WorldWideScience

Sample records for high autonomy systems

  1. Abstracting event-based control models for high autonomy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luh, Cheng-Jye; Zeigler, Bernard P.

    1993-01-01

    A high autonomy system needs many models on which to base control, management, design, and other interventions. These models differ in level of abstraction and in formalism. Concepts and tools are needed to organize the models into a coherent whole. The paper deals with the abstraction processes for systematic derivation of related models for use in event-based control. The multifaceted modeling methodology is briefly reviewed. The morphism concepts needed for application to model abstraction are described. A theory for supporting the construction of DEVS models needed for event-based control is then presented. An implemented morphism on the basis of this theory is also described.

  2. Autonomy, Automation, and Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Philip R.

    1987-02-01

    Aerospace industry interest in autonomy and automation, given fresh impetus by the national goal of establishing a Space Station, is becoming a major item of research and technology development. The promise of new technology arising from research in Artificial Intelligence (AI) has focused much attention on its potential in autonomy and automation. These technologies can improve performance in autonomous control functions that involve planning, scheduling, and fault diagnosis of complex systems. There are, however, many aspects of system and subsystem design in an autonomous system that impact AI applications, but do not directly involve AI technology. Development of a system control architecture, establishment of an operating system within the design, providing command and sensory data collection features appropriate to automated operation, and the use of design analysis tools to support system engineering are specific examples of major design issues. Aspects such as these must also receive attention and technology development support if we are to implement complex autonomous systems within the realistic limitations of mass, power, cost, and available flight-qualified technology that are all-important to a flight project.

  3. Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) and Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Fernando; Walker, Mark G.

    2018-01-01

    Systems capabilities on ISHM (Integrated System Health Management) and autonomy have traditionally been addressed separately. This means that ISHM functions, such as anomaly detection, diagnostics, prognostics, and comprehensive system awareness have not been considered traditionally in the context of autonomy functions such as planning, scheduling, and mission execution. One key reason is that although they address systems capabilities, both ISHM and autonomy have traditionally individually been approached as independent strategies and models for analysis. Additionally, to some degree, a unified paradigm for ISHM and autonomy has been difficult to implement due to limitations of hardware and software. This paper explores a unified treatment of ISHM and autonomy in the context of distributed hierarchical autonomous operations.

  4. Intelligent autonomy for unmanned naval systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Marc

    2006-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of the development and demonstration of intelligent autonomy technologies for control of heterogeneous unmanned naval air and sea vehicles and describes some of the current limitations of such technologies. The focus is on modular technologies that support highly automated retasking and fully autonomous dynamic replanning for up to ten heterogeneous unmanned systems based on high-level mission objectives, priorities, constraints, and Rules-of-Engagement. A key aspect of the demonstrations is incorporating frequent naval operator evaluations in order to gain better understanding of the integrated man/machine system and its tactical utility. These evaluations help ensure that the automation can provide information to the user in a meaningful way and that the user has a sufficient level of control and situation awareness to task the system as needed to complete complex mission tasks. Another important aspect of the program is examination of the interactions of higher-level autonomy algorithms with other relevant components that would be needed within the decision-making and control loops. Examples of these are vision and other sensor processing algorithms, sensor fusion, obstacle avoidance, and other lower level vehicle autonomous navigation, guidance, and control functions. Initial experiments have been completed using medium and high-fidelity vehicle simulations in a virtual warfare environment and inexpensive surrogate vehicles in flight and in-water demonstrations. Simulation experiments included integration of multi-vehicle task allocation, dynamic replanning under constraints, lower level autonomous vehicle control, automatic assessment of the impact of contingencies on plans, management of situation awareness data, operator alert management, and a mixed-initiative operator interface. In-water demonstrations of a maritime situation awareness capability were completed in both a river and a harbor environment using unmanned surface

  5. Autonomy and Complexity at Sandia Executive Summary of Academic Alliance Workshop on Autonomy and Complex Systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayden, Nancy Kay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kleban, Stephen D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Sandia has identified autonomy as a strategic initiative and an important area for providing national leadership. A key question is, “How might autonomy change how we think about the national security challenges we address and the kinds of solutions we deliver?” Three workshops at Sandia early in 2017 brought together internal stakeholders and potential academic partners in autonomy to address this question. The first focused on programmatic applications and needs. The second explored existing internal capabilities and research and development needs. This report summarizes the outcome of the third workshop, held March 3, 2017 in Albuquerque, NM, which engaged Academic Alliance partners in autonomy efforts at Sandia by discussing research needs and synergistic areas of interest within the complex systems and system modeling domains, and identifying opportunities for partnering on laboratory directed and other joint research opportunities.

  6. Development of a non-contextual model for determining the autonomy level of intelligent unmanned systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durst, Phillip J.; Gray, Wendell; Trentini, Michael

    2013-05-01

    A simple, quantitative measure for encapsulating the autonomous capabilities of unmanned systems (UMS) has yet to be established. Current models for measuring a UMS's autonomy level require extensive, operational level testing, and provide a means for assessing the autonomy level for a specific mission/task and operational environment. A more elegant technique for quantifying autonomy using component level testing of the robot platform alone, outside of mission and environment contexts, is desirable. Using a high level framework for UMS architectures, such a model for determining a level of autonomy has been developed. The model uses a combination of developmental and component level testing for each aspect of the UMS architecture to define a non-contextual autonomous potential (NCAP). The NCAP provides an autonomy level, ranging from fully non- autonomous to fully autonomous, in the form of a single numeric parameter describing the UMS's performance capabilities when operating at that level of autonomy.

  7. Imagining School Autonomy in High-Performing Education Systems: East Asia as a Source of Policy Referencing in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Yun; Morris, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Education reform is increasingly based on emulating the features of "world-class" systems that top international attainment surveys and, in England specifically, East Asia is referenced as the "inspiration" for their education reforms. However, the extent to which the features identified by the UK Government accord with the…

  8. Supporting and Thwarting Autonomy in the High School Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patall, Erika A.; Vasquez, Ariana C.; Steingut, Rebecca R.; Trimble, Scott S.; Pituch, Keenan A.

    2017-01-01

    This investigation examined relations between adolescent students' daily and cumulative perceptions of teachers' practice and their experience of autonomy. Two-hundred and eighteen high school science students in 43 classes participated in a 6-week diary study. Multilevel modeling results suggested that perceptions of 8 out of 9 practices…

  9. The potential of the system of interpersonal interaction in the formation of adolescent autonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A. Dorontsova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses a significant and actual issue of developing autonomy of the individual. Special attention is paid to adolescent age having high potential for developing autonomy in view of certain changes in the psychological and social sphere of the adolescents. The value of interpersonal interaction in the course of developing adolescent autonomy is shown. The approaches to the concept of interaction are analyzed, four main directions of explaining the essence of interaction are allocated: symbolical interactionism (J. Mid, social exchange (J. Homans, G. Blumer, sociodramatic touch (E. Goffman transaction analysis (E. Berne. Types of interaction, efficiency of interaction development are considered. The analysis of interpersonal interaction issues shows its communication with the categories of «relation», «communication» and «joint activity» (B.G. Ananyev, G.M. Andreyeva, S.V. Dukhnovsky, Ya.L. Kolominsky V.N. Kunitsyna, V.N. Myasishchev, B.D. Parygin, etc.. The concept of interpersonal interaction system of the autonomy causing development of adolescence in the paradigm of psychologist-teacher interaction, and also child-parent interaction is described. The advantage of psychological assistance and pedagogical support within the system of interpersonal interaction for further development of adolescent autonomy is proved. The value of cooperation as one of the types of interpersonal interaction in the course of adolescent autonomy development is shown. Mechanisms of interpersonal interaction, nature of contact in interpersonal interaction, components of a social situation are described.

  10. The Candu system - The way for nuclear autonomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, H.

    1987-01-01

    The experience acquired by Canada during the development of Candu System is presented. Some basic foundations of technology transfer are defined and, the conditions of canadian nuclear industry to provide developing countries, technical assistence for acquisition of nuclear energy autonomy, are analysed. (M.C.K.) [pt

  11. System and method for seamless task-directed autonomy for robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Curtis; Bruemmer, David; Few, Douglas; Walton, Miles

    2012-09-18

    Systems, methods, and user interfaces are used for controlling a robot. An environment map and a robot designator are presented to a user. The user may place, move, and modify task designators on the environment map. The task designators indicate a position in the environment map and indicate a task for the robot to achieve. A control intermediary links task designators with robot instructions issued to the robot. The control intermediary analyzes a relative position between the task designators and the robot. The control intermediary uses the analysis to determine a task-oriented autonomy level for the robot and communicates target achievement information to the robot. The target achievement information may include instructions for directly guiding the robot if the task-oriented autonomy level indicates low robot initiative and may include instructions for directing the robot to determine a robot plan for achieving the task if the task-oriented autonomy level indicates high robot initiative.

  12. Using Multi-Core Systems for Rover Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Brad; Estlin, Tara; Bornstein, Benjamin; Springer, Paul; Anderson, Robert C.

    2010-01-01

    Task Objectives are: (1) Develop and demonstrate key capabilities for rover long-range science operations using multi-core computing, (a) Adapt three rover technologies to execute on SOA multi-core processor (b) Illustrate performance improvements achieved (c) Demonstrate adapted capabilities with rover hardware, (2) Targeting three high-level autonomy technologies (a) Two for onboard data analysis (b) One for onboard command sequencing/planning, (3) Technologies identified as enabling for future missions, (4)Benefits will be measured along several metrics: (a) Execution time / Power requirements (b) Number of data products processed per unit time (c) Solution quality

  13. Patient Autonomy in a High-Tech Care Context - A Theoretical Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Catharina; Fagerström, Cecilia; Willman, Ania

    2018-06-12

    To synthesise and interpret previous findings with the aim of developing a theoretical framework for patient autonomy in a high-tech care context. Putting the somewhat abstract concept of patient autonomy into practice can prove difficult since when it is highlighted in healthcare literature the patient perspective is often invisible. Autonomy presumes that a person has experience, education, self-discipline and decision-making capacity. Reference to autonomy in relation to patients in high-tech care environments could therefore be considered paradoxical, as in most cases these persons are vulnerable, with impaired physical and/or metacognitive capacity, thus making extended knowledge of patient autonomy for these persons even more important. Theory development. The basic approaches in theory development by Walker and Avant were used to create a theoretical framework through an amalgamation of the results from three qualitative studies conducted previously by the same research group. A theoretical framework - the control-partnership-transition framework - was delineated disclosing different parts co-creating the prerequisites for patient autonomy in high-tech care environments. Assumptions and propositional statements that guide theory development were also outlined, as were guiding principles for use in day-to-day nursing care. Four strategies used by patients were revealed: the strategy of control, the strategy of partnership, the strategy of trust, and the strategy of transition. An extended knowledge base, founded on theoretical reasoning about patient autonomy, could facilitate nursing care that would allow people to remain/become autonomous in the role of patient in high-tech care environments. The control-partnership-transition framework would be of help in supporting and defending patient autonomy when caring for individual patients, as it provides an understanding of the strategies employed by patients to achieve autonomy in high-tech care contexts. The

  14. Teaching quality: High school students' autonomy and competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Jaime; Medina-Garrido, Elena; Ortega, Miriam

    2018-05-01

    How teachers manage class learning and interact with students affects students’ motivation and engagement. However, it could be that the effect of students’ representation of teaching quality on the students’ motivation varies between classes. Students from 90 classes participated in the study. We used multilevel random structural equation modeling to analyze whether the relationship of the students’ perception of teaching quality (as an indicator of the students’ mental representation) and students’ motivation varies between classes, and if this variability depends on the class assessment of teaching quality (as an indicator of teaching quality). The effect of teachers’ structure on the regression slope of student perception of student competence was .127. The effect of teachers’ autonomy support on the regression slope of student perception of student autonomy was .066. With this study we contribute a more detailed description of the relationship between teaching quality, competence and autonomy.

  15. Problems of autonomy in coupled double-circuit systems of modern power plant automatic control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilenko, V.A.; Davydov, N.I.

    1979-01-01

    Studied is the problem of autonomy in multicircuit systems of modern power plant automatic control systems; each part of the system has been carried out using the double-circuit scheme. Presented are the problems of neutralization of coupling between separate channels of power plant automatic control system. The conditions of autonomy in coupled double-circuit systems are obtained. The transfer functions of compensation devices are obtained and the variants of their connecting schemes are presented. Analyzed are possible variants of simplification of the coupled system adjustment process by its reduction to the series of consequent steps without using iteration procedures

  16. Italian Adaptation of the "Autonomy and Relatedness Coding System"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Ingoglia

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the applicability of the observational technique developed by Allen and colleagues (Allen, Hauser, Bell, & O’Connor, 1994; Allen, Hauser, et al., 2003 to investigate the issues of autonomy and relatedness in parent-adolescent relationship in the Italian context. Thirty-five mother-adolescent dyads participated to a task in which they discussed a family issue about which they disagree. Adolescents were also administered a self-report measure assessing their relationship with mothers. Mothers reported significantly higher levels of promoting and inhibiting autonomy, and promoting relatedness behaviors than their children. Results also suggested a partial behavioral reciprocity within the dyads, regarding promoting and inhibiting relatedness, and inhibiting autonomy. Finally, mothers’ inhibiting autonomy behaviors positively correlated to teens’ perception of their relationship as conflicting; adolescents’ inhibiting and promoting autonomy and inhibiting relatedness behaviors positively correlated to open confrontation, rejection and coolness, while promoting relatedness behaviors negatively correlated to open confrontation, rejection and coolness. The results suggest that, for Italian mothers, behaviors linked to autonomy seem to be associated with being involved in a more negative relationship with their children, even if not characterized by open hostility, while for Italian adolescents, behaviors linked to autonomy seem to be associated with threatening the closeness of the relationship. Globally, the findings suggest that the application of this observational procedure may help our understanding of youth autonomy and relatedness development in Italy, but they leave unanswered questions regarding its appropriate adaptation and the role played by cultural differences.

  17. Modelling in Action. Scaffolding High School Students to Higher Levels of Autonomy: The School's Elevator and the Inverse Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmolejo Rivas, Eugenia

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we focus our discussion on the strategy we follow to scaffold high school students to successfully build models of a real-life system. Our aim is for students to gradually achieve a higher level of autonomy and to use and further develop their mathematical knowledge. We present work students did when we asked them to build a model…

  18. High Degree of Autonomy: The Reversion of Hong Kong to Chinese Sovereignty

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Choyke, Michele

    1998-01-01

    ...) of the People's Republic of China. The Sino-British Joint Declaration on the Question of Hong Kong calls for maintaining Hong Kong's lifestyle and "high degree of autonomy" for fifty years after its transition to the Hong Kong SAR...

  19. Autonomy and the Ambiguity of Biological Rationalities: Systems Theory, ADHD and Kant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haye, Andrés; Matus, Claudia; Cottet, Pablo; Niño, Sebastián

    2018-01-01

    We present a theoretical review of notions of autonomy to show how they organize discourses within social sciences around the biological reality of ideal self-regulating individuals. First, we reconstruct key meanings of autonomy in biological theory, focusing on theories of autopoietic systems and their connections to constructivist…

  20. Approach to local autonomy in the German and British systems of municipal financing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Durán García

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available At the European level the recognition of local self-government is a peaceful matter after being approved in the European Charter of Local Autonomy. However, the scope of this local financial autonomy varies according to the model of public finances that each country adopts. In this article we analyze the German and British models of local finance, two opposite examples in the way of organizing their treasure that directly affect the scope of the local autonomy of their municipalities. After a first part where the legal basis of the local autonomy is analyzed, the main sources of municipal financing are studied in each model, and it concludes with an assessment of the financial autonomy of the local entities within the Spanish system in comparison with the exposed models.

  1. Syntactic autonomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, L.M.

    1998-12-01

    The study of adapting and evolving autonomous agents should be based on a complex systems-theoretic framework which requires both self-organizing and symbolic dimensions. An inclusive framework based on the notions of semiotics and situated action is advanced to build models capable of representing, as well as evolving in their environments.Such undertaking is pursued by discussing the ways in which symbol and self-organization are irreducibly intertwined in evolutionary systems. With this semiotic view of self-organization and symbols, the authors re-think the notion of autonomy of evolving systems, and show that evolutionary systems are characterized by a particular type of syntactic autonomy. Recent developments in emergent computation in cellular automata are discussed as examples of the emergence of syntactic autonomy in computational environments. New experiments emphasizing this syntactic autonomy in cellular automata are presented.

  2. Systems autonomy technology: Executive summary and program plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, John S (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    The National Space Strategy approved by the President and Congress in 1984 sets for NASA a major goal of conducting effective and productive space applications and technology programs which contribute materially toward United States leadership and security. To contribute to this goal, OAST supports the Nation's civil and defense space programs and overall economic growth. OAST objectives are to ensure timely provision of new concepts and advanced technologies, to support both the development of NASA missions in space and the space activities of industry and other organizations, to utilize the strengths of universities in conducting the NASA space research and technology program, and to maintain the NASA centers in positions of strength in critical space technology areas. In line with these objectives, NASA has established a new program in space automation and robotics that will result in the development and transfer and automation technology to increase the capabilities, productivity, and safety of NASA space programs including the Space Station, automated space platforms, lunar bases, Mars missions, and other deep space ventures. The NASA/OAST Automation and Robotics program is divided into two parts. Ames Research Center has the lead role in developing and demonstrating System Autonomy capabilities for space systems that need to make their own decisions and do their own planning. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has the lead role for Telerobotics (that portion of the program that has a strong human operator component in the control loop and some remote handling requirement in space). This program is intended to be a working document for NASA Headquarters, Program Offices, and implementing Project Management.

  3. Autonomy and hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emrich, D.; Schicha, H.; Baehre, M.

    1986-01-01

    The significance of autonomy in iodine-deficiency goiter for the development of hyperthyroidism was investigated. (1) In 171 of 426 consecutive patients high-resolution quantitative scintiscans showed signs suggestive of autonomy. With increasing 99mTc uptake by the thyroid their TT3 levels were found to rise progressively during suppression, while their pre-suppression TSH levels dropped progressively. This suggests global sup(99m)Tc uptake by the thyroid during suppression to be a useful indicator of the functional significance of autonomy. (2) Based on 326 patients with hyperthyroidism a system for differentiating between autonomy-related and immunogenic disease was developed and validated prospectively in another 162 patients with hyperthyroidism by assaying for thyroid stimulating antibodies (TSAb). TSAb was found to be present in 82% of the 77 patients diagnosed as having immunogenic hyperthyroidism and in only 8% of the 85 patients with autonomy-related hyperthyroidism. Our results support the assumption that autonomy in iodine-deficiency goiter plays a major role in the development of hyperthyroidism, while autoimmune processes appear to be of secondary importance. (Author)

  4. Electronic nicotine delivery system use behaviour and loss of autonomy among American Indians: results from an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Dana Mowls; Wagener, Theodore L; Thompson, David M; Stephens, Lancer D; Peck, Jennifer D; Campbell, Janis E; Beebe, Laura A

    2017-12-19

    American Indians (AI) have a high prevalence of electronic nicotine delivery system (ENDS) use. However, little information exists on (ENDS) use, either alone or in combination with cigarettes (dual use), among AI. The objective of this small-scaled study was to examine use behaviours and dependence among exclusive ENDS users and dual users of AI descent. Exclusive smokers were included for comparison purposes. Oklahoma, USA. Adults of AI descent who reported being exclusive ENDS users (n=27), dual users (n=28) or exclusive cigarette smokers (n=27). Participants completed a detailed questionnaire on use behaviours. The Hooked on Nicotine Checklist (HONC) was used to assess loss of autonomy over cigarettes and was reworded for ENDS. Dual users completed the HONC twice. Sum of endorsed items indicated severity of diminished autonomy. Comparisons were made with non-parametric methods and statistical significance was defined as Pautonomy over ENDS was similar among ENDS and dual users (medians: 4 vs 3; P=0.6865). Among dual users, severity of diminished autonomy was lower for ENDS than cigarettes (medians: 3 vs 9; P=autonomy (4 vs 8; P=0.0077). Comparing dual users with smokers, median severity of diminished autonomy over cigarettes did not differ (P=0.6865). Severity of diminished autonomy was lower for ENDS than cigarettes in this small sample of AI. Future, adequately powered studies should be conducted to fully understand ENDS use patterns and dependence levels in this population. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. High School Principals in the Vortex: Accountability, Autonomy, and Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batsell, Holly

    2013-01-01

    As schools across Arizona worked to meet NCLB's AYP requirement in 2010-2011, they were also labeled and sanctioned by AZ Learns. This phenomenological study focused on six effective high school principals in two Arizona school districts to ascertain how accountability policies impacted the principals' job responsibilities, autonomy, and ability…

  6. Teachers' Autonomy Support, Autonomy Suppression and Conditional Negative Regard as Predictors of Optimal Learning Experience among High-Achieving Bedouin Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Haya

    2018-01-01

    The study is based on self-determination theory and focuses on the motivation of high-achieving Bedouin students who belong to a hierarchical-collectivist society. The study focuses on the question: What are the relations between teachers' autonomy support and control and an optimal learning experience among students? The study is unique in its…

  7. Mars, the Moon, and the Ends of the Earth: Autonomy for Small Reactor Power Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, Richard Thomas

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been considering deep space missions that utilize a small-reactor power system (SRPS) to provide energy for propulsion and spacecraft power. Additionally, application of SRPS modules as a planetary power source is being investigated to enable a continuous human presence for nonpolar lunar sites and on Mars. A SRPS can supply high-sustained power for space and surface applications that is both reliable and mass efficient. The use of small nuclear reactors for deep space or planetary missions presents some unique challenges regarding the operations and control of the power system. Current-generation terrestrial nuclear reactors employ varying degrees of human control and decision-making for operations and benefit from periodic human interaction for maintenance. In contrast, the control system of a SRPS employed for deep space missions must be able to accommodate unattended operations due to communications delays and periods of planetary occlusion while adapting to evolving or degraded conditions with no opportunity for repair or refurbishment. While surface power systems for planetary outposts face less extreme delays and periods of isolation and may benefit from limited maintenance capabilities, considerations such as human safety, resource limitations and usage priorities, and economics favor minimizing direct, continuous human interaction with the SRPS for online, dedicated power system management. Thus, a SRPS control system for space or planetary missions must provide capabilities for operational autonomy. For terrestrial reactors, large-scale power plants remain the preferred near-term option for nuclear power generation. However, the desire to reduce reliance on carbon-emitting power sources in developing countries may lead to increased consideration of SRPS modules for local power generation in remote regions that are characterized by emerging, less established infrastructures

  8. Daily Autonomy Supporting or Thwarting and Students' Motivation and Engagement in the High School Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patall, Erika A.; Steingut, Rebecca R.; Vasquez, Ariana C.; Trimble, Scott S.; Pituch, Keenan A.; Freeman, Jen L.

    2018-01-01

    This diary study provided the first classroom-based empirical test of the relations between student perceptions of high school science teachers' various autonomy supporting and thwarting practices and students' motivation and engagement on a daily basis over the course of an instructional unit. Perceived autonomy supporting practices were…

  9. Autonomy: Life and Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Mary-Anne

    This paper uses robot experience to explore key concepts of autonomy, life and being. Unfortunately, there are no widely accepted definitions of autonomy, life or being. Using a new cognitive agent architecture we argue that autonomy is a key ingredient for both life and being, and set about exploring autonomy as a concept and a capability. Some schools of thought regard autonomy as the key characteristic that distinguishes a system from an agent; agents are systems with autonomy, but rarely is a definition of autonomy provided. Living entities are autonomous systems, and autonomy is vital to life. Intelligence presupposes autonomy too; what would it mean for a system to be intelligent but not exhibit any form of genuine autonomy. Our philosophical, scientific and legal understanding of autonomy and its implications is immature and as a result progress towards designing, building, managing, exploiting and regulating autonomous systems is retarded. In response we put forward a framework for exploring autonomy as a concept and capability based on a new cognitive architecture. Using this architecture tools and benchmarks can be developed to analyze and study autonomy in its own right as a means to further our understanding of autonomous systems, life and being. This endeavor would lead to important practical benefits for autonomous systems design and help determine the legal status of autonomous systems. It is only with a new enabling understanding of autonomy that the dream of Artificial Intelligence and Artificial Life can be realized. We argue that designing systems with genuine autonomy capabilities can be achieved by focusing on agent experiences of being rather than attempting to encode human experiences as symbolic knowledge and know-how in the artificial agents we build.

  10. Power, autonomy, utopia new approaches toward complex systems

    CERN Document Server

    1986-01-01

    The "world" is becoming more and more intractable. We have learned to discern "systems" in it, we have developed a highly sophisticated math­ ematical apparatus to "model'" them, large computer simulation programs handle thousands of equations with zillions of parameters. But how ade­ quate are these efforts? Part One of this volume is a discussion containing some proposals for eliminating the constraints we encounter when approaching complex systems with our models: Is it possible, at all, to design a political or econom­ ic system without considering killing, torture, and oppression? Can we adequately model the present state of affairs while ignoring their often symbolic and paradoxical nature? Is it possible to explain teleological concepts such as "means" and "ends" in terms of basically 17th century Newtonian mechanics? Can we really make appropriate use of the vast a­ mount of systems concepts without exploring their relations, without de­ veloping a "system of systems concepts"? And why do more th...

  11. Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems Panel (RPASP) Working Paper: Autonomy and Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shively, Jay

    2017-01-01

    A significant level of debate and confusion has surrounded the meaning of the terms "autonomy" and "automation". Automation is a multi-dimensional concept, and we propose that RPAS automation should be described with reference to the specific system and task that has been automated, the context in which the automation functions, and other relevant dimensions. In this paper, we present a definition of "automation". We recommend that autonomy and autonomous operations are out of the scope of the RPAS panel. WG7 proposes to develop, in consultation with other workgroups, a taxonomy of "Levels of Automation" for RPAS.

  12. How causal analysis can reveal autonomy in models of biological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, William; Kim, Hyunju; Walker, Sara I.; Tononi, Giulio; Albantakis, Larissa

    2017-11-01

    Standard techniques for studying biological systems largely focus on their dynamical or, more recently, their informational properties, usually taking either a reductionist or holistic perspective. Yet, studying only individual system elements or the dynamics of the system as a whole disregards the organizational structure of the system-whether there are subsets of elements with joint causes or effects, and whether the system is strongly integrated or composed of several loosely interacting components. Integrated information theory offers a theoretical framework to (1) investigate the compositional cause-effect structure of a system and to (2) identify causal borders of highly integrated elements comprising local maxima of intrinsic cause-effect power. Here we apply this comprehensive causal analysis to a Boolean network model of the fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) cell cycle. We demonstrate that this biological model features a non-trivial causal architecture, whose discovery may provide insights about the real cell cycle that could not be gained from holistic or reductionist approaches. We also show how some specific properties of this underlying causal architecture relate to the biological notion of autonomy. Ultimately, we suggest that analysing the causal organization of a system, including key features like intrinsic control and stable causal borders, should prove relevant for distinguishing life from non-life, and thus could also illuminate the origin of life problem. This article is part of the themed issue 'Reconceptualizing the origins of life'.

  13. Invited Article: Threats to physician autonomy in a performance-based reimbursement system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larriviere, Daniel G; Bernat, James L

    2008-06-10

    Physician autonomy is currently threatened by the external application of pay for performance standards and required conformity to practice guidelines. This phenomenon is being driven by concerns over the economic viability of increasing per capita health care expenditures without a concomitant rise in favorable health outcomes and by the unjustified marked variations among physicians' practice patterns. Proponents contend that altering the reimbursement system to encourage physicians to make choices based upon the best available evidence would be one way to ensure better outcomes per health care dollar spent. Although physician autonomy is most easily justified when decisions are made by appealing to the best available evidence, incentivizing decision-making risks sacrificing physician autonomy to political and social forces if the limitations of evidence-based medicine are not respected. Any reimbursement system designed to encourage physicians to utilize the best available evidence by providing financial incentives must recognize physicians who try to play to the numbers as well as physicians who refuse to follow the best available evidence if doing so would conflict with good medicine or patient preferences. By designing, promulgating, and updating evidence-based clinical practice guidelines, medical specialty societies can limit threats to physician autonomy while improving medical practice.

  14. Can Schools Be Autonomous in a Centralised Educational System?: On Formal and Actual School Autonomy in the Italian Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agasisti, Tommaso; Catalano, Giuseppe; Sibiano, Piergiacomo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the difference between formal and real school autonomy in the Italian educational system. The Italian case is characterised by low levels of school autonomy. It is interesting to consider whether heterogeneity of patterns is possible in this context. A description of this heterogeneity is provided…

  15. The science of autonomy: integrating autonomous systems with the ISR enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creech, Gregory S.

    2013-05-01

    Consider a future where joint, unmanned operations are the norm. A fleet of autonomous airborne systems conducts overwatch and surveillance for their land and sea brethren, accurately reporting adversary position and aptly guiding the group of autonomous land and sea warriors into position to conduct a successful takedown. Sounds a bit like science fiction, but reality is just around the corner. The DoD ISR Enterprise has evolved significantly over the past decade and has learned many a harsh lesson along the way. Autonomous system operations supporting the warfighter have also evolved, arguably to a point where integration into the ISR Enterprise is a must, in order to reap the benefits that these highly capable systems possess. Achieving meaningful integration, however, is not without its challenges. The ISR Enterprise, for example, is still plagued with "stovepipe" efforts - sufficiently filling a niche for an immediate customer need, but doing little to service the needs of the greater enterprise. This paper will examine the science of autonomy, the challenges and potential benefits that it brings to the ISR Enterprise and recommendations that will facilitate smooth integration of emerging autonomous systems with the mature suite of traditional manned and unmanned ISR platforms.

  16. Encouraging Autonomy through the Use of a Social Networking System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leis, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    The use of social networking systems has enabled communication to occur around the globe almost instantly, with news about various events being spread around the world as they happen. There has also been much interest in the benefits and disadvantages the use of such social networking systems may bring for education. This paper reports on the use…

  17. Free to Lead: Autonomy in Highly Successful Charter Schools. Issue Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ableidinger, Joe; Hassel, Bryan C.

    2010-01-01

    Autonomy is a key component of the charter school concept. By allowing charter schools to have autonomy over decisions concerning finance, personnel, scheduling, curriculum and instruction, states have enabled many of these schools to produce stellar results for their students. This issue brief explores autonomy at five excellent charter schools…

  18. How to increase work autonomy in workflow management systems?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanderfeesten, I.T.P.; Reijers, H.A.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: Purpose – Current workflow management systems (WfMS's) are often too rigid and lead to "chain production" in the office. The paper proposes a number of "tuning measures" to reconfigure an implemented WfMS in such a way that it is more agreeable to the needs of its users.

  19. Toward a Science of Autonomy for Physical Systems: Defense

    OpenAIRE

    Arkin, Ronald C.; Sukhatme, Gaurav S.

    2016-01-01

    Militaries around the world have long been cognizant of the potential benefits associated with autonomous systems both in the conduct of warfare and in its prevention. This has lead to the declaration by some that this technology will lead to a fundamental change in the ways in which war is conducted, i.e., a revolution in military affairs (RMA) not unlike gunpowder, the long bow, the rifled bullet, the aircraft carrier, etc. Indeed the United States has created roadmaps for robotics with eve...

  20. Autonomy of State Agencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Balle; Niklasson, Birgitta; Roness, Paul

    agencies in four Nordic countries: Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. By using survey data from more than 500 state agencies in the four countries, the article analyses whether there is indeed a Scandinavian style of autonomy and result control and assesses which structural, cultural, and environmental......NPM-doctrines states that ideal-type agencies should have a high level of managerial autonomy, while being controlled through result-based control instruments, like performance contracts. In this article, the authors present a first preliminary attempt to comparatively analyze the autonomy of state...... variables might explain similarities and differences in the autonomy of agencies....

  1. Between professional autonomy and economic orientation - The medical profession in a changing health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kälble, Karl

    2005-02-17

    The current discussions surrounding the German health care system are being determined and defined by the concepts of "profitability", "efficiency" and "saving". These concepts also determine the demands made on this system and have had an effect on the medical profession. The economy's growing influence on physicians' decision-making and the increasing necessity to look at and regulate services under economic aspects arising from the need to save costs are seen by the medical profession as a threat to its autonomous conduct and freedom to make decisions, in other words it sees it as a danger to its medical orientation. Conflicts between medical autonomy and economic orientation in physicians' conduct are therefore already foreseeable, as are conflicts between medicine and economy in regards to who has the power to define the terms of the public health system. This article will outline the area of conflict based on the available literature. It will discuss how the political and economic regulatory attempts affect the medical profession's autonomous conduct. It will also discuss which conflicts of conduct emerge for physicians, what types of solutions the medical profession tends to develop as a reaction, and whether or not this tension between medical and economic orientation can be resolved in an acceptable way. This article should first outline the changed economic and political basic conditions and the attempts to reform the German health care system, using this as a starting point. Following this, it will explore the significance professional autonomy acquires within the concept of profession from the point of view of the sociology of professions. With this in mind, the third part of this article will describe and analyze the effects of advanced economization on the medical profession's autonomous conduct, which has long been regarded as uncontested. This part of the article will also describe and analyze the medical profession's strategies it uses to defend

  2. Between professional autonomy and economic orientation — The medical profession in a changing health care system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kälble, Karl

    2005-01-01

    The current discussions surrounding the German health care system are being determined and defined by the concepts of "profitability", "efficiency" and "saving". These concepts also determine the demands made on this system and have had an effect on the medical profession. The economy's growing influence on physicians' decision-making and the increasing necessity to look at and regulate services under economic aspects arising from the need to save costs are seen by the medical profession as a threat to its autonomous conduct and freedom to make decisions, in other words it sees it as a danger to its medical orientation. Conflicts between medical autonomy and economic orientation in physicians' conduct are therefore already foreseeable, as are conflicts between medicine and economy in regards to who has the power to define the terms of the public health system. Objective: This article will outline the area of conflict based on the available literature. It will discuss how the political and economic regulatory attempts affect the medical profession's autonomous conduct. It will also discuss which conflicts of conduct emerge for physicians, what types of solutions the medical profession tends to develop as a reaction, and whether or not this tension between medical and economic orientation can be resolved in an acceptable way. Methodology: This article should first outline the changed economic and political basic conditions and the attempts to reform the German health care system, using this as a starting point. Following this, it will explore the significance professional autonomy acquires within the concept of profession from the point of view of the sociology of professions. With this in mind, the third part of this article will describe and analyze the effects of advanced economization on the medical profession's autonomous conduct, which has long been regarded as uncontested. This part of the article will also describe and analyze the medical profession

  3. Autonomy of will principle and international instruments in the colombian judicial system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Espinosa Quintero

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The irruption of International Business Law (IBL or the Uniform International Trade Law has produced a series of “waves” in the Colombian legal system. It has been attributed to the private autonomy of the will, as a principle protected by IBL, the authority to replace the government power of protecting the interests of society. However, despite this principle has existed for centuries, currently it has been subject of reinterpretation. This paper will specifically approach the ‘Reconstruction’ of this principle from the jurisprudence of the Colombian Constitutional Court perspective and from the academic proposal of the Colombian Professor Diego Eduardo Lopez Medina.

  4. NASA Systems Autonomy Demonstration Project - Development of Space Station automation technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, John S.; Brown, Richard; Friedland, Peter; Wong, Carla M.; Bates, William

    1987-01-01

    A 1984 Congressional expansion of the 1958 National Aeronautics and Space Act mandated that NASA conduct programs, as part of the Space Station program, which will yield the U.S. material benefits, particularly in the areas of advanced automation and robotics systems. Demonstration programs are scheduled for automated systems such as the thermal control, expert system coordination of Station subsystems, and automation of multiple subsystems. The programs focus the R&D efforts and provide a gateway for transfer of technology to industry. The NASA Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology is responsible for directing, funding and evaluating the Systems Autonomy Demonstration Project, which will include simulated interactions between novice personnel and astronauts and several automated, expert subsystems to explore the effectiveness of the man-machine interface being developed. Features and progress on the TEXSYS prototype thermal control system expert system are outlined.

  5. Promoting Learner Autonomy Through Teacher-Student Partnership Assessment in an American High School: A Cycle of Action Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Picón Jácome

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article I present some findings of an action research study intended to find out to what extent a teacher-student partnership in writing assessment could promote high school students’ autonomy. The study was conducted in a U.S. school. Two main action strategies in the assessment process were the use of symbols as the form of feedback and the design of a rubric containing criteria negotiated with the students as the scoring method. Results showed that the students developed some autonomy reflected in three dimensions: ownership of their learning process, metacognition, and critical thinking, which positively influenced an enhancement of their writing skills in both English and Spanish. Likewise, the role of the teacher was found to be paramount to set appropriate conditions for the students’ development of autonomy.

  6. Do Children's Executive Functions Account for Associations Between Early Autonomy-Supportive Parenting and Achievement Through High School?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindman, Samantha W; Pomerantz, Eva M; Roisman, Glenn I

    2015-08-01

    This study evaluated whether the positive association between early autonomy-supportive parenting and children's subsequent achievement is mediated by children's executive functions. Using observations of mothers' parenting from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development ( N = 1,306), analyses revealed that mothers' autonomy support over the first 3 years of life predicted enhanced executive functions (i.e., inhibition, delay of gratification, and sustained attention) during the year prior to kindergarten and academic achievement in elementary and high school even when mothers' warmth and cognitive stimulation, as well as other factors (e.g., children's early general cognitive skills and mothers' educational attainment) were covaried. Mediation analyses demonstrated that over and above other attributes (e.g., temperament), children's executive functions partially accounted for the association between early autonomy-supportive parenting and children's subsequent achievement.

  7. Standby-battery autonomy versus power quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitterlin, Ian F.

    Batteries are used in a wide variety of applications as an energy store to bridge gaps in the primary source of supplied power for a given period of time. In some cases this bridging time, the battery's "autonomy", is fixed by local legislation but it is also often set by historically common practices. However, even if common practice dictates a long autonomy time, we are entering a new era of "cost and benefit realism" underpinned by environmentally friendly policies and we should challenge these historical practices at every opportunity if it can lead to resource and cost savings. In some cases the application engineer has no choice in the design autonomy; either follow a piece of local legislation (e.g. 4 h autonomy for a "life safety" application), or actually work out what is needed! An example of the latter would be for a remote site, off-grid, using integrated wind/solar power (without emergency generator back-up) where you may have to design-in several days' battery autonomy. This short paper proposes that a battery's autonomy should be related to the time expected for the system to be without the primary power source, balanced by the capital costs and commercial risk of power failure. To discuss this we shall consider the factors in selecting the autonomy time and other related aspects for high voltage battery systems used in facility-wide uninterruptible power supply (UPS) systems.

  8. Experienced job autonomy among maternity care professionals in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdok, Hilde; Cronie, Doug; van der Speld, Cecile; van Dillen, Jeroen; de Jonge, Ank; Rijnders, Marlies; de Graaf, Irene; Schellevis, François G; Verhoeven, Corine J

    2017-11-01

    High levels of experienced job autonomy are found to be beneficial for healthcare professionals and for the relationship with their patients. The aim of this study was to assess how maternity care professionals in the Netherlands perceive their job autonomy in the Dutch maternity care system and whether they expect a new system of integrated maternity care to affect their experienced job autonomy. A cross-sectional survey. The Leiden Quality of Work Life Questionnaire was used to assess experienced job autonomy among maternity care professionals. Data were collected in the Netherlands in 2015. 799 professionals participated of whom 362 were primary care midwives, 240 obstetricians, 93 clinical midwives and 104 obstetric nurses. The mean score for experienced job autonomy was highest for primary care midwives, followed by obstetricians, clinical midwives and obstetric nurses. Primary care midwives scored highest in expecting to lose their job autonomy in an integrated care system. There are significant differences in experienced job autonomy between maternity care professionals. When changing the maternity care system it will be a challenge to maintain a high level of experienced job autonomy for professionals. A decrease in job autonomy could lead to a reduction in job related wellbeing and in satisfaction with care among pregnant women. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Markets & Myths: Autonomy in Public & Private Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Rubin Glass

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available

    School choice is the most controversial education policy issue of the 1990s. John Chubb and Terry Moe's Politics, Markets and America's Schools stimulated this investigation. They concluded that teacher and administrator autonomy was the most important influence on student achievement. They assumed that the organization of private schools offered greater autonomy resulting in higher student achievement and that the bureaucracy of public schools stifles autonomy limiting student achievement. The research undertaken here elaborates, elucidates, and fills in the framework of teacher and principal autonomy in public and private secondary schools. Interviews of more than thirty teachers and administrators in six high schools, observations, field notes, and analysis of documents collected in the field form the empirical base of this work. The sites included three private, independent, nondenominational secondary schools which are college preparatory and three public secondary schools noted for high graduation rates and offering numerous advanced placement courses.

    The feelings expressed by both public and private school participants in this study testify to equally high degrees of autonomy. Issues that emerged from data analysis in this study which mitigate and shape autonomy include the following: conflicting and contradictory demands, shared beliefs, layers of protection, a system of laws, funding constraints and matters of size of the institution. These issues challenge oversimplified assertions that differences of any importance exist between the autonomy experienced by professionals in public and private high schools. This study reveals the complexity of the concept of autonomy and challenges the myth that teachers and principals in private schools enjoy autonomy and freedom from democratic bureaucracy that their public school counterparts do not.

  10. Agent autonomy approach to probabilistic physics-of-failure modeling of complex dynamic systems with interacting failure mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromek, Katherine Emily

    A novel computational and inference framework of the physics-of-failure (PoF) reliability modeling for complex dynamic systems has been established in this research. The PoF-based reliability models are used to perform a real time simulation of system failure processes, so that the system level reliability modeling would constitute inferences from checking the status of component level reliability at any given time. The "agent autonomy" concept is applied as a solution method for the system-level probabilistic PoF-based (i.e. PPoF-based) modeling. This concept originated from artificial intelligence (AI) as a leading intelligent computational inference in modeling of multi agents systems (MAS). The concept of agent autonomy in the context of reliability modeling was first proposed by M. Azarkhail [1], where a fundamentally new idea of system representation by autonomous intelligent agents for the purpose of reliability modeling was introduced. Contribution of the current work lies in the further development of the agent anatomy concept, particularly the refined agent classification within the scope of the PoF-based system reliability modeling, new approaches to the learning and the autonomy properties of the intelligent agents, and modeling interacting failure mechanisms within the dynamic engineering system. The autonomous property of intelligent agents is defined as agent's ability to self-activate, deactivate or completely redefine their role in the analysis. This property of agents and the ability to model interacting failure mechanisms of the system elements makes the agent autonomy fundamentally different from all existing methods of probabilistic PoF-based reliability modeling. 1. Azarkhail, M., "Agent Autonomy Approach to Physics-Based Reliability Modeling of Structures and Mechanical Systems", PhD thesis, University of Maryland, College Park, 2007.

  11. Instrumentalisation of the health system: An examination of the impact on nursing practice and patient autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Mula, Jesús; Peter, Elizabeth; Gallo-Estrada, Julia; Perelló-Campaner, Catalina

    2018-01-01

    Most current management systems of healthcare institutions correspond to a model of market ethics with its demands of competitiveness. This approach has been called managerialism and is couched in terms of much-needed efficiencies and effective management of budgetary constraints. The aim of this study was to analyse the decision-making of nurses through the impact of health institution management models on clinical practice. Based on Foucault's ethical theory, a qualitative study was conducted through a discourse analysis of the nursing records in a hospital unit. The results revealed that the health institution standardises health care practice, which has an impact on professional and patient autonomy as it pertains to decision-making. The results of this research indicate that resistance strategies in the internal structures of health organisations can replace the normalisation and instrumentalisation of professional practice aimed at promoting patient self-determination. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. [Implementation of functional autonomy measurement system: barriers and facilitators in PISE-Dordogne project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervais, Pauline; Hébert, Réjean; Lamontagne, Julie; Tousignant, Michel

    2011-12-01

    The objectives of the study were to identify the adjustments made during the implantation and the conditions favouring or limiting the SMAF utilisation. A multiqualitative quote was developed. The Functional autonomy measurement system (SMAF) was implanted in 11 French medico-social establishments. Analyses were made with the mixed type thematic method from Miles and Huberman. Principal adjustments that have been made during implantation concern the informatics assistance and clinical support. Strategic, organizational and individual factors explained adhesion level of actors and the subsequent flow of implantation. Establishment of SMAF and of the software eSMAF® in the medico-social establishments rests on a certain number of conditions which could be identified during the study. These conditions made it possible to work out structured recommendations for future implementations.

  13. School Autonomy and 21st Century Skills in the Israeli Educational System: Discrepancies between the Declarative and Operational Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nir, Adam; Ben-David, Adi; Bogler, Ronit; Inbar, Dan; Zohar, Anat

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze two parallel processes in the Israeli educational system: first, the idea of school autonomy, exploring its origins and its pedagogical implications and effectiveness; and second, the development of the progressive education evident mainly in the cognitive domain of twenty-first century skills (21st…

  14. International Experience in Reforming the System of Higher Education Governance in terms of Increasing the University Autonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chmutova Iryna M.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to summarize the international experience of reforming the system of higher education governance and develop directions that will contribute to increasing the effectiveness of the Ukrainian model for governance of higher education and ensuring its autonomy. There identified common elements and trends in European higher education reforms: greater autonomy for higher education institutions with less direct administrative intervention; greater emphasis on private rather than public funding; emphasis on the quality and effectiveness of education. The tools for implementing reforms in the European higher education system are identified: the New Public Management (NPM model, governance through networks, and new forms of governance. The changes in the university autonomy of European countries for the period of 2010-2016 are summarized. The content of the reforms in terms of increasing the autonomy of HEIs in the countries of Asia is disclosed. Possible vectors for reforming the system of higher education governance in Ukraine are identified: introduction of a model for funding HEIs on the basis of combining a one-time full budgeting and financing by results; assigning universities ownership of their buildings and their sale in the market; strengthening the decentralization of government control of higher education; development of legislative bases for the self-sufficiency of HEIs; inclusion of external stakeholders in decision-making governing bodies of HEIs; maximum involvement of students in decision-making.

  15. Autonomy @ Ames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dalsem, William; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje Srinivas

    2016-01-01

    This is a powerpoint presentation that highlights autonomy across the 15 NASA technology roadmaps, including specific examples of projects (past and present) at NASA Ames Research Center. The NASA technology roadmaps are located here: http:www.nasa.govofficesocthomeroadmapsindex.html

  16. Models, controls, and levels of semiotic autonomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joslyn, C.

    1998-12-01

    In this paper the authors consider forms of autonomy, forms of semiotic systems, and any necessary relations among them. Levels of autonomy are identified as levels of system identity, from adiabatic closure to disintegration. Forms of autonomy or closure in systems are also recognized, including physical, dynamical, functional, and semiotic. Models and controls are canonical linear and circular (closed) semiotic relations respectively. They conclude that only at higher levels of autonomy do semiotic properties become necessary. In particular, all control systems display at least a minimal degree of semiotic autonomy; and all systems with sufficiently interesting functional autonomy are semiotically related to their environments.

  17. Human-directed local autonomy for motion guidance and coordination in an intelligent manufacturing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alford, W. A.; Kawamura, Kazuhiko; Wilkes, Don M.

