL (0.5 mg/kg), 7 days after application. These experiments showed that two times spraying and granule applications did not cause the fungicide accumulation in cucumber.

  14. Inter- and intramolecular recombinations in the cucumber mosaic virus genome related to adaptation to alstroemeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuh-Kun; Goldbach, Rob; Prins, Marcel

    2002-04-01

    In four distinct alstroemeria-infecting cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) isolates, additional sequences of various lengths were present in the 3' nontranslated regions of their RNAs 2 and 3, apparently the result of intra- and intermolecular recombination events. Competition experiments revealed that these recombined RNA 2 and 3 segments increased the biological fitness of CMV in alstroemeria.

  15. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seed performance as influenced by ovary and ovule position

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jing, H.C.; Jalink, H.; Bergervoet, J.W.; Klooster, M.; Du, S.L.; Bino, R.J.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.; Groot, S.P.C.

    2000-01-01

    The performance of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seeds in relation to ovary and ovule position was monitored during seed production. Seeds from three (first, seventh and tenth nodes) fruit positions and three (stylar, intermediate and peduncular) ovule positions were harvested serially during

  16. A model for prediction of yield and quality of cucumber fruits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcelis, L.F.M.; Gijzen, H.

    1998-01-01

    The mechanistic model KOSI was developed to predict the weekly fresh weight harvest of cucumber fruits and their quality. The model consists of modules for greenhouse climate, greenhouse light transmission, light interception by the crop, leaf and canopy photosynthesis, assimilate partitioning, dry

  17. Characterisation of inorganic elements and volatile organic compounds in the dried sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hae-Won; Lim, Na-Lae; Cho, Kichul; Yang, Hye Young; Yim, Kyung June; Kim, Mi-Ju; Lee, Myunglip; Kim, Dong Hyeun; Koh, Hyoung Bum; Jung, Won-Kyo; Roh, Seong Woon; Kim, Daekyung

    2014-03-15

    The sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus lives in a variety of marine habitats and is an important cultivated edible aquatic species in East Asia. In this study, S. japonicus, collected from the sea near Jeju Island of Korea, was lyophilised or vacuum-dried and then analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The GC-MS profiles of vacuum-dried and lyophilised samples differed. Based on direct injection and static headspace analysis, 37 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were identified in vacuum-dried samples and 33 VOCs were identified in lyophilised samples. Therefore, the odour of vacuum-dried sea cucumber is thought to be due to the presence of various VOCs that are absent in lyophilised sea cucumber. According to ICP-MS analysis, the levels of 15 inorganic elements were slightly higher in lyophilised samples than in vacuum-dried samples. The results of the inorganic and organic chemical analyses provide information about the composition of dried sea cucumber. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Non-destructive detection of pesticide residues in cucumber using visible/near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshidi, Bahareh; Mohajerani, Ezeddin; Jamshidi, Jamshid; Minaei, Saeid; Sharifi, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    The feasibility of using visible/near-infrared (Vis/NIR) spectroscopy was assessed for non-destructive detection of diazinon residues in intact cucumbers. Vis/NIR spectra of diazinon solution and cucumber samples without and with different concentrations of diazinon residue were analysed at the range of 450-1000 nm. Partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) models were developed based on different spectral pre-processing techniques to classify cucumbers with contents of diazinon below and above the MRL as safe and unsafe samples, respectively. The best model was obtained using a first-derivative method with the lowest standard error of cross-validation (SECV = 0.366). Moreover, total percentages of correctly classified samples in calibration and prediction sets were 97.5% and 92.31%, respectively. It was concluded that Vis/NIR spectroscopy could be an appropriate, fast and non-destructive technology for safety control of intact cucumbers by the absence/presence of diazinon residues.

  19. Alstroemeria-infecting cucumber mosaic virus isolates contain additional sequences in the RNA 3 segment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Y.K.; Prins, M.W.; Derks, A.F.L.M.; Langeveld, S.A.; Goldbach, R.W.

    2002-01-01

    The coat protein (CP) genes and flanking regions of three alstroemeria-infecting cucumber mosaic virus isolates (CMV-ALS), denoted ALS-LBO, ALS-IPO, and ALS-NAK, were cloned and their nucleotide sequence determined and compared at both nucleic acid and deduced protein level with the published

  20. Effect of (+)-pulegone and other oil components of Mentha x piperita on cucumber respiration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mucciarelli, M.; Camusso, W.; Bertea, C.M.; Bossi, S.; Maffei, M.

    2001-01-01

    Peppermint (Menthaxpiperita L.) essential oil and main components were assessed for their ability to interfere with plant respiratory functions. Tests were conducted on both root segments and mitochondria isolated by etiolated seedlings of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Total essential oil inhibited

  1. Functional imaging of plants: A nuclear magnetic resonance study of a cucumber plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheenen, T.; Heemskerk, A.; Jager, de A.; Vergeldt, F.J.; As, van H.

    2002-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to study transients of biophysical parameters in a cucumber plant in response to environmental changes. Detailed flow imaging experiments showed the location of xylem and phloem in the stem and the response of the following flow characteristics to the

  2. Importance of prumycin produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SD-32 in biocontrol against cucumber powdery mildew disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Keijitsu; Fukuda, Mutsumi; Amaki, Yusuke; Sakaguchi, Takatoshi; Inai, Koji; Ishihara, Atsushi; Nakajima, Hiromitsu

    2017-05-30

    Powdery mildew disease of cucurbits is caused mainly by Podosphaera fusca, which is one of the most important limiting factors in cucurbit production worldwide. Previously we reported that Bacillus amyloliquefaciens biocontrol strain SD-32 produces C17 bacillomycin D and [Ile]surfactin, and that these metabolites play important roles in SD-32's biocontrol over cucumber gray mold disease. Our further investigation demonstrated that the culture broth and its supernatant suppressed cucumber powdery mildew disease in greenhouse experiments. However, the active principle(s) remained unknown. The active compound was isolated from the culture supernatant after anti-powdery mildew disease activity-guided purification and identified as prumycin. Prumycin significantly suppressed the disease, whereas bacillomycin D and [Ile]surfactin did not. Prumycin did not induce the expression of plant defense genes (PR1a and VSP1), suggesting that it does not act via plant defense response. Light microscopic observations of prumycin-treated cucumber cotyledon suggested that prumycin inhibits the conidial germination of P. fusca. This study demonstrates that prumycin is a major factor in SD-32's suppression of cucumber powdery mildew disease. Our findings shed light for the first time on prumycin's role in biocontrol by Bacillus against this disease. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. An ecological cost of plant defence : attractiveness of bitter cucumber plants to natural enemies of herbivores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agrawal, A.A.; Janssen, A.; Bruin, J.; Posthumus, M.A.; Sabelis, M.W.

    2002-01-01

    Plants produce defences that act directly on herbivores and indirectly via the attraction of natural enemies of herbivores. We examined the pleiotropic effects of direct chemical defence production on indirect defence employing near-isogenic varieties of cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus) that differ

  4. What is the most prominent factor limiting photosynthesis in different layers of a greenhouse cucumber canopy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, T.W.; Henke, M.; Visser, de P.H.B.; Buck-Sorlin, G.H.; Wiechers, D.; Kahlen, K.; Stützel, H.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Maximizing photosynthesis at the canopy level is important for enhancing crop yield, and this requires insights into the limiting factors of photosynthesis. Using greenhouse cucumber (Cucumis sativus) as an example, this study provides a novel approach to quantify different compo

  5. Occurence of Cucumber Mosaic Virus in Ornamental Plants and Perspectives of Transgenic Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Y.K.

    2003-01-01

    This thesis described the characterization of a range of ornamental-infecting Cucumber mosaic virus strains and the development of novel transgene constructs to improve the efficiency of obtaining resistant transformants which is essential for most ornamental plants that are

  6. Comparison of Physicochemical Characteristics and Anticoagulant Activities of Polysaccharides from Three Sea Cucumbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengmin Wang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to search for sulfated polysaccharides in different invertebrate connective tissues and to examine their biological activities, we have isolated three types of polysaccharides from the body wall of the three sea cucumbers Holothuria edulis, Apostichopus japonicas and Holothuria nobilis. The physicochemical properties and anticoagulant activities of these polysaccharides were examined and compared. The chemical composition analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR analysis indicate that two types of polysaccharides, sulfated fucan and fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FuCS, were found in all of the three species and in addition a neutral glycan was observed in H. edulis. The neutral α-glucan was firstly obtained from sea cucumber. The same type of polysaccharides from different species of sea cucumbers have similar physicochemical properties and anticoagulant activities, but those of different types of glycans are significantly different, possibly due to their different monosaccharide compositions, electric charges and average molecular weights. The FuCSs have stronger anticoagulant activities than the sulfated fucans, although the molecular sizes of the FuCSs are lower than those of the sulfated fucans, whereas the neutral glucan has no activity, as expected from the absence of sulfate. Thus, anticoagulant activities of the different type of polysaccharides are likely to relate to monosaccharide composition and sulfate content. Preliminary analysis suggests that the sulfation patterns of the FuCSs may result in the difference in anticoagulant activities. Our data could help elucidate the structure-activity relationship of the sea cucumber polysaccharides.

  7. Comparison of physicochemical characteristics and anticoagulant activities of polysaccharides from three sea cucumbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lan; Wu, Mingyi; Xu, Li; Lian, Wu; Xiang, Jingying; Lu, Feng; Gao, Na; Xiao, Chuang; Wang, Shengmin; Zhao, Jinhua

    2013-02-05

    In order to search for sulfated polysaccharides in different invertebrate connective tissues and to examine their biological activities, we have isolated three types of polysaccharides from the body wall of the three sea cucumbers Holothuria edulis, Apostichopus japonicas and Holothuria nobilis. The physicochemical properties and anticoagulant activities of these polysaccharides were examined and compared. The chemical composition analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis indicate that two types of polysaccharides, sulfated fucan and fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FuCS), were found in all of the three species and in addition a neutral glycan was observed in H. edulis. The neutral α-glucan was firstly obtained from sea cucumber. The same type of polysaccharides from different species of sea cucumbers have similar physicochemical properties and anticoagulant activities, but those of different types of glycans are significantly different, possibly due to their different monosaccharide compositions, electric charges and average molecular weights. The FuCSs have stronger anticoagulant activities than the sulfated fucans, although the molecular sizes of the FuCSs are lower than those of the sulfated fucans, whereas the neutral glucan has no activity, as expected from the absence of sulfate. Thus, anticoagulant activities of the different type of polysaccharides are likely to relate to monosaccharide composition and sulfate content. Preliminary analysis suggests that the sulfation patterns of the FuCSs may result in the difference in anticoagulant activities. Our data could help elucidate the structure-activity relationship of the sea cucumber polysaccharides.

  8. Efficacy of Fluensulfone in a Tomato–Cucumber Double Cropping System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Kelly A.; Langston, David B.; Dickson, Donald W.; Davis, Richard F.; Timper, Patricia; Noe, James P.

    2015-01-01

    Vegetable crops in the southeastern United States are commonly grown on plastic mulch with two crop cycles produced on a single mulch application. Field trials were conducted in 2013 and 2014 in two locations to evaluate the efficacy of fluensulfone for controlling Meloidogyne spp. when applied through drip irrigation to cucumber in a tomato–cucumber double-cropping system. In the spring tomato crop, 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D), fluensulfone, and a resistant cultivar significantly decreased root galling by 91%, 73%, and 97%, respectively, compared to the untreated control. Tomato plots from the spring were divided into split plots for the fall where the main plots were the spring treatment and the subplots were cucumber either treated with fluensulfone (3.0 kg a.i./ha. via drip irrigation) or left untreated. The fall application of fluensulfone improved cucumber vigor and reduced gall ratings compared to untreated subplots. Fluensulfone reduced damage from root-knot nematodes when applied to the first crop as well as provided additional protection to the second crop when it was applied through a drip system. PMID:26941459

  9. Metagenomic Analysis of Cucumber RNA from East Timor Reveals an Aphid lethal paralysis virus Genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maina, Solomon; Edwards, Owain R.; de Almeida, Luis; Ximenes, Abel

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We present here the first complete genomic Aphid lethal paralysis virus (ALPV) sequence isolated from cucumber plant RNA from East Timor. We compare it with two complete ALPV genome sequences from China, and one each from Israel, South Africa, and the United States. It most closely resembled the Chinese isolate LGH genome. PMID:28082492

  10. Soil respiration in cucumber field under crop rotation in solar greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinli Liang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Crop residues are the primary source of carbon input in the soil carbon pool. Crop rotation can impact the plant biomass returned to the soil, and influence soil respiration. To study the effect of previous crops on soil respiration in cucumber (Cucumis statirus L. fields in solar greenhouses, soil respiration, plant height, leaf area and yield were measured during the growing season (from the end of Sept to the beginning of Jun the following year from 2007 to 2010. The cucumber was grown following fallow (CK, kidney bean (KB, cowpea (CP, maize for green manure (MGM, black bean for green manure (BGM, tomato (TM, bok choy (BC. As compared with CK, KB, CP, MGM and BGM may increase soil respiration, while TM and BC may decrease soil respiration at full fruit stage in cucumber fields. Thus attention to the previous crop arrangement is a possible way of mitigating soil respiration in vegetable fields. Plant height, leaf area and yield had similar variation trends under seven previous crop treatments. The ratio of yield to soil respiration revealed that MGM is the crop of choice previous to cucumber when compared with CK, KB, CP, BGM, TM and BC.

