WorldWideScience

Sample records for high availability disaster

  1. Disaster Mythology and Availability Cascades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Grow Sun

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Sociological research conducted in the aftermath of natural disasters has uncovered a number of “disaster myths” – widely shared misconceptions about typical post-disaster human behavior. This paper discusses the possibility that perpetuation of disaster mythology reflects an “availability cascade,” defined in prior scholarship as a “self-reinforcing process of collective belief formation by which an expressed perception triggers a chain reaction that gives the perception increasing plausibility through its rising availability in public discourse.” (Kuran and Sunstein 1999. Framing the spread of disaster mythology as an availability cascade suggests that certain tools may be useful in halting the myths’ continued perpetuation. These tools include changing the legal and social incentives of so-called “availability entrepreneurs” – those principally responsible for beginning and perpetuating the cascade, as well as insulating decision-makers from political pressures generated by the availability cascade. This paper evaluates the potential effectiveness of these and other solutions for countering disaster mythology. Las investigaciones sociológicas realizadas tras los desastres naturales han hecho evidentes una serie de “mitos del desastre”, conceptos erróneos ampliamente compartidos sobre el comportamiento humano típico tras un desastre. Este artículo analiza la posibilidad de que la perpetuación de los mitos del desastre refleje una “cascada de disponibilidad”, definida en estudios anteriores como un “proceso de auto-refuerzo de la formación de una creencia colectiva, a través del que una percepción expresada produce una reacción en cadena que hace que la percepción sea cada vez más verosímil, a través de una mayor presencia en el discurso público” (Kuran y Sunstein 1999. Enmarcar la propagación de los mitos del desastre como una cascada de disponibilidad sugiere que ciertas herramientas pueden ser

  2. Proxmox high availability

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Simon MC

    2014-01-01

    If you want to know the secrets of virtualization and how to implement high availability on your services, this is the book for you. For those of you who are already using Proxmox, this book offers you the chance to build a high availability cluster with a distributed filesystem to further protect your system from failure.

  3. High availability IT services

    CERN Document Server

    Critchley, Terry

    2014-01-01

    This book starts with the basic premise that a service is comprised of the 3Ps-products, processes, and people. Moreover, these entities and their sub-entities interlink to support the services that end users require to run and support a business. This widens the scope of any availability design far beyond hardware and software. It also increases the potential for service failure for reasons beyond just hardware and software; the concept of logical outages. High Availability IT Services details the considerations for designing and running highly available ""services"" and not just the systems

  4. High Availability Electronics Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, R.S.; /SLAC

    2006-12-13

    Availability modeling of the proposed International Linear Collider (ILC) predicts unacceptably low uptime with current electronics systems designs. High Availability (HA) analysis is being used as a guideline for all major machine systems including sources, utilities, cryogenics, magnets, power supplies, instrumentation and controls. R&D teams are seeking to achieve total machine high availability with nominal impact on system cost. The focus of this paper is the investigation of commercial standard HA architectures and packaging for Accelerator Controls and Instrumentation. Application of HA design principles to power systems and detector instrumentation are also discussed.

  5. JUNOS High Availability

    CERN Document Server

    Sonderegger, James; Milne, Kieran; Palislamovic, Senad

    2009-01-01

    Whether your network is a complex carrier or just a few machines supporting a small enterprise, JUNOS High Availability will help you build reliable and resilient networks that include Juniper Networks devices. With this book's valuable advice on software upgrades, scalability, remote network monitoring and management, high-availability protocols such as VRRP, and more, you'll have your network uptime at the five, six, or even seven nines -- or 99.99999% of the time. Rather than focus on "greenfield" designs, the authors explain how to intelligently modify multi-vendor networks. You'll learn

  6. High availability using virtualization

    CERN Document Server

    Calzolari, Federico

    2009-01-01

    High availability has always been one of the main problems for a data center. Till now high availability was achieved by host per host redundancy, a highly expensive method in terms of hardware and human costs. A new approach to the problem can be offered by virtualization. Using virtualization, it is possible to achieve a redundancy system for all the services running on a data center. This new approach to high availability allows to share the running virtual machines over the servers up and running, by exploiting the features of the virtualization layer: start, stop and move virtual machines between physical hosts. The system (3RC) is based on a finite state machine with hysteresis, providing the possibility to restart each virtual machine over any physical host, or reinstall it from scratch. A complete infrastructure has been developed to install operating system and middleware in a few minutes. To virtualize the main servers of a data center, a new procedure has been developed to migrate physical to virtu...

  7. Factors Associated with Discussion of Disasters by Final Year High School Students: An International Cross-sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codreanu, Tudor A; Celenza, Antonio; Alabdulkarim, Ali A Rahman

    2015-08-01

    Introduction The effect on behavioral change of educational programs developed to reduce the community's disaster informational vulnerability is not known. This study describes the relationship of disaster education, age, sex, and country-specific characteristics with students discussing disasters with friends and family, a measure of proactive behavioral change in disaster preparedness. Three thousand eight hundred twenty-nine final year high school students were enrolled in an international, multi-center prospective, cross-sectional study using a pre-validated written questionnaire. In order to obtain information from different educational systems, from countries with different risk of exposure to disasters, and from countries with varied economic development status, students from Bahrain, Croatia, Cyprus, Egypt, Greece, Italy, Portugal, Romania, and Timor-Leste were surveyed. Logistic regression analyses examined the relationship between the likelihood of discussing disasters with friends and family (dependent variable) and a series of independent variables (age, gender, participation in school lessons about disasters, existence of a national disaster educational program, ability to list pertinent example of disasters, country's economic group, and disaster risk index) captured by the questionnaire or available as published data. There was no statistically significant relationship between age, awareness of one's surroundings, planning for the future, and foreseeing consequences of events with discussions about potential hazards and risks with friends and/or family. The national educational budget did not have a statistically significant influence. Participants who lived in a low disaster risk and high income Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) country were more likely to discuss disasters. While either school lessons or a national disaster education program had a unique, significant contribution to the model, neither had a better

  8. Low-Cost Rescue Robot for Disaster Management in a Developing Country: Development of a Prototype Using Locally Available Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Faisal; Hossain, S. G. M.; Bin, Jobair

    2010-01-01

    The use of robots in different fields is common and effective in developed countries. In case of incident management or emergency rescue after a disaster, robots are often used to lessen the human effort where it is either impossible or life-threatening for rescuers. Though developed countries can afford robotic-effort for pro-disaster management, the scenario is totally opposite for developing and under-developed countries to engage such a machine-help due to high cost of the machines and high maintenance cost as well. In this research paper, the authors proposed a low-cost "Rescue-Robot" for pro-disaster management which can overcome the budget-constraints as well as fully capable of rescue purposes for incident management. Here, all the research works were performed in Bangladesh - a developing country in South Asia. A disaster struck structure was chosen and a thorough survey was performed to understand the real-life environment for the prototype. The prototype was developed considering the results of this survey and it was manufactured using all locally available components and facilities.

  9. Timing and type of disaster severity data available on Internet following the 2010 Haiti Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wefer, Agnes; Von Schreeb, Johan

    2012-05-23

    Background To adequately plan relief, adequate information that describe and quantify the severity of a disaster, and estimate the number of affected population, is rapidly needed. However, needs assessments describing the severity of the disaster has been shown to be conducted too late in order to guide the first days relief interventions. The aim of this study was to assess availability of early disaster severity information on Internet during the first seven days following the 2010 Haiti earthquake and assess to which extent the information was consistent with later revelations. Methods We searched the well acknowledged web portal Relief Web for all Haiti postings during the first seven days (12 -18 January 2010) after the earthquake. A form was created to classify and quantify extracted severity variables found in the postings. The results were compiled, analysed and compared with CRED (Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disaster) official data made available later. Findings A total of 822 reports were posted where of 15 % provided a numerical estimate of the affected population, while 10% had an estimate on the number of dead. On day four 200 000 dead was reported, which is of the same magnitud compared to later official estimates (CRED data). Not a single report described the data collection method. Conclusions Within a few days of the 2010 Haiti earthquake it was possible to find surprisingly accurate information regarding severity of the earthquake but the available data must be questioned as no method was reported. More specialized and independent needs assessment agencies may improve availability of strategic information in the early onset of a disaster.

  10. On Line Disaster Response Community: People as Sensors of High Magnitude Disasters Using Internet GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kris Kodrich

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The Indian Ocean tsunami (2004 and Hurricane Katrina (2005 reveal the coming of age of the on-line disaster response community. Due to the integration of key geospatial technologies (remote sensing - RS, geographic information systems - GIS, global positioning systems – GPS and the Internet, on-line disaster response communities have grown. They include the traditional aspects of disaster preparedness, response, recovery, mitigation, and policy as facilitated by governmental agencies and relief response organizations. However, the contribution from the public via the Internet has changed significantly. The on-line disaster response community includes several key characteristics: the ability to donate money quickly and efficiently due to improved Internet security and reliable donation sites; a computer-savvy segment of the public that creates blogs, uploads pictures, and disseminates information – oftentimes faster than government agencies, and message boards to create interactive information exchange in seeking family members and identifying shelters. A critical and novel occurrence is the development of “people as sensors” - networks of government, NGOs, private companies, and the public - to build rapid response databases of the disaster area for various aspects of disaster relief and response using geospatial technologies. This paper examines these networks, their products, and their future potential.

  11. MongoDB high availability

    CERN Document Server

    Mehrabani, Afshin

    2014-01-01

    This book has a perfect balance of concepts and their practical implementation along with solutions to make a highly available MongoDB server with clear instructions and guidance. If you are using MongoDB in a production environment and need a solution to make a highly available MongoDB server, this book is ideal for you. Familiarity with MongoDB is expected so that you understand the content of this book.

  12. Introducing high availability to non high available designed applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zelnicek, Pierre; Kebschull, Udo [Kirchhoff Institute of Physics, Ruprecht-Karls-University Heidelberg (Germany); Haaland, Oystein Senneset [Physic Institut, University of Bergen, Bergen (Norway); Lindenstruth, Volker [Frankfurt Institut fuer Advanced Studies, University Frankfurt (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    A common problem in scientific computing environments and compute clusters today, is how to apply high availability to legacy applications. These applications are becoming more and more a problem in increasingly complex environments and with business grade availability constraints that requires 24 x 7 x 365 hours of operation. For a majority of applications, redesign is not an option. Either because of being closed source or the effort involved would be just as great as re-writing the application from scratch. Neither is letting normal operators restart and reconfigure the applications on backup nodes a solution. In addition to the possibility of mistakes from non-experts and the cost of keeping personnel at work 24/7, these kind of operations would require administrator privileges within the compute environment and would therefore be a security risk. Therefore, these legacy applications have to be monitored and if a failure occurs autonomously migrated to a working node. The pacemaker framework is designed for both tasks and ensures the availability of the legacy applications. Distributed redundant block devices are used for fault tolerant distributed data storage. The result is an Availability Environment Classification 2 (AEC-2).

  13. Modeling s-t Path Availability to Support Disaster Vulnerability Assessment of Network Infrastructure

    CERN Document Server

    Matisziw, Timothy C

    2010-01-01

    The maintenance of system flow is critical for effective network operation. Any type of disruption to network facilities (arcs/nodes) potentially risks loss of service, leaving users without access to important resources. It is therefore an important goal of planners to assess infrastructures for vulnerabilities, identifying those vital nodes/arcs whose debilitation would compromise the most source-sink (s-t) interaction or system flow. Due to the budgetary limitations of disaster management agencies, protection/fortification and planning for the recovery of these vital infrastructure facilities is a logical and efficient proactive approach to reducing worst-case risk of service disruption. Given damage to a network, evaluating the potential for flow between s-t pairs requires assessing the availability of an operational s-t path. Recent models proposed for identifying infrastructure vital to system flow have relied on enumeration of all s-t paths to support this task. This paper proposes an alternative model...

  14. Evaluation of availability of cluster distributed disaster tolerant systems for control and information processing based on a cluster quorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsarev, R. Yu; Gruzenkin, D. V.; Kovalev, I. V.; Prokopenko, A. V.; Knyazkov, A. N.

    2016-11-01

    Control and information processing systems, which often executes critical functions, must satisfy requirements not only of fault tolerance, but also of disaster tolerance. Cluster architecture is reasonable to be applied to provide disaster tolerance of these systems. In this case clusters are separate control and information processing centers united by means of communication channels. Thus, clusters are a single hardware resource interacting with each other to achieve system objectives. Remote cluster positioning allows ensuring system availability and disaster tolerance even in case of some units’ failures or a whole cluster crash. A technique for evaluation of availability of cluster distributed systems for control and information processing based on a cluster quorum is presented in the paper. This technique can be applied to different cluster distributed control and information processing systems, claimed to be based on the disaster tolerance principles. In the article we discuss a communications satellite system as an example of a cluster distributed disaster tolerant control and information processing system. Evaluation of availability of the communications satellite system is provided. Possible scenarios of communications satellite system cluster-based components failures were analyzed. The analysis made it possible to choose the best way to implement the cluster structure for a distributed control and information processing system.

  15. DISASTER MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu A. Joshi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available With the tropical climate and unstable land forms, coupled with high population density, poverty, illiteracy and lack of adequate infrastructure, India is one of the most vulnerable developing countries to suffer very often from various natural disasters, which strikes causing devastating impact on human life, economy and environment. Though it is almost impossible to fully recoup the damaged caused by the disaster it is possible to minimize potential risks by developing early warning strategies. “Efficient management of Disasters, rather than mere response to their occurrence has, in recent times, received increased attention both within India and abroad.” Hospitals play a key role in Management of the affected population by providing immediate and effective treatment at the site and in the hospital. Considering the wide range of disasters and no bar for time, place and people it requires immediate intervention, and this management would be an extension of emergency or casualty services of hospital. It adds an extra load to hospital, functions, and to cope up this situation it requires to have a systematic, planned and effective approach. In this article, I have discussed a model disaster management plan for a hospital, clinical principles of management of casualties and specific problems of Disaster Management. A guide line for operational framework to face disaster in the form of Disaster manual is suggested for each hospital. A preplanned disaster management plan according to this guideline would provide an edge to a hospital in such crucial situations and in turn will serve the humanity & society.

  16. Post-Disaster Supply Chain Interdependent Critical Infrastructure System Restoration: A Review of Data Necessary and Available for Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Ramachandran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of restoration strategies in the wake of large-scale disasters have focused on short-term emergency response solutions. Few consider medium- to long-term restoration strategies to reconnect urban areas to national 'supply chain interdependent critical infrastructure systems' (SCICI. These SCICI promote the effective flow of goods, services, and information vital to the economic vitality of an urban environment. To re-establish the connectivity that has been broken during a disaster between the different SCICI, relationships between these systems must be identified, formulated, and added to a common framework to form a system-level restoration plan. To accomplish this goal, a considerable collection of SCICI data is necessary. The aim of this paper is to review what data are required for model construction, the accessibility of these data, and their integration with each other. While a review of publically available data reveals a dearth of real-time data to assist modeling long-term recovery following an extreme event, a significant amount of static data does exist and these data can be used to model the complex interdependencies needed. For the sake of illustration, a particular SCICI (transportation is used to highlight the challenges of determining the interdependencies and creating models capable of describing the complexity of an urban environment with the data publically available. Integration of such data as is derived from public domain sources is readily achieved in a geospatial environment, after all geospatial infrastructure data are the most abundant data source and while significant quantities of data can be acquired through public sources, a significant effort is still required to gather, develop, and integrate these data from multiple sources to build a complete model. Therefore, while continued availability of high quality, public information is essential for modeling efforts in academic as well as government

  17. Post-disaster supply chain interdependent critical infrastructure system restoration: A review of data necessary and available for modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Varun; Long, Suzanna K.; Shoberg, Thomas G.; Corns, Steven; Carlo, Hector J.

    2016-01-01

    The majority of restoration strategies in the wake of large-scale disasters have focused on short-term emergency response solutions. Few consider medium- to long-term restoration strategies to reconnect urban areas to national supply chain interdependent critical infrastructure systems (SCICI). These SCICI promote the effective flow of goods, services, and information vital to the economic vitality of an urban environment. To re-establish the connectivity that has been broken during a disaster between the different SCICI, relationships between these systems must be identified, formulated, and added to a common framework to form a system-level restoration plan. To accomplish this goal, a considerable collection of SCICI data is necessary. The aim of this paper is to review what data are required for model construction, the accessibility of these data, and their integration with each other. While a review of publically available data reveals a dearth of real-time data to assist modeling long-term recovery following an extreme event, a significant amount of static data does exist and these data can be used to model the complex interdependencies needed. For the sake of illustration, a particular SCICI (transportation) is used to highlight the challenges of determining the interdependencies and creating models capable of describing the complexity of an urban environment with the data publically available. Integration of such data as is derived from public domain sources is readily achieved in a geospatial environment, after all geospatial infrastructure data are the most abundant data source and while significant quantities of data can be acquired through public sources, a significant effort is still required to gather, develop, and integrate these data from multiple sources to build a complete model. Therefore, while continued availability of high quality, public information is essential for modeling efforts in academic as well as government communities, a more

  18. [Organization, availability and possibility of analysis of disaster data of climate related origin and its impacts on health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Diego Ricardo; Barcellos, Christovam; Barros, Heglaucio da Silva; Magalhães, Monica de Avelar Figueiredo Mafra; Matos, Vanderlei Pascoal de; Pedroso, Marcel de Moraes

    2014-09-01

    The occurrence of disasters is often related to unforeseeable able natural processes. However, the analysis of major databases may highlight seasonal and long-term trends, as well as some spatial patterns where risks are concentrated. In this paper the process of acquiring and organizing climate-related disaster data collected by civil protection institutions and made available by the Brazilian Climate and Health Observatory is described. Preliminary analyses show the concentration of disasters caused by heavy rainfall events along the Brazilian coastline especially during the summer. Droughts have longer duration and extent, affecting large areas of the south and northeast regions of the country. These data can be used to analyze and monitor the impact of extreme climatic events on health, as well as identify the vulnerability and climate deteminants.

  19. The down-faulted basin zone and high disaster risk zone in Shanxi Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘惠敏; 苏桂武; 邓砚; 高庆华

    2004-01-01

    Shanxi Province is a region with frequent occurrence of earthquakes, floods and waterlogging, meteorological and geologic hazards, and agrobiohazards in China. The study shows that the formation and development of the down-faulted basin zone in Shanxi Province provides an available condition for preparation and occurrence of these hazards, so that the basin zone becomes an area with frequent occurrence of the hazards, such as earthquakes, floods and waterlogging, meteorological and geologic hazards and agrobiohazards in Shanxi and with their most serious interaction and mutual intensification. Moreover, the basin zone is an area with dense population and most concentrated industrial and agricultural productions and social-economic property in Shanxi. The comprehensive effect of the two factors caused the zone to be a high natural disaster risk area in Shanxi. For reduction of natural disasters and ensuring the sustainable social-economic development in Shanxi, it is necessary to regard the basin zone as an important area for disaster reduction in Shanxi and to carry out integrated disaster reduction.

  20. High availability of hybrid wireless networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitgeb, Erich; Gebhart, Michael; Birnbacher, Ulla; Kogler, Wolfgang; Schrotter, Peter

    2004-09-01

    Free Space Optical (FSO) links offer high bandwidth and the flexibility of wireless communication links. However, the availability of FSO links is limited by weather patterns like fog and heavy snowfall. Microwave based communication links operating at high frequencies (40 - 43 GHz) have similar characteristics like high data rates and needed line-of-sight. Link availability for microwave systems is limited by heavy rain. Combining FSO links with microwave links within a hybrid FSO/microwave communication network has the advantage of added redundancy and higher link availability. Measurements over a period of one year show a combined availability of 99.93% for the climatic region of Graz, Austria) which proves that the combination of both technologies leads to a highly available wireless connection offering high bandwidth.

  1. A High Precision Comprehensive Evaluation Method for Flood Disaster Loss Based on Improved Genetic Programming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yuliang; LU Guihua; JIN Juliang; TONG Fang; ZHOU Ping

    2006-01-01

    Precise comprehensive evaluation of flood disaster loss is significant for the prevention and mitigation of flood disasters. Here, one of the difficulties involved is how to establish a model capable of describing the complex relation between the input and output data of the system of flood disaster loss. Genetic programming (GP) solves problems by using ideas from genetic algorithm and generates computer programs automatically. In this study a new method named the evaluation of the grade of flood disaster loss (EGFD) on the basis of improved genetic programming (IGP) is presented (IGPEGFD). The flood disaster area and the direct economic loss are taken as the evaluation indexes of flood disaster loss. Obviously that the larger the evaluation index value, the larger the corresponding value of the grade of flood disaster loss is. Consequently the IGP code is designed to make the value of the grade of flood disaster be an increasing function of the index value. The result of the application of the IGP-EGFD model to Henan Province shows that a good function expression can be obtained within a bigger searched function space; and the model is of high precision and considerable practical significance.Thus, IGP-EGFD can be widely used in automatic modeling and other evaluation systems.

  2. Microsoft Exchange Server 2013 high availability

    CERN Document Server

    Mota, Nuno

    2014-01-01

    This book is a hands-on practical guide that provides the reader with a number of clear scenarios and examples, making it easier to understand and apply the new concepts. Each chapter can be used as a reference, or it can be read from beginning to end, allowing consultants/administrators to build a solid and highly available Exchange 2013 environment. If you are a messaging professional who wants to learn to design a highly available Exchange 2013 environment, this book is for you. Although not a definite requirement, practical experience with Exchange 2010 is expected, without being a subject

  3. Enabling High Data Availability in a DHT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knezevic, Predrag; Wombacher, Andreas; Risse, Thomas

    Many decentralized and peer-to-peer applications require some sort of data management. Besides P2P file-sharing, there are already scenarios (e.g. BRICKS project) that need management of finer-grained objects including updates and, keeping them highly available in very dynamic communities of peers.

  4. Zonation of High Disaster Potential Communities for Remote Mountainous Areas in Southern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yie-Ruey; Tsai, Kuang-Jung; Chang, Chwen-Ming; Chen, Jing-Wen; Chiang, Jie-Lun; Lu, Yi-Ching; Tsai, Hui-Wen

    2017-04-01

    About three-quarters of Taiwan are covered by hillside areas. Most of the hillside regions in Taiwan are sedimentary and metamorphic rocks which are fragile and highly weathered. In recent years, human development coupled with the global impact of extreme weather, typhoons and heavy rains have caused the landslide disasters and leaded to human causalities and properties loss. The landslides also endanger the major public works and almost make the overall industrial economic development and transport path overshadowed by disasters. Therefore, this research assesses the exploration of landslide potential analysis and zonation of high disaster potential communities for remote mountainous areas in southern Taiwan. In this study, the time series of disaster records and land change of remote mountainous areas in southern Taiwan are collected using techniques of interpretation from satellite images corresponding to multi-year and multi-rainfall events. To quantify the slope hazards, we adopt statistical analysis model to analyze massive data of slope disasters and explore the variance, difference and trend of influence factors of hillside disaster; establish the disaster potential analysis model under the climate change and construct the threshold of disaster. Through analysis results of disaster potential assessment, the settlement distribution with high-risk hazard potential of study area is drawn with geographic information system. Results of image classification show that the values of coefficient of agreement for different time periods are at high level. Compared with the historical disaster records of research areas, the accuracy of predicted landslide potential is in reasonable confidence level. The spatial distribution of landslide depends on the interaction of rainfall patterns, slope and elevation of the research area. The results also show that the number and scale of secondary landslide sites are much larger than those of new landslide sites after rainfall

  5. A Highly Available Grid Metadata Catalog

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik Thostrup; Kleist, Joshva

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a metadata catalog, intended foruse in grids. The catalog provides high availability, by replication across several hosts. The replicas are kept consistent using a replication protocol based on the Paxos algorithm. A majority of the replicas must be available in order...... for the system to function. The data model used in the catalog is RDF, which allows users to create theirown name spaces and schemas. Querying is performed using SPARQL. Additionally the catalog can be used as a synchronization mechanism, by utilizing a compare and swap operation. The catalog is accessed using...... HTTP with proxy certificates, and uses GACL for flexible access control.The performance of the catalog is tested in several ways, including a distributed setup between geographically separated sites....

  6. Availability and Reliability of Disaster Early Warning Systems and the IT Infrastructure Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wächter, J.; Loewe, P.

    2012-12-01

    The Boxing Day Tsunami of 2004 caused an information catastrophy. Crucial early warning information could not be delivered to the communities under imminent threat, resulting in over 240,000 casualties in 14 countries. This tragedy sparked the development of a new generation of integrated modular Tsunami Early Warning Systems (TEWS). While significant advances were accomplished in the past years, recent events, like the Chile 2010 and the Tohoku 2011 tsunami demonstrate that the key technical challenge for Tsunami Early Warning research on the supranational scale still lies in the timely issuing of status information and reliable early warning messages. A key challenge stems from the main objective of the IOC Tsunami Programme, the integration of national TEWS towards ocean-wide networks: Each of the increasing number of integrated Tsunami Early Warning Centres has to cope with the continuing evolution of sensors, hardware and software while having to maintain reliable inter-center information exchange services. To avoid future information catastrophes, the performance of all components, ranging from sensors to Warning Centers, has to be regularly validated against defined criteria. This task is complicated by the fact that in term of ICT system life cycles tsunami are very rare event resulting in very difficult framing conditions to safeguard the availability and reliability of TWS. Since 2004, GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ) has built up expertise in the field of TEWS. Within GFZ, the Centre for GeoInformation Technology (CEGIT) has focused its work on the geoinformatics aspects of TEWS in two projects already: The German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and the Distant Early Warning System (DEWS), a European project funded under the sixth Framework Programme (FP6). These developments are continued in the TRIDEC project (Collaborative, Complex, and Critical

  7. High Altitude Platforms for Disaster Recovery: Capabilities, Strategies, and Techniques for Emergency Telecommunications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan D. Deaton

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Natural disasters and terrorist acts have significant potential to disrupt emergency communication systems. These emergency communication networks include first-responder, cellular, landline, and emergency answering services such as 911, 112, or 999. Without these essential emergency communications capabilities, search, rescue, and recovery operations during a catastrophic event will be severely debilitated. High altitude platforms could be fitted with telecommunications equipment and used to support these critical communications missions once the catastrophic event occurs. With the ability to be continuously on station, HAPs provide excellent options for providing emergency coverage over high-risk areas before catastrophic incidents occur. HAPs could also provide enhanced 911 capabilities using either GPS or reference stations. This paper proposes potential emergency communications architecture and presents a method for estimating emergency communications systems traffic patterns for a catastrophic event.

  8. High Altitude Platforms for Disaster Recovery: Capabilities, Strategies, and Techniques for Emergency Telecommunications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deaton JuanD

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Natural disasters and terrorist acts have significant potential to disrupt emergency communication systems. These emergency communication networks include first-responder, cellular, landline, and emergency answering services such as 911, 112, or 999. Without these essential emergency communications capabilities, search, rescue, and recovery operations during a catastrophic event will be severely debilitated. High altitude platforms could be fitted with telecommunications equipment and used to support these critical communications missions once the catastrophic event occurs. With the ability to be continuously on station, HAPs provide excellent options for providing emergency coverage over high-risk areas before catastrophic incidents occur. HAPs could also provide enhanced 911 capabilities using either GPS or reference stations. This paper proposes potential emergency communications architecture and presents a method for estimating emergency communications systems traffic patterns for a catastrophic event.

  9. Digitally Controlled High Availability Power Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacNair, David; /SLAC

    2009-05-07

    This paper will report on the test results of a prototype 1320 watt power module for a high availability power supply. The module will allow parallel operation for N+1 redundancy with hot swap capability. The two quadrant output of each module allows pairs of modules to provide a 4 quadrant (bipolar) operation. Each module employs a novel 4 FET buck regulator arranged in a bridge configuration. Each side of the bridge alternately conducts through a small saturable ferrite that limits the reverse current in the FET body diode during turn off. This allows hard switching of the FETs with low switching losses. The module is designed with over-rated components to provide high reliability and better then 97% efficiency at full load. The modules use a Microchip DSP for control, monitoring, and fault detection. The switching FETS are driven by PWM modules in the DSP at 60 KHz. A Dual CAN bus interface provides for low cost redundant control paths. The DSP will also provide current sharing between modules, synchronized switching, and soft start up for hot swapping. The input and output of each module have low resistance FETs to allow hot swapping and isolation of faulted units.

  10. 12 CFR Appendix A to Subpart S of... - Sample Form of Notice of Special Flood Hazards and Availability of Federal Disaster Relief...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and Availability of Federal Disaster Relief Assistance A Appendix A to Subpart S of Part 614 Banks and... Requirements Pt. 614, Subpt. S, App. A Appendix A to Subpart S of Part 614—Sample Form of Notice of Special... Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) as a special flood hazard area using FEMA's Flood Insurance Rate Map...

  11. Disaster Preparedness Among University Students in Guangzhou, China: Assessment of Status and Demand for Disaster Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yibing; Liao, Xiaolan; Su, Haihao; Li, Chun; Xiang, Jiagen; Dong, Zhaoyang

    2017-06-01

    This study had 2 aims. First, we evaluated the current levels of disaster preparedness among university students in southern China. Second, we assessed students' demands for future disaster education. In addition, we examined the influence of demographic factors on current disaster preparedness status and demand. A cross-sectional design was used. The data were collected from 1893 students in 10 universities in the Guangzhou Higher Education Mega (GHEM) center. A self-administered questionnaire developed for this study was administered to assess the current status and demand for disaster education. The results are based on 1764 valid questionnaires. Among the participants, 77.8% reported having had disaster education experiences before, 85.5% indicated their desire for a systematic disaster course, and 75.4% expressed their willingness to take such a course upon its availability. The total mean score for demand for disaster course content (5-point Likert scale) was 4.17±0.84, with items relating to rescue skills given the highest scores. These results suggested that students had high desires for disaster preparedness knowledge, especially knowledge concerning rescue skills. We observed significant differences in disaster education experiences between male and female students and across programs, school years, and home locations. Furthermore, we observed significant differences in demand for disaster course content between male and female students and across universities, student programs, years of school, and students' majors. A systematic disaster course focused on rescue skills is needed by all types of universities. To improve the disaster education system in universities, disaster drills should be performed on a semester basis as a refresher and to enhance disaster preparedness. The government and universities should support building a simulated disaster rescue center and recruit faculty from the emergency department, especially those who have had disaster

  12. High Available COTS Based Computer for Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, J.; Magistrati, Giorgio

    2015-09-01

    The availability and reliability factors of a system are central requirements of a target application. From a simple fuel injection system used in cars up to a flight control system of an autonomous navigating spacecraft, each application defines its specific availability factor under the target application boundary conditions. Increasing quality requirements on data processing systems used in space flight applications calling for new architectures to fulfill the availability, reliability as well as the increase of the required data processing power. Contrary to the increased quality request simplification and use of COTS components to decrease costs while keeping the interface compatibility to currently used system standards are clear customer needs. Data processing system design is mostly dominated by strict fulfillment of the customer requirements and reuse of available computer systems were not always possible caused by obsolescence of EEE-Parts, insufficient IO capabilities or the fact that available data processing systems did not provide the required scalability and performance.

  13. Damage assessment framework for landslide disaster based on very high-resolution images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bo; Xu, Qihua; He, Jun; Liu, Zhen; Wang, Ying; Ge, Fengxiang

    2016-04-01

    It is well known that rapid building damage assessment is necessary for postdisaster emergency relief and recovery. Based on an analysis of very high-resolution remote-sensing images, we propose an automatic building damage assessment framework for rainfall- or earthquake-induced landslide disasters. The framework consists of two parts that implement landslide detection and the damage classification of buildings, respectively. In this framework, an approach based on modified object-based sparse representation classification and morphological processing is used for automatic landslide detection. Moreover, we propose a building damage classification model, which is a classification strategy designed for affected buildings based on the spectral characteristics of the landslide disaster and the morphological characteristics of building damage. The effectiveness of the proposed framework was verified by applying it to remote-sensing images from Wenchuan County, China, in 2008, in the aftermath of an earthquake. It can be useful for decision makers, disaster management agencies, and scientific research organizations.

  14. Availability Analysis for High Voltage Synchronous Motor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Jin-hua; Erland Olsson; ZHOU Rong

    2004-01-01

    The operating experience data for 34 motors running for approximately 15 years in paper plants are collected. According to the data set, the reliability and availability characteristics of a highvoltage synchronous motor are analyzed based on the Markov Model. The unit or subsystem main rotor with windings in the motor system is more important for the motor system's availability, though its failure rate is lower compared to other units. Preventive maintenance is first introduced as a state in the markov Model for the motor system.

  15. Disasters And Minimum Health Standards In Disaster Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel GOGEN

    Full Text Available Millions of people are affected by natural or man made disasters all over the world. The number of people affected by disasters increase globally, due to global climate changes, increasing poverty, low life standards, inappropriate infrastructure, lack of early response systems, abuse of natural sources, and beside these, nuclear weapons, wars and conflicts, terrorist actions, migration, displacement and population movements. 95 % of life loss due to disasters are in the underdeveloped or developing countries. Turkey is a developing country, highly affected by disasters. For coping with disasters, not only national action plans, but also International Action Plans and cooperations are needed. Since all the disasters have direct and indirect effects on health, applications of minimal health standarts in disaster response, will reduce the morbidity and mortality rates. In this paper, water supplies and sanitation, vector control, waste control, burial of corpses, nutrition and minimum health standards in disaster response, are reviewed. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2004; 3(12.000: 296-306

  16. PostgreSQL 9 high availability cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, Shaun M

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive series of dependable recipes to design, build, and implement a PostgreSQL server architecture free of common pitfalls that can operate for years to come. Each chapter is packed with instructions and examples to simplify even highly complex database operations. If you are a PostgreSQL DBA working on Linux systems who want a database that never gives up, this book is for you. If you've ever experienced a database outage, restored from a backup, spent hours trying to repair a malfunctioning cluster, or simply want to guarantee system stability, this book is definitely for you.

  17. Development of Long-Range and High-Speed Wireless LAN for the Transmission of Telemedicine from Disaster Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takizawa Masaomi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A computer network is indispensable for realizing the use of telemedicine. Recently, experiments to provide telemedicine to residents in remote places over a broadband Internet access have been reported. However, if a disaster were to occur with devastation over a wide mountainous area, and telephones and Internet access were to become unavailable, the provision of telemedicine for injured residents in this area becomes difficult. To solve this problem, we have developed 2.4 GHz wireless LAN units with the longest coverage in Japan to date, of 30 km plus at 54 Mbps which complies with the IEEE802.11 g standard and the Japanese radio regulations to re-establish communications temporally between disaster devastated areas and hospitals, and so on. We tested them in the disaster prevention drill with the regional fire bureau and concluded that wireless LAN units we developed can transfer high-quality video images and sound good enough for use in telemedicine.

  18. Development of Long-Range and High-Speed Wireless LAN for the Transmission of Telemedicine from Disaster Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoshin Kubota

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A computer network is indispensable for realizing the use of telemedicine. Recently, experiments to provide telemedicine to residents in remote places over a broadband Internet access have been reported. However, if a disaster were to occur with devastation over a wide mountainous area, and telephones and Internet access were to become unavailable, the provision of telemedicine for injured residents in this area becomes difficult. To solve this problem, we have developed 2.4 GHz wireless LAN units with the longest coverage in Japan to date, of 30 km plus at 54 Mbps which complies with the IEEE802.11 g standard and the Japanese radio regulations to re-establish communications temporally between disaster devastated areas and hospitals, and so on. We tested them in the disaster prevention drill with the regional fire bureau and concluded that wireless LAN units we developed can transfer high-quality video images and sound good enough for use in telemedicine.

  19. Analysis of seismic disaster failure mechanism and dam-break simulation of high arch dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingkui; Zhang, Liaojun

    2014-06-01

    Based on a Chinese national high arch dam located in a meizoseismal region, a nonlinear numerical analysis model of the damage and failure process of a dam-foundation system is established by employing a 3-D deformable distinct element code (3DEC) and its re-development functions. The proposed analysis model considers the dam-foundation-reservoir coupling effect, influence of nonlinear contact in the opening and closing of the dam seam surface and abutment rock joints during strong earthquakes, and radiation damping of far field energy dissipation according to the actual workability state of an arch dam. A safety assessment method and safety evaluation criteria is developed to better understand the arch dam system disaster process from local damage to ultimate failure. The dynamic characteristics, disaster mechanism, limit bearing capacity and the entire failure process of a high arch dam under a strong earthquake are then analyzed. Further, the seismic safety of the arch dam is evaluated according to the proposed evaluation criteria and safety assessment method. As a result, some useful conclusions are obtained for some aspects of the disaster mechanism and failure process of an arch dam. The analysis method and conclusions may be useful in engineering practice.

  20. Disaster debris estimation using high-resolution polarimetric stereo-SAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Christian N.; Gokon, Hideomi; Jimbo, Masaru; Koshimura, Shunichi; Sato, Motoyuki

    2016-10-01

    This paper addresses the problem of debris estimation which is one of the most important initial challenges in the wake of a disaster like the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami. Reasonable estimates of the debris have to be made available to decision makers as quickly as possible. Current approaches to obtain this information are far from being optimal as they usually rely on manual interpretation of optical imagery. We have developed a novel approach for the estimation of tsunami debris pile heights and volumes for improved emergency response. The method is based on a stereo-synthetic aperture radar (stereo-SAR) approach for very high-resolution polarimetric SAR. An advanced gradient-based optical-flow estimation technique is applied for optimal image coregistration of the low-coherence non-interferometric data resulting from the illumination from opposite directions and in different polarizations. By applying model based decomposition of the coherency matrix, only the odd bounce scattering contributions are used to optimize echo time computation. The method exclusively considers the relative height differences from the top of the piles to their base to achieve a very fine resolution in height estimation. To define the base, a reference point on non-debris-covered ground surface is located adjacent to the debris pile targets by exploiting the polarimetric scattering information. The proposed technique is validated using in situ data of real tsunami debris taken on a temporary debris management site in the tsunami affected area near Sendai city, Japan. The estimated height error is smaller than 0.6 m RMSE. The good quality of derived pile heights allows for a voxel-based estimation of debris volumes with a RMSE of 1099 m3. Advantages of the proposed method are fast computation time, and robust height and volume estimation of debris piles without the need for pre-event data or auxiliary information like DEM, topographic maps or GCPs.

  1. The Design and Verification of Disaster Recovery Strategies in Cloud Disaster Recovery Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Li

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available  Disaster recovery is an important means to ensure business continuity. However, the disaster recovery investment is so huge that the cloud disaster recovery becomes a best choice for enterprises, especially for SMEs. This paper discusses the necessity and importance of the cloud disaster recovery center and the vital indicators of disaster recovery by analyzing the classification and selecting principle of cloud disaster recovery strategy, developing disaster recovery strategy based on major disaster recovery strategy finally. In the end, this paper verifies the feasibility of the disaster recovery strategy by two specific cases of disaster recovery implementation.

  2. Design and Laboratory Level Production of High Energy Survival Tablets for Athletes, Tourists and People who Faced Natural Disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Nezami Asl

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: People affected by natural disasters like flood or earthquakes and also athletes like mountain climbers and also sailors who continuously go to jungles or deserts, might get into trouble in the nature and need help to get back to their home and therefore, they might need high energy supplements to keep them alive up to the time they find a food source. The goal of this study was to design and make these laboratory prototypes of high energy tablets. Methods: For making tablets 15 different formulations were designed and made in the laboratory and then were tested to be suit. We objected to design formulations that could provide at least 20 kcal per each tab and amount of daily protein (about 25 grams, Tablets were design to provide not only the minimum energy needed but also the minimum protein needs and daily requirements of some vitamins and minerals of a healthy male adult. Results: Laboratory samples of 5 gram high energy (21 Kcal were produced. The best formulation that had the capacity to be converted into tablets consisted of olive oil (16%, maltodextrin (36%, high biological value protein powder (25%, sesame seed (17% and wheat germ (6%. 25 tablets should be taken each day which provides 525 kcal energy, 25g protein and different vitamins and minerals, daily; therefore, they will provide the minimum energy needs for at least 10 days if provided in 1.2 kg packs.  Conclusion: The production of high energy tab rations can provide minimum energy needs for at least 7 days for athletes, tourists and people who face natural disasters when there is no access to any other food resources because they occupy the minimum volume and their production is accessible in Iran.

  3. Integrating the disaster cycle model into traditional disaster diplomacy concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaway, David W; Yim, Eugene S; Stack, Colin; Burkle, Frederick M

    2012-03-01

    Disaster diplomacy is an evolving contemporary model that examines how disaster response strategies can facilitate cooperation between parties in conflict. The concept of disaster diplomacy has emerged during the past decade to address how disaster response can be leveraged to promote peace, facilitate communication, promote human rights, and strengthen intercommunity ties in the increasingly multipolar modern world. Historically, the concept has evolved through two camps, one that focuses on the interactions between national governments in conflict and another that emphasizes the grassroots movements that can promote change. The two divergent approaches can be reconciled and disaster diplomacy further matured by contextualizing the concept within the disaster cycle, a model well established within the disaster risk management community. In particular, access to available health care, especially for the most vulnerable populations, may need to be negotiated. As such, disaster response professionals, including emergency medicine specialists, can play an important role in the development and implementation of disaster diplomacy concepts.

  4. High-low-blasting technology and its application in methane dynamic disaster prevention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xian-zhong; LIN Bai-quan; YANG Wei; NI Guan-hua; LI Quan-gui

    2011-01-01

    The gas cooperative control model combined local pressure-relief with regional pressure-relief was established,based on the theory of multi-parameters cooperative.For the status of high gas contents,high in-situ stress and low-permeability of Ji-15 seam of No.12 coal mine in Pingmei Group.The law of detonation wave propagation and ground-stress change distribution were simulated by means of the finite element analysis software.The technology of high-low-blasting,composed of high blasting(deep crossing hole controlled hydraulic blasting) and low blasting (special roadway deep hole controlled blasting) were developed.The research shows that around control hole produce maximum tension fracture failure,and result in directional and controlled blasting,when the distance between control hole and blasting hole is 1.2 m.The theory makes blasting force and hydraulic force advantage superimpose,which raises the effect of pressure relief and permeability enhancements compared with general blasting.High blasting influence radius and low blasting influence radius superimposed with each other,that prevents methane dynamic disaster.The result of type approval test shows that the technology can increase gas permeability as high as 22.7~36.2 ratio,decrease gas pressure from 2.85 MPa to 0.30 MPa,increase drilling influence radius to about 9 m.The technology realizes regional overall permeability improvement,that provides a new technical measure for methane dynamic disaster prevention.

  5. 38 CFR 36.4708 - Notice of special flood hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of Payment, and Flood Insurance § 36.4708 Notice of special flood hazards and availability of Federal... a loan secured by a building or a mobile home located or to be located in a special flood hazard... approved by the Director of FEMA, that the building or the mobile home is or will be located in a...

  6. Design and reliability, availability, maintainability, and safety analysis of a high availability quadruple vital computer system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping TAN; Wei-ting HE; Jia LIN; Hong-ming ZHAO; Jian CHU

    2011-01-01

    With the development of high-speed railways in China,more than 2000 high-speed trains will be put into use.Safety and efficiency of railway transportation is increasingly important.We have designed a high availability quadruple vital computer (HAQVC) system based on the analysis of the architecture of the traditional double 2-out-of-2 system and 2-out-of-3 system.The HAQVC system is a system with high availability and safety,with prominent characteristics such as fire-new internal architecture,high efficiency,reliable data interaction mechanism,and operation state change mechanism.The hardware of the vital CPU is based on ARM7 with the real-time embedded safe operation system (ES-OS).The Markov modeling method is designed to evaluate the reliability,availability,maintainability,and safety (RAMS) of the system.In this paper,we demonstrate that the HAQVC system is more reliable than the all voting triple modular redundancy (AVTMR) system and double 2-out-of-2 system.Thus,the design can be used for a specific application system,such as an airplane or high-speed railway system.

  7. Highly Available DHTs: Keeping Data Consistency After Updates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knežević, P.; Wombacher, Andreas; Risse, T.

    2006-01-01

    The research in the paper is motivated by building a decentralized/P2P XML storage on top of a DHT (Distributed Hash Table). The storage must provide high data availability and support updates. High data availability in a DHT can be guaranteed by data replication. However, DHTs can not provide a

  8. High Altitude Platforms for Disaster Recovery: Capabilities, Strategies, and Techniques for Providing Emergency Telecommunications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juan D. Deaton

    2008-05-01

    Natural disasters and terrorist acts have significant potential to disrupt emergency communication systems. These emergency communication networks include first-responder, cellular, landline, and emergency answering services such as 911, 112, or 999. Without these essential emergency communications capabilities, search, rescue, and recovery operations during a catastrophic event will be severely debilitated. High altitude platforms could be fitted with telecommunications equipment and used to support these critical communications missions once the catastrophic event occurs. With the ability to be continuously on station, HAPs provide excellent options for providing emergency coverage over high-risk areas before catastrophic incidents occur. HAPs could also provide enhanced 911 capabilities using either GPS or reference stations. This paper proposes potential emergency communications architecture and presents a method for estimating emergency communications systems traffic patterns for a catastrophic event.

  9. High plant availability of phosphorus and low availability of cadmium in four biomass combustion ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiaoxi, E-mail: Xiaoxi.Li@agro.au.dk; Rubæk, Gitte H.; Sørensen, Peter

    2016-07-01

    For biomass combustion to become a sustainable energy production system, it is crucial to minimise landfill of biomass ashes, to recycle the nutrients and to minimise the undesirable impact of hazardous substances in the ash. In order to test the plant availability of phosphorus (P) and cadmium (Cd) in four biomass ashes, we conducted two pot experiments on a P-depleted soil and one mini-plot field experiment on a soil with adequate P status. Test plants were spring barley and Italian ryegrass. Ash applications were compared to triple superphosphate (TSP) and a control without P application. Both TSP and ash significantly increased crop yields and P uptake on the P-depleted soil. In contrast, on the adequate-P soil, the barley yield showed little response to soil amendment, even at 300–500 kg P ha{sup −1} application, although the barley took up more P at higher applications. The apparent P use efficiency of the additive was 20% in ryegrass - much higher than that of barley for which P use efficiencies varied on the two soils. Generally, crop Cd concentrations were little affected by the increasing and high applications of ash, except for relatively high Cd concentrations in barley after applying 25 Mg ha{sup −1} straw ash. Contrarily, even modest increases in the TSP application markedly increased Cd uptake in plants. This might be explained by the low Cd solubility in the ash or by the reduced Cd availability due to the liming effect of ash. High concentrations of resin-extractable P (available P) in the ash-amended soil after harvest indicate that the ash may also contribute to P availability for the following crops. In conclusion, the biomass ashes in this study had P availability similar to the TSP fertiliser and did not contaminate the crop with Cd during the first year. - Highlights: • Effects of four biomass ashes vs. a P fertiliser (TSP) on two crops were studied. • Ashes increased crop yields with P availability similar to TSP on P-depleted soil

  10. High plant availability of phosphorus and low availability of cadmium in four biomass combustion ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiaoxi; Rubæk, Gitte Holton; Sørensen, Peter

    2016-01-01

    For biomass combustion to become a sustainable energy production system, it is crucial to minimise landfill of biomass ashes, to recycle the nutrients and to minimise the undesirable impact of hazardous substances in the ash. In order to test the plant availability of phosphorus (P) and cadmium (Cd......) in four biomass ashes, we conducted two pot experiments on a P-depleted soil and one mini-plot field experiment on a soil with adequate P status. Test plants were spring barley and Italian ryegrass. Ash applications were compared to triple superphosphate (TSP) and a control without P application. Both TSP...... ash. Contrarily, even modest increases in the TSP application markedly increased Cd uptake in plants. This might be explained by the low Cd solubility in the ash or by the reduced Cd availability due to the liming effect of ash. High concentrations of resin-extractable P (available P) in the ash...

  11. Model and Implementation of Communication Link Management Supporting High Availability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Juan; Cao Yang; He Zheng; Li Feng

    2004-01-01

    Despite the rapid evolution in all aspects of computer technology, both the computer hardware and software are prone to numerous failure conditions. In this paper, we analyzed the characteristic of a computer system and the methods of constructing a system , proposed a communication link management model supporting high availability for network applications, Which will greatly increase the high availability of network applications. Then we elaborated on heartbeat or service detect, fail-over, service take-over, switchback and error recovery process of the model. In the process of constructing the communication link, we implemented the link management and service take-over with high availability requirement, and discussed the state and the state transition of building the communication link between the hosts, depicted the message transfer and the start of timer. At Last, we applied the designed high availability system to a network billing system, and showed how the system was constructed and implemented, which perfectly satisfied the system requirements.

  12. THE PREVENTION PROGRAMS OF PHYSICAL REHABILITATION FOR CHERNOBYL DISASTER SURVIVORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korobeynikov G.V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study: approbation of the prevention program of physical rehabilitation for Chernobyl disaster survivors in lifestyle aspects. Sixty persons who were disaster survivors and workers of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant aged 32-60 have rehabilitation during 21 days. The complex of training prevention programs of physical and psycho-emotional rehabilitation methods was elaborated. The study of efficacy of training prevention programs among Chernobyl disaster survivors. The results showed the improvement of psycho-emotional status and normalization of cardiovascular vegetative regulation after training prevention programs in Chernobyl disasters survivors. The studies show that the preventive programs for Chernobyl disaster survivors in lifestyle aspects had the high effect. This displays the decrease of tempo of aging and the improving of physical and psychological health status of Chernobyl disaster survivors during preventive course.

  13. Drinking high-energy electrolytic water decreases internal radiation exposure caused by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear power plant disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawajiri Masahiko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant disaster on March 11, 2011, caused radiation hazards throughout Fukushima Prefecture. Cesium was absorbed by soil and plants and transferred to livestock. Removing radioactive cesium from the bodies of farm animals and humans is essential. It has recently been reported that H2 scavenges reactive oxygen species and suppresses oxidative stress-related diseases. The hypothesis is that “active hydrogen” (hydrogen water scavenges active oxygen species. We hypothesized that high-energy electrolytic hydrogen water will effectively decontaminate cesium-exposed chickens. A test group of chickens drank high-energy electrolytic hydrogen water, while the control group drank regular water. Cesium contents in the test group were significantly lower than in the controlled one, possibly because more cesium excretion occurred in the test group than the control group. Lower 137Cs concentrations were found in test-group tissues than in control-group tissues, showing that high-energy electrolytic hydrogen water increased the rate of elimination of 137Cs incorporated into chicken tissue.

  14. Epidemic activity after natural disasters without high mortality in developing settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loayza-Alarico, Manuel J; Lescano, Andres G; Suarez-Ognio, Luis A; Ramirez-Prada, Gladys M; Blazes, David L

    2013-01-01

    Natural disasters with minimal human mortality rarely capture headlines but occur frequently and result in significant morbidity and economic loss. We compared the epidemic activity observed after a flood, an earthquake, and volcanic activity in Peru. Following post-disaster guidelines, healthcare facilities and evacuation centers surveyed 10-12 significant health conditions for ~45 days and compared disease frequency with Poisson regression. The disasters affected 20,709 individuals and 15% were placed in evacuation centers. Seven deaths and 6,056 health conditions were reported (mean: 0.29 per person). Health facilities reported fewer events than evacuation centers (0.06-0.24 vs. 0.65-2.02, P disasters (95% CI: 1.5-1.6). Acute respiratory infections were the most frequent event (41-57%) and psychological distress was second/third (7.6% to 14.3%). Morbidity increased after disasters without substantial casualties, particularly at evacuation centers, with frequent respiratory infections and psychological distress. Post-disaster surveillance is valuable even after low-mortality events.

  15. Approach to Achieve High Availability in Critical Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Regardless, current technology includes RFID tags for systems, and tablets can be implemented to assist in real-time updates. Current Wi-Fi technology can...APPROACH TO ACHIEVE HIGH AVAILABILITY IN CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE Yew Kee Hoo Senior Engineer, Defence Science and Technology Agency, Singapore B.E...Between Failure MTTF Mean Time to Repair NAVFAC Naval Facilities Engineering Command xvi O&M Operations and Maintenance RFID Radio Frequency

  16. A software and hardware architecture for a high-availability PACS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Martínez, Josefina; Núñez-Gaona, Marco Antonio; Aguirre-Meneses, Heriberto; Delgado-Esquerra, Ruth Evelin

    2012-08-01

    Increasing radiology studies has led to the emergence of new requirements for management medical information, mainly affecting the storage of digital images. Today, it is a necessary interaction between workflow management and legal rules that govern it, to allow an efficient control of medical technology and associated costs. Another important topic that is growing in importance within the healthcare sector is compliance, which includes the retention of studies, information security, and patient privacy. Previously, we conducted a series of extensive analysis and measurements of pre-existing operating conditions. These studies and projects have been described in other papers. The first phase: hardware and software installation and initial tests were completed in March 2006. The storage phase was built step by step until the PACS-INR was totally completed. Two important aspects were considered in the integration of components: (1) the reliability and performance of the system to transfer and display DICOM images, and (2) the availability of data backups for disaster recovery and downtime scenarios. This paper describes the high-availability model for a large-scale PACS to support the storage and retrieve of data using CAS and DAS technologies to provide an open storage platform. This solution offers a simple framework that integrates and automates the information at low cost and minimum risk. Likewise, the model allows an optimized use of the information infrastructure in the clinical environment. The tests of the model include massive data migration, openness, scalability, and standard compatibility to avoid locking data into a proprietary technology.

  17. Enhancing disaster management by mapping disaster proneness and preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Vishal; Fuloria, Sanjay; Bisht, Shailendra Singh

    2012-07-01

    The focus of most disaster management programmes is to deploy resources-physical and human-from outside the disaster zone. This activity can produce a delay in disaster mitigation and recovery efforts, and a consequent loss of human lives and economic resources. It may be possible to expedite recovery and prevent loss of life by mapping out disaster proneness and the availability of resources in advance. This study proposes the development of two indices to do so. The Indian census data of 2001 is used to develop a methodology for creating one index on disaster proneness and one on resourcefulness for administrative units (tehsils). Findings reveal that tehsil residents face an elevated risk of disaster and that they are also grossly under-prepared for such events. The proposed indices can be used to map regional service provision facilities and to assist authorities in evaluating immediate, intermediate, and long-term disaster recovery needs and resource requirements.

  18. Importance of Integrating High-Resoultion 2D Flood Hazard Maps in the Flood Disaster Management of Marikina City, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapales, Ben Joseph; Mendoza, Jerico; Uichanco, Christopher; Mahar Francisco Amante Lagmay, Alfredo; Moises, Mark Anthony; Delmendo, Patricia; Eneri Tingin, Neil

    2015-04-01

    Flooding has been a perennial problem in the city of Marikina. These incidences result in human and economic losses. In response to this, the city has been investing in their flood disaster mitigation program in the past years. As a result, flooding in Marikina was reduced by 31% from 1992 to 2004. [1] However, these measures need to be improved so as to mitigate the effects of floods with more than 100 year return period, such as the flooding brought by tropical storm Ketsana in 2009 which generated 455mm of rains over a 24-hour period. Heavy rainfall caused the streets to be completely submerged in water, leaving at least 70 people dead in the area. In 2012, the Southwest monsoon, enhanced by a typhoon, brought massive rains with an accumulated rainfall of 472mm for 22-hours, a number greater than that which was experienced during Ketsana. At this time, the local government units were much more prepared in mitigating the risk with the use of early warning and evacuation measures, resulting to zero casualty in the area. Their urban disaster management program, however, can be further improved through the integration of high-resolution 2D flood hazard maps in the city's flood disaster management. The use of these maps in flood disaster management is essential in reducing flood-related risks. This paper discusses the importance and advantages of integrating flood maps in structural and non-structural mitigation measures in the case of Marikina City. Flood hazard maps are essential tools in predicting the frequency and magnitude of floods in an area. An information that may be determined with the use of these maps is the locations of evacuation areas, which may be accurately positioned using high-resolution 2D flood hazard maps. Evacuation of people in areas that are not vulnerable of being inundated is one of the unnecessary measures that may be prevented and thus optimizing mitigation efforts by local government units. This paper also discusses proposals for a more

  19. A High-Availability, Distributed Hardware Control System Using Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niessner, Albert F.

    2011-01-01

    Two independent coronagraph experiments that require 24/7 availability with different optical layouts and different motion control requirements are commanded and controlled with the same Java software system executing on many geographically scattered computer systems interconnected via TCP/IP. High availability of a distributed system requires that the computers have a robust communication messaging system making the mix of TCP/IP (a robust transport), and XML (a robust message) a natural choice. XML also adds the configuration flexibility. Java then adds object-oriented paradigms, exception handling, heavily tested libraries, and many third party tools for implementation robustness. The result is a software system that provides users 24/7 access to two diverse experiments with XML files defining the differences

  20. A High-Availability, Distributed Hardware Control System Using Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niessner, Albert F.

    2011-01-01

    Two independent coronagraph experiments that require 24/7 availability with different optical layouts and different motion control requirements are commanded and controlled with the same Java software system executing on many geographically scattered computer systems interconnected via TCP/IP. High availability of a distributed system requires that the computers have a robust communication messaging system making the mix of TCP/IP (a robust transport), and XML (a robust message) a natural choice. XML also adds the configuration flexibility. Java then adds object-oriented paradigms, exception handling, heavily tested libraries, and many third party tools for implementation robustness. The result is a software system that provides users 24/7 access to two diverse experiments with XML files defining the differences

  1. High Prevalence of Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms in Relation to Social Factors in Affected Population One Year after the Fukushima Nuclear Disaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuya Tsujiuchi

    Full Text Available This study investigated post-traumatic stress symptoms in relation to the population affected by the Fukushima Nuclear Disaster, one year after the disaster. Additionally, we investigated social factors, such as forced displacement, which we hypothesize contributed to the high prevalence of post-traumatic stress. Finally, we report of written narratives that were collected from the impacted population.Using the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R, questionnaires were sent to 2,011 households of those displaced from Fukushima prefecture living temporarily in Saitama prefecture. Of the 490 replies; 350 met the criteria for inclusion in the study. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to examine several characteristics and variables of social factors as predictors of probable post-traumatic stress disorder, PTSD.The mean score of IES-R was 36.15±21.55, with 59.4% having scores of 30 or higher, thus indicating a probable PTSD. No significant differences in percentages of high-risk subjects were found among sex, age, evacuation area, housing damages, tsunami affected, family split-up, and acquaintance support. By the result of multiple logistic regression analysis, the significant predictors of probable PTSD were chronic physical diseases (OR = 1.97, chronic mental diseases (OR = 6.25, worries about livelihood (OR = 2.27, lost jobs (OR = 1.71, lost social ties (OR = 2.27, and concerns about compensation (OR = 3.74.Although there are limitations in assuming a diagnosis of PTSD based on self-report IES-R, our findings indicate that there was a high-risk of PTSD strongly related to the nuclear disaster and its consequent evacuation and displacement. Therefore, recovery efforts must focus not only on medical and psychological treatment alone, but also on social and economic issues related to the displacement, as well.