    1997-12-01

    This paper discusses the problem of integrating human intelligence and skills into an intelligent manufacturing system. Our center has jointed the Holonic Manufacturing Systems (HMS) Project, an international consortium dedicated to developing holonic systems technologies. One of our contributions to this effort is in Work Package 6: flexible human integration. This paper focuses on one activity, namely, human integration into motion guidance and coordination. Much research on intelligent systems focuses on creating totally autonomous agents. At the Center for Intelligent Systems (CIS), we design robots that interact directly with a human user. We focus on using the natural intelligence of the user to simplify the design of a robotic system. The problem is finding ways for the user to interact with the robot that are efficient and comfortable for the user. Manufacturing applications impose the additional constraint that the manufacturing process should not be disturbed; that is, frequent interacting with the user could degrade real-time performance. Our research in human-robot interaction is based on a concept called human directed local autonomy (HuDL). Under this paradigm, the intelligent agent selects and executes a behavior or skill, based upon directions from a human user. The user interacts with the robot via speech, gestures, or other media. Our control software is based on the intelligent machine architecture (IMA), an object-oriented architecture which facilitates cooperation and communication among intelligent agents. In this paper we describe our research testbed, a dual-arm humanoid robot and human user, and the use of this testbed for a human directed sorting task. We also discuss some proposed experiments for evaluating the integration of the human into the robot system. At the time of this writing, the experiments have not been completed.

  18. Translating EU renewable energy policy for insular energy systems: Reunion Island's quest for energy autonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Sawatzky

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Recognition of the negative impacts of climate change has led to agreement on the need to decarbonise energy systems through the employment of renewable energy. With many national and transnational policies in place, the options available to insular energy systems (IES differ from those of interconnected areas due to fragility in their production and distribution networks. Based on the concepts of policy mobility and translation, this study examines the interplay of EU renewable energy policy and insular governance processes aimed at achieving energy autonomy through renewable energy development. Reunion Island, a French Overseas Department and Region, is used as a case study to examine local energy governance processes, aspects that shape regional translation of national and EU policy, and the potential effects that create structures and pathways of energy transition. The study shows that Reunion Island’s regional Energy Governance Committee has significant application potential as a governance tool in other IES and small islands within the EU, but that renewable energy development is restricted due to national policy measures and path dependent governance structural constraints.

  19. Professional autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprile, A E

    1998-02-01

    Professional autonomy may represent the first step to implementing measures that will allow CRNAs to attain a level of independent practice consistent with their clinical and educational training. Autonomy is regarded as an essential ingredient of professionalism and confers independent function at the individual practitioner level. The principle of autonomy refers to the individual's capacity to make independent decisions based on the assumption that he or she possesses the cognitive, psychological, and emotional faculties to make rational decisions. Nursing practice meets the first two criteria of professionalism--competence and dedication to an important social good. The third criterion of professionalism, autonomy, has been a focal point for controversy since the late nineteenth century, in which obedience to supervisors and physicians remained a central focus of nursing ethics teaching until the advent of feminism in the 1970s. This article presents a thorough analysis of these concepts with some thoughts on how understanding the fundamental precepts and further research may not only help maintain the current level of CRNA professional autonomy but serve to guide us to become more autonomous in the future.

  20. Discrepancies in Autonomy and Relatedness Promoting Behaviors of Substance Using Mothers and Their Children: The Effects of a Family Systems Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Slesnick, Natasha

    2017-03-01

    Parents' and children's autonomy and relatedness behaviors are associated with a wide range of child outcomes. Yet, little is known about how parents and children's autonomy and relatedness behaviors jointly influence child outcomes. The current study captured this joint influence by exploring the longitudinal trajectory of mother-child discrepancies in autonomy and relatedness behaviors and its association with child problem behaviors. The effects of a family systems intervention on the trajectory of mother-child discrepancies were also examined. The sample included 183 substance using mothers and their children (M age = 11.54 years, SD = 2.55, range 8-16; 48 % females). Both the mother and child completed an assessment at baseline, 6- and 18-month post-baseline. A person-centered analysis identified subgroups varying in mother-child discrepancy patterns in their autonomy and relatedness behaviors. The results also showed that participation in the family systems therapy was associated with decreased mother-child discrepancies, and also a synchronous increase in mother's and child's autonomy and relatedness. Additionally, increased mother-child discrepancies and mother-child dyads showing no change in autonomy and relatedness was associated with higher levels of children's problem behaviors. The findings reveal a dynamic process of mother-child discrepancies in autonomy and relatedness behaviors related to child outcomes. The findings also support the effectiveness of the family systems therapy, and highlight the importance of understanding the complexities in family interactions when explaining children's problem behaviors.

  1. Job design trade-offs between stability, clarity and autonomy in interdependent work systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuori, T.; Kira, M.; Eijnatten, van F.M.

    2010-01-01

    It is well established that increasing the stability of demands, the clarity of work, and autonomy in individual jobs enhances motivation and well-being. However, jobs are often interconnected which makes it difficult to change one single job, without negatively influencing other jobs. Existing

  2. School nurses' perceptions of empowerment and autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSisto, Marie C; DeSisto, Thomas Patrick

    2004-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore Kanter's Theory of Structural Power in Organizations, using school nurses and to answer the research question of whether there is a relationship between empowerment and autonomy in school nurses. This study found a positive relationship between the nurses' perceptions of empowerment and autonomy. The school nurses surveyed perceived themselves to have a high degree of autonomy and a moderate degree of empowerment, and they reported that their access to informal power structures was higher than their access to formal power structures in their school systems. School nurses can benefit by understanding factors that can increase their empowerment in the workplace. They need to understand the organizational structure of their workplace to increase their effectiveness and job satisfaction.

  3. Popular Culture, English Out-of-Class Activities, and Learner Autonomy among Highly Proficient Secondary Students in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Hoi Wing

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on how and why proficient learners of English in Hong Kong participated in popular culture, out-of-class activities, with an emphasis on their development of learner autonomy. Autonomy in language learning is defined as an individual's ability and responsibility to take charge of his or her own learning [1]. Out-of-class…

  4. Autonomy and manual operation in a small robotic system for under-vehicle inspections at security checkpoints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smuda, William; Muench, Paul L.; Gerhart, Grant R.; Moore, Kevin L.

    2002-07-01

    Unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) technology can be used in a number of ways to assist in counter-terrorism activities. In addition to the conventional uses of tele-operated robots for unexploded ordinance handling and disposal, water cannons and other crowd control devices, robots can also be employed for a host of terrorism deterrence and detection applications. In previous research USU developed a completely autonomous prototype robot for performing under- vehicle inspections in parking areas (ODIS). Testing of this prototype and discussions with the user community indicated that neither the technology nor the users are ready for complete autonomy. In this paper we present a robotic system based on ODIS that balances the users' desire/need for tele- operation with a limited level of autonomy that enhances the performance of the robot. The system can be used by both civilian law enforcement and military police to replace the traditional mirror on a stick system of looking under cars for bombs and contraband.

  5. Autonomy and Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shively, Jay

    2017-01-01

    A significant level of debate and confusion has surrounded the meaning of the terms autonomy and automation. Automation is a multi-dimensional concept, and we propose that Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) automation should be described with reference to the specific system and task that has been automated, the context in which the automation functions, and other relevant dimensions. In this paper, we present definitions of automation, pilot in the loop, pilot on the loop and pilot out of the loop. We further propose that in future, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) RPAS Panel avoids the use of the terms autonomy and autonomous when referring to automated systems on board RPA. Work Group 7 proposes to develop, in consultation with other workgroups, a taxonomy of Levels of Automation for RPAS.

  6. Autonomy as Aesthetic Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lütticken, S.

    2014-01-01

    This essay examines various conceptions of autonomy in relation to recent artistic practices. Starting from the apparent opposition between modernist notions of the autonomy of art and theorizations of political autonomy, the text problematizes the notion of the autonomy of art by using Jacques

  7. Cognitive Architectures and Autonomy: A Comparative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thórisson, Kristinn; Helgasson, Helgi

    2012-05-01

    One of the original goals of artificial intelligence (AI) research was to create machines with very general cognitive capabilities and a relatively high level of autonomy. It has taken the field longer than many had expected to achieve even a fraction of this goal; the community has focused on building specific, targeted cognitive processes in isolation, and as of yet no system exists that integrates a broad range of capabilities or presents a general solution to autonomous acquisition of a large set of skills. Among the reasons for this are the highly limited machine learning and adaptation techniques available, and the inherent complexity of integrating numerous cognitive and learning capabilities in a coherent architecture. In this paper we review selected systems and architectures built expressly to address integrated skills. We highlight principles and features of these systems that seem promising for creating generally intelligent systems with some level of autonomy, and discuss them in the context of the development of future cognitive architectures. Autonomy is a key property for any system to be considered generally intelligent, in our view; we use this concept as an organizing principle for comparing the reviewed systems. Features that remain largely unaddressed in present research, but seem nevertheless necessary for such efforts to succeed, are also discussed.

  8. Innovative safety features of VVER for ensuring high degree of autonomy during beyond design basis accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Abhay; Mohan, Joe; Kumar, Devesh; Chaudhry, S.M.; Rao, Srinivasa; Gupta, S.K.

    2010-01-01

    The effectiveness of Passive Heat Removal System (PHRS) in during a station black-out (SBO) accident was assessed by using SCDAP/Relap5. The analysis gave evidence that (i) the Passive Heat Removal System (PHRS) is capable of limiting the consequences of station black out (SBO) and acts as an effective engineered safety system, and (ii) the PHRS intervention prevents core degradation and excessive core heat-up. (P.A.)

  9. LANGUAGE LEARNING ACTIVITIES OF DISTANCE EFL LEARNERS IN THE TURKISH OPEN EDUCATION SYSTEM AS THE INDICATOR OF THEIR LEARNER AUTONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek ALTUNAY

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the noncompulsory language learning activities performed by a group of distance EFL learners in the Turkish Open Education System. Performance of these activities has been considered as an indicator of their learner autonomy. The data were collected through an online questionnaire and interviews. The study shows that in general learners do not demonstrate autonomous language learning behaviour. They prefer learning English in a relaxed environment particularly by engaging in entertaining activities, and through note-taking. However, they do not have sufficient interaction with their facilitator, other learners or speakers. Although the participants are distance learners, they do not prefer Internet-based activities. Conditions stemming from adulthood, lack of skills necessary to perform an activity, lack of awareness of some activities and learners’ experiences in their previous years of education are some of the reasons for their unautonomous behaviour. The article also includes suggestions for teaching and future research.

  10. Rebels against the System: Leadership Agency and Curriculum Innovation in the Context of School Autonomy and Accountability in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greany, Toby; Waterhouse, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyse the development of school autonomy, school leadership and curriculum innovation in England over the past 40 years. It provides a baseline picture for the wider international study on school autonomy and curriculum innovation. Design/methodology/approach: An initial literature review was…

  11. Autonomy and Pluralism in the Education System: A Case Study of Spanish Public Schools in the International Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho Gargallo, Miguel Angel

    2013-01-01

    As governments strive to improve outcomes in education, and respond to the needs of an ever more diverse population, autonomy has gained increased prominence in national and international spheres. In the context of education, autonomy refers to the decision-making capacity of a school, and to the manner and areas over which those decisions can be…

  12. Thyroid autonomy: sensitive detection in vivo and estimation of its functional relevance using quantified high-resolution scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baehre, M.; Lindemann, C.; Emrich, D.; Hilgers, R.

    1988-01-01

    This study is concerned with 236 euthyroid individuals living in an area of iodine deficiency, 227 of whom had endemic goitres. In these subjects, autonomy could be suspected owing to an inhomogeneous activity distribution on the thyroid scintigram or a subnormal TSH response to TRH. They complete a total number of 426 investigated individuals. Previously, in 190 separated controls without evidence of autonomy, the reference ranges for the thyroid 99m Tc pertechnetate uptake under suppression (TcU s ), a measure for the non-suppressible thyroid iodide clearance, and for suppressibility of circumscribed thyroid regions, had been determined. These two parameters obtained by highresolution quantified scintigraphy were used for an accurate detection of thyroid autonomy among the 236 individuals. Suppression scintigraphy revealed autonomy in 171 patients. ΔTSH after TRH was subnormal in 40% of the subjects with abnormal thyroid suppressibility. Prevalence of abnormal suppression was dependent on three factors: patient age, goitre type and estimated thyroid weight. In the total investigated collective, the prevalence of autonomy was 77% in patients with a goitre weight above 50 g. The individuals with abnormal suppression were grouped into four classes of TcU s . I these classes, free thyroxie index (FT 4 I) and total triiodothyronine (TT 3 ) icreased with increasing TcU s , whereas ΔTSH decreased. This finding indicates a continuum of different extents of autonomous thyroid function, whereas in the individual patient, the extent can be determined using the pertechnetate uptake under suppression. In addition, FT 4 I, TT 3 and ΔTSH in each of the TcU s classes depended on the individual iodine supply. It is concluded that, in patients with thyroid autonomy, actual thyroid hormone concentrations and TSH stimulation are determined by two major factors: the extent of autonomy and the individual iodine supply. Therefore, in iodine deficiency, the TRH test may be normal

  13. Autonomy and Responsibility: Online Learning as a Solution for At-Risk High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, S.; Whiteside, A.; Garrett Dikkers, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this three-year, mixed methods case study, the benefits and challenges of online learning for at-risk high school students were examined. A key finding was that at-risk students identify the benefits and challenges of online learning to be the same. While students appreciate the opportunity to work ahead and study at their own pace, they see it…

  14. Challenges and Characteristics of Intelligent Autonomy for Internet of Battle Things in Highly Adversarial Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Kott, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    Numerous, artificially intelligent, networked things will populate the battlefield of the future, operating in close collaboration with human warfighters, and fighting as teams in highly adversarial environments. This paper explores the characteristics, capabilities and intelligence required of such a network of intelligent things and humans - Internet of Battle Things (IOBT). It will experience unique challenges that are not yet well addressed by the current generation of AI and machine lear...

  15. The Balance Between Higher Education Autonomy and Public Quality Assurance:Development of the Portuguese System for Teacher Education Accreditation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bártolo Campos

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The accreditation systems of higher education institutions and/or programs are becoming a policy measure used to find a balance between their autonomy and public assurance concerning the quality of the qualifications they award. This article analyses, from the point of view of this balance of power, the process of development of the Portuguese accreditation system aimed at providing public assurance that initial teacher education programs are more driven by social demand, namely by the changing school education needs. This was a political and cultural process rather than a merely rational and technical one. Thus the emergence of the need for, and possibility of, external pressure upon higher education institutions is related to the evolution of several social factors. On the other hand, the implementation of the accreditation system means a significant change for these institutions which implies new practices and comes into conflict with some of their values and with power sharing within and among them and with society. For these reasons a strategy of wide participation of significant stakeholders was deemed more suitable for the formulation, adoption and implementation of this new public policy. The way in which government, the accreditation body, and the significant stakeholders exercised their power in this process influenced the characteristics of the system, the rhythm of its implementation, and the abrupt governmental decision to put it on stand-by, until now.

  16. Architecture for autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broten, Gregory S.; Monckton, Simon P.; Collier, Jack; Giesbrecht, Jared

    2006-05-01

    In 2002 Defence R&D Canada changed research direction from pure tele-operated land vehicles to general autonomy for land, air, and sea craft. The unique constraints of the military environment coupled with the complexity of autonomous systems drove DRDC to carefully plan a research and development infrastructure that would provide state of the art tools without restricting research scope. DRDC's long term objectives for its autonomy program address disparate unmanned ground vehicle (UGV), unattended ground sensor (UGS), air (UAV), and subsea and surface (UUV and USV) vehicles operating together with minimal human oversight. Individually, these systems will range in complexity from simple reconnaissance mini-UAVs streaming video to sophisticated autonomous combat UGVs exploiting embedded and remote sensing. Together, these systems can provide low risk, long endurance, battlefield services assuming they can communicate and cooperate with manned and unmanned systems. A key enabling technology for this new research is a software architecture capable of meeting both DRDC's current and future requirements. DRDC built upon recent advances in the computing science field while developing its software architecture know as the Architecture for Autonomy (AFA). Although a well established practice in computing science, frameworks have only recently entered common use by unmanned vehicles. For industry and government, the complexity, cost, and time to re-implement stable systems often exceeds the perceived benefits of adopting a modern software infrastructure. Thus, most persevere with legacy software, adapting and modifying software when and wherever possible or necessary -- adopting strategic software frameworks only when no justifiable legacy exists. Conversely, academic programs with short one or two year projects frequently exploit strategic software frameworks but with little enduring impact. The open-source movement radically changes this picture. Academic frameworks

  17. University autonomy as sensemaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Jonas Krog

    The formal autonomy of universities in Europe has generally increased over recent decades. However, new forms of accountability measures and more indirect state steering have accompanied this development, making it difficult to assess the actual autonomy. The article addresses this problem...... by applying the sensemaking approach to the study of organizational autonomy. Enacted autonomy is suggested as a new conceptualization that challenges the basic assumption in studies on formal autonomy that autonomy is only about external constraints on action. It does so by insisting on the active subjects...... in the enactment of the environment, thereby questioning the validity of a clear distinction between what is internal and what is external to an organization. By acknowledging the subjective dimension of autonomy, a set of stylized identities is developed as a tool for understanding the enactment of autonomy...

  18. Respect for rational autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Rebecca L

    2009-12-01

    The standard notion of autonomy in medical ethics does not require that autonomous choices not be irrational. The paper gives three examples of seemingly irrational patient choices and discusses how a rational autonomy analysis differs from the standard view. It then considers whether a switch to the rational autonomy view would lead to overriding more patient decisions but concludes that this should not be the case. Rather, a determination of whether individual patient decisions are autonomous is much less relevant than usually considered in determining whether health care providers must abide by these decisions. Furthermore, respect for rational autonomy entails strong positive requirements of respect for the autonomy of the person as a rational decision maker. The rationality view of autonomy is conceptually stronger than the standard view, allows for a more nuanced understanding of the practical moral calculus involved in respecting patient autonomy, and promotes positive respect for patient autonomy.

  19. Do Children's Executive Functions Account for Associations between Early Autonomy-Supportive Parenting and Achievement through High School?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindman, Samantha W.; Pomerantz, Eva M.; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated whether the positive association between early autonomy-supportive parenting and children's subsequent achievement is mediated by children's executive functions. Using observations of mothers' parenting from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N…

  20. Regimes of Autonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Like being able to drive a car, being autonomous is a socially attributed, claimed, and contested status. Normative debates about criteria for autonomy (and what autonomy entitles one to) are best understood, not as debates about what autonomy, at core, really is, but rather as debates about the

  1. Characteristics of Law-Autonomy Foreign Subsidiaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Jens; McDonald, Frank; Stephan, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines several characteristics of foreign subsidiaries with low autonomy. Data derived from a survey of 381 MNC subsidiaries located in Denmark, Germany and the UK demonstrate that low-autonomy subsidiaries are highly embedded in their respective MNC networks and that they establish ...... relationship between lower autonomy and the production activities carried out by the subsidiary. In fact, low-autonomy subsidiaries appear to be specialized in that they focus on a few value-chain activities and they typically serve as marketing outlets....

  2. Focus on energy autonomy in overseas districts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billerey, Jerome

    2016-01-01

    As French overseas territories have also had a role of leader in the development of renewable energies, and as the French law on energy transition states that energy autonomy is an objective by 2030 for these territories, with 50 per cent of renewable energies by 2020, this publication proposes an overview of the situation in these territories which still strongly depend on imported energies, notably for transports. The publication outlines the specificities of these islands with respect to the metropolitan territory in terms of electric power system: small territories, high production costs, strong consumption increase. It describes how the new energy policy plans evolutions to reach this autonomy: development of renewable energies and of smart grids, development of vehicles fuelled with electricity, biofuels or hydrogen, management of energy consumption in housing and through the use of renewable energies

  3. AUTONOMY AND RELATEDNESS IN MOTHER-TEEN INTERACTIONS AS PREDICTORS OF INVOLVEMENT IN ADOLESCENT DATING AGGRESSION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niolon, Phyllis Holditch; Kuperminc, Gabriel P.; Allen, Joseph P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This multi-method, longitudinal study examines the negotiation of autonomy and relatedness between teens and their mothers as etiologic predictors of perpetration and victimization of dating aggression two years later. Method Observations of 88 mid-adolescents and their mothers discussing a topic of disagreement were coded for each individual’s demonstrations of autonomy and relatedness using a validated coding system. Adolescents self-reported on perpetration and victimization of physical and psychological dating aggression two years later. We hypothesized that mother’s and adolescents’ behaviors supporting autonomy and relatedness would longitudinally predict lower reporting of dating aggression, and that their behaviors inhibiting autonomy and relatedness would predict higher reporting of dating aggression. Results Hypotheses were not supported; main findings were characterized by interactions of sex and risk status with autonomy. Maternal behaviors supporting autonomy predicted higher reports of perpetration and victimization of physical dating aggression for girls, but not for boys. Adolescent behaviors supporting autonomy predicted higher reports of perpetration of physical dating aggression for high-risk adolescents, but not for low-risk adolescents. Conclusions Results indicate that autonomy is a dynamic developmental process, operating differently as a function of social contexts in predicting dating aggression. Examination of these and other developmental processes within parent-child relationships is important in predicting dating aggression, but may depend on social context. PMID:25914852

  4. AUTONOMY AND RELATEDNESS IN MOTHER-TEEN INTERACTIONS AS PREDICTORS OF INVOLVEMENT IN ADOLESCENT DATING AGGRESSION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niolon, Phyllis Holditch; Kuperminc, Gabriel P; Allen, Joseph P

    2015-04-01

    This multi-method, longitudinal study examines the negotiation of autonomy and relatedness between teens and their mothers as etiologic predictors of perpetration and victimization of dating aggression two years later. Observations of 88 mid-adolescents and their mothers discussing a topic of disagreement were coded for each individual's demonstrations of autonomy and relatedness using a validated coding system. Adolescents self-reported on perpetration and victimization of physical and psychological dating aggression two years later. We hypothesized that mother's and adolescents' behaviors supporting autonomy and relatedness would longitudinally predict lower reporting of dating aggression, and that their behaviors inhibiting autonomy and relatedness would predict higher reporting of dating aggression. Hypotheses were not supported; main findings were characterized by interactions of sex and risk status with autonomy. Maternal behaviors supporting autonomy predicted higher reports of perpetration and victimization of physical dating aggression for girls, but not for boys. Adolescent behaviors supporting autonomy predicted higher reports of perpetration of physical dating aggression for high-risk adolescents, but not for low-risk adolescents. Results indicate that autonomy is a dynamic developmental process, operating differently as a function of social contexts in predicting dating aggression. Examination of these and other developmental processes within parent-child relationships is important in predicting dating aggression, but may depend on social context.

  5. Mission Level Autonomy for USSV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntsberger, Terry; Stirb, Robert C.; Brizzolara, Robert

    2011-01-01

    On-water demonstration of a wide range of mission-proven, advanced technologies at TRL 5+ that provide a total integrated, modular approach to effectively address the majority of the key needs for full mission-level autonomous, cross-platform control of USV s. Wide baseline stereo system mounted on the ONR USSV was shown to be an effective sensing modality for tracking of dynamic contacts as a first step to automated retrieval operations. CASPER onboard planner/replanner successfully demonstrated realtime, on-water resource-based analysis for mission-level goal achievement and on-the-fly opportunistic replanning. Full mixed mode autonomy was demonstrated on-water with a seamless transition between operator over-ride and return to current mission plan. Autonomous cooperative operations for fixed asset protection and High Value Unit escort using 2 USVs (AMN1 & 14m RHIB) were demonstrated during Trident Warrior 2010 in JUN 2010

  6. The Evolution of Autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stammers, Trevor

    2015-01-01

    There can be little doubt, at least in the Western world, that autonomy is theruling principle in contemporary bioethics. In spite of its 'triumph' however,the dominance of the utilitarian concept of autonomy is being increasinglyquestioned. In this paper, I explore the nature of autonomy, how it came todisplace the Hippocratic tradition in medicine and how different conceptsof autonomy have evolved. I argue that the reduction of autonomy to'the exercise of personal choice' in medicine has led to a 'tyranny of autonomy' which can be inimical to ethical medical practice rather than conducive to it.I take the case of Kerrie Wooltorton as an illustration of how misplacedadherence to respect for patient autonomy can lead to tragic consequences.An analysis of autonomy based on the work of Rachel Haliburton isdescribed and applied to the role of autonomy in a recent bioethicaldebate--that arising from Savulescu's proposal that conscientious objection by health-care professionals should not be permitted in the NHS. Inconclusion, I suggest Kukla's concept of conscientious autonomy as onepromising pathway to circumvent both the limitations and adverse effectsof the dominance of current (mis)understandings of autonomy in biomedical ethics.

  7. Solomon Islands School Autonomy and Accountability : SABER Country Report 2013

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    Education in the Solomon Islands is highly decentralized. While education policy is the sole responsibility of the Ministry of education, school boards are responsible for delivery. The entire organization of the school system is based on checks and balances to ensure accountability. Budgetary autonomy is established. The school board controls the school budget, with input from parents. Pe...

  8. Defining the Levels of Adjustable Autonomy: A Means of Improving Resilience in an Unmanned Aerial System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    implemented in a system, some level of human-operator involvement will be required in interacting with that system (Glas and Kanda 2012). This is the...September 23–24, 2010. Glas, Dylan F., Takayuki Kanda , Hiroshi Ishiguro, and Norihiro Hagita. 2012. Teleoperation of Multiple Social Robots." IEEE

  9. Equity, autonomy, and efficiency: what health care system should we have?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Paul T

    1992-02-01

    The U.S. has a wide range of options in choosing a health care system. Rational choice of a system depends on analysis and prioritization of the basic moral goals of equitable access to all citizens, the just sharing of financial costs between well and ill, respect for the values and choices of subscribers and patients, and efficiency in the delivery of costworthy care. These moral goals themselves, however, tell us little about what health care system the United States should have. Equitable access does not demand a level and scope of care for the poor equal to that rationally chosen by the middle class, and there are ways within mixed systems, though not easy ways, to achieve a fair distribution of costs between well and ill. Despite pluralistic systems' apparent advantage in allowing subscribers to choose their own forms of rationing, problems in translating serious long-term subscriber choices into actual medical practice may be greater in pluralistic than in unitary systems. Final choice of a system hinges primarily on peculiar historical facts about U.S. political culture, not on moral principle.

  10. Equality, autonomy, and efficiency: what health care system should we have?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, P T

    1992-02-01

    The U.S. has a wide range of options in choosing a health care system. Rational choice of a system depends on analysis and prioritization of the basis moral goals of equitable access to all citizens, the just sharing of financial costs between well and ill, respect for the values and choices of subscribers and patients, and efficiency in the delivery of costworthy care. These moral goals themselves, however, tell us little about what health care system the United States should have. Equitable access does not demand a level and scope of care for the poor equal to that rationally chosen by the middle class, and there are ways within mixed systems, though not easy ways, to achieve a fair distribution of costs between well and ill. Despite pluralistic systems' apparent advantage in allowing subscribers to choose their own forms of rationing, problems in translating serious long-term subscriber choices into actual medical practice may be greater in pluralistic than in unitary systems. Final choice of a system hinges primarily on peculiar historical facts about U.S. political culture, not on moral principle.

  11. Scaffolding Learner Autonomy in Online University Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribbe, Elisa; Bezanilla, María José

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the question in what ways teachers and course designers can support the development and exertion of learner autonomy among online university students. It advocates that a greater attention to learner autonomy could help more students to complete their course successfully and thus contribute the decrease of the high dropout…

  12. Non-Parametric, Closed-Loop Testing of Autonomy in Unmanned Aircraft Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed Phase I program aims to develop new methods to support safety testing for integration of Unmanned Aircraft Systems into the National Airspace (NAS) with...

  13. Initial Stage Reference Search : Driver Simulators to Test Shared Controls, Limited Autonomy Vehicle Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This literature review and reference scanning focuses on the use of driver simulators for semiautonomous (or shared control) vehicle systems (2012present), including related research from other modes of transportation (e.g., rail or aviation). Foc...

  14. An Approach for Autonomy: A Collaborative Communication Framework for Multi-Agent Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufrene, Warren Russell, Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Research done during the last three years has studied the emersion properties of Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS). The deployment of Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques applied to remote Unmanned Aerial Vehicles has led the author to investigate applications of CAS within the field of Autonomous Multi-Agent Systems. The core objective of current research efforts is focused on the simplicity of Intelligent Agents (IA) and the modeling of these agents within complex systems. This research effort looks at the communication, interaction, and adaptability of multi-agents as applied to complex systems control. The embodiment concept applied to robotics has application possibilities within multi-agent frameworks. A new framework for agent awareness within a virtual 3D world concept is possible where the vehicle is composed of collaborative agents. This approach has many possibilities for applications to complex systems. This paper describes the development of an approach to apply this virtual framework to the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) tetrahedron structure developed under the Autonomous Nano Technology Swarm (ANTS) program and the Super Miniaturized Addressable Reconfigurable Technology (SMART) architecture program. These projects represent an innovative set of novel concepts deploying adaptable, self-organizing structures composed of many tetrahedrons. This technology is pushing current applied Agents Concepts to new levels of requirements and adaptability.

  15. Putting "The System" into a School Autonomy Reform: The Case of the Independent Public Schools Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobby, Brad

    2016-01-01

    The Australian Federal and state governments have been introducing neoliberal reforms to the governance of their education systems for a number of decades. One of the most recent programs of reform is the Western Australian Independent Public Schools (IPS) initiative. Similar to decentralizing reforms around the world, the IPS program seeks…

  16. On the Autonomy of the Grammatical Gender Systems of the Two Languages of a Bilingual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Albert; Kovacic, Damir; Franck, Julie; Caramazza, Alfonso

    2003-01-01

    In five experiments highly-proficient bilinguals were asked to name two sets of pictures in their L2: a) pictures whose names in the L2 and their corresponding L1 translations have the same grammatical gender value, and b) pictures whose names in the L2 and their corresponding L1 translations have different gender values. In Experiments 1, 2, and…

  17. Vacuum-packaged piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters: damping contributions and autonomy for a wireless sensor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elfrink, R; Renaud, M; Kamel, T M; De Nooijer, C; Jambunathan, M; Goedbloed, M; Hohlfeld, D; Matova, S; Pop, V; Caballero, L; Van Schaijk, R

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the characterization of thin-film MEMS vibration energy harvesters based on aluminum nitride as piezoelectric material. A record output power of 85 µW is measured. The parasitic-damping and the energy-harvesting performances of unpackaged and packaged devices are investigated. Vacuum and atmospheric pressure levels are considered for the packaged devices. When dealing with packaged devices, it is found that vacuum packaging is essential for maximizing the output power. Therefore, a wafer-scale vacuum package process is developed. The energy harvesters are used to power a small prototype (1 cm 3 volume) of a wireless autonomous sensor system. The average power consumption of the whole system is less than 10 µW, and it is continuously provided by the vibration energy harvester

  18. Autonomy and relatedness in psychopathology and treatment: a cross-cultural formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, T

    2001-02-01

    A cross-cultural view of psychopathology is proposed, contending that there are two basic systems of self-organization. These two systems of self-organization, labeled autonomy and relatedness, are essential to a person's well-being regardless of the culture or society to which the person belongs. The degree of autonomy and relatedness required to maintain mental health in a specific society is affected by cultural mores. People in collectivistic (primarily non-Western) cultures require high levels of relatedness and moderate levels of autonomy to maintain mental health. People in individualistic (primarily Western) cultures require high levels of autonomy and moderate levels of relatedness to maintain mental health. This view, based on a review of past work in various areas of psychology, is discussed in the context of various forms of psychotherapy existing in individualistic and collectivistic cultures.

  19. Marine Robot Autonomy

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Autonomy for Marine Robots provides a timely and insightful overview of intelligent autonomy in marine robots. A brief history of this emerging field is provided, along with a discussion of the challenges unique to the underwater environment and their impact on the level of intelligent autonomy required.  Topics covered at length examine advanced frameworks, path-planning, fault tolerance, machine learning, and cooperation as relevant to marine robots that need intelligent autonomy.  This book also: Discusses and offers solutions for the unique challenges presented by more complex missions and the dynamic underwater environment when operating autonomous marine robots Includes case studies that demonstrate intelligent autonomy in marine robots to perform underwater simultaneous localization and mapping  Autonomy for Marine Robots is an ideal book for researchers and engineers interested in the field of marine robots.      

  20. New Vectorial Propulsion System and Trajectory Control Designs for Improved AUV Mission Autonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Masmitja

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV are proving to be a promising platform design for multidisciplinary autonomous operability with a wide range of applications in marine ecology and geoscience. Here, two novel contributions towards increasing the autonomous navigation capability of a new AUV prototype (the Guanay II as a mix between a propelled vehicle and a glider are presented. Firstly, a vectorial propulsion system has been designed to provide full vehicle maneuverability in both horizontal and vertical planes. Furthermore, two controllers have been designed, based on fuzzy controls, to provide the vehicle with autonomous navigation capabilities. Due to the decoupled system propriety, the controllers in the horizontal plane have been designed separately from the vertical plane. This class of non-linear controllers has been used to interpret linguistic laws into different zones of functionality. This method provided good performance, used as interpolation between different rules or linear controls. Both improvements have been validated through simulations and field tests, displaying good performance results. Finally, the conclusion of this work is that the Guanay II AUV has a solid controller to perform autonomous navigation and carry out vertical immersions.

  1. New Vectorial Propulsion System and Trajectory Control Designs for Improved AUV Mission Autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masmitja, Ivan; Gonzalez, Julian; Galarza, Cesar; Gomariz, Spartacus; Aguzzi, Jacopo; Del Rio, Joaquin

    2018-04-17

    Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV) are proving to be a promising platform design for multidisciplinary autonomous operability with a wide range of applications in marine ecology and geoscience. Here, two novel contributions towards increasing the autonomous navigation capability of a new AUV prototype (the Guanay II) as a mix between a propelled vehicle and a glider are presented. Firstly, a vectorial propulsion system has been designed to provide full vehicle maneuverability in both horizontal and vertical planes. Furthermore, two controllers have been designed, based on fuzzy controls, to provide the vehicle with autonomous navigation capabilities. Due to the decoupled system propriety, the controllers in the horizontal plane have been designed separately from the vertical plane. This class of non-linear controllers has been used to interpret linguistic laws into different zones of functionality. This method provided good performance, used as interpolation between different rules or linear controls. Both improvements have been validated through simulations and field tests, displaying good performance results. Finally, the conclusion of this work is that the Guanay II AUV has a solid controller to perform autonomous navigation and carry out vertical immersions.

  2. Single cell cultures of Drosophila neuroectodermal and mesectodermal central nervous system progenitors reveal different degrees of developmental autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüer, Karin; Technau, Gerhard M

    2009-08-03

    The Drosophila embryonic central nervous system (CNS) develops from two sets of progenitor cells, neuroblasts and ventral midline progenitors, which behave differently in many respects. Neuroblasts derive from the neurogenic region of the ectoderm and form the lateral parts of the CNS. Ventral midline precursors are formed by two rows of mesectodermal cells and build the CNS midline. There is plenty of evidence that individual identities are conferred to precursor cells by positional information in the ectoderm. It is unclear, however, how far the precursors can maintain their identities and developmental properties in the absence of normal external signals. To separate the respective contributions of autonomous properties versus extrinsic signals during their further development, we isolated individual midline precursors and neuroectodermal precursors at the pre-mitotic gastrula stage, traced their development in vitro, and analyzed the characteristics of their lineages in comparison with those described for the embryo. Although individually cultured mesectodermal cells exhibit basic characteristics of CNS midline progenitors, the clones produced by these progenitors differ from their in situ counterparts with regard to cell numbers, expression of molecular markers, and the separation of neuronal and glial fate. In contrast, clones derived from individually cultured precursors taken from specific dorsoventral zones of the neuroectoderm develop striking similarities to the lineages of neuroblasts that normally delaminate from these zones and develop in situ. This in vitro analysis allows for the first time a comparison of the developmental capacities in situ and in vitro of individual neural precursors of defined spatial and temporal origin. The data reveal that cells isolated at the pre-mitotic and pre-delamination stage express characteristics of the progenitor type appropriate to their site of origin in the embryo. However, presumptive neuroblasts, once

  3. Single cell cultures of Drosophila neuroectodermal and mesectodermal central nervous system progenitors reveal different degrees of developmental autonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Technau Gerhard M

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Drosophila embryonic central nervous system (CNS develops from two sets of progenitor cells, neuroblasts and ventral midline progenitors, which behave differently in many respects. Neuroblasts derive from the neurogenic region of the ectoderm and form the lateral parts of the CNS. Ventral midline precursors are formed by two rows of mesectodermal cells and build the CNS midline. There is plenty of evidence that individual identities are conferred to precursor cells by positional information in the ectoderm. It is unclear, however, how far the precursors can maintain their identities and developmental properties in the absence of normal external signals. Results To separate the respective contributions of autonomous properties versus extrinsic signals during their further development, we isolated individual midline precursors and neuroectodermal precursors at the pre-mitotic gastrula stage, traced their development in vitro, and analyzed the characteristics of their lineages in comparison with those described for the embryo. Although individually cultured mesectodermal cells exhibit basic characteristics of CNS midline progenitors, the clones produced by these progenitors differ from their in situ counterparts with regard to cell numbers, expression of molecular markers, and the separation of neuronal and glial fate. In contrast, clones derived from individually cultured precursors taken from specific dorsoventral zones of the neuroectoderm develop striking similarities to the lineages of neuroblasts that normally delaminate from these zones and develop in situ. Conclusion This in vitro analysis allows for the first time a comparison of the developmental capacities in situ and in vitro of individual neural precursors of defined spatial and temporal origin. The data reveal that cells isolated at the pre-mitotic and pre-delamination stage express characteristics of the progenitor type appropriate to their site of origin in

  4. Incidence of radiation-induced Graves' disease in patients treated with radioiodine for thyroid autonomy before and after introduction of a high-sensitivity TSH receptor antibody assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunkelmann, Simone; Wolf, Ricarda; Koch, Annedore; Kittner, Christian; Groth, Peter; Schuemichen, Carl

    2004-01-01

    Autoimmune hyperthyroidism may occur several months after radioiodine therapy (RIT) for functional thyroid autonomy. Exacerbation of pre-existing subclinical Graves' disease (GD) has been held responsible for this phenomenon. Determination of TSH receptor antibody using solubilised porcine epithelial cell membranes is insensitive and may have failed to diagnose GD in these patients before RIT. Following the introduction of a more sensitive assay, using the human TSH receptor as an antigen, it has been expected that the incidence of radiation-induced GD after RIT for functional thyroid autonomy will be reduced. In a first group of 1,428 patients treated between November 1993 and March 1997 (group I) we used the porcine TRAb assay to exclude GD, while in a second group comprising 1,408 patients treated between January 2000 and December 2001 (group II), GD was excluded using the human TRAb assay. A matched control group of 231 patients was derived from group II. In group I a total of 15 (1.05%) patients developed obvious or suspected radiation-induced GD, while in group II 17 (1.2%) did so; the interval until development of GD was 8.4 and 8.8 months, respectively, after RIT. Serum anti-thyroid peroxidase levels before RIT were elevated in 36.4% of group I patients and 47.1% of group II patients, but in only 5.6% of the control group. Other non-specific signs of mild immunopathy of the thyroid were seen retrospectively in 73.3%, 64.7% and 16.0% of the patients in these three groups, respectively. In conclusion, the introduction of a high-sensitivity TRAb assay did not reduce the incidence of autoimmune hyperthyroidism occurring late after RIT for functional thyroid autonomy, but mild immunopathy of the thyroid is seen more frequently in these patients and seems to be a predisposing factor in the development of radiation-induced GD. (orig.)

  5. Autonomy and minority rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barten, Ulrike

    2008-01-01

    on the content of the syllabus. When autonomy is understood in the literal sense, of giving oneself one's own laws, then there is a clear connection. Autonomy is usually connected to politics and a geographically limited territory. Special political rights of minorities - e.g. is the Danish minority party SSW...

  6. Fiscal autonomy of urban councils in Zimbabwe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LAW

    current system of decentralisation entrenches the financial autonomy of urban ..... of the UCA to deploy auditors to inspect the accounts of urban councils ..... Act; the payment of compensation; the liquidation of the principal monies owing on.

  7. Entrepreneurial autonomy and its dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gelderen, M.W.

    2016-01-01

    Founding and owning an independent business does not automatically provide the owner/founder with autonomy. Autonomy-motivated entrepreneurs must often make an effort to achieve and maintain autonomy. The aim of this research is to investigate the experience of autonomy, its variations over time,

  8. Teacher Autonomy Perceptions of Iranian and Turkish EFL Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim KHEZERLOU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at examining Iranian (N= 218 and Turkish (N=142 high school EFL teachers’ opinions about teacher autonomy over (a the choice of appropriate teaching methods, strategies and techniques and implementation of the established curriculum (b teacher involvement in decision making processes and (c teachers’ use of personal initiative in solving their work problems. An 11-item questionnaire (α= .758 was used to measure autonomy perceptions of the participants. The results revealed that Turkish teachers’ autonomy perceptions were greater than that of Iranian teachers in the three teacher autonomy dimensions. Moreover, it was observed that male and master- holder teachers perceive less autonomy than female and bachelor-holder ones; whereas, no significant relationship were observed for the age and marital status variables with any teacher autonomy dimensions. Lastly, decision making dimension was the strongest predictor of teacher autonomy among both Iranian and Turkish teachers.

  9. Changing professional autonomy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Peter Kragh

    The paper presents a typology for the analysis for professional autonomy and an application of the typology in realation to discourses of quality development in the 'Health Care sector in Denmark and Norway......The paper presents a typology for the analysis for professional autonomy and an application of the typology in realation to discourses of quality development in the 'Health Care sector in Denmark and Norway...

  10. Anagogy of autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, A L

    2000-07-01

    The philosophical and ethical concept of autonomy is herein examined, ex post facto, using an existential lens to examine the process of a personal friend's dying. Anagogy, defined as interpretation of a word, passage, or text that finds beyond the literal, allegorical, and moral senses a fourth and ultimate spiritual or mystical sense, is intended to enlarge the understanding of the use of autonomy in this case. The idea of personhood linked inextricably to reason is, therefore, understood as empowering an individual to choose among various actions, to define and redefine life goals, and to give priority to selected values and moral tenants, which reveal a moral hermeneutic. Conditions and circumstances, existentially exposed, limit choice in unexpected ways, such that the predicted value of autonomy is vulnerable to misuse or misunderstanding. The intent to respect the dignity of every person is central to the philosophy of Respect for Persons ethics, and assumes that autonomy, as freedom of the moral agent, is a moral duty. Implicit reality of freedom is, in a practical sense, essential to being rational agents who can thereby exercise informed choice. The moral law, law of freedom, involves the autonomy of the will and an ultimate end to which all action is directed. Defined as the highest good, morality unites virtue and happiness by ascribing the ultimate end sought as God. The freedom to use rational will finds principles within its own rational nature. The ability to create maxims is autonomy of the will, which equates with the dignity of persons. My recent experience as a companion to a personal friend with a terminal illness inspired me to re-evaluate the concept of autonomy as it is too often interpreted in modern ethical discourse as a individualistic right of choice as opposed to the hermeneutic of dignity of person. This paper describes a shift of position in understanding the paradox of autonomy in this existential context.

  11. Job autonomy and job satisfaction: new evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, J; Bradley, S; Nguyen, A N

    2003-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of perceived job autonomy on job satisfaction. We use the fifth sweep of the National Educational Longitudinal Study (1988-2000), which contains personally reported job satisfaction data for a sample of individuals eight years after the end of compulsory education. After controlling for a wide range of personal and job-related variables, perceived job autonomy is found to be a highly significant determinant of five separate domains of job satisfaction (pay, ...

  12. A Phenomenological Study of the Impact of the South Carolina U.S. History End of Course Exam on High School Teachers' Perceptions of Autonomy and Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Debra Ann

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological qualitative study was to describe the impact of the South Carolina U.S. History End of Course Exam (EOCE) on teachers' perceptions of autonomy and self-efficacy for high school U.S. History teachers in the Midlands region of South Carolina. The theory guiding this study was Bandura's (1994) theory of…

  13. High performance systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigil, M.B. [comp.

    1995-03-01

    This document provides a written compilation of the presentations and viewgraphs from the 1994 Conference on High Speed Computing given at the High Speed Computing Conference, {open_quotes}High Performance Systems,{close_quotes} held at Gleneden Beach, Oregon, on April 18 through 21, 1994.

  14. Understanding nurse practitioner autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, Sandra A

    2015-02-01

    This Gadamerian hermeneutic study was undertaken to understand the meaning of autonomy as interpreted by nurse practitioners (NPs) through their lived experiences of everyday practice in primary health care. A purposive sample of nine NPs practicing in primary health care was used. Network sampling achieved a broad swath of primary care NPs and practice settings. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews. Because NP autonomy is concerned with gender and marginalization, Gilligan's feminist perspective was utilized during interpretive analysis. Having Genuine NP Practice was the major theme, reflecting the participants' overall meaning of their autonomy. Practicing alone with the patient provided the context within which participants shaped the meaning of Having Genuine NP Practice. Having Genuine NP Practice had four subthemes: relationships, self-reliance, self-empowerment, and defending the NP role. The understanding of Having Genuine NP Practice will enable NPs to articulate their autonomy clearly and better influence healthcare reform. Implications for advanced practice nursing education include integrating findings into classroom discussion to prompt self-reflection of what autonomy means and socialization to the NP role. ©2014 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  15. PRISMA: Program of Research to Integrate the Services for the Maintenance of Autonomy. A system-level integration model in Quebec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret MacAdam

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Program of Research to Integrate the Services for the Maintenance of Autonomy (PRISMA began in Quebec in 1999. Evaluation results indicated that the PRISMA Project improved the system of care for the frail elderly at no additional cost. In 2001, the Quebec Ministry of Health and Social Services made implementing the six features of the PRISMA approach a province-wide goal in the programme now known as RSIPA (French acronym. Extensive Province-wide progress has been made since then, but ongoing challenges include reducing unmet need for case management and home care services, creating incentives for increased physician participation in care planning and improving the computerized client chart, among others. PRISMA is the only evaluated international model of a coordination approach to integration and one of the few, if not the only, integration model to have been adopted at the system level by policy-makers.

  16. Autonomy in chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, Tom L; Wobber, Victoria

    2014-04-01

    Literature on the mental capacities and cognitive mechanisms of the great apes has been silent about whether they can act autonomously. This paper provides a philosophical theory of autonomy supported by psychological studies of the cognitive mechanisms that underlie chimpanzee behavior to argue that chimpanzees can act autonomously even though their psychological mechanisms differ from those of humans. Chimpanzees satisfy the two basic conditions of autonomy: (1) liberty (the absence of controlling influences) and (2) agency (self-initiated intentional action), each of which is specified here in terms of conditions of understanding, intention, and self-control. In this account, chimpanzees make knowledge-based choices reflecting a richly information-based and socially sophisticated understanding of the world. Finally, two major theories of autonomy (Kantian theory and two-level theory) are rejected as too narrow to adequately address these issues, necessitating the modifications made in the present approach.