  11. Influence of activated charcoal amendment to contaminated soil on dieldrin and nutrient uptake by cucumbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilber, Isabel [Research Institute of Organic Agriculture, Ackerstrasse, CH-5070 Frick (Switzerland); Wyss, Gabriela S., E-mail: gabriela.wyss@fibl.or [Research Institute of Organic Agriculture, Ackerstrasse, CH-5070 Frick (Switzerland); Maeder, Paul [Research Institute of Organic Agriculture, Ackerstrasse, CH-5070 Frick (Switzerland); Bucheli, Thomas D. [Agroscope Reckenholz-Taenikon Research Station ART, Reckenholzstr. 191, CH-8046 Zuerich (Switzerland); Meier, Isabel; Vogt, Lea; Schulin, Rainer [Institute of Terrestrial Ecosystems, ETH Zuerich, Universitaetstr. 16, CH-8092 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2009-08-15

    Activated charcoal (AC) amendments have been suggested as a promising, cost-effective method to immobilize organic contaminants in soil. We performed pot experiments over two years with cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) grown in agricultural soil with 0.07 mg kg{sup -1} of weathered dieldrin and 0, 200, 400, and 800 mg AC per kg soil. Dieldrin fresh weight concentrations in cucumber fruits were significantly reduced from 0.012 to an average of 0.004 mg kg{sup -1}, and total uptake from 2 to 1 mug in the 800 mg kg{sup -1} AC treatment compared to the untreated soil. The treatment effects differed considerably between the two years, due to different meteorological conditions. AC soil treatments did neither affect the availability of nutrients to the cucumber plants nor their yield (total fruit wet weight per pot). Thus, some important prerequisites for the successful application of AC amendments to immobilize organic pollutants in agricultural soils can be considered fulfilled. - The addition of activated charcoal to soil reduced dieldrin residues in cucumbers and did not affect nutrients availability.

  12. Nitrate transport in cucumber leaves is an inducible process involving an increase in plasma membrane H+-ATPase activity and abundance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolic Miroslav

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mechanisms by which nitrate is transported into the roots have been characterized both at physiological and molecular levels. It has been demonstrated that nitrate is taken up in an energy-dependent way by a four-component uptake machinery involving high- and low- affinity transport systems. In contrast very little is known about the physiology of nitrate transport towards different plant tissues and in particular at the leaf level. Results The mechanism of nitrate uptake in leaves of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Chinese long plants was studied and compared with that of the root. Net nitrate uptake by roots of nitrate-depleted cucumber plants proved to be substrate-inducible and biphasic showing a saturable kinetics with a clear linear non saturable component at an anion concentration higher than 2 mM. Nitrate uptake by leaf discs of cucumber plants showed some similarities with that operating in the roots (e.g. electrogenic H+ dependence via involvement of proton pump, a certain degree of induction. However, it did not exhibit typical biphasic kinetics and was characterized by a higher Km with values out of the range usually recorded in roots of several different plant species. The quantity and activity of plasma membrane (PM H+-ATPase of the vesicles isolated from leaf tissues of nitrate-treated plants for 12 h (peak of nitrate foliar uptake rate increased with respect to that observed in the vesicles isolated from N-deprived control plants, thus suggesting an involvement of this enzyme in the leaf nitrate uptake process similar to that described in roots. Molecular analyses suggest the involvement of a specific isoform of PM H+-ATPase (CsHA1 and NRT2 transporter (CsNRT2 in root nitrate uptake. At the leaf level, nitrate treatment modulated the expression of CsHA2, highlighting a main putative role of this isogene in the process. Conclusions Obtained results provide for the first time evidence that a saturable

  13. Studies on the diversity and growth of moulds in the cucumber pickle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RATNA SETYANINGSIH

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research were to study about the growth and diversity of moulds in the cucumber pickle and the influences of acetic acid concentration and long storage as well as additional of onion on the growth of moulds. Cucumber pickle was treated in different acetic acid concentrations (0,8%, 1,4%, 2,0%, long storage and with or without additional of onion. The used method to isolate of mould was dilution planting. For enumerating moulds, 0,1 ml samples were blended and diluted after that inoculated on to potato sucrose agar (PSA medium and then incubated at 270C for 7 days. To identify the moulds, the colony was transferred on to CDA and PSA media, and then incubated at 270C for 7 days. The moulds were identified according to their macroscopic and microscopic characters. To know the degrees of taste, the cucumber pickle was tested to 25 people with hedonic scale method. The results showed that, there was 12 different kinds of moulds can be found in cucumber pickle without additional of onion. There were Aspergillus fumigatus, A. niger, A. ochraceus, A. tamarii Kita, Cochliobolus sp, Botrytis, Penicillium chrysogenum, P. expansum, P. citrinum, Rhizopus oligosporus, Trichoderma sp, and Monilia. On the other hand, experiment with onion, P. expansum and A. niger could not be observed. The highest varieties of moulds can be found in cucumber pickle with acetic acid concentration 1,4%. In experiment without onion, on nil (0 day, with acetic acid concentration of 1,4%, the amount of moulds is lower than in the pickle with acetic acid concentration 0,8%. The diversity of moulds in the cucumber pickle with additional of onion is lower than that of without onion. The additional of onion showed decreasing the diversity and growth of moulds in cucumber pickle with acetic acid concentration of 0,8% on nil (0 day. In experiment with acetic acid concentration 2,0% in 10-1 dilution on nil (0 day until 6th day, the moulds could not be observed.

  14. 黄瓜涂膜保鲜试验的研究%Cucumber Film Preservation Trials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娟; 魏春红

    2012-01-01

    This paper adopts potato starch as the raw material,adding different auxiliary agents made into the film Fresh keeping agent,at normal temperature of cucumber on film preservation,periodically cucumber physiological and biochemical indexes,which can get the potato starch of cucumber Fresh keeping agent film the best effective formula,through to the potato single factor experiment,the results of their study:the effect of cucumber sa fresh preservation ratio for the best in 100mL water calcium chloride 5g,glycerin lmL,potato starch is 4g,sodium alginate 2g,get the cucumber water loss rate lowest,hardness keeps best and Vc content is the highest.%以马铃薯淀粉为原料,添加不同的辅助剂配制成涂膜保鲜剂,在常温下对黄瓜进行涂膜保鲜,定期检测黄瓜生理生化指标,从而获得马铃薯淀粉对黄瓜涂膜保鲜剂的最佳有效配方,马铃薯的单因素试验结果:对黄瓜保鲜效果最佳的涂膜剂保鲜配比为每100mL水中含氯化钙5 g、甘油1mL、马铃薯淀粉量4g、海藻酸钠2g,此时获得的黄瓜失水率最低、硬度保持最好和VC含量最高.

  15. The Different Physiological and Antioxidative Responses of Zucchini and Cucumber to Sewage Sludge Application.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Wyrwicka

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the effect of soil amended with sewage sludge on oxidative changes in zucchini and cucumber plants (Cucurbitaceae and the consequent activation of their antioxidative systems and detoxification mechanisms. The plants were grown in pots containing soil amended with three concentrations of sewage sludge (1.8 g, 5.4 g and 10.8 g per pot, while controls were potted with vegetable soil. The activities of three antioxidative enzymes, ascorbate peroxidase (APx, catalase (CAT and guaiacol peroxidase (POx, were assessed, as well as of the detoxifying enzyme S-glutathione transferase (GST. Lipid peroxidation was evaluated by measuring the extent of oxidative damage; α-tocopherol content, the main lipophilic antioxidant, was also measured. Visible symptoms of leaf blade damage after sewage sludge application occurred only on the zucchini plants. The zucchini and cucumber plants showed a range of enzymatic antioxidant responses to sewage sludge application. While APx and POx activities increased significantly with increasing sludge concentration in the zucchini plants, they decreased in the cucumber plants. Moreover, although the activity of these enzymes increased gradually with increasing doses of sewage sludge, these levels fell at the highest dose. An inverse relationship between peroxidases activity and CAT activity was observed in both investigated plant species. In contrast, although GST activity increased progressively with sludge concentration in both the zucchini and cucumber leaves, the increase in GST activity was greater in the zucchini plants, being visible at the lowest dose used. The results indicate that signs of sewage sludge toxicity were greater in zucchini than cucumber, and its defense reactions were mainly associated with increases in APx, POx and GST activity.

  16. Development of fatty acid biomarkers for the identification of wild and aquacultured sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadorozhnyj, P. A.; Pivnenko, T. N.; Kovalev, N. N.

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the fatty acids (FAs) of the organs and tissues of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) were profiled in order to compare the FA composition of sea cucumber collected from natural habitat (wild) and cages (cultured). The differences in FA contents in dermomuscular tube, peripharyngeal annulus, gonad and intestine (with or without content) between the wild and the cultured were determined. The main fatty acids in all organs and tissues were 20:5n-3, 16:1n-7, 20:4n-6, 22:6n-3, 18:0, and 18:1n-7. The basically different FAs of body wall and digestive tube were 16:1n-7, 18:1n-9 and 20:1n-11. The ratio of saturated to mono- and polyunsaturated FAs in digestive tube was independent on inside content while there was a redistribution of the total amount of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids. The comparison of FA composition of the wild and the cultured sea cucumber showed that 20:5n-3, 16:1n-7 and 18:1n-7 predominated the wild while 20:4n-6 predominated the cultured. The content of branched-chain fatty acids in the wild was 3%-4% and about 9% in the cultured. The possible FAs for identifying the wild and the cultured sea cucumbers were selected. It was suggested that the indexes such as the ratio of either (n-3:n-6) to (n-7:n-6) or (n-3) + (n-7) to (n-6) may serve as the biomarkers distinguishing the wild and the cultured sea cucumber.

  17. Roles of auxin transport and action in the gravity-regulated morphogenesis of cucumber seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Y.; Shimizu, M.; Hotta, T.; Dai-Hee, K.; Yanai, K.; Kamada, M.; Fujii, N.; Miyazawa, Y.; Takahashi, H.

    Cucumber Cucumis sativus L seedlings develop a specialized protuberance peg on the lower side of the transition zone between the hypocotyl and the root when seeds germinate in a horizontal position The peg plays an important role in pulling seedling out from the seed coat We have reported that cucumber seedlings potentially develop a peg on each side of the transition zone but peg development on the upper side is suppressed in response to gravity Auxin is the primary factor responsible for the induction or the suppression of peg formation Here we investigated the roles of auxin transport and action in the gravity-regulated formation suppression of the peg in cucumber seedlings When cucumber seedlings were treated with inhibitors of auxin efflux carrier a peg was formed not only on the lower side but also on the upper side of the gravistimulated transition zone suggesting that activation of auxin efflux carriers is required for the suppression of peg formation To identify auxin efflux carriers involved in the suppression of peg formation by graviresponse we isolated six cucumber cDNAs of PIN auxin efflux carrier genes and investigated their mRNA accumulation and protein expression Our results show that CsPIN1 and CsPIN6 could play a role in the redistribution of auxin in the transition zone To understand auxin action on peg formation suppression we next examined the transcriptional regulators for the expressions of auxin-responsive genes The results suggest that a higher level of auxin in the lower side of the

  18. The Different Physiological and Antioxidative Responses of Zucchini and Cucumber to Sewage Sludge Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyrwicka, Anna; Urbaniak, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates the effect of soil amended with sewage sludge on oxidative changes in zucchini and cucumber plants (Cucurbitaceae) and the consequent activation of their antioxidative systems and detoxification mechanisms. The plants were grown in pots containing soil amended with three concentrations of sewage sludge (1.8 g, 5.4 g and 10.8 g per pot), while controls were potted with vegetable soil. The activities of three antioxidative enzymes, ascorbate peroxidase (APx), catalase (CAT) and guaiacol peroxidase (POx), were assessed, as well as of the detoxifying enzyme S-glutathione transferase (GST). Lipid peroxidation was evaluated by measuring the extent of oxidative damage; α-tocopherol content, the main lipophilic antioxidant, was also measured. Visible symptoms of leaf blade damage after sewage sludge application occurred only on the zucchini plants. The zucchini and cucumber plants showed a range of enzymatic antioxidant responses to sewage sludge application. While APx and POx activities increased significantly with increasing sludge concentration in the zucchini plants, they decreased in the cucumber plants. Moreover, although the activity of these enzymes increased gradually with increasing doses of sewage sludge, these levels fell at the highest dose. An inverse relationship between peroxidases activity and CAT activity was observed in both investigated plant species. In contrast, although GST activity increased progressively with sludge concentration in both the zucchini and cucumber leaves, the increase in GST activity was greater in the zucchini plants, being visible at the lowest dose used. The results indicate that signs of sewage sludge toxicity were greater in zucchini than cucumber, and its defense reactions were mainly associated with increases in APx, POx and GST activity.

