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Sample records for high athletic identity

  1. Campus Recreation Program Involvement, Athletic Identity, Transitional Loss and Life Satisfaction in Former High School Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, Katie E.

    2010-01-01

    Sports participation can result in strong associations with the athlete role for participants. While strong athletic identity can have positive implications, it can also create vulnerability to emotional difficulty following exit from sport (Brewer, 1993). Exit from sport is inevitable, resulting from a wide range of sources such as injury, aging,…

  2. Athletic identity foreclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Britton W; Petitpas, Albert J

    2017-08-01

    Athletic identity foreclosure refers to commitment to the athlete role in the absence of exploration of occupational or ideological alternatives. This article traces the theoretical underpinnings of the construct, examines the role of sport participation in identity development, and provides an overview of the course, correlates, and consequences of athletic identity foreclosure. Implications for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Athletic Engagement and Athletic Identity in Top Croatian Sprint Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babić, Vesna; Sarac, Jelena; Missoni, Sasa; Sindik, Josko

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the research was to determine construct validity and reliability for two questionnaires (Athlete Engagement Questionnaire-AEQ and Athletic Identity Measurement Scale-AIMS), applied on elite Croatian athletes-sprinters, as well as the correlations among the dimensions in these measuring instruments. Then, we have determined the differences in the dimensions of sport engagement and sport identity, according to gender, education level and winning medals on international competitions. A total of 71 elite athletes-sprinters (former and still active) are examined, from which 27 (38%) females and 44 (62%) males. The results of factor analyses revealed the existence of dimensions very similar as in the original instruments, which showed moderate to-high reliabilities. A small number of statistically significant correlations have been found between the dimensions of sport engagement and sport identity, mainly in male sprinter runners. Small number of statistically significant differences in the dimensions of sport engagement and sport identity have been found according to the gender, education level and winning medals on the international competitions. The most reasonable explanation of these differences could be given in terms of very similar characteristics of elite athletes on the same level of sport excellence.

  4. The career planning, athletic identity, and student role identity of intercollegiate student athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lally, Patricia S; Kerr, Gretchen A

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the career planning of university student athletes and relationships between their career planning and athletic and student role identities. Two retrospective in-depth interviews were held with four male and four female university student athletes. Participants entered university with vague or nonexistent career objectives and invested heavily in their athletic roles. In the latter years of their college career, the participants discarded their sport career ambitions and allowed the student role to become more prominent in their identity hierarchies. The current findings support Brown and Hartley's (1998) suggestion that student athletes may invest in both the athlete and student role identities simultaneously and that investing in the latter may permit the exploration of nonsport career options.

  5. NATIONAL IDENTITY OF TOP – LEVEL ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca Doupona Topič

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Elite international sports are staged in connection with national symbols and involve competitions between athletes and teams representing nation-states. The victors regularly express their joy by displaying their national flag, and spectators use victories as occasions for reaffirming and articulating national pride. The aim of the study was to determine how national identity is formed in connection with sports, and the ways that national identity is integrated into the lives of athletes. The sample included top-level athletes. All participants were members of the Slovenian national team (handball, voleyball, track and field, swimming, cross country skiing, rowing. Social-demographic variables, value categories, motivation for competition, national pride, awareness to be Slovenianian-ness were analysed. Results shows that sporting achievements do have a strong correlation with the national identity.

  6. Athletic Identity, Vocational Identity, and Occupational Engagement in College Student-Athletes and Non-Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Lacole L.

    2012-01-01

    Athletic departments in National Collegiate Athletic Association Football Bowl Subdivision universities provide academic support services to their student-athletes. Even though student-athletes receive help including career assistance from academic counselors, some studies have found that student-athletes are behind non-athletes in career…

  7. Moral identity and emotion in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavussanu, Maria; Willoughby, Adrian; Ring, Christopher

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of moral identity on physiological responses to affective pictures, namely, the startle blink reflex and pain-related evoked potential. Male (n = 48) and female (n = 46) athletes participating in contact team sports were randomly assigned to either a moral identity group or a non-moral identity group and viewed a series of unpleasant, neutral, and pleasant sport-specific pictures. During picture viewing, a noxious electrocutaneous stimulus was delivered as the startle probe and the startle blink and pain-related evoked potential were measured. Upon completion of physiological measures, participants reviewed the pictures and rated them for valence and arousal. ANOVAs revealed that participants in the moral identity group displayed larger startle blinks and smaller pain-related potentials than did those in the non-moral identity group across all picture valence categories. However, the difference in the magnitude of startle blinks between the moral and non-moral identity groups was larger in response to unpleasant than pleasant and neutral pictures. Our findings suggest that moral identity affects physiological responses to sport-specific affective pictures, thereby providing objective evidence for the link between moral identity and emotion in athletes.

  8. Narratives of athletic identity after acquiring a permanent physical disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrier, Marie-José; Smith, Brett; Strachan, Shaelyn M; Latimer, Amy E

    2014-04-01

    Individuals with acquired physical disabilities report lower levels of athletic identity. The objective of this study was to further explore why athletic identity may be lost or (re)developed after acquiring a physical disability. Seven women and four men (range = 28-60 years) participated in approximately 1-hour-long semistructured interviews; data were subjected to a narrative analysis. The structural analysis revealed three narrative types. The nonathlete narrative described physical changes in the body as reasons for diminished athletic identity. The athlete as a future self primarily focused on present sport behavior and performance goals such that behavior changes diminished athletic identity. The present self as athlete narrative type focused on the aspects of their present sport involvement, such as feedback from other athletes and skill development, which supported their athletic identity. Implications of these narrative types with respect to sport promotion among people with acquired physical disabilities are discussed.

  9. Game Changers: The Role Athletic Identity and Racial Identity Play on Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bimper, Albert Y., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the degree to which athletic and racial identity predict the academic outcomes of Black student athletes participating in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division 1 Football Bowl Series football. The academic outcomes of Black student athletes are a growing concern to both scholars and…

  10. An Interpersonal Psychotherapy Approach to Counseling Student Athletes: Clinical Implications of Athletic Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heird, Emily Benton; Steinfeldt, Jesse A.

    2013-01-01

    Research has shown that disruptive circumstances in an athlete's career (temporary injury, permanent injury, retirement) can pose significant difficulties, especially if the athlete has developed a salient athletic identity at the expense of a multidimensional self-concept. The authors present an interpersonal psychotherapy approach to case…

  11. Athletic identity and well-being among young talented athletes who live at a Dutch elite sport center

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkooijen, K.T.; Hove, van P.; Dik, G.

    2012-01-01

    Differences in athletic identity and well-being were examined between athletes living in a Dutch elite sport center (CTO) and athletes not living in such a center (age range: 16–30). Measures included the Athletic Identity Measurement Scale (AIMS; Brewer & Cornelius, 20014. Brewer , B. W. and Co

  12. Demographic Profile and Athletic Identity of Traumatic Spinal Cord Injured Wheelchair Basketball Athletes in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliadis, Angelo; Evaggelinou, Christina; Avourdiadou, Sevastia; Grekinis, Petros

    2010-01-01

    An epidemiological study conducted across the country of Greece was conducted in order to determine the profile and the athletic identity of spinal cord injured (SCI) wheelchair basketball athletes who participated to the 13th Greek Wheelchair Basketball Championship and Cup. The Disability Sport Participation questionnaire was used for data…

  13. Identity Development and Life Plan Maturity: A Comparison of Women Athletes and Nonathletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jennifer; Bursik, Krisanne

    2000-01-01

    Using a sample of 59 college women (26 athletes and 33 non-athletes), examined whether women higher in identity achievement would describe more mature life plans, ones with greater complexity and stronger commitment to life goals. For athletes, identity achievement was positively associated with life plan commitment, while identity achievement and…

  14. Retaining a Legacy while Avoiding Trademark Infringement: A Case Study of One University's Attempt to Develop a Consistent Athletic Brand Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandri, Sue Westcott

    2007-01-01

    This case study chronicles Syracuse University's athletic department's attempt to achieve consistency in its identity program by changing its identity during 2004, and then again in 2005. The changes were owing to high-level personnel changes on both the academic and athletic sides of the university. This case details the many issues arising from…

  15. Female athlete triad syndrome in the high school athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thein-Nissenbaum, Jill M; Carr, Kathleen E

    2011-08-01

    Female sports participation at the high school level has significantly increased since the 1970s. Physical activity in females has numerous positive benefits, including improved body image and overall health. Unfortunately, a select population of exercising females may experience symptoms related to the "female athlete triad," which refers to the interrelationships among energy availability, menstrual function, and bone mineral density. Clinically, these conditions can manifest as disordered eating behaviors, menstrual irregularity, and stress fractures. Athletes with conditions related to the triad are distributed along a spectrum between optimal health and disease and may not experience all conditions simultaneously. Previous research related to the triad has primarily focused on collegiate and elite athletes. However, mounting evidence demonstrates that the triad is present in the high school population. High school athletes should be assessed for triad components at preparticipation physicals. In addition, parents, coaches, and health care professionals should be educated and informed about the female athlete triad syndrome. In the presence of triad symptoms, further evaluation and treatment by a multidisciplinary team is strongly recommended for the athlete.

  16. Exploring athletic identity in elite-level English youth football: a cross-sectional approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Tom O; Nesti, Mark; Richardson, David; Midgley, Adrian W; Eubank, Martin; Littlewood, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This study is the first empirical investigation that has explored levels of athletic identity in elite-level English professional football. The importance of understanding athletes' psychological well-being within professional sport has been well documented. This is especially important within the professional football industry, given the high attrition rate (Anderson, G., & Miller, R. M. (2011). The academy system in English professional football: Business value or following the herd? University of Liverpool, Management School Research Paper Series. Retrieved from http://www.liv.ac.uk/managementschool/research/working%20papers/wp201143.pdf ) and distinct occupational practices (Roderick, M. (2006). The work of professional football. A labour of love? London: Routledge). A total of 168 elite youth footballers from the English professional football leagues completed the Athletic Identity Measurement Scale (AIMS). Multilevel modelling was used to examine the effect of playing level, living arrangements and year of apprentice on the total AIMS score and its subscales (i.e., social identity, exclusivity and negative affectivity). Football club explained 30% of the variance in exclusivity among players (P = .022). Mean social identity was significantly higher for those players in the first year of their apprenticeship compared to the second year (P = .025). All other effects were not statistically significant (P > .05). The novel and unique findings have practical implications in the design and implementation of career support strategies with respect to social identity. This may facilitate the maintenance of motivation over a 2-year apprenticeship and positively impact on performance levels within the professional football environment.

  17. Psychological profile of high risk sports athlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Kajtna

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The research attempted to compose a psycjhological profile of high risk sports athletes, based on personality, values and sensation seeking. 38 high risk sports athletes participated in the research (alpinists, sky divers, parachute gliders, white water kayakers, downhill mountain bikers, motocross riders, downhill skiers and Nordic jumpers, the non risk sports athletes consisted of 38 swimmers, track athletes, sailers, still water kayakers, rowers, Nordic skiers, sports climbers and karate players, whereas non athletes were equalled with both groups in age and education and included 76 non athletes. We used the self descriptive scale Big five observer, Musek's Value scale and Zuckerman' Sensation seeking scale IV. The dimensions, obtained from the discrimination analysis, were named personality maturity and sensation seeking in a social environment. Our results show that high risk sports athletes are more mature personalities than non risk sports athletes and non athletes and that they do not attempt to find stimulation in social environments. We also suggest some possibilities for further research.

  18. Sex Discrimination in High School Athletics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Timothy K.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses Yellow Springs Exempted Village School District Board of Education vs Ohio High School Athletic Association where U.S. District Court in Ohio held unconstitutional a state athletic association rule prohibiting girls from participating on the same team as boys in contact sports. Available from City School of Law, 5100 Rockhill Road, K.C.,…

  19. Athletic identity, sport participation, and psychological adjustment in people with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasiemski, Tomasz; Brewer, Britton W

    2011-07-01

    This study examined interrelationships among athletic identity, sport participation, and psychological adjustment in a sample of people with spinal cord injury (SCI). Participants (N = 1,034) completed measures of athletic identity, life satisfaction, anxiety, depression, and demographic and sport participation variables. Current amount of weekly sport participation was positively related to athletic identity when statistically controlling for age, gender, and pre-SCI amount of weekly sport participation. Being able to practice one's favorite sport after SCI was associated with higher levels of athletic identity and better psychological adjustment. Team sport participants reported experiencing better psychological adjustment than individual sport participants did. The findings suggest that social factors are important in the link between sport participation and psychological adjustment in people with SCI.

  20. GENDER IDENTITY CONCEPTS OF FEMALE ATHLETES AND GIRLS WHO DON`T DO SPORT PROFESSIONALLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Alekseevna Usoltseva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to compare unconscious perception about gender identity between female athletes and girls not involved in sports. Method: the research was based on semantic differential method.Findings. Women involved in typically masculine sports have more gender identity difficulties in comparison with female athletes involved in typically feminine sports and with women not involved in any sports. Women involved in typically masculine sports have no internal coordination between gender and sports roles. There is an identification with the role of athletes at the expense of gender identity. The resolution of these difficulties is possible at internal psychological level of personality. Practical implications: understanding of sportswomen’s structure of perception  about gender identity allows organizing psychological work with sportswomen which is aimed at coordination between gender and sports roles.

  1. Unsanctioned aggression in rugby union: relationships among aggressiveness, anger, athletic identity, and professionalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, J P; Visek, A J

    2009-01-01

    Aggressive players who intentionally cause injury to their opponents are common in many sports, particularly collision sports such as Rugby Union. Although some acts of aggression fall within the rules (sanctioned), others do not (unsanctioned), with the latter tending to be less acceptable than the former. This study attempts to identify characteristics of players who are more likely to employ unsanctioned methods in order to injure an opponent. Male Rugby Union players completed questionnaires assessing aggressiveness, anger, past aggression, professionalization, and athletic identity. Players were assigned to one of two groups based on self-reported past unsanctioned aggression. Results indicated that demographic variables (e.g., age, playing position, or level of play) were not predictive of group membership. Measures of aggressiveness and professionalization were significant predictors; high scores on both indicated a greater probability of reporting the use of unsanctioned aggressive force for the sole purpose of causing injury or pain. In addition, players who had been taught how to execute aggressive illegal plays without detection were also more likely to report using excessive force to injure an opponent. Results provide further support that highly professionalized players may be more likely to use methods outside the constitutive rules of Rugby Union in order to intentionally injure their opponents. Results are discussed within the context of the increasing win-at-all-cost attitude that is becoming more prevalent in sport and its implications for youth athletes. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Racial and Athletic Identity of African American Football Players at Historically Black Colleges and Universities and Predominantly White Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinfeldt, Jesse A.; Reed, Courtney; Steinfeldt, M. Clint

    2010-01-01

    This study examined racial and athletic identity among African American football players at historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) and predominantly White institutions (PWIs). Negotiating the dualism of racial and athletic identities can be problematic because both roles are subject to prejudice and discrimination, particularly for…

  3. Racial and Athletic Identity of African American Football Players at Historically Black Colleges and Universities and Predominantly White Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinfeldt, Jesse A.; Reed, Courtney; Steinfeldt, M. Clint

    2010-01-01

    This study examined racial and athletic identity among African American football players at historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) and predominantly White institutions (PWIs). Negotiating the dualism of racial and athletic identities can be problematic because both roles are subject to prejudice and discrimination, particularly for…

  4. The Adapted Italian Version of the Baller Identity Measurement Scale to Evaluate the Student-Athletes' Identity in Relation to Gender, Age, Type of Sport, and Competition Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, Corrado; Mosso, Cristina Onesta; Guidotti, Flavia; Cugliari, Giovanni; Pizzigalli, Luisa; Rainoldi, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is twofold: to validate the properties of the Italian version of the Baller Identity Measurement Scale (i.e., BIMS-IT), a self-report questionnaire based on the athletic and academic identities; and to investigate differences in psychosocial factors such as gender, age, type of sport, and competition level. The dimensionality of the BIMS-IT was explored by means of the exploratory factor analysis, considering the scale's internal consistency too (Confirmatory Factor Analysis). Results related to exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis supported a model of measurement composed of two correlated factors: the athletic and academic identities and affectivity related to identities. For both factors, differences emerged between age, and competition level sub groups. In particular, higher identity scores emerged for ≤ 24 years old student-athletes with respect to their age counterparts. National sub-elite student-athletes reported lower identity values than those of national elite and international levels. Results suggest that the Italian version of the BIMS-IT is psychometrically robust and could be adopted for empirical uses. The higher identity scores reported by younger and higher competition level participants suggest a correspondent higher involvement into the student-athlete role. However, BIMS-IT represents a distinct model with respect to the original American BIMS, determining the need of further research on the student-athletes' identity to better clarify any socio-cultural contest effects.

  5. Nutritional habits among high-performance endurance athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Baranauskas

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The diet of highly trained endurance athletes does not fully meet their requirements and in this situation cannot ensure maximum adaptation to very intense and/or long-duration physical loads. The diet of highly trained endurance athletes must be optimized, adjusted and individualized. Particular attention should be focused on female athletes.

  6. Drug Use Patterns among High School Athletes and Nonathletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, Adam H.; Gardner, Doug; Zaichkowsky, Len

    2001-01-01

    High school students (N=1,515) in Massachusetts were surveyed about whether participation in athletics promoted a healthier lifestyle and decreased use of recreational drugs. Participation in athletics did promote a healthier lifestyle and athletes were significantly less likely to use cocaine, psychedelic drugs, or smoke cigarettes. However, work…

  7. Nutritional habits among high-performance endurance athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Baranauskas, Marius; Stukas, Rimantas; Tubelis, Linas; Žagminas, Kęstutis; Šurkienė, Genė; Švedas, Edmundas; Giedraitis, Vincentas Rolandas; Dobrovolskij, Valerij; Abaravičius, Jonas Algis

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective: For athletes, the main purpose of nutrition is to ensure the compensation of increased energy consumption and the need for nutrients in the athlete's body, thereby enabling maximum adaptation to physical loads. The aim of this study was to determine the habits of highly trained endurance athletes depending on sports type, sex and age in order to improve the planning and management of the training of athletes using targeted measures. Materials and me...

  8. High School Sport Specialization Patterns of Current Division I Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Eric G; Thein-Nissenbaum, Jill M; Stiffler, Mikel R; Brooks, M Alison; Bell, David R; Sanfilippo, Jennifer L; Trigsted, Stephanie M; Heiderscheit, Bryan C; McGuine, Timothy A

    Sport specialization is a strategy to acquire superior sport performance in 1 sport but is associated with increased injury risk. Currently, the degree of high school specialization among Division I athletes is unknown. College athletes will display increased rates of specialization as they progress through their high school careers. Descriptive epidemiological study. Level 4. Three hundred forty-three athletes (115 female) representing 9 sports from a Midwest Division I University completed a previously utilized sport specialization questionnaire regarding sport participation patterns for each grade of high school. McNemar and chi-square tests were used to investigate associations of grade, sport, and sex with prevalence of sport specialization category (low, moderate, high) (a priori P ≤ 0.05). Specialization increased throughout high school, with 16.9% (n = 58) and 41.1% (n = 141) of athletes highly specialized in 9th and 12th grades, respectively. Football athletes were less likely to be highly specialized than nonfootball athletes for each year of high school ( P 0.23). The majority of Division I athletes were not classified as highly specialized throughout high school, but the prevalence of high specialization increased as athletes progressed through high school. Nonfootball athletes were more likely to be highly specialized than football athletes at each grade level. Most athletes who are recruited to participate in collegiate athletics will eventually specialize in their sport, but it does not appear that early specialization is necessary to become a Division I athlete. Athletes should be counseled regarding safe participation in sport during high school to minimize injury and maximize performance.

  9. Violent, Delinquent, and Aggressive Behaviors of Rural High School Athletes and Non-Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhea, Deborah J.; Lantz, Christopher D.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between sports participation and self-reported violent, delinquent, and aggressive behaviors in rural high school populations. Three-hundred and thirty-eight athletes and non-athletes from four rural high schools completed the YRBSS and the Conflict Behavior Scale (CBS). The results…

  10. The Effect of Athletic Identity and Locus of Control on the Stress Perceptions of Community College Student-Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Joshua C.

    2016-01-01

    Over 72,000 student-athletes compete annually in athletic programs at the community college level. However, research addressing the effect of athletic participation on the psychological well-being of the community college student-athlete is sparse. This study represents an attempt to address this gap by examining the relationship among perceived…

  11. The Effect of Athletic Identity and Locus of Control on the Stress Perceptions of Community College Student-Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Joshua C.

    2016-01-01

    Over 72,000 student-athletes compete annually in athletic programs at the community college level. However, research addressing the effect of athletic participation on the psychological well-being of the community college student-athlete is sparse. This study represents an attempt to address this gap by examining the relationship among perceived…

  12. The Development of Researches on Athletic Identity%运动员认同的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋湘勤

    2015-01-01

    This study reviews the related international and domestic researches,summarizes topics which include athletic identity and self, the development of athletic identity scale, athletic identity and injury, athletic identity and sport career retirement, athletic identity and identity foreclosure and athletic identity and other variables. This study concludes that the abroad researches in this area represents horizontal and deep thorough development, which gives good advices to sport manager and coaches to raise sport performance and plan athletic career. On the contrary,researches in this area in China are very little,which needs to be developed.%查阅运动员认同的国内外相关研究文献,系统综述运动员认同与自我、运动员认同量表的研发、运动员认同与伤病、退役、认同预先终止及其它变量之间的关系等内容。研究发现:国外运动员认同的研究呈现横向、纵深发展趋势,这些研究为运动管理者、教练员等提供了运动员成绩提高、运动员生涯规划等方面的有益参考,而国内有关运动员认同的研究甚少,此领域的研究有待全面开展与深入。

  13. The Racial Identity Development of Male Student-Athletes when Blacks Are the Majority and Whites Are the Minority

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    Henry, Wilma J.; Closson, Rosemary B.

    2012-01-01

    Focus groups were used in the present study to explore the racial identity development of Black male and White male student-athletes on a predominantly Black, Division IA football team at a predominantly White institution (PWI). Findings indicate that the Black male football players demonstrated positive indicators of Black racial identity. The…

  14. Menstrual Irregularity and Musculoskeletal Injury in Female High School Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thein-Nissenbaum, Jill M.; Rauh, Mitchell J.; Carr, Kathleen E.; Loud, Keith J.; McGuine, Timothy A.

    2012-01-01

    Context: The female athlete triad describes the interrelatedness of energy availability, menstrual function, and bone density. Although associations between triad components and musculoskeletal injury (INJ) have been reported in collegiate athletes, limited information exists about menstrual irregularity (MI) and INJ in the high school population. Objective: To determine the prevalence of and relationship between MI and INJ in high school athletes. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: High schools. Patients or Other Participants: The sample consisted of 249 female athletes from 3 high schools who competed in 33 interscholastic, school-sponsored sport teams, dance teams, and cheerleading or pom-pon squad during the 2006–2007 school year. Each athlete remained on the roster throughout the season. Main Outcome Measure(s): Participants completed a survey regarding injury type, number of days of sport participation missed, and menstrual history in the past year. Results: The prevalences of MI and INJ were 19.7% and 63.1%, respectively. Athletes who reported MI sustained a higher percentage of severe injuries (missing ≥22 days of practice or competition) than did athletes who reported normal menses. Although the trend was not significant, athletes with MI were almost 3 times more likely to sustain an injury resulting in 7 or more days of time lost from sport (odds ratio = 2.7, 95% confidence interval = 0.8, 8.8) than those who sustained an injury resulting in 7 or fewer days of time lost. Conclusions: The incidences of MI and INJ in this high school population during the study period were high. Athletes who reported MI sustained a higher percentage of severe injuries than did athletes who reported normal menses. Education programs to increase knowledge and improve management of MI and its potential effects on injury in female high school athletes are warranted. PMID:22488233

  15. High School Identity Climate and Student Identity Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Yisrael; Schachter, Elli P.

    2012-01-01

    This research investigated whether schools characterized by high school students as being rich in identity promoting features contribute to student identity development. A theoretical model posited that student perceptions of teachers as caring role models and their school as cultivating the whole student will foster student exploration and…

  16. Concussion in professional football: recovery of NFL and high school athletes assessed by computerized neuropsychological testing--Part 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellman, Elliot J; Lovell, Mark R; Viano, David C; Casson, Ira R

    2006-02-01

    Acute recovery from concussion (mild traumatic brain injury) is assessed in samples of NFL and high school athletes evaluated within days of injury. All athletes were evaluated within days of injury using a computer-based neuropsychological test and symptom inventory protocol. Test performance was compared to preinjury baseline levels of a similar but not identical group of athletes who had undergone preseason testing. Statistical analyses were completed using Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA). NFL athletes demonstrated a rapid neuropsychological recovery. As a group, NFL athletes returned to baseline performance in a week with the majority of athletes having normal performance two days after injury. High school athletes demonstrated a slower recovery than NFL athletes. Computer-based neuropsychological testing was used within the overall medical evaluation and care of NFL athletes. As found in a prior study using more traditional neuropsychological testing, NFL players did not demonstrate decrements in neuropsychological performance beyond one week of injury. High school players demonstrated more prolonged neuropsychological effects of concussion.

  17. Respiratory inflammation and infections in high-performance athletes.

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    Gleeson, Maree; Pyne, David B

    2016-02-01

    Upper respiratory illness is the most common reason for non-injury-related presentation to a sports medicine clinic, accounting for 35-65% of illness presentations. Recurrent or persistent respiratory illness can have a negative impact on health and performance of athletes undertaking high levels of strenuous exercise. The cause of upper respiratory symptoms (URS) in athletes can be uncertain but the majority of cases are related to common respiratory viruses, viral reactivation, allergic responses to aeroallergens and exercise-related trauma to the integrity of respiratory epithelial membranes. Bacterial respiratory infections are uncommon in athletes. Undiagnosed or inappropriately treated asthma and/or allergy are common findings in clinical assessments of elite athletes experiencing recurrent URS. High-performance athletes with recurrent episodes of URS should undergo a thorough clinical assessment to exclude underlying treatable conditions of respiratory inflammation. Identifying athletes at risk of recurrent URS is important in order to prescribe preventative clinical, training and lifestyle strategies. Monitoring secretion rates and falling concentrations of salivary IgA can identify athletes at risk of URS. Therapeutic interventions are limited by the uncertainty of the underlying cause of inflammation. Topical anti-inflammatory sprays can be beneficial for some athletes. Dietary supplementation with bovine colostrum, probiotics and selected antioxidants can reduce the incidence or severity of URS in some athletes. Preliminary studies on athletes prone to URS indicate a genetic predisposition to a pro-inflammatory response and a dysregulated anti-inflammatory cytokine response to intense exercise as a possible mechanism of respiratory inflammation. This review focuses on respiratory infections and inflammation in elite/professional athletes.

  18. An Investigation of Scholar-Baller and Non Scholar-Baller Division I Football Student-Athletes' Academic, Athletic, Intrinsic Motivation and Athletic Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Janet M.

    2009-01-01

    As less than 3% of student-athletes go on to play sport professionally, it is important that they are prepared for careers outside of athletics (Susanj & Stewart, 2005). Many football student-athletes have low grade point averages and graduation rates. Universities incorporate academic motivational programs to help combat low academic performance.…

  19. Concussion Knowledge and Reporting Behavior Differences between High School Athletes at Urban and Suburban High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Jessica; Covassin, Tracey; Nogle, Sally; Gould, Daniel; Kovan, Jeffrey

    2017-01-01

    Background: We determined differences in knowledge of concussion and reporting behaviors of high school athletes attending urban and suburban high schools, and whether a relationship exists between underreporting and access to an athletic trainer in urban schools. Methods: High school athletes (N = 715) from 14 high schools completed a validated…

  20. The Electrocardiogram in Highly Trained Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Keerthi; Sharma, Sanjay

    2015-07-01

    Regular intensive exercise is associated with a constellation of several structural and functional adaptations within the heart that permit the generation of a large and sustained increase in cardiac output and/or increase in blood pressure. The magnitude with which these markers of physiological remodeling manifest on the surface electrocardiogram is governed by several factors and some athletes show electrical and structural changes that overlap with those observed in cardiomyopathy and in ion channel diseases, which are recognized causes of sudden cardiac death in young athletes. This article provides a critical appraisal of the athlete's ECG.

  1. Concussions Among United States High School and Collegiate Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessel, Luke M; Fields, Sarah K; Collins, Christy L; Dick, Randall W; Comstock, R. Dawn

    2007-01-01

    Context: An estimated 300 000 sport-related traumatic brain injuries, predominantly concussions, occur annually in the United States. Sports are second only to motor vehicle crashes as the leading cause of traumatic brain injury among people aged 15 to 24 years. Objective: To investigate the epidemiology of concussions in a nationally representative sample of high school athletes and to compare rates of concussion among high school and collegiate athletes. Design: Descriptive epidemiologic study Setting: 100 United States high schools and 180 US colleges. Patients or Other Participants: United States high school and collegiate athletes. Main Outcome Measure(s): Data from 2 injury surveillance systems, High School Reporting Information Online (RIO) and the National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance System, were analyzed to calculate rates, describe patterns, and evaluate potential risk factors for sport-related concussion. Results: Concussions represented 8.9% (n = 396) of all high school athletic injuries and 5.8% (n = 482) of all collegiate athletic injuries. Among both groups, rates of concussions were highest in the sports of football and soccer. In high school sports played by both sexes, girls sustained a higher rate of concussions, and concussions represented a greater proportion of total injuries than in boys. In all sports, collegiate athletes had higher rates of concussion than high school athletes, but concussions represented a greater proportion of all injuries among high school athletes. Conclusions: Sport-related injury surveillance systems can provide scientific data to drive targeted injury-prevention projects. Developing effective sport-related concussion preventive measures depends upon increasing our knowledge of concussion rates, patterns, and risk factors. PMID:18174937

  2. High-intensity interval training and athletic performance in Taekwondo athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monks, Lynne; Seo, Myong-Won; Kim, Hyun-Bae; Jung, Hyun C; Song, Jong K

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on athletic performance in Taekwondo athletes. Thirty-three male and female collegiate Taekwondo athletes were randomly divided into a HIIT group (N.=16) or a high-intensity continuous running (HICR) group (N.=17). The HIIT group undertook training of high-intensity sprints interspersed with active rest periods whilst the HICR group participated in high-intensity running for a continuous period. Both groups completed 11 sessions over 4 weeks. Physique, body composition, Wingate anaerobic test and VO2max test were measured. The vertical jump test, agility T-test and sit-ups were used to assess physical fitness. Repeated measures ANCOVAs with sex as a covariate were applied and significant level was set at 0.05. Following 11 sessions of training, significant improvements in anaerobic peak power (PTaekwondo competition performance in collegiate Taekwondo athletes. This could inform the future planning of Taekwondo athletes' pre-competition training, specifically the influence of training intensity on anaerobic capacity.

  3. The effect of coach education on reporting of concussions among high school athletes after passage of a concussion law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivara, Frederick P; Schiff, Melissa A; Chrisman, Sara P; Chung, Shana K; Ellenbogen, Richard G; Herring, Stanley A

    2014-05-01

    Increasing attention has been paid to concussions and especially sports-related concussions in youth. To prevent an inappropriate return to play while symptomatic, nearly all states have now passed legislation on youth sports-related concussions. To determine (1) the incidence of sports-related concussions in high school athletes using a unique system to collect reports on concussions, (2) the proportion of athletes with concussions who play with concussive symptoms, and (3) the effect of the type and modality of coach education on the likelihood of athletes reporting symptoms to the coach or playing with concussive symptoms. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. This study was conducted with high school football and girls' soccer athletes playing in fall 2012 and their coaches and parents in 20 urban or rural high schools in Washington State. The main outcome was the incidence of concussions per 1000 athlete-exposures (AEs), the proportion of concussed athletes who played with concussive symptoms, and the association of coach concussion education with coach awareness of athletes with concussive symptoms. Among the 778 athletes, the rate of concussions was 3.6 per 1000 AEs and was identical for the 2 sports studied. The cumulative concussion incidence over the course of the season was similar in girls' soccer (11.1%) and football (10.4%). Sixty-nine percent of concussed athletes reported playing with symptoms, and 40% reported that their coach was not aware of their concussion. Most measures of coach concussion education were not associated with coach awareness of concussions in their athletes, although the modalities of a video and quiz were associated with a lower likelihood of coach awareness. More objective and accurate methods are needed to identify concussions. Changes in athlete attitudes on reporting concussive symptoms will likely not be accomplished through legislation alone.

  4. Psychological factors in developing high performance athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elbe, Anne-Marie; Wikman, Johan Michael

    2017-01-01

    Top-level athletes are often said to have extraordinary personalities and special psychological characteristics (Gould, Dieffenbach & Moffett, 2002). This is not surprising when considering the many years of training needed to achieve athletic success. This long-term engagement in intense training...... clear with regard to the psychological skills that are needed. Therefore, the main questions to be addressed in this chapter are: (1) which psychological skills are needed to reach top performance? And (2) (how) can these skills be developed in young talents?...

  5. Dietary supplementation practices in Canadian high-performance athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lun, Victor; Erdman, Kelly A; Fung, Tak S; Reimer, Raylene A

    2012-02-01

    Dietary supplementation is a common practice in athletes with a desire to enhance performance, training, exercise recovery, and health. Supplementation habits of elite athletes in western Canada have been documented, but research is lacking on supplement use by athletes across Canada. The purpose of this descriptive study was to evaluate the dietary supplementation practices and perspectives of high-performance Canadian athletes affiliated with each of the country's eight Canadian Sport Centres. Dietitians administered a validated survey to 440 athletes (63% women, 37% men; M=19.99±5.20 yr) representing 34 sports who predominantly trained≥16 hr/wk, most competing in "power" based sports. Within the previous 6 months, 87% declared having taken≥3 dietary supplements, with sports drinks, multivitamin and mineral preparations, carbohydrate sports bars, protein powder, and meal-replacement products the most prevalent supplements reported. Primary sources of information on supplementation, supplementation justification, and preferred means of supplementation education were identified. Fifty-nine percent reported awareness of current World Anti-Doping Agency legislation, and 83% subjectively believed they were in compliance with such anti-doping regulations. It was concluded that supplementation rates are not declining in Canada, current advisors on supplementation for this athletic population are not credible, and sports medicine physicians and dietitians need to consider proactive strategies to improve their influence on supplementation practices in these elite athletes.

  6. Psychological Preparation of the Highly Competitive Athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nideffer, Robert M.

    1987-01-01

    A mental skills program is presented that emphasizes the importance of providing coaches and athletes with a common behavioral definition of concentration. The role of the sport psychologist in training and competition and the need for working with and through the coach are illustrated in two case reports. (Author/MT)

  7. High- compared to low-arched athletes exhibit smaller knee abduction moments in walking and running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Douglas W; Andrews, Samantha; Stickley, Cris; Williams, D S Blaise

    2016-12-01

    High- (HA) and low-arched athletes (LA) experience distinct injury patterns. These injuries are the result of the interaction of structure and biomechanics. A suggested mechanism of patellofemoral pain pertains to frontal plane knee moments which may be exaggerated in LA athletes. We hypothesize that LA athletes will exhibit greater peak knee abduction moments than high-arched athletes.

  8. Underreporting of Concussions and Concussion-Like Symptoms in Female High School Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Tracy; Burghart, Mark A; Nazir, Niaman

    2016-01-01

    Underreporting of concussions and concussion-like symptoms in athletes continues to be a serious medical concern and research focus. Despite mounting worry, little evidence exists examining incidence of underreporting and documenting characteristics of head injury in female athletes participating in high school sports. This study examined the self-reporting behaviors of female high school athletes. Seventy-seven athletes participated, representing 14 high school sports. Nearly half of the athletes (31 participants) reported a suspected concussion, with 10 of the 31 athletes refraining from reporting symptoms to training staff after injury. Only 66% reported receiving concussion education. Concussion education appeared to have no relationship with diagnosed concussion rates in athletes, removing athletes from play, or follow-up medical care after injury. In conclusion, female high school athletes underreport signs and symptoms of concussions. Concussion education should occur at higher rates among female athletes to influence reporting behaviors.

  9. The impact of parental pressure on the performance of high school track athletes

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.A. This study was conducted to ascertain whether there is a significant relationship between, parental pressure, stress levels and athletic performance in high school track and field athletes. The question can be asked whether parental pressure will result in increased stress levels in the athlete and therefore poorer performance? Sixty-six high school track and field athletes, between the ages of 13 and 18 years, were selected for the study. The athletes were taken from training groups ...

  10. The 3-I Career Advising Process and Athletes with Foreclosed Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menke, Donna J.

    2015-01-01

    Student-athletes who identify more strongly with their athletic role than their academic life may neither encounter nor embrace the chance to explore career options. Their lack of exposure or interest to career advising may compound career immaturity and development. Gordon's (2006) 3-I (inquire, inform, integrate) decision-making process applied…

  11. Effects of High-Velocity Resistance Training on Athletic Performance in Prepuberal Male Soccer Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negra, Yassine; Chaabene, Helmi; Hammami, Mehréz; Hachana, Younés; Granacher, Urs

    2016-12-01

    Negra, Y, Chaabene, H, Hammami, M, Hachana, Y, and Granacher, U. Effects of high-velocity resistance training on athletic performance in prepuberal male soccer athletes. J Strength Cond Res 30(12): 3290-3297, 2016-The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a 12-week in-season low-to-moderate load high-velocity resistance training (HVRT) in addition to soccer training as compared with soccer training only on proxies of athletic performance in prepubertal soccer players. Twenty-four male soccer players performed 2 different protocols: (a) regular soccer training with 5 sessions per week (n = 11; age = 12.7 ± 0.3 years) and (b) regular soccer training with 3 sessions per week and HVRT with 2 sessions per week (n = 13; age = 12.8 ± 0.2 years). The outcome measures included tests for the assessment of muscle strength (e.g., 1 repetition maximum [1RM] half-squat tests), jump ability (e.g., countermovement jump, squat jump [SJ], standing long jump [SLJ], and multiple 5-bound tests [MB5s]), linear speed (e.g., 5-, 10-, 20-, and 30-m sprint tests), and change of direction (e.g., T-test and Illinois change of direction test). Results revealed significant group × test interactions for the SJ test (p ≤ 0.05, d = 0.59) and the SLJ test (p soccer training is a safe and feasible intervention that has positive effects on maximal strength, vertical and horizontal jump and sprint performance as compared with soccer training only.

  12. The Art of Athlete Leadership: Identifying High-Quality Athlete Leadership at the Individual and Team Level Through Social Network Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransen, Katrien; Van Puyenbroeck, Stef; Loughead, Todd M; Vanbeselaere, Norbert; De Cuyper, Bert; Vande Broek, Gert; Boen, Filip

    2015-06-01

    This research aimed to introduce social network analysis as a novel technique in sports teams to identify the attributes of high-quality athlete leadership, both at the individual and at the team level. Study 1 included 25 sports teams (N = 308 athletes) and focused on athletes' general leadership quality. Study 2 comprised 21 sports teams (N = 267 athletes) and focused on athletes' specific leadership quality as a task, motivational, social, and external leader. The extent to which athletes felt connected with their leader proved to be most predictive for athletes' perceptions of that leader's quality on each leadership role. Also at the team level, teams with higher athlete leadership quality were more strongly connected. We conclude that social network analysis constitutes a valuable tool to provide more insight in the attributes of high-quality leadership both at the individual and at the team level.

  13. Early Single-Sport Specialization: A Survey of 3090 High School, Collegiate, and Professional Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Patrick S; Bishop, Meghan; Kane, Patrick; Ciccotti, Michael C; Selverian, Stephen; Exume, Dominique; Emper, William; Freedman, Kevin B; Hammoud, Sommer; Cohen, Steven B; Ciccotti, Michael G

    2017-07-01

    Youth participation in organized sports in the United States is rising, with many athletes focusing on a single sport at an increasingly younger age. To retrospectively compare single-sport specialization in current high school (HS), collegiate, and professional athletes with regard to the rate and age of specialization, the number of months per year of single-sport training, and the athlete's perception of injury related to specialization. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. A survey was distributed to HS, collegiate, and professional athletes prior to their yearly preparticipation physical examination. Athletes were asked whether they had chosen to specialize in only 1 sport, and data were then collected pertaining to this decision. A total of 3090 athletes completed the survey (503 HS, 856 collegiate, and 1731 professional athletes). A significantly greater percentage of current collegiate athletes specialized to play a single sport during their childhood/adolescence (45.2% of HS athletes, 67.7% of collegiate athletes, and 46.0% of professional athletes; P sport specialization differed between groups and occurred at a mean age of 12.7 ± 2.4 (HS), 14.8 ± 2.5 (collegiate), and 14.1 ± 2.8 years (professional) (P sport-related injury than current professional athletes (25.4%) (P child to specialize to play only 1 sport during childhood/adolescence. This study provides a foundation for understanding current trends in single-sport specialization in all athletic levels. Current HS athletes specialized, on average, 2 years earlier than current collegiate and professional athletes surveyed. These data challenge the notion that success at an elite level requires athletes to specialize in 1 sport at a very young age.

  14. High Prevalence of Hypertension Among Collegiate Football Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpinos, Ashley Rowatt; Roumie, Christianne L.; Nian, Hui; Diamond, Alex B.; Rothman, Russell L.

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of hypertension among collegiate football athletes is not well described. Methods and Results A retrospective cohort of all male athletes who participated in varsity athletics at a National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I university between 1999–2012 was examined through chart review. Mandatory annual preparticipation physical examinations included blood pressure, body mass index, medication use, and supplement use. Prevalence of hypertension was compared between football and non-football athletes. A mixed-effects linear regression model examined change in blood pressure over time. 636 collegiate athletes, including 323 football players, were identified. In the initial year of athletic participation, 19.2% of football athletes had hypertension and 61.9% had prehypertension. The prevalence of hypertension was higher among football athletes than non-football athletes in their initial (19.2% vs. 7.0%, Pfootball athletes in the initial year (AOR 2.28, 95% CI 1.21 to 4.30) but not the final year (AOR 1.25, 95% CI 0.69 to 2.28). Over the course of their collegiate career, football athletes had an annual decrease in systolic blood pressure (−0.82 mmHg, P=0.002), while non-football athletes did not (0.18 mmHg, P=0.58). Conclusions Hypertension and prehypertension were common among collegiate football athletes, and football athletes were more likely to have hypertension than male non-football athletes. This presents a potential cardiovascular risk in a young population of athletes. Strategies for increasing awareness, prevention and treatment are needed. PMID:24221829

  15. Early Single-Sport Specialization: A Survey of 3090 High School, Collegiate, and Professional Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Patrick S.; Bishop, Meghan; Kane, Patrick; Ciccotti, Michael C.; Selverian, Stephen; Exume, Dominique; Emper, William; Freedman, Kevin B.; Hammoud, Sommer; Cohen, Steven B.; Ciccotti, Michael G.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Youth participation in organized sports in the United States is rising, with many athletes focusing on a single sport at an increasingly younger age. Purpose: To retrospectively compare single-sport specialization in current high school (HS), collegiate, and professional athletes with regard to the rate and age of specialization, the number of months per year of single-sport training, and the athlete’s perception of injury related to specialization. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: A survey was distributed to HS, collegiate, and professional athletes prior to their yearly preparticipation physical examination. Athletes were asked whether they had chosen to specialize in only 1 sport, and data were then collected pertaining to this decision. Results: A total of 3090 athletes completed the survey (503 HS, 856 collegiate, and 1731 professional athletes). A significantly greater percentage of current collegiate athletes specialized to play a single sport during their childhood/adolescence (45.2% of HS athletes, 67.7% of collegiate athletes, and 46.0% of professional athletes; P sport specialization differed between groups and occurred at a mean age of 12.7 ± 2.4 (HS), 14.8 ± 2.5 (collegiate), and 14.1 ± 2.8 years (professional) (P sport-related injury than current professional athletes (25.4%) (P sport during childhood/adolescence. Conclusion: This study provides a foundation for understanding current trends in single-sport specialization in all athletic levels. Current HS athletes specialized, on average, 2 years earlier than current collegiate and professional athletes surveyed. These data challenge the notion that success at an elite level requires athletes to specialize in 1 sport at a very young age. PMID:28812031

  16. Struggling with cancer and treatment: young athletes recapture body control and identity through exercise: qualitative findings from a supervised group exercise program in cancer patients of mixed gender undergoing chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamsen, L.; Andersen, C.; Midtgaard, J.

    2009-01-01

    Cancer and treatment can negatively affect the body's performance and appearance. Exercise has been tested in a few studies for altered body image among middle-aged women with breast cancer. The aim of the study was to explore how young pre-cancer athletes of both genders experience disease......- and treatment-related physical fitness and appearance changes while undergoing chemotherapy and participating in a 6-week group exercise intervention. A prospective, explorative study using semi-structured interviews was conducted before and at termination of the intervention. The study included 22 cancer...... patients (median age 28 years). The young athletes experienced a change from a high level of physical activity, body satisfaction and a positive self-identity to a low level of physical activity, body denial and a negative self-identity. In the program, the patients experienced increased physical strength...

  17. Why Age Matters: Aged Gender in the Identity Work of Female Youth Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Hendley, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    Functioning as our “social skin in social space,” clothing enables both the expression of pre-existing identities and the construction of new ones (Pomerantz 2008:18). Age and gender are important components of identity, and their intersection contributes to the varied nature of femininity. Through my research on female youth soccer players, I examine the relationship of sports clothing to the girls’ identity work, specifically in regards to their experience as aged and gendered subjects. ...

  18. Team cohesion and ethnic-cultural identity in adolescent migrant athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morela, Eleftheria; Hatzigeorgiadis, Antonis; Kouli, Olga

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role of sport participation in the social integration of adolescents with non-dominant ethnic and cultural backgrounds. In particular, this study investigated the relationship between team cohesion and ethnic-cultural identity. Participants were 83 young...... participation, particularly in cohesive teams, can facilitate the development of adaptive identity toward the goal of social integration in migrant adolescents. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  19. The impact of perfectionism traits on motivation in high-performance soccer athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Pestillo de Oliveira

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the impact of performance traits on self-determined motivation in high-performance soccer athletes. Participants were professionalized and non-professionalized athletes from a soccer club of the state of Paraná, totaling 182 subjects. Data were collected using the Sport Motivation Scale and the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale through previous scheduling and the application of research instruments occurred through direct contact with subjects during practices, which were individually answered with average duration of 35 minutes. For data analysis, Mann-Whitney, Spearman correlation and Simple Regression were conducted (p<0.05. Results showed that professional athletes had higher levels in externally controlled motivation compared to non-professionalized (p<0.05 athletes, while non-professionalized athletes were more amotivated (p=0.002. Professionalized athletes had higher scores in the adaptive perfectionism domains compared to non-professionalized athletes (p<0.05. Adaptive perfectionism had significant impact (p<0.05 on the self-determined motivation regulations in professional athletes, while maladaptive perfectionism had an effect (p<0.05 on the external regulation of non-professionalized athletes. It was concluded that for athletes who reach professional level, adaptive perfectionism is an intervening element in the development of self-determined motivation. In addition, for non-professionalized.

  20. High School Athletes' Parents' Perceptions and Knowledge of the Skills and Job Requirements of the Certified Athletic Trainer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzel, Rachel L; Miller, Michael G; Giannotta, Erin R; Newman, Catherine J

    2015-12-01

    Parents play a crucial role in determining medical services for their children, and it is important they understand the scope of practice and skills of the athletic trainer (AT). To understand parents' perceptions and knowledge of the skills and job requirements of the secondary school AT. Cross-sectional study. Sport meetings and banquets at 5 high schools in southwest Michigan during the fall, winter, and spring seasons. A total of 539 parents whose children competed in at least 1 high school sport participated. A Parents' Perceptions and Knowledge of Certified Athletic Trainers Survey consisting of 32 questions, divided into 3 sections (demographics, perceptions, and knowledge), was developed and given to parents of high school athletes. One-way analyses of variance were used to determine significance among 3 categories of experience and perception and knowledge of ATs. Of the 539 parents who responded, 28% responded yes, and 72% responded no to having experience with an AT for their own injuries. When asked if they had experience with an AT due to their child's injuries, 60% responded yes. We found a difference among the 3 categories of experience for perception scores (P = .002) and knowledge scores (P parents' perceptions and knowledge of the skills and job requirements of the secondary school AT are limited. Athletic trainers should educate parents on their professional roles, which may enhance their ability to provide better health care.

  1. Tall Poppies: Bullying Behaviors Faced by Australian High-Performance School-Age Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Maureen; Calder, Angela; Allen, Bill

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about Australian high-performance school-age athletes' experiences as victims of the tall poppy syndrome. Tall poppies are successful individuals bullied by those who are less successful in order to "normalize them." Nineteen current or previous national or international high-performance school-age athletes were…

  2. Sex differences in concussion symptoms of high school athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frommer, Leah J; Gurka, Kelly K; Cross, Kevin M; Ingersoll, Christopher D; Comstock, R Dawn; Saliba, Susan A

    2011-01-01

    More than 1.6 million sport-related concussions occur every year in the United States, affecting greater than 5% of all high school athletes who participate in contact sports. As more females participate in sports, understanding possible differences in concussion symptoms between sexes becomes more important. To compare symptoms, symptom resolution time, and time to return to sport between males and females with sport-related concussions. Descriptive epidemiology study. Data were collected from 100 high schools via High School RIO (Reporting Information Online). Athletes from participating schools who sustained concussions while involved in interscholastic sports practice or competition in 9 sports (boys' football, soccer, basketball, wrestling, and baseball and girls' soccer, volleyball, basketball, and softball) during the 2005-2006 and 2006-2007 school years. A total of 812 sport concussions were reported (610 males, 202 females). Reported symptoms, symptom resolution time, and return-to-play time. No difference was found between the number of symptoms reported (P  =  .30). However, a difference was seen in the types of symptoms reported. In year 1, males reported amnesia (exact P  =  .03) and confusion/disorientation (exact P  =  .04) more frequently than did females. In year 2, males reported more amnesia (exact P  =  .002) and confusion/disorientation (exact P  =  .002) than did females, whereas females reported more drowsiness (exact P  =  .02) and sensitivity to noise (exact P  =  .002) than did males. No differences were observed for symptom resolution time (P  =  .40) or return-to-play time (P  =  .43) between sexes. The types of symptoms reported differed between sexes after sport-related concussion, but symptom resolution time and return-to-play timelines were similar.

  3. A Paired Comparison of Initial and Recurrent Concussions Sustained by US High School Athletes Within a Single Athletic Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Dustin W; Comstock, R Dawn; Fields, Sarah K; Cantu, Robert C

    To compare initial and recurrent concussions regarding average number of days between concussions, acute concussion symptoms and symptom resolution time, and return to play time. High school athletes sustaining multiple concussions linked within sport seasons drawn from a large sports injury surveillance study. Retrospective analysis of longitudinal surveillance data. Number of days between concussions, number of symptoms endorsed, specific symptoms endorsed, symptom resolution time, return to play time. Median time between initial and recurrent concussions was 21 days (interquartile range = 10-43 days). Loss of consciousness, the only significant symptom difference, occurred more frequently in recurrent (6.8%) than initial (1.7%) concussions (P = .04). No significant difference was found in the number of symptoms (P = .84) or symptom resolution time (P = .74). Recurrent concussions kept athletes from play longer than initial concussions (P concussions were season ending. We found that athletes' initial and recurrent concussions had similar symptom presentations and resolution time. Despite these similarities, athletes were restricted from returning to play for longer periods following a recurrent concussion, indicating clinicians are managing recurrent concussions more conservatively. It is probable that concussion recognition and management are superior now compared with when previous studies were published, possibly improving recurrent concussion outcomes.

  4. Early indicators of enduring symptoms in high school athletes with multiple previous concussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, Philip; Moser, Rosemarie Scolaro; Covassin, Tracey; Karpf, Robin

    2011-06-01

    Despite recent findings of cognitive, emotional, physical, and behavioral symptomatology in retired professional athletes with a history of multiple concussions, there is little systematic research examining these symptoms in high school athletes with a history of concussion. To identify cognitive, emotional, and physical symptoms at baseline in nonconcussed high school athletes based on concussion history. A multicenter sample of 616 high school athletes who completed baseline evaluations were assigned to groups based on history of concussion (none, 1, 2, or more previous concussions). The Post-Concussion Symptom Scale was administered as part of a computerized neuropsychological test battery during athletes' preseason baseline evaluations. Cross-sectional analyses were used to examine symptoms reported at the time of baseline neuropsychological testing. High school athletes with a history of 2 or more concussions showed significantly higher ratings of concussion-related symptoms (cognitive, physical, sleep difficulties) than athletes with a history of one or no previous concussions. It appears that youth athletes who sustain multiple concussions experience a variety of subtle effects, which may be possible precursors of the future onset of concussion-related difficulties. Copyright © 2011 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons

  5. Feeding habits of athletes with high physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Mazurenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the features of construction of specialized foods for sportsmen, members of Amateur and professional teams to play Rugby. The relevance of the study lies in the fact that so far not established a unified recommendations on diets and nutrition regimes of the Rugby players. We are committed to the solution of the time-consuming assessment of individual needs athletes Rugby players in nutrients. For the Rugby player is especially important qualitative composition of protein intake. Sports doctors and coaches recommend rational diet of the Rugby players with the prevalence of essential amino acids involved in the biosynthesis of neurotransmitters. The highest loads on the body of a Rugby player due to the fact that in the training sessions of Rugby players includes power elements used in elite military units and police units in order to develop collective interactions in hard conditions. They include elements of weightlifting, intense agility and martial arts and martial arts. The special task of organizing the diet of Rugby players is the use of high carbohydrate diets to prevent chronic lack of energy during training and during competitions. The diet should be an optimal content of products from cereal crops, with relatively little protein and fat. You need to replenish energy stores by eating balanced chemical with the rod, avoiding long breaks and including protein and carbohydrate foods. For quality control using modern gas and spectrophotometric devices Institute of Food and Processing Industry of the Kuban State University of Technology. Key findings include the development of the diets of athletes in team rugby Kuban State University and some of the specialized vegetable and meat products, "rugby" and "Sport".

  6. High-Skilled Newcomers' Identity: Learners or Experts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søreide, Gunn Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the negotiation of learner and worker identities in a group of high-skilled newcomers who participate in an introductory and mentoring programme. Design/methodology/approach: The paper takes the interdependence of learning, work and identity and a constructivist approach to identity as a point…

  7. Long-term Outcomes of the ATHENA (Athletes Targeting Healthy Exercise & Nutrition Alternatives) Program for Female High School Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Elliot, Diane L.; Goldberg, Linn; Moe, Esther L; DeFrancesco, Carol A.; Durham, Melissa B.; McGinnis, Wendy; Lockwood, Chondra

    2008-01-01

    Adolescence and emerging adulthood are critical windows for establishing life-long behaviors. We assessed long-term outcomes of a prospective randomized harm reduction/health promotion program for female high school athletes. The intervention’s immediate beneficial effects on diet pill use and unhealthy eating behaviors have been reported; however, tobacco, alcohol and marijuana use were not immediately altered (Elliot et al, 2004). One to three years following graduation, positive benefits i...

  8. Preventing overtraining in athletes in high-intensity sports and stress/recovery monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellmann, M

    2010-10-01

    In sports, the importance of optimizing the recovery-stress state is critical. Effective recovery from intense training loads often faced by elite athletes can often determine sporting success or failure. In recent decades, athletes, coaches, and sport scientists have been keen to find creative, new methods for improving the quality and quantity of training for athletes. These efforts have consistently faced barriers, including overtraining, fatigue, injury, illness, and burnout. Physiological and psychological limits dictate a need for research that addresses the avoidance of overtraining, maximizes recovery, and successfully negotiates the fine line between high and excessive training loads. Monitoring instruments like the Recovery-Stress Questionnaire for Athletes can assist with this research by providing a tool to assess their perceived state of recovery. This article will highlight the importance of recovery for elite athletes and provide an overview of monitoring instruments. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. Gender differences in high school coaches' knowledge, attitudes, and communication about the female athlete triad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroshus, Emily; Sherman, Roberta T; Thompson, Ron A; Sossin, Karen; Austin, S Bryn

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess high school coaches' knowledge, attitudes, communication, and management decisions with respect to the Female Athlete Triad and to determine whether results are patterned by coach gender. Data were obtained through an online survey of high school coaches (n = 227). Significant differences were found between male and female coaches in certain attitudes and communication behaviors related to eating and menstrual irregularity. School or district level policies may help reduce these differences and may help mitigate the health consequences for athletes related to possible differential prevention and detection of the comorbidities of the Female Athlete Triad.