  17. Robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical nephrectomy using the Da Vinci Si system: how to improve surgeon autonomy. Our step-by-step technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila, Hugo H; Storey, Raul E; Rose, Marc C

    2016-09-01

    Herein, we describe several steps to improve surgeon autonomy during a Left Robotic-Assisted Laparoscopic Radical Nephrectomy (RALRN), using the Da Vinci Si system. Our kidney cancer program is based on 2 community hospitals. We use the Da Vinci Si system. Access is obtained with the following trocars: Two 8 mm robotic, one 8 mm robotic, bariatric length (arm 3), 15 mm for the assistant and 12 mm for the camera. We use curved monopolar scissors in robotic arm 1, Bipolar Maryland in arm 2, Prograsp Forceps in arm 3, and we alternate throughout the surgery with EndoWrist clip appliers and the vessel sealer. Here, we described three steps and the use of 3 robotic instruments to improve surgeon autonomy. Step 1: the lower pole of the kidney was dissected and this was retracted upwards and laterally. This maneuver was performed using the 3rd robotic arm with the Prograsp Forceps. Step 2: the monopolar scissors was replaced (robotic arm 1) with the robotic EndoWrist clip applier, 10 mm Hem-o-Lok. The renal artery and vein were controlled and transected by the main surgeon. Step 3: the superior, posterolateral dissection and all bleeders were carefully coagulated by the surgeon with the EndoWrist one vessel sealer. We have now performed 15 RALRN following these steps. Our results were: blood loss 300 cc, console time 140 min, operating room time 200 min, anesthesia time 180 min, hospital stay 2.5 days, 1 incisional hernia, pathology: (13) RCC clear cell, (1) chromophobe and (1) papillary type 1. Tumor Stage: (5) T1b, (8) T2a, (2) T2b. We provide a concise, step-by-step technique for radical nephrectomy (RN) using the Da Vinci Si robotic system that may provide more autonomy to the surgeon, while maintaining surgical outcome equivalent to standard laparoscopic RN.

  18. Reconfigurable Autonomy for Future Planetary Rovers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burroughes, Guy

    Extra-terrestrial Planetary rover systems are uniquely remote, placing constraints in regard to communication, environmental uncertainty, and limited physical resources, and requiring a high level of fault tolerance and resistance to hardware degradation. This thesis presents a novel self-reconfiguring autonomous software architecture designed to meet the needs of extraterrestrial planetary environments. At runtime it can safely reconfigure low-level control systems, high-level decisional autonomy systems, and managed software architecture. The architecture can perform automatic Verification and Validation of self-reconfiguration at run-time, and enables a system to be self-optimising, self-protecting, and self-healing. A novel self-monitoring system, which is non-invasive, efficient, tunable, and autonomously deploying, is also presented. The architecture was validated through the use-case of a highly autonomous extra-terrestrial planetary exploration rover. Three major forms of reconfiguration were demonstrated and tested: first, high level adjustment of system internal architecture and goal; second, software module modification; and third, low level alteration of hardware control in response to degradation of hardware and environmental change. The architecture was demonstrated to be robust and effective in a Mars sample return mission use-case testing the operational aspects of a novel, reconfigurable guidance, navigation, and control system for a planetary rover, all operating in concert through a scenario that required reconfiguration of all elements of the system.

  19. School staff autonomy and educational performance: within school type evidence

    OpenAIRE

    VERSCHELDE, Marijn; HINDRIKS, Jean; RAYP, Glenn; SCHOORS, Koen

    2012-01-01

    This paper shows the effect of school staff autonomy on educational performance. The distinctive feature with existing literature is that we employ variation in autonomy within the same country and within the same school type to reduce the omitted variables problems. To fully capture the informational advantage of local actors, we define autonomy as the operational empowerment of the school’s direction and teachers. The Flemish secondary school system in Belgium is analyzed as it displays uni...

  20. [What is patient autonomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Guillaume

    What does patient autonomy mean? If an autonomous choice is defined as an objective and rational choice, is the doctor's prescription not always the best route? Our contemporary democracies are marked by moral and religious pluralism which obliges society to respect a multiplicity of choices of existence. Three levels are important in terms of autonomy: a range of intellectual capacities, freedom with regard to constraints (external and internal), the capacity to be in control of one's existence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. (Re)Discovering University Autonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reilly, John; Turcan, Romeo V.; Bugaian, Larisa

    2016-01-01

    discussion of challenges. The other outcome is the extent to which academic colleagues in a wide-range of disciplines and not directly engaged with research on university autonomy may not perceive or engage with the wider autonomy outcomes of their work and as a result their own case studies may not fully...... identify the autonomy impact real or potential. Many academic staff take for granted university autonomy without questioning its sometimes contradictory assumptions and impacts....

  2. Intention to adopt clinical decision support systems in a developing country: effect of Physician’s perceived professional autonomy, involvement and belief: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sambasivan Murali

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Computer-based clinical decision support systems (CDSS are regarded as a key element to enhance decision-making in a healthcare environment to improve the quality of medical care delivery. The concern of having new CDSS unused is still one of the biggest issues in developing countries for the developers and implementers of clinical IT systems. The main objectives of this study are to determine whether (1 the physician’s perceived professional autonomy, (2 involvement in the decision to implement CDSS and (3 the belief that CDSS will improve job performance increase the intention to adopt CDSS. Four hypotheses were formulated and tested. Methods A questionnaire-based survey conducted between July 2010 and December 2010. The study was conducted in seven public and five private hospitals in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Before contacting the hospitals, necessary permission was obtained from the Ministry of Health, Malaysia and the questionnaire was vetted by the ethics committee of the ministry. Physicians working in 12 hospitals from 10 different specialties participated in the study. The sampling method used was stratified random sampling and the physicians were stratified based on the specialty. A total of 450 physicians were selected using a random number generator. Each of these physicians was given a questionnaire and out of 450 questionnaires, 335 (response rate – 74% were returned and 309 (69% were deemed usable. Results The hypotheses were tested using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM. Salient results are: (1 Physicians’ perceived threat to professional autonomy lowers the intention to use CDSS (p Conclusion The proposed model with the three main constructs (physician’s professional characteristic, involvement and belief explains 47% of the variance in the intention to use CDSS. This is significantly higher than the models addressed so far. The results will have a major impact in implementing CDSS in developing

  3. Finding Autonomy in Birth*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukla, Rebecca; Kuppermann, Miriam; Little, Margaret; Lyerly, Anne Drapkin; Mitchell, Lisa M; Armstrong, Elizabeth M.; Harris, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Over the last several years, as cesarean deliveries have grown increasingly common, there has been a great deal of public and professional interest in the phenomenon of women ‘choosing’ to deliver by cesarean section in the absence of any specific medical indication. The issue has sparked intense conversation, as it raises questions about the nature of autonomy in birth. Whereas mainstream bioethical discourse is used to associating autonomy with having a large array of choices, this conception of autonomy does not seem adequate to capture concerns and intuitions that have a strong grip outside of this discourse. An empirical and conceptual exploration of how delivery decisions ought to be negotiated must be guided by a rich understanding of women’s agency and its placement within a complicated set of cultural meanings and pressures surrounding birth. It is too early to be ‘for’ or ‘against’ women’s access to cesarean delivery in the absence of traditional medical indications - and indeed, a simple pro- or con- position is never going to do justice to the subtlety of the issue. The right question is not whether women ought to be allowed to choose their delivery approach, but rather, taking the value of women’s autonomy in decision-making around birth as a given, what sorts of guidelines, practices, and social conditions will best promote and protect women’s full inclusion in a safe and positive birth process. PMID:19076937

  4. Om evalueringsforskningens relative autonomi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørholm, Morten

    2008-01-01

    Det empiriske udgangspunkt for artiklen "Om evalueringsforskningens relative autonomi - dansk normal evalueringsforskning som et ikke-autonomt (sub)felt i magtens felt" er en række tekster af fire dominerende danske evalueringsforskere. Det teoretiske udgangspunkt er især Pierre Bourdieus teori om...

  5. The economic value of autonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.W.A.; Thakor, A.V.

    2003-01-01

    We develop an economic theory of "autonomy", which we interpret as the discretion or ability to make a decision that others disagree with. We show that autonomy is essentially an option for the decisionmaker, and can be valued as such. The value of the autonomy option is decreasing in the extent to

  6. Senegal : School Autonomy and Accountability

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    Senegal has accelerated the decentralization of education since 1996. Budgetary autonomy is latent. Autonomy over the management of operational budgets has been delegated to the communes, but salaries for teachers are managed at the central level. Autonomy in personnel management is latent. Both school directors and teachers are appointed at the central level. The role of the school counci...

  7. Compulsory Autonomy-Promoting Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinkel, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Today, many liberal philosophers of education worry that certain kinds of education may frustrate the development of personal autonomy, with negative consequences for the individuals concerned, the liberal state, or both. Autonomy liberals hold not only that we should promote the development of autonomy in children, but also that this aim should…

  8. High voltage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, M.

    1991-01-01

    Industrial processes usually require electrical power. This power is used to drive motors, to heat materials, or in electrochemical processes. Often the power requirements of a plant require the electric power to be delivered at high voltage. In this paper high voltage is considered any voltage over 600 V. This voltage could be as high as 138,000 V for some very large facilities. The characteristics of this voltage and the enormous amounts of power being transmitted necessitate special safety considerations. Safety must be considered during the four activities associated with a high voltage electrical system. These activities are: Design; Installation; Operation; and Maintenance

  9. Professional Autonomy versus Corporate Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pål Nygaard

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Professionalism and bureaucracy tend to be understood as incompatible systems of work organization, represented by the ideals of collegiality and auton-omy versus control and supervision. I present a historical case study from early 20th century Norway examining the potential clash between efforts made toward professionalization and bureaucratization in industry. Based on my findings, I argue that there is neither an inherent conflict between professionalism and bureaucracy nor static national trajectories at the level of professional versus bureaucratic work organization.

  10. Autonomy and the principle of respect for autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillon, R

    1985-06-15

    Autonomy is defined as the capacity to think, decide, and act freely and independently on the basis of such thought and decisions. Three types of autonomy are distinguished: autonomy of thought, which embraces the wide range of human intellectual activities called "thinking for oneself"; autonomy of will, or the capacity to decide to do things on the basis of one's deliberations; and autonomy of action, the absence of which is illustrated by the situation of a patient whose voluntary muscles are paralyzed by curariform drugs and who thus cannot tell the surgeon that the anesthetist has forgotten the nitrous oxide. Autonomy is viewed as a prerequisite for all the virtues, rather than as a virtue in its own right. The arguments of Immanuel Kant and John Stuart Mill concerning the principle of respect for autonomy are summarized as exemplars respectively of the deontological and utilitarian philosophical approaches.

  11. Adjustable Autonomy: Controling Influences on Decision Making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vecht, B. van der

    2009-01-01

    Due to technological developments we foresee future systems where groups of actors coordinate their actions in a dynamic manner to reach their goals. Our aim is to develop a reasoning model for artificial actors in such systems. Starting point is the relation between autonomy of individuals and

  12. Law, autonomy and advance directives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willmott, Lindy; White, Ben; Mathews, Ben

    2010-12-01

    The principle of autonomy underpins legal regulation of advance directives that refuse life-sustaining medical treatment. The primacy of autonomy in this domain is recognised expressly in the case law, through judicial pronouncement, and implicitly in most Australian jurisdictions, through enactment into statute of the right to make an advance directive. This article seeks to justify autonomy as an appropriate principle for regulating advance directives and relies on three arguments: the necessity of autonomy in a liberal democracy; the primacy of autonomy in medical ethics discourse; and the uncontested importance of autonomy in the law on contemporaneous refusal of medical treatment. This article also responds to key criticisms that autonomy is not an appropriate organising principle to underpin legal regulation of advance directives.

  13. On the relations between parents' ideals and children's autonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruyter, D.J.; Schinkel, A.

    2013-01-01

    In this article Doret J. de Ruyter and Anders Schinkel argue that parents' ideals can enhance children's autonomy, but that they may also have a detrimental effect on the development of children's autonomy. After describing the concept of ideals and elucidating a systems theoretical conception of

  14. Independent State of Samoa School Autonomy and Accountability : SABER Country Report 2013

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    Education in the Samoa is highly decentralized. While education policy is the sole responsibility of the Ministry of education, school boards are responsible for delivery. The entire organization of the school system is based on checks and balances to ensure accountability. Budgetary autonomy is established. The school board controls the school budget, with input from parents. Personnel ma...

  15. Experienced job autonomy among maternity care professionals in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perdok, H.; Cronie, D.; Speld, C. van der; Dillen, J. van; Jonge, A . de; Rijnders, M.; Graaf, I. de; Schellevis, F.G.; Verhoeven, C.J.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: High levels of experienced job autonomy are found to be beneficial for healthcare professionals and for the relationship with their patients. The aim of this study was to assess how maternity care professionals in the Netherlands perceive their job autonomy in the Dutch maternity care

  16. Experienced job autonomy among maternity care professionals in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perdok, Hilde; Cronie, Doug; van der Speld, Cecile; van Dillen, Jeroen; de Jonge, Ank; Rijnders, Marlies; de Graaf, Irene; Schellevis, François G.; Verhoeven, Corine J.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: High levels of experienced job autonomy are found to be beneficial for healthcare professionals and for the relationship with their patients. The aim of this study was to assess how maternity care professionals in the Netherlands perceive their job autonomy in the Dutch maternity care

  17. Experienced job autonomy among maternity care professionals in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perdok, H.; Cronie, D.; Speld, C. van der; Dillen, J. van; Jonge, A. de; Rijnders, M.; Graaf, I. de; Schellevis, F.G.; Verhoeven, G.

    2017-01-01

    Objective High levels of experienced job autonomy are found to be beneficial for healthcare professionals and for the relationship with their patients. The aim of this study was to assess how maternity care professionals in the Netherlands perceive their job autonomy in the Dutch maternity care

  18. Experienced job autonomy among maternity care professionals in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perdok, H.; Cronie, D.; Speld, C. van der; Dillen, J. van; Jonge, A. de; Rijnders, M.; Graaf, J. de; Schellevis, F.; Verhoeven, C.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: High levels of experienced job autonomy are found to be beneficial for healthcare professionals and for the relationship with their patients. The aim of this study was to assess how maternity care professionals in the Netherlands perceive their job autonomy in the Dutch maternity care

  19. Autonomy and the emotions

    OpenAIRE

    Tappolet, Christine

    2006-01-01

    Can actions caused by emotions be free and autonomous? The rationalist conception of autonomy denies this. Only actions done in the light of reflective choices can be autonomous and hence free. I argue that the rationalist conception does not make room for akratic actions, that is, free and intentional actions performed against the agent’s best judgement. I then develop an account inspired by Harry Frankfurt and David Shoemaker, according to which an action is autonomous when it is determined...

  20. The Autonomy of Deportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas de Genova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As ostensibly unwanted or undesirable non-citizens, the utter disposability of deportees appears to be finally and conclusively verified by deportation as a sovereign state power’s perfunctory and mundane act of 'taking out the trash.' Hence, it is no accident that, etymologically, the origins of the very word 'deportation' would indicate a carrying away, a removal, a disposal. The eradication of deportees’ individual lives — their personal identities and life trajectories — emerges as a frightfully routine and prosaic fact of deportation. In spite of the sheer violence of the ruptures inflicted though deportation, however, those who have been rendered the objects of this power persistently reassert their own subjectivity. Ethnographic insights into the lived struggles of the deported (as well as their loved ones and communities elucidates the enduring subjectivity of those who have been made the objects of such sovereign acts of state power and subjected to deportation's techniques of eradication, and illustrates the stubborn incorrigibility of human life against the myriad forces that would seek to enforce its precarity and disposability. In the post-deportation condition, we confront anew the elementary and elemental human freedom of movement, and the incorrigibility of the autonomy and subjectivity of migration. Much as the autonomy of migration instigates a contest in which state power never has the first word, what we may now conceive as the autonomy of deportation — an autonomy and subjectivity of the deported within and against their predicaments of deportation — similarly ensures that state power never has the last word, either.

  1. Perspectives on autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keys, Yolanda

    2009-09-01

    This department, sponsored by the AONE, presents information to assist nurse leaders in shaping the future of healthcare through creative and innovative leadership. The strategic priorities of AONE anchor the editorial content. They reflect contemporary healthcare and nursing practice issues that challenge nurse executives as they strive to meet the needs of patients. This article describes how 9 Magnet-hospital, chief nursing officers perceive their autonomy and its importance in accomplishing their work.

  2. Autonomy, Trust, and Respect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nys, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    This article seeks to explore and analyze the relationship between autonomy and trust, and to show how these findings could be relevant to medical ethics. First, I will argue that the way in which so-called "relational autonomy theories" tie the notions of autonomy and trust together is not entirely satisfying Then, I will introduce the so-called Encapsulated Interest Account as developed by Russell Hardin. This will bring out the importance of the reasons for trust. What good reasons do we have for trusting someone? I will criticize Hardin's business model as insufficiently robust, especially in the context of health care, and then turn to another source of trust, namely, love. It may seem that trust-through-love is much better suited for the vulnerability that is often involved in health care, but I will also show that it has its own deficiencies. Good health care should therefore pay attention to both models of trust, and I will offer some tentative remarks on how to do this. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Autonomy, recognition and education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Vitório Cenci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses Honneth’s concept of autonomy from two dimensions of his work, distinct, though inseparable. The first one is suggested through the subject’s positive practical self-relation linked to the patterns of reciprocal recognition of love, right and social esteem; the second is formulated as non-centered autonomy opposed to the present-day criticism of the modern autonomous subject encompassing three levels, namely: the capacity of linguistic articulation, the narrative coherence of life and the complementation of being guided by principles with some criteria of moral sensitivity to the context. We defend the position that, by metaphysically anchoring the concept of autonomy onto the intersubjective assumptions of his/her theory of the subject, and exploring it linked to the subject’s positive practical self-relation and to a non-centered meaning, Honneth has managed to renew it, which allows drawing important consequences of such effort to the field of education.

  4. Ignorance, information and autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, J; Keywood, K

    2001-09-01

    People have a powerful interest in genetic privacy and its associated claim to ignorance, and some equally powerful desires to be shielded from disturbing information are often voiced. We argue, however, that there is no such thing as a right to remain in ignorance, where a fight is understood as an entitlement that trumps competing claims. This does not of course mean that information must always be forced upon unwilling recipients, only that there is no prima facie entitlement to be protected from true or honest information about oneself. Any claims to be shielded from information about the self must compete on equal terms with claims based in the rights and interests of others. In balancing the weight and importance of rival considerations about giving or withholding information, if rights claims have any place, rights are more likely to be defensible on the side of honest communication of information rather than in defence of ignorance. The right to free speech and the right to decline to accept responsibility to take decisions for others imposed by those others seem to us more plausible candidates for fully fledged rights in this field than any purported right to ignorance. Finally, and most importantly, if the right to autonomy is invoked, a proper understanding of the distinction between claims to liberty and claims to autonomy show that the principle of autonomy, as it is understood in contemporary social ethics and English law, supports the giving rather than the withholding of information in most circumstances.

  5. Autonomy and autonomy competencies: a practical and relational approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Kim

    2006-10-01

    This essay will address a general philosophical concern about autonomy, namely, that a conception of autonomy focused on freedom of the will alone is inadequate, once we consider the effects of oppressive forms of socialization on individuals' formation of choices. In response to this problem, I will present a brief overview of Diana Meyers's account of autonomy as relational and practical. On this view, autonomy consists in a set of socially acquired practical competencies in self-discovery, self-definition, self-knowledge, and self-direction. This account provides a distinction between choices that express unreflectively internalized social norms and those that are the result of a critical 'self-reading'. I conclude that this practical conception of autonomy makes much higher demands upon nurses (and patients) than has previously been thought. In fact, if nurses are to be expected to genuinely promote autonomy, they are going to need specific training in counselling-type communication skills.

  6. Still-Born Autonomy Insurance Plan in Quebec: An Example of a Public Long-Term Care Insurance System in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert, Réjean

    2016-01-01

    Funding long-term care (LTC) is a challenge under the existing Beveridgean universal healthcare system. The Autonomy Insurance (AI) plan developed in Quebec was an attempt to introduce public LTC insurance into our healthcare system. The AI benefit was based on an assessment of the needs of older people and those with disabilities using a disability scale (SMAF) and case-mix classification system (Iso-SMAF Profiles). Under the plan, the benefit would be used to fund public institutions or purchase services from private organizations. Case managers were responsible for assessments and helping users and their families plan services and decide how to use the AI benefit. Funding AI was based on general tax revenues without capitalized funding, under a separate protected budget program. Projections were made for the additional budget needed to support AI, which would have mitigated the forecast increase in LTC spending due to population aging. All the legal, administrative, funding, training and contractual issues were dealt with, for implementation of the plan in April 2015. Unfortunately, the project was still-born for political reasons, but it demonstrates the feasibility of this essential innovation for Canada.

  7. Agency is Distinct from Autonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Cummins

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Both autonomy and agency play central roles in the emerging enactive vocabulary. Although some treat these concepts as practically synonymous, others have sought to be more explicit about the conditions required for agency over and above autonomy. I attempt to be self-conscious about the role of the observer (or scientist in such discussions, and emphasise that the concept of agency, in particular, is deeply entwined with the nature of the observer and the framing of the observation. This is probably well known to enactivists, but runs the risk of being badly misunderstood if it is not made explicit. A heightened awareness of the role of the observer in the attribution of agency may allow us to make advances in questions in which progress is hindered by assuming a single split between subject and object. I argue that human experience is characterized by our embedding in webs of meaning arising from our participation in systems of many sorts, and that this richness demands a corresponding lightness of touch with respect to the identification of agentive subjects.

  8. The autonomy: A challenge in shared spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena NITRI

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper has as a goal, to study a few up- dated alternatives on the field of Teaching Coaching toe the focus of reflection. From the concept to autonomy we built and implement teaching strategies focussing on the development of autonomous working projects and tutorial systems, whose aim is placed in the creation of shared spaces which allow decision-taking.

  9. The Charter School Experience: Autonomy in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Tonya Senne

    2013-01-01

    While traditional public school and charter school systems continue to undergo dramatic reforms in response to the educational crisis, charter schools are praised as possessing the distinguishing characteristic of maintaining autonomy in exchange for increased accountability (Buckley & Schneider, 2009). The expectations for charter schools are…

  10. On the Relations between Parents' Ideals and Children's Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ruyter, Doret J.; Schinkel, Anders

    2013-01-01

    In this article Doret J. de Ruyter and Anders Schinkel argue that parents' ideals can enhance children's autonomy, but that they may also have a detrimental effect on the development of children's autonomy. After describing the concept of "ideals" and elucidating a systems theoretical conception of autonomy, de Ruyter and…

  11. School Autonomy and Accountability in Thailand: Does the Gap between Policy Intent and Implementation Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrinos, Harry Anthony; Arcia, Gustavo; Macdonald, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    This article contrasts policy intent and policy implementation in school autonomy and accountability. The analysis uses a conceptual framework based on the interaction between school autonomy, student assessment, and accountability as elements of a closed system. The article analyzes the implementation of school autonomy and accountability policy,…

  12. A Meta-Analysis of Factors Influencing the Development of Trust in Automation: Implications for Understanding Autonomy in Future Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Kristin E; Chen, Jessie Y C; Szalma, James L; Hancock, P A

    2016-05-01

    We used meta-analysis to assess research concerning human trust in automation to understand the foundation upon which future autonomous systems can be built. Trust is increasingly important in the growing need for synergistic human-machine teaming. Thus, we expand on our previous meta-analytic foundation in the field of human-robot interaction to include all of automation interaction. We used meta-analysis to assess trust in automation. Thirty studies provided 164 pairwise effect sizes, and 16 studies provided 63 correlational effect sizes. The overall effect size of all factors on trust development was ḡ = +0.48, and the correlational effect was [Formula: see text]  = +0.34, each of which represented medium effects. Moderator effects were observed for the human-related (ḡ  = +0.49; [Formula: see text] = +0.16) and automation-related (ḡ = +0.53; [Formula: see text] = +0.41) factors. Moderator effects specific to environmental factors proved insufficient in number to calculate at this time. Findings provide a quantitative representation of factors influencing the development of trust in automation as well as identify additional areas of needed empirical research. This work has important implications to the enhancement of current and future human-automation interaction, especially in high-risk or extreme performance environments. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  13. University Internationalization and University Autonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.; Gulieva, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    Turcan and Gulieva deepen our theoretical understanding of the process of university internationalisation by exploring the relationship between university internationalisation and university autonomy. They conjecture that the process of university internationalisation and its sustainability are d......, dissimilar, and sometimes conflicting dimensions of the financial, legal, organisational, staffing, and academic autonomy of the host country, are compromising key aspects of their own autonomy and core mission?......Turcan and Gulieva deepen our theoretical understanding of the process of university internationalisation by exploring the relationship between university internationalisation and university autonomy. They conjecture that the process of university internationalisation and its sustainability...... are determined by the structure and exercise of university autonomy settings at home and in the host countries, and that the process itself cannot be successfully achieved and maintained without changes in the autonomy settings. The key question the authors ask is to what degree universities, in embracing new...

  14. Autonomy, Social Interactions and Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Marini, Annalisa; Navarra, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    The present paper, using a social interactions model, studies the impact of culture on autonomy of immigrants. The results suggest that: (i) immigrants' autonomy is largely influenced by the autonomy of individuals living in a host country; (ii) some immigrants are better off in countries and regions with better institutional environments. The results are robust to sensitivity checks. The contributions of the paper are as follows. First, we estimate a social interactions model that models bot...

  15. The Need for Authenticity-Based Autonomy in Medical Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Lucie

    2017-08-11

    The notion of respect for autonomy dominates bioethical discussion, though what qualifies precisely as autonomous action is notoriously elusive. In recent decades, the notion of autonomy in medical contexts has often been defined in opposition to the notion of autonomy favoured by theoretical philosophers. Where many contemporary theoretical accounts of autonomy place emphasis on a condition of "authenticity", the special relation a desire must have to the self, bioethicists often regard such a focus as irrelevant to the concerns of medical ethics, and too stringent for use in practical contexts. I argue, however, that the very condition of authenticity that forms a focus in theoretical philosophy is also essential to autonomy and competence in medical ethics. After tracing the contours of contemporary authenticity-based theories of autonomy, I consider and respond to objections against the incorporation of a notion of authenticity into accounts of autonomy designed for use in medical contexts. By looking at the typical problems that arise when making judgments concerning autonomy or competence in a medical setting, I reveal the need for a condition of authenticity-as a means of protecting choices, particularly high-stakes choices, from being restricted or overridden on the basis of intersubjective disagreement. I then turn to the treatment of false and contestable beliefs, arguing that it is only through reference to authenticity that we can make important distinctions in this domain. Finally, I consider a potential problem with my proposed approach; its ability to deal with anorexic and depressive desires.

  16. Relations of Behavioral Autonomy to Health Outcomes Among Emerging Adults With and Without Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Kerry A.; Becker, Dorothy; Escobar, Oscar; Siminerio, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the relation of behavioral autonomy to psychological, behavioral, and physical health among emerging adults with and without type 1 diabetes. Methods High school seniors with (n = 118) and without type 1 diabetes (n = 122) completed online questionnaires for three consecutive years. Behavioral autonomy, psychological health, risk behaviors, and diabetes outcomes were assessed. Regression analyses were conducted to predict Time 2 and 3 outcomes, controlling for Time 1 outcomes. Results There were no group differences in behavioral autonomy. Behavioral autonomy predicted better psychological health but only for emerging adults without diabetes. Behavioral autonomy was related to increased risk behavior for both groups. Behavioral autonomy was unrelated to self-care but predicted better glycemic control for females. Conclusions Behavioral autonomy may be beneficial for psychological health, but is related to increased risk behavior. The implications of behavioral autonomy for emerging adults with type 1 diabetes require careful consideration. PMID:25157070

  17. University Institutional Autonomy in Moldova

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.; Bugaian, Larisa

    This book introduces four evaluation studies in which the current status of university institutional autonomy in Moldova is evaluated. For the purpose of these evaluation studies, a research methodology was developed by the EUniAM project team and used by the Task Force teams to collect and analy...... in Moldova. Preliminary findings of the evaluation studies were presented at the International Conference on “A Quest to (Re)define University Autonomy” organized by the EUniAM project. At the same time, these findings had an impact on the context of the new Code of Education....... the data. Unobtrusive data in the form of laws regulating directly or indirectly the higher education system in Moldova, governmental and ministerial decrees, university chapters and organizational structures, and education records were collected and analysed. A total number of 144 documents have been...

  18. Health equality, social justice and the poverty of autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newdick, Christopher

    2017-10-01

    How does the concept of autonomy assist public responses to 'lifestyle' diseases? Autonomy is fundamental to bioethics, but its emphasis on self-determination and individuality hardly supports public health policies to eat and drink less and take more exercise. Autonomy rejects a 'nanny' state. Yet, the cost of non-communicable diseases is increasing to individuals personally and to public health systems generally. Health care systems are under mounting and unsustainable pressure. What is the proper responsibility of individuals, governments and corporate interests working within a global trading environment? When public health care resources are unlikely to increase, we cannot afford to be so diffident to the cost of avoidable diseases.

  19. Compulsory autonomy-promoting education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Schinkel (Anders)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractToday, many liberal philosophers of education worry that certain kinds of education may frustrate the development of personal autonomy, with negative consequences for the individuals concerned, the liberal state, or both. Autonomy liberals hold not only that we should promote the

  20. Autonomy, Vulnerability, Recognition, and Justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, J.H.; Honneth, A.

    2005-01-01

    One of liberalism’s core commitments is to safeguarding individuals’ autonomy. And a central aspect of liberal social justice is the commitment to protecting the vulnerable. Taken together, and combined with an understanding of autonomy as an acquired set of capacities to lead one’s own life,

  1. Personal Autonomy and Rational Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, May A.; Shulman, Ernest

    That certain suicides (which can be designated as rational) ought not to be interfered with is closely tied to the notion of the "right to autonomy." Specifically it is because the individual in question has this right that interference is prohibited. A proper understanding of the right to autonomy, while essential to understanding why…

  2. (Re)Discovering University Autonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book challenges traditional approach to university autonomy which is based on four pillars: organisational, financial, human resource, and academic. The main thesis is that a fuller understanding of university autonomy can only be obtained through a more holistic view of the complex inter-re...

  3. The Principalship, Autonomy, and After

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eacott, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary discourses in educational administration have exponentially grown the number of adjectival leaderships, challenged traditional organisational structures, and offered autonomy as a solution to performance issues. In this theoretical paper, I ask "what does the principalship look like after autonomy?" Despite the range of…

  4. Teacher Autonomy: Power or Control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Tony

    2004-01-01

    The article explores the issue of teacher autonomy in relation to its potential for freedom or control. It examines the concept of empowerment as applied to education, arguing that, although it is traditionally cast as a means of achieving autonomy, an alternative approach sees empowerment as part of the disciplinary apparatus of late modern…

  5. Intention, autonomy, and brain events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillett, Grant

    2009-07-01

    Informed consent is the practical expression of the doctrine of autonomy. But the very idea of autonomy and conscious free choice is undercut by the view that human beings react as their unconscious brain centres dictate, depending on factors that may or may not be under rational control and reflection. This worry is, however, based on a faulty model of human autonomy and consciousness and needs close neurophilosophical scrutiny. A critique of the ethics implied by the model takes us towards a 'care of the self' view of autonomy and the subject's attunement to the truth as the crux of reasoning rather than the inner mental/neural state views of autonomy and human choice on offer at present.

  6. The Challenge of University Autonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reilly, John; Turcan, Romeo V.; Bugaian, Larisa

    2016-01-01

    The authors introduce the reader to the book, providing a historical perspective and a current understanding of university autonomy. While appreciating the central role of the four dimensions of university autonomy – organisational, financial, human resource, and academic – the authors conjecture...... that a fuller understanding of university autonomy can only be obtained through a holistic view of the complex inter-relationships between stakeholders and policies which can reinforce and, equally, pull in opposite directions. This holistic view is represented in a model of institutional university autonomy......, which is discussed at length in the chapter. The authors conclude by presenting international case studies that give new insights and reinforce our understanding that the issues relating to institutional university autonomy are genuinely global....

  7. (Re)Discovering University Autonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book challenges traditional approach to university autonomy which is based on four pillars: organisational, financial, human resource, and academic. The main thesis is that a fuller understanding of university autonomy can only be obtained through a more holistic view of the complex inter......-relationships between stakeholders and policies which can reinforce and equally pull in opposite directions. The holistic view is expressed in a model of institutional university autonomy that brings together the traditional basic four pillars of autonomy, and five interfaces: government–university; university......–university staff; academic staff–students; university–business; and university–internationalisation. This model is explored through international case studies that give new insights and reinforce our understanding that the issues relating to institutional university autonomy are complex, interactive and genuinely...

  8. Critical roles of Architecture : The endemic of labour in the favela dwelling system: Towards a critique on its architectural autonomy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chagas Cavalcanti, A.R.

    2016-01-01

    This article explores a concept of autonomous architecture that is endemic to post-neoliberal labour systems. Current housing production is directly influenced by the commodification process of living and by social practice tunes, which influence the space production. This directly implies city

  9. Neuromodulation, agency and autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glannon, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Neuromodulation consists in altering brain activity to restore mental and physical functions in individuals with neuropsychiatric disorders and brain and spinal cord injuries. This can be achieved by delivering electrical stimulation that excites or inhibits neural tissue, by using electrical signals in the brain to move computer cursors or robotic arms, or by displaying brain activity to subjects who regulate that activity by their own responses to it. As enabling prostheses, deep-brain stimulation and brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are forms of extended embodiment that become integrated into the individual's conception of himself as an autonomous agent. In BCIs and neurofeedback, the success or failure of the techniques depends on the interaction between the learner and the trainer. The restoration of agency and autonomy through neuromodulation thus involves neurophysiological, psychological and social factors.

  10. Autonomy, Independence, Inclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Angelucci

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The living environment must not only meet the primary needs of living, but also the expectations of improvement of life and social relations and people’s work. The need for a living environment that responds to the needs of users with their different abilities, outside of standardizations, is increasingly felt as autonomy, independence and well-being are the result of real usability and adaptability of the spaces. The project to improve the inclusivity of living space and to promote the rehabilitation of fragile users need to be characterized as an interdisciplinary process in which the integration of specialized contributions leads to adaptive customization of space solutions and technological that evolve with the changing needs, functional capacities and abilities of individuals.

  11. Autonomy and exclusion among Danish prisoners in education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Anita Holm

    2018-01-01

    A prison sentence necessarily means that the person receiving the sentence is in essential ways excluded from the surrounding society. This exclusion means fewer choices and, in the long run, this may affect the person’s ability to actively make choices – therefore, autonomy is an important theme...... choices as well as a high degree of autonomy on the part of the individual inmate. This article focuses on the interplay between exclusion and autonomy in relation to Danish prison inmates who are in education. Alongside this, a more general insight into the educational life of Danish prisoners...

  12. Autonomy and social functioning of recently admitted nursing home residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paque, Kristel; Goossens, Katrien; Elseviers, Monique; Van Bogaert, Peter; Dilles, Tinne

    2017-09-01

    This paper examines recently admitted nursing home residents' practical autonomy, their remaining social environment and their social functioning. In a cross-sectional design, 391 newly admitted residents of 67 nursing homes participated. All respondents were ≥65 years old, had mini-mental state examination ≥18 and were living in the nursing home for at least 1 month. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire and validated measuring tools. The mean age was 84, 64% were female, 23% had a partner, 80% children, 75% grandchildren and 59% siblings. The mean social functioning score was 3/9 (or 33%) and the autonomy and importance of autonomy score 6/9 (or 67%). More autonomy was observed when residents could perform activities of daily living more independently, and cognitive functioning, quality of life and social functioning were high. Residents with depressive feelings scored lower on autonomy and social functioning compared to those without depressive feelings. Having siblings and the frequency of visits positively correlated with social functioning. In turn, social functioning correlated positively with quality of life. Moreover, a higher score on social functioning lowered the probability of depression. Autonomy or self-determination and maintaining remaining social relationships were considered to be important by the new residents. The remaining social environment, social functioning, quality of life, autonomy and depressive feelings influenced each other, but the cause--effect relation was not clear.

  13. [School nutrition and autonomy - challenges and opportunities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Najla Veloso Sampaio; Machado, Neila Maria Viçosa; Soares, Maria Cláudia Veiga; Pinto, Anelise Regina Royer

    2013-04-01

    This study seeks to emphasize school food as an important policy to promote student autonomy by means of food and nutrition education included in the curriculum, integrated with different actors and based on the standpoint of citizenship. It seeks to return to fundamental concepts in the context of school food reflecting on them through theoretical assumptions to identify possible strategies to promote citizenship and autonomy in school. The strategies involved food and nutrition education with the daily presence of quality and suitability in school meals, discussions on the various dimensions of food in the curriculum and integrating food in the pedagogical project extended to various areas of the education system. School food fosters the need for integration of actions, actors and the various social spaces interested in the food issue, such as ministries, education systems, departments and schools, so that they may tackle the demands of contemporary reality in an integrated, systematic, consistent and efficient manner.

  14. Autonomy-How much is too much

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-22

    Autonomous Robots Automatically Operated Car (1977) The first demonstration of a driverless car occurred in 1977 in Tsukuba, Japan[19][20] The car ...is autonomy? Brief history of autonomous robots Current field use of robots Current state-of-the-art for autonomous robots Barriers to the use of... autonomous robots Considering the human factor Outlook for the future 19 June 2007 Systems & Software Technology

  15. Space Based Infrared System High (SBIRS High)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    elements (five SMGTs) for the S2E2 Mobile Ground System. ​ SBIRS Block Buy (GEO 5-6) The GEO 5-6 Tech Refresh (TR) Engineering Change Proposal was...Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-210 Space Based Infrared System High ( SBIRS High) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense...Acquisition Management Information Retrieval (DAMIR) March 23, 2016 11:24:26 UNCLASSIFIED SBIRS High December 2015 SAR March 23, 2016 11:24:26

  16. Collectivists' contingency and autonomy as predictors of buffet preferences among Taiwanese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2006-01-01

    In a culture or society with high collectivism, contingent orientation and constrained autonomy are the prominent characteristics of adolescents' self-construal. This article examined whether Taiwanese adolescents' contingency and autonomy were associated with their prevalent preferences for buffet consumption. Findings in a panel survey indicated that contingency was positively correlated with adolescents' buffet preference, whereas autonomy was negatively correlated. Moreover, the results showed that adolescents' contingent orientation and perceived autonomy could predict their subsequent buffet preference over a half-year period. A laboratory experiment showed that adolescents who perceived lower autonomy exhibited greater preferences for buffet over the other diet consumption. In general, the results suggest that collectivist adolescents' contingency and autonomy were related to their trait-like preferences for buffet, and the state-like preferences for buffet were affected by their perceived levels of autonomy. Findings provide further insights into the impact of adolescents' self-construal on their diet consumption.

  17. Radioiodine therapy of thyroid autonomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiners, Christoph; Schneider, Peter [Clinic and Policlinic for Nuclear Medicine, University of Wuerzburg, Josef-Schneider-Strasse 2, 97080 Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2002-08-01

    Over half a century, treatment of thyroid autonomy with an oral dose of iodine-131 has proven to be effective. The optimum management strategy for the patient is, however, still a matter of debate. The article provides an overview of the pathogenesis of functional autonomy and its clinical relevance. According to the guidelines on both sides of the Atlantic, radioiodine treatment is considered the most comfortable and economical approach to the treatment of the toxic nodular goitre. Some differences in the preparation procedures in the guidelines of the American and the German Society of Nuclear Medicine are discussed with respect to therapy results and the subtypes of thyroid autonomy. The results of studies are summarised concerning changes in thyroid function and thyroid volume after a course of radioiodine treatment. Therapy-related risks, such as immunogenic hypothyroidism or thyroid cancer, are discussed. {sup 131}I treatment of functional autonomy and hyperthyroidism is considered an effective and safe procedure. (orig.)

  18. Subsidiary Autonomy and Knowledge Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søberg, Peder Veng; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper explores the effect of subsidiary autonomy on knowledge transfers during captive R&D offshoring to emerging markets. Design/methodology/approach: A framework to this end is developed and illustrated in relation to four cases of captive R&D offshoring to emerging markets....... Findings: Subsidiary autonomy has a mainly negative effect on primary knowledge transfer and a mainly positive effect on reverse knowledge transfer. Newly established R&D subsidiaries in emerging markets need primary knowledge transfer in order to build up their competence before they can add...... to the knowledge level of the MNE. Originality: A dual role of subsidiary autonomy is identified. Gradual increase in R&D subsidiary autonomy is beneficial for subsidiary innovation performance....

  19. Radioiodine therapy of thyroid autonomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiners, Christoph; Schneider, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Over half a century, treatment of thyroid autonomy with an oral dose of iodine-131 has proven to be effective. The optimum management strategy for the patient is, however, still a matter of debate. The article provides an overview of the pathogenesis of functional autonomy and its clinical relevance. According to the guidelines on both sides of the Atlantic, radioiodine treatment is considered the most comfortable and economical approach to the treatment of the toxic nodular goitre. Some differences in the preparation procedures in the guidelines of the American and the German Society of Nuclear Medicine are discussed with respect to therapy results and the subtypes of thyroid autonomy. The results of studies are summarised concerning changes in thyroid function and thyroid volume after a course of radioiodine treatment. Therapy-related risks, such as immunogenic hypothyroidism or thyroid cancer, are discussed. 131 I treatment of functional autonomy and hyperthyroidism is considered an effective and safe procedure. (orig.)

  20. Intramitochondrial autonomy in rat tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, M.; Rajwade, M.S.; Satav, J.G.; Katyare, S.S.; Fatterpaker, P.; Sreenivasan, A.

    1974-01-01

    The biogenesis of mitochondria in rat liver and their protein turnover has been investigated using 1- 14 C leucine. The results indicate that intramitochondrial autonomy exists both with respect to their genesis and turnover. (M.G.B.)

  1. Institutional Financial Autonomy in Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szwebs, Witold

    2016-01-01

    The article reveals how university autonomy may in practice prove to be restrictive for units within the university. The need to implement and interpret external regulations and protect the institution may, argued in the paper, lead to a risk averse, conservative approach which is experienced...... by departments as bureaucratic and hampering effective research. Thus autonomy has produced new internal tensions between the central management/administration and the departments which it is argued is counter-productive and not beneficial for research and could be seen as a perverse aspect of greater autonomy....... Indeed because university policy and ‘interference’ is much closer to the researcher than in former less autonomous times and the university may now exercise other direct incentives through resource allocation, promotion and salary enhancement, the department and the individual may view autonomy...

  2. High-Performance Operating Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Robin

    1999-01-01

    Notes prepared for the DTU course 49421 "High Performance Operating Systems". The notes deal with quantitative and qualitative techniques for use in the design and evaluation of operating systems in computer systems for which performance is an important parameter, such as real-time applications......, communication systems and multimedia systems....

  3. Learning for autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero, Jose

    1989-12-01

    There is a need for a new concept of post-literacy which goes beyond the learning of codes. The target population is defined on the basis of their need to be given the capacity to take decisions on essential economic, civic, political and day-to-day aspects of their lives. The main arena of post-literacy lies in the countries of the Third World, where the economic crisis has serious effects on the quality of life and impairs the motivation to learn. Particular reference is made to the concept of participation and to the ability to determine four types of basic educational need: fundamental needs, productivity needs, social service needs and community organization needs. Four Latin American programmes linked to these four types of need are presented and discussed in terms of their particular features: popular participation in decision making; the search for methods and techniques which give the population a certain degree of autonomy; and respect for the cultures and world visions of the communities in the conduct of post-literacy, educational innovation and other activities. The programmes are: post-literacy in Nicaragua (fundamental education needs); research on post-literacy and employment in 13 countries (productivity needs); the CIPCA project for peasants in Piura, on the northern coast of Peru (social service needs); and the `Talking Maps' project developed with the Paez community in Cauca, Colombia (community organization needs).

  4. High power lasers & systems

    OpenAIRE

    Chatwin, Chris; Young, Rupert; Birch, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Some laser history;\\ud Airborne Laser Testbed & Chemical Oxygen Iodine Laser (COIL);\\ud Laser modes and beam propagation;\\ud Fibre lasers and applications;\\ud US Navy Laser system – NRL 33kW fibre laser;\\ud Lockheed Martin 30kW fibre laser;\\ud Conclusions

  5. Incidence of radiation-induced Graves' disease in patients treated with radioiodine for thyroid autonomy before and after introduction of a high-sensitivity TSH receptor antibody assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunkelmann, Simone; Wolf, Ricarda; Koch, Annedore; Kittner, Christian; Groth, Peter; Schuemichen, Carl [University of Rostock, Clinic of Nuclear Medicine, Rostock (Germany)

    2004-10-01

    Autoimmune hyperthyroidism may occur several months after radioiodine therapy (RIT) for functional thyroid autonomy. Exacerbation of pre-existing subclinical Graves' disease (GD) has been held responsible for this phenomenon. Determination of TSH receptor antibody using solubilised porcine epithelial cell membranes is insensitive and may have failed to diagnose GD in these patients before RIT. Following the introduction of a more sensitive assay, using the human TSH receptor as an antigen, it has been expected that the incidence of radiation-induced GD after RIT for functional thyroid autonomy will be reduced. In a first group of 1,428 patients treated between November 1993 and March 1997 (group I) we used the porcine TRAb assay to exclude GD, while in a second group comprising 1,408 patients treated between January 2000 and December 2001 (group II), GD was excluded using the human TRAb assay. A matched control group of 231 patients was derived from group II. In group I a total of 15 (1.05%) patients developed obvious or suspected radiation-induced GD, while in group II 17 (1.2%) did so; the interval until development of GD was 8.4 and 8.8 months, respectively, after RIT. Serum anti-thyroid peroxidase levels before RIT were elevated in 36.4% of group I patients and 47.1% of group II patients, but in only 5.6% of the control group. Other non-specific signs of mild immunopathy of the thyroid were seen retrospectively in 73.3%, 64.7% and 16.0% of the patients in these three groups, respectively. In conclusion, the introduction of a high-sensitivity TRAb assay did not reduce the incidence of autoimmune hyperthyroidism occurring late after RIT for functional thyroid autonomy, but mild immunopathy of the thyroid is seen more frequently in these patients and seems to be a predisposing factor in the development of radiation-induced GD. (orig.)

  6. Demographic and Socio-Economic Determinants of Local Financial Autonomy in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dănuţ Vasile JEMNA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Local autonomy is a rarely explored concept in the literature, still holding an increasing importance in the current context of Romania’s development in the European Union. In this paper we attempt to provide an overall survey on the financial dimension of local autonomy, assuming that local autonomy cannot be implemented, unless local authorities have adequate financial resources. In this study we also analyze the possibility to measure the local revenue autonomy and to identify the variables which represent the determinants of the local revenue autonomy. Using empirical evidence from Romanian counties, we analyze the regional distributions for own revenues and for the significant determinants of local revenue autonomy. By means of econometric modeling we will highlight the variables which are statistically significant and explain the variation of the local revenues of Romanian counties, as well as the order of importance of the determinants of local financial autonomy. The empirical results show us that, although, theoretically, the counties have a great administrative and financial autonomy, practically this autonomy is very reduced (an average of under 40% for local revenue. The modeling results show that the degree of local financial autonomy can be increased by increasing economic development, urbanization, the average living area per person and fertility. Unemployment and a high level of demographic dependency contribute to the decrease of local financial autonomy.