  2. Investigating the significance of disaster information management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukundi Mutasa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Disaster information informs disaster risk management interventions. However, it is the systematic management of this key resource that has not yet been fully embraced. In some cases, information is still haphazardly collected, analysed, managed and disseminated. This paper, utilising mainly secondary literature sources, explores the importance of disaster information and its systematic management in disaster risk management programming. It presents challenges associated with information management in disaster situations and critiques the trend whereby the collection, management and dissemination of information are usually limited to disaster situations. This only serves to further marginalise post-disaster recovery processes, which are integral with regard to generating knowledge essential for the formulation of future disaster mitigation strategies. The paper concludes by arguing for the integration of disaster information management into current disaster risk management curriculum.

  3. Reflection on Disaster and Disaster Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhonggui

    2001-01-01

    The paper mainly deals with disaster and presents a discussion and analysis of disaster economy study and its development. It also addresses some noteworthy issues in disaster economy study with a view to promoting disaster prevention and reduction.

  4. Strategic planning for post-disaster temporary housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Cassidy

    2007-12-01

    Temporary housing programmes suffer from excessively high cost, late delivery, poor location, improper unit designs and other inherent issues. These issues can be attributed in part to a prevalence of ad hoc tactical planning, rather than pre-disaster strategic planning, for reconstruction undertaken by governments and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in the chaotic post-disaster environment. An analysis of the process and outcomes from six case studies of temporary housing programmes after disasters in Turkey and Colombia in 1999, Japan in 1995, Greece in 1986, Mexico in 1985, and Italy in 1976 yields information about the extent to which strategic planning is employed in temporary housing programmes, as well as common issues in temporary housing. Based on an understanding of these common issues, this paper proposes a framework for strategic planning for temporary housing that identifies organisational designs and available resources for temporary housing before the disaster, but allows modifications to fit the specific post-disaster situation.

  5. Testing with high density resistivity method in prevention and cure for mine water disaster and its applied effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ping-song; WU Jian-sheng; LIU Sheng-dong

    2007-01-01

    The detecting examples using the high density resistivity method, about the evaluation of containing water characteristic from the floor rock and the height of overburden failure, were given. It expresses that the high density resistivity method has good effect with strong maneuverability and continuous observing section during the prevention and cure for mine water disaster. At the same time, the article pointed out that the study of space data inversion and dynamic watching technology about the high density resistivity method must be enhanced in the future because of special condition of data collecting in mine.

  6. Knowledge levels and training needs of disaster medicine among health professionals, medical students, and local residents in Shanghai, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Su

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Disaster is a serious public health issue. Health professionals and community residents are main players in disaster responses but their knowledge levels of disaster medicine are not readily available. This study aimed to evaluate knowledge levels and training needs of disaster medicine among potential disaster responders and presented a necessity to popularize disaster medicine education. METHODS: A self-reporting questionnaire survey on knowledge level and training needs of disaster medicine was conducted in Shanghai, China, in 2012. A total of randomly selected 547 health professionals, 456 medical students, and 1,526 local residents provided intact information. The total response rate was 93.7%. RESULTS: Overall, 1.3% of these participants have received systematic disaster medicine training. News media (87.1% was the most common channel to acquire disaster medicine knowledge. Although health professionals were more knowledgeable than community residents, their knowledge structure of disaster medicine was not intact. Medical teachers were more knowledgeable than medical practitioners and health administrators (p = 0.002. Clinicians performed better than public health physicians (p<0.001, whereas public health students performed better than clinical medical students (p<0.001. In community residents, education background significantly affected the knowledge level on disaster medicine (p<0.001. Training needs of disaster medicine were generally high among the surveyed. 'Lecture' and 'practical training' were preferred teaching methods. The selected key and interested contents on disaster medicine training were similar between health professionals and medical students, while the priorities chosen by local residents were quite different from health professionals and medical students (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Traditional clinical-oriented medical education might lead to a huge gap between the knowledge level on disaster medicine and

  7. Disaster Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Given the tendency of books on disasters to predominantly focus on strong geophysical or descriptive perspectives and in-depth accounts of particular catastrophes, Disaster Research provides a much-needed multidisciplinary perspective of the area. This book is is structured thematically around ke...

  8. A Proposed Model for IT Disaster Recovery Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam Abdel Rahman Mohamed

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available IT disaster recovery planning is no longer an option. Reliable IT services have become an integral part of most business processes. To ensure the continued provision of information technology, firms must engage in IT disaster recovery planning. Surprisingly, there is little research on this topic. IT disaster recovery planning has not been fully conceptualized in mainstream IT research. A previously framework for assessing the degree of IT disaster recovery planning. Practitioners can use this study to guide IT disaster recovery planning. Our Disaster Recovery Plan is designed to ensure the continuation of vital business processes in the event that a disaster occurs. This plan will provide an effective solution that can be used to recover all vital business processes within the required time frame using vital records that are stored off-site. This Plan is just one of several plans that will provide procedures to handle emergency situations. These plans can be utilized individually but are designed to support one another. The first phase is a Functional Teams and Responsibilities the Crisis Management Plan. This phase allows the ability to handle high-level coordination activities surrounding any crisis situation. We will also discuss the development, finally maintenance and testing of the Disaster Recovery Plan.

  9. A lightweight high availability strategy for Atlas LCG File Catalogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martelli, Barbara; Salvo, Alessandro de; Anzellotti, Daniela; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Cavalli, Alessandro; Pra, Stefano dal; Dell' Agnello, Luca; Gregori, Daniele; Prosperini, Andrea; Ricci, Pier Paolo; Sapunenko, Vladimir, E-mail: barbara.martelli@cnaf.infn.i [Viale Berti Pichat 6/2, Bologna I-40127 (Italy)

    2010-04-01

    The LCG File Catalog is a key component of the LHC Computing Grid middleware [1], as it contains the mapping between Logical File Names and Physical File Names on the Grid. The Atlas computing model foresees multiple local LFC housed in each Tier-1 and Tier-0, containing all information about files stored in the regional cloud. As the local LFC contents are presently not replicated anywhere, this turns out in a dangerous single point of failure for all of the Atlas regional clouds. In order to solve this problem we propose a novel solution for high availability (HA) of Oracle based Grid services, obtained by composing an Oracle Data Guard deployment and a series of application level scripts. This approach has the advantage of being very easy to deploy and maintain, and represents a good candidate solution for all Tier-2s which are usually little centres with little manpower dedicated to service operations. We also present the results of a wide range of functionality and performance tests run on a test-bed having characteristics similar to the ones required for production. The test-bed consists of a failover deployment between the Italian LHC Tier-1 (INFN - CNAF) and an Atlas Tier-2 located at INFN - Roma1. Moreover, we explain how the proposed strategy can be deployed on the present Grid infrastructure, without requiring any change to the middleware and in a way that is totally transparent to end users and applications.

  10. A lightweight high availability strategy for Atlas LCG File Catalogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, Barbara; de Salvo, Alessandro; Anzellotti, Daniela; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Cavalli, Alessandro; dal Pra, Stefano; dell'Agnello, Luca; Gregori, Daniele; Prosperini, Andrea; Ricci, Pier Paolo; Sapunenko, Vladimir

    2010-04-01

    The LCG File Catalog is a key component of the LHC Computing Grid middleware [1], as it contains the mapping between Logical File Names and Physical File Names on the Grid. The Atlas computing model foresees multiple local LFC housed in each Tier-1 and Tier-0, containing all information about files stored in the regional cloud. As the local LFC contents are presently not replicated anywhere, this turns out in a dangerous single point of failure for all of the Atlas regional clouds. In order to solve this problem we propose a novel solution for high availability (HA) of Oracle based Grid services, obtained by composing an Oracle Data Guard deployment and a series of application level scripts. This approach has the advantage of being very easy to deploy and maintain, and represents a good candidate solution for all Tier-2s which are usually little centres with little manpower dedicated to service operations. We also present the results of a wide range of functionality and performance tests run on a test-bed having characteristics similar to the ones required for production. The test-bed consists of a failover deployment between the Italian LHC Tier-1 (INFN - CNAF) and an Atlas Tier-2 located at INFN - Roma1. Moreover, we explain how the proposed strategy can be deployed on the present Grid infrastructure, without requiring any change to the middleware and in a way that is totally transparent to end users and applications.

  11. Robust Disaster Recovery System Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Highly security-critical system should possess features of continuous service. We present a new Robust Disaster Recovery System Model (RDRSM). Through strengthening the ability of safe communications, RDRSM guarantees the secure and reliable command on disaster recovery. Its self-supervision capability can monitor the integrality and security of disaster recovery system itself. By 2D and 3D real-time visible platform provided by GIS, GPS and RS, the model makes the using, management and maintenance of disaster recovery system easier. RDRSM possesses predominant features of security, robustness and controllability. And it can be applied to highly security-critical environments such as E-government and bank. Conducted by RDRSM, an important E-government disaster recovery system has been constructed successfully. The feasibility of this model is verified by practice. We especially emphasize the significance of some components of the model, such as risk assessment, disaster recovery planning, system supervision and robust communication support.

  12. FEMA Disaster Declarations Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The FEMA Disaster Declarations Summary is a summarized dataset describing all federally declared disasters, starting with the first disaster declaration in 1953,...

  13. High Availability Solution: Resource Usage Management in Virtualized Software Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aye Myat Myat Paing

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available As businesses increasingly rely on IT for their mission-critical operations, continuous availability is auniversal concern. Nowadays, virtualized platform has become the popular option to deploy complexenough services. Deployed services are expected to be always, available, but these long running servicesare especially sensitive to suffer from software aging phenomenon. Software aging of virtual machinemonitors (VMMs is becoming critical because performance degradation or crash failure of a VMM affectsall virtual machines (VMs on it. To counteract this issue, we deploy software rejuvenation methodology.To eliminate the service outage during software rejuvenation process, we combine the rejuvenation withlive migration technology. Live VM migration enables a running VM on a host serer to move onto the otherhost server with very small interruption of the execution. Live VM migration depends on VMs placementand efficient resource available is required. The idea behind our paper is two-fold. First, we present theoptimization of the resource usage as accepting as many services as in virtualized environment whichsupport of VM live migration. Second, to demonstrate how much it can improve system availability, thestochastic Petri nets model a virtualized server system in case of using time based software rejuvenation forVMM is presented. Finally, we perform the numerical analysis to evaluate the model.

  14. Condom availability in high risk places and condom use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøy, Ingvild Fossgard; Blystad, Astrid; Shayo, Elizabeth H.;

    2012-01-01

    and one in Zambia. The study was based on a triangulation of data collection methods in the three study districts: surveys in venues where people meet new sexual partners, population-based surveys and focus group discussions. The data was collected within an overall study on priority setting in health......Background A number of studies from countries with severe HIV epidemics have found gaps in condom availability, even in places where there is a substantial potential for HIV transmission. Although reported condom use has increased in many African countries, there are often big differences...... by socioeconomic background. The aim of this study was to assess equity aspects of condom availability and uptake in three African districts to evaluate whether condom programmes are given sufficient priority. Methods Data on condom availability and use was examined in one district in Kenya, one in Tanzania...

  15. A TASK-ORIENTED DISASTER INFORMATION CORRELATION METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Linyao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of sensor networks and Earth observation technology, a large quantity of disaster-related data is available, such as remotely sensed data, historic data, case data, simulated data, and disaster products. However, the efficiency of current data management and service systems has become increasingly difficult due to the task variety and heterogeneous data. For emergency task-oriented applications, the data searches primarily rely on artificial experience based on simple metadata indices, the high time consumption and low accuracy of which cannot satisfy the speed and veracity requirements for disaster products. In this paper, a task-oriented correlation method is proposed for efficient disaster data management and intelligent service with the objectives of 1 putting forward disaster task ontology and data ontology to unify the different semantics of multi-source information, 2 identifying the semantic mapping from emergency tasks to multiple data sources on the basis of uniform description in 1, and 3 linking task-related data automatically and calculating the correlation between each data set and a certain task. The method goes beyond traditional static management of disaster data and establishes a basis for intelligent retrieval and active dissemination of disaster information. The case study presented in this paper illustrates the use of the method on an example flood emergency relief task.

  16. Application of Near Real-Time and Multiscale Three Dimensional Earth Observation Platforms in Disaster Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whey-Fone Tsai

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Taiwan frequently experiences natural disasters such as typhoons, floods, landslides, debris flows, and earthquakes. Therefore, the instant acquisition of high-definition images and topographic or spatial data of affected areas as disasters occur is crucial for disaster response teams and making emergency aid decisions. The National Applied Research Laboratories has implemented the project “development of near real-time, high-resolution, global earth observation 3D platform for applications to environmental monitoring and disaster mitigation.” This developmental project integrates earth observation techniques, data warehousing, high-performance visualization displays, grids, and disaster prevention technology to establish a near real-time high-resolution three-dimensional (3D disaster prevention earth observation application platform for Taiwan. The main functions of this platform include (1 integration of observation information, such as Formosat-2 satellite remote sensing, aerial photography, and 3D photography of disaster sites, to provide multidimensional information of the conditions at the affected sites; (2 disaster prevention application technologies, such as large-sized high-resolution 3D projection system, medium-sized active stereo projection systems, and small-sized personal computers with multiscale 3D display systems; (3 a 3D geographical information network platform that integrates data warehousing and cloud services, complies with the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC international standard for image data exchange and release processes, and includes image overlaying and added-value analysis of disasters; and (4 near real-time and automated simulation of image processing procedures, which accelerates orthophoto processing once raw data are received from satellites and provides appropriate images for disaster prevention decision-making within 3 to 6 h. This study uses the 88 Flood event of Typhoon Morakot in 2009, Typhoon Fanapi

  17. Architecture & Design of Affordable and Highly Available Enterprise Cloud Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabi Prasad Padhy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is a way to increase capacity or add capabilities on the fly without investing in additional infrastructure, licensing additional software or training new personnel. Enterprises must embrace this bleeding edge real-time business model in order to compete in the current marketplace. Deployment of enterprise applications in public cloud can reduce investment on IT infrastructure both in terms of hardware and software, whenever new services are to be provisioned. Furthermore, cloud services are quite attractive to business because of its dynamic scalability, privacy, performance and ability to handle heterogeneous environments. Instead of spending a lot of time in figuring out server setup and working on routers, it is judicious to subscribe cloud based 24/7 support and affordable services. It’s an extremely important consideration to subscribe to at least two cloud vendors for smooth running of applications and ensure application availability by switching from one provider to another with minimal management effort. In this article we have proposed an architecture and design of a cost affordable online enterprise cloud application that subscribes to two public cloud vendors with respect to cost and availability parameters. We also present the reasons for the current trend of enterprises moving towards 24/7 online business cloud services.

  18. Does High Educational Attainment Limit the Availability of Romantic Partners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Isaac; Lewis, Sally V.; Beverly, Monifa G.; Patel, Samir H.

    2010-01-01

    Research indicates that highly educated individuals endure hardships in finding suitable romantic partners. Romantic hardships affect social and emotional adjustment levels, leading to low self-efficacy in relationship decision making. To address the need for research pertaining to this topic, the authors explored the experiences of eight…

  19. A relative vulnerability estimation of flood disaster using data envelopment analysis in the Dongting Lake region of Hunan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.-H. Li

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The vulnerability to flood disaster is addressed by a number of studies. It is of great importance to analyze the vulnerability of different regions and various periods to enable the government to make policies for distributing relief funds and help the regions to improve their capabilities against disasters, yet a recognized paradigm for such studies seems missing. Vulnerability is defined and evaluated through either physical or economic–ecological perspectives depending on the field of the researcher concerned. The vulnerability, however, is the core of both systems as it entails systematic descriptions of flood severities or disaster management units. The research mentioned often has a development perspective, and in this article we decompose the overall flood system into several factors: disaster driver, disaster environment, disaster bearer, and disaster intensity, and take the interaction mechanism among all factors as an indispensable function. The conditions of flood disaster components are demonstrated with disaster driver risk level, disaster environment stability level and disaster bearer sensitivity, respectively. The flood system vulnerability is expressed as vulnerability = f(risk, stability, sensitivity. Based on the theory, data envelopment analysis method (DEA is used to detail the relative vulnerability's spatiotemporal variation of a flood disaster system and its components in the Dongting Lake region. The study finds that although a flood disaster system's relative vulnerability is closely associated with its components' conditions, the flood system and its components have a different vulnerability level. The overall vulnerability is not the aggregation of its components' vulnerability. On a spatial scale, zones central and adjacent to Dongting Lake and/or river zones are characterized with very high vulnerability. Zones with low and very low vulnerability are mainly distributed in the periphery of the Dongting Lake region

  20. DISASTER MANAGEMENT CYCLE – A THEORETICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himayatullah KHAN

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study explains the various concepts used in disastermanagement. The concepts explained include: Disaster, Hazard,Vulnerability, Capacity, Risk and Disaster Management Cycle. In addition tothe terminologies, the study also seeks to explain various types of disasters.

  1. Condom availability in high risk places and condom use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøy, Ingvild Fossgard; Blystad, Astrid; Shayo, Elizabeth H.

    2012-01-01

    study findings indicate that substantial further efforts should be made to secure that condoms are easily accessible in places where sexual relationships are initiated. Although condom distribution in drinking places has been pinpointed in the HIV/AIDS prevention strategies of all the three countries......Background A number of studies from countries with severe HIV epidemics have found gaps in condom availability, even in places where there is a substantial potential for HIV transmission. Although reported condom use has increased in many African countries, there are often big differences...... and one in Zambia. The study was based on a triangulation of data collection methods in the three study districts: surveys in venues where people meet new sexual partners, population-based surveys and focus group discussions. The data was collected within an overall study on priority setting in health...

  2. Integrating Health Research into Disaster Response: The New NIH Disaster Research Response Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aubrey Miller

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The need for high quality and timely disaster research has been a topic of great discussion over the past several years. Recent high profile incidents have exposed gaps in knowledge about the health impacts of disasters or the benefits of specific interventions—such was the case with the 2010 Gulf Oil Spill and recent events associated with lead-contaminated drinking water in Flint, Michigan, and the evolving health crisis related to Zika virus disease. Our inability to perform timely research to inform the community about health and safety risks or address specific concerns further heightens anxiety and distrust. Since nearly all disasters, whether natural or man-made, have an environmental health component, it is critical that specialized research tools and trained researchers be readily available to evaluate complex exposures and health effects, especially for vulnerable sub-populations such as the elderly, children, pregnant women, and those with socioeconomic and environmental disparities. In response, the National Institute of Environmental Health Science has initiated a Disaster Research Response Program to create new tools, protocols, networks of researchers, training exercises, and outreach involving diverse groups of stakeholders to help overcome the challenges of disaster research and to improve our ability to collect vital information to reduce the adverse health impacts and improve future preparedness.

  3. Telemedicine for disaster management: can it transform chaos into an organized, structured care from the distance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latifi, Rifat; Tilley, Elizabeth H

    2014-01-01

    Telemedicine and advanced technologies that ensure telepresence have become common practice and are an effective way of providing healthcare services. The authors conducted a traditional narrative review of English literature through search engines (Medline, Pub Med, Embase, and Science Direct) using mesh terms "telemedicine," "telepresence," "earthquake," "disaster," "natural disaster," and "man-made disaster" published between January 1, 1980 and September 30, 2013. For our analysis, only published studies were selected when telemedicine or telepresence was reported for disaster management, both in real life and in mock and simulation situations. Original articles, clinical trials, case presentations, and review articles were considered. Books and book chapters were used as well. Data from the International Disaster Database were included in the review to provide a sense of worldwide disaster occurrence. Symposia and other meetings were searched and used when available. Between January 1980 and September 2013, 17,565 disasters recorded. During this study period, 878 articles, chapters, books, and presentations were reported. Of these, only 88 articles and books fulfilled our selection criteria. Six articles described the effectiveness of telemedicine in mock simulations and disaster drills, and 63 presented the need and discussed how telemedicine would be beneficial in disaster response. Only 19 articles provided examples of effective use of telemedicine in disaster response. However, these studies demonstrated telemedicine as a valuable tool for communication between front-line humanitarian aid workers and expert physicians at remote locations. Telemedicine has not been used thus in the management of disasters, despite its great potential. There is an acute need for establishing telemedicine programs in high risk areas for disasters, so that when these disasters strike, existing telemedicine networks can be used, rather than attempting to bring solutions into a

  4. Development of a Meteorological Risk Map for Disaster Mitigation and Management in the Chishan Basin, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Li Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study involved developing a natural disaster risk assessment framework based on the consideration of three phases: a pre-disaster phase, disaster impact phase, and post-disaster recovery phase. The exposure of natural disasters exhibits unique characteristics. The interactions of numerous factors should be considered in risk assessment as well as in monitoring environment to provide natural disaster warnings. In each phase, specific factors indicate the relative status in the area subjected to risk assessment. Three types of natural disaster were assessed, namely debris flows, floods, and droughts. The Chishan basin in Taiwan was used as a case study and the adequacy of the relocation of Xiaolin village was evaluated. Incorporating resilience into the assessment revealed that the higher the exposure is, the higher the resilience becomes. This is because highly populated areas are typically allocated enough resources to respond to disasters. In addition, highly populated areas typically exhibit high resilience. The application of this analysis in the policy of relocation of damaged village after disaster provides valuable information for decision makers to achieve the sustainability of land use planning.

  5. Literature Review: Herbal Medicine Treatment after Large-Scale Disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Shin; Kaneko, Soichiro; Numata, Takehiro; Kamiya, Tetsuharu; Arita, Ryutaro; Saito, Natsumi; Kikuchi, Akiko; Ohsawa, Minoru; Kohayagawa, Yoshitaka; Ishii, Tadashi

    2017-09-27

    Large-scale natural disasters, such as earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, and typhoons, occur worldwide. After the Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami, our medical support operation's experiences suggested that traditional medicine might be useful for treating the various symptoms of the survivors. However, little information is available regarding herbal medicine treatment in such situations. Considering that further disasters will occur, we performed a literature review and summarized the traditional medicine approaches for treatment after large-scale disasters. We searched PubMed and Cochrane Library for articles written in English, and Ichushi for those written in Japanese. Articles published before 31 March 2016 were included. Keywords "disaster" and "herbal medicine" were used in our search. Among studies involving herbal medicine after a disaster, we found two randomized controlled trials investigating post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), three retrospective investigations of trauma or common diseases, and seven case series or case reports of dizziness, pain, and psychosomatic symptoms. In conclusion, herbal medicine has been used to treat trauma, PTSD, and other symptoms after disasters. However, few articles have been published, likely due to the difficulty in designing high quality studies in such situations. Further study will be needed to clarify the usefulness of herbal medicine after disasters.

  6. a Task-Driven Disaster Data Link Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, L. Y.; Zhu, Q.; Gu, J. Y.; Du, Z. Q.

    2015-08-01

    With the rapid development of sensor networks and Earth observation technology, a large quantity of disaster-related data is available, such as remotely sensed data, historic data, cases data, simulation data, disaster products and so on. However, the efficiency of current data management and service systems has become increasingly serious due to the task variety and heterogeneous data. For emergency task-oriented applications, data searching mainly relies on artificial experience based on simple metadata index, whose high time-consuming and low accuracy cannot satisfy the requirements of disaster products on velocity and veracity. In this paper, a task-oriented linking method is proposed for efficient disaster data management and intelligent service, with the objectives of 1) putting forward ontologies of disaster task and data to unify the different semantics of multi-source information, 2) identifying the semantic mapping from emergency tasks to multiple sources on the basis of uniform description in 1), 3) linking task-related data automatically and calculating the degree of correlation between each data and a target task. The method breaks through traditional static management of disaster data and establishes a base for intelligent retrieval and active push of disaster information. The case study presented in this paper illustrates the use of the method with a flood emergency relief task.

  7. a Task-Oriented Disaster Information Correlation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linyao, Q.; Zhiqiang, D.; Qing, Z.

    2015-07-01

    With the rapid development of sensor networks and Earth observation technology, a large quantity of disaster-related data is available, such as remotely sensed data, historic data, case data, simulated data, and disaster products. However, the efficiency of current data management and service systems has become increasingly difficult due to the task variety and heterogeneous data. For emergency task-oriented applications, the data searches primarily rely on artificial experience based on simple metadata indices, the high time consumption and low accuracy of which cannot satisfy the speed and veracity requirements for disaster products. In this paper, a task-oriented correlation method is proposed for efficient disaster data management and intelligent service with the objectives of 1) putting forward disaster task ontology and data ontology to unify the different semantics of multi-source information, 2) identifying the semantic mapping from emergency tasks to multiple data sources on the basis of uniform description in 1), and 3) linking task-related data automatically and calculating the correlation between each data set and a certain task. The method goes beyond traditional static management of disaster data and establishes a basis for intelligent retrieval and active dissemination of disaster information. The case study presented in this paper illustrates the use of the method on an example flood emergency relief task.

  8. Natural disasters and suicide: evidence from Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubayashi, Tetsuya; Sawada, Yasuyuki; Ueda, Michiko

    2013-04-01

    Previous research shows no consensus as to whether and how natural disasters affect suicide rates in their aftermath. Using prefecture-level panel data of natural disasters and suicide in Japan between 1982 and 2010, we estimate both contemporaneous and lagged effects of natural disasters on the suicide rates of various demographic groups. We find that when the damage caused by natural disasters is extremely large, as in the case of the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake in 1995, suicide rates tend to increase in the immediate aftermath of the disaster and several years later. However, when the damage by natural disasters is less severe, suicide rates tend to decrease after the disasters, especially one or two years later. Thus, natural disasters affect the suicide rates of affected populations in a complicated way, depending on the severity of damages as well as on how many years have passed since the disaster. We also find that the effects of natural disasters on suicide rates vary considerably across demographic groups, which suggests that some population subgroups are more vulnerable to the impact of natural disasters than others. We then test the possibility that natural disasters enhance people's willingness to help others in society, an effect that may work as a protective factor against disaster victims' suicidal risks. We find that natural disasters increase the level of social ties in affected communities, which may mitigate some of the adverse consequence of natural disasters, resulting in a decline in suicide rates. Our findings also indicate that when natural disasters are highly destructive and disruptive, such protective features of social connectedness are unlikely to be enough to compensate for the severe negative impact of disasters on health outcomes.

  9. Integrating Health Research into Disaster Response: The New NIH Disaster Research Response Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Aubrey; Yeskey, Kevin; Garantziotis, Stavros; Arnesen, Stacey; Bennett, April; O'Fallon, Liam; Thompson, Claudia; Reinlib, Les; Masten, Scott; Remington, James; Love, Cindy; Ramsey, Steve; Rosselli, Richard; Galluzzo, Betsy; Lee, Joy; Kwok, Richard; Hughes, Joseph

    2016-07-04

    The need for high quality and timely disaster research has been a topic of great discussion over the past several years. Recent high profile incidents have exposed gaps in knowledge about the health impacts of disasters or the benefits of specific interventions-such was the case with the 2010 Gulf Oil Spill and recent events associated with lead-contaminated drinking water in Flint, Michigan, and the evolving health crisis related to Zika virus disease. Our inability to perform timely research to inform the community about health and safety risks or address specific concerns further heightens anxiety and distrust. Since nearly all disasters, whether natural or man-made, have an environmental health component, it is critical that specialized research tools and trained researchers be readily available to evaluate complex exposures and health effects, especially for vulnerable sub-populations such as the elderly, children, pregnant women, and those with socioeconomic and environmental disparities. In response, the National Institute of Environmental Health Science has initiated a Disaster Research Response Program to create new tools, protocols, networks of researchers, training exercises, and outreach involving diverse groups of stakeholders to help overcome the challenges of disaster research and to improve our ability to collect vital information to reduce the adverse health impacts and improve future preparedness.

  10. Integrating Health Research into Disaster Response: The New NIH Disaster Research Response Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Aubrey; Yeskey, Kevin; Garantziotis, Stavros; Arnesen, Stacey; Bennett, April; O’Fallon, Liam; Thompson, Claudia; Reinlib, Les; Masten, Scott; Remington, James; Love, Cindy; Ramsey, Steve; Rosselli, Richard; Galluzzo, Betsy; Lee, Joy; Kwok, Richard; Hughes, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    The need for high quality and timely disaster research has been a topic of great discussion over the past several years. Recent high profile incidents have exposed gaps in knowledge about the health impacts of disasters or the benefits of specific interventions—such was the case with the 2010 Gulf Oil Spill and recent events associated with lead-contaminated drinking water in Flint, Michigan, and the evolving health crisis related to Zika virus disease. Our inability to perform timely research to inform the community about health and safety risks or address specific concerns further heightens anxiety and distrust. Since nearly all disasters, whether natural or man-made, have an environmental health component, it is critical that specialized research tools and trained researchers be readily available to evaluate complex exposures and health effects, especially for vulnerable sub-populations such as the elderly, children, pregnant women, and those with socioeconomic and environmental disparities. In response, the National Institute of Environmental Health Science has initiated a Disaster Research Response Program to create new tools, protocols, networks of researchers, training exercises, and outreach involving diverse groups of stakeholders to help overcome the challenges of disaster research and to improve our ability to collect vital information to reduce the adverse health impacts and improve future preparedness. PMID:27384574

  11. A Correlation Analysis Model for Multidisciplinary Data in Disaster Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyue Zhang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Data play an important role in disaster mitigation applications, and the integrated employment of multidisciplinary data promotes the development of disaster science. Therefore it is very useful to identify the multidisciplinary data usage in the research of disaster events. In order to discover the correlation between multidisciplinary data and disaster research, three earthquake events, the Tangshan earthquake, the Wenchuan earthquake, and the Haidi earthquake were selected as typical study cases for this paper. A knowledge model for literature data mining was applied to analyze the correlation between earthquake events and multidisciplinary data types. The results indicate that high-cited papers show different data usage trends when compared with whole-set papers and also that data usage for the three earthquake events varies. According to analysis results, the factors that influence multidisciplinary data usage include the characteristics of spatial and temporal elements as well as differing interests of the data users.

  12. [Disaster medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carli, Pierre; Telionri, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    For over 30 years, the French hospital and pre-hospital medical teams are trained in disaster medicine. In fact, they are regularly confronted with the management of multiple casualties in accidents or even terrorist attacks, and more rarely to large-scale disasters. The intervention of physicians of the EMS system (SAMU-SMUR) in the field allows an original healthcare organization: in an advanced medical post, the victims are triaged according to their severity and benefit if needed of initial resuscitation. SAMU medical regulating center then organize their transport and repartition in several hospitals put on alert. To cope with a mass casualty situation, the hospital also has a specific organization, the White Plan. This plan, initiated by the director, assisted by a medico-administrative cell crisis can mobilize all the resources of the institution. Personnel are recalled and the ability of emergency units is increased. Care, less urgent, other patients are postponed. There are many plans for responding to disasters. ORSEC plans of the ministry of Interior articulate with the ORSAN plans of the ministry of Health. This complementarity allows a global mobilization of public services in disasters or exceptional medical situations.

  13. Surviving Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henke, Karen Greenwood

    2008-01-01

    Schools play a unique role in communities when disaster strikes. They serve as shelter for evacuees and first responders; they are a trusted source of information; and once danger has passed, the district, as employer and community center, often serves as a foundation for recovery. Technology plays a key role in a school district's ability to…

  14. Perceived Ability to Practice in Disaster Management among Public Health Nurses in Aceh, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardia Putra

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increasing number of disaster events around the world has challenged every country to develop better disaster-management strategies. As a part of healthcare system, public health nurses (PHNs should be involved in caring for people in disasters. Currently, there is no known study whether PHNs of Aceh, Indonesia, working with community people who are at high risk of confronting natural disasters, are able to perform their roles and functions regarding disaster management. Methods: 252 PHNs from twenty-seven public health centers in Aceh were studied during November to December 2010 to evaluate their perceived ability to practice regarding disaster management at each disaster phase: preparedness, response, and recovery phase. The perceived ability to practice was assessed by using the 30-statement, five-point Likert-scale (0-4 of Public Health Nurses’ Perceived Ability to Practice Regarding Disaster Management Questionnaire (PHNPP-DMQ. The composite scores of each phase and the total score were calculated and transformed to percentage for ease of presentation across disaster phases.Results: Overall, the PHNs’ perceived ability to practice regarding disaster management in Aceh was at a moderate level (M=74.57%, SD=13.27. The highest mean score was for the recovery phase (M=78%, and the lowest mean score was in the preparedness phase (66.15%.Conclusion: The finding of this study evokes challenges to the local government of Aceh province to further prepare PHNs to increase their ability in disaster management.Keywords: Disaster management, practice, public health nurses

  15. Natural disasters and IDPs’ rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Kälin

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available In the understandable rush to provide assistance to the survivors of the tsunami, insufficient attention has been devoted to protecting the human rights of those forcibly displaced by the disaster.

  16. The Integrated Information System for Natural Disaster Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junxiu Wu

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Supported by the World Bank, the Integrated Information System for Natural Disaster Mitigation (ISNDM, including the operational service system and network telecommunication system, has been in development for three years in the Center of Disaster Reduction, Chinese Academy of Sciences, based on the platform of the GIS software Arcview. It has five main modules: disaster background information, socio- economic information, disaster-induced factors database, disaster scenarios database, and disaster assessment. ISNDM has several significant functions, which include information collection, information processing, data storage, and information distribution. It is a simple but comprehensive demonstration system for our national center for natural disaster reduction.

  17. Disaster event: Window of opportunity to implement global disaster policies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siambabala B. Manyena

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Disasters have been predominantly construed as destructive events causing loss of lives, livelihoods and hard-won development. Much less attention has been paid to the constructive nature of disasters as creating potential windows of opportunities to address the overlooked and neglected aspects of disaster risk reduction. Using material from Zimbabwe, this article examines whether the humanitarian crisis, as manifested in the cholera disaster of 2008–2009, created a window of opportunity to accelerate the implementation of the Hyogo Framework for Action. The findings suggest that the humanitarian crisis did not necessarily create a window of opportunity to accelerate the implementation of the framework, owing to (1 inadequate authority and power of the agency responsible for disaster risk reduction, (2 an inadequate legal and institutional framework that outlines clear coordination, accountability mechanisms, resource mobilisation, community participation, and integration of development with regard to disaster risk reduction and (3 a lack of an integrated evidence-based approach to advocate disaster risk reduction in Zimbabwe.

  18. Command and Control in Disaster Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Surjeet Chaudhury

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Like war, the disasters are also much unstructured in scope. The national disaster system may employ detailed Command and Control (C2 which is poorly equipped to deal with uncertainty, complexity and variability. The first response to uncertainty is to try to minimize it by creating a powerful, highly efficient command and control apparatus (Command Structure able to process huge amounts of information and intended to reduce nearly all unknowns. Detailed command and control emphasizes vertical, linear information flow: in general, information flows up the chain of command and orders flow down. Discipline and coordination are imposed from above. The proposed C2 model accepts the turbulence and uncertainty of disaster. Rather than increase the level of certainty that C2 seeks, this approach of command and control reduces the degree of uncertainty that we need. This C2 for disaster management decentralizes decision-making authority and grants subordinates significant freedom of action which increases tempo and improves the ability to deal with fluid and disorderly situations.

  19. Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation-Based Disaster Risk Assessment of Desertification in Horqin Sand Land, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongfang Wang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Desertification is a typical disaster risk event in which human settlements and living environments are destroyed. Desertification Disaster Risk Assessment can control and prevent the occurrence and development of desertification disasters and reduce their adverse influence on human society. This study presents the methodology and procedure for risk assessment and zoning of desertification disasters in Horqin Sand Land. Based on natural disaster risk theory and the desertification disaster formation mechanism, the Desertification Disaster Risk Index (DDRI combined hazard, exposure, vulnerability and restorability factors and was developed mainly by using multi-source data and the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method. The results showed that high risk and middle risk areas account for 28% and 23% of the study area, respectively. They are distributed with an “S” type in the study area. Low risk and very low risk areas account for 21% and 10% of the study area, respectively. They are distributed in the west-central and southwestern parts. Very high risk areas account for 18% of the study area and are distributed in the northeastern parts. The results can be used to know the desertification disaster risk level. It has important theoretical and practical significance to prevention and control of desertification in Horqin Sand Land and even in Northern China.

  20. The Challenge of Timely, Responsive and Rigorous Ethics Review of Disaster Research: Views of Research Ethics Committee Members.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Hunt

    Full Text Available Research conducted following natural disasters such as earthquakes, floods or hurricanes is crucial for improving relief interventions. Such research, however, poses ethical, methodological and logistical challenges for researchers. Oversight of disaster research also poses challenges for research ethics committees (RECs, in part due to the rapid turnaround needed to initiate research after a disaster. Currently, there is limited knowledge available about how RECs respond to and appraise disaster research. To address this knowledge gap, we investigated the experiences of REC members who had reviewed disaster research conducted in low- or middle-income countries.We used interpretive description methodology and conducted in-depth interviews with 15 respondents. Respondents were chairs, members, advisors, or coordinators from 13 RECs, including RECs affiliated with universities, governments, international organizations, a for-profit REC, and an ad hoc committee established during a disaster. Interviews were analyzed inductively using constant comparative techniques.Through this process, three elements were identified as characterizing effective and high-quality review: timeliness, responsiveness and rigorousness. To ensure timeliness, many RECs rely on adaptations of review procedures for urgent protocols. Respondents emphasized that responsive review requires awareness of and sensitivity to the particularities of disaster settings and disaster research. Rigorous review was linked with providing careful assessment of ethical considerations related to the research, as well as ensuring independence of the review process.Both the frequency of disasters and the conduct of disaster research are on the rise. Ensuring effective and high quality review of disaster research is crucial, yet challenges, including time pressures for urgent protocols, exist for achieving this goal. Adapting standard REC procedures may be necessary. However, steps should be

  1. Mainstreaming disaster resilience into planning practice in South Africa: challenges and champions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Faling, W

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines a conference presentation on disaster resilience in South Africa. The paper presents disasters caused by the combination of a hazard and vulnerability. An emphasis on resilience, rather than just disaster response and recovery...

  2. Post-disaster health impact of natural hazards in the Philippines in 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Antonio Salazar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 2011, the Health Emergency Management Bureau (HEMB created the Surveillance for Post Extreme Emergencies and Disasters (SPEED, a real-time syndromic surveillance system that allows the early detection and monitoring of post-disaster disease trends. SPEED can assist health leaders in making informed decisions on health systems affected by disasters. There is a need for further validation of current concepts in post-disaster disease patterns in respect to actual field data. This study aims to evaluate the temporal post-disaster patterns of selected diseases after a flood, an earthquake, and a typhoon in the Philippines in 2013. Methodology: We analyzed the 21 syndromes provided by SPEED both separately and grouped into injuries, communicable diseases, and non-communicable diseases (NCDs by calculating daily post-disaster consultation rates for up to 150 days post-disaster. These were compared over time and juxtaposed according to the type of disaster. Results: Communicable diseases were found to be the predominant syndrome group in all three disaster types. The top six syndromes found were: acute respiratory infections, open wounds, bruises and burns, high blood pressure, skin disease, fever, and acute watery diarrhea. Discussion: Overall, the results aligned with the country's morbidity profile. Within 2 months, the clear gradation of increasing syndrome rates reflected the severity (flooddisasters. After 2 months, rates dropped, suggesting the beginning of the recovery phase. The most common syndromes can be addressed by measures such as providing for shelter, water, sanitation, hygiene, nutrition, and common health services. Conclusions: Most post-disaster syndromes may be addressed by prevention, early diagnosis, and early treatment. Health needs differ in response and recovery phases.

  3. C41SR and Urban Disasters Disaster Response & Recovery Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brouillette, Greg A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Risk Analysis and Decision Support Group

    2007-03-27

    These are slides for various presentations on C41SR and urban disasters disasters response and recovery tools. These are all mainly charts and images of disaster response and recovery tools. Slides included have headings such as the following: vignette of a disaster response, situational awareness and common operating picture available to EOC, plume modeling capability, Program ASPECT Chemical Response Products, EPA ASPECT - Hurricane RITA Response 9/25/2005, Angel Fire Imagery, incident commander's view/police chief's view/ EMS' view, common situational awareness and collaborative planning, exercise, training capability, systems diagram, Austere Challenge 06 Sim/C4 Requirements, common situational awareness and collaborative planning, exercise, training environment, common situational awareness, real world, crisis response, and consequence management.

  4. Disaster Mental Health and Positive Psychology: An Afterward to the Special Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwick, Steven M; Satodiya, Ritvij; Pietrzak, Robert H

    2016-12-01

    The articles in this Special Issue are devoted to integrating the fields of disaster mental health and positive psychology. Their focus on resilience building, individual and community preparation, meaning making, and posttraumatic growth represents an important new development in disaster mental health. The overarching goal of this effort is to inform strategies to help both individuals-including children, adolescent, adult disaster survivors, and relief workers-and communities prepare for, respond to, recover from, and possibly even grow stronger in the face of adversity. To achieve this goal, this body of literature suggests that it is important for disaster mental health workers to partner with community leaders, organizations, and the population at large to understand community vulnerabilities, take advantage of existing strengths, and respect cultural factors implicated in disaster recovery. It further suggests that an effective community-based approach to disaster recovery will make psychosocial support and skill-building programs available to large numbers of survivors, which is critical for responding to future national and international disasters. Continued high-quality research that is comprehensive and considers not only relevant psychological, social, cultural, and biological factors but also interrelations between individuals, organizations and communities is needed to advance this relatively new and important direction of the disaster mental health field. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Disaster Governance for Community Resilience in Coastal Towns: Chilean Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villagra, Paula; Quintana, Carolina

    2017-09-14

    This study aimed to further our understanding of a characteristic of Community Resilience known as Disaster Governance. Three attributes of Disaster Governance-redundancy, diversity, and overlap-were studied in four coastal towns in southern Chile that are at risk of tsunamis. Overall, we explored how different spatial structures of human settlements influence Disaster Governance. Using the Projective Mapping Technique, the distribution of emergency institutions (N = 32) and uses given to specific sites (e.g., for refuge, sanitary purposes and medical attention) were mapped. Content and GIS analyses (Directional Distribution and Kernel Density Index) were used to explore the dispersion and concentration of institutions and uses in each town. Disaster Governance was found to be highly influenced by decisions taken during regional, urban, and emergency planning. Governance is better in towns of higher order in the communal hierarchical structure. Most of the emergency institutions were found to be located in central and urban areas, which, in turn, assures more redundancy, overlap, and diversity in governance in the event of a tsunami. Lack of flexibility of emergency plans also limits governance in rural and indigenous areas. While the spatial relationships found in this study indicate that urban sectors have better Disaster Governance than rural and indigenous sectors, the influence of resource availability after tsunamis, the role and responsibility of different levels of governments, and the politics of disaster also play an important role in Disaster Governance for determining Community Resilience. These findings shed light on emergency planning and aspects of the Disaster Management cycle.

  6. Health after disaster: A perspective of psychological/health reactions to disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Martin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Superstorm Sandy, which affected millions of people in 2012, was a disaster in structural, financial, medical, and emotional terms. Many survivors experienced post-storm health psychology impacts. Depression levels increased by 25%, and physician visits were elevated by a significant amount. Clearly, large-scale disasters have a profound effect on the physical and emotional health of survivors. Understanding these effects can improve future disaster relief programs and policies. Exploration of post-disaster issues can inform government entities and non-government organizations to assist communities and individuals left in the aftermath of natural disasters.

  7. Human Response to Natural Disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dara Nix-Stevenson

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study elaborates on the connection between socioeconomic status, education, and the ability to respond to natural disasters. Using the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina and other natural disasters as teachable moments, I foreground how uneven access to resources and capital leave some people more vulnerable than others to natural disasters and how marginal communities inevitably bear the accompanying repercussions of who gets what, when, and how much in the postdisaster emergency relief and reconstruction phase. This occurs not necessarily and merely through a “natural” disaster, as the Boxer Day Tsunami or Hurricane Katrina, but through processes of social, political, and economic disempowerment associated with prior racialized histories and inequitable access to cultural capital.

  8. The Challenge of Timely, Responsive and Rigorous Ethics Review of Disaster Research: Views of Research Ethics Committee Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Matthew; Tansey, Catherine M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Research conducted following natural disasters such as earthquakes, floods or hurricanes is crucial for improving relief interventions. Such research, however, poses ethical, methodological and logistical challenges for researchers. Oversight of disaster research also poses challenges for research ethics committees (RECs), in part due to the rapid turnaround needed to initiate research after a disaster. Currently, there is limited knowledge available about how RECs respond to and appraise disaster research. To address this knowledge gap, we investigated the experiences of REC members who had reviewed disaster research conducted in low- or middle-income countries. Methods We used interpretive description methodology and conducted in-depth interviews with 15 respondents. Respondents were chairs, members, advisors, or coordinators from 13 RECs, including RECs affiliated with universities, governments, international organizations, a for-profit REC, and an ad hoc committee established during a disaster. Interviews were analyzed inductively using constant comparative techniques. Results Through this process, three elements were identified as characterizing effective and high-quality review: timeliness, responsiveness and rigorousness. To ensure timeliness, many RECs rely on adaptations of review procedures for urgent protocols. Respondents emphasized that responsive review requires awareness of and sensitivity to the particularities of disaster settings and disaster research. Rigorous review was linked with providing careful assessment of ethical considerations related to the research, as well as ensuring independence of the review process. Conclusion Both the frequency of disasters and the conduct of disaster research are on the rise. Ensuring effective and high quality review of disaster research is crucial, yet challenges, including time pressures for urgent protocols, exist for achieving this goal. Adapting standard REC procedures may be necessary. However

  9. Detecting tents to estimate the displaced populations for post-disaster relief using high resolution satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shifeng; So, Emily; Smith, Pete

    2015-04-01

    Estimating the number of refugees and internally displaced persons is important for planning and managing an efficient relief operation following disasters and conflicts. Accurate estimates of refugee numbers can be inferred from the number of tents. Extracting tents from high-resolution satellite imagery has recently been suggested. However, it is still a significant challenge to extract tents automatically and reliably from remote sensing imagery. This paper describes a novel automated method, which is based on mathematical morphology, to generate a camp map to estimate the refugee numbers by counting tents on the camp map. The method is especially useful in detecting objects with a clear shape, size, and significant spectral contrast with their surroundings. Results for two study sites with different satellite sensors and different spatial resolutions demonstrate that the method achieves good performance in detecting tents. The overall accuracy can be up to 81% in this study. Further improvements should be possible if over-identified isolated single pixel objects can be filtered. The performance of the method is impacted by spectral characteristics of satellite sensors and image scenes, such as the extent of area of interest and the spatial arrangement of tents. It is expected that the image scene would have a much higher influence on the performance of the method than the sensor characteristics.

  10. Historical and projected costs of natural disasters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engi, D.

    1995-04-01

    Natural disasters cause billions of dollars of damage and thousands Of deaths globally each year. While the magnitude is clear, the exact costs (in damage and fatalities) are difficult to clearly identify. This document reports on the results of a survey of data on the costs associated with significant natural disasters. There is an impressive amount of work and effort going into natural disaster research, mitigation, and relief. However, despite this effort, there are surprisingly few consistent and reliable data available regarding the effects of natural disasters. Even lacking consistent and complete data, it is clear that the damage and fatalities from natural disasters are increasing, both in the United States, and globally. Projections using the available data suggest that, in the United States alone, the costs of natural disasters between 1995 and 2010 will be in the range of $90 billion (94$) and 5000 lives.

  11. Connecting care competencies and culture during disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chhabra Vivek

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Connecting care Competencies and Culture are core fundamentals in responding to disasters. Thick coordination between professionals, communities and agencies in different geographical areas is crucial to the happening of appropriate preparedness and thus efficient response and mitigation of a disaster. In the next few articles, we present diverse examples related to the preparedness and recovery process to adverse disasters across the globe

  12. HOUSEHOLD EXPENDITURE IN RESPONSE TO NATURAL DISASTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eny Sulistyaningrum

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Natural disasters have increased in their frequency, and the intensity of their destruction over the last ten years in Indonesia. Households usually respond to these difficulties by cutting their consump-tion, especially for non-essential goods. Arguably natural disasters are exogenous events, so this paper uses the exogenous variation from natural disasters as a natural experiment design to estimate the effect of disasters on household expenditure. When a certain group is exposed to the causal variable of interest, such as a disaster, and other groups are not, the Difference In Difference model (DID can be used for estimation. Using a micro level survey data set from the Indonesian Family Life Survey (IFLS which covers approximately 83 percent of the Indonesian population within the survey area, this paper examines the effects of natural disasters on household expenditure. This paper also examines whether there are any different impacts from different types of disasters. The finding is there are no significant effects of disasters on total household expenditure for households living in disaster regions, whether they are affected directly or not by the disaster.

  13. How useful and reliable are disaster databases in the context of climate and global change? A comparative case study analysis in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Huggel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Loss and damage caused by weather and climate related disasters have increased over the past decades, and growing exposure and wealth have been identified as main drivers of this increase. Disaster databases are a primary tool for the analysis of disaster characteristics and trends at global or national scales, and support disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation. However, the quality, consistency and completeness of different disaster databases are highly variable. Even though such variation critically influences the outcome of any study, comparative analyses of different disaster databases are still rare to date. Furthermore, there is an unequal geographic distribution of current disaster trend studies, with developing countries being under-represented. Here, we analyze three different disaster databases for the developing country context of Peru; a global database (EM-DAT, a regional Latin American (DesInventar and a national database (SINPAD. The analysis is performed across three dimensions, (1 spatial scales, from local to regional (provincial and national scale; (2 time scales, from single events to decadal trends; and (3 disaster categories and metrics, including the number of disaster occurrence, and damage metrics such as people killed and affected. Results show limited changes in disaster occurrence in the Cusco and Apurímac regions in southern Peru over the past four decades, but strong trends in people affected at the national scale. We furthermore found large variations of the disaster parameters studied over different spatial and temporal scales, depending on the disaster database analyzed. We conclude and recommend that the type, method and source of documentation should be carefully evaluated for any analysis of disaster databases; reporting criteria should be improved and documentation efforts strengthened.

  14. Integrating protection into disaster risk preparedness in the Dominican Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Verdeja

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Addressing protection as a key element of community-based disaster risk reduction and preparedness efforts is essential to safeguarding human rights in disaster and emergency settings.

  15. Wine: the increasing risk of a highly vulnerable industry globally to natural disasters and climate change (NH Division Outstanding ECS Award Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniell, James E.; Daniell, Trevor M.; Daniell, Katherine A.; Wenzel, Friedemann; Schäfer, Andreas M.; Kunz, Michael; Kunz-Plapp, Tina; Khazai, Bijan; Girard, Trevor; Burford, Robert

    2017-04-01

    Globally, well over 10 trillion in economic losses and over 10 million deaths can be attributed directly to natural disaster events from floods, earthquakes, storms, volcanoes and climatic effects historically (CATDAT - Daniell et al., 2016). When looking at the most vulnerable industries to natural disasters for each dollar invested the wine industry rates very highly, thus showing the risky and vulnerable nature of the wine business. Some effects of climate change will be shifting climates so that new grape growing areas are discovered and some traditional locations will require a change of grape variety to be planted, or will unsatisfactory for quality grape production. As new grape types are developed, some other grape types will become less viable leading to a global shift relative to the current state of the industry. The wine industry has been shown to have major losses via sudden shocks such as earthquakes in Chile (2010), Christchurch (2011) and Napa (2014) and hail through Burgundy (2012-2014). Wineries are often prone to other major disasters such as flood, storms, frost, fire or disease causing structural failure of assets, and significant production losses. Natural and man-made disasters play a key role in wine industry losses, and the variability of seasonal shifts and sudden natural shocks can often play a major role in the lifecycle and indeed the lifetime of wineries. Lessons learnt from winery disasters and climate impacts in Australia, Chile, New Zealand and USA are used as well as a comparison with those in Europe and other vulnerable centralised industries, such as cheese in Italy (2012 earthquake). For various natural disasters the structural engineering issues associated with wineries are examined with respect to infrastructure such as elevated steel tanks, as well as the importance of planning for earthquakes. The potential risk mitigation solutions are often simple to implement and are cost-effective in reducing significantly the risk

  16. Process chains in high mountain areas and multi-hazards of different scales - the Barsem disaster, Tajikistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Markus; Fuchs, Sven; Keiler, Margreth

    2016-04-01

    Changes in high-mountain environments are responsible for new and challenging multi-hazard conditions and materialize in particular through cases such as the Barsem disaster (Pamir, Tajikistan) in July 2015. At least 14 major debris flows occurred in the Barsem Valley within four days during a period of exceptional meteorological conditions. The flows transported large volumes of debris on the fan where the village Barsem with about 1,500 inhabitants is located. As a result, 80 homes were completely destroyed, and one person went lost. Moreover, the debris dammed the Gunt River, forming a lake of two kilometers length and endangering the local power supply. The lake interrupted the Pamir Highway and the potential lake outburst threatened the downstream communities along the valley as well as Khorog, the capital of the Gorno Badakhshan Autonomous Oblast. The damage was caused directly by the debris flows deposits and by subsequent flooding as a consequence of dammed Gunt River. This contribution will provide a first analysis of the conditions in the debris flow starting zone and the triggering of the event, the sediment connectivity during the event and further consequences downstream related to the accumulated debris dam at the Gunt River. Furthermore, the analysis will be supported by a comparison between different events in the Pamir region and the European Alps focusing on geomorphological features in the starting zone, processes sequences, process-process interactions but also on emerging multi-hazard situation in this context. Increasing challenges due to changes in the high-mountain environment will be discusses for the Pamir region as well as the comparability between different mountain regions.

  17. High-voltage transmission tower-line system subjected to disaster loads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hongnan; BAI Haifeng

    2006-01-01

    The high-voltage power transmission system is an important lifeline structure. It is significant for wide researches on the features and ability of the system subjected to earthquake and environmental loads. The promising prosperity of the system has been demonstrated around the world. The corresponding advances of the system with respect to the mechanism of loading action, analytical methods, experimental research measurements, structural vibration control, fatigue damage, lifetime prediction, and design methods are comprehensively discussed herein. Finally, further research work on dynamic response characteristics of high-voltage transmission towerline system in the near future is predicted.

  18. Building Disaster Resilience: Steps toward Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan L. Cutter

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Disaster losses continue to escalate globally and in many regions human losses (death, injury, permanent displacement often exceed the economic toll. Current disaster policies are reactive with a short-term focus―respond and rebuild as quickly as possible and in the same way after the event. Such policies ignore the longer-term approach of building disaster-resilient communities, in which investments made now show financial and social returns later by reducing the impact of disasters. This article provides a vision for resilient nations in 2030 based on three recent policy reports. It highlights the necessary steps to wards achieving sustainability using the lens of disaster resilience as the pathway towards strengthening communities' ability to prepare and plan for, absorb, respond to, and recover from present and future disasters.

  19. A Framework for Multiple and Heterogeneous Earthquake Disaster Information Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinghai Xu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available To realize the fusion of multiple and heterogeneous earthquake disaster information and get effective disaster information, situation and characteristics are addressed on different earthquake disaster information acquiring methods, in which some new earthquake disaster information acquiring methods are described. A fusion architecture of multiple and heterogeneous disaster information is put forward, including data level, fusion level and application level. And function principle of each level is described. Finally key technologies and realization methods in the fusion architecture are expounded, which are transformation and match of multiple disaster information and coding of the information.

  20. Mainstreaming disaster risk management in higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCIA VILLASANA

    Full Text Available Universities should actively participate in disseminating and fostering a culture for disaster risk management (DRM among students and the community. Particularly in countries with high levels of risk, education plays a key role in raising awareness on the importance of preventing and implementing conscious risk management. Though the incorporation of DRM into the curricula, education programs become a mechanism to prepare students from a perspective of strengthening of values, citizenship, and social sensibility towards how disaster represents a disruption of the functioning of a community and impairs business activity. This paper presents the proposal for the integration of DRM of a private university in Mexico, one of the countries particularly susceptible to extreme hydrometereological and geological events. The proposal includes a concentration area for undergraduate business students, a mandatory introductory course for all business majors, and for the business community an executive education program for SMEs

  1. GEOMORPHOLOGIC HAZARD AND DISASTERS IN THE SOUTH AMERICAN ANDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina V. Lebedeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Geological-and-tectonic and physiographical features of the South American Pacific coast caused high intensity of morpholitogenesis including disaster-like way of some geomorphologic processes. Their complex, interaction, and intensity of conductive factors increase the risk of disaster. The Andean terrain morphology and rock lithology, precipitation type, and vegetation status are the main drivers that influence the character and high potential intensity of the geomorphologic processes. The enormous hydrometeorological events, frequent seismic shocks, volcanic eruptions, and human impact cause disasters development. A schematic map of disaster and hazardous processes for the Central sector of Andes was compiled. 16 areas with different spectra of the dominant catastrophic processes were identified. The South American Andes extension allows drawing out principles of geomorphologic disasters of these continental marginal mountains in various natural zones - from temporal to subequatorial latitudes, which are characterized by the individual unique heat-moisture rate, which governs both typical and extreme geomorphologic processes. An important feature of the study area is the asymmetric distribution of geomorphologic processes within coastal and inland slopes of the mountain system, as well as latitudinal zoning of this distribution.

  2. Earthquake Disaster of Yogyakarta and Central Java, and Disaster Reduction, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutikno Sutikno

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discussed on earthquake disaster and its reduction of Yogyakarta and Central Java, Indonesia. The study area is located at relatively a short distance from subduction zone of India-Australian and Eurasian plates. Geologically this area is characterized by fault and graben structure, and geomorphologically is composed of block mountain, karsts topography and fluvio-volcanic plain. Aim of this paper is to evaluate the spatial distribution of the damage area, the environmental impacts, and to discuss the risk reduction of earthquake disaster scientifically and practically. In this paper to determine the hazard susceptibility zone and their environmental impact used geologic, geomorphologic, land use map, remote sensing image interpretation, and field observation. Discussion on the earthquake disaster risk reduction based on the hazard susceptibility and the characteristic of the human settlement and facilities. The result of this study shows that: i.the high damage area associate with distribution of the fault structures and the lithology; ii. mass-movement, lowering of groundwater, rising new springs, liquefaction, cracking of rocks and land surface; iii. structural non structural efforts are used for earthquake disaster reduction.