  19. The Different Physiological and Antioxidative Responses of Zucchini and Cucumber to Sewage Sludge Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyrwicka, Anna; Urbaniak, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates the effect of soil amended with sewage sludge on oxidative changes in zucchini and cucumber plants (Cucurbitaceae) and the consequent activation of their antioxidative systems and detoxification mechanisms. The plants were grown in pots containing soil amended with three concentrations of sewage sludge (1.8 g, 5.4 g and 10.8 g per pot), while controls were potted with vegetable soil. The activities of three antioxidative enzymes, ascorbate peroxidase (APx), catalase (CAT) and guaiacol peroxidase (POx), were assessed, as well as of the detoxifying enzyme S-glutathione transferase (GST). Lipid peroxidation was evaluated by measuring the extent of oxidative damage; α-tocopherol content, the main lipophilic antioxidant, was also measured. Visible symptoms of leaf blade damage after sewage sludge application occurred only on the zucchini plants. The zucchini and cucumber plants showed a range of enzymatic antioxidant responses to sewage sludge application. While APx and POx activities increased significantly with increasing sludge concentration in the zucchini plants, they decreased in the cucumber plants. Moreover, although the activity of these enzymes increased gradually with increasing doses of sewage sludge, these levels fell at the highest dose. An inverse relationship between peroxidases activity and CAT activity was observed in both investigated plant species. In contrast, although GST activity increased progressively with sludge concentration in both the zucchini and cucumber leaves, the increase in GST activity was greater in the zucchini plants, being visible at the lowest dose used. The results indicate that signs of sewage sludge toxicity were greater in zucchini than cucumber, and its defense reactions were mainly associated with increases in APx, POx and GST activity. PMID:27327659

  20. Comparative transcriptome analysis of papilla and skin in the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxu Zhou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Papilla and skin are two important organs of the sea cucumber. Both tissues have ectodermic origin, but they are morphologically and functionally very different. In the present study, we performed comparative transcriptome analysis of the papilla and skin from the sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus in order to identify and characterize gene expression profiles by using RNA-Seq technology. We generated 30.6 and 36.4 million clean reads from the papilla and skin and de novo assembled in 156,501 transcripts. The Gene Ontology (GO analysis indicated that cell part, metabolic process and catalytic activity were the most abundant GO category in cell component, biological process and molecular funcation, respectively. Comparative transcriptome analysis between the papilla and skin allowed the identification of 1,059 differentially expressed genes, of which 739 genes were expressed at higher levels in papilla, while 320 were expressed at higher levels in skin. In addition, 236 differentially expressed unigenes were not annotated with any database, 160 of which were apparently expressed at higher levels in papilla, 76 were expressed at higher levels in skin. We identified a total of 288 papilla-specific genes, 171 skin-specific genes and 600 co-expressed genes. Also, 40 genes in papilla-specific were not annotated with any database, 2 in skin-specific. Development-related genes were also enriched, such as fibroblast growth factor, transforming growth factor-β, collagen-α2 and Integrin-α2, which may be related to the formation of the papilla and skin in sea cucumber. Further pathway analysis identified ten KEGG pathways that were differently enriched between the papilla and skin. The findings on expression profiles between two key organs of the sea cucumber should be valuable to reveal molecular mechanisms involved in the development of organs that are related but with morphological differences in the sea cucumber.

  1. A bench-scale, cost effective and simple method to elicit Lycopersicon esculentum cv. PKM1 (tomato) plants against Cucumber mosaic virus attack using ozone-mediated inactivated Cucumber mosaic virus inoculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakar, N; Nagendra-Prasad, D; Mohan, N; Murugesan, K

    2007-12-01

    Studies were undertaken to evaluate ozone for inactivation of Cucumber mosaic virus present in the inoculum and to stimulate Lycopersicon esculentum cv. PKM1 (tomato) plants against Cucumber mosaic virus infection by using the inactivated Cucumber mosaic virus inoculum. Application of a T(4) (0.4mg/l) concentration of ozone to the inoculum containing Cucumber mosaic virus resulted in complete inactivation of the virus. The inactivated viral inoculum was mixed with a penetrator (delivery agent), referred to as T(4) preparation, and it was evaluated for the development of systemic acquired resistance in the tomato plants. Application of a T(4) preparation 5 days before inoculation with the Cucumber mosaic virus protected tomato plants from the effects of Cucumber mosaic virus. Among the components of the inactivated virus tested, coat protein subunits and aggregates were responsible for the acquired resistance in tomato plants. In field trials, the results of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed that, Cucumber mosaic virus accumulation was significantly less for all the test plants (16%) sprayed with the T(4) preparation than untreated control plants (89.5%) at 28 days postinoculation (dpi). A remarkable increase in the activities of the total soluble phenolics (10-fold) and salicylic acid (16-fold) was detected 5 days after the treatment in foliar extracts of test plants relative to untreated control plants. The results showed that treatment of tomato plants with inactivated viral inoculum led to a significant enhancement of protection against Cucumber mosaic virus attack in a manner that mimics a real pathogen and induces systemic acquired resistance.

  2. Eelgrass detritus as a food source for the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus Selenka (Echinidermata: Holothuroidea in coastal waters of North China: an experimental study in flow-through systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xujia Liu

    Full Text Available Eelgrass ecosystems have a wide variety of ecological functions in which living tissues and detritus may be a food source for many marine animals. In this study, we conducted a laboratory simulating experiment to understand the trophic relationship between the eelgrass Zostera marina L and the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. A mixture of decaying eelgrass debris and seafloor surface muddy sediments was used as food to feed A. japonicus, and then specific growth rates (SGR and fecal production rates (FPR were measured. According to the proportion of eelgrass debris, we designed five treatment diets, i.e., ES0, ES10, ES20, ES40, and ES100, with eelgrass debris accounting for 0%, 10%, 20%, 40%, and 100% in dry weight, respectively. Results showed that diet composition had a great influence on the growth of A. japonicus. Sea cucumbers could use decaying eelgrass debris as their food source; and when the organic content of a mixture of eelgrass debris and sediment was 19.6% (ES40, a relatively high SGR (1.54%·d(-1 and FPR (1.31 g·ind.(-1 d(-1 of A. japonicus were obtained. It is suggested that eelgrass beds can not only provide habitat for the sea cucumber A. japonicus but can also provide an indirect food source for the deposit feeder. This means that the restoration and reconstruction of eelgrass beds, especially in coastal waters of China, would be a potential and effective measure for sea-cucumber fisheries, in respect to both resource restoration and aquaculture of this valuable species.

  3. Eelgrass detritus as a food source for the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus Selenka (Echinidermata: Holothuroidea) in coastal waters of North China: an experimental study in flow-through systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xujia; Zhou, Yi; Yang, Hongsheng; Ru, Shaoguo

    2013-01-01

    Eelgrass ecosystems have a wide variety of ecological functions in which living tissues and detritus may be a food source for many marine animals. In this study, we conducted a laboratory simulating experiment to understand the trophic relationship between the eelgrass Zostera marina L and the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. A mixture of decaying eelgrass debris and seafloor surface muddy sediments was used as food to feed A. japonicus, and then specific growth rates (SGR) and fecal production rates (FPR) were measured. According to the proportion of eelgrass debris, we designed five treatment diets, i.e., ES0, ES10, ES20, ES40, and ES100, with eelgrass debris accounting for 0%, 10%, 20%, 40%, and 100% in dry weight, respectively. Results showed that diet composition had a great influence on the growth of A. japonicus. Sea cucumbers could use decaying eelgrass debris as their food source; and when the organic content of a mixture of eelgrass debris and sediment was 19.6% (ES40), a relatively high SGR (1.54%·d(-1)) and FPR (1.31 g·ind.(-1) d(-1)) of A. japonicus were obtained. It is suggested that eelgrass beds can not only provide habitat for the sea cucumber A. japonicus but can also provide an indirect food source for the deposit feeder. This means that the restoration and reconstruction of eelgrass beds, especially in coastal waters of China, would be a potential and effective measure for sea-cucumber fisheries, in respect to both resource restoration and aquaculture of this valuable species.

  4. Cucumber Powdery Mildew Pathogen Molecular Identification and Prevention Technology in Greenhouse in Huzhu%互助县温室大棚黄瓜白粉病病原菌分子鉴定及防治技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白露佼; 蔡芳; 王鹏

    2015-01-01

    In order to ascertain types of cucumber powdery mildew pathogen, we investigated cucumber greenhouse in Huzhu county randomly,and collected plant tissue with disease, that acquisition of powdery mildew on the molecular iden-tification of powdery mildew pathogen suggested cucumber powdery mildew should be prevented primarily by chemical control methods as before, combined with high temperature.%为明确青海互助县温室大棚黄瓜白粉病病原菌的分类,随机调查种植黄瓜的日光温室,采集发病的植株组织,对白粉菌进行无性型扫描电镜观察和 DNA 提取。试验结果发现,互助县温室大棚内白粉菌为苍耳单囊白粉菌,生产中仍以化学防治为主,可结合高温闷棚灭菌。

  5. Research on possibilities of utilization of chosen Brassicaceae plants in protection of cucumber against damping-off caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kühn and Fusarium culmorum (W.G.SmithSacc.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew J. Burgieł

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was to determine the usefulness of dried leaves of savoy cabbage, red cabbage, horse radish and fringed cabbage in protection of cucumber against damping-off caused by fungi Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium culmorum. In the laboratory experiments, pathogens were grown on PDA containing dried leaves (3g·100 cm-3 and in atmosphere containing volatile substances evolved from plant material. The addition of radish horse leaves into PDA caused total inhibition of R. solani development. Remaining plants were also characterized by high fungistatic activity (% of growth inhibition about 85%. F. culmorum was less sensitive. The horse radish leaves showed the strongest activity (65 %, weakest in combination with fringed cabbage leaves (38,9%. The similar regularity in the case of fumigation activity was observed. The effectiveness of dried leaves in protection of cucumber against damping-off was confirmed in greenhouse experiment. The amendment of soil inoculated with R. solani in dose 2 g per 500 cm3 of soil significantly increased the number of cucumber sprouts compared to the control. In the experiment with F. culmorum only in combination with horse radish and red cabbage leaves significant action was observed.

  6. Chilling tolerant U.S. processing cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.): three advanced backcross and ten inbred backcross lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental stresses such as chilling temperatures can reduce seed germination rate, seeding emergence rate, flower and fruit development, marketable yield, and postharvest fruit storage longevity in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Chilling temperatures occur in unpredictable patterns, making it d...

  7. [Effects of chlorophyllin-iron on osmotic adjustment and activities of antioxidantive enzymes in cucumber seedlings under suboptimal temperature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng; Wang, Xiu-feng; Zhang, Fan-yang; Wei, Min; Shi, Qing-hua; Yang, Feng-juan; Li, Yan

    2014-12-01

    Cucumber cultivar 'Jinyan 4' was subjected to suboptimal temperature treatment of 18/12 degrees C (day/night) in the growth chambers. A solution culture experiment was conducted to study the effect of exogenously spraying 5 mg x L(-1) chlorophyllin-iron solution on plant growth, the content of proline, soluble sugar, MDA and activity of peroxidase in the leaves of cucumber seedling under suboptimal temperature. Application of chlorophyllin-iron showed prominent effects on mitigating the stress of suboptimal temperature on growth of the cucumber seedlings, significantly increasing the plant height, leaf area, shoot dry mass, the contents of soluble sugar and proline and the activities of SOD, POD, CAT and APX. Exogenously spraying chlorophyllin-iron could promote the accumulation of proline and soluble sugar, raise the activities of antioxidant enzymes, decrease the membrane lipid peroxidation and improve the adaptability of cucumber seedlings under suboptimal temperature.

  8. Effects of washing, peeling, storage, and fermentation on residue contents of carbaryl and mancozeb in cucumbers grown in greenhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeedi Saravi, S S; Shokrzadeh, M

    2016-06-01

    Cucumbers grown in two different greenhouses were exposed to mancozeb and carbaryl at different times. The effects of 10-day preharvest period, water and detergent washing, peeling, predetermined storage period at 4°C (refrigeration), and fermentation on the reduction of residue levels in the plant tissues were investigated. Mancozeb and carbaryl residues in cucumbers were determined by gas chromatography-electron capture detection. Results showed that residue levels in samples, which were collected after 10 days following the pesticide application, were significantly lower than the samples collected after 2 h subsequent to the pesticide application. The culinary applications were effective in reducing the residue levels of the pesticides in cucumbers. As a result, non-fermentative pickling in sodium chloride and acetic acid was the most effective way to reduce the mancozeb and carbaryl residues of the cucumbers.

  9. Characterization of long-term extension of isolated cell walls from growing cucumber hypocotyls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, D. J.

    1989-01-01

    Walls from frozen-thawed cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) hypocotyls extend for many hours when placed in tension under acidic conditions. This study examined whether such "creep" is a purely physical process dependent on wall viscoelasticity alone or whether enzymatic activities are needed to maintain wall extension. Chemical denaturants inhibited wall creep, some acting reversibly and others irreversibly. Brief (15 s) boiling in water irreversibly inhibited creep, as did pre-incubation with proteases. Creep exhibited a high Q10 (3.8) between 20 degrees and 30 degrees C, with slow inactivation at higher temperatures, whereas the viscous flow of pectin solutions exhibited a much lower Q10 (1.35). On the basis of its temperature sensitivity, involvement of pectic gel-sol transitions was judged to be of little importance in creep. Pre-incubation of walls in neutral pH irreversibly inactivated their ability to creep, with a half-time of about 40 min. At 1 mM, Cu2+, Hg2+ and Al3+ were strongly inhibitory whereas most other cations, including Ca2+, had little effect. Sulfhydryl-reducing agents strongly stimulated creep, apparently by stabilizing wall enzyme(s). The physical effects of these treatments on polymer interactions were examined by Instron and stress-relaxation analyses. Some treatments, such as pH and Cu2+, had significant effects on wall viscoelasticity, but others had little or no apparent effect, thus implicating an enzymatic creep mechanism. The results indicate that creep depends on relatively rugged enzymes that are firmly attached to or entangled in the wall. The sensitivity of creep to SH-reducing agents indicates that thiol reduction of wall enzymes might provide a control mechanism for endogenous cell growth.

  10. Sustainability Evaluation of Different Systems for Sea Cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) Farming Based on Emergy Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Guodong; DONG Shuanglin; TIAN Xiangli; GAO Qinfeng; WANG Fang

    2015-01-01

    Emergy analysis is effective for analyzing ecological economic systems. However, the accuracy of the approach is af-fected by the diversity of economic level, meteorological and hydrological parameters in different regions. The present study evalu-ated the economic benefits, environmental impact, and sustainability of indoor, semi-intensive and extensive farming systems of sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) in the same region. The results showed thatA. japonicus indoor farming system was high in input and output (yield) whereas pond extensive farming system was low in input and output. The output/input ratio of indoor farm-ing system was lower than that of pond extensive farming system, and the output/input ratio of semi-intensive farming system fell in between them. The environmental loading ratio ofA. japonicus extensive farming system was lower than that of indoor farming sys-tem. In addition, the emergy yield and emergy exchange ratios, and emergy sustainability and emergy indexes for sustainable devel-opment were higher in extensive farming system than those in indoor farming system. These results indicated that the current exten-sive farming system exerted fewer negative influences on the environment, made more efficient use of available resources, and met more sustainable development requirements than the indoor farming system.A. japonicus farming systems showed more emergy benefits than fish farming systems. The pond farming systems ofA. japonicus exploited more free local environmental resources for production, caused less potential pressure on the local environment, and achieved higher sustainability than indoor farming system.