  7. Autonomy and the human element in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    productivity. Extended operations can in turn enhance critical technologies and contribute to the competitive economic abilities of the United States. A high degree of automation and autonomy may be required to reduce dependence on ground systems, reduce mission costs, diminish complexity as perceived by the crew, increase mission lifetime and expand mission versatility. However, technologies dealing with heavily automated, long duration habitable spacecraft have not yet been thoroughly investigated by NASA. A highly automated station must amalgamate the diverse capabilities of people, machines, and computers to yield an efficient system which capitalizes on unique human characteristics. The station also must have an initial design which allows evolution to a larger and more sophisticated space presence. In the early years it is likely that AI-based subsystems will be used primarily in an advisory or planning capacity. As human confidence in automated systems grows and as technology advances, machines will take on more critical and interdependent roles. The question is whether, and how much, system autonomy will lead to improved station effectiveness.

  8. Radioiodine therapy of benign thyroid disorders: functional thyroid autonomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunkelmann, S.

    2005-01-01

    In the last 15 years, several concepts have been developed to further improve the outcome of radioiodine therapy in functional thyroid autonomy. Results of radioiodine therapy in functional autonomy are considerably better than in Graves' disease. All of the currently-applied concepts offer healing rates of 75-100%, but they differ considerably in the hypothyreosis rates attained. The target volume can be precisely determined by sonography only in unifocal autonomy. In the case of multifocal and disseminated autonomy, the entire thyroid is taken as the target volume and the focal dose is reduced ('dosimetric compromise'). TcTUs-based dose concepts calculate the functionally autonomous volume from the TcTUs and replace the target volume by sonography, in the TcTUs-adapted dose concepts, sonographic target volume is left and the focal dose varied in dependence of the suppression uptake. The objective is to attain a high rate of success with a low rate of hypothyreosis. (orig.)

  9. Radioiodine-treatment (RIT) of functional thyroidal autonomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meller, J.; Sahlmann, C.O.; Becker, W.

    2002-01-01

    Since 1942, therapy with radioiodine (RIT) has gained a major role in the treatment of benign thyroid disorders, notably hyperthyroidism caused by Graves' disease or toxic multinodular goitre (thyroid autonomy). In iodine deficient areas thyroid autonomy accounts for 40-50% of all cases with hyperthyroidism. RIT has become a cost-effective first-line procedure in autonomy-patients with latent or overt hyperthyroidism, especially in the absence of a large goitre, after thyroid surgery and in elderly patients with associated conditions who carry a high intra- or perioperative risk. Decisions concerning the definitive treatment of thyroid autonomy should take into account previous episodes of hyperthyroidism, objective parameters of risk stratification in euthyroid patients as well as concomitant diseases and the probability of iodine exposure in the future. In Central Europe the majority of investigators prefer to estimate the therapeutic activity individually by a radioiodine test. TCTUs (global 99m-Tc-pertechnetate thyroid uptake under suppression) - based dose concepts have been proven to be highly effective in the elimination of autonomy and carry a low (< 10%) risk of postradioiodtherapeutic hypothyroidism. Radioiodine therapy for autonomy has been found to be both effective and safe and without major early or late side effects. The most frequent complication is hypothyroidism requiring lifelong follow-up. (author)

  10. THE CHALLENGE OF AUTONOMY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF THE VARIOUS DIMENSIONS OF AUTONOMY

    OpenAIRE

    Cristi IFTENE

    2009-01-01

    There are various dimensions of autonomy (policy, financial, structural, personnel, legal, institutional) as different scholars demonstrated (Christensen 2001, Verhoest et. al. 2004). In the present paper we will focus only on political and financial autonomy. As Yesilkagit and van Thiel demonstrated there is a difference between formal and de facto autonomy. They found that formal autonomy does not reinforce de facto autonomy and that organizations with less autonomy report higher levels of ...

  11. Maximing Learning Strategies to Promote Learner Autonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junaidi Mistar

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Learning a new language is ultimately to be able to communicate with it. Encouraging a sense of responsibility on the part of the learners is crucial for training them to be proficient communicators. As such, understanding the strategies that they employ in acquiring the language skill is important to come to ideas of how to promote learner autonomy. Research recently conducted with three different groups of learners of English at the tertiary education level in Malang indicated that they used metacognitive and social startegies at a high frequency, while memory, cognitive, conpensation, and affective strategies were exercised at a medium frewuency. This finding implies that the learners have acquired some degrees of autonomy because metacognive strategies requires them to independently make plans for their learning activities as well as evaluate the progress, and social strategies requires them to independently enhance communicative interactions with other people. Further actions are then to be taken increase their learning autonomy, that is by intensifying the practice of use of the other four strategy categories, which are not yet applied intensively.

  12. Psychological autonomy and hierarchical relatedness as organizers of developmental pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Heidi

    2016-01-19

    The definition of self and others can be regarded as embodying the two dimensions of autonomy and relatedness. Autonomy and relatedness are two basic human needs and cultural constructs at the same time. This implies that they may be differently defined yet remain equally important. The respective understanding of autonomy and relatedness is socialized during the everyday experiences of daily life routines from birth on. In this paper, two developmental pathways are portrayed that emphasize different conceptions of autonomy and relatedness that are adaptive in two different environmental contexts with very different affordances and constraints. Western middle-class children are socialized towards psychological autonomy, i.e. the primacy of own intentions, wishes, individual preferences and emotions affording a definition of relatedness as psychological negotiable construct. Non-Western subsistence farmer children are socialized towards hierarchical relatedness, i.e. positioning oneself into the hierarchical structure of a communal system affording a definition of autonomy as action oriented, based on responsibility and obligations. Infancy can be regarded as a cultural lens through which to study the different socialization agendas. Parenting strategies that aim at supporting these different socialization goals in German and Euro-American parents on the one hand and Nso farmers from North Western Cameroon on the other hand are described. It is concluded that different pathways need to be considered in order to understand human psychology from a global perspective. © 2015 The Author(s).

  13. The Ideal of Moral Autonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Marquisio Aguirre

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Some elements of the ideal of moral autonomy are discussed in this paper. Such ideal is a key assumption in social practices focused on normative imputation, particularly morality and law. First, a constructivist conception of normativity is introduced, taking reasons as an essential and non-reducible element, and focused on the conceptual features of moral reasons within the normative domain. Then, an idea of moral autonomy based on the self-constitution is developed including three key features: the possibility of responding to reasons based on shared social expectations; the responsibility for certain scope of actions, according to a set of reasons available to the individual and to their maximum extent of expansion; and the need to preserve autonomy as a purpose unifying the set of autonomous actions of moral agents.

  14. Students' autonomy and teacher's interpersonal style in self-determination theory

    OpenAIRE

    Lalić-Vučetić Nataša; Đerić Ivana; Đević Rajka

    2009-01-01

    Starting from psychological needs that are considered basic within self-determination theory (autonomy, competence and relatedness), the importance of encouraging students' autonomy in school context is particularly emphasised. Appreciation of students' autonomy has a stimulating effect on school achievement, conceptual understanding, creativity development, strengthening of self-esteem, and students adapt better to school system and demonstrate a larger degree of internalisation of school ru...

  15. Mental health as rational autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, R B

    1981-08-01

    Rather than eliminate the terms "mental health and illness" because of the grave moral consequences of psychiatric labeling, conservative definitions are proposed and defended. Mental health is rational autonomy, and mental illness is the sustained loss of such. Key terms are explained, advantages are explored, and alternative concepts are criticized. The value and descriptive components of all such definitions are consciously acknowledged. Where rational autonomy is intact, mental hospitals and psychotherapists should not think of themselves as treating an illness. Instead, they are functioning as applied axiologists, moral educators, spiritual mentors, etc. They deal with what Szasz has called "personal, social, and ethical problems in living." But mental illness is real.

  16. THE CORRELATION BETWEEN THE AUTONOMY RATIO AND THE RETURN ON EQUITY

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel BRÎNDESCU – OLARIU

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies conducted over companies from the Timis County indicate a negative correlation between the autonomy ratio and the bankruptcy risk. At the same time, high values of the autonomy ratio could have a negative effect on the return on equity. The current study aims to evaluate the relationship between the autonomy ratio and the return on equity. The target population included all the companies from the Timis County that have submitted financial statements to the fiscal authoriti...

  17. Physicians’ perceptions of quality of care, professional autonomy, and job satisfaction in Canada, Norway, and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background We lack national and cross-national studies of physicians’ perceptions of quality of patient care, professional autonomy, and job satisfaction to inform clinicians and policymakers. This study aims to compare such perceptions in Canada, the United States (U.S.), and Norway. Methods We analyzed data from large, nationwide, representative samples of physicians in Canada (n = 3,083), the U.S. (n = 6,628), and Norway (n = 638), examining demographics, job satisfaction, and professional autonomy. Results Among U.S. physicians, 79% strongly agreed/agreed they could provide high quality patient care vs. only 46% of Canadian and 59% of Norwegian physicians. U.S. physicians also perceived more clinical autonomy and time with their patients, with differences remaining significant even after controlling for age, gender, and clinical hours. Women reported less adequate time, clinical freedom, and ability to provide high-quality care. Country differences were the strongest predictors for the professional autonomy variables. In all three countries, physicians’ perceptions of quality of care, clinical freedom, and time with patients influenced their overall job satisfaction. Fewer U.S. physicians reported their overall job satisfaction to be at-least-somewhat satisfied than did Norwegian and Canadian physicians. Conclusions U.S. physicians perceived higher quality of patient care and greater professional autonomy, but somewhat lower job satisfaction than their colleagues in Norway and Canada. Differences in health care system financing and delivery might help explain this difference; Canada and Norway have more publicly-financed, not-for-profit health care delivery systems, vs. a more-privately-financed and profit-driven system in the U.S. None of these three highly-resourced countries, however, seem to have achieved an ideal health care system from the perspective of their physicians. PMID:24330820

  18. Physicians' perceptions of quality of care, professional autonomy, and job satisfaction in Canada, Norway, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyssen, Reidar; Palmer, Karen S; Solberg, Ingunn B; Voltmer, Edgar; Frank, Erica

    2013-12-15

    We lack national and cross-national studies of physicians' perceptions of quality of patient care, professional autonomy, and job satisfaction to inform clinicians and policymakers. This study aims to compare such perceptions in Canada, the United States (U.S.), and Norway. We analyzed data from large, nationwide, representative samples of physicians in Canada (n = 3,213), the U.S. (n = 6,628), and Norway (n = 657), examining demographics, job satisfaction, and professional autonomy. Among U.S. physicians, 79% strongly agreed/agreed they could provide high quality patient care vs. only 46% of Canadian and 59% of Norwegian physicians. U.S. physicians also perceived more clinical autonomy and time with their patients, with differences remaining significant even after controlling for age, gender, and clinical hours. Women reported less adequate time, clinical freedom, and ability to provide high-quality care. Country differences were the strongest predictors for the professional autonomy variables. In all three countries, physicians' perceptions of quality of care, clinical freedom, and time with patients influenced their overall job satisfaction. Fewer U.S. physicians reported their overall job satisfaction to be at-least-somewhat satisfied than did Norwegian and Canadian physicians. U.S. physicians perceived higher quality of patient care and greater professional autonomy, but somewhat lower job satisfaction than their colleagues in Norway and Canada. Differences in health care system financing and delivery might help explain this difference; Canada and Norway have more publicly-financed, not-for-profit health care delivery systems, vs. a more-privately-financed and profit-driven system in the U.S. None of these three highly-resourced countries, however, seem to have achieved an ideal health care system from the perspective of their physicians.

  19. The ADEPT Framework for Intelligent Autonomy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ricard, Michael; Kolitz, Stephan

    2003-01-01

    ...) architecture for intelligent autonomy. Intelligent autonomy is the ability to plan and execute complex activities in a manner that provides rapid, effective response to stochastic and dynamic mission events...

  20. Systematic power autonomy. Hybrid solar system makes Christine Schoen independent of oil and gas supply; Energieautark mit System. Eine Hybridsolaranlage macht Christine Schoen unabhaengig von Oel und Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, Hinrich; Podewils, Christoph

    2009-12-15

    Hybrid solar systems generate both heat and power; they are still rare because it is difficult to maintain the balance between heat and power generation. However, they have their advantages as is proved by the hybrid solar system of Christine Schoen. On the one hand, she heats her old house; on the other hand, she optimizes solar power generation in her system. (orig.)

  1. See More, Do More, Teach More: Surgical Resident Autonomy and the Transition to Independent Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Daniel A; Bynum, William E; Lillemoe, Keith D; Sachdeva, Ajit K

    2016-06-01

    The graduate medical education system is tasked with training competent and autonomous health care providers while also improving patient safety, delivering more efficient care, and cutting costs. Concerns about resident autonomy and preparation for independent and safe practice appear to be growing, and the field of surgery faces unique challenges in preparing graduates for independent practice. Multiple factors are contributing to an erosion of resident autonomy and decreased operative experience, including differing views of autonomy, financial forces, duty hours regulations, and diverse community health care needs. Identifying these barriers and developing solutions to overcome them are vital first steps in reversing the trend of diminishing autonomy in surgical residency training. This Commentary highlights the problem of decreasing autonomy, outlines specific threats to resident autonomy, and discusses potential solutions to mitigate their impact on the successful transition to independent practice.

  2. Effect of Job Autonomy Upon Organizational Commitment of Employees at Different Hierarchical Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini Sisodia

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the present study was to examine the effect of job autonomy upon organizational commitment of employees at different hierarchical level. A study was made on randomly selected 100 male employees who work in different organizations in Agra, who were administered Organizational Commitment Scale (by Allen & Meyer, 1990 and Job Autonomy Scale (by Das, Arora, & Singhal, 2000. On the basis of median of the job autonomy scores, the sample was divided into two groups (1 high job autonomy group and (2 low job autonomy group and on the basis of hierarchical level, the employees were divided into two groups (1 50 high hierarchical level employees’ including managers, etc. and (2 50 low hierarchical level employees, e.g. clerical staff, etc. The 2x2 factorial design was formed for this purpose and four groups of employees were formed (1 high hierarchy, high autonomy group (2 high hierarchy, low autonomy group(3 low hierarchy, high autonomy group and (4 low hierarchy, low autonomy group. A two-way analysis of variance was employed to compare the level of organizational commitment of each of the four groups. There is a significant difference found between job commitment of employees with high and low job autonomy (F = 4.670, p < .05. There is a significant difference found between job commitment of employees of high hierarchical group and those of low hierarchical group (F = 40.691, p < .01 and significant interaction effect found between job autonomy and hierarchical level upon organizational commitment of employees (F = 6.114, p < .05.

  3. ARMD Strategic Thrust 6: Assured Autonomy for Aviation Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballin, Mark; Holbrook, Jon; Sharma, Shivanjli

    2016-01-01

    In collaboration with the external community and other government agencies, NASA will develop enabling technologies, standards, and design guidelines to support cost-effective applications of automation and limited autonomy for individual components of aviation systems. NASA will also provide foundational knowledge and methods to support the next epoch. Research will address issues of verification and validation, operational evaluation, national policy, and societal cost-benefit. Two research and development approaches to aviation autonomy will advance in parallel. The Increasing Autonomy (IA) approach will seek to advance knowledge and technology through incremental increases in machine-based support of existing human-centered tasks, leading to long-term reallocation of functions between humans and machines. The Autonomy as a New Technology (ANT) approach seeks advances by developing technology to achieve goals that are not currently possible using human-centered concepts of operation. IA applications are mission-enhancing, and their selection will be based on benefits achievable relative to existing operations. ANT applications are mission-enabling, and their value will be assessed based on societal benefit resulting from a new capability. The expected demand for small autonomous unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) provides an opportunity for development of ANT applications. Supervisory autonomy may be implemented as an expansion of the number of functions or systems that may be controlled by an individual human operator. Convergent technology approaches, such as the use of electronic flight bags and existing network servers, will be leveraged to the maximum extent possible.

  4. Characterizing the Relationship Between Surgical Resident and Faculty Perceptions of Autonomy in the Operating Room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Katelyn A; Lane, Samantha M; Widger, John E; Neuhaus, Nina M; Dove, James T; Fluck, Marcus; Hunsinger, Marie A; Blansfield, Joseph A; Shabahang, Mohsen M

    Characterize the concordance among faculty and resident perceptions of surgical case complexity, resident technical performance, and autonomy in a diverse sample of general surgery procedures using case-specific evaluations. A prospective study was conducted in which a faculty surgeon and surgical resident independently completed a postoperative assessment examining case complexity, resident operative performance (Milestone assessment) and autonomy (Zwisch model). Pearson correlation coefficients (r) reaching statistical significance (p autonomy demonstrated a moderate correlation (r = 0.56, p autonomy and operative performance, respectively. General surgery residents generally demonstrated high correlations with faculty perceptions of case complexity, technical performance, and operative autonomy. This generalized accord supports the use of the Milestone and Zwisch assessments in residency programs. However, discordance among perceptions of midlevel resident autonomy and chief resident operative performance suggests that these trainees may need more direct communication from the faculty. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A cybernetic theory of morality and moral autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, J

    2001-04-01

    Human morality may be thought of as a negative feedback control system in which moral rules are reference values, and moral disapproval, blame, and punishment are forms of negative feedback given for violations of the moral rules. In such a system, if moral agents held each other accountable, moral norms would be enforced effectively. However, even a properly functioning social negative feedback system could not explain acts in which individual agents uphold moral rules in the face of contrary social pressure. Dr. Frances Kelsey, who withheld FDA approval for thalidomide against intense social pressure, is an example of the degree of individual moral autonomy possible in a hostile environment. Such extreme moral autonomy is possible only if there is internal, psychological negative feedback, in addition to external, social feedback. Such a cybernetic model of morality and moral autonomy is consistent with certain aspects of classical ethical theories.

  6. Computer controlled high voltage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunov, B; Georgiev, G; Dimitrov, L [and others

    1996-12-31

    A multichannel computer controlled high-voltage power supply system is developed. The basic technical parameters of the system are: output voltage -100-3000 V, output current - 0-3 mA, maximum number of channels in one crate - 78. 3 refs.

  7. Full autonomy; Autarkie im Komplettpaket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augsten, Eva

    2011-05-31

    Normally, those who talk of full solar autonomy refer to the annual balance of a house. Now, architect Timo Leukefeld and Helma Eigenheimbau AG presented a really autonomous solar house which is available on a turnkey basis for 363,000 Euros.

  8. Privatization, convergence, and institutional autonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooijen, van M.

    2011-01-01

    Some of the trends incoming for 2011 – greater institutional autonomy, public/private convergence, entrepreneurial management, civic engagement – suggest innovation for hard times, with socio-economic and political rationales increasingly driving borderless developments. Others – open learning and

  9. Cooperative autonomy and low. Point for the improvement of their dynamics in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orestes Rodríguez Musa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to value the current legal implementation of the cooperative autonomy in Cuba, opinions that can contribute to its improvement. For that reason it begins explaining the origin and the transcendency of the formal declaration of the ACI about the principle of autonomy and independence. In a second moment, some juridical elements are systematized starting from which the Right must modulate the autonomy of the figure. To conclude, a critical-constructive approach to the implementation of the cooperative autonomy in the Cuban socialist legal system is carried out.

  10. Relativní autonomie kultury v Alexanderově kulturní sociologii

    OpenAIRE

    Skovajsa, Marek

    2012-01-01

    This article offers a critical discussion of the concept of the ‘relative autonomy of culture’ that is central to Jeffrey C. Alexander’s cultural sociology. It shows that, in Alexander’s work, the relative autonomy of culture is conceptualised in two different ways: first, as an analytical autonomy that is part of a multidimensional model of social action, and second, as the formal autonomy of a semiotic system that dominates in the more culturalist strand of Alexander’s work. The author clai...

  11. High magnetic field MRI system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Hideaki; Urata, Masami; Satoh, Kozo

    1990-01-01

    A high field superconducting magnet, 4-5 T in central magnetic field, is required for magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) on 31 P, essential nuclei for energy metabolism of human body. This paper reviews superconducting magnets for high field MRSI systems. Examples of the cross-sectional image and the spectrum of living animals are shown in the paper. (author)

  12. Student Perceptions of Their Autonomy at University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henri, D. C.; Morrell, L. J.; Scott, G. W.

    2018-01-01

    Learner autonomy is a primary learning outcome of Higher Education in many countries. However, empirical evaluation of how student autonomy progresses during undergraduate degrees is limited. We surveyed a total of 636 students' self-perceived autonomy during a period of two academic years using the Autonomous Learning Scale. Our analysis suggests…

  13. School Autonomy, Leadership and Learning: A Reconceptualisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yin Cheong; Ko, James; Lee, Theodore Tai Hoi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework for reconceptualising research on school autonomy to redress the limitations of traditional research, strengthen the conceptual links between school autonomy and learning outcomes and offer a range of new strategies for studying the interplay of school autonomy, leadership and learning.…

  14. Respect for autonomy and technological risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asveld, L.

    2008-01-01

    Technological developments can undermine the autonomy of the individual. Autonomy is one's ability to make and act upon decisions according to one's own moral framework. Respect for autonomy dictates that risks should not be imposed on the individual without her consent. Technological developments

  15. Rawls: The Problem of Autonomy and Coherentism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elnora Gondim

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The transformation of the idea of autonomy into that of justice as equality modifies the work of Rawls taken as a whole. Thus, while in the Theory of Justice, a Kantian- type of autonomy is adopted, in Political Liberalism, autonomy is extended to the sphere of the political.

  16. The Connotations of Language Teacher Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ligang

    2017-01-01

    With the research on the development of learner autonomy in foreign language education, teacher autonomy has become a hot topic in the research of foreign language teacher education. However, it is the most difficult question to define language teacher autonomy and any answer to it is likely to be subjective. On the basis of expounding upon the…

  17. Supervised Remote Robot with Guided Autonomy and Teleoperation (SURROGATE): A Framework for Whole-Body Manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, Paul; Ma, Jeremy; Borders, James; Aydemir, Alper; Bajracharya, Max; Hudson, Nicolas; Shankar, Krishna; Karumanchi, Sisir; Douillard, Bertrand; Burdick, Joel

    2015-01-01

    The use of the cognitive capabilties of humans to help guide the autonomy of robotics platforms in what is typically called "supervised-autonomy" is becoming more commonplace in robotics research. The work discussed in this paper presents an approach to a human-in-the-loop mode of robot operation that integrates high level human cognition and commanding with the intelligence and processing power of autonomous systems. Our framework for a "Supervised Remote Robot with Guided Autonomy and Teleoperation" (SURROGATE) is demonstrated on a robotic platform consisting of a pan-tilt perception head, two 7-DOF arms connected by a single 7-DOF torso, mounted on a tracked-wheel base. We present an architecture that allows high-level supervisory commands and intents to be specified by a user that are then interpreted by the robotic system to perform whole body manipulation tasks autonomously. We use a concept of "behaviors" to chain together sequences of "actions" for the robot to perform which is then executed real time.

  18. Basic autonomy as a fundamental step in the synthesis of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Mirazo, Kepa; Moreno, Alvaro

    2004-01-01

    In the search for the primary roots of autonomy (a pivotal concept in Varela's comprehensive understanding of living beings), the theory of autopoiesis provided an explicit criterion to define minimal life in universal terms, and was taken as a guideline in the research program for the artificial synthesis of biological systems. Acknowledging the invaluable contribution of the autopoietic school to present biological thinking, we offer an alternative way of conceiving the most basic forms of autonomy. We give a bottom-up account of the origins of "self-production" (or self-construction, as we propose to call it), pointing out which are the minimal material and energetic requirements for the constitution of basic autonomous systems. This account is, indeed, committed to the project of developing a general theory of biology, but well grounded in the universal laws of physics and chemistry. We consider that the autopoietic theory was formulated in highly abstract terms and, in order to advance in the implementation of minimal autonomous systems (and, at the same time, make major progress in exploring the origins of life), a more specific characterization of minimal autonomous systems is required. Such a characterization will not be drawn from a review of the autopoietic criteria and terminology (à la Fleischaker) but demands a whole reformulation of the question: a proper naturalization of the concept of autonomy. Finally, we also discuss why basic autonomy, according to our account, is necessary but not sufficient for life, in contrast with Varela's idea that autopoiesis was a necessary and sufficient condition for it.

  19. From 'automation' to 'autonomy': the importance of trust repair in human-machine interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Visser, Ewart J; Pak, Richard; Shaw, Tyler H

    2018-04-09

    Modern interactions with technology are increasingly moving away from simple human use of computers as tools to the establishment of human relationships with autonomous entities that carry out actions on our behalf. In a recent commentary, Peter Hancock issued a stark warning to the field of human factors that attention must be focused on the appropriate design of a new class of technology: highly autonomous systems. In this article, we heed the warning and propose a human-centred approach directly aimed at ensuring that future human-autonomy interactions remain focused on the user's needs and preferences. By adapting literature from industrial psychology, we propose a framework to infuse a unique human-like ability, building and actively repairing trust, into autonomous systems. We conclude by proposing a model to guide the design of future autonomy and a research agenda to explore current challenges in repairing trust between humans and autonomous systems. Practitioner Summary: This paper is a call to practitioners to re-cast our connection to technology as akin to a relationship between two humans rather than between a human and their tools. To that end, designing autonomy with trust repair abilities will ensure future technology maintains and repairs relationships with their human partners.

  20. Professional autonomy and job satisfaction: survey of critical care nurses in mainland Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliopoulou, Katerina K; While, Alison E

    2010-11-01

    This paper is a report of a study conducted to describe Greek critical care nurses' views on professional autonomy and its relationship with job satisfaction and other work-related variables. Professional autonomy is generally considered a highly desirable nursing attribute and a major factor in nurse job satisfaction. In the critical care environment, a high level of accountability, responsibility and autonomy are required to optimize outcomes of critically unstable patients. A questionnaire survey was conducted with a convenience sample of Greek critical care nurses (n = 431; response rate 70%) in 2007. Data were collected on professional autonomy, job satisfaction, role conflict and role ambiguity. Overall, nurses reported acting moderately autonomously. Younger nurses reported statistically significant lower levels of autonomy. Higher levels of autonomy were reported by female nurses. Multiple logistic regression revealed that appointment level, type of critical care unit and registration with a professional organization were independently associated with autonomy. A positive moderate association was found between reported autonomy, job satisfaction, role conflict and role ambiguity, but there was no relationship between job satisfaction and reported role conflict and role ambiguity. Further education, role enhancement and support are required for nurses working in critical care in Greece if they are to achieve the maximum potential of their professional role. Failure to address the perceptions of professional autonomy may have an impact on staff retention, because of job dissatisfaction. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Designing Autonomy: Opportunities for New Wildness in the Anthropocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, Bradley; Martin, Laura J; Ellis, Erle C

    2017-03-01

    Maintaining wild places increasingly involves intensive human interventions. Several recent projects use semi-automated mediating technologies to enact conservation and restoration actions, including re-seeding and invasive species eradication. Could a deep-learning system sustain the autonomy of nonhuman ecological processes at designated sites without direct human interventions? We explore here the prospects for automated curation of wild places, as well as the technical and ethical questions that such co-creation poses for ecologists, conservationists, and designers. Our goal is to foster innovative approaches to creating and maintaining the autonomy of evolving ecological systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Pricing and University Autonomy: Tuition Deregulation in Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeongeun Kim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates changes in tuition policies in the wake of tuition deregulation in Texas, which in 2003 transferred tuition-setting authority from the state legislature to institutions. We find that price increases accelerated, particularly at the most selective institutions. Institutions also began differentiating price by undergraduate program, raising relative prices for the most costly and lucrative majors, including engineering, business, nursing, and architecture. Price increases were particularly large for institutions with the highest initial costs and for programs with a high earnings premium within institutions, though lower for institutions with more low-income students. These distinctions suggest that public postsecondary institutions respond to microeconomic incentives when given greater autonomy to set price, and take some measures to alleviate impacts on low-income students. The Texas experience suggests that decentralized price-setting generates greater price differentiation within the public higher education system, both across and within institutions.

  3. Unregulated Autonomy: Uncredentialed Educational Interpreters in Rural Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzmaurice, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Although many rural Deaf and Hard of Hearing students attend public schools most of the day and use the services of educational interpreters to gain access to the school environment, little information exists on what interpreters are doing in rural school systems in the absence of credentialing requirements. The researcher used ethnographic interviews and field observations of three educational interpreters with no certification or professional assessment to explore how uncredentialed interpreters were enacting their role in a rural high school. The findings indicate that uncredentialed interpreters in rural settings perform four major functions during their school day: preparing the environment, staff, and materials; interpreting a variety of content; interacting with numerous stakeholders; and directly instructing Deaf and Hard of Hearing students. Generally, educational interpreters in rural districts operate with unregulated autonomy, a situation that warrants further research and a national standard for all educational interpreters.

  4. Public Health Autonomy: A Critical Reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Frederick J

    2017-11-01

    The ethical principle of autonomy is among the most fundamental in ethics, and it is particularly salient for those in public health, who must constantly balance the desire to improve health outcomes by changing behavior with respect for individual freedom. Although there are some areas in which there is a genuine tension between public health and autonomy-childhood vaccine mandates, for example-there are many more areas where not only is there no tension, but public health and autonomy come down to the same thing. These areas of overlap are often rendered invisible by a thin understanding of autonomy. Better integrating newer theoretical insights about autonomy into applied ethics can make discussions of public health ethics more rigorous, incisive, and effective. Even more importantly, bringing modern concepts of autonomy into public health ethics can showcase the many areas in which public health and autonomy have the same goals, face the same threats, and can be mutually advanced by the same kinds of solutions. This article provides a schema for relational autonomy in a public health context and gives concrete examples of how autonomy can be served through public-health interventions. It marshals insights from sociology, psychology, and philosophy to advance a theory of autonomy and coercion that recognizes three potential threats to autonomy: threats to choice sets, threats to knowledge, and threats to preferences. © 2017 The Hastings Center.

  5. Promoting Learner Autonomy through Teacher-Student Partnership Assessment in an American High School: A Cycle of Action Research (El papel de la evaluación negociada en el desarrollo de la autonomía del estudiante en la escuela secundaria norteamericana: un ciclo de investigación-acción)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picón Jácome, Édgar

    2012-01-01

    In this article I present some findings of an action research study intended to find out to what extent a teacher-student partnership in writing assessment could promote high school students' autonomy. The study was conducted in a U.S. school. Two main action strategies in the assessment process were the use of symbols as the form of feedback…

  6. A longitudinal research on the development of emotional autonomy during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Agueda; Oliva, Alfredo

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of the present paper was to study the development of emotional autonomy through adolescence analysing its association with family relationships. The development of emotional autonomy involves an increase in adolescents' subjective sense of his or her independence, especially in relation to parents. From some scholars emotional autonomy is a normative manifestation of the detachment process from parents, however, others point out that detachment from parental ties is not the norm, so high level of adolescent emotional autonomy is the consequence of negative family relationships. In our study a sample of 101 adolescents were followed for 5 years, from early to middle adolescence, and completed questionnaires to measure their emotional autonomy and the quality of their family relationships. Our results showed that over the course of adolescence some dimensions of emotional autonomy increase, meanwhile others decrease, so the global level of emotional autonomy global level remains stable. On the other hand, emotional autonomy is associated with negative family relationships, so emotional autonomy, more than a necessary process to become adult, could be indicating an insecure attachment to parents.

  7. Measuring the e-Learning Autonomy of Distance Education Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Firat

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have provided evidence that learner autonomy is an important factor in academic achievement. However, few studies have investigated the autonomy of distance education students in e-learning environments. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the e-learning autonomy of distance education students who are responsible for their own learning. For this purpose, as the first step of the study, an e-learning autonomy scale was developed. Analyses of the validity and reliability of the scale were carried out with the participation of 1,152 distance education students from Anadolu University, Open Education System. The scale has an internal consistency coefficient of α = 0.952 and a single factorial model that explains 66.58% of the total variance. The scale was implemented with 3,293 students from 42 different programs. According to the findings, student autonomy in e-learning environments is directly proportional to level of ICT use but not affected by program or gender.

  8. Recentralization within decentralization: County hospital autonomy under devolution in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyara, Anthony M.; Molyneux, Sassy; Tsofa, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Background In 2013, Kenya transitioned into a devolved system of government with a central government and 47 semi-autonomous county governments. In this paper, we report early experiences of devolution in the Kenyan health sector, with a focus on public county hospitals. Specifically, we examine changes in hospital autonomy as a result of devolution, and how these have affected hospital functioning. Methods We used a qualitative case study approach to examine the level of autonomy that hospitals had over key management functions and how this had affected hospital functioning in three county hospitals in coastal Kenya. We collected data by in-depth interviews of county health managers and hospital managers in the case study hospitals (n = 21). We adopted the framework proposed by Chawla et al (1995) to examine the autonomy that hospitals had over five management domains (strategic management, finance, procurement, human resource, and administration), and how these influenced hospital functioning. Findings Devolution had resulted in a substantial reduction in the autonomy of county hospitals over the five key functions examined. This resulted in weakened hospital management and leadership, reduced community participation in hospital affairs, compromised quality of services, reduced motivation among hospital staff, non-alignment of county and hospital priorities, staff insubordination, and compromised quality of care. Conclusion Increasing the autonomy of county hospitals in Kenya will improve their functioning. County governments should develop legislation that give hospitals greater control over resources and key management functions. PMID:28771558

  9. K-12 STEM Educator Autonomy: An Investigation of School Influence and Classroom Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Jeremy V.; Williams, Thomas O.; Clark, Aaron C.; Kelly, Daniel P.; Sutton, Kevin

    2018-01-01

    Over the past decade, teacher autonomy within the formal educational system has been a central topic of discussion among educational stakeholders. This study explored influence over school policy and classroom control (teacher autonomy) among in-service science, technology, and mathematics (STM) educators within the United States. The National…

  10. The Changing Nature of Autonomy: Transformations of the Late Swedish Teaching Profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wermke, Wieland; Forsberg, Eva

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses teacher autonomy in the case of the Swedish teaching profession since the 1980s. It is argued that deregulation, decentralization, and marketization reforms of the 1990s have indeed increased teacher autonomy, but in some respects also led to a increase of complexity in the Swedish school system. In order to handle this…

  11. School Autonomy Reform and Public Education in Australia: Implications for Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keddie, Amanda

    2017-01-01

    The renewed commitment to school autonomy reform in Australia is based on the view that it will drive up academic standards. There remains, however, little conclusive evidence to support this view. Simply instating the structural changes to bring about greater autonomy for schools within public education systems across the world has not led…

  12. Model Based Autonomy for Robust Mars Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurien, James A.; Nayak, P. Pandurang; Williams, Brian C.; Lau, Sonie (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Space missions have historically relied upon a large ground staff, numbering in the hundreds for complex missions, to maintain routine operations. When an anomaly occurs, this small army of engineers attempts to identify and work around the problem. A piloted Mars mission, with its multiyear duration, cost pressures, half-hour communication delays and two-week blackouts cannot be closely controlled by a battalion of engineers on Earth. Flight crew involvement in routine system operations must also be minimized to maximize science return. It also may be unrealistic to require the crew have the expertise in each mission subsystem needed to diagnose a system failure and effect a timely repair, as engineers did for Apollo 13. Enter model-based autonomy, which allows complex systems to autonomously maintain operation despite failures or anomalous conditions, contributing to safe, robust, and minimally supervised operation of spacecraft, life support, In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) and power systems. Autonomous reasoning is central to the approach. A reasoning algorithm uses a logical or mathematical model of a system to infer how to operate the system, diagnose failures and generate appropriate behavior to repair or reconfigure the system in response. The 'plug and play' nature of the models enables low cost development of autonomy for multiple platforms. Declarative, reusable models capture relevant aspects of the behavior of simple devices (e.g. valves or thrusters). Reasoning algorithms combine device models to create a model of the system-wide interactions and behavior of a complex, unique artifact such as a spacecraft. Rather than requiring engineers to all possible interactions and failures at design time or perform analysis during the mission, the reasoning engine generates the appropriate response to the current situation, taking into account its system-wide knowledge, the current state, and even sensor failures or unexpected behavior.

  13. Enhancing autonomy in paid surrogacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damelio, Jennifer; Sorensen, Kelly

    2008-06-01

    The gestational surrogate--and her economic and educational vulnerability in particular--is the focus of many of the most persistent worries about paid surrogacy. Those who employ her, and those who broker and organize her services, usually have an advantage over her in resources and information. That asymmetry exposes her to the possibility of exploitation and abuse. Accordingly, some argue for banning paid surrogacy. Others defend legal permission on grounds of surrogate autonomy, but often retain concerns about the surrogate. In response to the dilemma of a ban versus bald permission, we propose a 'soft law' approach: states should require several hours of education of surrogates--education aimed at informing and enhancing surrogate autonomy.

  14. Epistemic merit, autonomy, and testimony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús VEGA ENCABO

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, it is argued that both the informer and the hearer in a testimonial situation deserve epistemic merit insofar as they contribute to the collaborative achievement of sharing knowledge. The paper introduces a distinction between the ideals of self-sufficiency and epistemic autonomy. The autonomous exercise of our epistemic agency is very often carried out under strong conditions of epistemic dependence. Testimony exhibits a kind of social dependence that does not threaten the autonomy of the subjects that need to consider their own epistemic capacities. When involved in a testimonial situation, both speaker and hearer declare, at least implicitly, the standings they occupy in an epistemic space and are obliged to recognise certain epistemic requirements.

  15. Autonomy and the akratic patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, C J

    1993-01-01

    I argue that the distinction which is current in much writing on medical ethics between autonomous and non-autonomous patients cannot cope comfortably with weak-willed (incontinent) patients. I describe a case involving a patient who refuses a blood transfusion even though he or she agrees that it would be in his or her best interests. The case is discussed in the light of the treatment of autonomy by B Brody and R Gillon. These writers appear to force us to treat an incontinent patient either as autonomous, just like a rational agent whose decisions are in accordance with his beliefs or as non-autonomous, like comatose patients or children. Though neither is entirely satisfactory I opt for describing such patients as autonomous but point out that in cases like this the principle of respect for autonomy does not give a determinate answer about how the patient ought to be treated. PMID:8308874

  16. NSTX High Temperature Sensor Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormack, B.; Kugel, H.W.; Goranson, P.; Kaita, R.

    1999-01-01

    The design of the more than 300 in-vessel sensor systems for the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) has encountered several challenging fusion reactor diagnostic issues involving high temperatures and space constraints. This has resulted in unique miniature, high temperature in-vessel sensor systems mounted in small spaces behind plasma facing armor tiles, and they are prototypical of possible high power reactor first-wall applications. In the Center Stack, Divertor, Passive Plate, and vessel wall regions, the small magnetic sensors, large magnetic sensors, flux loops, Rogowski Coils, thermocouples, and Langmuir Probes are qualified for 600 degrees C operation. This rating will accommodate both peak rear-face graphite tile temperatures during operations and the 350 degrees C bake-out conditions. Similar sensor systems including flux loops, on other vacuum vessel regions are qualified for 350 degrees C operation. Cabling from the sensors embedded in the graphite tiles follows narrow routes to exit the vessel. The detailed sensor design and installation methods of these diagnostic systems developed for high-powered ST operation are discussed

  17. How to Inspire University Librarians to Become "Good Soldiers"? The Role of Job Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yu-Ping; Hwang, Shiuh-Nan; Wong, Jehn-Yih

    2010-01-01

    This study uses a structural equation model to examine the effect of job autonomy on the relationship between job satisfaction and organizational citizenship behavior for university librarians in Taiwan. Findings indicate that this relationship is stronger when job autonomy is high; we then discuss some implications for the librarianship…

  18. Emotional Autonomy versus Detachment: Revisiting the Vicissitudes of Adolescence and Young Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Richard M.; Lynch, John H.

    1989-01-01

    Emotional autonomy was examined in three studies of adolescents and young adults. Subjects of the studies were 148 seventh graders, 213 high school students, and 104 undergraduates, respectively. Discussion concerns the conceptualization of attachment versus detachment, dependence, and autonomy in theories of adolescence. (RJC)

  19. The Effects of Autonomy Support on Student Engagement in Peer Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jiangmei; Kim, ChanMin

    2018-01-01

    Although peer assessment is widely implemented in higher education, not all students are highly engaged in it. To enhance student engagement in peer assessment, we designed and developed a web-based tool, autonomy-supportive peer assessment (ASPA), to support students' need for autonomy when they conducted peer assessment. Students' sense of…

  20. Examination of the Relationship between Autonomy and English Achievement as Mediated by Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbandordinejad, Farhad; Ahmadabad, Roghayyeh Moradian

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between autonomy and English language achievement among third-grade high school students as mediated by foreign language classroom anxiety in a city in the north-west of Iran. A sample of 400 students (187 males, and 213 females) was assessed for their levels of autonomy and foreign language anxiety using…

  1. Children's Achievement Moderates the Effects of Mothers' Use of Control and Autonomy Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei-Yin Ng, Florrie; Kenney-Benson, Gwen A.; Pomerantz, Eva M.

    2004-01-01

    Two studies investigated the effects of parents' control and autonomy support on low- and high-achieving children. In Study 1, mothers' (N1=10) involvement with children (7 to 10 years old) in the context of a challenging task was observed. During this interaction, mothers' control predicted diminished engagement and their autonomy support…

  2. Collectivists' Contingency and Autonomy as Predictors of Buffet Preferences among Taiwanese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2006-01-01

    In a culture or society with high collectivism, contingent orientation and constrained autonomy are the prominent characteristics of adolescents' self-construal. This article examined whether Taiwanese adolescents' contingency and autonomy were associated with their prevalent preferences for buffet consumption. Findings in a panel survey indicated…

  3. The effects of diversity faultlines and team task autonomy on decision quality and social integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rico, Ramon; Molleman, Eric; Sanchez-Manzanares, Miriam; Van der Vegt, Gerben S.

    This study examines the effects of diversity faultlines stemming from educational background and conscientiousness on team decision quality and social integration and the moderating role of team task autonomy. Using a 2 x 2 (Weak/Strong Faultlines x Low/High Team Task Autonomy) factorial design, 52

  4. Reproductive autonomy: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R Hall

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive autonomy (RA has been challenged by the availability of genetic information, disability and the ethics of selective reproduction. Utilitarian and rights-based approaches, as well as procreative beneficence (PB fail to provide compelling reasons for infringing RA, and may even be likened to dangerous eugenics. Parents are not morally obliged to prevent the birth of a disabled child. Society should rather adopt inclusivity, recognising and providing persons with disabilities opportunities for capability and worthwhile lives.

  5. The many faces of autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia, Diego

    2012-02-01

    What does autonomy mean from a moral point of view? Throughout Western history, autonomy has had no less than four different meanings. The first is political: the capacity of old cities and modern states to give themselves their own laws. The second is metaphysical, and was introduced by Kant in the second half of the 18th century. In this meaning, autonomy is understood as an intrinsic characteristic of all rational beings. Opposed to this is the legal meaning, in which actions are called autonomous when performed with due information and competency and without coercion. This last meaning, the most frequently used in bioethics, is primarily legal instead of moral. Is there a proper moral meaning of the word autonomy? If so, this would be a fourth meaning. Acts can only be called moral when they are postconventional (using the terminology coined by Lawrence Kohlberg), inner-directed (as expressed by David Riesman), and responsible (according to Hannah Arendt). Such acts are autonomous in this new, fourth, and to my mind, the only one proper, moral meaning. The goal of ethics cannot be other than forming human beings capable of making autonomous and responsible decisions, and doing so because they think this is their duty and not because of any other nonmoral motivation, like comfort, convenience, or satisfaction. The goal of ethics is to promote postconventional and mature human beings. This was what Socrates tried to do with the young people of Athens. And it is also the objective of every course of ethics and of any process of training.

  6. A Feasible Approach for Implementing Greater Levels of Satellite Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Steve; Zetocha, Paul

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a means for achieving increasingly autonomous satellite operations. We begin with a brief discussion of the current state-of-the-art in satellite ground operations and flight software, as well as the real and perceived technical and political obstacles to increasing the levels of autonomy on today's satellites. We then present a list of system requirements that address these hindrances and include the artificial intelligence (AI) technologies with the potential to satisfy these requirements. We conclude with a discussion of how the space industry can use this information to incorporate increased autonomy. From past experience we know that autonomy will not just "happen," and we know that the expensive course of manually intensive operations simply cannot continue. Our goal is to present the aerospace industry with an analysis that will begin moving us in the direction of autonomous operations.

  7. Autonomy and Vulnerability of Elderly People: Emblematic Judicial Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isolina Dabove

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the private autonomy of older people when they are in situations of dependency according to the “Law of Old Age”. For this, the author presents the autonomy system: the capacity, the will, the guardianship and the schemes of support, assistance and representation according to the Argentinean Civil and Commercial Code, in force since August 2015, its scope and the jurisprudence. In addition, it is considered the recent Inter-American Convention on the Protection of the Human Rights of Older Persons (CIDHPM of the OAS, in force since January 11, 2017.

  8. Aerobot Autonomy Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfes, Alberto; Hall, Jeffery L.; Kulczycki, Eric A.; Cameron, Jonathan M.; Morfopoulos, Arin C.; Clouse, Daniel S.; Montgomery, James F.; Ansar, Adnan I.; Machuzak, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    An architecture for autonomous operation of an aerobot (i.e., a robotic blimp) to be used in scientific exploration of planets and moons in the Solar system with an atmosphere (such as Titan and Venus) is undergoing development. This architecture is also applicable to autonomous airships that could be flown in the terrestrial atmosphere for scientific exploration, military reconnaissance and surveillance, and as radio-communication relay stations in disaster areas. The architecture was conceived to satisfy requirements to perform the following functions: a) Vehicle safing, that is, ensuring the integrity of the aerobot during its entire mission, including during extended communication blackouts. b) Accurate and robust autonomous flight control during operation in diverse modes, including launch, deployment of scientific instruments, long traverses, hovering or station-keeping, and maneuvers for touch-and-go surface sampling. c) Mapping and self-localization in the absence of a global positioning system. d) Advanced recognition of hazards and targets in conjunction with tracking of, and visual servoing toward, targets, all to enable the aerobot to detect and avoid atmospheric and topographic hazards and to identify, home in on, and hover over predefined terrain features or other targets of scientific interest. The architecture is an integrated combination of systems for accurate and robust vehicle and flight trajectory control; estimation of the state of the aerobot; perception-based detection and avoidance of hazards; monitoring of the integrity and functionality ("health") of the aerobot; reflexive safing actions; multi-modal localization and mapping; autonomous planning and execution of scientific observations; and long-range planning and monitoring of the mission of the aerobot. The prototype JPL aerobot (see figure) has been tested extensively in various areas in the California Mojave desert.

  9. Autonomy of the University: A Financial, Academic and Administrational Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Rıza ERDEM

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of “autonomy” is mostly discussed at the institutional level. The term “autonomy” literally refers to “the right of self administration of an institution under its own legal constitution”. It has not only been a subject on which much has been negotiated in the academic world until far and a subject on which has never been reached a full agreement yet but also a subject which has been distinctively interpreted by all sides. To realize their social responsibilities in a best way, universities have to get the opportunity of an autonomous constitution. Moreover, this autonomy essentially depends on the existence of a harmonious financial, academic and administrational system. Today there is no a fully autonomised university but extent of autonomous. For an institution, a financial autonomy is “the state of driving its own expenditures by using freely its own sources”. It is of three dimensions, one of which is preparing its own budget, the other of which is constituting its own financial sources and the last of which is using its own financial sources. Today, in this respect, there is no yet “a fully autonomised university” in the world, because they are not capable of meeting the money which they need for their existence. To all people who have academic titles, “academic autonomy” necessarily refers to a chance of free education and researches free of all kinds of pressure and orientation attempts. According to Turkish constitution, academic freedom is limited to national defense and security & social order. According to a report in the ninth plan of development, released by “High Commission of Academic Education”, there is also not a fully academic autonomy. By the word “Administrational Autonomy” in universities, it is certainly meant that those institutions are driven and inspected by their own democratic organs whose members are necessarily democratically appointed. According to in the ninth plan of

  10. Autonomy, culture and healthcare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Anita Holm

    2018-01-01

    a Scandinavian and mostly a Danish context. A key point of the analysis indicates that a highly efficient health sector may entail an implicit duality: On the one hand, the therapist can relate pragmatically to the patient when engaging in cultural meetings. On the other hand, the therapist may be personally......This article aims to present a theoretical view of how cultural thinking and action in meetings between patient and therapist can be analyzed with special attention to raising awareness of underlying prejudices and preconceptions in such encounters. The examples in the article are all taken from...... challenged when cultural thinking leads to ethical dilemmas....