  3. Disaster risk profile and existing legal framework of Nepal: floods and landslides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaire S

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Surya Gaire, Rafael Castro Delgado, Pedro Arcos González Unit for Research in Emergency and Disaster, Department of Medicine, University of Oviedo, Campus del Cristo, Oviedo, Asturias, SpainAbstract: Nepal has a complicated geophysical structure that is prone to various kinds of disasters. Nepal ranks the most disaster-prone country in the world and has experienced several natural calamities, causing high property and life losses. Disasters are caused by natural processes, but may be increased by human activities. The overall objective of this paper is to analyze the disaster risk profile and existing legal framework of Nepal. The paper is based on secondary data sources. Major causative factors for floods and landslides are heavy and continuous rainfall, outburst floods, infrastructure failure, and deforestation. Historical data of natural disasters in Nepal show that water-induced disasters have killed hundreds of people and affected thousands every year. Likewise, properties worth millions of US dollars have been damaged. There is an increasing trend toward landslides and floods, which will likely continue to rise if proper intervention is not taken. A positive correlation between water-induced disasters and deaths has been observed. Nepal has a poor Index for Risk Management (INFORM. There are fluctuations in the recording of death data caused by flood and landslides. The Government of Nepal focuses more on the response phase than on the preparedness phase of disasters. The existing disaster management act seems to be weak and outdated. There is a gap in current legal procedure, so the country is in dire need of a comprehensive legal framework. The new proposed act seems to take a much broader approach to disaster management. With a long-term vision of managing disaster risk in the country, the Government of Nepal has begun the Nepal Risk Reduction Consortium (NRRC in collaboration with development and humanitarian partners. In order to

  4. Natural disasters and gender dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roder, Giulia; Tarolli, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Worldwide statistics reveal that the increasing number of risks and disaster impacts within the last decades have caused highly severe damages, with high death toll and huge economic damages (World Bank, 2010). As a consequence people's vulnerabilities have increased disproportionally in recent years. Individuals' ability to anticipate, prepare, cope, respond and recover from disasters differs according to some socio-economic attributes present in each community. The research on natural disasters in a gendered perspective is fairly limited compared to other variables. In fact, the need to track social vulnerabilities and investigate gender dynamics into all levels of the disaster life cycle has been recognized only recently, during the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (March 2015). For this purpose, we propose a review of the literature regarding the ways men and women conceptualise natural disasters, prepare and react, both physically and psychologically, to catastrophic events. This work tries to give some interpretation to these subjects analysing the social context in which sex discrepancies are developed, in different countries, cultures and in various socio-economic backgrounds. Findings highlighted that women perceived more the risk, and they have developed personal strategies to better react and withstand the impacts of negative occurrences. Being at home, working in the house and caring the children have been always placed them at a higher exposure to disasters. However, these circumstances, they gave them the means to organize the family for evacuations thanks to their deep knowledge of the territory they live and the neighbourhood networks they create. Women seem to be not sole victims, but valuable resources able to take leading roles in building disaster resilience. Some case studies, however, continue to demonstrate a female's higher fear and powerless face hazardous events than their counterparts, showing various mental health disorders

  5. Disaster in Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illner, Peer

    Since the inception of disaster studies in academia after WWII, two kinds of actors have been distinguished as involved in disasters. On the one hand, disasters involve formal actors, such as professional aid workers employed by state-run relief agencies; on the other hand, disasters involve...... initiatives and bottom-up organising as the preferred method to combat disaster. Once construed as strictly a responsibility of the state, the mitigation and management of disasters has shifted since the 1970s into a matter for civil society: a shift which has been heralded as progressive, democratic...... the banner of disaster. Focussing on the modifications to disaster management in the United States between 1970 and 2012, I show how the inclusion of civil society in the provision of aid services was accompanied by a structural withdrawal of the state from disaster relief and other welfare services. I...

  6. The system was blinking red: Awareness Contexts and Disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian B. Martin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The awareness context has been a source of inspiration for grounded theories for more than 50 years; yet little has been done to extend the theory beyond nursing and the medical field, and a few works on identity. This paper extends the awareness context by examining its role in several high-profile disasters, natural and man-made, where gaining a clear sense of what was going on was often blocked by poor information flow and general communication failures, interpersonal and technological. Selective coding and the introduction of new concepts after analyzing hundreds of pages of documents issued by special commissions in the aftermath of the 9/11 attacks, Hurricane Katrina, the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf, and the Sago Mine Disaster not only explain various processes around awareness in the midst of crisis, but also illuminate pre-crisis patterns that, if attended, could have mitigated the impact of the disasters.

  7. Atmospheric natural disasters in Serbia: Management experience and economic effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Jugoslav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural disasters occur as a result of an action of natural forces and represent limitations in spatial planning and efficient spatial development, with different consequences in terms of scope on humans, living things and tangible property. Consequences can be ecological, economic, in terms of health, demographic, social, psychological, etc. Weather modification management involves policies, methods, techniques and technologies that affect atmospheric features in order to make atmospheric water useful for humans, while eliminating its negative effects. Highly significant risk of natural disasters in Serbia is related to hailstorm disasters and droughts as atmospheric elementary disasters. The goal of this paper is to present certain methodologies and experience in Serbia in the weather modification management, mainly in the hailstorm processes. This paper provides analysis and critical review of the methodology of an action, with the analysis of the economic benefits. Cost-benefit analysis of a hail suppression project in Serbia was performed. The results point to the economic justification of some aspects of artificial influence on weather disasters.

  8. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) Behavioral Health Disaster Response App.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Jamie; Felder, Stephanie S; Robinson, Maryann E

    2015-10-01

    The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) in the Department of Health and Human Services offers extensive disaster behavior health resources to assist disaster survivors in preparing for, responding to, and recovering from natural and manmade disasters. One of SAMHSA's most innovative resources is the SAMHSA Behavioral Health Disaster Response App (SAMHSA Disaster App). The SAMHSA Disaster App prepares behavioral health responders for any type of traumatic event by allowing them to access disaster-related materials and other key resources right on their phone, at the touch of a button. The SAMHSA Disaster App is available on iPhone, Android, and BlackBerry devices.

  9. [Factors associated with the psychological impact of the Great East Japan earthquake on high school students 1 year and 4 months after the disaster].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funakoshi, Shunichi; Ohno, Takashi; Kodaka, Akira; Okuyama, Junko; Honda, Nami; Inoue, Takao; Sato, Yuki; Miyajima, Maki; Tomita, Hiroaki; Denda, Kenzou; Matsuoka, Hiroo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate factors associated with the psychological impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake on high school students 1 year and 4 months after the disaster, and clarify support needs of the students. In the outreach program for students of three high schools in coastal areas of southern Miyagi Prefecture, Japan, 1,973 students were surveyed after obtaining informed consent for participation. Questionnaires included: the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-J), Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), Impact of Event Scale-revised (IES-R), and Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC10). All scores were compared using SPSS 20.0 J between school grades, locations of the schools, and extent of damage due to the Great East Japan Earthquake. Our analysis showed a significant positive correlation between school grades and the level of anxiety. PTSR scores, but not anxiety nor depressive scores, of students whose lives have suffered extensive damage were significantly higher than those of students who have not. Students of high schools which have suffered extensive damage and use temporary buildings showed significantly higher levels of depression and anxiety, and significantly lower resilience, compared to students of high schools which were not damaged. Although previous findings demonstrated that younger children have a higher risk of being influenced by disasters, symptoms related to PTSR and depression were found frequently in the high school students as well. Among the high school students, our analysis showed a positive correlation between the level of anxiety and school grades, probably because the disaster has affected an influential and pivotal point in their lives.

  10. Wildfire Disasters and Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanes, Patricia Frohock

    2016-12-01

    Multiple factors contribute to wildfires in California and other regions: drought, winds, climate change, and spreading urbanization. Little has been done to study the multiple roles of nurses related to wildfire disasters. Major nursing organizations support disaster education for nurses. It is essential for nurses to recognize their roles in each phase of the disaster cycle: mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery. Skills learned in the US federal all-hazards approach to disasters can then be adapted to more specific disasters, such as wildfires, and issues affecting health care. Nursing has an important role in each phase of the disaster cycle.

  11. Disaster Risk Transfer for Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linneroothbayer, J.; Mechler, R.; Pflug, G.; Hochrainer, S.

    2005-12-01

    Financing disaster recovery often diverts resources from development, which can have long-term effects on economic growth and the poor in developing countries. Moreover, post-disaster assistance, while important for humanitarian reasons, has failed to meet the needs of developing countries in reducing their exposure to disaster risks and assuring sufficient funds to governments and individuals for financing the recovery process. The authors argue that part of disaster aid should be refocused from post-disaster to pre-disaster assistance including financial disaster risk management. Such assistance is now possible with new modeling techniques for estimating and pricing risks of natural disasters coupled with the advent of novel insurance instruments for transferring catastrophe risk to the global financial markets. The authors illustrate the potential for risk transfer in developing countries using the IIASA CATSIM model, which shows the potential impacts of disasters on economic growth in selected developing countries and the pros and cons of financial risk management to reduce those adverse impacts. The authors conclude by summarizing the advantages of investing in risk-transfer instruments (coupled with preventive measures) as an alternative to traditional post-disaster donor assistance. Donor-supported risk-transfer programs would not only leverage limited disaster aid budgets, but would also free recipient countries from depending on the vagaries of post-disaster assistance. Both the donors and the recipients stand to gain, especially since the instruments can be designed to encourage preventive measures. Precedents already exist for imaginative risk-transfer programs in highly exposed developing countries, including national insurance systems, micro-insurance schemes like weather derivatives and novel instruments (e.g., catastrophe bonds) to provide insurance cover for public sector risks.

  12. Flood Disaster Risk Assessment of Rural Housings — A Case Study of Kouqian Town in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Zhang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Floods are a devastating kind of natural disaster. About half of the population in China lives in rural areas. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the flood disaster risk of rural housings. The results are valuable for guiding the rescue and relief goods layout. In this study, we take the severe flood disaster that happened at Kouqian Town in Jilin, China in 2010 as an example to build an risk assessment system for flood disaster on rural housings. Based on the theory of natural disaster risk formation and “3S” technology (remote sensing, geography information systems and global positioning systems, taking the rural housing as the bearing body, we assess the flood disaster risk from three aspects: hazard, exposure and vulnerability. The hazard presented as the flood submerging range and depth. The exposure presented as the values of the housing and the property in it. The vulnerability presented as the relationship between the losses caused by flood and flood depth. We validate the model by the field survey after the flood disaster. The risk assessment results highly coincide with the field survey losses. This model can be used to assess the risk of other flood events in this area.

  13. 76 FR 70368 - Disaster Designation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ... cause widespread production losses, and do not include rare disaster types. ``Major disaster'' and...- driven water, tidal wave, tsunami, earthquake, volcanic eruption, landslide, mudslide, snowstorm, drought... lack of rainfall, or periods of high or low temperatures, causes flooding, substantial water damage...

  14. Volunteered Geographic Information for Disaster Management with Application to Earthquake Disaster Databank & Sharing Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H.; Zhang, W. C.; Deng, C.; Nie, N.; Yi, L.

    2017-02-01

    All phases of disaster management require up-to-date and accurate information. Different in-situ and remote sensor systems help to monitor dynamic properties such as air quality, water level or inundated areas. The rapid emergence of web-based services has facilitated the collection, dissemination, and cartographic representation of spatial information from the public, giving rise to the idea of using Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) to aid disaster management. In this study, with a brief review on the concept and the development of disaster management, opportunities and challenges for applying VGI in disaster management were explored. The challenges, including Data availability, Data quality, Data management and Legal issues of using VGI for disaster management, were discussed in detail with particular emphasis on the actual needs of disaster management practice in China. Three different approaches to assure VGI data quality, namely the classification and authority design of volunteers, a government-led VGI data acquisition framework for disaster management and a quality assessment system for VGI, respectively, were presented and discussed. As a case study, a prototype of VGI oriented earthquake disaster databank & sharing platform, an open WebGIS system for volunteers and other interested individuals collaboratively create and manage the earthquake disaster related information, was proposed, to provide references for improving the level of earthquake emergency response and disaster mitigation in China.

  15. 44 CFR 206.62 - Available assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE FEDERAL DISASTER ASSISTANCE Emergency Assistance § 206.62 Available... threat of a catastrophe; (b) Coordinate all disaster relief assistance (including voluntary assistance... Stafford Act; and (g) Assist State and local governments in the distribution of medicine, food, and...

  16. Pet Disaster Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safety Checklist – Arabic Pets and Disaster Safety Checklist – Chinese Pets and Disaster Safety Checklist – French Pets and ... Cross serves in the US, its territories and military installations around the world. Please try again. Your ...

  17. Disaster Case Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Disaster Case Management Program (DCM) is a time-limited process that involves a partnership between a case manager and a disaster survivor (also known as a...

  18. [One year after the Great Tohoku Disaster].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Masashi

    2012-01-01

    After the great earthquake of March 11, 2011, at least seven hospitals with 723 beds along the Miyagi Prefecture northern coastline were so devastated they could no longer function, leaving only several available hospitals. The two crucial issues thus became maintaining communications and regional transport. Phones and wireless were knocked out in most hospitals and areas. Many of the severe cases had to be brought to the Tohoku University Hospital at Sendai from the above the hospitals. Tohoku University Hospital and other medical facilities in the Tohoku district were in a terrible crisis of electricity shortage. It was a critical situation, particularly for patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis requiring artificial ventilation. We should hurry to submit a guideline for medical transportation for patients with neuromuscular diseases requiring artificial ventilation. We also should research the disaster medicine in the field of neurology, and prevent the neurological disease progressing after the earthquake. A large number of hospitals in coastal areas suffered devastating damage. We do not think it is feasible or even reasonable to restore such hospitals to what they were before the disaster. We started Tohoku Medical Megabank Organization as a disaster recovery model for revitalizing the areas reported to have scarce medical services. The project provides supports to local medical services, constructs a community coalition for medical information, sets up a biobank based on large-scale cohort studies, and provides educational training to produce highly specialized medical practitioners.

  19. Organizing the health sector for response to disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberley Shoaf

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Each year millions of people around the world are affected by natural and manmade disasters. The consequences of natural disasters in terms of health are complex. Disasters directly impact the health of the population resulting in physical trauma, acute disease, and emotional trauma. Furthermore, disasters may increase the morbidity and mortality associated with chronic and infectious diseases due to the impact on the health system. The health sector must be organized for adequate preparedness, mitigation, response and recuperation from a plethora of potential disasters. This paper examines the various potential impacts of disasters on health, the components of the health sector and their roles in emergency medical care and disaster situations, as well as the coordination and organization necessary within the system to best meet the health needs of a population in the aftermath of a disaster.

  20. Healthcare worker competencies for disaster training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelen Gabor D

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although training and education have long been accepted as integral to disaster preparedness, many currently taught practices are neither evidence-based nor standardized. The need for effective evidence-based disaster training of healthcare staff at all levels, including the development of standards and guidelines for training in the multi-disciplinary health response to major events, has been designated by the disaster response community as a high priority. We describe the application of systematic evidence-based consensus building methods to derive educational competencies and objectives in criteria-based preparedness and response relevant to all hospital healthcare workers. Methods The conceptual development of cross-cutting competencies incorporated current evidence through a systematic consensus building process with the following steps: (1 review of peer-reviewed literature on relevant content areas and educational theory; (2 structured review of existing competencies, national level courses and published training objectives; (3 synthesis of new cross-cutting competencies; (4 expert panel review; (5 refinement of new competencies and; (6 development of testable terminal objectives for each competency using similar processes covering requisite knowledge, attitudes, and skills. Results Seven cross-cutting competencies were developed: (1 Recognize a potential critical event and implement initial actions; (2 Apply the principles of critical event management; (3 Demonstrate critical event safety principles; (4 Understand the institutional emergency operations plan; (5 Demonstrate effective critical event communications; (6 Understand the incident command system and your role in it; (7 Demonstrate the knowledge and skills needed to fulfill your role during a critical event. For each of the cross-cutting competencies, comprehensive terminal objectives are described. Conclusion Cross-cutting competencies and objectives

  1. Reduction of high levels of internal radio-contamination by dietary intervention in residents of areas affected by the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant disaster: a case series.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaharu Tsubokura

    Full Text Available Maintaining low levels of chronic internal contamination among residents in radiation-contaminated areas after a nuclear disaster is a great public health concern. However, the efficacy of reduction measures for individual internal contamination remains unknown. To reduce high levels of internal radiation exposure in a group of individuals exposed through environmental sources, we performed careful dietary intervention with identification of suspected contaminated foods, as part of mass voluntary radiation contamination screenings and counseling program in Minamisoma Municipal General Hospital and Hirata Central Hospital. From a total of 30,622 study participants, only 9 residents displayed internal cesium-137 (Cs-137 levels of more than 50 Bq/kg. The median level of internal Cs-137 contamination in these residents at the initial screening was 4,830 Bq/body (range: 2,130-15,918 Bq/body and 69.6 Bq/kg (range: 50.7-216.3 Bq/kg. All these residents with high levels of internal contamination consumed homegrown produce without radiation inspection, and often collected mushrooms in the wild or cultivated them on bed-logs in their homes. They were advised to consume distributed food mainly and to refrain from consuming potentially contaminated foods without radiation inspection and local produces under shipment restrictions such as mushrooms, mountain vegetables, and meat of wild life. A few months after the intervention, re-examination of Cs levels revealed remarkable reduction of internal contamination in all residents. Although the levels of internal radiation exposure appear to be minimal amongst most residents in Fukushima, a subset of the population, who unknowingly consumed highly contaminated foodstuffs, experienced high levels of internal contamination. There seem to be similarities in dietary preferences amongst residents with high internal contamination levels, and intervention based on pre- and post-test counseling and dietary advice from

  2. Disaster forensics understanding root cause and complex causality

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book aims to uncover the root causes of natural and man-made disasters by going beyond the typical reports and case studies conducted post-disaster. It opens the black box of disasters by presenting ‘forensic analysis approaches’ to disasters, thereby revealing the complex causality that characterizes them and explaining how and why hazards do, or do not, become disasters. This yields ‘systemic’ strategies for managing disasters. Recently the global threat landscape has seen the emergence of high impact, low probability events. Events like Hurricane Katrina, the Great Japan Earthquake and tsunami, Hurricane Sandy, Super Typhoon Haiyan, global terrorist activities have become the new norm. Extreme events challenge our understanding regarding the interdependencies and complexity of the disaster aetiology and are often referred to as Black Swans. Between 2002 and 2011, there were 4130 disasters recorded that resulted from natural hazards around the world. In these, 1,117,527 people perished and a mi...

  3. Research progress in disaster nursing competency framework of nurses in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Mu Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available All types of frequent natural disasters, which seriously threaten the safety of human life and property, have become a great challenge all over the world. The dangerous and changeable environment in emergency rescue demands higher requirements for competency of the nurses who respond to a disaster. Disaster nursing combines medical science, sociology, psychology, and other disciplines; thus, it has become a comprehensive interdisciplinary branch of nursing. Disaster nursing has just recently been introduced to our country and is still in the stage of exploration. Nurses comprise the largest rescue force on disaster relief teams; therefore, disaster nursing competency is influential on the disaster response and recovery of victims after a disaster. Thus, this paper defines the concepts and elements of disaster nursing, including disaster nursing skill requirements and architectural framework. It will provide an important contribution to improving the overall level and comprehensive quality of disaster nursing competency of nurses in China.

  4. A scenario-based study on information flow and collaboration patterns in disaster management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagun, Aysu; Bouchlaghem, Dino; Anumba, Chimay J

    2009-04-01

    Disaster management (DM) is a continuous, highly collaborative process involving governments, DM organisations, responders, the construction sector, and the general public. Most research approaches to DM include the development of information and communication technologies (ICT) to support the collaboration process rather than the creation of a collaboration process to provide information flows and patterns. An Intelligent Disaster Collaboration System (IDCS) is introduced in this paper as a conceptual model to integrate ICT into DM and the mitigation process and to enhance collaboration. The framework is applicable to the collaboration process at the local, regional and national levels. Within this context, the deployment of ICT tools in DM is explored and scenario-based case studies on flooding and terrorism--examples of natural and human-induced disasters, respectively--are presented. Conclusions are drawn regarding the differences found in collaboration patterns and ICT used during natural and human-induced disasters and the differences between currently available ICT and proposed ICT.

  5. Mapping the vulnerability hotspots over Hindu-Kush Himalaya region to flooding disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shada Elalem

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A disproportionate share of the global economic and human losses caused by environmental shocks is borne by people in the developing nations. The mountain region of Hindu-Kush Himalaya (HKH in South Asia is threatened by numerous flooding events annually. An efficient disaster risk reduction often needs to rest upon location-based synoptic view of vulnerability. Resolving this deficit improves the ability to take risk reduction measures in a cost-effective way, and in doing so, strengthens the resilience of societies to flooding disasters. The central aim of this research is to identify the vulnerable locations across HKH boundary from the perspective of reported history of economic and human impacts due to occurrence of flooding disasters. A detailed analysis indicates a very high spatial heterogeneity in flooding disaster occurrence in the past 6 decades. The most recent decade reported highest number of disasters and greater spatial coverage as compared to the earlier decades. The data indicates that, in general, economic impacts of flooding disasters were notably higher in Pakistan, Afghanistan and Nepal. On the other hand, vulnerability scenarios with respect to human impacts were diverse for different countries. In terms of morbidity and mortality, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Bhutan and India were detected to be most susceptible to human impacts. Although Bhutan had seen lesser number of flooding disasters, higher population living within disaster prone region make them vulnerable. In summary, complex interactions between natural and socio-economic conditions play a dominant role to define and characterize the type and magnitude of vulnerability of HKH countries to disaster occurrence and their economic and human impacts.

  6. Risk factors for psychological and physical health problems after a man-made disaster.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirkzwager, A.J.E.; Grievink, L.; Velden, P.G. van der; Yzermans, C.J.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are few prospective studies on risk factors for health problems after disasters in which actual pre-disaster health data are available. AIMS: To examine whether survivors' personal characteristics, and pre-disaster psychological problems, and disaster-related variables, are related

  7. Risk factors for psychological and physical health problems after a man-made disaster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirkzwager, Anja J E; Grievink, Linda; Velden, Peter G van der; Yzermans, C Joris

    2006-01-01

    Background There are few prospective studies on risk factors for health problems after disasters in which actual pre-disaster health data are available. Aims To examine whether survivors' personal characteristics, and pre-disaster psychological problems, and disaster-related variables, are related

  8. Disaster hypertension - its characteristics, mechanism, and management - .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kario, Kazuomi

    2012-01-01

    The devastating Great East Japan Earthquake, which was 9.0 on the Richter scale, occurred on March 11, 2011. Japan experienced the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake 16 years ago, and I was working at the epicenter, and reported the characteristics of the earthquake-associated cardiovascular risk and high blood pressure (BP) found during the continuous practice and clinical studies of Tsuna Medical Association before and after the quake. A major disaster increases thrombophilic tendency and BP, both of which trigger disaster-induced cardiovascular events such as stroke, cardiac events, etc. The high salt intake and the increased salt sensitivity caused by disrupted circadian rhythms are the 2 major leading causes of disaster hypertension (HT) through neurohumoral activation under stressful conditions. To better assess and reduce the risks for disaster-associated cardiovascular events, we introduced the web-based Disaster Cardiovascular Prevention (DCAP) network (which consists of DCAP risk and prevention score assessment, and self-measured BP monitoring at both the shelter and the home) to the survivors of the 2011 disaster, and frequently found newly developed HT. Here I review the recent evidence, possible mechanism and the management of "disaster HT" for effective prevention of disaster-induced cardiovascular events.

  9. Using Climate Information for Disaster Risk Identification in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubair, L.

    2004-12-01

    Hotspots project of the Earth Institute at Columbia University. We developed tools that translate meteorological, environmental and socio-economic exposure and vulnerability information into assessments of relevant hazard related disaster risk at appropriate spatial and temporal scales. We also developed high-resolution predictive capabilities for assessing seasonal hazard event. We found that useful hazard risk and vulnerability analysis can be carried out with the type of data that is available in Sri Lanka with sufficiently fine scale as to be useful for national level planning and action. Also, hydro-meteorological information was essential to estimate hazard risks. This analysis brought out a distinct seasonality to drought, floods, landslides and cyclone hazards in Sri Lanka. This work provides a foundation for systematic disaster management that shall manage risks through measures such as hazard warnings, scenario-based relief identification and planning, strategic river basin management, risk mapping and land use zoning, standards for construction and infrastructure. The fostering of research and application capacity in the vulnerable community leads to the appropriate and sustainable use of earth science information. This work contributes to the mitigation of risk of vulnerable communities and provides an example of the harnessing of geosciences for poverty alleviation and improvement of human well-being. Note: The contributions of Vidhura Ralapanawe, Upamala Tennakoon, Ruvini Perera, Maxx Dilley, Bob Chen and the Hotspots team are gratefully acknowledged.

  10. Disaster waste management: a review article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Charlotte; Milke, Mark; Seville, Erica

    2011-06-01

    Depending on their nature and severity, disasters can create large volumes of debris and waste. The waste can overwhelm existing solid waste management facilities and impact on other emergency response and recovery activities. If poorly managed, the waste can have significant environmental and public health impacts and can affect the overall recovery process. This paper presents a system overview of disaster waste management based on existing literature. The main literature available to date comprises disaster waste management plans or guidelines and isolated case studies. There is ample discussion on technical management options such as temporary storage sites, recycling, disposal, etc.; however, there is little or no guidance on how these various management options are selected post-disaster. The literature does not specifically address the impact or appropriateness of existing legislation, organisational structures and funding mechanisms on disaster waste management programmes, nor does it satisfactorily cover the social impact of disaster waste management programmes. It is envisaged that the discussion presented in this paper, and the literature gaps identified, will form a basis for future comprehensive and cohesive research on disaster waste management. In turn, research will lead to better preparedness and response to disaster waste management problems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. 高可用CORBA%The Design and Realization of Highly Availability Distributed System of CORBA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭乐深; 刘锦德

    2000-01-01

    Recently,while highly available computer systems used for homogeneous environment have been launched into market,those used for heterogeneous environment are still staying vendors' research labs. In this paper,a highly availability distributed system based on CORBA is proposed,and the design and implementation of this system are fully explained. The analysis results show that the scheme presented is an effective approach.

  12. Full spectrum neurorestoratology: enhancing neuroresponse to disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrews RJ

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Russell J Andrews,1 Leonidas Quintana2 1Ames Research Center, Nanotechnology and Smart Systems, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Moffett Field, CA, USA; 2Department of Neurosurgery, Valparaiso University School of Medicine, Valparaiso, Chile Abstract: With more than 200,000 deaths in some years from earthquakes alone, disasters, both natural and manmade, are a major challenge for neurorestoratology. To minimize permanent neurological injury and death, it is essential for treatment to begin immediately, within minutes ideally, but certainly within 24 hours. Fortunately, the humanitarian and medical response to disasters removes the socioeconomic, legal, and political barriers that can hinder the treatment of neurological disorders under normal (nondisaster situations. Here we review the resources and equipment already available as well as in development to enhance prompt treatment of neurological injuries arising from disasters. To be sustainable, the response to disasters must be integrated into the ongoing daily health care delivery systems worldwide, from medical education and specialty training (resident/registrar to acute and subacute intensive care to long-term rehabilitation. The "trauma center" concept developed in the USA and elsewhere for nonmass casualty response is an example of a program developed within the existing health care training and delivery infrastructure. We therefore propose a model for worldwide disaster response that integrates disaster neurorestoratology into health care delivery systems worldwide, both governmental and nongovernmental, and national and international. An overall blueprint is presented for the full spectrum of disaster neurorestoratology, from prevention of nervous system injury, to comprehensive and immediate acute care, to long-term neurorehabilitation. Such a comprehensive response to disasters would overcome the geographic, socioeconomic, and political barriers that presently impair

  13. 76 FR 53020 - Missouri Disaster #MO-00052

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-24

    ..., Otoe, Richardson. The Interest Rates are: Percent For Physical Damage: Homeowners With Credit Available... and 59008) James E. Rivera, Associate Administrator for Disaster Assistance. BILLING CODE 8025-01-P...

  14. A Runtime Testability Metric for Dynamic High-Availability Component-based Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzales-Sanchez, A.; Piel, E.A.B.; Gross, H.G.; Van Gemund, A.J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Runtime testing is emerging as the solution for the integration and assessment of highly dynamic, high availability software systems where traditional development-time integration testing cannot be performed. A prerequisite for runtime testing is the knowledge about to which extent the system can be

  15. Runtime Testability in Dynamic Highly-Availability Component-based Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez, A.; Piel, E.; Gross, H.G.; Van Gemund, A.J.C.

    2010-01-01

    Runtime testing is emerging as the solution for the integration and assessment of highly dynamic, high availability software systems where traditional development-time integration testing cannot be performed. A prerequisite for runtime testing is the knowledge about to which extent the system can be

  16. Runtime Testability in Dynamic Highly-Availability Component-based Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez, A.; Piel, E.; Gross, H.G.; Van Gemund, A.J.C.

    2010-01-01

    Runtime testing is emerging as the solution for the integration and assessment of highly dynamic, high availability software systems where traditional development-time integration testing cannot be performed. A prerequisite for runtime testing is the knowledge about to which extent the system can be

  17. A Runtime Testability Metric for Dynamic High-Availability Component-based Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzales-Sanchez, A.; Piel, E.A.B.; Gross, H.G.; Van Gemund, A.J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Runtime testing is emerging as the solution for the integration and assessment of highly dynamic, high availability software systems where traditional development-time integration testing cannot be performed. A prerequisite for runtime testing is the knowledge about to which extent the system can be

  18. 高海拔灾难医学救援的探讨%Exploring disaster relief medicine in high altitude region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王振华; 万立东; 徐腾达

    2012-01-01

    2010年4月14日7:49,里氏6.9级的地震袭击了位于青藏高原的青海省玉树县.中国政府在第一时间发起一级应急救援响应.尽管如此,高海拔和灾后极端的天气条件仍然为救援工作带来了极大的困难.如何在高海拔地区实施救援?如何应对高原地震所带来的独特的地理环境的挑战?值得进一步研究和讨论.由于其高海拔的特殊条件,从远距离或低海拔地区调动救援队可能是不现实的.有必要建立一个整体的灾难救援反应体系,以及能够专门应对各种特殊地理环境的灾害救援快速反应小组.在这篇文章中,笔者强调了在高海拔地区灾难救援的处置中,制定国家级高原救灾计划和建立反应迅速的专业救援队的重要性.此外,高海拔灾难救援需要更好的规划和研究,并预防救援人员发生高海拔相关疾病.%On April 14th, 2010 at 7:49 a.m., An earthquake (Richter magnitude scale 6.9) struck the Yushu County, Tibetan Plateau. Even the competent authorities initiated level 1 emergency response for the quake relief immediately, the high altitude and post-quake extreme weather conditions were challenging the rescue efforts. The challenges to our rescue mission of the unique geographic environment requested us to give a further consideration on disaster relief mission in high altitude regions. Given the unique conditions of high altitude plateau, it may be unrealistic to mobilize rescue teams from remote region or low-land. The 2010 Yushu earthquake display a demand of establishing an overall disaster response plan, as well as developing a disaster rapid response teams specific to each geographic region. In this article, the importance of developing a national Plateau Disaster Plan and building professional medical rescue teams with ability to rapidly respond to the mass casualty incident in high altitude region were emphasized. Furthermore, an attention shall be paid on how to prevent high altitude

  19. History of Disaster Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suner, Selim

    2015-10-01

    Erik Noji, mentioned, tongue in cheek, Noah as the first disaster manager during a lecture in 2005. The canonical description of "The Genesis Flood" does describe Noah as a master planner and executer of an evacuation of biblical proportions. After gaining knowledge of a potential catastrophic disaster he planned and executed an evacuation to mitigate the effects of the "Genesis Flood" by building the Ark and organizing a mass exodus. He had to plan for food, water, shelter, medical care, waste disposal and other needs of all the evacuees. Throughout history, management of large disasters was conducted by the military. Indeed, the military still plays a large role in disaster response in many countries, particularly if the response is overseas and prolonged. The histories of emergency preparedness, disaster management and disaster medicine have coevolved and are inextricably intertwined. While disaster management in one form or another existed as long as people started living together in communities, the development of disaster medicine took off with the emergence of modern medicine. Similar to disaster management, disaster medicine also has roots in military organizations.

  20. Backup Communication Routing Through Internet Satellite, WINDS for Transmitting of Disaster Relief Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Arai

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A countermeasure for round trip delay which occurs in between satellite and ground with network accelerator is investigated together with operating system dependency on effectiveness of accelerator. Also disaster relief data transmission experiments are conducted for mitigation of disaster together with acceleration of disaster related data transmission between local government and disaster prevention center. Disaster relief information including remote sensing satellite images and information from the disaster occurred areas to local government for creation of evacuation information is accelerated so that it becomes possible to send them to the residents in the suffered areas due to disaster through data broadcasting in the digital TV channel.

  1. Post-disaster resettlement in the Philippines: a risky strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice R Thomas

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Experience in the Philippines following Typhoon Haiyan suggests that resettlement as a strategy for mitigating disaster-induced displacement can create significant protection risks.

  2. The Role of Education on Disaster Preparedness: Case Study of 2012 Indian Ocean Earthquakes on Thailand's Andaman Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raya Muttarak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate how well residents of the Andaman coast in Phang Nga province, Thailand, are prepared for earthquakes and tsunami. It is hypothesized that formal education can promote disaster preparedness because education enhances individual cognitive and learning skills, as well as access to information. A survey was conducted of 557 households in the areas that received tsunami warnings following the Indian Ocean earthquakes on 11 April 2012. Interviews were carried out during the period of numerous aftershocks, which put residents in the region on high alert. The respondents were asked what emergency preparedness measures they had taken following the 11 April earthquakes. Using the partial proportional odds model, the paper investigates determinants of personal disaster preparedness measured as the number of preparedness actions taken. Controlling for village effects, we find that formal education, measured at the individual, household, and community levels, has a positive relationship with taking preparedness measures. For the survey group without past disaster experience, the education level of household members is positively related to disaster preparedness. The findings also show that disaster-related training is most effective for individuals with high educational attainment. Furthermore, living in a community with a higher proportion of women who have at least a secondary education increases the likelihood of disaster preparedness. In conclusion, we found that formal education can increase disaster preparedness and reduce vulnerability to natural hazards.

  3. MySQL High Availability Tools for Building Robust Data Centers

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Charles; Thalmann, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Server bottlenecks and failures are a fact of life in any database deployment, but they don't have to bring everything to a halt. MySQL has several features that can help you protect your system from outages, whether it's running on hardware, virtual machines, or in the cloud. MySQL High Availability explains how to use these replication, cluster, and monitoring features in a wide range of real-life situations. Written by engineers who designed many of the tools covered inside, this book reveals undocumented or hard-to-find aspects of MySQL reliability and high availability -- knowledge that

  4. TECHNICAL SUPPORT AS A BASIS OF HIGH AVAILABILITY LEVEL AND IT SYSTEM SERVICE QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Vidojevic

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the development and implementation methodology of technical support in IT1system operation. Methodology is developed and applied in realistic system (Information system of the Tax administration - DIS 2003, which is technically very complex and highly distributed. The results of IT system availability assessment and identification of the critical components are input parameters in the process of establishing of the technical support. The importance of technical support for achieving optimal IT system availability and IT service quality is assessed according to its operation during one year. The history of technical support system operation is a basis for further continuous improvement.

  5. Onboard Radar Processor Development for Disaster Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yunling; Clark, Duane; Hensley, Scott; Jones, Cathleen; Marks, Phillip; Muellerschoen, Ron; Wang, Charles C.

    2013-01-01

    Natural hazards often result in significant loss of human lives, economic assets and productivity as well as significant damage to the ecosystem. Scientists have reported more frequent and intense natural disasters in recent years, which may well be attributed to climate change. Many of the disaster response efforts were hampered by lack of up-to-date knowledge of the state of the affected areas because damaged infrastructure rendered the areas inaccessible. Radar remote sensing is playing an increasingly critical role in providing timely information to disaster response agencies due to the increasing fidelity and availability of geospatial information products.

  6. Hurricane Katrina disaster diplomacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelman, Ilan

    2007-09-01

    Hurricane Katrina struck the United States at the end of August 2005. The consequent devastation appeared to be beyond the US government's ability to cope with and aid was offered by several states in varying degrees of conflict with the US. Hurricane Katrina therefore became a potential case study for 'disaster diplomacy', which examines how disaster-related activities do and do not yield diplomatic gains. A review of past disaster diplomacy work is provided. The literature's case studies are then categorised using a new typology: propinquity, aid relationship, level and purpose. Hurricane Katrina and its aftermath are then placed in the context of the US government's foreign policy, the international response to the disaster and the US government's reaction to these responses. The evidence presented is used to discuss the potential implications of Hurricane Katrina disaster diplomacy, indicating that factors other than disaster-related activities generally dominate diplomatic relations and foreign policy.

  7. High light-induced hydrogen peroxide production in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is increased by high CO2 availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Thomas; Na, Chae Sun; Krieger-Liszkay, Anja

    2015-03-01

    The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is an unavoidable part of photosynthesis. Stress that accompanies high light levels and low CO2 availability putatively includes enhanced ROS production in the so-called Mehler reaction. Such conditions are thought to encourage O2 to become an electron acceptor at photosystem I, producing the ROS superoxide anion radical (O2·-) and hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ). In contrast, here it is shown in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii that CO2 depletion under high light levels lowered cellular H2 O2 production, and that elevated CO2 levels increased H2 O2 production. Using various photosynthetic and mitochondrial mutants of C. reinhardtii, the chloroplast was identified as the main source of elevated H2 O2 production under high CO2 availability. High light levels under low CO2 availability induced photoprotective mechanisms called non-photochemical quenching, or NPQ, including state transitions (qT) and high energy state quenching (qE). The qE-deficient mutant npq4 produced more H2 O2 than wild-type cells under high light levels, although less so under high CO2 availability, whereas it demonstrated equal or greater enzymatic H2 O2 -degrading capacity. The qT-deficient mutant stt7-9 produced the same H2 O2 as wild-type cells under high CO2 availability. Physiological levels of H2 O2 were able to hinder qT and the induction of state 2, providing an explanation for why under high light levels and high CO2 availability wild-type cells behaved like stt7-9 cells stuck in state 1. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Disaster Planning: Financing a Burn Disaster, Where Do You Turn and What Are Your Options When Your Hospital Has Been Impacted by a Burn Disaster in the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Randy D; Hubble, Michael W; Lord, Graydon C; Holmes, James H; Cairns, Bruce A; Helminiak, Clare

    2016-01-01

    The cost associated with a single burn injured patient can be significant. The American healthcare system functions in part based on traditional market forces which include supply and demand. In addition, there are a variety of payer sources with disparate payment for the same services. Thus, when a group of patients with serious injuries needing complicated care are underinsured or uninsured, or lacks the ability to pay, the financial health of the organization providing the care can be undermined. When a medical disaster with significant numbers of burn injured patients occurs, the financial concerns can be compounded with this singular event. It is critical to be cognizant of the disaster-related financial resources available. Knowing where to turn and what may be available can help assure that the institution caring for this group of high cost patients does not simultaneously take on significant financial risk in the aftermath of the disaster. This article includes national (United States) financial data with respect to burn injury, and focuses on (United States) governmental financial resources during and after a disaster. This review includes identifying and discussing traditional financial support, as well as atypical but established programs where, during a disaster, health care institutions may be eligible for assistance to cover part or all of the associated costs.

  9. The economics of natural disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallegatte, S.

    2007-05-01

    Mitigating natural disasters is probably more important for society than it can be inferred from direct losses. Total economic losses, indeed, can be much larger than direct losses, especially for large disasters, which affect the economy for extended periods of time (e.g., New Orleans after Katrina), and represent an important obstacle to economic development in certain regions (e.g. Central America). A series of recent modelling exercises highlights several findings. First, total economic losses due to an event are increasing nonlinearly as a function of its direct losses, because destructions both increase reconstruction needs and reduce reconstruction capacity. Second, endogenous economic dynamics has to be taken into account in the assessment of disaster consequences. More particularly, an economy in the expansion phase of its business cycle appears to be more vulnerable to extreme events than an economy in recession. This result is supported by the fact that worker availability is found to be one of the main obstacles to a rapid and efficient reconstruction. Third, natural disasters can create poverty traps for poor countries, which have a lower ability to fund and carry out reconstruction. As a consequence, climate change impacts from extreme events may be significant, and will depend on how societies are able to adapt their reconstruction capacity to new levels of risk.

  10. An introduction to neglected disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Wisner

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This theme issue of Jàmbá takes up the question of neglected disasters. It is an important topic because the world is changing, disasters are changing, and theory is changing. All these changes call for a re-assessment of why some human suffering and social disruption receive attention from authorities, donors, researchers and the media, while some does not. Recent progress in both development studies and disaster studies provides tools for answering this question. Development and disaster studies date in their current forms to ways of thinking that were current in academic and policy circles in the late 1950s and 1960s. At that time the world was recovering from world war and former colonies of Europe were gaining independence. It was a world in which (with some exceptions conflict was held in check in an uneasy cold war balance. It was also a world where a growing UN system held the promise of meeting humanitarian needs when they arose. That world is no more. ‘Development’ has changed.

  11. Reduction of earthquake disasters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈顒; 陈祺福; 黄静; 徐文立

    2003-01-01

    The article summarizes the researches on mitigating earthquake disasters of the past four years in China. The studyof earthquake disasters′ quantification shows that the losses increase remarkably when population concentrates inurban area and social wealth increase. The article also summarizes some new trends of studying earthquake disas-ters′ mitigation, which are from seismic hazard to seismic risk, from engineering disaster to social disaster andintroduces the community-centered approach.

  12. Disaster mental health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henderson, Silja; Berliner, Peter; Elsass, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter we focus on disaster mental health, particularly theoretical and research-based implications for intervention. The field of disaster mental health research is vast and impossible to cover in a single chapter, but we will visit central research, concepts, and understandings within...... disaster mental health and intervention, and refer to further literature where meaningful. We conclude the chapter with recommendations for further research....

  13. Disaster and Sociolegal Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Sterett

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Disasters are treated as independent events external to law. However, social processes define the beginning, end and extent of those events for mitigation, adaptation and response and recovery; those processes include the mobilization of law by people and organizations. Within the sociology of disaster, it is tempting to treat law as a problem-solving tool. Sociolegal analysis approaches law more skeptically: legal actors face problems and defer to the decisions others have made, or discount future problems as much as other institutions do and thereby contribute to problems, or offer compensation that does not ameliorate the inequality within and among countries that disaster can exacerbate. Law can signal that it is doing something about problems via national or supranational rights; for it actually to help requires legal actors to mobilize. Finally, the site of law has been displaced: from law being within public authority enacted through institutions to law as a matter of individual, self-governance set in expectation of disaster, and humanitarian assistance done through non-governmental organizations. This collection contributes analyses of individuals and organizations' action in disaster through legal processes. Los desastres se tratan como hechos independientes externos al derecho. Sin embargo, los procesos sociales definen el principio, el final y el alcance de esos acontecimientos en lo que respecta a su mitigación, adaptación, respuesta y recuperación; esos procesos incluyen la movilización del derecho por personas y organizaciones. En el ámbito de la sociología de los desastres, es tentador tratar el derecho como una herramienta para la resolución de problemas. Sin embargo, los análisis sociojurídicos se aproximan al derecho de forma más escéptica: los actores legales se enfrentan a problemas y se adhieren a decisiones que otros han tomado, o descartan problemas futuros de la misma forma que otras instituciones, aumentando

  14. Building highly available control system applications with Advanced Telecom Computing Architecture and open standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazakov, Artem; Furukawa, Kazuro

    2010-11-01

    Requirements for modern and future control systems for large projects like International Linear Collider demand high availability for control system components. Recently telecom industry came up with a great open hardware specification - Advanced Telecom Computing Architecture (ATCA). This specification is aimed for better reliability, availability and serviceability. Since its first market appearance in 2004, ATCA platform has shown tremendous growth and proved to be stable and well represented by a number of vendors. ATCA is an industry standard for highly available systems. On the other hand Service Availability Forum, a consortium of leading communications and computing companies, describes interaction between hardware and software. SAF defines a set of specifications such as Hardware Platform Interface, Application Interface Specification. SAF specifications provide extensive description of highly available systems, services and their interfaces. Originally aimed for telecom applications, these specifications can be used for accelerator controls software as well. This study describes benefits of using these specifications and their possible adoption to accelerator control systems. It is demonstrated how EPICS Redundant IOC was extended using Hardware Platform Interface specification, which made it possible to utilize benefits of the ATCA platform.

  15. Managing the natural disasters from space technology inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, V.; Chandrasekhar, M. G.; Rao, U. R.

    1997-01-01

    Natural disasters, whether of meteorological origin such as Cyclones, Floods, Tornadoes and Droughts or of having geological nature such as earthquakes and volcanoes, are well known for their devastating impacts on human life, economy and environment. With tropical climate and unstable land forms, coupled with high population density, poverty, illiteracy and lack of infrastructure development, developing countries are more vulnerable to suffer from the damaging potential of such disasters. Though it is almost impossible to completely neutralise the damage due to these disasters, it is, however possible to (i) minimise the potential risks by developing disaster early warning strategies (ii) prepare developmental plans to provide resilience to such disasters, (iii) mobilize resources including communication and telemedicinal services and (iv) to help in rehabilitation and post-disaster reconstruction. Space borne platforms have demonstrated their capability in efficient disaster management. While communication satellites help in disaster warning, relief mobilisation and telemedicinal support, Earth observation satellites provide the basic support in pre-disaster preparedness programmes, in-disaster response and monitoring activities, and post-disaster reconstruction. The paper examines the information requirements for disaster risk management, assess developing country capabilities for building the necessary decision support systems, and evaluate the role of satellite remote sensing. It describes several examples of initiatives from developing countries in their attempt to evolve a suitable strategy for disaster preparedness and operational framework for the disaster management Using remote sensing data in conjunction with other collateral information. It concludes with suggestions and recommendations to establish a worldwide network of necessary space and ground segments towards strengthening the technological capabilities for disaster management and mitigation.

  16. Community Disaster and Sustainability Teams for Civil Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelman, I.; Cordonnier, B.

    2009-04-01

    Many examples of community-based teams for civil protection and disaster risk reduction exist. Turkey has a Community Disaster Volunteer Training Program while the USA has Community Emergency Response Teams which have been extended into secondary schools as Teen School Emergency Response Training. The principles and practices of these teams further apply directly to other development and sustainability endeavours, all of which are intricately linked to disaster risk reduction and civil protection. An example is keeping local water courses and storm drains clear from rubbish. That improves community health and cleanliness while assisting rainfall drainage to reduce flood risk. The "community teams" concept, as implemented for civil protection and disaster risk reduction, therefore connects with day-to-day living, such as ensuring that all community members have adequate access to water, food, waste management, shelter, health care, education, and energy. Community teams should be based on the best science and pedagogy available to ensure that concepts, training, skills, and implementation are effective and are maintained over the long-term. That entails going beyond the interest that is commonly generated by highlighting high-profile events, such as hurricanes and earthquakes, or high-profile concerns, such as climate change or terrorism. When community teams are focused on high-profile challenges, maintaining interest can be difficult without specific manifestations of the perceived "number one threat". Incorporating day-to-day concerns into civil protection can overcome that. For example, the community teams' talents and energy could be used for picking up rubbish, for educating about health and waste disposal, and for conducting vulnerability assessments in order to inspire action for continual vulnerability reduction. In addition to the examples given above, Japan's Jishu-bosai-soshiki community activities and Asia's "Townwatch" initiative adopt wider and deeper

  17. Availability and Price of High Quality Day Care and Female Employment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Marianne

    In this paper I analyse to what degree availability and price of high quality publicly subsidised childcare affects female employment for women living in couples following maternity leave. The results show that unrestricted access to day care has a significantly positive effct on female employment...

  18. Low nutrient availability reduces high-irradiance–induced viability loss inoceanic phytoplankton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulk, G.; van de Poll, W.H.; Visser, R.J.W.; Buma, A.G.J.

    2013-01-01

    In situ viability of oceanic phytoplankton may be relatively low in open oceans. This is assumed to be related to the high-irradiance and low-nutrient conditions typical for oligotrophic regions. However, experimental evidence for this phenomenon was not yet available. In the present study, the impo

  19. A transfer technique for high mobility graphene devices on commercially available hexagonal boron nitride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zomer, P. J.; Dash, S. P.; Tombros, N.; van Wees, B. J.

    2011-01-01

    We present electronic transport measurements of single and bilayer graphene on commercially available hexagonal boron nitride. We extract mobilities as high as 125 000 cm(2) V-1 s(-1) at room temperature and 275 000 cm(2) V-1 s(-1) at 4.2 K. The excellent quality is supported by the early developmen

  20. Translating disaster resilience into spatial planning practice in South Africa: Challenges and champions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willemien van Niekerk

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available It is highly likely that hazards and extreme climatic events will occur more frequently in the future and will become more severe – increasing the vulnerability and risk of millions of poor urbanites in developing countries. Disaster resilience aims to reduce disaster losses by equipping cities to withstand, absorb, adapt to or recover from external shocks. This paper questions whether disaster resilience is likely to be taken up in spatial planning practices in South Africa, given its immediate developmental priorities and challenges. In South Africa, issues of development take precedence over issues of sustainability, environmental management and disaster reduction. This is illustrated by the priority given to ‘servicing’ settlements compared to the opportunities offered by ‘transforming’ spaces through post-apartheid spatial planning. The City of Durban’s quest in adapting to climate change demonstrates hypothetically that if disaster resilience were to be presented as an issue distinct from what urban planners are already doing, then planners would see it as insignificant as compared to addressing the many developmental backlogs and challenges. If, however, it is regarded as a means to secure a city’s development path whilst simultaneously addressing sustainability, then disaster resilience is more likely to be translated into spatial planning practices in South Africa.

  1. A Simulation Study for Emergency/Disaster Management by Applying Complex Networks Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Earthquakes, hurricanes, flooding and terrorist attacks pose a severe threat to our society. What’s more, when such a disaster happens, it can spread in a wide range with ubiquitous presence of a large-scale networked system. Therefore, the emergency/disaster management faces new challenges that the decision-makers have extra difficulties in perceiving the disaster dynamic spreading processes under this networked environment. This study tries to use the complex networks theory to tackle this complexity and the result shows the theory is a promising approach to support disaster/emergency management by focusing on simulation experiments of small world networks and scale free networks. The theory can be used to capture and describe the evolution mechanism, evolution discipline and overall behavior of a networked system. In particular, the complex networks theory is very strong at analyzing the complexity and dynamical changes of a networked system, which can improve the situation awareness after a disaster has occurred and help perceive its dynamic process, which is very important for high-quality decision making. In addition, this study also shows the use of the complex networks theory can build a visualized process to track the dynamic spreading of a disaster in a networked system.

  2. Key Aspects of Providing Healthcare Services in Disaster Response Stage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Sadat Pourhosseini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Health care management in disasters is one of the main parts of disaster management. Health in disasters is affected by performance of various sectors, and has an interactive impact on various aspects of disaster management. The aim of this study was to identify the most important themes affecting the healthcare management in disaster.In this qualitative study with a content analysis approach, in-depth interviews in two steps with 30 disaster experts and managers were conducted to collect the data.Eleven themes affecting healthcare management in disasters were identified. These themes were related to human resources management, resources management, victims' management transfer, environmental hygiene monitoring, nutrition management, mental health control, inter-agency coordination, training, technology management, information and communication management, and budget management.Providing effective health care service in disasters requires a comprehensive look at the various aspects of disaster management. Effective factors on the success of healthcare in disaster are not limited to the scope of healthcare. There should be a close relationship and interaction between different sectors of disaster management.

  3. Disaster Risk Reduction through school learners’ awareness and preparedness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takalani S. Rambau

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2006, the ISDR (International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (2007 initiated a campaign called Disaster Risk Reduction Begins at School to encourage the integration of disaster risk education into school curricula in countries vulnerable to disasters. A study was initiated to determine how education, in particular curriculum development and teaching, contributes to South African learners’ hazard awareness and disaster preparedness. Mixed method research (consisting of questionnaires, interviews and document reviews was done to collect data. 150 educators from Gauteng, the Western Cape, KwaZulu-Natal, North West and the Eastern Cape completed questionnaires. Five curriculum coordinators, three disaster specialists and two disaster lecturers were interviewed to record their perspectives. The first finding of the study was that the majority of educators, disaster specialists and curriculum coordinators identified floods, fire, droughts, epidemics, road accidents and storms as the most prevalent disasters in the country. The second finding from the literature and empirical data collection revealed that South African communities, particularly people residing in informal settlements and other poor areas, are more vulnerable to disasters than their counterparts in more affluent areas. The third finding of the study was that teaching learners about hazards and disasters is vital and must be expanded.

  4. Spatial and temporal distribution of geophysical disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural disasters of all kinds (meteorological, hydrological, geophysical, climatological and biological are increasingly becoming part of everyday life of modern human. The consequences are often devastating, to the life, health and property of people, as well to the security of states and the entire international regions. In this regard, we noted the need for a comprehensive investigation of the phenomenology of natural disasters. In addition, it is particularly important to pay attention to the different factors that might correlate with each other to indicate more dubious and more original facts about their characteristics. However, as the issue of natural disasters is very wide, the subject of this paper will be forms, consequences, temporal and spatial distribution of geophysical natural disasters, while analysis of other disasters will be the subject of our future research. Using an international database on natural disasters of the centre for research on the epidemiology of disasters (CRED based in Brussels, with the support of the statistical analysis (SPSS, we tried to point out the number, trends, consequences, the spatial and temporal distribution of earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and dry mass movements in the world, from 1900 to 2013.

  5. High School Physics Availability: Results from the 2012-13 Nationwide Survey of High School Physics Teachers. Focus On

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Susan; Tesfaye, Casey Langer

    2014-01-01

    In this report, the authors share their analysis of the data from over 3,500 high schools in the U.S. beginning with an examination of the availability of physics in U.S. high schools. The schools in their sample are a nationally-representative random sample of the almost 25,000 high schools in forty-nine of the fifty states. Table 1 shows the…

  6. A Solutions Network for Disaster Preparedness and Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaduri, B.; Tuttle, M.; Fernandez, S.

    2008-05-01

    Careful planning and management strategies are essential for disaster preparedness and prevention and to the implementation of responses strategies when emergencies do occur. Disasters related to climate and weather extremes, such as hurricanes, floods, wildfires, blizzards, droughts, and tornadoes may have a period for watching and warning within which emergency preparedness measures can be taken to reduce risk to population and critical infrastructures. The ability to effectively address emergency preparedness and response operations is dependent upon a strong global spatial data infrastructure, and geospatial modeling and simulation capabilities that can complement the decision making process at various stages of disaster preparedness, response, and recovery. It is well understood that a strong linkage between data and analytical capabilities are nucleus to effective decision making ability and that disaster consequence management organizations should have access to the best available geospatial technical expertise, global and regional data sets, and modeling and analytical tools. However, such optimal combination of data assets and modeling expertise are often beyond the resources available internally within a single organization but can be accessed through external collaboration with other "Earth science community-of-practice" organizations. This provides an opportunity to develop a solutions network for disaster preparedness and response. However, our current capability and state of general practice in disaster consequence management is, for the most part, built around such networks that are not very well defined, often formed on an ad-hoc basis soon after a disaster, loosely coupled, and functions at less than desirable pace. We will illustrate this concept of a solutions network through the current functions of the Visualization and Modeling Working Group (VMWG) of the Department of Energy, to which multiple national laboratories and other federal agencies

  7. Preparing for Disaster: Taking the Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colber, Judith

    2008-01-01

    In this article, Irwin Redlener, director of the National Center for Disaster Preparedness describes disasters in relation to five phases that may serve as a helpful framework for planning disaster response: (1) before the disaster (pre-disaster); (2) during the disaster (intra-disaster); (3) immediately after the disaster (immediate…

  8. Effectiveness of microinsurance during and after a disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshad Ali

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This research looks at the effectiveness of microinsurance services during and after a disaster and at disaster management as an effective tool for community betterment. A detailed review has been done on available research and case studies. Unfortunately, underdeveloped countries suffer due to a lack of finances during and after a disaster. Developed countries are usually not ready for any disaster at government and public levels. A disaster affected country will also be keen for financial help from donor agencies and other counties. Microinsurance would be very helpful during any disaster to overcome the financial needs at the community level. Microinsurance is a practice that can share the financial liability with the affected population during a disaster. There is no trend in Pakistan for community based microinsurance for certain reasons, although there are very good examples available for review in the region. These include microinsurance services based on community microinsurance models such as SEWA (Gujarat, Weather-Index-based insurance (Ethiopia and Crop insurance against typhoons (Philippine. These have played a vital role in disaster risk transfer during and after disasters. This study will identify the implementation and outcome of microinsurance in Pakistan during a disaster and understand how much beneficial microinsurance would be for the betterment and recovery of affective community on an urgent basis.

  9. Households Perceptions on Factors Affecting Resilience towards Natural Disasters in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viverita

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Most areas in Indonesia are prone to natural disasters. Learning the lessons from the Aceh Tsu- nami in 2004, areas with high risks of natural disasters are in the process of preparing themselves for such an unexpected event, by increasing their resilience. The objective of this studyis to shed more lights on factors affecting the resilience from two sources namely, existing literatures and the application of disaster management in four disaster-prone areas in Indonesia -Padang, Sleman, Cilacap, and Palu. To enrich our analysis, we collect data from the field tocompare the prepared- ness and to get insights on people’s perceptions towards the factors of resilience in those areas.We employ IDI and FGD to identify the factors of resilience and the preparedness in the areas investi- gated. Thereafter, a preliminary survey is conducted to identify people’s perceptions towards the aspects of resilience in the areas. Results from the survey conducted to 800 households in Padang and Cilacap indicates that from the social aspect, community’s value cohesiveness is one of impor- tant factor affecting their resilience towards natural disaster. In addition, since almost 85 percent of their income was spending to fulfill their daily basic needs such as foods, clothing, and housing. Therefore, when disaster occurred, they heavily relied on the help of debt or selling some of their assets, as well as used cash in hand as emergency funds. In general, respondents in all sample cit- ies are able to re-start their economic activities as soon as two weeks after the event of disaster. In addition, the survey found that most of respondents were aware that the government has pro- grams to educate people on the disaster mitigation.

  10. International Space Station Instmments Collect Imagery of Natural Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, C. A.; Stefanov, W. L.

    2013-01-01

    A new focus for utilization of the International Space Station (ISS) is conducting basic and applied research that directly benefits Earth's citizenry. In the Earth Sciences, one such activity is collecting remotely sensed imagery of disaster areas and making those data immediately available through the USGS Hazards Data Distribution System, especially in response to activations of the International Charter for Space and Major Disasters (known informally as the "International Disaster Charter", or IDC). The ISS, together with other NASA orbital sensor assets, responds to IDC activations following notification by the USGS. Most of the activations are due to natural hazard events, including large floods, impacts of tropical systems, major fires, and volcanic eruptions and earthquakes. Through the ISS Program Science Office, we coordinate with ISS instrument teams for image acquisition using several imaging systems. As of 1 August 2013, we have successfully contributed imagery data in support of 14 Disaster Charter Activations, including regions in both Haiti and the east coast of the US impacted by Hurricane Sandy; flooding events in Russia, Mozambique, India, Germany and western Africa; and forest fires in Algeria and Ecuador. ISS-based sensors contributing data include the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO), the ISERV (ISS SERVIR Environmental Research and Visualization System) Pathfinder camera mounted in the US Window Observational Research Facility (WORF), the ISS Agricultural Camera (ISSAC), formerly operating from the WORF, and high resolution handheld camera photography collected by crew members (Crew Earth Observations). When orbital parameters and operations support data collection, ISS-based imagery adds to the resources available to disaster response teams and contributes to the publicdomain record of these events for later analyses.