  11. Production of cucumber mosaic virus RNA5 and its role in recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wispelaere, Melissanne; Rao, A L N

    2009-02-05

    Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV) is a plant infecting tripartite positive-strand RNA virus. In addition to three genomic and two known subgenomic RNAs, CMV strains of subgroup II (e.g. Q-CMV), but not subgroup I (e.g. Fny-CMV), produce and package a redundant RNA5 encompassing the 3' 304-307 nucleotides of RNAs 2 and 3. The mechanism regulating RNA5 production and its role in CMV life cycle is unknown. In this study, transient expression of Q2 or Q3 by agroinfiltration into Nicotiana benthamiana plants resulted in efficient accumulation of RNA5 suggesting that its production is independent of CMV replication. Deletion and point mutations engineered into a highly conserved region (Box1) adjacent to the 5' end of RNA5 identified sequences required for its efficient production. An experimental system, involving a chimera of Q3 (Q3B3) characterized by having a 3' tRNA-like structure (3'TLS) from Brome mosaic virus (BMV) and RNA5 defective variants of Q1 (Q1Delta), Q2 (Q2Delta) and Q3B3 (Q3DeltaB3), was used to evaluate in vivo the contribution of RNA5 in promoting RNA recombination. Generation of precise homologous recombinants was strictly dependent on sequence identity. When both parental RNAs carried the Box1, recombination occurred preferentially within the Box1. In contrast, generation of non-homologous recombinants occurred only when Q1 and Q2 were competent to produce RNA5. A mechanistic model explaining the functional role played by the RNA5 in generating CMV recombinants was presented.

  12. Amino acid composition and functional properties of giant red sea cucumber ( Parastichopus californicus) collagen hydrolysates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zunying; Su, Yicheng; Zeng, Mingyong

    2011-03-01

    Giant red sea cucumber ( Parastichopus californicus) is an under-utilized species due to its high tendency to autolysis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional properties of collagen hydrolysates from this species. The degree of hydrolysis (DH), amino acid composition, SDS-PAGE, emulsion activity index (EAI), emulsion stability index (ESI), foam expansion (FE), and foam stability (FS) of hydrolysates were investigated. The effects of pH on the EAI, ESI FE and FS of hydrolysates were also investigated. The results indicated that the β and α 1 chains of the collagen were effectively hydrolyzed by trypsin at 50°c with an Enzyme/Substrate (E/S) ration of 1:20 (w:w). The DH of collagen was up to 17.3% after 3 h hydrolysis with trypsin. The hydrolysates had a molecular weight distribution of 1.1-17 kDa, and were abundant in glycine (Gly), proline (Pro), glutamic acid (Glu), alanine (Ala) and hydroxyproline (Hyp) residues. The hydrolysates were fractionated into three fractions ( 10 kDa), and the fraction of 3-10 kDa exhibited a higher EAI value than the fraction of > 10 kDa ( P 10 kDa had higher FE and FS values than other fractions ( P4.0. Under pH 7.0 and pH 10.0, the 3-10 kDa fraction showed higher EAI value and the fraction of > 10 kDa showed higher FE value, respectively. They are hoped to be utilized as functional ingredients in food and nutraceutical industries.

  13. Wirus mozaiki ogórka na zawilcu (Anemone coronaria L. [Cucumber mosaic virus on Anemone coronaria L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kochman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available From Anemone coronaria cucumber mosaic virus (Cucumis virus 1 Smith was isolated. It caused a general chlorosis, reduction of leaves blades and of the whole plants. 66 species of test plants were inoculated with the sap from infected cucumber plants. 33 of these were infected systemically and 11 only locally. Among 22 noninfected plants was Anemone coronaria which indicated as it was experimentally proved, that this species is infected only by the aphids – Myzus persicae Sulz.

  14. Functional characterization of gibberellin oxidases from cucumber, Cucumis sativus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta Lange, Maria João; Liebrandt, Anja; Arnold, Linda; Chmielewska, Sara-Miriam; Felsberger, André; Freier, Eduard; Heuer, Monika; Zur, Doreen; Lange, Theo

    2013-06-01

    Cucurbits have been used widely to elucidate gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis. With the recent availability of the genome sequence for the economically important cucurbit Cucumis sativus, sequence data became available for all genes potentially involved in GA biosynthesis for this species. Sixteen cDNAs were cloned from root and shoot of 3-d to 7-d old seedlings and from mature seeds of C. sativus. Two cDNAs code for GA 7-oxidases (CsGA7ox1, and -2), five for GA 20-oxidases (CsGA20ox1, -2, -3, -4, and -5), four for GA 3-oxidases (CsGA3ox1, -2, -3, and -4), and another five for GA 2-oxidases (CsGA2ox1, -2, -3, -4, and -5). Their enzymatic activities were investigated by heterologous expression of the cDNAs in Escherichia coli and incubation of the cell lysates with (14)C-labelled, D2-labelled, or unlabelled GA-substrates. The two GA 7-oxidases converted GA12-aldehyde to GA12 efficiently. CsGA7ox1 converted GA12 to GA14, to 15α-hydroxyGA12, and further to 15α-hydroxyGA14. CsGA7ox2 converted GA12 to its 12α-hydroxylated analogue GA111. All five GA 20-oxidases converted GA12 to GA9 as a major product, and to GA25 as a minor product. The four GA 3-oxidases oxidized the C19-GA GA9 to GA4 as the only product. In addition, three of them (CsGA3ox2, -3, and -4) converted the C20-GA GA12 to GA14. The GA 2-oxidases CsGA2ox1, -2, -3, and -4 oxidized the C19-GAs GA9 and GA4 to GA34 and GA51, respectively. CsGA2ox2, -3, and -4 converted GA51 and GA34 further to respective GA-catabolites. In addition to C19-GAs, CsGA2ox4 also converted the C20-GA GA12 to GA110. In contrast, CsGA2ox5 oxidized only the C20 GA12 to GA110 as the sole product. As shown for CsGA20ox1 and CsGA3ox1, similar reactions were catalysed with 13-hydroxlyated GAs as substrates. It is likely that these enzymes are also responsible for the biosynthesis of 13-hydroxylated GAs in vivo that occur at low levels in cucumber.

  15. Characterization of Cucumber Mosaic Virus Originating from Cucurbits in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Vučurović

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV is considered one of the most economically importantplant viruses and has a worldwide distribution and a very wide host range including plantsfrom family Cucurbitaceae. In Serbia, on cucurbits CMV was detected in single and mixedinfections with Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV and Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV. Viruses,including CMV, are constantly present in cucurbit crops, but their frequency changesby year and locality. Surveys and sample collections were conducted in cucurbit crops inthe period from 2008 to 2009 at 15 localities in Vojvodina province, and sample testing wascarried out using the DAS-ELISA method and commercially available antisera for six economicallymost important cucurbit viruses. In 2008, a total of 51 samples were collected from13 cucurbit crops of oilseed pumpkin Olinka variety, squash, and bottle gourd and CMV wasdetected in a total of 55% of tested samples with symptoms of viral infection. The most commoninfectious type was mixed infection with ZYMV and WMV (35.3%, and then mixedinfection with ZYMV (17.7% and WMV (2%. A total of 599 symptomatic samples of oilseedpumpkin Olinka variety, zucchini squash varieties Beogradska and Tosca, squash, and wintersquash were collected in 15 cucurbits crops in 2009. CMV was present in 4.4% of totalcollected samples, in single infections in 1.3%, and in mixed with WMV or ZYMV in 1.3%, and1.8%. Five CMV isolates were obtained by mechanical inoculations of N. glutinosa and oneof them was selected for further biological characterization. Test plants which were describedto be hosts of CMV expressed symptoms characteristic for those caused by CMV afterinoculations by isolate 115-08. CMV specific primers Au1u/Au2d were used to amplify an850 bp fragment using RT-PCR method. Amplified fragment encodes the entire viral coatprotein (CP gene and partial 5’ and 3’ UTRs of two selected CMV isolates. Amplified fragmentswere sequenced and deposited in the NCBI, where

  16. Avaliação da atividade antioxidante utilizando sistema beta-caroteno/ácido linoléico e método de seqüestro de radicais DPPH• Evaluation of the antioxidant activity using the b-carotene/linoleic acid system and the DPPH scavenging method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Maurício Duarte-Almeida

    2006-06-01

    extract, due to its high vitamin C content, acted as pro-oxidant, but açaí, black-berry and strawberry extracts acted as antioxidants in -carotene/linoleic acid system. However, by the DPPH• radical scavenging assay the acerola extract presented the highest antioxidant activity, followed by açaí, black-berrry and strawberrry. The adaptation of methods to evaluate the antioxidant activity using microplate allowed the realization of multiple analyses simultaneously and minimized significantly the use of reagents and samples.

  17. Evaluation of cucurbitacin-based gustatory stimulant to facilitate cucumber beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) management with foliar insecticides in melons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Andrew B; Godfrey, Larry D

    2011-08-01

    The bitter plant-derived compounds cucurbitacins are known to stimulate feeding of adult cucumber beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). A cucurbitacin-based gustatory stimulant applied as a flowable bait combined with either spinosad or carbaryl was compared with foliar sprays of spinosad and carbaryl for controlling two cucumber beetle species (Diabrotica undecimpunctata undecimpunctata Mannerheim and Acalymma trivittatum Mannerheim) in honeydew melons (Cucumis melo L.). Field studies were conducted on the University of California-Davis plant pathology farm in 2008 and 2009. Beetle densities after applications and fruit damage from beetle feeding were compared among treatments. In addition, beetle survival was compared within field cages placed over the treated foliage infested with beetles. Using all three measures of efficacy, we determined that the addition of cucurbitacin bait had no effect on the level of cucumber beetle control with carbaryl in either 2008 or 2009. In both years, spinosad did not significantly reduce cucumber beetle densities in either field cages or field plots and did not reduce fruit damage relative to the untreated control. The addition of the bait to spinosad did not improve its efficacy. A laboratory bioassay of the spinosad formulation used in the field showed it had significant lethal effects on adults of both cucumber beetle species. Results indicated that the bait formulation used did not improve cucumber beetle control but may benefit from the addition of floral attractants or using a different type of cucurbitacin.

  18. Transcriptome comparison of global distinctive features between pollination and parthenocarpic fruit set reveals transcriptional phytohormone cross-talk in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ji; Wu, Zhe; Cui, Li; Zhang, Tinglin; Guo, Qinwei; Xu, Jian; Jia, Li; Lou, Qunfeng; Huang, Sanwen; Li, Zhengguo; Chen, Jinfeng

    2014-07-01

    Parthenocarpy is an important trait determining yield and quality of fruit crops. However, the understanding of the mechanisms underlying parthenocarpy induction is limited. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is abundant in parthenocarpic germplasm resources and is an excellent model organism for parthenocarpy studies. In this study, the transcriptome of cucumber fruits was studied using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of set fruits were compared against aborted fruits. Distinctive features of parthenocarpic and pollinated fruits were revealed by combining the analysis of the transcriptome together with cytomorphological and physiological analysis. Cell division and the transcription of cell division genes were found to be more active in parthenocarpic fruit. The study also indicated that parthenocarpic fruit set is a high sugar-consuming process which is achieved via enhanced carbohydrate degradation through transcription of genes that lead to the breakdown of carbohydrates. Furthermore, the evidence provided by this work supports a hypothesis that parthenocarpic fruit set is induced by mimicking the processes of pollination/fertilization at the transcriptional level, i.e. by performing the same transcriptional patterns of genes inducing pollination and gametophyte development as in pollinated fruit. Based on the RNA-Seq and ovary transient expression results, 14 genes were predicted as putative parthenocarpic genes. The transcription analysis of these candidate genes revealed auxin, cytokinin and gibberellin cross-talk at the transcriptional level during parthenocarpic fruit set.