  10. Assessing the Awareness and Behaviors of U.S. High School Nurses with Respect to the Female Athlete Triad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroshus, Emily; Fischer, Anastasia N.; Nichols, Jeanne F.

    2015-01-01

    Female high school athletes are an at-risk population for the Female Athlete Triad--a syndrome including low energy availability (with or without disordered eating), menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density. School nurses can play an important role in reducing the health burden of this syndrome, by educating coaches and athletes, and by…

  11. A gender-based analysis of high school athletes using computerized electrocardiogram measurements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil Kumar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The addition of the ECG to the preparticipation examination (PPE of high school athletes has been a topic for debate. Defining the difference between the high school male and female ECG is crucial to help initiate its implementation in the High School PPE. Establishing the different parameters set for the male and female ECG would help to reduce false positives. We examined the effect of gender on the high school athlete ECG by obtaining and analyzing ECG measurements of high school athletes from Henry M. Gunn High School. METHODS: In 2011 and 2012, computerized Electrocardiograms were recorded and analyzed on 181 athletes (52.5% male; mean age 16.1 ± 1.1 years who participated in 17 different sports. ECG statistics included intervals and durations in all 3 axes (X, Y, Z to calculate 12 lead voltage sums, QRS Amplitude, QT interval, QRS Duration, and the sum of the R wave in V5 and the S Wave in V2 (RS Sum. RESULTS: By computer analysis, we demonstrated that male athletes had significantly greater QRS duration, Q-wave duration, and T wave amplitude. (P<0.05. By contrast, female athletes had a significantly greater QTc interval. (P<0.05. CONCLUSION: The differences in ECG measurements in high school athletes are strongly associated with gender. However, body size does not correlate with the aforementioned ECG measurements. Our tables of the gender-specific parameters can help facilitate the development of a more large scale and in-depth ECG analysis for screening high school athletes in the future.

  12. HIGH QUALITY ATHLETIC SOCKS – materials and characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Creţu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The type of sock choose for sport can make, by them materials and design characteristics, a big difference in the comfort, safety and even performance. In athletic activities, wearing proper socks is critical because every action creates different stress points on the human foot. In odder to prevent injury, to reduce the incidence of blisters and other foot problems, the socks must keep feet dry and comfortable, no matter what the temperature, and to fit as well as possible. The paper concerns the types of fibers used in socks and the design conditions that largely affect the complex requirements imposed to all socks, and especially to the athletics ones.It is realized an over view of natural and synthetic fibers that help keeping good physiological conditions, minimize friction and create an environment that promotes healthier feet, and of the general and particular design characteristics that answer to the special needs imposed to the socks by different athletic activities.

  13. Effects of Two Concussions on the Neuropsychological Functioning and Symptom Reporting of High School Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsushima, William T; Geling, Olga; Arnold, Monica; Oshiro, Ross

    2016-01-01

    To assess the effects of two sports-related concussions on neuropsychological functioning and symptom reporting, the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) was administered to 483 high school athletes. Three groups of athletes were determined based on the number of previous concussions: no concussion (n = 409), 1 concussion (n = 58), and 2 concussions (n = 16). The results showed that the three groups did not differ in terms of their ImPACT composite scores (Verbal Memory, Visual Memory, Reaction Time, and Processing Speed) and the Total Symptom Score. As there are only a few studies that have reported the sequelae of 2 concussions in high school athletes, it is premature to declare that a repeated concussion does not have persistent neurocognitive effects on high school athletes.

  14. Two-year Test–Retest Reliability of ImPACT in High School Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsushima, William T.; Siu, Andrea M.; Pearce, Annina M.; Zhang, Guangxiang; Oshiro, Ross S.

    2016-01-01

    This research evaluated the 2-year test–retest reliability of the Immediate Postconcussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) neuropsychological battery, and clarified the need for biennial updated baseline testing of high school athletes. This study compared the baseline test scores of 212 non-concussed athletes that were obtained in Grade 9 and again 2 years later when they were in Grade 11. Regression-based methods indicated that 4 of the 5 ImPACT scores were stable over 2 years, as they fell within the 80% and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The results suggested that updating baseline testing for high school athletes after 2 years is not necessary. Further research into the consistency of computerized neuropsychological tests over 2 years with high school athletes is recommended. PMID:26572159

  15. High prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency among elite Spanish athletes: the importance of outdoor training adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jara Valtueña

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The discovery of vitamin D muscle receptors in the last few years suggested a significant role in muscle tissue, pointing out athletes as a special group. Specific data are scarce. Aim: The main aim of the current paper was to provide, for the first time, comparable data about vitamin D status in elite Spanish athletes by sport, age, season and training environment. Methods: Four hundred and eight elite athletes with a mean age of 22.8 ± 8.4 years were recruited from the High-performance sport centre in Barcelona for this cross-sectional study. Athletes from 34 different sports modalities were analysed. Data were available for vitamin D status, training environment, seasonality and number of medical visits. All data were analysed using SPSS version 18.0. Results: Mean 25(OHD of all athletes was 56.7 ± 23.4 nmol/L. Approximately 82% of the athletes were below the optimal levels, (< 75nmol/l, 45% had moderate deficient levels (< 50 nmol/L and 6% had severe deficiency (< 27.5 nmol/L. We have observed a steady increase in 25(OHD concentrations with increasing age (p < 0.01 Highest levels were observed in those subjects training outdoors compared with those training indoor (p<0.01. Differences between sport modalities were observed. Even during summer, 87% of the athletes had insufficient 25(OHD concentrations. Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency among elite Spanish athletes. Outdoor training could ensure vitamin D sufficiency and differences between sports modalities should be taken into account for future research. The results contribute to identify the need of optimizing vitamin D status across athletes.

  16. Investigation of the relationship between athlete identity perception, courage and self-confidenceSporcu kimlik algısı ile cesaret ve özgüven duyguları arasındaki ilişkilerin incelenmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Can

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to examine the relationship between courage and self-confidence together with an athlete identity perception. In the study, it was also tested whether there were differences in athlete identity perception, courage and self-esteem in terms of age, gender, sport year, sports field and education level. A total of 156 athletes (79 male and 77 female, selected by random sampling methods accepted to participate voluntarily in the research. Athletic Identity Perception Scale, Courage Scale and Self-Confidence Scale were used as a research tool. According to the results of the research, a strong positive correlation was found between sense of athlete identity, courage and inner self-esteem. However, there was no significant relationship between sense of athlete identity and external self-esteem. On the other hand, while no significant difference was determined between courageand internal self-confidence in terms of gender (p>0,05, significant difference was determined in external self-confidence in terms of gender (p 0,05, dış özgüven duygusunda cinsiyet açısından anlamlı bir fark bulunmuştur (p<0,05. Araştırma sonuçları, kadın sporcuların erkek sporculardan daha yüksek dış özgüven duygusuna sahip olduklarını göstermektedir.

  17. [Strive for excellence and addiction to body movement: a risk model in high-level athletes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, C

    2000-04-01

    Champion athletes strive to attain a personal goal defined by a socially constructed image of psychomotor performance to be accomplished at the moment of the championship celebration. This intrapsychic process is initiated by a transformation of the body, programmed and controlled by repeated training. The athlete's body becomes accustomed to ritualized obsessive movements, favoring the feeling of self-fulfillment solely during muscular effort (contraction/relaxation, displacement). This social goal of excellence implies personal adaptation involving an addictive link to movement: a mechanism uniquely valid in high level sports. Twelve years experience in psychological support of high-level athletes participating in Olympic sports has led to an analysis of this adaptive mechanism and a proposed psychopathological model of its invasion of the athlete's psychic economy.

  18. High Prevalence of Exercise-Induced Laryngeal Obstruction in Athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walsted Nielsen, Emil; Hull, James H; Backer, Vibeke

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Unexplained respiratory symptoms reported by athletes are often incorrectly considered secondary to exercise-induced asthma. We hypothesised that this may be related to exercise induced laryngeal obstruction (EILO). This study evaluates the prevalence of EILO in an unselected cohort...

  19. Psychological balance in high level athletes: gender-based differences and sport-specific patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Schaal

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Few epidemiological studies have focused on the psychological health of high level athletes. This study aimed to identify the principal psychological problems encountered within French high level athletes, and the variations in their prevalence based on sex and the sport practiced. METHODS: Multivariate analyses were conducted on nationwide data obtained from the athletes' yearly psychological evaluations. RESULTS: A representative sample of 13% of the French athlete population was obtained. 17% of athletes have at least one ongoing or recent disorder, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD being the most prevalent (6%, followed by non-specific eating disorders (4.2%. Overall, 20.2% of women had at least one psychopathology, against 15.1% in men. This female predominance applied to anxiety and eating disorders, depression, sleep problems and self-harming behaviors. The highest rates of GAD appeared in aesthetic sports (16.7% vs. 6.8% in other sports for men and 38.9% vs. 10.3% for women; the lowest prevalence was found in high risk sports athletes (3.0% vs. 3.5%. Eating disorders are most common among women in racing sports (14% vs. 9%, but for men were found mostly in combat sports (7% vs. 4.8%. DISCUSSION: This study highlights important differences in psychopathology between male and female athletes, demonstrating that the many sex-based differences reported in the general population apply to elite athletes. While the prevalence of psychological problems is no higher than in the general population, the variations in psychopathology in different sports suggest that specific constraints could influence the development of some disorders.

  20. Competing perspectives during organizational socialization on the role of certified athletic trainers in high school settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensch, James; Crews, Candice; Mitchell, Murray

    2005-01-01

    When certified athletic trainers (ATCs) enter a workplace, their potential for professional effectiveness is affected by a number of factors, including the individual's ability to put acquired knowledge, skills, and attitudes into practice. This ability may be influenced by the preconceived attitudes and expectations of athletes, athletes' parents, athletic directors, physical therapists, physicians, and coaches. To examine the perspectives of high school coaches and ATCs toward the ATC's role in the high school setting by looking at 3 questions: (1) What are coaches' expectations of ATCs during different phases of a sport season? (2) What do ATCs perceive their role to be during different phases of a season? and (3) How do coaches' expectations compare with ATCs' expectations? Qualitative research design involving semistructured interviews. High schools. Twenty high school varsity basketball coaches from 10 high schools in 2 states and the ATCs assigned to these teams. For the coaches, 12 questions focused on 3 specific areas: (1) the athletic training services they received as high school basketball coaches, (2) each coach's expectations of the ATC with whom he or she was working during various phases of the season, and (3) coaches' levels of satisfaction with the athletic training services provided to their team. For the ATCs, 17 questions focused on 3 areas: (1) the ATC's background, (2) the ATC's perceived duties at different phases of the basketball season and his or her relationship with the coach, and (3) other school factors that enhanced or interfered with the ATC's ability to perform duties. Three themes emerged. Coaches had limited knowledge and understanding of ATCs' qualifications, training, professional preparation, and previous experience. Coaches simply expected ATCs to be available to complement their roles. Positive communication was identified as a critical component to a good coach-ATC relationship. Although all participants valued good

  1. Feeding habits of athletes with high physical activity

    OpenAIRE

    E. A. Mazurenko; G. I. Kasyanov

    2016-01-01

    The article describes the features of construction of specialized foods for sportsmen, members of Amateur and professional teams to play Rugby. The relevance of the study lies in the fact that so far not established a unified recommendations on diets and nutrition regimes of the Rugby players. We are committed to the solution of the time-consuming assessment of individual needs athletes Rugby players in nutrients. For the Rugby player is especially important qualitative composition of protein...

  2. Combustible and Smokeless Tobacco Use Among High School Athletes - United States, 2001-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agaku, Israel T; Singh, Tushar; Jones, Sherry Everett; King, Brian A; Jamal, Ahmed; Neff, Linda; Caraballo, Ralph S

    2015-09-04

    Athletes are not a typical at-risk group for smoking combustible tobacco products, because they are generally health conscious and desire to remain fit and optimize athletic performance (1). In contrast, smokeless tobacco use historically has been associated with certain sports, such as baseball (2). Athletes might be more likely to use certain tobacco products, such as smokeless tobacco, if they perceive them to be harmless (3); however, smokeless tobacco use is not safe and is associated with increased risk for pancreatic, esophageal, and oral cancers (4). Tobacco use among youth athletes is of particular concern, because most adult tobacco users first try tobacco before age 18 years (5). To examine prevalence and trends in current (≥1 day during the past 30 days) use of combustible tobacco (cigarettes, cigars) and smokeless tobacco (chewing tobacco, snuff, or dip [moist snuff]) products among athlete and nonathlete high school students, CDC analyzed data from the 2001–2013 National Youth Risk Behavior Surveys. Current use of any tobacco (combustible or smokeless tobacco) significantly declined from 33.9% in 2001 to 22.4% in 2013; however, current smokeless tobacco use significantly increased from 10.0% to 11.1% among athletes, and did not change (5.9%) among nonathletes. Furthermore, in 2013, compared with nonathletes, athletes had significantly higher odds of being current smokeless tobacco users (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.77, p<0.05), but significantly lower odds of being current combustible tobacco users (AOR = 0.80, p<0.05). These findings suggest that opportunities exist for development of stronger tobacco control and prevention measures targeting youth athletes regarding the health risks associated with all forms of tobacco use.

  3. Management of severe lower abdominal or inguinal pain in high-performance athletes. PAIN (Performing Athletes with Abdominal or Inguinal Neuromuscular Pain Study Group).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, W C; Foley, D P; Garrett, W E; Lohnes, J H; Mandlebaum, B R

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the pathophysiologic processes of severe lower-abdominal or inguinal pain in high-performance athletes. We evaluated 276 patients; 175 underwent pelvic floor repairs. Of the 157 athletes who had not undergone previous surgery, 124 (79%) participated at a professional or other highly competitive level, and 138 patients (88%) had adductor pain that accompanied the lower-abdominal or inguinal pain. More patients underwent related adductor releases during the later operative period in the series. Evaluation revealed 38 other abnormalities, including severe hip problems and malignancies. There were 152 athletes (97%) who returned to previous levels of performance. The syndrome was uncommon in women and the results were less predictable in nonathletes. A distinct syndrome of lower-abdominal/adductor pain in male athletes appears correctable by a procedure designed to strengthen the anterior pelvic floor. The location and pattern of pain and the operative success suggest the cause to be a combination of abdominal hyperextension and thigh hyperabduction, with the pivot point being the pubic symphysis. Diagnosis of "athletic pubalgia" and surgery should be limited to a select group of high-performance athletes. The consideration of other causes of groin pain in the patient is critical.

  4. Concussion Symptoms and Return to Play Time in Youth, High School, and College American Football Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Zachary Y; Zuckerman, Scott L; Wasserman, Erin B; Covassin, Tracey; Djoko, Aristarque; Dompier, Thomas P

    2016-07-01

    To our knowledge, little research has examined concussion across the youth/adolescent spectrum and even less has examined concussion-related outcomes (ie, symptoms and return to play). To examine and compare sport-related concussion outcomes (symptoms and return to play) in youth, high school, and collegiate football athletes. Athletic trainers attended each practice and game during the 2012 to 2014 seasons and reported injuries. For this descriptive, epidemiological study, data were collected from youth, high school, and collegiate football teams, and the analysis of the data was conducted between July 2015 and September 2015. The Youth Football Surveillance System included more than 3000 youth football athletes aged 5 to 14 years from 118 teams, providing 310 team seasons (ie, 1 team providing 1 season of data). The National Athletic Treatment, Injury, and Outcomes Network Program included 96 secondary school football programs, providing 184 team seasons. The National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance Program included 34 college football programs, providing 71 team seasons. We calculated the mean number of symptoms, prevalence of each symptom, and the proportion of patients with concussions that had long return-to-play time (ie, required participation restriction of at least 30 days). Generalized linear models were used to assess differences among competition levels in the mean number of reported symptoms. Logistic regression models estimated the odds of return to play at less than 24 hours and at least 30 days. Overall, 1429 sports-related concussions were reported among youth, high school, and college-level football athletes with a mean (SD) of 5.48 (3.06) symptoms. Across all levels, 15.3% resulted return to play at least 30 days after the concussion and 3.1% resulted in return to play less than 24 hours after the concussion. Compared with youth, a higher number of concussion symptoms were reported in high school athletes (β = 1.39; 95

  5. Evaluation of factors associated with severe and frequent back pain in high school athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Matias; Silveira, Erika Aparecida; de Avelar, Ivan Silveira

    2017-01-01

    Several studies have shown that half of all young athletes experience back pain (BP). However, high intensity and frequency of BP may be harmful, and the factors associated with BP severity have not been investigated in detail. Here, we investigated the factors associated with a high intensity and high frequency of BP in high school athletes. We included 251 athletes (173 boys and 78 girls [14–20 years old]) in this cross-sectional study. The dependent variables were a high frequency and high intensity of BP, and the independent variables were demographic, socioeconomic, psychosocial, hereditary, anthropometric, behavioural, and postural factors and the level of exercise. The effect measure is presented as prevalence ratio (PR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Of 251 athletes, 104 reported BP; thus, only these athletes were included in the present analysis. Results of multivariable analysis showed an association between high BP intensity and time spent using a computer (PR: 1.15, CI: 1.01–1.33), posture while writing (PR: 1.41, CI: 1.27–1.58), and posture while using a computer (PR: 1.39, CI: 1.26–1.54). Multivariable analysis also revealed an association of high BP frequency with studying in bed (PR: 1.19, CI: 1.01–1.40) and the method of carrying a backpack (PR: 1.19, CI: 1.01–1.40). In conclusion, we found that behavioural and postural factors are associated with a high intensity and frequency of BP. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to compare different intensities and frequencies of BP, and our results may help physicians and coaches to better understand BP in high school athletes. PMID:28222141

  6. Athletic Apparel Industry Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIE; TAN; NAFISUL; ISLAM; MILAN; MITRASINOVIC

    2015-01-01

    Industry Overview The athletic apparel industry is the fastest growing segment of global clothing industry differentiated by offering high quality athletic apparel made of technically advanced fabrics.The athletic apparel is made for a variety of sports and physical activities for children,men and women and enhances comfort and performance of athletes.The industry consists of companies that design and market

  7. Use of the Preparticipation Physical Exam in Screening for the Female Athlete Triad among High School Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Torre, Dena M.; Snell, B. J.

    2005-01-01

    The female athlete triad comprises 3 individual but interrelated conditions associated with athletic training: disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. Each condition is of medical concern, but when found within the triad, they can have serious medical consequences. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of…

  8. The Pasternak Case and American Gender Equity Policy: Implications for Canadian High School Athletics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaubier, Dean M.; Gadbois, Shannon A.; Stick, Sheldon L.

    2011-01-01

    In 2004 twin sisters Amy and Jesse Pasternak competed for the prospect of playing high school hockey, vying for the boys' team rather than the girls'. The sisters' opportunities were negated by the Manitoba High School Athletic Association (MHSAA). This paper examines the 2006 decision by the Manitoba Human Rights Commission and a 2008 judgment by…

  9. Former High School Student-Athletes' Academic, Social, and Emotional Adjustment to Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raye, Christopher M.

    2010-01-01

    The end of high school marks the time when the most number of individuals will end their participation playing sports at a competitive level. For those pursuing higher education, it has been viewed as a stressful experience for many freshmen. Former high school athletes that enter college as "students" and not…

  10. ATHLETE: Lunar Cargo Unloading from a High Deck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Brian H.

    2010-01-01

    As part of the NASA Exploration Technology Development Program, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory is developing a vehicle called ATHLETE: the All-Terrain Hex-Limbed Extra-Terrestrial Explorer. Each vehicle is based on six wheels at the ends of six multi-degree-of freedom limbs. Because each limb has enough degrees of freedom for use as a general-purpose leg, the wheels can be locked and used as feet to walk out of excessively soft or other extreme terrain. Since the vehicle has this alternative mode of traversing through or at least out of extreme terrain, the wheels and wheel actuators can be sized for nominal terrain. There are substantial mass savings in the wheel and wheel actuators associated with designing for nominal instead of extreme terrain. These mass savings are at least comparable-to or larger-than the extra mass associated with the articulated limbs. As a result, the entire mobility system, including wheels and limbs, can be lighter than a conventional all-terrain mobility chassis. A side benefit of this approach is that each limb has sufficient degrees-of freedom to be used as a general-purpose manipulator (hence the name "limb" instead of "leg"). Our prototype ATHLETE vehicles have quick-disconnect tool adapters on the limbs that allow tools to be drawn out of a "tool belt" and maneuvered by the limb. A power-take-off from the wheel actuates the tools, so that they can take advantage of the 1+ horsepower motor in each wheel to enable drilling, gripping or other power-tool functions.

  11. Amphetamine margin in sports. [Effects on performance of highly trained athletes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laties, V.G.; Weiss, B.

    1980-01-01

    The amphetamines can enhance athletic performance. That much seems clear from the literature, some of which is reviewed here. Increases in endurance have been demonstrated in both man and rat. Smith and Beecher, 20 years ago, showed improvement of running, swimming, and weight throwing in highly trained athletes. Laboratory analogues of such performance have also been used and similar enhancement demonstrated. The amount of change induced by the amphetamines is usually small, of the order of a few percent. Nevertheless, since a fraction of a percent improvement can make the difference between fame and oblivion, the margin conferred by these drugs can be quite important.

  12. The epidemiology of new versus recurrent sports concussions among high school athletes, 2005-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castile, Lianne; Collins, Christy L; McIlvain, Natalie M; Comstock, R Dawn

    2012-06-01

    To compare new versus recurrent concussions with respect to constellation of symptoms, symptom severity, symptom resolution; evaluate potential subset differences with respect to gender and sport; and to compare mechanisms and activities associated with new versus recurrent concussions. Sports-related injury and exposure data were collected for nine sports from 2005 to 2010 from 100 nationally representative US high schools. Nationally, an estimated 732,805 concussions occurred. Of these reported concussions, 13.2% were recurrent. The rate of new concussions was 22.2 per 100,000 athletic exposures while the rate of recurrent concussions was 3.1 per 100,000 athletic exposures (RR 7.23, 95% CI 6.39 to 8.17, pconcussion symptoms took >1 month to resolve, 6.5% of recurrent concussion symptoms took >1 month to resolve (IPR 10.35; 95% CI 4.62 to 23.16; pconcussions (4.4%) (IPR 1.76; 95% CI 1.02 to 3.03; p=0.043). A greater proportion of athletes sustaining recurrent concussions returned to play in >3 weeks (7.5%) or were medically disqualified (16.2%) than athletes sustaining new concussions (3.8%; IPR 1.95; 95% CI 1.01 to 3.77; p=0.047 and 2.9%; IPR 5.58; 95% CI 3.50 to 8.88; pconcussions resulted from contact with another person (73.4% and 77.9%, respectively). Athletes sustaining recurrent concussions had longer symptom resolution times, were kept out of play longer and reported loss of consciousness more frequently than athletes sustaining new concussions. With the possibility of long-term impairment and other negative sequelae, proper management and prevention of concussions at the high school level is imperative.

  13. Effects of nitric oxide inhalation on pulmonary gas exchange during exercise in highly trained athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, F; Mucci, P; Safont, L; Prefaut, C

    1999-02-01

    The pathophysiology of exercise-induced hypoxaemia in elite athletes is still unclear but several studies indicate that a diffusion limitation, which could be explained by an interstitial pulmonary oedema, is a major contributing factor. Stress failure would induce a haemodynamical interstitial oedema with inflammatory reaction and release of mediators like histamine. Histamine release was found to be correlated with the hypoxaemia in elite athletes. If stress failure is involved, inhalation of pulmonary vasodilatators such as nitric oxide during exercise in athletes should induce an inhibition of the histamine release and a reversal of the hypoxaemia. Nine male endurance-trained young athletes performed two randomized exercise tests: one without and the other with 15 p.p.m. of inhaled NO. Measurements of histamine release and arterial blood gas analysis were performed at rest and at 50, 75 and 100% VO2max. At rest, inhaled NO induced a decrease in PaO2 and an increase in (Ai-a)DO2 suggesting increased perfusion of units with low V(A)/Q. During exercise, NO inhalation suppressed the histamine release observed without NO and induced a moderation in the decrease in PaO2 and the increase in (Ai-a)DO2 observed between 75 and 100% of VO2max (P < 0.005). In conclusion, this study showed that NO inhalation inhibited exercise-induced histamine release in highly trained athletes, but we were unable to confirm the suppression of exercise-induced hypoxaemia (EIH). An unexpected result was that inhaled NO seemed to have a marked effect on arterial oxygenation in highly trained-athletes, by disturbing gas exchanges.

  14. Professional Identities of Vocational High School Students and Extracurricular Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altan, Bilge Aslan; Altintas, Havva Ozge

    2017-01-01

    Vocational high schools are one of the controversial topics, and also the hardly touched fields in educational field. Students' profiles of vocational schools, their visions, and professional identity developments are not frequently reflected in the literature. Therefore, the main aim of the study is to research whether vocational high school…

  15. Behavioral Intervention for Teaching Tackling Skills to High School Football Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, John V.; Luiselli, James K.; Reed, Derek D.

    2010-01-01

    Between 2001 and 2005, football-related injuries accounted for 1,060,823 emergency room visits to U.S. hospitals (Mello, Myers, Christian, Palmisciano, & Linakis, 2009). Among high school football athletes, statistics reveal that for the period of 1984 to 1999, there were 63 injuries resulting in permanent disability (Mueller, 2001). Additional…

  16. Sport Psychology Teaching Approaches for High School Coaches and Their Student-Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Jenelle N.

    2017-01-01

    Coaches lacking a formal background in sport psychology may shy away from teaching these skills in favor of teaching physical skills with which they are more familiar. Other coaches may assume that athletes will learn sport psychology skills as a byproduct of their coaching pedagogy. Regardless, high school coaches are responsible for teaching…

  17. Sport Psychology Teaching Approaches for High School Coaches and Their Student-Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Jenelle N.

    2017-01-01

    Coaches lacking a formal background in sport psychology may shy away from teaching these skills in favor of teaching physical skills with which they are more familiar. Other coaches may assume that athletes will learn sport psychology skills as a byproduct of their coaching pedagogy. Regardless, high school coaches are responsible for teaching…

  18. Parental relationships, autonomy, and identity processes of high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullis, Ronald L; Graf, Shruti Chatterjee; Mullis, Ann K

    2009-12-01

    To examine the interrelations among parental relationships, emotional autonomy, and identity statuses, the authors asked 234 (105 male, 129 female) high school students to complete the Parental Bonding Scale (G. Parker, H. Tupling, & L. B. Brown, 1979), Emotional Autonomy Scale (L. D. Steinberg & S. B. Silverberg, 1986), and Extended Objective Measure of Ego Identity Scale-II (L. D. Bennion & G. R. Adams, 1986). There continues to be controversy about whether adolescents' identity formation is related to their emotional separation from their parents. According to Eriksonian and neo-Eriksonian theory (J. E. Marcia, 1980, 1984), adolescents who are successful in resolving their identity issues are better able to emotionally individuate from their parents. That is, adolescents have fewer conflicts with parents as they become more independent of them. Results of the present study indicate that adolescent perceptions of mother's caring behavior, but not father's caring behavior, predicted higher foreclosure identity status scores among adolescents. In addition, 2 dimensions of emotional autonomy (i.e., perceiving parents as people and parental deidealization) best predicted the adolescent identity statuses of moratorium and foreclosure. Results also indicate that future research may need to establish a better theoretical conceptualization of the constructs of interest in this study and better measures of emotional autonomy among adolescents.

  19. High Prevalence of Nontraumatic Shoulder Pain in a Regional Sample of Female High School Volleyball Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, Kayt E.; Clark, Jacob; Hanson, Chad; Fagerness, Chris; Conway, Adam; Hoogendoorn, Lindsay

    2017-01-01

    Background: Shoulder pain is becoming increasingly problematic in young players as volleyball gains popularity. Associations between repetitive motion and pain and overuse injury have been observed in other overhand sports (most notably baseball). Studies of adult athletes suggest that there is a shoulder pain and overuse problem present in volleyball players, but minimal research has been done to establish rates and causes in juvenile participants. Purpose: To establish rates of shoulder pain, regardless of whether it resulted in a loss of playing time, in female high school volleyball players. A secondary goal was to determine whether high repetition volumes correlated with an increased likelihood of experiencing pain. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: A self-report survey focusing on the prevalence of pain not associated with a traumatic event in female high school youth volleyball players was developed. Survey questions were formulated by certified athletic trainers, experienced volleyball coaches, and biomechanics experts. Surveys were received from 175 healthy, active high school volleyball players in Iowa, South Dakota, and Minnesota. Results: Forty percent (70/175) of active high school volleyball players remembered experiencing shoulder pain not related to traumatic injury, but only 33% (23/70) reported taking time off to recover from the pain. Based on these self-reported data, activities associated with significantly increased risk of nontraumatic shoulder pain included number of years playing competitive volleyball (P = .01) and lifting weights out of season (P = .001). Players who reported multiple risk factors were more likely to experience nontraumatic shoulder pain. Conclusion: When using time off for recovery as the primary injury criterion, we found that the incidence of shoulder pain is more than twice as high as the incidence of injury reported by previous studies. Findings also indicated that the incidence of shoulder pain

  20. Disordered Eating, Menstrual Irregularity, and Musculoskeletal Injury in High School Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thein-Nissenbaum, Jill M.; Carr, Kathleen E.; Hetzel, Scott; Dennison, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Background: The female athlete triad is the interrelatedness of energy availability, menstrual function, and bone density. Currently, limited information about triad components and their relationship to musculoskeletal injury in the high school population exists. In addition, no study has specifically examined triad components and injury rate in high school oral contraceptive pill (OCP) users. Hypothesis: To compare the prevalence of disordered eating (DE), menstrual irregularity (MI), and musculoskeletal injury (INJ) among high school female athletes in OCP users and non-OCP users. Study Design: Retrospective cohort study. Level of Evidence: Level 2. Methods: The subject sample completed the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q) and Healthy Wisconsin High School Female Athletes Survey (HWHSFAS). Athletes were classified by OCP use and sport type. Results: Of the participants, 14.8% reported OCP use. There was no difference in MI and INJ among groups. The prevalence of DE was significantly higher among OCP users as compared with non-OCP users; OCP users were twice as likely to meet the criteria for DE (odds ratio [OR], 2.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-5.09). OCP users were over 5 times more likely to have a global score that met criteria for DE as compared with non-OCP users (OR, 5.36; 95% CI, 1.92-14.89). Conclusion: Although MI and INJ rates are similar among groups, there is a higher prevalence of DE among high school female athletes using OCPs as compared with non-OCP users. Clinical Relevance: Because OCP users may be menstruating, clinicians may fail to recognize the other triad components. However, DE exists in the menstruating OCP user. As such, clinicians should be vigilant when screening for triad components in high school OCP users, particularly DE. PMID:24982703

  1. The Effect of High-Fidelity Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) Simulation on Athletic Training Student Knowledge, Confidence, Emotions, and Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tivener, Kristin Ann; Gloe, Donna Sue

    2015-01-01

    Context: High-fidelity simulation is widely used in healthcare for the training and professional education of students though literature of its application to athletic training education remains sparse. Objective: This research attempts to address a wide-range of data. This includes athletic training student knowledge acquisition from…

  2. Take One for the Team? Influence of Team and Individual Sport Participation on High School Athlete Substance Use Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulesza, Magdalena; Grossbard, Joel R.; Kilmer, Jason; Copeland, Amy L.; Larimer, Mary E.

    2014-01-01

    The current Web-based survey investigated the association between team or individual sport participation (or both) and self-reported alcohol and tobacco use among high school athletes (N = 1,275) transitioning to college. Peak blood alcohol concentration, weekly drinking, and alcohol-related problems were significantly lower among athletes in…

  3. The Effect of High-Fidelity Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) Simulation on Athletic Training Student Knowledge, Confidence, Emotions, and Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tivener, Kristin Ann; Gloe, Donna Sue

    2015-01-01

    Context: High-fidelity simulation is widely used in healthcare for the training and professional education of students though literature of its application to athletic training education remains sparse. Objective: This research attempts to address a wide-range of data. This includes athletic training student knowledge acquisition from…

  4. Impaired jump landing after exercise in recreational and in high-performance athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuni, Benita; Cárdenas-Montemayor, Eloy; Bangert, Yannic; Rupp, Rüdiger; Ales, Janez; Friedmann-Bette, Birgit; Schmitt, Holger

    2014-08-01

    The risk of sustaining injuries increases with fatigue. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of fatigue on dynamic postural control in jump landing and stabilization (ST) in athletes of different levels. In all, 18 high-performance ball sports athletes and 24 recreationally active subjects performed a jump test (JT) before and at 1, 5, 10, 15, and 20 minutes after a 30-minute treadmill run at the individual anaerobic threshold. An overhead ball switch hit during a forward jump triggered indicator lamps on either side of a force plate. After landing on the plate, ST on 1 leg (no light cue) or a second jump sideways (toward a light cue) was required. The ST force integral index was calculated for the ST trials. Dynamic postural control was significantly impaired in jump landing and ST in the first minute after the run: mean difference ± SD: 0.25 ± 0.48 m·s-1 (95% confidence interval: 0.10-0.40 m·s-1, p = 0.043; analysis of variance). No significant group differences were found. Under fatigued conditions, dynamic postural control in jump landing was impaired in an unexpected ST task. Not only recreational but also high-performance athletes were affected. Ball sports athletes could add a training exercise to their workout, which alternates between periods of high effort and neuromuscular training. Resistance to fatigue effects should be checked on a regular basis using JTs.

  5. Biomechanical head impact characteristics during sparring practice sessions in high school taekwondo athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, David M; Fife, Gabriel P

    2017-06-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to monitor head impact magnitude and characteristics, such as impact location and frequency, at high school taekwondo sparring sessions. METHODS Eight male high school taekwondo athletes participated in this study. The head impact characteristics were recorded by X-Patch, a wireless accelerometer and gyroscope, during 6 taekwondo sparring sessions. The outcome measures were the peak linear acceleration ( g = 9.81 msec(2)), peak rotational acceleration, rotational velocity, and Head Injury Criterion. RESULTS A total of 689 impacts occurred over 6 sessions involving the 8 athletes. There was an average of 24 impacts per 100 minutes, and there were significant differences in the frequency of impacts among both the sessions and individual athletes. In order of frequency, the most commonly hit locations were the side (38.2%), back (35.7%), and front (23.8%) of the head. CONCLUSIONS The data indicate that there is a relatively high number of head impacts experienced by taekwondo athletes during sparring practice. According to the rotational acceleration predicting impact severity published in previous research, 17.1% of the impacts were deemed to be a moderate and 15.5% were deemed to be severe.

  6. Epidemiology of concussions among United States high school athletes in 20 sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marar, Mallika; McIlvain, Natalie M; Fields, Sarah K; Comstock, R Dawn

    2012-04-01

    In the United States (US), an estimated 300,000 sports-related concussions occur annually. Among individuals 15 to 24 years of age, sports are second only to motor vehicle crashes as the leading cause of concussions. To investigate the epidemiology of concussions in high school athletes by comparing rates and patterns of concussion among 20 sports. Descriptive epidemiology study. Using an Internet-based data collection tool, RIO, certified athletic trainers from a large, nationally disperse sample of US high schools reported athlete exposure and injury data for 20 sports during the 2008-2010 academic years. During the study period, 1936 concussions were reported during 7,780,064 athlete-exposures (AEs) for an overall injury rate of 2.5 per 10,000 AEs. The injury rate was higher in competition (6.4) than practice (1.1) (rate ratio [RR], 5.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.2-6.3). The majority of concussions resulted from participation in football (47.1%, n = 912), followed by girls' soccer (8.2%, n = 159), boys' wrestling (5.8%, n = 112), and girls' basketball (5.5%, n = 107). Football had the highest concussion rate (6.4), followed by boys' ice hockey (5.4) and boys' lacrosse (4.0). Concussions represented a greater proportion of total injuries among boys' ice hockey (22.2%) than all other sports studied (13.0%) (injury proportion ratio [IPR], 1.7; 95% CI, 1.4-2.1; P concussion rate (1.7) than boys (1.0) (RR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.4-2.0). The most common mechanisms of injury were player-player contact (70.3%) and player-playing surface contact (17.2%). In more than 40% of athletes in sports other than girls' swimming and girls' track, concussion symptoms resolved in 3 days or less. Athletes most commonly returned to play in 1 to 3 weeks (55.3%), with 22.8% returning in less than 1 week and 2.0% returning in less than 1 day. Although interest in sports-related concussions is usually focused on full-contact sports like football and ice hockey, concussions occur across a

  7. Identity Development of High-Ability Black Collegians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries-Britt, Sharon

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the difficulties that high-ability black college students face in blending their academic interest and racial affiliation into their sense of self. Student narratives show how a strong peer community and positive student-faculty interactions can overcome these obstacles and promote healthy identity development. (Author/DB)

  8. LEVEL OF NUTTRITION ADEQUACY, PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF YOUNG MEN ATHLETES SOCCER SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL IN DENPASAR 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Luh Gede Karyamitha

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Soccer is a favorite sport for  people around the world including in Indonesia. Not only the method of training or talent that will determine the achievement, but the intake of daily nutrients directly proper also provide a positive influence on performance and achievements of athletes. The purpose of this study was to determine the adequacy of nutrition, physical activity, and nutritional status of young men athletes soccer. This study useds cross-sectional method. The number of samples taken as much as 96 athletes from all senior high schools in Denpasar and selected systematic random sampling. Results showed the average level of nutritional adequacy of athletes still in the category of less (<80%. Respectively for energy, carbohydrates, proteins, and fats are 75.95%, 77.24%, 78.96% and 75.83%. If seen the proportion of athletes that sufficient levels of nutrients in enough categories, then each for energy, carbohydrates, proteins, and fats are 58.3%, 57.3%, 51%, and 53.1%. Level of physical activity in athletes only low (56.3% and moderate category (43.8%. Most athletes have normal nutritional status (94.8%, there was only 1% having thin status, and 4.2% had nutritional status of overweight. The advice can be given to provide knowledges that related with intake of nutrients for the coaches and athletes, increasing physical activity for athletes who have low physical activity, and can be the nutritional status as a selection soccer athletes. However, further research can be done is to measure the physical endurance athletes associated with the intake of nutrients or physical activity.

  9. Identical high- K three-quasiparticle rotational bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Harjeet; Singh, Pardeep

    2016-12-01

    A comprehensive study of high- K three-quasiparticle rotational bands in odd- A nuclei indicates the similarity in γ -ray energies and dynamic moment of inertia Im^{(2)} . The extent of the identicality between the rotational bands is evaluated by using the energy factor method. For nuclei pairs exhibiting identical bands, the average relative change in the dynamic moment of inertia Im^{(2)} is also determined. The identical behaviour shown by these bands is attributed to the interplay of nuclear structure parameters: deformation and the pairing correlations. Also, experimental trend of the I(hbar) vs. hbar ω (MeV) plot for these nuclei pairs is shown to be in agreement with Tilted-Axis Cranking (TAC) model calculations.

  10. Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Status and Baseline Neurocognitive Performance in High School Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Christine M; Dean, Preston; LoGalbo, Anthony; Dougherty, Michael; Field, Melvin; Webbe, Frank M

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 136,000 concussions occur annually in American high school sports. Neuropsychological data indicate that children with preexisting cognitive difficulties, such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), may have protracted recovery from concussion. ADHD, with an estimated prevalence of 11% in youth, may increase an athlete's vulnerability to sustaining sports-related traumatic brain injury (TBI). The preponderance of evidence focusing on TBI and ADHD has derived from motor vehicle accidents rather than sports-related incidents. Thus, it is paramount to explore how ADHD may relate to injury in the sports concussion context, as well as to assess how ADHD may affect baseline neurocognitive testing. Adolescent athletes with ADHD (n = 256) demonstrated significantly reduced Verbal Memory, Visual Motor, and Impulse Control index scores compared with their peers without ADHD (n = 256). Athletes with ADHD were nearly twice as likely to have sustained a prior concussion (ADHD, 14.1%; non-ADHD, 7.8%). Knowledge regarding the unique neurocognitive profile of athletes with ADHD may enhance clinical management decisions.

  11. Population-Based Estimates of Methicillin-Resistant "Staphylococcus aureus" (MRSA) Infections among High School Athletes--Nebraska, 2006-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Bryan F.; Mueller, Shawn W.; Theis, Max; Keyser, Alison; Safranek, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant "Staphylococcus aureus" (MRSA) is an emerging cause of skin and soft-tissue infections among athletes. To determine statewide incidence among high school athletes, we surveyed all 312 Nebraska high schools regarding sport programs offered, program-specific participation numbers, number of athletes with…

  12. Valuing queer identity in Monster High doll fandom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Mariel Austin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available According to Mattel, Monster High dolls topped $500 million in annual sales in 2014, quickly gaining on Barbie, whose $1.3 billion in annual revenue plummeted for the fourth quarter in a row. Monster High's recent ad campaign claims, "We are monsters. We are proud." Race, ethnicity, and disability are coded into the dolls as selling points. The allure of Monster High is, in part, that political identity and the celebration of difference become consumable. The female body, the racialized body, and the disabled body have long been coded as monstrous. Monster High reclaims this label, queering it. Using Jack Halberstam's work on children's culture and Richard Berger's and Rosalind Hanmer's work on fandom, this article explores the queer potential of Monster High. Fans rewrite the Mattel narrative through fan fiction, repainting the dolls, and embodying them through virtual avatars, makeup, and costume play. These fan practices both queer the dolls' identity politics and create communities of interest that act as safe spaces for expressing queer identity and generating fan activism. These fan practices have also influenced Mattel's branding of the dolls, specifically with the recent inclusion of activism campaigns such as WeStopHate and The Kind Campaign into the Monster High Webisodes and Web site. By exploring the queer politics of Monster High fandom, this paper explains how that queering generates social change.

  13. Valuing queer identity in Monster High doll fandom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Mariel Austin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available According to Mattel, Monster High dolls topped $500 million in annual sales in 2014, quickly gaining on Barbie, whose $1.3 billion in annual revenue plummeted for the fourth quarter in a row. Monster High's recent ad campaign claims, "We are monsters. We are proud." Race, ethnicity, and disability are coded into the dolls as selling points. The allure of Monster High is, in part, that political identity and the celebration of difference become consumable. The female body, the racialized body, and the disabled body have long been coded as monstrous. Monster High reclaims this label, queering it. Using Jack Halberstam's work on children's culture and Richard Berger's and Rosalind Hanmer's work on fandom, this article explores the queer potential of Monster High. Fans rewrite the Mattel narrative through fan fiction, repainting the dolls, and embodying them through virtual avatars, makeup, and costume play. These fan practices both queer the dolls' identity politics and create communities of interest that act as safe spaces for expressing queer identity and generating fan activism. These fan practices have also influenced Mattel's branding of the dolls, specifically with the recent inclusion of activism campaigns such as WeStopHate and The Kind Campaign into the Monster High Webisodes and Web site. By exploring the queer politics of Monster High fandom, this paper explains how that queering generates social change.

  14. SURVEY OF SHORT-TERM ORAL CORTICOSTEROID ADMINISTRATION BY ORTHOPAEDIC PHYSICIANS IN COLLEGE AND HIGH SCHOOL ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert W. Pearsall IV

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of oral corticosteroid (OCS drugs is advocated because of their potent anti-inflammatory effects. They also possess many potential adverse effects. No study has assessed physician prescribing practices of OCS therapy in high school (HS or college (COL athletes. This paper reports the prescribing patterns of sports medicine physicians who used short-term OCS therapy and to describe associated complications in HS and COL athletes within a 24- month period. An internet link to a descriptive epidemiology survey was included in an e-mail to all members of the Arthroscopy Association of North America and the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine. Descriptive statistics and correlation analysis were used to examine responses. Total response rate was 32% (615/1,928. Sixty-six percent of the physicians indicated prescribing OCS to both groups of athletes, while 29% reported prescribing OCS to COL athletes and 5% to HS athletes for musculoskeletal injuries. Physicians who prescribed multiple OCS regimens to the same athlete within the same season (P = 0.01 and physicians who prescribed OCS to the skeletally immature athlete (P = 0.009 reported more complications than other physicians. Among the 412 physicians who did not prescribe OCS in the treatment of athletic induced musculoskeletal injury, 251 (61% cited a risk of developing medical complications as the primary reason for avoiding use. The reported number of medical complications was low with no cases of avascular necrosis reported for the 2-year recall period. Orthopaedic surgeons who treated athletic induced musculoskeletal injuries with a short-term course of oral corticosteroids reported that high school and college athletes benefited with few medical complications

  15. Bone quality in the lumbar spine in high-performance athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabo, D; Bernd, L; Pfeil, J; Reiter, A

    1996-01-01

    Little is known about the influence of high-performance training on the bone quality of the lumbar spine, in particular, the effects on bone mineral density (BMD) in athletes with high weight-bearing demands on the spine. Measurements were therefore performed in internationally top-ranked high-performance athletes of different disciplines (weight lifters, boxers, and endurance-cyclists). The measurements were carried out by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and the results compared with the measurements of 21 age-matched male controls. The BMD of the high-performance weight lifters was greater than that of the controls by 24% (0.252 g/cm2) on the AP view by 23% (0.200 g/cm2) on the lateral view (P boxers and the controls was +17% (0.174 g/cm2) on the AP view and +19% (0.174 g/cm2) on the lateral view. The BMD of the lumbar spine in all endurance cyclists was lower than that in the controls (AP view -10%, 0.105 g/cm2; lateral view -8%, 0.067 g/cm2; P > 0.05). The results show that training program stressing axial loads of the skeleton may lead to a significant increase of BMD in the lumbar spine of young individuals. Other authors' findings that the BMD of endurance athletes may decrease are confirmed. Nevertheless the 10% BMD loss of cyclists was surprisingly high.

  16. Specificity of high-intensity intermittent action remains important to MMA athletes' physical conditioning: response to Paillard (2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Vecchio, Fabrício Boscolo; Franchini, Emerson

    2013-02-01

    This response to Paillard (2011) focuses on the intermittent nature of mixed martial arts (MMA). It also emphasizes that the main goal of MMA athletes is to win by knockout or submission and that these actions normally are high-intensity actions or preceded by high-intensity actions. Additionally, there is evidence that high-intensity intermittent exercise protocols are able to improve aerobic fitness. It is important only to adjust physical training to the athletes' techniques and tactics.

  17. The Relationship between Concussion Knowledge and the High School Athlete's Intention to Report Traumatic Brain Injury Symptoms: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Mary Ellen; Sanner, Jennifer E.

    2017-01-01

    Sports-related concussion or traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a frequent occurrence among high school athletes. Long-term and short-term effects of TBI on the athlete's developing brain can be minimized if the athlete reports and is effectively treated for TBI symptoms. Knowledge of concussion symptoms and a school culture of support are critical…

  18. The Relationship between Concussion Knowledge and the High School Athlete's Intention to Report Traumatic Brain Injury Symptoms: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Mary Ellen; Sanner, Jennifer E.

    2017-01-01

    Sports-related concussion or traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a frequent occurrence among high school athletes. Long-term and short-term effects of TBI on the athlete's developing brain can be minimized if the athlete reports and is effectively treated for TBI symptoms. Knowledge of concussion symptoms and a school culture of support are critical…

  19. A Study of Factors that Influence High School Athletes to Choose a College or University, and a Model for the Development of Player Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Cory J.; Groves, David; Schneider, Raymond

    2007-01-01

    Decisions made by high school and college basketball athletes are becoming increasingly complex as sport has evolved into a true industry. The decisions made during the formative years have a tremendous impact upon the individual as well as the institution that the athlete chooses to attend. Most of the studies about athletes and their institution…

  20. The Practice of Applying Chondroreparant "HYALREPAIR-02" Among Highly Skilled Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The frequency of knees traumatization among highly skilled athletes is depended on the specific movements in various sports and ranges from 20 to 50 %. The most critical situation has been in the martial arts – a combination of shock and throwing techniques, painful methods together with the intensity of exercise naturally leads to serious injuries and the development of degenerative changes directly in the joints and periarticular structures. The intra-articular injection of substances based...

  1. Jump-Squat Performance and Its Relationship With Relative Training Intensity in High-Level Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Reyes, Pedro; Pareja-Blanco, Fernando; Balsalobre-Fernández, Carlos; Cuadrado-Peñafiel, Víctor; Ortega-Becerra, Manuel A; González-Badillo, Juan J

    2015-11-01

    To examine the relationship between the relative load in full squats and the height achieved in jump-squat (JS) exercises and to determine the load that maximizes the power output of high-level athletes. Fifty-one male high-level track-and-field athletes (age 25.2 ± 4.4 y, weight 77. ± 6.2 kg, height 179.9 ± 5.6 cm) who competed in sprinting and jumping events took part in the study. Full-squat 1-repetition-maximum (1-RM) and JS height (JH) with loads from 17 to 97 kg were measured in 2 sessions separated by 48 h. Individual regression analyses showed that JH (R2 = .992 ± .005) and the jump decrease (JD) that each load produced with respect to the unloaded countermovement jump (CMJ) (R2 = .992 ± 0.007) are highly correlated with the full-squat %1-RM, which means that training intensities can be prescribed using JH and JD values. The authors also found that the load that maximizes JS's power output was 0%RM (ie, unloaded CMJ). These results highlight the close relationship between JS performance and relative training intensity in terms of %1-RM. The authors also observed that the load that maximizes power output was 0%1-RM. Monitoring jump height during JS training could help coaches and athletes determine and optimize their training loads.

  2. Sedentary subjects have higher PAI-1 and lipoproteins levels than highly trained athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lira Fabio S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Physical exercise protects against the development of cardiovascular disease, partly by lowering plasmatic total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and increased HDL-cholesterol levels. In addition, it is now established that reduction plasmatic adiponectin and increased C-reactive protein (CRP and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 levels play a role in the maintenance of an inflammatory state and in the development of cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to examine plasma lipid profile and inflammatory markers levels in individual with sedentary lifestyle and/or highly trained athletes at rest. Methods: Fourteen male subjects (sedentary lifestyle n = 7 and highly trained athletes n = 7 were recruited. Blood samples were collected after an overnight fast (~12 h. The plasmatic lipid profile (Triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol, LDL-oxidized and total cholesterol/HDL-c ratio, glucose, adiponectin, C - reactive protein and PAI-1 levels were determined. Results: Total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, TG and PAI-1 levels were lower in highly trained athletes group in relation to sedentary subjects (p

  3. Judgment of actions in experts: a high-resolution EEG study in elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babiloni, Claudio; Del Percio, Claudio; Rossini, Paolo M; Marzano, Nicola; Iacoboni, Marco; Infarinato, Francesco; Lizio, Roberta; Piazza, Marina; Pirritano, Mirella; Berlutti, Giovanna; Cibelli, Giuseppe; Eusebi, Fabrizio

    2009-04-01

    The present study tested the two following hypotheses: (i) compared to non-athletes, elite athletes are characterized by a reduced cortical activation during the judgment of sporting observed actions; (ii) in elite athletes, a good judgment of observed sporting actions is related to a low cortical activation. To address these issues, electroencephalographic (EEG) data were recorded in 15 elite rhythmic gymnasts and 13 non-gymnasts. They observed a series of 120 rhythmic gymnastic videos. At the end of each video, the subjects had to judge the artistic/athletic level of the exercise by a scale from 0 to 10. The mismatch between their judgment and that of the coach indexed the degree of action judgment. The EEG cortical sources were estimated by sLORETA. With reference to a pre-stimulus period, the power decrease of alpha (8-12 Hz) rhythms during the videos indexed the cortical activation (event related desynchronization, ERD). Regarding the hypothesis (i), low- and high-frequency alpha ERD was lower in amplitude in the elite rhythmic gymnasts compared to the non-gymnasts in occipital and temporal areas (ventral pathway) and in dorsal pathway. Regarding the hypothesis (ii), in the elite rhythmic gymnasts high-frequency alpha ERD was higher in amplitude with the videos characterized by a high judgment error than those characterized by a low judgment error; this was true in inferior posterior parietal and ventral premotor areas ("mirror" pathway). These results globally suggest that the judgment of observed sporting actions is related to low amplitude of alpha ERD, as a possible index of spatially selective cortical activation ("neural efficiency").

  4. Methods and Descriptive Epidemiology of Services Provided by Athletic Trainers in High Schools: The National Athletic Treatment, Injury and Outcomes Network Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Zachary Y.; Dompier, Thomas P.; Dalton, Sara L.; Miller, Sayers John; Hayden, Ross; Marshall, Stephen W.

    2015-01-01

    Context Research is limited on the extent and nature of the care provided by athletic trainers (ATs) to student-athletes in the high school setting. Objective To describe the methods of the National Athletic Treatment, Injury and Outcomes Network (NATION) project and provide the descriptive epidemiology of AT services for injury care in 27 high school sports. Design Descriptive epidemiology study. Setting Athletic training room (ATR) visits and AT services data collected in 147 high schools from 26 states. Patients or Other Participants High school student-athletes participating in 13 boys' sports and 14 girls' sports during the 2011−2012 through 2013−2014 academic years. Main Outcome Measure(s) The number of ATR visits and individual AT services, as well as the mean number of ATR visits (per injury) and AT services (per injury and ATR visit) were calculated by sport and for time-loss (TL) and non–time-loss (NTL) injuries. Results Over the 3-year period, 210 773 ATR visits and 557 381 AT services were reported for 50 604 injuries. Most ATR visits (70%) were for NTL injuries. Common AT services were therapeutic activities or exercise (45.4%), modalities (18.6%), and AT evaluation and reevaluation (15.9%), with an average of 4.17 ± 6.52 ATR visits and 11.01 ± 22.86 AT services per injury. Compared with NTL injuries, patients with TL injuries accrued more ATR visits (7.76 versus 3.47; P < .001) and AT services (18.60 versus 9.56; P < .001) per injury. An average of 2.24 ± 1.33 AT services were reported per ATR visit. Compared with TL injuries, NTL injuries had a larger average number of AT services per ATR visit (2.28 versus 2.05; P < .001). Conclusions These findings highlight the broad spectrum of care provided by ATs to high school student-athletes and demonstrate that patients with NTL injuries require substantial amounts of AT services. PMID:26678290

  5. Multiple prior concussions are associated with symptoms in high school athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannix, Rebekah; Iverson, Grant L; Maxwell, Bruce; Atkins, Joseph E; Zafonte, Ross; Berkner, Paul D

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of prior concussion on baseline computerized neurocognitive testing in a large cohort of high school athletes. This is a retrospective cohort study of student athletes from 49 Maine High Schools in 2010 who underwent baseline computerized neurocognitive evaluation with Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT®). As part of the ImPACT®, subjects reported a prior history of concussion as well as demographic information and a symptom questionnaire. We used linear regression to evaluate the association of prior concussion with baseline: (1) ImPACT® composite scores; and (2) symptom scores. Six thousand seventy-five subjects were included in the study, of whom 57% were boys. The majority of student athletes (85.3%) reported no prior history of concussion while 4.6% reported having sustained two or more prior concussions. On simple linear regression, increasing number of concussions was related to worse performance in verbal memory (P = 0.039) and greater symptoms scores (P concussions. In this large-scale, retrospective survey study, history of multiple prior concussions was associated with higher symptom burden but not baseline computerized neurocognitive testing. The association between baseline symptom reporting and clinical and demographic factors was greater than the association with a history of multiple concussions.