  11. Performance Analysis of a Highly Available Home Agent in Mobile Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelgadir T. Abdelgadir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Network Mobility as a service is provided by the NEMO protocol in IPv6 environments. NEMO is an extension to MIPv6 and thus inherits the same reliability problems of MIPv6. MIPv6 is not reliable because the Home Agent (HA is a single point of failure. In order to provide real-time services for MIPv6 networks, reliability should be considered as part of any high availability solution used to deploy Mobile IPv6 networks. Approach: Many approaches have been taken to solve the problem of HA as a single point of failure. In our proposed solution, failure detection and recovery is handled by the home agent. Therefore, recovery is transparent to the mobile network. Results: In this study we opted for using HA redundancy to provide a highly available home agent solution which achieves recovery times suitable for real-time applications. Conclusion: The results show that achieving high availability in IPv6 based mobile networks which support NEMO is possible.

  12. Democracy, GDP, and the Impact of Natural Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Vink, G.; Brett, A. P.; Burgess, E.; Cecil-Cockwell, D.; Chicoine, A.; Difiore, P.; Harding, J.; Millian, C.; Olivi, E.; Piaskowy, S.; Sproat, J.; van der Hoop, H.; Walsh, P.; Warren, A.; West, L.; Wright, G.

    2007-05-01

    In 1998 Amartya Sen won the Nobel Prize in economics for the observation that there has never been a famine in a nation with a democratic form of government and a free press. We find that a similar relationship can be demonstrated for all natural disasters. Data from the United Nations Food Programme and the United States Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance is used to display strong correlations between the democracy index, GDP, and the humanitarian impact of natural disasters. We find that nations in which disasters have high humanitarian impact, approximated by lives lost, are also nations which are below the median per capita GDP and the median democracy level. While the response to natural disasters varies from country to country, several additional global trends are observed. Since 1964, the number of recorded natural disasters has increased by a factor of five. During this same time period the number of deaths has decreased significantly. In particular, the humanitarian impact of the 'typical' natural disaster has decreased by a factor of five. Post-disaster foreign aid is the common response from the international community when a natural disaster strikes. Our study also compares the history of foreign aid grants distributed by the US Office of Foreign Disaster Aid (OFDA) with the number of deaths worldwide from natural disasters. We find that the amount of aid given is responsive to the degree of global humanitarian impact.

  13. Designing high availability systems DFSS and classical reliability techniques with practical real life examples

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Zachary

    2014-01-01

    A practical, step-by-step guide to designing world-class, high availability systems using both classical and DFSS reliability techniques Whether designing telecom, aerospace, automotive, medical, financial, or public safety systems, every engineer aims for the utmost reliability and availability in the systems he, or she, designs. But between the dream of world-class performance and reality falls the shadow of complexities that can bedevil even the most rigorous design process. While there are an array of robust predictive engineering tools, there has been no single-source guide to understan

  14. Agriculture: Natural Events and Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural Events and DiasastersInformation on Natural Events and Disasters. Every year natural disasters, such as hurricanes, floods, fires, earthquakes, and tornadoes, challenge agricultural production.

  15. When is a natural disaster a development disaster; when is a natural disaster not a disaster?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutter, J. C.; Archibong, B.; Pi, D.

    2009-12-01

    Extremes of nature like hurricanes, droughts and earthquakes influence human welfare in a variety of ways. While it might seem counterintuitive, evidence from long run macro-economic data suggests that when natural extremes are especially destructive to human societies, and earn the title “natural disaster” they can actually have a beneficial effect on development. The process involved may be akin to the “The gale of creative destruction” first described by the economist Joseph Schumpeter. Applied to disasters the notion is that, in the short term, disasters can stimulate certain industries such as construction with capital flows coming into the disaster region from outside sources such as central government or international aid that can stimulate the economy. Longer term, outdated and inefficient public and private infrastructure destroyed in the disaster can be replaced by up to date, efficient systems that permit the economy to function more effectively, so that post-disaster growth can exceed pre-disaster levels. Disasters are macro-economic shocks, fundamentally similar to the banking shock that lead to the current global recession and, in the same way require external capital stimuli to overcome and that stimulus can result in stronger economies after recovery. These large-scale and long-run trends disguise the fact that disasters have very different development outcomes for different societies. Globally, there is evidence that poorer countries are not systematically stimulated by disaster shocks and may even be driven into poverty traps by certain disasters. Locally, the recovery from Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans has had been very different for different social groups, with both over-recovery and under-recovery occurring simultaneously and in close proximity. We discuss the conditions under which disasters might be a stimulating force and when they might lead to development setbacks.

  16. Research on Meteorological Disaster Risk Analysis and Regionalization in High Speed Railway%高速铁路气象灾害风险分析与区划方法探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代娟; 崔新强; 刘文清; 付佳; 刘静

    2016-01-01

    Referring to the relevant research results of risk zoning of meteorological disasters,we preliminarily explore the risk analysis and zoning methods of meteorological disasters in high-speed railway.Starting from the im-pact of meteorological disasters on high-speed railway,we analyze the strong winds,floods,lightning,snow and ice and other meteorological disaster risk assessment factors,construct the evaluation index system,establish the evalu-ation model,and analyze the risk zoning plan that can reflect the occurrence time,space and intensity of meteoro-logical disasters along the railway line,to provide reference for the scientific development of meteorological disaster risk zoning.%借鉴已有气象灾害风险区划相关研究成果,初步探讨高速铁路气象灾害风险分析与区划方法。从气象灾害对高速铁路的影响机理入手,分析筛选出大风、水灾、雷电、低温雨雪冰冻等气象灾害的风险评价因子,构建区划评价指标体系,建立评价模型,分析制定可体现高速铁路沿线气象灾害风险发生时间、空间、强度可能性的风险区划方案,为科学制定沿线气象灾害风险区划提供参考依据。

  17. Availability and Price of High Quality Day Care and Female Employment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Marianne

    In this paper I analyse to what degree availability and price of high quality publicly subsidised childcare affects female employment for women living in couples following maternity leave. The results show that unrestricted access to day care has a significantly positive effct on female employmen.......The price effect is significantly negative: An increase in the price of child care of C=1 will decrease the female employment with 0.08% corresponding to a price elasticity of −0.17. This effect prevails during the first 12 months after childbirth.......In this paper I analyse to what degree availability and price of high quality publicly subsidised childcare affects female employment for women living in couples following maternity leave. The results show that unrestricted access to day care has a significantly positive effct on female employment...

  18. Deeper snow alters soil nutrient availability and leaf nutrient status in high Arctic tundra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Semenchuk, Philipp R.; Elberling, Bo; Amtorp, Cecilie

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) mineralization, nutrient availability, and plant growth in the Arctic are often restricted by low temperatures. Predicted increases of cold-season temperatures may be important for plant nutrient availability and growth, given that N mineralization is also taking place during the cold...... season. Changing nutrient availability may be reflected in plant N and chlorophyll content and lead to increased photosynthetic capacity, plant growth, and ultimately carbon (C) assimilation by plants. In this study, we increased snow depth and thereby cold-season soil temperatures in high Arctic...... for some species. Responses to cold-season soil warming are vegetation type- and species-specific, with potentially stronger responses in moister vegetation types. This study therefore highlights the contrasting effect of snow in a tundra landscape and has important implications for projections of whole...

  19. Risk Zonation of High Temperature Disaster in Luoyang Based on GIS%基于GIS的洛阳市高温灾害风险区划

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马进

    2012-01-01

    Using the historical climate data and geographic information data during 1961--2010 of Luoyang area, through analyzing the four factors such as disaster-causing factor, disaster-pregnant envi-ronment factor, vulnerability factor of hazard bearing body and the disaster prevention and mitigation fac-tor, the paper builds the high temperature disaster risk evaluation system by using the analytical hierarchy process to ascertain the weight of each factor. It selects the high temperature days of Luoyang nine obser-vation stations, and uses the Pearson Ⅲ probability density model from different frequency to speculate the high-temperature impact and analyze high temperature risk factor. Based on Luoyang basis of GIS da- ta, it selects the altitude and drainage density for evaluating the disasters-pregnant environment factor in-dicator. The paper uses Luoyang land use classification to analyze the potential vulnerability of different land types bearing body, taking into account the proportion of the high temperature to vulnerable popula-tion as a vulnerability factor index of hazard bearing body. The disaster prevention and mitigation factor in general takes advantage of the township financial income levels and per capita disposable income as quan- titative indicators. It can be seen from the zoning map: the northern part of the overall temperature level of risk is higher than the south; northeast, central have the highest risk rating, the highest of which are the central of Yanshi, western and southern of Yichuan regions, northern areas of Songxian level of risk ; high level of risk distribution Xin' an, Yiyang, the eastern part of Yichuan, Mengjin east and west, cen-tral region of Songxian; Luanchuan, south of Songxian, west of Luoning have the lowest level of risk.%利用洛阳市1961-2010年历史气候资料和地理信息数据,通过分析高温灾害致灾因子、孕灾环境因子、承灾体易损性因子和防灾减灾因子4个因子的指标,利用层

  20. Constellation Ground Systems Launch Availability Analysis: Enhancing Highly Reliable Launch Systems Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernand, Jeffrey L.; Gillespie, Amanda M.; Monaghan, Mark W.; Cummings, Nicholas H.

    2010-01-01

    Success of the Constellation Program's lunar architecture requires successfully launching two vehicles, Ares I/Orion and Ares V/Altair, in a very limited time period. The reliability and maintainability of flight vehicles and ground systems must deliver a high probability of successfully launching the second vehicle in order to avoid wasting the on-orbit asset launched by the first vehicle. The Ground Operations Project determined which ground subsystems had the potential to affect the probability of the second launch and allocated quantitative availability requirements to these subsystems. The Ground Operations Project also developed a methodology to estimate subsystem reliability, availability and maintainability to ensure that ground subsystems complied with allocated launch availability and maintainability requirements. The verification analysis developed quantitative estimates of subsystem availability based on design documentation; testing results, and other information. Where appropriate, actual performance history was used for legacy subsystems or comparative components that will support Constellation. The results of the verification analysis will be used to verify compliance with requirements and to highlight design or performance shortcomings for further decision-making. This case study will discuss the subsystem requirements allocation process, describe the ground systems methodology for completing quantitative reliability, availability and maintainability analysis, and present findings and observation based on analysis leading to the Ground Systems Preliminary Design Review milestone.

  1. Real-time Forensic Disaster Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, F.; Daniell, J.; Khazai, B.; Mühr, B.; Kunz-Plapp, T.; Markus, M.; Vervaeck, A.

    2012-04-01

    The Center for Disaster Management and Risk Reduction Technology (CEDIM, www.cedim.de) - an interdisciplinary research center founded by the German Research Centre for Geoscience (GFZ) and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) - has embarked on a new style of disaster research known as Forensic Disaster Analysis. The notion has been coined by the Integrated Research on Disaster Risk initiative (IRDR, www.irdrinternational.org) launched by ICSU in 2010. It has been defined as an approach to studying natural disasters that aims at uncovering the root causes of disasters through in-depth investigations that go beyond the reconnaissance reports and case studies typically conducted after disasters. In adopting this comprehensive understanding of disasters CEDIM adds a real-time component to the assessment and evaluation process. By comprehensive we mean that most if not all relevant aspects of disasters are considered and jointly analysed. This includes the impact (human, economy, and infrastructure), comparisons with recent historic events, social vulnerability, reconstruction and long-term impacts on livelihood issues. The forensic disaster analysis research mode is thus best characterized as "event-based research" through systematic investigation of critical issues arising after a disaster across various inter-related areas. The forensic approach requires (a) availability of global data bases regarding previous earthquake losses, socio-economic parameters, building stock information, etc.; (b) leveraging platforms such as the EERI clearing house, relief-web, and the many sources of local and international sources where information is organized; and (c) rapid access to critical information (e.g., crowd sourcing techniques) to improve our understanding of the complex dynamics of disasters. The main scientific questions being addressed are: What are critical factors that control loss of life, of infrastructure, and for economy? What are the critical interactions

  2. Disaster Management for Cooling Tower- Case Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1Deshmukh Azhar A

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cooling towers are prone to numerous disasters that can arise naturally or through human intervention. The safety of cooling towers becomes utmost importance for the plants to function properly. The study focused on identification of various disasters and the risks associated with them. The disasters can be earthquake, volcanoes, storm, extreme temperature, fire incident, terror attack, hazardous material leakage etc. The impact and vulnerability analysis of these disasters is conducted to find the associated risks properly. Mitigating risks is as important as identifying them. The two most important risks identified are Design Risk and Bacterial Risk. The preparedness to these risks helps in mitigating them. A probabilistic catastrophic risk model has been identified which performs a cost benefit analysis for mitigating the risks

  3. High availability through full redundancy of the CMS detector controls system

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Gerry; Bouffet, Olivier; Bowen, Matthew; Branson, James G; Bukowiec, Sebastian; Ciganek, Marek; Cittolin, Sergio; Jose Antonio Coarasa; Deldicque, Christian; Dobson, Marc; Dupont, Aymeric; Erhan, Samim; Flossdorf, Alexander; Gigi, Dominique; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino, Robert; Hartl, Christian; Hegeman, Jeroen; Holzner, André; Yi Ling Hwong; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Meschi, Emilio; Mommsen, Remigius K; O'Dell, Vivian; Orsini, Luciano; Paus, Christoph; Petrucci, Andrea; Pieri, Marco; Polese, Giovanni; Racz, Attila; Raginel, Olivier; Sakulin, Hannes; Sani, Matteo; Schwick, Christoph; Shpakov, Dennis; Simon, Michal; Andrei Cristian Spataru; Sumorok, Konstanty

    2012-01-01

    The CMS detector control system (DCS) is responsible for controlling and monitoring the detector status and for the operation of all CMS sub detectors and infrastructure. This is required to ensure safe and efficient data taking so that high quality physics data can be recorded. The current system architecture is composed of more than 100 servers in order to provide the required processing resources. An optimization of the system software and hardware architecture is under development to ensure redundancy of all the controlled sub-systems and to reduce any downtime due to hardware or software failures. The new optimized structure is based mainly on powerful and highly reliable blade servers and makes use of a fully redundant approach, guaranteeing high availability and reliability. The analysis of the requirements, the challenges, the improvements and the optimized system architecture as well as its specific hardware and software solutions are presented.

  4. TRANSITIONAL SHELTER FOR DISASTER VICTIMS: BAMBOO CORE AND INCREMENTAL HOUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULISTIONO Eunike Kristi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia has experienced many catastrophic disasters since 2004. Tsunami, earthqukes, floods and volcanic eruptions have caused devastated destruction towards houses, land, belongings, and wellfare. In post-disaster recovery process, it is essential to provide a transitional shelter especially for low-income community while preparing the reconstruction of their permanent housing. This paper presents bamboo incremental house as disaster victims’ transitional shelter in Jember. An empathic approach was taken in developing the house design, taking into consideration the disaster victims’ need, perception, and their economic condition, as well as the local materials, technology and the financial support available.

  5. Quantifying Human Mobility Perturbation and Resilience in Natural Disasters

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Qi

    2014-01-01

    Human mobility is influenced by environmental change and natural disasters. Researchers have used trip distance distribution, radius of gyration of movements, and individuals' visited locations to understand and capture human mobility patterns and trajectories. However, our knowledge of human movements during natural disasters is limited owing to both a lack of empirical data and the low precision of available data. Here, we studied human mobility using high-resolution movement data from individuals in New York City during and for several days after Hurricane Sandy in 2012. We found the human movements followed truncated power-law distributions during and after Hurricane Sandy, although the {\\beta} value was noticeably larger during the first 24 hours after the storm struck. Also, we examined two parameters: the center of mass and the radius of gyration of each individual's movements. We found that their values during perturbation states and steady states are highly correlated, suggesting human mobility data ...

  6. Disaster Impacts on Human Capital Accumulation Shown in the Typhoon Haiyan Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özceylan Aubrecht, Dilek; Aubrecht, Christoph

    2014-05-01

    Philippines in November 2013. Natural disasters adversely affect human capital accumulation in several ways including loss of life, damage to the educational system, decreased educational quality, increased child labor, and associated high dropout rates. Another dimension closely related to the human capital is the reduced economic strength of families that can limit the expenditures on well-being, including education, health and food (child malnutrition) (Baez et al., 2010; Cuaresma, 2010). According to information provided by UN and international media approximately 6 million children were affected by Typhoon Haiyan with 1.4 million homes of children and their families destroyed and 1.8 million children displaced. About 90% of the school buildings in the affected region were damaged and schools therefore stayed closed for up to 2 months causing disruption for more than a million pupils and 34,000 teachers. In some areas, when school returned to operation, only half of the school kids reported back. Also for the other pupils the situation was still challenging with many of the prior basic educational resources affected (destroyed textbooks and learning material, damaged classrooms) and no own equipment available (books, pens, etc.). Those reported impacts have already interrupted the educational continuity and it is expected to further continue by adversely affecting human capital accumulation in the longer term. Part of this work has been done under the Global Program for Safer Schools (GPSS) carried out at the Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR). References: Baez, J., A. de la Fuente, and I. Carlos, 2010. Do Natural Disasters Affect Human Capital? An Assessment Based on Existing Empirical Evidence. IZA Discussion Paper Series: 5164. Cuaresma, J., 2010. Natural Disasters and Human Capital Accumulation. World Bank Economic Review 24(2): 280-302. Ozceylan Aubrecht, D., 2013. Economic Impact of Disasters on the Education Sector. Global Program for Safer

  7. Unusually high food availability in Kaikoura Canyon linked to distinct deep-sea nematode community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, D.; Rowden, A. A.; Nodder, S. D.; Berkenbusch, K.; Probert, P. K.; Hadfield, M. G.

    2014-06-01

    Kaikoura Canyon, on the eastern New Zealand continental margin, is the most productive, non-chemosynthetic deep-sea habitat described to date, with megafaunal biomass 100-fold higher than those of other deep-sea habitats. The present study, which focused on free-living nematodes, provides the first comparison of faunal community structure and diversity between Kaikoura Canyon and nearby open slope habitats. Results show substantially higher food availability in the canyon relative to open slope sediments, which probably reflects greater levels of primary productivity above the canyon, coupled with downwelling and/or topographically-induced channelling, which serves to concentrate surface-derived organic matter along the canyon axis. This high food availability appears to be responsible for the elevated nematode biomass in Kaikoura Canyon, with values exceeding all published nematode biomass data from canyons elsewhere. There was also markedly lower local species diversity of nematodes inside the canyon relative to the open slope habitat, as well as a distinct community structure. The canyon community was dominated by species, such as Sabateria pulchra, which were absent from the open slope and are typically associated with highly eutrophic and/or disturbed environments. The presence of these taxa, as well as the low observed diversity, is likely to reflect the high food availability, and potentially the high levels of physically and biologically induced disturbance within the canyon. Kaikoura Canyon is a relatively small habitat characterised by different environmental conditions that makes a disproportionate contribution to deep-sea diversity in the region, despite its low species richness.

  8. The Role of Leadership in Managing Emergencies and Disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Demiroz

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Leadership in managing disasters and emergencies can minimize the damage inflicted by an event whilst lack of successful leadership exacerbates the impact. Leaders should have certain skills and abilities in order to manage catastrophes based on the environmental conditions, organizations they lead, scope of the disaster. This study provides an overview of the leadership competencies and traits that are necessary for disaster management. A conceptual framework for leadership was provided throughout the research.

  9. The Role of Leadership in Managing Emergencies and Disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Demiroz

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Leadership in managing disasters and emergencies can minimize the damage inflicted by an event whilst lack of successful leadership exacerbates the impact. Leaders should have certain skills and abilities in order to manage catastrophes based on the environmental conditions, organizations they lead, scope of the disaster. This study provides an overview of the leadership competencies and traits that are necessary for disaster management. A conceptual framework for leadership was provided throughout the research.

  10. Visualizing disaster attitudes resulting from terrorist activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Halimahtun M; Helander, Martin G; Hood, Nilwan A

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze people's attitudes to disasters by investigating how people feel, behave and think during disasters. We focused on disasters induced by humans, such as terrorist attacks. Two types of textual information were collected - from Internet blogs and from research papers. The analysis enabled forecasting of attitudes for the design of proactive disaster advisory scheme. Text was analyzed using a text mining tool, Leximancer. The outcome of this analysis revealed core themes and concepts in the text concerning people's attitudes. The themes and concepts were sorted into three broad categories: Affect, Behaviour, and Cognition (ABC), and the data was visualized in semantic maps. The maps reveal several knowledge pathways of ABC for developing attitudinal ontologies, which describe the relations between affect, behaviour and cognition, and the sequence in which they develop. Clearly, terrorist attacks induced trauma and people became highly vulnerable.

  11. Medical rehabilitation in disaster relief: Towards a new perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhasker Amatya

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available With increasing frequency of natural disasters, there has been greater focus recently on the importance and role of rehabilitation services in disaster management. In past disasters, rehabilitative needs were often neglected, with emphasis on acute response plans focused on saving lives and treating acute injuries. There was a lack of, or inadequate, rehabilitation-inclusive disaster response plans and rehabilitation services in many disaster-prone developing countries. The World Health Organization (WHO Emergency Medical Team (EMT initiative recognizes rehabilitation as an integral part of medical response and patient-centred care in disaster settings. Current developments under this initiative include: the development of minimum standards for rehabilitation in emergencies to allow rapid, professional, coordinated medical response by both national and international EMTs. These guidelines ensure that EMTs deliver effective and coordinated patient care during disasters and continuum of care beyond their departure. The aim is to strengthen national capacity, foster an environment of self-empowerment of EMTs and local health services, and work in rehabilitation within defined coordination mechanisms in disaster-affected areas. A brief overview of rehabilitation in natural disasters, highlighting current developments, challenges; and gaps in the implementation of WHO guidelines for Minimum Standards for Rehabilitation in Emergencies is discussed in order to improve care for victims of future disasters.

  12. Innovative use of controlled availability fertilizers with high performance for intensive agriculture and environmental conservation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sadao SHOJI

    2005-01-01

    A variety of slow release fertilizers, controlled release (availability) fertilizers (CAFs),and stability fertilizers have been developed in response to the serious drawbacks of the conventional fertilizers since the early 1960's. Of these fertilizers, CAFs which are coated with resin are consumed in the largest quantity in the world. Selecting CAFs with higher performance, the author will discuss about: 1) Innovation of agro-technologies for various field crops including new concepts of fertilizer application, 2) high yielding of field crops, 3) enhancing quality and safety of farm products, and 4) controlling the adverse effect of intensive agriculture on the environment.

  13. Availability and cost estimate of a high naphthene, modified aviation turbine fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prok, George M.

    1988-01-01

    Information from an Air Force study was used to determine the potential availability and cost of a modified conventional fuel with a naphthene content which could have a thermal stability near that of JP-7 for high-speed civil transports. Results showed sufficient capacity for a fuel made of a blend of 50 percent naphthenic straight run kerosene and 50 percent hydrocracked product, assuming a near-term requirement of 210,000 BBL per day. Fuel cost would be as low as 62.5 to 64.5 cents per gallon, assuming 20 dollars per barrel for crude.

  14. Natural hazard and disaster tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rucińska Dorota

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An observed trend, which can be defined as tourist interest in natural hazards and disasters, has persuaded the authors to attempt to research several issues, including tourist motivations and specific tourism properties and functions of this form of activity. The objective also covered the allocation of this social and natural process in the general structure of tourism. This interest has a long history, and a new stage is currently forming, which partly results from factors affecting society, such as information and education, which provoke antagonistic reactions. Extreme natural phenomena entail a common reduction of tourist interest in the destination which hosted the event; however, it never drops to zero. Differences are visible depending on the type of phenomenon. On the other hand, natural hazards and disasters are considered to hold a specific tourism value. This article discusses the allocation of this human activity in the tourism forms known to scientists, accounting for its diversity and relating to ethics.

  15. Disaster Management through Experiential Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijumol, K. C.; Thangarajathi, S.; Ananthasayanam, R.

    2010-01-01

    Disasters can strike at any time, at any place. The world is becoming increasingly vulnerable to natural disasters. From earthquakes to floods and famines, mankind is even more threatened by the forces of nature. The Theme of the 2006 to 2007 International Day for Disaster Reduction was "Disaster Risk Reduction begins at schools" and…

  16. Financial Protection Against Natural Disasters

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of this report is to take stock of the global progress on financial protection against natural disasters over the last decade and bring together the latest thinking on disaster risk financing and insurance. Disaster risk financing and insurance helps minimize the cost and optimize the timing of meeting post-disaster funding needs without compromising development goals...

  17. High-frequency nutrient monitoring to infer seasonal patterns in catchment source availability, mobilisation and delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bende-Michl, Ulrike; Verburg, Kirsten; Cresswell, Hamish P

    2013-11-01

    To explore the value of high-frequency monitoring to characterise and explain riverine nutrient concentration dynamics, total phosphorus (TP), reactive phosphorus (RP), ammonium (NH4-N) and nitrate (NO3-N) concentrations were measured hourly over a 2-year period in the Duck River, in north-western Tasmania, Australia, draining a 369-km(2) mixed land use catchment area. River discharge was observed at the same location and frequency, spanning a wide range of hydrological conditions. Nutrient concentrations changed rapidly and were higher than previously observed. Maximum nutrient concentrations were 2,577 μg L(-1) TP, 1,572 μg L(-1) RP, 972 μg L(-1) NH₄-N and 1,983 μg L(-1) NO₃-N, respectively. Different nutrient response patterns were evident at seasonal, individual event and diurnal time scales-patterns that had gone largely undetected in previous less frequent water quality sampling. Interpretation of these patterns in terms of nutrient source availability, mobilisation and delivery to the stream allowed the development of a conceptual model of catchment nutrient dynamics. Functional stages of nutrient release were identified for the Duck River catchment and were supported by a cluster analysis which confirmed the similarities and differences in nutrient responses caused by the sequence of hydrologic events: (1) a build-up of nutrients during periods with low hydrologic activity, (2) flushing of readily available nutrient sources at the onset of the high flow period, followed by (3) a switch from transport to supply limitation, (4) the accessibility of new nutrient sources with increasing catchment wetness and hydrologic connectivity and (5) high nutrient spikes occurring when new sources become available that are easily mobilised with quickly re-established hydrologic connectivity. Diurnal variations that could be influenced by riverine processes and/or localised point sources were also identified as part of stage (1) and during late recession of some of

  18. Availability of high-magnitude streamflow for groundwater banking in the Central Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocis, Tiffany N.; Dahlke, Helen E.

    2017-08-01

    California’s climate is characterized by the largest precipitation and streamflow variability observed within the conterminous US This, combined with chronic groundwater overdraft of 0.6-3.5 km3 yr-1, creates the need to identify additional surface water sources available for groundwater recharge using methods such as agricultural groundwater banking, aquifer storage and recovery, and spreading basins. High-magnitude streamflow, i.e. flow above the 90th percentile, that exceeds environmental flow requirements and current surface water allocations under California water rights, could be a viable source of surface water for groundwater banking. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of the magnitude, frequency, duration and timing of high-magnitude streamflow (HMF) for 93 stream gauges covering the Sacramento, San Joaquin and Tulare basins in California. The results show that in an average year with HMF approximately 3.2 km3 of high-magnitude flow is exported from the entire Central Valley to the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta often at times when environmental flow requirements of the Delta and major rivers are exceeded. High-magnitude flow occurs, on average, during 7 and 4.7 out of 10 years in the Sacramento River and the San Joaquin-Tulare Basins, respectively, from just a few storm events (5-7 1-day peak events) lasting for 25-30 days between November and April. The results suggest that there is sufficient unmanaged surface water physically available to mitigate long-term groundwater overdraft in the Central Valley.

  19. Mainstreaming Disaster Risk Management for Finance: Application of Real Options Method for Disaster Risk Sensitive Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KUSDHIANTO SETIAWAN

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the application of real options analysis for a project that is in the process of construction and was affected by a natural disaster. The use of the analytical method has become a way of thinking in making decisions that should be taught to business school students. The case in this paper is based on an MBA thesis at the University of Gadjah Mada that was intended as a showcase for application of real options to address real business problems. It shows one of the strategies in mainstreaming disaster risk management in the business school that also answers the needs of businesses in the disaster-prone country.

  20. A comparative study in disaster planning in selected countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmode M

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Assessment of different strategic in disaster planning in selected countries. According to the international report indicating that IRAN is among the seven countries most susceptible to disaster, experiencing 31 known disasters out of 40 in the world, occurrence of 1536 moderate to severe earthquake, during 1370-80 and 712 other disasters at the same period it seems necessary to design a disaster plan."nMethods: This research is a comparative-descriptive and case based study in which the researcher used random sampling process in selecting the statistical society from both developed and developing countries. In this goal oriented research the necessary information are extracted from valid global reports, articles and many questionnaires which were subjected to scientific analysis."nResults: Studying different countries (which includes: Canada, Japan, India, USA, Turkey, Pakistan and Iran shows that there is a direct relationship between the level of countries development and their success in disaster planning and management (including preventive measures and confrontation. In most of the studied countries, decentralized planning caused many professional planners participate in different levels of disaster management which ultimately led to development of efficient and realistic plans which in turn decreased the catastrophic effects of disasters dramatically. The results of the aforementioned countries showed that a balanced approach to disaster plan with investment in prophylactic area is very important."nConclusion: As our country uses a centralized strategy for disaster management which has proven its ineffectiveness, the researcher suggests that we should change our approach in disaster management and let our planners participate from all levels include: provincial, rural and etc. This will led to a reality based planning and using all potential capacities in disaster management. According to this study it will be possible to use

  1. Sexually transmitted infections treatment and care available to high risk populations in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimtoola, Minal; Hussain, Hamidah; Khowaja, Saira N; Khan, Aamir J

    2008-01-01

    Limited literature exists on the quality and availability of treatment and care of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Pakistan. This article aims to document existing services for the care and treatment of STIs available in Pakistan's public and private sectors to high risk groups (HRG), particularly the transgendered population. We conducted a cross-sectional survey to document STI services in Lahore, Karachi, Rawalpindi, Peshawar, and Quetta. Seventy-three interviews were administered with health service providers at the 3 largest public sector hospitals in each city, as well as with general physicians and traditional healers in the private sector. Twenty-five nongovernmental organizations (NGO) providing STI services were also interviewed. Fewer than 45% of private and public sector general practitioners had been trained in STI treatment after the completion of their medical curriculum, and none of the traditional healers had received any formal training or information on STIs. The World Health Organization (WHO) syndromic management guidelines were followed for STI management by 29% of public and private sector doctors and 5% of traditional healers. STI drugs were available at no cost at 44% of NGOs and at some public sector hospitals. Our findings show that although providers do treat HRGs for STIs, there are significant limitations in their ability to provide these services. These deterrents include, but are not limited to, a lack of STI training of service providers, privacy and adherence to recommended WHO syndromic management guidelines, and costly diagnostic and consultation fees.

  2. JOSHUA: Symmetric Active/Active Replication for Highly Available HPC Job and Resource Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhlemann, Kai [ORNL; Engelmann, Christian [ORNL; Scott, Steven L [ORNL

    2006-01-01

    Most of today's HPC systems employ a single head node for control, which represents a single point of failure as it interrupts an entire HPC system upon failure. Furthermore, it is also a single point of control as it disables an entire HPC system until repair. One of the most important HPC system service running on the head node is the job and resource management. If it goes down, all currently running jobs loose the service they report back to. They have to be restarted once the head node is up and running again. With this paper, we present a generic approach for providing symmetric active/active replication for highly available HPC job and resource management. The JOSHUA solution provides a virtually synchronous environment for continuous availability without any interruption of service and without any loss of state. Replication is performed externally via the PBS service interface without the need to modify any service code. Test results as well as a reliability analysis of our proof-of-concept prototype implementation show that continuous availability can be provided by JOSHUA with an acceptable performance trade-off.

  3. Governing Disasters: Embracing Human Rights in a Multi-Level, Multi-Duty Bearer, Disaster Governance Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lottie Lane

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available International and national disaster governance faces multiple challenges given the large variety and amounts of resources, skills and expertise that adequate disaster response commands. Moreover, disasters do not necessarily respect territorial boundaries, or may overwhelm the capacity of any one nation. They may therefore need a truly collective, joint, or even global effort to be overcome. Not seldom, reducing disaster risks and responding to disasters as they occur requires a sustained, concerted and coordinated effort of a broad range of actors, both public and private, acting nationally and internationally, and across the full ‘disaster cycle’. Unfortunately, disaster governance is commonly characterized as patchy, fragmented and inadequate, leading to essential protection gaps for affected communities. In order to strengthen disaster governance, this article first aims to further conceptualize the practice and challenges of ‘disaster governance’, mostly through the lens of ‘Multi-Level Governance’. Secondly, it proposes that disaster governance will greatly benefit from relevant actors more firmly embracing human rights-based approaches, particularly in the context of so-called, emerging ‘multi-duty bearer human rights regimes’.

  4. How to Present Anthropological Disaster Research-Review on Anthropological Research on Landslide Disasters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yuan; LAN Jie

    2013-01-01

    fieldwork together with theories from academic thinking .Using the format of “ethnography”, the book gives very practical answers to these questions .It reflects on the au-thor ’ s efforts involving these discussions and knowledge with practical experience in the re-search, and has highly theoretical ambitions as well as pays deep realistic attention to the defini-tion of disaster and the research orientation of an-thropology in disaster research .Li’ s anthropolog-ical disaster research pays attention to the holistic interaction of the ecological surroundings , social structure , cultural conception and historical process .It investigates systematically the associa-tive processes regarding the causes and prevention measures of actual disasters; rescue and coping measures in disasters , and post -disaster recon-struction and restoration .At the same time , the book is also a theoretical practice of ecology , poli-tics, economics, and cultural perspective of an-thropology from the angle of research .It could be said that what the ethnography of Anthropological Research on Landslide Disasters tries to present is the three basic features and academic requirements in anthropological study on disasters .These are:a holistic view;a discussion of process , and a com-prehensive analysis . Anthropological Research on Landslide Disasters by Li Yongxiang , no matter if viewed from the methodology or from the theoretical aspect , reflects a mature trend of anthropology in disaster research .As the first chapter of the book emphasizes , the formation marker of the theory re-lated to anthropological disaster research lies in in-tegrating disasters with society , culture, politics, power, and economics, and, as a result, making disasters as a part of social culture .Hence , an-thropological disaster research aims to investigate comprehensively peoples ’ life experiences , and to reflect on human being ’ s living environment , so-cial structure, values, concepts, and

  5. Post Disaster Assessment with Decision Support System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May Florence J. Franco

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to develop an online system that would expedite the response of agencies after disaster strikes; generate a list of the kinds and volume of relief aids needed per family affected for a fair, precise and timely distribution; implement community-based ICT by remotely gathering all the necessary data needed for disaster assessment; and adhere to ISO 9126 standards. The system was designed to calculate the effects of disaster in human lives and economy. Integrated into the system were Goggle Maps, Mines and GeoSciences Bureau Hazard Maps, SMS sending features, best passable routes calculations, and decision support on the needs that has to be addressed. The system was made live at pdrrmcguimaras.herokuapp.com to allow remote data entry. The functionality and usability of the system were evaluated by 19 potential users by computing for the arithmetic Mean and Standard Deviation of the survey. The result showed that most of them strongly agreed that the system is acceptable based on these criteria. A group of IT experts also evaluated the system’s conformance to ISO 9126 standards using the same method. The result showed that majority of them strongly agreed that the system conforms to this international standard. The system is seen as a valuable tool for the Provincial Disaster Risk Reduction Management Council (PDRRMC and the National Disaster Risk Reduction Management Council (NDRRMC for it could help expedite the assessment of the effects of disasters and the formulation of response plans and strategies.

  6. Three-Dimensional Maps for Disaster Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandrova, T.; Zlatanova, S.; Konecny, M.

    2012-07-01

    Geo-information techniques have proven their usefulness for the purposes of early warning and emergency response. These techniques enable us to generate extensive geo-information to make informed decisions in response to natural disasters that lead to better protection of citizens, reduce damage to property, improve the monitoring of these disasters, and facilitate estimates of the damages and losses resulting from them. The maintenance and accessibility of spatial information has improved enormously with the development of spatial data infrastructures (SDIs), especially with second-generation SDIs, in which the original product-based SDI was improved to a process-based SDI. Through the use of SDIs, geo-information is made available to local, national and international organisations in regions affected by natural disasters as well as to volunteers serving in these areas. Volunteer-based systems for information collection (e.g., Ushahidi) have been created worldwide. However, the use of 3D maps is still limited. This paper discusses the applicability of 3D geo-information to disaster management. We discuss some important aspects of maps for disaster management, such as user-centred maps, the necessary components for 3D maps, symbols, and colour schemas. In addition, digital representations are evaluated with respect to their visual controls, i.e., their usefulness for the navigation and exploration of the information. Our recommendations are based on responses from a variety of users of these technologies, including children, geospecialists and disaster managers from different countries.

  7. Soon After the Disaster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI LI

    2010-01-01

    @@ China's disaster relief departments have initiated a first-class emergency response for disaster relief in the wake of a 7.1-magnitude earthquake that hit Qinghai Province at 7:49 a.m.on April 14. The decision was made by the Ministry of Civil Affairs and the National Committee for Disaster Reduction at noon of the same day.As of 4:30 p.m.April 15,the shallow earthquake with its epicenter in the Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Yushu in the province has left at least 760 people dead,11,477 others injured and around 100,000 homeless,local authorities say.

  8. High sensitivity of broadleaf trees to water availability in northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levesque, Mathieu; Andreu-Hayles, Laia; Pederson, Neil

    2016-04-01

    Broadleaf dominated forests of eastern US cover more than one million km2 and provide ecosystem services to millions of people. High species diversity and a varied sensitivity to drought make it uncertain whether these forests will be carbon sinks or sources under climate change. Ongoing climate change, increased in atmospheric CO2 concentration (ca) and strong reductions in acidic depositions are expected to alter growth and gas exchange of trees, and ultimately forest productivity. Still, the magnitude of these effects is unclear. A better comprehension of the species-specific responses to environmental changes will better inform models and managers on the vulnerability and resiliency of these forests. Here, we combined tree-ring width data with δ13C and δ18O measurements to investigate growth and physiological responses of red oak (Quercus rubra L.) and tulip poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.) in northeastern US to changes in water availability, ca and acidic depositions for the period 1950-2014. Based on structural equation modeling approaches, we found that summer water availability (June-August) is the main environmental variable driving growth, water-use efficiency and δ18O of broadleaf trees whereas ca and acidic depositions have little effects. This high sensitivity to moisture availability was also supported by the very strong correlations found between summer vapor pressure deficit (VPD) and tree-ring δ13C (r = 0.67 and 0.71), and δ18O series (r = 0.62 and 0.72), for red oak and tulip poplar, respectively. In contrast, tree-ring width was less sensitive to summer VPD (r = -0.44 and-0.31). Since the mid 1980s, pluvial conditions occurring in northeastern US have increased stomatal conductance, carbon uptake, and growth of both species. Further, the strong spatial field correlations found between the tree-ring δ13C and δ18O and summer VPD indicate a greater sensitivity of eastern US broadleaf forests to moisture availability than previously known

  9. Computational Psychometrics for Modeling System Dynamics during Stressful Disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Cipresso

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Disasters can be very stressful events. However, computational models of stress require data that might be very difficult to collect during disasters. Moreover, personal experiences are not repeatable, so it is not possible to collect bottom-up information when building a coherent model. To overcome these problems, we propose the use of computational models and virtual reality integration to recreate disaster situations, while examining possible dynamics in order to understand human behavior and relative consequences. By providing realistic parameters associated with disaster situations, computational scientists can work more closely with emergency responders to improve the quality of interventions in the future.

  10. The Effect of Urban Green Infrastructure on Disaster Mitigation in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Yoon Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing precipitation by climate change and the growing number of impervious areas present greater risk of disaster damage in urban areas. Urban green infrastructure can be an effective mitigation alternative in highly developed and concentrated area. This study investigates the effect of various types of urban green infrastructure on mitigating disaster damage in Korea. Tobit model is used to analyze the factors that determine disaster damage. Damage variation is predicted with scenarios of RCP 8.5 and urban green spaces. Seventy-four districts and counties in seven metropolitan areas are defined as the unit and the period from 2005 to 2013 is considered in the analysis. The results indicate that higher urban green ratio, sewer length, financial independence rate, and local government’s budget are relating to lower disaster damage. Based on a precipitation level of RCP 8.5 scenario in 2050, an increase in economic damage is expected to range from 262 to 1086%. However, with an increase in urban green ratio by 10%, increased economic damage is only expected to range from 217 to 1013%. The results suggest that green spaces play important role to mitigate precipitation related disasters. Highly concentrated urban areas need to consider various types of urban green infrastructure to prepare for an increase in precipitation due to climate change.

  11. DISASTER REGIME CHARACTER: A STUDY OF DISASTER RISK REDUCTION AT MERAPI VOLCANO ERUPTION IN SLEMAN DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurlia Dian Paramita

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This research analyses how the existence of the character occurred in one of disaster management phases which is an emergency response. In addition, it aims to discuss and see the relationship between authority institutions in the disaster management which are Kesbanglinmas & PB Kab. Sleman, Muhammadiyah Disaster Management Centre (MDMC, and Merapi Circle Information Network (JALIN MERAPI. This research uses qualitative method. The data about the policy and survivor handling are got through interviews with representatives from Pakem, Turi, and Cangkringan. They are head of sub districts, head of villages, and head of country-sides. The findings of this research show that the disaster regime character is fatalist-individualist and the authority relation is substitution (acts as a substitute. Therefore, humanity-based point of view is important to see the risk. It will empower the capacity of government institutions. The last, involving civil society (CSO is also significant to streamline the role of disaster management regime guide. Therefore, the synergy between government and CSO will easily be achieved to implement Community-Based Disaster Risk Management (CBDRM. CSO is the government’s partner to reduce disaster.

  12. Disasters as Learning Experiences or Disasters as Policy Opportunities? Examining Flood Insurance Purchases after Hurricanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kousky, Carolyn

    2017-03-01

    Flood insurance is a critical risk management strategy, contributing to greater resilience of individuals and communities. The occurrence of disasters has been observed to alter risk management choices, including the decision to insure. This has previously been explained by learning and behavioral biases. When it comes to flood insurance, however, federal disaster aid policy could also play a role since recipients of aid are required to maintain insurance. Using a database of flood insurance policies for all states on the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the United States between 2001 and 2010, this article uses fixed effects models to examine how take-up rates respond to the occurrence of hurricanes and tropical storms, as well as disaster declarations and aid requirements. Being hit by at least one hurricane in the previous year increases net flood insurance purchases by 7.2%. This effect dies out by three years after the storm. A presidential disaster declaration for floods increases take-up rates by 6.7%. When disaster aid grants are made available to households, take-up rates increase by 5%; this accounts for the majority of the increase in policies after occurrence of a hurricane. When the models are estimated taking into account which policies are required by disaster aid, hurricanes are estimated to lead to only a 1.5% increase in voluntary purchases. This overlooked federal policy that disaster aid recipients insure is responsible for a majority of insurance purchases postdisaster. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  13. Disaster-friendly sundanese traditional building construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maknun, J.; Busono, T.; Nuryanto

    2016-04-01

    Indonesia is one country that is highly prone to earthquakes because it is located at the juncture of four tectonic plates, namely the Asian continental shelf, the continental shelf of Australia, the Indian Ocean plate and the Pacific plate. In the southern and eastern parts of Indonesia there is a volcanic belt that extends from the island of Sumatra, Java and Nusa south eastern Sulawesi, the sides in the form of old volcanic mountains and the lowlands are mostly dominated by swamps. The condition of potential and proneness to disasters such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, tsunamis, floods, and landslides. Indonesian society have a local knowledge for facing disasters. Local communities in particular areas have local knowledge for facing disasters. Such knowledge is commonly kept by members of the communities and applied to their environments, including houses. This research aims to describe disaster-friendly Sundanese traditional building construction. It employs the evaluation method, by comparing Sundanese traditional house construction to the standards of disaster-friendly construction. The results indicate that the Sundanese traditional building constructions have been qualified as disaster-friendly buildings.

  14. Experience and Lessons learnt from running high availability databases on Network Attached Storage

    CERN Document Server

    Guijarro, Juan Manuel; Segura Chinchilla, Nilo

    2008-01-01

    The Database and Engineering Services Group of CERN's Information Technology Department provides the Oracle based Central Data Base services used in many activities at CERN. In order to provide High Availability and ease management for those services, a NAS (Network Attached Storage) based infrastructure has been set up. It runs several instances of the Oracle RAC (Real Application Cluster) using NFS as share disk space for RAC purposes and Data hosting. It is composed of two private LAN's to provide access to the NAS file servers and Oracle RAC interconnect, both using network bonding. NAS nodes are configured in partnership to prevent having single points of failure and to provide automatic NAS fail-over. This presentation describes that infrastructure and gives some advice on how to automate its management and setup using a Fabric Management framework such as Quattor. It also covers aspects related with NAS Performance and Monitoring as well Data Backup and Archive of such facility using already existing i...

  15. Experience and Lessons learnt from running High Availability Databases on Network Attached Storage

    CERN Document Server

    Guijarro, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    The Database and Engineering Services Group of CERN's Information Technology Department supplies the Oracle Central Database services used in many activities at CERN. In order to provide High Availability and ease management for those services, a NAS (Network Attached Storage) based infrastructure has been setup. It runs several instances of the Oracle RAC (Real Application Cluster) using NFS (Network File System) as shared disk space for RAC purposes and Data hosting. It is composed of two private LANs (Local Area Network), one to provide access to the NAS filers and a second to implement the Oracle RAC private interconnect, both using Network Bonding. NAS filers are configured in partnership to prevent having single points of failure and to provide automatic NAS filer fail-over.

  16. CMS experience of running glideinWMS in High Availability mode

    CERN Document Server

    Sfiligoi, Igor; Belforte, Stefano; Mc Crea, Alison Jean; Larson, Krista Elaine; Zvada, Marian; Holzman, Burt; P Mhashilkar; Bradley, Daniel Charles; Saiz Santos, Maria Dolores; Fanzago, Federica; Gutsche, Oliver; Martin, Terrence; Wuerthwein, Frank Karl

    2013-01-01

    The CMS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider is relying on the HTCondor-based glideinWMS batch system to handle most of its distributed computing needs. In order to minimize the risk of disruptions due to software and hardware problems, and also to simplify the maintenance procedures, CMS has set up its glideinWMS instance to use most of the attainable High Availability (HA) features. The setup involves running services distributed over multiple nodes, which in turn are located in several physical locations, including Geneva, Switzerland, Chicago, Illinois and San Diego, California. This paper describes the setup used by CMS, the HA limits of this setup, as well as a description of the actual operational experience spanning many months.

  17. CLUSTER ANALYSIS OF NATURAL DISASTER LOSSES IN POLISH AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz STRUPCZEWSKI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural production risk is of special nature due to a great number of hazards, relative weakness of production entities on the market and high ambiguity which is greater than in industrial production. Natural disasters occurring very frequently, at simultaneous low percentage of insured farmers, cause damage of such sizes that force the state to organise current financial aid (for instance in the form of preferential natural disaster loans. This aid is usually not sufficient. On the other hand, regional diversity of the risk level does not positively affect the development of insurance. From the perspective of insurance companies and policymakers it becomes highly important to investigate the spatial structure of losses in agriculture caused by natural disasters. The purpose of the research is to classify the 16 Polish voivodeships into clusters in order to show differences between them according to the criterion of level of damage in agricultural farms caused by natural disasters. On the basis of the cluster analysis it was demonstrated that 11 voivodeships form quite a homogeneous group in terms of size of damage in agriculture (the value of damage in cultivations and the acreage of destroyed cultivations are two most important factors determining affiliation to the cluster, however, the profile of loss occurring in other five voivodeships has a very individual course and requires separate handling in the actuarial sense. It was also proved that high value of losses in agriculture in the absolute sense in given voivodeships do not have to mean high vulnerability of agricultural farms from these voivodeships to natural risks.

  18. Disaster documentation for the clinician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoraster, Richard M; Burkle, Christopher M

    2013-08-01

    Documentation of the patient encounter is a traditional component of health care practice, a requirement of various regulatory agencies and hospital oversight committees, and a necessity for reimbursement. A disaster may create unexpected challenges to documentation. If patient volume and acuity overwhelm health care providers, what is the acceptable appropriate documentation? If alterations in scope of practice and environmental or resource limitations occur, to what degree should this be documented? The conflicts arising from allocation of limited resources create unfamiliar situations in which patient competition becomes a component of the medical decision making; should that be documented, and, if so, how? In addition to these challenges, ever-present liability worries are compounded by controversies over the standards to which health care providers will be held. Little guidance is available on how or what to document. We conducted a search of the literature and found no appropriate references for disaster documentation, and no guidelines from professional organizations. We review here the challenges affecting documentation during disasters and provide a rationale for specific patient care documentation that avoids regulatory and legal pitfalls.

  19. Low-Cost Solutions Using the Infrastructure as a Service with High Availability and Virtualization Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Armando Moreira Zambrano

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results obtained from the implementation of an infrastructure to improve technological services of email, virtual learning environment, digital repository and virtual library at the Polytechnic Agricultural Higher School of Manabí (Polytechnic School of Agriculture of Manabí, ESPAM, through the use of high availability and virtualization mechanisms to provide more reliable resources. Virtualization is an empowering and cutting-edge technology that is transforming the operation of technological services, but it involves a paradigm shift in serviceoriented information technologies and cloud computing. To execute each of the processes the V-cycle methodology was used as a strategy. Virtualization services empowers companies and institutions by transforming how they operate to be at the forefront of innovation in their services as a technological solution. So the implementation of redundant technology in the ESPAM, has allowed its technological services are always operative, for the benefit of the university community, because if there were failures in the main system or services, the backups will be enabled quickly allowing the systems come into operation immediately.

  20. Implementasi Cloud Storage Menggunakan OwnCloud yang High-Availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikhwan Ar-Razy

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of practicum courses in Department of Computer Engineering Diponegoro University has some drawbacks, one of them is a lot of lab assistant and the practitioner experiencing difficulties in terms of archiving. One solution to solve the problem is implementing a shared file storage system that is easy and can be accessed by both practitioners or lab assistants. The purpose of this research is to build a cloud-based storage systems that are reliable to preventing crash damage hardware and high availability. The purpose of this research is achieved by designing the appropriate methodology. The result of this research is a storage system that is on the server side by using virtualization and data replication (DRBD as a storage method. The system is composed of two physical servers and one virtual server. Physical servers are using Proxmox VE as operating system and virtual server is using Ubuntu Server as operating system. OwnCloud applications and files are stored in the virtual server. File storage system has several major functions, which are: upload, download, user management, remove, and restore. The functions are executed through web pages, desktop application and Android application.

  1. Resilience in disaster research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlberg, Rasmus; Johannessen-Henry, Christine Tind; Raju, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the concept of resilience in disaster management settings in modern society. The diversity and relatedness of ‘resilience’ as a concept and as a process are reflected in its presentation through three ‘versions’: (i) pastoral care and the role of the church for victims...... of disaster trauma, (ii) federal policy and the US Critical Infrastructure Plan, and (iii) the building of resilient communities for disaster risk reduction practices. The three versions aim to offer characteristic expressions of resilience, as increasingly evident in current disaster literature....... In presenting resilience through the lens of these three versions, the article highlights the complexity in using resilience as an all-encompassing word. The article also suggests the need for understanding the nexuses between risk, vulnerability, and policy for the future of resilience discourse....

  2. Disaster Debris Recovery Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The US EPA Region 5 Disaster Debris Recovery Database includes public datasets of over 3,500 composting facilities, demolition contractors, haulers, transfer...

  3. A Peanut Butter Disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vento, Carla J.

    1976-01-01

    A discussion of how cross-age tutoring was used with older pupils helping younger ones by making media curriculum materials. How this method was applied to disaster preparedness education is described. (HB)

  4. FEMA Disaster Recovery Centers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This is a search site for FEMA's Disaster Recovery Centers (DRC). A DRC is a readily accessible facility or mobile office set up by FEMA where applicants may go for...

  5. Structure-independent disaster recovery: Concept, architecture and implementations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG WeiMin; FANG BinXing

    2009-01-01

    Disaster recovery (DR) techniques ensure the data safety and service continuity under different nat-ural and human-made disasters by constructing a high reliable storage system. Traditional disaster recovery methods are structure-dependent. It is hard to share the DR resources between different DR systems, which made it expensive. We present a structure-independent disaster recovery theory and its implementation methods in this paper. By backup the whole system but not just the data, the goal of device and application-independent disaster recovery has been achieved. We further present a parallel recovery model and an on demand data retrieval method based on the theory. Some implementation details of prototype recovery system are also discussed. With the methods independent from specific devices or applications, the cost of disaster recovery infrastructure can be essentially reduced by re-source sharing. Experiments show that the recovery time has also been greatly shortened with little service degradation.

  6. Relationship between demographic and environmental factors and knowledge of secondary school students on natural disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Vladimir M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of quantitative research is to examine the connection between demographic (gender, age and environmental factors (family, school and media and knowledge and perceptions of students about natural disasters. Bearing in mind the orientation of the research design on determination of character and strength of relationships of demographic and environmental factors with the knowledge and perceptions of students about natural disasters, research has explicative goal. The authors use the method of interviewing high school students to identify demographic and environmental factors associated with the knowledge and perceptions of students about natural disasters. The study included 3,063 students of secondary schools in the city of Belgrade. Results suggest the existence of links between gender, success achieved in school and education of parents and the knowledge of students about natural disasters. The results also indicate that the education of students at school and within family does not affect the knowledge, but affects their perception on natural disasters. Bearing in mind the geographical space of Serbia, the study is based only on the Belgrade region, so the findings can be generalized only to the population of students in this area. Research findings indicate potential ways to influence students to raise level of knowledge about natural disasters to a higher level. Given the evident lack of education about natural disasters in Serbia, the study results can be used for policies of educational programs, which would contribute to improving the safety of youth culture. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179045: Development of institutional capacities, standards and procedures for countering organized crime and terrorism in terms of international integration, br. 179034: From encouraging initiative, cooperation and creativity in education to new roles and identities in the society i br. 47008: Improving quality and

  7. A disaster relief exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quagliotti, Fulvia; Novaro Mascarello, Laura

    2016-04-01

    The Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) is an effective tool for military applications, both for properly military operations, such as research missions and road surveillance, and for civilian support after natural disasters, like landslides, floods, and earthquakes, when reaching victims is often hard or it would take too much time for their survival. Information are needed without hazarding the life of the military troops. When roads, bridges and other communication ways are usually not available, the unmanned platform is the only easy and fast way to contact people. It can be launched directly from the operation site and it could take crucial information or carry medication, necessaries and everything that could help rescue teams. The unmanned platform can also be used for the first aid in an emergency situation when the use of a helicopter is too dangerous and other troops could be involved in heavy fighting. The RPAS has some advantages. First is the reduced cost, compared to traditional aircraft, that could enable the user to have several operating units. Secondly, pilots are not on board and therefore, if needed, the crew' rotation and rest do not imply the need to stop operations. The third fact is that, depending on the type of delivery that is used, the operations may take place on a twenty-four hours' base. The main benefit achieved with these three facts is that continuous operation may take place and eventually make up the capacity difference. To sum up, the main motivation behind this employment of UAS is to replace human lives on the cockpits and to assure the execution of Dangerous, Dull and Dirty missions. In May 2015, the ERIDANO Exercise was performed in Moncalieri city, near Turin (Italy) and it was a joint exercise between the Italian Army, National Emergency Service and Politecnico of Turin. The aim was the control and management of emergency situations due to natural disasters. In particular, a flood was simulated. A multicopter was used

  8. Reducing Disaster Risk through Vulnerability Assessment: An Agricultural Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koos van Zyl

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available A growing population, economic and environmental losses due to natural or human-made disasters, provides the need for a systematic approach to the management of risks. It is generally accepted that a multi-disciplinary understanding of disaster risk management is required.

  9. Tsunami-affected Scandinavian tourists: disaster exposure and post-traumatic stress symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heir, Trond; Rosendal, Susanne; Bergh-Johannesson, Kerstin

    2011-01-01

    Studies of short- and long-term mental effects of natural disasters have reported a high prevalence of post-traumatic stress. Less is known about disaster-exposed tourists repatriated to stable societies.......Studies of short- and long-term mental effects of natural disasters have reported a high prevalence of post-traumatic stress. Less is known about disaster-exposed tourists repatriated to stable societies....

  10. ArcticDEM; A Publically Available, High Resolution Elevation Model of the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Paul; Porter, Claire; Cloutier, Michael; Howat, Ian; Noh, Myoung-Jong; Willis, Michael; Bates, Brian; Willamson, Cathleen; Peterman, Kennith

    2016-04-01

    A Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of the Arctic is needed for a large number of reasons, including: measuring and understanding rapid, ongoing changes to the Arctic landscape resulting from climate change and human use and mitigation and adaptation planning for Arctic communities. The topography of the Arctic is more poorly mapped than most other regions of Earth due to logistical costs and the limits of satellite missions with low-latitude inclinations. A convergence of civilian, high-quality sub-meter stereo imagery; petascale computing and open source photogrammetry software has made it possible to produce a complete, very high resolution (2 to 8-meter posting), elevation model of the Arctic. A partnership between the US National Geospatial-intelligence Agency and a team led by the US National Science Foundation funded Polar Geospatial Center is using stereo imagery from DigitalGlobe's Worldview-1, 2 and 3 satellites and the Ohio State University's Surface Extraction with TIN-based Search-space Minimization (SETSM) software running on the University of Illinois's Blue Water supercomputer to address this challenge. The final product will be a seemless, 2-m posting digital surface model mosaic of the entire Arctic above 60 North including all of Alaska, Greenland and Kamchatka. We will also make available the more than 300,000 individual time-stamped DSM strip pairs that were used to assemble the mosaic. The Arctic DEM will have a vertical precision of better than 0.5m and can be used to examine changes in land surfaces such as those caused by permafrost degradation or the evolution of arctic rivers and floodplains. The data set can also be used to highlight changing geomorphology due to Earth surface mass transport processes occurring in active volcanic and glacial environments. When complete the ArcticDEM will catapult the Arctic from the worst to among the best mapped regions on Earth.