  11. Victory of autonomy technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-04-01

    This book introduces story of an inventor, Jang, Yeong Sil, Screening of Jang, Yeong Sil award and prize-winning companies and titles, which are high flow blend resin by LG chemical company, lithium-ion polymer battery for MP3P by Samsung SDI Inc, tower mounted amplifier by ACE technology Inc, intelligent public access defibrillator by CU medical Inc, contrast enhanced phosphor by LG Inc, solid state drive for auxiliary memory by MTRON storage technology Co. LTD, and Selicion by Samsung fine chemistry, and new era of development of scientific technology.

  12. Professional Autonomy and Security Risks of Journalists in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel E. Garcés Prettel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the relationship between professional autonomy and security risks of journalists in Colombia. A correlational-transversal research was conducted with a sample of 751 journalists who filled out the questionnaire “Worlds of Journalism Study”. The results show significant differences on the attacks received by the journalists depending on gender, news beat, region, news media, years of experience, capacity and educational level of journalists. Attacks on journalists correlates positively with the autonomy to publish and write news on governments, armed forces, criminal gangs and structural social problems (poverty, status of ethnic minorities, socioeconomic inequality, environmental damage the latter being a predictor of high risk security.

  13. The psychology of autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    In May 2016, right around the time that this issue of the Hastings Center Report should be published, The Hastings Center is holding a conference in New York City titled "Bioethics Meets Moral Psychology." The goal of the conference is to consider the lessons that bioethicists should learn from the raft of literature now accumulating on how the mental processes of perception, emotion, and thinking affect things that bioethicists care about, from the education of health care professionals to the conflicts that arise in clinical care, the "culture wars" over bioethical policy issues, the status of different cultures' value systems, and the very understanding of the values that are foundational in moral thinking. The articles in this issue simply provide more evidence that bioethics is meeting moral psychology. © 2016 The Hastings Center.

  14. Evolution to Autonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horace Lockwood Fairlamb

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Since both modern moral theory and evolutionary theory arose in the shadow of Newtonian and Humean conceptions of nature, debates about evolutionary ethics have typically been vexed by deeper problems with the nature of evolution itself as well as meta-ethical questions about the link between facts and values. Humean skepticism and mechanistic selectionism have recently coincided in postmodern attacks on essentialism,on meta-narratives of progress, on models of human nature, and on moral collectivism. Against this most recent wave of skepticism, however, contemporary reconstructions of evolution in light of complex systems science suggest useful ways of reinterpreting both evolutionary causation, the biology of human nature, and their implications for ethics.

  15. Autonomy and Accountability in Schools Serving Disadvantaged Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Esther Dominique

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Increased school autonomy and accountability have been a common denominator of national reforms in otherwise heterogeneous governance systems in Europe and the USA. The paper argues that because schools serving disadvantaged communities (SSDCs) often have lower average performance, they are more often sanctioned or under closer scrutiny,…

  16. UNA VALORACIÓN DE LA POSIBLE AUTONOMÍA DEL "DERECHO DE LOS MUSEOS" EN EL ORDENAMIENTO JURÍDICO PORTUGUÉS An assessment on the possible autonomy of "Museum Law" in the portuguese legal system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Laureano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El desarrollo y la mayor complejidad de la vida moderna, junto con una tecnicidad cada vez mayor de los instrumentos jurídicos de regulación de la sociedad y con otros factores, han provocado un aumento significativo en la cantidad de normas jurídicas, con el problema inherente de su enmarcación en sectores de cara a permitir una mejor comprensión y aplicación de esas normas; el problema clásico de la división del Derecho en ramas logra, por tanto, una renovada actualidad. Este estudio se centra, en el contexto de ese problema, sobre la cuestión de la posible autonomía de un conjunto específico de reglas que puede nombrarse como "Derecho de los Museos". Con referencia al actual régimen jurídico portugués, y a la distinción entre distintas formas de autonomía, se llega, en función de esas distintas modalidades, a conclusiones también distintas acerca de la autonomía de aquel conjunto de reglas.The development and bigger complexity of modern life, together with an increased technicality of legal instruments of Society's regulation and with other factors, have caused a significant increase in the amount of legal rules, with the inherent problem of their storage into sectors, in order to enable a better understanding and application of those rules; the classic problem of Law division in branches sees, thus, a renewed relevance. This study focuses, in the context of that problem, on the issue of the possible autonomy of a specific set of rules, which can be named as "Museum Law". With reference to Portuguese today's Legal System, and distinguishing between different forms of autonomy, it comes, depending on the different modalities, to different conclusions about the autonomy of that set of rules.

  17. Autonomously managed high power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeks, D.J.; Bechtel, R.T.

    1985-01-01

    The need for autonomous power management capabilities will increase as the power levels of spacecraft increase into the multi-100 kW range. The quantity of labor intensive ground and crew support consumed by the 9 kW Skylab cannot be afforded in support of a 75-300 kW Space Station or high power earth orbital and interplanetary spacecraft. Marshall Space Flight Center is managing a program to develop necessary technologies for high power system autonomous management. To date a reference electrical power system and automation approaches have been defined. A test facility for evaluation and verification of management algorithms and hardware has been designed with the first of the three power channel capability nearing completion

  18. High intensity radiation imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, H.H.

    1976-01-01

    A nuclear imaging system is described for mapping a spatially distributed source of high energy nuclear particles from a living organ which has selectively absorbed a radioactive compound in which the nuclear energy is spatially coded by a zone plate positioned between the source and a spatial detector, and a half tone screen is positioned between the source and the zone plate to increase the definition of the image

  19. Managerial autonomy, optimal security issuance and capital structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.W.A.; Thakor, A.V.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we address two related puzzles: (i) why do firms issue equity when stock prices are high and (ii) why do firms so often not issue securities to counteract the mechanical effect of their stock returns on their leverage ratios? Our theory builds on the importance of managerial autonomy

  20. Closeness, autonomy, equity, and relationship satisfaction in lesbian couples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreurs, KMG; Buunk, BP

    1996-01-01

    It is often assumed that in lesbian relationships a high degree of closeness is reached at the expense of autonomy of the partners. The present study among 119 Dutch lesbian couples examined the effect on relational satisfaction of two dimensions of closeness, emotional dependency and intimacy, and

  1. Impact of School Autonomy on Student Achievement: Cases from Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Brian John

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report four case studies in Australia that respond to the question: "How have schools with a relatively high degree of autonomy used their increased authority and responsibility to make decisions that have led in explicit cause-and-effect fashion to higher levels of student achievement"?…

  2. Autonomy and Firefighting: Perceived Competence and Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Evelyn S; Baley, John; Ponder, Joy; Padilla, Miguel A

    2016-12-01

    In workplace settings, autonomy is implicated in employee motivation as well as supervisor autonomy support. As a profession of risk, firefighters may experience greater levels of stress. A self-determination paradigm was applied to the firefighter workplace. Of particular interest were perceived competence (to perform job duties) and the experience of stress. Firefighters' levels of autonomous and controlled regulation were surveyed, along with their perceptions of the autonomy support of their immediate supervisor. Autonomous regulation was positively related to perceived competence, whereas controlled regulation was negatively related. Higher levels of controlled regulation were also connected with greater stress. In contrast, greater perceived autonomy support was associated with decreased stress. Both perceived competence and stress are related to firefighter motivation and autonomy support. Recommendations are offered to increase autonomy support by chief officers.

  3. Autonomy and the Sources of Political Normativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostbøll, Christian F.

    Contemporary political liberals argue for extending the scope of reasonable disagreement to include also the principle of autonomy that was central in classical liberal theory. I take outset in Charles Larmore, The Autonomy of Morality (2008), which argues that liberal theory can dispense...... with the commitment to autonomy that one finds in Locke, Kant, and Mill, because "the essential convictions of liberal thought lie at a more fundamental level," namely in the principle of respect for persons. The main question I address is whether we can see the commitment to respect for persons as separable from...... the commitment to autonomy. My focus is the Kantian conception of autonomy, and I argue for understanding this conception practically and politically, rather than metaphysically and theoretically. In this way we can separate the principle of respect for persons from the metaphysical idea of autonomy as self...

  4. Freedom of Expression, Deliberation, Autonomy and Respect

    OpenAIRE

    Rostbøll, Christian F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper elaborates on the deliberative democracy argument for freedom of expression in terms of its relationship to different dimensions of autonomy. It engages the objection that Enlightenment theories pose a threat to cultures that reject autonomy and argues that autonomy-based democracy is not only compatible with but necessary for respect for cultural diversity. On the basis of an intersubjective epistemology, it argues that people cannot know how to live on mutually respectful terms w...

  5. A Reconfigurable Testbed Environment for Spacecraft Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesiadecki, Jeffrey; Jain, Abhinandan

    1996-01-01

    A key goal of NASA's New Millennium Program is the development of technology for increased spacecraft on-board autonomy. Achievement of this objective requires the development of a new class of ground-based automony testbeds that can enable the low-cost and rapid design, test, and integration of the spacecraft autonomy software. This paper describes the development of an Autonomy Testbed Environment (ATBE) for the NMP Deep Space I comet/asteroid rendezvous mission.

  6. From solidarity to autonomy: towards a redefinition of the parameters of the notion of autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fainzang, Sylvie

    2016-12-01

    Starting from examples of concrete situations in France, I show that autonomy and solidarity can coexist only if the parameters of autonomy are redefined. I show on the one hand that in situations where autonomy is encouraged, solidarity nevertheless remains at the foundation of their practices. On the other hand, in situations largely infused with family solidarity, the individual autonomy may be put in danger. Yet, based on my ethnographic observations regarding clinical encounters and medical secrecy, I show that while solidarity may endanger individual autonomy, it does not necessarily endanger autonomy itself. The social practices observable in France reflect the reality of an autonomy that goes beyond the individual, a reality that involves a collective subject and includes solidarity. The opposition between these two values can then be resolved if the content of the notion of autonomy is understood to be dependent on its cultural context of application and on its social use.

  7. The Future of Reproductive Autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Josephine; Zacharias, Rachel L

    2017-12-01

    In a project The Hastings Center is now running on the future of prenatal testing, we are encountering clear examples, both in established law and in the practices of individual providers, of failures to respect women's reproductive autonomy: when testing is not offered to certain demographics of women, for instance, or when the choices of women to terminate or continue pregnancies are prohibited or otherwise not supported. But this project also raises puzzles for reproductive autonomy. We have learned that some clinicians and patients do not discuss the fact that prenatal testing can lead to a decision about whether to terminate a pregnancy-they just don't talk about it. And while the decision whether to agree to prenatal screening and diagnostic testing is to be made with women's free and informed consent, many screening tests have been routinized in such a way that some women do not even recall agreeing to testing, while others feel that agreeing to testing is what their clinicians expect of them or that the testing is necessary to protect themselves and their families from the significant financial hardship of raising a child with a disability. In the face of these pressures, can one really say that women are freely choosing to undergo testing or are freely choosing to continue or terminate a pregnancy following receipt of test results? The reality of these pressures is requiring us to consider expanding the scope of our investigation beyond the clinical encounter to the broader context-to think harder about what reproductive autonomy means and how best to enhance it. © 2017 The Hastings Center.

  8. Adolescents, Graduated Autonomy, and Genetic Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Fox

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Autonomy takes many shapes. The concept of “graduated autonomy” is conceived as comprising several unique features: (1 it is incremental, (2 it is proportional, and (3 it is related to the telos of the life stage during which it occurs. This paper focuses on graduated autonomy in the context of genetic testing during adolescence. Questions can be raised about other life stages as well, and some of these questions will be addressed by discussing a possible fourth characteristic of graduated autonomy, that is, its elasticity. Further scholarship and analysis is needed to refine the concept of graduated autonomy and examine its applications.

  9. An intercultural nursing perspective on autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanssen, Ingrid

    2004-01-01

    This article is based on an empirical study regarding ethical challenges in intercultural nursing. The focus is on autonomy and disclosure. Autonomy is a human capacity that has become an important ethical principle in nursing. Although the relationship between autonomy and patients' possibly harmful choices is discussed, the focus is on 'forced' autonomy. Nurses seem to equate respect with autonomy; it seems to be hard to cope with the fact that there are patients who voluntarily undergo treatment but who actively participate neither in the treatment offered nor in making choices regarding that treatment. Nurses' demand for patients to be autonomous may in some cases jeopardize the respect, integrity and human worth that the ethical principle of autonomy is meant to ensure. Even though respect for a person's autonomy is also respect for the person, one's respect for the person in question should not depend on his or her capacity or aptitude to act autonomously. Is autonomy necessarily a universal ethical principle? This article negates this question and, through the issues of culture, individualism versus collectivism, first- and second-order autonomy, communication and the use of family interpreters, and respect, an attempt is made to explain why.

  10. The impact of choice on retributive reactions: how observers' autonomy concerns shape responses to criminal offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Prooijen, Jan-Willem; Kerpershoek, Emiel F P

    2013-06-01

    The present research examined the psychological origins of retributive reactions, which are defined as independent observers' anger-based emotions, demonized perceptions, and punishment intentions in response to criminal offenders. Based on the idea that society's justice system has an autonomy-protective function, we reason that chronic autonomy interacts with situational autonomy cues (i.e., opportunities to make choices) to predict retributive reactions to criminal offenders. More specifically, we hypothesized that choice opportunities in an unrelated decision-making context would prompt people to display stronger retributive reactions to offenders than no-choice opportunities, and that these effects of choice would be particularly pronounced among people who chronically experience deprivation of autonomy needs. Results from two experiments supported this hypothesis. It is concluded that retributive reactions to criminal offenders originate from a desire to regulate basic autonomy needs. © 2011 The British Psychological Society.

  11. Market liberalism in health care: a dysfunctional view of respecting "consumer" autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kekewich, Michael A

    2014-03-01

    The unfortunately vast history of paternalism in both medicine and clinical research has resulted in perpetually increasing respect for patient autonomy and free choice in Western health care systems. Beginning with the negative right to informed consent, the principle of respect for autonomy has for many patients evolved into a positive right to request treatments and expect accommodation. This evolution of patient autonomy has mirrored a more general social attitude of market liberalism where increasing numbers of patients have come to embody the role of the "consumer." This paper explores this transformation and critiques the current way in which respect for patient autonomy is put into practice. Ultimately, this paper concludes that the consumer view of patient autonomy is dysfunctional. Moreover, this paper argues that, based on the inherent goals of medicine, some form of paternalism is required in any meaningfully therapeutic relationship.

  12. Autonomy and Acceptance of Long-Term Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hui-Chuan; Ting, Yu-Shan; Jiang, Ting-Wen; Chien, Ming-Chih; Chien, Chih-Hsin

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between four types of autonomy (health autonomy, informational autonomy, living autonomy, and financial autonomy) and the acceptance of five types of long-term care (adult day care, respite care, assisted living, unit care, and group home) for the elderly in Taiwan. Data were collected from 167 middle-aged and…

  13. Students' autonomy and teacher's interpersonal style in self-determination theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalić-Vučetić Nataša

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Starting from psychological needs that are considered basic within self-determination theory (autonomy, competence and relatedness, the importance of encouraging students' autonomy in school context is particularly emphasised. Appreciation of students' autonomy has a stimulating effect on school achievement, conceptual understanding, creativity development, strengthening of self-esteem, and students adapt better to school system and demonstrate a larger degree of internalisation of school rules and intrinsic motivation. Teachers' behavioural style largely determines the degree of students' autonomy in school life and work. Self-determination theory implies the necessity of agreement between the developmental need for autonomy in children and the level of adult control and distinguishes between two styles of interpersonal behavior of teachers: (a those who offer support to students' autonomy by their behavior and (b those that are predominantly inclined to control students' behavior. This paper also points out to different strategies that can be applied by teachers in working with students in school, which also contribute to the development of students' autonomy. What is especially encouraging is the fact that it is possible to learn and to develop 'appreciation of students' autonomy' as teacher's interpersonal style.

  14. Toward a framework for levels of robot autonomy in human-robot interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Jenay M; Fisk, Arthur D; Rogers, Wendy A

    2014-07-01

    A critical construct related to human-robot interaction (HRI) is autonomy, which varies widely across robot platforms. Levels of robot autonomy (LORA), ranging from teleoperation to fully autonomous systems, influence the way in which humans and robots may interact with one another. Thus, there is a need to understand HRI by identifying variables that influence - and are influenced by - robot autonomy. Our overarching goal is to develop a framework for levels of robot autonomy in HRI. To reach this goal, the framework draws links between HRI and human-automation interaction, a field with a long history of studying and understanding human-related variables. The construct of autonomy is reviewed and redefined within the context of HRI. Additionally, the framework proposes a process for determining a robot's autonomy level, by categorizing autonomy along a 10-point taxonomy. The framework is intended to be treated as guidelines to determine autonomy, categorize the LORA along a qualitative taxonomy, and consider which HRI variables (e.g., acceptance, situation awareness, reliability) may be influenced by the LORA.

  15. High speed laser tomography system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsonov, D.; Elsaesser, A.; Edwards, A.; Thomas, H. M.; Morfill, G. E.

    2008-03-01

    A high speed laser tomography system was developed capable of acquiring three-dimensional (3D) images of optically thin clouds of moving micron-sized particles. It operates by parallel-shifting an illuminating laser sheet with a pair of galvanometer-driven mirrors and synchronously recording two-dimensional (2D) images of thin slices of the imaged volume. The maximum scanning speed achieved was 120000slices/s, sequences of 24 volume scans (up to 256 slices each) have been obtained. The 2D slices were stacked to form 3D images of the volume, then the positions of the particles were identified and followed in the consecutive scans. The system was used to image a complex plasma with particles moving at speeds up to cm/s.

  16. The Impact of Motivation and Teachers’ Autonomy Support on Children’s Executive Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zrinka eSosic-Vasic

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the interplay of executive functions, motivation and teacher’s autonomy support in school context. In a cross-sectional study design 208 students from different school types completed a standardized motivation questionnaire and processed two executive function tasks. All teachers who teach these students were asked about their autonomy supporting behavior by a standardized test. Multilevel analyses assessed the effects of the student’s motivation and their teachers’ autonomy support on student’s executive functions. Our results show considerable relationships between these variables: high executive function capacities came along with teacher’s autonomy support and student’s intrinsic motivation styles, whereas low executive function capacities were related to external regulation styles. The results indicate the importance of autonomy support in school instruction and disclose the need to popularize the self-regulation approach.

  17. Teacher self-efficacy and perceived autonomy: relations with teacher engagement, job satisfaction, and emotional exhaustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaalvik, Einar M; Skaalvik, Sidsel

    2014-02-01

    When studied separately, research shows that both teacher self-efficacy and teacher autonomy are associated with adaptive motivational and emotional outcomes. This study tested whether teacher self-efficacy and teacher autonomy are independently associated with engagement, job satisfaction, and emotional exhaustion. 2,569 Norwegian teachers in elementary school and middle school (719 men, 1,850 women; M age = 45.0 yr., SD = 11.5) were administered the Norwegian Teacher Self-Efficacy Scale, the Teacher Autonomy Scale, the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, the Teacher Job Satisfaction Scale, and the Maslach Burnout Inventory. The analysis revealed that both teacher autonomy and self-efficacy were independent predictors of engagement, job satisfaction, and emotional exhaustion. This study suggests that autonomy or decision latitude works positively but through different processes for teachers with high and low mastery expectations.

  18. The impact of motivation and teachers’ autonomy support on children’s executive functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosic-Vasic, Zrinka; Keis, Oliver; Lau, Maren; Spitzer, Manfred; Streb, Judith

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates the interplay of executive functions, motivation, and teacher’s autonomy support in school context. In a cross-sectional study design 208 students from different school types completed a standardized motivation questionnaire and processed two executive function tasks. All teachers who teach these students were asked about their autonomy supporting behavior by a standardized test. Multilevel analyses assessed the effects of the student’s motivation and their teachers’ autonomy support on student’s executive functions. Our results show considerable relationships between these variables: high executive function capacities came along with teacher’s autonomy support and student’s intrinsic motivation styles, whereas low executive function capacities were related to external regulation styles. The results indicate the importance of autonomy support in school instruction and disclose the need to popularize the self-regulation approach. PMID:25762958

  19. The impact of motivation and teachers' autonomy support on children's executive functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosic-Vasic, Zrinka; Keis, Oliver; Lau, Maren; Spitzer, Manfred; Streb, Judith

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates the interplay of executive functions, motivation, and teacher's autonomy support in school context. In a cross-sectional study design 208 students from different school types completed a standardized motivation questionnaire and processed two executive function tasks. All teachers who teach these students were asked about their autonomy supporting behavior by a standardized test. Multilevel analyses assessed the effects of the student's motivation and their teachers' autonomy support on student's executive functions. Our results show considerable relationships between these variables: high executive function capacities came along with teacher's autonomy support and student's intrinsic motivation styles, whereas low executive function capacities were related to external regulation styles. The results indicate the importance of autonomy support in school instruction and disclose the need to popularize the self-regulation approach.

  20. Relations of behavioral autonomy to health outcomes among emerging adults with and without type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgeson, Vicki S; Reynolds, Kerry A; Becker, Dorothy; Escobar, Oscar; Siminerio, Linda

    2014-01-01

    To examine the relation of behavioral autonomy to psychological, behavioral, and physical health among emerging adults with and without type 1 diabetes. High school seniors with (n = 118) and without type 1 diabetes (n = 122) completed online questionnaires for three consecutive years. Behavioral autonomy, psychological health, risk behaviors, and diabetes outcomes were assessed. Regression analyses were conducted to predict Time 2 and 3 outcomes, controlling for Time 1 outcomes. There were no group differences in behavioral autonomy. Behavioral autonomy predicted better psychological health but only for emerging adults without diabetes. Behavioral autonomy was related to increased risk behavior for both groups. Behavioral autonomy was unrelated to self-care but predicted better glycemic control for females. Behavioral autonomy may be beneficial for psychological health, but is related to increased risk behavior. The implications of behavioral autonomy for emerging adults with type 1 diabetes require careful consideration. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Motivating Proteges' Personal Learning in Teams: A Multilevel Investigation of Autonomy Support and Autonomy Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong; Fu, Ping-ping

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the roles of 3 multilevel motivational predictors in proteges' personal learning in teams: an autonomy-supportive team climate, mentors' autonomy support, and proteges' autonomy orientation. The authors followed 305 proteges in 58 teams for 12 weeks and found that all 3 predictors were positively related to the proteges'…

  2. Individual autonomy in work teams : the role of team autonomy, self-efficacy, and social support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mierlo, van H.; Rutte, C.G.; Vermunt, J.K.; Kompier, M.A.J.; Doorewaard, J.A.C.M.

    2006-01-01

    Task autonomy is long recognized as a means to improve functioning of individuals and teams. Taking a multilevel approach, we unravelled the constructs of team and individual autonomy and studied the interplay between team autonomy, self-efficacy, and social support in determining individual

  3. University Reform and Institutional Autonomy: A Framework for Analysing the Living Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maassen, Peter; Gornitzka, Åse; Fumasoli, Tatiana

    2017-01-01

    In this article we discuss recent university reforms aimed at enhancing university autonomy, highlighting various tensions in the underlying reform ideologies. We examine how the traditional interpretation of university autonomy has been expanded in the reform rationales. An analytical framework for studying how autonomy is interpreted and used…

  4. Capturing Requirements for Autonomous Spacecraft with Autonomy Requirements Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassev, Emil; Hinchey, Mike

    2014-08-01

    The Autonomy Requirements Engineering (ARE) approach has been developed by Lero - the Irish Software Engineering Research Center within the mandate of a joint project with ESA, the European Space Agency. The approach is intended to help engineers develop missions for unmanned exploration, often with limited or no human control. Such robotics space missions rely on the most recent advances in automation and robotic technologies where autonomy and autonomic computing principles drive the design and implementation of unmanned spacecraft [1]. To tackle the integration and promotion of autonomy in software-intensive systems, ARE combines generic autonomy requirements (GAR) with goal-oriented requirements engineering (GORE). Using this approach, software engineers can determine what autonomic features to develop for a particular system (e.g., a space mission) as well as what artifacts that process might generate (e.g., goals models, requirements specification, etc.). The inputs required by this approach are the mission goals and the domain-specific GAR reflecting specifics of the mission class (e.g., interplanetary missions).

  5. Autopoiesis: Autology, Autotranscendence and Autonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    and 1990s – particularly in a French context. While his work has remained (to date) at distance from the rising number of suggestions, especi- ally regarding social and cultural theory, that have come out of these debates on self-organization, Castoriadis made a speci¿c and original contribution to them...... ‘reality-modeling’ (John Casti) – whether via cognitive frameworks or models of society and culture. Secondly, attempts to adapt debates within the humanities, e.g. in philosophy, social theory and cultural studies, have tended to end in anti-humanism, ranging from Deleuze and Guattari’s ‘abstract machine......’s philosophy. She argues that a focus on the self-organization of the living being implies not only a distinct move towards an ontology of radical physis in Castoriadis’s later work, but also, along with it, a revised version of his project of autonomy. Autonomy, like autology and the other theme of this issue...

  6. High Pressure Electrolyzer System Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokopius, Kevin; Coloza, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    This report documents the continuing efforts to evaluate the operational state of a high pressure PEM based electrolyzer located at the NASA Glenn Research Center. This electrolyzer is a prototype system built by General Electric and refurbished by Hamilton Standard (now named Hamilton Sunstrand). It is capable of producing hydrogen and oxygen at an output pressure of 3000 psi. The electrolyzer has been in storage for a number of years. Evaluation and testing was performed to determine the state of the electrolyzer and provide an estimate of the cost for refurbishment. Pressure testing was performed using nitrogen gas through the oxygen ports to ascertain the status of the internal membranes and seals. It was determined that the integrity of the electrolyzer stack was good as there were no appreciable leaks in the membranes or seals within the stack. In addition to the integrity testing, an itemized list and part cost estimate was produced for the components of the electrolyzer system. An evaluation of the system s present state and an estimate of the cost to bring it back to operational status was also produced.

  7. Owning Up to Negative Ingroup Traits: How Personal Autonomy Promotes the Integration of Group Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legault, Lisa; Weinstein, Netta; Mitchell, Jahlil; Inzlicht, Michael; Pyke, Kristen; Upal, Afzal

    2017-10-01

    Our experiences, attributes, and behaviors are diverse, inconsistent, and often negative. Consequently, our capacity to assimilate divergent experiences-particularly negative aspects-is important to the development of a unified self. Whereas this process of integration has received attention at the level of personal identity, it has not been assessed at the level of group identity. We examined the mechanisms involved in integrating positive and negative ingroup identities, as well as related outcomes. In three experiments, participants (N = 332) high and low in autonomy identified either positive or negative aspects of their ingroup and then indicated the extent to which they integrated the attribute. Those high in personal autonomy integrated both positive and negative identities, whereas those low in autonomy acknowledged only positive identities. Study 2 showed that, regardless of identity valence, those high in autonomy felt satisfied and close with their group. Conversely, those low in autonomy felt less close and more dissatisfied with their group after reflecting on negative identities. Finally, reflecting on a negative identity reduced prejudice, but only for those high in autonomy. Owning up to negative group traits is facilitated by autonomy and demonstrates benefits for ingroup and intergroup processes. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPhee, William S.

    1999-01-01

    construct a pre-prototype of the nozzle, blast head with wind curtain, sensors, and dust separator and test this system to assess the performance of the new design under controlled conditions at the contractor's facility. In phase III, the Contractor shall design and construct a prototype of the High Productivity Vacuum Blasting System, based on the results of the pre-prototype design and testing performed. This unit will be a full-scale prototype and will be tested at a designated Department of Energy (DOE) facility. Based on the results, the system performance, the productivity, and the economy of the improved vacuum blasting system will be evaluated

  9. Netherlands: Steady decline in job autonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, J.; Hooftmann, W.; Houtman, I.L.D.

    2015-01-01

    Research shows that job autonomy has predominantly positive effects, such as the prevention of stress, burnout and cardiovascular disease. Employees with a good deal of autonomy generally report better well-being, are more productive, more creative, have more self-esteem and have higher work

  10. Epistemic Autonomy: A Criterion for Virtue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudd, Sasha

    2013-01-01

    Catherine Elgin proposes a novel principle for identifying epistemic virtue. Based loosely on Kant's Categorical Imperative, it identifies autonomy as our fundamental epistemic responsibility, and defines the epistemic virtues as those traits of character needed to exercise epistemic autonomy. I argue that Elgin's principle fails as a…

  11. Becoming Autonomous: Nonideal Theory and Educational Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Terri S.; Ryg, Matthew A.

    2015-01-01

    Autonomy operates as a key term in debates about the rights of families to choose distinct approaches to education. Yet, what autonomy means is often complicated by the actual circumstances and contexts of schools, families, and children. In this essay, Terri S. Wilson and Matthew A. Ryg focus on the challenges involved in translating an ideal of…

  12. On the Compatibility of Autonomy and Relatedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgins, Holley S.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Investigates the relation of autonomy to naturally occurring social interactions in two studies: the first investigated college students' interactions with parents, and the second examined interactions across all relationships. Autonomy was significantly related to more positive and naturally occurring interaction, whereas control related more to…

  13. Stories of Human Autonomy, Law, and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranter, Kieran

    2010-01-01

    Considering the relationship between human autonomy, law and technology has deep origins. Both technology studies and legal theory tell origin stories about human autonomy as the prize from either a foundational technological or jurisprudential event. In these narratives either law is considered a second order consequence of technology or…

  14. Changing Light Bulbs: Practice, Motivation, and Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jean A.

    2011-01-01

    The comment on the Ryan, Lynch, Vansteenkiste, and Deci (2011) article on motivation and autonomy in psychotherapy considers motivation and its role as prerequisite, process variable, or appropriate outcome, speculating that all are appropriate ways to conceptualize motivation in the behavior change process. Autonomy, as a useful addition, refers…

  15. Progress in medicine: autonomy, oughtonomy and nudging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devisch, Ignaas

    2011-10-01

    In this article, I argue that we need a new perspective in the debate on autonomy in medicine, to understand many of the problems we face today - dilemmas that are situated at the intersection of autonomy and heteronomy, such as why well informed and autonomous people make unhealthy lifestyle choices. If people do not choose what they want, this is not simply caused by their lack of character or capability, but also by the fact that absolute autonomy is impossible; autonomous individuals are 'contaminated' by heteronymous aspects, by influences from 'outside'. Consequently, there are many good reasons to question the widely accepted hierarchical opposition of autonomy (progress) versus heteronomy (paternalism) in medicine. In an earlier article an analysis is made of the neologism 'oughtonomy' to support the thesis that when it comes down to human existence, autonomy and heteronomy are intertwined, rather than being merely opposites. In this article, I reflect upon how social conditions might improve our 'choice architecture', what Thaler & Sunstein have called 'nudging': how to change individual health choices without being paternalistic? I explore the extent to which both oughtonomy and nudging are able to challenge the question of autonomy in today's medicine. Autonomy may and should be a shared target in today's medicine, but we should never forget that it is always intertwined with heteronomy. Starting from this perspective, progress in medicine demands far more than the increase of autonomy. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Buddhism and Autonomy-Facilitating Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that Buddhists can consistently support autonomy as an educational ideal. The article defines autonomy as a matter of thinking and acting according to principles that one has oneself endorsed, showing the relationship between this ideal and the possession of an enduring self. Three central Buddhist doctrines of conditioned…

  17. Protecting autonomy as authenticity using Ulysses contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Willigenburg, Theo; Delaere, Patrick

    2005-08-01

    Pre-commitment directives or Ulysses contracts are often defended as instruments that may strengthen the autonomous self-control of episodically disordered psychiatric patients. Autonomy is understood in this context in terms of sovereignty ("governing" or "managing" oneself). After critically analyzing this idea of autonomy in the context of various forms of self-commitment and pre-commitment, we argue that what is at stake in using Ulysses contracts in psychiatry is not autonomy as sovereignty, but autonomy as authenticity. Pre-commitment directives do not function to protect autonomous self-control. They serve in upholding the guidance that is provided by one's deepest identity conferring concerns. We elucidate this concept of autonomy as authenticity, by showing how Ulysses contracts protect the possibility of being "a self."

  18. Autonomy and independence in language learning

    CERN Document Server

    Benson, Phil

    2014-01-01

    The topics of autonomy and independence play an increasingly important role in language education. They raise issues such as learners' responsibility for their own learning, and their right to determine the direction of their own learning, the skills which can be learned and applied in self-directed learning and capacity for independent learning and the extents to which this can be suppressed by institutional education. This volume offers new insights into the principles of autonomy and independence and the practices associated with them focusing on the area of EFL teaching. The editors' introduction provides the context and outlines the main issues involved in autonomy and independence. Later chapters discuss the social and political implications of autonomy and independence and their effects on educational structures. The consequences for the design of learner-centred materials and methods is discussed, together with an exploration of the practical ways of implementing autonomy and independence in language ...

  19. Indications for treatment of thyroid autonomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emrich, D.

    1989-01-01

    Based on pathophysiological findings and considerations it is attempted to review critically the present state of indications and therapeutic modalities in cases of thyroid autonomy. If hyperthyroidism occurs or has occurred in autonomy, definitive treatment with radioiodine or surgery is indicated. In cases of autonomy with euthyroidism, treatment planning and indication of definite therapy are difficult still today, because the risk to develop hyperthyroidism cannot as yet be sufficiently estimated. A useful indicator in such cases seems to be the percentage of global thyreoidal uptake of 99m-technetium under supression. If autonomy is severe surgical treatment today is superior to radio-iodine therapy, but is associated with a higher rate of manifest hypothyroidism. Further research into both the risk of hyperthyroidism in thyroid autonomy and the optimization of radio-iodine therapy are needed. (orig./MG) [de

  20. The Autonomy Activity Status of Multinational Subsidiaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dzikowska, Marlena; Gammelgaard, Jens; Jindra, Björn

    Research concerning the autonomy of subsidiaries has been concentrated on the possession of decision-making rights. Building on the definitional and empirical argumentation, we claim that so understood autonomy has a prospective character, is not equal to the implementation of actual actions (or...... lack of thereof) and neglects the issue of the scope of potential actions. This paper aims to fill in the current literature gap by offering a holistic stance in which we assert that subsidiaries can be meaningfully differentiated according to their levels of autonomy and corresponding actions. We base...... this argumentation on the findings of real option theory and competitive dynamics perspective, develop a typology specific to a subsidiary’s autonomy activity status (the position of a subsidiary in terms of its autonomy level confronted with the extent of actions taken in a corresponding area). We evaluate...

  1. Freedom of Expression, Deliberation, Autonomy, and Respect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostbøll, Christian Fogh

    for freedom of expression in terms of its relationship to different dimensions of autonomy. In response to the objection that Enlightenment theories pose a threat to cultures that reject autonomy, it is argued that autonomy-based democracy is not only compatible with but necessary for respect for cultural......The strongest versions of the democracy argument for freedom of expression rely on the deliberative conception of democracy. Deliberative democracy entails both an ideal of political autonomy and of autonomous preference formation. This paper elaborates the deliberative democracy argument...... diversity. On the basis of an intersubjective epistemology, I argue that citizens cannot know how to live on mutually respectful terms without engaging in public deliberation. Moreover, to be successful deliberation must foster some degree of personal autonomy, at least the ability to distinguish what...

  2. Freedom of Expression, Deliberation, Autonomy and Respect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostbøll, Christian F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper elaborates on the deliberative democracy argument for freedom of expression in terms of its relationship to different dimensions of autonomy. It engages the objection that Enlightenment theories pose a threat to cultures that reject autonomy and argues that autonomy-based democracy...... is not only compatible with but necessary for respect for cultural diversity. On the basis of an intersubjective epistemology, it argues that people cannot know how to live on mutually respectful terms without engaging in public deliberation and develop some degree of personal autonomy. While freedom...... of expression is indispensable for deliberation and autonomy, this does not mean that people have no obligations regarding how they speak to each other. The moral insights provided by deliberation depend on the participants in the process treating one another with respect. The argument is related to the Danish...

  3. [Is autonomy ground of human dignity?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordillo Alvarez-Valdés, Lourdes

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers the conditions of autonomy if this is to be the foundation of human dignity. Since Kant Modernity has dissociated nature from morality and has tried to support autonomy in its purely formal aspect. To forget nature has voluntarist consequences that affect the way in which autonomy is understand. But autonomy does not consist of not having links, but of knowing how to assume one's own links freely and to be conscious of one's own limits. Autonomy and liberty are the very thing of the rational being, capable of discerning good and bad, and this must direct our actions. Reason directs as and distances us from reality to recognize the advisable thing in the human being.

  4. Effective means of planning for and implementing autonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehof, Lars Adam

    1991-01-01

    Autonomy, self-government, indigenous people, human rights, minority protection, minority rights......Autonomy, self-government, indigenous people, human rights, minority protection, minority rights...

  5. Are the benefits of autonomy satisfaction and the costs of autonomy frustration dependent on individuals' autonomy strength?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Assche, Jasper; van der Kaap-Deeder, Jolene; Audenaert, Elien; De Schryver, Maarten; Vansteenkiste, Maarten

    2018-01-29

    From a self-determination theory perspective, individuals are assumed to benefit and suffer from, respectively, the satisfaction and frustration of the psychological need for autonomy, even if they score low on autonomy strength. Yet, previous studies on need strength are scarce, operationalized need strength differently, and produced inconsistent findings. In two studies among 224 South African adults (M age  = 24.13, SD = 4.25; 54.0% male) and 156 Belgian prisoners (M age  = 38.60, SD = 11.68; 88.5% male), we investigated the moderating role of autonomy valuation and desire in the relations of autonomy satisfaction and frustration with a variety of well-being and ill-being indicators. Study 1 provided some evidence for the moderating role of mostly explicit autonomy desire (rather than explicit autonomy valuation). In Study 2, neither explicit nor implicit autonomy desire played a consistent moderating role. Overall, these findings are congruent with a moderate (albeit not with a strong) interpretation of the universality claim made within self-determination theory, provide initial evidence for a differentiation between deficit-based and growth-oriented interpersonal differences in need strength, and indicate that the potential moderating role of need strength deserves continued attention before any firm conclusions can be drawn. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. AMO EXPRESS: A Command and Control Experiment for Crew Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetson, Howard K.; Frank, Jeremy; Cornelius, Randy; Haddock, Angie; Wang, Lui; Garner, Larry

    2015-01-01

    NASA is investigating a range of future human spaceflight missions, including both Mars-distance and Near Earth Object (NEO) targets. Of significant importance for these missions is the balance between crew autonomy and vehicle automation. As distance from Earth results in increasing communication delays, future crews need both the capability and authority to independently make decisions. However, small crews cannot take on all functions performed by ground today, and so vehicles must be more automated to reduce the crew workload for such missions. NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems Program funded Autonomous Mission Operations (AMO) project conducted an autonomous command and control demonstration of intelligent procedures to automatically initialize a rack onboard the International Space Station (ISS) with power and thermal interfaces, and involving core and payload command and telemetry processing, without support from ground controllers. This autonomous operations capability is enabling in scenarios such as a crew medical emergency, and representative of other spacecraft autonomy challenges. The experiment was conducted using the Expedite the Processing of Experiments for Space Station (EXPRESS) rack 7, which was located in the Port 2 location within the U.S Laboratory onboard the International Space Station (ISS). Activation and deactivation of this facility is time consuming and operationally intensive, requiring coordination of three flight control positions, 47 nominal steps, 57 commands, 276 telemetry checks, and coordination of multiple ISS systems (both core and payload). The autonomous operations concept includes a reduction of the amount of data a crew operator is required to verify during activation or de-activation, as well as integration of procedure execution status and relevant data in a single integrated display. During execution, the auto-procedures provide a step-by-step messaging paradigm and a high level status upon termination. This

  7. High-frequency, low-intensity vibrations increase bone mass and muscle strength in upper limbs, improving autonomy in disabled children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, M Loreto; Hernández, Marta; Holmgren, Luz J; Sanhueza, Enrique; Escobar, Raúl G

    2011-08-01

    Disuse osteoporosis in children is a progressive disease that can affect quality of life. High-frequency, low-magnitude vibration (HFLMV) acts as an anabolic signal for bone and muscle. We undertook a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial to assess the efficacy and safety of regional HFLMV in disabled children. Sixty-five children 6 to 9 year of age were randomized into three groups: placebo, 60 Hz, and 90 Hz. In the two active groups, a 0.3-g mechanical vibration was delivered to the radii and femurs for 5 minutes each day. After 6 months, the main endpoint was bone mineral density (BMD) at the ultradistal radius (UDR), 33% radii (33%R), and femoral necks (FN). Secondary endpoints were area and bone mineral content (BMC) at the UDR, 33%R, and FN; grip force of the upper and lower limbs; motor function; and PedsQL evaluation. An intention-to-treat analysis was used. Fifty-seven children (88%) completed the protocol. A significant increase was observed in the 60-Hz group relative to the other groups in BMD at the UDR (p = .011), in grip force of the upper limbs (p = .035), and in the "daily activities item" (p = .035). A mixed model to evaluate the response to intervention showed a stronger effect of 60 Hz on patients with cerebral palsy on the UDR and that between-subject variability significantly affected the response. There were no reported side effects of the intervention. This work provides evidence that regional HFLMV is an effective and safe strategy to improve bone mass, muscle strength, and possibly independence in children with motor disabilities. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  8. LEARNER AUTONOMY ON ESSAY WRITING ACCURACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hafidz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Learner autonomy on writing is independently teaching and learning that keeps students’ control to explore their knowledge and experiences in written language, find out and evaluate their errors based on the conceptual courses to make accurately simple essay. The aim was to know the effectiveness of the learner autonomy on writing accuracy. This quantitative research conducted in one group pretest and posttest design. The number of samples was 21 students in Bangkalan. The instrument were tests to gain students’ writing score before and after treatment. Researcher statistically analyzed the data using SPSS 23 version by running a Paired Samples Test. The result shown the means of pretes score was 66,83 and posttest score was 74,57, Paired Samples Correlations was 0,614 (strong correlation. Significance was 0,005, it means that  a (0,05 is higher than r value (0,005 with high variance of mean value (14,091. As a result, the hypothesis (H1­ was received that learner autonomy contributed effectively to learners’ in organizing own ideas (Ene, 2006 such as making a topic  map becomes some explanable sub-topics, writing down main and supporting idea, clustering some objects, editing next and learners  absolutely accumulate some selected vocabularies inappropriate topics  (Chengping W, 2008. Keyword: Learner Autonomy, Learning process, outcomes Absrak: Pembelajaran otonomi  adalah pembelajaran mandiri yang mengontrol mahasiswa untuk menyampaikan gagasan dan pengalamannya, mencatat dan mengevaluasi kesalahan yang terjadi dalam penulisan esai sederhana berdasarkan pembelajaran yang tersetruktur. Tujuan adalah untuk mengetahui efektifitas pembelajaran otonomi terhadap akurasi tulisan secara statistik. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan menggunakan desain tes awal dan akhir. Jumlah sampel terdiri dari 21 siswa di Bangkalan. Isntrumen yang digunakan adalah tes untuk mengetahui hasil nilai mahasiswa sebelum dan sesudah melakukan

  9. Women's autonomy and maternal healthcare service utilization in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiruneh, Fentanesh Nibret; Chuang, Kun-Yang; Chuang, Ying-Chih

    2017-11-13

    Most previous studies on healthcare service utilization in low-income countries have not used a multilevel study design to address the importance of community-level women's autonomy. We assessed whether women's autonomy, measured at both individual and community levels, is associated with maternal healthcare service utilization in Ethiopia. We analyzed data from the 2005 and 2011 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Surveys (N = 6058 and 7043, respectively) for measuring women's decision-making power and permissive gender norms associated with wife beating. We used Spearman's correlation and the chi-squared test for bivariate analyses and constructed generalized estimating equation logistic regression models to analyze the associations between women's autonomy indicators and maternal healthcare service utilization with control for other socioeconomic characteristics. Our multivariate analysis showed that women living in communities with a higher percentage of opposing attitudes toward wife beating were more likely to use all three types of maternal healthcare services in 2011 (adjusted odds ratios = 1.21, 1.23, and 1.18 for four or more antenatal care visits, health facility delivery, and postnatal care visits, respectively). In 2005, the adjusted odds ratios were 1.16 and 1.17 for four or more antenatal care visits and health facility delivery, respectively. In 2011, the percentage of women in the community with high decision-making power was positively associated with the likelihood of four or more antenatal care visits (adjusted odds ratio = 1.14). The association of individual-level autonomy on maternal healthcare service utilization was less profound after we controlled for other individual-level and community-level characteristics. Our study shows that women's autonomy was positively associated with maternal healthcare service utilization in Ethiopia. We suggest addressing woman empowerment in national policies and programs would be the optimal solution.

  10. Shared decision-making and patient autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandman, Lars; Munthe, Christian

    2009-01-01

    In patient-centred care, shared decision-making is advocated as the preferred form of medical decision-making. Shared decision-making is supported with reference to patient autonomy without abandoning the patient or giving up the possibility of influencing how the patient is benefited. It is, however, not transparent how shared decision-making is related to autonomy and, in effect, what support autonomy can give shared decision-making. In the article, different forms of shared decision-making are analysed in relation to five different aspects of autonomy: (1) self-realisation; (2) preference satisfaction; (3) self-direction; (4) binary autonomy of the person; (5) gradual autonomy of the person. It is argued that both individually and jointly these aspects will support the models called shared rational deliberative patient choice and joint decision as the preferred versions from an autonomy perspective. Acknowledging that both of these models may fail, the professionally driven best interest compromise model is held out as a satisfactory second-best choice.

  11. High Average Power, High Energy Short Pulse Fiber Laser System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messerly, M J

    2007-11-13

    Recently continuous wave fiber laser systems with output powers in excess of 500W with good beam quality have been demonstrated [1]. High energy, ultrafast, chirped pulsed fiber laser systems have achieved record output energies of 1mJ [2]. However, these high-energy systems have not been scaled beyond a few watts of average output power. Fiber laser systems are attractive for many applications because they offer the promise of high efficiency, compact, robust systems that are turn key. Applications such as cutting, drilling and materials processing, front end systems for high energy pulsed lasers (such as petawatts) and laser based sources of high spatial coherence, high flux x-rays all require high energy short pulses and two of the three of these applications also require high average power. The challenge in creating a high energy chirped pulse fiber laser system is to find a way to scale the output energy while avoiding nonlinear effects and maintaining good beam quality in the amplifier fiber. To this end, our 3-year LDRD program sought to demonstrate a high energy, high average power fiber laser system. This work included exploring designs of large mode area optical fiber amplifiers for high energy systems as well as understanding the issues associated chirped pulse amplification in optical fiber amplifier systems.