  6. Sports Activities High Performance Athletes Muslim Women in Indonesia and Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitri, M.; Sultoni, K.; Salamuddin, N.; Taib Harun, Mohd

    2017-03-01

    Participation in sports activities was also influenced by sociological factors. This indirectly allows individuals more adaptable in high performance sports compared with individuals who did not engage in sports activities. This study aims to identify high performance sports athletes Muslim women in Indonesia and Malaysia in the sport. The quantitative approach was carried out by the study population consisted of Muslim women athletes Malaysia and Indonesia, which joined The 3rd Islamic Solidarity Games. The study sample consisted of 58 Malaysia and 57 Indonesia. Descriptive analysis also shows that sports activities like Muslim women athletes in the ranking of badminton (Malaysia 46.5% and Indonesia 38.6%), swimming (Malaysia 33.3% and Indonesia 57.9%), sports (Malaysia 27.5% and Indonesia at 22.8%), and balls volleyball (Malaysia and Indonesia 17.2%, 29.8%). The results of this study can serve as a guide for the government to make sports facilities more attractive community of Muslim women.

  7. Bone mineral density in female high school athletes: interactions of menstrual function and type of mechanical loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Jeanne F; Rauh, Mitchell J; Barrack, Michelle T; Barkai, Hava-Shoshana

    2007-09-01

    During adolescence, skeletal integrity of girls is largely dependent on menstrual function and impact exercise, yet currently there is limited research regarding the interaction between menstrual status and type of mechanical loading associated with various high school sports. Our purpose was to examine associations of menstrual status, type of mechanical loading, and bone mineral density (BMD) in female high school athletes participating in high/odd impact or repetitive/non-impact sport. Participants were 161 female high school athletes (15.7+/-1.3 years; 165.3+/-6.9 cm; 59.4+/-8.7 kg) representing high/odd impact (n=93, including soccer, softball, volleyball, tennis, lacrosse, and track sprinters and jumpers), or repetitive/non-impact sports (n=68, including swimmers, cross-country and track distance runners who participated in events>or=800 m). Areal BMD was measured by DXA at the spine (L1-L4), proximal femur, and total body. Menstrual status was determined by self-report. Athletes with primary, secondary or oligomenorrhea were combined into a single group (oligo/amenorrheic) and compared to eumenorrheic athletes. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) with Bonferroni post hoc comparisons adjusted for age, BMI, and gynecological age were used to compare BMD of athletes in combined mechanical loading and menstrual status groups. We found significantly greater total hip (p=0.04) and trochanter (p=0.02) BMD (g cm(-2)) among eumenorrheic high/odd impact compared to eumenorrheic repetitive/non-impact athletes, and greater spine (p=0.01) and trochanter (p=0.04) BMD among high/odd impact eumenorrheic athletes compared to repetitive/non-impact oligo/amenorrheic athletes. Chi-squared analysis of BMD Z-scores adjusted for gynecological age showed a significantly greater percentage of repetitive/non-impact athletes (33.9%) compared to high/odd impact athletes (11.8%) with low spine BMD for their age (BMD Z-scoresports, and especially those with oligo/amenorrhea, may not be

  8. Technical training of qualified athletes , specializing in the high jump with a running start, with additional funds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusarevich A.V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To improve the process of technical training of qualified athletes, specializing in the high jump with a running start on the basis of additional funds. Material : The study involved 12 athletes qualified I sports category and candidate masters age 18-20 years. Number of attempts varied from 12-15, depending on the degree of fatigue study. Determined the effect of electrical stimulation on muscle groups leading the kinematic and dynamic characteristics of the runway and repulsion, as well as athletic performance. Results : It was established that the integrated use of electrical stimulation affects more effectively to improve the biomechanical characteristics of high jump and effectiveness than using electrical stimulation during takeoff and repulsion separately. Conclusions : On the basis of the experimental data we can recommend the use of complex electrical, as an additional means for improving technical skills and improve performance athletes qualified.

  9. Development, implementation and assessment of a concussion education programme for high school student-athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Jeffrey G; Rathwell, Scott; Delaney, J Scott; Johnston, Karen M; Ptito, Alain; Bloom, Gordon A

    2017-01-17

    Although experts have noted that adolescent athletes should be educated about concussions to improve their safety, there is no agreement on the most effective strategy to disseminate concussion education. The purpose of this study was to develop, implement and assess a concussion education programme. More precisely, four interactive oral presentations were delivered to high school student-athletes (N = 35, Mage = 15.94, SD = 0.34) in a large urban centre. Participants completed a questionnaire at three time-points during the season to measure changes in their knowledge (CK) and attitudes (CA) of concussions, and focus group interviews were conducted following the concussion education programme. Questionnaire data revealed participants' post-intervention CK scores were higher than their pre-intervention scores. During the focus groups, the student-athletes said they acquired CK about the role of protective equipment and symptom variability, and in terms of CA, they intended to avoid dangerous in-game collisions in the future. Our study was the first to create and deliver a concussion education intervention across multiple time-points, and to use mixed-methods in its assessment. These findings may be of interest to researchers, practitioners and stakeholders in sport who are invested in making the sport environment safer through concussion education and awareness.

  10. Opuntia ficus indica's effect on heart-rate variability in high-level athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Laurent; Fouillot, Jean-Pierre; Nicolet, Gerard; Midol, Alain

    2008-04-01

    Opuntia ficus indica (OFI) has many physiological effects, but a relationship between OFI and heart-rate variability (HRV) has never been established. The aim of this study was to describe the effects of a diet supplement of OFI on HRV in athletes. The first day, heart rate (HR) was measured at rest in supine (SU) and standing (ST) positions to analyze HRV in 10 athletes, followed by a randomized assignment to an OFI (5) or placebo (5) group. The next day, the athletes repeated the HRV test. One month later the crossover protocol was applied. In OFI, the high-frequency-activity HF(SU) (1,773 +/- 2,927 vs. 5,856 +/- 8,326 ms(2), p < .05), HF(ST) (295 +/- 313 vs. 560 +/- 515 ms(2), p < .05), and low-frequency LF(SU) (1,621 +/- 1,795 vs. 6,029 +/- 9,007 ms(2), p < .01) increased. HR(SU) (66 +/- 13 vs. 57 +/- 11 beats/min, p < .01) and HR(ST) (87 +/- 11 vs. 76 +/- 9 beats/min, p < .01) decreased. A diet supplement of OFI increases HF and LF activities and decreases HR.

  11. Psychological skills training as a way to enhance an athlete's performance in high-intensity sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birrer, D; Morgan, G

    2010-10-01

    The importance of psychological skills training (PST) in the development of athletic performance is widely recognized. This paper is a comprehensive review of PST in elite sports, with a special focus on high-intensity sports (HIS). The reviewed literature showed a lack of convincing evidence and theoretical underpinning concerning traditional psychological skills to enhance performance in HIS. Therefore, a model with three conceptual levels (psychological demands, skills and techniques) is presented. The model facilitates the identification of the psychological demands of a specific sport, which in turn enables distinguishing which psychological skills are required. This allows an expert to choose psychological techniques to improve the athlete's psychological skill. Considerations based on our model and the limited HIS-related literature available revealed self-skills, personal development and life skills, arousal-regulation skills, volitional skills, motivational skills and recovery skills as the most important skills to address in order to enhance performance. Development of harmonious passion, in-practice integration of volitional strategies, use of associative attentional techniques, pain management techniques, use of the mindfulness-acceptance approach and the facilitative interpretation of cognitive and somatic sensations are regarded as suitable to meet the psychological demands of HIS. They are recommended for systematic application by athletes and coaches. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. Factors Associated With Concussion-like Symptom Reporting in High School Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Grant L.; Silverberg, Noah D.; Mannix, Rebekah; Maxwell, Bruce A.; Atkins, Joseph E.; Zafonte, Ross; Berkner, Paul D.

    2017-01-01

    Importance Every state in the United States has passed legislation for sport-related concussion, making this health issue important for physicians and other health care professionals. Safely returning athletes to sport after concussion relies on accurately determining when their symptoms resolve. Objective To evaluate baseline concussion-like symptom reporting in uninjured adolescent student athletes. Design, Setting, and Participants In this cross-sectional, observational study, we studied 31 958 high school athletes from Maine with no concussion in the past 6 months who completed a preseason baseline testing program between 2009 and 2013. Results Symptom reporting was more common in girls than boys. Most students with preexisting conditions reported one or more symptoms (60%-82% of boys and 73%-97% of girls). Nineteen percent of boys and 28% of girls reported having a symptom burden resembling an International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10) diagnosis of postconcussional syndrome (PCS). Students with preexisting conditions were even more likely to endorse a symptom burden that resembled PCS (21%-47% for boys and 33%-72% for girls). Prior treatment of a psychiatric condition was the strongest independent predictor for symptom reporting in boys, followed by a history of migraines. For girls, the strongest independent predictors were prior treatment of a psychiatric condition or substance abuse and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The weakest independent predictor of symptoms for both sexes was history of prior concussions. Conclusions and Relevance In the absence of a recent concussion, symptom reporting is related to sex and preexisting conditions. Consideration of sex and preexisting health conditions can help prevent misinterpretation of symptoms in student athletes who sustain a concussion. PMID:26457403

  13. International Olympic Committee consensus statement on thermoregulatory and altitude challenges for high-level athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, M F; Bahr, R; Bärtsch, P; Bourdon, L; Calbet, J A L; Carlsen, K H; Castagna, O; González-Alonso, J; Lundby, C; Maughan, R J; Millet, G; Mountjoy, M; Racinais, S; Rasmussen, P; Singh, D G; Subudhi, A W; Young, A J; Soligard, T; Engebretsen, L

    2012-09-01

    Challenging environmental conditions, including heat and humidity, cold, and altitude, pose particular risks to the health of Olympic and other high-level athletes. As a further commitment to athlete safety, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) Medical Commission convened a panel of experts to review the scientific evidence base, reach consensus, and underscore practical safety guidelines and new research priorities regarding the unique environmental challenges Olympic and other international-level athletes face. For non-aquatic events, external thermal load is dependent on ambient temperature, humidity, wind speed and solar radiation, while clothing and protective gear can measurably increase thermal strain and prompt premature fatigue. In swimmers, body heat loss is the direct result of convection at a rate that is proportional to the effective water velocity around the swimmer and the temperature difference between the skin and the water. Other cold exposure and conditions, such as during Alpine skiing, biathlon and other sliding sports, facilitate body heat transfer to the environment, potentially leading to hypothermia and/or frostbite; although metabolic heat production during these activities usually increases well above the rate of body heat loss, and protective clothing and limited exposure time in certain events reduces these clinical risks as well. Most athletic events are held at altitudes that pose little to no health risks; and training exposures are typically brief and well-tolerated. While these and other environment-related threats to performance and safety can be lessened or averted by implementing a variety of individual and event preventative measures, more research and evidence-based guidelines and recommendations are needed. In the mean time, the IOC Medical Commission and International Sport Federations have implemented new guidelines and taken additional steps to mitigate risk even further.

  14. Performance-Enhancing Drugs and the High School Athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franckowiak, Bonnie

    2015-07-01

    A performance-enhancing drug (PED) is any substance that is used to increase muscle mass, dull pain, reduce weight, or ease stress. The use of PEDs is a growing concern among adolescents, due in part to the pressures to perform, the influence of professional role models, and a general lack of education about the dangers of these substances. Use of performance enhancers has been identified in middle school as well as high school age students. This article details the school nurse's role in identifying youth who are using a PED, providing education for students and families, and referring for treatment if needed. Although PED use is not as prevalent as use of other illicit drugs, PEDs still pose a threat to adolescent physical and mental health. Discussion about PED use can open the door to discussion about use of other substances.

  15. Radiographic Evidence of Femoroacetabular Impingement in Athletes With Athletic Pubalgia

    OpenAIRE

    Economopoulos, Kostas J.; Milewski, Matthew D.; Hanks, John B.; Hart, Joseph M.; Diduch, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Two of the most common causes of groin pain in athletes are femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) and athletic pubalgia. An association between the 2 is apparent, but the prevalence of radiographic signs of FAI in patients undergoing athletic pubalgia surgery remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of radiologic signs of FAI in patients with athletic pubalgia. Hypothesis: We hypothesized that patients with athletic pubalgia would have a high prevale...

  16. Consumption of Sports and Energy Drinks by High School Athletes in the United States: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah K. Fields

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sports and energy (S/E drinks are commonly used by high school (HS athletes, yet little is known about this population’s consumption patterns or the drinks’ side-effects. The objectives of this pilot study were to survey HS athletes about their use of S/E drinks and assess potential side-effects. One hundred American HS athletes (72 were female; 27 were male; one did not identify gender were part of a cross-sectional internet-based survey. The mean age of the athletes was 16.0 ± 1.1 years. The athletes self-reported S/E consumption patterns, motivations for consumption, and drink side-effects. Nearly two-thirds (59.5% of athletes surveyed were at least occasional users of sports drinks, and more than one-third (37.3% were at least occasional users of energy drinks. Of the athletes who had ever drunk an S/E drink, 49.5% drank their first sport drink at ≤ 8 years and 41.3% consumed their first energy drink ≤ 11–12 years of age. The most common motivation for consumption of sports drinks was to rehydrate (84.1% and of energy drinks was to gain energy (61.8%. Side effects of S/E drinks were frequently reported; 25.3% of energy drink users reporting being nervous/jittery after consumption. Thus HS athletes should be cautioned about consumption of S/E drinks until more is understood about their short- and long-term side-effects.

  17. Effects of high dose coffee intake on aerobic power in dragon female athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Shabani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background : There are few studies that consider the effect of high doses of caffeine on aerobic power (VO2max. Also, to date, no study examined the effect of coffee intake on dragon boat paddler specifically on women. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of espresso coffee on improvement of aerobic power of dragon boat paddler. Material : Twenty women athletes of Guilan dragon bout team members of Malavan club of port city of Anzali (mean ±SD age, 23.60± 3.49 years; BMI,23.77±1.88kg/m2; body fat, 30.32±4.65% were recruited to this study, after they completed a primary test without consuming any coffee, they consumed 6mg/kg of coffee (espresso or decaffeinated and following that they completed two experimental trials. A randomized, double-blind, repeated-measures, design was employed whereby paddlers complete a 2000m paddling dragon boat ergo-meter. Results : Coffee could improve VO2max (Without coffee =74.40± QUOTE 4.99, Espresso coffee =90.10± QUOTE 6.19, Decaffeinated coffee =91.00± QUOTE 5.67, P≤ QUOTE 0.05. VO2max amount after exercise were significantly higher for both espresso coffee and decaffeinated coffee, when compared with without coffee condition. No significant differences were observed between espresso coffee and decaffeinated coffee (P≤ QUOTE 0.05. Conclusion : The present study shows that both high doses of caffeine (espresso coffee and decaffeinated coffee can enhance VO2max during aerobic exercise including 2000m dragon boat paddling. It seems that some compounds except caffeine in decaffeinated coffee can act improve VO2max. Further studies needed for considering the effect of high doses of coffee on endurance exercises. Also in other age ranges of women athletes and other sport athletes.

  18. Physical Exam Risk Factors for Lower Extremity Injury in High School Athletes: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onate, James A; Everhart, Joshua S; Clifton, Daniel R; Best, Thomas M; Borchers, James R; Chaudhari, Ajit M W

    2016-11-01

    A stated goal of the preparticipation physical evaluation (PPE) is to reduce musculoskeletal injury, yet the musculoskeletal portion of the PPE is reportedly of questionable use in assessing lower extremity injury risk in high school-aged athletes. The objectives of this study are: (1) identify clinical assessment tools demonstrated to effectively determine lower extremity injury risk in a prospective setting, and (2) critically assess the methodological quality of prospective lower extremity risk assessment studies that use these tools. A systematic search was performed in PubMed, CINAHL, UptoDate, Google Scholar, Cochrane Reviews, and SportDiscus. Inclusion criteria were prospective injury risk assessment studies involving athletes primarily ages 13 to 19 that used screening methods that did not require highly specialized equipment. Methodological quality was evaluated with a modified physiotherapy evidence database (PEDro) scale. Nine studies were included. The mean modified PEDro score was 6.0/10 (SD, 1.5). Multidirectional balance (odds ratio [OR], 3.0; CI, 1.5-6.1; P < 0.05) and physical maturation status (P < 0.05) were predictive of overall injury risk, knee hyperextension was predictive of anterior cruciate ligament injury (OR, 5.0; CI, 1.2-18.4; P < 0.05), hip external:internal rotator strength ratio of patellofemoral pain syndrome (P = 0.02), and foot posture index of ankle sprain (r = -0.339, P = 0.008). Minimal prospective evidence supports or refutes the use of the functional musculoskeletal exam portion of the current PPE to assess lower extremity injury risk in high school athletes. Limited evidence does support inclusion of multidirectional balance assessment and physical maturation status in a musculoskeletal exam as both are generalizable risk factors for lower extremity injury.

  19. Physical Exam Risk Factors for Lower Extremity Injury in High School Athletes: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onate, James A.; Everhart, Joshua S.; Clifton, Daniel R.; Best, Thomas M.; Borchers, James R.; Chaudhari, Ajit M.W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective A stated goal of the preparticipation physical evaluation (PPE) is to reduce musculoskeletal injury, yet the musculoskeletal portion of the PPE is reportedly of questionable use in assessing lower extremity injury risk in high school-aged athletes. The objectives of this study are: (1) identify clinical assessment tools demonstrated to effectively determine lower extremity injury risk in a prospective setting, and (2) critically assess the methodological quality of prospective lower extremity risk assessment studies that use these tools. Data Sources A systematic search was performed in PubMed, CINAHL, UptoDate, Google Scholar, Cochrane Reviews, and SportDiscus. Inclusion criteria were prospective injury risk assessment studies involving athletes primarily ages 13 to 19 that used screening methods that did not require highly specialized equipment. Methodological quality was evaluated with a modified physiotherapy evidence database (PEDro) scale. Main Results Nine studies were included. The mean modified PEDro score was 6.0/10 (SD, 1.5). Multidirectional balance (odds ratio [OR], 3.0; CI, 1.5–6.1; P anterior cruciate ligament injury (OR, 5.0; CI, 1.2–18.4; P < 0.05), hip external: internal rotator strength ratio of patellofemoral pain syndrome (P = 0.02), and foot posture index of ankle sprain (r = −0.339, P = 0.008). Conclusions Minimal prospective evidence supports or refutes the use of the functional musculoskeletal exam portion of the current PPE to assess lower extremity injury risk in high school athletes. Limited evidence does support inclusion of multidirectional balance assessment and physical maturation status in a musculoskeletal exam as both are generalizable risk factors for lower extremity injury. PMID:26978166

  20. High prevalence of asthma in Danish elite canoe- and kayak athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Svenningsen, Claus

    2012-01-01

    Asthma is common in elite athletes, but our knowledge of asthma in elite canoe and kayak athletes is limited. The aim of the present prospective cross-sectional study was therefore to investigate the prevalence of asthma, including asthma-like symptoms, exhaled nitric oxide, and airway reactivity...... to mannitol in Danish elite canoe and kayak athletes...

  1. Low-energy density and high fiber intake are dietary concerns in female endurance athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melin, Anna Katarina; Tornberg, Å B; Skouby, Sven O.

    2016-01-01

    of athletes with LEA and/or FHA. Endurance athletes (n = 45) were recruited from national teams and competitive clubs. Protocols included gynecological examination, body composition, eating disorder evaluation, and 7-day dietary intake and EA assessment. Athletes with disordered eating behavior/eating...

  2. Effects of Ankle Braces Upon Agility Course Performance in High School Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Beriau, Mark R.; Cox, William B.; Manning, James

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of wearing the AircastTM Sports Stirrup, AircastTM Training brace, Swede-OTM brace, and DonJoyTM Ankle Ligament Protector while running an agility course. Eighty-five high school athletes with no history of ankle injury and no experience in wearing any ankle support served as subjects. Each subject participated in four separate testing sessions. During sessions 1 and 4, subjects ran the agility course under the control (unbraced) conditions...

  3. Suture Button Fixation Treatment of Chronic Lisfranc Injury in Professional Dancers and High-Level Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Timothy; Boe, Chelsea; Thordarson, David B

    2015-12-01

    Chronic Lisfranc injury is a subtle and severe injury in high-level athletes, including dancers. This patient population is generally intolerant of intra-articular screw fixation and can develop significant post-traumatic arthritis with potentially career ending complications. Flexible fixation with suture-button devices provides potential restoration of physiologic motion at the joint, with appropriate support for healing that may facilitate return to en pointe activities for dancers. We hypothesized that the suture-button device would restore motion at the Lisfranc joint and allow for return to activities in this particular population without the limitations and complications of rigid fixation. We operated on seven dancers and high-level athletes with diagnosed Lisfranc injuries by installing a suture-button device. All patients had failed conservative management after late presentation. They were allowed to return to sport in 6 months, preoperative and postoperative American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Score (AOFAS) foot scores were obtained, and patients were followed for a minimum of 15 months. All seven returned to full activities in 6 months, with radiographic evidence of fixation and no complications to date. AOFAS foot scores improved from an average of 65 preoperatively to an average of 97 postoperatively at latest follow-up. It is concluded that flexible fixation with suture-button type device represents a viable alternative to screw fixation or fusion that may allow dancers and athletes to return to previous levels of activity after Lisfranc injury. This case series represents to our knowledge the first application of this device to a unique population that requires flexibility at the Lisfranc joint for performance.

  4. Psychology and socioculture affect injury risk, response, and recovery in high-intensity athletes: a consensus statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiese-Bjornstal, D M

    2010-10-01

    This consensus statement summarizes key contemporary research themes relevant to understanding the psychology and socioculture of sport injury. Special consideration is given toward high-intensity sport in which elite athlete training and performance efforts are characterized by explosive physical speed and strength, mental fortitude to push physical limits, and maximum effort and commitment to highly challenging goals associated with achieving exceptional performance. Sport injury occurrence in high-intensity sport is an adverse and stressful health event associated with a complex multitude of risks, consequences and outcomes. A biopsychosocial (Engel, 1980) view is advocated which contextualizes an understanding of the psychological aspects of sport injury in light of influential sociocultural, ethical, and biomedical issues. Outcomes related to athlete health and performance excellence are of equal importance in considering how psychological scholarship, expertise and services can be used to improve efforts focused on the prevention and management of sport injury among high-intensity athletes. The consensus view is that psychology and socioculture do affect sport injury risk, response and recovery in high-intensity athletes, and that continued efforts in psychological research and professional practice are needed to protect athlete physical and mental health and contribute toward performance excellence and career longevity.

  5. High Training Volumes are Associated with a Low Number of Self-Reported Sick Days in Elite Endurance Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Mårtensson, Kristina Nordebo, Christer Malm

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been proposed that high exercise loads increase the risk of infection, most frequently reported as upper respiratory tract infections, by suppressing the immune system. Most athletes will not train when experiencing sickness due to the fear of health complications. However, high training volumes are incompatible with high rates of non-training days, regardless of the cause. The purpose of this observational study was to examine the relationship between self-reported, exercise-constraining days of sickness (days when the athlete decided not to train due to symptoms of disease, either self-reported or by a physician and the volumes of exercise training in elite endurance athletes by analyzing data from training logs kept for several years. The subjects included 11 elite endurance athletes (8 male, 3 female competing at national and international levels in cross-country skiing, biathlon and long-distance running. Training logs available from these 11 subjects added to a total of 61 training years. The number of training hours per year (462, 79-856; median, range was significantly and negatively correlated to the reported number of days not training due to sickness (15, 0-164 by a 3rd degree polynomial regression (R2 = 0.48, F ratio = 18, p < 0.0001. We conclude that elite endurance athletes can achieve high training volumes only if they also experience few sick-days.

  6. Cardiac size of high-volume resistance trained female athletes: shaping the body but not the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venckunas, T; Simonavicius, J; Marcinkeviciene, J E

    2016-03-01

    Introduction Exercise training, besides many health benefits, may result in cardiac remodelling which is dependent on the type and amount of exercise performed. It is not clear, however, whether significant adaptation in cardiac structure is possible in females undergoing resistance type of exercise training. Rigorous high volume training of most muscle groups emphasising resistance exercises are being undertaken by athletes of some aesthetic sports such as female fitness (light bodybuilding). The impact of this type of training on cardiac adaptation has not been investigated until now. The aim of the current study was to disclose the effect of high volume resistance training on cardiac structure and function. Methods 11 top-level female fitness athletes and 20 sedentary age-matched controls were recruited to undergo two-dimensional echocardiography. Results Cardiac structure did not differ between elite female fitness athletes and controls (p > 0.05), and fitness athletes had a tendency for a smaller (p = 0.07) left ventricular (LV) mass indexed to lean body mass. Doppler diastolic function index (E/A ratio) and LV ejection fraction were similar between the groups (p > 0.05). Conclusions Elite female fitness athletes have normal cardiac size and function that do not differ from matched sedentary controls. Consequently, as high volume resistance training has no easily observable effect on adaptation of cardiac structure, when cardiac hypertrophy is present in young resistance-trained lean female, other reasons such as inherited cardiac disease are to be considered carefully.

  7. Fortuitous description of hemoglobin Hope in a high-level Tunisian athlete: molecular diagnosis and origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibi, Amina; Touhemi, Imed; Sahli, Chaima; Siala, Hajer; Bartagi, Zakia; Koubaa, Donia; Le Gallais, Daniel; Fattoum, Slaheddine; Messaoud, Taieb

    2012-01-01

    In this study we report the fortuitous description of hemoglobin (Hb) Hope in a Tunisian athlete. This Hb is one of hemoglobin variants that show a lower stability and oxygen affinity that is beneficial to tissue oxygen delivery. Hb Hope was isolated by automated high performance liquid chromatography and was unequivocally found to be Hb Hope using DNA-based methods: polymerase chain reaction, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, direct DNA sequencing. Restriction haplotype showed that this Hb was supported by the Mediterranean haplotype I. Hb Hope was identified at first in a black African-American family and later in several other black and non black ethnic groups. All these descriptions raise the question of the Hb Hope origin. Recently, Hb Hope was reported in Thai in association with the same Mediterranean haplotype I. This favors that Tunisian and Thai Hb Hope would share a common Mediterranean origin, thus suggesting the possibility of a Mediterranean gene flow. On another hand, the observation of Hb Hope in a high level athlete would suggest a selection pressure of this Hb variant due to higher physical aptitude.

  8. The Practice of Applying Chondroreparant "HYALREPAIR-02" Among Highly Skilled Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris A. Polyaev

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of knees traumatization among highly skilled athletes is depended on the specific movements in various sports and ranges from 20 to 50 %. The most critical situation has been in the martial arts – a combination of shock and throwing techniques, painful methods together with the intensity of exercise naturally leads to serious injuries and the development of degenerative changes directly in the joints and periarticular structures. The intra-articular injection of substances based on hyaluronic acid is concerned to be the most effective way in regenerative treatment of post-traumatic joint pathology. The clinical testing of the original methods of application of the new means "HYALREPAIR-02 Chondroreparant" is carried out on the basis of solid-phase-modified hyaluronic acid in combination with amino acids among high skilled athletes with post-traumatic gonarthrosis. The results of dynamic experience showed that the drug is well tolerated and doesn`t cause local and systemic adverse reactions and complications. The achieved positive effects (the relief of pain, the increase of mobility and improving of the support function on the affected side are persistent.

  9. Aerobic Fitness for Young Athletes: Combining Game-based and High-intensity Interval Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, C B; Kinugasa, T; Gill, N; Kilding, A E

    2015-11-01

    This study compared the effect of game-based training (GT) vs. a mix of game-based training and high-intensity interval training (MT) on physical performance characteristics. 26 young athletes (13.9±0.3 years) were assigned to either GT (n=13) or MT (n=13) for 6 weeks. Game-based training consisted of 2×8-11 min 3 vs. 3 'bucketball' SSGs separated by 3 min of passive rest twice per week, while MT consisted of one SSGs session and one high-intensity session of 15 s runs at 90-95% of the speed reached at the end of the 30-15 intermittent fitness test (VIFT) interspersed with 15 s passive recovery. Peak oxygen uptake (V˙ O2peak), VIFT, jump height, and speed were assessed pre- and post-training. Following training, V˙ O2peak (5.5±3.3%; ES=large) improved after MT, whereas VIFT improved after MT (6.6±3.2%; ES, large) and GT (4.2±5.5%, ES=small). 5-m sprint improved after GT (ES=small), while 20 m sprint and jump height were unchanged. In conclusion, while MT and GT were both effective at increasing performance parameters, greater effects were seen following MT. Therefore, MT should be considered as the preferred training method for improving aerobic power in young athletes.

  10. Manga High: Literacy, Identity, and Coming of Age in an Urban High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitz, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Based on a four-year study, "Manga High" explores the convergence of literacy, creativity, social development, and personal identity in one of New York City's largest high schools. Since 2004, students at Martin Luther King, Jr., High School in Manhattan have been creating manga--Japanese comic books. They write the stories, design the…

  11. Manga High: Literacy, Identity, and Coming of Age in an Urban High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitz, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Based on a four-year study, "Manga High" explores the convergence of literacy, creativity, social development, and personal identity in one of New York City's largest high schools. Since 2004, students at Martin Luther King, Jr., High School in Manhattan have been creating manga--Japanese comic books. They write the stories, design the…

  12. Manga High: Literacy, Identity, and Coming of Age in an Urban High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitz, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Based on a four-year study, "Manga High" explores the convergence of literacy, creativity, social development, and personal identity in one of New York City's largest high schools. Since 2004, students at Martin Luther King, Jr., High School in Manhattan have been creating manga--Japanese comic books. They write the stories, design the characters,…

  13. Emergency preparedness in high school-based athletics: a review of the literature and recommendations for sport health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olympia, Robert P; Brady, Jodi

    2013-05-01

    Approximately 7.6 million high school students in the United States participate in sports. Although most sport-related injuries in adolescents are considered minor emergencies, life-threatening illnesses or injuries may occur, such as sudden cardiac arrest, heat stroke, status asthmaticus and exercise-induced asthma, catastrophic brain injuries, cervical spine injuries, heat- and cold-related illness, blunt chest/abdominal injuries, and extremity fractures resulting in compartment syndrome. Emergency preparedness in athletics involves the identification of and planning for medical services to promote the safety of the athlete, to limit injury, and to provide medical care at the site of practice or competition. Several national organizations have published guidelines for emergency preparedness in school-based athletics. Our article reviews guidelines for emergency preparedness put forth by the Sideline Preparedness collaboration (comprised of 6 major professional associations, including the American Academy of Family Physicians, American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons, American College of Sports Medicine, American Medical Society for Sports Medicine, American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine, and American Osteopathic Academy of Sports Medicine), the National Athletic Trainers' Association, the American Academy of Pediatrics' Committee on School Health, and the American Heart Association. Additionally, we review published data examining compliance of US high schools with these recommendations for emergency preparedness in school-based athletics, determine deficiencies, and provide recommendations for improvement based on these deficiencies.

  14. Subsidiary means of mobilization type use for special working capacity rising of high qualified athletes during competition terms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lysenko O.M.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Possibility of special capacity increase for high qualified athletes is shown in the competition conditions by the pre-start complex of subsidiary means influences. The high qualified athlete took part in experiment (at run on 110 m hurdles. It is set that under influence of the pre-start complex is activating of ergotropyc mechanisms of adjusting, increase the intensity of power and metabolic processes is marked, emotional stress is diminishing. The developed pre - start complex of subsidiary means influences is caused by the effect of the protractedly saved mobilization, that is promote the increase of speed running.

  15. Thalamo-Sensorimotor Functional Connectivity Correlates with World Ranking of Olympic, Elite, and High Performance Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zirui Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain plasticity studies have shown functional reorganization in participants with outstanding motor expertise. Little is known about neural plasticity associated with exceptionally long motor training or of its predictive value for motor performance excellence. The present study utilised resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI in a unique sample of world-class athletes: Olympic, elite, and internationally ranked swimmers (n=30. Their world ranking ranged from 1st to 250th: each had prepared for participation in the Olympic Games. Combining rs-fMRI graph-theoretical and seed-based functional connectivity analyses, it was discovered that the thalamus has its strongest connections with the sensorimotor network in elite swimmers with the highest world rankings (career best rank: 1–35. Strikingly, thalamo-sensorimotor functional connections were highly correlated with the swimmers’ motor performance excellence, that is, accounting for 41% of the individual variance in best world ranking. Our findings shed light on neural correlates of long-term athletic performance involving thalamo-sensorimotor functional circuits.

  16. Validity of the BOD POD for assessing body composition in athletic high school boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jordan R; Tobkin, Sarah E; Costa, Pablo B; Smalls, Marcus; Mieding, William K; O'Kroy, Joseph A; Zoeller, Robert F; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate the percentage of body fat (%BF) values estimated from the BOD POD (BP) with those obtained from hydrostatic weighing (HW) in athletic American high school boys. Additionally, the %BF values measured via near-infrared interactance (NIR), bioelectrical impedance (BIA), and skinfold (SF) were compared to HW to determine the validity of these measures. Thirty white boys (mean age +/- SD = 15.8 +/- 1.0 years) who where currently participating in organized sports volunteered to have their %BF estimated. Measurements were obtained from NIR, BP, BIA, and SF in random order and concluded with HW. The findings from the present study indicated that the NIR and BIA instruments produced significant (P 4.0%BF). The BP produced a significantly (P 0.008) and had the lowest TE values compared to HW. These data suggest that the BP can produce acceptable body fat measures for athletic white boys but is not superior to estimates made by the SF equations used in this study.

  17. Hamstrings functional properties in athletes with high musculo-skeletal flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moltubakk, M M; Eriksrud, O; Paulsen, G; Seynnes, O R; Bojsen-Møller, J

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether athletes with highly flexible hamstring muscle-tendon units display different passive and contractile mechanical properties compared with controls. Flexibility, passive, and active torque-angle properties were assessed in 21 female elite rhythmic gymnasts and 16 female age-matched athletes. Passive resistance to stretch was measured during knee extension with the hip fixed at 100° of flexion. Concentric isokinetic maximal voluntary knee flexion and extension torques were measured at 60°/s in the same position. Tests of flexibility and passive resistance to stretch indicated a greater flexibility in the gymnasts. Despite no differences between groups in knee flexion and extension peak torque, gymnasts reached knee flexion peak torque at more extended positions (longer muscle lengths) and displayed significantly different torque-angle relations. When active torque was corrected for passive resistance to stretch, differences increased, gymnasts producing more work, and maintaining ≥ 70% of peak torque over a larger range of joint excursion. In conclusion, individuals with a higher flexibility of the hamstrings MTU present a different torque-angle profile, favoring the production of flexion torque toward extended knee positions, displaying larger functional range of motion and a higher mechanical work output during knee flexion. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. This is your brain on sports. Measuring concussions in high school athletes in the Twin Cities metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Sarah; Seymour, Leslie; Roesler, Jon; Glover, Lori; Kinde, Mark

    2014-09-01

    Concussions can have a negative impact on students' ability to perform in the classroom as well as on their health and well-being. Therefore, timely treatment is especially important. To better understand the scope of the problem in Minnesota, the Minnesota Department of Health piloted an online sports-related concussion reporting system in 36 public high schools in the Twin Cities metropolitan area. In the 2013-2014 academic year, 730 concussions were reported to our system from certified athletic trainers working with those schools, with one out of every 100 athletes sustaining concussions. From this, we estimated that 2,974 sports-related concussions occurred among high school athletes statewide. This information is useful for evaluating and guiding prevention efforts and for informing clinicians on how to treat concussions.

  19. Doping Attitudes and Covariates of Potential Doping Behaviour in High-Level Team-Sport Athletes; Gender Specific Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekulic, Damir; Tahiraj, Enver; Zvan, Milan; Zenic, Natasa; Uljevic, Ognjen; Lesnik, Blaz

    2016-01-01

    Team sports are rarely studied with regard to doping behaviour and doping-related factors regardless of their global popularity. This study aimed to investigate doping factors and covariates of potential doping behaviour in high-level team-sport athletes. The subjects were 457 high-performing, national- and international-level athletes (21.9 ± 3.4 years of age; 179 females) involved in volleyball (n = 77), soccer (n = 163), basketball (n = 114) and handball (n = 103). Previously validated self-administered questionnaires aimed at evidencing sport factors, doping-related factors, knowledge on sport nutrition and doping, and attitudes to performance enhancement were used. The results indicated a higher doping likelihood in male athletes, with a significant gender difference for basketball and handball. In males, a higher doping likelihood is found for athletes who had achieved better results at junior-age level, those who regularly consume dietary supplements, and who perceive their sport as being contaminated by doping. A higher sport achievement at senior-age level is protective against potential doping behaviour in males. In females, a higher likelihood of doping is evidenced in those athletes involved in binge drinking, while a lower tendency for doping is evidenced in female athletes who possess better knowledge on sport nutrition. Knowledge about doping is very low and thus education about doping is urgently needed. An improvement of knowledge on sport nutrition might be a potentially effective method for reducing the tendency for doping in females. Future studies should consider other approaches and theories, such as theory of planned behaviour and/or social-cognitive theory, in studying the problem of doping behaviour in team-sports. Key points The doping knowledge among Kosovar team-sport athletes is very low and systematic anti-doping education is urgently needed. The highest risk of doping behaviour in males is found for those athletes who had been

  20. Association of Competition Volume, Club Sports, and Sport Specialization With Sex and Lower Extremity Injury History in High School Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Eric G; Bell, David R; Trigsted, Stephanie M; Pfaller, Adam Y; Hetzel, Scott J; Brooks, M Alison; McGuine, Timothy A

    2017-06-01

    High school athletes are increasingly encouraged to participate in 1 sport year-round to increase their sport skills. However, no study has examined the association of competition volume, club sport participation, and sport specialization with sex and lower extremity injury (LEI) in a large sample of high school athletes. Increased competition volume, participating on a club team outside of school sports, and high levels of specialization will all be associated with a history of LEI. Girls will be more likely to engage in higher competition volume, participate on a club team, and be classified as highly specialized. Cross-sectional study. Level 3. High school athletes completed a questionnaire prior to the start of their competitive season regarding their sport participation and previous injury history. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to investigate associations of competition volume, club sport participation, and sport specialization with history of LEI, adjusting for sex. A cohort of 1544 high school athletes (780 girls; grades 9-12) from 29 high schools completed the questionnaire. Girls were more likely to participate at high competition volume (23.2% vs 11.0%, χ(2) = 84.7, P sport, or who were highly specialized had greater odds of reporting a previous LEI than those with low competition volume (odds ratio [OR], 2.08; 95% CI, 1.55-2.80; P sport participation (OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.20-1.88; P sport volume, on a club team, or being highly specialized was associated with history of LEI. Girls were more likely to participate at high volumes, be active on club teams, or be highly specialized, potentially placing them at increased risk of injury. Youth athletes, parents, and clinicians should be aware of the potential risks of intense, year-round participation in organized sports.

  1. Arthroscopic double-row anterior stabilization and bankart repair for the "high-risk" athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Cathal J; Fabricant, Peter D; Kang, Richard; Cordasco, Frank A

    2014-02-01

    In addition to operative intervention for the patient with recurrent shoulder instability, current literature suggests that younger athletic patients unwilling to modify their activities may benefit from an early surgical shoulder stabilization procedure. Although open shoulder stabilization clearly has a role to play in some cases, we believe that further optimization of arthroscopic fixation techniques may allow us to continue to refine the indications for open stabilization. In particular, when an arthroscopic approach is used for capsulolabral repair in relatively high-risk groups, it may be beneficial to use a double-row repair technique. We describe our technique for shoulder stabilization through double-row capsulolabral repair of a soft-tissue Bankart lesion in the high-risk patient with shoulder instability or the patient with a small osseous Bankart lesion.

  2. Arthroscopic Double-Row Anterior Stabilization and Bankart Repair for the “High-Risk” Athlete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Cathal J.; Fabricant, Peter D.; Kang, Richard; Cordasco, Frank A.

    2014-01-01

    In addition to operative intervention for the patient with recurrent shoulder instability, current literature suggests that younger athletic patients unwilling to modify their activities may benefit from an early surgical shoulder stabilization procedure. Although open shoulder stabilization clearly has a role to play in some cases, we believe that further optimization of arthroscopic fixation techniques may allow us to continue to refine the indications for open stabilization. In particular, when an arthroscopic approach is used for capsulolabral repair in relatively high-risk groups, it may be beneficial to use a double-row repair technique. We describe our technique for shoulder stabilization through double-row capsulolabral repair of a soft-tissue Bankart lesion in the high-risk patient with shoulder instability or the patient with a small osseous Bankart lesion. PMID:24749044

  3. Hormonal and Physiological Adaptations to High-Intensity Interval Training in Professional Male Canoe Polo Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheykhlouvand, Mohsen; Khalili, Erfan; Agha-Alinejad, Hamid; Gharaat, Mohammadali

    2016-03-01

    This study compared the effects of 2 different high-intensity interval training (HIIT) programs in professional male canoe polo athletes. Responses of peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), ventilatory threshold (VT), peak and mean anaerobic power output (PPO and MPO), blood volume, and hormonal adaptations to HIIT were examined. Male athletes (n = 21, age: 24 ± 3 years; height: 181 ± 4 cm; mass: 85 ± 6 kg; and body fat: 12.9 ± 2.7%) were randomly assigned to one of 3 groups (N = 7): (a) (G1) interval paddling with variable volume (6, 7, 8, 9, 9, 9, 8, 7, 6 repetitions per session from first to ninth session, respectively) × 60 second at lowest velocity that elicited VO2peak (vVO2peak), 1:3 work to recovery ratio; (b) (G2) interval paddling with variable intensity (6 × 60 second at 100, 110, 120, 130, 130, 130, 120, 110, 100% vVO2peak from first to ninth session, respectively, 1:3 work to recovery); and (c) (GCON) the control group performed three 60 minutes paddling sessions (75% vVO2peak) per week for 3 weeks. High-intensity interval training resulted in significant (except as shown) increases compared with pretest, in VO2peak (G1 = +8.8% and G2 = +8.5%), heart rate at VT (b·min) (G1 = +9.7% and G2 = +5.9%) and (%maximum) (G1 = +6.9%; p = 0.29 and G2 = +6.5%), PPO (G1 = +9.7% and G2 = +12.2%), MPO (G1 = +11.1%; p = 0.29 and G2 = +16.2%), total testosterone (G1 = +29.4% and G2 = +16.7%), total testosterone/cortisol ratio (G1 = +40.9% and G2 = +28.1%), and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (G1 = +1.7% and G2 = +1.3%). No significant changes were found in GCON. High-intensity interval paddling may improve both aerobic and anaerobic performances in professional male canoe polo athletes under the conditions of this study.

  4. Tillage practices and identity formation in High Plains farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Katherine; Arnould, Eric; Press, Melea

    2014-01-01

    landscape. Specifically, they compare conservation tillage wedded to ‘modern’ ideologies of scientific farming with conventional tillage newly linked to beliefs about both organic and traditional farming, and examine how farmers use these different forms of tillage to create their identities. Roadside...... farming, recognition and denunciation of other farmers’ practices, and recognition and justification of their own contribute to identity formation. This research contributes to the ongoing discussion of how identity is formed through day-to-day activities in the material world. The plow creates divisions...

  5. Effects of a school-based relaxation intervention on recovery in young elite athletes in high school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wikman, Johan Michael; Ryom, Knud; Stelter, Reinhard;

    2016-01-01

    This study reports the effects of a recovery intervention in young elite athletes in high school. The scissors model (Kellmann & Kallus, 2001) was used as a theoretical foundation for the intervention. An intervention group (n = 40) participated in 12 weekly intervention sessions, while the control...... group (n = 58) did not. A Danish version of the Recovery-Stress Questionnaire for Athletes measured recovery levels in the participants, at baseline and at the end of intervention. Qualitative interviews were conducted with four of the participants. Quantitative results did not show an improvement...

  6. Doping Attitudes and Covariates of Potential Doping Behaviour in High-Level Team-Sport Athletes; Gender Specific Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Sekulic, Enver Tahiraj, Milan Zvan, Natasa Zenic, Ognjen Uljevic, Blaz Lesnik

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Team sports are rarely studied with regard to doping behaviour and doping-related factors regardless of their global popularity. This study aimed to investigate doping factors and covariates of potential doping behaviour in high-level team-sport athletes. The subjects were 457 high-performing, national- and international-level athletes (21.9 ± 3.4 years of age; 179 females involved in volleyball (n = 77, soccer (n = 163, basketball (n = 114 and handball (n = 103. Previously validated self-administered questionnaires aimed at evidencing sport factors, doping-related factors, knowledge on sport nutrition and doping, and attitudes to performance enhancement were used. The results indicated a higher doping likelihood in male athletes, with a significant gender difference for basketball and handball. In males, a higher doping likelihood is found for athletes who had achieved better results at junior-age level, those who regularly consume dietary supplements, and who perceive their sport as being contaminated by doping. A higher sport achievement at senior-age level is protective against potential doping behaviour in males. In females, a higher likelihood of doping is evidenced in those athletes involved in binge drinking, while a lower tendency for doping is evidenced in female athletes who possess better knowledge on sport nutrition. Knowledge about doping is very low and thus education about doping is urgently needed. An improvement of knowledge on sport nutrition might be a potentially effective method for reducing the tendency for doping in females. Future studies should consider other approaches and theories, such as theory of planned behaviour and/or social-cognitive theory, in studying the problem of doping behaviour in team-sports.

  7. Anthropometric Characteristics and Performance Capabilities of Highly Trained Motocross Athletes Compared With Physically Active Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Christopher W; Brown, Ann F; Kinsey, Amber W; Ormsbee, Michael J

    2015-12-01

    Motocross (MX) is a physically demanding sport with little research concerning the physiological characteristics of these athletes. The purpose of this study was to assess the anthropometric characteristics and performance capabilities of highly trained MX athletes (n = 20; 19 ± 1.6 years) compared with age-matched physically active (PA) men (n = 22; 22 ± 2.9 years). Testing was performed on 2 occasions. The initial visit consisted of a personality assessment in addition to the following (in order): anthropometrics, body composition, anaerobic power/fatigue, isokinetic/isometric strength and fatigue, and flexibility. The second visit consisted of peak oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak), handgrip strength, maximum push-ups in 1 minute, extended arm hang time to exhaustion (TTE), and 90° weighted wall-sit tests. All anthropometric and performance data were analyzed using independent samples t-tests to compare group means. Significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. Data are reported as mean ± SD. There were no significant differences between groups in anthropometric or body composition measurements except android fat (MX: 11.7 ± 1.9% vs. PA: 16.4 ± 8.4%, p = 0.04) and biceps circumference (MX: 30.1 ± 2.0 vs. PA: 33.1 ± 3.2 cm, p = 0.001). MX had significantly higher absolute and relative mean anaerobic power (747.3 ± 63.7 vs. 679.7 ± 93.5 W, p = 0.009 and 10.0 ± 0.6 vs. 9.2 ± 1.3 W·kg, p = 0.002, respectively), relative anaerobic peak power (12.7 ± 0.8 vs. 11.9 ± 1.4 W·kg, p = 0.029), TTE (550.1 ± 70.6 vs. 470.1 ± 93.2 seconds, p = 0.004), and extended arm hang duration (113.3 ± 44.9 vs. 73.4 ± 25.3 seconds, p = 0.001). These results suggest highly trained MX athletes possess certain physiological adaptations that likely result from sport-specific demands compared with PA.

  8. Vegetarian athletes: Special requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Ongan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vegetarian diets have been mentioned on having long and short term beneficial effects while they are important parts of the Western countries. Vegetarians are not homogeneous groups and subjects are motivated to be on a vegetarian diet because of culturel and regional reasons, ethical concerns including animal rights, health parameters and environmental situations. And these reasons differ from vegetarian and omnivour athletes. Athletes, especially endurance ones (sprinters, cyclists, triathlon athletes, …, eat vegetarian diets in order to meet increasing requirements of carbohydrate and manage their weight status. A healthily well planned vegetarian diet positively affect some parameters related with performance of the athlete. However in a diet based on vegetable, herbs and high fiber, inadequate energy intake should be avoided. Although many vegetarian athletes are warned about consuming high amounts of protein, athletes take less protein than omnivour ones. Therefore, vegetarians should increase dietary protein quality by mixing different foods such as legumes and cereals. Vegetarian athletes who avoid eating animal based foods are at risk of having inadequate energy, fat (essential fatty acids, vitamins B12, B2, D and calcium, iron and zinc. In this review, contribution of vegetarian diets on purpose of healthy eating and optimal athletic performance and nutritional strategies for vegetarian athletes were discussed.

  9. Effects of a school-based relaxation intervention on recovery in young elite athletes in high school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wikman, Johan Michael; Ryom, Knud; Stelter, Reinhard;

    2016-01-01

    This study reports the effects of a recovery intervention in young elite athletes in high school. The scissors model (Kellmann & Kallus, 2001) was used as a theoretical foundation for the intervention. An intervention group (n = 40) participated in 12 weekly intervention sessions, while the contr...

  10. Identity's identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim Ebensgaard

    in Academic English and more everyday-based English, identity as a lexeme is definitely worth having a look at. This paper presents a lexicological study of identity in which some of its senses are identified and their behaviors in actual discourse are observed. Drawing on data from the 2011 section...... of the Corpus of Contemporary American English, a behavioral profile of the distributional characteristics of identity is set up. Behavioral profiling is a lexicographical method developed by the corpus linguist Stefan Th. Gries which, by applying semantic ID tagging and statistical analysis, provides a fine......-grained insight into the semantic affinities of one or more lexemes. The main premise is that the semantic properties of a linguistic unit are reflected in its distributional characteristics, and, thus, by observing association patterns of a lexeme we can gain useful insights into its semantic affinities. Thus...

  11. Sports Bounce GPAs: The Relationship between Athletic Involvement and Academic Performance in High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filsinger, Lora C.

    2012-01-01

    As schools and school districts continue to face budget reductions, school officials must thoroughly evaluate and determine from which programs to decrease funding. Athletic programs are one area that has received much scrutiny for receiving these cuts. If research reveals a significant relationship between athletic involvement and academic…

  12. Anthropometric features and body composition of young athletes practicing karate at a high and medium competitive level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampietro, M; Pujia, A; Bertini, I

    2003-10-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the anthropometric features and body composition of athletes practising karate at a high and medium competitive level. Our study was carried out on a sample of 35 subjects practising karate and aged from 16.0 to 32.5 years. This sample was divided into two groups: group 1 ( n=14 elite athletes) and group 2 ( n=21 amateur athletes). Various anthropometric measurements were taken (weight, height both standing and sitting, diameters, circumferences and skinfold thickness) from which different anthropometric indices were calculated (body mass index, Scelic and Grant indices, arm muscle circumference and area), and the somatotype was then determined. The body composition of each subject was assessed using the skinfold technique and the Jackson-Pollock (J-P) and Sloan-Weir (S-W) equations. The two groups of athletes showed very similar measurements regarding anthropometric characteristics. Only the Scelix index presented a significantly different value in the two groups (49.6+/-1.3 for group 1 vs. 51.1+/-1.3 for group 2; psomatotype, while the amateur athletes presented a balanced mesomorphic type. Moreover, a lower percentage of fat mass was more frequent in the first group (J-P=8.1+/-2.4%; S-W=8.9+/-3.3%) than in the second one (J-P=9.8+/-1.6%; S-W=11.2+/-3.7%), although the differences between the two groups were not significant. We conclude that group 1 is characterized by a slightly prominent vertical development of the skeletal frame. This could be an anthropometric characteristic that is best suited to meet the specific functional requirements of this sport. Moreover, both groups of athletes are characterized by a low percentage of fat mass, particularly the elite group.

  13. Predictors of Collegiate Student-Athletes' Susceptibility to Stereotype Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltz, Deborah L.; Schneider, Richard; Hwang, Seunghyun; Skogsberg, Nikolaus J.

    2013-01-01

    The present investigation sought to determine the extent to which collegiate student-athletes are susceptible to stereotype threat and the factors that predict it. We proposed a structural equation model (SEM) by which a perceived coach's positive regard for an athlete's academic ability, athletic identity, and academic identity predicts the…

  14. Predictors of Collegiate Student-Athletes' Susceptibility to Stereotype Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltz, Deborah L.; Schneider, Richard; Hwang, Seunghyun; Skogsberg, Nikolaus J.

    2013-01-01

    The present investigation sought to determine the extent to which collegiate student-athletes are susceptible to stereotype threat and the factors that predict it. We proposed a structural equation model (SEM) by which a perceived coach's positive regard for an athlete's academic ability, athletic identity, and academic identity predicts the…

  15. Athletic Recruitment in Wisconsin Public and Non-Public High Schools: The Effect of Inter-District Open Enrollment and outside the Geographic Area on Varsity Basketball Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refsland, Randall G.

    2009-01-01

    The Wisconsin Interscholastic Athletic Association is the governing body for high school athletics in the State of Wisconsin. For some time they have been concerned with the growing perception that there is recruitment occurring in varsity basketball within its member schools. The purpose of this mixed methods study was to determine what, if any,…

  16. The CFE v. MHSAA Decision: A Case Study of Gender Equity in High School Athletic Scheduling and Policy Ramifications for the WIAA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardo, David B.

    2010-01-01

    The Communities For Equity was a group of Michigan mothers who filed a Title IX discrimination suit against the Michigan High School Athletic Association due to its athletic scheduling practices. The 10-year court battle went all the way to the U.S. Supreme Court. This case study reviewed the policy decisions of the Wisconsin Interscholastic…

  17. The Construction of Black High-Achiever Identities in a Predominantly White High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Dorinda J. Carter

    2009-01-01

    In this article, I examine how black students construct their racial and achievement self-concepts in a predominantly white high school to enact a black achiever identity. By listening to these students talk about the importance of race and achievement to their lives, I came to understand how racialized the task of achieving was for them even…

  18. Effects of ankle braces upon agility course performance in high school athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beriau, M R; Cox, W B; Manning, J

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of wearing the Aircast(TM) Sports Stirrup, Aircast(TM) Training brace, Swede-O(TM) brace, and DonJoy(TM) Ankle Ligament Protector while running an agility course. Eighty-five high school athletes with no history of ankle injury and no experience in wearing any ankle support served as subjects. Each subject participated in four separate testing sessions. During sessions 1 and 4, subjects ran the agility course under the control (unbraced) conditions. Sessions 2 and 3 consisted of randomly wearing the ankle braces while running the agility course. A questionnaire concerning support, comfort, and restriction was completed by each subject after wearing each of the braces. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures revealed that a significant difference existed between the agility times. Tukey's post hoc test indicated that a significant difference existed between each ankle brace and the control 2 agility times as well as a control 1 and control 2 time difference. The control time difference was attributed to a learning effect. An ANOVA with repeated measures of only the four braces revealed that a significant difference existed between the agility times. Tukey's post hoc test showed the only difference was between the DonJoy Ankle Ligament Protector and the Aircast Training brace. We concluded: 1) there is limited practical performance effect upon agility while wearing an ankle brace; and 2) an athlete's perceived comfort, support, and performance restriction are contributing factors that may directly influence the effectiveness of ankle bracing.

  19. Psycho-social factors determining success in high-performance triathlon: compared perception in the coach-athlete pair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Tendero, Germán; Salinero Martín, Juan José

    2012-12-01

    High-level sport can be analyzed using the complex system model, in which performance is constrained by many factors. Coaches' and athletes' perceptions of important positive and negative factors affecting performance were compared. Participants were 48 high-level international triathletes (n = 34) and their coaches (n = 14). They were personally interviewed via a questionnaire designed by four accredited experts, who selected groups of both positive and negative factors affecting performance. A list of factors was developed, in order of greater to lesser importance in the opinion of athletes and coaches, for subsequent analysis. Two ranked lists (positive and negative factors) indicated that athletes appear to rate personal environment factors (family, teammates, lack of support from relatives) higher, while the coaches tended to give more importance to technical and institutional aspects (institutional support, coach, medical support). There was complete agreement between coaches and triathletes about the top five positive factors. Negative factor agreement was somewhat lower (agreement on 3/5 factors). The most important positive factor for coaches and athletes was "dedication/engagement," while the most important factor adversely affecting performance was "injuries".