  11. Health services responses to disasters in Mumbai sharing experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supe Avinash

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In mass disaster situations, demands frequently exceed the capacity of personnel and facilities. In the last few years, there has been an increased incidence of civil disasters; the spectrum of possible catastrophes has also dramatically increased as a result of an increasingly technologically sophisticated society. During the last 15 years, varied terrorist activities have become increasingly common as expressions of the opinions of extreme political groups, especially in India. In Mumbai itself, we have witnessed disasters such as widespread riots, terrorist bomb blasts, floods, and fires. There have been other disasters in India, such as earthquakes, floods, cyclones, as well as tsunamis Though most of the hospitals in India manage the medical problems associated with these disasters fairly efficiently, an analysis of the situation is presented so that this may form the basis for future planning in disaster preparedness and provide a template for other communities that may want to implement preparedness protocols. We present our experience with disaster management in Mumbai, India. A successful medical response to multi-injury civilian disasters, either natural or man-made, dictates formulation, dissemination, and periodic assessment of a contingency plan to facilitate the triage and treatment of victims of disaster.

  12. Disaster Governance and Vulnerability: The Case of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Sandoval

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This exploratory work seeks to shed light on disaster governance by looking into potential linkages between the production of vulnerability and disaster governance in Chile. Our point of investigation is the case of post-disaster Chaitén and the Chilean model of Disaster Risk Management. The work begins by situating disaster governance and the production of vulnerability in a broader context of existing governance system that includes a multiplicity of actors and socio-economic, socio-ecological, and political processes. Coming from a multi-scalar perspective, we use the disaster Pressure and Release (PAR model to enable a differentiated analysis of the multiplicity of actors, rules, and processes related to DRM that participate in the production of disaster vulnerability in the current Chaitén. With this we address the questions as to ‘why’ the Chilean model of DRM is prominently centralised and ‘what’ are the effects on the production of disaster vulnerability for the case of post-disaster Chaitén.

  13. Preparedness for Protecting the Health of Community-Dwelling Vulnerable Elderly People in Eastern and Western Japan in the Event of Natural Disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukasaki, Keiko; Kanzaki, Hatsumi; Kyota, Kaoru; Ichimori, Akie; Omote, Shizuko; Okamoto, Rie; Kido, Teruhiko; Sakakibara, Chiaki; Makimoto, Kiyoko; Nomura, Atsuko; Miyamoto, Yukari

    2016-01-01

    We clarified the preparedness necessary to protect the health of community-dwelling vulnerable elderly people following natural disasters. We collected data from 304 community general support centres throughout Japan. We found the following in particular to be challenging: availability of disaster-preparedness manuals; disaster countermeasures and management systems; creation of lists of people requiring assistance following a disaster; evacuation support systems; development of plans for health management following disasters; provision of disaster-preparedness guidance and training; disaster-preparedness systems in the community; disaster information management; the preparedness of older people themselves in requiring support; and support from other community residents.

  14. Computational Environments and Analysis methods available on the NCI High Performance Computing (HPC) and High Performance Data (HPD) Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, B. J. K.; Foster, C.; Minchin, S. A.; Pugh, T.; Lewis, A.; Wyborn, L. A.; Evans, B. J.; Uhlherr, A.

    2014-12-01

    The National Computational Infrastructure (NCI) has established a powerful in-situ computational environment to enable both high performance computing and data-intensive science across a wide spectrum of national environmental data collections - in particular climate, observational data and geoscientific assets. This paper examines 1) the computational environments that supports the modelling and data processing pipelines, 2) the analysis environments and methods to support data analysis, and 3) the progress in addressing harmonisation of the underlying data collections for future transdisciplinary research that enable accurate climate projections. NCI makes available 10+ PB major data collections from both the government and research sectors based on six themes: 1) weather, climate, and earth system science model simulations, 2) marine and earth observations, 3) geosciences, 4) terrestrial ecosystems, 5) water and hydrology, and 6) astronomy, social and biosciences. Collectively they span the lithosphere, crust, biosphere, hydrosphere, troposphere, and stratosphere. The data is largely sourced from NCI's partners (which include the custodians of many of the national scientific records), major research communities, and collaborating overseas organisations. The data is accessible within an integrated HPC-HPD environment - a 1.2 PFlop supercomputer (Raijin), a HPC class 3000 core OpenStack cloud system and several highly connected large scale and high-bandwidth Lustre filesystems. This computational environment supports a catalogue of integrated reusable software and workflows from earth system and ecosystem modelling, weather research, satellite and other observed data processing and analysis. To enable transdisciplinary research on this scale, data needs to be harmonised so that researchers can readily apply techniques and software across the corpus of data available and not be constrained to work within artificial disciplinary boundaries. Future challenges will

  15. Central noradrenaline transporter availability in highly obese, non-depressed individuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesse, Swen; Sabri, Osama [University of Leipzig, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Leipzig University Medical Centre, Integrated Treatment and Research Centre (IFB) Adiposity Diseases, Leipzig (Germany); Becker, Georg-Alexander; Bresch, Anke; Luthardt, Julia; Patt, Marianne; Meyer, Philipp M. [University of Leipzig, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Rullmann, Michael [University of Leipzig, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Leipzig University Medical Centre, Integrated Treatment and Research Centre (IFB) Adiposity Diseases, Leipzig (Germany); Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Leipzig (Germany); Hankir, Mohammed K.; Zientek, Franziska; Reissig, Georg; Fenske, Wiebke K. [Leipzig University Medical Centre, Integrated Treatment and Research Centre (IFB) Adiposity Diseases, Leipzig (Germany); Arelin, Katrin [Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Leipzig (Germany); University of Leipzig, Day Clinic for Cognitive Neurology, Leipzig (Germany); Lobsien, Donald [University of Leipzig, Department of Neuroradiology, Leipzig (Germany); Mueller, Ulrich [University of Cambridge, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural and Clinical Neuroscience Institute, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Baldofski, S.; Hilbert, Anja [Leipzig University Medical Centre, Integrated Treatment and Research Centre (IFB) Adiposity Diseases, Leipzig (Germany); University of Leipzig, Department of Medical Psychology and Medical Sociology, Leipzig (Germany); Blueher, Matthias [University of Leipzig, Department of Internal Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Fasshauer, Mathias; Stumvoll, Michael [Leipzig University Medical Centre, Integrated Treatment and Research Centre (IFB) Adiposity Diseases, Leipzig (Germany); University of Leipzig, Department of Internal Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Ding, Yu-Shin [New York University School of Medicine, Departments of Radiology and Psychiatry, New York, NY (United States)

    2017-06-15

    The brain noradrenaline (NA) system plays an important role in the central nervous control of energy balance and is thus implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity. The specific processes modulated by this neurotransmitter which lead to obesity and overeating are still a matter of debate. We tested the hypothesis that in vivo NA transporter (NAT) availability is changed in obesity by using positron emission tomography (PET) and S,S-[{sup 11}C]O-methylreboxetine (MRB) in twenty subjects comprising ten highly obese (body mass index BMI > 35 kg/m{sup 2}), metabolically healthy, non-depressed individuals and ten non-obese (BMI < 30 kg/m{sup 2}) healthy controls. Overall, we found no significant differences in binding potential (BP{sub ND}) values between obese and non-obese individuals in the investigated brain regions, including the NAT-rich thalamus (0.40 ± 0.14 vs. 0.41 ± 0.18; p = 0.84) though additional discriminant analysis correctly identified individual group affiliation based on regional BP{sub ND} in all but one (control) case. Furthermore, inter-regional correlation analyses indicated different BP{sub ND} patterns between both groups but this did not survive testing for multiple comparions. Our data do not find an overall involvement of NAT changes in human obesity. However, preliminary secondary findings of distinct regional and associative patterns warrant further investigation. (orig.)

  16. Assessment of commercially available ion exchange materials for cesium removal from highly alkaline wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, K.P.; Kim, A.Y.; Kurath, D.E.

    1996-04-01

    Approximately 61 million gallons of nuclear waste generated in plutonium production, radionuclide removal campaigns, and research and development activities is stored on the Department of Energy`s Hanford Site, near Richland, Washington. Although the pretreatment process and disposal requirements are still being defined, most pretreatment scenarios include removal of cesium from the aqueous streams. In many cases, after cesium is removed, the dissolved salt cakes and supernates can be disposed of as LLW. Ion exchange has been a leading candidate for this separation. Ion exchange systems have the advantage of simplicity of equipment and operation and provide many theoretical stages in a small space. The organic ion exchange material Duolite{trademark} CS-100 has been selected as the baseline exchanger for conceptual design of the Initial Pretreatment Module (IPM). Use of CS-100 was chosen because it is considered a conservative, technologically feasible approach. During FY 96, final resin down-selection will occur for IPM Title 1 design. Alternate ion exchange materials for cesium exchange will be considered at that time. The purpose of this report is to conduct a search for commercially available ion exchange materials which could potentially replace CS-100. This report will provide where possible a comparison of these resin in their ability to remove low concentrations of cesium from highly alkaline solutions. Materials which show promise can be studied further, while less encouraging resins can be eliminated from consideration.

  17. Development of high-availability ATCA/PCIe data acquisition instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correia, Miguel; Sousa, Jorge; Batista, Antonio J.N.; Combo, Alvaro; Santos, Bruno; Rodrigues, Antonio P.; Carvalho, Paulo F.; Goncalves, Bruno [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049- 001 Lisboa (Portugal); Correia, Carlos M.B.A. [Centro de Instrumentacao, Dept. de Fisica, Universidade de Coimbra, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal)

    2015-07-01

    Latest Fusion energy experiments envision a quasi-continuous operation regime. In consequence, the largest experimental devices, currently in development, specify high-availability (HA) requirements for the whole plant infrastructure. HA features enable the whole facility to perform seamlessly in the case of failure of any of its components, coping with the increasing duration of plasma discharges (steady-state) and assuring safety of equipment, people, environment and investment. IPFN developed a control and data acquisition system, aiming for fast control of advanced Fusion devices, which is thus required to provide such HA features. The system is based on in-house developed Advanced Telecommunication Computing Architecture (ATCA) instrumentation modules - IO blades and data switch blades, establishing a PCIe network on the ATCA shelf's back-plane. The data switch communicates to an external host computer through a PCIe data network. At the hardware management level, the system architecture takes advantage of ATCA native redundancy and hot swap specifications to implement fail-over substitution of IO or data switch blades. A redundant host scheme is also supported by the ATCA/PCIe platform. At the software level, PCIe provides implementation of hot plug services, which translate the hardware changes to the corresponding software/operating system devices. The paper presents how the ATCA and PCIe based system can be setup to perform with the desired degree of HA, thus being suitable for advanced Fusion control and data acquisition systems. (authors)

  18. Stealth Disasters and Geoethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, Susan W.

    2013-04-01

    Natural processes of the earth unleash energy in ways that are sometimes harmful or, at best, inconvenient, for humans: earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, hurricanes, landslides, floods. Ignoring the biological component of the geosphere, we have historically called such events "natural disasters." They are typically characterized by a sudden onset and relatively immediate consequences. There are many historical examples and our human societies have evolved various ways of coping with them logistically, economically, and psychologically. Preparation, co-existence, recovery, and remediation are possible, at least to some extent, even in the largest of events. Geoethical questions exist in each stage, but the limited local extent of these disasters allows the possibility of discussion and resolution. There are other disasters that involve the natural systems that support us. Rather than being driven primarily by natural non-biological processes, these are driven by human behavior. Examples are climate change, desertification, acidification of the oceans, and compaction and erosion of fertile soils. They typically have more gradual onsets than natural disasters and, because of this, I refer to these as "stealth disasters." Although they are unfolding unnoticed or ignored by many, they are having near-term consequences. At a global scale they are new to human experience. Our efforts at preparation, co-existence, recovery, and remediation lag far behind those that we have in place for natural disasters. Furthermore, these four stages in stealth disaster situations involve many ethical questions that typically must be solved in the context of much larger cultural and social differences than encountered in natural disaster settings. Four core ethical principles may provide guidelines—autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence, and justice (e.g., Jamais Cascio). Geoscientists can contribute to the solutions in many ways. We can work to ensure that as people take responsibility

  19. Disaster preparedness for nurses: a teaching guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Paula

    2011-09-01

    As one of the largest groups of health care providers in the United States, nurses are trained to attend to the physical, psychological, and spiritual needs of their patients, making them highly qualified to influence the outcomes of victims of an emergency situation. Unfortunately, nursing programs offer limited content on delivering care under extreme conditions, and few continuing education programs are available to practicing nurses. This article provides a brief educational presentation that can be used without an extensive time commitment or in-depth instructor knowledge of the subject. The course content has been presented to nurses at the American Red Cross, at local chapter meetings of professional nursing organizations, and to both graduate and undergraduate nursing students. This presentation is not designed to be a comprehensive study of disaster nursing, but serves as a starting point that might lead to further study and encourage active participation in preparedness education and planning.

  20. Rural Community Disaster Preparedness and Risk Perception in Trujillo, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Matthew; Grahmann, Bridget; Fillmore, Ariel; Benson, L Scott

    2017-08-01

    , vulnerability, and preparedness in LMIC communities. The current study established that selected communities near Trujillo, Peru recognize a high disaster impact from earthquakes and infection, but are not adequately prepared for potential future disasters. By identifying high-risk demographics, targeted public health interventions are needed to prepare vulnerable communities in the following areas: emergency food supplies, emergency water plan, medical supplies at home, and establishing evacuation plans. Stewart M , Grahmann B , Fillmore A , Benson LS . Rural community disaster preparedness and risk perception in Trujillo, Peru. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(4):387-392.

  1. When is exposure to a natural disaster traumatic? Comparison of a trauma questionnaire and disaster exposure inventory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily W Harville

    Full Text Available Few studies have compared the sensitivity of trauma questionnaires to disaster inventories for assessing the prevalence of exposure to natural disaster or associated risk for post-disaster psychopathology. The objective of this analysis was to compare reporting of disaster exposure on a trauma questionnaire (Brief Trauma Questionnaire [BTQ] to an inventory of disaster experience. Between 2011 and 2014, a sample of 841 reproductive-aged southern Louisiana women were interviewed using the BTQ and completed a detailed inventory about exposure to hurricanes and flooding. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptomology was measured with the Post-Traumatic Stress Checklist, and depression with the Edinburgh Depression Scale. The single question addressing disaster exposure on the BTQ had a sensitivity of between 65% and 70% relative to the more detailed questions. Reporting disaster exposure on the BTQ was more likely for those who reported illness/injury due to a hurricane or flood (74%-77% or danger (77-79%, compared to those who reported damage (69-71% or evacuation (64-68%. Reporting disaster exposure on the BTQ was associated with depression (odds ratio [OR] 2.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.43-3.68. A single question is unlikely to be useful for assessing the degree of exposure to disaster across a broad population, and varies in utility depending on the mental health outcome of interest: the single trauma question is useful for assessing depression risk.

  2. Preparing for disasters: education and management strategies explored.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfred, Danita; Chilton, Jenifer; Connor, Della; Deal, Belinda; Fountain, Rebecca; Hensarling, Janice; Klotz, Linda

    2015-01-01

    During the last half of the 20th century, the focus of nursing changed from home and field to high-tech clinics and hospitals. Nursing in the absence of technology due to man-made or natural disasters almost disappeared from the curriculum of many nursing schools. Numerous disaster events and threats in the early 21st century caused educators and practitioners to increase the emphasis on disaster nursing and those principles that guide the nurse's practice in response to disasters. This article chronicles tools used by nurse educators to integrate disaster nursing into the didactic and clinical experiences of baccalaureate nursing students. We represent two nursing schools about 90 miles apart that collaborated to provide students with practical application of disaster nursing concepts. Part 1: An educational journey toward disaster nursing competencies: A curriculum in action provides an overview of the curricular tools used to insure adequate coverage of disaster nursing concepts across the curriculum. Part 2: Collaborative learning in Community Health Nursing for emergency preparedness relates the steps taken to plan, implement, and evaluate two different collaborative disaster simulation events. In this manuscript we have attempted transparency so that others can learn from our successes and our failures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Pediatric disaster preparedness and response and the nation's children's hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyle, Kristin C; Milton, Jerrod; Fagbuyi, Daniel; LeFort, Roxanna; Sirbaugh, Paul; Gonzalez, Jacqueline; Upperman, Jeffrey S; Carmack, Tim; Anderson, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Children account for 30 percent of the US population; as a result, many victims of disaster events are children. The most critically injured pediatric victims would be best cared for in a tertiary care pediatric hospital. The Children's Hospital Association (CHA) undertook a survey of its members to determine their level of readiness to respond to a mass casualty disaster. The Disaster Response Task Force constructed survey questions in October 2011. The survey was distributed via e-mail to the person listed as an "emergency manager/disaster contact" at each association member hospital and was designed to take less than 15 minutes to complete. The survey sought to determine how children's hospitals address disaster preparedness, how prepared they feel for disaster events, and how CHA could support their efforts in preparedness. One hundred seventy-nine surveys were distributed with a 36 percent return rate. Seventy percent of respondent hospitals have a structure in place to plan for disaster response. There was a stronger level of confidence for hospitals in responding to local casualty events than for those responding to large-scale regional, national, and international events. Few hospitals appear to interact with nonmedical facilities with a high concentration of children such as schools or daycares. Little commonality exists among children's hospitals in approaches to disaster preparedness and response. Universally, respondents can identify a disaster response plan and routinely participate in drills, but the scale and scope of these plans and drills vary substantially.

  4. Local communities and health disaster management in the mining sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freek Cronjé

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mining activities throughout the Southern African Development Community (SADC have impacted on the health and safety of mining communities for many decades. Despite the economic contribution of mining to surrounding communities, a huge amount of social and environmental harm is associated with the industry. In this regard, mining companies have, on the one hand, contributed toward improved social development by providing jobs, paying taxes and earning foreign exchange. On the other hand, they have been linked publicly to poor labour conditions, corruption, pollution incidents, health and safety failings, as well as disrespect of human rights. The objectives of this study are to give an overview of social and natural factors relating to health disasters in selected communities in the mining environment. Regarding the findings, this paper focuses on the social and natural factors involved in the creation of health disasters. The social factors include poverty, unemployment, poor housing and infrastructure, prostitution and a high influx of unaccompanied migrant labour. Major health issues in this regard, which will be highlighted, are the extraordinary high incidence rate of HIV and STIs (sexually transmitted infections, addiction and mental illness. The environmental (natural threats to health that will be discussed in the study are harmful particles in the air and water, excessive noise and overcrowded and unhygienic living conditions. In conclusion, the paper also finds that communities need to be ‘fenced in’ in terms of health disaster management instead of being excluded. Specific recommendations to mining companies to reduce health and safety disasters will be made to conclude the paper.

  5. The contribution of ineffective urban planning practices to disaster and disaster risks accumulation in urban areas: the case of former Kunduchi quarry site in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedict F. Malele

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the link between urban planning practices and disaster risks. The study used the former Kunduchi Quarry Site within the City of Dar es Salaam to demonstrate how laxity in enforcing the laid down planning rules, regulations and procedures facilitates the accumulation and occurrence of disaster risks and disasters in urban areas. This undermines one of the central roles of urban planning, which is to protect the lives of people from disaster risks and disasters. In exploring this, the study specifically focused on understanding the rules, regulations and procedures of planning in Tanzania; the extent to which they are followed and, where they are not followed, their implications for disaster risks and disasters; the coping initiatives adopted by local communities to reduce risks and their level of success or failure; and finally the drawing of lessons and recommendations for disaster risk reduction in urban areas. Strongly emerging from this study is the finding that although planning rules and regulations do exist, they are not enforced. As a result urban communities suffer from disaster risks and disasters caused by unregulated activities. The study analyzed the coping initiatives that urban communities apply to reduce disaster risks in their areas. It noted that, while a range of “coping” responses could be observed, these are not lasting solutions to the disaster risks being faced. Sustainable solutions seem to be known by the local community but they are not adopted for fear of compromising or undermining their existing livelihood strategies.

  6. Disaster Metrics: A Comprehensive Framework for Disaster Evaluation Typologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Diana F; Spencer, Caroline; Boyd, Lee; Burkle, Frederick Skip; Archer, Frank

    2017-05-08

    Introduction The frequency of disasters is increasing around the world with more people being at risk. There is a moral imperative to improve the way in which disaster evaluations are undertaken and reported with the aim of reducing preventable mortality and morbidity in future events. Disasters are complex events and undertaking disaster evaluations is a specialized area of study at an international level. Hypothesis/Problem While some frameworks have been developed to support consistent disaster research and evaluation, they lack validation, consistent terminology, and standards for reporting across the different phases of a disaster. There is yet to be an agreed, comprehensive framework to structure disaster evaluation typologies. The aim of this paper is to outline an evolving comprehensive framework for disaster evaluation typologies. It is anticipated that this new framework will facilitate an agreement on identifying, structuring, and relating the various evaluations found in the disaster setting with a view to better understand the process, outcomes, and impacts of the effectiveness and efficiency of interventions. Research was undertaken in two phases: (1) a scoping literature review (peer-reviewed and "grey literature") was undertaken to identify current evaluation frameworks and typologies used in the disaster setting; and (2) a structure was developed that included the range of typologies identified in Phase One and suggests possible relationships in the disaster setting. No core, unifying framework to structure disaster evaluation and research was identified in the literature. The authors propose a "Comprehensive Framework for Disaster Evaluation Typologies" that identifies, structures, and suggests relationships for the various typologies detected. The proposed Comprehensive Framework for Disaster Evaluation Typologies outlines the different typologies of disaster evaluations that were identified in this study and brings them together into a single

  7. Toward to Disaster Mitigation Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneda, Yoshiyuki; Shiraki, Wataru; Tokozakura, Eiji

    2016-04-01

    Destructive natural disasters such as earthquakes and tsunamis have occurred frequently in the world. For the reduction and mitigation of damages by destructive natural disasters, early detection of natural disasters and speedy and proper evacuations are indispensable. And hardware and software preparations for reduction and mitigation of natural disasters are quite important and significant. Finally, methods on restorations and revivals are necessary after natural disasters. We would like to propose natural disaster mitigation science for early detections, evacuations and restorations against destructive natural disasters. In natural disaster mitigation science, there are lots of research fields such as natural science, engineering, medical treatment, social science and literature/art etc. Especially, natural science, engineering and medical treatment are fundamental research fields for natural disaster mitigation, but social sciences such as sociology, psychology etc. are very important research fields for restorations after natural disasters. We have to progress the natural disaster mitigation science against destructive natural disaster mitigation. in the near future. We will present the details of natural disaster mitigation science.

  8. High-resolution prediction of soil available water content within the crop root zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghverdi, Amir; Leib, Brian G.; Washington-Allen, Robert A.; Ayers, Paul D.; Buschermohle, Michael J.

    2015-11-01

    A detailed understanding of soil hydraulic properties, particularly soil available water content (AWC) within the effective root zone, is needed to optimally schedule irrigation in fields with substantial spatial heterogeneity. However, it is difficult and time consuming to directly measure soil hydraulic properties. Therefore, easily collected and measured soil properties, such as soil texture and/or bulk density, that are well correlated with hydraulic properties are used as proxies to develop pedotransfer functions (PTF). In this study, multiple modeling scenarios were developed and evaluated to indirectly predict high resolution AWC maps within the effective root zone. The modeling techniques included kriging, co-kriging, regression kriging, artificial neural networks (NN) and geographically weighted regression (GWR). The efficiency of soil apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) as proximal data in the modeling process was assessed. There was a good agreement (root mean square error (RMSE) = 0.052 cm3 cm-3 and r = 0.88) between observed and point prediction of water contents using pseudo continuous PTFs. We found that both GWR (mean RMSE = 0.062 cm3 cm-3) and regression kriging (mean RMSE = 0.063 cm3 cm-3) produced the best water content maps with these accuracies improved up to 19% when ECa was used as an ancillary soil attribute in the interpolation process. The maps indicated fourfold differences in AWC between coarse- and fine-textured soils across the study site. This provided a template for future investigations for evaluating the efficiency of variable rate irrigation management scenarios in accounting for the spatial heterogeneity of soil hydraulic attributes.

  9. Use of mental health services among disaster survivors: predisposing factors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouden, D.J. den; Velden, P.G. van der; Grievink, L.; Morren, M.; Dirkzwager, A.J.E.; Yzermans, C.J.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Given the high prevalence of mental health problems after disasters it is important to study health services utilization. This study examines predictors for mental health services (MHS) utilization among survivors of a man-made disaster in the Netherlands (May 2000). METHODS: Electronic

  10. Social Protection and Disaster Risk Management in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Bowen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This paper evaluates how the Philippines utilize social protection systems and programs to help households better manage disaster risk. Exposure and vulnerability to natural disasters and the effects of climate change are particularly high in the Philippines. At the same time, the Philippines has developed one of the most advanced social protection systems in the East Asia Pacific region. ...

  11. When disaster strikes: caring for mothers and babies in conflict and disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The most vulnerable people in any society suffer the most during natural and manmade disasters. Women and newborn infants are among societies' most vulnerable. While, in many countries, women are poorly nourished and suffer high rates of reproductive health problems during the best of times, their level of vulnerability increases in times of war and disaster. Most of the world's refugees and displaced persons are women and children, with large numbers of women refugees being malnourished. Severe malnutrition in pregnant women causes fetal malnutrition, leading the newborn infant of a malnourished mother to be born underweight and open to stunted physical and mental development. While one cannot prevent suffering when war or disaster force people from their homes, the level of suffering can be mitigated through proper preparation and prompt reaction to disasters when they do occur. The appropriate steps to take to best manage an emergency are presented.

  12. FEMA Historical Disaster Declarations - shp

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Historical Disaster Declarations provides geospatial view to the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (referred to as the Stafford Act...

  13. Study Links Disasters to Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_161672.html Study Links Disasters to Dementia Losing home was tied to greater mental decline ... Earthquakes, floods and other natural disasters may raise dementia risk for seniors forced to leave their homes, ...

  14. Is previous disaster experience a good predictor for disaster preparedness in extreme poverty households in remote Muslim minority based community in China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Emily Y Y; Kim, Jean H; Lin, Cherry; Cheung, Eliza Y L; Lee, Polly P Y

    2014-06-01

    Disaster preparedness is an important preventive strategy for protecting health and mitigating adverse health effects of unforeseen disasters. A multi-site based ethnic minority project (2009-2015) is set up to examine health and disaster preparedness related issues in remote, rural, disaster prone communities in China. The primary objective of this reported study is to examine if previous disaster experience significantly increases household disaster preparedness levels in remote villages in China. A cross-sectional, household survey was conducted in January 2011 in Gansu Province, in a predominately Hui minority-based village. Factors related to disaster preparedness were explored using quantitative methods. Two focus groups were also conducted to provide additional contextual explanations to the quantitative findings of this study. The village household response rate was 62.4 % (n = 133). Although previous disaster exposure was significantly associated with perception of living in a high disaster risk area (OR = 6.16), only 10.7 % households possessed a disaster emergency kit. Of note, for households with members who had non-communicable diseases, 9.6 % had prepared extra medications to sustain clinical management of their chronic conditions. This is the first study that examined disaster preparedness in an ethnic minority population in remote communities in rural China. Our results indicate the need of disaster mitigation education to promote preparedness in remote, resource-poor communities.

  15. Community Participation in Disaster Management: Role of Social Work to Enhance Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Hossain

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available angladesh is one of the most vulnerable areas to natural disasters in the world. Almost every year different types of natural disasters occur in Bangladesh and destroy many lives and resources of people. Although it is not possible to prevent the occurrence of disasters influenced by natural causes, proper plan, management and human collective participation may minimize the natural disasters occurred. Bangladesh is no exception in this regard. However, the government of Bangladesh has adopted disaster management plans and programs with especial emphasis on community participation in disaster management cycle since her independence. Based on literature review this paper analyzes the approaches to disaster management and its institutional framework in Bangladesh, and also discusses the role of social work to ensure or enhance community participation in disaster management that may contribute to both anthropology and social work disciplines.

  16. Analysing the Effectiveness of Wearable Wireless Sensors in Controlling Crowd Disasters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teo, Y.H.A.; Viswanathan, V.; Lees, M.; Cai, W.

    2014-01-01

    The Love Parade disaster in Duisberg, Germany lead to several deaths and injuries. Disasters like this occur due to the existence of high densities in a limited area. We propose a wearable electronic device that helps reduce such disasters by directing people and thus controlling the density of the

  17. Analysing the Effectiveness of Wearable Wireless Sensors in Controlling Crowd Disasters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teo, Y.H.A.; Viswanathan, V.; Lees, M.; Cai, W.

    2014-01-01

    The Love Parade disaster in Duisberg, Germany lead to several deaths and injuries. Disasters like this occur due to the existence of high densities in a limited area. We propose a wearable electronic device that helps reduce such disasters by directing people and thus controlling the density of the

  18. Bangkok to Sendai and Beyond: Implications for Disaster Risk Reduction in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Chatterjee, Ranit; Shiwaku, Koichi; Das Gupta, Rajarshi; Nakano, Genta; Shaw, Rajib

    2015-01-01

    The recently concluded World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction (WCDRR) in Sendai, Japan and the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030 (SFDRR) have set renewed priorities for disaster risk reduction (DRR) for the next 15 years. Due to Asia’s high exposure to natural hazards, the implications of the new SFDRR have major significance for the future development of the region. The 6th Asian Ministerial Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction (AMCDRR), held in Bangkok in 2014, wa...

  19. Translocal disaster interventions:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, Karina Märcher

    2017-01-01

    to provide equal as well as equitable relief. Drawing attention to the practice of excluding the migrants households of origin from the receipt of targeted relief, the article suggests that disaster management should re-consider the assumption that such households are automatically (the sole) recipients......The disaster-prone Philippine archipelago is a major point of origin of migrants worldwide. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in the Philippines and Denmark, this article investigates citizens’ responses to the Bohol earthquake of 2013. I examine how individual migrants channel relief...... to their neighborhoods of origin through their networks of social relations abroad and within the areas of impact, and how these individual relief channels both complement and conflict with official disaster responses. Focusing on inter-household resource flows, I argue that individual relief channels form part of local...

  20. PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS IN LOCAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT: A PANACEA TO ALL LOCAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT ILLS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela van der Berg

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available It is anticipated that the occurrence and intensity of disasters will increase globally and in South Africa where typical disasters include droughts, floods, extreme hailstorms, gales, fires and earthquakes, as well as sinkholes arising from mining activity in dolomitic areas. Disasters such as these result in human suffering and damage to the resources and infrastructure on which South Africans rely for their survival and the maintenance of their quality of life. Section 24 of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 affords to everyone the right to an environment that is not harmful to his or her health and well-being. It may be argued that a person's sense of environmental security in relation to the potential risks and dangers of disaster falls within the scope of the protection provided by section 24. The responsibility to intervene for the protection of the interests inherent in the constitutional environmental right lies with the government of South Africa. Disaster management specifically is a functional area of competence of national and provincial government, but practice has shown that the actual implementation of and planning for disaster management happens in the local government sphere. Against the backdrop of these introductory discussions and, given the fact that several municipalities in South Africa are under-resourced, this article very specifically aims to critically discuss and describe from a legal perspective the potential and function of public-private partnerships (PPPs between local government (municipalities and the private sector (such as industries in fulfilling the legally entrenched disaster management mandate of municipalities. Through a critical evaluation of some existing PPPs, this article illustrates that the private sector has a key role to play in assisting municipalities to fulfil their legally entrenched disaster management mandate.

  1. Systematic review of available evidence on 11 high-priced inpatient orphan drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.A. Kanters (Tim A.); C. de Sonneville (Caroline); W.K. Redekop (Ken); L. van Hakkaart-van Roijen (Leona)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ __Background__: Attention for Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) is growing, but evidence for orphan drugs is argued to be limited and inferior. This study systematically reviews the available evidence on clinical effectiveness, costeffectiveness and budget impact for orph

  2. Urban Gaming Simulation for Enhancing Disaster Resilience. A Social Learning Tool for Modern Disaster Risk Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarunwit Promsaka Na Sakonnakron

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available An emergence of the disaster resilience concept broadens the idea of urban risk management and, at the same time, enhances a theoretical aspect in a way in which we can develop our cities without making it more vulnerable to natural disasters.  Nevertheless, this theoretical plausibility is hardly translated into a practical implication for urban planning, as the concept of resilience remain limited to some scholars’ debate. One of substantial factors that limit the understanding of people about disaster risk an resilience is a lack of risk awareness and risk preparedness, which can be solved by restructuring social learning process that enable a process of mutual learning between experts and the public. This study, therefore, focuses on providing insights into the difficulties of disaster risk communication we face, and how gaming simulation can be taken as a communication technique in enhancing social learning, which is regarded as a fundamental step of disaster risk management prior the mitigation process takes place. The study argues that the gaming simulation can facilitate planners in acquiring risk information from the community, conceiving the multitude of complex urban physical and socio-economic components, and conceptualizing innovative solutions to cope with disaster risks mutually with the public.

  3. Hurricane Sandy nutrition support during disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trento, Laura; Allen, Sarah

    2014-10-01

    Natural disasters and weather-related emergencies can strike at a moment's notice. Individuals with chronic health conditions and other special needs are especially vulnerable. Basic services such as water, electricity, gas, and telephone service may not be available. Home parenteral and enteral nutrition consumers are at a serious risk as they depend on clean water and power for nutrient delivery. Creating a comprehensive emergency preparedness plan is imperative for both the home parenteral and enteral consumer and home care provider to ensure that special needs are met. Home care providers can assist home parenteral and enteral consumers in disaster and emergency planning.

  4. Disaster Education in Australian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Helen J.; Pagliano, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Australia regularly suffers floods, droughts, bushfires and cyclones, which are predicted to increase and/or intensify in the future due to climate change. While school-aged children are among the most vulnerable to natural disasters, they can be empowered through education to prepare for and respond to disasters. School disaster education is…

  5. Natural disasters and human mobility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mbaye, L.; Zimmermann, K.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews the effect of natural disasters on human mobility or migration. Although there is an increase of natural disasters and migration recently and more patterns to observe, the relationship remains complex. While some authors find that disasters increase migration, others show that

  6. Forensic odontology, part 2. Major disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchliffe, J

    2011-03-26

    We have only to look back over the last 12 months to realise that time and time again, an incident occurs where there are mass fatalities. These incidents have instant and long-lasting impact on families, communities and sometimes whole countries. The aim of this paper is to emphasise the need for an efficient and sensitive response to assist in the identification of victims of such incidents and the necessity for trained team responses. Many countries now have Disaster Victim Identification (DVI) teams that are multi-disciplinary, and plans and protocols in place in readiness. The paper can only hope to give a brief overview of the disaster situation for the reader: whole books have been written on this topic. The forensic odontologist has a major role in disaster incidents when there are accurate and available antemortem dental records.

  7. Disability and health-related rehabilitation in international disaster relief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    On behalf of the International Society of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine's Sub-Committee on Rehabilitation Disaster Relief

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Natural disasters result in significant numbers of disabling impairments. Paradoxically, however, the traditional health system response to natural disasters largely neglects health-related rehabilitation as a strategic intervention.To examine the role of health-related rehabilitation in natural disaster relief along three lines of inquiry: (1 epidemiology of injury and disability, (2 impact on health and rehabilitation systems, and (3 the assessment and measurement of disability.Qualitative literature review and secondary data analysis.Absolute numbers of injuries as well as injury to death ratios in natural disasters have increased significantly over the last 40 years. Major impairments requiring health-related rehabilitation include amputations, traumatic brain injuries, spinal cord injuries (SCI, and long bone fractures. Studies show that persons with pre-existing disabilities are more likely to die in a natural disaster. Lack of health-related rehabilitation in natural disaster relief may result in additional burdening of the health system capacity, exacerbating baseline weak rehabilitation and health system infrastructure. Little scientific evidence on the effectiveness of health-related rehabilitation interventions following natural disaster exists, however. Although systematic assessment and measurement of disability after a natural disaster is currently lacking, new approaches have been suggested.Health-related rehabilitation potentially results in decreased morbidity due to disabling injuries sustained during a natural disaster and is, therefore, an essential component of the medical response by the host and international communities. Significant systematic challenges to effective delivery of rehabilitation interventions during disaster include a lack of trained responders as well as a lack of medical recordkeeping, data collection, and established outcome measures. Additional development of health-related rehabilitation following

  8. The Role of Law in Engineering 'Natural' Disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur F McEvoy

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available What people perceive as “natural disasters” typically take place when extractive industries operate at levels high enough that the ecological systems from which they draw resources lose their ability to buffer transient shocks, whether of environmental or technological origin. Legal institutions whose purpose it is to prevent such disasters from taking place may in fact encourage them, insofar as they must also broker competing demands for greater access to resources. Legal institutions may adapt to ecological instability in the wake of such disasters, “learning” from the experience more or less successfully depending on the conditions under which the disaster takes place. This paper will develop these ideas in the context of a number of noteworthy disasters, including the sinking of the Deepwater Horizon in 2010. Lo que se percibe como “desastres naturales” suelen ocurrir cuando las industrias extractivas operan a niveles tan elevados que los sistemas ecológicos de los que extraen los recursos pierden su capacidad para amortiguar las sacudidas transitorias, sean éstas de origen ambiental o tecnológico. Las instituciones legales, cuya finalidad es prevenir que ocurran estos desastres, puede en realidad promoverlos, desde el momento en que tienen que negociar las demandas de las partes interesadas en obtener un mayor acceso a los recursos. Las instituciones legales pueden adaptarse a la inestabilidad ecológica como consecuencia de tales catástrofes, "aprendiendo" de la experiencia de forma más o menos exitosa, dependiendo de las condiciones bajo las que ocurre el desastre. Este artículo va a desarrollar estas ideas en el contexto de una serie de desastres destacados, entre ellos el hundimiento de la plataforma petrolífera Deepwater Horizon en 2010.

  9. The National Library of Medicine’s Disaster Information Management Research Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Joseph Phillips

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Disaster Information Management Research Center (DIMRC develops and provides access to health information resources and technology for disaster preparedness, response, and recovery. DIMRC focuses on maintaining access to health information at all phases of disasters, developing innovative products and services for emergency personnel, conducting research to support disaster health information management, and collaborating with other agencies and communities. Several tools are available to help emergency responders in hazardous materials or Chemical, Biological, Radiological, or Nuclear incidents. Access to the literature is made available through PubMed and the Resource Guide for Disaster Medicine and Public Health, with links to online documents and resources from numerous organizations and government agencies. In addition, DIMRC supports the Disaster Information Specialist Program, a collaborative effort to explore and promote the role of librarians and information specialists in the provision of disaster-related information resources to the workforce and communities.

  10. RELIABILITY, AVAILABILITY, AND SERVICEABILITY FOR PETASCALE HIGH-END COMPUTING AND BEYOND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chokchai " Box" Leangsuksun

    2011-05-31

    Our project is a multi-institutional research effort that adopts interplay of RELIABILITY, AVAILABILITY, and SERVICEABILITY (RAS) aspects for solving resilience issues in highend scientific computing in the next generation of supercomputers. results lie in the following tracks: Failure prediction in a large scale HPC; Investigate reliability issues and mitigation techniques including in GPGPU-based HPC system; HPC resilience runtime & tools.

  11. Affect, risk perception and future optimism after the tsunami disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Vastfjall

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental events such as natural disasters may influence the public's affective reactions and decisions. Shortly after the 2004 Tsunami disaster we assessed how affect elicited by thinking about this disaster influenced risk perceptions and future time perspective in Swedish undergraduates not directly affected by the disaster. An experimental manipulation was used to increase the salience of affect associated with the disaster. In Study 1 we found that participants reminded about the tsunami had a sense that their life was more finite and included fewer opportunities than participants in the control condition (not reminded about the tsunami. In Study 2 we found similar effects for risk perceptions. In addition, we showed that manipulations of ease-of-thought influenced the extent to which affect influenced these risk perceptions, with greater ease of thoughts being associated with greater perceived risks.

  12. Organisational learning and self-adaptation in dynamic disaster environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbacioglu, Sitki; Kapucu, Naim

    2006-06-01

    This paper examines the problems associated with inter-organisational learning and adaptation in the dynamic environments that characterise disasters. The research uses both qualitative and quantitative methods to investigate whether organisational learning took place during and in the time in between five disaster response operations in Turkey. The availability of information and its exchange and distribution within and among organisational actors determine whether self-adaptation happens in the course of a disaster response operation. Organisational flexibility supported by an appropriate information infrastructure creates conditions conducive to essential interaction and permits the flow of information. The study found that no significant organisational learning occurred within Turkish disaster management following the earthquakes in Erzincan (1992), Dinar (1995) and Ceyhan (1998). By contrast, the 'symmetry-breaking' Marmara earthquake of 1999 initiated a 'double loop' learning process that led to change in the organisational, technical and cultural aspects of Turkish disaster management, as revealed by the Duzce earthquake response operations.

  13. Disaster management and humanitarian logistics – A South African perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilna L. Bean

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Disasters are becoming an unavoidable part of everyday life throughout the world, including South Africa. Even though South Africa is not a country affected by large-scale disasters such as earthquakes, the impact of disasters in South Africa is aggravated significantly by the vulnerability of people living in informal settlements. Humanitarian logistics, as a ‘new’ sub-field in the supply chain management context, has developed significantly recently to assist in disaster situations. This paper provides an overview of the South African humanitarian logistics context. Even though humanitarian logistics plays a critical role in the aftermath of disasters, it extends far beyond events that can typically be classified as ‘disasters’. Therefore the implication of the South African humanitarian logistics context on future research and collaboration opportunities in South African humanitarian logistics is also discussed. Finally, two recent case studies in the South African humanitarian logistics environment are discussed.

  14. Planning for Spontaneity: The Challenges of Disaster Communication Fieldwork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Suzanne Horsley PhD

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This methodological article explores the intersection of qualitative fieldwork methods in crisis communication and disaster management. While crisis communication is a popular topic of research in the public relations genre, there is relatively no methodological work to serve as a precedent for a participant-observation study of communication during an unfolding disaster event. Likewise, disaster management literature that is based in qualitative fieldwork methods has not examined the communication practices of a disaster response organization. This article explores the various challenges in conducting fieldwork in real-time disaster communication and describes how the researcher overcame those challenges to conduct a participant-observation study of the American Red Cross' communication efforts during the 2009 Red River Valley floods in Fargo, North Dakota, United States.

  15. The lesson of the Chernobyl disaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milhaud, G. (Hopital Saint-Antoine, 75 Paris (FR))

    1991-01-01

    On april 26, 1986 a major nuclear disaster took place at 1 h 24 min local time, destroying the fourth reactor of the Chernobyl plant. Five years later the consequences of the disaster are still not fully known. Nevertheless the long term future of nuclear energy in the world is uncertain. Questions need to be answered by observing hard facts if emotional attitudes are not to prevail over reality. The reactor and its core were destroyed by an explosion, causing two radioactive jet emissions of iodine 131, followed by caesium 137. Both elements are mainly incorporated in the body via food. The Chernobyl disaster was a consequence of inadequate safety regulations and human error. Enforcement of strict regulations are likely to be highly effective in preventing a further catastrophe. However, governments should consider another possibility. What would be the consequences for public health if a terroristic act deliberately destroyed a nuclear power station.

  16. Disaster management and mitigation: the telecommunications infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricelli, Frédéric; Beakley, James E; Carnevale, Angelo; Tarabochia, Marcello; von Lubitz, Dag K J E

    2009-03-01

    Among the most typical consequences of disasters is the near or complete collapse of terrestrial telecommunications infrastructures (especially the distribution network--the 'last mile') and their concomitant unavailability to the rescuers and the higher echelons of mitigation teams. Even when such damage does not take place, the communications overload/congestion resulting from significantly elevated traffic generated by affected residents can be highly disturbing. The paper proposes innovative remedies to the telecommunications difficulties in disaster struck regions. The offered solutions are network-centric operations-cap able, and can be employed in management of disasters of any magnitude (local to national or international). Their implementation provide ground rescue teams (such as law enforcement, firemen, healthcare personnel, civilian authorities) with tactical connectivity among themselves, and, through the Next Generation Network backbone, ensure the essential bidirectional free flow of information and distribution of Actionable Knowledge among ground units, command/control centres, and civilian and military agencies participating in the rescue effort.

  17. Natural disasters and dialysis care in the Asia-Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Nicholas A; Wolley, Martin; Liew, Adrian; Nakayama, Masaaki

    2015-12-01

    The impact of natural disasters on the provision of dialysis services has received increased attention in the last decade following Hurricane Katrina devastating New Orleans in 2005. The Asia-Pacific is particularly vulnerable to earthquakes, tsunami, typhoons (also known as cyclones and hurricanes) or storms and flooding. These events can seriously interrupt provision of haemodialysis with adverse effects for patients including missed dialysis, increased hospitalization and post-traumatic stress disorder. Furthermore, haemodialysis patients may need to relocate and experience prolonged periods of displacement from family and social supports. In contrast to haemodialysis, most literature suggests peritoneal dialysis in a disaster situation is more easily managed and supported. It has become apparent that dialysis units and patients should be prepared for a disaster event and that appropriate planning will result in reduced confusion and adverse outcomes should a disaster occur. Numerous resources are now available to guide dialysis units, patients and staff in preparation for a possible disaster. This article will examine the disaster experiences of dialysis units in the Asia-Pacific, the impact on patients and staff, methods employed to manage during the disaster and suggested plans for reducing the impact of future disasters.

  18. Disaster Waste Management in Malaysia: Significant Issues, Policies & Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusof Nor Syazwani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Disaster Waste Management in Malaysia is still at the early stage of its research. Disaster can create large volumes of debris and waste and mismanagement of disaster waste can affect both the response and long term recovery of disaster affected area. The government of Malaysia is taking serious about this issue. This paper is aim to explore the issues, policies and strategies regarding disaster waste management in Malaysia. The objectives were to investigate the extent of disaster waste effects on the environment and to provide a basis from which the needs of waste management could be evaluated in disaster management guidelines. Qualitative method of data collection has been adopted in this study. The respondent are among the local authority and organization that involved in managing wastes. The finding shows that many of the policies regarding waste management in Malaysia has not been well implemented. The purpose of this paper is expected to improve the method of managing disaster waste in Malaysia.

  19. Hospitals Capability in Response to Disasters Considering Surge Capacity Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Khademipour

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The man-made and natural disasters have adverse effects with sound, apparent, and unknown consequences. Among various components of disaster management in health sector, the most important role is performed by health-treatment systems, especially hospitals. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the surge capacity of hospitals of Kerman Province in disaster in 2015. Materials and Methods: This is a quantitative study, conducted on private, military, and medical sciences hospitals of Kerman Province. The sampling method was total count and data collection for the research was done by questionnaire. The first section of the questionnaire included demographic information of the studied hospitals and second part examined the hospital capacity in response to disasters in 4 fields of equipment, physical space, human resources, and applied programs. The extracted data were analyzed by descriptive statistics. Results: The mean capability of implementing the surge capacity programs by hospitals of Kerman Province in disasters and in 4 fields of equipment, physical space, human resources, and applied programs was evaluated as 7.33% (weak. The surge capacity capability of state hospitals in disasters was computed as 8% and compared to private hospitals (6.07% had a more suitable condition. Conclusion: Based on the results of study and significance of preparedness of hospitals in response to disasters, it is proposed that managers of studied hospitals take measures to promote the hospital response capacity to disasters based on 4 components of increasing hospital capacity.

  20. Epidemiological study air disaster in Amsterdam (ESADA: study design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bramsen Inge

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 1992, a cargo aircraft crashed into apartment buildings in Amsterdam, killing 43 victims and destroying 266 apartments. In the aftermath there were speculations about the cause of the crash, potential exposures to hazardous materials due to the disaster and the health consequences. Starting in 2000, the Epidemiological Study Air Disaster in Amsterdam (ESADA aimed to assess the long-term health effects of occupational exposure to this disaster on professional assistance workers. Methods/Design Epidemiological study among all the exposed professional fire-fighters and police officers who performed disaster-related task(s, and hangar workers who sorted the wreckage of the aircraft, as well as reference groups of their non-exposed colleagues who did not perform any disaster-related tasks. The study took place, on average, 8.5 years after the disaster. Questionnaires were used to assess details on occupational exposure to the disaster. Health measures comprised laboratory assessments in urine, blood and saliva, as well as self-reported current health measures, including health-related quality of life, and various physical and psychological symptoms. Discussion In this paper we describe and discuss the design of the ESADA. The ESADA will provide additional scientific knowledge on the long-term health effects of technological disasters on professional workers.

  1. Local governance in disaster risk reduction in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buh-Wung Gaston

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available At the 2005 World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction held in Hyogo, Japan, 168 countries including Cameroon adopted the Hyogo Framework for Action, committing to take action to reduce human and socio-economic disaster losses. Geotechnology, Environmental Assessment and Disaster Risk Reduction was commissioned by the Global Network of Civil Society Organisations for Disaster Risk Reduction as the coordinating organisation in Cameroon to evaluate progress in implementation of the framework from the civil society perspective, particularly the role of local governance in disaster risk reduction (DRR. Seven regions of the country were identified for evaluation, where people have suffered losses from disasters during the last three decades. Three approaches were used: administration of questionnaires; consultations with local communities; and four case studies. It was found that there was significant scope for improvement on individual local governance indicators, and that effective progress depends on:1. level of achievement in the decentralisation process currently under way.2. adoption of a participatory approach to DRR.3. clear distribution of roles in the DRR process.4. adequate allocation of necessary financial and human resources.5. enhancement of capacity of local communities to prepare for and respond to all types of disasters.Creation of an independent body to carry out fundamental research, forecast new and emerging hazards and manage all disasters in the country will contribute greatly to moving things forward.

  2. RF/optical shared aperture for high availability wideband communication RF/FSO links

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruggiero, Anthony J; Pao, Hsueh-yuan; Sargis, Paul

    2014-04-29

    An RF/Optical shared aperture is capable of transmitting and receiving optical signals and RF signals simultaneously. This technology enables compact wide bandwidth communications systems with 100% availability in clear air turbulence, rain and fog. The functions of an optical telescope and an RF reflector antenna are combined into a single compact package by installing an RF feed at either of the focal points of a modified Gregorian telescope.

  3. RF/optical shared aperture for high availability wideband communication RF/FSO links

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruggiero, Anthony J; Pao, Hsueh-yuan; Sargis, Paul

    2015-03-24

    An RF/Optical shared aperture is capable of transmitting and receiving optical signals and RF signals simultaneously. This technology enables compact wide bandwidth communications systems with 100% availability in clear air turbulence, rain and fog. The functions of an optical telescope and an RF reflector antenna are combined into a single compact package by installing an RF feed at either of the focal points of a modified Gregorian telescope.

  4. The Ontology of Disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Neil

    1995-01-01

    Explores some key existential or ontological concepts to show their applicability to the complex area of disaster impact as it relates to health and social welfare practice. Draws on existentialist philosophy, particularly that of John Paul Sartre, and introduces some key ontological concepts to show how they specifically apply to the experience…

  5. Food for Disasters

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-07-23

    When disaster strikes, you might not have access to food or water. This podcast discusses types of emergency food supplies you should keep on hand in your emergency kit.  Created: 7/23/2012 by Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (PHPR).   Date Released: 7/23/2012.

  6. Disaster Risk Profile

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2017-01-01

    Afghanistan’s rugged mountain landscape and generally arid climate make it prone to several natural hazards. Climate change also poses threat to Afghanistan’s natural resources, of which the majority of Afghans depend for their livelihood. The country’s low level of socio-economic development makes it extremely vulnerable to disasters, resulting in frequent loss of lives, livelihoods, and ...

  7. Resilience in disaster research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlberg, Rasmus; Johannessen-Henry, Christine Tind; Raju, Emmanuel;

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the concept of resilience in disaster management settings in modern society. The diversity and relatedness of ‘resilience’ as a concept and as a process are reflected in its presentation through three ‘versions’: (i) pastoral care and the role of the church for victims of disa...

  8. Mold After a Disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Part 3 of 3) Hot Weather Tips Heat Stress in Older Adults FAQs Extreme Heat PSAs Related Links MMWR Bibliography CDC's Program Floods Flood Readiness Personal Hygiene After a Disaster Cleanup of Flood Water After a Flood Worker Safety Educational Materials Floods ...

  9. The Ontology of Disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Neil

    1995-01-01

    Explores some key existential or ontological concepts to show their applicability to the complex area of disaster impact as it relates to health and social welfare practice. Draws on existentialist philosophy, particularly that of John Paul Sartre, and introduces some key ontological concepts to show how they specifically apply to the experience…

  10. When Facing Natural Disasters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xinwen

    2008-01-01

    @@ China last experienced a strong earthquake in 1976 in Tang Shan, Hehei Province. At the beginning of this year, severe snow storms struck more than half of China. What impact have these natural disasters left on China, especially the latest earthquake in Sichuan? Let's do a comparison.

  11. Disaster Changes Us

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    On scientists confirming that sex is a channel for HIV AIDS infection, the sexual emancipation that had flourished in America and Europe since the middle of the last century subsided. More stress has since been placed on family issues. A disaster can thus change moral standards and senses of value, as well as behavior.

  12. Investigating Commercially Available Technology for Language Learners in Higher Education within the High Functioning Disability Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savvidou, Georgia; Loizides, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    This work presents the assistive use of a combination of technologies in language learning to individuals with high functioning disabilities within a higher education environment. The primary aim of this research is to introduce the initial findings of a pilot exploratory user test which aims to facilitate a better understanding of the suitability…

  13. Development of a Fixed Wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV for Disaster Area Monitoring and Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesang Nugroho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of remote sensing technology offers the ability to perform real-time delivery of aerial video and images. A precise disaster map allows a disaster management to be done quickly and accurately. This paper discusses how a fixed wing UAV can perform aerial monitoring and mapping of disaster area to produce a disaster map. This research was conducted using a flying wing, autopilot, digital camera, and data processing software. The research starts with determining the airframe and the avionic system then determine waypoints. The UAV flies according to the given waypoints while taking video and photo. The video is transmitted to the Ground Control Station (GCS so that an operator in the ground can monitor the area condition in real time. After obtaining data, then it is processed to obtain a disaster map. The results of this research are: a fixed wing UAV that can monitor disaster area and send real-time video and photos, a GCS equipped with image processing software, and a mosaic map. This UAV used a flying wing that has 3 kg empty weight, 2.2 m wingspan, and can fly for 12-15 minutes. This UAV was also used for a mission at Parangtritis coast in the southern part of Yogyakarta with flight altitude of 150 m, average speed of 15 m/s, and length of way point of around 5 km in around 6 minutes. A mosaic map with area of around 300 m x 1500 m was also obtained. Interpretation of the mosaic led to some conclusions including: lack of evacuation routes, residential area which faces high risk of tsunami, and lack of green zone around the shore line.

  14. Building a highly available and intrusion tolerant database security and protection system (DSPS)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡亮; 杨小虎; 董金祥

    2003-01-01

    Database Security and Protection System (DSPS) is a security platform for fighting malicious DBMS. The security and performance are critical to DSPS. The authors suggested a key management scheme by combining the server group structure to improve availability and the key distribution structure needed by proactive security. This paper detailed the implementation of proactive security in DSPS. After thorough performance analysis, the authors concluded that the performance difference between the replicated mechanism and proactive mechanism becomes smaller and smaller with increasing number of concurrent connections; and that proactive security is very useful and practical for large, critical applications.

  15. Building a highly available and intrusion tolerant database security and protection system ( DSPS)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡亮; 杨小虎; 董金祥

    2003-01-01

    Database Security and Protection System (DSPS) is a security platform for fighting malicious DBMS. The security and performance are critical to DSPS. The authors suggested a key management scheme by combining the server group structure to improve availability and the key distribution structure needed by proactive security. This paper detailed the implementation of proactive security in DSPS. After thorough performane analysis, the authors concluded that the performance difference between the replicated mechanism and proactive mechanism becomes smaller and smaller with increasing number of concurrent connections ; and that proactive security is very useful and practical for large, critical applications.

  16. Smart disaster mitigation in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aimmanee, S.; Ekkawatpanit, C.; Asanuma, H.

    2016-04-01

    Thailand is notoriously exposed to several natural disasters, from heavy thunder storms to earthquakes and tsunamis, since it is located in the tropical area and has tectonic cracks underneath the ground. Besides these hazards flooding, despite being less severe, occurs frequently, stays longer than the other disasters, and affects a large part of the national territory. Recently in 2011 have also been recorded the devastating effects of major flooding causing the economic damages and losses around 50 billion dollars. Since Thailand is particularly exposed to such hazards, research institutions are involved in campaigns about monitoring, prevention and mitigation of the effects of such phenomena, with the aim to secure and protect human lives, and secondly, the remarkable cultural heritage. The present paper will first make a brief excursus on the main Thailand projects aimed at the mitigation of natural disasters, referring to projects of national and international relevance, being implemented, such as the ESCAP1999 (flow regime regulation and water conservation). Adaptable devices such as foldable flood barriers and hydrodynamically supported temporary banks have been utilized when flooding. In the second part of the paper, will be described some new ideas concerning the use of smart and biomimicking column structures capable of high-velocity water interception and velocity detection in the case of tsunami. The pole configuration is composite cylindrical shell structure embedded with piezoceramic sensor. The vortex shedding of the flow around the pole induces the vibration and periodically strains the piezoelectric element, which in turn generates the electrical sensorial signal. The internal space of the shell is filled with elastic foam to enhance the load carrying capability due to hydrodynamic application. This more rigid outer shell inserted with soft core material resemble lotus stem in nature in order to prolong local buckling and ovalization of column

  17. Governance of disaster risk reduction in Cameroon: The need to empower local government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry N. Bang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of natural hazards and/or disasters in Cameroon continues to hit local communities hardest, but local government lacks the ability to manage disaster risks adequately. This is partly due to the fact that the necessity to mainstream disaster risk reduction into local governance and development practices is not yet an underlying principle of Cameroon’s disaster management framework. Using empirical and secondary data, this paper analyses the governance of disaster risks in Cameroon with particular focus on the challenges local government faces in implementing disaster risk reduction strategies. The hypothesis is that the governance of disaster risks is too centralised at the national level, with huge implications for the effective governance of disaster risks at the local level. Although Cameroon has reinvigorated efforts to address growing disaster risks in a proactive way, it is argued that the practical actions are more reactive than proactive in nature. The overall aim is to explore the challenges and opportunities that local government has in the governance of disaster risks. Based on the findings from this research, policy recommendations are suggested on ways to mainstream disaster risk reduction strategies into local governance, and advance understanding and practice in the local governance of disaster risks in the country.