  12. Teachers' Perspectives of their roles and student autonomy in a PBL context in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Huichun; Du, Xiangyun

    2015-01-01

    in a PBL context. In particular, we are mainly concerned with teachers’ attitudes towards student learning autonomy in PBL contexts. The data is mainly relied upon in-depth interviews of the teachers who participate in PBL practice from the two cases. When focusing on how teachers perceive student learning...... autonomy, we can note three major patterns. In general, Chinese teachers have a tendency to maintain high interference in student learning process even though they admit the value of giving student learning autonomy. This study further indicates a dilemma between teachers’ intention to encourage students...

  13. Longitudinal Associations of Autonomy, Relatedness, and Competence with the Well-being of Nursing Home Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloos, Noortje; Trompetter, Hester R; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T; Westerhof, Gerben J

    2018-02-24

    As proposed by the self-determination theory, satisfying nursing home residents' needs for autonomy, relatedness, and competence may improve their well-being. This is the first study to test the longitudinal relations of the satisfaction of these three basic psychological needs to the subjective well-being of nursing home residents and to determine whether a balance among the satisfaction of the three needs is important for well-being. Participants in this longitudinal survey study included 128 physically frail residents (mean age 85 years) at four Dutch nursing homes. Satisfaction of the three basic psychological needs was measured at baseline, and depressive feelings and life satisfaction 5-8 months later. Absolute differences between the three basic need satisfaction scores were summed to create a score of need satisfaction balance. All three needs were related to both well-being measures over time, although autonomy had the strongest relationships. Only autonomy and competence were uniquely associated with depressive feelings, and only autonomy was uniquely associated with life satisfaction. The need satisfaction balance score was related to well-being independent of the autonomy and relatedness scores. These results confirm that all three basic psychological needs are important for nursing home residents' well-being, with autonomy having the strongest and most consistent relationship to their well-being. Additionally, high satisfaction of one need does not compensate for low satisfaction of another. Supporting residents' needs for autonomy, relatedness, and competence should, therefore, have a central role in nursing home culture-change interventions.

  14. Does maternal autonomy influence feeding practices and infant growth in rural India?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroff, Monal R; Griffiths, Paula L; Suchindran, Chirayath; Nagalla, Balakrishna; Vazir, Shahnaz; Bentley, Margaret E

    2011-08-01

    The high prevalence of child under-nutrition remains a profound challenge in the developing world. Maternal autonomy was examined as a determinant of breast feeding and infant growth in children 3-5 months of age. Cross-sectional baseline data on 600 mother-infant pairs were collected in 60 villages in rural Andhra Pradesh, India. The mothers were enrolled in a longitudinal randomized behavioral intervention trial. In addition to anthropometric and demographic measures, an autonomy questionnaire was administered to measure different dimensions of autonomy (e.g. decision-making, freedom of movement, financial autonomy, and acceptance of domestic violence). We conducted confirmatory factor analysis on maternal autonomy items and regression analyses on infant breast feeding and growth after adjusting for socioeconomic and demographic variables, and accounting for infant birth weight, infant morbidity, and maternal nutritional status. Results indicated that mothers with higher financial autonomy were more likely to breastfeed 3-5 month old infants. Mothers with higher participation in decision-making in households had infants that were less underweight and less wasted. These results suggest that improving maternal financial and decision-making autonomy could have a positive impact on infant feeding and growth outcomes. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Energy Systems High-Pressure Test Laboratory | Energy Systems Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facility | NREL Energy Systems High-Pressure Test Laboratory Energy Systems High-Pressure Test Laboratory In the Energy Systems Integration Facility's High-Pressure Test Laboratory, researchers can safely test high-pressure hydrogen components. Photo of researchers running an experiment with a hydrogen fuel

  16. High Confidence Software and Systems Research Needs

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — This White Paper presents a survey of high confidence software and systems research needs. It has been prepared by the High Confidence Software and Systems...

  17. [Autonomy, Trust and Medical Ethics in Onora O'Neill's Work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Carlos Alberto López; Lew, Jorge Carlos Holguín

    2013-03-01

    Autonomy has become a key concept in bioethics. Onora O'neill is perhaps the most representative author and researcher in the philosophical and bioethical fields regrding the concept of autonomy. To review the concept of autonomy in Onora O'Neill's work so as to understand its relevance in current bioethics. The concept of bioethics is reviewed in relation to three fundamental quesions: 1) Which are the main limitations of the individualistic conception of autonomy? 2) How to understand the relations between trust and autonomy together with their implications? and 3) Which are the implications of principled autonomy for aspects such as doctor-patient relationship and informed consent. The main works by O'Neill are reviewed, specifically regarding medical bioethics. O'neill's approach is original and relates Kantian autonomy to her own conceptions about trust, and both the individual and social levels of bioethics. The author has developed a Kantian non indvidualistic view of autonomy. Her conceptulization of trust and the crises this concept is currently undergoing complement and strengthen the concept of principled autonomy. The implications of O'Neill's concepts go beyond theoretical discussions and in her work she uses examples and analyzes circumstances which demonstrate the applicability of her proposals. O'Neill's work contributes to dealing with the challenges posed by the socio-political context of cost-efficiency oriented health systems and of the so-called defensive medicine. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  18. Better Nurse Autonomy Decreases the Odds of 30-Day Mortality and Failure to Rescue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Aditi D.; Kumar, Aparna; McHugh, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Research Purpose Autonomy is essential to professional nursing practice and is a core component of good nurse work environments. The primary objective of this study was to examine the relationship between nurse autonomy and 30-day mortality and failure to rescue (FTR) in a hospitalized surgical population. Study Design This study was a secondary analysis of cross-sectional data. It included data from three sources: patient discharge data from state administrative databases, a survey of nurses from four states, and the American Hospital Association annual survey from 2006–2007. Methods Survey responses from 20,684 staff nurses across 570 hospitals were aggregated to the hospital level to assess autonomy measured by a standardized scale. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the relationship between nurse autonomy and 30-day mortality and FTR. Patient comorbidities, surgery type, and other hospital characteristics were included as controls. Findings Greater nurse autonomy at the hospital level was significantly associated with lower odds of 30-day mortality and FTR for surgical patients even after accounting for patient risk and structural hospital characteristics. Each additional point on the nurse autonomy scale was associated with approximately 19% lower odds of 30-day mortality (p autonomy place their surgical patients at an increased risk for mortality and FTR. Clinical Relevance Patients receiving care within institutions that promote high levels of nurse autonomy have a lower risk for death within 30 days and complications leading to death within 30 days. Hospitals can actively take steps to encourage nurse autonomy to positively influence patient outcomes. PMID:28094907

  19. Oppression, Autonomy and the Impossibility of the Inner Citadel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelsen, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This paper argues for a conception of autonomy that takes social oppression seriously without sapping autonomy of its valuable focus on individual self-direction. Building on recent work in relational accounts of autonomy, the paper argues that current conceptions of autonomy from liberal, feminist and critical theorists do not adequately account…

  20. Heteronomous Citizenship: Civic Virtue and the Chains of Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaine, Lucas

    2010-01-01

    In this article, I distinguish personal autonomy from heteronomy, and consider whether autonomy provides a suitable basis for liberalism. I argue that liberal government should not promote autonomy in all its citizens, on the grounds that not all members of liberal democracies require autonomy for a good life. I then outline an alternative option…

  1. How important is Autonomy to Professional Workers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Mastekaasa

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A common assumption is that autonomy is crucial to professional workers. I examine this using survey data on a sample of public sector welfare professionals, viz. medical doctors, nurses, teachers, social workers. Comparisons are made with general population data from the International Social Survey Programme. Two methods of assessing the importance of work autonomy are employed; respondents’ direct ratings and statistical associations between work autonomy (and other job characteristics on the one hand and job satisfaction and organizational commitment on the other. Findings: Autonomy is not rated as more important among the professionals than in the general population, and neither is it more strongly related to job satisfaction. Interesting work and workplace social support appear to be more central.

  2. Autonomy, nudging and post-truth politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeling, Geoff

    2017-11-16

    In his excellent essay, 'Nudges in a post-truth world', Neil Levy argues that 'nudges to reason', or nudges which aim to make us more receptive to evidence, are morally permissible. A strong argument against the moral permissibility of nudging is that nudges fail to respect the autonomy of the individuals affected by them. Levy argues that nudges to reason do respect individual autonomy, such that the standard autonomy objection fails against nudges to reason. In this paper, I argue that Levy fails to show that nudges to reason respect individual autonomy. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Emotional autonomy and depression among Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, K L

    2000-06-01

    Depression is quite common among young people in Hong Kong Chinese society. This study examined the association between emotional autonomy and depressive symptomatology among Chinese young people in Hong Kong. The respondents were 512 young people between 16 and 18 years of age from a cross-sectional study in Hong Kong. Significant bivariate relationships were found between depressive symptomatology and three dimensions of emotional autonomy (individuation, nondependency on parents, and deidealization of parents). Using multiple regression models, the author found that depressive symptomatology was associated with two aspects of emotional autonomy: individuation and deidealization of parents. Results indicate that the relationships between depressive symptomatology and these three aspects of emotional autonomy are similar in both individualistic and collectivistic societies.

  4. [The medical autonomy of elderly in Taiwan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai-Li; Chen, Ching-Huey

    2014-10-01

    The elderly population is increasing rapidly in Taiwan. With the average life expectancy on the rise, the elderly have become major consumers of healthcare products and services. Factors that influence respect for autonomy, a core value of medical ethics, may be related to family, society, and the medical culture. Especially in patients who are already elderly, aging causes declines in physical, mental and societal capacities. Practicing a respect for patient autonomy is particularly challenging for healthcare professionals in Taiwan due the unique culture background of elderly Taiwanese patients. This article reviews and integrates the literature related to the issue of patient autonomy and elaborates on medical decision-making among elderly patients in Taiwan in the contexts of: the disadvantages faced by the elderly, the background of Chinese culture, and the current medical decision-making environment. A few suggestions are proposed to help preserve the medical-decision-making autonomy of elderly patients in Taiwan.

  5. Decision-Making Autonomy and Subsidiary Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Vo, Dut; Beugelsdijk, Sjoerd; de Jong, Gjalt

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates how decision-making autonomy affects the possibility and intensity of innovation in subsidiaries of multinational enterprises (MNEs). Subsidiaries are increasingly identified as sources of innovation and as vehicles for cross-border transfer of new competences. The question...... of how much decision-making autonomy subsidiaries should have is a core issue in the management of headquarters-subsidiary relationships. Using two complementary theoretical perspectives, we hypothesize a non-linear relationship between subsidiary’s decision-making autonomy and innovation. We test our...... hypothesis in a multi-country and multiindustry database based on survey evidence of 134 subsidiaries located in five Central and Eastern European countries from 23 home countries. The empirical results provide support for a non-linear U shaped relationship between subsidiary decision-making autonomy...

  6. The Link between Perceived Maternal and Paternal Autonomy Support and Adolescent Well-Being across Three Major Educational Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duineveld, Jasper J.; Parker, Philip D.; Ryan, Richard M.; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Salmela-Aro, Katariina

    2017-01-01

    To what extent does maternal and paternal autonomy support enhance well-being across the major transitions of high school? We tested the degree to which perceived autonomy supportive parenting facilitated positive changes in self-esteem and life satisfaction and buffered against negative changes in depressive symptoms and school related burnout in…

  7. Portable energy: autonomy and integration in the human environment; Energie portable: autonomie et integration dans l'environnement humain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Multon, F; Delamarche, P [Rennes-2 Universite, Lab. de Physiologie et de Biomecanique de l& #x27; Exercice Mulsculaire, UMR. APS, 35 (France); Lucchese, P [CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, Dir. de la Recherche Technologique, Hydrogene et Pile a Combustible, 92 (France); and others

    2002-07-01

    This colloquium was motivated by the possibility to recover in our environment the energy produced by our movements, but also the heat emitted and the radiations received by the human body in order to supply the energy needs of portable electronic devices (telephones, micro-computers, watches, prostheses etc..). It tries to answer the different problems raised by the implementation of portable energy sources: the energy resources in the human environment, the physical and technological processes of energy production and storage, the electronic energy conversion and remote transmission means, the intelligent energy management, and the existing and potential applications of these processes. This document brings together 16 communications presented by searchers from various domains (biology, medicine, electrochemistry, computer science, mechanics, thermodynamics, electronics etc..) on the following topics: energy in the human body, possibilities of miniaturization of fuel cells, thermo-mechanical micro-generators, thermoelectric generation, solar cells and autonomy, micro-chargeable batteries, double-layer super-capacitors (principles and electrical behaviour), renewable energies in watches, electro-mechanical devices for the exploitation of human movements energy, trans-dermal power supply, new mechanical-aided systems for blood circulation, problems and their solutions related to portable telephones, low voltage and high efficiency power electronic systems for portable applications, remote energy transmission, intelligent energy management (equipments and softwares), electromagnetic environments and health. (J.S.)

  8. Futility, autonomy, and informed consent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trau, J M

    1994-03-01

    If clinicians deem a treatment medically futile, is it appropriate to mention such a treatment to patients? Do healthcare professionals violate informed consent if they do not offer patients an opportunity to decline futile treatments? The notion of futility involves an assessment of patient best interest--both short-term and long-term therapeutic benefit for a patient and the community in which he or she intends to survive and flourish. Although survival interests may be construed as long term, a treatment that offers survival without any promise of flourishing is not the goal of medicine and is futile. Flourishing requires some cognitive and affective function. The goal of informed consent practices is to ensure that patients accept the benefits of treatment with cognizance of the burdens and risks. Given the impact of illness on the emotional and psychological states of patients and their families and their resultant vulnerability, the omission of futile options from treatment plans is logical and exemplifies the best of paternalistic behavior. The claim that requests for futile treatment must be honored is based on a perverse understanding of patient autonomy. Rational medicine demands that patients' requests be reasonable from a clinical perspective, as well as from a subjective one. The practice of informed consent can be implemented as a balance between these two interests.

  9. Autonomy, Competence and Non-interference

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Joseph T.F.

    2017-01-01

    In light of the variety of uses of the term autonomy in recent bioethics literature, in this paper, I suggest that competence, not being as contested, is better placed to play the anti-paternalistic role currently assigned to autonomy. The demonstration of competence, I will argue, can provide individuals with robust spheres of non-interference in which they can pursue their lives in accordance with their own values. This protection from paternalism is achieved by granting individuals rights ...

  10. The Changing Scope of Professional Autonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Peter Kragh; Wrede, Sirpa

    2009-01-01

    Kapitlet undersøger hvordan lægeprofessionens autonomi ændres i relation til ledelse i sygehuse i Danmark, Norge, Sverige og Finland i tiden fra 1970 og fremefter.......Kapitlet undersøger hvordan lægeprofessionens autonomi ændres i relation til ledelse i sygehuse i Danmark, Norge, Sverige og Finland i tiden fra 1970 og fremefter....

  11. SOCIOTROPY AND AUTONOMY IN EATING DISORDERS

    OpenAIRE

    Radziwiłłowicz, Wioletta; Czarniak, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Studies of development psychopathology and psychia try have shown that personality variables are greatly associated with eating disorders. Sociotropy and autonomy may be features that facilitate the occurrence and persistence of the eating disturbances. Theoretical framework for own research was mainly the A. Beck’s concept of autonomy and sociotropy. The aim of the study was to answer the research question whether a person suffering from an eating disorder is characterized by ...

  12. Does influence beget autonomy? Clarifying the relationship between social and personal power

    OpenAIRE

    Leach, Stefan; Weick, Mario; Lammers, Joris

    2017-01-01

    We iteratively develop and test a model to clarify the relationship between both high and low levels of social (influence) and personal (autonomy) power. A meta-analysis synthesising primary data (n = 298) and secondary data (n = 498) found that impaired personal power coincided with impaired social power, but not vice versa. Unexpectedly, elevated social power did not coincide with elevated personal power, suggesting that the association between influence and autonomy attenuates with increas...

  13. Understanding critical care nurses' autonomy in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharmeh, Mahmoud

    2017-10-02

    Purpose The aim of this study was to describe Jordanian critical care nurses' experiences of autonomy in their clinical practice. Design/methodology/approach A descriptive correlational design was applied using a self-reported cross-sectional survey. A total of 110 registered nurses who met the eligibility criteria participated in this study. The data were collected by a structured questionnaire. Findings A majority of critical care nurses were autonomous in their decision-making and participation in decisions to take action in their clinical settings. Also, they were independent to develop their own knowledge. The study identified that their autonomy in action and acquired knowledge were influenced by a number of factors such as gender and area of practice. Practical implications Nurse's autonomy could be increased if nurses are made aware of the current level of autonomy and explore new ways to increase empowerment. This could be offered through classroom lectures that concentrate on the concept of autonomy and its implication in practice. Nurses should demonstrate autonomous nursing care at the same time in the clinical practice. This could be done through collaboration between educators and clinical practice to help merge theory to practice. Originality/value Critical care nurses were more autonomous in action and knowledge base. This may negatively affect the quality of patient care and nurses' job satisfaction. Therefore, improving nurses' clinical decision-making autonomy could be done by the support of both hospital administrators and nurses themselves.

  14. Autonomy and informed consent: a mistaken association?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristinsson, Sigurdur

    2007-09-01

    For decades, the greater part of efforts to improve regulatory frameworks for research ethics has focused on informed consent procedures; their design, codification and regulation. Why is informed consent thought to be so important? Since the publication of the Belmont Report in 1979, the standard response has been that obtaining informed consent is a way of treating individuals as autonomous agents. Despite its political success, the philosophical validity of this Belmont view cannot be taken for granted. If the Belmont view is to be based on a conception of autonomy that generates moral justification, it will either have to be reinterpreted along Kantian lines or coupled with a something like Mill's conception of individuality. The Kantian interpretation would be a radical reinterpretation of the Belmont view, while the Millian justification is incompatible with the liberal requirement that justification for public policy should be neutral between controversial conceptions of the good. This consequence might be avoided by replacing Mill's conception of individuality with a procedural conception of autonomy, but I argue that the resulting view would in fact fail to support a non-Kantian, autonomy-based justification of informed consent. These difficulties suggest that insofar as informed consent is justified by respect for persons and considerations of autonomy, as the Belmont report maintained, the justification should be along the lines of Kantian autonomy and not individual autonomy.

  15. Autonomy supported, learner-controlled or system-controlled learning in hypermedia environments and the influence of academic self-regulation style

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorissen, Chantal; Kester, Liesbeth; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Martens, Rob

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on learning in three different hypermedia environments that either support autonomous learning, learner-controlled learning or system-controlled learning and explores the mediating role of academic self-regulation style ( ASRS; i.e., a macro level of motivation) on learning. This

  16. Autonomy supported, learner-controlled or system-controlled learning in hypermedia environments and the influence of academic self-regulation style

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorissen, Chantal J J; Kester, Liesbeth; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Martens, Rob

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on learning in three different hypermedia environments that either support autonomous learning, learner-controlled learning or system-controlled learning and explores the mediating role of academic self-regulation style (ASRS; i.e. a macro level of motivation) on learning. This

  17. Autonomy Supported, Learner-Controlled or System-Controlled Learning in Hypermedia Environments and the Influence of Academic Self-Regulation Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorissen, Chantal J. J.; Kester, Liesbeth; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Martens, Rob

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on learning in three different hypermedia environments that either support autonomous learning, learner-controlled learning or system-controlled learning and explores the mediating role of academic self-regulation style (ASRS; i.e. a macro level of motivation) on learning. This research was performed to gain more insight in the…

  18. Perceived autonomy in the first semester of mathematics studies

    OpenAIRE

    Liebendörfer, Michael; Hochmuth, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    International audience; We focus on the perceived autonomy of mathematics students in their first semester at university. According to self-determination theory by Deci and Ryan (1985), students have to satisfy their need for autonomy in order to develop intrinsic motivation. Using two facets of autonomy, we analyse interview data to explore which situations foster or hinder the students' perceived autonomy. The main factors affecting students' autonomy are briefly discussed.

  19. General Introduction: Autonomy and Heteronomy of the Judiciary in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joxerramon Bengoetxea

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Judges and the judiciary have always been a subject of debate. The questions of legitimacy, activism v self-restraint; appointment or selection, accountability, the rise of alternatives to formal justice, ADR, are at the heart of the discussion. However, the law-job of dispute resolution is not actually done by the judges on their own, nor in isolation; judges have many different sorts of collaborators and some of these can develop some scope for autonomy. At the same time the judiciary claims to be an independent power, but it is also a basic public service to the citizens; how can the public administration be involved in securing-facilitating this service? Finally, when deciding and interpreting the law judges often need to take into account norms belonging to different but coordinated legal systems and find coherence between them, and it can be questioned whether the method of conform interpretation they resort to might enhance or diminish their autonomy.

  20. Development of Autonomy as a Precondition of Adolescents’ Orientation in Moral Sphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molchanov S.V.,

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the outcomes of a research on the relationship between developmental levels of autonomy and features of moral orientation in adolescents determined by the priority of the value of justice or care within the cognitive (J. Piaget, L. Kohlberg and empathy approach (C. Gillian, N. Eisenberg. The research proved that high levels of autonomy in the cognitive component correlate with the adolescent’s high estimation of moral qualities in various communicative contexts. Low level of emotional autonomy correlates with orientation towards the value of care, while high level correlates with orientation towards the value of justice. Levels of autonomy also correlate with moral judgments. Adolescents with low levels of autonomy reveal greater dependence on the opinion of other people and a stronger desire to appear a better person in the eyes of others. Adolescents with heterochrony of autonomy structure are more oriented towards the stage of the conventional level, i.e. the opinion of other people, a strong desire to appear a better person in the eyes of others, the significance of social rules and order, and the reflective empathic position that affirms the idea of self-sacrifice and defending the rights of others.

  1. Beyond Expectations: Autonomy and the Iranian Postgraduate Students in Malaysian Public Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Neissi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Iranian learners at all levels of education (primary, secondary and tertiary face a number of constraints in their studies due to restriction of educational system, cultures, upbringing and expectations of society. Based on this premise the researchers would like to explore the degrees of autonomy as practiced by selected Iranian postgraduate students studying at three premier public universities in Malaysia. Data were gathered using the Learner Autonomy Profile (LAP developed by Confessore & Confessore (1992.  The findings reveal that these Iranian postgraduate students do practice autonomy and know how to apply positive coping strategies in their studies; thus indicating positive contradiction from the normal expectations of Iranian learners’ performance in relation to autonomy. The paper concludes with the impacts and implications of the findings.

  2. Cultural competence: reflections on patient autonomy and patient good.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leever, Martin G

    2011-07-01

    Terms such as 'cultural competence' and 'transcultural nursing' have comfortably taken their place in the lexicon of health care. Their high profile is a reflection of the diversity of western societies and health care's commitment to provide care that is responsive to the values and beliefs of all who require treatment. However, the relationship between cultural competence and familiar ethical concepts such as patient autonomy has been an uneasy one. This article explores the moral foundations of cultural competence, ultimately locating them in patient autonomy and patient good. The discussion of patient good raises questions about the moral relevance of a value's rootedness in a particular culture. I argue that the moral justification for honoring cultural values has more to do with the fact that patients are strongly committed to them than it does with their cultural rootedness. Finally, I suggest an organizational approach to cultural competence that emphasizes overall organizational preparedness.

  3. High frequency system project implementation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, L.L.

    1976-01-01

    The High Frequency System is a new mobile, digital diagnostic recording system for use at the Nevada Test Site. Many different kinds of event data will be digitized in real-time by this system, and these data will be recorded and stored for later read-out and transmission to NADCEN. The hardware and software requirements of the High Frequency System are examined, and the parameters of the system are proposed

  4. The Exercise of Learner Autonomy in a Virtual EFL Course in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Andrea Bedoya

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This case study explores how a group of graduate students manifest autonomy in an English as a Foreign Language virtual course at a Colombian university. Analysis of questionnaires, forums, and interviews showed that students manifested attitudes that led to autonomy such as motivation and commitment at the beginning of the course, but they also manifested high levels of dependence and lack of self-confidence. Later, they became more confident and performed more independently, two attitudes closely-related to autonomy. Furthermore, the results show that factors such as course design, the platform, and the teacher’s role influenced the students’ exercise of autonomy. Finally, the need for designing virtual English as a Foreign Language courses that promote autonomous learning and the teachers’ and the students’ roles in virtual environments are discussed.

  5. Passive containment system in high earthquake motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleimola, F.W.; Falls, O.B. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    High earthquake motion necessitates major design modifications in the complex of plant structures, systems and components in a nuclear power plant. Distinctive features imposed by seismic category, safety class and quality classification requirements for the high seismic ground acceleration loadings significantly reflect in plant costs. The design features in the Passive Containment System (PCS) responding to high earthquake ground motion are described

  6. Machine Learning Control For Highly Reconfigurable High-Order Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-02

    calibration and applications,” Mechatronics and Embedded Systems and Applications (MESA), 2010 IEEE/ASME International Conference on, IEEE, 2010, pp. 38–43...AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2015-0012 MACHINE LEARNING CONTROL FOR HIGHLY RECONFIGURABLE HIGH-ORDER SYSTEMS John Valasek TEXAS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION...DIMENSIONAL RECONFIGURABLE SYSTEMS FA9550-11-1-0302 Period of Performance 1 July 2011 – 29 September 2014 John Valasek Aerospace Engineering

  7. Controlled Autonomy: Novice Principals' Schema for District Control and School Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Jennie M.; Woulfin, Sarah L.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to gain insights into how a group of novice principals, all in schools that deployed principles of autonomy as mechanisms for improvement, conceptualized what the authors label "controlled autonomy"--a condition in which school leaders are expected to both make site-based decisions and be accountable…

  8. Abusive supervision, psychosomatic symptoms, and deviance: Can job autonomy make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez, Maria João; Neves, Pedro

    2016-07-01

    Recently, interest in abusive supervision has grown (Tepper, 2000). However, little is still known about organizational factors that can reduce its adverse effects on employee behavior. Based on the Job Demands-Resources Model (Demerouti, Bakker, Nachreiner, & Schaufeli, 2001), we predict that job autonomy acts as a buffer of the positive relationship between abusive supervision, psychosomatic symptoms and deviance. Therefore, when job autonomy is low, a higher level of abusive supervision should be accompanied by increased psychosomatic symptoms and thus lead to higher production deviance. When job autonomy is high, abusive supervision should fail to produce increased psychosomatic symptoms and thus should not lead to higher production deviance. Our model was explored among a sample of 170 supervisor-subordinate dyads from 4 organizations. The results of the moderated mediation analysis supported our hypotheses. That is, abusive supervision was significantly related to production deviance via psychosomatic symptoms when job autonomy was low, but not when job autonomy was high. These findings suggest that job autonomy buffers the impact of abusive supervision perceptions on psychosomatic symptoms, with consequences for production deviance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Maternal Household Decision-Making Autonomy and Adolescent Education in Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrick, C Emily; Marteleto, Leticia

    2017-06-01

    Maternal decision-making autonomy has been linked to positive outcomes for children's health and well-being early in life in low- and middle-income countries throughout the world. However, there is a dearth of research examining if and how maternal autonomy continues to influence children's outcomes into adolescence and whether it impacts other domains of children's lives beyond health, such as their education. The goal of this study was to determine whether high maternal decision-making was associated with school enrollment for secondary school-aged youth in Honduras. Further, we aimed to assess whether the relationships between maternal autonomy and school enrollment varied by adolescents' environmental contexts and individual characteristics such as gender. Our analytical sample included 6,579 adolescents ages 12-16 living with their mothers from the Honduran Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) 2011-12. We used stepwise logistic regression models to investigate the association between maternal household decision-making autonomy and adolescents' school enrollment. Our findings suggest that adolescents, especially girls, benefit from their mothers' high decision-making autonomy. Findings suggest that maternal decision-making autonomy promotes adolescents' school enrollment above and beyond other maternal, household, and regional influences.

  10. Contingency Management with Human Autonomy Teaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shively, Robert J.; Lachter, Joel B.

    2018-01-01

    Automation is playing an increasingly important role in many operations. It is often cheaper faster and more precise than human operators. However, automation is not perfect. There are many situations in which a human operator must step in. We refer to these instances as contingencies and the act of stepping in contingency management. Here we propose coupling Human Autonomy Teaming (HAT) with contingency management. We describe two aspects to HAT, bi-directional communication, and working agreements (or plays). Bi-directional communication like Crew Resource Management in traditional aviation, allows all parties to contribute to a decision. Working agreements specify roles and responsibilities. Importantly working agreements allow for the possibility of roles and responsibilities changing depending on environmental factors (e.g., situations the automation was not designed for, workload, risk, or trust). This allows for the automation to "automatically" become more autonomous as it becomes more trusted and/or it is updated to deal with a more complete set of possible situations. We present a concrete example using a prototype contingency management station one might find in a future airline operations center. Automation proposes reroutes for aircraft that encounter bad weather or are forced to divert for environmental or systems reasons. If specific conditions are met, these recommendations may be autonomously datalinked to the affected aircraft.

  11. Reactive Goal Decomposition Hierarchies for On-Board Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, L.

    2002-01-01

    to state and environment and in general can terminate the execution of a decomposition and attempt a new decomposition at any level in the hierarchy. This goal decomposition system is suitable for workstation, microprocessor and fpga implementation and thus is able to support the full range of prototyping activities, from mission design in the laboratory to development of the fpga firmware for the flight system. This approach is based on previous artificial intelligence work including (1) Brooks' subsumption architecture for robot control, (2) Firby's Reactive Action Package System (RAPS) for mediating between high level automated planning and low level execution and (3) hierarchical task networks for automated planning. Reactive goal decomposition hierarchies can be used for a wide variety of on-board autonomy applications including automating low level operation sequences (such as scheduling prerequisite operations, e.g., heaters, warm-up periods, monitoring power constraints), coordinating multiple spacecraft as in formation flying and constellations, robot manipulator operations, rendez-vous, docking, servicing, assembly, on-orbit maintenance, planetary rover operations, solar system and interstellar probes, intelligent science data gathering and disaster early warning. Goal decomposition hierarchies can support high level fault tolerance. Given models of on-board resources and goals to accomplish, the decomposition hierarchy could allocate resources to goals taking into account existing faults and in real-time reallocating resources as new faults arise. Resources to be modeled include memory (e.g., ROM, FPGA configuration memory, processor memory, payload instrument memory), processors, on-board and interspacecraft network nodes and links, sensors, actuators (e.g., attitude determination and control, guidance and navigation) and payload instruments. A goal decomposition hierarchy could be defined to map mission goals and tasks to available on-board resources. As

  12. HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPhee, William S.

    2001-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) needs improved technologies to decontaminate large areas of both concrete and steel surfaces. The technology should have high operational efficiency, minimize exposures to workers, and produce low levels of secondary waste. In order to meet the DOE's needs, an applied research and development project for the improvement of a current decontamination technology, Vacuum Blasting, is proposed. The objective of this project is to improve the productivity and lower the expense of the existing vacuum blasting technology which has been widely used in DOE sites for removing radioactive contamination, PCBs, and lead-based paint. The proposed work would increase the productivity rate and provide safe and cost-effective decontamination of the DOE sites

  13. Care, Autonomy, and Gender in Nursing Practice: A Historical Study of Nurses' Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbany-Estragués, Paola; Comas-d'Argemir, Dolors

    2017-10-01

    Care is the essence of the nursing role and is closely related to the concept of professional autonomy. Autonomy is implicated in power relations between doctors and nurses and between men and women. These relationships are closely linked to care practices and the inequality of nursing and medicine. The aim of this study was to analyze nursing discourse regarding the concept of care and its relationship to the concept of autonomy and gender. This is a historical study based on oral interviews that took place between November 2008 and February 2011. We interviewed 19 nursing professionals who currently worked at the Hospital of the Holy Spirit (near Barcelona) or had worked there between 1961 and 2010. Semistructured interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed. We highlight four main themes: "a real nurse"; "more technology, less care"; "the fragility of autonomy"; and "the invisibility of nursing work." These themes show the contradictions in the nursing profession that are based on the concept of care. However, in daily practice, the concept of care varies. Time pressure distances the nursing practice from its theoretical context. Changes in the concept of care are related to transformations in the health system and nursing work. Changes related to the autonomy of nursing are related to changes in the concept of care. In practice, care has a biomedical orientation. Care has become technologized and bureaucratized, which reduces the time that is spent with the patient. In a context in which medical authority predominates, nursing's struggle for autonomy is based on the recognition of the value of care. When care becomes invisible, the autonomy of nursing as a profession is threatened. This conclusion allows reflections about shifts in the concept of care and how they affect clinical practice and the autonomy of the nursing profession.

  14. [The issue of autonomy in medical ethics: philosophy of Karol Wojtyła].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebrój, Lesław T; Olejniczak, Marek; Kruźlak, Agnieszka

    2007-01-01

    The issue of autonomy seems to play a very central and fundamental role in contemporary medical ethics. However, it should be emphasized, that there is no agreement on how the concept of autonomy ought to be understood. Although as the main intellectual framework to describe the meaning of "autonomy" is the use of philosophical system of John St. Mill or Immanuel Kant, one could identify the tendency to redefine the concept under study. The aim of this article was to find out if the philosophy of Karol Wojtyla could provide--interesting from the bioethical point of view--insights into understanding of the idea of autonomy. The Wojtyla's critique of Kant's and Mill's understanding of autonomy was shortly described and the main elements of Wojtyla's concept of autonomy were analyzed. On the basis of these considerations it was assumed that philosophical background of Wojtyla is so different from those which are used in the contemporary, especially so called Anglo-American, bioethics that introducing it "elements" of his thinking would lead to misunderstandings and indeed even serious errors. On the other hand, however, philosophical works of Wojtyla seems to be very influential in developing 'personalistic' bioethics. But this bioethics could be accepted only by people who share Wojtyla's ontological and probably also theological or religious assumptions.

  15. The nonlinear effects of job complexity and autonomy on job satisfaction, turnover, and psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung-Yan, Greg A

    2010-07-01

    This study examines the interactive relationship between job complexity and job autonomy on job satisfaction, turnover intentions, and psychological well-being. It was hypothesized that the positive or motivating effects of job complexity are only realized when workers are given enough autonomy to effectively meet the challenges of complex jobs. Results show that not only do job complexity and job autonomy interact, but that the relationships to the outcome variables are curvilinear in form. Job complexity is shown to be both a motivator and a stressor when job autonomy is low. However, the most beneficial effects of job complexity occur when it is matched by a high level of job autonomy. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  16. Women's Autonomy and Skilled Attendance During Pregnancy and Delivery in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kc, Situ; Neupane, Subas

    2016-06-01

    Objectives This study aims to explore the association between women's autonomy and skilled attendance during pregnancy and delivery in Nepal. Methods We adopt data from the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS, 2011). We include only married women who gave birth in the 5 years preceding the survey (N = 4148). Women's autonomy was assessed on the basis of four indicators of decision making: healthcare, visiting friends or relatives, household purchases and spending earned money. Each indicator was dichotomized (yes/no) and then summarized into a single variable to measure overall autonomy. Next, we measured health attendance (skilled vs. unskilled) during antenatal and delivery care. The association between women's autonomy and skilled attendance was analysed using a logistic regression model. Results Most women had a medium (40 %) and high (35 %) level of overall autonomy. The proportion of women accessing skilled providers during antenatal and delivery care was 51 and 36 %. Women with autonomy in healthcare, visiting friends or relatives, making household purchases and spending money earned were associated with a higher likelihood of receiving care from skilled providers during antenatal care and delivery. An elevated probability of access to skilled attendance during antenatal (aOR 1.33; 95 % CI 1.10-1.59) and delivery care (aOR 1.38; 95 % CI 1.12-1.70) was reported among women with higher levels of overall autonomy. Conclusion Women's autonomy was significantly associated with the maternal health care utilization by skilled attendants. This study will provide insights for policy makers to develop strategies in improving maternal health.

  17. Parental autonomy granting and child perceived control: effects on the everyday emotional experience of anxious youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit Allen, Kristy; Silk, Jennifer S; Meller, Suzanne; Tan, Patricia Z; Ladouceur, Cecile D; Sheeber, Lisa B; Forbes, Erika E; Dahl, Ronald E; Siegle, Greg J; McMakin, Dana L; Ryan, Neal D

    2016-07-01

    Childhood anxiety is associated with low levels of parental autonomy granting and child perceived control, elevated child emotional reactivity and deficits in child emotion regulation. In early childhood, low levels of parental autonomy granting are thought to decrease child perceived control, which in turn leads to increases in child negative emotion. Later in development, perceived control may become a more stable, trait-like characteristic that amplifies the relationship between parental autonomy granting and child negative emotion. The purpose of this study was to test mediation and moderation models linking parental autonomy granting and child perceived control with child emotional reactivity and emotion regulation in anxious youth. Clinically anxious youth (N = 106) and their primary caregivers were assessed prior to beginning treatment. Children were administered a structured diagnostic interview and participated in a parent-child interaction task that was behaviorally coded for parental autonomy granting. Children completed an ecological momentary assessment protocol during which they reported on perceived control, emotional reactivity (anxiety and physiological arousal) and emotion regulation strategy use in response to daily negative life events. The relationship between parental autonomy granting and both child emotional reactivity and emotion regulation strategy use was moderated by child perceived control: the highest levels of self-reported physiological responding and the lowest levels of acceptance in response to negative events occurred in children low in perceived control with parents high in autonomy granting. Evidence for a mediational model was not found. In addition, child perceived control over negative life events was related to less anxious reactivity and greater use of both problem solving and cognitive restructuring as emotion regulation strategies. Both parental autonomy granting and child perceived control play important roles in the

  18. INSTITUTIONAL AND CONJUNCTURAL FACTORS ACTION ON AUTONOMY IN LOCAL PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SCUTARIU PETRONELA

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Component without which the function of local public administration management would be compromised, administrative autonomy manifests under the action of various factors. From such an angle, the space of this article is dedicated to identifying the factors affecting the autonomy in management of local public administration in order to show their actions on its manifestation. By developing the present approach, beyond the incompleteness of the existing explanations relative to this sphere of interest, we have identified and highlighted the action of two sets of factors - institutional and conjunctural. Ensign turned out to be the action that institutional factors exert on autonomy, the latter being the greater, as the local administrative structure is higher, as the number of local public services is higher, when there are legal regulations that warrant it, and vice versa. Then analyzing conjunctural factors, we found that the influence of the economic crisis is, as expected, adverse to autonomy manifestation. Regarding the local development factor, we showed that a local community with a high degree of development functions without the intervention of center, a situation that favors autonomy, as opposed to a less developed community that requires the support of the center, intervention which mitigates the autonomy. By examining the action of political factor, we noticed that, although politicians define public strategies and policies that will be implemented, which gives it a positive connotation, most often autonomy suffers under the politics influence. Finally, the social organization in local collectivities provides favorable ground to the manifestation and functioning of autonomy in the management of local public administration.

  19. Let it go: Relationship autonomy predicts pro-relationship responses to partner transgressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadden, Benjamin W; Baker, Zachary G; Knee, C Raymond

    2017-11-24

    The purpose of the present research is to better understand how relationship autonomy-having more self-determined reasons for being committed to a relationship-contributes to pro-relationship responses to transgressions in romantic relationships (e.g., forgiveness and accommodation). Study 1 employed a cross-sectional design (N = 350) and Study 2 used a weekly diary (N = 121) to test associations between relationship autonomy and pro-relationship responses to transgressions. Studies 3 and 4 utilized dyadic designs (Study 3: N = 200 couples, 400 individuals; Study 4: N = 275 couples, 550 individuals) to determine how both partners' relationship autonomy is associated with pro-relationship responses. Results revealed that relationship autonomy is robustly associated with pro-relationship responses to transgressions, both as general tendencies and as responses to idiosyncratic transgressions. Results of actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) analyses in Studies 3 and 4 provide evidence that one's partner's relationship autonomy is important for promoting pro-relationship responses as well. Study 4 also found that people perceive that partners respond better to transgressions if their partner is high in relationship autonomy. This research provides consistent and compelling evidence that the degree of self-determination underlying commitment is important for understanding how people respond to transgressions in their relationships, beyond their current levels of commitment. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Item Response Theory analysis of the Autonomy over Tobacco Scale (AUTOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, Robert J; Edelen, Maria Orlando; DiFranza, Joseph R

    2015-06-01

    The Autonomy over Tobacco Scale (AUTOS) is composed of 12-symptoms of nicotine dependence. While it has demonstrated excellent reliability and validity, several psychometric properties have yet to be investigated. We aimed to determine (1) whether items functioned differently across demographic groups, (2) the likelihood that individual symptoms would be endorsed by smokers at different levels of diminished autonomy, and (3) the degree of information provided by each item and the reliability of the full AUTOS across the range of diminished autonomy. Data for this study come from two convenience samples of American adult current smokers (n=777; 69% female; 88% white; Mage=34 years, range: 18-78), of whom 66% were daily smokers (Mcigarettes/smoking day=10.1, range: AUTOS online as part of "a research study about the experiences people have when they smoke." After p value correction, items remained invariant across sex and minority status, while two items functioned differently according to age, with minimal impact on the total AUTOS score. Discriminative power of the items was high. The greatest amount of information is provided at just under one-half SD above the mean and the least at the extremes of diminished autonomy. The AUTOS maintains acceptable reliability (>0.70) across the range of diminished autonomy within which more than 95% of smokers' scores could be anticipated to fall. The AUTOS is a versatile and psychometrically sound instrument for measuring the loss of autonomy over tobacco use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Examination of the Relationship Between Autonomy and English Achievement as Mediated by Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbandordinejad, Farhad; Ahmadabad, Roghayyeh Moradian

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the relationship between autonomy and English language achievement among third-grade high school students as mediated by foreign language classroom anxiety in a city in the north-west of Iran. A sample of 400 students (187 males, and 213 females) was assessed for their levels of autonomy and foreign language anxiety using the Autonomy Questionnaire and Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS), respectively. Participants' scores on their final English exam were also used as the measurement of their English achievement. The results of Pearson correlation revealed a strong correlation between learners' autonomy and their English achievement (r [Formula: see text] .406, n [Formula: see text] 400, [Formula: see text]). Also, foreign language classroom anxiety was found to be significantly and negatively correlated with English achievement (r [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text].472, n [Formula: see text] 400, [Formula: see text]). Hierarchical multiple regression was used to assess the ability of autonomy to predict language learning achievement, after controlling for the influence of anxiety. In sum, the results of hierarchical multiple regressions revealed that foreign language classroom anxiety significantly mediates the relationship between autonomy and English language achievement. Implications for both teachers and learners, and suggestions for further research are provided.

  2. Relationship of Autonomy Social Support to Quitting Motivation in Diverse Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, Christi A; Clinic, Mayo; Goggin, Kathy; Harris, Kari Jo; Richter, Kimber; Williams, Karen; Decker, Paul A; Clinic, Mayo; Bradley-Ewing, Andrea; Catley, Delwyn

    2016-01-01

    Research examining relationships between social support and smoking cessation has paid little attention to non-treatment seeking smokers and not considered the role of autonomy support for fostering quitting motivation. This study examined if autonomy support received from family and friends was associated with quitting motivation and making a quit attempt among diverse smokers with varying levels of quitting motivation. Demographic characteristics associated with autonomy support were explored. Participants (N=312) responded to advertisements seeking smokers "not quite ready to quit," and were primarily Black, low-income, and unemployed. Most (255) enrolled in a clinical trial of smoking cessation induction strategies (treatment sample). An additional 57 not meeting the trial eligibility criteria of low quitting motivation enrolled for baseline assessments only. Participants completed baseline measures of autonomy support received from friends and autonomous quitting motivation. In the treatment sample, quit attempts were assessed at 6-months follow-up. Females reported higher levels than males of autonomy support from friends (p=0.003). Participants with a high school diploma/GED reported higher levels of support from family (pautonomy support scores were significantly, albeit weakly, associated with autonomous quitting motivation. Autonomy support was not associated with making a quit attempt. Support from family and friends may promote autonomous reasons to quit among diverse smokers. Research is needed to assess the role of social support in the pre-quitting phases among racial and socio-economically diverse populations.

  3. High Density Digital Data Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kenneth D., II; Gray, David L.; Rowland, Wayne D.

    1991-01-01

    The High Density Digital Data Storage System was designed to provide a cost effective means for storing real-time data from the field-deployable digital acoustic measurement system. However, the high density data storage system is a standalone system that could provide a storage solution for many other real time data acquisition applications. The storage system has inputs for up to 20 channels of 16-bit digital data. The high density tape recorders presently being used in the storage system are capable of storing over 5 gigabytes of data at overall transfer rates of 500 kilobytes per second. However, through the use of data compression techniques the system storage capacity and transfer rate can be doubled. Two tape recorders have been incorporated into the storage system to produce a backup tape of data in real-time. An analog output is provided for each data channel as a means of monitoring the data as it is being recorded.

  4. The development of autonomy in children's education.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cavana

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the development of autonomy in the education of the child and focuses on the analysis of empirical data collected in some services for children in North and South of Italy (Trento, Bologna, Caltagirone, through the administration of semi-structured interviews with educators of the nursery and kindergarten teachers. The returned responses were read in the light of the phenomenological paradigm that permitted to highlight two major kinds of considerations: the one refers to as "parents support and encourage the development of the autonomy of their child more in words than deeds"; the other to as the educators and teachers interviewed showed an explicit difficulty to attribute a clear meaning to the concept of adult autonomy. The incoming in this set of considerations first of all emphasize the important role of adult education and its path of reflexivity and growth.

  5. The autonomy of grammar and semantic internalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobler Tamara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In his post-Tractatus work on natural language use, Wittgenstein defended the notion of what he dubbed the autonomy of grammar. According to this thought, grammar - or semantics, in a more recent idiom - is essentially autonomous from metaphysical considerations, and is not answerable to the nature of things. The argument has several related incarnations in Wittgenstein’s post-Tractatus writings, and has given rise to a number of important insights, both critical and constructive. In this paper I will argue for a potential connection between Wittgenstein’s autonomy argument and some more recent internalist arguments for the autonomy of semantics. My main motivation for establishing this connection comes from the fact that the later Wittgenstein’s comments on grammar and meaning stand in opposition to some of the core assumptions of semantic externalism.

  6. A Latent Class Analysis of Maternal Responsiveness and Autonomy-Granting in Early Adolescence: Prediction to Later Adolescent Sexual Risk-Taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, H. Isabella; Huang, David Y. C.; Murphy, Debra A.; Hser, Yih-Ing

    2013-01-01

    The present study sought to extend empirical inquiry related to the role of parenting on adolescent sexual risk-taking by using latent class analysis (LCA) to identify patterns of adolescent-reported mother responsiveness and autonomy-granting in early adolescence and examine associations with sexual risk-taking in mid- and late-adolescence. Utilizing a sample of 12- to 14-year-old adolescents (N = 4,743) from the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97), results identified a four-class model of maternal responsiveness and autonomy-granting: low responsiveness/high autonomy-granting, moderate responsiveness/moderate autonomy-granting, high responsiveness/low autonomy-granting, high responsiveness/moderate autonomy-granting. Membership in the low responsiveness/high autonomy-granting class predicted greater sexual risk-taking in mid- and late-adolescence compared to all other classes, and membership in the high responsiveness/ moderate autonomy-granting class predicted lower sexual risk-taking. Gender and ethnic differences in responsiveness and autonomy-granting class membership were also found, potentially informing gender and ethnic disparities of adolescent sexual risk-taking. PMID:23828712

  7. Development of AMS high resolution injector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Yiwen; Guan Xialing; Hu Yueming

    2008-01-01

    The Beijing HI-13 tandem accelerator AMS high resolution injector system was developed. The high resolution energy achromatic system consists of an electrostatic analyzer and a magnetic analyzer, which mass resolution can reach 600 and transmission is better than 80%. (authors)

  8. Automated System Tests High-Power MOSFET's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, Steven W.; Wendt, Isabel O.