  20. Mouthguard BITES (behavior, impulsivity, theory evaluation study): what drives mouthguard use among high school basketball and baseball/softball athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Christy L; McKenzie, Lara B; Roberts, Kristin J; Fields, Sarah K; Comstock, R Dawn

    2015-10-01

    Although mouthguards are effective, inexpensive, easy to use, and readily available, this form of protective equipment has been underutilized. "Impulsive delay discounting" (an index of impulsive behavior) among high school athletes may help explain their decision making regarding use of protective equipment such as mouthguards. We investigated the relationship between high school baseball, softball, and basketball players' mouthguard use, impulsive delay discounting, and the precaution adoption process model (a behavior change theory). A convenience sample of boys' and girls' basketball and baseball/softball players at 21 high schools in the Greater Columbus, Ohio, metro area completed a self-administered survey that captured their demographic information, knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding mouthguard use, impulsive delay discounting, and precaution adoption process model stage. We surveyed a total of 1636 students (55.9 % male, 43.8 % female, 0.3 % unknown). Only 12.3 % reported using a mouthguard either every time or sometimes during practice or competition. The primary reasons reported for not wearing mouthguards were they were not required to (65.3 %) and that the athletes could not breathe or talk while wearing one (61.5 %). These reasons were consistent across sex and sport. Most athletes reported that their coaches (87.3 %) and parents (64.5 %) had never talked to them about wearing a mouthguard. Lower precaution adoption process model stage was significantly associated with higher impulsivity (p baseball/softball remains low despite the risk of dental injury in these sports. Effective, evidence-based, targeted, and tailored interventions to improve adolescent athletes' use of mouthguards to prevent sports-related dental injuries should be based on the specific behavioral and social factors influencing each athlete's decision making regarding use of mouthguards.

  1. Sport and Sex-Specific Reporting Trends in the Epidemiology of Concussions Sustained by High School Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schallmo, Michael S; Weiner, Joseph A; Hsu, Wellington K

    2017-08-02

    Approximately 300,000 U.S. adolescents sustain concussions annually while participating in organized athletics. This study aimed to track sex and sport-specific trends among high school sports-related concussions over time, to identify whether a particular sport predisposes athletes to a higher risk, and to assess whether traumatic brain injury law enactments have been successful in improving recognition. Injury data for academic years 2005 to 2014 were collected from annual reports generated by High School RIO (Reporting Information Online). The relative proportions of total estimated concussions to total estimated injuries were compared using an injury proportion ratio. The concussion rate was defined as the number of concussions per 10,000 athlete exposures (1 athlete participating in 1 practice or competition), with rates compared using a rate ratio. To evaluate the impact of legislation on sports-related concussions in this population, trends in concussion rates and proportions were analyzed before enactment (academic years 2005-2009) and after enactment (academic years 2010-2014). Between 2005-2006 and 2014-2015, a significant increase (p concussions for all sports combined, the overall concussion rate (rate ratio, 2.30 [95% confidence interval, 2.04 to 2.59]), and the overall proportion of concussions (injury proportion ratio, 2.68 [95% confidence interval, 2.66 to 2.70]) was seen. Based on the injury proportion ratio, during the 2014-2015 academic year, concussions were more common in girls' soccer than in any other sport (p concussions during the past decade could have been affected by traumatic brain injury legislation. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show that girls' soccer players may have an even greater risk of sustaining a concussion than all other sports. Sports-related concussions in adolescent athletes can have devastating consequences, and we now know that female athletes, especially girls' soccer players, may be at an even greater

  2. Joint Cooling does not Hinder Athletic Performance during High-intensity Intermittent Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H; Lee, D; Choi, H-M; Park, J

    2016-07-01

    We examined the effects of ankle and knee joint cooling on 20-m sprint times and maximal vertical jump heights during high-intensity intermittent exercise. 21 healthy collegiate male basketball (n=14) and handball players (n=7) underwent 3 experimental sessions. Each session consisted of four 15-min quarters of high-intensity intermittent exercises including various intensities of 20-m shuttle running and jumping. A 20-min bilateral joint cooling (ankle, knee, or control-no cooling: in a counterbalanced order) was applied before quarters 1 and 3. After joint cooling, no warm-up activity other than the exercise protocol was given. The 20-m sprint times and maximal vertical jump heights in each experimental session were recorded at baseline (prior to quarter-1) and during each quarter. To test joint cooling effects over time, we performed 3×5 mixed model ANOVAs. Neither ankle nor knee joint cooling changed 20-m sprint times (F8,280=1.45; p=0.18) or maximal vertical jump heights (F8,280=0.76; p=0.64). However, a trend was observed in which joint cooling immediately decreased (quarters 1 and 3) but active warm-up for approximately 20 min improved 20-min sprint times (quarters 2 and 4). Our study suggests that athletic performance such as sprinting and jumping are not altered by joint cooling applied prior to or during high-intensity intermittent exercise.

  3. Nutritional supplements use in high-performance athletes is related with lower nutritional inadequacy from food

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mónica Sousa Maria J.Fernandes Pedro Carvalho José Soares Pedro Moreira Vitor Hugo Teixeira

    2016-01-01

    ...) between NS users and non-users.Methods: Portuguese athletes from 13 sports completed an NS usage questionnaire and a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire assessing information over the previous 12 months...

  4. Nutritional supplements use in high-performance athletes is related with lower nutritional inadequacy from food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Sousa

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: Athletes using NS reported a higher nutritional intake from food, and a lower PMI for several nutrients. Perhaps, those who were taking NS were probably the ones who would least benefit from it.

  5. Developing a Framework for Research on Religious Identity Development of Highly Committed Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser-Vogel, Elsbeth; Westerink, Janneke; de Kock, Jos; Barnard, Marcel; Bakker, Cok

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present a framework for studying the religious identity development of highly religious Christian and Muslim adolescents. Building on existing theories on identity development, the authors define highly religious Christian and Muslim adolescents as "orthoprax" adolescents and explore the consequences of this for…

  6. A 5° medial wedge reduces frontal but not saggital plane motion during jump landing in highly trained women athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F Joseph

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Michael F Joseph1, Craig R Denegar1, Elaine Horn1, Bradley MacDougall1, Michael Rahl1, Jessica Sheehan1, Thomas Trojian2, Jeffery M Anderson1, James E Clark1, William J Kraemer11Department of Kinesiology, 2Department of Sports Medicine, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, USAAbstract: Lower extremity mechanics during landing have been linked to traumatic and nontraumatic knee injuries, particularly in women’s athletics. The effects of efforts to mitigate these risks have not been fully elucidated. We previously reported that a 5° medial wedge reduced ankle eversion and knee valgus. In the present report we further investigated the effect of a 5° medial wedge inserted in the shoes of female athletes on frontal plane hip motion, as well as ankle, knee, hip, and trunk saggital plane motion during a jump landing task. Kinematic data were obtained from 10 intercollegiate female athletes during jump landings from a 31 cm platform with and without a 5° medial wedge. Hip adduction was reduced 1.98° (95% CI 0.97–2.99° by the medial wedge but saggital plane motions were unaffected. A 5° medial wedge reduces frontal plane motion and takes the knee away from a position associated with anterior cruciate ligament injury and patellofemoral pain syndrome. Although frontal plane motion was not captured it is unlikely to have increased in a bilateral landing task. Thus, it is likely that greater muscle forces were generated in these highly trained athletes to dissipate ground reaction forces when a medial wedge was in place. Additional investigation in younger and lesser trained athletes is warranted to assess the impact of orthotic devices on knee joint mechanics.Keywords: jump landing, foot orthotic, lower extremity kinematics, knee biomechanics, knee injury

  7. Effects of high-intensity training and resumed training on macroelement and microelement of elite basketball athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijuan; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Jiahong; He, Wangxiao; Huang, Hongen

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of high-intensity training and resumed training in hot and humid environment on plasma macro- and microelements levels of elite Han Chinese basketball players. Ten well-trained elite basketball athletes' plasma macroelements (chlorin, sodium, potassium, and calcium), creatine kinase (CK), and creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) were measured before and after a 2-h high-intensity training, and microelements (zinc, copper, iron, and selenium) were determined before and after a 1-week high-intensity training and after a 1-week resumed training. The blood CK and CK-MB levels of the elite basketball athletes were significantly increased (P 0.05) were found in zinc and copper levels; nevertheless, the levels of plasma selenium and plasma iron were significantly lower (P iron.

  8. Food preferences do not influence adolescent high-level athletes' dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias-Gutiérrez, Eduardo; García-Rovés, Pablo M; García, Angela; Patterson, Angeles M

    2008-01-01

    To assess the influence of preferences on food and nutritional intake in a group of adolescent high-level athletes, 22 male soccer players (14-16 years) were recruited. Individuals were asked to fill in a specific questionnaire including 15 food groups that had to be ranked according to their preferences. Three categories were established: "Like" (ranked 1-5), "Indifferent" (6-10), and "Dislike" (11-15). Dietary intake was assessed using the weighed food method (for nutrient intake) and a quantitative open-ended food frequency questionnaire (for the number of standard portions of each food group ingested daily). The main preferences were Meat, poultry and derivates (ranked 1-5 in 83% of individuals) and Pasta (58%), while Vegetables (ranked 11-15 in 82%) and Fish (64%) were the main dislikes. The most frequently consumed food groups were Fruits and fruit juices (3.9 portions/day), Bread (3.0), and Biscuits, confectionery and sweets (3.0). No statistical differences were found in food consumption between preference groups, and no relation was found between preferences and nutritional intake, except for those individuals who especially like Bread, which had statistically higher energy and carbohydrate intake. Food preferences and food and nutritional intake of adolescent high-level soccer players were, effectively, unrelated.

  9. A Study Constructive Factors of Psychological Stress Response in High School Students and Comparison Based on the Difference in Belonging to Athletic Clubs

    OpenAIRE

    渋倉, 崇行; 小泉, 昌幸; Shibukura, Takayuki; Koizumi, Masayuki

    2000-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to exmine the constructive factors of psychological stress response in high school students, and to compare student's stress responses who did not belong to athletic clubs with athlete's. Subjects were 945 high school students (484 males and 461 famales) in public school, they were required to estimate their recent affects, consciousness and behavior for each of 53 items. First, the stress response scale for high school students was developed. As a result of fa...

  10. Archetypal Athletes

    CERN Document Server

    Eugster, Manuel J A

    2011-01-01

    Discussions on outstanding---positively and/or negatively---athletes are common practice. The rapidly grown amount of collected sports data now allow to support such discussions with state of the art statistical methodology. Given a (multivariate) data set with collected data of athletes within a specific sport, outstanding athletes are values on the data set boundary. In the present paper we propose archetypal analysis to compute these extreme values. The so-called archetypes, i.e., archetypal athletes, approximate the observations as convex combinations. We interpret the archetypal athletes and their characteristics, and, furthermore, the composition of all athletes based on the archetypal athletes. The application of archetypal analysis is demonstrated on basketball statistics and soccer skill ratings.

  11. Sports injuries in high school athletes: a review of injury-risk and injury-prevention research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuine, Tim

    2006-11-01

    The objective of this review is to identify the available research regarding the risk factors and prevention of injuries in high school athletes (ages 14 to 18 years). Relevant manuscripts were identified by searching six electronic databases with a combination of key words and medical subject headings (high school, adolescent, athletic injury, sports injury, risk factors, prevention, and prospective). Original research that reported prospective data on high school athletes (ages 14 to 18), reported injury and exposure data, and used data collected throughout the entire sport season or school year. Twenty-nine studies that identified injury risk factors or injury prevention strategies were reviewed and summarized. Data extracted from the studies included a) sport(s) or injuries studied, b) year of publication, c) lead author, d) description of the subjects, e) sample-size calculation, f) variables studied (baseline demographic or performance variables), g) whether multivariate analyses were used, h) data reported (injury rates, risk ratios, and 95% CI), and i) results. Studies that introduced an intervention were characterized by the same data as well as the type of intervention employed and randomization procedures used. The quality of each injury-risk and injury-prevention study was assessed, and the results were summarized. The risk factors for injury in several specific sports such as soccer, American football, and basketball have been documented. Other sports are less well represented in the current literature. The risk factors for injuries to the ankle, head, and knee have been identified, to a limited degree. Upper-extremity injury risk factors are less well known. There is a need for high-quality prospective studies to further identify injury risk factors and injury-prevention strategies for high school athletes.

  12. Fueling the vegetarian (vegan) athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrman, Joel; Ferreri, Deana M

    2010-01-01

    Vegetarian diets are associated with several health benefits, but whether a vegetarian or vegan diet is beneficial for athletic performance has not yet been defined. Based on the evidence in the literature that diets high in unrefined plant foods are associated with beneficial effects on overall health, lifespan, immune function, and cardiovascular health, such diets likely would promote improved athletic performance as well. In this article, we review the state of the literature on vegetarian diets and athletic performance, discuss prevention of potential micronutrient deficiencies that may occur in the vegan athlete, and provide strategies on meeting the enhanced caloric and protein needs of an athlete with a plant-based diet.

  13. Concussion symptoms and neurocognitive performance of high school and college athletes who incur multiple concussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covassin, Tracey; Moran, Ryan; Wilhelm, Kristyn

    2013-12-01

    Multiple concussions have been associated with prolonged symptoms, recovery time, and risk for future concussions. However, very few studies have examined the effect of multiple concussions on neurocognitive performance and the recently revised symptom clusters using a large database. To examine concussed athletes with a history of 0, 1, 2, or ≥3 concussions on neurocognitive performance and the recently revised symptom clusters. Cohort study (prognosis); Level of evidence, 2. The independent variables were concussion group (0, 1, 2, and ≥3 concussions) and time (baseline, 3 days, and 8 days). The dependent variables were neurocognitive test scores as measured by the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) neurocognitive test battery (verbal and visual memory, processing speed, and reaction time) and 4 concussion symptom clusters (migraine-cognitive-fatigue, affective, somatic, and sleep). All concussed athletes (n = 596) were administered the ImPACT test at a mean 2.67 ± 1.98 and 7.95 ± 4.46 days after injury. A series of 4 (concussion group) × 3 (time) repeated-measures analyses of covariance (age = covariate) were performed on ImPACT composite scores and symptom clusters. Concussed athletes with ≥3 concussions were still impaired 8 days after a concussion compared with baseline scores on verbal memory (P Concussed athletes with a history of ≥3 concussions take longer to recover than athletes with 1 or no previous concussion. Future research should concentrate on validating the new symptom clusters on multiple concussed athletes, examining longer recovery times (ie, >8 days) among athletes with multiple concussions.

  14. High Prevalence of Dehydration and Inadequate Nutritional Knowledge Among University and Club Level Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Pamela J; Gallagher, Alison M; McCormack, Jacqueline M

    2016-10-06

    Although dehydration of ≥2% body weight (BW) loss significantly impairs endurance performance, dehydration remains prevalent among athletes and may be owing to a lack of knowledge in relation to fluid requirements. The aim of this study was to assess the hydration status of university/club level athletes (n=430) from a range of sports/activities (army officer cadet training; bootcamp training; cycling; Gaelic Athletic Association camogie, football and hurling; golf; hockey; netball; rugby; running (sprinting and endurance); Shotokan karate and soccer) immediately before and after training/competition and to assess their nutritional knowledge. Urine specific gravity (USG) was measured immediately before and after exercise and BW loss during exercise was assessed. Nutritional knowledge was assessed using a validated questionnaire. 31.9% of athletes commenced exercise in a dehydrated state (USG >1.020) with 43.6% of participants dehydrated post-training/competition. Dehydration was particularly prevalent (>40% of cohort) among karateka, female netball players, army officer cadets, and golfers. Golfers that commenced a competitive 18 hole round dehydrated took a significantly higher number of strokes to complete the round in comparison to their euhydrated counterparts (79.5 ± 2.1 vs. 75.7 ± 3.9 strokes, p = .049). Nutritional knowledge was poor among participants (median total score [IQR]; 52.9% [46.0, 59.8]), albeit athletes who were euhydrated at the start of exercise had a higher overall score in comparison to dehydrated athletes (55.2% vs. 50.6%, p = .001). Findings from the current study, therefore, have significant implications for the education of athletes in relation to their individual fluid requirements around exercise.

  15. Effects of Static and Dynamic Stretching on Injury Prevention in High School Soccer Athletes: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Alan A; Kiningham, Robert B; Sen, Ananda

    2015-08-01

    To determine if there is any benefit to static stretching after performing a dynamic warm-up in the prevention of injury in high school soccer athletes. Prospective cluster randomized nonblinded study. 12 high schools with varsity and junior varsity boys' soccer teams (24 soccer teams) across the state of Michigan. Four hundred ninety-nine student-athletes were enrolled, and 465 completed the study. One high school dropped out of the study in the first week, leaving a total of 22 teams. Dynamic stretching protocol vs dynamic + static (D+S) stretching protocol. Lower-extremity, core, or lower-back injuries per team. Twelve teams performed the dynamic stretching protocol and 10 teams performed the D+S stretching protocol. There were 17 injuries (1.42 ± 1.49 injuries/ team) among the teams that performed the dynamic stretching protocol and 20 injuries (2.0 ± 1.24 injuries/ team) among the teams that performed the D+S protocol. There was no statistically significant difference in injuries between the 2 groups (P = .33). There is no difference between dynamic stretching and D+S stretching in the prevention of lower-extremity, core, and back injuries in high school male soccer athletes. Static stretching does not provide any added benefit to dynamic stretching in the prevention of injury in this population before exercise.

  16. Nonoperative treatment of an os peroneum fracture in a high-level athlete: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeremy T; Johnson, Anne H; Heckman, James D

    2011-05-01

    The os peroneum is a sesamoid bone in the peroneus longus tendon. Fractures of the os peroneum are rare. Some authors recommend surgery for active patients. A 41-year-old male professional tennis coach sustained a minimally displaced fracture of the os peroneum. He was treated with restricted weightbearing for 2 weeks, followed by physical therapy and gradual return to activities. He returned to tennis 8 weeks after injury. Followup 7 years after the injury showed he had full strength, full motion, and a radiographically healed os peroneum. The American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) Ankle-Hindfoot Scale score was 100 and Ankle Activity Score and Tegner Activity Level Scale were unchanged from those before injury. Fracture of the os peroneum is a rare injury and treatment recommendations are based largely on very small series and case reports. Proposed treatment strategies for fracture of the os peroneum include nonoperative treatment, fixation of the fracture, excision of the bone with direct repair of the tendon, and tenodesis of the peroneus longus to the peroneus brevis. Although some surgeons suggest fracture of the os peroneum should be treated operatively in active patients, this case shows nonoperative treatment allowed pain-free return to activities in a high-level athlete with a minimally-displaced fracture.

  17. A High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT)-Based Running Plan Improves Athletic Performance by Improving Muscle Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pinillos, Felipe; Cámara-Pérez, Jose C; Soto-Hermoso, Víctor M; Latorre-Román, Pedro Á

    2017-01-01

    García-Pinillos, F, Cámara-Pérez, JC, Soto-Hermoso, VM, and Latorre-Román, PÁ. A High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT)-based running plan improves athletic performance by improving muscle power. J Strength Cond Res 31(1): 146-153, 2017-This study aimed to examine the effect of a 5-week high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT)-based running plan on athletic performance and to compare the physiological and neuromuscular responses during a sprint-distance triathlon before and after the HIIT period. Thirteen triathletes were matched into 2 groups: the experimental group (EG) and the control group (CG). The CG was asked to maintain their normal training routines, whereas the EG maintained only their swimming and cycling routines and modified their running routine. Participants completed a sprint-distance triathlon before (pretest) and after (posttest) the intervention period. In both pretest and posttest, the participants performed 4 jumping tests: before the race (baseline), postswim, postcycling, and postrun. Additionally, heart rate was monitored (HRmean), whereas rate of perceived exertion (RPE) and blood lactate accumulation (BLa) were registered after the race. No significant differences (p ≥ 0.05) between groups were found before HIIT intervention (at pretest). Significant group-by-training interactions were found in vertical jumping ability and athletic performance: the EG improved jumping performance (∼6-9%, p ≤ 0.05, effect size (ES) > 0.7), swimming performance (p = 0.013, ES = 0.438), and running time (p = 0.001, ES = 0.667) during the competition, whereas the CG remained unchanged (p ≥ 0.05, ES HIIT-based running plan combined with the high training volumes of these triathletes in swimming and cycling improved athletic performance during a sprint-distance triathlon. This improvement may be due to improved neuromuscular characteristics that were transferred into improved muscle power and work economy.

  18. Sports-related testing protocols are required to reveal trunk stability adaptations in high-level athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbado, David; Barbado, Luis C; Elvira, Jose L L; Dieën, Jaap H van; Vera-Garcia, Francisco J

    2016-09-01

    Trunk/core stability is considered a key component of training programs, because it could contribute to prevention of low-back and lower-limb injuries and to sports performance. Based on the specificity principle, sports-related trunk stability tests would be required in elite sports performance. However, there may be some generic qualities underlying trunk stability that can be assessed with nonspecific protocols, which are broadly used in sport and rehabilitation. To assess whether specific tests are needed in a high-performance context, we analyzed the influence of specialization in sports with large but qualitatively different balance control demands (judo and kayaking) on trunk stability and compared high-performance athletes with recreational athletes without a specific training history. Twenty-five judokas, sixteen kayakers and thirty-seven recreational athletes performed two trunk stability protocols: sudden loading, to assess trunk responses to external and unexpected perturbations; stable and unstable sitting, to assess the participant's ability to control trunk while sitting. Within-session test-retest reliability analyses were performed to support the between-groups comparison. Judokas showed lower angular displacement (0.199rad) against posterior loading than kayakers (0.221rad) probably because they are frequently challenged by higher sudden loads while they are pushed or pulled. Kayakers showed lower error (7.33mm), probably because they train and compete seated on unstable surfaces. Importantly, judokas and kayakers obtained better results than recreational athletes only in those tests designed according to the specific demands of each sport (psport training induces specific trunk stability adaptations, which are not revealed through nonspecific tests.

  19. Re-examination of the contribution of substrates to energy expenditure during high-intensity intermittent exercise in endurance athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zübeyde Aslankeser

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background It has been believed that the contribution of fat oxidation to total energy expenditure is becoming negligible at higher exercise intensities (about 85% VO2max. The aim of the present study was to examine the changes in substrate oxidation during high-intensity interval exercise in young adult men. Methods A total of 18 healthy well-trained (aged 19.60 ± 0.54 years, BMI = 22.19 ± 0.64 kg/m2, n = 10 and untrained (aged 20.25 ± 0.41 years, BMI = 22.78 ± 0.38 kg/m2, n = 8 young men volunteered to participate in this study. After an overnight fast, subjects were tested on a cycle ergometer and completed six 4-min bouts of cycling (at ∼80% VO2max with 2 min of rests between intervals. Energy expenditure and the substrate oxidation rate were measured during the experiment by using indirect calorimetry. The blood lactate concentration was collected immediately after each interval workout. Results The fat oxidation rate during each workout was significantly different between the untrained and the athlete groups (p  0.05. Moreover, lactate concentration significantly increased in the untrained group (p  0.05. Fat contribution to energy expenditure was significantly higher in the athlete group (∼25% than in the untrained group (∼2%. Conclusions The present study indicates that 17 times more fat oxidation was measured in the athlete group compared to the untrained group. However, the athletes had the same CHO oxidation rate as the recreationally active subjects during high-intensity intermittent exercise. Higher fat oxidation rate despite the same CHO oxidation rate may be related to higher performance in the trained group.

  20. The sleep of elite athletes at sea level and high altitude: a comparison of sea-level natives and high-altitude natives (ISA3600)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Gregory D; Schmidt, Walter F; Aughey, Robert J; Bourdon, Pitre C; Soria, Rudy; Claros, Jesus C Jimenez; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Buchheit, Martin; Simpson, Ben M; Hammond, Kristal; Kley, Marlen; Wachsmuth, Nadine; Gore, Christopher J; Sargent, Charli

    2013-01-01

    Background Altitude exposure causes acute sleep disruption in non-athletes, but little is known about its effects in elite athletes. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of altitude on two groups of elite athletes, that is, sea-level natives and high-altitude natives. Methods Sea-level natives were members of the Australian under-17 soccer team (n=14). High-altitude natives were members of a Bolivian under-20 club team (n=12). Teams participated in an 18-day (19 nights) training camp in Bolivia, with 6 nights at near sea level in Santa Cruz (430 m) and 13 nights at high altitude in La Paz (3600 m). Sleep was assessed on every day/night using activity monitors. Results The Australians’ sleep was shorter, and of poorer quality, on the first night at altitude compared with sea level. Sleep quality returned to normal by the end of the first week at altitude, but sleep quantity had still not stabilised at its normal level after 2 weeks. The quantity and quality of sleep obtained by the Bolivians was similar, or greater, on all nights at altitude compared with sea level. The Australians tended to obtain more sleep than the Bolivians at sea level and altitude, but the quality of the Bolivians’ sleep tended to be better than that of the Australians at altitude. Conclusions Exposure to high altitude causes acute and chronic disruption to the sleep of elite athletes who are sea-level natives, but it does not affect the sleep of elite athletes who are high-altitude natives. PMID:24282197

  1. MANAGEMENT OF THE KNOWLEDGE IN TEAMSES OF HIGH PERFORMANCE: THE CASE OF THE ATHLETICAL CLUB PARANAENSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arquimedes da Silva Szezerbicki

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary the modern organizations are facing surrounding extremely dynamic, provoking radical alterations in the way to be managed. Thus, with the advent and the perfectioning of the organizations theories, the knowledge became the more important economic factor in the competitive environment of the organizations. Treating more specifically to the sportive area, in Brazil the clubs that more adopted the paradigms of enterprise organization had been the Teamses of Soccer, for if dealing with the sport most popular of the country. This study it has as objective to investigate, inside of a Club of national Soccer, if it exists the development of teams of high performance and which had been the taken procedures to arrive itself at this. The methodology of the research used in this study is of the qualitative and exploratory type, of the point of view of its nature that has as characteristic an applied research. For the collection of data the half-structuralized interview was used as instrument. The analysis was established in the procedure of the content analysis. The conclusions of the research had pointed that the results reached in the activity end of the club, the sportive context, using the sharing of the knowledge through a disciplined model of management are an example of that the management of the knowledge lead to the evolution of the organization. In the case of the Athletical club Paranaense, the performance of the directive team demonstrated, through the management of the knowledge, to establish clear objectives of performance, defined and accomplished the goals based on performance, found the work boarding integrating abilities and, mainly, it developed objective ways to implant disciplines it conscientious of that all are responsible for the presented results. Key-Words: teamses; high performance; knowledge.

  2. Archetypal Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Eugster, Manuel J. A.

    2011-01-01

    Discussions on outstanding---positively and/or negatively---athletes are common practice. The rapidly grown amount of collected sports data now allow to support such discussions with state of the art statistical methodology. Given a (multivariate) data set with collected data of athletes within a specific sport, outstanding athletes are values on the data set boundary. In the present paper we propose archetypal analysis to compute these extreme values. The so-called arche...

  3. The age-gender-status profile of high performing athletes in the UK taking nutritional supplements: Lessons for the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naughton Declan P

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Owing to the mechanics of anti-doping regulation via the World Anti-Doping Agency's Prohibited List, nutritional supplement use received little attention in comparison to the prevalence of doping. The aims of this study were to investigate supplement use, identify groups of athletes with high levels of supplement use and the prevalence of concomitant use of supplements. Methods Survey data from 847 high-performing athletes in the UK were analysed using descriptive statistics. The survey, conducted by UK Sport, consisted of questions regarding knowledge of the prohibited substances, testing procedure, nutritional supplement use and perceptions of the doping problem. The proportion of supplement users and the relative use of each supplement were compared by age, gender and professional status. Results Among 874 high-performing athletes in the UK sample, 58.8% of them reported the use of at least one nutritional supplement. Among supplement users, 82.6% used more than one and 11.5% reported use of more than five nutritional supplements. Of the 9 supplements listed, multivitamins (72.6% and vitamin C (70.7% were used most, followed by creatine (36.1%, whey protein (31.7%, echinacea (30.9%, iron (29.9% and caffeine (23.7%. Less than 11% reported the use of magnesium or ginseng. Creatine use was typically associated with males regardless of status and across all ages, whereas iron was characteristically used by females. A 'typical' supplement user is male, between 24 and 29 years of age, involved in professional sport and using a combination of supplements. Male professional players between age 30 and 34 years, and female non-professional athletes between 24 and 29 years of age also represented a considerable proportion of supplement users. Athletes older than 40 years of age were practically non-users. Concomitant use of supplements is characteristic of male users more than females. Conclusion As supplement use has been previously

  4. High-Energy String Scattering Amplitudes and Signless Stirling Number Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Chi Lee

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We give a complete proof of a set of identities (7 proposed recently from calculation of high-energy string scattering amplitudes. These identities allow one to extract ratios among high-energy string scattering amplitudes in the fixed angle regime from high-energy amplitudes in the Regge regime. The proof is based on a signless Stirling number identity in combinatorial theory. The results are valid for arbitrary real values L rather than only for L=0,1 proved previously. The identities for non-integer real value L were recently shown to be realized in high-energy compactified string scattering amplitudes [He S., Lee J.C., Yang Y., arXiv:1012.3158]. The parameter L is related to the mass level of an excited string state and can take non-integer values for Kaluza-Klein modes.

  5. Pulmonary blood flow and its distribution in highly trained endurance athletes and healthy control subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Heinonen (Ilkka); M.J. Savolainen (Markku); C. Han (Chunlei); J. Kemppainen (Jukka); V. Oikonen (Vesa); M. Luotolahti (Matti); D.J.G.M. Duncker (Dirk); D. Merkus (Daphne); J. Knuuti (Juhani); K.K. Kalliokoski (Kari)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractPulmonary blood flow (PBF) is an important determinant of endurance sports performance, yet studies investigating adaptations of the pulmonary circulation in athletes are scarce. In the present study, we investigated PBF, its distribution, and heterogeneity at baseline and during intrave

  6. Structural Support of High-Performance Athletes' Education: Supporting Dual Careers in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlidis, George; Gargalianos, Dimitris

    2014-01-01

    This article describes how the current Greek sport-education context seems to offer relatively poor dual-career support in comparison to other available structures in the world. This results in additional obstacles for Greek athletes who wish to educate themselves and an ambiguous prospect for their future. Consequently, the Greek…

  7. Respiratory and Cardiac Resuscitation Skills of the High School Athletic Coach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furney, Steven

    Athletic coaches (n=149) responded to a survey questionnaire on two cardiac and respiratory emergency procedures: cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and the Heimlich maneuver. The coaches were asked to indicate how proficient they were at these skills, how important these skills were to their job, the availability and the need for in-service…

  8. Female athletes and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malara Marzena

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available It is well documented that regular physical activity has a beneficial effect on human health by affecting the metabolic processes that are of fundamental importance in the body’s functions, such as insulin sensitivity and glucose disposal, as well as lipid and lipoprotein turnover. On the other hand, there is a wealth of studies which indicate that strenuous, regular physical activity, such as that performed by high performance athletes, may be detrimental for the athletes’ health especially in women. This review focuses on the factors that contribute to health problems in female athletes, named the female athlete triad, which includes excessive dieting, menstrual dysfunctions (anovulatory menstrual cycles, oligomenorrhea, amenorrhea and a low bone mineral density (BMD. As a result of these factors, women who participate in sports, especially those focused on leanness, need special attention and education from health professionals, coaches and the athletes themselves to prevent the detrimental effects of an inadequate energy supply against high energy demands.

  9. An examination of current practices and gender differences in strength and conditioning in a sample of varsity high school athletic programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Monica L; Ransdell, Lynda B; Lucas, Shelley M; Petlichkoff, Linda M; Gao, Yong

    2012-01-01

    Currently, little is known about strength and conditioning programs at the high school level. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to explore current practices in strength and conditioning for varsity high school athletes in selected sports. The following were specifically examined: who administers programs for these athletes, what kinds of training activities are done, and whether the responsible party or emphasis changes depending on the gender of the athletes. Coaches of varsity soccer, basketball, softball, and baseball in 3 large Idaho school districts were asked to complete an online survey. Sixty-seven percent (32/48) of the questionnaires were completed and used for the study. The majority of coaches (84%) provided strength and conditioning opportunities for their athletes, although only 37% required participation. Strength training programs were designed and implemented primarily by either physical education teachers or head coaches. Compared with coaches of male athletes, coaches of female athletes were less likely to know the credentials of their strength coaches, and they were less likely to use certified coaches to plan and implement their strength and conditioning programs. Most programs included dynamic warm-ups and cool-downs, plyometrics, agility training, speed training, and conditioning, and most programs were conducted 3 d·wk(-1) (76%) for sessions lasting between 30 and 59 minutes (63%). Compared with their female counterparts, male athletes were more likely to have required training, participate in strength training year round, and train using more sessions per week. This study provides additional information related to the practice of strength and conditioning in a sample of high school athletic teams.

  10. Depression in athletes: prevalence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolanin, Andrew; Gross, Michael; Hong, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Depression affects an estimated 6.7% of today's adult population in a 12-month period. The prevalence rates for certain age groups, such as young adults and older adults, are higher. There are approximately 400,000 National Collegiate Athletic Association student athletes competing each year and 5 to 7 million high school student athletes involved in competitive interscholastic sports. Given such a high prevalence rate in certain age groups and a large denominator pool of athletes, past notions that athletes are devoid of mental health issues have come under scrutiny by sports medicine providers. Initial data suggest that athletes are far from immune to depression. The purpose of this article was to review the current research on athletes and depression; particularly this article will provide an overview of studies, which have investigated the rate of depression among athletes, and discuss relevant risk factors, which may contribute to depression among athletes.

  11. Identidade de gênero/sexo de atletas e sedentários Identidad de género/sexo de atletas y sedentarios Gender/sex identity of athletes and sedentary participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Luiz Cardoso

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Existem diferenças no processo de estruturação da identidade de gênero/sexo de atletas e não-atletas? Este estudo teve como objetivo comparar a identidade de gênero/sexo autopercebida e autoquantificada de atletas de diferentes modalidades (180 homens e 180 mulheres em relação a sedentários (22 homens e 22 mulheres, no tocante a personalidade e preferências lúdicas da infância. Os homens se perceberam mais masculinos e as mulheres mais femininas. Encontraram-se mais mulheres não heterossexuais do que homens, entre as atletas. Os homens assumiram-se mais propensos a gostar de quebrar as regras e sonhavam em ser campeão esportivo quando crianças. As atletas mulheres que brincaram mais com meninos na infância se avaliaram como mais masculinas, ousando em transgredir as fronteiras dos papéis de gênero, o que pode ter facilitado o interesse delas pelo treinamento esportivo.¿Existen diferencias en el proceso de estructuración de la identidad de género/sexo de atletas y non atletas? Este estudio tuvo como objetivo comparar la identidad de género/sexo auto percibida y auto cuantificada de atletas de diferentes modalidades (180 hombres y 180 mujeres en relación a sedentarios (22 hombres y 22 mujeres no tocante a la personalidad e las preferencias ludicas de la infancia. Los hombres perciben a sí mismos más masculinos y las mujeres más femeninas. Se encontró más mujeres no heterosexuales que hombres entre los atletas. Los hombres fueron más propensos a disfrutar de romper las reglas y querían ser un campeón de los deportes cuando niños. Las mujeres que jugaron más con los niños en la infancia se calificaron como más masculinas, atreviéndose a transgredir los límites de los roles de género, lo que puede haber facilitado el interés en el entrenamiento deportivo.Are there differences in the process of construction of the gender/sex identity between athletes and non-athletes? This research aimed to compare the self

  12. Psychological traits regarding competitiveness are related to the incidence of anterior cruciate ligament injury in high school female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosaka, Masahiro; Nakase, Junsuke; Numata, Hitoaki; Oshima, Takeshi; Takata, Yasushi; Moriyama, Shigenori; Oda, Takumi; Shima, Yosuke; Kitaoka, Katsuhiko; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between psychological competitive ability and the incidence of noncontact ACL injuries among high school female athletes. A three-year prospective cohort study was conducted using 300 15-year-old high school female athletes with no previous injuries or symptoms in their lower limbs (106 handball players and 194 basketball players). At baseline, their psychological competitive abilities were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire-the Diagnostic Inventory of Psychological Competitive Ability (DIPCA.3). After the baseline examination was performed at high school entry, all players were prospectively followed for 36months to document any subsequent incidence of ACL injury, according to their coaches. An unpaired t-test with Welch's correction was performed to compare the differences in the psychological competitive abilities between the injured and uninjured players. Of the 300 players, 25 (8.3%) experienced a noncontact ACL injury during the three-year observation period. The injured players had significantly higher total DIPCA.3 scores for psychological competitive ability than the uninjured players (169.9±18.8 vs. 159.2±21.6, P=.036). Additionally, the injured players had significantly higher scores than the uninjured players in the following categories: aggressiveness, volition for self-realization, volition for winning, judgment, and cooperation. However, no significant differences were observed in patience, self-control, ability to relax, concentration, confidence, decision, and predictive ability. High psychological competitive ability was associated with the incidence of noncontact ACL injuries in high school female athletes. Level II (prospective cohort study). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Cultivation of science identity through authentic science in an urban high school classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Angela; Feldman, Allan

    2016-07-01

    This study examined how a contextually based authentic science experience affected the science identities of urban high school students who have been marginalized during their K-12 science education. We examined students' perceptions of the intervention as an authentic science experience, how the experience influenced their science identity, as well as their perceptions about who can do science. We found that the students believed the experience to be one of authentic science, that their science identity was positively influenced by participation in the experience, and that they demonstrated a shift in perceptions from stereotypical to more diverse views of scientists. Implications for science education are discussed.

  14. The Student-Athlete in the Classroom: Developmental Issues Affecting College Athletes and Their Impact on Academic Motivation and Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparent, Martha E.

    If college instructors are to work effectively with student-athletes, they must be aware of the career goals, identity as athletes, lifestyle, and educational attitudes of these students and develop appropriate strategies for facilitating their growth and maximizing their learning experiences. The college athletic environment, with its rigid…

  15. 预冷对运动员高温环境下运动表现的影响研究%The Study of the Influence on Athletic Performance for Athletes in the High Temperature Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝思哲

    2012-01-01

    A lot of research shows that high temperature environment on the performance of the movement of athletes are harmful, such as oxygen transportation capacity, cardiovascular function and the internal environment, and ionic balance will be a bad in- fluence. The sports science researchers find that the cold treatment can improve athletes in the high temperature environment of athletic performance. The cold treatment find in training or before the game, the body temperature in advance is processed, by lowering core body temperature, improving cardiovascular pressure, reduce the metabolism disorders and ability to adjust the phys- iological indexes, improve the heat storage capacity athletes, slow motion fatigue, athletes in training or in the games will have a good performance.%很多研究表明高温环境对运动员的运动表现是有害的,如对氧运输能力、心血管功能以及内环境和离子平衡都会造成不良影响。体育科研人员发现预冷处理能够改善运动员在高温环境下的运动表现。预冷处理是指在训练前或比赛前,预先将运动员身体做降温处理,通过降低核心体温、改善心血管压力、减少代谢失调等来调整各项生理指标,提升运动员的热贮存能力,延缓运动疲劳产生,使运动员在训练或比赛时有良好的运动表现。

  16. Nutritional supplements use in high-performance athletes is related with lower nutritional inadequacy from food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mónica Sousa; Maria J. Fernandes; Pedro Carvalho; José Soares; Pedro Moreira; Vitor Hugo Teixeira

    2016-01-01

    Background: The use of nutritional supplements (NS) among athletes is widespread. However, little is known about the relationship between nutritional adequacy and NS usage. The aims of this study were to evaluate the NS usage and to compare the nutritional intake from food and prevalence of micronutrient inadequacy (PMI) between NS users and non-users. Methods: Portuguese athletes from 13 sports completed an NS usage questionnaire and a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire assessing information over the previous 12 months. The estimated average requirement cut-point method was used to calculate PMI. General linear models were used to compare nutritional intake and NS usage. Chi-squared tests and logistic regression were performed to study, respectively, relationships and associations between PMI and NS usage. Results: From the 244 athletes (66%males, 13–37 years), 64%reported NS usage. After adjustment, NS users showed a higher intake from food (p<0.05), for at least 1 gender, for energy, and for 7 of the 17 studied nutrients. The highest PMI were seen for vitamins D and E, calcium, folate, and magnesium. After adjustment, NS users, irrespective of gender, reported lower PMI for calcium (OR=0.28, 95%CI:0.12–0.65), and female users for magnesium (OR=0.06, 95%CI:0.00–0.98). Conclusion: Athletes using NS reported a higher nutritional intake from food, and a lower PMI for several nutrients. Perhaps, those who were taking NS were probably the ones who would least benefit from it.

  17. Arthroscopic Double-Row Anterior Stabilization and Bankart Repair for the “High-Risk” Athlete

    OpenAIRE

    Moran, Cathal J.; Fabricant, Peter D.; Kang, Richard; Cordasco, Frank A.

    2014-01-01

    In addition to operative intervention for the patient with recurrent shoulder instability, current literature suggests that younger athletic patients unwilling to modify their activities may benefit from an early surgical shoulder stabilization procedure. Although open shoulder stabilization clearly has a role to play in some cases, we believe that further optimization of arthroscopic fixation techniques may allow us to continue to refine the indications for open stabilization. In particular,...

  18. Une expérience singulière A Singular Experience. The Process of Reconversion of High Level Athletes in France, in Fencing and Table Tennis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Javerlhiac

    2011-02-01

    the social success of HLA. However, the question of “after sport” often proves crucial and arduous for athletes in non-professional or less media saturated sports or, quite simply, for those who had made no plans and who were forced to end their careers unexpectedly, due to an injury, for example. The social disqualification (Paugam, 1991 is that much more painful to live through inasmuch as that marginalization process marks the end of their exceptional status and is accompanied by the construction of a negative identity when the athlete experiences difficulties in professional reinsertion. Due both to the “in-group” ambiance characterizing it and the attention paid to those who succeed, high level sport, whether professional or not, media saturated or not, leaves one unprepared for resisting stigmatism and a drab identitary dimension (Heinich, 1999 finds a “negatively” perfect example here.

  19. Alteration of default mode network in high school football athletes due to repetitive subconcussive mild traumatic brain injury: a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Kausar; Shenk, Trey E; Poole, Victoria N; Breedlove, Evan L; Leverenz, Larry J; Nauman, Eric A; Talavage, Thomas M; Robinson, Meghan E

    2015-03-01

    Long-term neurological damage as a result of head trauma while playing sports is a major concern for football athletes today. Repetitive concussions have been linked to many neurological disorders. Recently, it has been reported that repetitive subconcussive events can be a significant source of accrued damage. Since football athletes can experience hundreds of subconcussive hits during a single season, it is of utmost importance to understand their effect on brain health in the short and long term. In this study, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) was used to study changes in the default mode network (DMN) after repetitive subconcussive mild traumatic brain injury. Twenty-two high school American football athletes, clinically asymptomatic, were scanned using the rs-fMRI for a single season. Baseline scans were acquired before the start of the season, and follow-up scans were obtained during and after the season to track the potential changes in the DMN as a result of experienced trauma. Ten noncollision-sport athletes were scanned over two sessions as controls. Overall, football athletes had significantly different functional connectivity measures than controls for most of the year. The presence of this deviation of football athletes from their healthy peers even before the start of the season suggests a neurological change that has accumulated over the years of playing the sport. Football athletes also demonstrate short-term changes relative to their own baseline at the start of the season. Football athletes exhibited hyperconnectivity in the DMN compared to controls for most of the sessions, which indicates that, despite the absence of symptoms typically associated with concussion, the repetitive trauma accrued produced long-term brain changes compared to their healthy peers.

  20. Highly structured tensor identities for (2,2)-forms in four dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Wingbrant, O

    2003-01-01

    In an n dimensional vector space, any tensor which is antisymmetric in k>n arguments must vanish; this is a trivial consequence of the limited number of dimensions. However, when other possible properties of tensors, for example trace-freeness, are taken into account, such identities may be heavily disguised. Tensor identities of this kind were first considered by Lovelock, and later by Edgar and Hoeglund. In this paper we continue their work. We obtain dimensionally dependent identities for highly structured expressions of products of (2,2)-forms. For tensors possessing more symmetries, such as block symmetry W_{abcd} = W_{cdab}, or the first Bianchi identity W_{a[bcd]} = 0, we derive identities for less structured expressions. These identities are important tools when studying super-energy tensors, and, in turn, deriving identities for them. As an application we are able to show that the Bel-Robinson tensor, the super-energy tensor for the Weyl tensor, satisfies the equation T_{abcy}T^{abcx} = 1/4g^{x}_{y}T...

  1. Effects of strength training on muscle fiber types and size; consequences for athletes training for high-intensity sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J L; Aagaard, P

    2010-01-01

    of the muscle and finally how will this affect the performance of the athlete. In addition, the review will deal with muscle hypertrophy and how it develops with strength training. Overall, it is not the purpose of this review to give a comprehensive up-date of the area, but to pin-point a few issues from which...... way into almost all sports in which high intense work is conducted. In this review we will focus on a few selected aspects and consequences of strength training; namely what effects do strength training have of muscle fiber type composition, and how may these effects change the contractile properties...

  2. Floating patella: combined quadriceps tendon, retinacula, and patellar tendon ruptures in a high-performance elite athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Phillip R; Selesnick, F Harlan

    2010-09-01

    Simultaneous quadriceps and patellar tendon rupture is rare. To our knowledge, we present the first known case of simultaneous quadriceps tendon, patella tendon, and retinacula rupture in the ipsilateral knee of a high-performance elite athlete. This disabling injury in the active person results in an inability to actively obtain and maintain full knee extension. When the tendons do not heal properly, at the correct length and tension, knee range of motion and strength can become significantly altered, leading to early fatigue, patellofemoral pain, and possibly instability, preventing return to preinjury status. Immediate surgical repair is recommended for optimal return of knee function and power.

  3. Nutrition for the pediatric athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unnithan, Viswanath B; Goulopoulou, Styliani

    2004-08-01

    A paucity of literature exists with regard to research on nutrition for the pediatric athlete. This lack of research makes the development of specific nutritional recommendations for young athletes problematic. This issue is made difficult by the macro- and micronutrient intake required for growth and development in conjunction with that required for sports. Exogenous carbohydrate drinks could be considered for the young athlete engaged in both endurance exercise and high-intensity exercise. Monitoring of the energy intake during resistance training in the pediatric athlete needs to be considered, as there is evidence to suggest that energy deficits may occur. If decrements in exercise performance are noted, then serum ferritin and hemoglobin concentrations should be monitored, as nonanemic iron deficiency is prevalent in the pediatric athlete. The pediatric athlete exercising in the heat is susceptible to voluntary dehydration and evidence exists to suggest that a carbohydrate-electrolyte drink will abolish this phenomenon.

  4. Neuropsychological test performance of Hawai'i high school athletes: updated Hawai'i immediate post-concussion assessment and cognitive testing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsushima, William T; Siu, Andrea M

    2014-07-01

    The present study reviewed the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) baseline test scores of 247 high school athletes ages 13 to 18 from a private school in Hawai'i. The aim of the research was to update a prior exploratory investigation conducted in 2008 that compared the test scores of Hawai'i public high school athletes with the normative data provided by the ImPACT publishers. The results of this study provide assurance that the present ImPACT scores of the Hawai'i high school athletes are similar to the general ImPACT norms. The present study is a rare effort to compare the ImPACT scores of high school athletes from an ethnically diverse region with the ImPACT norms. The findings offer further support for the use of the ImPACT norms when evaluating high school athletes from Hawai'i. Future research in various regions of the United States and with other sociocultural backgrounds is encouraged.

  5. Leadership Styles of College and University Athletic Directors and the Presence of NCAA Transgender Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Randall; McCauley, Kayleigh

    2016-01-01

    In September 2011, the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) announced the "Policy on Transgender Inclusion." It provides guidelines for transgender student athletes to participate in sex-separated athletic teams according to their gender identity. The "2012 LGBTQ National College Athlete Report," the first of its…

  6. Back Pain Prevalence and Its Associated Factors in Brazilian Athletes from Public High Schools: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Matias; de Avelar, Ivan Silveira; Lehnen, Georgia Cristina; Vieira, Marcus Fraga

    2016-01-01

    Most studies on the prevalence of back pain have evaluated it in developed countries (Human Development Index--HDI > 0.808), and their conclusions may not hold for developing countries. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of back pain in representative Brazilian athletes from public high schools. This cross-sectional study was performed during the state phase of the 2015 Jogos dos Institutos Federais (JIF), or Federal Institutes Games, in Brazil (HDI = 0.744), and it enrolled 251 athletes, 173 males and 78 females (14-20 years old). The dependent variable was back pain, and the independent variables were demographic, socioeconomic, psychosocial, hereditary, exercise-level, anthropometric, strength, behavioral, and postural factors. The prevalence ratio (PR) was calculated using multivariable analysis according to the Poisson regression model (α = 0.05). The prevalence of back pain in the three months prior to the study was 43.7% (n = 104), and 26% of the athletes reported feeling back pain only once. Multivariable analysis showed that back pain was associated with demographic (sex), psychosocial (loneliness and loss of sleep in the previous year), hereditary (ethnicity, parental back pain), strength (lumbar and hand forces), anthropometric (body mass index), behavioral (sleeping time per night, reading and studying in bed, smoking habits in the previous month), and postural (sitting posture while writing, while on a bench, and while using a computer) variables. Participants who recorded higher levels of lumbar and manual forces reported a lower prevalence of back pain (PR 1.30). In conclusion, there is no association between exercise levels and back pain but there is an association between back pain and non-exercise related variables.

  7. Back Pain Prevalence and Its Associated Factors in Brazilian Athletes from Public High Schools: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matias Noll

    Full Text Available Most studies on the prevalence of back pain have evaluated it in developed countries (Human Development Index--HDI > 0.808, and their conclusions may not hold for developing countries. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of back pain in representative Brazilian athletes from public high schools. This cross-sectional study was performed during the state phase of the 2015 Jogos dos Institutos Federais (JIF, or Federal Institutes Games, in Brazil (HDI = 0.744, and it enrolled 251 athletes, 173 males and 78 females (14-20 years old. The dependent variable was back pain, and the independent variables were demographic, socioeconomic, psychosocial, hereditary, exercise-level, anthropometric, strength, behavioral, and postural factors. The prevalence ratio (PR was calculated using multivariable analysis according to the Poisson regression model (α = 0.05. The prevalence of back pain in the three months prior to the study was 43.7% (n = 104, and 26% of the athletes reported feeling back pain only once. Multivariable analysis showed that back pain was associated with demographic (sex, psychosocial (loneliness and loss of sleep in the previous year, hereditary (ethnicity, parental back pain, strength (lumbar and hand forces, anthropometric (body mass index, behavioral (sleeping time per night, reading and studying in bed, smoking habits in the previous month, and postural (sitting posture while writing, while on a bench, and while using a computer variables. Participants who recorded higher levels of lumbar and manual forces reported a lower prevalence of back pain (PR 1.30. In conclusion, there is no association between exercise levels and back pain but there is an association between back pain and non-exercise related variables.

  8. Verification of the computer code ATHLET in the framework of the external verification group ATHLET BETHSY test 9.3 - steam generator U-tube rupture with failure of the high pressure injection. Final report; Verifikation des ATHLET-Rechenprogramms im Rahmen der externen Verifikationsgruppe ATHLET BETHSY Test 9.3 - Heizrohrbruch mit Versagen der Hochdruck-Noteinspeisung. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krepper, E.; Schaefer, F. [Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V. (FZR) (Germany). Inst. fuer Sicherheitsforschung

    1998-08-01

    In the framework of the external validation of the thermalhydraulic code ATHLET MOD 1.1 CYCLE D, which is being developed by the GRS, post test analyses of two experiments were done, which were performed at the French integral test facility BETHSY. During test 9.3 the consequences of a steam generator U-tube rupture with failure of the high pressure injection and of the auxiliary feedwater supply were investigated. As accident management measures, the depressurization of the secondary sides, first of the two intact steam generators, then of the damaged steam generator and finally the primary depressurization by opening of the pressurizer valve were performed. The results show, that the code ATHLET is able to describe the complex scenario in good accordance with the experiment. The safety relevant statement could be reproduced. Deviations, which did not impose the general results, occurred concerning the break mass flow during the depressurization of the damaged steam generator and the description of the failure of the heat transfer to the damaged steam generator. Reasons are hardly to find, because these processes are highly complex. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Rahmen der externen Validierung des von der Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit entwickelten Stoerfallcodes ATHLET, der in der Version Mod 1.1 Cycle D vorlag, wurden zwei Experimente nachgerechnet und analysiert, die an der franzoesischen Versuchsanlage BETHSY durchgefuehrt wurden. Im Test 9.3 werden die Konsequenzen untersucht, wenn bei einem Heizrohrbruch die Hochdruckeinspeisung sowie die Not-Speisewasserversorgung der Dampferzeuger versagen und nur die Druckspeicher sowie die Niederdruckeinspeisung zur Verfuegung stehen. Als Accident Management Massnahmen wurde die sekundaere Druckentlastung und schliesslich die primaere Entlastung ueber den Druckhalter untersucht. Die Analyse kommt zu dem Ergebnis, dass der Code ATHLET in der Lage ist, dieses komplexe Szenario recht gut zu beschreiben. Die

  9. Influence of vitamin D mushroom powder supplementation on exercise-induced muscle damage in vitamin D insufficient high school athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanely, R Andrew; Nieman, David C; Knab, Amy M; Gillitt, Nicholas D; Meaney, Mary Pat; Jin, Fuxia; Sha, Wei; Cialdella-Kam, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Incidence of vitamin D deficiency is increasing worldwide. The purpose of this study was to determine if supplementation with vitamin D2 from Portobello mushroom powder would enhance skeletal muscle function and attenuate exercise-induced muscle damage in low vitamin D status high school athletes. Participants were randomised to Portobello mushroom powder (600 IU/d vitamin D2) or placebo for 6 weeks. Participants then completed a 1.5-h exercise session designed to induce skeletal muscle damage. Blood samples and measures of skeletal muscle function were taken pre-supplementation, post-supplementation/pre-exercise and post-exercise. Six weeks supplementation with vitamin D2 increased serum 25(OH)D2 by 9.9-fold and decreased serum 25(OH)D3 by 28%. Changes in skeletal muscle function and circulating markers of skeletal muscle damage did not differ between groups. In conclusion, 600 IU/d vitamin D2 increased 25(OH)D2 with a concomitant decrease in 25(OD)D3, with no effect on muscular function or exercise-induced muscle damage in high school athletes.

  10. Inside the brain of an elite athlete: the neural processes that support high achievement in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarrow, Kielan; Brown, Peter; Krakauer, John W

    2009-08-01

    Events like the World Championships in athletics and the Olympic Games raise the public profile of competitive sports. They may also leave us wondering what sets the competitors in these events apart from those of us who simply watch. Here we attempt to link neural and cognitive processes that have been found to be important for elite performance with computational and physiological theories inspired by much simpler laboratory tasks. In this way we hope to inspire neuroscientists to consider how their basic research might help to explain sporting skill at the highest levels of performance.

  11. High-Frequency Transcranial Random Noise Stimulation Enhances Perception of Facial Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanska, Aleksandra; Rezlescu, Constantin; Susilo, Tirta; Duchaine, Bradley; Banissy, Michael J

    2015-11-01

    Recently, a number of studies have demonstrated the utility of transcranial current stimulation as a tool to facilitate a variety of cognitive and perceptual abilities. Few studies, though, have examined the utility of this approach for the processing of social information. Here, we conducted 2 experiments to explore whether a single session of high-frequency transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) targeted at lateral occipitotemporal cortices would enhance facial identity perception. In Experiment 1, participants received 20 min of active high-frequency tRNS or sham stimulation prior to completing the tasks examining facial identity perception or trustworthiness perception. Active high-frequency tRNS facilitated facial identity perception, but not trustworthiness perception. Experiment 2 assessed the spatial specificity of this effect by delivering 20 min of active high-frequency tRNS to lateral occipitotemporal cortices or sensorimotor cortices prior to participants completing the same facial identity perception task used in Experiment 1. High-frequency tRNS targeted at lateral occipitotemporal cortices enhanced performance relative to motor cortex stimulation. These findings show that high-frequency tRNS to lateral occipitotemporal cortices produces task-specific and site-specific enhancements in face perception.