  19. Gravimorphogenesis of Cucurbitaceae plants: development of peg cells and graviperception mechanism in cucumber seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, H; Fujii, N; Kamada, M; Higashitani, A; Yamazaki, Y; Kobayashi, A; Takano, M; Yamasaki, S; Sakata, T; Mizuno, H; Kaneko, Y; Murata, T; Kamigaichi, S; Aizawa, S; Yoshizaki, I; Shimazu, T; Fukui, K

    2000-06-01

    We examined the effect of microgravity on the peg formation of cucumber seedlings for clarifying the mechanism of gravimorphogenesis in cucurbitaceous plants. The spaceflight experiments verified that gravity controls the formation of peg, hypocotyl hook and growth orientation of cucumber seedlings. Space-grown cucumber developed a peg on each side of the transition zone of the hypocotyl and root, indicating that on the ground peg formation is regulated negatively by gravity (Takahashi et al. 2000). It was found that the auxin-regulated gene, CS-IAA1, was strongly expressed in the transition zone where peg develops (Fujii et al. 2000). In the seedlings grown horizontally on the ground, CS-IAA1 transcripts were much abundant on the lower side of the transition zone, but no such differential expression of CS-IAA1 was observed in the space-grown cucumber (Kamada et al. 2000). These results imply that gravity plays a role in peg formation through auxin redistribution. By the negative control, peg formation on the upper side of the transition zone in the horizontally growing seedlings might be suppressed due to a reduction in auxin concentration. The threshold theory of auxin concentration accounted for the new concept, negative control of morphogenesis by gravity (Kamada et al. 2000). Anatomical studies have shown that there exists the target cells destined to be a peg and distinguishable at the early stage of the growth. Ultra-structural analysis suggested that endoplasmic reticulum develops well in the cells of the future peg. Furthermore, it was found that reorganization of cortical microtubules is required for the change in cell growth polarity in the process of peg formation. The spaceflight experiment with cucumber seedlings also suggested that in microgravity positive hydrotropic response of roots occurred without interference by gravitropic response (Takahashi et al. 1999b). Thus, this spaceflight experiment together with the ground-based studies has shown that

  20. Studies on embryonic and larval development of sea cucumber (Holothuria scabra)%糙海参胚胎和幼体发育的形态观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严俊贤; 王世锋; 周永灿; 朱彦博; 冯永勤

    2012-01-01

    为提高糙海参育苗技术,研究描述了糙海参从受精卵发育到稚参的形态变化,在显微镜下测定了受精卵、胚胎和幼体的大小,确定了糙海参胚胎发育的过程.结果表明,通过利用阴干、流水刺激法对成熟亲参进行人工催产,得到大量的受精卵,其受精率为90%以上.糙海参胚胎和幼体发育可分为受精卵、卵裂期、囊胚期、旋转囊胚期、原肠期、初耳状幼体、中耳状幼体、大耳状幼体、樽形幼体和稚参等阶段;在平均水温29℃,平均盐度34条件下,糙海参受精卵经3h发育形成囊胚,4h进入旋转囊胚期,5h进入原肠期,19h完成胚胎发育变态为耳状幼体;并经过7d的生长与发育进入樽形幼体;第15天变态为稚参.观察发现,多精入卵现象则会导致胚胎发育不正常,最终使胚胎发育停止并死亡.在糙海参幼体发育过程中,大耳状幼体期幼虫臂的大小及其球状体的形成均可作为判断其幼体发育健康状况的重要指标:幼虫臂越大,球状体出现率越高,其幼虫的变态率和成活率也越高.对比发现,位于糙海参尾部的突出结构——尾突,为仿刺参和新西兰刺参所没有,这一结构差异同时导致了其骨片位置也不同;并且,糙海参胚胎和幼体与其他种类的海参在发育时间上存在一定差异.%At present, the cultivation of sea cucumber in China is mainly concentrated in the north. The main rearing species is Apostichopus japonicu. However, in the southern part of China , the high temperature of water is not fit for the cultivation of A. japonicu. As a result, to meet market demand, developing the cultivation of tropical sea cucumber is very necessary. Holothuria scabra is one of common tropical sea cucumbers with high economic value in Hainan. In this thesis, to enhance the seeding technology of H. scabra, the embryonic and larval development of H. scabra was observed and recorded. The heights of fertilized eggs

  1. 大蒜对日光温室黄瓜生长及土壤生物学特性的影响%Effects of garlic on cucumber growth and soil biology in solar greenhouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴会芹; 董林林; 王倩

    2011-01-01

    This study was focused on the impacts of garlic amendment on cucumber growth and soil biological properties by potted tests in a greenhouse. The results indicated that adding garlic residue significantly improved cucumber growth. The fresh weight of cucumber was positivly correlated with the added quantity of garlic residues. The numbers of bacteria and actinomycetes were enhanced due to the addition in the whole growth period of cucumber.However,adding 3% garlic residue decreased the number of fungi and fusarium, increased B/F ratio and optimized soil microbial community structure. Moreover,garlic residue increased the activity of polyhenol oxidase,saccharase, urease and catalase of rhizosphere soil at seedling stage. At harvesting stage,the four enzyme activities were significantly high at the adding rate of more than 2.0%, showing improving the environment favorable for the growth of cucumber stage.%利用盆栽试验研究大蒜干样还田后,对日光温室黄瓜生长及土壤生化特性的影响.结果表明:添加大蒜干样后,显著增加黄瓜植株的鲜重,且与添加量成正比;在黄瓜的整个生长期,增加了细茵和放线茵的数量.当结果期大蒜的添加量为3.0%时,减少了真茵和镰刀茵的数量,并提高了土壤B/F(细菌+放线茵/真菌)值,优化了土壤微生物区系;而随着黄瓜的生长,促进黄瓜幼苗期根际土壤多酚氧化酶、蔗糖酶、尿酶和过氧化氢酶的活性.当结果期大蒜添加量大于2.0%时,对4种土壤酶具有显著的促进作用,使土壤环境有利于黄瓜生长.

  2. 食前热水处理提高鲜切黄瓜微生物安全性的研究%Improving microbial safety and quality of fresh-cut cucumbers by hot water treatments just before eating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张甜甜; 李天琪; 王庆国; 王敏

    2013-01-01

    This paper aimed to study the effect of hot water treatment for killing foodborne pathogens on freshcut cucumber while maintaining its freshness.Based on the sensory quality of fresh-cut cucumber after hot water treatment,selected hot water treatment conditions,and further studies of hot water treatment in reducing foodborne pathogens in water and on surface of fresh-cut cucumber were carried out.The results showed that:the high initial concentration numbers of 5.42 and 5.16log CFU/g for Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes respectively on fresh-cut cucumbers treated by 60℃ 5min heat treatment,were reduced to under detection line,although fresh-cut cucumber antioxidant value reduced and cell membrane permeability increased,but the measured hardness did not change,maintaining fresh sensory and good eating value.%探讨食前热水处理能否有效杀灭鲜切黄瓜表面的单增李斯特菌和鼠伤寒沙门氏菌这两种食源性致病菌,同时又保持其新鲜度.实验首先根据热水处理后鲜切黄瓜的感官品质,筛选了其耐热条件,进一步研究了热处理对水中和鲜切黄瓜表面食源性致病菌降低的效果.结果表明,经60℃5min热水处理,鲜切黄瓜上的鼠伤寒沙门氏菌、单增李斯特菌数量从高起始染菌浓度5.42、5.161og CFU/g,降低到检测线(0.6log CFU/g)以下,鲜切黄瓜的抗氧化值降低、细胞膜透性有所提高,但其测定硬度变化不大,感官上仍鲜脆,仍具有较好食用价值.

  3. Bioinformatic investigation of the role of ubiquitins in cucumber flower morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawełkowicz, Magdalena; Osipowski, Paweł; Wojcieszek, Michał; Kowalczuk, Cezary; PlÄ der, Wojciech; Przybecki, Zbigniew

    2016-09-01

    Three cDNA clones were used to screen cucumber genome in order to find genes and proteins. Functional annotation reveals that they are correlated with ubiquitination pathways. Various bioinformatics tools were used to screen and check protein sequences features such as: the presence of specific domains, transmembrane regions, cleavage site and cellular placement. The computational analysis for promotor region shows many binding sites for transcription factors, which could regulate the expression of genes. In order to check gene expression levels in developing flower buds of monoecious (B10) and gynoecious (2gg) cucumber lines, the real - time PCR technique was applied. The expression was checked for the whole buds and only for the 3rd and 4th whorls of bud when generative organ are form which were obtained by Laser Capture Microdissection (LCM) technique.

  4. The Effect of Salt Priming on the Performance of Differentially Matured Cucumber (Cucumis sativus Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazem GHASSEMI-GOLEZANI

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The influence of salt priming (3% KNO3 for 3 days and 1% NaCl for 2 days at 20 degree on germination, seedling emergence and seedling dry weight of two Iranian cucumber cultivars of Basmenj and Varamin harvested at 25, 35 and 45 days after anthesis (DAA was investigated in an unheated glasshouse. Seed germination and seedling emergence and growth were significantly affected by seed maturity and priming. Maximum advantage of priming seedling vigour was observed in seeds harvested at 25 DAA. Smaller effects of priming were also seen in the decreased mean germination and emergence times and increased seedling dry weight of seeds harvested at 35 and 45 DAA. Priming reduced percentage of seeds that germinated, but failed to emerge. In all cases, KNO3 priming was more effective than NaCl priming. Therefore, KNO3 priming can be used to improve cucumber seedling emergence and establishment, particularly in early spring sowings at low temperatures.

  5. Determination of set potential voltages for cucumber mosaic virus detection using screen printed carbon electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uda, M. N. A.; Hasfalina, C. M.; Samsuzana, A. A.; Faridah, S.; Rafidah A., R.; Hashim, U.; Ariffin, Shahrul A. B.; Gopinath, Subash C. B.

    2017-03-01

    Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV) is a most dangerous pathogen among the cucurbit plant which it striking cucumbers, zucchinis, squashes, watermelons but it also striking to non-cucurbit such as peppers, tobaccos, celeries, beans and tomatoes. Symptoms shown by this virus when they starting to strike are very significant and at the end can kill the hosts they infected. In order to detect these viruses, biosensor such as screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) is developed and fixes a set potential voltage is defined using Chronoamperometry (CM) immunosensor technique. For short introduction, CM is a process which is a constant applied potential voltage between the working and reference electrode is maintained in order to create an electrons transfer for the oxidation or reduction species taking place at the surface of working electrode is measured and in this manuscript, complete details about measurement were used to finding the stable set potential voltages will be pointed out.

  6. Synergism of Lumbricus rubellus and Pseudomonas putida Pf-20 in Inducing Resistance to Cucumber Mosaic Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WIWIEK SRI WAHYUNI

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Both Lumbricus rubellus and Pseudomonas putida decompose soil organic matters. The population of P. putida Pf-20 increased if L. rubellus was introduced to the cucumber growth medium. The process of organic decomposition was much better if the medium was introduced with both L. rubellus and P. putida Pf-20, compared to the medium contained only either one of those organisms. The activity of L. rubellus may serve to provide nutrients for both the cucumber and P. putida. The role of P. putida to reduce disease severity was increased if L. rubellus was introduced to the growth medium. The synergism of these two organisms, reduced either the level of disease severity to CMV-48 and C/N ratio of medium, but increased the content of available phosphor and potassium.

  7. Differential effects of organic compounds on cucumber damping-off and biocontrol activity of antagonistic bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Bin; Ravnskov, Sabine; Guanlin, X.;

    2011-01-01

    The influence of the organic compounds tryptic soy broth, cellulose, glucose and chitosan on cucumber damping-off caused by Pythium aphanidermatum and biocontrol efficacy of the biocontrol agents (BCAs) Paenibacillus macerans and P. polymyxa were examined in a seedling emergence bioassay. Results...... showed that the organic compounds differentially affected both pathogen and BCAs. Tryptic soy broth, glucose and chitosan increased Pythium damping-off of cucumber, compared to the control treatment without organic compounds, whereas cellulose had no effect. Both Paenibacillus species had biocontrol...... effects against Pythium damping-off compared with the corresponding treatments with P. aphanidermatum alone, but the biocontrol efficacy depended on the type of organic compounds added. Both BCAs counteracted damping-off in treatments with TSB and chitosan. However, P. polymyxa counteracted damping...

  8. Polyploidy induction by hydrostatic pressure shock and embryo development of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Jun; CHANG Yaqing; WANG Zichen; SONG Jian

    2007-01-01

    The manipulation of the chromosome set for commercially valuable marine animals is important for enhancing aquacultural production. In this study, triploid and tetraploid sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus were induced by hydrostatic pressure shock, and the conditions of appropriate induction were tested with different starting times, and hydrostatic pressure intensities and durations. The highest rate of triploid induction reached 20% and that of tetraploid was 60%. In consideration of the survival rate and hatch rate, the appropriate treatment for triploid was 55 Mpa of hydrostatic pressure for 5 min at 55 min after fertilization (a.f.), while for tetraploid it was 60 Mpa for 5 min at 61 min a.f. The triploid of the sea cucumber could survive through the pelagic larval stage and attachment stage, and develop like the control group of the experiment. The tetraploid, however, could not survive the attachment stage.

  9. Antimicrobial Activity of Sphingolipids Isolated from the Stems of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Yu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Three antimicrobial sphingolipids were separated by bioassay-guided isolation from the chloroform fraction of the crude methanol extract of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. stems and identified as (2S,3S,4R,10E-2-[(2'R-2-hydroxytetra-cosanoylamino]-1,3,4-octadecanetriol-10-ene (1, 1-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl(2S,3S,4R,10E-2-[(2'R-2-hydroxy-tetracosanoylamino]-1,3,4-octadecanetriol-10-ene (2 and soya-cerebroside I (3 by their physicochemical properties and spectroscopic analysis. They were evaluated to show antifungal and antibacterial activity on test microorganisms including four fungal and three bacterial species. Among them, compound 1, a relatively low polarity aglycone,  exhibited stronger antimicrobial activity than its corresponding glycoside 2. The results indicated that sphingolipids could be the main antimicrobial compounds in the crude methanol extract of cucumber stems.

  10. Effects of cinnamic acid on the physiological characteristics of cucumber seedlings under salt stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xuezheng; WANG Hua; WU Fengzhi; LIU Bo

    2007-01-01

    Effects of cinnamic acid on the physiological characteristics of cucumber(Shandong Mici)seedlings under salt stress were studied,and the best concentration and treatment time were ascertained.The results showed that cinnamic acid relatively increased the leaf relative water content and the chlorophyll content,decreased plasma membrane permeability,mitigated membrane damage,inhibited the accumulation of malondialdehyde(product of membrane lipid peroxidation),and promoted the activity of membrane protective enzymes such as super oxide dismutase and peroxidase,therefore improving the adaptabilities of cucumber to salt stress.It is concluded that the best treatment time of cinnamic acid is in the two euphylla period,and the best treatment concentration of cinnamic acid is 50 μmol/L.