    1994-01-01

    Computer-controlled system tests metal-oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFET's) at high voltages and currents. Measures seven parameters characterizing performance of MOSFET, with view toward obtaining early indication MOSFET defective. Use of test system prior to installation of power MOSFET in high-power circuit saves time and money.

  9. Autonomy in robots and other agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithers, T

    1997-06-01

    The word "autonomous" has become widely used in artificial intelligence, robotics, and, more recently, artificial life and is typically used to qualify types of systems, agents, or robots: we see terms like "autonomous systems," "autonomous agents," and "autonomous robots." Its use in these fields is, however, both weak, with no distinctions being made that are not better and more precisely made with other existing terms, and varied, with no single underlying concept being involved. This ill-disciplined usage contrasts strongly with the use of the same term in other fields such as biology, philosophy, ethics, law, and human rights, for example. In all these quite different areas the concept of autonomy is essentially the same, though the language used and the aspects and issues of concern, of course, differ. In all these cases the underlying notion is one of self-law making and the closely related concept of self-identity. In this paper I argue that the loose and varied use of the term autonomous in artificial intelligence, robotics, and artificial life has effectively robbed these fields of an important concept. A concept essentially the same as we find it in biology, philosophy, ethics, and law, and one that is needed to distinguish a particular kind of agent or robot from those developed and built so far. I suggest that robots and other agents will have to be autonomous, i.e., self-law making, not just self-regulating, if they are to be able effectively to deal with the kinds of environments in which we live and work: environments which have significant large scale spatial and temporal invariant structure, but which also have large amounts of local spatial and temporal dynamic variation and unpredictability, and which lead to the frequent occurrence of previously unexperienced situations for the agents that interact with them.

  10. Autonomy of imagery and production of original verbal images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatena, J

    1976-08-01

    90 college students (31 men and 59 women) were categorized as moderately autonomous, less autonomous (less highly controlled) and non-autonomous (high controlled) imagers according to the Gordon Test of Visual Imagery Control Moderately autonomous imagers produced significantly more original verbal images than less autonomous and non-autonomous imagers with less autonomous imagers scoring higher than non-autonomous imagers as measured by Onomatopoeia and Images. There were no significant sex main effects of interaction of autonomy of imagery level X sex.

  11. High Efficiency, Low Emission Refrigeration System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Sharma, Vishaldeep [ORNL

    2016-08-01

    Supermarket refrigeration systems account for approximately 50% of supermarket energy use, placing this class of equipment among the highest energy consumers in the commercial building domain. In addition, the commonly used refrigeration system in supermarket applications is the multiplex direct expansion (DX) system, which is prone to refrigerant leaks due to its long lengths of refrigerant piping. This leakage reduces the efficiency of the system and increases the impact of the system on the environment. The high Global Warming Potential (GWP) of the hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants commonly used in these systems, coupled with the large refrigerant charge and the high refrigerant leakage rates leads to significant direct emissions of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Methods for reducing refrigerant leakage and energy consumption are available, but underutilized. Further work needs to be done to reduce costs of advanced system designs to improve market utilization. In addition, refrigeration system retrofits that result in reduced energy consumption are needed since the majority of applications address retrofits rather than new stores. The retrofit market is also of most concern since it involves large-volume refrigerant systems with high leak rates. Finally, alternative refrigerants for new and retrofit applications are needed to reduce emissions and reduce the impact on the environment. The objective of this Collaborative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Hill Phoenix is to develop a supermarket refrigeration system that reduces greenhouse gas emissions and has 25 to 30 percent lower energy consumption than existing systems. The outcomes of this project will include the design of a low emission, high efficiency commercial refrigeration system suitable for use in current U.S. supermarkets. In addition, a prototype low emission, high efficiency supermarket refrigeration system will be produced for

  12. Integrating adjustable autonomy in an intelligent control framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeKoven, Elyon A. M.; Wood, Scott D.

    2005-10-01

    Currently, multiple humans are needed to operate a single uninhabited aerial vehicle (UAV). In the near future, combat techniques will involve single operators controlling multiple uninhabited ground and air vehicles. This situation creates both technological hurdles as well as interaction design challenges that must be addressed to support future fighters. In particular, the system will need to negotiate with the operator about proper task delegation, keeping the operator appropriately apprised of autonomous actions. This in turn implies that the system must know what the user is doing, what needs to be done in the present situation, and the comparative strengths for of the human and the system in each task. Towards building such systems, we are working on an Intelligent Control Framework (ICF) that provides a layer of intelligence to support future warfighters in complex task environments. The present paper presents the Adjustable Autonomy Module (AAM) in ICF. The AAM encapsulates some capabilities for user plan recognition, situation reasoning, and authority delegation control. The AAM has the knowledge necessary to support operator-system dialogue about autonomy changes, and it also provides the system with the ability to act on this knowledge. Combined with careful interaction design, planning and plan-execution capabilities, the AAM enables future design and development of effective human-robot teams.

  13. Changing Professional autonomy in the Context of Institutional Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Peter Kragh; Houlberg Salomonsen, Heidi

    The Changing autonomy of doctors and civil servants  in Denmark in different institutional contexts......The Changing autonomy of doctors and civil servants  in Denmark in different institutional contexts...

  14. Autonomy, Respect, and Arrogance in the Danish Cartoon Controversy

    OpenAIRE

    Rostbøll, Christian F.

    2009-01-01

    Udgivelsesdato: 2009 Autonomy is increasingly rejected as a fundamental principle by liberal political theorists, because it is regarded as incompatible with respect for diversity. This article seeks, via an analysis of the Danish cartoon controversy, to show that the relationship between autonomy and diversity is more complex than often posited. Particularly, it asks whether the autonomy defense of freedom of expression encourages disrespect for religious feelings. Autonomy leads to disre...

  15. Analysis of trust in autonomy for convoy operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gremillion, Gregory M.; Metcalfe, Jason S.; Marathe, Amar R.; Paul, Victor J.; Christensen, James; Drnec, Kim; Haynes, Benjamin; Atwater, Corey

    2016-05-01

    With growing use of automation in civilian and military contexts that engage cooperatively with humans, the operator's level of trust in the automated system is a major factor in determining the efficacy of the human-autonomy teams. Suboptimal levels of human trust in autonomy (TiA) can be detrimental to joint team performance. This mis-calibrated trust can manifest in several ways, such as distrust and complete disuse of the autonomy or complacency, which results in an unsupervised autonomous system. This work investigates human behaviors that may reflect TiA in the context of an automated driving task, with the goal of improving team performance. Subjects performed a simulated leaderfollower driving task with an automated driving assistant. The subjects had could choose to engage an automated lane keeping and active cruise control system of varying performance levels. Analysis of the experimental data was performed to identify contextual features of the simulation environment that correlated to instances of automation engagement and disengagement. Furthermore, behaviors that potentially indicate inappropriate TiA levels were identified in the subject trials using estimates of momentary risk and agent performance, as functions of these contextual features. Inter-subject and intra-subject trends in automation usage and performance were also identified. This analysis indicated that for poorer performing automation, TiA decreases with time, while higher performing automation induces less drift toward diminishing usage, and in some cases increases in TiA. Subject use of automation was also found to be largely influenced by course features.

  16. A Dynamic Coordination Mechanism Using Adjustable Autonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neef, R.M.; Vecht, B. van der; Dignum, F.; Meyer, J.J.C.

    2008-01-01

    Agents in an organization need to coordinate their actions in order to reach the organizational goals. This research describes the relation between types of coordination and the autonomy of actors. In an experimental setting we show that there is not one best way to coordinate in all situations. The

  17. A Dynamic Coordination Mechanism Using Adjustable Autonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vecht, B. van der; Dignum, F.; Meyer, J.J.C.; Neef, R.M.

    2007-01-01

    Agents in an organization need to coordinate their actions in order to reach the organizational goals. This research describes the relation between types of coordination and the autonomy of actors. In an experimental setting we show that there is not one best way to coordinate in all situations. The

  18. The Development of Personal Autonomy throughout Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helwig, Charles C.

    2006-01-01

    It is argued here that autonomy entails universal psychological needs pertaining to agency and identity formation, expressed in different ways over different developmental periods. As children develop skills and abilities related to psychological needs for self-expression and competence, they will claim areas related to the exercise of these…

  19. Identity, Motivation and Autonomy in Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Terry; Murray, Garold; Gao, Xuesong

    2011-01-01

    In this volume researchers from Asia, Europe, the Middle East and North and South America employ a variety of theoretical perspectives and methodological approaches in their exploration of the links between identity, motivation, and autonomy in language learning. On a conceptual level the authors explore issues related to agency, metacognition,…

  20. Autonomy in the case of enthyreotic goiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahlstedt, J.

    1981-01-01

    To identify, quantify, and exclude thyroidal autonomy, under enthyreotic conditions (positive TRH-test), the in-vivo diagnosing with radionuclides is the only method available to assess the thyroidal trap in connection with the suppression test. Its application is urgently necessary for any goiter patient in the iodine lacking region, the methodical proceeding depends on the individual circumstances. (orig.) [de

  1. On autonomy and participation in rehabilitation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardol, M.; Jong, B.A. de; Ward, C.D.

    2002-01-01

    To explore the concept of autonomy as a basis for social participation, with particular reference to rehabilitation. Method: A study of relevant literature from the field of rehabilitation, building on theory developed in other fields (ethics, social sciences), and deriving important concepts and

  2. How Sex Selection Undermines Reproductive Autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Tamara Kayali

    2017-06-01

    Non-medical sex selection is premised on the notion that the sexes are not interchangeable. Studies of individuals who undergo sex selection for non-medical reasons, or who have a preference for a son or daughter, show that they assume their child will conform to the stereotypical roles and norms associated with their sex. However, the evidence currently available has not succeeded in showing that the gender traits and inclinations sought are caused by a "male brain" or a "female brain". Therefore, as far as we know, there is no biological reason why parents cannot have the kind of parenting experience they seek with a child of any sex. Yet gender essentialism, a set of unfounded assumptions about the sexes which pervade society and underpin sexism, prevents parents from realising this freedom. In other words, unfounded assumptions about gender constrain not only a child's autonomy, but also the parent's. To date, reproductive autonomy in relation to sex selection has predominantly been regarded merely as the freedom to choose the sex of one's child. This paper points to at least two interpretations of reproductive autonomy and argues that sex selection, by being premised on gender essentialism and/or the social pressure on parents to ensure their children conform to gender norms, undermines reproductive autonomy on both accounts.

  3. Critical Thinking, Autonomy and Practical Reason

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuypers, Stefaan E.

    2004-01-01

    This article points out an internal tension, or even conflict, in the conceptual foundations of Harvey Siegel's conception of critical thinking. Siegel justifies critical thinking, or critically rational autonomy, as an educational ideal first and foremost by an appeal to the Kantian principle of respect for persons. It is made explicit that this…

  4. Codes of Ethics and Teachers' Professional Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwimmer, Marina; Maxwell, Bruce

    2017-01-01

    This article considers the value of adopting a code of professional ethics for teachers. After having underlined how a code of ethics stands to benefits a community of educators--namely, by providing a mechanism for regulating autonomy and promoting a shared professional ethic--the article examines the principal arguments against codes of ethics.…

  5. Educating for Well-Being and Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuypers, Stefaan E.; Haji, Ishtiyaque

    2008-01-01

    Liberals champion the view that promoting autonomy--seeing to it that our children develop into individuals who are self-governing in the conduct of their lives--is a vital aim of education, though one generally accredited as being subsidiary to well-being. Our prime goal in this article is to provide a partial validation of this liberal ideal…

  6. Agility and adaptive autonomy in networked organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neef, R.M.; Vecht, B. van der

    2010-01-01

    In any multi-actor environment, there is an inevitable trade-off between achieving global coordination of activities and respecting the autonomy of the actors involved. Agile and resilient behavior demands dynamic coordination capabilities, but task and resource allocation quickly becomes

  7. Autonomy and the Working-Class Freelance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medway, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In taking into account the realities of the writing process in the ways teachers organize their classrooms, they inescapably find themselves involved with the notion of student autonomy. Some guidelines for supporting independent-minded adolescents in the classroom suggest themselves, and this article provides other suggestions for planning…

  8. Autonomy Level Specification for Intelligent Autonomous Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-09-01

    Autonomy Level Specification for Intelligent Autonomous Vehicles : Interim Progress Report Hui-Min Huang, Elena Messina, James Albus...Level Specification for Intelligent Autonomous Vehicles : Interim Progress Report 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  9. Autonomy under threat: a revised Frankfurtian account

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nys, T.

    2009-01-01

    In the early 1970s Harry Frankfurt argued that so-called ‘coercive threats’ cause a violation of their victim's autonomy, thereby excluding him from moral responsibility. A person is therefore not responsible for doing what he is forced to do. Although this seems correct on an intuitive level, I

  10. University Autonomy: Two Fault-Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, G. R.

    2010-01-01

    The doctrine of university autonomy in the UK contains a least two major "fault-lines" where the structure is inherently weak and there is danger of functional breakdown. The first occurs at the junction between the institution and the state, the second within the institution, where the unity in policy-making between academic and…

  11. Patient autonomy: a view from the kitchen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struhkamp, Rita M

    2005-01-01

    In contemporary liberal ethics patient autonomy is often interpreted as the right to self-determination: when it comes to treatment decisions, the patient is given the right to give or withhold informed consent. This paper joins in the philosophical and ethical criticism of the liberal interpretation as it does not regard patient autonomy as a right, rule or principle, but rather as a practice. Patient autonomy, or so I will argue, is realised in the concrete activities of day-to-day health care, in the material and technological context of care, in arrangements of health care institutions, in the physical training of people with disabilities, as well as in the concrete activities of care-giving. This move from conversations in the consultation room to other sites and situations in the practice of care takes seriously the empirical reality of medical care and intends to show that patient autonomy is practically realised in a much richer and more creative way than most ethical theory seems to assume.

  12. Supporting Student Autonomy in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Dana; Webster, Collin A.

    2011-01-01

    The lack of motivation among students is a common challenge in physical education. Studies drawing on the self-determination theory consistently show that perceived autonomy facilitates adaptive motivation in students, which can lead to a wide range of desired educational outcomes. However, instructional strategies designed to support student…

  13. Autonomi og informeret samtykke i sygeplejepraksis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathar, Helle; Morville, Annette

    2006-01-01

    is described as freedom from compulsion and other forms of regulatory influence. In relation to autonomy and informed consent, information is a defined nursing responsibility in connection with self-managed nursing duties, nursing research and duties where nurses have had been entrusted with responsibility...

  14. Introducing, Defining and Balancing 'Autonomy vs. Paternalism'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.H. van Boom (Willem); A.I. Ogus (Anthony)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractAutonomy is generally regarded as the fundamental right of individuals to shape their own future through voluntary action. In private law, it is associated with freedom of contract and the concept of casum sentit dominus (the loss lies where it falls). As such, it is opposed to legal

  15. Construction of a Personal Autonomy Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strumpfer, D. J. W.

    The inventory contains three factural scales: independence of judgement, moral relativism, and adventurousness. The item pool was based upon descriptions of the need for autonomy (positive) and for independence (negative). The preliminary English form included the Crowne-Marlowe Social Desirability Scale, and was completed by 233 English-speaking…

  16. "I Can't Eat if I Don't Plass": Impoverished Plasma Donors, Alternatives, and Autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimer, Steven

    2015-12-01

    One of the central considerations to be taken into account in evaluating the ethics of compensation for donated plasma is respect for donor autonomy. And one of the main arguments against compensated donation systems is that many donors do or would come from circumstances of poverty that restrict their alternatives in a way that compromises those donors' autonomy. In this paper, I develop and defend a novel version of this "compromised autonomy argument" which improves upon extant versions by employing a more nuanced account of the relationship between alternatives and autonomy. According to the version of that argument I offer, donors lack autonomy with respect to the sale of their plasma if their economic circumstances leave them with no choice but to sell their plasma (i.e., "plass") on the basis of a desire they have had no choice but to hold. After explicating the key terms of this argument, I examine its policy implications. I argue that, given several reasonable empirical assumptions, my argument implies that a majority of individuals whose income falls below a specified threshold would indeed lack autonomy with respect to the sale of their plasma. Most individuals whose income falls above that threshold, on the other hand, would be able to autonomously sell their plasma. I argue that respect for donor autonomy therefore speaks in favor of an income-restricted system of compensated donation which permits collection centers to purchase plasma from those whose income falls above the relevant threshold, but not those below it.

  17. High speed imaging system for nuclear diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyer, H.H.

    1976-01-01

    A high speed imaging system based on state-of-the-art photosensor arrays has been designed for use in nuclear diagnostics. The system is comprised of a front-end rapid-scan solid-state camera, a high speed digitizer, and a PCM line driver in a downhole package and a memory buffer system in a uphole trailer. The downhole camera takes a ''snapshot'' of a nuclear device created flux stream, digitizes the image and transmits it to the uphole memory system before being destroyed. The memory system performs two functions: it retains the data for local display and processing by a microprocessor, and it buffers the data for retransmission at slower rates to the LLL computational facility (NADS). The impetus for such a system as well as its operation are discussed. Also discussed are new systems under development which incorporate higher data rates and more resolution

  18. High speed imaging system for nuclear diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyer, H.H.

    1976-01-01

    A high speed imaging system based on state-of-the-art photosensor arrays has been designed for use in nuclear diagnostics. The system is comprised of a front-end rapid-scan solid-state camera, a high speed digitizer, and a PCM line driver in a downhole package and a memory buffer system in an uphole trailer. The downhole camera takes a ''snapshot'' of a nuclear device created flux stream, digitizes the image and transmits it to the uphole memory system before being destroyed. The memory system performs two functions: it retains the data for local display and processing by a microprocessor, and it buffers the data for retransmission at slower rates to the LLL computational facility (NADS). The impetus for such a system as well as its operation is discussed. Also discussed are new systems under development which incorporate higher data rates and more resolution

  19. Autonomy and Interests: The Social Life of a Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddiford, Gordon

    1993-01-01

    Examines the arguments that students should determine their own curriculum. Reviews the case for student autonomy based on philosophical anarchism and Immanuel Kant's views on autonomy. Argues that curriculum should be a result of the shared autonomy of students and teachers. (CFR)

  20. Fathers' Autonomy Support and Social Competence of Sons and Daughters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corwyn, Robert F.; Bradley, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    Relations between paternal autonomy support and four aspects of adolescent social competence and responsibility at age 16 were examined using data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. With controls on maternal autonomy support, significant relations were observed between paternal autonomy support and three of the four…

  1. "It's My Life": Autonomy and People with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björnsdóttir, Kristín; Stefánsdóttir, Guðrún V; Stefánsdóttir, Ástríður

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses autonomy in the lives of adults with intellectual disabilities. The article draws on inclusive research in Iceland with 25 women and 16 men and employs ideas of relational autonomy from the perspectives of the Nordic relational approach to disability. In this article, we examine autonomy in relation to private life, that is,…

  2. Lessons for Hospital Autonomy : Implementation in Vietnam from International Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Vietnam Ministry of Health; Health Strategy and Policy Institute; World Bank; World Health Organization

    2011-01-01

    The Government of Vietnam sees hospital autonomy policy as important and consistent with current development trends in Vietnam. It is based on government policies as laid out in government Decree on financial autonomy of revenue-generating public service entities; and to 2006, it is replaced by decree on professional, organizational, human resource management and financial autonomy of reve...

  3. Advancing Learner Autonomy in TEFL via Collaborative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, George M.; Shan, Tan Hui

    2015-01-01

    The present paper begins by situating learner autonomy and collaborative learning as part of a larger paradigm shift towards student-centred learning. Next are brief discussions of learner autonomy and how learner autonomy links with collaborative learning. In the main part of the paper, four central principles of collaborative learning are…

  4. Charter School Autonomy: The Mismatch between Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnigan, Kara S.

    2007-01-01

    In theory, the charter school concept is based on a trade-off or exchange: greater autonomy for increased accountability. Although charter schools have been operating for more than 10 years, little is known about charter school autonomy in practice. This mixed-methods study used survey and case study data to examine the degree of autonomy of…

  5. Autonomy-oriented mechanisms for efficient energy distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jiming; Shi, Benyun

    2010-09-15

    Due to the uneven geographical availability of energy resources, it is essential for the energy suppliers and consumers in different countries/regions to most efficiently, economically, as well as reliably distribute energy resources. In this paper, starting from a specific energy distribution problem, we present a decentralized behavior-based paradigm that draws on the methodology of autonomy-oriented computing. The goal is twofold: (i) to characterize the underlying mechanism of the energy distribution systems, (ii) to provide scalable solutions for efficient energy distribution. We conjecture that efficient energy trading markets can emerge from appropriate behavior-based mechanisms, which can autonomously improve energy distribution efficiency.

  6. Physicians’ Perceptions of Autonomy across Practice Types: Is Autonomy in Solo Practice a Myth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Katherine Y.

    2013-01-01

    Physicians in the United States are now less likely to practice in smaller, more traditional, solo practices, and more likely to practice in larger group practices. Though older theory predicts conflict between bureaucracy and professional autonomy, studies have shown that professions in general, and physicians in particular, have adapted to organizational constraints. However, much work remains in clarifying the nature of this relationship and how exactly physicians have adapted to various organizational settings. To this end, the present study examines physicians’ autonomy experiences in different decision types between organization sizes. Specifically, I ask: In what kinds of decisions do doctors perceive autonomous control? How does this vary by organizational size? Using stacked “spell” data constructed from the Community Tracking Study (CTS) Physician Survey (1996–2005) (n=16,519) I examine how physicians’ perceptions of autonomy vary between solo/two physician practices, small group practices with three to ten physicians, and large practices with ten or more physicians, in two kinds of decisions: logistic-based and knowledge-based decisions. Capitalizing on the longitudinal nature of the data I estimate how changes in practice size are associated with perceptions of autonomy, accounting for previous reports of autonomy. I also test whether managed care involvement, practice ownership, and salaried employment help explain part of this relationship. I find that while physicians practicing in larger group practices reported lower levels of autonomy in logistic-based decisions, physicians in solo/two physician practices reported lower levels of autonomy in knowledge-based decisions. Managed care involvement and ownership explain some, but not all, of the associations. These findings suggest that professional adaptation to various organizational settings can lead to varying levels of perceived autonomy across different kinds of decisions. PMID:24444835

  7. Physicians' perceptions of autonomy across practice types: Is autonomy in solo practice a myth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Katherine Y

    2014-01-01

    Physicians in the United States are now less likely to practice in smaller, more traditional, solo practices, and more likely to practice in larger group practices. Though older theory predicts conflict between bureaucracy and professional autonomy, studies have shown that professions in general, and physicians in particular, have adapted to organizational constraints. However, much work remains in clarifying the nature of this relationship and how exactly physicians have adapted to various organizational settings. To this end, the present study examines physicians' autonomy experiences in different decision types between organization sizes. Specifically, I ask: In what kinds of decisions do doctors perceive autonomous control? How does this vary by organizational size? Using stacked "spell" data constructed from the Community Tracking Study (CTS) Physician Survey (1996-2005) (n = 16,519) I examine how physicians' perceptions of autonomy vary between solo/two physician practices, small group practices with three to ten physicians, and large practices with ten or more physicians, in two kinds of decisions: logistic-based and knowledge-based decisions. Capitalizing on the longitudinal nature of the data I estimate how changes in practice size are associated with perceptions of autonomy, accounting for previous reports of autonomy. I also test whether managed care involvement, practice ownership, and salaried employment help explain part of this relationship. I find that while physicians practicing in larger group practices reported lower levels of autonomy in logistic-based decisions, physicians in solo/two physician practices reported lower levels of autonomy in knowledge-based decisions. Managed care involvement and ownership explain some, but not all, of the associations. These findings suggest that professional adaptation to various organizational settings can lead to varying levels of perceived autonomy across different kinds of decisions. Copyright © 2013

  8. High Production Volume Information System (HPVIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The High Production Volume Information System (HPVIS) provides access to select health and environmental effect information on chemicals that are manufactured in...

  9. Embedded High Performance Scalable Computing Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ngo, David

    2003-01-01

    The Embedded High Performance Scalable Computing Systems (EHPSCS) program is a cooperative agreement between Sanders, A Lockheed Martin Company and DARPA that ran for three years, from Apr 1995 - Apr 1998...

  10. LEARNER AUTONOMY IN THE INDONESIAN EFL SETTINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenden Sri Lengkanawati

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Learner autonomy in Indonesian educational institutions has not commonly been listed as a teaching-learning objective, and most teachers seem to be hardly acquainted with learner autonomy (LA.  Therefore, it is very essential  to conduct a study of LA as perceived and experienced by school teachers and to find out the importance of LA training for professional development. A questionnaire was used to collect the data about English teachers’ perceptions regarding LA and LA-based practices. In addition, an LA training was conducted to see its significance for professional development.  After the data were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed, it was found that the participating teachers tended to maintain that autonomy should be inculcated among learners, and that the LA concept should not be misinterpreted as learning without a teacher. Concerning choices and decisions by  the learners, it was believed that learners’ making choices about how they learned and what activities they did, and involving them to decide what and how to learn could promote autonomy among learners. As regards LA-based teaching-learning practices, it was revealed that most teachers desired to implement LA principles in their teaching-learning contexts, although they identified that many of the LA principles were not that feasible to apply in their situation. It was also found that LA training could improve the teachers’ perceptions regarding LA concepts and principles. There were some constraints which could make learner autonomy difficult to develop among Indonesian learners in general: limited time allotted for the implementation of the curriculum, learners’ lack of autonomous learning experience, too much focus on national examinations, and insufficient proficiency of English.  LA-based teaching-learning practices were most desired; however, many were considered as having insufficient feasibility. In this respect, commitment is certainly the key to

  11. High-Temperature-High-Volume Lifting for Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turnquist, Norman [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Qi, Xuele [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Raminosoa, Tsarafidy [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Salas, Ken [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Samudrala, Omprakash [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Shah, Manoj [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Van Dam, Jeremy [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Yin, Weijun [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Zia, Jalal [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany)

    2013-12-20

    This report summarizes the progress made during the April 01, 2010 – December 30, 2013 period under Cooperative Agreement DE-EE0002752 for the U.S. Department of Energy entitled “High-Temperature-High-Volume Lifting for Enhanced Geothermal Systems.” The overall objective of this program is to advance the technology for well fluids lifting systems to meet the foreseeable pressure, temperature, and longevity needs of the Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) industry for the coming ten years. In this program, lifting system requirements for EGS wells were established via consultation with industry experts and site visits. A number of artificial lift technologies were evaluated with regard to their applicability to EGS applications; it was determined that a system based on electric submersible pump (ESP) technology was best suited to EGS. Technical barriers were identified and a component-level technology development program was undertaken to address each barrier, with the most challenging being the development of a power-dense, small diameter motor that can operate reliably in a 300°C environment for up to three years. Some of the targeted individual component technologies include permanent magnet motor construction, high-temperature insulation, dielectrics, bearings, seals, thrust washers, and pump impellers/diffusers. Advances were also made in thermal management of electric motors. In addition to the overall system design for a full-scale EGS application, a subscale prototype was designed and fabricated. Like the full-scale design, the subscale prototype features a novel “flow-through-the-bore” permanent magnet electric motor that combines the use of high temperature materials with an internal cooling scheme that limits peak internal temperatures to <330°C. While the full-scale high-volume multi-stage pump is designed to lift up to 80 kg/s of process water, the subscale prototype is based on a production design that can pump 20 kg/s and has been modified

  12. [Autonomy and dementia Part II: autonomy and representation: a possible combination?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigaux, Natalie

    2011-06-01

    This paper, based on a critical review of the medico-social literature, questions the representation of patients with dementia in relation to the autonomy perspectives presented in a previous article. In the canonical perspective of autonomy (defined as a rational decision-making by a stand alone self), the surrogate is the spokeperson of the subject's wills when he was competent because he knows these wills through advance directives or assuming them via substituted judgment. Best patient's interest is then depreciated because it is focused on the present incompetent self. In the relational perspective, where autonomy is constructed through a dialogue with others, the surrogate is the present interlocutor, making the decisions with the patient and care-givers in a way varying with the disease process. He represents the subject with dementia as he was before the disease but also as he has become. Therefore, there is a continuum between autonomy and representation. Autonomy and well being are both the surrogate aims. The relational perspective allows care continuity of patients with dementia even when considered as incompetent. It offers a more balanced perspective on the patient autonomy since it is embedded in all others, and opens a richer view on what good life is, untill the end of dementia.

  13. Navigation and Positioning System Using High Altitude Platforms Systems (HAPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujii, Toshiaki; Harigae, Masatoshi; Harada, Masashi

    Recently, some countries have begun conducting feasibility studies and R&D projects on High Altitude Platform Systems (HAPS). Japan has been investigating the use of an airship system that will function as a stratospheric platform for applications such as environmental monitoring, communications and broadcasting. If pseudolites were mounted on the airships, their GPS-like signals would be stable augmentations that would improve the accuracy, availability, and integrity of GPS-based positioning systems. Also, the sufficient number of HAPS can function as a positioning system independent of GPS. In this paper, a system design of the HAPS-based positioning system and its positioning error analyses are described.

  14. CLIL – A way towards autonomy in education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Badinska

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning means teaching subjects through English, which provides a better preparation for professional life than teaching English as a subject empty of content. It motivates, makes lessons active and interesting. Learners in CLIL programmes are thus learning basic language skills, academic skills and new subject concepts at the same time. CLIL focuses on the subject content, it gives students a feeling of real achievements, closely connected with their career development, since in the future they will be expected to show ”competences“ and autonomy and an approach prioritising highly developed thinking skills and communication.

  15. Monitoring SLAC High Performance UNIX Computing Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lettsome, Annette K.

    2005-01-01

    Knowledge of the effectiveness and efficiency of computers is important when working with high performance systems. The monitoring of such systems is advantageous in order to foresee possible misfortunes or system failures. Ganglia is a software system designed for high performance computing systems to retrieve specific monitoring information. An alternative storage facility for Ganglia's collected data is needed since its default storage system, the round-robin database (RRD), struggles with data integrity. The creation of a script-driven MySQL database solves this dilemma. This paper describes the process took in the creation and implementation of the MySQL database for use by Ganglia. Comparisons between data storage by both databases are made using gnuplot and Ganglia's real-time graphical user interface

  16. Delivering Training for Highly Demanding Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Andrew Lawrence; Coulson-Thomas, Yvette May; Coulson-Thomas, Colin Joseph; Ashurst, Colin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: There is a lack of research covering the training requirements of organisations implementing highly demanding information systems (HDISs). The aim of this paper is to help in the understanding of appropriate training requirements for such systems. Design/methodology/approach: This research investigates the training delivery within a…

  17. Toward High Performance in Industrial Refrigeration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybo, C.; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Niemann, H.

    2002-01-01

    Achieving high performance in complex industrial systems requires information manipulation at different system levels. The paper shows how different models of same subsystems, but using different quality of information/data, are used for fault diagnosis as well as robust control design...

  18. Towards high performance in industrial refrigeration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybo, C.; Izadi-Zamanabadi, R.; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2002-01-01

    Achieving high performance in complex industrial systems requires information manipulation at different system levels. The paper shows how different models of same subsystems, but using different quality of information/data, are used for fault diagnosis as well as robust control design...

  19. A high compression crystal growth system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieman, H.F.; Walton, A.A.; Powell, B.M.; Dolling, G.

    1980-01-01

    This report describes the construction and operating procedure for a high compression crystal growth system, capable of growing single crystals from the fluid phase over the temperature range of 4.2 K to 300 K, at pressures up to 900 MPa. Some experimental results obtained with the system are given for solid β-nitrogen. (auth)

  20. High-performance OPCPA laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuegel, J.D.; Bagnoud, V.; Bromage, J.; Begishev, I.A.; Puth, J.

    2006-01-01

    Optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification (OPCPA) is ideally suited for amplifying ultra-fast laser pulses since it provides broadband gain across a wide range of wavelengths without many of the disadvantages of regenerative amplification. A high-performance OPCPA system has been demonstrated as a prototype for the front end of the OMEGA Extended Performance (EP) Laser System. (authors)

  1. High-performance OPCPA laser system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuegel, J.D.; Bagnoud, V.; Bromage, J.; Begishev, I.A.; Puth, J. [Rochester Univ., Lab. for Laser Energetics, NY (United States)

    2006-06-15

    Optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification (OPCPA) is ideally suited for amplifying ultra-fast laser pulses since it provides broadband gain across a wide range of wavelengths without many of the disadvantages of regenerative amplification. A high-performance OPCPA system has been demonstrated as a prototype for the front end of the OMEGA Extended Performance (EP) Laser System. (authors)

  2. Solutions for autonomy and reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilming, Wilhelm

    2011-07-01

    Stand-alone systems, whether solar home or pico solar systems, have reached a cost level at which they are an increasingly interesting option for wide-area development in grid-remote regions or for reconstruction where the previous grid infrastructure has been destroyed. (orig.)

  3. The achievement of spacecraft autonomy through the thematic application of multiple cooperating intelligent agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossomando, Philip J.

    1992-01-01

    A description is given of UNICORN, a prototype system developed for the purpose of investigating artificial intelligence (AI) concepts supporting spacecraft autonomy. UNICORN employs thematic reasoning, of the type first described by Rodger Schank of Northwestern University, to allow the context-sensitive control of multiple intelligent agents within a blackboard based environment. In its domain of application, UNICORN demonstrates the ability to reason teleologically with focused knowledge. Also presented are some of the lessons learned as a result of this effort. These lessons apply to any effort wherein system level autonomy is the objective.

  4. School Autonomy and District Support: How Principals Respond to a Tiered Autonomy Initiative in Philadelphia Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Matthew P.; Cox, Amanda Barrett

    2017-01-01

    A tiered autonomy policy was recently implemented in Philadelphia, where select principals were granted autonomy to manage school operations while others were promised greater district support to improve school functioning. This article provides evidence on how principals used their autonomy and the extent of district support for non-autonomous…

  5. High Performance Work Systems for Online Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contacos-Sawyer, Jonna; Revels, Mark; Ciampa, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify the key elements of a High Performance Work System (HPWS) and explore the possibility of implementation in an online institution of higher learning. With the projected rapid growth of the demand for online education and its importance in post-secondary education, providing high quality curriculum, excellent…

  6. Motivating learning, performance, and persistence: the synergistic effects of intrinsic goal contents and autonomy-supportive contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Simons, Joke; Lens, Willy; Sheldon, Kennon M; Deci, Edward L

    2004-08-01

    Three field experiments with high school and college students tested the self-determination theory hypotheses that intrinsic (vs. extrinsic) goals and autonomy-supportive (vs. controlling) learning climates would improve students' learning, performance, and persistence. The learning of text material or physical exercises was framed in terms of intrinsic (community, personal growth, health) versus extrinsic (money, image) goals, which were presented in an autonomy-supportive versus controlling manner. Analyses of variance confirmed that both experimentally manipulated variables yielded main effects on depth of processing, test performance, and persistence (all ps intrinsic goals and autonomy support were present. Effects were significantly mediated by autonomous motivation.

  7. Does School Autonomy Make Sense Everywhere? Panel Estimates from PISA. NBER Working Paper No. 17591

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanushek, Eric A.; Link, Susanne; Woessmann, Ludger

    2011-01-01

    Decentralization of decision-making is among the most intriguing recent school reforms, in part because countries went in opposite directions over the past decade and because prior evidence is inconclusive. We suggest that autonomy may be conducive to student achievement in well-developed systems but detrimental in low-performing systems. We…

  8. A high resolution portable spectroscopy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, C.P.; Vaidya, P.P.; Paulson, M.; Bhatnagar, P.V.; Pande, S.S.; Padmini, S.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: This paper describes the system details of a High Resolution Portable Spectroscopy System (HRPSS) developed at Electronics Division, BARC. The system can be used for laboratory class, high-resolution nuclear spectroscopy applications. The HRPSS consists of a specially designed compact NIM bin, with built-in power supplies, accommodating a low power, high resolution MCA, and on-board embedded computer for spectrum building and communication. A NIM based spectroscopy amplifier and a HV module for detector bias are integrated (plug-in) in the bin. The system communicates with a host PC via a serial link. Along-with a laptop PC, and a portable HP-Ge detector, the HRPSS offers a laboratory class performance for portable applications

  9. Policy Autonomy, Coordination or Harmonization in the Persistently Heterogeneous European Union?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouba Luděk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Within the context of the continuing integration process in Europe, this paper addresses the question of whether policies in the EU should head towards autonomy, coordination or harmonization. Taking the path dependence effect into account, it is the authors’ opinion that Europe has gone too far in its integration process to be able to continue with policies being fully under the competences of individual member countries. However, the habitual question still arises: does fiscal policy need to be harmonized to a level comparable to monetary policy as these two policies, necessarily, complement each other? This paper argues that it does not. There are three main arguments discussed. Firstly, the authors build on the theory of fiscal federalism. Secondly, there are significantly different regimes of welfare states and extents of social policies among European countries, which strongly determine the character of public finance. And thirdly, the tax systems across Europe are also highly divergent, with many features of continuing tax competition.

  10. High slot utilization systems for electric machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, John S

    2009-06-23

    Two new High Slot Utilization (HSU) Systems for electric machines enable the use of form wound coils that have the highest fill factor and the best use of magnetic materials. The epoxy/resin/curing treatment ensures the mechanical strength of the assembly of teeth, core, and coils. In addition, the first HSU system allows the coil layers to be moved inside the slots for the assembly purpose. The second system uses the slided-in teeth instead of the plugged-in teeth. The power density of the electric machine that uses either system can reach its highest limit.

  11. A balanced intervention ladder: promoting autonomy through public health action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, P E; West, C

    2015-08-01

    The widely cited Nuffield Council on Bioethics 'Intervention Ladder' structurally embodies the assumption that personal autonomy is maximized by non-intervention. Consequently, the Intervention Ladder encourages an extreme 'negative liberty' view of autonomy. Yet there are several alternative accounts of autonomy that are both arguably superior as accounts of autonomy and better suited to the issues facing public health ethics. We propose to replace the one-sided ladder, which has any intervention coming at a cost to autonomy, with a two-sided 'Balanced Intervention Ladder,' where intervention can either enhance or diminish autonomy. We show that not only the alternative, richer accounts of autonomy but even Mill's classic version of negative liberty puts some interventions on the positive side of the ladder. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Self-Perceived Participation and Autonomy at 1-Year Post Stroke: A Part of the Stroke Arm Longitudinal Study at the University of Gothenburg (SALGOT Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Törnbom, Karin; Hadartz, Kristin; Sunnerhagen, Katharina S

    2018-04-01

    Identifying factors predicting the long-term outcome of participation and autonomy after stroke is essential for developing individualized rehabilitation interventions. The aim was to describe self-assessed participation and autonomy and to explore factors associated with the same at 1 year post stroke. Participants consisted of 79 persons (mean age = 67) with a first-time stroke at the 1-year follow-up. To investigate perceived participation and autonomy at 1 year, a self-assessment questionnaire, the Impact on Participation and Autonomy-English version (IPA-E) was used. Multivariate logistic regression models were performed using age, gender, stroke severity, and functional dependency at discharge as potential contributors to the perceived level of participation and autonomy. A high percentage (70%-88%) evaluated their functions as fair to very good within all domains of the IPA-E at 1 year post stroke. However, around a fifth experienced their Family role as poor to very poor. Participants' functional dependency at discharge significantly influenced the outcome for the domains of Family role (odds ratio [OR] = 5.66, P Autonomy indoors (OR = 3.44, P autonomy at 1 year post stroke. The results also indicate that supporting indoor autonomy and social relations of persons with stroke during the acute rehabilitation is important to enhance participation and autonomy at 1 year post stroke. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The Discriminant Analysis: an Exploratory Study Concerning the Degree of Financial Autonomy of Companies in the Context of the Romanian Business Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinela Mironiuc

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at analyzing the evolution of financial autonomy on a sample of 80 companies quoted in the Bucharest Stock Exchange, between 2006-2008. Classically, financial autonomy is measured using the global and day-to-day rates of financial autonomy. However, this study has tested the dependency between the global rate of financial autonomy (Own Capital/ Total debts and a series of economic and financial indicators, with the purpose of obtaining both a score function that would help making a classification of the companies subject to our analysis, in performance groups (companies with a high financial autonomy, companies with a medium financial autonomy, companies with a low financial autonomy, and companies with no financial autonomy, and quantifying the influence of the relative variations of these economic and financial indicators on the relative variation of financial autonomy. In order to calculate the results, the statistic instrument SPSS 15.0 was used, and the work method was the discriminant analysis and the regression and multiple correlation analysis.

  14. Developing Intrinsic Motivation: Student Perceived Autonomy, Relatedness and Competence and the Relationship to Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, DeAnn M.

    2013-01-01

    This mixed methods action study examines the relationship of students' three psychological needs of autonomy, relatedness and competence as presented in the Self-Determination Theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985) to the level of achievement of high school seniors at Litchfield High School. In the quantitative phase of the study, the quantitative…

  15. School leadership for equity and learning and the question of school autonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlos Hatzopoulos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article draws from the work conducted in the context of the European Policy Network on School Leadership (EPNoSL. In particular, it is based on an in-depth review of school leadership policies in 21 European countries and the discourse that is taking place in EPNoSL’s webinars, national workshops and peer learning activities organised in several EU countries with the participation of a variety of school leadership stakeholders (including policy makers at European, national, and local levels, school leaders, teachers and other professionals, academics, researchers, parents and students. EPNoSL is a network of 42 European institutions that aims at improving policy on, and practice in, school leadership in Europe. The article discusses the question of school autonomy in the context of school leadership policy development in Europe. School autonomy is considered as a critical precondition for the development of comprehensive school leadership policies. Based on the comprehensive framework of school leadership policy development that has been developed in the context of this project, the article undertakes two main tasks. Firstly, it attempts to show that instead of searching for universal solutions on the question of school autonomy, it is important to reflect on context-specific policies on autonomy that aim at the attainment of concrete learning and equity goals. Secondly, it specifies seven general directions for policies on school autonomy that are adaptive to the divergent experiences of European education systems.

  16. Female autonomy and reported abortion-seeking in Ghana, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rominski, Sarah D; Gupta, Mira; Aborigo, Raymond; Adongo, Phillip; Engman, Cyril; Hodgson, Abraham; Moyer, Cheryl

    2014-09-01

    To investigate factors associated with self-reported pregnancy termination in Ghana and thereby appreciate the correlates of abortion-seeking in order to understand safe abortion care provision. In a retrospective study, data from the Ghana 2008 Demographic and Health Survey were used to investigate factors associated with self-reported pregnancy termination. Variables on an individual and household level were examined by both bivariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression. A five-point autonomy scale was created to explore the role of female autonomy in reported abortion-seeking behavior. Among 4916 women included in the survey, 791 (16.1%) reported having an abortion. Factors associated with abortion-seeking included being older, having attended school, and living in an urban versus a rural area. When entered into a logistic regression model with demographic control variables, every step up the autonomy scale (i.e. increasing autonomy) was associated with a 14.0% increased likelihood of reporting the termination of a pregnancy (P health system barriers might play a role in preventing women from seeking safe abortion services, autonomy on an individual level is also important and needs to be addressed if women are to be empowered to seek safe abortion services. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. High sensitivity optical molecular imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Yu; Yuan, Gao; Huang, Chao; Jiang, Shixin; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Kun; Tian, Jie

    2018-02-01

    Optical Molecular Imaging (OMI) has the advantages of high sensitivity, low cost and ease of use. By labeling the regions of interest with fluorescent or bioluminescence probes, OMI can noninvasively obtain the distribution of the probes in vivo, which play the key role in cancer research, pharmacokinetics and other biological studies. In preclinical and clinical application, the image depth, resolution and sensitivity are the key factors for researchers to use OMI. In this paper, we report a high sensitivity optical molecular imaging system developed by our group, which can improve the imaging depth in phantom to nearly 5cm, high resolution at 2cm depth, and high image sensitivity. To validate the performance of the system, special designed phantom experiments and weak light detection experiment were implemented. The results shows that cooperated with high performance electron-multiplying charge coupled device (EMCCD) camera, precision design of light path system and high efficient image techniques, our OMI system can simultaneously collect the light-emitted signals generated by fluorescence molecular imaging, bioluminescence imaging, Cherenkov luminance and other optical imaging modality, and observe the internal distribution of light-emitting agents fast and accurately.

  18. Mothers' autonomy and childhood stunting: evidence from semi-urban communities in Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Yusuke; Nomura, Marika; Ogino, Hina; Yoshikawa, Kanako; Siengsounthone, Latsamy; Xangsayarath, Phonepadith

    2018-05-22

    Childhood stunting (height-for-age z-scores below - 2), a form of chronic undernutrition, remains a global health burden. Although a growing literature has examined the association between mothers' autonomy and childhood stunting, these studies have been limited to countries in South Asia or Sub-Saharan Africa where women have relatively lower social status than do men. Little research has analyzed the effect of mothers' autonomy on childhood stunting in Lao PDR, where women's social status is relatively high compared to that in other countries. We conducted a cross-sectional questionnaire and body scale measurement targeting 100 mothers and their 115 children (autonomy, we measured self-esteem, self-efficacy, decision-making power, freedom of mobility, and control of money. We then analyzed how each dimension was associated with the likelihood of childhood stunting. The likelihood of childhood stunting was significantly lower if mothers had higher self-efficacy for health care (OR = 0.15, p = 0.007), self-esteem (OR = 0.11, p = 0.025), or control of money (OR = 0.11, p = 0.041). In contrast, mothers' decision-making power and freedom of mobility were not significantly associated with childhood stunting. We clarified which dimensions of women's autonomy were associated with childhood stunting in Lao PDR. A closer examination of mothers' autonomy will aid proper understanding of the determinants of childhood stunting.

  19. Women’s Health Decision-Making Autonomy and Skilled Birth Attendance in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Kwabena Ameyaw

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Delivering in health facility under the supervision of skilled birth attendant is an important way of mitigating impacts of delivery complications. Empirical evidence suggests that decision-making autonomy is aligned with holistic wellbeing especially in the aspect of maternal and child health. The objective of this paper was to examine the relationship between women’s health decision-making autonomy and place of delivery in Ghana. We extracted data from the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. Descriptive and logistic regression techniques were applied. The results indicated that women with health decision-making autonomy have higher tendency of health facility delivery as compared to those who are not autonomous [OR = 1.27, CI = 1.09–1.48]. However, those who have final say on household large purchases [OR = 0.71, CI = 0.59–0.84] and those having final say on visits [OR = 0.86, CI = 0.73–1.01] were less probable to deliver in health facility than those without such decision-making autonomy. Consistent with existing evidence, wealthier, urban, and highly educated women had higher inclination of health facility delivery. This study has stressed the need for interventions aimed at enhancing health facility delivery to target women without health decision-making autonomy and women with low education and wealth status, as this can play essential role in enhancing health facility delivery.