  12. Analysis of sex-specific injury patterns and risk factors in young high-level athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, A; Seil, R; Urhausen, A; Croisier, J L; Lair, M L; Theisen, D

    2009-12-01

    This study analyzed sex-specific injury patterns and risk factors in young athletes (n=256) from 12 sport disciplines practicing at the national or the international level in the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg. Injury occurrence as a result of sport practice was analyzed retrospectively over the year 2006 using a standardized self-administered questionnaire. Overall incidence was not different between girls and boys (1.20 and 1.21 injuries/1000 athlete-hours, respectively), but in the context of team sport competition girls tended to be at a greater risk (rate ratio 2.05, P=0.053). Girls had a higher proportion of injuries in the ankle/foot region compared with boys (34.8% vs 16.8%). No sex-related differences were found regarding injury severity. Multivariate logistic regression (controlling for age and practice volume) revealed that girls' team sports were associated with a greater injury risk compared with individual sports [odds ratio (OR) of 4.76], while in boys this was observed for racket sports (OR=3.31). Furthermore, physical or emotional stress tended to be a specific risk factor in girls. There was a tendency for injury outside sports to be coupled to a higher injury risk in girls and boys. Consideration of sex-specific injury patterns and risk factors could be of importance for effective injury prevention.

  13. Sweat gland density and response during high-intensity exercise in athletes with spinal cord injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchett, R C; Al-Nawaiseh, A M; Pritchett, K K; Nethery, V; Bishop, P A; Green, J M

    2015-09-01

    Sweat production is crucial for thermoregulation. However, sweating can be problematic for individuals with spinal cord injuries (SCI), as they display a blunting of sudomotor and vasomotor responses below the level of the injury. Sweat gland density and eccrine gland metabolism in SCI are not well understood. Consequently, this study examined sweat lactate (S-LA) (reflective of sweat gland metabolism), active sweat gland density (SGD), and sweat output per gland (S/G) in 7 SCI athletes and 8 able-bodied (AB) controls matched for arm ergometry VO2peak. A sweat collection device was positioned on the upper scapular and medial calf of each subject just prior to the beginning of the trial, with iodine sweat gland density patches positioned on the upper scapular and medial calf. Participants were tested on a ramp protocol (7 min per stage, 20 W increase per stage) in a common exercise environment (21±1°C, 45-65% relative humidity). An independent t-test revealed lower (pSLA, S/G) between AB and SCI athletes. The results suggest similar interglandular metabolic activity irrespective of overall sweat rate.

  14. High-speed demodulation system of identical weak FBGs based on FDML wavelength swept laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiming; Liu, Quan; Wang, Honghai; Hu, Chenchen; Zhang, Chun; Li, Zhengying

    2017-04-01

    An identical weak reflection FBGs demodulation system based on a FDML laser is proposed. The laser is developed to output a continuous wavelength-swept spectrum in the scanning frequency of 120 kHz over a spectral range of more than 10nm at 1.54 μm. Based on this high-speed wavelength-swept light and the optical transmission delay effect, the demodulation system obtains the location and wavelength information of all identical weak FBGs by the reflected spectrum within each scanning cycle. By accessing to a high-speed FPGA processing module, continuous demodulation of 120 kHz is realized. The system breakthroughs the bandwidth of the laser to expand the sensors capacity and greatly improves the demodulation speed of a TDM sensing network. The experiments show the system can distinguish and demodulate the identical weak FBGs and measure the 4 kHz vibration at 120 kHz demodulation speed.

  15. A Proposed Athletic Training Curriculum Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, Sue

    An athletic training curriculum for the training of high school coaches and physical education teachers in Virginia includes courses on: (1) athletic injuries--a basic study of human physiology and anatomy relevant to different athletic injuries; (2) the art and science of sports medicine--prevention, evaluation, treatment, and rehabilitation of…

  16. Ten year follow-up study comparing conservative versus operative treatment of anterior cruciate ligament ruptures. A matched-pair analysis of high level athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.E. Meuffels (Duncan); M.M. Favejee (Marein); M.M. Vissers (Maaike); M.P. Heijboer (Rien); M. Reijman (Max); J.A.N. Verhaar (Jan)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To compare long term outcome of highly active patients with anterior cruciate ligament ruptures treated operatively versus non-operatively. DESIGN: We reviewed high level athletes with an anterior cruciate ligament rupture on either MRI or arthroscopic evaluation more than 10

  17. Social Representations and Social Identity in Swedish Folk High Schools: an application of Duveen and Lloyd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersen, A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article extends Duveen’s work on social representations and social gender identity by discussing how it can be applied to the context of Swedish folk high school participants’ social representations of folk high school and university, then examines the influence of these representations on participants’ desires and ambitions to progress to university. Adopting Duveen’s framework to analyze several previous data regarding folk high schools (i.e., a document study of folk high school teachers’ magazines, an association study on folk high school participants, and interviews with folk high school participants, I seek to illustrate in this article how most premises concerning the formation of children’s social identity (as described by Duveen also hold for adults entering a new social context.

  18. Design and Laboratory Level Production of High Energy Survival Tablets for Athletes, Tourists and People who Faced Natural Disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Nezami Asl

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: People affected by natural disasters like flood or earthquakes and also athletes like mountain climbers and also sailors who continuously go to jungles or deserts, might get into trouble in the nature and need help to get back to their home and therefore, they might need high energy supplements to keep them alive up to the time they find a food source. The goal of this study was to design and make these laboratory prototypes of high energy tablets. Methods: For making tablets 15 different formulations were designed and made in the laboratory and then were tested to be suit. We objected to design formulations that could provide at least 20 kcal per each tab and amount of daily protein (about 25 grams, Tablets were design to provide not only the minimum energy needed but also the minimum protein needs and daily requirements of some vitamins and minerals of a healthy male adult. Results: Laboratory samples of 5 gram high energy (21 Kcal were produced. The best formulation that had the capacity to be converted into tablets consisted of olive oil (16%, maltodextrin (36%, high biological value protein powder (25%, sesame seed (17% and wheat germ (6%. 25 tablets should be taken each day which provides 525 kcal energy, 25g protein and different vitamins and minerals, daily; therefore, they will provide the minimum energy needs for at least 10 days if provided in 1.2 kg packs.  Conclusion: The production of high energy tab rations can provide minimum energy needs for at least 7 days for athletes, tourists and people who face natural disasters when there is no access to any other food resources because they occupy the minimum volume and their production is accessible in Iran.

  19. The Process of Social Identity Development in Adolescent High School Choral Singers: A Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Elizabeth Cassidy

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this grounded theory study was to describe the process of adolescent choral singers' social identity development within three midsized, midwestern high school mixed choirs. Forty-nine interviews were conducted with 36 different participants. Secondary data sources included memoing, observations, and interviews with the choir…

  20. The Process of Social Identity Development in Adolescent High School Choral Singers: A Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Elizabeth Cassidy

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this grounded theory study was to describe the process of adolescent choral singers' social identity development within three midsized, midwestern high school mixed choirs. Forty-nine interviews were conducted with 36 different participants. Secondary data sources included memoing, observations, and interviews with the choir…

  1. Learner Identity Amid Figured Worlds: Constructing (In)competence at an Urban High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Beth C.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the figured world of learning at urban Oakcity High School, describing the learner identities that were available to students amid the practices, categories, discourses and interactions of this world. My aims are 2-fold and interconnected: (1) to reframe a taken-for-granted phenomenon--that students tend to do poorly at urban…

  2. Effects of strength training on muscle fiber types and size; consequences for athletes training for high-intensity sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J L; Aagaard, P

    2010-01-01

    Training toward improving performance in sports involving high intense exercise can and is done in many different ways based on a mixture of tradition in the specific sport, coaches' experience and scientific recommendations. Strength training is a form of training that now-a-days have found its...... way into almost all sports in which high intense work is conducted. In this review we will focus on a few selected aspects and consequences of strength training; namely what effects do strength training have of muscle fiber type composition, and how may these effects change the contractile properties...... of the muscle and finally how will this affect the performance of the athlete. In addition, the review will deal with muscle hypertrophy and how it develops with strength training. Overall, it is not the purpose of this review to give a comprehensive up-date of the area, but to pin-point a few issues from which...

  3. Hazard of deceptive advertising of athletic footwear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, S; Waked, E

    1997-12-01

    Athletic footwear are associated with frequent injury that are thought to result from repetitive impact. No scientific data suggest they protect well. Expensive athletic shoes are deceptively advertised to safeguard well through "cushioning impact", yet account for 123% greater injury frequency than the cheapest ones. This study tested the hypothesis that deceptive advertising creates a false sense of security with users of expensive athletic shoes, inducing attenuation of impact moderating behaviour, increased impact, and injury. Fifteen young healthy male volunteers confronted four surfaces: a bare force moment platform, and three with this platform covered by identical shoe sole material made to appear different and advertised divergently. Advertising messages suggested superior impact absorption and protection (deceptive message), poor impact absorption and high injury risk (warning message), and unknown impact absorption and safety (neutral message). Ground reaction forces were recorded for 10 barefoot footfalls, according to a protocol requiring stepping forward from perch to a surface 4.5 cm below. Impact varied as a function of advertising message (p Deceptive message equalled neutral message in eliciting higher impact than the warning message and the bare platform. Differences grew with repetitions (p deceptive advertising of protective devices may represent a public health hazard and may have to be eliminated presumably through regulation; (2) a tendency in humans to be less cautious when using new devices of unknown benefit because of overly positive attitudes associated with new technology and novel devices.

  4. Hodgkin's Lymphoma in an elite endurance athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Yorck Olaf; Muser, Klaus; Hirschberger, Barbara; Roecker, Kai; Dickhuth, Hans Herrmann; Pottgiesser, Torben

    2008-03-01

    Cancer is a life-threatening condition. We describe the case of a 22-yr-old world-class endurance athlete who presented with mild local lymphadenopathy but without any systemic complaints or impaired performance. He was subsequently diagnosed with stage III A (S) Hodgkin's lymphoma. A complete physiological workup before the diagnosis revealed high aerobic capacity. Immediately after six courses of escalated BEACOPP chemotherapy in an identical test setting, aerobic capacity was markedly reduced (-42%), mainly because of a decrease in total hemoglobin mass (-37%), despite maintaining a certain amount of endurance training. Other potentially performance-limiting systems such as heart, lung, or aerobic metabolism did not show any signs of impairment. Two months after chemotherapy, the athlete had recovered his hemoglobin mass, and his aerobic performance was almost back to pretherapy levels. This case illustrates that advanced malignancies can be present in elite athletes without affecting performance, and that aerobic capacity can be regained within a short time after systemic chemotherapy.

  5. Acute Oxidative Effect and Muscle Damage after a Maximum 4 Min Test in High Performance Athletes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heros Ribeiro Ferreira

    Full Text Available The purpose of this investigation was to determine lipid peroxidation markers, physiological stress and muscle damage in elite kayakers in response to a maximum 4-min kayak ergometer test (KE test, and possible correlations with individual 1000m kayaking performances. The sample consisted of twenty-three adult male and nine adult female elite kayakers, with more than three years' experience in international events, who voluntarily took part in this study. The subjects performed a 10-min warm-up, followed by a 2-min passive interval, before starting the test itself, which consisted of a maximum 4-min work paddling on an ergometer; right after the end of the test, an 8 ml blood sample was collected for analysis. 72 hours after the test, all athletes took part in an official race, when then it was possible to check their performance in the on site K1 1000m test (P1000m. The results showed that all lipoproteins and hematological parameters tested presented a significant difference (p≤0.05 after exercise for both genders. In addition, parameters related to muscle damage such as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and creatine kinase (CK presented significant differences after stress. Uric acid presented an inverse correlation with the performance (r = -0.76, while CK presented a positive correlation (r = 0.46 with it. Based on these results, it was possible to verify muscle damage and the level of oxidative stress caused by indoor training with specific ergometers for speed kayaking, highlighting the importance of analyzing and getting to know the physiological responses to this type of training, in order to provide information to coaches and optimize athletic performance.

  6. Iron and the endurance athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Pamela S

    2014-09-01

    Iron is a trace mineral that is highly significant to endurance athletes. Iron is critical to optimal athletic performance because of its role in energy metabolism, oxygen transport, and acid-base balance. Endurance athletes are at increased risk for suboptimal iron status, with potential negative consequences on performance, because of the combination of increased iron needs and inadequate dietary intake. This review paper summarizes the role of iron in maximal and submaximal exercise and describes the effects of iron deficiency on exercise performance. Mechanisms that explain the increased risk of iron deficiency in endurance athletes, including exercise-associated inflammation and hepcidin release on iron sequestration, are described. Information on screening athletes for iron deficiency is presented, and suggestions to increase iron intake through diet modification or supplemental iron are provided.

  7. The construction of the training process highly skilled athletes in soccer and field hockey in the annual cycle of training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostyukevych V.M.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study - to justify the theoretical and methodological principles and concepts of the training process of building highly skilled athletes in soccer and field hockey in the annual cycle of training. The results . Calculate the ratio of training loads of different orientation in the annual cycle of training. Means of producing football players in the annual training cycle is as follows: non-specific (general training exercise - 45.6%, specific - 54.4% (special training exercise - 4.1% subsidiary - 22, 7%, competitive - 27.6% . Means of producing players in the annual training cycle is as follows: non-specific (general training exercise - 49.0%, specific - 51.0% (special training - 2.3% subsidiary - 26.1%, competitive exercise - 22.0% .

  8. SUPPLEMENT USE BY YOUNG ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Anne McDowall

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews studies of supplement use among child and adolescent athletes, focusing on prevalence and type of supplement use, as well as gender comparisons. Supplement use among adult athletes has been well documented however there are a limited number of studies investigating supplement use by child and adolescent athletes. A trend in the current literature revealed that the most frequently used supplements are in the form of vitamin and minerals. While health and illness prevention are the main reasons for taking supplements, enhanced athletic performance was also reported as a strong motivating factor. Generally, females are found to use supplements more frequently and are associated with reasons of health, recovery, and replacing an inadequate diet. Males are more likely to report taking supplements for enhanced performance. Both genders equally rated increased energy as another reason for engaging in supplement use. Many dietary supplements are highly accessible to young athletes and they are particularly vulnerable to pressures from the media and the prospect of playing sport at increasingly elite levels. Future research should provide more direct evidence regarding any physiological side effects of taking supplements, as well as the exact vitamin and mineral requirements for child and adolescent athletes. Increased education for young athletes regarding supplement use, parents and coaches should to be targeted to help the athletes make the appropriate choices

  9. Liability, Athletic Equipment, and the Athletic Trainer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Richard

    Standards of conduct, roles, and responsibilities expected of athletic trainers should be developed and disseminated. These guidelines could be used in court to show that the athletic trainer was following basic standards if he should be charged with liability. A review of liability cases involving athletic injuries received while athletes were…

  10. CrossFit athletes exhibit high symmetry of fundamental movement patterns. A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafuri, Silvio; Notarnicola, Angela; Monno, Antonello; Ferretti, Francesco; Moretti, Biagio

    2016-01-01

    even if CrossFit training programs accounted actually more than 7500 gyms affiliated in the USA and more than 2000 in Europe and involved today more than 1 million of people, actually there were not several studies about the effect of the CrossFit on the health and sport performance. The aim of these research was to evaluate the performance in 7 fundamental movement patterns using a standardized methods, the Functional Movement Screen (FMS). we enrolled three groups of athletes (age 17-40 years; >6 months of training programs): CrossFitters, body builders and professional weightlifters. FMS test was performed to all people enrolled. Scores of FMS test was examined comparing three groups. no differences in the three groups were showed in the mean score values of each test and in total score, except for shoulder mobility test (higher among CrossFitters) and trunk stability push-up test (higher among weightlifter). Agreement between the test performed on the two sides was higher in CrossFit groups for hurdle step (93.2%), in line lung (86%), rotary stability test (95.3%) and shoulder mobility (90.7%; pCrossFit seems to produce marked symmetry in some fundamental movements compared to weightlifting and bodybuilding.

  11. Improvement in dynamic balance and core endurance after a 6-week core-stability-training program in high school track and field athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandrey, Michelle A; Mitzel, Jonathan G

    2013-11-01

    Core training specifically for track and field athletes is vague, and it is not clear how it affects dynamic balance and core-endurance measures. To determine the effects of a 6-week core-stabilization-training program for high school track and field athletes on dynamic balance and core endurance. Test-retest. High school in north central West Virginia. Thirteen healthy high school student athletes from 1 track and field team volunteered for the study. Subjects completed pretesting 1 wk before data collection. They completed a 6-wk core-stabilization program designed specifically for track and field athletes. The program consisted of 3 levels with 6 exercises per level and lasted for 30 min each session 3 times per week. Subjects progressed to the next level at 2-wk intervals. After 6 wk, posttesting was conducted The subjects were evaluated using the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) for posteromedial (PM), medial (M), and anteromedial (AM) directions; abdominal-fatigue test (AFT); back-extensor test (BET); and side-bridge test (SBT) for the right and left sides. Posttest results significantly improved for all 3 directions of the SEBT (PM, M, and AM), AFT, BET, right SBT, and left SBT. Effect size was large for all variables except for PM and AM, where a moderate effect was noted. Minimal-detectable-change scores exceeded the error of the measurements for all dependent variables. After the 6-wk core-stabilization-training program, measures of the SEBT, AFT, BET, and SBT improved, thus advocating the use of this core-stabilization-training program for track and field athletes.

  12. The Importance of High School Physics Teachers for Female Students' Physics Identity and Persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazari, Zahra; Brewe, Eric; Goertzen, Renee Michelle; Hodapp, Theodore

    2017-02-01

    Given the historic and continued underrepresentation of women in physics, it is important to understand the role that high school physics might play in attracting female students to physics careers. Drawing on data from over 900 female undergraduates in physics, we examine when these women became interested in physics careers and different sources of recognition (important for physics identity development) that may have affected their choices at certain time points. The results provide optimism since many of these female students, even those not previously intending science careers, began to intend physics careers in high school and recognition from high school physics teachers had a significant effect on predicting these intentions.

  13. Perspective: Does Laboratory-Based Maximal Incremental Exercise Testing Elicit Maximum Physiological Responses in Highly-Trained Athletes with Cervical Spinal Cord Injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Christopher R; Leicht, Christof A; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L; Romer, Lee M

    2015-01-01

    The physiological assessment of highly-trained athletes is a cornerstone of many scientific support programs. In the present article, we provide original data followed by our perspective on the topic of laboratory-based incremental exercise testing in elite athletes with cervical spinal cord injury. We retrospectively reviewed our data on Great Britain Wheelchair Rugby athletes collected during the last two Paralympic cycles. We extracted and compared peak cardiometabolic (heart rate and blood lactate) responses between a standard laboratory-based incremental exercise test on a treadmill and two different maximal field tests (4 min and 40 min maximal push). In the nine athletes studied, both field tests elicited higher peak responses than the laboratory-based test. The present data imply that laboratory-based incremental protocols preclude the attainment of true peak cardiometabolic responses. This may be due to the different locomotor patterns required to sustain wheelchair propulsion during treadmill exercise or that maximal incremental treadmill protocols only require individuals to exercise at or near maximal exhaustion for a relatively short period of time. We acknowledge that both field- and laboratory-based testing have respective merits and pitfalls and suggest that the choice of test be dictated by the question at hand: if true peak responses are required then field-based testing is warranted, whereas laboratory-based testing may be more appropriate for obtaining cardiometabolic responses across a range of standardized exercise intensities.

  14. Perspective: Does laboratory-based maximal incremental exercise testing elicit maximum physiological responses in highly-trained athletes with cervical spinal cord injury?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R West

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The physiological assessment of highly-trained athletes is a cornerstone of many scientific support programs. In the present article, we provide original data followed by our perspective on the topic of laboratory-based incremental exercise testing in elite athletes with cervical spinal cord injury. We retrospectively reviewed our data on Great Britain Wheelchair Rugby athletes collected during the last two Paralympic cycles. We extracted and compared peak cardiometabolic (heart rate and blood lactate responses between a standard laboratory-based incremental exercise test on a treadmill and two different maximal field tests (4 min and 40 min maximal push. In the nine athletes studied, both field tests elicited higher peak responses than the laboratory-based test. The present data imply that laboratory-based incremental protocols preclude the attainment of true peak cardiometabolic responses. This may be due to the different locomotor patterns required to sustain wheelchair propulsion during treadmill exercise or that maximal incremental treadmill protocols only require individuals to exercise at or near maximal exhaustion for a relatively short period of time. We acknowledge that both field- and laboratory-based testing have respective merits and pitfalls and suggest that the choice of test be dictated by the question at hand: if true peak responses are required then field-based testing is warranted, whereas laboratory-based testing may be more appropriate for obtaining cardiometabolic responses across a range of standardised exercise intensities.

  15. High-sensitive C-reactive protein level and oxidative stress-related status in former athletes in relation to traditional cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihl, E; Zilmer, K; Kullisaar, T; Kairane, C; Pulges, A; Zilmer, M

    2003-12-01

    To analyze systemic and cellular oxidative stress-related indices as well as C-reactive protein level in former top-level athletes in relation to traditional cardiovascular risk factors. A cross-sectional study was performed in 53 former male athletes and 25 sedentary controls (age range: 39-59 years). We measured anthropometric factors (BMI, fat percentage, WHR), resting blood pressure (SBP, DBP), serum cholesterol (CHOL), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG), total antioxidant status (TAS), oxidized LDL-C (oxLDL), diene conjugates (DC), glutathione redox status, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP), and leisure-time physical activity. Physically active former athletes had significantly lower mean overweight (BMI, fat percentage, WHR), better spectrum of atherogenesis indicators (CHOL, HDL-C, TG, TG:HDL-C ratio) and lower oxidative stress (oxLDL, oxLDL:LDL-C ratio, DC) values than sedentary ex-athletes. No significant differences in these variables were found between the sedentary ex-athletes and control group. Significant associations were found between physical activity (METs), SBP, DBP, hypertension, CHOL, HDL-C, TG, TG:HDL-C ratio, oxLDL, oxLDL:LDL-C ratio, DC and hsCRP. A physically active lifestyle is related to a lower cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk profile including a substantially lower systemic and cellular oxidative stress status as well as C-reactive protein level in middle-aged men. Copyright 2003 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  16. The Anemias of Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichner, Edward R.

    1986-01-01

    Diagnosing anemia in athletes is complicated because athletes normally have a pseudoanemia that needs no treatment. Athletes, however, can develop anemia from iron deficiency or footstrike hemolysis, which require diagnosis and treatment. (Author/MT)

  17. Professional development in person: identity and the construction of teaching within a high school science department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deneroff, Victoria

    2016-06-01

    This is a narrative inquiry into the role of professional development in the construction of teaching practice by an exemplary urban high school science teacher. I collected data during 3 years of ethnographic participant observation in Marie Gonzalez's classroom. Marie told stories about her experiences in ten years of professional development focused on inquiry science teaching. I use a social practice theory lens to analyze my own stories as well as Marie's. I make the case that science teaching is best understood as mediated by socially-constructed identities rather than as the end-product of knowledge and beliefs. The cognitive paradigm for understanding teachers' professional learning fails to consistently produce transformations of teaching practice. In order to design professional development with science teachers that is generative of new knowledge, and is self-sustaining, we must understand how to build knowledge of how to problematize identities and consciously use social practice theory.

  18. MUSCLE INJURIES IN ATHLETES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, Guilherme Campos; Thiele, Edilson Schwansee

    2011-01-01

    This article had the aim of demonstrating the physiology, diagnosis and treatment of muscle injuries, focusing on athletes and their demands and expectations. Muscle injuries are among the most common complaints in orthopedic practice, occurring both among athletes and among non-athletes. These injuries present a challenge for specialists, due to the slow recovery, during which time athletes are unable to take part in training and competitions, and due to frequent sequelae and recurrences of the injuries. Most muscle injuries (between 10% and 55% of all injuries) occur during sports activities. The muscles most commonly affected are the ischiotibial, quadriceps and gastrocnemius. These muscles go across two joints and are more subject to acceleration and deceleration forces. The treatment for muscle injuries varies from conservative treatment to surgery. New procedures are being used, like the hyperbaric chamber and the use of growth factors. However, there is still a high rate of injury recurrence. Muscle injury continues to be a topic of much controversy. New treatments are being researched and developed, but prevention through muscle strengthening, stretching exercises and muscle balance continues to be the best "treatment".

  19. LEVEL OF NUTTRITION ADEQUACY, PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF YOUNG MEN ATHLETES SOCCER SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL IN DENPASAR 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Ni Luh Gede Karyamitha; Kadek Tresna Adhi

    2013-01-01

    Soccer is a favorite sport for  people around the world including in Indonesia. Not only the method of training or talent that will determine the achievement, but the intake of daily nutrients directly proper also provide a positive influence on performance and achievements of athletes. The purpose of this study was to determine the adequacy of nutrition, physical activity, and nutritional status of young men athletes soccer. This study useds cross-sectional method. The number of samples take...

  20. Navigating the thin-ideal in an athletic world: influence of coach communication on female athletes' body image and health choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckner, Brittany N; Record, Rachael A

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to investigate how interpersonal communication between coaches and female athletes influences the female athletes' perceptions of body image and health choices. Much of the current literature has focused on the fact that female athletes are at risk for disordered eating and a distorted body image due to susceptibility to the feminine "thin-ideal" while maintaining the fitness levels necessary to compete in their sport. However, very little research has examined how interpersonal interaction plays a role in female athletes' body image perceptions and health behaviors. Utilizing the Communication Theory of Identity (CTI) as a lens to examine communication between female athletes and their coaches, the researchers analyzed transcripts from in-depth interviews with 28 female athletes and identified themes within the personal, relational, enacted, and communal layers of identity. Coach communication with their female athletes was found to be influential to the athletes' body images and health choices.

  1. Mathematics: Self-Efficacy, Identity, and Achievement among African American Males from the High School Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Calvin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a relationship existed between mathematics self-efficacy and mathematics identity to mathematics achievement among African American males from High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09). Subsequently, the extent to which mathematics self-efficacy and mathematics identity accounted for low and…

  2. Dimensions of Psychological Capital in a U.S. Suburb and High School: Identities for Neoliberal Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demerath, Peter; Lynch, Jill; Davidson, Mario

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we describe the identities of U.S. suburban high school students as they attempt to ensure their "market relevance" in a neoliberal era. The data are drawn from a four-year ethnographic study of the construction of educational advantage conducted by a diverse five-person research team. These identities were characterized by strong…

  3. What Does it Mean to Be African American? Constructions of Race and Academic Identity in an Urban Public High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Na'ilah Suad; McLaughlin, Milbrey W.; Jones, Amina

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore variation in the meanings of racial identity for African American students in a predominantly African American urban high school. They view racial identity as both related to membership in a racial group and as fluid and reconstructed in the local school setting. They draw on both survey data and observational…

  4. Hormonal, metabolic, and cardiorespiratory responses of young and adult athletes to a single session of high-intensity cycle exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Florian; Härtel, Sascha; Wagner, Matthias Oliver; Strahler, Jana; Bös, Klaus; Sperlich, Billy

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of a single high-intensity interval training (HIIT) session on salivary cortisol (SC) levels, physiological responses, and performance in trained boys and men. Twenty-three boys (11.5 ± 0.8 years) and 25 men (29.7 ± 4.6 years) performed HIIT (4 consecutive Wingate Anaerobic Tests). SC in boys and men increased after HIIT from 5.55 ± 3.3 nmol/l to 15.13 ± 9.7 nmol/l (+173%) and from 7.07 ± 4.7 nmol/l to 19.19 ± 12.7 nmol/l (+171%), respectively (p HIIT, mean heart rates in boys were higher (p HIIT in young athletes is associated with a higher activation of the hormonal stress axis than other types of exercise regimes as described in the literature. This study is the first to show a pronounced SC increase to HIIT in trained boys accompanied by elevated levels of blood lactate concentrations and heart rate suggesting a high cardio-respiratory, metabolic, and hormonal response to HIIT in 11-year-old boys.

  5. Exploring relations of wellness and athletic coping skills of collegiate athletes: implications for sport performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Guenthner, Shannon; Hammermeister, Jon

    2007-12-01

    In exploring the relationship between wellness and athletic performance, this study assessed the link between wellness, as defined by a high score on five wellness dimensions of emotional, social, spiritual, intellectual, and physical well-being, with psychological variables thought to be related to athletic performance as measured by athletes' self-report of specific athletic coping skills. 142 collegiate athletes completed a survey composed of the Optimal Living Profile to measure wellness dimensions and the Athletic Coping Skills Inventory to measure specific psychological variables. Analysis indicated that athletes scoring higher on the dimensions of wellness also scored significantly higher on athletic coping skills. Specifically, male athletes who scored higher on wellness also reported higher scores on coachability, concentration, goal setting/mental preparation, and peaking under pressure, and female athletes who scored higher on wellness also reported higher scores in coping with adversity, coachability, concentration, goal setting/mental preparation, and freedom from worry. Various dimensions of wellness seem related to better performance by involving the athletic coping skills of intercollegiate athletes. Implications for coaches and sport psychologists are also discussed.

  6. [Modification of bone quality by extreme physical stress. Bone density measurements in high-performance athletes using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabo, D; Reiter, A; Pfeil, J; Güssbacher, A; Niethard, F U

    1996-01-01

    The treatment of osteoporosis is still controversial. Rehabilitation programs which stress strengthening exercises as well as impact loading activities increase the bone mass. On the other side activity level early in life has not been proven to correlate with increased bone mineral content later in life. Little is known on the influence of high performance sports on the bone density especially in athletes with high demands on weight bearing of the spine. In (n = 40) internationally top ranked high performance athletes of different disciplines (n = 28 weight-lifters, n = 6 sports-boxers and n = 6 bicycle-racers) bone density measurements of the lumbar spine and the left hip were performed. The measurements were carried out by dual-photonabsorptiometry (DEXA; QDR 2000, Siemens) and evaluated by an interactive software-programme (Hologic Inc.). The results were compared to the measurements of 21 age-matched male control individuals. In the high performance weight lifters there was an increase of bone density compared to the control individuals of 23% in the Ward's triangle (p boxers had an increase up to 17% (lumbar spine), 9% (hip) and 7% (Wards' triangle). In the third athletes group (Tour de France-bikers) BMD was decreased 10% in the lumbar spine, 14% in the hip and 17% in the Wards' triangle. Our results show that training programs stressing axial loads of the skeletal system may lead to an increase of BMD in the spine and the hip of young individuals. Other authors findings, that the BMD of endurance athletes may decrease, is confirmed. Nevertheless the bikers BMD-loss of 10 to 17% was surprisingly high.

  7. Features of technical and tactical actions of highly skilled athletes at swimming of competitive distances of 50, 100 and 200 meters way to crawl on his back

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Pilipko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to identify the features of technical and tactical actions of highly skilled athletes, specializing in swimming crawl on way back to the distances of different lengths. Material and Methods: we used analysis of scientific and methodical literature, teacher observation, video, timing, methods of mathematical processing of the data. Collection of digital material was carried out during the Championship and Cup of Ukraine on swimming. Surveyed group consisted of participants of the final swim at distances of 50, 100 and 200 meters way to crawl on his back. Results: characterized by changes of speed, tempo and "step" cycle paddle movements in the process of overcoming competitive distances of 50, 100 and 200 meters way to crawl on his back, given their comparative characteristics. Conclusions: the nature of the technical and tactical actions of highly skilled athletes, specializing in swimming crawl on way back, depending on the length of competitive distance.

  8. Parental attachment as a mediator between parental social support and self-esteem as perceived by Korean sports middle and high school athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sangwook; Jeon, Hyunsoo; Kwon, Sungho; Park, Seungha

    2015-02-01

    This study examined whether parental attachment mediates the relationship between parental social support and self-esteem in Korean middle and high school athletes. 591 sports athletes attending middle and high schools that specialize in sport volunteered. Parental social support and parental attachment had a significant positive effect on self-esteem; parental attachment had a greater effect on self-esteem. In the structural relationship, direct effects of parental social support on self-esteem were weak, but indirect effects through parental attachment were strong. Therefore, parental attachment complementally mediated the relationship between parental social support and self-esteem. Metric invariance was supported for groups categorized by sex, region, and school level, confirming that the model could be applied to various groups.

  9. Chromobacterium spp. harbour Ambler class A beta-lactamases showing high identity with KPC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudeta, Dereje Dadi; Bortolaia, Valeria; Jayol, Aurelie

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The origin of KPC is unknown. The aim of this study was to detect progenitors of KPC in silico and to functionally verify their beta-lactam hydrolysis activity. Methods: The sequence of KPC-2 was used to mine the NCBI protein sequence database. The best non-KPC hits were analysed by a......-lactamases with up to 76% aa identity to KPC from distinct Chromobacterium species is highly indicative of the role played by this genus in the evolution of KPC....

  10. Aggravation of pulmonary diffusing capacity in highly trained athletes by 6 weeks of low-volume, low-intensity training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galy, Olivier; Maimoun, Laurent; Coste, Olivier; Manetta, Jérôme; Boussana, Alain; Préfaut, Christian; Hue, Olivier

    2013-11-01

    Postexercise alveolar-capillary membrane-diffusing capacity (DLco) often decreases in highly trained endurance athletes and seems linked to their training status. To test the hypothesis that training status influences postexercise DLco, 13 male and 2 female triathletes (20.2 ± 4.4 y old, 175.2 ± 6.7 cm tall; weight in a range of 66.6 ± 7.4 kg to 67.4 ± 7.8 kg during the 1-y study) were randomized into experimental (n = 7) and control (n = 8) groups and performed VO(2max) cycle tests and simulated cycle-run successions (CR) of 30 min + 20 min after 3 periods in the competitive season. Both groups were tested before (pre- HTP) and after a 30-wk high-training period (HTP) with high training volume, intensity, and frequency. The experimental group was then also tested after a 6-wk low-training period (LTP) with low training volume, intensity, and frequency, while the control group continued training according to the HTP schedule for these 6 wk. Ventilatory data were collected continuously. DLco testing was performed before and 30, 60, and 120 min after the CR trials. Whatever the period or group, DLco was significantly decreased 30 min after CR, with a significantly greater decrease in the experimental group than the control group in LTP (-15.7% and -9.3% of DLco, respectively). Six weeks of low training volume and intensity were sufficient to reverse the effects of high training volume and intensity on the alveolar-capillary membrane after a CR succession in competitive triathletes.

  11. 运动员大学生自我同一性、心理健康状况及其关系的研究%A study on ego identity and mental health of students in athletes and their relationship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭远兵; 黄朝云; 孙鹏飞

    2008-01-01

    Objective To study the ego identity,mental health and their relationship among students in athletes.Methods 110 students in athletes and 122 athletes in students were measured with identity status scale and athletes' symptom checklist.Results ①Students in athletes have higher "present serf-commitment" (5.09±1.07)and lower "crisis in the past"(2.19±1.12)than athletes in students.The two demonstrate the obvious difference on the distribution of identity status.The percentage of students in athletes obtaining A is lower than that of athletes in students ,while the percentage of students in athletes obtaining D and MD is higher. ②Comparing with the norm,students in athletes have higher level on the factors of sematizafion (1.98±0.42),compulsion (2.21±0.51),interpersonal sensitivity(2.09±0.53),depression (1.85±0.53),anxiety ( 2.47 ~0.58 ),paranoid (1.98±0.21),psychoticism (1.79±0.22) and total average marks (2.00±0.34),lower level on the factors of hostility (1.43±0.48)and cognitive(1.64±0.31). ③Three domains of ego identity exit obvious negative correlation with the sores of psychological symptoms.ANOVA confined that the more advanced ego identity is,the better mental health is.Conclusion Ego identity and mental health of students in athletes have their own features,and ego i-dentity will influence mental health.%目的 考察运动员大学生自我同一性、心理健康状况及其关系.方法 采用自我同一性地位量表和运动员心理症状自评量表对110名运动员大学生和122名大学生运动员进行调查.结果 ①运动员大学生自我同一性在"现在自我投入"维度[(5.09±1.07)分]显著高于大学生运动员,在"过去的危机"维度[(2.19±1.12)分]显著低于大学生运动员;运动员大学生与大学生运动员在同一性地位总体分布显差异著,运动员大学生处于A状态的人数比例显著低于大学生运动员,处于MD和D状态的人数比例显著高于大学生运动员.②

  12. Analysis of high-identity segmental duplications in the grapevine genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carelli Francesco N

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Segmental duplications (SDs are blocks of genomic sequence of 1-200 kb that map to different loci in a genome and share a sequence identity > 90%. SDs show at the sequence level the same characteristics as other regions of the human genome: they contain both high-copy repeats and gene sequences. SDs play an important role in genome plasticity by creating new genes and modeling genome structure. Although data is plentiful for mammals, not much was known about the representation of SDs in plant genomes. In this regard, we performed a genome-wide analysis of high-identity SDs on the sequenced grapevine (Vitis vinifera genome (PN40024. Results We demonstrate that recent SDs (> 94% identity and >= 10 kb in size are a relevant component of the grapevine genome (85 Mb, 17% of the genome sequence. We detected mitochondrial and plastid DNA and genes (10% of gene annotation in segmentally duplicated regions of the nuclear genome. In particular, the nine highest copy number genes have a copy in either or both organelle genomes. Further we showed that several duplicated genes take part in the biosynthesis of compounds involved in plant response to environmental stress. Conclusions These data show the great influence of SDs and organelle DNA transfers in modeling the Vitis vinifera nuclear DNA structure as well as the impact of SDs in contributing to the adaptive capacity of grapevine and the nutritional content of grape products through genome variation. This study represents a step forward in the full characterization of duplicated genes important for grapevine cultural needs and human health.

  13. Fear of Reinjury in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chao-Jung; Meierbachtol, Adam; George, Steven Z; Chmielewski, Terese L

    A sports injury has both physical and psychological consequences for the athlete. A common postinjury psychological response is elevated fear of reinjury. To provide an overview of the implications of fear of reinjury on the rehabilitation of athletes, including clinical methods to measure fear of reinjury; the impact of fear of reinjury on rehabilitation outcomes, including physical impairments, function, and return to sports rate; and potential interventions to address fear of reinjury during rehabilitation. PubMed was searched for articles published in the past 16 years (1990-2016) relating to fear of reinjury in athletes. The reference lists of the retrieved articles were searched for additionally relevant articles. Clinical review. Level 3. Fear of reinjury after a sports injury can negatively affect the recovery of physical impairments, reduce self-report function, and prevent a successful return to sport. Athletes with high fear of reinjury might benefit from a psychologically informed practice approach to improve rehabilitation outcomes. The application of psychologically informed practice would be to measure fear of reinjury in the injured athletes and provide interventions to reduce fear of reinjury to optimize rehabilitation outcomes. Fear of reinjury after a sports injury can lead to poor rehabilitation outcomes. Incorporating principles of psychologically informed practice into sports injury rehabilitation could improve rehabilitation outcomes for athletes with high fear of reinjury.

  14. Electrophysiological characteristics of the athlete's heart

    OpenAIRE

    Popović Dejana; Brkić Predrag; Nešić Dejan; Stojiljković Stanimir; Šćepanović Ljiljana; Ostojić Miodrag Č.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction. The athletic heart syndrome is characterized by morphological, functional and electrophysiological alterations as an adaptive response to vigorous physical activity. Athletes heart is predominantly associated with a programmed, intensive training. But as there are different kinds of physical activities, the degree of these changes is highly variable. Electrophysiological characteristics of the athlete's heart. The response of the body to vigorous physical activity is a multiorga...

  15. Application of A Physiological Strain Index in Evaluating Responses to Exercise Stress – A Comparison Between Endurance and High Intensity Intermittent Trained Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żebrowska, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The study evaluated differences in response to exercise stress between endurance and high-intensity intermittent trained athletes in a thermoneutral environment using a physiological strain index (PSI). Thirty-two subjects participated in a running exercise under normal (23°C, 50% RH) conditions. The group included nine endurance trained athletes (middle-distance runners - MD), twelve high-intensity intermittent trained athletes (soccer players - HIIT) and eleven students who constituted a control group. The exercise started at a speed of 4 km·h–1 which was increased every 3 min by 2 km·h–1 to volitional exhaustion. The heart rate was recorded with a heart rate monitor and aural canal temperature was measured using an aural canal temperature probe. The physiological strain index (PSI) and the contribution of the circulatory and thermal components to the overall physiological strain were calculated from the heart rate and aural canal temperature. The physiological strain index differed between the study and control participants, but not between the MD and HIIT groups. The physiological strain in response to exercise stress in a thermoneutral environment was mainly determined based on the circulatory strain (MD group - 73%, HIIT group – 70%). The contribution of the circulatory and thermal components to the physiological strain did not differ significantly between the trained groups (MD and HIIT) despite important differences in morphological characteristics and training-induced systemic cardiovascular and thermoregulatory adaptations. PMID:28149347

  16. Application of A Physiological Strain Index in Evaluating Responses to Exercise Stress – A Comparison Between Endurance and High Intensity Intermittent Trained Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pokora Ilona

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated differences in response to exercise stress between endurance and high-intensity intermittent trained athletes in a thermoneutral environment using a physiological strain index (PSI. Thirty-two subjects participated in a running exercise under normal (23°C, 50% RH conditions. The group included nine endurance trained athletes (middle-distance runners - MD, twelve high-intensity intermittent trained athletes (soccer players - HIIT and eleven students who constituted a control group. The exercise started at a speed of 4 km·h–1 which was increased every 3 min by 2 km·h–1 to volitional exhaustion. The heart rate was recorded with a heart rate monitor and aural canal temperature was measured using an aural canal temperature probe. The physiological strain index (PSI and the contribution of the circulatory and thermal components to the overall physiological strain were calculated from the heart rate and aural canal temperature. The physiological strain index differed between the study and control participants, but not between the MD and HIIT groups. The physiological strain in response to exercise stress in a thermoneutral environment was mainly determined based on the circulatory strain (MD group - 73%, HIIT group – 70%. The contribution of the circulatory and thermal components to the physiological strain did not differ significantly between the trained groups (MD and HIIT despite important differences in morphological characteristics and training-induced systemic cardiovascular and thermoregulatory adaptations.

  17. Social functions of high school athletics in the United States: a historical and comparative analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stokvis, R.

    2009-01-01

    In the United States competitive sport is part of the extra-curricular program of high schools. In the Netherlands, on the other hand, competitive sport is practiced in private clubs which are completely independent of the high schools. The consolidation and continuity of this difference can be

  18. Accuracy of Athletic Trainer and Physician Diagnoses in Sports Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Nicholas J; Tucker, Bradford; Freedman, Kevin B; Austin, Luke S; Eck, Brandon; Pepe, Matthew; Tjoumakaris, Fotios P

    2016-09-01

    It is standard practice in high school athletic programs for certified athletic trainers to evaluate and treat injured student athletes. In some cases, a trainer refers an athlete to a physician for definitive medical management. This study was conducted to determine the rate of agreement between athletic trainers and physicians regarding assessment of injuries in student athletes. All high school athletes who were injured between 2010 and 2012 at 5 regional high schools were included in a research database. All patients who were referred for physician evaluation and treatment were identified and included in this analysis. A total of 286 incidents met the inclusion criteria. A total of 263 (92%) of the athletic trainer assessments and physician diagnoses were in agreement. In the 23 cases of disagreement, fractures and sprains were the most common injuries. Kappa analysis showed the highest interrater agreement in injuries classified as dislocations and concussions and the lowest interrater agreement in meniscal/labral injuries and fractures. In the absence of a confirmed diagnosis, agreement among health care providers can be used to infer accuracy. According to this principle, as agreement between athletic trainers and physicians improves, there is a greater likelihood of arriving at the correct assessment and treatment plan. Athletic trainers are highly skilled professionals who are well trained in the evaluation of athletic injuries. The current study showed that additional training in identifying fractures may be beneficial to athletic trainers and the athletes they treat. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(5):e944-e949.].

  19. Medical considerations for the master athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlis-Mayor, Stephanie

    2012-09-01

    As the American population ages, older adults are likely to continue their active lifestyles including participation in high-level competitive sports. Physicians caring for the older athlete will need to guide activity and return-to-play to optimize the athlete's performance, as well as safely support their physical and mental health. Many medical concerns of the older athlete have the same etiology and treatment as those of their younger counterpart However, there are medical considerations of the mature athlete that are unique to this population. It is the purpose of this paper to review some of the medical considerations that may arise in the care of the older athlete. For the purpose of this review, the mature athlete is de!ned as an individual over the age of 40, who participates in sport at a competitive level.

  20. High-Intensity Intermittent Training Positively Affects Aerobic and Anaerobic Performance in Judo Athletes Independently of Exercise Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchini, Emerson; Julio, Ursula F.; Panissa, Valéria L. G.; Lira, Fábio S.; Gerosa-Neto, José; Branco, Braulio H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The present study investigated the effects of high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) on lower- and upper-body graded exercise and high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE, four Wingate bouts) performance, and on physiological and muscle damage markers responses in judo athletes. Methods: Thirty-five subjects were randomly allocated to a control group (n = 8) or to one of the following HIIT groups (n = 9 for each) and tested pre- and post-four weeks (2 training d·wk−1): (1) lower-body cycle-ergometer; (2) upper-body cycle-ergometer; (3) uchi-komi (judo technique entrance). All HIIT were constituted by two blocks of 10 sets of 20 s of all out effort interspersed by 10 s set intervals and 5-min between blocks. Results: For the upper-body group there was an increase in maximal aerobic power in graded upper-body exercise test (12.3%). The lower-body group increased power at onset blood lactate in graded upper-body exercise test (22.1%). The uchi-komi group increased peak power in upper- (16.7%) and lower-body (8.5%), while the lower-body group increased lower-body mean power (14.2%) during the HIIE. There was a decrease in the delta blood lactate for the uchi-komi training group and in the third and fourth bouts for the upper-body training group. Training induced testosterone-cortisol ratio increased in the lower-body HIIE for the lower-body (14.9%) and uchi-komi (61.4%) training groups. Conclusion: Thus, short-duration low-volume HIIT added to regular judo training was able to increase upper-body aerobic power, lower- and upper-body HIIE performance. PMID:27445856

  1. Assessment of psychological pain management techniques: a comparative study between athletes and non-athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azevedo Daniel Câmara

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Athletes usually deal with injuries and pain. They seem to have similar pain threshold when compared to non-athletes, although they have higher pain tolerance and the exact cause for that is unknown. High levels for pain tolerance and control can improve performance and time for injury recovery. The literature shows that use of coping strategies can increase pain control; possible differences on coping with pain between athletes and non-athletes are poorly described. The purpose of this study was to evaluate frequency of coping strategies used by athletes and non-athletes of both genders and look for possible association between preferred coping style and pain intensity. The sample included 160 subjects with actual pain experience, 80 athletes (52 male, 28 female and 80 non-athletes (50 male and 30 female. All subjects were evaluated for pain intensity, frequency and duration and for coping strategies using a questionnaire (SBS-V. The results show that athletes and non-athletes, despite of gender, use with the same frequency coping strategies. The less common coping strategies for all groups were those poor-adaptative (p < 0.001; the most commonly strategy used was self-statement and regulation of body tension (p < 0.001. Female athletes use more frequently poor-adaptative strategies when pain intensity increases (p < 0.05.

  2. Quality of record linkage in a highly automated cancer registry that relies on encrypted identity data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidtmann, Irene

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In the absence of unique ID numbers, cancer and other registries in Germany and elsewhere rely on identity data to link records pertaining to the same patient. These data are often encrypted to ensure privacy. Some record linkage errors unavoidably occur. These errors were quantified for the cancer registry of North Rhine Westphalia which uses encrypted identity data. Methods: A sample of records was drawn from the registry, record linkage information was included. In parallel, plain text data for these records were retrieved to generate a gold standard. Record linkage error frequencies in the cancer registry were determined by comparison of the results of the routine linkage with the gold standard. Error rates were projected to larger registries.Results: In the sample studied, the homonym error rate was 0.015%; the synonym error rate was 0.2%. The F-measure was 0.9921. Projection to larger databases indicated that for a realistic development the homonym error rate will be around 1%, the synonym error rate around 2%.Conclusion: Observed error rates are low. This shows that effective methods to standardize and improve the quality of the input data have been implemented. This is crucial to keep error rates low when the registry’s database grows. The planned inclusion of unique health insurance numbers is likely to further improve record linkage quality. Cancer registration entirely based on electronic notification of records can process large amounts of data with high quality of record linkage.

  3. Nutritional Strategies for Athletes in High Intensity Training Period%运动员高强度训练期的营养策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭静璐; 林子扬; 唐宝盛

    2013-01-01

    随着竞技体育的发展,教练员、运动员日益重视应用营养学手段促进疲劳恢复,高强度训练期运动员营养需求增加,需要科研人员通过膳食和补剂等手段结合,保证其机体需求,顺利完成训练计划。在调研分析运动员膳食营养现状的基础上,提出科学合理的膳食营养补充和营养补剂应用策略,制定标准化食谱,供教练员和运动员参考。%With the development of competitive sports , coaches and athletes pay more attention to fatigue re-covery by nutrition , in high intensity training period , the nutritional requirements of athletes has increased , the researchers ensure the body need and complete the training programs by dietary supplements and nutri -tional supplements .On the basis of analyzing the nutritional status of athletes , the paper proposes the scien-tific plan of dietary supplements and nutritional supplements , and makes the standard recipes for reference .

  4. Athletic Participation and Seatbelt Omission among U.S. High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnick, Merrill J.; Miller, Kathleen E.; Sabo, Donald F.; Barnes, Grace M.; Farrell, Michael P.

    2010-01-01

    Although seatbelts save lives, adolescents may be disproportionately likely to omit their use. Using data from the 1997 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a national survey of more than 16,000 U.S. public and private high school students, the authors employed a series of logistic regression analyses to examine cross-sectional associations between past…

  5. Behavioral Coaching to Improve Offensive Line Pass-Blocking Skills of High School Football Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, John V.; Luiselli, James K.; Reed, Derek D.; Fleming, Richard K.

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated several behavioral coaching procedures for improving offensive line pass-blocking skills with 5 high school varsity football players. Pass blocking was measured during practice drills and games, and our intervention included descriptive feedback with and without video feedback and teaching with acoustical guidance (TAG). Intervention…

  6. Effects of 12 weeks high-intensity & reduced-volume training in elite athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilen, Anders; Larsson, Tanja Hultengren; Jørgensen, Majke;

    2014-01-01

    It was investigated if high-intensity interval training (HIT) at the expense of total training volume improves performance, maximal oxygen uptake and swimming economy. 41 elite swimmers were randomly allocated to a control (CON) or HIT group. For 12 weeks both groups trained ∼12 h per week. HIT c...

  7. Advances in haplo-identical stem cell transplantation in adults with high-risk hematological malignancies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael; J; Ricci; Jeffrey; A; Medin; Ronan; S; Foley

    2014-01-01

    Allogeneic bone marrow transplant is a life-saving procedure for adults and children that have high-risk or relapsed hematological malignancies. Incremental advances in the procedure, as well as expanded sources of donor hematopoietic cell grafts have significantly improved overall rates of success. Yet, the outcomes for patients for whom suitable donors cannot be found remain a significant limitation. These patients may benefit from a hematopoietic cell transplant wherein a relative donor is fully haplotype mismatched. Previously this procedure was limited by graft rejection, lethal graft-versus-host disease, and increased treatmentrelated toxicity. Recent approaches in haplo-identical transplantation have demonstrated significantly improved outcomes. Based on years of incremental preclinical research into this unique form of bone marrow transplant, a range of approaches have now been studied in patients in relatively large phase Ⅱ trials that will be summarized in this review.

  8. Neural processing of facial identity and emotion in infants at high risk for autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Elizabeth Fox

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Deficits in face processing and social impairment are core characteristics of autism spectrum disorder. The present work examined 7 month-old infants at high risk for developing autism and typically developing controls at low risk, using a face perception task designed to differentiate between the effects of face identity and facial emotions on neural response using functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS. In addition, we employed independent component analysis (ICA, as well as a novel method of condition-related component selection and classification to identify group differences in hemodynamic waveforms and response distributions associated with face and emotion processing. The results indicate similarities of waveforms, but differences in the magnitude, spatial distribution, and timing of responses between groups. These early differences in local cortical regions and the hemodynamic response may, in turn, contribute to differences in patterns of functional connectivity.

  9. Organic food consumption by athletes in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranauskas, Marius; Stukas, Rimantas; Tubelis, Linas; Žagminas, Kęstutis; Šurkienė, Genė; Dobrovolskij, Valerij; Jakubauskienė, Marija; Giedraitis, Vincentas Rolandas

    2015-01-01

    With environmental pollution increasing, interest in organic farming and organic foodstuffs has been growing all over the world. Data on organic food consumption by Lithuanian athletes is not yet available. This lack of data determined the aim of this study: to identify the particulars of organic foodstuff consumption among athletes. In September-November 2012, we polled 158 of the best-performing athletes of the Olympic sports team through direct interviews. An approved questionnaire was used to identify the specifics of organic foodstuff consumption among athletes. The survey results showed that 97% of athletes consume organic foodstuffs, and 80% of athletes highlighted the positive impact of organic food on health. Nevertheless, a slim majority of athletes (51.7%) consume organic foodstuffs seldomly, 2-3 times per week. The range of organic foodstuffs consumed depends on the gender of athletes, and the consumption of some products depends on monthly incomes. Survey results confirm the need for the production and expansion of the variety of organic foodstuffs. In the course of the development of the organic food market, it should be beneficial for manufacturers to target high-performance athletes and physically active people.

  10. Peripubertal female athletes in high-impact sports show improved bone mass acquisition and bone geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maïmoun, Laurent; Coste, Olivier; Philibert, Pascal; Briot, Karine; Mura, Thibault; Galtier, Florence; Mariano-Goulart, Denis; Paris, Françoise; Sultan, Charles

    2013-08-01

    Intensive physical training may have a sport-dependent effect on bone mass acquisition. This cross-sectional study evaluated bone mass acquisition in girls practicing sports that put different mechanical loads on bone. Eighty girls from 10.7 to 18.0 years old (mean 13.83 ± 1.97) were recruited: 20 artistic gymnasts (AG; high-impact activity), 20 rhythmic gymnasts (RG; medium-impact activity), 20 swimmers (SW, no-impact activity), and 20 age-matched controls (CON; leisure physical activity activity clearly had a favorable effect on aBMD and bone geometry during the growth period, although the bone health benefits seem to be more marked after menarche. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Non-suicidal self-injury in high school students: Associations with identity processes and statuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyckx, Koen; Gandhi, Amarendra; Bijttebier, Patricia; Claes, Laurence

    2015-06-01

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) refers to the direct, deliberate destruction of one's body tissue without suicidal intent. Research has highlighted the importance of identity synthesis versus confusion for NSSI. However, the association with identity processes and statuses remains unknown. A total of 568 adolescents reported on NSSI, identity, anxiety, and depression. Although identity processes of identification with commitment (negatively) and ruminative exploration (positively) were related to NSSI variables, these relationships were no longer significant when controlling for anxiety and depression. When examining identity statuses (using cluster analysis), individuals who had engaged in NSSI in the past (but not currently) were more likely to be in the moratorium cluster and less likely to be in the achievement cluster. Individuals who were currently engaging in NSSI were more likely to be in the troubled diffusion cluster. Clinicians should be attentive to the complex interplay between identity and NSSI when treating adolescents.

  12. Gender identity and substance use among students in two high schools in Monterrey, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Kulis, Stephen; Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco; Lingard, Erin Chase; Nieri, Tanya; Nagoshi, Julieann

    2008-01-01

    This study explored relationships between several hypothesized dimensions of gender identity and substance use outcomes within a non-probability sample of adolescents in Monterrey, Mexico. Based on Mexican concepts of machismo and marianismo, four gender identity constructs were measured: aggressive masculinity, assertive masculinity, affective femininity and submissive femininity. The study assessed how well these gender identity measures predicted substance use behaviors, substance use inte...