  11. [Allelopathic effects of Lycoris radiate on radish, cucumber, tomato and rape seedlings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hongyun; Zhang, Yanning; Feng, Pingzhang; Zhang, Heng

    2006-09-01

    The laboratory test showed that Lycoris radiate water extract had a stronger inhibitory effect on the seed germination and seedling growth of radish, cucumber, tomato and rape. After treated with 0.0125 g x ml(-1) of the extract, tomato seed could not germinate, but the seed germination inhibition rate of rape, radish and cucumber was only 17.73%, 14.97% and 2.65%, respectively. Under the same concentrations of the extract, sprout growth was inhibited more strongly than root growth. L. radiate methanol extract could inhibit the sprout and root growth of endosperm-removed wheat and sorghum, and the effect was stronger for sorghum than for wheat. All of these illustrated that L. radiate extracts mainly inhibited non-photosynthesis activity, but could also inhibit photosynthesis activity to some degree.

  12. Rheological and Structural Properties of Sea Cucumber Stichopus japonicus During Heat Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Xin; XUE Dongmei; ZHANG Zhaohui; XU Jiachao; XUE Changhu

    2005-01-01

    Changes in tissue structure, rheological properties and water content of raw and heated sea cucumber meat were studied. Sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus was heated at 25 ℃, 70 ℃ and 100 ℃ water for 5 min. The structural changes were observed using a light microscope and the rheological parameters (rupture strength, adhesive strength and deformation)determined using a texture meter. Microscopic photograph revealed that the structural change of heated meat was greater than that of raw meat. The rupture strength, adhesive strength and deformation of raw meat were smaller than those of the heated meat. Meanwhile, rheological parameters showed positive correlation with heating temperature. These changes are mainly caused by thermal denaturation and gelatinization of collagen during heating. These changes were also evidenced in observations using a light microscope and differential scanning calorimetry.

  13. CeO₂ and ZnO nanoparticles change the nutritional qualities of cucumber (Cucumis sativus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lijuan; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Rico, Cyren M; Hernandez-Viezcas, Jose A; Sun, Youping; Niu, Genhua; Servin, Alia; Nunez, Jose E; Duarte-Gardea, Maria; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2014-04-02

    There is lack of information about the effects of nanoparticles (NPs) on cucumber fruit quality. This study aimed to determine possible impacts on carbohydrates, proteins, mineral nutrients, and antioxidants in the fruit of cucumber plants grown in soil treated with CeO2 and ZnO NPs at 400 and 800 mg/kg. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to detect changes in functional groups, while ICP-OES and μ-XRF were used to quantify and map the distribution of nutrient elements, respectively. Results showed that none of the ZnO NP concentrations affected sugars; however at 400 mg/kg, CeO2 and ZnO NPs increased starch content. Conversely, CeO2 NPs did not affect starch content but impacted nonreducing sugar content (sucrose). FTIR data showed changes in the fingerprint regions of 1106, 1083, 1153, and 1181, indicating that both NPs altered the carbohydrate pattern. ZnO NPs did not impact protein fractionation; however, CeO2 NPs at 400 mg/kg increased globulin and decreased glutelin. Both CeO2 and ZnO NPs had no impact on flavonoid content, although CeO2 NPs at 800 mg/kg significantly reduced phenolic content. ICP-OES results showed that none of the treatments reduced macronutrients in fruit. In case of micronutrients, all treatments reduced Mo concentration, and at 400 mg/kg, ZnO NPs reduced Cu accumulation. μ-XRF revealed that Cu, Mn, and Zn were mainly accumulated in cucumber seeds. To the best of the authors' knowledge this is the first report on the nutritional quality of cucumber fruit attributed to the impact of CeO2 and ZnO NPs.

  14. QTL mapping of powdery mildew resistance in WI 2757 cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaoming; Li, Yuhong; Pandey, Sudhakar; Yandell, Brain S; Pathak, Mamta; Weng, Yiqun

    2013-08-01

    Powdery mildew (PM) is a very important disease of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Resistant cultivars have been deployed in production for a long time, but the genetic mechanisms of PM resistance in cucumber are not well understood. A 3-year QTL mapping study of PM resistance was conducted with 132 F2:3 families derived from two cucumber inbred lines WI 2757 (resistant) and True Lemon (susceptible). A genetic map covering 610.4 cM in seven linkage groups was developed with 240 SSR marker loci. Multiple QTL mapping analysis of molecular marker data and disease index of the hypocotyl, cotyledon and true leaf for responses to PM inoculation identified six genomic regions in four chromosomes harboring QTL for PM resistance in WI 2757. Among the six QTL, pm1.1 and pm1.2 in chromosome 1 conferred leaf resistance. Minor QTL pm3.1 (chromosome 3) and pm4.1 (chromosome 4) contributed to disease susceptibility. The two major QTL, pm5.1 and pm5.2 were located in an interval of ~40 cM in chromosome 5 with each explaining 21.0-74.5 % phenotypic variations. Data presented herein support two recessively inherited, linked major QTL in chromosome 5 plus minor QTL in other chromosomes that control the PM resistance in WI 2757. The QTL pm5.2 for hypocotyl resistance plays the most important role in host resistance. Multiple observations in the same year revealed the importance of scoring time in the detection of PM resistance QTL. Results of this study provided new insights into phenotypic and genetic mechanisms of powdery mildew resistance in cucumber.

  15. Sulfated polysaccharides with antioxidant and anticoagulant activity from the sea cucumber Holothuria fuscogliva

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rongfeng; Yu, Huahua; Yue, Yang; Liu, Song; Xing, Rong'e.; Chen, Xiaolin; Li, Pengcheng

    2016-08-01

    Sea cucumber is a traditional nutritional food and medicinal resource with many bioactive components in China. Holothuria fuscogliva is a big sea cucumber with a rich of bioactive polysaccharides. To investigate the bioactivities of the polysaccharides from sea cucumber H. fuscogliva, we prepared the sulfated polysaccharides (HfP) from sea cucumber H. fuscogliva using a protease hydrolysis method. Antioxidant activities of HfP were investigated, including hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and superoxide radical scavenging activity. And, the anticoagulant activities of HfP were studied, including the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT) and thrombin time (TT). The average molecular weight was 1 867.1 Da, with a sulfate content of 20.7%. In addition, the molar ratio of monosaccharide composition of HfP was Man: Rha: Glc A: Glc: Gal: Xyl: Fuc=0.083 6: 0.437: 0.134: 0: 1.182: 0.748: 1. It had a strong antioxidant activity, the hydroxyl and superoxide radical scavenging activity EC 50 of HfP was 3.74 and 0.037 mg/mL, respectively. It also showed a good anticoagulant activity in our study. The APTT of HfP was much higher than that of heparin sodium, and the PT and TT of HfP was close to that of heparin sodium at a low concentration. Therefore, HfP shows a good antioxidant and anticoagulant activity and it may become a potential candidate of the natural antioxidant and anticoagulant and will have a good application future in health product or medicine industry.

  16. Inducement of Salicylic Acid in Cucumber Cotyledons by Neodymium and Lanthanum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Pengying; Chen Kaoshan

    2007-01-01

    The cotyledons of cucumber were used to investigate the effects of Nd3+ and La3+ on physiological characters in respect of plant resistance. The cucumber cotyledons were sprayed with 15 μg·ml-1 Nd3+ and La3+, and the changes on salicylic acid (SA) and SA 2-O-β-glucoside (SAG) contents, the generation of · O-2, and β-1, 3-glucanase and chitinase activities were measured. The results demonstrated that the yields of endogenous SA and SAG in cucumber cotyledons were enhanced significantly in a short time in response to Nd3+ and La3+ treatments. At 3 h after La3+ treatment, the levels of SA and SAG reached the maximum, with 4.3 and 3.3-fold of that in control (CK), respectively. At 12 h after Nd3+ treatment, the contents of SA and SAG reached peak levels, increased by 4.5 and 3.0-fold of that in control (CK), respectively. These two components were kept in a higher level up to 72 h after treatment. The generation rate of · O-2 increased gradually in the treatments of Nd3+ or La3+, and then decreased in cucumber at 12 h. β-1,3-glucanase activity reached peak at 3 h, while chitinase activity reached peak at 12 h, and then both decreased gradually in Nd3+ or La3+ treatments. At 72 h after treatment, activities of β-1, 3-glucanase and chitinase increased by about 30% and 50%, as compared with CK. Therefore, these results suggested that both Nd3+ and La3+ could increase the contents of endogenous SA and its related factors which induce plant resistance through the signal pathway of the salicylic acid.

  17. Sulfated polysaccharides with antioxidant and anticoagulant activity from the sea cucumber Holothuria fuscogliva

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rongfeng; Yu, Huahua; Yue, Yang; Liu, Song; Xing, Rong'e.; Chen, Xiaolin; Li, Pengcheng

    2017-07-01

    Sea cucumber is a traditional nutritional food and medicinal resource with many bioactive components in China. Holothuria fuscogliva is a big sea cucumber with a rich of bioactive polysaccharides. To investigate the bioactivities of the polysaccharides from sea cucumber H. fuscogliva, we prepared the sulfated polysaccharides (HfP) from sea cucumber H. fuscogliva using a protease hydrolysis method. Antioxidant activities of HfP were investigated, including hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and superoxide radical scavenging activity. And, the anticoagulant activities of HfP were studied, including the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT) and thrombin time (TT). The average molecular weight was 1 867.1 Da, with a sulfate content of 20.7%. In addition, the molar ratio of monosaccharide composition of HfP was Man: Rha: Glc A: Glc: Gal: Xyl: Fuc=0.083 6: 0.437: 0.134: 0:1.182: 0.748: 1. It had a strong antioxidant activity, the hydroxyl and superoxide radical scavenging activity EC50 of HfP was 3.74 and 0.037 mg/mL, respectively. It also showed a good anticoagulant activity in our study. The APTT of HfP was much higher than that of heparin sodium, and the PT and TT of HfP was close to that of heparin sodium at a low concentration. Therefore, HfP shows a good antioxidant and anticoagulant activity and it may become a potential candidate of the natural antioxidant and anticoagulant and will have a good application future in health product or medicine industry.

  18. Dietary Cordyceps militaris protects against Vibrio splendidus infection in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yongxin; Du, Xingfan; Li, Shuying; Wen, Zhixin; Li, Yajie; Li, Xuejun; Meng, Nan; Mi, Rui; Ma, Shuhui; Sun, Aijie

    2015-08-01

    Vibrio splendidus is the common pathogen that causes infectious diseases widely spread in cultured sea cucumber in China. Therefore, we investigated the ability of Cordyceps militaris to protect against infection caused by V. splendidus. In this study, sea cucumbers were fed with a diet containing 0 (control), 1%, 2% or 3% C. militaris for 28 days, and subsequently challenged with V. splendidus by injection with 1.0 × 10(9) cfu per animal. Parameters of immune response such as phagocytosis (PC), lysozyme (LSZ) activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, alkaline phosphatase (AKP) activity and acid phosphatase (ACP) activity were determined on days 0, 1, 3, 5 and 7 after injection. The results showed that dietary C. militaris at a dose of 2% or 3% significantly up-regulated (P < 0.05) all the immune parameters on day 0. One day after injection with V. splendidus, all the immune indices except ACP exhibited a tendency to decrease and then increase again, returning to the initial level on days 5 and/or 7 after injection. All the immune parameters of those fed with C. militaris were found significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of the control group on day 1 after injection. Only LSZ activity of those fed with 1%- or 3%-C. militaris diet on day 5 showed significantly increases (P < 0.05) than the controls. As for ACP activity, the values remained steady with time, but with significant increase (P < 0.05) seen in sea cucumbers fed with 2%-C. militaris diet, and lasted for up to 7 days after V. splendidus injection. The cumulative mortality of sea cucumbers fed with the basal diet followed V. splendidus infection was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those fed with 2% and 3% C. militaris diet. Under the experimental conditions, dietary C. militaris could enhance the immune responses of Apostichopus japonicus and improve its resistance to infection by V. splendidus.

  19. Plant-microorganism-soil interactions influence the Fe availability in the rhizosphere of cucumber plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pii, Youry; Penn, Alexander; Terzano, Roberto; Crecchio, Carmine; Mimmo, Tanja; Cesco, Stefano

    2015-02-01

    Iron (Fe) is a very important element for plants, since it is involved in many biochemical processes and, often, for the low solubility of the natural Fe sources in soil, plants suffer from Fe - deficiency, especially when grown on calcareous soils. Among the numerous plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) that colonize the rhizosphere of agronomically important crops, Azospirillum brasilense has been shown to exert strong stimulating activities on plants, by inducing alterations of the root architecture and an improvement of mineral nutrition, which could result from an enhancement of ion uptake mechanisms as well as by increased bioavailability of nutrients. Some studies have also established that A. brasilense can act as biocontrol agent, by preventing the growth and/or virulence of phytopathogens, most likely through the production of microbial siderophores that sequester Fe from the soil. Despite microbial siderophores complexed with Fe could be an easily accessible Fe source for plants, the possible involvement of A. brasilense in improving Fe nutrition in plants suffering from the micronutrient deficiency has not been investigated yet. Within the present research, the characterization of the physiological and biochemical effects induced by Fe starvation and PGPR inoculation in cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Chinese Long) was carried out. The analyses of root exudates released by hydroponically grown plants highlighted that cucumber plants respond differently depending on the nutritional status. In addition, following the cultivation period on calcareous soil, also the root exudates found in the extracts suggested a peculiar behaviour of plants as a function of the treatment. Interestingly, the presence of the inoculum in soil allowed a faster recovery of cucumber plants from Fe-deficiency symptoms, i.e. increase in the chlorophyll content, in the biomass and in the Fe content of leaves. These observations might suggest a feasible application of

  20. Enhanced production of parthenocarpic cucumbers pollinated with stingless bees and Africanized honey bees in greenhouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euclides Braga Malheiros

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Crops have different levels of dependence on pollinators; this holds true even for cultivars of the same species, as in the case of cucumber (Cucumis sativus. The aim of this research was to assess the attractiveness of flowers of three Japanese parthenocarpic cucumber cultivars and evaluate the importance of Africanized bees (Apis mellifera, and the Brazilian native stingless bees, Jataí (Tetragonisca angustula and Iraí (Nannotrigona testaceicornis on fruit production. Several parameters, including frequency of bee visits to flowers as well as duration of nectar collection and fruit set were examined; additionally, fruit weight, length and diameter were evaluated. Three greenhouses located in Ribeirão Preto, SP, were used for planting three cucumber cultivars (Hokushin, Yoshinari and Soudai. The female flowers were more attractive than male flowers; however, Jataí bees were not observed visiting the flowers. The Africanized and the Iraí bees collected only nectar, with a visitation peak between 10 and 12h. Visits to female flowers had a longer duration than visits to male flower visits in all three cultivars. Africanized bee colonies declined due to loss of bees while in the greenhouse; the native stingless bee colonies did not suffer these losses. When bees were excluded, fruit set was 78%; however, when bees had access to the flowers, fruit set was significantly (19.2% higher. Fruit size and weight did not differ with and without bees. This demonstrates that even in parthenocarpic cucumber cultivars, which do not require pollination in order to from fruits, fruit production is significantly increased by bee pollination.