  18. Disaster Risk Management - The Kenyan Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabutola, W.; Scheer, S.

    2009-04-01

    assembly elections Kenya plunged into bloodshed. One Kenyan went for another, people who had been living together as neighbours suddenly turned on one another. Some of the more glaring outcomes were: • About 1,300 Kenyans died. • Property worth billions of shillings was destroyed. • Thousands of Kenyans fled their homes/farms/houses. • To date Kenya has Internally Displaced Persons (IDP). It has become a buzzword, almost fashionable if it were not so sad and grave, and a disgrace to democracy. During the short rains in September and October we experienced floods, land slides, crop failures. Ironically, in the previous months, we had just gone through drought, crops had failed, livestock died, sadly some people died, some through vagaries of weather while others as a result of inter-community friction. The net results were: • Kenya is primarily an agricultural economy sector employs over 80%. Only 20% of the land is arable, the rest is arid and semi arid land, occupied by the nomadic Kenyans. So when there is drought or floods, we get challenges that spark inter-community conflicts. Food shortages lead to higher food prices, a kilogramme bag of maize meal rose from barely affordable Kes. 52.00 to 120.00 in less than two months. In any case the food is not necessarily always available. • The global financial crisis affected our economy very adversely. Fuel prices rose from Kenya Shillings 60.00 per litre to 112.00. • Ironically Kenya's parliament voted against a law that would have compelled them to pay taxes. • As if in anticipation of citizen reactions the MP's passed the media law that would gag freedom of the press. METHODOLOGY 1. Review literature available on disasters in Kenya over the last decades. 2. I will ask Kenyans what they understand by the terms disasters and risks. 3. I will ask the Kenyan authorities - central government and local governments, what plans they have. 4. I will ask Kenya Red Cross what their plans are, their challenges and

  19. Disaster Risk Management - The Kenyan Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabutola, W.

    2009-04-01

    assembly elections Kenya plunged into bloodshed. One Kenyan went for another, people who had been living together as neighbours suddenly turned on one another. Some of the more glaring outcomes were: • About 1,300 Kenyans died. • Property worth billions of shillings was destroyed. • Thousands of Kenyans fled their homes/farms/houses. • To date Kenya has Internally Displaced Persons (IDP). It has become a buzzword, almost fashionable if it were not so sad and grave, and a disgrace to democracy. During the short rains in September and October we experienced floods, land slides, crop failures. Ironically, in the previous months, we had just gone through drought, crops had failed, livestock died, sadly some people died, some through vagaries of weather while others as a result of inter-community friction. The net results were: • Kenya is primarily an agricultural economy sector employs over 80%. Only 20% of the land is arable, the rest is arid and semi arid land, occupied by the nomadic Kenyans. So when there is drought or floods, we get challenges that spark inter-community conflicts. Food shortages lead to higher food prices, a kilogramme bag of maize meal rose from barely affordable Kes. 52.00 to 120.00 in less than two months. In any case the food is not necessarily always available. • The global financial crisis affected our economy very adversely. Fuel prices rose from Kenya Shillings 60.00 per litre to 112.00. • Ironically Kenya's parliament voted against a law that would have compelled them to pay taxes. • As if in anticipation of citizen reactions the MP's passed the media law that would gag freedom of the press. METHODOLOGY 1. Review literature available on disasters in Kenya over the last decades. 2. I will ask Kenyans what they understand by the terms disasters and risks. 3. I will ask the Kenyan authorities - central government and local governments, what plans they have. 4. I will ask Kenya Red Cross what their plans are, their challenges and

  20. Infectious diseases following natural disasters: prevention and control measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouadio, Isidore K; Aljunid, Syed; Kamigaki, Taro; Hammad, Karen; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2012-01-01

    Natural disasters may lead to infectious disease outbreaks when they result in substantial population displacement and exacerbate synergic risk factors (change in the environment, in human conditions and in the vulnerability to existing pathogens) for disease transmission. We reviewed risk factors and potential infectious diseases resulting from prolonged secondary effects of major natural disasters that occurred from 2000 to 2011. Natural disasters including floods, tsunamis, earthquakes, tropical cyclones (e.g., hurricanes and typhoons) and tornadoes have been secondarily described with the following infectious diseases including diarrheal diseases, acute respiratory infections, malaria, leptospirosis, measles, dengue fever, viral hepatitis, typhoid fever, meningitis, as well as tetanus and cutaneous mucormycosis. Risk assessment is essential in post-disaster situations and the rapid implementation of control measures through re-establishment and improvement of primary healthcare delivery should be given high priority, especially in the absence of pre-disaster surveillance data.

  1. Public expectations for nonemergency hospital resources and services during disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charney, Rachel L; Rebmann, Terri; Esguerra, Cybill R; Lai, Charlene W; Dalawari, Preeti

    2013-04-01

    The public's expectations of hospital services during disasters may not reflect current hospital disaster plans. The objective of this study was to determine the public's expected hospital service utilization during a pandemic, earthquake, and terrorist bombing. A survey was distributed to adult patients or family members at 3 emergency departments (EDs). Participants identified resources and services they expect to need during 3 disaster scenarios. Linear regression was used to describe factors associated with higher expected utilization scores for each scenario. Of the 961 people who participated in the study, 66.9% were women, 47.5% were white, and 44.6% were black. Determinants of higher pandemic resource utilization included persons who were younger (P expectations of hospitals during disasters are high, and some expectations are inappropriate. Better community disaster planning and public risk communication are needed.

  2. Metal availability in a highly contaminated, dredged-sediment disposal site: Field measurements and geochemical modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lions, Julie, E-mail: j.lions@brgm.f [BRGM, 3 Avenue Claude Guillemin, 45060 Orleans Cedex 2 (France); Centre National de Recherche sur les Sites et Sols Pollues, BP 537, 59505 Douai cedex (France); Guerin, Valerie; Bataillard, Philippe [BRGM, 3 Avenue Claude Guillemin, 45060 Orleans Cedex 2 (France); Centre National de Recherche sur les Sites et Sols Pollues, BP 537, 59505 Douai cedex (France); Lee, Jan van der [Mines ParisTech, Centre de Geosciences, 77305 Fontainebleau Cedex (France); Laboudigue, Agnes [Univ Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); EMDouai, MPE-GCE, F-59500 Douai (France); Centre National de Recherche sur les Sites et Sols Pollues, BP 537, 59505 Douai cedex (France)

    2010-09-15

    Two complementary approaches were used to characterize arsenic and metal mobilizations from a dredged-sediment disposal site: a detailed field study combined with hydrogeochemical modeling. Contaminants in sediments were found to be mainly present as sulfides subject to oxidation. Secondary phases (carbonates, sulfates, (hydr)oxides) were also observed. Oxidative processes occurred at different rates depending on physicochemical conditions and contaminant contents in the sediment. Two distinct areas were identified on the site, each corresponding to a specific contaminant mobility behavior. In a reducing area, Fe and As were highly soluble and illustrated anoxic behavior. In well-oxygenated material, groundwater was highly contaminated in Zn, Cd and Pb. A third zone in which sediments and groundwater were less contaminated was also characterized. This study enabled us to prioritize remediation work, which should aim to limit infiltration and long-term environmental impact. - A detailed case study of metal behavior in a dredged-sediment disposal site combined with geochemical modeling.

  3. Daily training with high carbohydrate availability increases exogenous carbohydrate oxidation during endurance cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Gregory R; Clark, Sally A; Cox, Amanda J; Halson, Shona L; Hargreaves, Mark; Hawley, John A; Jeacocke, Nikki; Snow, Rodney J; Yeo, Wee Kian; Burke, Louise M

    2010-07-01

    We determined the effects of varying daily carbohydrate intake by providing or withholding carbohydrate during daily training on endurance performance, whole body rates of substrate oxidation, and selected mitochondrial enzymes. Sixteen endurance-trained cyclists or triathletes were pair matched and randomly allocated to either a high-carbohydrate group (High group; n = 8) or an energy-matched low-carbohydrate group (Low group; n = 8) for 28 days. Immediately before study commencement and during the final 5 days, subjects undertook a 5-day test block in which they completed an exercise trial consisting of a 100 min of steady-state cycling (100SS) followed by a 7-kJ/kg time trial on two occasions separated by 72 h. In a counterbalanced design, subjects consumed either water (water trial) or a 10% glucose solution (glucose trial) throughout the exercise trial. A muscle biopsy was taken from the vastus lateralis muscle on day 1 of the first test block, and rates of substrate oxidation were determined throughout 100SS. Training induced a marked increase in maximal citrate synthase activity after the intervention in the High group (27 vs. 34 micromol x g(-1) x min(-1), P < 0.001). Tracer-derived estimates of exogenous glucose oxidation during 100SS in the glucose trial increased from 54.6 to 63.6 g (P < 0.01) in the High group with no change in the Low group. Cycling performance improved by approximately 6% after training. We conclude that altering total daily carbohydrate intake by providing or withholding carbohydrate during daily training in trained athletes results in differences in selected metabolic adaptations to exercise, including the oxidation of exogenous carbohydrate. However, these metabolic changes do not alter the training-induced magnitude of increase in exercise performance.

  4. Improving effective surgical delivery in humanitarian disasters: lessons from Haiti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Chu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Kathryn Chu and colleagues describe the experiences of Médecins sans Frontières after the 2010 Haiti earthquake, and discuss how to improve delivery of surgery in humanitarian disasters.

  5. Disaster Risk Assessment in Educational Hospitals of Qazvin Based on WHO Pattern in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asefzadeh, Saeed; Varyani, Ali Safari; Gholami, Soheyla

    2016-01-01

    In addition to damaging communities and infrastructures, unexpected disasters affect service provider centers as well. Structural, non-structural, and functional components of hospitals could be affected when hazards or disasters occur, and they may be unable to admit casualties, have their own personnel and patients killed or injured, have their property destroyed. In such as case, they would increase the burden of death resulting from the disaster. Therefore, in this study, hospital safety was reviewed in two hospitals in Qazvin in 2015. This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on two of the Rajaee and Velayat Hospitals in Qazvin. The tools used to assess for the hospitals' risk of experiencing a disaster were observation, interviews, and a checklist of hospital disaster risk assessment provided by the World Health Organization (WHO), including 5 sections and 145 indices for the safety assessment of hospitals. To determine the general weight, three main parts of the questionnaire, i.e., functional safety, non-structural safety, and structural safety, were given weights of 0.2, 0.3, and 0.5, respectively, according to the original version of the indices. Each index was scored as 0, 1, and 2 based on the low, medium, and high scores. The safety scores that were obtained were categorized in three groups, i.e., low safety (≤ 34%), medium safety (34-66%), and high safety (> 66%). The data were analyzed using Excel 2007 software. Functional, structural, and non-structural safety scores were evaluated as 60.20% (medium safety), 67.61% (high safety), and 76.16% (high safety), respectively. General preparedness of the hospitals we studied were 71.90%, a high safety level. This high preparedness was related to the indices of availability of medicines, equipment, water supply, and other resources required in emergency conditions (85%), and the lowest preparedness was related to contingency plans of medical operations (19%). The preparedness of the two

  6. Future water availability in North African dams simulated by high-resolution regional climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramblay, Yves; Jarlan, Lionel; Hanich, Lahoucine; Somot, Samuel

    2016-04-01

    In North Africa, the countries of Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia are already experiencing water scarcity and a strong interannual variability of precipitation. To better manage their existing water resources, several dams and reservoirs have been built on most large river catchments. The objective of this study is to provide quantitative scenarios of future changes in water availability for the 47 major dams and reservoirs catchments located in North Africa. An ensemble of regional climate models (RCM) with a spatial resolution of 12km, driven by different general circulation models (GCM), from the EuroCORDEX experiment have been considered to analyze the projected changes on temperature, precipitation and potential evapotranspiration (PET) for two scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) and two time horizons (2040-2065 and 2065-2090). PET is estimated from RCM outputs either with the FAO-Penman-Monteith (PM) equation, requiring air temperature, relative humidity, net radiation and wind, or with the Hargreave Samani (HS) equation, requiring only air temperature. The water balance is analyzed by comparing the climatic demand and supply of water, considering that for most of these catchments groundwater storage is negligible over long time periods. Results indicated a future temperature increase for all catchments between +1.8° and +4.2°, depending on the emission scenario and the time period considered. Precipitation is projected to decrease between -14% to -27%, mainly in winter and spring, with a strong East to West gradient. PET computed from PM or HS formulas provided very similar estimates and projections, ranging between +7% to +18%. Changes in PET are mostly driven by rising temperatures and are greatest during dry summer months than for the wet winter season. Therefore the increased PET has a lower impact than declining precipitation on future water availability, which is expected to decrease by -19% to -33% on average.

  7. Medical and Disaster Preparedness of US Marathons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Joshua; Rixe, Jeffrey; Spurkeland, Nancy; Brady, Jodi; Silvis, Matthew; Olympia, Robert P

    2015-08-01

    Despite the events that occurred at the 2013 Boston Marathon (Boston, Massachusetts USA), there are currently no evidence-based guidelines or published data regarding medical and disaster preparedness of marathon races in the United States. Purpose To determine the current state of medical disaster preparedness of marathons in the US and to identify potential areas for improvement. A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study was conducted from January through May of 2014. The questionnaire was distributed to race directors of US road and trail marathons, as identified by a comprehensive internet database. One hundred twenty-three questionnaires were available for analysis (19% usable response rate). Marathon races from all major regions of the US were represented. Runner medical information was not listed on race bibs in 53% of races. Only 45% of races held group training and planning sessions prior to race day. Automated external defibrillators (AEDs) were immediately available on 50% of courses, and medications such as albuterol (30%), oxygen (33%), and IV fluids (34%) were available less frequently. Regarding medical emergencies, 55% of races did not have protocols for the assessment of dehydration, asthma, chest pain, syncope, or exercise-induced cramping. With regard to disaster preparedness, 50% of races did not have protocols for the management of disasters, and 21% did not provide security personnel at start/finish lines, aid stations, road crossings, and drop bag locations. Areas for improvement in the preparedness of US marathons were identified, such as including printed medical information on race bibs, increasing pre-race training and planning sessions for volunteers, ensuring the immediate availability of certain emergency equipment and medications, and developing written protocols for specific emergencies and disasters.

  8. Disaster planning: transportation resources and considerations for managing a burn disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Randy D; Hubble, Michael W; Holmes, James H; Cairns, Bruce A

    2014-01-01

    A disaster scenario with a significant number of burn-injured patients creates a tremendous challenge for disaster planners. Directing the transport of patients to the most appropriate receiving facility as soon as reasonably possible remains the aim. This review focused on both the overall process as well as an analysis of one specific state (as an example). This included the capability and limitations of the intrastate and interstate resources should a burn disaster occur. Although the results for one state may be interesting, it is the process that is essential for those involved in burn disaster planning. An overview of the quantity and quality of available ambulances and how to access these resources is provided. Ground-based ambulances have an array of capacities and levels of services ranging from basic life support to advanced (paramedic) services and include ambulance buses. This review also included private and hospital-based specialty care ambulances and aeromedical services. Finally, the review identified military or federal resources that may be an option as well. There are various local, state, and federal resources that can be called upon to meet the transportation needs of these critically injured patients. Yet, there are barriers to access and limitations to their response. It is just as important to know both availability and capability as it is to know how to access these resources. A disaster is not the time to realize these hurdles.

  9. Cyber Surveillance for Flood Disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Wei Lo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional heavy rainfall is usually caused by the influence of extreme weather conditions. Instant heavy rainfall often results in the flooding of rivers and the neighboring low-lying areas, which is responsible for a large number of casualties and considerable property loss. The existing precipitation forecast systems mostly focus on the analysis and forecast of large-scale areas but do not provide precise instant automatic monitoring and alert feedback for individual river areas and sections. Therefore, in this paper, we propose an easy method to automatically monitor the flood object of a specific area, based on the currently widely used remote cyber surveillance systems and image processing methods, in order to obtain instant flooding and waterlogging event feedback. The intrusion detection mode of these surveillance systems is used in this study, wherein a flood is considered a possible invasion object. Through the detection and verification of flood objects, automatic flood risk-level monitoring of specific individual river segments, as well as the automatic urban inundation detection, has become possible. The proposed method can better meet the practical needs of disaster prevention than the method of large-area forecasting. It also has several other advantages, such as flexibility in location selection, no requirement of a standard water-level ruler, and a relatively large field of view, when compared with the traditional water-level measurements using video screens. The results can offer prompt reference for appropriate disaster warning actions in small areas, making them more accurate and effective.

  10. Improving Disaster Governance : Proposals for a Multi-Level Human Rights Disaster Governance Matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lane, Charlotte; Hesselman, Marlies

    2016-01-01

    'Good’ (natural) disaster governance faces multiple challenges given the broad range of resources, skills, expertise and international cooperation that adequate disaster response commands. Disaster governance needs coordinated action across space and time, at different levels and in the full disaste

  11. Fish bones--a highly available calcium source for growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malde, M K; Graff, I E; Siljander-Rasi, H; Venäläinen, E; Julshamn, K; Pedersen, J I; Valaja, J

    2010-10-01

    In general, there is a lack of scientific documentation of nutritional value of marine by-products. The bone fraction from fish has been regarded as waste. Due to the high mineral content of fish bones, this material can be well suitable as a natural calcium source. In the present study, apparent calcium absorption of different fish bone sources was tested using growing pigs. The experimental diets consisted of boiled salmon frames, or salmon, saithe or cod bones treated with enzymes. Calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)) was used as control. The experimental diets were formulated to contain 0.7% total calcium of which the added calcium source to be tested contributed about 71% (study 1) and 86% (study 2). Except for the calcium and phosphorus sources, the animals received similar basal diets. Apparent calcium digestibility coefficient was calculated using yttrium as indicator (both studies) and was based on complete collection of faeces and urine (study 2). The experimental design was parallel and cross-over in study 1 and study 2, respectively. In study 1, piglets getting salmon bone treated with enzymes had significantly higher calcium absorption than piglets getting boiled fish bone or calcium carbonate. Therefore, in the second study only enzymatically treated fish bones were included. The higher calcium absorption from enzymatically treated salmon bone was also found in study 2, but this time not significant. Calcium from boiled salmon bones in study I, and from enzymatically treated saithe and cod bones in study II were absorbed as well as the calcium carbonate control. The results indicate that fish bones may be a useful and well absorbed calcium source. Due to the high mineral content of the bone fraction, salmon bones can be well suitable as a natural calcium and phosphorus source in, for example, food, feed or as supplement.

  12. The meaning of destruction: Definition and contextualization of disaster movies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomašević Milan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The disaster movie is one of the most persistent genres in cinematography, but it constantly escapes our attention because it is presented as “easy summer fun”. If we want to understand it as a cultural document of an epoch in which the genre is important and popular, we need to come up with a definition, formula and conventions of a disaster movie. Also, we must propose one of many possible comprehensions of its popularity and religious heritage. The paper uses definitions of genre, conventions and formulae in the attempt to show a way of using popular narratives in the transmission of a world view. Using a narrative structure gives us a glimpse into the deeper cultural, social and political context in which the disaster movie is created, popular or rejected. The paper discusses disaster movies as cultural artifacts, as a ritual we are practicing without remembering its purpose. Also, paper is examining identifying apocalyptic and catastrophic as an product of interposition of Apocalypse to Johan and Great Tribulation. Using apocalyptic literature, end times narratives and disaster movies, the paper shows the fruitfulness of destruction representations and imaginarium of terror. Using fear and shock, the messages of disaster movies seems more urgent and relevant. Through the ideas of Susan Sontag and Maurice Yacowar, the paper presents a way for analyzing the contemporary disaster movie. Conventions and formulae of disaster movies help us to understand the way modern cinematography is used for cultural and political means. The popularity of disaster movies can be seen as a form of ”ritualization of discontent” wherein the viewers experience some sort of catharsis. Also, disaster movie gathers different interests and actualizes thirstness for transformation of order or achieving justice. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177026

  13. Climatological/meteorological and hydrological disasters and the insurance sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Türkeş

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is a continual fact during the Earth’s history. There had been many significant changes in the Earth’s climate during its evolutionary history and a lot of ecosystems had been affected by these changes. Especially the industrialization process showing rapid movement after industrial revolution has put serious pressure on the present and future climate. Human activities such as increased fossil fuel usage with the industrialization process, land-use changes, industrial processes and deforestation have increased atmospheric accumulation up of the various greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4, nitrous oxide (N2O. On the other hand, increase in frequency and severity of natural disasters can be explained mostly by the increase of the probability of extreme events due to the climate change. Increased numbers of people have been affected by climatological and meteorological catastrophes in every year. Various actions and activities such as disaster preparedness, mitigation, reduction and prevention of the impacts and early warnings are considerable with respect to the insurance sector. These activities and actions should be implemented in the frame of contemporary and comprehensive disaster management planes. Scope of the natural disaster should be expanded particularly in the countries and regions that are vulnerable to the impacts of the climate change and variability including drought events and/or natural disasters. Moreover, drought events should also be accepted as one of the severe natural disasters, and sustainable and applicable drought management plans should be developed in order to mitigate these disasters. In this context, main purpose of the study is to classify and shortly assess the climatological and meteorological disasters, and to attract attention necessity of a new disaster insurance system containing these disasters.

  14. Geographic Information System and Remote Sensing in Disaster Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Arca

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available While our country is a sources of unique beauties in various fields such as natural beauty, history, culture, art, climatic features, geographical position, it is also a country of catastrophe. It is especially a country of earthquake which often experiences forceful earthquakes.Catastrophe, earthquake in particular, is a reality we should admit and learn to live with. Therefore, we are responsible to minimize the loss and damage stemming from catastrophe in our era when it is still impossible to determine catastrophe in advance. The loss can be minimized by working and measurements which should be taken before, during and after the catastrophe. In this context, Geographical Information System and remote sensing has much importance.The primary mission of the Disaster Management is, therefore, to reduce the loss of life and property and protect the nations from all hazards, including natural disasters, acts of terrorism, and other man-made disasters, by leading and supporting the nations in a risk-based, comprehensive emergency management system of preparedness, protection, response, recovery, and mitigation. Recently, disaster management emphasizes the importance of disaster prevention - focusing on disaster preparedness.The studies regarding natural hazards RS and GIS are widely used today. These studies include earthquake, flood, landslide, fire, volcanic eruptions, storm and other natural phenomena that cause natural disasters. GIS and RS are not only used for locating, monitoring and determining influence areas of these natural events, but are very useful in determining what is to be done before and after a natural disaster. Effective usage of GIS technologies regarding disasters first depends on determining that for what purpose and how they are going to be used. In this respect, it is a necessity to explain of how an effective and contemporary disaster management system and its components should be before dealing with the characteristics

  15. Response of Streptococcus suis to iron-restricted growth conditions at high and low oxygen availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterhoff, Nora; Goethe, Ralph; Gruening, Petra; Valentin-Weigand, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Streptococcus suis (S. suis) is an important pathogen in pigs and has to overcome strict iron limitations in its host environment. Here, we studied iron-restricted growth of a highly virulent S. suis strain in vitro at aerobic and CO2-enriched growth conditions. At both conditions, depleting of iron in the culture medium with nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) resulted in decreased growth rates and down regulation of several proteins. Sensitivity to NTA was significantly higher at aerobic versus CO2-enriched conditions. Growth could not be restored by addition of host iron sources such as ferritin, hemin, hemoglobin, lactoferrin or transferrin. Accordingly, S. suis was not able to produce detectable amounts of siderophores. On the other hand, growth at iron-restricted conditions was fully restored by addition of Mn2+ (at aerobic and CO2-enriched conditions) or Mg2+ (only at CO2-enriched conditions). In conclusion our results suggest that, unlike many other bacteria, S. suis adapts to iron restricted conditions by a change in its metabolism in order to replace Fe2+ by Mn2+ or Mg2+ rather than by expressing specific iron uptake systems.

  16. Using DNA metabarcoding to investigate honey bee foraging reveals limited flower use despite high floral availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vere, Natasha; Jones, Laura E; Gilmore, Tegan; Moscrop, Jake; Lowe, Abigail; Smith, Dan; Hegarty, Matthew J; Creer, Simon; Ford, Col R

    2017-02-16

    Understanding which flowers honey bees (Apis mellifera) use for forage can help us to provide suitable plants for healthy honey bee colonies. Accordingly, honey DNA metabarcoding provides a valuable tool for investigating pollen and nectar collection. We investigated early season (April and May) floral choice by honey bees provided with a very high diversity of flowering plants within the National Botanic Garden of Wales. There was a close correspondence between the phenology of flowering and the detection of plants within the honey. Within the study area there were 437 genera of plants in flower during April and May, but only 11% of these were used. Thirty-nine plant taxa were recorded from three hives but only ten at greater than 1%. All three colonies used the same core set of native or near-native plants, typically found in hedgerows and woodlands. The major plants were supplemented with a range of horticultural species, with more variation in plant choice between the honey bee colonies. We conclude that during the spring, honey bees need access to native hedgerows and woodlands to provide major plants for foraging. Gardens provide supplementary flowers that may increase the nutritional diversity of the honey bee diet.

  17. Detection of high-risk human papillomavirus infection in tonsillar specimens using 2 commercially available assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockerill, Cara C; Orvidas, Laura J; Moore, Eric J; Binnicker, Matthew J; Duresko, Brian J; Espy, Mark J; Cockerill, Franklin R; Tombers, Nicole M; Pritt, Bobbi S

    2016-12-01

    THE OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY IS TO DETERMINE THE PREVALENCE OF HIGH-RISK HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS (HRHPV) INFECTION IN TONSILLAR SWABS AND TISSUE: Patients undergoing tonsillectomy for nonmalignant causes were enrolled. A flocked swab and fresh tissue were collected from the left and right tonsil of each patient. Specimens were tested for hrHPV DNA using the Roche cobas test and for the presence of E6/E7 messenger RNA using the Hologic Aptima hrHPV test. Of the 193 patients enrolled, 129 were in the pediatric group (ages 1-12years; median, 5years), and 64 were in the adult group (ages 13-55; median, 22years). All swab and tissue specimens were negative for hrHPV by both methods. Positive, negative, and internal controls performed as expected. We found a 0% rate of infection indicating that detectable hrHPV infection in tonsillar tissue appears to be uncommon in the children and adults in the population sampled. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Using DNA metabarcoding to investigate honey bee foraging reveals limited flower use despite high floral availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vere, Natasha; Jones, Laura E.; Gilmore, Tegan; Moscrop, Jake; Lowe, Abigail; Smith, Dan; Hegarty, Matthew J.; Creer, Simon; Ford, Col R.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding which flowers honey bees (Apis mellifera) use for forage can help us to provide suitable plants for healthy honey bee colonies. Accordingly, honey DNA metabarcoding provides a valuable tool for investigating pollen and nectar collection. We investigated early season (April and May) floral choice by honey bees provided with a very high diversity of flowering plants within the National Botanic Garden of Wales. There was a close correspondence between the phenology of flowering and the detection of plants within the honey. Within the study area there were 437 genera of plants in flower during April and May, but only 11% of these were used. Thirty-nine plant taxa were recorded from three hives but only ten at greater than 1%. All three colonies used the same core set of native or near-native plants, typically found in hedgerows and woodlands. The major plants were supplemented with a range of horticultural species, with more variation in plant choice between the honey bee colonies. We conclude that during the spring, honey bees need access to native hedgerows and woodlands to provide major plants for foraging. Gardens provide supplementary flowers that may increase the nutritional diversity of the honey bee diet. PMID:28205632

  19. Ethics in disaster management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surya Parkash

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In any profession, a basic set of moral values needs to be followed to comply with what we call ethics. Geoscientists have significant roles to play, more particularly in the field of geohazards, to appraise society about the possibilities of natural hazards such as landslides, avalanches, floods, volcanoes, and earthquakes. Geoscientists cannot only assess these hazards, but they can also estimate the potential consequences if these hazards occur in a given place and at a given time. However, sometimes it has been found that the credibility of geoscientists among society and government is lost, due to some unethical practices for short-term gain, or due to incorrect understanding of geological phenomena. Some of the hazards that cannot be predicted with the existing capabilities have been forecast by some pseudo-geoscientists, to draw social/ media attention, thereby bringing the reputation of the profession into disrepute. There is the need to be fair enough to accept the limitations of our profession in providing information about natural hazards that are not yet fully understood by the professionals themselves. More specifically, the predictions related to earthquakes have drawn the attention of society as well as media in the developing countries where the ‘common’ people have different perceptions. Most often, popular myths take over scientific facts among the public, and this can lead to rumors about natural hazards. This article will mention some cases of rumors about natural disasters, and particularly earthquakes, and the response of society, media and government. It emphasizes the role of geoscientists as the ethical responsibility to inform the public about the actual situations and the geohazards, to avoid panic caused by rumors from non-specialists or hyperactive pseudo experts. This article indicates the recent rumors about a lake outburst, flash floods, and volcanic activities after a moderate earthquake (M 6.9, September 18

  20. Associations between disaster exposures, peritraumatic distress, and posttraumatic stress responses in Fukushima nuclear plant workers following the 2011 nuclear accident: the Fukushima NEWS Project study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Shigemura

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident was the worst nuclear disaster since Chernobyl. The nearby Daini plant also experienced substantial damage but remained intact. Workers for the both plants experienced multiple stressors as disaster victims and workers, as well as the criticism from the public due to their company's post-disaster management. Little is known about the psychological pathway mechanism from nuclear disaster exposures, distress during and immediately after the event (peritraumatic distress; PD, to posttraumatic stress responses (PTSR. METHODS: A self-report questionnaire was administered to 1,411 plant employees (Daiichi, n = 831; Daini, n = 580 2-3 months post-disaster (total response rate: 80.2%. The socio-demographic characteristics and disaster-related experiences were assessed as independent variables. PD and PTSR were measured by the Japanese versions of Peritraumatic Distress Inventory and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, respectively. The analysis was conducted separately for the two groups. Bivariate regression analyses were performed to assess the relationships between independent variables, PD, and PTSR. Significant variables were subsequently entered in the multiple regression analyses to explore the pathway mechanism for development of PTSR. RESULTS: For both groups, PTSR highly associated with PD (Daiichi: adjusted β, 0.66; p<0.001; vs. Daini: adjusted β, 0.67; p<0.001. PTSR also associated with discrimination/slurs experience (Daiichi: 0.11; p<0.001; vs. Daini, 0.09; p = 0.005 and presence of preexisting illness(es (Daiichi: 0.07; p = 0.005; vs. Daini: 0.15; p<.0001. Other disaster-related variables were likely to be associated with PD than PTSR. CONCLUSION: Among the Fukushima nuclear plant workers, disaster exposures associated with PD. PTSR was highly affected by PD along with discrimination/slurs experience.

  1. 7 CFR 760.1001 - Eligible counties, disaster events, and disaster periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible counties, disaster events, and disaster..., disaster events, and disaster periods. (a) Except as provided in this subpart, FSA will provide assistance... eligible disaster events in eligible disaster counties provided in paragraph (c) of this section. (b)...

  2. [Study of Appropriate Risk Management for People Receiving Care at Home - Actions of the High-Risk People Receiving Care at Home in Times of Disasters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, Kiyomi; Hata, Masao

    2016-12-01

    Although preparation for frequently occurring disasters is required in the context of preparing a home care environment wherein people reside and receive care, existing preparations cannot be described as sufficient. Therefore, effective preparation has become a research focus. This study aimed to identify the risks faced by people receiving home care in disaster situations and to clarify the risk-related actions taken by various stakeholders in order to study appropriate risk management for people receiving care. We interviewed 8 individuals, including people receiving care and their family members, who were victims in the large-scale disasters associated with the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake(1995)or later, conducted the factorsearch qualitative analysis, and mapped the actions taken by stakeholders. As a result, identified risks were classified into 5 categories and 13 subcategories. Risk actions taken by professionals and others could be elucidated from the stakeholder map. Our findings indicate the necessity of establishing risk management protocols for people receiving home care and preparing in ordinary times.

  3. Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster Mitigation in the Marmara Region and Disaster Education in Turkey Part2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneda, Yoshiyuki; Ozener, Haluk; Meral Özel, Nurcan

    2016-04-01

    Turkey is one of seismogenic countries with destructive earthquakes. In Turkey, the 1999 Izumit Earthquake as the destructive earthquake occurred along the North Anatolian fault. This fault is crossing the Marmara sea. In this SATREPS project, Marmara Sea should be focused on because of a seismic gap in the North Anatolian fault. Istanbul is located around the Marmara Sea, so, if next earthquake in the Marmara will occur near Istanbul, fatal damages will be generated as compound damages including Tsunami and liquefaction etc. The Japan and Turkey can share our own experiences during past damaging earthquakes and we can prepare for future large earthquakes in cooperation with each other. In earthquakes in Tokyo area and Istanbul area as the destructive earthquakes near high population cities, there are common disaster researches and measures in each country. For disaster mitigation, we are progressing multidisciplinary researches in this SATREPS project. Our goals of this SATREPS project are as follows, This project is composed of four research groups. 1) The first group is Marmara Earthquake Source region observationally research group. This group has 4 sub-themes such as Seismicity, Geodesy, Electromagnetics and Trench analyses. 2) The second group focuses on scenario researches of earthquake occurrence along the North Anatolia fault and precise tsunami simulation in the Marmara region. 3) Aims of the third group are improvements and constructions of seismic characterizations and damage predictions based on observation researches and precise simulations. 4) The fourth group is promoting disaster educations using research result visuals. In this SATREPS project, we will integrate these research results for disaster mitigation in Marmara region and disaster education in Turkey. Finally, these results and knowledges will be applied to Japanese disaster mitigation researches and disaster educations. We will have a presentation of the updated results of this SATREPS

  4. Disaster Response in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-08-01

    and preventative measures. The cumulative effects of deforestation, erosion, water-logging, salinity and nutrient depletion all over the country have...and the Sahel (Mali, Niger); and 1982-86 drought in the Sahel (Sudan, Ethiopia). during disasters) in terms of migration and loss of employment but...attribute drought in the country to the following major causes: • El Niño effect, the periodic appearance of warm and saline oce- anic currents in the

  5. Emergency Vehicle Scheduling Problem with Time Utility in Disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobing Gan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a flexible emergency rescue system which is chiefly composed of three parts, namely, disaster assistance center, relief vehicles, and disaster areas. A novel objective of utility maximization is used to evaluate the entire system in disasters. Considering the uncertain road conditions in the relief distribution, we implement triangular fuzzy number to calculate the vehicle velocity. As a consequence, a fuzzy mathematical model is built to maximize the utility of emergency rescue system and then converted to the crisp counterpart. Finally, the results of numerical experiments obtained by particle swarm optimization (PSO prove the validity of this proposed mathematical model.

  6. Transfusion service disaster planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundy, K L; Foss, M L; Stubbs, J R

    2008-01-01

    The Mayo Clinic, in Rochester, Minnesota, recently set forth a directive to develop a Mayo Emergency Incident Command System (MEICS) plan to respond to major disasters. The MEICS plan that was developed interfaces with national response plans to ensure effective communication and coordination between our institution and local, state, and federal agencies to establish a common language and communication structure. The MEICS plan addresses multiple aspects of dealing with resource needs during a crisis, including the need for blood and transfusion medicine services. The MEICS plan was developed to supplement our current local emergency preparedness procedures and provide a mechanism for responding to the escalating severity of an emergency to deal with situations of a magnitude that is outside the normal experience. A plan was developed to interface the existing Transfusion Medicine disaster plan standard operating procedures (SOP) with the institutional and Department of Laboratory Medicine (DLMP) MEICS plans. The first step in developing this interface was defining MEICS. Other major steps were defining the chain of command, developing a method for visually indicating who is "in charge," planning communication, defining the actions to be taken, assessing resource needs, developing flowcharts and updating SOPs, and developing a blood rationing team to deal with anticipated blood shortages. Several key features of the interface and updated disaster plan that were developed are calling trees for response personnel, plans for relocating leadership to alternative command centers, and action sheets to assist with resource assessment. The action sheets also provide documentation of key actions by response personnel.

  7. From event analysis to global lessons: disaster forensics for building resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Adriana; Venkateswaran, Kanmani; Szoenyi, Michael; MacClune, Karen; Mechler, Reinhard

    2016-07-01

    With unprecedented growth in disaster risk, there is an urgent need for enhanced learning and understanding of disasters, particularly in relation to the trends in drivers of increasing risk. Building on the disaster forensics field, we introduce the post-event review capability (PERC) methodology for systematically and holistically analysing disaster events, and identifying actionable recommendations. PERC responds to a need for learning about the successes and failures in disaster risk management and resilience, and uncovers the underlying drivers of increasing risk. We draw generalisable insights identified from seven applications of the methodology to date, where we find that across the globe policy makers and practitioners in disaster risk management face strikingly similar challenges despite variations in context, indicating encouraging potential for mutual learning. These lessons highlight the importance of integrated risk reduction strategies. We invite others to utilise the freely available PERC approach and contribute to building a repository of learning on disaster risk management and resilience.

  8. High School Physics Availability: Results from the 2008-09 Nationwide Survey of High School Physics Teachers. Focus On

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Susan; Tesfaye, Casey Langer

    2010-01-01

    In the fall of 2008, the authors contacted a representative sample of over 3,600 high schools in the U.S.--both public and private--to determine whether or not physics was taught there. They received responses from over 99% of the schools. For the schools which indicated they were offering physics, they obtained contact information for the…

  9. Keeping Communications Flowing During Large-scale Disasters: Leveraging Amateur Radio Innovations for Disaster Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cid, Victor H; Mitz, Andrew R; Arnesen, Stacey J

    2017-09-25

    Medical facilities may struggle to maintain effective communications during a major disaster. Natural and man-made disasters threaten connectivity by degrading or crippling Internet, cellular/mobile, and landline telephone services across wide areas. Communications among staff, between facilities, and to resources outside the disaster area may be lost for an extended time. A prototype communications system created by the National Library of Medicine (NLM) provides basic communication services that ensure essential connectivity in the face of widespread infrastructure loss. It leverages amateur radio to provide resilient email service to local users, enabling them to reach intact communications networks outside the disaster zone. Because amateur radio is inexpensive, always available, and sufficiently independent of terrestrial telecommunications infrastructure, it has often augmented telecommunications capabilities of medical facilities. NLM's solution is unique in that it provides end-user to end-user direct email communications, without requiring the intervention of a radio operator in the handling of the messages. Medical staff can exchange email among themselves and with others outside the communications blackout zone. The technology is portable, is deployable on short notice, and can be powered in a variety of ways to adapt to the circumstances of each crisis. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017; page 1 of 8).

  10. Mental Health Services Required after Disasters: Learning from the Lasting Effects of Disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. McFarlane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Disasters test civil administrations’ and health services’ capacity to act in a flexible but well-coordinated manner because each disaster is unique and poses unusual challenges. The health services required differ markedly according to the nature of the disaster and the geographical spread of those affected. Epidemiology has shown that services need to be equipped to deal with major depressive disorder and grief, not just posttraumatic stress disorder, and not only for victims of the disaster itself but also the emergency service workers. The challenge is for specialist advisers to respect and understand the existing health care and support networks of those affected while also recognizing their limitations. In the initial aftermath of these events, a great deal of effort goes into the development of early support systems but the longer term needs of these populations are often underestimated. These services need to be structured, taking into account the pre-existing psychiatric morbidity within the community. Disasters are an opportunity for improving services for patients with posttraumatic psychopathology in general but can later be utilized for improving services for victims of more common traumas in modern society, such as accidents and interpersonal violence.

  11. Cassandra high availability

    CERN Document Server

    Strickland, Robbie

    2014-01-01

    If you are a developer or DevOps engineer who understands the basics of Cassandra and are ready to take your knowledge to the next level, then this book is for you. An understanding of the essentials of Cassandra is needed.

  12. Mobile satellite services for public safety, disaster mitigation and disaster medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freibaum, Jerry

    Between 1967 and 1987 nearly three million lives were lost and property damage of $25 to $100 billion resulted form natural disasters that adversely affected more than 829 million people. The social and economic impacts have been staggering and are expected to grow more serious as a result of changing demographic factors. The role that the Mobile Satellite Service can play in the International Decade is discussed. MSS was not available for disaster relief operations during the recent Loma Prieta/San Francisco earthquake. However, the results of a review of the performance of seven other communication services with respect to public sector operations during and shortly after the earthquake are described. The services surveyed were: public and private telephone, mobile radio telephone, noncellular mobile radio, broadcast media, CB radio, ham radio, and government and nongovernment satellite systems. The application of MSS to disaster medicine, particularly with respect to the Armenian earthquake is also discussed.

  13. Crowd Disasters as Systemic Failures: Analysis of the Love Parade Disaster

    CERN Document Server

    Helbing, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Each year, crowd disasters happen in different areas of the world. How and why do such disasters happen? Are the fatalities caused by relentless behavior of people or a psychological state of panic that makes the crowd 'go mad'? Or are they a tragic consequence of a breakdown of coordination? These and other questions are addressed, based on a qualitative analysis of publicly available videos and materials, which document the planning and organization of the Love Parade in Duisburg, Germany, and the crowd disaster on July 24, 2010. Our analysis reveals a number of misunderstandings that have widely spread. We also provide a new perspective on concepts such as 'intentional pushing', 'mass panic', 'stampede', and 'crowd crushs'. The focus of our analysis is on the contributing causal factors and their mutual interdependencies, not on legal issues or the judgment of personal or institutional responsibilities. Video recordings show that, in Duisburg, people stumbled and piled up due to a 'domino effect', resultin...

  14. The trend towards the Internet of Things: What does it help in Disaster and Risk Management?

    OpenAIRE

    Usländer, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    According to the Gartners' hype cycle 2014, the emerging Internet of Things (IoT) has just reached the top of public awareness and expectations. However, looking beyond its use as a buzzword and the high expectations, there is a clear technological trend that will affect the amount and type of information that is available in Risk and Disaster Management. The seamless interconnection of devices to the Internet, being sensors of all types ranging from in-situ measurement devices, sensors on sm...

  15. FEMA Disaster Declaration Summary -shp

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This dataset lists all official FEMA Disaster Declarations. This is raw, unedited data from FEMA's National Emergency Management Information System (NEMIS) and as...

  16. FEMA Disaster Declaration Summary - API

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This dataset lists all official FEMA Disaster Declarations. This is raw, unedited data from FEMA's National Emergency Management Information System (NEMIS) and as...

  17. Students' response to disaster: a lesson for health care professional schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Humberto

    2010-11-16

    The response of medical students, young physicians, and other health professionals to the February 2010 earthquake and tsunami in Chile provides important lessons about health care delivery during disasters and about the development of professionalism. Tertiary and secondary care of victims of these disasters was possible because local and national resources were available and field hospitals provided by Chile's armed forces and foreign countries replaced damaged hospitals. However, primary care of persons living on the outskirts of towns and in small villages and coves that were destroyed and isolated by the disaster required the involvement of volunteer groups that were largely composed of students and other young members of the health professions, all of whom were motivated by solidarity, compassion, and social commitment. This experience, similar to previous catastrophes in Chile and elsewhere, reinforces that medical and other health professional schools must instill in graduates an understanding that the privileges of being a health professional come with responsibilities to society. Beyond providing high-quality scientific and technological education, curricula in these schools should include training that enables graduates to meaningfully contribute in the setting of unexpected disasters and that nurtures a sense of responsibility to do so.

  18. Risk analysis and evaluation of agricultural drought disaster in the major grain-producing areas, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongtang Xie

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The analysis and evaluation of agricultural drought risk can assist in reducing regional disasters and agricultural drought losses. Because of the uncertainties and incomplete agricultural drought information, this paper employed an information diffusion technology and information matrix to identify a drought disaster risk distribution and to quantify the relationship between the annual drought-affected rate and the grain production losses in China's major grain-producing areas. From the assessment results, provincial drought disaster risk spatial distribution maps for each major grain-producing area in China were obtained. These risk patterns showed that the probability of drought fell when the annual drought-covered rate and the annual drought-affected rate increased, and that the high risk areas were located primarily in China's northern and central provinces. These results can provide the basis for the development of effective drought mitigation strategies which would be able to inform possible drought situations and allow for easier decision-making on drought resistance strategies. The fuzzy relationship between the annual drought-affected rate and the drought-caused grain production losses provides vital information for the development of disaster compensation plans. Furthermore, the results of this study indicated that the proposed methods had superior detection stability and higher precision. We hope that by conducting such agricultural drought risk analysis, the results are able to provide the basis for the development of drought mitigation strategies to reduce future losses.

  19. The clinical application of mobile technology to disaster medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Timothy; Morrison, Cecily; Vuylsteke, Alain

    2012-10-01

    Mobile health care technology (mHealth) has the potential to improve communication and clinical information management in disasters. This study reviews the literature on health care and computing published in the past five years to determine the types and efficacy of mobile applications available to disaster medicine, along with lessons learned. Five types of applications are identified: (1) disaster scene management; (2) remote monitoring of casualties; (3) medical image transmission (teleradiology); (4) decision support applications; and (5) field hospital information technology (IT) systems. Most projects have not yet reached the deployment stage, but evaluation exercises show that mHealth should allow faster processing and transport of patients, improved accuracy of triage and better monitoring of unattended patients at a disaster scene. Deployments of teleradiology and field hospital IT systems to disaster zones suggest that mHealth can improve resource allocation and patient care. The key problems include suitability of equipment for use in disaster zones and providing sufficient training to ensure staff familiarity with complex equipment. Future research should focus on providing unbiased observations of the use of mHealth in disaster medicine.

  20. Information Gap Analysis: near real-time evaluation of disaster response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Trevor

    2014-05-01

    Disasters, such as major storm events or earthquakes, trigger an immediate response by the disaster management system of the nation in question. The quality of this response is a large factor in its ability to limit the impacts on the local population. Improving the quality of disaster response therefore reduces disaster impacts. Studying past disasters is a valuable exercise to understand what went wrong, identify measures which could have mitigated these issues, and make recommendations to improve future disaster planning and response. While such ex post evaluations can lead to improvements in the disaster management system, there are limitations. The main limitation that has influenced this research is that ex post evaluations do not have the ability to inform the disaster response being assessed for the obvious reason that they are carried out long after the response phase is over. The result is that lessons learned can only be applied to future disasters. In the field of humanitarian relief, this limitation has led to the development of real time evaluations. The key aspect of real time humanitarian evaluations is that they are completed while the operation is still underway. This results in findings being delivered at a time when they can still make a difference to the humanitarian response. Applying such an approach to the immediate disaster response phase requires an even shorter time-frame, as well as a shift in focus from international actors to the nation in question's government. As such, a pilot study was started and methodology developed, to analyze disaster response in near real-time. The analysis uses the information provided by the disaster management system within the first 0 - 5 days of the response. The data is collected from publicly available sources such as ReliefWeb and sorted under various categories which represent each aspect of disaster response. This process was carried out for 12 disasters. The quantity and timeliness of information

  1. Service Learning Through Disaster Relief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna J. Duerst

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Rock County 4-H Disaster Relief Committee raised $1,550 to aid tsunami victims in Sri Lanka and then turned its attention to Hurricane Katrina relief efforts. Thirty-one 4-H youth participated in a service learning trip to the South with the objectives of helping hurricane victims, learning about new cultures and achieving personal growth during three days of service projects in Louisiana and Mississippi. Their written reflections and other evaluative measures revealed they learned about southern culture, gained a greater appreciation for their lives, gained self confidence and developed a desire to help others more often. The trip was a valuable developmental experience for the youth, and information from the trip could be utilized to create similar experiences based on service learning. This article provides an overview of the trip and describes the evaluation methods used to measure learning and assess personal growth.

  2. Children's disaster reactions: the influence of family and social factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Jacobs, Anne K; Houston, J Brian; Griffin, Natalie

    2015-07-01

    This review examines family (demographics, parent reactions and interactions, and parenting style) and social (remote effects, disaster media coverage, exposure to secondary adversities, and social support) factors that influence children's disaster reactions. Lower family socioeconomic status, high parental stress, poor parental coping, contact with media coverage, and exposure to secondary adversities have been associated with adverse outcomes. Social support may provide protection to children in the post-disaster environment though more research is needed to clarify the effects of certain forms of social support. The interaction of the factors described in this review with culture needs further exploration.

  3. The early warning application role in facing the environmental crisis and disasters: "Preliminarily risk management strategy for the greater city of Cairo"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghoneem Yousef M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural disasters are inevitable and it is almost impossible to fully recoup the damage caused by the disasters. But it is possible to minimize the potential risk by developing disaster early warning strategies, methods using the new technology applications which play a crucial role in efficient mitigation and management of disasters. This paper describes the importance of the remote sensing and Geographical Information System (GIS in evolving a suitable strategy for disaster, crises and risk management using these technologies. The main objective of this paper is to make a Preliminary risk management plan (it is a logical and systematic method of identifying, analyzing, treating and monitoring the risks involved in any activity or process. This process helps Administrations to focus on priorities and in decisions on deploying limited resources to deal with the highest risks using the Environmental risk map of the greater city of Cairo demonstrating the most high-risk administrative areas in the city, supported by field evidence and different sources of information. to reduce the loss of life and property and protect the Nation from all hazards, including natural disasters and other man-made disasters, by leading and supporting the Nation in a risk-based, comprehensive emergency management system of preparedness, protection, response, recovery, and mitigation. This study has shown that how can the early warning Applications can be useful in analyzing, Integrating and managing different datasets for predicting the environmental crises and disasters that may affect the urbanism inside the city and help in the preparation of the Risk management plan.

  4. Disaster management among pediatric surgeons: preparedness, training and involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokshi, Nikunj K; Behar, Solomon; Nager, Alan L; Dorey, Fred; Upperman, Jeffrey S

    2008-01-01

    Contemporary events in the United States (eg, September 2001, school shootings), Europe (eg, Madrid train bombings), and the Middle East have raised awareness of mass casualty events and the need for a capable disaster response. Recent natural disasters have highlighted the poor preparation and infrastructure in place to respond to mass casualty events. In response, public health policy makers and emergency planners developed plans and prepared emergency response systems. Emergency response providers include first responders, a subset of emergency professionals, including firemen, law enforcement, paramedics, who respond to the incident scene and first receivers, a set of healthcare workers who receive the disaster victims at hospital facilities. The role of pediatric surgeons in mass casualty emergency response plans remains undefined. The authors hypothesize that pediatric surgeons' training and experience will predict their willingness and ability to be activated first receivers. The objective of our study was to determine the baseline experience, preparedness, willingness, and availability of pediatric surgeons to participate as activated first receivers. After institutional review board approval, the authors conducted an anonymous online survey of members of the American Pediatric Surgical Association in 2007. The authors explored four domains in this survey: (1) demographics, (2) disaster experience and perceived preparedness, (3) attitudes regarding responsibility and willingness to participate in a disaster response, and (4) availability to participate in a disaster response. The authors performed univariate and bivariate analyses to determine significance. Finally, the authors conducted a logistic regression to determine whether experience or preparedness factors affected the respondent's availability or willingness to respond to a disaster as a first receiver The authors sent 725 invitations and received 265 (36.6 percent) completed surveys. Overall, the

  5. Taking stock of decentralized disaster risk reduction in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Anthony; Gersonius, Berry; Makarigakis, Alexandros

    2016-09-01

    The Sendai Framework, which outlines the global course on disaster risk reduction until 2030, places strong importance on the role of local government in disaster risk reduction. An aim of decentralization is to increase the influence and authority of local government in decision making. Yet, there is limited empirical evidence of the extent, character and effects of decentralization in current disaster risk reduction implementation, and of the barriers that are most critical to this. This paper evaluates decentralization in relation to disaster risk reduction in Indonesia, chosen for its recent actions to decentralize governance of DRR coupled with a high level of disaster risk. An analytical framework was developed to evaluate the various dimensions of decentralized disaster risk reduction, which necessitated the use of a desk study, semi-structured interviews and a gap analysis. Key barriers to implementation in Indonesia included: capacity gaps at lower institutional levels, low compliance with legislation, disconnected policies, issues in communication and coordination and inadequate resourcing. However, any of these barriers are not unique to disaster risk reduction, and similar barriers have been observed for decentralization in other developing countries in other public sectors.

  6. Approaches to Post-disaster Environmental Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Farrokhi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Environment and its ecosystems are affected by various natural and man-made disasters. The environmental management in disasters tries to protect ecosystems, sustain development, reduce disaster risk, and adapt to or decrease the impact of climate change. This study aimed to investigate the impact of disasters on the environment and methods of reducing these effects. Materials and Methods: This review study was conducted by searching PubMed, Google Scholar, Elsevier, UNEP, SID, and Magiran databases using keywords of “environment”, “disasters”, “recovery”, and “lessons learned” from 1999 to 2015. Results: Decrease in surface and groundwater resources, pollution of water resources, deforestation, desertification, soil erosion, air pollution and extinction of animal species are among post-disaster environmental damages. As a result of such changes in the environment and ecosystem, water shortage and drought, loss of vegetation, and food insecurity will ensue. Due to these destructive incidents, the people’s ability to provide necessary resources for living decreases and their very lives are threatened. Consequently, they are forced to immigrate to save their lives. Conclusion: Environmental recovery is one of the effective strategies for achieving sustainable development. In this regard, public and private organizations as well as international ones and people should work together. Responsible organizations, the stakeholders at different levels, and the public must be trained in this area and introduced to the latest international standards. Rules and policies should be reviewed and revised in accordance with today’s needs and international standards.

  7. Assessing Hospital Disaster Preparedness of Bushehr province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakimeh Vahedparast

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: In disasters, large number of causalities rash into the hospitals in order to get health facilities. So, hospitals are the reference point for delivering the health services in all levels for helping to the most percent of injured people. Aim of study was to assess hospital disaster preparedness of Bushehr province. Maretial and Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study which has been done in all Bushehr province hospitals. In order to collect data, we used 210 questions checklist with 10 different aims each aim had consisted of 6 different domains (equipment, working stuff, physical space, structure, protocols and functional chart. The checklists were completed by direct observation and evaluation of equipment, programs and documents based on their domains with different people. Results: The hospital preparedness in traffic base was very poor with mean number of 19/04±16/10 evaluation of security education and management domain with mean number 35/29±26/52, 38/65±19/46, 36/36±24/05, respectively were poor. In logistics, workforce, communications, excused transportation and addition to the hospitals with the mean number of 53/26±26/31, 49/65±27/61, 45/53±18/29, 43/33±19/72, and 40/47±20/37 were estimated as average. The most number was belonged to the emergency with the mean number of 53/80±19/18. Conclusion: The Bushehr province hospitals have not enough preparation against unexpected disasters and cannot be a good supporter for disaster happening, and in the occasions of happenings so many serious problems will occur. It will be suggested that the hospital managers should pay more attention to the unexpected disasters.

  8. Preparedness of Iranian Hospitals Against Disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asefzadeh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Context Over the past decade the number of accidents and disasters has been growing around the world. In addition to damaging communities and infrastructures, unexpected disasters also affect service providers. This study aimed to evaluate the readiness of hospitals when confronted with unexpected disasters. Evidence Acquisition The present study was a simple review article, which was conducted via searching different sites, such as: Web of Science, Scopus, Science Direct and PubMed, using different key words such as: Disasters, Crisis, Hospital and preparedness. The relationship between the articles found in relation to our subject was investigated through the title and abstract of articles. The relationship between the articles, which were found in relation to our subject, was investigated through the title and abstract of the articles. Our search included papers published during the period between 2007 and 2015 and we only considered studies that measured the preparedness of hospitals in critical conditions. Among the 30 articles, which were found, 17 were excluded from the study due to lack of relevant data. Hence, 15 papers, which were of proper design and robust data analysis, were included in the current study. Results Hospital preparedness in disaster was evaluated in three dimensions: structural, non-structural factors and vulnerability management performance. A total of readiness of hospitals in three dimensions was mediocre. Conclusions Overall, the results derived from these studies indicated that hospital safety levels in most of the surveyed hospitals were moderate. Although the situation in hospitals is not critical, there is a need to plan and take appropriate measures to improve the safety level of the hospitals.

  9. Uses of Terra, Landsat 7, and Other Satellite Data Sets for Disaster Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouginis-Mark, P. J.; Owensby, P.; Chellis, C.; Lo, J.

    2001-05-01

    One of the basic requirements of those who provide information products in support of disaster managers is to have rapid access to current image data at a uniform spatial resolution over the entire geographic region of interest. This is particularly true for the Pacific Disaster Center (PDC), which is focused generating information products for many different types of natural disaster (e.g., hurricanes, floods, fires, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis and earthquakes), and a wide range of users in many countries. The PDC provides support to emergency managers via the timely distribution of information products and services for all natural events in and around the Pacific and Indian Oceans. All phases of emergency management (mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery) fall under the objective. The PDC fuses science (physics-based numerical models), new data sources (e.g., satellite images), and advanced information and communication technologies (e.g., on-line interactive GIS map production) to provide operational support to a diverse range of disaster managers. We have been working to demonstrate the value to disaster managers of Landsat 7 mosaics derived from multiple scenes of the same area, and to make the generation of browse versions of new mosaics available over the web in real-time. We are using full-resolution Landsat mosaics in the analysis of population growth in areas of the Big Island, Hawaii, at greatest risk from new volcanic eruptions, and the production of baseline images for parts of the Western Pacific where few high resolution maps are available. However, greater utility is believed to lie in combining Landsat data with other types of satellite data sets in order to meet a broader range of disaster manager needs. Observations from the Terra spacecraft (ASTER), as well as commercial data (Ikonos), allow new aspects of disaster management to be addressed. Much of our current work is focused on cities that are at great risk from earthquakes

  10. Observing power blackouts from space - A disaster related study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubrecht, C.; Elvidge, C. D.; Ziskin, D.; Baugh, K. E.; Tuttle, B.; Erwin, E.; Kerle, N.