  13. Effects of 12 weeks high-intensity & reduced-volume training in elite athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilen, Anders; Larsson, Tanja Hultengren; Jørgensen, Majke

    2014-01-01

    It was investigated if high-intensity interval training (HIT) at the expense of total training volume improves performance, maximal oxygen uptake and swimming economy. 41 elite swimmers were randomly allocated to a control (CON) or HIT group. For 12 weeks both groups trained ∼12 h per week. HIT...... (60.4±4.0 vs. 60.3±4.0 s; n = 13 and 133.2±6.4 vs. 132.6±7.7 s; n = 14) and CON (60.2±3.7 vs. 60.6±3.8 s; n = 15 and 133.5±7.0 vs. 133.3±7.6 s; n = 15). Maximal oxygen uptake during swimming was similar before and after the intervention in both the HIT (4.0±0.9 vs. 3.8±1.0 l O2×min-1; n = 14) and CON...

  14. Athletes at Risk for Sudden Cardiac Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subasic, Kim

    2010-01-01

    High school athletes represent the largest group of individuals affected by sudden cardiac death, with an estimated incidence of once or twice per week. Structural cardiovascular abnormalities are the most frequent cause of sudden cardiac death. Athletes participating in basketball, football, track, soccer, baseball, and swimming were found to…

  15. Estudo epidemiológico da entorse de tornozelo em atletas de voleibol de alto rendimento Ankle sprains in volleyball high-performance athletes: an epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rodrigo do Nascimento Fortes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi caracterizar o último episódio de entorse de tornozelo em atletas de voleibol de alto rendimento. Participaram inicialmente deste estudo, entre os meses janeiro de 2003 e março de 2004, 114 atletas, do sexo masculino, atuantes na categoria adulta de 9 equipes, todas participantes da Divisão Especial ou Primeira Divisão do Campeonato Paulista de Voleibol. Dos 114 atletas inicialmente analisados, 21 relataram não ter sofrido nenhuma lesão nos tornozelos, portanto, seguindo os critérios de exclusão, foram analisados 93 episódios de última entorse de tornozelo de 93 atletas. Os mesmos foram entrevistados de maneira oral e individual pelo pesquisador executante, seguindo a seqüência do questionário pré-estabelecido. Foi encontrada diferença significante na correlação entre a fase da competição e a causa da entorse bem como na relação entre a posição de atuação do atleta e o fundamento realizado no momento da lesão. A posição oposto foi a mais acometida e o fundamento bloqueio foi o que mais ocasionou entorses.The purpose of this research is to characterize the most recent ankle sprain episode occurred with volleyball high performance athletes. From January 2003 to March 2004, 114 male athletes from 9 adult category teams of the Special and First Division of São Paulo State Volleyball Championship were included on this study. From the 114 athletes assessed, 21 have reported no ankle sprains, therefore, by following the exclusion criteria, the last 93 episodes of ankle sprain from 93 athletes were assessed. They have been individually interviewed by the researcher, following a pre-established sequence of the questionnaire. A significant difference was found in the correlation between the competition phase and the ankle sprain cause, as well as for the correlation between the athlete's acting position and the movement made at the injury moment. The opposite position was the most affected and

  16. Effects of 12 weeks high-intensity & reduced-volume training in elite athletes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Kilen

    Full Text Available It was investigated if high-intensity interval training (HIT at the expense of total training volume improves performance, maximal oxygen uptake and swimming economy. 41 elite swimmers were randomly allocated to a control (CON or HIT group. For 12 weeks both groups trained ∼12 h per week. HIT comprised ∼5 h vs. 1 h and total distance was ∼17 km vs. 35 km per week for HIT and CON, respectively. HIT was performed as 6-10×10-30 s maximal effort interspersed by 2-4 minutes of rest. Performance of 100 m all-out freestyle and 200 m freestyle was similar before and after the intervention in both HIT (60.4±4.0 vs. 60.3±4.0 s; n = 13 and 133.2±6.4 vs. 132.6±7.7 s; n = 14 and CON (60.2±3.7 vs. 60.6±3.8 s; n = 15 and 133.5±7.0 vs. 133.3±7.6 s; n = 15. Maximal oxygen uptake during swimming was similar before and after the intervention in both the HIT (4.0±0.9 vs. 3.8±1.0 l O2×min-1; n = 14 and CON (3.8±0.7 vs. 3.8±0.7 l O2×min-1; n = 11 group. Oxygen uptake determined at fixed submaximal speed was not significantly affected in either group by the intervention. Body fat % tended to increase (P = 0.09 in the HIT group (15.4±1.6% vs. 16.3±1.6%; P = 0.09; n = 16 and increased (P<0.05 in the CON group (13.9±1.5% vs. 14.9±1.5%; n = 17. A distance reduction of 50% and a more than doubled HIT amount for 12 weeks did neither improve nor compromise performance or physiological capacity in elite swimmers.

  17. Comparison of Mental Health Components among Athlete and Non-athlete Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Ghiami

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescence is a period of rapid biological and behavioral changes that may expand the risk of mental health issues. Objective: This study aimed to compare the mental health of male and female athletes and non-athletes among a high school student groups. Methodology: On this base 100 students (50 athletes and 50 non-athletes, Mage = 16 (SD = ±1 were selected through multi stage random sampling and divided equally into four groups (female athlete / non-athlete, male athlete / non-athlete. General Health Questionnaire designed by Goldberg and Hiller (1979 was used for data collections. Results: The analysis of one-way ANOVA displayed significant differences between the mean scores in mental health among the groups in terms of mental health, F (3, 96 =39, P = .01 with less prevalence of these symptoms among athletes comparing to non-athletes. Conclusion: Increasing opportunities for students to take part in sport competitions can protect them against poor psychological well-being.Keywords: Mental Health; Depression; Anxiety; Social dysfunction; Somatic

  18. Building professional identity as computer science teachers: Supporting high school computer science teachers through reflection and community building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Lijun

    Computing education requires qualified computing teachers. The reality is that too few high schools in the U.S. have computing/computer science teachers with formal computer science (CS) training, and many schools do not have CS teacher at all. Moreover, teacher retention rate is often low. Beginning teacher attrition rate is particularly high in secondary education. Therefore, in addition to the need for preparing new CS teachers, we also need to support those teachers we have recruited and trained to become better teachers and continue to teach CS. Teacher education literature, especially teacher identity theory, suggests that a strong sense of teacher identity is a major indicator or feature of committed, qualified teachers. However, under the current educational system in the U.S., it could be challenging to establish teacher identity for high school (HS) CS teachers, e.g., due to a lack of teacher certification for CS. This thesis work centers upon understanding the sense of identity HS CS teachers hold and exploring ways of supporting their identity development through a professional development program: the Disciplinary Commons for Computing Educators (DCCE). DCCE has a major focus on promoting reflection on teaching practice and community building. With scaffolded activities such as course portfolio creation, peer review and peer observation among a group of HS CS teachers, it offers opportunities for CS teachers to explicitly reflect on and narrate their teaching, which is a central process of identity building through their participation within the community. In this thesis research, I explore the development of CS teacher identity through professional development programs. I first conducted an interview study with local HS CS teachers to understand their sense of identity and factors influencing their identity formation. I designed and enacted the professional program (DCCE) and conducted case studies with DCCE participants to understand how their

  19. Personal identity processes and self-esteem : Temporal sequences in high school and college students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luyckx, K.; Klimstra, T.A.; Duriez, B.; Van Petegem, S.; Beyers, W.; Teppers, E.; Goossens, L.

    2013-01-01

    Personal identity formation constitutes a crucial developmental task during the teens and 20s. Using a recently developed five-dimensional identity model, this cross-sectional study (N = 5834) investigated age trends from ages 14 to 30 for different commitment and exploration processes. As expected,

  20. Sport Opportunities for Athletes with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 1984

    1984-01-01

    This series outlines sport opportunities for athletes with disabilities. Included are articles discussing sports for athletes with cerebral palsy, deaf athletes, blind athletes, wheelchair bound athletes, amputee athletes, as well as a discussion of the Special Olympics. (JMK)

  1. National Athletic Trainers' Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more by reviewing the NATA Media Kit. NATA Marketing Opportunities Join or Renew Joining NATA offers athletic ... looking for more information about athletic training, youth sports safety or specific health issues, we encourage you ...

  2. Nutrition and athletic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002458.htm Nutrition and athletic performance To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Nutrition can help enhance athletic performance. An active lifestyle ...

  3. High School Religious Context and Reports of Same-Sex Attraction and Sexual Identity in Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Lindsey; Pearson, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to understand the association between high school religious context in adolescence and the reporting of same-sex attraction and sexual identity in young adulthood and how these associations vary by gender. Previous studies have considered how high school contexts shape the well-being of sexual minority youth, yet…

  4. The relationship between sacral slope and symptomatic isthmic spondylolysis in a cohort of high school athletes: a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanke, Leigh F; Tuakli-Wosornu, Yetsa A; Harrison, Julian; Moley, Peter J

    2017-10-06

    slope among controls was 37.4°. The difference achieved significance (p=.014). The interdependence of positional parameters, such as sacral slope, with anatomic parameters, such as pelvic incidence, can affect lumbar lordosis and therefore upright positioning and loading of the spine. Sacral slope may be an important variable for clinicians to consider when caring for young athletes with low back pain, particularly when the index of suspicion for spondylolysis is high. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Isokinetic knee strength qualities as predictors of jumping performance in high-level volleyball athletes: multiple regression approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, Tine; Sekulic, Damir; Spasic, Miodrag; Osmankac, Nedzad; Vicente João, Paulo; Dervisevic, Edvin; Hadzic, Vedran

    2016-01-01

    Previous investigations noted potential importance of isokinetic strength in rapid muscular performances, such as jumping. This study aimed to identify the influence of isokinetic-knee-strength on specific jumping performance in volleyball. The secondary aim of the study was to evaluate reliability and validity of the two volleyball-specific jumping tests. The sample comprised 67 female (21.96±3.79 years; 68.26±8.52 kg; 174.43±6.85 cm) and 99 male (23.62±5.27 years; 84.83±10.37 kg; 189.01±7.21 cm) high- volleyball players who competed in 1st and 2nd National Division. Subjects were randomly divided into validation (N.=55 and 33 for males and females, respectively) and cross-validation subsamples (N.=54 and 34 for males and females, respectively). Set of predictors included isokinetic tests, to evaluate the eccentric and concentric strength capacities of the knee extensors, and flexors for dominant and non-dominant leg. The main outcome measure for the isokinetic testing was peak torque (PT) which was later normalized for body mass and expressed as PT/Kg. Block-jump and spike-jump performances were measured over three trials, and observed as criteria. Forward stepwise multiple regressions were calculated for validation subsamples and then cross-validated. Cross validation included correlations between and t-test differences between observed and predicted scores; and Bland Altman graphics. Jumping tests were found to be reliable (spike jump: ICC of 0.79 and 0.86; block-jump: ICC of 0.86 and 0.90; for males and females, respectively), and their validity was confirmed by significant t-test differences between 1st vs. 2nd division players. Isokinetic variables were found to be significant predictors of jumping performance in females, but not among males. In females, the isokinetic-knee measures were shown to be stronger and more valid predictors of the block-jump (42% and 64% of the explained variance for validation and cross-validation subsample, respectively

  6. Sport-Specific Conditioning Variables Predict Offensive and Defensive Performance in High-Level Youth Water Polo Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekulic, Damir; Kontic, Dean; Esco, Michael R; Zenic, Natasa; Milanovic, Zoran; Zvan, Milan

    2016-05-01

    Specific-conditioning capacities (SCC) are known to be generally important in water polo (WP), yet the independent associations to offensive and defensive performance is unknown. This study aimed to determine whether offense and defense abilities in WP were independently associated with SCC and anthropometrics. The participants were 82 high-level male youth WP players (all 17-19 years of age; body height, 186.3 ± 6.07 cm; body mass, 84.8 ± 9.6 kg). The independent variables were body height and body mass, and 5 sport-specific fitness tests: sprint swimming over 15 meters; 4 × 50-meter anaerobic-endurance test; vertical in-water-jump; maximum intensity isometric force in upright swimming using an eggbeater kick; and test of throwing velocity. The 6 dependent variables comprised parameters of defensive and offensive performance, such as polyvalence, i.e., ability to play on different positions in defensive tasks (PD) and offensive tasks (PO), efficacy in primary playing position in defensive (ED) and offensive (EO) tasks, and agility in defensive (AD) and offensive (AO) tasks. Analyses showed appropriate reliability for independent (intraclass coefficient of 0.82-0.91) and dependent variables (Cronbach alpha of 0.81-0.95). Multiple regressions were significant for ED (R = 0.25; p performance was positively related to AD (β = -0.26; p ≤ 0.05), whereas advanced sprint swimming was related to better AO (β = -0.38; p ≤ 0.05). In-water-jumping performance held the significant positive relationship to EO (β = 0.31; p ≤ 0.05), ED (β = 0.33; p ≤ 0.05), and AD (β = 0.37; p ≤ 0.05). Strength and conditioning professionals working in WP should be aware of established importance of SCC in performing unique duties in WP. The SCC should be specifically developed to meet the needs of offensive and defensive performance in young WP athletes.

  7. Coaching the Vegetarian Athlete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandali, Swarna L.

    2011-01-01

    Good nutrition is important for optimal athletic performance. Adolescent athletes often depend on their coaches for nutritional information on weight management, dietary supplements, and dietary practices. Some dietary practices, such as vegetarianism, have the potential to be harmful to the adolescent athlete if not followed with careful…

  8. Coaching the Vegetarian Athlete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandali, Swarna L.

    2011-01-01

    Good nutrition is important for optimal athletic performance. Adolescent athletes often depend on their coaches for nutritional information on weight management, dietary supplements, and dietary practices. Some dietary practices, such as vegetarianism, have the potential to be harmful to the adolescent athlete if not followed with careful…

  9. Analysis of the association between isokinetic knee strength with offensive and defensive jumping capacity in high-level female volleyball athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, Tine; Sekulic, Damir; Esco, Michael R; Mahmutovic, Ifet; Hadzic, Vedran

    2015-09-01

    Isokinetic-knee-strength was hypothesized to be an important factor related to jumping performance. However, studies examining this relation among elite female athletes and sport-specific jumps are lacking. This investigation determined the influence of isokinetic-knee flexor/extensor strength measures on spike-jump (offensive) and block-jump (defensive) performance among high-level female volleyball players. Cross-sectional laboratory study. Eighty-two female volleyball athletes (age = 21.3 ± 3.8 years, height = 175.4 ± 6.76 cm, and weight = 68.29 ± 8.53 kg) volunteered to participate in this study. The studied variables included spike-jump and block-jump performance and a set of isokinetic tests to evaluate the eccentric and concentric strength capacities of the knee extensors (quadriceps - Q), and flexors (hamstring - H) for both legs. Both jumping tests showed high intra-session reliability (ICC of 0.87 and 0.95 for spike-jump and block-jump, respectively). The athletes were clustered into three achievement-groups based on their spike-jump and block-jump performances. For the block-jump, ANOVA identified significant differences between achievement-groups for all isokinetic variables except the Right-Q-Eccentric-Strength. When observed for spike-jump, achievement-groups differed significantly in all tests but Right-H-Concentric-Strength. Discriminant canonical analysis showed that the isokinetic-strength variables were more associated with block-jump then spike-jump-performance. The eccentric isokinetic measures were relatively less important determinants of block-jump than for the spike-jump performance. Data support the hypothesis of the importance of isokinetic strength measures for the expression of rapid muscular performance in volleyball. The results point to the necessity of the differential approach in sport training for defensive and offensive duties. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Use of prescription drugs in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaranta, Antti; Alaranta, Hannu; Helenius, Ilkka

    2008-01-01

    Although athletes are young and generally healthy, they use a variety of non-doping classified medicines to treat injuries, cure illnesses and obtain a competitive edge. Athletes and sports medicine physicians try to optimize the treatment of symptoms related to extreme training during an elite athlete's active career. According to several studies, the use of antiasthmatic medication is more frequent among elite athletes than in the general population. The type of training and the kind of sport influence the prevalence of asthma. Asthma is most common among those competing in endurance events, such as cycling, swimming, cross-country skiing and long-distance running. Recent studies show that athletes use also NSAIDs and oral antibacterials more commonly than age-matched controls, especially athletes competing in speed and power sports. Inappropriately high doses and concomitant use of several different NSAIDs has been observed. All medicines have adverse effects that may have deleterious effects on elite athletes' performance. Thus, any unnecessary medication use should be minimized in elite athletes. Inhaled beta(2)-agonists may cause tachycardia and muscle tremor, which are especially harmful in events requiring accuracy and a steady hand. In experimental animal models of acute injury, especially selective cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors have been shown to be detrimental to tissue-level repair. They have been shown to impair mechanical strength return following acute injury to bone, ligament and tendon. This may have clinical implications for future injury susceptibility. However, it should be noted that the current animal studies have limited translation to the clinical setting. Adverse effects related to the CNS and gastrointestinal adverse reactions are commonly reported in connection with NSAID use also in elite athletes. In addition to the potential for adverse effects, recent studies have shown that NSAID use may negatively regulate muscle growth by inhibiting

  11. Factors contributing to the quality of the transition out of elite sports in Swiss, Danish, and Polish athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Küttel, Andreas; Boyle, Eleanor; Schmid, Jürg

    2017-01-01

    characteristics (e.g., educational level, athletic identity, confidence in skills), whereas athletes reported a similar pattern concerning retirement planning and voluntariness to end their career regardless of the context. The adaptation process following the career end was easiest for Swiss athletes and most...

  12. The Prevalence of Headache Among Athletic University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Headache is certainly one of the most common medical complaints of general population and one of the important causes of consumption of drugs. Despite its high overall prevalence, the epidemiology of exertional headache is not clear enough. Objectives To determine the prevalence of headache in athletic and non-athletic university students and also estimating its variation between different sports fields including concussion prone sports. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study comprised 739 subjects (367 athletes and 372 non-athletes. The present study was carried out on athletic and non-athletic university students aging between 18 to 28 years. An athlete was defined as a person who had at least one year of experience in sports including football, volleyball, basketball, wrestling, boxing, martial arts, track and field, chess, handball and swimming for three sessions a week each lasting at least 2 hours. The random selection of these participants was done by an independent statistical consultant. A questionnaire was used for data collection which was then analyzed by statistical methods. Results Our study comprised 739 subjects (367 athletes and 372 non-athletes. Among athletic university students, 152 (41.2% participants complained of headache. Such a complaint was present in 217 (58.3% non-athletic university students. This lower prevalence of headache in athletes was statistically significant (P value < 0.001. Among ten different sports fields, the prevalence of headache among wrestlers was significantly higher than others (P value < 0.001. Conclusions The prevalence of headache is seemingly lower in athletic university students than non-athletic ones. In addition, among athletes, those who are participating in concussion prone sports especially wrestling experience headache more than athletes of other fields.

  13. Single cell visualization of transcription kinetics variance of highly mobile identical genes using 3D nanoimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annibale, Paolo; Gratton, Enrico

    2015-03-19

    Multi-cell biochemical assays and single cell fluorescence measurements revealed that the elongation rate of Polymerase II (PolII) in eukaryotes varies largely across different cell types and genes. However, there is not yet a consensus whether intrinsic factors such as the position, local mobility or the engagement by an active molecular mechanism of a genetic locus could be the determinants of the observed heterogeneity. Here by employing high-speed 3D fluorescence nanoimaging techniques we resolve and track at the single cell level multiple, distinct regions of mRNA synthesis within the model system of a large transgene array. We demonstrate that these regions are active transcription sites that release mRNA molecules in the nucleoplasm. Using fluctuation spectroscopy and the phasor analysis approach we were able to extract the local PolII elongation rate at each site as a function of time. We measured a four-fold variation in the average elongation between identical copies of the same gene measured simultaneously within the same cell, demonstrating a correlation between local transcription kinetics and the movement of the transcription site. Together these observations demonstrate that local factors, such as chromatin local mobility and the microenvironment of the transcription site, are an important source of transcription kinetics variability.

  14. Research on the Difficulty of the High Level of Tai Chi Athletes%高水平太极运动员难度动作研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭强; 林晓怀

    2015-01-01

    Using methods of documentation, video analysis, and mathematical statistics, this paper makes a statistical analysis on element of difficulty chosen by two groups of athletes: those both participated in Tai Chi in 2013 National Wushu Championship and ranked in top15, and those attended Tai Chi martial arts in the Twelfth National Games. Results show that there are usually 6 elements of difficulty chosen by Tai Chi high-level athletes. Faults in athletes’elements of difficulty focus on 4 moves. The average quality in elements of difficulty completion of high-level male athletes is not necessarily higher than that of the female athlete, and the average quality in Tai Chi elements of difficulty completion is not necessarily higher than Tai Chi sword. Shaking is the main cause of faults of the difficulty action.%以文献资料、录像分析、数理统计等科研方法,对参加2013年全国武术套路冠军赛太极项目并获得前15名的运动员和第十二届全运会武术太极项目的运动员所选用的难度动作进行统计。结果表明:高水平太极运动员难度动作的选择一般有6个。运动员难度动作的失误情况主要集中在4个动作,高水平男运动员完成难度动作的平均质量不一定高于女运动员,完成太极拳难度动作的质量不一定高于太极剑。晃动是造成难度动作失误的主要原因。

  15. Navigating emotions and identity: Learning to teach science in a high needs school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Karen J.

    As student populations in the United States become more diverse, teacher education programs are challenged to find innovative and effective ways to prepare teachers for the twenty-first century. However, the goal of "science for all" continues to elude many students in urban and high needs settings where science achievement gaps persist, teacher turnover is high, and novice teachers are often hired to fill those vacancies. Researchers have examined teachers' beliefs, attitudes, practices, as well as content and pedagogical knowledge and made progressive strides in illuminating the complexities of urban classrooms and how we can better prepare teachers for these settings. However, only recently have we begun to venture into the affective areas of teaching to investigate how these areas of human nature interact to influence instruction. This research follows three preservice teachers placed in a high needs school during their student teaching semester. In this case, a high need is described as a school with more than 30% of the students who meet the poverty criteria under section 1113(a)(f) of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965. This case study explored the connections between preservice teachers' emotions, identity and the implementation of student-centered science instruction during the participants' student teaching experience. Data collection included observations, interviews, and physical artifacts. The interviews included the Teachers' Pedagogical Philosophy Interview (Richardson & Simmons, 1994) and the Meta-Emotions Interview (Gottman, Katz & Hooven, 1997) as well as general interview questions that illuminated the participants' views on teaching, their emotions, life history and identity. Multiple naturalistic observations were used to describe the interactions between the preservice teachers and the students during the implementation of student-centered lessons. Physical artifacts included weekly journals and lesson plans. These artifacts

  16. Gender identity and substance use among students in two high schools in Monterrey, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulis, Stephen; Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco; Lingard, Erin Chase; Nieri, Tanya; Nagoshi, Julieann

    2011-01-01

    This study explored relationships between several hypothesized dimensions of gender identity and substance use outcomes within a non-probability sample of adolescents in Monterrey, Mexico. Based on Mexican concepts of machismo and marianismo, four gender identity constructs were measured: aggressive masculinity, assertive masculinity, affective femininity and submissive femininity. The study assessed how well these gender identity measures predicted substance use behaviors, substance use intentions, expectancies, and normative approval, and exposure and vulnerability to substance offers. Data were drawn from questionnaires completed by 327 students from 2 Monterrey secondary schools. Multivariate ordered logistic and linear regression analyses, adjusted for school level effects, indicated that aggressive masculinity was associated with higher risk of drug use on most outcomes, while affective femininity was associated with lower risk on selected outcomes. Assertive masculinity was associated with only one of the outcomes examined and submissive femininity with none of them. Most gender identity effects persisted after controlling for biological sex, academic performance, age, and other gender identity measures. For two of the outcomes, the gender identity measures had significantly stronger effects for males than for females. The findings are interpreted in light of males’ higher risk for drug use and changes in gender roles and gendered behavior that are now occurring in Mexico as in the U.S. PMID:18329826

  17. Gender identity and substance use among students in two high schools in Monterrey, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulis, Stephen; Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco; Lingard, Erin Chase; Nieri, Tanya; Nagoshi, Julieann

    2008-06-01

    This study explored relationships between several hypothesized dimensions of gender identity and substance use outcomes within a non-probability sample of adolescents in Monterrey, Mexico. Based on Mexican concepts of machismo and marianismo, four gender identity constructs were measured: aggressive masculinity, assertive masculinity, affective femininity and submissive femininity. The study assessed how well these gender identity measures predicted substance use behaviors, substance use intentions, expectancies, and normative approval, and exposure and vulnerability to substance offers. Data were drawn from questionnaires completed by 327 students from 2 Monterrey secondary schools. Multivariate ordered logistic and linear regression analyses, adjusted for school level effects, indicated that aggressive masculinity was associated with higher risk of drug use on most outcomes, while affective femininity was associated with lower risk on selected outcomes. Assertive masculinity was associated with only one of the outcomes examined and submissive femininity with none of them. Most gender identity effects persisted after controlling for biological sex, academic performance, age, and other gender identity measures. For two of the outcomes, the gender identity measures had significantly stronger effects for males than for females. The findings are interpreted in light of males' higher risk for drug use and changes in gender roles and gendered behavior that are now occurring in Mexico as in the U.S.

  18. Self-Efficacy, Perceptions of Barriers, Vocational Identity, and the Career Exploration Behavior of Latino/a High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gushue, George V.; Clarke, Christine P.; Pantzer, Karen M.; Scanlan, Kolone R. L.

    2006-01-01

    This study explored the potential relationship between the social cognitive variables of career decision making self-efficacy and perceptions of barriers and the outcome variables of vocational identity and career exploration behaviors in a sample of 128 urban Latino/a high school students. The results indicated that higher levels of career…

  19. Charlie's Words: Supporting Gifted Male Athletes Using Athletes' Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Richard

    2012-01-01

    A gifted student-athlete, Charlie Bloomfield is introduced to athlete's journals by his coaches at Burke Mountain Academy (Vermont), an elite American ski school. Used by Olympians and professionals alike, journals provide athletes with ways to organize and reflect on training and competitions. Athlete's journals help gifted male athletes address…

  20. Charlie's Words: Supporting Gifted Male Athletes Using Athletes' Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Richard

    2012-01-01

    A gifted student-athlete, Charlie Bloomfield is introduced to athlete's journals by his coaches at Burke Mountain Academy (Vermont), an elite American ski school. Used by Olympians and professionals alike, journals provide athletes with ways to organize and reflect on training and competitions. Athlete's journals help gifted male athletes address…

  1. Change in ethnic identity across the high school years among adolescents with Latin American, Asian, and European backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, Lisa; Witkow, Melissa R; Baldelomar, Oscar A; Fuligni, Andrew J

    2010-06-01

    Changes in adolescents' ethnic identity (e.g., exploration, belonging) were examined over the 4 years of high school. Results from 541 adolescents (51% female) with Latin American, Asian, and European backgrounds suggest that, as a group, adolescents do not report developmental changes in their ethnic exploration and belonging over time. Yet, within-person analyses of change reveal that individual adolescents exhibited substantial fluctuation in ethnic identity across the years, and this fluctuation was associated with concurrent changes in family cohesion, proportion of same-ethnic peers, and ethnic centrality. The discussion focuses on the value of examining intraindividual change over at least several years in order to more fully understand processes of ethnic identity development during adolescence.

  2. The power athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, J C; Stebbins, C L

    1997-08-01

    A number of normal daily and athletic activities require isometric or static exercise. Sports such as weight lifting and other high-resistance activities are used by power athletes to gain strength and skeletal muscle bulk. Static exercise, the predominant activity used in power training, significantly increases blood pressure, heart rate, myocardial contractility, and cardiac output. These changes occur in response to central neural irradiation, called central command, as well as a reflex originating from statically contracting muscle. Studies have demonstrated that blood pressure appears to be the regulated variable, presumably because the increased pressure provides blood flow into muscles whose arterial inflow is reduced as a result of increases in intramuscular pressure created by contraction. Thus, static exercise is characterized by a pressure load on the heart and can be differentiated from the hemodynamic response to dynamic (isotonic) exercise, which involves a volume load to the heart. Physical training with static exercise (i.e., power training) leads to concentric cardiac (particularly left ventricular) hypertrophy, whereas training with dynamic exercise leads to eccentric hypertrophy. The magnitude of cardiac hypertrophy is much less in athletes training with static than dynamic exercise. Neither systolic nor diastolic function is altered by the hypertrophic process associated with static exercise training. Many of the energy requirements for static exercise, particularly during more severe levels of exercise, are met by anaerobic glycolysis because the contracting muscle becomes comes deprived of blood flow. Power athletes, training with repetitive static exercise, derive little benefit from an increase in oxygen transport capacity, so that maximal oxygen consumption is increased only minimally or not at all. Peripheral cardiovascular adaptations also can occur in response to training with static exercise. Although the studies are controversial

  3. 高水平运动员运动损伤的心理康复研究%Research on Psychological Rehabilitation of Sport Injury for High-level Athletes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何颖; 徐明

    2012-01-01

    The sport injury psychological model of high-level athletes, the psychological diagnostic indicators and psychological intervention model were presented through literature review, logical and systematic analy- sis. The rehabihtation of sport injury for high-level athletes is a systematic process, which needs joint efforts and the coordination between the coach, medical staff, athletic psychologist and athletes for the fully reha- bilitation and return of athletes in the shortest time span.%运用文献资料、逻辑分析、系统分析等方法论述高水平运动员运动损伤的心理模型、心理诊断指标及心理干预模式等问题,分析认为高水平运动员运动损伤的康复是一个系统过程,教练员、医务人员、运动心理学工作者和运动员的共同努力与配合才能有助于运动员尽早康复、重返赛场.

  4. Eating Disorders among Adolescent Female Athletes: Influence of Athletic Participation and Sport Team Membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taub, Diane E.; Blinde, Elaine M.

    1992-01-01

    Comparison of high school female athletes (n=100) and nonathletes (N=112) revealed that athletes were more likely than nonathletes to possess certain behavioral and psychological correlates of eating disorders. There were few differences among various sport teams. Gender-role orientation was generally not critically variable. (Author/NB)

  5. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy screening in young athletes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rappoport, W.J. [Arizona Heart Inst., Phoenix, AZ (United States); Steingard, P.M. [Phoenix Suns, Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is the leading cause of sudden death during vigorous exercise. Early identification of this abnormality by ECG screening of high-school athletes before they participate in competitive sports helps save lives. (orig.)

  6. Family Interaction Patterns, Career Planning Attitudes, and Vocational Identity of High School Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargrove, Byron K.; Inman, Arpana G.; Crane, Randy L.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine how perceptions of family interaction patterns as defined along three dimensions of family environment (quality of family relationships, family goal-orientations, and degree of organization and control within the family system) predict vocational identity and career planning attitudes among male and…

  7. National Identity in Moral Education Textbooks for High School Students in the Philippines: A Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almonte, Sherlyne A.

    2003-01-01

    The past two consecutive administrations in the Philippines saw the need for developing a greater sense of national identity among Filipinos. In response, the Education Sector strengthened the teaching of values on national ideals and Filipino heritage. One reform was the offering of Moral Education as an independent subject in the secondary…

  8. Identity work and cosmopolitanism among young Danish high-skilled emigrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yndigegn, Carsten

    the national and transnational spatial identities are briefly sketched and discussed against the new postmodern cosmopolitanism. In a fifth section two empirical cases are presented, and in the last section the cases are discussed against the theoretical framework. The section ends by stating the limitation...

  9. (Re)conceptualisation of ELT Professionals: Academic High School English Teachers' Professional Identity in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Insuk

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates Korean English teachers' responses to the current English Language Teaching (ELT) policies and reveals the attributes of their professional identity from their responses. Data collected from different narratives demonstrate that the teachers value the principles of communicative language teaching, but are not supportive of…

  10. Cultural Identity in Everyday Interactions at Work: Highly Skilled Female Russian Professionals in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malgorzata Lahti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The dominant research strands into social interaction in culturally diverse workplaces have focused on issues of organizational efficiency and discrimination, and they have treated cultural identity as static, monolithic, and universally shared. This study aims to problematize this view. It is argued that our understanding of cultural workplace diversity could be extended through the integration of interpretive and critical interpersonal communication theorizing on cultural identity as dynamic and processual, constructed between and among people in everyday workplace interactions and in relation to larger social, political, and historical forces. This argument is illustrated by an analysis of in-depth interviews with 10 female Russian immigrants in Finland who performed interactionintense knowledge work. The women talked about their everyday workplace interactions and how they thought Russian identity mattered in them. These data were analyzed with the inductive method of interpretive description designed to provide a systematic description of the phenomenon delineating its characteristic themes and accounting for individual variations within it. The analysis led to the identification of four communication sites for distinct formations of Russian identity: expressing professionalism, managing initial encounters, facing stigma, and facilitating intercultural learning. The findings offer novel insights into social interaction in culturally diverse workplaces with implications for both employee well-being and organizational processes.

  11. Tensions between Catholic Identity and Academic Achievement at an Urban Catholic High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Carrie; Johnson, Lauri

    2014-01-01

    Through a secondary analysis of a case study on successful school leadership, this study inquired into the lived experiences and understandings of Catholic identity from the perspectives of administrators, faculty, staff, and students at one urban Catholic school in the northeastern United States. Participants generally spoke about Catholic…

  12. Evidence of disturbed sleep and mood state in well-trained athletes during short-term intensified training with and without a high carbohydrate nutritional intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killer, S C; Svendsen, I S; Jeukendrup, A E; Gleeson, M

    2015-09-25

    Few studies have investigated the effects of exercise training on sleep physiology in well-trained athletes. We investigated changes in sleep markers, mood state and exercise performance in well-trained cyclists undergoing short-term intensified training and carbohydrate nutritional intervention. Thirteen highly-trained male cyclists (age: 25 ± 6y, [Formula: see text]O2max: 72 ± 5 ml/kg/min) participated in two 9-day periods of intensified training while undergoing a high (HCHO) or moderate (CON) carbohydrate nutritional intervention before, during and after training sessions. Sleep was measured each night via wristwatch actigraphy. Mood state questionnaires were completed daily. Performance was assessed with maximal oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]. Percentage sleep time fell during intensified training (87.9 ± 1.5 to 82.5 ± 2.3%; p state and maximal exercise performance.

  13. Asthma in elite athletes: how do we manage asthma-like symptoms and asthma in elite athletes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Thomas Kromann

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Asthma is frequent in elite athletes and the high prevalence of asthma might be associated with specific types of sport. It has been suggested that chronic endurance training might increase the number of neutrophils in the airways, and this may reflect airway injury. The use of anti......-asthmatic medication in elite athletes is also currently under scrutiny in order to reduce the risk of under-treatment or over treatment. OBJECTIVES: Determine the use of anti-asthmatic medication and the prevalence of asthma-like symptoms and asthma in Danish elite athletes. Further, to determine whether elite...... survey of elite athletes (N = 418); and (iii) a clinical study of elite athletes. A total of 54 elite athletes (19 with physician-diagnosed asthma) participated together with two control groups: (i) 22 non-athletes with physician-diagnosed asthma (steroid naïve for 4 weeks before the examination) and (ii...

  14. Asthma in elite athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elers, Jimmi; Pedersen, Lars; Backer, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is frequently found among elite athletes performing endurance sports such as swimming, rowing and cross-country skiing. Although these athletes often report symptoms while exercising, they seldom have symptoms at rest. Moreover, compared with nonathletic asthmatic individuals, elite athlet...... be aware of the doping aspects. Systemic ß2-agonist intake is strictly prohibited, whereas inhaled treatment is allowed in therapeutic doses when asthma is documented and dispensation has been granted when needed....

  15. Asthma in elite athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elers, Jimmi; Pedersen, Lars; Backer, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is frequently found among elite athletes performing endurance sports such as swimming, rowing and cross-country skiing. Although these athletes often report symptoms while exercising, they seldom have symptoms at rest. Moreover, compared with nonathletic asthmatic individuals, elite athlet...... be aware of the doping aspects. Systemic β2-agonist intake is strictly prohibited, whereas inhaled treatment is allowed in therapeutic doses when asthma is documented and dispensation has been granted when needed....

  16. The athlete's foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, S S; Lewis, L A; Cohen, B H

    1977-09-01

    In general, painful feet can affect the performance of an athlete in any sport. To prevent skin diseases of the feet, the "Athlete's Foot" should be kept clean and dry with toenails trimmed. Properly fitting athletic shoes should be worn to avoid the formation of blisters. Wearing of sandals in locker and shower rooms, which prevents intimate contact with infecting organisms, can alleviate many of the problems that affect the feet.

  17. Iron and the athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suedekum, Natalie A; Dimeff, Robert J

    2005-08-01

    Iron is an important mineral necessary for many biologic pathways. Different levels of deficiency can occur in the athlete, resulting in symptoms that range from none to severe fatigue. Iron deficiency without anemia may adversely affect athletic performance. Causes of iron deficiency include poor intake, menstrual losses, gastrointestinal and genitourinary losses due to exercise-induced ischemia or organ movement, foot strike hemolysis, thermohemolysis, and sweat losses. A higher incidence of deficiency occurs in female athletes compared with males.

  18. Research on Cultural Identity of Athlete Migration——Based on the Perspective of Global Localization Theory%运动员跨国移民的文化认同研究——基于全球本土化理论视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    穆国华

    2015-01-01

    Migration refers to a long-term geographical location change of a person or group. Changing with the times, the athlete migration gradually shows a growth trend. By virtue of literature research and based on the perspective of global localization theory, this paper conducts an in-depth explanation on the cultural meanings of athlete migration. It is pointed out in the conclusion that: Localization is a part of social relations, rooted in a common ethnic or cultural identity and the feelings of common fate. Sports provide an intense symbol of cultural identity to the migration communities, which can be related to individual biographies and other existence dimensions of collective memories, especially the contents in ethnic and racial aspects. Mass media are playing a vital role in enriching the global athlete migration as one mode of diaspora group.%移民是指个人或群体地理位置的长期变化,随着时代变迁,运动员跨国移民呈现逐渐增长的趋势.运用文献资料法等研究方法,基于全球本土化理论视角,对运动员跨国移民的文化涵义进行了深入阐释.研究结论指出:本土化是社会关系的组成部分,植根于共同的民族或文化认同和共命运的感情.体育运动向移民社会群体提供了强烈的文化认同符号,可与个人传记或集体记忆的其他存在维度联系起来,特别是民族和种族方面的内容.大众传媒发挥了至关重要的作用,丰富了流散群体中的全球运动员跨国移民模式.

  19. Factors influencing competitive anxiety in Brazilian athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Gimenes Fernandes

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The study of factors influencing competitive anxiety, according to a multidimensional perspective and supported by valid instruments, is scarce among Brazilian athletes of different sports. The present study aims to: i investigate the theoretical relationship between the different dimensions of the multidimensional theory of anxiety (i.e., cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and self-confidence; and ii investigate the effects of gender, type of sport (individual or collective and competitive experience levels on cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and self-confidence. A total of 303 athletes (233 males and 70 females, from different sports, aged between 18 and 40 years (M =24.22, SD = 5.07 completed a shortened version of CSAI-2 (i.e., CSAI-2R, about one hour before the start of competitions. Results revealed significant correlations between cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and self-confidence dimensions, in accordance with the assumptions of the multidimensional theory. Additionally, comparative analyses indicated that female athletes and athletes from collective sports showed higher levels of cognitive anxiety, while male athletes and athletes with high competitive experience reported higher levels of self-confidence. These results were discussed taking into account the theoretical and practical implications of these findings for planning interventions of sport psychology in Brazil with athletes of different contexts.

  20. Common Shoulder Injuries in American Football Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Daniel B; Lynch, T Sean; Nuber, Erika D; Nuber, Gordon W

    2015-01-01

    American football is a collision sport played by athletes at high speeds. Despite the padding and conditioning in these athletes, the shoulder is a vulnerable joint, and injuries to the shoulder girdle are common at all levels of competitive football. Some of the most common injuries in these athletes include anterior and posterior glenohumeral instability, acromioclavicular pathology (including separation, osteolysis, and osteoarthritis), rotator cuff pathology (including contusions, partial thickness, and full thickness tears), and pectoralis major and minor tears. In this article, we will review the epidemiology and clinical and radiographic workup of these injuries. We also will evaluate the effectiveness of surgical and nonsurgical management specifically related to high school, collegiate, and professional football athletes.

  1. Reduced adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase responses, postprandial lipemia, and low high-density lipoprotein-2 subspecies levels in older athletes with silent myocardial ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzel, L I; Busby-Whitehead, M J; Rogus, E M; Krauss, R M; Goldberg, A P

    1994-02-01

    Healthy older (64 +/- 1 years, mean +/- SEM) athletic (maximal oxygen consumption [VO2max] > 40 mL/kg/min) normocholesterolemic men with no prior history of coronary artery disease (CAD) were recruited for cardiovascular and metabolic studies. Thirty-three percent had asymptomatic exercise-induced ST segment depression on their exercise electrocardiogram (ECG), consistent with silent myocardial ischemia (SI). We hypothesized that abnormalities in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and postprandial triglyceride (TG) metabolism may increase their risk for CAD. Compared with 12 nonischemic controls of comparable age, percent body fat, and VO2max, the 13 men with SI had decreased fasting HDL cholesterol ([HDL-C] 41 +/- 2 v 50 +/- 2 mg/dL, P postprandial plasma TG, chylomicron-TG, and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-TG levels and postprandial areas were higher in men with SI (P < .001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Program Orientation for High School Sport Coaches. Coaches Council and the National Council for Secondary School Athletic Directors, 2005. A Position Paper from the National Association for Sport and Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (NJ1), 2005

    2005-01-01

    The National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) believes that prior to the start of each season, all high school head coaches, assistant coaches, and volunteer coaches should be required to participate in a comprehensive orientation to the sport program. This orientation should be planned and conducted by the athletic director or…

  3. A Study of the Relationship between Selected Non-music Major Eastern Kentucky University Students' High School Musical-Athletic Backgrounds and their Knowledge, Preferences, and Opinions of the Eastern Kentucky University Marching Band.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Thomas C.

    This study measures the knowledge, preferences, and opinions of Eastern Kentucky University football fans about their marching band and relates high school musical and/or athletic experience to those preferences. Data was obtained from a questionnaire distributed to a sample of the student body. The results indicate that people with musical…

  4. The effect of estimation and production procedures on running economy in recreational athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, James A; Woolley, Brandon P; Lambrick, Danielle M

    2012-11-01

    Running economy is an important component in any endurance event. However, the influence of effort perception on running economy has yet to be examined. The purpose of this study was to assess the oxygen cost of running (running economy) at identical ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) during estimation (EST) and production (PR) procedures, during treadmill exercise. Fourteen, well-trained male participants actively produced (self-regulated) a range of submaximal exercise intensities equating to RPE values 9, 11, 13, 15 and 17, and passively estimated their perception of exertion during an incremental graded-exercise test (GXT). Allometric scaling was used to ensure an appropriate comparison in running economy between conditions. The present study demonstrated that the overall running economy between conditions was statistically similar (p>0.05). A significant interaction was however identified between Conditions and RPE (peconomy significantly improved during PR but remained fairly consistent during EST between moderate and high perceptions of exertion (RPE 11-17). Despite similarities in running economy between conditions, physiological (oxygen uptake, heart rate, minute ventilation and blood lactate) and physical (running velocity) markers of exercise intensity were significantly higher during EST for equivalent perceptions of exertion (all peconomy and enhance athletic performance when compared to identical perceptions of exertion elicited during active production procedures. Athletes, coaches and physical trainers should consider the perceptual procedures utilised during training to ensure that an athlete trains at the most effective training intensity. Copyright © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Physical and physiological profiles of taekwondo athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, Craig A; Ferreira da Silva Santos, Jonatas; Chaabène, Helmi; Pieter, Willy; Franchini, Emerson

    2014-06-01

    Taekwondo has evolved into a modern-day Olympic combat sport. The physical and physiological demands of modern-day taekwondo competition require athletes to be competent in several aspects of fitness. This review critically explores the physical and physiological characteristics of taekwondo athletes and presents implications for training and research. International taekwondo athletes possess low levels of body fat and a somatotype that characterises a blend of moderate musculoskeletal tissue and relative body linearity. While there is some variation in the maximum oxygen uptake of taekwondo athletes, moderate to high levels of cardio-respiratory fitness are necessary to support the metabolic demands of fighting and to facilitate recovery between consecutive matches. Taekwondo athletes demonstrate high peak anaerobic power characteristics of the lower limbs and this attribute appears to be conducive to achieving success in international competition. The ability to generate and sustain power output using both concentric and 'stretch-shortening cycle' muscle actions of the lower limbs may be important to support the technical and tactical actions in combat. Taekwondo competitors also display moderate to high maximum dynamic strength characteristics of the lower and upper extremities, and moderate endurance properties of the trunk and hip flexor musculature. The dynamic nature of the technical and tactical actions in the sport demand high flexibility of the lower limbs. More extensive research is required into the physical and physiological characteristics of taekwondo athletes to extend existing knowledge and to permit specialised conditioning for different populations within the sport.

  6. Identity Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Peter J.

    2006-01-01

    This research examines two mechanisms by which persons' identities change over time. First, on the basis of identity control theory (ICT), I hypothesize that while identities influence the way in which a role is played out, discrepancies between the meanings of the identity standard and the meanings of the role performance will result in change.…

  7. Surveillance of Physician-Diagnosed Skin and Soft Tissue Infections Consistent With Methicillin-Resistant "Staphylococcus aureus" (MRSA) among Nebraska High School Athletes, 2008-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Bryan F.; Connolly, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Though historically confined to hospital settings, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has received increasing attention in the wider community, particularly among athletes. A 2007-2008 investigation in Nebraska concluded that MRSA skin infections were an emerging problem among the state's student athletes. Statewide…

  8. Surveillance of Physician-Diagnosed Skin and Soft Tissue Infections Consistent With Methicillin-Resistant "Staphylococcus aureus" (MRSA) among Nebraska High School Athletes, 2008-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Bryan F.; Connolly, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Though historically confined to hospital settings, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has received increasing attention in the wider community, particularly among athletes. A 2007-2008 investigation in Nebraska concluded that MRSA skin infections were an emerging problem among the state's student athletes. Statewide surveillance…

  9. Micronutrient Intakes in 553 Dutch Elite and Sub-Elite Athletes: Prevalence of Low and High Intakes in Users and Non-Users of Nutritional Supplements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wardenaar, Floris; Brinkmans, Naomi; Ceelen, Ingrid; Rooij, Van Bo; Mensink, Marco; Witkamp, Renger; Vries, De Jeanne

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated whether athletes meet micronutrient recommendations and whether the adequacy of their intake is related to the use of dietary supplements, sport nutrition products or a combination. Micronutrient intakes of 553 Dutch (sub-) elite athletes were assessed using web-based 24-h di

  10. Micronutrient Intakes in 553 Dutch Elite and Sub-Elite Athletes: Prevalence of Low and High Intakes in Users and Non-Users of Nutritional Supplements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wardenaar, Floris; Brinkmans, Naomi; Ceelen, Ingrid; Rooij, Van Bo; Mensink, Marco; Witkamp, Renger; Vries, De Jeanne

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated whether athletes meet micronutrient recommendations and whether the adequacy of their intake is related to the use of dietary supplements, sport nutrition products or a combination. Micronutrient intakes of 553 Dutch (sub-) elite athletes were assessed using web-based 24-h

  11. FORMATION OF RUSSIAN NATIONAL IDENTITY OF HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS: HERMENEUTICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfia F. Zakirova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is the description of means and methods of formation of a Russian national identity (RNI, one of which is the organization of joint collective students’ activities on formation of skills of interpretation of a human behavior as a text event in the context of ethnic culture of a student in order to find common Russian collectivist values, their rethinking in terms of a search of the general national identity and the comprehension of the other on the basis of some cultural differences.Methods. The means of formation of a Russian national identity at the stage of self-identification of students with Russian values and norms of interaction is offered a hermeneutic approach which is based on the ideas of hermeneutics as the art of understanding of someone else’s identity, the inner world of a man and the «empathy» in another person in order to eliminate the semantic «barriers» in the communicative activity of learners. It is directed to the understanding of subjects of the educational process as the bearers of ethnic cultures through dialogue and finding the universal general national values. The methods of the techniques of a script, scenario requirements (a text as a source of a script for reflection and dialogue and the role of expectations (presentation to a learner of algorithm of expected behavior from him in order to achieve mutual understanding in interaction are used in the course of experimental investigations.Results. It is proved that the awareness of participants of the educational process in norms and values and their reinterpretation in the aspect of the search for a general national identity is able not just to make «expressible» some installations of the subject, but also can significantly affect his worldview, to make him more reliable and predictable partner of a social interaction. The basis of this outlook is the dialectics of thinking, the simultaneous vision of individual and social, ethnic

  12. Salivary cortisol levels in athletes and nonathletes: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevada, T; Vasques, P E; Moraes, H; Deslandes, A

    2014-12-01

    High performance athletes are constantly facing different situations involving stress. Salivary cortisol has been used as a physiological measure to verify high performance athlete and mental health, in spite of research that has shown that comparisons between cortisol levels in athletes and nonathletes are inconclusive. The purpose of this study was to review articles that investigated salivary cortisol levels at rest in high performance athletes in comparison to physically active or sedentary nonathlete individuals. PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, SciELO, LILACS, and Scopus databases were searched for studies on salivary cortisol in athletes and the size effect was calculated. Although 3 articles reported higher salivary cortisol levels in female athletes compared to a control group, the results showed homogeneity among baseline groups or groups in resting conditions, suggesting a lack of discriminative capacity. These results should be interpreted with caution, due to the presence of substantial methodological bias.

  13. An ancient Greek pain remedy for athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, Else M; Swaddling, Judith; Harrison, Adrian P

    2006-01-01

    While Hippocratic writings make no reference to the actual Olympics, there is frequent mention of diet, exercise, and the treatment of injuries sustained by the athletic participants. Indeed, Galen in his Composition of Medicines gives details of a remedy prescribed for the relief of pains and sw...... of pain relief, the novelty of transdermal pain management, and the ability of ancient physicians to attend to the sports-related needs of highly tuned athletes....

  14. On High Level Athletes' Psychological Adjustment of Taijiquan in the National Games%全运会高水平太极拳运动员心理调控研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔蓓芸; 杨丽娜

    2013-01-01

      文章通过对第十届和第十一届全运会竞技太极拳运动员比赛排名和难度动作完成情况进行分析,可以看出全运会的高水平运动员在体能、技能等方面相差无几,比赛结果的毫厘之差正是由于运动员心理素质的差别所致。文章对全运会太极拳高水平运动员进行心理调查,分析其赛前的种种心态,制定相应的对策,对合理调整运动员的心理状态,进而为以后全运会取得优异的比赛成绩奠定良好基础。%Based on the athletics Taijiquan athletes ranking and difficulty performing analysis of the tenth and eleventh National Games, the study finds that national high level athletes in the physical ability, skill, are not much different, the small differences of the outcome in the games are caused by athletes' psychological quality differences. The paper does the psychological investigation and analysis of Taijiquan athletes' mentality in games, analyzes their psychological states before games, makes corresponding countermeasures, to lay a good foundation for the reasonable adjustment of athletes' mental state, and for achieving excellent results in the subsequent games.

  15. Comparison between cold water immersion therapy (CWIT) and light emitting diode therapy (LEDT) in short-term skeletal muscle recovery after high-intensity exercise in athletes--preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal Junior, Ernesto Cesar; de Godoi, Vanessa; Mancalossi, José Luis; Rossi, Rafael Paolo; De Marchi, Thiago; Parente, Márcio; Grosselli, Douglas; Generosi, Rafael Abeche; Basso, Maira; Frigo, Lucio; Tomazoni, Shaiane Silva; Bjordal, Jan Magnus; Lopes-Martins, Rodrigo Alvaro Brandão

    2011-07-01

    In the last years, phototherapy has becoming a promising tool to improve skeletal muscle recovery after exercise, however, it was not compared with other modalities commonly used with this aim. In the present study we compared the short-term effects of cold water immersion therapy (CWIT) and light emitting diode therapy (LEDT) with placebo LEDT on biochemical markers related to skeletal muscle recovery after high-intensity exercise. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover trial was performed with six male young futsal athletes. They were treated with CWIT (5°C of temperature [SD ±1°]), active LEDT (69 LEDs with wavelengths 660/850 nm, 10/30 mW of output power, 30 s of irradiation time per point, and 41.7 J of total energy irradiated per point, total of ten points irradiated) or an identical placebo LEDT 5 min after each of three Wingate cycle tests. Pre-exercise, post-exercise, and post-treatment measurements were taken of blood lactate levels, creatine kinase (CK) activity, and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. There were no significant differences in the work performed during the three Wingate tests (p > 0.05). All biochemical parameters increased from baseline values (p muscles with LEDT 5 min after the Wingate cycle test seemed to inhibit the expected post-exercise increase in blood lactate levels and CK activity. This suggests that LEDT has better potential than 5 min of CWIT for improving short-term post-exercise recovery.

  16. 影响我国高水平运动员职业素质相关因素与培养措施%Related Factors of Influencing Professional Quality of High-level Athletes in China and Cultivation Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鸿亮

    2011-01-01

    Professional quality of high-level athletes represents national quality. So improving quality of high-level athletes is especially important.This paper researched factors of influencing professional quality of high-level athletes in China and cultivation measures in order to make the athlete build correct world outlook, outlook on life and values and lay the foundation for the construction of powerful sport country.%高水平运动员职业素质代表国民素质的形象,提高高水平运动员全面素质尤为重要.本研究主要针对影响我国高水平运动员职业素质因素及培养措施进行研究,旨在为运动员树立正确的世界观,人生观、价值观,亦为建设体育强国奠定基础.

  17. Panhellenic athletics at Olympia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Heine

    2014-01-01

    The paper discusses Olympia as a panhellenic venue for athletics and the city-state interaction which took place at the sanctuary......The paper discusses Olympia as a panhellenic venue for athletics and the city-state interaction which took place at the sanctuary...

  18. Finances and College Athletics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Frank; Tanlu, Lloyd

    2009-01-01

    In 2008-2009, the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) generated television and marketing revenues of approximately $591 million, college sports apparel sales topped $4 billion, and several schools signed multimedia-rights deals for more than $100 million (Berkowitz, 2009; National Collegiate Athletic Association, 2009). At the Division…

  19. Athletic Director's Survival Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Mike; Giebel, Nancy

    This book examines the duties assigned to athletic directors, offering successful strategies for achieving them and materials to make their jobs easier (e.g., sample memos, letters, forms, and charts for interacting successfully with coaches, students, administrators, and parents). Section 1 discusses the director's work with student athletes and…

  20. Salt, Water, and Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nathan J.

    Good nutrition for athletes demands plenty of water, since water is essential to such vital functions as muscle reactions. Dehydration can result from jet travel as well as from exercise and heat, making it a danger to traveling athletic teams. To avoid dehydration, water needs should be monitored by frequent weighing, and a clean water supply…

  1. Neuroendocrine mechanisms in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Madhusmita

    2014-01-01

    Athletic activity may be associated with alterations in various neuroendocrine axes depending on the state of energy availability. In addition, genetic factors and an underlying predilection for polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) may predispose some athletes to develop functional hypothalamic amenorrhea earlier than other athletes. In conditions of low energy availability associated with athletic activity, changes that occur in various neuroendocrine axes are primarily adaptive, and aim to either conserve energy for the most essential functions, or allow the body to draw on its reserves to meet energy needs. These hormonal changes, however, then lead to changes in body composition and bone metabolism. Impaired bone accrual in younger athletes and low bone density in older athletes constitutes the major pathologic consequence of neuroendocrine changes associated with low energy availability. The female athlete triad of low energy availability, menstrual dysfunction, and low bone density is prevalent in certain kinds of sports and activities, particularly endurance sports, gymnastics, and ballet. It is essential to screen for this condition in athletes at every preparticipation physical and during office visits, and to put in place an effective treatment team to manage the triad early, in order to optimize outcomes.