  1. Value, Market Preferences and Trade of Beche-De-Mer from Pacific Island Sea Cucumbers

    OpenAIRE

    Steven W Purcell

    2014-01-01

    Market preferences of natural resources contribute to shape their exploitation and production. Beche-de-mer, the product after gutting, cooking, salting and drying sea cucumbers, is exported worldwide to Asian dried seafood markets. A better understanding of the trade, value and market preferences of Pacific island beche-de-mer could identify critical postharvest processing techniques and management strategies for fisheries and aquaculture. Data were collected on export prices and trade of be...

  2. Bioactivity as an options value of sea cucumbers in the Egyptian Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, A J; Afifi, R; Ahmed, M; Khalifa, S; Paget, T

    2010-02-01

    The utility of a species can be divided into its direct, indirect, and options values. In the marine environment, direct consumptive values predominate and often lead to overexploitation at the expense of significant options values derived through bioprospecting for natural products. We surveyed the waters of the Egyptian Red Sea coast (Gulf of Aqaba [north] and the Red Sea [south]) for species of sea cucumbers and analyzed extracts from species for a range of bioactivities with potential biomedical applications. All habitat types were surveyed within these regions. We found 22 species of sea cucumber of which two, Holothuria fuscogilva and Holothuria flavomaculata, were recorded in Egypt for the first time. Although none of the species identified were unique to the Gulf of Aqaba, 10 species were only found in the Red Sea sector. Bioassay results showed that although no species had antibacterial activity, most extracts exhibited activity against Candida and Leishmania but were most active against a LoVo mammalian carcinoma cell line. Our most significant finding was the intraspecific variation in bioactivity in individuals collected from different habitat types and sectors of the coast. This variation may reflect the effect of environment on secondary metabolite production or may indicate significant genetic diversity between populations within a species. Our results indicate a potentially significant options value to sea cucumbers through bioprospecting. Given the importance of economic development in countries such as Egypt and the perceived low conservation value of invertebrates such as sea cucumbers, the linking of these factors to conservation is vital for the maintenance and sustainable exploitation of these animals.

  3. Development of a new cucumber reference material for pesticide residue analysis: feasibility study for material processing, homogeneity and stability assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimalt, Susana; Harbeck, Stefan; Shegunova, Penka; Seghers, John; Sejerøe-Olsen, Berit; Emteborg, Håkan; Dabrio, Marta

    2015-04-01

    The feasibility of the production of a reference material for pesticide residue analysis in a cucumber matrix was investigated. Cucumber was spiked at 0.075 mg/kg with each of the 15 selected pesticides (acetamiprid, azoxystrobin, carbendazim, chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, diazinon, (α + β)-endosulfan, fenitrothion, imazalil, imidacloprid, iprodione, malathion, methomyl, tebuconazole and thiabendazole) respectively. Three different strategies were considered for processing the material, based on the physicochemical properties of the vegetable and the target pesticides. As a result, a frozen spiked slurry of fresh cucumber, a spiked freeze-dried cucumber powder and a freeze-dried cucumber powder spiked by spraying the powder were studied. The effects of processing and aspects related to the reconstitution of the material were evaluated by monitoring the pesticide levels in the three materials. Two separate analytical methods based on LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS were developed and validated in-house. The spiked freeze-dried cucumber powder was selected as the most feasible material and more exhaustive studies on homogeneity and stability of the pesticide residues in the matrix were carried out. The results suggested that the between-unit homogeneity was satisfactory with a sample intake of dried material as low as 0.1 g. A 9-week isochronous stability study was undertaken at -20 °C, 4 °C and 18 °C, with -70 °C designated as the reference temperature. The pesticides tested exhibited adequate stability at -20 °C during the 9-week period as well as at -70 °C for a period of 18 months. These results constitute a good basis for the development of a new candidate reference material for selected pesticides in a cucumber matrix.

  4. The effect of different methods of seed bed preparation on greenhouse cucumber yield and yield components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Momeni

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of different methods of seed bed preparation on yield of greenhouse cucumber, a two-year long experiment was conducted as a randomized complete block design with four replications in Jiroft from 2004. Different methods of seed bed preparation were as follows: 1 ridge with 20 cm height and 50 cm width and 2 plant rows with 40 cm distance, 2 furrow with 20 cm depth and 50 cm width and 2 plant rows inside, with 40 cm distance, and 3 planting on flat area with 40 cm distance. The results showed that the effect of planting bed on yield of greenhouse cucumber was significant. Furrow and flat area increased yield significantly, compared to the ridge treatment. Analysis of yield components such as plant height, number of pickling fruits, number of leaves, photosynthetic area and number of flowers showed that they are all correlated with fruit yield. The number of pickling fruits was significantly more in furrow and flat area than in ridge treatment. The height of cucumber plants on flat bed was significantly higher than that of the other treatments. The number of leaves and photosynthetic area of plants on flat bed were significantly greater than those in the other treatments. The least dead plants due to fungi disease were observed in ridge treatment. In view of yield and its components under the condition of this experiment, it can be concluded that flat area and furrow treatments are better than ridge treatment.

  5. Phytotoxicity of effluents from swine slaughterhouses using lettuce and cucumber seeds as bioindicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Michel David; Lucia, Thomaz; Correa, Luciara; Neto, José Eduardo Pereira; Correa, Érico Kunde

    2017-08-15

    This study evaluated the phytotoxic effects of raw and treated effluents from a swine slaughterhouse on cucumber and lettuce seeds and determined correlations among physicochemical characteristics of such effluents and the germination of seeds used as bioindicators. Physicochemical parameters were characterized for both effluents and their phytotoxicity was determined through the germination index (GI), the root length (RL) and the number of germinated seeds (SG) for both plant species. The effluents treatment system was efficient to reduce the concentration of some physicochemical parameters to levels within those recommended by the Brazilian legislation, except for P, ammoniacal N and TKN concentration. Although phytotoxicity of the treated effluent was less in comparison to the raw effluent, the GI for cucumber and lettuce seeds submitted to each of the tested effluents was lower than 80%. Thus, both effluents were phytotoxic for the tested bioindicators (p<0.05). For lettuce seeds, the GI presented negative correlations (p<0.05) with the total Kjeldahl N (-0.93) and the surfactants concentration (-0.83) in the raw effluent. The Zn concentration in the treated effluent showed a negative correlation (p<0.05) with the GI of both lettuce (-0.63) and cucumber seeds (-0.64). Therefore, effluents from swine slaughterhouses may impair the germination of the evaluated plant species if used for agricultural purposes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Cucumber Rhizosphere Microbial Community Response to Biocontrol Agent Bacillus subtilis B068150

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihua Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis B068150 has been used as a biocontrol agent against the pathogen Fusarium oxysporum cucumerinum. Cucumber was grown in three soils with strain B068150 inoculated in a greenhouse for 90 days, and the colonization ability of strain B068150 in cucumber rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils was determined. Changes in total bacteria and fungi community composition and structures using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE and sequencing were determined. Colony counts showed that B068150 colonization in the rhizosphere was significantly higher (p < 0.001 than in non-rhizosphere soils. Based on our data, the introduction of B. bacillus B068150 did not change the diversity of microbial communities significantly in the rhizosphere of three soils. Our data showed that population density of B068150 in clay soil had a significant negative correlation on bacterial diversity in cucumber rhizosphere in comparison to loam and sandy soils, suggesting that the impact of B068150 might be soil specific.

  7. Investigation on diazinon and oxydemeton-methyl residues in cucumbers grown in Kerman greenhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganjeizadeh Rohani, Fatemeh; Mahdavi, Vahideh; Aminaei, M Mehdi

    2014-07-01

    Pesticides are considered as the most polluting substances. The residue of pesticides in agricultural crops, especially in greenhouse harvests, has been reported critical. Cucumber, considered as a vegetable, is an agricultural product which is commonly found in the Iranian food basket. The current study aims to assess the level of diazinon and oxydemeton-methyl existing in cucumbers sampled from Kerman greenhouses. The pesticide residue was extracted by acetone and dichloromethane. The extracts were cleaned up according to the solid-phase extraction method. The pesticide residues were then determined by capillary gas chromatography with nitrogen-phosphorus detection. The recoveries were 83 and 85 %, the limit of detection was 0.028 and 0.034 mg/kg, and the limits of qualification were 0.093 and 0.113 mg/kg for diazinon and oxydemeton-methyl in cucumber samples, respectively. The median of diazinon residue was detected 0.582 mg/kg, which was 11.64 times the national maximum residue limit (MRL) (0.05 mg/kg), and the median for oxydemeton-methyl was 1.910 mg/kg, being 1.91 times the MRL (1 mg/kg).

  8. Higher Chilling-Tolerance of Grafted-Cucumber Seedling Leaves upon Exposure to Chilling Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jian-yong; TIAN Hai-xia; LI Xin-guo; MENG Jing-jing; HE Qi-wei

    2008-01-01

    The roots of figleaf gourd (Cucurbita ficifolia, as rootstock) could improve the resistance of cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Jinyan 4, as scion) to low temperature. In this experiment, the root activity and photosynthetic activity of photosystems in the own-rooted and grafted-cucumber plants were studied at chilling temperature (4℃) under low irradiance (100 μmol m-2 s-1 PFD). Compared with dark adaptation seedlings, the chlorophyll a fluorescence transient curve and the oxidizable P700 (P700+) of both the own-rooted and grafted seedlings decreased, and PS2 and PSl of the own-rooted seedling leaves were more inhibited than that of grafted ones at the end of chilling stress. The reduced triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC), which was used to reflect the root activity, kept stable in grafted seedling roots at the end of chilling stress, while it decreased noticeably in the own-rooted seedling roots. These results implied that the root system activity of the grafted seedling roots was higher than that of the own-rooted ones. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was higher in both the grafted seedling roots and leaves than that in own-rooted seedlings at both room temperature and chilling temperature. Upon exposure to chilling stress, the malondialdehyde (MDA) content, which reflects the degree of lipid peroxidation, increased markedly in the own-rooted seedling roots and leaves and kept stable in the grafted-cucumber seedlings.

  9. Dissipation behaviour, processing factors and risk assessment for metalaxyl in greenhouse-grown cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezani, Mohammad Kazem; Shahriari, Dariush

    2015-04-01

    Cucumber is widely cultivated in Iran, and the application of systemic and protective fungicides is the main choice of disease treatment, particularly in greenhouse-grown systems. In this research, cucumber fruits were harvested at 1 h to 25 days after the last application to determine the residue and dissipation behaviour of metalaxyl. The effects of peeling and storage (at 3 °C for 4 days) on metalaxyl residue reduction were also assessed. Samples were extracted by the QuEChERS procedure then analysed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The dissipation of metalaxyl residues approximately fitted a first-order kinetic model, obtaining half-life values of 2.2 and 3.8 days and preharvest interval values of 5.2 and 12.5 days at the recommended dose (2 kg ha(-1) ) and double (4 kg ha(-1) ) dose respectively. The processing factor values for peeling and storage were 0.50 and 0.93 respectively, showing that storage had little effect on residue reduction compared with peeling. The higher content of metalaxyl residues in flesh showed its penetration from the skin into the flesh. The results provided more understanding of fungicide distribution as well as the effective role of peeling in reducing residues in cucumber fruits. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Developmental Characteristics and Cinnamic Acid Resistance of Root Border Cells in Cucumber and Figleaf Gourd Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAO Yong-xu; ZHANG Yong-ping; ZHANG Hong-xin; TIAN Yong-qiang; GAO Li-hong

    2013-01-01

    Root border cells (RBCs) originate from the root tip epidermis and surround the root apices. In this study, we evaluated the developmental characteristics and the roles of RBCs in protection of root apices of cucumber and ifgleaf gourd seedlings from CA toxicity. The formation of RBCs and the emergence of the root tip occurred almost simultaneously in root apices of cucumber and ifgleaf gourd seedlings. CA ranging from 0 to 0.25 mol L-1 inhibited root elongation and decreased root cell viability in the root tip, moreover the inhibitory effects of CA were more signiifcant in the CA-sensitive cucumber than in the CA-tolerant ifgleaf gourd. Removal of RBCs from root tips led to more severe CA induced inhibition of root elongation and decline in root cell viability. Increasing CA levels and treatment time decreased the relative viability of attached and detached RBCs. CA also induced a thicker mucilage layer surrounding attached RBCs of both species. Additionally, a signiifcantly higher relative cell viability of attached RBCs and thicker mucilage layers were observed in ifgleaf gourd. These results suggest that RBCs play an important role in protecting root tips from CA toxicity.