    2009-04-01

    world. Elvidge et al. (1998) first demonstrated that under certain conditions a detection of power outages is possible using OLS data. A standard procedure for visual detection of power outages has been developed. The procedure is based on identifying locations where consistently observed lighting is missing or reduced following a disaster event. Visible and thermal spectral bands of the event-related OLS data are compared to a recent cloud-free composite of nighttime lights by producing a color (RGB) composite image. For the cloud-free nighttime lights composite serving as reference information both monthly and annual composites can be used, depending on the respective availability and suitability of OLS data. The RGB color composite uses the reference lights as red (R), the current visible band as green (G) and the current thermal band as blue (B). The thermal band is typically inverted to make clouds appear bright. As clouds are typically colder than the surface of the Earth, in the thermal band higher values are observed on cloud-free areas, which thus appear brighter in standard visualization modes. The resulting color composite is visually interpreted to identify power outages, which show up as red lights on a dark (cloud-free) background. Red color stands for high values in the reference data (red band of the RGB composite) compared to low values in the event data (green and blue bands of the RGB composite), thus showing the disaster-related absence or reduction of lighting. Heavy cloud cover also obscures lights, resulting in red lights on a blue background. Yellow color in the RGB composite indicates areas where the lights are on, i.e. both red and green band (reference composite and visible band of the event image) feature high values with no cloud cover present (low values in the blue band). Under ideal conditions the presented procedure detects individual cities and towns where power has been lost or has been reduced. Conditions reducing or eliminating the

  11. Detection and attribution of extreme weather disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggel, Christian; Stone, Dáithí; Hansen, Gerrit

    2014-05-01

    Single disasters related to extreme weather events have caused loss and damage on the order of up to tens of billions US dollars over the past years. Recent disasters fueled the debate about whether and to what extent these events are related to climate change. In international climate negotiations disaster loss and damage is now high on the agenda, and related policy mechanisms have been discussed or are being implemented. In view of funding allocation and effective risk reduction strategies detection and attribution to climate change of extreme weather events and disasters is a key issue. Different avenues have so far been taken to address detection and attribution in this context. Physical climate sciences have developed approaches, among others, where variables that are reasonably sampled over climatically relevant time periods and related to the meteorological characteristics of the extreme event are examined. Trends in these variables (e.g. air or sea surface temperatures) are compared between observations and climate simulations with and without anthropogenic forcing. Generally, progress has been made in recent years in attribution of changes in the chance of some single extreme weather events to anthropogenic climate change but there remain important challenges. A different line of research is primarily concerned with losses related to the extreme weather events over time, using disaster databases. A growing consensus is that the increase in asset values and in exposure are main drivers of the strong increase of economic losses over the past several decades, and only a limited number of studies have found trends consistent with expectations from climate change. Here we propose a better integration of existing lines of research in detection and attribution of extreme weather events and disasters by applying a risk framework. Risk is thereby defined as a function of the probability of occurrence of an extreme weather event, and the associated consequences

  12. Evaluation of an International Disaster Relief Team After Participation in an ASEAN Regional Forum Disaster Relief Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong Il; Lee, Kang Hyun; Kim, Oh Hyun; Cha, Yong Sung; Hwang, Sung Oh; Kim, Hyun; Cha, Kyung Chul

    2016-10-01

    Devastating disasters around the world directly contribute to significant increases in human mortality and economic costs. The objective of this study was to examine the current state of the Korea Disaster Relief Team that participated in an international training module. The whole training period was videotaped in order to observe and evaluate the respondents. The survey was carried out after completion of the 3-day training, and the scores were reported by use of a 5-point Likert scale. A total of 43 respondents were interviewed for the survey, and the results showed that the overall preparedness score for international disasters was 3.4±1.6 (mean±SD). The awareness of the Incident Command System for international disasters was shown to be low (3.5±1.1). Higher scores were given to personnel who took on leadership roles in the team and who answered "I knew my duty" (4.4±0.6) in the survey, as well as to the training participants who answered "I clearly knew my duty" (4.5±0.5). The preparedness level of the Korea Disaster Relief Team was shown to be insufficient, whereas understanding of the roles of leaders and training participants in the rescue team was found to be high. It is assumed that the preparedness level for disaster relief must be improved through continued training. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;1-5).

  13. Knowledge and skills of Emergency Care During Disaster For Community Health Volunteers: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anda Kamal

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nowadays, disaster preparedness and responses are essential for everyone to be involved since the disaster becomes increasing. The Community Health Volunteers (CHVs in particular are the key partners required adequately prepared in emergency care during disaster event. Purpose: The study aims to examine the essential knowledge and skills of emergency care during natural disaster for CHVs. Method: The reviews published during 2000 and 2011 searching from PubMed, Science Direct, CINAHL, ProQuest Medical Library were conducted. Result: Twenty-four articles and documents related to community-based disaster preparedness programs were intensively reviewed. Based on the review, six components of knowledge and skills for emergency care in natural disaster for CHVs are required including 1 early warning, 2 disaster triage, 3 first aid, 4 search and rescue, 5 logistic and communication, and 6 team organizations. Conclusion: There was a few studies focusing on the emergency care in disaster management and some factors related to knowledge and skills were shown. It is therefore recommended that the current CHVs’ knowledge and skills should be explored in order to assist people in their community following disaster event when professional responders are not immediately available to help. Key words: Knowledge, Skill, Community health volunteers, Emergency care, Natural disaster.

  14. Economic development and natural disasters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    In this study we examine the impact of large-scale natural disasters on economic development. A major obstacle in exploring this relationship is the poor data quality on GDP per capita in low-income countries, while at the same time more than 90% of all disasters that happen worldwide occur in th

  15. Dynamic Routing during Disaster Events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fitrianie , S.; Rothkrantz , L.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Innovations in mobile technology allow people to request route information on their smartphone to reach safe areas during emergency and disaster evacuations. In return, the affected people in the field can send their observation reports, e.g. using a dedicated icon-based disaster language. However,

  16. [Disaster medicine, organization and management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiette, Catherine; Houzé-Cerfon, Vanessa; Ducassé, Jean-Louis

    2013-01-01

    A disaster situation requires an organised command of the emergency services as well as of the treatment of victims and their orientation. The aim is to avoid any deterioration in the quality of the emergency care provided to the patients. A medical speciality, disaster medicine requires specific training.

  17. Longitudinal health effects of disasters.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yzermans, C.J.

    2004-01-01

    Background: We carry out prospective, longitudinal studies on the possible health effects of two disasters in the Netherlands: the explosion of fireworks depot in a residential area (Enschede) and a fire in discotheque in Volendam. Learning from the chaotic aftermath previous disasters, the Dutch g

  18. 基于Web GIS的高速铁路防灾系统的研究%Research on Disaster Prevention System of high-speed railway based on Web GIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文科

    2011-01-01

    This paper briefly introduced the concept of Web GIS( Web Geographic Information System ) and MVC( model, view, controller ) mode, the merits and demerits of the Web GIS application programs based on MVC framework. The concept, composition and function of the Disaster Prevention System of high-speed railway were also briefly referred in the paper. It was put forward the concept of Disaster Prevention System of high-speed railway based on Web GIS and stated the advantages of the System. Finally, a prospect was done to this System.%介绍了Web GIS和MVC模式的概念,基于MVC构架的Web GIS应用程序的优缺点,高速铁路防灾系统的概念组成及功能.本文提出了基于Web GIS的高速铁路防灾系统,阐述了其优点,并对其前景进行了展望.

  19. An Exploration of Support Factors Available to Higher Education Students with High Functioning Autism or Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Emily N.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological research study used narrative inquiry to explore the support factors available to students with High Functioning Autism or Asperger Syndrome in higher education that contribute to their success as perceived by the students. Creswell's (2009) six step method for analyzing phenomenological studies was used to…

  20. An Exploration of Support Factors Available to Higher Education Students with High Functioning Autism or Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Emily N.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological research study used narrative inquiry to explore the support factors available to students with High Functioning Autism or Asperger Syndrome in higher education that contribute to their success as perceived by the students. Creswell's (2009) six step method for analyzing phenomenological studies was used to…

  1. The Availability and Utilization of School Library Resources in Some Selected Secondary Schools (High School) in Rivers State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owate, C. N.; Iroha, Okpa

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the availability and utilization of school library resources by Secondary School (High School) Students. Eight Selected Secondary Schools in Rivers State, Nigeria were chosen based on their performance in external examinations and geographic locations. In carrying out the research, questionnaires were administered to both…

  2. Disastrous assumptions about community disasters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dynes, R.R. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States). Disaster Research Center

    1995-12-31

    Planning for local community disasters is compounded with erroneous assumptions. Six problematic models are identified: agent facts, big accident, end of the world, media, command and control, administrative. Problematic assumptions in each of them are identified. A more adequate model centered on problem solving is identified. That there is a discrepancy between disaster planning efforts and the actual response experience seems rather universal. That discrepancy is symbolized by the graffiti which predictably surfaces on many walls in post disaster locations -- ``First the earthquake, then the disaster.`` That contradiction is seldom reduced as a result of post disaster critiques, since the most usual conclusion is that the plan was adequate but the ``people`` did not follow it. Another explanation will be provided here. A more plausible explanation for failure is that most planning efforts adopt a number of erroneous assumptions which affect the outcome. Those assumptions are infrequently changed or modified by experience.

  3. The Samarco Disaster in Brazil: challenges for biodiversity conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruf Salmen Espindola

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available On November 5, 2015, Brazil and the world noticed the environmental disaster caused by the disruption of Fundão dam (Samarco / Vale / BHP Billiton in Mariana, Minas Gerais. The disaster's impact was not restricted to dam’s immediately downstream areas, where caused destruction of human settlements, but also impacted waterways, farmland, economic activities, drinking water supply to cities and biodiversity. The State Park of Rio Doce (PERD, the main remnant of the Atlantic Forest from Minas Gerais state faced a threat not predicted in his management plan. So, this article is dedicated to the history and importance of the PERD, to the Samarco/Vale/BHP disaster and to impacts on this Conservation Unit. Therefore, it discusses disaster impacts to human life and biodiversity, because ecological conditions even imply on opportunities and obstacles to Social Processes.

  4. Simulating and Communicating Outcomes in Disaster Management Situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Lichter

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An important, but overlooked component of disaster managment is raising the awareness and preparedness of potential stakeholders. We show how recent advances in agent-based modeling and geo-information analytics can be combined to this effect. Using a dynamic simulation model, we estimate the long run outcomes of two very different urban disasters with severe consequences: an earthquake and a missile attack. These differ in terms of duration, intensity, permanence, and focal points. These hypothetical shocks are simulated for the downtown area of Jerusalem. Outcomes are compared in terms of their potential for disaster mitigation. The spatial and temporal dynamics of the simulation yield rich outputs. Web-based mapping is used to visualize these results and communicate risk to policy makers, planners, and the informed public. The components and design of this application are described. Implications for participatory disaster management and planning are discussed.

  5. Routine healthcare for families in transition after a natural disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Cristina Manfrini Fernandes

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to present the healthcare routines of families in transition after natural disasters based on the Family Routines and Rituals theoretical framework. METHOD: this qualitative study of multiple cases was developed based on six rural families in southern Brazil, 2 years after a natural disaster. The data were collected through participant observation, interviews, narratives, genograms, ecomaps, and routine calendars, and a narrative analysis was conducted. RESULTS: families showed notable episodes of illness that required professional assistance during post-disaster care, daily routine care, and other routines associated with healthcare services. CONCLUSION: these results reinforce the need for nurses to attend to family experiences during transitions after natural disasters and to prepare for the changes and needs with regard to healthcare and its promotion.

  6. Post-disaster psychosocial services across Europe: The TENTS project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witteveen, A. B.; Bisson, J. I.; Ajdukovic, D.

    2012-01-01

    of a cross-sectional web-based survey completed in 2008 by two hundred and eighty-six representatives of organizations involved in psychosocial responses to trauma and disaster from thirty-three different countries across Europe. The survey addressed planning and delivery of psychosocial care after disaster......, methods of screening and diagnosis, types of interventions used, and other aspects of psychosocial care after trauma. The findings showed that planning and delivery of psychosocial care was inconsistent across Europe. Countries in East Europe seemed to have less central coordination of the post......At present post-disaster activities and plans seem to vary widely. An adequate estimation of the availability of post-disaster psychosocial services across Europe is needed in order to compare them with recently developed evidence-informed psychosocial care guidelines. Here we report on the results...

  7. Dynamic resource allocation in disaster response: tradeoffs in wildfire suppression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Petrovic

    Full Text Available Challenges associated with the allocation of limited resources to mitigate the impact of natural disasters inspire fundamentally new theoretical questions for dynamic decision making in coupled human and natural systems. Wildfires are one of several types of disaster phenomena, including oil spills and disease epidemics, where (1 the disaster evolves on the same timescale as the response effort, and (2 delays in response can lead to increased disaster severity and thus greater demand for resources. We introduce a minimal stochastic process to represent wildfire progression that nonetheless accurately captures the heavy tailed statistical distribution of fire sizes observed in nature. We then couple this model for fire spread to a series of response models that isolate fundamental tradeoffs both in the strength and timing of response and also in division of limited resources across multiple competing suppression efforts. Using this framework, we compute optimal strategies for decision making scenarios that arise in fire response policy.

  8. Companion Animals, Natural Disasters and the Law: An Australian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven White

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the regulation of companion animal welfare during disasters, with some context provided by two recent major disaster events in Australia. Important general lessons for improved disaster management were identified in subsequent inquiries. However, the interests of companion animals continue to be inadequately addressed. This is because key assumptions underpinning disaster planning for companion animals—the primacy of human interests over animal interests and that individuals will properly address companion animal needs during times of disaster—are open to question. In particular these assumptions fail to recognise the inherent value of companion animals, underestimate the strong bond shared by some owners and their animals and, at the same time, overestimate the capacity of some owners to adequately meet the needs of their animals.

  9. THE CONSTRUCTION SECTOR CHAIN DISASTER THEORY AND A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir S. GOHARDANI

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Management approaches are of paramount importance in the built environment. Efficient management approaches ensure timely project completions and consequently lead to economic growth. However, there are also challenges within the construction industry that could lead to disastrous effects and to significant death tolls. In this article, the Construction Sector Chain Disaster Theory (CSCDT is presented. This theory mirrors the construction sector as an ongoing disaster zone. In light of CSCDT, a limited number of past accidents within the global construction industry will be investigated with respect to the building blocks of the theory and in view of inadequate management practices that have made positive contributions to triggering disasters. The identified shortcomings will enable a more comprehensive approach to management in favor of disaster minimization in the construction sector.

  10. Social vulnerability to climate-induced natural disasters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubin, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    This paper conducts an analysis of the socioeconomic determinants of Vietnam's cross-provincial variations in natural disaster vulnerability. The purpose is twofold: (i) to capture disaggregated vulnerability variations normally obscured by national statistics, thereby providing more nuanced...... on cross-national variations. The paper's analysis indicates that much of Vietnam's cross-provincial variations in natural disaster fatalities and economic costs can be explained by differences in key socioeconomic factors. High provincial rates of inequality, poverty and infant mortality, for instance...

  11. Research on inversion high mining pressure distribution and technol-ogy of preventing dynamic disasters by MS monitoring in longwall face

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Yun-hai; JIANG Fu-xing; ZOU Yin-hui

    2009-01-01

    Under two rock strata combination conditions, over 10,000 microseismic events were received with microseismic location monitoring technology which possessed by the author's studying team, used in fully mechanized coal face of Huafeng Mine of Xinwen Coal Mining Group Co., Shandong Province. On the basis of the achievement of the loca-tion results, the conclusions were drawn as follows: On the basis of the achievement of 3D strata fracturing situation and the section plane of microseimic events in different areas, the relationship between spatial structure of overlying strata and mining pressure field was found, and we might describe distribution range of dynamic pressure of advance pressure and lateral stress around long face, and range of structure ad-tivation. Quantitative guid-ance to prevent dynamic disasters was provided. The practice in coal mine got a effective results. According to the FLAC3D soft numerical simulation of diameter drilling hole (the diameter is 300 mm) to relieve pressure in specified geological condition in Huafeng Mine, the right distance of two dirlls is 2.5 m and the right depth is 12 m. The research pro-vided basic guiding and practical experiences for the underground microseismic monitoring and disaster prevention in side slopes or tunnels engineering.

  12. The Role of the Military in Disaster Response in the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naim Kapucu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Several scholarly works have documented a heightened military involvement in responding to natural and man-made disasters. This is due to both the historical focus of the military on responding to domestic disasters and the recent impact of large-scale terrorist attacks on the U.S. territory. While retaining its primary role of safeguarding the country from external threats, the military has become one of the main partners of federal, state, and local agencies in disaster response operations, providing its available resources, logistical capacity, and operational services effectively used against both man-made and natural disasters. This article discusses the role of the military in responding to natural and man-made disasters and explores the historical involvement of military in disaster management.

  13. The Role of the Military in Disaster Response in the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naim Kapucu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Several scholarly works have documented a heightened military involvement in responding to natural and man-made disasters. This is due to both the historical focus of the military on responding to domestic disasters and the recent impact of large-scale terrorist attacks on the U.S. territory. While retaining its primary role of safeguarding the country from external threats, the military has become one of the main partners of federal, state, and local agencies in disaster response operations, providing its available resources, logistical capacity, and operational services effectively used against both man-made and natural disasters. This article discusses the role of the military in responding to natural and man-made disasters and explores the historical involvement of military in disaster management.

  14. Hurricane! Coping With Disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifland, Jonathan

    A new AGU book, Hurricane! Coping With Disaster, analyzes the progress made in hurricane science and recounts how advances in the field have affected the public's and the scientific community's understanding of these storms. The book explores the evolution of hurricane study, from the catastrophic strike in Galveston, Texas in 1900—still the worst natural disaster in United States history—to today's satellite and aircraft observations that track a storm's progress and monitor its strength. In this issue, Eos talks with Robert Simpson, the books' senior editor.Simpson has studied severe storms for more than 60 years, including conducting one of the first research flights through a hurricane in 1945. He was the founding director of the (U.S.) National Hurricane Research Project and has served as director of the National Hurricane Center. In collaboration with Herbert Saffir, Simpson helped design and implement the Saffir/Simpson damage potential scale that is widely used to identify potential damage from hurricanes.

  15. Disaster management following explosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, B R

    2008-01-01

    Explosions and bombings remain the most common deliberate cause of disasters involving large numbers of casualties, especially as instruments of terrorism. These attacks are virtually always directed against the untrained and unsuspecting civilian population. Unlike the military, civilians are poorly equipped or prepared to handle the severe emotional, logistical, and medical burdens of a sudden large casualty load, and thus are completely vulnerable to terrorist aims. To address the problem to the maximum benefit of mass disaster victims, we must develop collective forethought and a broad-based consensus on triage and these decisions must reach beyond the hospital emergency department. It needs to be realized that physicians should never be placed in a position of individually deciding to deny treatment to patients without the guidance of a policy or protocol. Emergency physicians, however, may easily find themselves in a situation in which the demand for resources clearly exceeds supply and for this reason, emergency care providers, personnel, hospital administrators, religious leaders, and medical ethics committees need to engage in bioethical decision-making.

  16. Psychological well-being in primary survivors of Uttarakhand disaster in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikant Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: After the 2004 Tsunami, India faced the worst natural disaster in Uttarakhand causing devastating floods and landslides. Besides the material harm, the disaster also has a massive impact on individual′s mental health, and the impact is perceived more in developing countries due to being densely populated with limited resources. The current study is an attempt to evaluate the psychological impact and its risk factors in Uttarakhand disaster. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted after 1 month of disaster in the primary survivors. All the included subjects were administered the semi-structured proforma for assessing the sociodemographic profile and the assessment instruments: Impact of events scale-revised (IES-R, depression anxiety stress scale and life orientation test-revised (LOT-R. Data were imputed and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 17.0.1 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA. Results: About 58% subjects had posttraumatic stress disorder and significantly severe levels of depression, anxiety, and stress were noted in 45.3%, 57%, and 44.2% subjects, respectively. A physical illness was present in 36% subjects. Loss of at least one family member was reported by 12.8% subjects. LOT-R scores were negatively correlated to IES-R. Conclusion: Psychological morbidity in the immediate post-disaster period is high. Higher levels of depression, anxiety and stress with development of negative outlook regarding their future is observed with increasing age. Increasing age, lower educational levels, physical illness, loss of a family member, and pessimistic expectations were associated with adverse psychological sequelae.

  17. Informing Mitigation of Disaster Loss through Social Media: Evidence from Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaire, M.

    2015-12-01

    This paper is the first to investigate the role of online information and social media in enabling households to reduce natural disaster losses. The historic 2011 Bangkok flood is utilized as a case study to assess how internet use allowed households to mitigate flood losses. This event was one of the first major disasters to affect an urban area with a substantial population connected to social media. The role of online information is investigated with a mixed methods approach, using both quantitative (propensity score matching and multivariate regression analysis) and qualitative (in-depth interviews) techniques. The study relies on two data sources - survey responses from 469 Bangkok households and in-depth interviews with internet users who are a subset of the survey participants. Propensity score matching indicates that social media use enabled households to reduce mean total losses by 37%, using a nearest neighbor estimator. Average loss reductions amounted to USD 3,708 to USD 4,886, depending on the matching estimator. In addition, regression analysis suggests that social media use is associated with lower flood losses (average reduction of USD 2,784). These reductions are notable when considering that total flood losses in 2011 averaged USD 4,903. Social media offered information that was not available from other sources, such as localized and nearly real-time updates of flood location and depth. With knowledge of current flood conditions, Bangkok households could move belongings to higher ground before floodwaters arrived. These findings suggest that utilizing social media users as sensors could better inform populations during natural disasters, particularly in locations that lack real-time, accurate flood monitoring networks. Therefore, expanded access to the internet and social could especially be useful in developing countries, ungagged basins, and highly complex urban environments. There is also an enormous opportunity for disseminating government

  18. Risk of depressive disorder following disasters and military deployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, J. P.; Utzon-Frank, Nicolai; Bertelsen, M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Numerous studies describe the occurrence of post-traumatic stress disorder following disasters, but less is known about the risk of major depression. AIMS: To review the risk of depressive disorder in people surviving disasters and in soldiers returning from military deployment. METHOD.......30-3.98), technological disaster OR = 1.44 (95% CI 1.21-1.70), terrorist acts OR = 1.80 (95% CI 1.38-2.34) and military combat OR = 1.60 (95% CI 1.09-2.35). In a subset of ten high-quality studies OR was 1.41 (95% CI 1.06-1.87). CONCLUSIONS: Disasters and combat experience substantially increase the risk of depression...

  19. International Space Station Data Collection for Disaster Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanov, William L.; Evans, Cynthia A..

    2014-01-01

    Directorate and supporting the ISS Program Science Office at NASA's Johnson Space Center, receives notification from the USGS and coordinates targeting and data collection with the NASA ISS sensor teams. If data is collected, it is passed back to the USGS for posting on their Hazards Data Distribution System and made available for download. The ISS International Partners (CSA, ESA, JAXA, Roscosmos/Energia) have their own procedures for independently supporting IDC activations using their assets on ISS, and there is currently no joint coordination with NASA ISS sensor teams. Following completion of ISS assembly, NASA remote sensing assets began collecting IDC response data in May 2012. The initial NASA ISS sensor systems available to respond to IDC activations included the ISS Agricultural Camera (ISSAC), an internal multispectral visible-near infrared wavelength system mounted in the Window Observational Research Facility, or WORF; the Crew Earth Observations (CEO) Facility, where the crew collects imagery through Station windows using off-the-shelf handheld digital visible-wavelength cameras; and the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Oceans (HICO), a visible to near-infrared system mounted externally on the Japan Experiment Module Exposed Facility. The ISSAC completed its primary mission and was removed from the WORF in January 2013. It was replaced by the very high resolution ISS SERVIR Environmental Research and Visualization System (ISERV) Pathfinder, a visible-wavelength digital camera, telescope, and pointing system. Since the start of IDC response by NASA sensors on the ISS in May 2012 and as of this report, there have been eighty IDC activations; NASA sensor systems have collected data for twenty-three of these events. Of the twenty-three successful data collections, five involved 2 or more ISS sensor systems responding to the same event. Data has also been collected by International Partners in response to natural disasters, most notably JAXA and Roscosmos

  20. Posttraumatic stress symptoms after exposure to two fire disasters: comparative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy E Van Loey

    Full Text Available This study investigated traumatic stress symptoms in severely burned survivors of two fire disasters and two comparison groups of patients with "non-disaster" burn injuries, as well as risk factors associated with acute and chronic stress symptoms. Patients were admitted to one out of eight burn centers in The Netherlands or Belgium. The Impact of Event Scale (IES was administered to 61 and 33 survivors respectively of two fire disasters and 54 and 57 patients with "non-disaster" burn etiologies at 2 weeks, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months after the event. We used latent growth modeling (LGM analyses to investigate the stress trajectories and predictors in the two disaster and two comparison groups. The results showed that initial traumatic stress reactions in disaster survivors with severe burns are more intense and prolonged during several months relative to survivors of "non-disaster" burn injuries. Excluding the industrial fire group, all participants' symptoms on average decreased over the two year period. Burn severity, peritraumatic anxiety and dissociation predicted the long-term negative outcomes only in the industrial fire group. In conclusion, fire disaster survivors appear to experience higher levels of traumatic stress symptoms on the short term, but the long-term outcome appears dependent on factors different from the first response. Likely, the younger age, and several beneficial post-disaster factors such as psychosocial aftercare and social support, along with swift judicial procedures, contributed to the positive outcome in one disaster cohort.

  1. A Disaster Response and Management Competency Mapping of Community Nurses in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Luo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is widely accepted in many parts of the world that community nurses are of vital importance in various phases of disaster response and management. In China, however, it is not clear whether the Chinese community nurses are able to assume disaster-related duties due to the lack of a systematic assessment.Methods: A pre-designed and well-tested questionnaire was employed to evaluate the competency in disaster response and management among 205 valid registered Chinese community nurses between September and October 2009. Statistical analyses were performed with SPSS Version 13.0 using one way ANOVA, Least Significant Difference (LSD and multiple stepwise regression analysis.Results: This group of Chinese community nurses scored at an intermediate level of competency (a score of 3.68 (SD 0.48 out of a perfect score of 5 in disaster response and management, suggesting that they have the basic ability to participate in disaster-related nursing. Four factors, namely, Experiences in Disaster Relief, Participation in Disaster Training, the Age and Duration in Job, were identified to be the predominant factors contributing significantly to the integrated competency in disaster response and management of an individual.Conclusion: Most of the Chinese community nurses have basic qualifications and competencies to undertake the responsibilities of disaster response and management. However, more targeted disaster training including virtual-reality based drills should be provided in order to improve their competency

  2. Nurses’ Competencies in Disaster Nursing: Implications for Curriculum Development and Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Yuen Loke

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore Hong Kong nurses’ perceptions of competencies required for disaster nursing. Focus group interviews and written inquiry were adopted to solicit nurses’ perceived required competencies for disaster care. A total of 15 nurses were interviewed and 30 nurses completed the written inquiry on their perceived competencies related to disaster nursing. The International Council for Nurses’ (ICN framework of disaster nursing competencies, consisting of four themes and ten domains, was used to tabulate the perceived competencies for disaster nursing reported by nurses. The most mentioned required competencies were related to disaster response; with the ethical and legal competencies for disaster nursing were mostly neglected by nurses in Hong Kong. With the complexity nature of disasters, special competencies are required if nurses are to deal with adverse happenings in their serving community. Nurses’ perceived disaster nursing competencies reported by nurses were grossly inadequate, demonstrating the needs to develop a comprehensive curriculum for public health. The establishment of a set of tailor-made disaster nursing core competencies for the community they served is the first step in preparing nurses to deal with disastrous situations for the health of the public.

  3. Geographic Situational Awareness: Mining Tweets for Disaster Preparedness, Emergency Response, Impact, and Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qunying Huang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Social media data have emerged as a new source for detecting and monitoring disaster events. A number of recent studies have suggested that social media data streams can be used to mine actionable data for emergency response and relief operation. However, no effort has been made to classify social media data into stages of disaster management (mitigation, preparedness, emergency response, and recovery, which has been used as a common reference for disaster researchers and emergency managers for decades to organize information and streamline priorities and activities during the course of a disaster. This paper makes an initial effort in coding social media messages into different themes within different disaster phases during a time-critical crisis by manually examining more than 10,000 tweets generated during a natural disaster and referencing the findings from the relevant literature and official government procedures involving different disaster stages. Moreover, a classifier based on logistic regression is trained and used for automatically mining and classifying the social media messages into various topic categories during various disaster phases. The classification results are necessary and useful for emergency managers to identify the transition between phases of disaster management, the timing of which is usually unknown and varies across disaster events, so that they can take action quickly and efficiently in the impacted communities. Information generated from the classification can also be used by the social science research communities to study various aspects of preparedness, response, impact and recovery.

  4. 13 CFR 123.2 - What are disaster loans and disaster declarations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What are disaster loans and disaster declarations? 123.2 Section 123.2 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION DISASTER LOAN PROGRAM Overview § 123.2 What are disaster loans and disaster declarations? SBA offers...

  5. The public health dimension of disasters: health outcome assessment of disasters.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, B. van den; Grievink, L.; Gutschmidt, K.; Lang, T.; Palmer, S.; Ruijten, M.; Stumpel, R.; Yzermans, J.

    2008-01-01

    A broad range of health problems are related to disasters. Insight into these health problems is needed for targeted disaster management. Disaster health outcome assessment can provide insight into the health effects of disasters. During the 15th World Congress on Disaster and Emergency Medicine in

  6. Disaster movies ed emozioni in emergenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Sbattella

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to investigate the relationship between movie representation of disasters and sharing of emotions that have been experienced personally in real emergency situations. The theme is addressed in the first place referring to clinical observations and accounts of survivors, which explicitly use some images from specific films in their narratives. The hypothesis explored here is that the film genre known as disaster movie provides to individuals in distress in our culture some representations and symbolic tools which are useful to encode exceptional events and to cope with and share the emotions aroused by them. A thorough knowledge of the genre can therefore help to better listen, understand and support the narratives of the people who survived to serious emergencies and now need social legitimization and acceptation of their emotions.

  7. How do Japanese escape from TSUNAMI? - Disaster Prevention Education through using Hazard Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaue, Hiroaki

    2013-04-01

    After the disaster of the earthquake and tsunami in Tohoku, Japan in 2011, it is necessary to teach more "Disaster Prevention" in school. The government guideline for education of high school geography students emphasizes improving students' awareness of disaster prevention through acquiring geographical skills, for example reading hazard and thematic maps. The working group of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) says that the purpose of Disaster Prevention Education is to develop the following competencies: 1. To acquire knowledge about disasters in the local area and the science of disaster prevention. 2. To teach individuals to protect themselves from natural hazards. 3. To safely support other people in the local area. 4. To build a safe society during rebuilding from the disasters. "Disaster Prevention Education" is part of the "Education for Sustainable Development" (ESD) curriculum. That is, teaching disaster prevention can contribute to developing abilities for sustainable development and building a sustainable society. I have tried to develop a high school geography class about "tsunami". The aim of this class is to develop the students' competencies to acquire the knowledge about tsunami and protect themselves from it through reading a hazard map. I especially think that in geography class, students can protect themselves from disasters through learning the risks of disasters and how to escape when disasters occur. In the first part of class, I have taught the mechanism of tsunami formation and where tsunamis occur in Japan. In the second part of class, I have shown students pictures that I had taken in Tohoku, for instance Ishinomaki-City, Minamisanriku-Town, Kesen'numa-City, and taught how to read hazard maps that show where safe and dangerous places are when natural hazards occur. I think that students can understand the features of the local area and how to escape from disasters that may occur in local area by

  8. Disaster Preparedness: Guidelines for School Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Janice; Loyacono, Thomas R.

    2007-01-01

    These guidelines help school nurses understand their role in preparing for disasters and major emergencies. The guidelines are suitable for planning for a variety of emergency and disaster situations. Disaster Preparedness Guidelines for School Nurses is based on the four phases of disaster management as defined by the Federal Emergency Management…

  9. Learning from Disaster Simulation Drills in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2017-01-01

    Large-scale natural disasters are a frequent and common occurrence in Japan. Over the years, Japan has evolved its disaster management system to address all phases of a disaster: from disaster prevention, mitigation, and preparedness, to emergency response, recovery, and rehabilitation. This report consists of four parts: Introduction (Chapter 1, 2, 3), Simulation drills (Chapter 4, 5, 6, ...

  10. 75 FR 60588 - Immediate Disaster Assistance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... disaster business loans, and Military Reservist EIDL loans. SBA also has authority under Section 7(b) to... Military Reservist economic injury disasters (Sec. 123.500 et seq.). Disaster declarations under section... Declarations. The Military Reservist economic injury disaster loan (MREIDL) program is a specialized...

  11. 29 CFR 4041.4 - Disaster relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disaster relief. 4041.4 Section 4041.4 Labor Regulations...-EMPLOYER PLANS General Provisions § 4041.4 Disaster relief. When the President of the United States declares that, under the Disaster Relief Act (42 U.S.C. 5121, 5122(2), 5141(b)), a major disaster exists...

  12. Availability and Quality of Family Planning Services in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: High Potential for Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpunga, Dieudonné; Lumbayi, J P; Dikamba, Nelly; Mwembo, Albert; Ali Mapatano, Mala; Wembodinga, Gilbert

    2017-06-27

    To determine the availability and quality of family planning services within health facilities throughout the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Data were collected for the cross-sectional study from April 2014 to June 2014 by the Ministry of Public Health. A total of 1,568 health facilities that reported data to the National Health Information System were selected by multistage random sampling in the 11 provinces of the DRC existing at that time. Data were collected through interviews, document review, and direct observation. Two dependent variables were measured: availability of family planning services (consisting of a room for services, staff assigned to family planning, and evidence of client use of family planning) and quality of family planning services (assessed as "high" if the facility had at least 1 trained staff member, family planning service delivery guidelines, at least 3 types of methods, and a sphygmomanometer, or "low" if the facility did not meet any of these 4 criteria). Pearson's chi-square test and odds ratios (ORs) were used to test for significant associations, using the alpha significance level of .05. We successfully surveyed 1,555 facilities (99.2%) of those included in the sample. One in every 3 facilities (33%) offered family planning services as assessed by the index of availability, of which 20% met all 4 criteria for providing high-quality services. Availability was greatest at the highest level of the health system (hospitals) and decreased incrementally with each health system level, with disparities between provinces and urban and rural areas. Facilities in urban areas were more likely than in rural areas to meet the standard for high-quality services (Pplanning services in health facilities in the DRC remain low, with inequitable distribution of services throughout the country. To improve access to and use of family planning, efforts should focus on improving availability and quality at lower health system levels and in

  13. The study of high temperature disaster risk zoning in Beij ing-Tianj in-Hebei urban agglomeration%京津冀城市群高温灾害风险区划研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜吴鹏; 权维俊; 轩春怡; 房小怡; 郭文利

    2014-01-01

    本文利用175个气象站观测数据和社会经济资料,从致灾因子、孕灾环境、承灾体、抗灾能力四个方面研究了京津冀城市群高温灾害风险,结果表明:京津冀城市群高温频次呈南部高、北部低以及平原地区高、山区低的空间分布特征,频次最高区域位于石家庄和衡水以南、邯郸以北地区,北部的承德、张家口和秦皇岛地区高温频次最低;致灾因子高危险区和孕灾环境高敏感区主要分布在河北省南部,承灾体高易损区主要位于大型城市,经济发达的城区抗灾能力较强,抗灾能力风险较低;京津冀城市群高温灾害综合风险区划呈南高北低特征,高风险区集中在河北中南部及北京和天津的市区,河北中部及邻近北京、天津地区则为次高风险区和中等风险区,河北北部、西北部和东北部多为低风险区和较低风险区。%In recent years,climate change has become a hot topic and which was being researched by many atmospheric scientists.Meanwhile,climate change has caused many extreme weather and climate events,such as the high temperature disaster,which was increasing obviously and could lead to adverse impacts on urban safety, economic development and human health.Therefore,carrying out the risk zoning research is becoming more and more important and indispensable.Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration is one of the most important regions in China,where often affected by meteorological disaster,especially summer high temperature and hot wave.In this paper,we use the data of 175 meteorological observations and socio-economic material to research and analyze the high temperature disaster risk in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration.Results show that:the high temperature frequency is higher in the south and plains,while it is lower in the north and mountains.The area between Shijiazhuang,Hengshui and Handan has the highest frequency.However,in the

  14. A comparative study of knowledge regarding emergency care during disaster between community health volunteers working in tsunami-affected and non-affected areas in Aceh Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anda Kamal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study aimed to describe and compare the level of knowledge regarding emergency care during disaster between community health volunteers (CHVs working in the tsunami affected and non-affected areas in Aceh Province, Indonesia.Method: 144 CHVs from six districts in Aceh were studied during November 2011 to January 2012 to evaluate their level knowledge regarding emergency care during disaster between CHVs working in tsunami-affected 6-areas and non-tsunami-affected areas. The knowledge was assessed using the Community Health Volunteers’ Knowledge Regarding Emergency Care Questionnaire (CHVK-ECQ with 30 true/false statements. The composite scores of each area and the total score were calculated and transformed to percentage for ease of presentation.Results: Overall, the CHVs’ knowledge in emergency care during disaster in Aceh was at a high level in both groups. However, subjects in non-affected areas had significantly higher mean rank of the overall knowledge than those in the affected areas (p = .02. In the tsunami area, the highest mean score of knowledge was in the disaster triage dimension (M= 80.62%, and the lowest mean score was in the first aid (60.48 %. In contrast, CHVs’ knowledge in the non-tsunami areas had the highest mean score in the first aid (84.52 % and had the lowest mean score in the disaster triage (64. 38 %.Conclusion: Although both groups had high levels of overall knowledge, an education program for improved knowledge in the areas of first aid, team organization, and disaster triage should be emphasized to refresh the CHVs’ knowledge and skills for disaster management.

  15. Awareness of disaster reduction frameworks and risk perception of natural disaster: a questionnaire survey among Philippine and Indonesian health care personnel and public health students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usuzawa, Motoki; O Telan, Elizabeth; Kawano, Razel; S Dizon, Carmela; Alisjahbana, Bachti; Ashino, Yugo; Egawa, Shinichi; Fukumoto, Manabu; Izumi, Takako; Ono, Yuichi; Hattori, Toshio

    2014-01-01

    As the impacts of natural disasters have grown more severe, the importance of education for disaster medicine gains greater recognition. We launched a project to establish an international educational program for disaster medicine. In the present study, we surveyed medical personnel and medical/public health students in the Philippines (n = 45) and Indonesia (n = 67) for their awareness of the international frameworks related to disaster medicine: the Human Security (securing individual life and health), the Sphere Project (international humanitarian response), and the Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015 (international strategy for disaster reduction). In both countries, more than 50% responders were aware of human security, but only 2 to 12% were aware of the latter two. The survey also contained questions about the preferred subjects in prospective educational program, and risk perception on disaster and disaster-related infections. In the Philippines, significant disasters were geophysical (31.0%), hydrological (33.3%), or meteorological (24.8%), whereas in Indonesia, geophysical (63.0%) and hydrological (25.3%) were significant. Moreover, in the Philippines, leptospirosis (27.1%), dengue (18.6%), diarrhea (15.3%), and cholera (10.2%) were recognized common disaster-related infections. In Indonesia, diarrhea (22.0%) and respiratory infection (20.3%) are major disaster-related infections. Water-related infections were the major ones in both countries, but the profiles of risk perception were different (Pearson's chi-square test, p = 1.469e-05). The responders tended to overestimate the risk of low probability and high consequence such as geophysical disaster. These results are helpful for the development of a postgraduate course for disaster medicine in Asia Pacific countries.

  16. Availability of state-based obesity surveillance data on high school students with disabilities in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaki, Kiyoshi; Lowry, Brienne Davis; Buscaj, Emilie; Zisko, Leigh; Rimmer, James H

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the availability of public health surveillance data on obesity among American children with disabilities in state-based surveillance programs. We reviewed annual cross-sectional datasets in state-level surveillance programs for high school students, implemented 2001-2011, for the inclusion of weight and height and disability screening questions. When datasets included a disability screen, its content and consistency of use across years were examined. We identified 54 surveillance programs with 261 annual datasets containing obesity data. Twelve surveillance programs in 11 states included a disability screening question that could be used to extract obesity data for high school students with disabilities, leaving the other 39 states with no state-level obesity data for students with disabilities. A total of 43 annual datasets, 16.5 % of the available datasets, could be used to estimate the obesity status of students with disabilities. The frequency of use of disability questions varied across states, and the content of the questions often changed across years and within a state. We concluded that state surveillance programs rarely contained questions that could be used to identify high school students with disabilities. This limits the availability of data that can be used to monitor obesity and related health statuses among this population in the majority of states.

  17. Medical student disaster medicine education: the development of an educational resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfenninger, Ernst G; Domres, Bernd D; Stahl, Wolfgang; Bauer, Andreas; Houser, Christine M; Himmelseher, Sabine

    2010-02-16

    Disaster medicine education is an enormous challenge, but indispensable for disaster preparedness. We aimed to develop and implement a disaster medicine curriculum for medical student education that can serve as a peer-reviewed, structured educational guide and resource. Additionally, the process of designing, approving and implementing such a curriculum is presented. The six-step approach to curriculum development for medical education was used as a formal process instrument. Recognized experts from professional and governmental bodies involved in disaster health care provided input using disaster-related physician training programs, scientific evidence if available, proposals for education by international disaster medicine organizations and their expertise as the basis for content development. The final course consisted of 14 modules composed of 2-h units. The concepts of disaster medicine, including response, medical assistance, law, command, coordination, communication, and mass casualty management, are introduced. Hospital preparedness plans and experiences from worldwide disaster assistance are reviewed. Life-saving emergency and limited individual treatment under disaster conditions are discussed. Specifics of initial management of explosive, war-related, radiological/nuclear, chemical, and biological incidents emphasizing infectious diseases and terrorist attacks are presented. An evacuation exercise is completed, and a mass casualty triage is simulated in collaboration with local disaster response agencies. Decontamination procedures are demonstrated at a nuclear power plant or the local fire department, and personal decontamination practices are exercised. Mannequin resuscitation is practiced while personal protective equipment is utilized. An interactive review of professional ethics, stress disorders, psychosocial interventions, and quality improvement efforts complete the training. The curriculum offers medical disaster education in a reasonable time

  18. The role of social and economic context, and local knowledge for post-disaster reconstruction of high-mountain hazards: a case study from the Peruvian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulce Burga, María; Vicuña, Luis; Jurt, Christine; Huggel, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Following the occurrence of an extreme event, specific and immediate actions are oriented to relieve basic needs and guarantee the subsistence of daily life. One of the priorities is focused on the reconstruction and relocation to areas away from possible hazard. However, on a long-term perspective, new contexts, concerns and priorities among the affected as well as the immigrated population foster new risk perceptions, which in many cases may include the returning or settlement in areas exposed to hazards. In Santa Teresa (Cusco, Peru), risk has been part of its history. In 1998, two very large debris flows from deglaciated areas, in January and February respectively, destroyed the old city located by the riverside of the Sacsara river; including the loss of lives, housing, loss of infrastructure and roads, electricity and water cuts, among other important losses. Today, the new city is located on a terrace above the river reach; and their current inhabitants, mainly migrants from different cities of the region of Cusco, have a different perspective of this experience. On the contrary, many of the inhabitants who experienced these events have returned to the risk areas where they lost everything, or they have settled in disaster prone areas. There is a set of factors, such as local knowledge (regarding space, economy, etc.) and new social contexts (such as the rise of tourism in risk areas, for example) that are implicit in the current narratives regarding hazard and risk. This work purposes the following questions: how does the social and economic context, as well as local knowledge influence risk perceptions? Are there any differences concerning risk perceptions between groups who decided to live in disaster prone areas and groups who are less exposed to risk? And which are the strategies within the groups regarding risk, considering how this concept is understood among them? In order to analyze these questions, this work is based on a case study in the

  19. A Location Based Communication Proposal for Disaster Crisis Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülnerman, A. G.; Goksel, C.; Tezer, A.

    2014-12-01

    The most vital applications within urban applications under the title of Geographical Information system applications are Disaster applications. Especially, In Turkey the most occured disaster type Earthquakes impacts are hard to retain in urban due to greatness of area, data and effected resident or victim. Currently, communications between victims and institutions congested and collapsed, after disaster that results emergency service delay and so secondary death and desperation. To avoid these types of life loss, the communication should be established between public and institutions. Geographical Information System Technology is seen capable of data management techniques and communication tool. In this study, Life Saving Kiosk Modal Proposal designed as a communication tool based on GIS, after disaster, takes locational emegency demands, meets emergency demands over notification maps which is created by those demands,increase public solidarity by visualizing close emergency demanded area surrounded another one and gathers emergency service demanded institutions notifications and aims to increasethe capability of management. This design prosals' leading role is public. Increase in capability depends on public major contribution to disaster management by required communication infrastructure establishment. The aim is to propound public power instead of public despiration. Apart from general view of disaster crisis management approaches, Life Saving Kiosk Modal Proposal indicates preparedness and response phases within the disaster cycle and solve crisis management with the organization of design in preparedness phase, use in response phase. This resolution modal flow diagram is builded between public, communication tool (kiosk) amd response force. The software is included in communication tools whose functions, interface designs and user algorithms are provided considering the public participation. In this study, disaster crisis management with public

  20. OR/MS Applications in Mt. Merapi Disaster Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida Hanum

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Much of researches on the management of disaster deal with their social aspects such as sociological and psychological effects on communities. Recently there had been a growing credit of the demand for application of the operational research and management science matters in disaster management. This approach commonly utilizes decision theory, dynamical system and optimization technique to minimize the cost and recovery time. Approach: In this study we provide a comprehensive resource allocation model for disaster management, which consists of logistics distribution and humanitarian aid workforce’s assignment problems. The former was formulated in the form of integer linear programming whose objective was to minimize the logistic demand shortage. While the later was framed into goal programming basis to minimize penalty cost. Results: We implement our models in Mt. Merapi disaster operation activities. We first carry out the problem of logistic distribution between affected areas and distribution centers in the city basis. We then organize the assignment of humanitarian workforces in disaster response and recovery actions. Workers from several volunteer communities were assigned regarding their preferences on task and time. Conclusion: Approaches by Operations Research and Management Science (OR/MS not only efficiently and optimally solve the problem of logistic distribution and humanitarian assignment in accelerating disaster responses and recovery processes, but also offer flexibilities in dealing with the problem. In application, the scale of the problem can easily be extended.

  1. Political Communication in Disasters: A Question of Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamish McLean

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Politicians are both a help and hindrance in the provision of information to the public before, during and after disasters. For example, in Australia, the Premier of the State of Queensland, Anna Bligh, was lauded for her leadership and public communication skills during major floods that occurred late in 2010 and in early 2011 (de Bussy, Martin and Paterson 2012. Similarly, New York Mayor Rudy Giuliani was praised for his leadership following 9/11. This is in contrast to the poor performance of political leaders during Hurricane Katrina (Cole and Fellows 2008, Olson and Gawronski 2010. Political actors' lack of credibility and their poor situational awareness contributed to the problems. The involvement of political leaders in disaster communications is also problematic from the perspective of emergency agencies. For example, politicians who move their communication position from supportive to tactical can take over the role of providing official disaster information, such as evacuation warnings, without sufficient expertise, credibility or situational knowledge. This paper builds on the expanding body of research into the politics of disasters by exploring relationships with political actors from the perspective of emergency managers. Drawing on interviews with emergency agencies in Australia, Germany, Norway and the UK, we firstly examine when and what a politician should communicate during disasters and secondly, offer six principles toward a roadmap of involving political actors in the disaster communication process when life and property is at stake.

  2. Field note from Pakistan floods: Preventing future flood disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Oxley

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Unusually heavy monsoon rains in Northern Pakistan have caused disproportionate levels of extreme flooding and unprecedented flood losses across the entire Indus River basin. Extensive land use changes and environmental degradation in the uplands and lowlands of the river basin together with the construction of a “built environment” out of balance with the functioning, capacities, scale and limits of the local ecosystems have exposed millions of people to an increased risk of extreme #ooding. The catastrophic nature of the August #ooding provides a unique opportunity to fundamentally change Pakistan’s current socio-economic development path by incorporating disaster risk reduction and climate change measures into the post-disaster recovery process to rebuild a safer, more resilient nation. In January 2005 one hundred and sixty-eight nations adopted the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA2005-2015 to bring about a “substantial reduction in disaster losses” by 2015. Despite this global initiative a series of major disasters, including the recent flooding in Pakistan, all indicate that we are not on track to achieve the substantial reduction of disaster losses. The following fieldnote considers what can be done to accelerate progress towards implementation of the Hyogo Framework, drawing on insights and lessons learnt from the August flooding to understand how Pakistan and neighbouring countries can prevent a repeat of such catastrophic disasters in future years.

  3. Field note from Tajikistan Compound disaster - A new humanitarian challenge?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Kelly

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available During the winter of 2007-2008 the Central Asian country of Tajikistan experienced an unusually cold winter which led to shortages of electricity, water and heating as well as food losses and these impacts occurred at the same time as a combined with a drought, and dramatically increased food prices and increased food insecurity. These impacts were exacerbated by a lack of investment in the water, power and fuel supplies, health care and education systems since independence in 1991. This combination of events was termed a compound disaster. The note explores the conditions in Tajikistan which created the compound disaster, the humanitarian response and how this disaster became a neglected event. The concept of compound disaster has gained limited acceptance in Central Asia but may also be applicable elsewhere. The difficulty of identifying and responding to a compound disaster creates a particular challenge for humanitarian organisations if they are to be effective in reducing human su%ering due to disasters.

  4. Mental health response to community disasters: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Carol S; Pfefferbaum, Betty

    2013-08-07

    Exposure to a disaster is common, and one-third or more of individuals severely exposed may develop posttraumatic stress disorder or other disorders. A systematic approach to the delivery of timely and appropriate disaster mental health services may facilitate their integration into the emergency medical response. To review and summarize the evidence for how best to identify individuals in need of disaster mental health services and triage them to appropriate care. Search of the peer-reviewed English-language literature on disaster mental health response in PsycINFO, PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Academic Search Complete, and Google Scholar (inception to September 2012) and PILOTS (inception to February 2013), using a combination of subject headings and text words (Disasters, Natural Disasters, Mental Health, Mental Health Programs, Public Health Services, Mental Disorders, Mental Health Services, Community Mental Health Services, Emergency Services Psychiatric, Emotional Trauma, Triage, and Response). Unlike physical injuries, adverse mental health outcomes of disasters may not be apparent, and therefore a systematic approach to case identification and triage to appropriate interventions is required. Symptomatic individuals in postdisaster settings may experience new-onset disaster-related psychiatric disorders, exacerbations of preexisting psychopathology, and/or psychological distress. Descriptive disaster mental health studies have found that many (11%-38%) distressed individuals presenting for evaluation at shelters and family assistance centers have stress-related and adjustment disorders; bereavement, major depression, and substance use disorders were also observed, and up to 40% of distressed individuals had preexisting disorders. Individuals with more intense reactions to disaster stress were more likely to accept referral to mental health services than those with less intense reactions. Evidence-based treatments are available for

  5. Humanitarism and Disaster Governance in Indonesia: Case Study: Merapi Eruption in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annisa Gita Srikandini

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that humanitarian action in the aftermath of disaster could be explained with the concept of disaster governance. Humanitarian action has been defined as any action to minimize human suffering wherever it is found without considering any state boundaries. Its goal is to make the affected person to be resilient in the aftermath of disaster. This paper elaborates the principle of disaster governance including the concept of humanitarianism, the development of humanitarian enterprise, and the issue of coordination within the chaotic coordination after disaster. Second, it examines the concept of disaster governance as a model of network. Later, through those both tools, the case of Merapi Eruption in 2010 will be put into context.

  6. Primary Identification Methods and their Effectiveness in Mass Disaster Situations: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naiara M. Gaglietti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mass disasters generally result in an elevated number of casualties that need identification. The primary identification methods listed by INTERPOL (DNA, fingerprint and forensic dentistry have a very important role in helping and speeding up the victim identification process. The present study sought to report mass destruction cases found in the literature published from 2005 to 2015 that have used the primary human identification methods. This study has been done as a literature review using the keywords: disasters, natural disasters, disaster victims, and human identification in a total of 16 selected papers and 13 listed disasters. It has been concluded that the primary identification methods are capable and efficient to perform a safe and satisfactory identification of mass disasters victims, used both separately or in combination.

  7. LEVY WALK MODELS OF SURVIVOR MOVEMENT IN DISASTER AREAS WITH BARRIERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Socrates E. Akpoyibo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Disasters are catastrophic events that occur unexpectedly in a random manner. It is important that when a disaster occurs, the victims in the disaster area are rescued quickly to avoid massive casualties. Disaster areas may leave victims bereft of food, water, shelter and medical help. The goal of the work outlined in this paper is to study the movement of survivors towards rescue devices when barriers are involved. Barriers are obstacles that prevent both survivors and crewmembers from moving freely in a disaster area thereby slowing down rescue operations. It would therefore be necessary to study movements of survivors with barriers included in the simulations so as to produce more realistic results to be used when rescuing survivors in disaster areas.

  8. An Interdisciplinary Approach to Developing Innovative Teaching Strategies For Responding to Global Disaster Disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny L. Jones

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the development of an interdisciplinary Faculty Learning Community (FLC bringing together the Virginia Commonwealth University, School of Social Work and Government and Public Affairs, Department of Homeland Security to develop an in depth, comprehensive pedagogical approach to the many issues associated with disaster risk reduction. As the title suggests, this is an interdisciplinary team that explores learning and demonstrates learning models. This particular FLC focuses on understanding the antecedent conditions and root causes of disaster events. We explore best practices to prevent, mitigate, and prepare for such events in the undergraduate and graduate curriculum with an emphasis on homeland security and social work. The FLC is an example of a non-traditional educational model providing content on disaster risk, response, and global impact. This particular FLC was committed to bringing together appropriate expertise from the academic setting as well as inviting community members and organizations into the classroom to share the “lived experience” and intuitive knowledge about disaster.

  9. Condom availability in high risk places and condom use: a study at district level in Kenya, Tanzania and Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandøy Ingvild

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of studies from countries with severe HIV epidemics have found gaps in condom availability, even in places where there is a substantial potential for HIV transmission. Although reported condom use has increased in many African countries, there are often big differences by socioeconomic background. The aim of this study was to assess equity aspects of condom availability and uptake in three African districts to evaluate whether condom programmes are given sufficient priority. Methods Data on condom availability and use was examined in one district in Kenya, one in Tanzania and one in Zambia. The study was based on a triangulation of data collection methods in the three study districts: surveys in venues where people meet new sexual partners, population-based surveys and focus group discussions. The data was collected within an overall study on priority setting in health systems. Results At the time of the survey, condoms were observed in less than half of the high risk venues in two of the three districts and in 60% in the third district. Rural respondents in the population-based surveys perceived condoms to be less available and tended to be less likely to report condom use than urban respondents. Although focus group participants reported that condoms were largely available in their district, they expressed concerns related to the accessibility of free condoms. Conclusion As late as thirty years into the HIV epidemic there are still important gaps in the availability of condoms in places where people meet new sexual partners in these three African districts. Considering that previous studies have found that improved condom availability and accessibility in high risk places have a potential to increase condom use among people with multiple partners, the present study findings indicate that substantial further efforts should be made to secure that condoms are easily accessible in places where sexual relationships are

  10. Natural Disasters, Corpses and the Risk of Infectious Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JM Conly

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent occurrence of the category 4 Hurricane Katrina devastated the United States? Gulf Coast. The hurricane caused widespread destruction and flooding, and left hundreds of thousands of people homeless. The mounting death toll was reported at almost 300 deaths as of September 8, 2005 (1,2. The unfolding events and high death toll have left an unusual situation in which there are many decomposing corpses either lying on the streets or floating in the flood waters. The presence of these corpses in open settings, such as in public places and in the water that has inundated much of the city of New Orleans, naturally raises concerns about the occurrence of infectious disease epidemics (3. In the aftermath of large natural disasters, instinctive uncertainties arise among workers and the general population with respect to the appropriate handling and disposal of dead bodies and human remains. Given the recent occurrence of Hurricane Katrina as a large natural disaster and the unprecedented setting of the numerous corpses requiring disposal, it was considered timely to review the infectious disease risks associated with the handling of dead bodies.

  11. Disaster: would your community bounce back?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sims, Benjamin H [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-12

    ) Competent organizations - Government, health care, community service, and religious organizations are competent and trustworthy, and have resources to handle community needs; and (4) High-quality infrastructure - Road, power, and water systems (etc.) are in good condition and are designed to provide service even if some connections are destroyed. To explore how these factors make communities resilient, I will tell two stories of disasters. The first is the Buffalo Creek flood, which wiped out a coal mining community in West Virginia in 1972. This is a classic example of community that was not resilient in the aftermath of a disaster. The second example is the Vietnamese immigrant community in the Versailles neighborhood of New Orleans. In spite of being relatively poor and culturally isolated, this community was one of the first to fully rebound following Hurricane Katrina.

  12. Innovativ Airborne Sensors for Disaster Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altan, M. O.; Kemper, G.

    2016-06-01

    Modern Disaster Management Systems are based on 3 columns, crisis preparedness, early warning and the final crisis management. In all parts, special data are needed in order to analyze existing structures, assist in the early warning system and in the updating after a disaster happens to assist the crises management organizations. How can new and innovative sensors assist in these tasks? Aerial images have been frequently used in the past for generating spatial data, however in urban structures not all information can be extracted easily. Modern Oblique camera systems already assist in the evaluation of building structures to define rescue paths, analyze building structures and give also information of the stability of the urban fabric. For this application there is no need of a high geometric accurate sensor, also SLC Camera based Oblique Camera system as the OI X5, which uses Nikon Cameras, do a proper job. Such a camera also delivers worth full information after a Disaster happens to validate the degree of deformation in order to estimate stability and usability for the population. Thermal data in combination with RGB give further information of the building structure, damages and potential water intrusion. Under development is an oblique thermal sensor with 9 heads which enables nadir and oblique thermal data acquisition. Beside the application for searching people, thermal anomalies can be created out of humidity in constructions (transpiration effects), damaged power lines, burning gas tubes and many other dangerous facts. A big task is in the data analysis which should be made automatically and fast. This requires a good initial orientation and a proper relative adjustment of the single sensors. Like that, many modern software tools enable a rapid data extraction. Automated analysis of the data before and after a disaster can highlight areas of significant changes. Detecting anomalies are the way to get the focus on the prior area. Also Lidar supports

  13. Monitoring Yellow River ice disaster based on Chinese high-resolution satellite data%国产高分辨率卫星数据在黄河防凌监测中应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈琳; 杨中华; 马浩录; 陈杨

    2012-01-01

    自2002~2003年度首次启用遥感技术监测黄河凌情以来,到目前已连续进行了10个年度.10个年度的生产实践表明:国产高分辨率卫星遥感数据能够有效跟踪黄河凌情的发展过程,实现黄河凌情的日动态监测、重点时段的精细监测和突发凌汛灾害时的实时监测.黄河凌情尤其在封开河阶段,日变化非常显著,中巴资源卫星作为国产高分辨率可见光民用遥感卫星的代表,以其大视场、高空间、高时间分辨率的特点,动态监测凌情,基本做到每天实现一次全覆盖监测的能力,配合其他如中国遥感卫星等高分辨率可见光、雷达数据,初步实现了凌情发展预估、开河前的河道槽蓄水量计算、封开河期间冰凌险情监测以及发生凌汛灾害时灾情信息采集与评估,为黄河防凌调度、决策会商提供了有力的技术支持.%In the paper, the following conclusions were made based on the remote sensing monitoring results during 2002 and 2003; combination of multi-source remote sensing data could show the advantages of remote sensing, more effectively monitor the Yellow River ice disaster, and achieve real-time, dynamic and precision monitoring. Ice disaster of Yellow River obviously changes each day. Being a representative of Chinese remote sensing satellites in the visible, CBERS-02 /02B has achieved positive results in the previous monitoring. In the past two years, it has been fully utilized in environmental disaster reduction. CBERS-02/02B with high spatial and spectral resolution, achieving a full coverage every day, and its dynamic monitoring capability has significantly improved. Together with radar data, it can quickly monitor the emergency disaster, the location of entrances to the bursts, calculation of water storage, ice danger monitoring at beginning, and disaster information collection and assessment in process, assisting scheduling for the Yellow River ice and providing technical support

  14. Communications mode(ls and disasters: from word of mouth to ICTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Paradiso

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Information and communication technologies present significant advances in spatially-related information and communication systems. They may greatly enhance disaster prevention and crisis management. However, the ways by which ICTs culturally affect people-environment relations (hazard perception, citizen preparedness, relief, recovery, and resilience have not been sufficiently investigated. This paper attempts to compare people’s behaviour when coping with hazards and disasters along three ages: oral word, mass media mediation, and ICTs mediation. The paper then presents an overarching model of coping with disasters and guidelines for ICT uses in a full disaster cycle.