  2. The Female Athlete Triad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Roberta Trattner; Thompson, Ron A.

    2004-01-01

    The Female Athlete Triad is a syndrome of the interrelated components of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. Sometimes inadvertently, but more often by willful dietary restriction, many female athletes do not ingest sufficient calories to adequately fuel their physical or sport activities, which can disrupt menstrual functioning,…

  3. Hydration Assessment of Athletes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ KEY POINTS · Although there is no scientific consensus for 1 ) howbest to assess the hydration status of athletes, 2)what criteria to use as acceptable outcome measurements, or 3) the best time to apply practical assessment methods, there are methods that can be used toprovide athletes with useful feedback about their hydration status

  4. Identidad deportiva en adolescentes españoles: propiedades psicométricas de la versión en español de la escala Athletic Identity Measurement Scale-E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Peiró-Velert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio pretende determinar las propiedades psicométricas de la Athletic Iden- tity Measurement Scale en su versión traducida al espa ̃ nol y la identidad deportiva (ID de una muestra de adolescentes espa ̃ noles. El cuestionario se administró a 441 adolescentes de 12-18 a ̃ nos, clasificados en: adolescentes del Programa de Especialización Deportiva (PED, adolescentes no-PED activos y adolescentes no-PED inactivos. El análisis factorial confirmatorio reveló una estructura jerárquica y multidimensional de tres factores de primer orden (identidad social, exclusividad y afectividad negativa y uno de segundo orden, la ID. Los resultados apoyan la adecuación de los ítems en sus respectivas subescalas y una buena consistencia interna tanto global como de los factores de primer orden. Asimismo, la validez convergente y diferencial se determinó con una submuestra mediante análisis multivariado para comprobar los efectos de la participación deportiva, el sexo y la edad sobre la ID. Los chicos muestran una mayor ID, tanto global como en los tres factores particulares, que las chicas, presentando las mayores diferencias en el factor exclusividad. Los niveles de ID disminuyen conforme se pasa del grupo de adolescentes del PED al de adolescentes no-PED inactivos, el factor afectividad negativa es el más relevante en este último grupo. Se concluye que la versión espa ̃ nola de la Athletic Iden- tity Measurement Scale constituye un instrumento válido y fiable de medición del constructo multidimensional de la ID y su uso, tanto global como particular, resulta psicométricamente adecuado para aplicar en adolescentes espa ̃ noles.

  5. The isometric athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, J C; Stebbins, C L

    1992-05-01

    A number of normal daily and athletic activities require isometric or static exercise. Such sports as weight lifting and other high-resistance activities are used by athletes to gain strength and skeletal muscle bulk. However, static exercise also causes significant increases in blood pressure, heart rate, myocardial contractility, and cardiac output. These changes occur in response to central neural irradiation, called central command, as well as a reflex originating from statically contracting muscle. Studies have demonstrated that blood pressure appears to be the regulated variable, presumably because the increased pressure provides blood flow into muscles that have compressed their arterial inflow as a result of increases in intramuscular pressure created by contraction. Thus, static exercise is characterized by a pressure load to the heart and can be differentiated from dynamic (isotonic) exercise, which involves a volume load to the heart. Physical training with static exercise leads to concentric cardiac, particularly left ventricular, hypertrophy, whereas training with dynamic exercise leads to eccentric hypertrophy. Furthermore, the magnitude of cardiac hypertrophy is much less in athletes training with static than dynamic exercise. Neither systolic nor diastolic function is altered by the hypertrophic process associated with static exercise training. Many of the energy requirements for static exercise, particularly during more severe levels of exercise, are met by anaerobic glycolysis because the contracting muscle becomes deprived of blood flow. Training with repetitive static exercise therefore causes little increase in oxygen transport capacity, so that maximal oxygen consumption is either not or only minimally increased. Peripheral cardiovascular adaptations also can occur in response to static exercise training. Although controversial, these adaptations include modest decreases in resting blood pressure, smaller increases in blood pressure during a

  6. National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Fluid Replacement for Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Douglas J.; Armstrong, Lawrence E.; Hillman, Susan K.; Montain, Scott J.; Reiff, Ralph V.; Rich, Brent S. E.; Roberts, William O.; Stone, Jennifer A.

    2000-01-01

    Presents recommendations from the National Athletic Trainers Association for optimizing the fluid replacement practices of athletes, explaining that dehydration can compromise athletic performance and increase the risk of exertional heat injury. Athletes must be educated about the risks of dehydration and overhydration. They must learn fluid…

  7. IDENTITY AND TEMPORAL PERSPECTIVE OF ADOLESCENTS WITH HIGH ACHIEVEMENTS IN SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denitsa Alipieva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The current article is an empirical approach reviewing the theories for the factors for formation of identity and self-conception in the adolescent. Under the theories for internal attribution and temporal perspective the study was conducted with teenagers between 11 and 18 years with different achievements. The aim is to show the relevance between the subjective affective involving and success in academic activity and realistic self-esteem that could enhance the abilities of students to create adequate plans and goals for future and mature self-conception

  8. Female athlete triad update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beals, Katherine A; Meyer, Nanna L

    2007-01-01

    The passage of Title IX legislation in 1972 provided enormous opportunities for women to reap the benefits of sports participation. For most female athletes, sports participation is a positive experience, providing improved physical fitness, enhanced self-esteem, and better physical and mental health. Nonetheless, for a few female athletes, the desire for athletic success combined with the pressure to achieve a prescribed body weight may lead to the development of a triad of medical disorders including disordered eating, menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density (BMD)--known collectively as the female athlete triad. Alone or in combination, the disorders of the triad can have a negative impact on health and impair athletic performance.

  9. Standards of nutrition for athletes in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diel, F; Khanferyan, R A

    2013-01-01

    The Deutscher Olympische Sportbund (DOSB) founded recently an advisory board for German elite athlete nutrition, the 'Arbeitsgruppe (AG) Ernahrungsberatung an den Olympiastutzpunkten'. The 'Performance codex and quality criteria for the food supply in facilities of German elite sports' have been established since 1997. The biochemical equivalent (ATP) for the energy demand is calculated using the DLW (Double Labeled Water)-method on the basis of RMR (Resting Metabolic Rate) and BMR (Basic Metabolic Rate) at sport type specific exercises and performances. Certain nutraceutical ingredients for dietary supplements can be recommended. However, quality criteria for nutrition, cooking and food supply are defined on the basis of Health Food and the individual physiological/social-psychological status of the athlete. Especially food supplements and instant food have to be avoided for young athletes. The German advisory board for elite athlete nutrition publishes 'colour lists' for highly recommended (green), acceptable (yellow), and less recommended (red) food stuff.

  10. Female athlete triad and stress fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feingold, David; Hame, Sharon L

    2006-10-01

    Stress fractures are a common occurrence in athletes, and the incidence of stress fractures in female Division 1 collegiate athletes is double that of men. Hormonal influences on bone and bone morphology may influence the risk for fracture. A high level of suspicion and special imaging procedures allow for accurate diagnosis of these fractures. In stress fractures that are associated with the female athlete triad, addressing the three aspects of the triad--eating disorders, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis--are critical for successful treatment. Preparticipation screening for the presence of signs of the female athlete triad by monitoring weight, energy level, menstrual cycles, and bone mineral density may help to prevent the occurrence of stress fractures in this population.

  11. Hip Imaging in Athletes: Sports Imaging Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agten, Christoph A; Sutter, Reto; Buck, Florian M; Pfirrmann, Christian W A

    2016-08-01

    Hip or groin pain in athletes is common and clinical presentation is often nonspecific. Imaging is a very important diagnostic step in the work-up of athletes with hip pain. This review article provides an overview on hip biomechanics and discusses strategies for hip imaging modalities such as radiography, ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (MR arthrography and traction MR arthrography). The authors explain current concepts of femoroacetabular impingement and the problem of high prevalence of cam- and pincer-type morphology in asymptomatic persons. With the main focus on MR imaging, the authors present abnormalities of the hip joint and the surrounding soft tissues that can occur in athletes: intraarticular and extraarticular hip impingement syndromes, labral and cartilage disease, microinstability of the hip, myotendinous injuries, and athletic pubalgia. (©) RSNA, 2016.

  12. Nutritional Considerations for the Overweight Young Athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Lisa; Timmons, Brian W

    2015-11-01

    Nutritional considerations for the overweight young athlete have not been thoroughly discussed in the scientific literature. With the high prevalence of childhood obesity, more children participating in sports are overweight or obese. This is particularly true for select sports, such as American football, where large size provides an added advantage. While sport participation should be encouraged because of the many benefits of physical activity, appropriate nutritional practices are vital for growth, and optimizing performance and health. The overweight young athlete may face certain challenges because of variable energy costs and nutrient requirements for growth and routine training, compared with nonoverweight athletes. Special attention should be given to adopting healthy lifestyle choices to prevent adverse health effects due to increased adiposity. In this review, we aim to discuss special nutritional considerations and highlight gaps in the literature concerning nutrition for overweight young athletes compared with their nonoverweight peers.

  13. Predictors of Airway Hyperresponsiveness in Elite Athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toennesen, Louise L; Porsbjerg, Celeste; Pedersen, Lars;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Elite athletes frequently suffer from asthma and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). We aimed to investigate predictors of airway pathophysiology in a group of unselected elite summer-sport athletes, training for the summer 2008 Olympic Games, including markers of airway inflammation......, systemic inflammation and training intensity. METHODS: 57 Danish elite summer-sport athletes with and without asthma symptoms all gave a blood sample for measurements of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF....... In these subjects, no association was found between the levels of AHR to mannitol and methacholine (r=0.032, p=0.91). CONCLUSION: Airway hyperresponsiveness in elite athletes is related to the amount of weekly training and the level of serum TNF-α. No association was found between the level of AHR to mannitol...

  14. Hard Identity and Soft Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Rachik

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Often collective identities are classified depending on their contents and rarely depending on their forms. Differentiation between soft identity and hard identity is applied to diverse collective identities: religious, political, national, tribal ones, etc. This classification is made following the principal dimensions of collective identities: type of classification (univocal and exclusive or relative and contextual, the absence or presence of conflictsof loyalty, selective or totalitarian, objective or subjective conception, among others. The different characteristics analysed contribute to outlining an increasingly frequent type of identity: the authoritarian identity.

  15. Sleep habits in German athletes before important competitions or games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlacher, Daniel; Ehrlenspiel, Felix; Adegbesan, Olufemi A; El-Din, Hamdi Galal

    2011-05-01

    Sleep is generally regarded as a valuable resource for psychological and physiological well-being. Although the effects of sleep on athletic performance have been acknowledged in sport science, few studies have investigated the prevalence of sleep problems and their effects on elite athletes before a sport event. In this study, 632 German athletes from various sports were asked about their sleep habits during the night(s) before an important competition or game. The findings indicate that 65.8% of the athletes experienced poor sleep in the night(s) before a sports event at least once in their lives and a similarly high percentage (62.3%) had this experience at least once during the previous 12 months. Athletes of individual sports reported more sleep difficulties than athletes of team sports. The main sleep problem was not being able to fall asleep. Internal factors such as nervousness and thoughts about the competition were rated highest for causing sleep problems. Most athletes stated that disturbed sleep had no influence on their athletic performance; however, athletes also reported effects such as a bad mood the following day, increased daytime sleepiness, and worse performance in the competition or game. The differences between individual and team sports indicate that athletes in some sports need more help than those in other sports in managing sleep problems.

  16. Persistent HyperCKemia in Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brancaccio, Paola; Maffulli, Nicola; Politano, Luisa; Lippi, Giuseppe; Limongelli, Francesco Mario

    2011-01-01

    Summary We compared the effects of exercise on serum levels of creatin kinase (CK) in athletes with persistent hyperCKemia at rest (CK group) and in healthy athletes (control group). Prospective controlled study. Eighteen male Caucasian athletes with high serum CK levels at rest (CK between 80 and 150 U/L) and 25 male Caucasian athletes with normal serum CK levels at rest (CK between 10 and 80 U/L) Main Outcome Measures Blood samples were collected at rest, 30 minutes, 6 hours, 24 hours, 48 hours and 72 hours after a progressive cycloergometer test to exhaustion. The levels of serum CK and its isoenzymes were measured. In the control group, serum CK values at rest were normal (48.18 ± 14.14 U/L). After exercise, they increased slightly, though they always remained <80 U/L, decreasing to the rest level after 48 hours. The CK group had serum CK levels at rest higher than normal (116.56 ± 33.30 U/L). Serum CK levels were still outwith the normal range after 48 hours (130.11 ± 46.95 U/L) and 72 hours (116.55 ± 24.84 U/L). Serum CK levels were significantly different in both groups both before and after progressive cycloergometer test to exhaustion. In athletes with high serum CK levels at rest, serum CK levels remained elevated and had a different kinetics after exercise when compared with healthy athletes. PMID:23738242

  17. Sonographic evaluation of athletic pubalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, Nicholas; Grant, Thomas; Blount, Kevin; Omar, Imran

    2016-05-01

    Athletic pubalgia, or "sports hernia", represents a constellation of pathologic conditions occurring at and around the pubic symphysis. These injuries are primarily seen in athletes or those involved in athletic activity. In this article, we review the sonographic appearance of the relevant complex anatomy, scanning technique for ultrasound evaluation of athletic pubalgia, and the sonographic appearances of associated pathologic conditions.

  18. Intercollegiate Athlete as Student Leader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Anthony; Simet, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    The chapter explores student-athlete campus engagement and challenges faced by athletes that may impede leadership development. The roles of athletic academic advisors, team coaches, and teammates in leadership development are outlined. Current campus initiatives directly related to intercollegiate athlete leadership development are also shared.

  19. "They'll Expect More Bad Things from Us.": Latino/a Youth Constructing Identities in a Racialized High School in New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechuga, Chalane Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    This research explores how Latino/a high school students in New Mexico constitute their racial identities in this particular historical moment, the post-Civil Rights colorblind era. I explore what their chosen nomenclatures and employed discourses suggest about the relationship between their racial identities and academic achievement. The research…

  20. Urban high school students' perspectives about sexual health decision-making: the role of school culture and identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotman, Jennie S.; Mensah, Felicia Moore

    2013-06-01

    Studies across fields such as science education, health education, health behavior, and curriculum studies identify a persistent gap between the aims of the school curriculum and its impact on students' thinking and acting about the real-life decisions that affect their lives. The present study presents a different story from this predominant pattern in the literature. Through a year-long ethnographic investigation of a health-focused New York City public high school's HIV/AIDS and sex education program, this study illustrates a case in which 20 12th grade students respond positively to their education on these topics and largely assert that school significantly influences their perspectives and actions related to sexual health decision-making. This paper presents the following interpretation of this positive influence: school culture influences these students' perspectives and decisions around sexual health by contributing to the formation of students' identities. This paper further shows how science learning in particular becomes important for students in relation to decision-making when it is linked to issues of identity. These findings suggest that, in addition to attending to the design of classroom curriculum, HIV/AIDS and sex education researchers and curriculum developers (as well as those in science education focusing on other controversial science topics) might also explore the kinds of relational and school-wide factors that potentially influence students' identities, decisions, and responses to school learning.

  1. Latina high school students figured world of STEM: Identity formation in formal and informal communities of practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcantara, Minosca Victoria

    In the United States, the education and skill levels of the American population are not measuring up to the growing demands of the STEM workplace. The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) (2007) projects that over the next 20 years, there will be an estimated shortage of 21 million skilled workers. STEM professions (those in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics), will continue to lead this workforce growth. However, fewer students are majoring in these areas of critical need, particularly women and minorities. Only a small fraction of U.S.-born scientists and engineers training to fill these positions are members of underrepresented minorities (Latino, Black, and American Indian/Native Alaskan students), yet this same population is expected to experience the greatest growth over the next several decades. Using qualitative methods, I explore the role formal and informal communities of practice play in either motivating or hindering Latinas' interest in STEM career. I use the narratives of 16 low-income, urban Latina high school seniors to provide a counternarrative as to the reasons for these underrepresentation. Teachers in the U.S. play a significant role in the reproduction of the culturally prototypical conception of math and science students; the best and brightest in the school. Teachers' role in positioning Latina students in honors/gifted programs based on their perceptions of students' characteristics and their recommendations for placement in honors classes/ programs, STEM extracurricular activities and summer programs are critical to Latina's "good student" identity formation which has a significant role in their motivation or erasure of STEM identities. Latinas in this study strongly identified with their school and were very concerned in maintaining their good student identities. They defined academic success based on the grades they obtained and the colleges they were accepted into. I propose an identity model, L-STEM which highlight the power

  2. Performance level affects the dietary supplement intake of both individual and team sports athletes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Giannopoulou, Ifigenia; Noutsos, Kostantinos; Apostolidis, Nikolaos; Bayios, Ioannis; Nassis, George P

    2013-01-01

    Dietary supplement (DS) intake is high in elite level athletes, however few studies have investigated the impact that the performance level of the athletes has on supplementation intake in individual and team sports...

  3. A case study of the effects of social experiences on the science identity formation of Mexican American females in high school chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeton, Renee P.

    Mexican Americans are a rapidly growing ethnic group in the United States. However, they are noticeably absent from physical science fields. Little research has explored the experiences of Mexican American girls in high school chemistry. The theories of identity based on communities of practice and multicultural feminism framed this year-long case study of nine Mexican American girls in a high school chemistry course. This study explored the social encounters and experiences that shaped the participants' identities and how their views of themselves affected their attitudes towards high school chemistry and future science careers. Data collection included a focus group and in-depth interviews with the participants, classroom observations, and teacher interviews. Five main identities influenced the participants' potential to become a scientist: ethnic, gender, science, student, and college. Mexican ethnic identity was the overarching identity; however gender also influenced the participants' other identities. The participants were aware of ethnic gender stereotypes that might hinder them from being successful in science. Also, ethnic factors, such as citizenship and abilities to receive financial aid limited their views of themselves as chemists. Participatory science, student, and school identities were all needed in order for the participants to be potential scientists. Family expectations, authentic relationships with teachers, and personal connections were important factors in the development of these participatory identities.

  4. Asthma in elite athletes: pathogenesis, diagnosis, differential diagnoses, and treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars; Elers, Jimmi; Backer, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    Elite athletes have a high prevalence of asthma and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Although respiratory symptoms can be suggestive of asthma, the diagnosis of asthma in elite athletes cannot be based solely on the presence or absence of symptoms; diagnosis should be based on objective...... measurements, such as the eucapnic voluntary hyperpnea test or exercise test. When considering that not all respiratory symptoms are due to asthma, other diagnoses should be considered. Certain regulations apply to elite athletes who require asthma medication for asthma. Knowledge of these regulations...... is essential when treating elite athletes. This article is aimed at physicians who diagnose and treat athletes with respiratory symptoms. It focuses on the pathogenesis of asthma and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in elite athletes and how the diagnosis can be made. Furthermore, treatment of elite...

  5. Elite collegiate tennis athletes have lower 2D: 4D ratios than those of nonathlete controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Cheng-Chen; Su, Borcherng; Kan, Nai-Wen; Lai, Su-Ling; Fong, Tsorng-Harn; Chi, Chung-Pu; Chang, Ching-Chyuan; Hsu, Mei-Chich

    2015-03-01

    The ratio of the length of the second finger (index finger) to the fourth finger (ring finger) (2D:4D ratio) is a putative marker for prenatal hormones. Physiological research has suggested a low 2D:4D ratio correlates with high athletic ability. Athletes of specific sports (e.g., American football) have lower 2D:4D ratios than those of nonathletes, whereas athletes of some sports (e.g., rowing, gymnastics, and soccer) do not. This study investigated the 2D:4D ratios among collegiate tennis athletes, elite collegiate tennis athletes, and nonelite collegiate tennis athletes and compared them with nonathletes of both sexes. The participants included 43 elite collegiate tennis athletes (Level I intercollegiate athletes in Taiwan; 27 males and 16 females), 107 nonelite collegiate tennis athletes (Level II athletes; 55 males and 52 females), and 166 nonathlete college students (80 males and 86 females). The principle findings suggest that (a) regardless of sex, collegiate tennis athletes have lower 2D:4D values than those of nonathletes; (b) elite collegiate tennis athletes have lower 2D:4D values than those of nonathletes; (c) among females but not males, athletes and nonelite athletes have lower 2D:4D values than those of nonathletes; and (d) males have lower 2D:4D values than those of females.

  6. The impact of ethnic identity on changes in high risk HIV behaviors in sexually active migrant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehadeh, Nancy; Virginia McCoy, H; Rubens, Muni; Batra, Anamica; Renfrew, Roderick; Winter, Kelly

    2012-02-01

    Among migrant workers (MWs) in the US, HIV/AIDS prevalence may be as high as 13.5%. This serial cross-sectional study examines associations between Ethnic Identity (EI) in African American and Hispanic MWs and short-term changes in high-risk sexual behaviors. Baseline and 3-month follow-up data was collected from a larger HIV intervention study among MWs in Immokalee, Florida (n = 119) who reported unprotected sex in the past 30 days. The Multigroup Identity Measure was used to assess EI. A high EI score indicates less acculturation to one's new surroundings. Females had higher levels of positive behavior change. Lower EI was associated with higher levels of positive change in relation to HIV/AIDS risk behavior. Among Hispanics, education was negatively correlated with EI. Education was a predictor of behavior change. Future interventions should focus on reducing acculturation stress, which may prompt harmful coping behaviors, such as high-risk sex and substance abuse.

  7. Vitamin supplementation benefits in master athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisswalter, Jeanick; Louis, Julien

    2014-03-01

    Master athletes are more than 35 years of age and continue to train as hard as their young counterparts despite the aging process. All life long, they are capable of accomplishing exceptional sporting performances. For these participants in endurance events, matching energy intake and expenditure is critical to maintain health and performance. The proportions of carbohydrate, fat, and protein must be optimized to provide enough calories to sustain the energy requirements of competition or training, and for recovery. In addition, endurance athletes must include adequate vitamins and minerals in their diets to maintain healthy immune function. Vitamins and minerals may be sufficient in the diets of endurance athletes, who have a high energy intake. This would make it unnecessary to use vitamin and mineral supplements. Furthermore, one major limitation for these athletes is the management of oxidative stress, which, when in excess, can be deleterious for the organism. For individuals exposed to oxidative stress, micronutritional supplementations rich in vitamins and minerals can be also an alternative strategy. Although these supplementations are increasingly used by master athletes, very few data are available on their effects on oxidative stress, muscle recovery, and physical performance. The potential benefits of supplement use in athletes are thus questionable. Some studies indicate no benefits, while others highlight potential negative side effects of vitamin supplementation. Additional studies are warranted in order to design adapted prescriptions in antioxidant vitamins and minerals.

  8. Electrophysiological characteristics of the athlete's heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Dejana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The athletic heart syndrome is characterized by morphological, functional and electrophysiological alterations as an adaptive response to vigorous physical activity. Athletes heart is predominantly associated with a programmed, intensive training. But as there are different kinds of physical activities, the degree of these changes is highly variable. Electrophysiological characteristics of the athlete's heart. The response of the body to vigorous physical activity is a multiorgan system phenomenon. The integrated functioning of each of these organ systems is very important, but the cardiovascular system plays a critical role in mediating the activity. Because of that, most changes in the neurohumoral regulation pre- dominantly affect the cardiovascular system. These changes include: depression of sympathetic activity and stimulation of parasympathetic activity, so electrophysiological characteristics of the athlete's heart must differ from the sedentary. Although these facts, are well known, the athlete's heart is not a precisely defined concept. It is a gray zone between physiology and pathology. Conclusion. Considering the number of sudden cardiac deaths in athletes, it is needless to say how important it is to distinguish physiological changes of the heart due to physical activity, and pathological changes due to some cardiac diseases.

  9. The relation between athletic sports and prevalence of amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea in Iranian female athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dadgostar Haleh

    2009-07-01

    that the prevalence of amenorrhea/oligomenorrhea is high in athletes. Furthermore, we provided the first report on the prevalence of PCOS in female athletes with amenorrhea/oligomenorrhea. Athletes would be greatly benefited by greater general awareness about the complications of amenorrhea/oligomenorrhea. To increase awareness of exercise-associated menstrual cycle irregularities, it is necessary to design complete and comprehensive education programs for female athletes, their parents, their coaches, and the relevant authorities.

  10. Energy availability in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucks, Anne B; Kiens, Bente; Wright, Hattie H

    2011-01-01

    This review updates and complements the review of energy balance and body composition in the Proceedings of the 2003 IOC Consensus Conference on Sports Nutrition. It argues that the concept of energy availability is more useful than the concept of energy balance for managing the diets of athletes. It then summarizes recent reports of the existence, aetiologies, and clinical consequences of low energy availability in athletes. This is followed by a review of recent research on the failure of appetite to increase ad libitum energy intake in compensation for exercise energy expenditure. The review closes by summarizing the implications of this research for managing the diets of athletes.

  11. The deaf athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Trish; Weber, Kathleen M

    2006-12-01

    Deaf and hard of hearing athletes have few documented related medical problems. Hearing loss has multiple causes. A portion of those with a hearing loss consider themselves part of the Deaf community, a community with a unique language and culture. Athletes may have assistive devices to enhance their ability to perceive auditory cues, whereas in deaf sport competitions, common auditory cues may be made visible. There are athletic organizations whose missions are to provide a sport and social venue specific to the deaf population. Having a better understanding and appreciation of the Deaf community will help sports medicine physicians to work more effectively with this population.

  12. Athletic pubalgia (sports hernia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwin, Demetrius E M; Sneider, Erica B; McEnaney, Patrick M; Busconi, Brian D

    2011-04-01

    Athletic pubalgia or sports hernia is a syndrome of chronic lower abdomen and groin pain that may occur in athletes and nonathletes. Because the differential diagnosis of chronic lower abdomen and groin pain is so broad, only a small number of patients with chronic lower abdomen and groin pain fulfill the diagnostic criteria of athletic pubalgia (sports hernia). The literature published to date regarding the cause, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of sports hernias is confusing. This article summarizes the current information and our present approach to this chronic lower abdomen and groin pain syndrome.

  13. Photobiomodulation in athletic training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Timon Cheng-Yi; Liu, Jiang; Wang, Shuang-Xi; Cui, Li-Ping; Xu, Xiao-Yang; Lu, Jian; Deng, Xiao-Yuan; Liu, Song-Hao

    2006-09-01

    Photobiomodulation (PBM) has been mainly used in athlete trauma care. In this paper, the possible applications of PBM in athlete medical care to maintain pro-oxidant-antioxidant homeostasis and in athlete trauma care to treat osteoarthritis and delayed onset of muscular soreness (DOMS) have been discussed. In order to maintain pro-oxidant-antioxidant homeostasis, PBM might be used in an intravascular way, in an endonasal way or in a directly irradiated way. DOMS was supposed to have three phases, z-line disruption, proteolysis of damaged proteins and protein synthesis for myofibril remodeling, each of which might have its own optimum dose of PBM.

  14. Identity and Professional Networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Medha; Fast, Nathanael J; Fisher, Oliver

    2017-06-01

    Despite evidence that large professional networks afford a host of financial and professional benefits, people vary in how motivated they are to build such networks. To help explain this variance, the present article moves beyond a rational self-interest account to examine the possibility that identity shapes individuals' intentions to network. Study 1 established a positive association between viewing professional networking as identity-congruent and the tendency to prioritize strengthening and expanding one's professional network. Study 2 revealed that manipulating the salience of the self affects networking intentions, but only among those high in networking identity-congruence. Study 3 further established causality by experimentally manipulating identity-congruence to increase networking intentions. Study 4 examined whether identity or self-interest is a better predictor of networking intentions, providing support for the former. These findings indicate that identity influences the networks people develop. Implications for research on the self, identity-based motivation, and professional networking are discussed.

  15. Triangular fibrocartilage complex injuries in the elite athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Jason H; Wiedrich, Thomas A

    2012-08-01

    Injuries to the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) in athletes can be caused by acute trauma, chronic repetitive loading, or a combination of both. Regardless of cause, the management of TFCC injuries in the high-performance athlete is often different from the basic tenets applied to the general population. The diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation regimen should be individualized and sport-specific in athletes, taking into consideration the priorities and needs of the athlete while striking a balance between healing, return to play, and long-term well-being.

  16. Parental Support for Students Who Participate in High School Athletics: An Exploration of the Perceived Influence of Parents and Its Effect on Student Self-Efficacy and Academic Success

    OpenAIRE

    To, Daniel Ming Lui

    2017-01-01

    This mixed method study explored student athletes’ perception of parental influence in their high school athletic endeavours and how this perceived influence affected their self efficacy and academic success.   The quantitative data was derived from surveys that gauged student perceived parental involvement, self efficacy and academic success in two high schools in a large metropolitan school district in British Columbia. One of the schools was a school composed primarily of students of mid t...

  17. Masculinity, moral atmosphere, and moral functioning of high school football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinfeldt, Jesse A; Rutkowski, Leslie A; Vaughan, Ellen L; Steinfeldt, Matthew C

    2011-04-01

    In order to identify factors associated with on-field moral functioning among student athletes within the unique context of football, we examined masculine gender role conflict, moral atmosphere, and athletic identity. Using structural equation modeling to assess survey data from 204 high school football players, results demonstrated that moral atmosphere (i.e., the influence of coaches and teammates) was significantly associated with participants' process of on-field moral functioning across the levels of judgment, intention, and behavior. Neither masculine gender role conflict nor athletic identity significantly predicted moral functioning, but the results indicated that participants' identification with the athlete role significantly predicted conflict with socialized gender roles. Results suggest that in the aggressive and violent sport of football, coaches can have a direct influence on players' moral functioning process. Coaches can also have an indirect effect by influencing all the players so that a culture of ethical play can be cultivated among teammates and spread from the top down.

  18. Optimum parity of volumes of training loadings in the one-cyclic experimental period of preparation taekwondo athletes high qualification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saienko V.G.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of application of correlation of volumes of the trainings loadings is tested in preparation of sportsmen. 12 sportsmen took part in an experiment (age of 18-22, experience of employments from 8 to 15 years. On the extent of three months the program of preparation was used. All sportsmen conducted the identical amount of trainings employments - 105. The most effective construction of training process of sportsmen is certain in one-cyclic three months period. It has such correlation of volumes of trainings facilities: base technique - 10%, formal complexes of battle exercises - 9%, specially-preparatory exercises - 24%, exercises on shells - 17%, exercises with a partner - 17%, sparrings - 23%.

  19. A bioinformatics approach for determining sample identity from different lanes of high-throughput sequencing data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel L Goldfeder

    Full Text Available The ability to generate whole genome data is rapidly becoming commoditized. For example, a mammalian sized genome (∼3Gb can now be sequenced using approximately ten lanes on an Illumina HiSeq 2000. Since lanes from different runs are often combined, verifying that each lane in a genome's build is from the same sample is an important quality control. We sought to address this issue in a post hoc bioinformatic manner, instead of using upstream sample or "barcode" modifications. We rely on the inherent small differences between any two individuals to show that genotype concordance rates can be effectively used to test if any two lanes of HiSeq 2000 data are from the same sample. As proof of principle, we use recent data from three different human samples generated on this platform. We show that the distributions of concordance rates are non-overlapping when comparing lanes from the same sample versus lanes from different samples. Our method proves to be robust even when different numbers of reads are analyzed. Finally, we provide a straightforward method for determining the gender of any given sample. Our results suggest that examining the concordance of detected genotypes from lanes purported to be from the same sample is a relatively simple approach for confirming that combined lanes of data are of the same identity and quality.

  20. A bioinformatics approach for determining sample identity from different lanes of high-throughput sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfeder, Rachel L; Parker, Stephen C J; Ajay, Subramanian S; Ozel Abaan, Hatice; Margulies, Elliott H

    2011-01-01

    The ability to generate whole genome data is rapidly becoming commoditized. For example, a mammalian sized genome (∼3Gb) can now be sequenced using approximately ten lanes on an Illumina HiSeq 2000. Since lanes from different runs are often combined, verifying that each lane in a genome's build is from the same sample is an important quality control. We sought to address this issue in a post hoc bioinformatic manner, instead of using upstream sample or "barcode" modifications. We rely on the inherent small differences between any two individuals to show that genotype concordance rates can be effectively used to test if any two lanes of HiSeq 2000 data are from the same sample. As proof of principle, we use recent data from three different human samples generated on this platform. We show that the distributions of concordance rates are non-overlapping when comparing lanes from the same sample versus lanes from different samples. Our method proves to be robust even when different numbers of reads are analyzed. Finally, we provide a straightforward method for determining the gender of any given sample. Our results suggest that examining the concordance of detected genotypes from lanes purported to be from the same sample is a relatively simple approach for confirming that combined lanes of data are of the same identity and quality.

  1. Female Athlete Triad

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... term, female athlete triad may lead to reduced physical performance, stress fractures, and other injuries. Over the long term, it can cause bone weakness, long-term effects on the reproductive system, and heart problems. A ...

  2. Biomechanically Engineered Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Tekla S.

    1991-01-01

    The real-world meeting of electronics, computer monitoring, control systems, and mathematics, introduced in the context of sports, is described. Recent advances in the field of biomechanics and its use in improving athletic performance are discussed. (KR)

  3. NUTRIONAL NEEDS OF ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Pandey

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim – is to provide a comprehensive information regarding the nutritional needs of athletes, followed by female athletes who have a higher necessity for Iron. Sports and nutrition are directly related to each other. Taking into consideration the fact that sports person need more energy to carry out their sporting activity effectively, it becomes of prime importance to take care for sports performance. Athletes must supposedly eat the perfect ratio of Protein, carbohydrate and fat at each meal and snack to control the hormonal systems and thus reach their maximum performance and ideal weight .The carbohydrate/protein/fat ratio of the 40-30-30 diet allegedly maintains the proper balance between the hormones insulin and glucagon. The present review focuses on the intake for a wholesome nutrient and well balanced diet for better performance among male as well as female athletes.

  4. Vegetarian athletes: Special requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Dilek Ongan; Gülgün Ersoy

    2012-01-01

    Vegetarian diets have been mentioned on having long and short term beneficial effects while they are important parts of the Western countries. Vegetarians are not homogeneous groups and subjects are motivated to be on a vegetarian diet because of culturel and regional reasons, ethical concerns including animal rights, health parameters and environmental situations. And these reasons differ from vegetarian and omnivour athletes. Athletes, especially endurance ones (sprinters, cyclists, triathl...

  5. female collegiate athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JL Ayers

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Olympic weightlifting movements and their variations are believed to be among the most effective ways to improve power, strength, and speed in athletes. This study investigated the effects of two Olympic weightlifting variations (hang cleans and hang snatches, on power (vertical jump height, strength (1RM back squat, and speed (40-yard sprint in female collegiate athletes. 23 NCAA Division I female athletes were randomly assigned to either a hang clean group or hang snatch group. Athletes participated in two workout sessions a week for six weeks, performing either hang cleans or hang snatches for five sets of three repetitions with a load of 80-85% 1RM, concurrent with their existing, season-specific, resistance training program. Vertical jump height, 1RM back squat, and 40-yard sprint all had a significant, positive improvement from pre-training to post-training in both groups (p≤0.01. However, when comparing the gain scores between groups, there was no significant difference between the hang clean and hang snatch groups for any of the three dependent variables (i.e., vertical jump height, p=0.46; 1RM back squat, p=0.20; and 40-yard sprint, p=0.46. Short-term training emphasizing hang cleans or hang snatches produced similar improvements in power, strength, and speed in female collegiate athletes. This provides strength and conditioning professionals with two viable programmatic options in athletic-based exercises to improve power, strength, and speed.

  6. Exploração de fatores de risco para lesões no atletismo de alta performance Finding of risk factors for injuries in high performance athletics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Marcelo Pastre

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Os fatores de risco para instalação de lesões do esporte têm sido pesquisados no sentido de facilitar o entendimento sobre o assunto. Contudo, para altos níveis de performance, nos eventos de pista e campo do atletismo, são escassos os documentos que abordam o tema. Assim, a partir da possibilidade de reunir informações sobre a condição descrita, objetivou-se com o presente estudo a exploração de fatores de risco para lesões desportivas no atletismo, a partir de inquérito aplicado a atletas da elite mundial da modalidade. A população foi composta por 60 homens e 60 mulheres alocados em grupos conforme a especificidade de sua modalidade (velocidade, resistência, arremessos e saltos. Realizou-se entrevista utilizando-se de inquérito de morbidade referida, abordando questões sobre variáveis antropométricas e de treinamento, assim como lesões. Utilizou-se a técnica da análise de variância paramétrica para as variáveis antropométricas (idade, peso, estatura e da técnica da análise de variância não paramétrica em relação às variáveis de treinamento (anos de treinamento e horas semanais. Para associação entre momento de lesão e especialidades, utilizou-se do teste de Goodman em nível de 5% de significância. Os resultados mostraram que houve elevada freqüência de lesões na modalidade em ambos os sexos. As taxas de lesão por atleta entrevistado foram de 0,92 (velocidade, 1,08 (resistência, 1,22 (saltos e 1,20 (arremessos. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante para as variáveis antropométricas e de treinamento em relação às provas, com exceção dos saltadores, que apresentaram diferenças para estatura e tempo de treinamento; nesse caso, os acometidos são mais altos ou praticam atletismo há menos tempo (P The risk factors for installation of sports injuries have been researched to facilitate the understanding about the issue. However, for high performance levels, in the track and field

  7. Clinical observations from nutrition services in college athletics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quatromoni, Paula A

    2008-04-01

    College athletes are vulnerable to nutritional risks because of the rigorous demands of their sport, and because of the realities of college lifestyles. Athletes often adopt rigid training diets that predispose them to undernutrition, fatigue, and injury. Disordered eating, a common concern for college-aged women, affects a substantial number of female collegiate athletes, and is a growing concern for their male counterparts. Few resources exist to promote nutritional well-being among college athletes, particularly for individuals who suffer from eating pathology that is subclinical and often perceived as benign. This article presents evidence of the need for nutrition services for college athletes and describes nutritional risks that affect individuals across a variety of athletic teams. A multidisciplinary treatment model is depicted, featuring a nutrition practice at the core of a sports medicine wellness program in Division I college athletics. Observations from this practice document a substantial burden of subclinical eating disorders and elucidate characteristics of high-risk individuals. The Female Athlete Screening Tool is advocated as a useful tool for identifying eating pathology and triggering timely interventions. These insights from clinical practice identify opportunities and behavioral targets for intervention, and promote an effective model for health promotion in college athletics.

  8. Performance level affects the dietary supplement intake of both individual and team sports athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannopoulou, Ifigenia; Noutsos, Kostantinos; Apostolidis, Nikolaos; Bayios, Ioannis; Nassis, George P

    2013-01-01

    Dietary supplement (DS) intake is high in elite level athletes, however few studies have investigated the impact that the performance level of the athletes has on supplementation intake in individual and team sports. The purpose of the study was to determine and compare the DS intake among individual and team sport athletes of various performance levels. A total of 2845 participants (athletes: 2783, controls: 62) between the ages of 11 and 44 years old participated in the study. A 3-page questionnaire was developed to assess the intake of DS. Athletes were categorized based on participation in individual (n = 775) and team sports (n = 2008). To assess the effect of performance level in supplementation intake, athletes were categorized based on training volume, participation in the national team, and winning at least one medal in provincial, national, international or Olympic games. Overall, 37% of all athletes of various performance levels reported taking at least one DS in the last month. A higher prevalence of DS intake was reported in individual (44%) compared to team sport athletes (35%) (p < 0.001). Athletes of high performance level reported greater DS intake compared to lower performance athletes. Males reported a significantly greater prevalence of DS intake compared to females. The most popular supplement reported was amino acid preparation with the main reason of supplementation being endurance improvements. In conclusion, performance level and type of sport appear to impact the DS practices of male and female athletes. These findings should be validated in other populations. Key points37% of Mediterranean athletes of various sports and levels have reported taking dietary supplements.The performance level of the athletes affects the dietary supplementation intake.Athletes in individual sports appear to have a higher DS intake compared to team sport athletes.Male athletes appear to take more dietary supplements compared to female athletes.

  9. Markers for Routine Assessment of Fatigue and Recovery in Male and Female Team Sport Athletes during High-Intensity Interval Training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thimo Wiewelhove

    Full Text Available Our study aimed to investigate changes of different markers for routine assessment of fatigue and recovery in response to high-intensity interval training (HIIT.22 well-trained male and female team sport athletes (age, 23.0 ± 2.7 years; V̇O2 max, 57.6 ± 8.6 mL · min · kg(-1 participated in a six-day running-based HIIT-microcycle with a total of eleven HIIT sessions. Repeated sprint ability (RSA; criterion measure of fatigue and recovery, countermovement jump (CMJ height, jump efficiency in a multiple rebound jump test (MRJ, 20-m sprint performance, muscle contractile properties, serum concentrations of creatinkinase (CK, c-reactive protein (CRP and urea as well as perceived muscle soreness (DOMS were measured pre and post the training program as well as after 72 h of recovery.Following the microcycle significant changes (p < 0.05 in RSA as well as in CMJ and MRJ performance could be observed, showing a decline (%Δ ± 90% confidence limits, ES = effect size; RSA: -3.8 ± 1.0, ES = -1.51; CMJ: 8.4 ± 2.9, ES = -1.35; MRJ: 17.4 ± 4.5, ES = -1.60 and a return to baseline level (RSA: 2.8 ± 2.6, ES = 0.53; CMJ: 4.1 ± 2.9, ES = 0.68; MRJ: 6.5 ± 4.5, ES = 0.63 after 72 h of recovery. Athletes also demonstrated significant changes (p < 0.05 in muscle contractile properties, CK, and DOMS following the training program and after the recovery period. In contrast, CRP and urea remained unchanged throughout the study. Further analysis revealed that the accuracy of markers for assessment of fatigue and recovery in comparison to RSA derived from a contingency table was insufficient. Multiple regression analysis also showed no correlations between changes in RSA and any of the markers.Mean changes in measures of neuromuscular function, CK and DOMS are related to HIIT induced fatigue and subsequent recovery. However, low accuracy of a single or combined use of these markers requires the verification of their applicability on an individual basis.

  10. Identidad social de un grupo de altos ingresos económicos. Social identity of a group of high income

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Dujarric Bermúdez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available La investigación indaga la existencia de una relación entre los ingresos económicos y la identidad, para lo cual se trabajó con un grupo de altos ingresos de la provincia de La Habana. Desde el Enfoque de Identidades Sociales se intenta comprender la configuración subjetiva de este grupo, así como su proyección ante la situación actual del país. Utilizamos un enfoque mixto, procesando la información a partir del Statistical Packetfor Social Sciencies (SPSS y el análisis de contenido. Los resultados obtenidos evidencian que los ingresos modelan una identidad social y constituyen un referente sobre cómo se está moviendo la subjetividad de este grupo social, así como de su proyección ante la situación actual del país. The research investigates the existence of a relationship between economic income and social identity, for which we worked with a group of high incomes in the province of Havana. From the Social Identity Perspective we try to understand the subjectivity of this group and its projection to the current situation. We worked with a mixed methodology and processed the information using the Statistical Packet for Social Sciencies (SPSS and the content analysis. The results show that incomes shape an identity and give some hints about the movement ofthis group social subjectivity, in this period of reforms.

  11. Records in Athletics through Extreme-Value Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Einmahl, J.H.J.; Magnus, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we shall be interested in two questions on extremes relating to world records in athletics.The first question is: what is the ultimate world record in a specific athletics event (such as the 100m for men or the high jump for women), given today's state of the art?Our second question is

  12. Secondary Athletic Administrators' Perceptions of Title IX Policy Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Gabriel Grawe

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate North Dakota's Normal Competitive Region (NDNCR) high school athletic administrators' perceptions of 2010 Title IX policy changes respective to their athletic programs. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected to investigate the perceptions. Quantitatively, perception data were gathered from a…

  13. External and Internal Factors Influencing Happiness in Elite Collegiate Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Katherine G.; Steiner, Hans

    2009-01-01

    When under conditions of high demand and allostatic load, are happiness and satisfaction in four domains (family, friends, academics, recreation) influenced more by external or internal factors? Do student-athletes who lead exceedingly complicated lives report happiness as a function of athletic achievement or internal disposition? Stanford…

  14. Records in Athletics through Extreme-Value Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Einmahl, J.H.J.; Magnus, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we shall be interested in two questions on extremes relating to world records in athletics.The first question is: what is the ultimate world record in a specific athletics event (such as the 100m for men or the high jump for women), given today's state of the art?Our second question

  15. Identity paradoxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurić Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers paradoxical nature of identity that emerges from: 1 the very concept of identity whose abstract generality unites various and even opposite features; 2 the processual nature of reality that is easier to express in the poetical metaphors or abstract principles than in unambiguous conceptual networks; 3 the oppose relationship between being and knowledge, mind and matter, subject and object, self and personality. Entangled in the labyrinth which evade efforts to be conceptually defined, the modern thinking of identity moves towards abandoning the idea of “self” on behalf of the “ego” and towards the misapprehension of identity as being identical. This corresponds to the “time of the lost spirit” stretched between the simultaneous need to find an identity and to give it up.

  16. Medical Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musaeus, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To examine philosophical stances underpinning medical identity and assess the conceptual relationship between physician, medical practice and culture. Argument: Medical identity is about the ideals and moral positions that physicians take when justifying themselves. Medical identity...... hedonistic versus sentimentalist approaches to medical identity. The sociocultural philosophical analysis of medical identity can shed light on what it means conceptually for a physician to harbor beliefs associated with him/her being taken to be an autonomous professional. It is important because it touches...... on the meaning of being a compassionate, good and skilled physician, making its relevance to person-centered medicine self-evident. Conclusion: Medical identity should be analyzed with reference to literature, philosophy and medical practice in order for the physician to exercise a reflective position...

  17. Effects of the training status on the hormonal response and recovery from high-intensity isokinetic exercise: comparisons between endurance-trained athletes and sedentary subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minetto, M A; Paccotti, P; Borrione, P; Massazza, G; Ventura, M; Termine, A; Di Luigi, L; Pigozzi, F; Angeli, A

    2006-09-01

    Aims of the study were: to determine the differences in the mechanical, hormonal and lactate responses to a high-intensity isokinetic exercise in two groups of endurance-trained athletes (EA, n = 11) and sedentary subjects (SED, n = 11); to evaluate the relationships between the hormonal and lactate responses; to evaluate the effects of the training status on the pituitary responsiveness to the exercise. EA and SED completed, for each leg, 4 sets of 20 maximal concentric contractions of the knee extensor muscle groups at 180 degrees s-1 angular velocity. Blood and saliva for hormonal and lactate determinations were sampled before, immediately after the test and during the subsequent recovery of 2 hours. The exercise was completed by all subjects and elicited significant mechanical and biochemical responses both in EA and in SED subjects. No differences were found between the two groups both in the mechanical performances and in the increases of lactate and hormones of the pituitary-adrenal axis or in the comparison of the slopes of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, and dehydroepiandrosterone recovery after the peak. The correlation analyses showed significant positive relationships between lactate peak values and percentages of change for ACTH (r2 = 0.16, P training status on the pituitary responsiveness to exercise was evident, as it was indirectly confirmed by no abnormalities in the rates of hormonal recovery after the exercise session.

  18. Markers for Routine Assessment of Fatigue and Recovery in Male and Female Team Sport Athletes during High-Intensity Interval Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiewelhove, Thimo; Raeder, Christian; Meyer, Tim; Kellmann, Michael; Pfeiffer, Mark; Ferrauti, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Aim Our study aimed to investigate changes of different markers for routine assessment of fatigue and recovery in response to high-intensity interval training (HIIT). Methods 22 well-trained male and female team sport athletes (age, 23.0 ± 2.7 years; V̇O2max, 57.6 ± 8.6 mL·min·kg−1) participated in a six-day running-based HIIT-microcycle with a total of eleven HIIT sessions. Repeated sprint ability (RSA; criterion measure of fatigue and recovery), countermovement jump (CMJ) height, jump efficiency in a multiple rebound jump test (MRJ), 20-m sprint performance, muscle contractile properties, serum concentrations of creatinkinase (CK), c-reactive protein (CRP) and urea as well as perceived muscle soreness (DOMS) were measured pre and post the training program as well as after 72 h of recovery. Results Following the microcycle significant changes (p HIIT induced fatigue and subsequent recovery. However, low accuracy of a single or combined use of these markers requires the verification of their applicability on an individual basis. PMID:26444557

  19. Hallway Fears and High School Friendships: The Complications of Young Men (Re)negotiating Heterosexualized Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehler, Michael D.

    2007-01-01

    Drawing on a larger ethnographic study of four high school young men, this paper foregrounds high school male-male friendships as a context for examining how heterosexism and homophobia operate to limit and delimit the ways masculinities are constructed. I begin this article by first highlighting an inconsistency between recent school initiatives…

  20. Concussion and the Student-Athlete: Considerations for the Secondary School Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziej, Andrea; Ploeg, Adam

    2016-01-01

    The number of high school students who participate in athletics has increased over the past decade. There has also been an increased emphasis placed on athletic involvement and physical strength and ability. This has led to increased awareness of athletic injuries such as concussions. While concussions are not a new injury, the medical community…

  1. Sickle Cell and the Student-Athlete: Considerations for the Secondary School Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochstetler, Jonathan; Ploeg, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Athletic activities have become increasingly popular over the past decade. As more student-athletes participate in this active lifestyle, coaches, administrators, and other support staff must ensure their safe participation. While some institutions are fortunate enough to have athletic trainers and other highly trained medical personnel, there are…

  2. Identity Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Provides information for identity management services on the creation, modification and eventual deletion of accounts and entitlements based on user relationships on...

  3. Micronutrient Intakes in 553 Dutch Elite and Sub-Elite Athletes: Prevalence of Low and High Intakes in Users and Non-Users of Nutritional Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardenaar, Floris; Brinkmans, Naomi; Ceelen, Ingrid; Van Rooij, Bo; Mensink, Marco; Witkamp, Renger; De Vries, Jeanne

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated whether athletes meet micronutrient recommendations and whether the adequacy of their intake is related to the use of dietary supplements, sport nutrition products or a combination. Micronutrient intakes of 553 Dutch (sub-) elite athletes were assessed using web-based 24-h dietary recalls with accompanying nutritional supplement questionnaires. In the majority of both users and non-users of dietary supplements, vitamin D intake was below the estimated average requirement (AR) if supplements were not included in the analysis. Including dietary supplements improved vitamin D intake, but still a part of the athletes, both men and women, reported an intake below the AR. Non-users of dietary supplements were particularly at risk for low intakes of vitamins B1, B2, B3 and vitamins A, C and selenium. Mean iron intake was reported below the AR in a substantial group of women, both users and non-users. The use of sport nutrition products contributed only slightly to micronutrient intake. A small prevalence of athletes using dietary supplements showed intakes of some micronutrients above the Upper Level. In conclusion, both users and non-users of nutritional supplements reported inadequate intake of micronutrients. For most micronutrients, use of nutritional supplements does not completely compensate for intakes below AR. Athletes should consider making better food choices and the daily use of a low-dosed multivitamin supplement. PMID:28212284

  4. Micronutrient Intakes in 553 Dutch Elite and Sub-Elite Athletes: Prevalence of Low and High Intakes in Users and Non-Users of Nutritional Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floris Wardenaar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether athletes meet micronutrient recommendations and whether the adequacy of their intake is related to the use of dietary supplements, sport nutrition products or a combination. Micronutrient intakes of 553 Dutch (sub- elite athletes were assessed using web-based 24-h dietary recalls with accompanying nutritional supplement questionnaires. In the majority of both users and non-users of dietary supplements, vitamin D intake was below the estimated average requirement (AR if supplements were not included in the analysis. Including dietary supplements improved vitamin D intake, but still a part of the athletes, both men and women, reported an intake below the AR. Non-users of dietary supplements were particularly at risk for low intakes of vitamins B1, B2, B3 and vitamins A, C and selenium. Mean iron intake was reported below the AR in a substantial group of women, both users and non-users. The use of sport nutrition products contributed only slightly to micronutrient intake. A small prevalence of athletes using dietary supplements showed intakes of some micronutrients above the Upper Level. In conclusion, both users and non-users of nutritional supplements reported inadequate intake of micronutrients. For most micronutrients, use of nutritional supplements does not completely compensate for intakes below AR. Athletes should consider making better food choices and the daily use of a low-dosed multivitamin supplement.

  5. Micronutrient Intakes in 553 Dutch Elite and Sub-Elite Athletes: Prevalence of Low and High Intakes in Users and Non-Users of Nutritional Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardenaar, Floris; Brinkmans, Naomi; Ceelen, Ingrid; Van Rooij, Bo; Mensink, Marco; Witkamp, Renger; De Vries, Jeanne

    2017-02-15

    This study investigated whether athletes meet micronutrient recommendations and whether the adequacy of their intake is related to the use of dietary supplements, sport nutrition products or a combination. Micronutrient intakes of 553 Dutch (sub-) elite athletes were assessed using web-based 24-h dietary recalls with accompanying nutritional supplement questionnaires. In the majority of both users and non-users of dietary supplements, vitamin D intake was below the estimated average requirement (AR) if supplements were not included in the analysis. Including dietary supplements improved vitamin D intake, but still a part of the athletes, both men and women, reported an intake below the AR. Non-users of dietary supplements were particularly at risk for low intakes of vitamins B1, B2, B3 and vitamins A, C and selenium. Mean iron intake was reported below the AR in a substantial group of women, both users and non-users. The use of sport nutrition products contributed only slightly to micronutrient intake. A small prevalence of athletes using dietary supplements showed intakes of some micronutrients above the Upper Level. In conclusion, both users and non-users of nutritional supplements reported inadequate intake of micronutrients. For most micronutrients, use of nutritional supplements does not completely compensate for intakes below AR. Athletes should consider making better food choices and the daily use of a low-dosed multivitamin supplement.

  6. Probe into the training issue after the training termination for high level athletes%高水平运动员停训后的若干训练适应问题探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李素芬; 谢红光

    2001-01-01

    对高水平运动员停止训练后适应发生的变化进行了探讨,认为运动员在停训后发生训练适应消退的同时,某些适应仍在不同程度上保留及变化组合,提示了高水平运动员在停训一段时间后,经过恢复性训练仍可出现新的训练适应空间而创运动佳绩。%the adaptation changes after the termination of training for high level athletes is discussed. the conclusion is as follows: the some adaptation changes for high level athletes is preserved and assembled at the same time some is fadeaway , and the high level athletes have training space to get great performance level through the resume training after training termination lasting some times.

  7. Striving for success or addiction? Exercise dependence among elite Australian athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Justin; McCabe, Marita P

    2012-01-01

    Exercise dependence is a condition that involves a preoccupation and involvement with training and exercise, and has serious health and performance consequences for athletes. We examined the validity of a biopsychosocial model to explain the development and maintenance of exercise dependence among elite Australian athletes. Participants were 234 elite Australian athletes recruited from institutes and academies of sport. Thirty-four percent of elite athletes were classified as having exercise dependence based on high scores on the measure of exercise dependence. These athletes had a higher body mass index, and more extreme and maladaptive exercise beliefs compared to non-dependent athletes. They also reported higher pressure from coaches and teammates, and lower social support, compared to athletes who were not exercise dependent. These results support the utility of a biopsychosocial model of exercise dependence in understanding the aetiology of exercise dependence among elite athletes. Limitations of the study and future research directions are highlighted.