  11. Photosynthetic Characteristics and Ultrastructure of Chloroplast of Cucumber Under Low Light Density in Solar-Greenhouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AI Xi-zhen; GUO Yan-kui; CHEN Li-ping; XING Yu-xian

    2004-01-01

    The photosynthetic characteristics and ultrastructure of chloroplast of cucumber in solargreenhouse were studied. The result showed that the photosynthetic rate (Pn), photosynthetic ability (A350), carboxylation efficiency, light saturation point and light compensation point all declined remarkably under lowlight density, indicating that the photosynthetic characteristics of cucumber were closely related to light environment. Under iow light density, the minimal fluorescence (Fo), alterable fluorescence (Fv), photochemical efficiency of PS Ⅱ (Fv/Fm), steady fluorescence in light (Fs), maximal fluorescence (Fm′) and actual efficiency of PS Ⅱ (φPSⅡ)etc increased, indicating that the photochemical activity and efficiency for solar energy transformation enhanced, thus the light proportion used to electron transport also increased. The chlorophyll a, b, a/b and carotenoid of shading leaves decreased. However, the depressed extent of Chl a and Chl a/b were obviously larger than that of Chl b. The number of chloroplast and starch grain in cucumber leaves descended, but that of grana and lamella increased as a shaded result. The size of chloroplast and starch grain of shading leaves minished.

  12. Effect of some Trichoderma spp. isolates on promoting growth of cucumber seedlings under greenhouse conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Taghinasab Darzi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was performed to investigate the effect of some Trichoderma spp. isolates as growth promoters of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. seedlings under greenhouse conditions. Inoculai of 19 Thrichoderma spp. isolates were prepared from disinfected wheat grain. The upper half of the soil in pots (containing field soil and sand was mixed with these inoculai at 3% ratio and the pots were irrigated with tap water for 28 days. After four weeks, the seedlings were sampled for growth comparison on stem length, root length and total fresh weight. The results showed that some isolates improved significantly the cucumber seedlings’ growth and others had inhibitory effect. Application of Trichoderma spp. 17 and T. longibraciatum increased stem length more than 74% as compared to control. Also, these isolates increased significantly P<0.05 the total fresh weight about 40% and 25%, respectively, as compared to control. Furthermore, Trichoderma sp. 19 decreased significantly the stem length, root length and total fresh weight as compared to control. These results show the ability of Persian Trichoderma spp. isolates in promoting cucumber growth and its potential for other plants.

  13. Purification, physico-chemical characterization and thermodynamics of chitooligosaccharide binding to cucumber (Cucumis sativus) phloem lectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nareddy, Pavan Kumar; Bobbili, Kishore Babu; Swamy, Musti J

    2017-02-01

    A chitooligosaccharide-specific lectin has been purified from the phloem exudate of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) by affinity chromatography on chitin. The molecular weight of the cucumber phloem lectin (CPL) was determined as 51912.8Da by mass spectrometry whereas SDS-PAGE yielded a single band with a subunit mass of 26kDa, indicating that the protein is a homodimer. Peptide mass fingerprinting studies strongly suggest that CPL is identical to the 26kDa phloem protein 2 (PP2) from cucumber. CD spectroscopy indicated that CPL is a predominantly β-sheets protein. Hemagglutination activity of CPL was mostly unaffected between 4 and 90°C and between pH 4.0 and 10.0, indicating functional stability of the protein. Isothermal titration calorimetric studies indicate that the CPL dimer binds to two chitooligosaccharide ((GlcNAc)2-6) molecules with association constants ranging from 1.0×10(3) to 17.5×10(5)M(-1). The binding reaction was strongly enthalpy driven (ΔHb=-ve) with negative contribution from binding entropy (ΔSb=-ve). The enthalpy-driven nature of binding reactions suggests that hydrogen bonding and van der Waals interactions stabilize the CPL-chitooligosaccharide association. Enthalpy-entropy compensation was observed for the CPL-chitooligosaccharide interaction, indicating that water molecules play an important role in the binding process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Humic-Like Substances from Different Compost Extracts Could Significantly Promote Cucumber Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Da-Bing; WANG Qiu-Jun; WU Yun-Cheng; YU Guang-Hui; SHEN Qi-Rong; HUANG Qi-Wei

    2012-01-01

    The effects of direct extracts of compost (DEC),aerated fermentation extracts of compost (AFEC) and non-aerated fermentation extracts of compost (NAFEC) on cucumber growth and the action mechanisms were evaluated based on the structure and activity analysis of humic-like substances.AFEC increased cucumber growth most significantly,followed by DEC and NAFEC,which was insignificant compared to the control treatment.Humic-like substances from compost extracts played an important role in promoting cucumber growth.Application of humic-like substances stimulated auxin-like activity and increased chlorophyll content and nitrogen accumulation in plants.The positive auxin-like activity of humic-like substances could be attributed to the relative distribution of special carbon groups,such as those with a large amount of peptidic and carbohydratic groups or with a low content of phenolic groups.In conclusion,the best growth promotion by application of AFEC was mainly attributed to the humic-like substances in the AFEC.

  15. Diets Containing Sea Cucumber (Isostichopus badionotus) Meals Are Hypocholesterolemic in Young Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivera-Castillo, Leticia; Davalos, Alberto; Grant, George; Valadez-Gonzalez, Nina; Montero, Jorge; Barrera-Perez, Hirian Alonso Moshe; Chim-Chi, Yasser; Olvera-Novoa, Miguel Angel; Ceja-Moreno, Víctor; Acereto-Escoffie, Pablo; Rubio-Piña, Jorge; Rodriguez-Canul, Rossanna

    2013-01-01

    Sea cucumber is widely consumed as a putative functional food. It contains many biologically-active substances, but only limited research on its properties in vivo has been done. The effects of different meals containing Isostichopus badionotus, a sea cucumber from southeast Mexico, on growth performance and body lipid profile in young rats were analyzed. Sea cucumber body wall was either lyophilized, cooked (100 °C, 1 h in water) and lyophilized, or oven-dried (70 °C for 12 h). It was then ground and incorporated into cholesterol-containing diets. I. badionotus meals supported growth and improved lipid profile in rats. In particular, serum cholesterol, low density lipoproteins, triglycerides concentration and atherogenic index values were greatly reduced by some I. badionotus containing diets. Liver total lipids, triglycerides and cholesterol were also reduced. Cooking or heat-treatment of the meals lowered but did not abolish their hypolipidemic potency. Gene expression analysis of several key genes involved in cholesterol and lipid metabolism in liver showed that diets containing I. badionotus repressed the induction of key genes associated with dyslipidemia exerted by cholesterol supplementation. Consumption of I. badionotus from the Yucatan Peninsula is beneficial for dyslipidemia, although biological effect is clearly dependent on preparation method. PMID:24260223

  16. Impact of Methyl Jasmonate on Enhancing Chilling Tolerance of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Saydpour

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cucumber is a warm season crop that suffers from chilling injury at temperatures below 10°C. In recent years, jasmonates have been used for reduction of chilling injuries in plants. An experiment was, therefore, conducted to test whether methyl jasmonate (MeJA application at various concentrations (0, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.15 mM through seed soaking or foliar spray would protect cucumber seedlings, subjected to chilling stress. Results showed that MeJA application decreased chilling index, ion leakage, malondialdehyde content and hydrogen peroxide free radical and increased growth parameters, proline contents, chlorophylls contents and antioxidant activity. Although, seed soaking method provided better protection compared to foliar spray method, the highest cold tolerance was obtained with 0.15mM MeJA application in both application methods that caused low level of chilling index (1.67, malondialdehyde content (0.11 nm g-1 FW, hydrogen peroxide free radical (0.22 nm g-1 FW and ion leakage (32.87%. In general, it may be concluded that MeJA could be used effectively to protect cucumber seedling from damaging effects of chilling stress at the early stages of growth.

  17. Partial purification of elicitors from Lentinula edodes basidiocarps protecting cucumber seedlings against Colletotrichum lagenarium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Piero Robson M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes has been used in research involving the prevention and the control of human and plant diseases. In cucumber plants, treated with aqueous extracts from mushroom basidiocarps, there was a reduction in anthracnose severity caused by Colletotrichum lagenarium, and an increase in peroxidase activity in the leaves. With the aim of obtaining molecules of agronomic interest, the crude aqueous extract from L. edodes basidiocarp was fractioned with ammonium sulfate. The fraction corresponding to 40-80% of saturation (p40-80, the most effective in reducing anthracnose on cucumber cotyledons, was submitted to anion exchange chromatography (AEC. After AEC, six protein peaks were obtained and the peak V, containing 34% of the proteins present in p40-80, induced peroxidase increase in the cucumber cotyledons besides reducing anthracnose severity. Separation of peak V proteins by SDS-gel electrophoresis revealed the presence of more than one band in the gel. Thus, a partial purification of elicitors present in the L. edodes basidiocarp was achieved.

  18. 6-Benzylaminopurine alleviates chilling injury of postharvest cucumber fruit through modulating antioxidant system and energy status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bingxia; Yang, Huqing

    2013-06-01

    6-Benzylaminopurine (6-BA) has a close relationship with the stress resistance of plants. Little research has been carried out on the effects of 6-BA on the cold resistance of postharvest fruits and vegetables. Therefore the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of 6-BA on chilling injury (CI), antioxidant system and energy status in cucumber during storage. The results showed that 6-BA at 50 mmol L(-1) was most effective to restrain CI in cucumber fruit. Fruits treated with 50 mmol L(-1) 6-BA maintained higher levels of chlorophyll, ascorbic acid, total phenolics and total antioxidant capacity. Furthermore, this treatment reduced the increases in membrane permeability and lipid peroxidation, delayed the increases in both rate of O2•- production and H2O2 content and increased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) under chilling stress. The treatment also increased the content of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and resulted in a higher level of energy charge. These results indicated that 6-BA alleviated CI in cucumber fruit through improving antioxidant enzyme activities and total antioxidant capacity and maintaining higher levels of ATP content and energy charge. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Effects of different microbes on fermenting feed for sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yan; Wang, Yingeng; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Zheng; Liao, Meijie; Rong, Xiaojun

    2015-10-01

    The effects of different microbes on fermenting feed for sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) were compared to select the optimal fermentation strain in this study. Saccharomgces cerevisae, Candida utilis, Bacillus subtilis and Geotrichum candidum were independently added into the experimental compound feed, while only saline was mixed with the control feed. The fermentation treatments were inoculated with 10% seed solution under the condition of 25°C and 70% water content, which lasted for 5 days to elucidate the optimal microbe strain for fermenting effect. Physicochemical indexes and sensorial characteristics were measured per day during the fermentation. The indexes included dry matter recovery (DMR), crude protein (CP), the percentage of amino acid nitrogen to total nitrogen (AA-N/tN), the percentage of ammonia nitrogen to total nitrogen (NH3-N/tN), and the ratio of fermentation strains and vibrios to the total microbes, color, smell and viscosity. The results showed that DMR, CP and AA-N/tN of the S. cerevisae group reached the highest level on day 3, but the ratio of fermentation strain was second to C. utilis group. In addition, its NH3-N/tN and the ratio of vibrios were maintained at low levels, and the sensory evaluation score including smell, color and viscosity was the highest in S. cerevisae group on day 3. Therefore, S. cerevisae could be the optimal strain for the feed fermentation for sea cucumber. This research developed a new production method of fermentation feed for sea cucumber.

  20. 不同轮作模式对日光温室黄瓜生长的影响%Cucumber growth in solar greenhouse affected by rotation modes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾大路; 王伟中; 孙爱侠; 杨文飞; 杜小凤; 吴传万; 彭杰

    2016-01-01

    Six types of farming patterns ( rice-cucumber, water spinach-cucumber, water fennel-cucumber, straw mushroom-cucumber, cowpea-cucumber and crop free-cucumber) were employed to investigate the effects of rotation modes on cucumber yield, commodity, quality and disease resistance in solar greenhouse. Compared to crop free-cucumber mode other five rotation modes improved cucumber growth, cucumber yield and quality, among which, rice-cucumber, water spinach-cu-cumber and water fennel-cucumber rotation modes presented the greatest effects, followed by straw mushroom-cucumber and cowpea-cucumber modes. The rice-cucumber, water spinach-cucumber, water fennel-cucumber and straw mushroom-cucumber rotation modes mitigated the occurence of fusarium wilt, root rot and root knot nematode disease. Since the cucumber-aquatic crops rotation mode can improve cucumber growth, yield, commodity and quality, mitigate disease occurrence, it is a poten-tial technical measure in overcoming the continuous cropping obstacle of cucumber in solar greenhouse.%为了解不同轮作模式对日光温室黄瓜生长及病害发生的影响,分别以夏季种植水稻、空心菜(水栽)、水芹、草菇、豇豆、夏季空闲的日光温室为对象,观察夏季种植不同作物后下茬日光温室黄瓜的产量、商品性、品质及病害发生的情况。结果表明,与夏季闲棚相比,不同轮作模式有促进黄瓜生长、增加黄瓜产量和提高黄瓜品质的效果,其中以黄瓜与水稻、空心菜(水栽)、水芹轮作模式的增产和提高品质的效果最好,其次是黄瓜与草菇轮作,第三是黄瓜与豇豆轮作;黄瓜与水稻、空心菜、水芹及草菇轮作可以减轻枯萎病、根腐病、根结线虫病的发生,黄瓜与豇豆轮作对日光温室黄瓜病害的发生没有减轻效果。说明在日光温室内种植水生作物或水生栽培可以促进下茬黄瓜的生长,增加黄瓜产量,提高黄瓜商品性