  20. The teacher benefits from giving autonomy support during physical education instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheon, Sung Hyeon; Reeve, Johnmarshall; Yu, Tae Ho; Jang, Hue Ryen

    2014-08-01

    Recognizing that students benefit when they receive autonomy-supportive teaching, the current study tested the parallel hypothesis that teachers themselves would benefit from giving autonomy support. Twenty-seven elementary, middle, and high school physical education teachers (20 males, 7 females) were randomly assigned either to participate in an autonomy-supportive intervention program (experimental group) or to teach their physical education course with their existing style (control group) within a three-wave longitudinal research design. Manipulation checks showed that the intervention was successful, as students perceived and raters scored teachers in the experimental group as displaying a more autonomy-supportive and less controlling motivating style. In the main analyses, ANCOVA-based repeated-measures analyses showed large and consistent benefits for teachers in the experimental group, including greater teaching motivation (psychological need satisfaction, autonomous motivation, and intrinsic goals), teaching skill (teaching efficacy), and teaching well-being (vitality, job satisfaction, and lesser emotional and physical exhaustion). These findings show that giving autonomy support benefits teachers in much the same way that receiving it benefits their students.

  1. Autonomy, Competence and Non-interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Joseph T F

    2017-12-30

    In light of the variety of uses of the term autonomy in recent bioethics literature, in this paper, I suggest that competence, not being as contested, is better placed to play the anti-paternalistic role currently assigned to autonomy. The demonstration of competence, I will argue, can provide individuals with robust spheres of non-interference in which they can pursue their lives in accordance with their own values. This protection from paternalism is achieved by granting individuals rights to non-interference upon demonstration of competence. In this paper, I present a risk-sensitive account of competence as a means of grounding rights to non-interference. On a risk-sensitive account of competence individuals demonstrate their competence by exercising three capacities to the extent necessary to meet a threshold determined by the riskiness of the decision. These three capacities are the capacity to (i) acquire knowledge, (ii) use instrumental rationality, and (iii) form and revise a life plan.

  2. [Euthanasia and the paradoxes of autonomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira-Batista, Rodrigo; Schramm, Fermin Roland

    2008-01-01

    The principle of respect for autonomy has proved very useful for bioethical arguments in favor of euthanasia. However unquestionable its theoretical efficacy, countless aporiae can be raised when conducting a detailed analysis of this concept, probably checkmating it. Based on such considerations, this paper investigates the principle of autonomy, starting with its origins in Greek and Christian traditions, and then charting some of its developments in Western cultures through to its modern formulation, a legacy of Immanuel Kant. The main paradoxes of this concept are then presented in the fields of philosophy, biology, psychoanalysis and politics, expounding several of the theoretical difficulties to be faced in order to make its applicability possible within the scope of decisions relating to the termination of life.

  3. Autonomy, rationality and the wish to die.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, D M

    1999-12-01

    Although suicide has traditionally carried a negative sanction in Western societies, this is now being challenged, and while there remains substantial public concern surrounding youth and elder suicide, there is a paradoxical push to relax the prohibition under certain circumstances. Central to the arguments behind this are the principles of respect for autonomy and the importance of rationality. It is argued here that the concepts of rationality and autonomy, while valuable, are not strong enough to substantiate a categorical "right to suicide" and that the concepts of "understandability" and "respect" are more useful and able to provide the foundation for responding to a person expressing a wish to die. Roman suicide, sometimes held as an example of "rational suicide", illustrates the effects of culture, tradition and values on the attitudes to, and the practice of, suicide.

  4. Building up Autonomy Through Reading Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Izquierdo Castillo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on an action research project conducted with six ninth grade students in a rural public school in Colombia. The purpose of the study was to determine how the implementation of three reading strategies (skimming, scanning, and making predictions, when reading topics selected by learners, helps them to improve their reading comprehension and promotes their autonomy in the learning process. The results show that these learners developed some autonomous features such as making decisions for learning and doing assigned homework, increasing reading awareness and motivation. Additionally, the training on reading strategies allowed them to succeed in their reading comprehension. We conclude that these reading strategies are tools that take learners along the path of autonomy.

  5. Human-Autonomy Teaming in a Flight Following Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shively, Robert J.

    2017-01-01

    The NATO HFM-247 Working Group is creating a summary report of the group's activities on human-autonomy teaming. This chapter is a summary of our at NASA Ames work toward developing a framework for human-autonomy teaming (HAT) in aviation. The purpose of this project was to demonstrate and evaluate proposed tenets of HAT. The HAT features were derived from three tenets and were built into an automated recommender system on a ground station. These tenets include bi-directional communication, automation transparency, and operator directed interface. This study focused primarily on interactions with one piece of automation, the Autonomous Constrained Flight Planner (ACFP). The ACFP is designed to support rapid diversion decisions for commercial pilots in off-nominal situations. Much effort has gone into enhancing this tool not only in capability but also in transparency. In this study, participants used the ACFP at a ground station designed to aid dispatchers in a flight following role to reroute aircraft in situations such as inclement weather, system failures and medical emergencies. Participants performed this task both with HAT features enabled and without and provided feedback. We examined subjective and behavioral indicators of HAT collaborations using a proof-of-concept demonstration of HAT tenets. The data collected suggest potential advantages and disadvantages of HAT.

  6. Political influence and bureaucratic autonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Yesilkagit (Kutsal); S. van Thiel (Sandra)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThe establishment of autonomous public bodies during the past two decades has created a highly fragmented public sector. Using a dataset with more than 200 Dutch public sector organisations, this article examines three related sets of questions: to what extent a relationship exists

  7. Political Influence and Bureaucratic Autonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yesilkagit, A.K.; Thiel, S. van

    The establishment of autonomous public bodies during the past two decades has created a highly fragmented public sector. Using a dataset with more than 200 Dutch public sector organisations, this article examines three related sets of questions: to what extent a relationship exists between formal

  8. Autonomy-Supportive Parenting and Autonomy-Supportive Sibling Interactions: The Role of Mothers' and Siblings' Psychological Need Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kaap-Deeder, Jolene; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Soenens, Bart; Loeys, Tom; Mabbe, Elien; Gargurevich, Rafael

    2015-11-01

    Autonomy-supportive parenting yields manifold benefits. To gain more insight into the family-level dynamics involved in autonomy-supportive parenting, the present study addressed three issues. First, on the basis of self-determination theory, we examined whether mothers' satisfaction of the psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness related to autonomy-supportive parenting. Second, we investigated maternal autonomy support as an intervening variable in the mother-child similarity in psychological need satisfaction. Third, we examined associations between autonomy-supportive parenting and autonomy-supportive sibling interactions. Participants were 154 mothers (M age = 39.45, SD = 3.96) and their two elementary school-age children (M age = 8.54, SD = 0.89 and M age = 10.38, SD = 0.87). Although mothers' psychological need satisfaction related only to maternal autonomy support in the younger siblings, autonomy-supportive parenting related to psychological need satisfaction in both siblings and to an autonomy-supportive interaction style between siblings. We discuss the importance of maternal autonomy support for family-level dynamics. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  9. Parent and Teacher Autonomy-Support in Russian and U.S. Adolescents: Common Effects on Well-Being and Academic Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirkov, Valery I.; Ryan, Richard M.

    2001-01-01

    Examined whether autonomy-support would have a positive effect on self-motivation and well-being. U.S. and Russian high school students completed measures of perceived parental and teacher autonomy-support, academic motivation, and well-being. Russian students perceived parents and teachers as more controlling than did U.S. students. In both…

  10. Girls’ and mothers’ spider fear, maternal control and autonomy granting behavior, and the role of threat intensity during a spider exposure task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Bruggen, C.O.; Bögels, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    This experimental study examined (I) whether mothers' controlling and autonomy granting behaviors are related to daughters' approach behavior, and (II) whether mothers' perception of daughters' and/or own fear are related to mothers' controlling and autonomy granting behaviors. Fifty girls with high

  11. Demonstration of Human-Autonomy Teaming Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shively, Robert Jay

    2016-01-01

    Known problems with automation include lack of mode awareness, automation brittleness, and risk of miscalibrated trust. Human-Autonomy Teaming (HAT) is essential for improving these problems. We have identified some critical components of HAT and ran a part-task study to introduce these components to a ground station that supports flight following of multiple aircraft. Our goal was to demonstrate, evaluate, and refine HAT principles. This presentation provides a brief summary of the study and initial findings.

  12. On autonomy and participation in rehabilitation.

    OpenAIRE

    Cardol, M.; Jong, B.A. de; Ward, C.D.

    2002-01-01

    To explore the concept of autonomy as a basis for social participation, with particular reference to rehabilitation. Method: A study of relevant literature from the field of rehabilitation, building on theory developed in other fields (ethics, social sciences), and deriving important concepts and strategies for rehabilitation practice. Results: The focus of rehabilitation for people with a chronic disabling condition is shifting from a biomedical to a client-centred perspective. Conceptions o...

  13. [Carers and the policy for autonomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naiditch, Michel

    2016-03-01

    Long-time invisible, the role of informal carers in providing assistance to elderly patients losing their autonomy is gaining recognition. A policy in favour of carers coordinated with that aimed at the people being cared for is necessary, but it is struggling to establish itself in France. Some progress can however be seen with the French bill on adapting society to the ageing of the population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Autonomy and purity in Kant's moral theory

    OpenAIRE

    Benson, Carolyn Jane

    2010-01-01

    Kant believed that the moral law is a law that the rational will legislates. This thesis examines this claim and its broader implications for Kant’s moral theory. Many are drawn to Kantian ethics because of its emphasis on the dignity and legislative authority of the rational being. The attractiveness of this emphasis on the special standing and capacities of the self grounds a recent tendency to interpret Kantian autonomy as a doctrine according to which individual agents create binding ...

  15. [From dependency to autonomy, a geriatric pathway].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Antoine; Da Costa Ribeiro, Florence; Pedra, Maryse; Chassaigne, Marie-Christine; Berbon, Caroline

    Preventing dependency is essential in our ageing society. One of its components is the avoidable dependency which develops during a period of hospitalisation. Caregivers play an important role in helping the elderly person regain their autonomy. Various actions have been undertaken on this theme within the gerontology unit of Toulouse university hospital, including the creation of a multi-disciplinary group of experts among the caregivers working in the unit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. High Power UV LED Industrial Curing Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlicek, Robert, F., Jr; Sargent, Robert

    2012-05-14

    UV curing is a green technology that is largely underutilized because UV radiation sources like Hg Lamps are unreliable and difficult to use. High Power UV LEDs are now efficient enough to replace Hg Lamps, and offer significantly improved performance relative to Hg Lamps. In this study, a modular, scalable high power UV LED curing system was designed and tested, performing well in industrial coating evaluations. In order to achieve mechanical form factors similar to commercial Hg Lamp systems, a new patent pending design was employed enabling high irradiance at long working distances. While high power UV LEDs are currently only available at longer UVA wavelengths, rapid progress on UVC LEDs and the development of new formulations designed specifically for use with UV LED sources will converge to drive more rapid adoption of UV curing technology. An assessment of the environmental impact of replacing Hg Lamp systems with UV LED systems was performed. Since UV curing is used in only a small portion of the industrial printing, painting and coating markets, the ease of use of UV LED systems should increase the use of UV curing technology. Even a small penetration of the significant number of industrial applications still using oven curing and drying will lead to significant reductions in energy consumption and reductions in the emission of green house gases and solvent emissions.

  17. The Pivotal Role of Adolescent Autonomy in Secondary School Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Joseph P.; Mikami, Amori Yee; Gregory, Anne; Hamre, Bridget; Pianta, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    Student engagement is an important contributor to school success, yet high school students routinely describe themselves as disengaged. Identifying factors that alter (increase) engagement is a key aspect of improving support for student achievement. This study investigated students’ perceptions of autonomy, teacher connection, and academic competence as predictors of changes in student engagement within the classroom from the start to the end of a course. Participants were 578 (58% female) diverse (67.8% White, 25.2% African American, 5.1% Hispanic, 1.2% Asian American) high school students from 34 classrooms who provided questionnaire data both at the start and the end of a single course. Novel results from a cross-lagged model demonstrated that students who perceived their classrooms as allowing and encouraging their own autonomy in the first few weeks increased their engagement throughout the course, rather than the typical decline in engagement that was demonstrated by students in other classrooms. This finding is unique in that it extended to both students’ perceptions of engagement and observations of student engagement, suggesting a fairly robust pattern. The pertinence of this finding to adolescent developmental needs and its relationship to educational practice is discussed. PMID:22198156

  18. The pivotal role of adolescent autonomy in secondary school classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafen, Christopher A; Allen, Joseph P; Mikami, Amori Yee; Gregory, Anne; Hamre, Bridget; Pianta, Robert C

    2012-03-01

    Student engagement is an important contributor to school success, yet high school students routinely describe themselves as disengaged. Identifying factors that alter (increase) engagement is a key aspect of improving support for student achievement. This study investigated students' perceptions of autonomy, teacher connection, and academic competence as predictors of changes in student engagement within the classroom from the start to the end of a course. Participants were 578 (58% female) diverse (67.8% White, 25.2% African American, 5.1% Hispanic, 1.2% Asian American) high school students from 34 classrooms who provided questionnaire data both at the start and the end of a single course. Novel results from a cross-lagged model demonstrated that students who perceived their classrooms as allowing and encouraging their own autonomy in the first few weeks increased their engagement throughout the course, rather than the typical decline in engagement that was demonstrated by students in other classrooms. This finding is unique in that it extended to both students' perceptions of engagement and observations of student engagement, suggesting a fairly robust pattern. The pertinence of this finding to adolescent developmental needs and its relationship to educational practice is discussed.

  19. Autonomy and Financial Sources, Key Factors in the Performance of Health Insurance Scheme: Case of Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enkelejda Avdi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Autonomy of public health insurance scheme comprises political, financial, organizational, normative and contractual aspects. The paper analyses the role and position of a health insurance scheme (HIS within the overall healthcare system in Albania, the relationship to all other institutions, stakeholders and actors. By analyesing published literature and collected data through secondary sources, the paper focuses on financial autonomy, which refers first of all to a certain level of budgetary independence regarding source generation and spending on health services. For assuring effective and efficient performance of the single payer for health care services in Albania, need effective changes in the legislation do take into account the various levels of autonomy mentioned above.

  20. Multiculturalism and legal autonomy for cultural minorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Ebbe Juul Nielsen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Does multiculturalism imply that certain cultural minorities – nomos groups, whose cultural conceptions extend in important ways into views about the law – should have forms of legal autonomy that go beyond normal multicultural accommodations such as exemptions and special protection? In other words: should we allow «minority jurisdictions» for multicultural reasons and give certain minorities powers of legislation and adjudication on certain issues? The paper sketches how one might arrive at such a conclusion given some standard multicultural reasoning, and then proceeds by examining eight key rejoinders to such a proposal. None of these rejoinders provide by themselves knockdown arguments against extending multicultural rights to forms of legal autonomy, but together they do provide a basis for some skepticism about the cogency and desirability of at least more ambitious forms of legal autonomy for cultural minorities within a liberal framework.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v7i2.1798

  1. Aeronautics Autonomy Testbed Capability (AATC) Team Developed Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Phillip J.

    2018-01-01

    In 2015, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) formed a multi-center, interdisciplinary team of engineers from three different aeronautics research centers who were tasked with improving NASA autonomy research capabilities. This group was subsequently named the Aeronautics Autonomy Testbed Capability (AATC) team. To aid in confronting the autonomy research directive, NASA contracted IDEO, a design firm, to provide consultants and guides to educate NASA engineers through the practice of design thinking, which is an unconventional method for aerospace design processes. The team then began learning about autonomy research challenges by conducting interviews with a diverse group of researchers and pilots, military personnel and civilians, experts and amateurs. Part of this design thinking process involved developing ideas for products or programs known as concepts that could enable real world fulfillment of the most important latent needs identified through analysis of the interviews. The concepts are intended to be sacrificial, intermediate steps in the design thinking process and are presented in this report to record the efforts of the AATC group. Descriptions are provided in present tense to allow for further ideation and imagining the concept as reality as was attempted during the teams discussions and interviews. This does not indicate that the concepts are actually in practice within NASA though there may be similar existing programs independent of AATC. These concepts were primarily created at two distinct stages during the design thinking process. After the initial interviews, there was a workshop for concept development and the resulting ideas are shown in this work as from the First Round. As part of succeeding interviews, the team members presented the First Round concepts to refine the understanding of existing research needs. This knowledge was then used to generate an additional set of concepts denoted as the Second Round. Some

  2. Cognitive Personality Characteristics Impact the Course of Depression: A Prospective Test of Sociotropy, Autonomy and Domain-Specific Life Events

    OpenAIRE

    Iacoviello, Brian M.; Grant, David A.; Alloy, Lauren B.; Abramson, Lyn Y.

    2009-01-01

    Prospective tests of the impact of sociotropy and autonomy on the course of depression are lacking. In a sample of 97 cognitive high-risk and 62 cognitive low-risk undergraduates who experienced at least one prospective depressive episode, the interactions of sociotropy and interpersonal life events and autonomy and achievement-related life events were examined as predictors of four indicators of the course of depression. Initial analyses failed to support the hypothesis that global scores fo...

  3. Architecture Of High Speed Image Processing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Toshio; Hayashi, Hiroshi; Ohki, Tohru

    1988-01-01

    One of architectures for a high speed image processing system which corresponds to a new algorithm for a shape understanding is proposed. And the hardware system which is based on the archtecture was developed. Consideration points of the architecture are mainly that using processors should match with the processing sequence of the target image and that the developed system should be used practically in an industry. As the result, it was possible to perform each processing at a speed of 80 nano-seconds a pixel.

  4. High precision detector robot arm system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Deming; Chu, Yong

    2017-01-31

    A method and high precision robot arm system are provided, for example, for X-ray nanodiffraction with an X-ray nanoprobe. The robot arm system includes duo-vertical-stages and a kinematic linkage system. A two-dimensional (2D) vertical plane ultra-precision robot arm supporting an X-ray detector provides positioning and manipulating of the X-ray detector. A vertical support for the 2D vertical plane robot arm includes spaced apart rails respectively engaging a first bearing structure and a second bearing structure carried by the 2D vertical plane robot arm.

  5. Job autonomy, its predispositions and its relation to work outcomes in community health centers in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Blossom Yen-Ju; Lin, Yung-Kai; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Lin, Tien-Tse

    2013-06-01

    It has been debated that employees in a government or public ownership agency may perceive less need for growth opportunities or high-powered incentives than is the case for employees in private organizations. This study examined employees' job autonomy in government-run community health centers, its predispositions and its relation to their work outcomes. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Taiwan. From 230 responding community health centers, 1380 staff members responded to the self-completed, structured questionnaire. Structural equation modeling revealed that employees' job autonomy has positive work outcomes: greater work satisfaction, and less intent to transfer and intentions to leave. In addition, job autonomy was related to employees' higher education levels, medical profession, permanent employment and serving smaller populations. Moreover, employees' age, educational levels, medical profession and employment status were found to be related to their work satisfaction, intent to transfer and intent to leave.

  6. Kinetic examination of the thyroid for an early detection of localized autonomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, B.K.; Kissel, H.J.; Schnabel, K.

    1980-01-01

    Early diagnosis of localised thyroid autonomy can in many cases be of high importance for the patient. By manifesting accelerated radioiodine kinetics in suspicious lobes or regions of the thyroid, autonomies of the thyroid can be detected early and definitely. Examination covered 50 euthyroidic patients showing only an asymmetric thyroidal configuration in the scintiscan. Unilateral determining of the radioiodine kinetics at the Auger-camera helped to find out if, and in how many cases, there is really an accelerated iodine metabolism in the thyroids represented asymmetrically. Fire of the examinated patients showed, compared with the opposite side, both increased iodine uptake and accelerated iodine output in the lobes which are seen more clearly in the scintiscan. This might be an indication of a very early stage of thyroidal autonomy. (orig.) [de

  7. Highly reliable electro-hydraulic control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mande, Morima; Hiyama, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Makoto

    1984-01-01

    The unscheduled shutdown of nuclear power stations disturbs power system, and exerts large influence on power generation cost due to the lowering of capacity ratio; therefore, high reliability is required for the control system of nuclear power stations. Toshiba Corp. has exerted effort to improve the reliability of the control system of power stations, and in this report, the electro-hydraulic control system for the turbines of nuclear power stations is described. The main functions of the electro-hydraulic control system are the control of main steam pressure with steam regulation valves and turbine bypass valves, the control of turbine speed and load, the prevention of turbine overspeed, the protection of turbines and so on. The system is composed of pressure sensors and a speed sensor, the control board containing the electronic circuits for control computation and protective sequence, the oil cylinders, servo valves and opening detectors of the valves for control, a high pressure oil hydraulic machine and piping, the operating panel and so on. The main features are the adoption of tripling intermediate value selection method, the multiplying of protection sensors and the adoption of 2 out of 3 trip logic, the multiplying of power sources, the improvement of the reliability of electronic circuit hardware and oil hydraulic system. (Kako, I.)

  8. High performance computing on vector systems

    CERN Document Server

    Roller, Sabine

    2008-01-01

    Presents the developments in high-performance computing and simulation on modern supercomputer architectures. This book covers trends in hardware and software development in general and specifically the vector-based systems and heterogeneous architectures. It presents innovative fields like coupled multi-physics or multi-scale simulations.

  9. High-Energy Beam Transport system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melson, K.E.; Farrell, J.A.; Liska, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    The High-Energy Beam Transport (HEBT) system for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility is to be installed at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) at Richland, Washington. The linear accelerator must transport a large emittance, high-current, high-power, continuous-duty deuteron beam with a large energy spread either to a lithium target or a beam stop. A periodic quadrupole and bending-magnet system provides the beam transport and focusing on target with small beam aberrations. A special rf cavity distributes the energy in the beam so that the Bragg Peak is distributed within the lithium target. Operation of the rf control system, the Energy Dispersion Cavity (EDC), and the beam transport magnets is tested on the beam stop during accelerator turn-on. Characterizing the beam will require extensions of beam diagnostic techniques and noninterceptive sensors. Provisions are being made in the facility for suspending the transport system from overhead supports using a cluster system to simplify maintenance and alignment techniques

  10. The antecedents of satisfaction with pay in teams: do performance-based compensation and autonomy keep team-members satisfied?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Godeanu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate the effects performance-based compensation and autonomy on satisfaction with pay in the context of team working. I develop a complex perspective that considers the influence of different monetary and non-monetary rewards on satisfaction with pay. Drawing from the agency theory, equity theory and theory of cooperation I predict that both piece rates and team-based rewards are associated with higher pay satisfaction. Moreover, I claim that both individual and team-based autonomy contribute to increased satisfaction with pay. Using a cross-sectional dataset of randomly selected European employees who are asked about specific working and living conditions, results confirm that both productivity-based rewards and autonomy are important for employee satisfaction. Managers should know when to introduce rewards based only on individual merits and when to give to use autonomy as a buffer to compensate for the potential lack of fairness in the payment system.

  11. A highly ductile magnesium alloy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, W; Liu, H

    2009-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg) alloys are finding increasing applications in industry mainly due to their high strength-to-weight ratio. However, they have intrinsically poor plastic deformation ability at room temperature. Therefore, the vast majority of Mg alloys are used only in cast state, severely limiting the development of their applications. We have recently discovered a new Mg alloy system that possesses exceptionally high ductility as well as good mechanical strength. The superior plasticity allows this alloy system to be mechanically deformed at room temperature, directly from an as-cast alloy plate, sheet or ingot into working parts. This type of cold mechanical forming properties has never been reported with any other Mg alloy systems.

  12. Sexual autonomy and contraceptive use among women in Nigeria: findings from the Demographic and Health Survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswan, Saritha P; Ravindran, T K Sundari; Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Petzold, Max G; Fonn, Sharon

    2017-01-01

    The persistent low contraceptive use and high fertility in Nigeria despite improvements in educational achievements calls for an examination of the role of factors, which may moderate the use of modern contraception. This article explores the influence of sexual autonomy on the use of modern contraceptive methods among women and its relative importance compared with other, more traditional, indicators of women's autonomy such as education and occupation. Data from two Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), 2008 and 2013, were used in this study. An index of sexual autonomy was constructed by combining related DHS variables, and its association with current use of modern contraception was examined at each time point as well as over time using multivariate regression analysis. The observed prevalence for use of modern contraception was 2.8 and 2.6 times higher among women who had high sexual autonomy in 2008 and 2013, respectively. The corresponding figures for women with secondary or higher education were 8.2 and 11.8 times higher, respectively, compared with women with no education. But after controlling for wealth index, religion, place of residence, autonomy and experience of intimate partner violence (IPV), the likelihood of use of modern contraception was lowered to about 2.5 (from 8.2) and 2.8 (from 11.8) times during 2008 and 2013, respectively, among women with secondary or higher education. The likelihood of use of modern contraception lowered only to 1.6 (from 2.8) and 1.8 (from 2.6) times among women with high sexual autonomy after controlling for other covariates, respectively, during the same period. Sexual autonomy seems to play an important role in women's use of modern contraceptive methods independent of education and a number of other factors related to women's status. Sexual autonomy needs to be simultaneously promoted alongside increasing educational opportunities to enhance women's ability to use modern contraception.

  13. Patient’s autonomy from a biethical perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Ribeiro-Alves

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Even though the conflicts arising in the field of Bioethics are generated by biomedical advances, these problems are meta-medical, that is they are transverse to all disciplines with scope in the human health. In this context, the application of bioethical principles such as the principle of autonomy, is considered a starting point, crucial to decision making referring to the exercise of medical and dental practice. In this sense, it is necessary to increase efforts through health policies and formation at the highest level for professionals in health disciplines in order to guide them to reduce violations of bioethical principles, as indeed happens in the day by day practice, in health services, both public and private, clinics or hospitals in order to get a health system with a more humanistic commitment. Thus, bioethics must be the base on which lay the foundations of a necessary dialogue that tends to resolve the observed conflicts, seeking to have the human being, and dignity of life as essential issues of their actions. The aim of this review is not to propose a definition of the Principle of Autonomy, that everyone already handle, but invite to a reflexion which contributes to size it and apply it in the field of dental practice in a bioethical context linked to the human person.

  14. Seniors in Society. Strategies to Retain Individual Autonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The research project on "Seniors in Society. Strategies to Retain Individual Autonomy" (2002 - 2004 is supported by the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic. It's importance is empha-sized by the relevance of social and economic aspects of demographic ageing of the popula-tion and that of fundamental changes associated with the transformation of Czech society. The objectives of the research are (1 to find out seniors' material and social resources sup-porting their relative autonomy in everyday life, (2 to record their personal expectations from state, community, or formal and informal support and aid institutions, respectively, and (3 to uncover their engagement in social interaction and individual experiencing of the integration into social groups. The data acquired become the base for (4 identifying the typologies corre-sponding to the levels of seniors' social integration (i.e. groups of relatives, friends, neighbours, special-interest and professional groups. By applying qualitative methods, we explore (5 strategies of everyday life and coping with life cycle events and crisis within par-ticular types. Special attention is paid to the family background of the seniors, including rela-tives in the vertical line. Specifically, we focus on (6 conditions under which family is capa-ble and willing to help or actually is helping it's oldest members, as well as on their interpre-tation within (7 identified types of the relatives supportive systems.

  15. Management issues for high performance storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louis, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Burris, R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Managing distributed high-performance storage systems is complex and, although sharing common ground with traditional network and systems management, presents unique storage-related issues. Integration technologies and frameworks exist to help manage distributed network and system environments. Industry-driven consortia provide open forums where vendors and users cooperate to leverage solutions. But these new approaches to open management fall short addressing the needs of scalable, distributed storage. We discuss the motivation and requirements for storage system management (SSM) capabilities and describe how SSM manages distributed servers and storage resource objects in the High Performance Storage System (HPSS), a new storage facility for data-intensive applications and large-scale computing. Modem storage systems, such as HPSS, require many SSM capabilities, including server and resource configuration control, performance monitoring, quality of service, flexible policies, file migration, file repacking, accounting, and quotas. We present results of initial HPSS SSM development including design decisions and implementation trade-offs. We conclude with plans for follow-on work and provide storage-related recommendations for vendors and standards groups seeking enterprise-wide management solutions.

  16. Independence, Interaction, Interdependence and Interrelation: Learner Autonomy in a Web-based Less Commonly Taught Language Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina V. Kostina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the United States, teaching less commonly taught languages has been a very challenging task due to low student enrollment and the high costs of hiring permanent teaching faculty. Therefore, webbased distance learning (DL is beginning to attract serious attention from the less commonly taught languages profession (Fleming, Hiple and Du, 2002. However, DL classes are often associated with student isolation, where learners are deprived of non-verbal clues, vocal expression, and eye contact that are crucial for foreign language learning (White, 2005. Thus, working in a more isolated context requires higher learner autonomy (White, 2005. This article provides a review of literature on autonomy that exists in the foreign language field, and describes four aspects of autonomy that need to be considered by language teachers while developing their web-based courses. It also offers some practical suggestions for the less commonly taught language instructors that foster autonomy and decrease isolation online.

  17. Adequacy, Accountability, Autonomy and Equity in a Middle Eastern School Reform: The Case of Qatar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarino, Cassandra M.; Tanner, Jeffery C.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines Qatar's recent and ambitious school reform in the early stages of its implementation against a set of four criteria for successful education systems drawn from guidelines developed by the international community: adequacy, accountability, autonomy and gender equity. We investigate both the initial structure of the reform and…

  18. Mechanism for Promoting Motivation, Confidence, and Autonomy through Synchronic Communication Sessions in Virtual Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, Jorge Andrick Parra; Dallos, Adriana Rocío Lizcano; Ballesteros, Eliécer Pineda

    2017-01-01

    This study presents a mechanism which explains the effect of synchronous communication on students' perception of the training process in virtual learning methodology used in a postgraduate programme at the University of Santander. We use System Dynamics to design a mechanism that integrates motivation, confidence, trust, and autonomy in students.…

  19. Initial Opposition--Won't Portfolio Assessment Take Away Teacher Autonomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Marcia

    Unacknowledged and untended opposition can lead the "resistance" to destroy even the best planned of portfolio systems. The greatest cause of initial resistance to portfolio assessment is the fear that teachers will lose their autonomy and/or authority in the classroom. Writing instructors need to ask themselves about issues of control and…

  20. A Quantized State Approach to On-line Simulation for Spacecraft Autonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alminde, Lars; Stoustrup, Jakob; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    2006-01-01

    Future space applications will require an increased level of operational autonomy. This calls for declarative methods for spacecraft state estimation and control, so that the spacecraft engineer can focus on modeling the spacecraft rather than implementing all details of the on-line system. Celeb...

  1. Governance and Institutional Autonomy: Governing and Governance in Portuguese Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhaes, Antonio; Veiga, Amelia; Ribeiro, Filipa; Amaral, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims at looking at governance instruments beyond managerial technicality. It intends to do so by analysing the impact of governance reforms on the universities autonomy assumed as a regulation instrument to politically steer systems and institutions. The regulation efforts undertaken at the European and national levels reflect a trend…

  2. Parallel autonomy in automated vehicles : Safe motion generation with minimal intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwarting, Wilko; Alonso Mora, J.; Pauli, Liam; Karaman, Sertac; Rus, Daniela; Chen, I-Ming; Nakamura, Yoshihiko

    2017-01-01

    Current state-of-the-art vehicle safety systems, such as assistive braking or automatic lane following, are still only able to help in relatively simple driving situations. We introduce a Parallel Autonomy shared-control framework that produces safe trajectories based on human inputs even in much

  3. National high-level waste systems analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristofferson, K.; O'Holleran, T.P.

    1996-01-01

    Previously, no mechanism existed that provided a systematic, interrelated view or national perspective of all high-level waste treatment and storage systems that the US Department of Energy manages. The impacts of budgetary constraints and repository availability on storage and treatment must be assessed against existing and pending negotiated milestones for their impact on the overall HLW system. This assessment can give DOE a complex-wide view of the availability of waste treatment and help project the time required to prepare HLW for disposal. Facilities, throughputs, schedules, and milestones were modeled to ascertain the treatment and storage systems resource requirements at the Hanford Site, Savannah River Site, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, and West Valley Demonstration Project. The impacts of various treatment system availabilities on schedule and throughput were compared to repository readiness to determine the prudent application of resources. To assess the various impacts, the model was exercised against a number of plausible scenarios as discussed in this paper

  4. High power communication satellites power systems study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josloff, A.T.; Peterson, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses a DOE-funded study to evaluate the commercial attractiveness of high power communication satellites and assesses the attributes of both conventional photovoltaic and reactor power systems. This study brings together a preeminent US Industry/Russian team to cooperate on the role of high power communication satellites in the rapidly expanding communications revolution. These high power satellites play a vital role in assuring availability of universally accessible, wide bandwidth communications, for high definition TV, super computer networks and other services. Satellites are ideally suited to provide the wide bandwidths and data rates required and are unique in the ability to provide services directly to the users. As new or relocated markets arise, satellites offer a flexibility that conventional distribution services cannot match, and it is no longer necessary to be near population centers to take advantage of the telecommunication revolution. The geopolitical implications of these substantially enhanced communications capabilities will be significant

  5. Genetic and Attachment Influences on Adolescents' Regulation of Autonomy and Aggressiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Peter; Mohr, Cornelia; Spangler, Gottfried

    2009-01-01

    Background: Adolescence is a time when intense emotions are elicited within the parent-adolescent relationship, often when autonomy subjectively is endangered. As emotion dysregulation is one of the risk processes for the development of psychopathology, adolescence may be perceived as a highly sensitive period for maladjustment. Inter-individual…

  6. Impact of Teachers' Implicit Theories and Perceived Pressures on the Establishment of an Autonomy Supportive Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Nadia; Bressoux, Pascal; Sarrazin, Philippe; Trouilloud, David

    2007-01-01

    According to self-determination theory, when teachers establish an autonomy supportive climate in the classroom, students demonstrate high levels of self-determination and are intrinsically motivated. The aim of this study was to identify factors leading teachers (N=336) to report that they create such a climate. We conducted a path analysis in…

  7. Improving Students' Learning through School Autonomy: Evidence from the International Civic and Citizenship Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paletta, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the effect of school autonomy on multiple measures of student achievement, combining the individual data of the students participating in the International Civics and Citizenship Survey with their results in the national high stakes standardized tests at the end of eighth grade administered by the Italian National…

  8. The Path Forward: School Autonomy and Its Implications for the Future of Boston's Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Dan; Miles, Karen Hawley; Nathan, Linda

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the question of how Boston Public Schools (BPS) can strengthen and support autonomy and accountability across its portfolio to promote innovation and expand access to equity and high performance. Some of the specific questions guiding this work are: (1) Should all schools within BPS operate within autonomous structures? (2) Is…

  9. Accelerator System Development at High Voltage Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, M. G.; Gottdang, A.; Haitsma, R. G.; Mous, D. J. W.

    2009-01-01

    Throughout the years, HVE has continuously extended the capabilities of its accelerator systems to meet the rising demands from a diverse field of applications, among which are deep level ion implantation, micro-machining, neutron production for biomedical research, isotope production or accelerator mass spectrometry. Characteristic for HVE accelerators is the coaxial construction of the all solid state power supply around the acceleration tubes. With the use of solid state technology, the accelerators feature high stability and very low ripple. Terminal voltages range from 1 to 6 MV for HVE Singletrons and Tandetrons. The high-current versions of these accelerators can provide ion beams with powers of several kW. In the last years, several systems have been built with terminal voltages of 1.25 MV, 2 MV and 5 MV. Recently, the first system based on a 6 MV Tandetron has passed the factory tests. In this paper we describe the characteristics of the HVE accelerator systems and present as example recent systems.

  10. Powersail High Power Propulsion System Design Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulczinski, Frank S., III

    2000-11-01

    A desire by the United States Air Force to exploit the space environment has led to a need for increased on-orbit electrical power availability. To enable this, the Air Force Research Laboratory Space Vehicles Directorate (AFRL/ VS) is developing Powersail: a two-phased program to demonstrate high power (100 kW to 1 MW) capability in space using a deployable, flexible solar array connected to the host spacecraft using a slack umbilical. The first phase will be a proof-of-concept demonstration at 50 kW, followed by the second phase, an operational system at full power. In support of this program, the AFRL propulsion Directorate's Spacecraft Propulsion Branch (AFRL/PRS ) at Edwards AFB has commissioned a design study of the Powersail High Power Propulsion System. The purpose of this study, the results of which are summarized in this paper, is to perform mission and design trades to identify potential full-power applications (both near-Earth and interplanetary) and the corresponding propulsion system requirements and design. The design study shall farther identify a suitable low power demonstration flight that maximizes risk reduction for the fully operational system. This propulsion system is expected to be threefold: (1) primary propulsion for moving the entire vehicle, (2) a propulsion unit that maintains the solar array position relative to the host spacecraft, and (3) control propulsion for maintaining proper orientation for the flexible solar array.

  11. Euthyroid goitre with and without functional autonomy: A comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillenhinrichs, H.; Emrich, D.

    1998-01-01

    Analysis of functional autonomy in euthyroid goitre. Methods: In an area of moderate iodine deficiency 163 goitrous patients without and 179 with functional autonomy all clinically euthyroid were compared by sex, age, signs and symptoms, sonographic results, qualitative and quantitative scintigraphy without and with suppression, TRH test, hormone concentrations and iodine excretion in the urine. Results: Age, signs and symptoms, thyroid volume and structure did not contribute sufficiently to diagnosis. To detect functional autonomy quantitative scintigraphy under suppression was superior to the TRH test. Increased hormone concentrations were observed in 15% of patients with functional autonomy. A global 99m Tc thyroid uptake of ≥3% under suppression indicates a higher risk of spontaneous hyperthyroidism. It was present in 20% of patients with functional autonomy. Conclusion: to diagnose and treat adequately functional autonomy in euthyroid goitre quantitative scintigraphy, determination of TSH and hormone concentrations are inevitable. (orig.) [de

  12. Autonomy and Housing Accessibility Among Powered Mobility Device Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Åse; Lexell, Eva Månsson; Iwarsson, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. To describe environmental barriers, accessibility problems, and powered mobility device (PMD) users’ autonomy indoors and outdoors; to determine the home environmental barriers that generated the most housing accessibility problems indoors, at entrances, and in the close exterior surroundings; and to examine personal factors and environmental components and their association with indoor and outdoor autonomy. METHOD. This cross-sectional study was based on data collected from a sample of 48 PMD users with a spinal cord injury (SCI) using the Impact of Participation and Autonomy and the Housing Enabler instruments. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used. RESULTS. More years living with SCI predicted less restriction in autonomy indoors, whereas more functional limitations and accessibility problems related to entrance doors predicted more restriction in autonomy outdoors. CONCLUSION. To enable optimized PMD use, practitioners must pay attention to the relationship between client autonomy and housing accessibility problems. PMID:26356666

  13. High Latitude Dust in the Earth System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullard, Joanna E.; Baddock, Matthew; Bradwell, Tom; Crusius, John; Darlington, Eleanor; Gaiero, Diego; Gasso, Santiago; Gisladottir, Gudrun; Hodgkins, Richard; McCulloch, Robert; hide

    2016-01-01

    Natural dust is often associated with hot, subtropical deserts, but significant dust events have been reported from cold, high latitudes. This review synthesizes current understanding of high-latitude (> or = 50degN and > or = 40degS) dust source geography and dynamics and provides a prospectus for future research on the topic. Although the fundamental processes controlling aeolian dust emissions in high latitudes are essentially the same as in temperate regions, there are additional processes specific to or enhanced in cold regions. These include low temperatures, humidity, strong winds, permafrost and niveo-aeolian processes all of which can affect the efficiency of dust emission and distribution of sediments. Dust deposition at high latitudes can provide nutrients to the marine system, specifically by contributing iron to high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll oceans; it also affects ice albedo and melt rates. There have been no attempts to quantify systematically the expanse, characteristics, or dynamics of high-latitude dust sources. To address this, we identify and compare the main sources and drivers of dust emissions in the Northern (Alaska, Canada, Greenland, and Iceland) and Southern (Antarctica, New Zealand, and Patagonia) Hemispheres. The scarcity of year-round observations and limitations of satellite remote sensing data at high latitudes are discussed. It is estimated that under contemporary conditions high-latitude sources cover >500,000 sq km and contribute at least 80-100 Tg/yr1 of dust to the Earth system (approx. 5% of the global dust budget); both are projected to increase under future climate change scenarios.

  14. High dynamic range coding imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Renfan; Huang, Yifan; Hou, Guangqi

    2014-10-01

    We present a high dynamic range (HDR) imaging system design scheme based on coded aperture technique. This scheme can help us obtain HDR images which have extended depth of field. We adopt Sparse coding algorithm to design coded patterns. Then we utilize the sensor unit to acquire coded images under different exposure settings. With the guide of the multiple exposure parameters, a series of low dynamic range (LDR) coded images are reconstructed. We use some existing algorithms to fuse and display a HDR image by those LDR images. We build an optical simulation model and get some simulation images to verify the novel system.

  15. Adaptive Fuzzy Control for Power-Frequency Characteristic Regulation in High-RES Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos Rikos

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Future power systems control will require large-scale activation of reserves at distribution level. Despite their high potential, distributed energy resources (DER used for frequency control pose challenges due to unpredictability, grid bottlenecks, etc. To deal with these issues, this study presents a novel strategy of power frequency characteristic dynamic adjustment based on the imbalance state. This way, the concerned operators become aware of the imbalance location but also a more accurate redistribution of responsibilities in terms of reserves activations is achieved. The proposed control is based on the concept of “cells” which are power systems with operating capabilities and responsibilities similar to control areas (CAs, but fostering the use of resources at all voltage levels, particularly distribution grids. Control autonomy of cells allows increased RES hosting. In this study, the power frequency characteristic of a cell is adjusted in real time by means of a fuzzy controller, which curtails part of the reserves, in order to avoid unnecessary deployment throughout a synchronous area, leading to a more localised activation and reducing losses, congestions and reserves exhaustion. Simulation tests in a four-cell reference power system prove that the controller significantly reduces the use of reserves without compromising the overall stability.

  16. Results of a TcTUs-optimized radioiodine therapy of multifocal and disseminated functional thyroid autonomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunkelmann, S.; Endlicher, D.; Prillwitz, A.; Rudolph, F.; Groth, P.; Schuemichen, C.

    1999-01-01

    Aim: The presented study prospectively evaluates the efficacy of optimized radioiodine therapy in patients (pts) with multifocal (MFA) and disseminated (DISA) autonomy. The target dose was related to the total thyroid volume and was increased in moderate and nonlinear increments for 150 to 300 Gy dependent on the pretherapeutic Tc-99m pertechnetate thyroid uptake under suppression (TcTUs). Patients with focal autonomy were treated with a target dose independent of TcTUs and were used as control group. Methods: The data of 641 pts (518 women, 123 men) were evaluated, 466 pts with MFA or DISA and 175 pts with focal autonomy. In pts with MFA and DISA the target dose was increased in four steps: TcTUs 3-6%: 200 Gy, >6-12%: 250 Gy and >12%: 300 Gy. In pts with focal autonomy a fixed target dose of 300 or 400 Gy was applied. The radioactivity to be administered was calculated using a modified Marinelli formula. The follow-up examination was performed at the earliest after four, on average after eight months. Normalization of TSH was the only criterion for successful therapy. Results: The success rate in pts with latent or manifest hyperthyroidism in focal autonomy was 91.5%, thereby was not successful in 5.1% and hypothyroidism occurred in 3.4%. The average success rate in pts with MFA and DISA was 91.5%, therapy failed in 7.5% and a very low rate of 1% with hypothyroidism was seen. Conclusion: The presented optimized therapy concept with calculated, nonlinear increase of the target dose according to the TcTUs-level guaranteed even in MFA and DISA a high success rate comparable to that in focal autonomy along with a very low rate of hypothyroidism. (orig.) [de

  17. Autonomy and job satisfaction for a sample of Greek teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koustelios, Athanasios D; Karabatzaki, Despina; Kousteliou, Ioanna

    2004-12-01

    Analysing the relation between Job Satisfaction and Autonomy in a sample of 300 Greek teachers (114 men and 186 women, 28 to 59 years old) from primary and secondary schools, showed statistically significant positive correlations between Job Satisfaction and Autonomy. Particularly, Autonomy was correlated with Job Itself (.21), Supervision (.22), and the Organizational as a Whole (.27), aspects of Job Satisfaction. Findings are in line with previous studies conducted in different cultural contexts. Percent common variance accounted for is small.

  18. Autonomy support for autonomous motivation in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusurkar, Rashmi A; Croiset, Gerda

    2015-01-01

    Medical students often study only to fare well in their examinations or pursue a specific specialty, or study only those topics that they perceive to be useful in medical practice. The motivation for study in these cases comes from external or internal pressures or from the desire to obtain rewards. Self-determination theory (SDT) classifies this type of motivation as controlled motivation and the type of motivation that comes from genuine interest or personal value as autonomous motivation. Autonomous motivation, in comparison with controlled motivation, has been associated with better learning, academic success, and less exhaustion. SDT endorses autonomous motivation and suggests that autonomy support is important for autonomous motivation. The meaning of autonomy is misinterpreted by many. This article tries to focus on how to be autonomy-supportive in medical education. Autonomy support refers to the perception of choice in learning. Some of the ways of supporting autonomy in medical education are small group teaching, problem-based learning, and gradual increase in responsibility of patients. Autonomy-supportive teaching behavior is not a trait and can be learned. Autonomy support in medical education is not limited to bringing in changes in the medical curriculum for students; it is about an overall change in the way of thinking and working in medical schools that foster autonomy among those involved in education. Research into autonomy in medical education is limited. Some topics that need to be investigated are the ideas and perceptions of students and teachers about autonomy in learning. Autonomy support in medical education can enhance autonomous motivation of students for medical study and practice and make them autonomy-supportive in their future medical practice and teaching.

  19. Autonomy support for autonomous motivation in medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi A. Kusurkar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medical students often study only to fare well in their examinations or pursue a specific specialty, or study only those topics that they perceive to be useful in medical practice. The motivation for study in these cases comes from external or internal pressures or from the desire to obtain rewards. Self-determination theory (SDT classifies this type of motivation as controlled motivation and the type of motivation that comes from genuine interest or personal value as autonomous motivation. Autonomous motivation, in comparison with controlled motivation, has been associated with better learning, academic success, and less exhaustion. SDT endorses autonomous motivation and suggests that autonomy support is important for autonomous motivation. The meaning of autonomy is misinterpreted by many. This article tries to focus on how to be autonomy-supportive in medical education. Discussion: Autonomy support refers to the perception of choice in learning. Some of the ways of supporting autonomy in medical education are small group teaching, problem-based learning, and gradual increase in responsibility of patients. Autonomy-supportive teaching behavior is not a trait and can be learned. Autonomy support in medical education is not limited to bringing in changes in the medical curriculum for students; it is about an overall change in the way of thinking and working in medical schools that foster autonomy among those involved in education. Research into autonomy in medical education is limited. Some topics that need to be investigated are the ideas and perceptions of students and teachers about autonomy in learning. Conclusion: Autonomy support in medical education can enhance autonomous motivation of students for medical study and practice and make them autonomy-supportive in their future medical practice and teaching.

  20. Learner Autonomy in Language Education : A Cross-Cultural Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Kojima, Hideo

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, the importance of developing learner autonomy in language education hasbeen one of its more prominent themes in Japan as well as in the West. In spite of agreementconcerning its importance, there remains a good deal of uncertainty about its meaning inteaching and learning English as a foreign language (EFL). This paper aims to consider theconcept of learner autonomy amongst different cultures. Autonomy has a social as well as anindividual dimension. The promotion of learner a...