  15. International Frameworks for Disaster Risk Reduction: Useful Guidance for Sustainable Mountain Development?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Zimmermann

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, a number of global frameworks have been developed for disaster risk reduction (DRR. The Hyogo Framework for Action 2005–2015 and its successor document, the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction, adopted in Japan in March 2015, provide general guidance for reducing risks from natural hazards. This is particularly important for mountainous areas, but DRR for mountain areas and sustainable mountain development received little attention in the recent policy debate. The question remains whether the Hyogo and Sendai frameworks can provide guidance for sustainable mountain development. This article evaluates the 2 frameworks in light of the special challenges of DRR in mountain areas and argues that, while the frameworks offer valuable guidance, they need to be further adapted for local contexts—particularly for mountain areas, which require special attention because of changing risk patterns like the effects of climate change and high land-use pressure.

  16. UAVSAR for the Management of Natural Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Y.; Hensley, S.; Jones, C. E.

    2014-12-01

    The unique capabilities of imaging radar to penetrate cloud cover and collect data in darkness over large areas at high resolution makes it a key information provider for the management and mitigation of natural and human-induced disasters such as earthquakes, volcanoes, landslides, floods, and wildfires. Researchers have demonstrated the use of UAVSAR's fully polarimetric data to determine flood extent, forest fire extent, lava flow, and landslide. The ability for UAVSAR to provide high accuracy repeated flight tracks and precise imaging geometry for measuring surface deformation to a few centimeter accuracy using InSAR techniques. In fact, UAVSAR's repeat-pass interferometry capability unleashed new potential approaches to manage the risk of natural disasters prior to the occurrence of these events by modeling and monitoring volcano inflation, earthquake fault movements, landslide rate and extent, and sink hole precursory movement. In this talk we will present examples of applications of UAVSAR for natural disaster management. This research was conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  17. Upper and lower respiratory diseases after occupational and environmental disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prezant, David J; Levin, Stephen; Kelly, Kerry J; Aldrich, Thomas K

    2008-01-01

    Respiratory consequences from occupational and environmental disasters are the result of inhalation exposures to chemicals, particulate matter (dusts and fibers) and/or the incomplete products of combustion that are often liberated during disasters such as fires, building collapses, explosions and volcanoes. Unfortunately, experience has shown that environmental controls and effective respiratory protection are often unavailable during the first days to week after a large-scale disaster. The English literature was reviewed using the key words-disaster and any of the following: respiratory disease, pulmonary, asthma, bronchitis, sinusitis, pulmonary fibrosis, or sarcoidosis. Respiratory health consequences after aerosolized exposures to high-concentrations of particulates and chemicals can be grouped into 4 major categories: 1) upper respiratory disease (chronic rhinosinusitis and reactive upper airways dysfunction syndrome), 2) lower respiratory diseases (reactive [lower] airways dysfunction syndrome, irritant-induced asthma, and chronic obstructive airways diseases), 3) parenchymal or interstitial lung diseases (sarcoidosis, pulmonary fibrosis, and bronchiolitis obliterans, and 4) cancers of the lung and pleura. This review describes several respiratory consequences of occupational and environmental disasters and uses the World Trade Center disaster to illustrate in detail the consequences of chronic upper and lower respiratory inflammation.

  18. Exploring the Demands on Nurses Working in Health Care Facilities During a Large-Scale Natural Disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian C. Scrymgeour

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nurses are pivotal to an effective societal response to a range of critical events, including disasters. This presents nurses with many significant and complex challenges that require them to function effectively under highly challenging and stressful circumstances and often for prolonged periods of time. The exponential growth in the number of disasters means that knowledge of disaster preparedness and how this knowledge can be implemented to facilitate the development of resilient and adaptive nurses and health care organizations represents an important adjunct to nurse education, policy development, and research considerations. Although this topic has and continues to attract attention in the literature, a lack of systematic understanding of the contingencies makes it difficult to clearly differentiate what is known and what gaps remain in this literature. Providing a sound footing for future research can be facilitated by first systematically reviewing the relevant literature. Focused themes were identified and analyzed using an ecological and interactive systems framework. Ten of the 12 retained studies included evacuation, revealing that evacuation is more likely to occur in an aged care facility than a hospital. The unpredictability of an event also highlighted organizational, functional, and competency issues in regard to the complexity of decision making and overall preparedness. The integrative review also identified that the unique roles, competencies, and demands on nurses working in hospitals and residential health care facilities during a natural disaster appear invisible within the highly visible event.

  19. Disaster Preparedness for Your Pet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and prepare a disaster kit for your pet. Leaving pets out of evacuation plans can put pets, ... during an evacuation Contact your local emergency management office and ask if they offer accommodations for owners ...

  20. Disaster Debris Recovery Database - Recovery

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The US EPA Region 5 Disaster Debris Recovery Database includes public datasets of over 6,000 composting facilities, demolition contractors, transfer stations,...

  1. Disaster Debris Recovery Database - Landfills

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The US EPA Region 5 Disaster Debris Recovery Database includes public datasets of over 6,000 composting facilities, demolition contractors, transfer stations,...

  2. FEMA Current Disaster Declarations -shp

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This dataset lists the current Disaster Declarations in Shapefile. This data was compiled and distributed by FEMA Mapping and Analysis Center (MAC). Metadata file...

  3. FEMA Disaster Recovery Centers - KML

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This is a KML file for FEMA's Disaster Recovery Centers (DRC). A DRC is a readily accessible facility or mobile office set up by FEMA where applicants may go for...

  4. Evacuation models and disaster psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.C.M. Vorst

    2010-01-01

    In evacuation models of buildings, neighborhoods, areas, cities and countries important psychological parameters are not frequently used. In this paper the relevance of some important variables from disaster psychology will be discussed. Modeling psychological variables will enhance prediction of hu

  5. [Disaster psychiatry in late life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awata, Shuichi

    2013-10-01

    Disaster preparedness in geriatric psychiatry was proposed on the basis of experience of the Great East Japan Earthquake. 1) Frail or demented elderly should be considered as a special population at risk for disaster victims and addressed in local disaster prevention programs. 2) To response to various psychiatric symptoms(delirium, BPSD, depression, anxiety, insomnia, and posttraumatic stress disorder) caused by medical conditions and rapid environmental changes due to disaster, linkage and coordination systems between psychiatric and medical sections should be established. 3) As a medium- and long-term support for the elderly who lost the community familiar to them, creation of a new community should be promoted in order to prevent depression, alcohol dependence, BPSD, and suicide.

  6. THE ASSESMENT OF MAIN CHARACTERISTICS AND PROCESSING AVAILABILITY OF WOOL OBTAINED FROM SHEEP BELONGING TO THE PALAS HIGH PROLIFICACY LINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA ENCIU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of these researches was to analyze the quantitative and qualitative parameters of wool obtained from the Palas sheep population with high prolificacy and to assess the processing availabilities of these fibres type. Average values recorded for the main wool traits ranged between the following limits: wool production 2.86 ÷ 4.72 kilos; fibres fineness 27.28 ÷ 29.32 microns; variability of fineness ( CV 26.88 ÷ 29.94 %; staple length 9.77 ÷ 14.23 cm, variability of length ( CV 18.01 ÷ 22.06 % ; scouring yield 54.05 ÷ 61.44 % and the variability of yield 8.35 ÷ 14.78 %. . This wool has a technological value similar to that obtained from the sheep breed with medium fineness wool (Tigaie, Spanca .

  7. PSYCHOSOCIAL IMPACT OF LAPINDO MUD DISASTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mundakir Mundakir

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lapindo mud disaster that occurred since 29 May 2006 is considered as the longest disaster that occurred in Indonesia. This disaster has caused damage and lost of property which has been affecting the viability of the residents of the affected areas. Psychosocial well being is one af the impacts of disaster. Research was conducted using qualitative design with descriptive phenomenology method. The purpose required of this research was to identify the psychological impact, social impact, and hope for the settlement of problems and health services. Method: Number of participants were involved in this research based on the saturation of data was 7 people. This study used purposive sampling technique using the key informant. Procedure of data collection techniques using depth interviews with a semi-structured form of used questions. The Digital Voice Record was utilized to record the interviews, and verbatim transcripts made and analyzed using the methods of Colaizi (1978, in Daymon and Dolloway, 2008. Result: This study revealed 9 theme of core and 2 additional theme. Nine the core theme is emotional changes, cognitive changes, coping mechanism, changes in family function, changes in social relationships, social support, hope to the problem to the government and PT Lapindo, physical health service needs and psychological health. Discussion: While two additional theme that is risk and growth trouble, and distres spiritual. Conclusion of this research society of victim of mud of Lapindo experience of impact of psikosoial and hope to government and PT Lapindo settle the payment phase II (80% and also provide service of health of physical and also psikososial. This research recommend the importance of intervention of psikososial to society of victim and research of continuation after society of victim take possession of new residences.

  8. Development and Evaluation of Disaster Information Management System Using Digital Pens and Tabletop User Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukada, Hidemi; Kobayashi, Kazue; Satou, Kenji; Kawana, Hideyuki; Masuda, Tomohiro

    Most traditional disaster information systems are necessary to post expert staff with high computer literacy to operate the system quickly and correctly in the tense situation when a disaster occurs. However, in the current disaster response system of local governments, it is not easy for local governments to post such expert staff because they are struggling with staff cuts due to administrative and fiscal reform. In this research, we propose a disaster information management system that can be easily operated, even under the disorderly conditions of a disaster, by municipal personnel in charge of disaster management. This system achieves usability enabling easy input of damage information, even by local government staff with no expertise, by using a digital pen and tabletop user interface. Evaluation was conducted by prospective users using a prototype, and the evaluation results are satisfactory with regard to the function and operationality of the proposed system.

  9. Earthquake Disaster Management and Insurance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    As one of the most powerful tools to reduce the earthquake loss, the Earthquake Disaster Management [EDM] and Insurance [EI] have been highlighted and have had a great progress in many countries in recent years. Earthquake disaster management includes a series of contents, such as earthquake hazard and risk analysis, vulnerability analysis of building and infrastructure, earthquake aware training, and building the emergency response system. EI, which has been included in EDM after this practice has been...

  10. Information Management and Disaster Archives

    OpenAIRE

    Odabaş, Hüseyin; Odabaş, Z. Yonca; Polat, Coşkun

    2008-01-01

    Information management is a discipline which gives opportunity the collection of every kind of explicit or tacit information reresource appearing in the result of past activities and experience, sharing it by passing through suitable processes and achieving useful results from them. Disaster is a fact that affects both individual and social lives in negative ways. In order to mitigate these effects the concept of disaster management provides many opportunities. As a result of these processes ...

  11. Next Generation Fast RF Interlock Module and ATCA Adapter for ILC High Availability RF Test Station Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, R

    2009-10-17

    High availability interlocks and controls are required for the ILC (International Linear Collider) L-Band high power RF stations. A new F3 (Fast Fault Finder) VME module has been developed to process both fast and slow interlocks using FPGA logic to detect the interlock trip excursions. This combination eliminates the need for separate PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) control of slow interlocks. Modules are chained together to accommodate as many inputs as needed. In the next phase of development the F3's will be ported to the new industry standard ATCA (Advanced Telecom Computing Architecture) crate (shelf) via a specially designed VME adapter module with IPMI (Intelligent Platform Management Interface). The goal is to demonstrate auto-failover and hot-swap for future partially redundant systems.

  12. LHCb: Performance evaluation and capacity planning for a scalable and highly available virtulization infrastructure for the LHCb experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Sborzacchi, F; Neufeld, N

    2013-01-01

    The virtual computing is often run to satisfy different needs: reduce costs, reduce resources, simplify maintenance and the last but not the least add flexibility. The use of Virtualization in a complex system such as a farm of PCs that control the hardware of an experiment (PLC, power supplies ,gas, magnets..) put us in a condition where not only an High Performance requirements need to be carefully considered but also a deep analysis of strategies to achieve a certain level of High Availability. We conducted a performance evaluation on different and comparable storage/network/virtulization platforms. The performance is measured using a series of independent benchmarks , testing the speed an the stability of multiple VMs runnng heavy-load operations on the I/O of virtualized storage and the virtualized network. The result from the benchmark tests allowed us to study and evaluate how the different workloads of Vm interact with the Hardware/Software resource layers.

  13. ScreenMill: A freely available software suite for growth measurement, analysis and visualization of high-throughput screen data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rothstein Rodney

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many high-throughput genomic experiments, such as Synthetic Genetic Array and yeast two-hybrid, use colony growth on solid media as a screen metric. These experiments routinely generate over 100,000 data points, making data analysis a time consuming and painstaking process. Here we describe ScreenMill, a new software suite that automates image analysis and simplifies data review and analysis for high-throughput biological experiments. Results The ScreenMill, software suite includes three software tools or "engines": an open source Colony Measurement Engine (CM Engine to quantitate colony growth data from plate images, a web-based Data Review Engine (DR Engine to validate and analyze quantitative screen data, and a web-based Statistics Visualization Engine (SV Engine to visualize screen data with statistical information overlaid. The methods and software described here can be applied to any screen in which growth is measured by colony size. In addition, the DR Engine and SV Engine can be used to visualize and analyze other types of quantitative high-throughput data. Conclusions ScreenMill automates quantification, analysis and visualization of high-throughput screen data. The algorithms implemented in ScreenMill are transparent allowing users to be confident about the results ScreenMill produces. Taken together, the tools of ScreenMill offer biologists a simple and flexible way of analyzing their data, without requiring programming skills.

  14. ASTER satellite observations for international disaster management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, K.A.; Abrams, M.

    2012-01-01

    When lives are threatened or lost due to catastrophic disasters, and when massive financial impacts are experienced, international emergency response teams rapidly mobilize to provide urgently required support. Satellite observations of affected areas often provide essential insight into the magnitude and details of the impacts. The large cost and high complexity of developing and operating satellite flight and ground systems encourages international collaboration in acquiring imagery for such significant global events in order to speed delivery of critical information to help those affected, and optimize spectral, spatial, and temporal coverage of the areas of interest. The International Charter-Space and Major Disasters was established to enable such collaboration in sensor tasking during times of crisis and is often activated in response to calls for assistance from authorized users. Insight is provided from a U.S. perspective into sensor support for Charter activations and other disaster events through a description of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), which has been used to support emergency situations for over a decade through its expedited tasking and near real-time data delivery capabilities. Examples of successes achieved and challenges encountered in international collaboration to develop related systems and fulfill tasking requests suggest operational considerations for new missions as well as areas for future enhancements.

  15. Tsunami-tendenko and morality in disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Satoshi

    2015-05-01

    Disaster planning challenges our morality. Everyday rules of action may need to be suspended during large-scale disasters in favour of maxims that that may make prudential or practical sense and may even be morally preferable but emotionally hard to accept, such as tsunami-tendenko. This maxim dictates that the individual not stay and help others but run and preserve his or her life instead. Tsunami-tendenko became well known after the great East Japan earthquake on 11 March 2011, when almost all the elementary and junior high school students in one city survived the tsunami because they acted on this maxim that had been taught for several years. While tsunami-tendenko has been praised, two criticisms of it merit careful consideration: one, that the maxim is selfish and immoral; and two, that it goes against the natural tendency to try to save others in dire need. In this paper, I will explain the concept of tsunami-tendenko and then respond to these criticisms. Such ethical analysis is essential for dispelling confusion and doubts about evacuation policies in a disaster. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. High Availability Cluster of Linux Based on DRBD%基于DRBD的Linux高可用集群

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巩天宁; 周书明

    2012-01-01

    Analyzing traditional high availability cluster,designing a project based on free open-source software heartbeat and DRBD to solve traditional HA-cluster's deficiency on cost,using heartbeat to construct high availability cluster,using DRBD to synchronize data between cluster's nodes,constructing and testing an FTP HA-cluster based on this design,giving an resolution to brain-split.%文章分析了传统高可用性集群,针对其成本较高的缺点提出了使用免费开源软件heartbeat构造高可用集群、DR BD在集群节点之间同步数据以取代共享磁盘的方案,并设计使用该方案构建高可用FTP集群的实例,通过测试确认该方案的可行性,最后给出集群脑裂的解决方法。

  17. NASA's Applied Sciences: Natural Disasters Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Jason L.

    2010-01-01

    Fully utilize current and near-term airborne and spaceborne assets and capabilities. NASA spaceborne instruments are for research but can be applied to natural disaster response as appropriate. NASA airborne instruments can be targeted specifically for disaster response. Could impact research programs. Better flow of information improves disaster response. Catalog capability, product, applicable disaster, points of contact. Ownership needs to come from the highest level of NASA - unpredictable and irregular nature of disasters requires contingency funding for disaster response. Build-in transfer of applicable natural disaster research capabilities to operational functionality at other agencies (e.g., USFS, NOAA, FEMA...) at the outset, whenever possible. For the Decadal Survey Missions, opportunities exist to identify needs and requirements early in the mission design process. Need to understand additional needs and commitments for meeting the needs of the disaster community. Opportunity to maximize disaster response and mitigation from the Decadal Survey Missions. Additional needs or capabilities may require agency contributions.

  18. Translating disaster resilience into spatial planning practice in South Africa: Challenges and champions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Niekerk, Willemien

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available to reduce disaster losses by equipping cities to withstand, absorb, adapt to or recover from external shocks. This paper questions whether disaster resilience is likely to be taken up in spatial planning practices in South Africa, given its immediate...

  19. State aid following natural disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Řezáč

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with state and regional actions taken to eliminate the effects of natural disasters. It focuses on clarifying the causes, extent and impact of flood damage in the years 1997–2010, not only in the Czech Republic but also in neighboring countries within each river basin crossing the border. The legislative framework is given by the European Union´s Directive on the assessment and management of flood risks. The directive is followed by the strategy of flood protection in the Czech Republic according to the specifications of the assets of the state, municipalities, citizens and businesses. Action plans for flood protection are then processed in accordance with individual river basins, the ones discussed in this article being the Elbe, Danube and Odra. A chronological summary of floods during the 1997–2010 period presents relevant data on these events, including comparisons with previous periods. In conclusion, the authors present data on the number of claims, the extent of the damage, and the total sum of insurance claims paid out by member associations of the Czech Insurance Association. It also deals with problems concerning the underestimation of insurance coverage, especially among small and medium-sized businesses.

  20. Improved virus removal by high-basicity polyaluminum coagulants compared to commercially available aluminum-based coagulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasaki, N; Matsushita, T; Matsui, Y; Oshiba, A; Marubayashi, T; Sato, S

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effects of basicity, sulfate content, and aluminum hydrolyte species on the ability of polyaluminum chloride (PACl) coagulants to remove F-specific RNA bacteriophages from river water at a pH range of 6-8. An increase in PACl basicity from 1.5 to 2.1 and the absence of sulfate led to a reduction of the amount of monomeric aluminum species (i.e., an increase of the total amount of polymeric aluminum and colloidal aluminum species) in the PACl, to an increase in the colloid charge density of the PACl, or to both and, as a result, to high virus removal efficiency. The efficiency of virus removal at around pH 8 observed with PACl-2.1c, a nonsulfated high-basicity PACl (basicity 2.1-2.2) with a high colloidal aluminum content, was larger than that observed with PACl-2.1b, a nonsulfated high-basicity PACl (basicity 2.1-2.2) with a high polymeric aluminum content. In contrast, although extremely high basicity PACls (e.g., PACl-2.7ns, basicity 2.7) effectively removed turbidity and UV260-absorbing natural organic matter and resulted in a very low residual aluminum concentration, the virus removal ratio with PACl-2.7ns was smaller than the ratio with PACl-2.1c at around pH 8, possibly as a result of a reduction of the colloid charge density of the PACl as the basicity was increased from 2.1 to 2.7. Liquid (27)Al NMR analysis revealed that PACl-2.1c contained Al30 species, which was not the case for PACl-2.1b or PACl-2.7ns. This result suggests that Al30 species probably played a major role in virus removal during the coagulation process. In summary, PACl-2.1c, which has high colloidal aluminum content, contains Al30 species, and has a high colloid charge density, removed viruses more efficiently (>4 log10 for infectious viruses) than the other aluminum-based coagulants-including commercially available PACls (basicity 1.5-1.8), alum, and PACl-2.7ns-over the entire tested pH (6-8) and coagulant dosage (0.54-5.4 mg-Al/L) ranges.

  1. THE INTEGRATION OF CULTURAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT IN DISASTER MANAGEMENT AT SPECIAL REGION PROVINCE OF YOGYAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deffi Ayu Puspito Sari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of Indonesia Law number 24 year 2007 on disaster emphasizes that the protection of national assets is in line with Law No. 11 year 2010 on the cultural heritage. Yogyakarta Province has 12 disaster hazards and has five complete archaeological cultural layers in Indonesia. In the event of a disaster, potential damage to the cultural heritage is exposed. The archaeological cultural layer consists of prehistoric, classical, Islamic and colonial. The lack of research related to cultural heritage in the province resulting in increasing vulnerability of cultural heritage and society. Using qualitative method with in-depth interview, the aim of this study is to analyse the management of cultural heritage from the perspective of disaster management. Archaeological cultural layers that embedded into the realm of cultural heritage is defined as a national asset that should be protected. The result shows that the management of cultural resources in the province is not yet integrated with disaster management. However, the results of the archaeological identification of cultural heritage in each cultural layer in Yogyakarta showed the development of community adaptation to the disaster. Utilization of cultural heritage as an element of the panca gatra has been impartial that affected the regional resilience and security in facing the disaster. Both of these problems can be overcome by integrating the cultural resources management and disaster management, the establishment of an emergency response team on cultural preservation, and disaster risk analysis on cultural heritage that annexed by BPBD and Cultural Office of Yogyakarta Province.

  2. The Hyogo Framework for Action and its implications for disaster management and reduction in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejo Olowu

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available At the World Conference on Disaster Reduction, Hyogo, Japan, in January 2005, the international community adopted a 10-year plan to make the world safer from disasters. The resultant Hyogo Framework for Action is the global blueprint for disaster risk reduction with the goal of substantially reducing disaster losses in human lives and socio-economic assets. What is the signi!cance of the HFA for the adoption of disaster prevention, management and risk reduction frameworks in African States? Since 2005, what has been the attitude of African States to the promise of the HFA? In terms of policy and planning, how should African States engage the HFA towards securing human lives and properties against natural and human-induced disasters? With the myriad challenges of mass poverty and underdevelopment across Africa, what implications does the HFA hold for disaster risk reduction and management in African States? This article attempts to address this plethora of questions, drawing on lessons learned in Africa and beyond. The article examines the background of the HFA and its progress in shaping the global policy agenda towards disaster management and reduction. While the article acknowledges some of the inherent weaknesses in the promise of the HFA, it nonetheless accentuates its inimitable implications for broad legal and policy strategies towards ameliorating the usual horrific aftermath of disasters in Africa.

  3. Progress and challenges of disaster health management in China: a scoping review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Zhong

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the importance of an effective health system response to various disasters, relevant research is still in its infancy, especially in middle- and low-income countries. Objective: This paper provides an overview of the status of disaster health management in China, with its aim to promote the effectiveness of the health response for reducing disaster-related mortality and morbidity. Design: A scoping review method was used to address the recent progress of and challenges to disaster health management in China. Major health electronic databases were searched to identify English and Chinese literature that were relevant to the research aims. Results: The review found that since 2003 considerable progress has been achieved in the health disaster response system in China. However, there remain challenges that hinder effective health disaster responses, including low standards of disaster-resistant infrastructure safety, the lack of specific disaster plans, poor emergency coordination between hospitals, lack of portable diagnostic equipment and underdeveloped triage skills, surge capacity, and psychological interventions. Additional challenges include the fragmentation of the emergency health service system, a lack of specific legislation for emergencies, disparities in the distribution of funding, and inadequate cost-effective considerations for disaster rescue. Conclusions: One solution identified to address these challenges appears to be through corresponding policy strategies at multiple levels (e.g. community, hospital, and healthcare system level.

  4. Disaster mitigation action plan: Digital media on improving accountability and community relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adila, I.; Dewi, W. W. A.; Tamitiadini, D.; Syauki, W. R.

    2017-06-01

    This study wants to address on how communication science is applied to Disaster Mitigation Plan. Especially, the implementation of Community Media and Development of Communication Technology that synergize to create a Disaster Mitigation Medium, which is appropriate for typology of Indonesia. Various levels of priorities that include disaster mitigation information, namely, increasing chain system of early warning systems, building evacuation, improving alertness and capacity to face a disaster, as well as minimizing disaster risk factor. Through this concept, mitigation actions plan of Tulungagung Coastal areas is expected to be applied in other regions in Indonesia by BNPB (Badan Nasional Penanggulangan Bencana). Having this strategy to be implemented based on region characteristics, it is expected that risk reduction process can be run optimally. As a result, the strategy is known as Community-Based Disaster Risk Reduction (PRBBK), which means as the organized-efforts by society for pra-, during, and post- disaster by using available resources as much as possible to prevent, reduce, avoid, and recover from the impact of disasters. Therefore, this result can be a Pilot Project for BNBP Indonesia, as a government decisive attitude for the next steps in protecting people residing in the region prone to natural disasters all over Indonesia.

  5. High-power ultrafast Yb:fiber laser frequency combs using commercially available components and basic fiber tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinlong; Reber, Melanie A. R.; Corder, Christopher; Chen, Yuning; Zhao, Peng; Allison, Thomas K.

    2016-09-01

    We present a detailed description of the design, construction, and performance of high-power ultrafast Yb:fiber laser frequency combs in operation in our laboratory. We discuss two such laser systems: an 87 MHz, 9 W, 85 fs laser operating at 1060 nm and an 87 MHz, 80 W, 155 fs laser operating at 1035 nm. Both are constructed using low-cost, commercially available components, and can be assembled using only basic tools for cleaving and splicing single-mode fibers. We describe practical methods for achieving and characterizing low-noise single-pulse operation and long-term stability from Yb:fiber oscillators based on nonlinear polarization evolution. Stabilization of the combs using a variety of transducers, including a new method for tuning the carrier-envelope offset frequency, is discussed. High average power is achieved through chirped-pulse amplification in simple fiber amplifiers based on double-clad photonic crystal fibers. We describe the use of these combs in several applications, including ultrasensitive femtosecond time-resolved spectroscopy and cavity-enhanced high-order harmonic generation.

  6. Waiting for Disasters: A Risk Reduction Assessment of Technological Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovins, Jane; Winningham, Sam

    2010-05-01

    This session provides a risk reduction/mitigation assessment of natural hazards causation of technological disasters and possible solution. People use technology in an attempt to not only control their environment but nature itself in order to make them feel safe and productive. Most strategies for managing hazards followed a traditional planning model i.e. study the problem, identify and implement a solution, and move on to the next problem. This approach is often viewed as static model and risk reduction is more of an upward, positive, linear trend. However, technological disasters do not allow risk reduction action to neatly fit this upward, positive, linear trend with actual or potential threats to the environment and society. There are different types of technological disasters, including industrial accidents; pipeline ruptures; accidents at power, water and heat supply systems and other lines of communication; sudden collapse of buildings and mines; air crashes; shipwrecks; automobile and railway accidents to name a few. Natural factors can play an essential role in triggering or magnifying technological disasters. They can result from the direct destruction of given technical objects by a hazardous natural process such as the destruction of an atomic power plant or chemical plant due to an earthquake. Other examples would include the destruction of communications or infrastructure systems by heavy snowfalls, strong winds, avalanches. Events in the past ten years clearly demonstrate that natural disasters and the technological disasters that accompany them are not problems that can be solved in isolation and risk reduction can play an important part. Risk reduction was designed to head off the continuing rising financial and structural tolls from disasters. All Hazard Risk Reduction planning was supposed to include not only natural, but technological, and human-made disasters as well. The subsequent disaster risk reduction (DRR) indicators were to provide the

  7. Measuring vulnerability to disaster displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, Susan A.; Khazai, Bijan; Power, Christopher; Wenzel, Friedemann

    2015-04-01

    Large scale disasters can cause devastating impacts in terms of population displacement. Between 2008 and 2013, on average 27 million people were displaced annually by disasters (Yonetani 2014). After large events such as hurricane Katrina or the Port-au-Prince earthquake, images of inadequate public shelter and concerns about large scale and often inequitable migration have been broadcast around the world. Population displacement can often be one of the most devastating and visible impacts of a natural disaster. Despite the importance of population displacement in disaster events, measures to understand the socio-economic vulnerability of a community often use broad metrics to estimate the total socio-economic risk of an event rather than focusing on the specific impacts that a community faces in a disaster. Population displacement is complex and multi-causal with the physical impact of a disaster interacting with vulnerability arising from the response, environmental issues (e.g., weather), cultural concerns (e.g., expectations of adequate shelter), and many individual factors (e.g., mobility, risk perception). In addition to the complexity of the causes, population displacement is difficult to measure because of the wide variety of different terms and definitions and its multi-dimensional nature. When we speak of severe population displacement, we may refer to a large number of displaced people, an extended length of displacement or associated difficulties such as poor shelter quality, risk of violence and crime in shelter communities, discrimination in aid, a lack of access to employment or other difficulties that can be associated with large scale population displacement. We have completed a thorough review of the literature on disaster population displacement. Research has been conducted on historic events to understand the types of negative impacts associated with population displacement and also the vulnerability of different groups to these impacts. We

  8. Promoting a culture of disaster preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Angeli

    2016-01-01

    Disasters from all hazards, ranging from natural disasters, human-induced disasters, effects of climate change to social conflicts can significantly affect the healthcare system and community. This requires a paradigm shift from a reactive approach to a disaster risk management 'all-hazards' approach. Disaster management is a joint effort of the city, state, regional, national, multi-agencies and international organisations that requires effective communication, collaboration and coordination. This paper offers lessons learned and best practices, which, when taken into consideration, can strengthen the phases of disaster risk management.

  9. Disaster declarations associated with bushfires, floods and storms in New South Wales, Australia between 2004 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewell, T; Stephens, R E; Dominey-Howes, D; Bruce, E; Perkins-Kirkpatrick, S

    2016-11-07

    Australia regularly experiences disasters triggered by natural hazards and New South Wales (NSW) the most populous State is no exception. To date, no publically available spatial and temporal analyses of disaster declarations triggered by hazards (specifically, bushfires, floods and storms) in NSW have been undertaken and no studies have explored the relationship between disaster occurrence and socio-economic disadvantage. We source, collate and analyse data about bushfire, flood and storm disaster declarations between 2004 and 2014. Floods resulted in the most frequent type of disaster declaration. The greatest number of disaster declarations occurred in 2012-2013. Whilst no significant Spearman's correlation exists between bushfire, flood and storm disaster declarations and the strength of the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phase, we observe that bushfire disaster declarations were much more common during El Niño, and flood disaster declarations were five times more common during La Niña phases. We identify a spatial cluster or 'hot spot' of disaster declarations in the northeast of the State that is also spatially coincident with 43% of the most socio-economically disadvantaged Local Government Areas in NSW. The results have implications for disaster risk management in the State.

  10. Psychiatric and medical disorders in the after math of the uttarakhand disaster: Assessment, approach, and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Kumar Channaveerachari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To present the descriptive data on the frequency of medical and psychiatric morbidity and also to discuss various pertinent issues relevant to the disaster management, the future challenges and psychosocial needs of the 2013 floods in Uttarakhand, India. Materials and Methods: Observation was undertaken by the disaster management team of National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences in the worst affected four districts of Uttarakhand. Qualified psychiatrists diagnosed the patients using the International Classification of Diseases-10 criteria. Data were collected by direct observation, interview of the survivors, group sessions, individual key-informant interview, individual session, and group interventions. Results: Patients with physical health problems formed the majority of treatment seekers (39.6% in this report. Only about 2% had disaster induced psychiatric diagnoses. As was expected, minor mental disorders in the form of depressive disorders and anxiety disorders formed majority of the psychiatric morbidity. Substance use disorders appear to be very highly prevalent in the community; however, we were not able to assess the morbidity systematically. Conclusions: The mental health infrastructure and manpower is abysmally inadequate. There is an urgent need to implement the National Mental Health Program to increase the mental health infrastructure and services in the four major disaster-affected districts.

  11. 20 CFR 625.7 - Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.7 Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration. DUA shall be payable... unemployment which begin during a Disaster Assistance Period. ...

  12. Managing Risk in Disaster Scenarios with Autonomous Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P. Stormont

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Disaster areas are one of the most challenging environments faced by mankind. Uncertainty, hazards, and limited availability of rescuers all impact the ability to save lives. Prepositioned autonomous rescue robots offer promise in assisting the first responders to a disaster site, but there is a challenge to using robots in hazardous environments: numerous studies have shown that human rescuers lack trust in fully autonomous systems. This paper introduces the aspects of disaster areas that make them so challenging. The use of robots as a risk management tool for human rescuers is introduced. Then some of the factors that limit human trust in robots are addressed – including one of the key factors: reliability. The design of a computer model used to investigate issues of trust and the impact of reliability in a firefighting scenario is discussed and the results are analyzed. Finally, some preliminary conclusions and plans for further work in this area are presented.

  13. Disaster risk profile and existing legal framework of Nepal: floods and landslides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaire, Surya; Castro Delgado, Rafael; Arcos González, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Nepal has a complicated geophysical structure that is prone to various kinds of disasters. Nepal ranks the most disaster-prone country in the world and has experienced several natural calamities, causing high property and life losses. Disasters are caused by natural processes, but may be increased by human activities. The overall objective of this paper is to analyze the disaster risk profile and existing legal framework of Nepal. The paper is based on secondary data sources. Major causative factors for floods and landslides are heavy and continuous rainfall, outburst floods, infrastructure failure, and deforestation. Historical data of natural disasters in Nepal show that water-induced disasters have killed hundreds of people and affected thousands every year. Likewise, properties worth millions of US dollars have been damaged. There is an increasing trend toward landslides and floods, which will likely continue to rise if proper intervention is not taken. A positive correlation between water-induced disasters and deaths has been observed. Nepal has a poor Index for Risk Management (INFORM). There are fluctuations in the recording of death data caused by flood and landslides. The Government of Nepal focuses more on the response phase than on the preparedness phase of disasters. The existing disaster management act seems to be weak and outdated. There is a gap in current legal procedure, so the country is in dire need of a comprehensive legal framework. The new proposed act seems to take a much broader approach to disaster management. With a long-term vision of managing disaster risk in the country, the Government of Nepal has begun the Nepal Risk Reduction Consortium (NRRC) in collaboration with development and humanitarian partners. In order to improve the vulnerability of Nepal, an early warning system, mainstreaming disasters with development, research activities, community participation and awareness, and a rainfall monitoring system must all be a focus.

  14. Disaster risk profile and existing legal framework of Nepal: floods and landslides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaire, Surya; Castro Delgado, Rafael; Arcos González, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Nepal has a complicated geophysical structure that is prone to various kinds of disasters. Nepal ranks the most disaster-prone country in the world and has experienced several natural calamities, causing high property and life losses. Disasters are caused by natural processes, but may be increased by human activities. The overall objective of this paper is to analyze the disaster risk profile and existing legal framework of Nepal. The paper is based on secondary data sources. Major causative factors for floods and landslides are heavy and continuous rainfall, outburst floods, infrastructure failure, and deforestation. Historical data of natural disasters in Nepal show that water-induced disasters have killed hundreds of people and affected thousands every year. Likewise, properties worth millions of US dollars have been damaged. There is an increasing trend toward landslides and floods, which will likely continue to rise if proper intervention is not taken. A positive correlation between water-induced disasters and deaths has been observed. Nepal has a poor Index for Risk Management (INFORM). There are fluctuations in the recording of death data caused by flood and landslides. The Government of Nepal focuses more on the response phase than on the preparedness phase of disasters. The existing disaster management act seems to be weak and outdated. There is a gap in current legal procedure, so the country is in dire need of a comprehensive legal framework. The new proposed act seems to take a much broader approach to disaster management. With a long-term vision of managing disaster risk in the country, the Government of Nepal has begun the Nepal Risk Reduction Consortium (NRRC) in collaboration with development and humanitarian partners. In order to improve the vulnerability of Nepal, an early warning system, mainstreaming disasters with development, research activities, community participation and awareness, and a rainfall monitoring system must all be a focus. PMID

  15. High phosphate availability as a possible cause for massive cyanobacterial production of oxygen in the Paleoproterozoic atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papineau, Dominic; Purohit, Ritesh; Fogel, Marilyn L.; Shields-Zhou, Graham A.

    2013-01-01

    have arisen from the biological response to high phosphate availability. We conclude that increased phosphate availability during and after the Paleoproterozoic Lomagundi-Jatuli event likely caused cyanobacterial blooms and was a key factor in the oxygenation of Earth's atmosphere. Increasing oxygenation of the shallow ocean seafloor favored the removal of excess phosphate as authigenic apatite, thus dampening effects of weathering increases on organic burial and marine δ13Ccarb after about 2.0 Ga.

  16. Statistical analysis of the limitation of half integer resonances on the available momentum acceptance of the High Energy Photon Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Yi; Duan, Zhe

    2017-01-01

    In a diffraction-limited storage ring, half integer resonances can have strong effects on the beam dynamics, associated with the large detuning terms from the strong focusing and strong sextupoles as required for an ultralow emittance. In this study, the limitation of half integer resonances on the available momentum acceptance (MA) was statistically analyzed based on one design of the High Energy Photon Source (HEPS). It was found that the probability of MA reduction due to crossing of half integer resonances is closely correlated with the level of beta beats at the nominal tunes, but independent of the error sources. The analysis indicated that for the presented HEPS lattice design, the rms amplitude of beta beats should be kept below 1.5% horizontally and 2.5% vertically to reach a small MA reduction probability of about 1%.

  17. Identification of Microorganisms in Duck Meat Products Available in Korea and the Effect of High Hydrostatic Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Joo; Yong, Hae In; Lee, Hyun Jung; Jung, Samooel; Kwon, Joong-Ho; Heo, Kang Nyung; Jo, Cheorun

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the microbial count of duck meat and duck meat products commercially available in Korea. High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment was applied at 0.1, 300, 400, and 500 MPa for 5 min to enhance the microbiological safety of duck meats. The levels of total aerobic bacteria were in the ranges of 3.53-6.19 and 3.62-6.85 Log CFU/g in raw and smoked duck products, respectively. By DNA sequence analysis, we identified microorganisms responsible for spoilage, with the most common species in the raw and smoked duck products being Aeromonas spp. or Pseudomonas spp. and Leuconostoc mesenteroides, respectively. HHP treatment significantly reduced the levels of total aerobic bacteria in raw and smoked duck products. This study demonstrates that HHP treatment may be used to effectively improve the safety of raw and smoked duck meat products.

  18. Information Needs While A Disaster Is Occurring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, S. C.

    2010-12-01

    Evidence from recent earthquakes, wildfires, and debris flows in southern California indicates that many people - local officials as well as residents and visitors - lack important understanding during the time that a disaster is unfolding, a time of uncertainty and confusion. While some of the uncertainty is inherent, some could be alleviated. Physical scientists and engineers know what to expect as the event unfolds. Social scientists know how humans will react during a disaster, and how to effectively communicate the warnings or evacuation orders that may precede it. Such knowledge can improve public safety. As just a few of many examples: - Based on questions posed at numerous public talks, many individuals who practice "Drop Cover and Hold" during earthquake drills do not understand what they are protecting themselves against, and thus cannot determine what to do when an earthquake strikes and they have no cover available. Similarly, they do not know how to act during the aftershocks that follow. - The 2009 Station Fire in the San Gabriel Mountains put foothills communities at risk, first from the wildfire and then from debris flows. Some neighborhoods received multiple evacuation notices during a few days or months. Local officials have expressed frustration and concern about an evacuation compliance rate that is steadily dropping and is now below 50%. The debris flow danger will persist over the next 2-4 winters yet evacuation compliance may drop lower still. - On February 6, 2010, a significant rainstorm brought the threat of imminent debris flows to areas burned by the Station Fire. In one neighborhood, residents loaded their cars with important belongings then waited for indications that they should evacuate. Powerful debris flows suddenly appeared, sweeping the cars downhill and destroying both cars and belongings. Some residents did understand that rainfall intensity would control the generation of debris flows in that storm. But they didn't understand

  19. Abnormally High Content of Free Glucosamine Residues Identified in a Preparation of Commercially Available Porcine Intestinal Heparan Sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulloy, Barbara; Wu, Nian; Gyapon-Quast, Frederick; Lin, Lei; Zhang, Fuming; Pickering, Matthew C; Linhardt, Robert J; Feizi, Ten; Chai, Wengang

    2016-07-05

    Heparan sulfate (HS) polysaccharides are ubiquitous in animal tissues as components of proteoglycans, and they participate in many important biological processes. HS carbohydrate chains are complex and can contain rare structural components such as N-unsubstituted glucosamine (GlcN). Commercially available HS preparations have been invaluable in many types of research activities. In the course of preparing microarrays to include probes derived from HS oligosaccharides, we found an unusually high content of GlcN residue in a recently purchased batch of porcine intestinal mucosal HS. Composition and sequence analysis by mass spectrometry of the oligosaccharides obtained after heparin lyase III digestion of the polysaccharide indicated two and three GlcN in the tetrasaccharide and hexasaccharide fractions, respectively. (1)H NMR of the intact polysaccharide showed that this unusual batch differed strikingly from other HS preparations obtained from bovine kidney and porcine intestine. The very high content of GlcN (30%) and low content of GlcNAc (4.2%) determined by disaccharide composition analysis indicated that N-deacetylation and/or N-desulfation may have taken place. HS is widely used by the scientific community to investigate HS structures and activities. Great care has to be taken in drawing conclusions from investigations of structural features of HS and specificities of HS interaction with proteins when commercial HS is used without further analysis. Pending the availability of a validated commercial HS reference preparation, our data may be useful to members of the scientific community who have used the present preparation in their studies.

  20. Abnormally High Content of Free Glucosamine Residues Identified in a Preparation of Commercially Available Porcine Intestinal Heparan Sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) polysaccharides are ubiquitous in animal tissues as components of proteoglycans, and they participate in many important biological processes. HS carbohydrate chains are complex and can contain rare structural components such as N-unsubstituted glucosamine (GlcN). Commercially available HS preparations have been invaluable in many types of research activities. In the course of preparing microarrays to include probes derived from HS oligosaccharides, we found an unusually high content of GlcN residue in a recently purchased batch of porcine intestinal mucosal HS. Composition and sequence analysis by mass spectrometry of the oligosaccharides obtained after heparin lyase III digestion of the polysaccharide indicated two and three GlcN in the tetrasaccharide and hexasaccharide fractions, respectively. 1H NMR of the intact polysaccharide showed that this unusual batch differed strikingly from other HS preparations obtained from bovine kidney and porcine intestine. The very high content of GlcN (30%) and low content of GlcNAc (4.2%) determined by disaccharide composition analysis indicated that N-deacetylation and/or N-desulfation may have taken place. HS is widely used by the scientific community to investigate HS structures and activities. Great care has to be taken in drawing conclusions from investigations of structural features of HS and specificities of HS interaction with proteins when commercial HS is used without further analysis. Pending the availability of a validated commercial HS reference preparation, our data may be useful to members of the scientific community who have used the present preparation in their studies. PMID:27295282

  1. Predictors of Youths' Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms Following a Natural Disaster: The 2010 Nashville, Tennessee, Flood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Nina C; Felton, Julia W; Cole, David A

    2016-01-01

    Framed by a previously established conceptual model of youths' posttraumatic stress (PTS) responses following a disaster, the current longitudinal study examined the relation of predisaster child characteristics (age, gender, depressive symptoms, ruminative coping), predisaster environmental characteristics (negative life events and supportive and negative friendship interactions), and level of disaster exposure to youths' PTS symptoms in the wake of a natural disaster. Prior to the 2010 Nashville, Tennessee, flood, 239 predominantly Caucasian youth from four elementary and middle schools (ages = 10-15, 56% girls) completed measures of depressive symptoms, rumination, negative life events, and social support in the form of both supportive and negative friendship interactions. Approximately 10 days after returning to school, 125 completed measures of disaster exposure and postflood PTS symptoms. Bivariate correlations revealed that disaster-related PTS symptoms were unrelated to age, gender, or predisaster supportive friendship interactions and significantly positively related to level of disaster exposure and predisaster levels of negative life events, depressive symptoms, rumination, and negative friendship interactions. After controlling for level of disaster exposure and other predisaster child and environmental characteristics, depressive symptoms and negative friendship interactions predicted postdisaster PTS symptoms. The effect of child's flood-related experiences on PTS symptoms was not moderated by any of the preexisting child characteristics or environmental indicators. Faced with limited resources after a natural disaster, school counselors and other health professionals should focus special attention on youths who experienced high levels of disaster-related losses and whose predisaster emotional and interpersonal lives were problematic.

  2. Building Networks of Disaster Preparedness Schools in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Tzu-chau; Lin, Weiru

    2012-01-01

    The aims of the education for natural disaster preparedness in Taiwan are to prepare every school disaster free and every student with disaster preparedness. The education for disaster preparedness has been through three stages since 2003: project for cultivating professionals for disaster preparedness education (2003-2006), project for disaster preparedness schools (2006- 2010), and building networks of disaster preparedness schools (2011-2014). The framework of the disaster preparedness edu...

  3. Building Networks of Disaster Preparedness Schools in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Tzu-chau; Lin, Weiru

    2012-01-01

    The aims of the education for natural disaster preparedness in Taiwan are to prepare every school disaster free and every student with disaster preparedness. The education for disaster preparedness has been through three stages since 2003: project for cultivating professionals for disaster preparedness education (2003-2006), project for disaster preparedness schools (2006- 2010), and building networks of disaster preparedness schools (2011-2014). The framework of the disaster preparedness edu...

  4. Health care logistics: who has the ball during disaster?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry D. VanVactor

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In contemporary organizations, a wide gamut of options is available for sustaining and supporting health care operations. When disaster strikes, despite having tenable plans for routine replenishment and operations, many organizations find themselves ill-prepared, ill-equipped, and without effective mechanisms in place to sustain operations during the immediate aftermath of a crisis. Health care operations can be abruptly halted due to the non-availability of supply.The purpose of this work is to add to a necessary, growing body of works related specifically to health care logistics preparedness and disaster mitigation. Logistics management is a specialized genre of expertise within the health care industry and is largely contributive to the success or failure of health care organizations. Logistics management requires extensive collaboration among multiple stakeholders—internal and external to an organization. Effective processes and procedures can be largely contributive to the success or failure of organizational operations. This article contributes to the closure of an obvious gap in professional and academic literature related to disaster health care logistics management and provides timely insight into a potential problem for leaders industry-wide.One critical aspect of disaster planning is regard for competent logistics management and the effective provision of necessary items when they are needed most. In many communities, there seems to be little evidence available regarding health care logistics involvement in disaster planning; at times, evidence of planning efforts perceptibly end at intra-organizational doors within facilities. Strategic planners are being continually reminded that health care organizations serve a principal role in emergency preparedness planning and must be prepared to fulfill the associated possibilities without notification. The concern is that not enough attention is being paid to repeated lessons being

  5. Incorporating wind availability into land use regression modelling of air quality in mountainous high-density urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yuan; Lau, Kevin Ka-Lun; Ng, Edward

    2017-08-01

    Urban air quality serves as an important function of the quality of urban life. Land use regression (LUR) modelling of air quality is essential for conducting health impacts assessment but more challenging in mountainous high-density urban scenario due to the complexities of the urban environment. In this study, a total of 21 LUR models are developed for seven kinds of air pollutants (gaseous air pollutants CO, NO2, NOx, O3, SO2 and particulate air pollutants PM2.5, PM10) with reference to three different time periods (summertime, wintertime and annual average of 5-year long-term hourly monitoring data from local air quality monitoring network) in Hong Kong. Under the mountainous high-density urban scenario, we improved the traditional LUR modelling method by incorporating wind availability information into LUR modelling based on surface geomorphometrical analysis. As a result, 269 independent variables were examined to develop the LUR models by using the "ADDRESS" independent variable selection method and stepwise multiple linear regression (MLR). Cross validation has been performed for each resultant model. The results show that wind-related variables are included in most of the resultant models as statistically significant independent variables. Compared with the traditional method, a maximum increase of 20% was achieved in the prediction performance of annual averaged NO2 concentration level by incorporating wind-related variables into LUR model development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Favorable cardio-metabolic outcomes following high carbohydrate intake in accordance with the Daniel Fast: A review of available findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Bloomer

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Daniel Fast is a biblically inspired dietary program rich in carbohydrate, most closely resembling a vegan diet but with additional restrictions, including the elimination of processed foods, white flour products, preservatives, additives, sweeteners, caffeine, and alcohol. While no specific requirements are placed on the ingestion of specific percentages of macronutrients, the mean daily carbohydrate intake is by default approximately 60%, while protein and fat intake are 15% and 25%, respectively. Despite a relatively high carbohydrate intake, multiple favorable cardio-metabolic effects are noted when following the plan, in as few as three weeks. This includes improvements in HOMA-IR, which may be at least in part due to the lower glycemic load and high dietary fiber content of the foods consumed. Other notable changes include reductions in systemic inflammation, total and LDL-cholesterol, oxidative stress, blood pressure, and body weight/body fat. Short and moderate-term compliance to the program is excellent-better than most dietary programs, perhaps due to the ad libitum nature of this plan. This paper presents an overview of the Daniel Fast, a carbohydrate-rich dietary program, including relevant findings from both human and animal investigations using this dietary model.

  7. High-power ultrafast Yb:fiber laser frequency combs using commercially available components and basic fiber tools

    CERN Document Server

    Li, X L; Corder, C; Chen, Y; Zhao, P; Allison, T K

    2016-01-01

    We present a detailed description of the design, construction, and performance of high-power ultrafast Yb:fiber laser frequency combs in operation in our laboratory. We discuss two such laser systems: an 87 MHz, 9 W, 85 fs laser operating at 1060 nm and an 87 MHz, 80 W, 155 fs laser operating at 1035 nm. Both are constructed using low-cost, commercially available components, and can be assembled using only basic tools for cleaving and splicing single-mode fibers. We describe practical methods for achieving and characterizing low-noise single-pulse operation and long-term stability from Yb:fiber oscillators based on nonlinear polarization evolution. Stabilization of the combs using a variety of transducers, including a new method for tuning the carrier-envelope offset frequency, is discussed. High average power is achieved through chirped-pulse amplification in simple fiber amplifiers based on double-clad photonic crystal fibers. We describe the use of these combs in several applications, including ultrasensit...

  8. Information technologies and the sharing of disaster knowledge: the critical role of professional culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marincioni, Fausto

    2007-12-01

    A comparative survey of a diverse sample of 96 US and Italian emergency management agencies shows that the diffusion of new information technologies (IT) has transformed disaster communications. Although these technologies permit access to and the dissemination of massive amounts of disaster information with unprecedented speed and efficiency, barriers rooted in the various professional cultures still hinder the sharing of disaster knowledge. To be effective the available IT must be attuned to the unique settings and professional cultures of the local emergency management communities. Findings show that available technology, context, professional culture and interaction are key factors that affect the knowledge transfer process. Cultural filters appear to influence emergency managers' perceptions of their own professional roles, their vision of the applicability of technology to social issues, and their perspective on the transferability of disaster knowledge. Four cultural approaches to the application of IT to disaster communications are defined: technocentric; geographic,; anthropocentric; and ecocentric.

  9. Family functioning and its predictors among disaster bereaved individuals in China: eighteen months after the Wenchuan Earthquake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyi Cao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in China resulted in great loss of life and property, and previous studies have focused on psychopathological symptoms in survivors after disasters. This study examined perceived family functioning and its predictors in disaster bereaved individuals eighteen months after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: This was a cross-sectional study of a convenience sample of 264 bereaved individuals. The instruments used in the study included Family APGAR Index, Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation ScaleãÀ, Emotional and Social Loneliness Scale, and a range of items eliciting demographic characteristics and disaster-related variables. The results indicated that the rates of moderate family dysfunction and severe family dysfunction in bereaved individuals were 37.1% and 12.9%, respectively. Less financial loss during the earthquake was a significant predictor for positive family function. Better self-rated health status after the earthquake was significantly related to positive family function, cohesion, and adaptability. Scores on family cohesion and adaptability in bereaved individuals from extended or nuclear families were significantly higher than those from single-parent families. The ability to give birth to another baby of bereaved parents was a significant predictor for positive family function and cohesion. Poorer family function, cohesion and adaptability were significantly related to greater loneliness. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study found a high prevalence of family dysfunction in bereaved individuals eighteen months after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. Strategies can be designed to facilitate post-disaster recovery, particularly for the bereaved at high risk for family dysfunction. The study provides useful information for post-disaster rebuilding and relief work.

  10. Education and research on disaster nursing in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Aiko

    2008-01-01

    The educational and research program "Disaster Nursing in a Ubiquitous Society in Japan" has facilitated the development of various networks for disaster nursing, disaster nursing care strategies, and disaster nursing education. Replication of these activities related to disaster nursing are encouraged globally to improve disaster outcomes.

  11. Construction of Cluster System with High Availability Based on ServiceGuard%基于ServiceGuard构建医院高可用性集群系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱硕

    2014-01-01

    Objective To construct a dual-computer cluster system with high reliability and efifciency to ensure the security of hospital information system.Methods The system was constructed with MC/Service Guard cluster infrastructure and HP Unix operating system according to the server items of the new databases in the hospital.Results The stable and smooth operation of hospital businesses has been ensured with the application of the system which runs well in the hospital.Conclusion The security and disaster tolerance have been improved with the application of the system.%目的:建立高可靠性和高效的双机集群系统,保障医院信息系统(HIS)的安全。方法根据医院新数据库服务器项目,基于HP Unix操作系统、MC/ServiceGuard集群基础架构构建双机集群系统。结果双机集群系统可提高HIS的安全性和抗灾能力,确保了医院业务的平稳流畅运行。结论使用ServiceGuard软件构建双机集群系统的方法易操作,值得推广。

  12. SBA Disaster Loan Data FY2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration — SBA Disaster Loan Data for FY 2012 provides verified loss and approved loan amount totals for both home and business disaster loans, segmented by city, county, zip...

  13. 78 FR 4967 - Alabama Disaster #AL-00046

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Alabama Disaster AL-00046 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Mobile; Pike. Contiguous Counties: Alabama:...

  14. 78 FR 44187 - Montana Disaster # MT-00079

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Montana Disaster MT-00079 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... have been determined to be adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Blaine,...

  15. 78 FR 45283 - Missouri Disaster #MO-00066

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Missouri Disaster MO-00066 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Barton; Callaway; Cape Girardeau; Chariton;...

  16. 78 FR 15796 - Michigan Disaster #MI-00038.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Michigan Disaster MI-00038. AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Mecosta. Contiguous Counties: Michigan:...

  17. SBA Disaster Loan Data FY2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration — SBA Disaster Loan Data for FY 2005 provides verified loss and approved loan amount totals for both home and business disaster loans, segmented by city, county, zip...

  18. SBA Disaster Loan Data FY2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration — SBA Disaster Loan Data for FY 2004 provides verified loss and approved loan amount totals for both home and business disaster loans, segmented by city, county, zip...

  19. The impact of flood disasters on child education in Muzarabani District, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chipo Mudavanhu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The increase in flood intensity and frequency poses a threat to community infrastructure and affects the total well-being of children in regard to: access to food, health, school attendance, access to clean water and sanitation, physical and social security. Using both qualitative and quantitative data, this article provided an overview of flood disasters and their potential effects on children’s access to quality education in Zimbabwe. The purpose of the study was to analyse school children’s specific vulnerabilities to flood disasters that need to be taken into account in policy development. Research indicated that floods cause loss of learning hours, loss of qualified personnel, outbreak of waterborne diseases, high absenteeism and low syllabus coverage leading to children’s poor academic performance. Children noted a range of experiences, from food insecurity to being withdrawn from school and sometimes forced into early marriages. These challenges compromise children’s rights and access to quality education. This article therefore recommended that a culture of safety be promoted through disaster education, development of good road networks and enforcement of building codes during construction of school infrastructure. Findings also supported the need for adaptation strategies to ensure that the risks specific to school children are addressed.

  20. Sphagnum-dominated bog systems are highly effective yet variable sources of bio-available iron to marine waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krachler, Regina; Krachler, Rudolf F; Wallner, Gabriele; Steier, Peter; El Abiead, Yasin; Wiesinger, Hubert; Jirsa, Franz; Keppler, Bernhard K

    2016-06-15

    Iron is a micronutrient of particular interest as low levels of iron limit primary production of phytoplankton and carbon fluxes in extended regions of the world's oceans. Sphagnum-peatland runoff is extraordinarily rich in dissolved humic-bound iron. Given that several of the world's largest wetlands are Sphagnum-dominated peatlands, this ecosystem type may serve as one of the major sources of iron to the ocean. Here, we studied five near-coastal creeks in North Scotland using freshwater/seawater mixing experiments of natural creek water and synthetic seawater based on a (59)Fe radiotracer technique combined with isotopic characterization of dissolved organic carbon by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry. Three of the creeks meander through healthy Sphagnum-dominated peat bogs and the two others through modified peatlands which have been subject to artificial drainage for centuries. The results revealed that, at the time of sampling (August 16-24, 2014), the creeks that run through modified peatlands delivered 11-15μg iron per liter creek water to seawater, whereas the creeks that run through intact peatlands delivered 350-470μg iron per liter creek water to seawater. To find out whether this humic-bound iron is bio-available to marine algae, we performed algal growth tests using the unicellular flagellated marine prymnesiophyte Diacronema lutheri and the unicellular marine green alga Chlorella salina, respectively. In both cases, the riverine humic material provided a highly bio-available source of iron to the marine algae. These results add a new item to the list of ecosystem services of Sphagnum-peatlands.