  8. High-Throughput Tissue Bioenergetics Analysis Reveals Identical Metabolic Allometric Scaling for Teleost Hearts and Whole Organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasundara, Nishad; Kozal, Jordan S; Arnold, Mariah C; Chan, Sherine S L; Di Giulio, Richard T

    2015-01-01

    Organismal metabolic rate, a fundamental metric in biology, demonstrates an allometric scaling relationship with body size. Fractal-like vascular distribution networks of biological systems are proposed to underlie metabolic rate allometric scaling laws from individual organisms to cells, mitochondria, and enzymes. Tissue-specific metabolic scaling is notably absent from this paradigm. In the current study, metabolic scaling relationships of hearts and brains with body size were examined by improving on a high-throughput whole-organ oxygen consumption rate (OCR) analysis method in five biomedically and environmentally relevant teleost model species. Tissue-specific metabolic scaling was compared with organismal routine metabolism (RMO2), which was measured using whole organismal respirometry. Basal heart OCR and organismal RMO2 scaled identically with body mass in a species-specific fashion across all five species tested. However, organismal maximum metabolic rates (MMO2) and pharmacologically-induced maximum cardiac metabolic rates in zebrafish Danio rerio did not show a similar relationship with body mass. Brain metabolic rates did not scale with body size. The identical allometric scaling of heart and organismal metabolic rates with body size suggests that hearts, the power generator of an organism's vascular distribution network, might be crucial in determining teleost metabolic rate scaling under routine conditions. Furthermore, these findings indicate the possibility of measuring heart OCR utilizing the high-throughput approach presented here as a proxy for organismal metabolic rate-a useful metric in characterizing organismal fitness. In addition to heart and brain OCR, the current approach was also used to measure whole liver OCR, partition cardiac mitochondrial bioenergetic parameters using pharmacological agents, and estimate heart and brain glycolytic rates. This high-throughput whole-organ bioenergetic analysis method has important applications in

  9. High-Throughput Tissue Bioenergetics Analysis Reveals Identical Metabolic Allometric Scaling for Teleost Hearts and Whole Organisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishad Jayasundara

    Full Text Available Organismal metabolic rate, a fundamental metric in biology, demonstrates an allometric scaling relationship with body size. Fractal-like vascular distribution networks of biological systems are proposed to underlie metabolic rate allometric scaling laws from individual organisms to cells, mitochondria, and enzymes. Tissue-specific metabolic scaling is notably absent from this paradigm. In the current study, metabolic scaling relationships of hearts and brains with body size were examined by improving on a high-throughput whole-organ oxygen consumption rate (OCR analysis method in five biomedically and environmentally relevant teleost model species. Tissue-specific metabolic scaling was compared with organismal routine metabolism (RMO2, which was measured using whole organismal respirometry. Basal heart OCR and organismal RMO2 scaled identically with body mass in a species-specific fashion across all five species tested. However, organismal maximum metabolic rates (MMO2 and pharmacologically-induced maximum cardiac metabolic rates in zebrafish Danio rerio did not show a similar relationship with body mass. Brain metabolic rates did not scale with body size. The identical allometric scaling of heart and organismal metabolic rates with body size suggests that hearts, the power generator of an organism's vascular distribution network, might be crucial in determining teleost metabolic rate scaling under routine conditions. Furthermore, these findings indicate the possibility of measuring heart OCR utilizing the high-throughput approach presented here as a proxy for organismal metabolic rate-a useful metric in characterizing organismal fitness. In addition to heart and brain OCR, the current approach was also used to measure whole liver OCR, partition cardiac mitochondrial bioenergetic parameters using pharmacological agents, and estimate heart and brain glycolytic rates. This high-throughput whole-organ bioenergetic analysis method has important

  10. Collapse in the Endurance Athlete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert Sallis

    2005-01-01

    @@ KEY POINTS · Most cases of collapse are benign in nature and occur after an athlete crosses the finish line or stops exercising. Athletes who collapse before finishing are more likely to have a serious condition.

  11. Coaching preferences of athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, P C; Howe, B L

    1984-12-01

    The study examined the coaching preferences of 80 male and 80 female athletes, as measured by the Leadership Scale for Sports (Chelladurai and Saleh, 1978, 1980). In addition, it attempted to assess the applicability to sport of the Life-cycle and Path-goal theories of leadership. Comparisons between groups were made on the basis of sex, age, and type of sport. A MANOVA indicated that athletes in independent sports preferred more democratic behaviour (p less than .001) and less autocratic behaviour (p = .028) than athletes in interdependent sports. No differences in coaching preferences were found which could be attributed to the age or sex of the athlete, or the variability of the sports task. These results partially supported the Path-goal theory, but did not support the Life-cycle theory. Athletes of all groups tended to favour coaches who displayed training behaviour and rewarding behaviour "often", democratic behaviour and social support behaviour "occasionally", and autocratic behaviour "seldom". This consistency may be a useful finding for those organizations and institutions interested in preparing coaches.

  12. Asthma in adolescent athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Kai-Håkon; Hem, Erlend; Stensrud, Trine

    2011-12-01

    Athletes active in endurance sports are at an increased risk of acquiring asthma through their sports activities, especially so for cross-country skiers, biathlon skiers, swimmers and athletes of other endurance sports. Asthma may be present from early childhood or develop while in active sports. This article focuses on the physical activity and sports activities in children and adolescents. Exercise-induced asthma (EIA) is found in 8-10% of a normal child population of school age and in about 35% of children with current asthma. EIA is caused by the markedly increased ventilation during exercise, with increased heat and water loss through respiration, leading to bronchial constriction. The risk of developing asthma in the young athlete is related to the repeated daily training activity with increased epithelial damage of the airways, delayed repair due to the daily repetition of the training and increased airway mucosal inflammation. The increased environmental exposure through the sports activity to environmental agents, such as cold, dry air in skiers and chlorine compounds in swimmers, increases symptoms and signs of asthma and bronchial hyper-responsiveness, either worsening an existing asthma or leading to a novel disease in a previously healthy athlete. Several specific aspects of daily training life, environmental exposure, diagnostic procedures and aspects of treatment related to the regulations of medication use in sports need particular attention when addressing the adolescent athlete with respiratory symptoms.

  13. Drug abuse in athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reardon CL

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Claudia L Reardon, Shane Creado Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA Abstract: Drug abuse occurs in all sports and at most levels of competition. Athletic life may lead to drug abuse for a number of reasons, including for performance enhancement, to self-treat otherwise untreated mental illness, and to deal with stressors, such as pressure to perform, injuries, physical pain, and retirement from sport. This review examines the history of doping in athletes, the effects of different classes of substances used for doping, side effects of doping, the role of anti-doping organizations, and treatment of affected athletes. Doping goes back to ancient times, prior to the development of organized sports. Performance-enhancing drugs have continued to evolve, with “advances” in doping strategies driven by improved drug testing detection methods and advances in scientific research that can lead to the discovery and use of substances that may later be banned. Many sports organizations have come to ban the use of performance-enhancing drugs and have very strict consequences for people caught using them. There is variable evidence for the performance-enhancing effects and side effects of the various substances that are used for doping. Drug abuse in athletes should be addressed with preventive measures, education, motivational interviewing, and, when indicated, pharmacologic interventions. Keywords: doping, athletes, steroids, drug abuse, mental illness

  14. Mexican Students' Identities in Their Language Use at a U.S. High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Micah

    2013-01-01

    The growth of the Mexican population in the U.S. Midwest has also been reflected in the public school population. Mexican students face many hardships in school such as language difficulties and cultural issues. Due to these hardships, their dropout rate from school is high and their attendance of postsecondary institutions is low. Using critical…

  15. The Importance of High School Physics Teachers for Female Students' Physics Identity and Persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazari, Zahra; Brewe, Eric; Goertzen, Renee Michelle; Hodapp, Theodore

    2017-01-01

    Given the historic and continued underrepresentation of women in physics, it is important to understand the role that high school physics might play in attracting female students to physics careers. Drawing on data from over 900 female undergraduates in physics, we examine when these women became interested in physics careers and different sources…

  16. Bridging Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaux, Kay; Burke, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Sociology and psychology are no strangers in the theoretical world of self and identity. Early works by William James (1890), a psychologist, and George Herbert Mead (1934), a sociologist, are often taken as a starting point by investigators in both fields. In more recent years, with the development of a number of identity theories in both fields,…

  17. Brand Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawlor, John

    1998-01-01

    Instead of differentiating themselves by building "brand identities," colleges and universities often focus on competing with price. As a result, fewer and fewer institutions base their identities on value, the combination of quality and price. Methods of building two concepts to influence customers' brand image and brand loyalty are…

  18. Brand Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawlor, John

    1998-01-01

    Instead of differentiating themselves by building "brand identities," colleges and universities often focus on competing with price. As a result, fewer and fewer institutions base their identities on value, the combination of quality and price. Methods of building two concepts to influence customers' brand image and brand loyalty are…

  19. Organizational Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatch, Mary Jo; Schultz, Majken

    This text presents the classic works on organizational identity alongside more current thinking on the issues. Ranging from theoretical contributions to empirical studies, the readings in this volume address the key issues of organizational identity, and show how these issues have developed through...

  20. Identity Assemblages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Line Helverskov

    2017-01-01

    , and theoretical foundation of the dissertation. Philosophically, the research rests on the central ANT concepts of symmetry, associations, and enactment with an inherent value of multiplicity. The philosophical position implies that the study of identity must be understood as the study of practices. This, in turn......Research in identity in general and professional identity specifically has seen an immense increase in recent years (Bauman 2004, Lawler 2014). Due to societal and technological developments, notions of what constitutes ‘the professional’ are subject to change. Thus, this dissertation rests...... on an understanding of professional identity as a moving concept that must be understood through its spatial and temporal contexts (Scanlon 2011). Accepting this position necessitates a reconsideration of the role that formal education plays in the development of professional identity of students. Researchers within...

  1. Community health and nutrition screening for Special Olympics athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotugna, Nancy; Vickery, Connie E

    2003-12-01

    Since 1961, Special Olympics has provided sports training and athletic competition for people with mental retardation. A recent addition to these Olympics has been the Healthy Athletes Program, designed to help the athletes improve their health and fitness, leading to enhanced sports experiences and well being. Original health services included dental and eye screening. In 2002, Special Olympics Delaware piloted a Wellness Park to add nutrition, blood pressure, and flexibility screening. Faculty from a university's health college trained discipline-specific students to conduct the screenings. Thirty nutrition and dietetics students measured height, weight, waist circumference, and calculated body mass index (BMI) for the athletes. Figures and risk-assessments were recorded on a "health report card." Two hundred ten athletes attended the nutrition screening. Ages ranged from 8 to 63 years; 81 percent males and 19 percent females. According to BMI standards, 32 percent of the athletes were overweight; 17 percent were obese. Twenty-five percent of adult males and 73 percent of adult females had a high risk waist circumference. Athletes at high risk for obesity-related diseases were referred to their primary physician for follow up. Nutrition education handouts included a simplified Food Guide Pyramid, tips for healthy eating in restaurants, 5 A Day information, and healthful hydration guides. Approximately 1,250 athletes participate in Special Olympics Delaware each year, providing a great opportunity to do some much needed health screening and improve access to health care for this often neglected population.

  2. Prevention of eating disorders in female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Gabriela Morgado de Oliveira; Gomes, Ainá Innocencio da Silva; Ribeiro, Beatriz Gonçalves; Soares, Eliane de Abreu

    2014-01-01

    Eating disorders are serious mental diseases that frequently appear in female athletes. They are abnormal eating behaviors that can be diagnosed only by strict criteria. Disordered eating, although also characterized as abnormal eating behavior, does not include all the criteria for diagnosing eating disorders and is therefore a way to recognize the problem in its early stages. It is important to identify factors to avoid clinical progression in this high-risk population. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to discuss critical information for the prevention of eating disorders in female athletes. This review discusses the major correlates for the development of an eating disorder. We also discuss which athletes are possibly at highest risk for eating disorders, including those from lean sports and female adolescent athletes. There is an urgent need for the demystification of myths surrounding body weight and performance in sports. This review includes studies that tested different prevention programs' effectiveness, and the majority showed positive results. Educational programs are the best method for primary prevention of eating disorders. For secondary prevention, early identification is essential and should be performed by preparticipation exams, the recognition of dietary markers, and the use of validated self-report questionnaires or clinical interviews. In addition, more randomized clinical trials are needed with athletes from multiple sports in order for the most reliable recommendations to be made and for some sporting regulations to be changed.

  3. Sports Nutrition for Young Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotugna, Nancy; Vickery, Connie E.; McBee, Sheldon

    2005-01-01

    Nutritional needs for peak athletic performance include sufficient calorie intake, adequate hydration, and attention to timing of meals. Student athletes and their advisors often are misinformed or have misconceptions about sports nutrition. This paper identifies nutritional needs of young athletes, reviews common misconceptions, and examines the…

  4. Sports Nutrition for Young Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotugna, Nancy; Vickery, Connie E.; McBee, Sheldon

    2005-01-01

    Nutritional needs for peak athletic performance include sufficient calorie intake, adequate hydration, and attention to timing of meals. Student athletes and their advisors often are misinformed or have misconceptions about sports nutrition. This paper identifies nutritional needs of young athletes, reviews common misconceptions, and examines the…

  5. Diet Quality of Collegiate Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Kelly; Stoess, Amanda Ireland; Forsythe, Hazel; Kurzynske, Janet; Vaught, Joy Ann; Adams, Bailey

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Collegiate athletes generally appear healthy according to weight for height and body fat standards. Despite the fact that there are well known connections between athletic performance and nutrition, little is known about the diets of collegiate athletes. The objective of this study was to determine the diet quality of 138…

  6. Electrolitic behavior of sodium, clorum and patassium, pre and post excersive in high performance athletic jumping horses at Bogotá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Aixa Mutis Barreto

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available An study was done to determine and analyse electrolites as sodium, clorum and potasium in athletic jumping horses of high performance at Bogotá. Samples were taken at rest and after jumping exercise, with the purpouse to stablish normal values. The investigation was done at Escuela de Equitación del Ejército Nacional, Club los Arrayanes and la Escuela de Carabineros de la Policía Nacional (CESPO at Bogotá city. 40 high performance jumping horses were used, males and females between 6 and 12 years old. Samples were taken at four different times: T0: At rest, T1: inmediately after jumping, T2: between half an hour and an hour, T3: between 1 hour and 1 hour and a half. As a result normal values were obtained at the different times sampled, stablishing normal electrolitic behavior curves. Results were (mmol/L: T0: Sodium: 140.70+/-2.61, Potasium: 3.67+/-0.98, Clorum: 101.76+/-1.48; para el T1: Sodium: 130.56+/-34.59, Potassium: 4.34+/-0.29, Clorum: 103.81+/-2.07 ; T2 Sodium: 129.92+/-33.48 Potassium: 3.79+/-0.29, Clorum: 10.1.21+/-2.22; T3: Sodium: 139.07+/-3.96, Potassium: 3.90+/-0.37, Clorum: 101.07+/-2.28. This investigation helps to Colombian sports equine medicine, because this information were not available before.

  7. Assessing Intentions to Eat a Healthful Diet Among National Collegiate Athletic Association Division II Collegiate Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpinski, Christine A; Milliner, Kellianne

    2016-01-01

    Many athletes fail to obtain the optimal levels of energy and nutrients to support health and performance. The constructs underlying the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) may help identify barriers to healthful eating that can be addressed in nutrition-education programs. To use the TPB to examine factors regarding collegiate male and female student-athletes' intentions of eating a healthful diet. Cross-sectional study. Online survey tool. The survey was taken by 244 male and female National Collegiate Athletic Association Division II athletes, and data from 201 were analyzed. Mean age of the athletes was 20 ± 1.31 years (range, 18-24 years); most were white (86.1%) and female (78.6%). We assessed predictive strength of attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control on behavioral intentions. Regression analysis evaluated how the variables of TPB were valued and how they predict behavioral intentions. The combination of attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral controls accounted for 73.4% (R 2) of the variance in behavioral intention (F = 180.82, P behavioral intentions (β = .534, P < .001). Understanding both the intentions of collegiate athletes to eat healthfully and how highly they value nutrition is crucial for the development of effective nutrition education and counseling programs.

  8. The female athlete triad among elite Malaysian athletes: prevalence and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quah, Ye Vian; Poh, Bee Koon; Ng, Lai Oon; Noor, Mohd Ismail

    2009-01-01

    Women participating in a wide range of competitive sports are at higher risk of developing eating disorders, menstrual irregularities and osteoporosis, which are generally referred to as the 'female athlete triad'. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of female athlete triad and factors associated with this condition among athletes participating in different sports. A total of 67 elite female athletes aged between 13-30 years participated in the study and were subdivided into the 'leanness' and 'non-leanness' groups. Eating disorders were assessed using a body image figure rating and the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) with body dissatisfaction (BD), drive for thinness (DT), bulimia (B) and perfectionism (P) subscales. Menstrual irregularity was assessed with a self-reported menstrual history questionnaire. Bone quality was measured using a quantitative ultrasound device at one-third distal radius. Prevalence of the female athlete triad was low (1.9%), but the prevalence for individual triad component was high, especially in the leanness group. The prevalence of subjects who were at risk of menstrual irregularity, poor bone quality and eating disorders were 47.6%, 13.3% and 89.2%, respectively, in the leanness group; and 14.3%, 8.3% and 89.2%, respectively, in the non-leanness group. Since the components of the triad are interrelated, identification of athletes at risk of having any one component of the triad, especially those participating in sports that emphasise a lean physique, is an important aid for further diagnosis.

  9. Energy availability in athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loucks, Anne B; Kiens, Bente; Wright, Hattie H

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This review updates and complements the review of energy balance and body composition in the Proceedings of the 2003 IOC Consensus Conference on Sports Nutrition. It argues that the concept of energy availability is more useful than the concept of energy balance for managing the diets...... of athletes. It then summarizes recent reports of the existence, aetiologies, and clinical consequences of low energy availability in athletes. This is followed by a review of recent research on the failure of appetite to increase ad libitum energy intake in compensation for exercise energy expenditure...

  10. Highly consistent effects of plant litter identity and functional traits on decomposition across a latitudinal gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkonen, Marika; Berg, Matty P; Handa, I Tanya; Hättenschwiler, Stephan; van Ruijven, Jasper; van Bodegom, Peter M; Aerts, Rien

    2012-09-01

    Plant litter decomposition is a key process in terrestrial carbon cycling, yet the relative importance of various control factors remains ambiguous at a global scale. A full reciprocal litter transplant study with 16 litter species that varied widely in traits and originated from four forest sites covering a large latitudinal gradient (subarctic to tropics) showed a consistent interspecific ranking of decomposition rates. At a global scale, variation in decomposition was driven by a small subset of litter traits (water saturation capacity and concentrations of magnesium and condensed tannins). These consistent findings, that were largely independent of the varying local decomposer communities, suggest that decomposer communities show little specialisation and high metabolic flexibility in processing plant litter, irrespective of litter origin. Our results provide strong support for using trait-based approaches in modelling the global decomposition component of biosphere-atmosphere carbon fluxes. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  11. Identity Efficiency for High-Performance Ambient Pressure Ion Mobility Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanu, A Bakarr; Leal, Anne

    2016-03-15

    A new approach to reduce the false-positive responses commonly encountered in the field when drugs and explosives are detected is reported for an electrospray ionization high-performance ion mobility spectrometry (ESI-HPIMS). In this article, we report on the combination of reduced mobility and the width-at-half-height of a peak to give a new parameter called conditional reduced mobility (CRM). It was found that the CRM was capable of differentiating between real drugs peaks from that of a false-positive peak and may help to reduce false-positive rates. This effect was demonstrated using 11 drugs (amphetamine, cannabidiol, cocaine, codeine, heroine, methamphetamine, morphine, phentermine, L-phenylepherine, proglitazone, and rosiglitazone) and seven interferences chosen from off-the-shelf products. This report determined and compared CRM, resolving power (R(m)), and diffusion-limited conditional theoretical reduced mobility (DLCTRM) for ESI-HPIMS. The most important parameters for determining CRM are reduced mobility and width-at-half-height of a peak. There is a specific optimum voltage, gate pulse width, resolving power, and now CRM for each ion. DLCTRM indicate the optimum reduced mobility that is not normally possible under field conditions. CRM predicts the condition at which a target compound can be differentiated from a false-positive response. This was possible because different ions exhibits different drifting patterns and hence a different peak broadening phenomenon inside an ion mobility tube. Reduced mobility for target compounds reported were reproducible to within 2% for ESI-HPIMS. The estimated resolving power for the ESI-HPIMS used in this study was 61 ± 0.22. Conditional reduced mobility introduced in this paper show differences between target compounds and false-positive peaks as high as 74%, as was the case for cannabidiol and interference #1 at 70 μs gate pulse width.

  12. Exercise Prescription for the Athlete with Cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saberi, Sara; Day, Sharlene M

    2016-11-01

    Inherited cardiomyopathies have highly variable expression in terms of symptoms, functional limitations, and disease severity. Associated risk of sudden cardiac death is also variable. International guidelines currently recommend restriction of all athletes with cardiomyopathy from participation in competitive sports. While the guidelines are necessarily conservative because predictive risk factors for exercise-triggered SCD have not been clearly identified, the risk is clearly not uniform across all athletes and all sports. The advent of implantable cardioverter defibrillators, automated external defibrillators, and successful implementation of emergency action plans may safely mitigate risk of sudden cardiac death during physical activity. An individualized approach to risk stratification of athletes that recognizes patient autonomy may allow many individuals with cardiomyopathies to safely train and compete.

  13. Injury risk management plan for volleyball athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Lachlan P; Kelly, Vincent G; Beckman, Emma M

    2014-09-01

    Volleyball is an increasingly popular team sport. As with any competitive sport, there is an inherent risk of injury that must be recognized and collaboratively managed. This article provides a practical approach to the management of volleyball injuries within a team or organization. A brief review of the epidemiological data is presented which establishes (i) ankle sprain, (ii) shoulder overuse injury, (iii) patella tendinopathy, and (iv) anterior cruciate ligament injury as the primary injuries to address amongst these athletes. The interaction of modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors for these injuries are used to classify athletes into high-, medium- and low-risk groups. Targeted training interventions are suggested, based upon the risk level of the athlete, to minimize the occurrence of these injuries. Practical methods for integrating these activities into a training plan are also discussed.

  14. Bridging Identities through Identity Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantwell, Allison M.; Martiny, Sarah E.

    2010-01-01

    As indicated by Deaux and Burke (this volume), sociology and psychology have shared a tradition of discourse allowing social psychologists to build upon each other's ideas. A conversation between social identity theory and identity theory was initiated fifteen years ago and addressed the similarities and differences between these theories. This…

  15. Comparação de características da personalidade entre atletas brasileiros de alto rendimento e indivíduos não-atletas Comparacion de las características de la personalidad entre atletas brasileros de alto-rendimento y los indivíduos no atletas Comparison of personality characteristics between high-level Brazilian athletes and non-athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Gattás Bara Filho

    2005-04-01

    constituiran la muestra. Se utilizó el FPI-R (Inventario de Personalidad de Freiburg como instrumento de personalidad. RESULTADOS: Las diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p BACKGROUND: Comparison of psychological characteristics between athletes and non-athletes is one of the most explored topics in the personality study in sports. To find a possible personality profile for high-level athletes has been one of the main goals of researchers, studying and comparing samples of athletes with those of non-athletes. OBJECTIVE: To compare the personality profiles between Brazilian high-level athletes and non-athletes through psychological characteristics, verifying similarities and differences between them. METHODS: Two hundred and nine athletes (108 men and 101 women from four sport modalities (volleyball, basketball, judo and swimming and 214 non-athletes (169 men and 45 women composed the study sample. The FPI-R (Freiburg Personality Inventory was used to evaluate personality. RESULTS: Significant differences (p < 0.05 were found in eight out of the 12 FPI instrument variables: Inhibition, Irritability, Aggressiveness, Fatigability, Physical Complaints, Health Concern, Frankness, and Emotionality between athletes and non-athletes. When subgroups of athletes and non-athletes men and women were compared, the data indicated more generalities and small specificities in the differences between them, presenting significant differences (p < 0.05 in the eight variables previous mentioned, as well as in Self-satisfaction (p < 0.05. Finally, when non-athletes and athletes of team sports (volleyball and basketball and individual sports (swimming and judo were compared, once again significant differences (p < 0.05 were observed in the same variables and also in Self-satisfaction (p < 0.000 and Social Orientation (p < 0.01. CONCLUSIONS: It is observed that there are specific and unique psychological characteristics of Brazilian high-level athletes when compared with a non-athletes

  16. Electronic identity

    CERN Document Server

    de Andrade, Norberto Nuno Gomes; Argles, David

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing availability of electronic services, security and a reliable means by which identity is verified is essential.Written by Norberto Andrade the first chapter of this book provides an overview of the main legal and regulatory aspects regarding electronic identity in Europe and assesses the importance of electronic identity for administration (public), business (private) and, above all, citizens. It also highlights the role of eID as a key enabler of the economy.In the second chapter Lisha Chen-Wilson, David Argles, Michele Schiano di Zenise and Gary Wills discuss the user-cent

  17. Visuospatial attention and motor skills in kung fu athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muiños, Mónica; Ballesteros, Soledad

    2013-01-01

    The present study compared the performance of a group of sixteen kung fu athletes with that of a control group of fourteen nonathletes on a speeded visuospatial task and a hand-tapping motor task. In the visuospatial task the results showed that athletes were faster than the control participants when stimuli were presented at the periphery of the visual field at a middle and high presentation speed with short interstimulus intervals. Athletes were also significantly faster than nonathlete participants when performing motor actions such as hand-tapping with their dominant hand but groups did not differ with the nondominant hand. These results support the view that athletes perform some speeded visuospatial and motor tasks faster than nonathletes under certain conditions. The findings suggest that, after several years of practice, kung fu athletes develop certain skills that allow them to perform motor speed maneuvers under time pressure conditions.

  18. Food avoidance in athletes: FODMAP foods on the list.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lis, Dana; Ahuja, Kiran D K; Stellingwerff, Trent; Kitic, Cecilia M; Fell, James

    2016-09-01

    We surveyed 910 athletes to assess behaviours towards self-selected food/ingredient avoidance to minimize gastrointestinal distress. Fifty-five percent eliminated at least 1 high fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAP) food/category, with up to 82.6% reporting symptom improvement. In athletes indicating that high FODMAP foods trigger gastrointestinal symptoms, lactose (86.5%) was most frequently eliminated, followed by galactooligosaccharides (23.9%), fructose (23.0%), fructans (6.2%), and polyols (5.4%). Athletes avoid predominantly lactose and to a lesser extent other high FODMAP foods to reduce gastrointestinal distress.

  19. The -female athlete triad-: Eating disorders - amenorrhea- osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Polikandrioti

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The female athlete triad is a syndrome which consists of eating disorders, amenorrhea and osteoporosis. The syndrome is increasing in prevalence over the last thirty years, as more women are participating in sports at a competitive level. The aim of the present study was to review the research data regarding the female athlete triad in order to underline the significance of the problem. The method οf this study included search of international medical and nursing literature data-bases, for the reason that the female athlete triad has been extensively studied after 1990. The results from the review of relevant studies showed that female athletes who follow hard preparative athletic programmes in which body weight is critical for success, often manifest eating disorder patterns. These lead to dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitarian-ovarian axis (HPO and as a result to amenorrhea. Hypothalamic amenorrhea can lead to osteoporosis and increased fracture risk. Adolescents may particularly be at risk because it is during this crucial time that females attain their peak bone mass. Conclusively, a course of action that aims at preventing the occurrence of the syndrome is necessary. Prevention of the female athlete triad through education and identification of the athletes at risk may decrease the incidence of long-term catastrophic effects to health. Monitoring from a group of specialists should serve as a cornerstone when planning a program of training and preparation for high athletic performance

  20. Disordered eating behaviors and body image in male athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Reistenbach Goltz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify disordered eating behaviors and body image dissatisfaction, as well as their relationship to body fat (BF, among male athletes in high risk sports for eating disorders. Methods: One hundred and fifty-six male athletes were divided into the following categories: weight-class sports, sports where leanness improves performance, and sports with aesthetic ideals. BF was assessed and three questionnaires were used: the Eating Attitudes Test; the Bulimic Investigatory Test, Edinburgh; the Body Shape Questionnaire. Results: Disordered eating behaviors and body image dissatisfaction were found in 43 (27.6% and 23 athletes (14.7%, respectively, and an association was detected between the two variables (p < 0.001. Athletes with and without disordered eating behaviors did not differ in %BF (11.0±5.2% and 9.8±4.0%, respectively; p = 0.106. However, athletes with body image dissatisfaction had higher %BF than those who were satisfied (12.6±5.9% and 9.7±3.9%, respectively; p = 0.034. There were no differences in BF, frequency of disordered eating behaviors, and body image dissatisfaction between sports categories. Conclusion: Nearly one-quarter of athletes showed disordered eating behaviors, which was associated with body image dissatisfaction. Athletes with higher %BF were more likely to be dissatisfied with body image. There was no difference in eating behavior and body image between athletes from different sports categories.

  1. INFLUENCE OF TEMPERAMENT AND ANXIETY ON ATHLETIC PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doug H. Han

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Our research aimed to conduct basic descriptions of temperamental traits and the level of state and trait anxiety of young male athletes, and to compare them by type of sports. Study participants were 277 athletes and 152 non-athletes who were all high school boys. The Korean version of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI was used for checking temperamental traits while the Korean version of the State and Trait Anxiety Inventory form Y (STAI-KY was used to estimate anxiety levels. Harm Avoidance score of athletes was higher than that of non-athletes. Harm Avoidance score of golfers was lowest and that of swimmers was highest. The state anxiety score of baseball players was lowest and that of Taekwondo players was highest. The trait anxiety score of baseball players was also lowest and that of golfers was highest. Both trait and state anxieties of the 'winner' group were lower than those of the 'no winner' group. While prior research mainly focused on athletes' environment and phenotypic characteristics, we studied the pattern of temperaments in athletes along with its potential influence on athletic performance

  2. Skin Cancer Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors in Collegiate Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney Hobbs

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor athletes represent an important group at risk for skin cancer because they are routinely exposed to high levels of ultraviolet radiation. The purpose of this study was to assess current skin cancer knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among collegiate athletes. A modified version of the Melanoma Risk Behavior Survey was completed by 343 athletes attending a Southern University in the USA, generating an 87% response rate. Survey results demonstrated that the majority of the athletes do not limit their sun exposure and reported low levels of sun protective behaviors. In addition, athletes lacked knowledge about skin cancer and sun protection. Eighty-three percent of the athletes stated that tanning beds improve one’s overall health. Race was significantly associated with skin cancer knowledge, whereas, gender was found to be significantly associated with knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors towards skin cancer. Additionally, there was a significant relationship between knowledge and behavior, but not between attitude and behavior. This study highlights the need to educate athletes about the hazards of tanning to minimize UV exposure and promote sun protection habits. Moreover, athletes should be educated on the dangers of indoor tanning facilities and encouraged to avoid these facilities.

  3. A Comparison of the Academic Achievement and Perceptions of Leadership Skills and Citizenship Traits of JROTC, Student Athletes, and Other Students in an Urban High School Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Bonds, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare three groups: JROTC students, student athletes, and other students, to determine if there were differences in academic achievement. Gaining an understanding of the necessary skills required to become academically successful and make healthy life choices, could provide educators working within an urban…

  4. Carbohydrate restricted recovery from long term endurance exercise does not affect gene responses involved in mitochondrial biogenesis in highly trained athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Line; Gejl, Kasper D; Ørtenblad, Niels

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to determine if the metabolic adaptations, particularly PGC-1α and downstream metabolic genes were affected by restricting CHO following an endurance exercise bout in trained endurance athletes. A second aim was to compare baseline expression level of these genes to untrained. Elite e...

  5. The Relationship Between Participation in  Football and GPA, Discipline, and Attendance of Urban Male High School Athletes  Before and After the Introduction of the  2.0 GPA Play Policy in One School Division in Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Ramsey, Stefanie Celine

    2015-01-01

    The educational plight of the urban student athlete is often associated with academic underachievement. This study researched the effects of minimum academic standards on athletes to increase their academic success, attendance rates, reduce discipline infractions and subsequently, increase graduation rates. Vidal- Fernandez (2011) conducted a study on the effect minimum academic requirements to participate in sports had on high school graduation. Students who were involved in a sport had sign...

  6. Australian athletes' health behaviours and perceptions of role modelling and marketing of unhealthy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunseit, Anne C; MacNiven, Rona; Orr, Rhonda; Grassmayr, Matt; Kelly, Bridget; Davies, Daniel; Colagiuri, Stephen; Bauman, Adrian E

    2012-04-01

    This study examined Australian athletes' support for athletes' role in promoting physical activity and obesity prevention, the acceptability of unhealthy products promotion in sport, and their own health behaviours. Surveys were conducted with (n = 1990) elite and sub-elite athletes recruited from 22 sports across Australia. Athletes' perceptions and behaviours were analysed across demographic and sport-related factors (e.g. individual vs team sport) and correlations calculated between perceptions and health behaviours. Most respondents supported a role for athletes in promoting physical activity and obesity prevention, and disagreed that athletes should promote unhealthy foods and alcohol (73.9%). Athletes reported low smoking rates, but high rates of binge drinking. Female, younger, individual and amateur athletes had more health-positive perceptions and healthier behaviours than older, male, team and professional athletes. More sympathy towards junk food and alcohol advertising in sport and less support for athletes as role models were associated with more unhealthy behaviours. Elite athletes are receptive to supporting health promotion through sport and many are not in agreement with the promotion of unhealthy products in sport or by sports people. Improving elite athletes' health behaviours would benefit not only the individual but also health promotion within elite sport.

  7. Promoting Identity Exploration within the School Curriculum: A Design-Based Study in a Junior High Literature Lesson in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinai, Mirit; Kaplan, Avi; Flum, Hanoch

    2012-01-01

    This study describes a researcher-educator collaborative intervention that aimed to promote identity exploration among 9th-grade students in a literature lesson. The intervention focused on an introductory lesson about a poem from the curriculum, and involved designing educational activities anticipated to trigger identity exploration, promote a…

  8. Identity Formation of LBOTE Preservice Teachers during the Practicum: A Case Study in Australia in an Urban High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hoa Thi Mai; Sheridan, Lynn

    2016-01-01

    This study captures the experiences of language background other than English (LBOTE) preservice teachers using a case study approach to explore identity development. Wenger's (2000) "modes of belonging" form the theoretical framework to develop an understanding of the factors contributing to teacher identity. This article draws on…

  9. The Adapted Italian Version of the Baller Identity Measurement Scale to Evaluate the Student-Athletes’ Identity in Relation to Gender, Age, Type of Sport, and Competition Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cugliari, Giovanni; Pizzigalli, Luisa

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is twofold: to validate the properties of the Italian version of the Baller Identity Measurement Scale (i.e., BIMS-IT), a self-report questionnaire based on the athletic and academic identities; and to investigate differences in psychosocial factors such as gender, age, type of sport, and competition level. The dimensionality of the BIMS-IT was explored by means of the exploratory factor analysis, considering the scale’s internal consistency too (Confirmatory Factor Analysis). Results related to exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis supported a model of measurement composed of two correlated factors: the athletic and academic identities and affectivity related to identities. For both factors, differences emerged between age, and competition level sub groups. In particular, higher identity scores emerged for ≤ 24 years old student-athletes with respect to their age counterparts. National sub-elite student-athletes reported lower identity values than those of national elite and international levels. Results suggest that the Italian version of the BIMS-IT is psychometrically robust and could be adopted for empirical uses. The higher identity scores reported by younger and higher competition level participants suggest a correspondent higher involvement into the student-athlete role. However, BIMS-IT represents a distinct model with respect to the original American BIMS, determining the need of further research on the student-athletes’ identity to better clarify any socio-cultural contest effects. PMID:28056046

  10. Athlete burnout: review and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Henrik; DeFreese, J D; Madigan, Daniel J

    2017-08-01

    Over the last two decades, growing concerns regarding the negative implications of athlete burnout have spurred empirical research on the topic. In their citation network analysis of the burnout literature, Gustafsson et al. (2014), cited well over 100 publications on the syndrome. Despite considerable investigation into athlete burnout, there remain a number of unresolved questions and issues. Four main aims guide the current review. First, we highlight various models of athlete burnout. Second, we discuss the measurement of athlete burnout. Third, we describe the symptoms, antecedents, and consequences of athlete burnout with a focus on social perceptions and perfectionism. Finally, we provide suggestions for the prevention and treatment of athlete burnout via an illustration of links between theory and practice. It is our hope that this review can stimulate future research in order to help athletes avoid burnout and other severe forms of training maladaptation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cardiac MRI in Athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijkx, T.

    2012-01-01

    Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) is often used in athletes to image cardiac anatomy and function and is increasingly requested in the context of screening for pathology that can cause sudden cardiac death (SCD). In this thesis, patterns of cardiac adaptation to sports are investigated with C

  12. Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichner, Edward R.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the scope and importance of gastrointestinal bleeding in runners and other athletes, discussing causes, sites, and implications of exercise-related bleeding. Practical tips to mitigate the problem, potentially more troublesome in women because of lower iron stores, are presented (e.g., gradual conditioning and avoidance of prerace…

  13. Patterns of Bureaucracy in Intercollegiate Athletic Departments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Claudio M.

    2010-01-01

    The theoretical argument of the current research is that athletic departments have been effective in attaining their conflicting goals mainly because they have become highly effective in managing institutional rules. Neo-institutionalism (DiMaggio & Powell, 1991), loose coupling (Meyer & Rowan, 1977), and patterns of bureaucracy (Gouldner, 1954)…

  14. On the Present Management Situation of China's Universities' High Level Athletic Teams after the 2012 Beijing Olympics%后奥运时代中国高校高水平运动队管理现状研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾小松

    2012-01-01

    Based on the literature data,expert interviews,questionnaire and mathematical statistics method,this paper aims to identify shortcomings in practice organizing university athletic teams,and to provide a basis for the further development of China's university athletic teams.The survey results show that the coaches' ability level plays an important factor in the development of university athletic teams as 90%,while those universities reflecting the coaches' level construct 60.4%,so do difficulty to recruit high level coaches in ratio.This paper argues that the management system shares the same problems with Chinese universities' quality level: 1) positioning and understanding of issues;2) organizational structure,functions vacancy;3) the overall coaches have the low level of ability,and the coach training system becomes vacant.The study concluded that: 1) to further strengthen and improve the functions of collegiate athletic association;2) "people-oriented" cultivate all-round development of the high-level college athletes.%采用文献资料法、专家访谈法、问卷调查法和数理统计法等方法,找出我国举办高校高水平运动队在实践中存在的不足,为我国高校高水平运动队进一步发展提供依据。调查结果表明,认为教练员水平是高校高水平运动队发展的重要因素的占90%,反映教练员水平低的学校占60.4%,招聘高水平教练困难的学校也占60.4%。我国高校高水平运动队管理体系存在的问题有:1)定位与认识问题;2)组织结构简单,功能缺位;3)教练员水平总体偏低,教练员培养系统缺位。研究得出的结论有:1)进一步充实和完善大学生体育协会的职能;2)"以人为本"培养全面发展的高水平大学生运动员。

  15. Pushing and Pulling Sara: A Case Study of the Contrasting Influences of High School and University Experiences on Engineering Agency, Identity, and Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godwin, Allison; Potvin, Geoff

    2017-01-01

    This manuscript reports a longitudinal case study of how one woman, Sara, who had previously considered dropping out of high school, authored strong mathematics and science identities and purposefully exhibited agency through her experiences in high school science. These experiences empowered her to choose an engineering major in college; however,…

  16. Identity, identity politics, and neoliberalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wrenn Mary

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the intensification of neoliberalism, it is useful to examine how some individuals might cope with the irrationality of the system. Neoliberalism cloaks the execution of the corporate agenda behind rhetorical manipulation that advocates for limited government. The corollary absence of government involvement on behalf of the citizenry writ large disarms the means of social redress for the individual. Democracy funded and fueled by corporate power thereby disenfranchises the individual, provoking some to search for empowerment through identity politics. The argument set forth suggests that individuals construct, reinforce, or escalate allegiance to identities as a coping mechanism, some of which manifest in violent identity politics.

  17. Prevention of eating disorders in female athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coelho GMO

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Gabriela Morgado de Oliveira Coelho,1 Ainá Innocencio da Silva Gomes,2 Beatriz Gonçalves Ribeiro,2 Eliane de Abreu Soares11Nutrition Institute, Rio de Janeiro State University, Maracanã, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 2Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Macaé Campus, Granja dos Cavaleiros, Macaé, BrazilAbstract: Eating disorders are serious mental diseases that frequently appear in female athletes. They are abnormal eating behaviors that can be diagnosed only by strict criteria. Disordered eating, although also characterized as abnormal eating behavior, does not include all the criteria for diagnosing eating disorders and is therefore a way to recognize the problem in its early stages. It is important to identify factors to avoid clinical progression in this high-risk population. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to discuss critical information for the prevention of eating disorders in female athletes. This review discusses the major correlates for the development of an eating disorder. We also discuss which athletes are possibly at highest risk for eating disorders, including those from lean sports and female adolescent athletes. There is an urgent need for the demystification of myths surrounding body weight and performance in sports. This review includes studies that tested different prevention programs' effectiveness, and the majority showed positive results. Educational programs are the best method for primary prevention of eating disorders. For secondary prevention, early identification is essential and should be performed by preparticipation exams, the recognition of dietary markers, and the use of validated self-report questionnaires or clinical interviews. In addition, more randomized clinical trials are needed with athletes from multiple sports in order for the most reliable recommendations to be made and for some sporting regulations to be changed.Keywords: nutrition, disordered eating, sport, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa

  18. The contribution of step characteristics to sprint running performance in high-level male and female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debaere, Sofie; Jonkers, Ilse; Delecluse, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the interaction between step length and step rate and its effect on sprint performance in male and female sprinters during initial acceleration (IA) (0-10 m), transition phase (TP) (10-30 m), and at maximal speed (MS). Ten high-level male and female sprinters ran 2 all-out 60-m sprints. Force-time characteristics of start action were recorded by means of instrumented starting blocks. Running speed and acceleration were recorded using a laser system (ULS), whereas step length and step rate were measured for each step (Optojump). Step length was normalized for leg length. Explosive strength of the lower limb muscles was quantified using vertical jump performance, showing a 24.6% higher score in men compared with women. During the 3 phases of sprinting, step rate remained constant and did not differ significantly between men (IA: 4.37 ± 0.21 Hz, TP: 4.47 ± 0.25 Hz, MS: 4.43 ± 0.18 Hz) and women (IA: 4.23 ± 0.18 Hz, TP: 4.34 ± 0.18 Hz, MS: 4.28 ± 0.17 Hz). The data analysis indicates that step characteristics interact differently in men and women across phases. Men do not take full advantage of their higher explosive strength to develop step length and speed during IA, because normalized step length differed only slightly (-4.09%) between men (1.70 ± 0.21) and women (1.66 ± 0.13). However, men outscored women clearly in acceleration (+34.5%) during the TP because they were capable of developing higher step lengths (2.04 ± 0.12 m in men vs. 1.85 ± 0.07 m in women), even when normalized for leg length (2.65 ± 0.12 in men vs. 2.47 ± 0.22 in women). At MS, it was concluded that men and women pursue an optimal balance between step rate and step length because a high negative correlation was found in both sexes (r = -0.94 and r = -0.77). Therefore, training approach needs to be customized to gender-related differences in step length-rate interaction.

  19. The Study on the Features of High Level Football Athletes Fouls%高水平足球运动员犯规特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林金标

    2016-01-01

    In order to study on the foul characteristics of high level soccer players,using the research method such as literature review,video observation,and mathematical statistics,the author has made a statistic study of the features of athletes'fouls dur⁃ing the final stage of the 2014 FIFA World Cup. The results show that:The number of athletes was sentenced to fouls, red cards,yellow cards,and offside show obvious descending trend compared with the previous;Most of the athletes'fouls type is trip;Unsporting behavior and violent conduct are the main reasons of a player being cautioned or sent off;The main perform⁃ance of unsporting behavior is the professional foul;The fouls,yellow cards,and offside in the second half of the match are more than which in the first half,but there is the same number of red card in the either half of the match;Fouls,yellow cards,and offside are evenly distributed in each period of time;Midfield is the main area of the fouls called and be awarded yellow cards and red cards awarded;The number of fouls in the front field is more than which in the back field,but the number of yellow cards and red cards awarded is in opposite situation;Most fouls,yellow cards,red cards and offside calls occur when there is a tied game,When the score is changed,the Leading team fouls are more than the losing team�s,but the number of offside and be awarded yellow cards and red cards awarded is in opposite situation;When the score gap is widening,fouls,red cards,yellow cards,and offside shows a trend of decrease;The team that because of fouls led to a goal by a penalty kick or a free kick will have more chance to win.%为研究高水平足球运动员犯规特征,采用文献资料、录像观察、数理统计等研究方法,对2014年世界杯足球赛决赛阶段运动员犯规情况进行统计分析。结果表明:运动员犯规、红黄牌、越位次数均呈现明显下降趋势;运动员犯规类型最多的是绊摔,犯有非体育行为

  20. Weight management in the performance athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manore, Melinda M

    2013-01-01

    Management of weight is an ever-increasing challenge in societies where good tasting food is convenient, relatively inexpensive, and abundant. Developing a weight management plan is essential for everyone, including athletes that expend high amounts of energy in their sport. This brief review addresses the concept of dynamic energy balance and dietary approaches that can be successfully used with active individuals to facilitate weight loss, while retaining lean tissue and minimizing risks for disordered eating. Emphasis is placed on teaching athletes the benefits of consuming a low-energy-dense diet (e.g. high-fiber, high-water, low-fat foods), which allows for the consumption of a greater volume of food that is satiating but reduces energy intake. Other dietary behaviors important for weight loss or weight maintenance after weight loss are also emphasized, such as eating breakfast, spreading food and protein intake throughout the day, eating after exercise, elimination of sweetened beverages, and avoiding fad diets. As the general population becomes heavier, more young athletes will come to their sport needing to alter bodyweight or composition to perform at their peak. Health professionals need to be prepared with effective and evidence-based dietary approaches to help the athletes achieve their bodyweight goals.

  1. PERFORMANCE LEVEL AFFECTS THE DIETARY SUPPLEMENT INTAKE OF BOTH INDIVIDUAL AND TEAM SPORTS ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ifigenia Giannopoulou

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Dietary supplement (DS intake is high in elite level athletes, however few studies have investigated the impact that the performance level of the athletes has on supplementation intake in individual and team sports. The purpose of the study was to determine and compare the DS intake among individual and team sport athletes of various performance levels. A total of 2845 participants (athletes: 2783, controls: 62 between the ages of 11 and 44 years old participated in the study. A 3-page questionnaire was developed to assess the intake of DS. Athletes were categorized based on participation in individual (n = 775 and team sports (n = 2008. To assess the effect of performance level in supplementation intake, athletes were categorized based on training volume, participation in the national team, and winning at least one medal in provincial, national, international or Olympic games. Overall, 37% of all athletes of various performance levels reported taking at least one DS in the last month. A higher prevalence of DS intake was reported in individual (44% compared to team sport athletes (35% (p < 0.001. Athletes of high performance level reported greater DS intake compared to lower performance athletes. Males reported a significantly greater prevalence of DS intake compared to females. The most popular supplement reported was amino acid preparation with the main reason of supplementation being endurance improvements. In conclusion, performance level and type of sport appear to impact the DS practices of male and female athletes. These findings should be validated in other populations.

  2. A Naturally Occurring Repeat Protein with High Internal Sequence Identity Defines a New Class of TPR-like Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marold, Jacob D; Kavran, Jennifer M; Bowman, Gregory D; Barrick, Doug

    2015-11-01

    Linear repeat proteins often have high structural similarity and low (∼25%) pairwise sequence identities (PSI) among modules. We identified a unique P. anserina (Pa) sequence with tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) homology, which contains longer (42 residue) repeats (42PRs) with an average PSI >91%. We determined the crystal structure of five tandem Pa 42PRs to 1.6 Å, and examined the stability and solution properties of constructs containing three to six Pa 42PRs. Compared with 34-residue TPRs (34PRs), Pa 42PRs have a one-turn extension of each helix, and bury more surface area. Unfolding transitions shift to higher denaturant concentration and become sharper as repeats are added. Fitted Ising models show Pa 42PRs to be more cooperative than consensus 34PRs, with increased magnitudes of intrinsic and interfacial free energies. These results demonstrate the tolerance of the TPR motif to length variation, and provide a basis to understand the effects of helix length on intrinsic/interfacial stability.

  3. Common injuries and ailments of the female athlete; pathophysiology, treatment and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilibrand, Miryl J; Hammoud, Sommer; Bishop, Meghan; Woods, Daniel; Fredrick, Robert W; Dodson, Christopher C

    2015-11-01

    With increasing numbers of women competing in high school and collegiate athletics, it is important that physicians become familiar with injury patterns and medical conditions unique to the female athlete. Observations and clinical data have elucidated unique biomechanical, anatomic and hormonal factors that predispose skeletally mature female athletes to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries, patellofemoral disorders and lower extremity stress fractures. Additionally, younger female athletes are particularly at risk of developing components of the "Female Athlete Triad" (more recently included under the syndrome of "Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport" [RED-S]): disordered eating, amenorrhea and osteoporosis. An understanding of the pathophysiology of these conditions has led to the development of programs that can treat their underlying causes, decrease susceptibility to injury, and improve the long-term health of the female athlete. This paper is intended to provide physicians with a review of the sex-specific etiology, prevention and treatment of injuries common to the female athlete.

  4. Challenging Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Identity is a keyword in a number of academic fields as well as in public debate and in politics. During the last decades, references to identity have proliferated, yet there is no simple definition available that corresponds to the use of the notion in all contexts. The significance of the notio...... Christian Lammers, Saxo-Instituttet - Arkæologi, Etnologi, Historie og Græsk og Latin; Gert Sørensen, Institut for Engelsk, Germansk og Romansk ; Anne Ring Petersen, Institut for Kunst- og Kulturvidenskab...

  5. A High Fiber and Vegetable Protein Diet is Associated with Low Lumbar Bone Mineral Density in Young Oligo-amenorrheic Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Elizabeth; Sokoloff, Natalia Cano; Maffazioli, Giovana D. N.; Ackerman, Kathryn E.; Woolley, Ryan; Holmes, Tara M.; Anderson, Ellen J.; Misra, Madhusmita

    2015-01-01

    Background Associations of bone mineral density (BMD) with specific food components, including dietary fiber and isoflavones (that have a negative association with serum estrogen), are unclear and need to be determined, particularly in a population more likely to consume large amounts of these nutrients (such as young athletes). Objective To determine dietary intake of specific food components in oligo-amenorrheic athletes (OA) compared to eumenorrheic athletes (EA) and non-athletes (NA), and associations of the dietary intake of these nutrients with lumbar spine BMD. Design and Subjects This cross-sectional study evaluated 68 OA, 24 EA, and 26 NA 14–23 years old. Measurements included four-day food records (assessed using Nutrient Data System for Research software), a DXA scan evaluating lumbar spine BMD and body composition, and hormone levels. Multivariate analysis was used to estimate associations of nutrients with lumbar spine BMD. Results Compared with EA and NA, OA had higher intake of fiber, phytic acid, and vegetable protein (pfiber [β coefficient (β)= −0.30; p=0.01], vegetable protein (β = −0.28, p=0.02), phytic acid (β = −0.27, p=0.02), genistein (β = −0.25, p=0.01), and daidzein (β = −0.24, p=0.01), and positively with %SFA (β =0.32, p=0.0006)]. Conclusions Compared to EA and NA, OA had a higher dietary intake of fiber, vegetable protein and phytic acid, which were inversely associated with lumbar spine BMD Z-scores. Further studies are needed to assess dietary recommendations for OA to optimize bone accrual. PMID:26686817

  6. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) increases insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in sedentary aging men but not masters' athletes: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Peter; Hayes, Lawrence D; Sculthorpe, Nicholas; Grace, Fergal M

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this investigation was to examine the impact high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in active compared with sedentary aging men. 22 lifetime sedentary (SED; 62 ± 2 years) and 17 masters' athletes (LEX; 60 ± 5 years) were recruited to the study. As HIIT requires preconditioning exercise in sedentary cohorts, the study required three assessment phases; enrollment (phase A), following preconditioning exercise (phase B), and post-HIIT (phase C). Serum IGF-I was determined by electrochemiluminescent immunoassay. IGF-I was higher in LEX compared to SED at baseline (p = 0.007, Cohen's d = 0.91), and phase B (p = 0.083, Cohen's d = 0.59), with only a small difference at C (p = 0.291, Cohen's d = 0.35). SED experienced a small increase in IGF-I following preconditioning from 13.1 ± 4.7 to 14.2 ± 6.0 μg·dl(-1) (p = 0.376, Cohen's d = 0.22), followed by a larger increase post-HIIT (16.9 ± 4.4 μg·dl(-1)), which was significantly elevated compared with baseline (p = 0.002, Cohen's d = 0.85), and post-preconditioning (p = 0.005, Cohen's d = 0.51). LEX experienced a trivial changes in IGF-I from A to B (18.2 ± 6.4 to 17.2 ± 3.7 μg·dl(-1) [p = 0.538, Cohen's d = 0.19]), and a small change post-HIIT (18.4 ± 4.1 μg·dl(-1) [p = 0.283, Cohen's d = 0.31]). Small increases were observed in fat-free mass in both groups following HIIT (p < 0.05, Cohen's d = 0.32-0.45). In conclusion, HIIT with preconditioning exercise abrogates the age associated difference in IGF-I between SED and LEX, and induces small improvements in fat-free mass in both SED and LEX.

  7. ACUTE EFFECTS OF TWO DIFFERENT WARM-UP PROTOCOLS ON FLEXIBILITY AND LOWER LIMB EXPLOSIVE PERFORMANCE IN MALE AND FEMALE HIGH LEVEL ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charilaos Tsolakis

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of two different warm-up protocols on lower limb power and flexibility in high level athletes. Twenty international level fencers (10 males and 10 females performed two warm-up protocols that included 5-min light jogging and either short (15s or long (45s static stretching exercises for each of the main leg muscle groups (quadriceps, hamstrings and triceps surae, followed by either 3 sets of 3 (short stretching treatment, or 3 sets of 5 tuck jumps (long stretching treatment, in a randomized crossover design with one week between treatments. Hip joint flexion was measured with a Lafayette goniometer before and after the 5-min warm-up, after stretching and 8 min after the tuck jumps, while counter movement jump (CMJ performance was evaluated by an Ergojump contact platform, before and after the stretching treatment, as well as immediately after and 8 minutes after the tuck jumps. Three way ANOVA (condition, time, gender revealed significant time (p < 0.001 and gender (p < 0.001 main effects for hip joint flexion, with no interaction between factors. Flexibility increased by 6. 8 ± 1.1% (p < 0.01 after warm-up and by another 5.8 ± 1.6% (p < 0.01 after stretching, while it remained increased 8 min after the tuck jumps. Women had greater ROM compared with men at all time points (125 ± 8° vs. 94 ± 4° p<0.01 at baseline, but the pattern of change in hip flexibility was not different between genders. CMJ performance was greater in men compared with women at all time points (38.2 ± 1.9 cm vs. 29.8 ± 1.2 cm p < 0.01 at baseline, but the percentage of change CMJ performance was not different between genders. CMJ performance remained unchanged throughout the short stretching protocol, while it decreased by 5.5 ± 0.9% (p < 0.01 after stretching in the long stretching protocol However, 8 min after the tuck jumps, CMJ performance was not different from the baseline value (p = 0.075. In conclusion, lower limb power may

  8. Antibiotic Precautions in Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Fayock, Kristopher; Voltz, Matthew; Sandella, Bradley; Close, Jeremy; Lunser, Matthew; Okon, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Context: Antibiotics are the mainstay of treatment for bacterial infections in patients of all ages. Athletes who maximally train are at risk for illness and various infections. Routinely used antibiotics have been linked to tendon injuries, cardiac arrhythmias, diarrhea, photosensitivity, cartilage issues, and decreased performance. Evidence Acquisition: Relevant articles published from 1989 to 2012 obtained through searching MEDLINE and OVID. Also, the Food and Drug Administration website w...

  9. The Relationship of Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy, Vocational Identity, and Career Exploration Behavior in African American High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gushue, George V.; Scanlan, Kolone R. L.; Pantzer, Karen M.; Clarke, Christine P.

    2006-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between the social cognitive construct of career decision-making self-efficacy and the outcome variables of vocational identity and career exploration behaviors in a sample of 72 urban African American high school students. The results indicate that higher levels of career decision-making self-efficacy are…

  10. Designer's Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunrath, Kamila; Cash, Philip; Li-Ying, Jason

    2016-01-01

    A designer’s professional identity (DPI) develops through both education and professional experience, building on core personality traits and innate skills. In this paper a systematic literature review and a secondary narrative review were developed in order to map personal attributes and design...

  11. [Identity theft

    CERN Multimedia

    Wolinksy, H

    2003-01-01

    "A new survey by the Federal Trade Commission indicates that over the last five years one in four American households has been hit by identity theft, which can result in thieves tapping their victims' credit cards or bank accounts" (1 page).

  12. Mediating Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Annemette Leonhardt; Morsing, Mette; Ravasi, Davide

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports a longitudinal field study on the effects of positive media coverage on the reconstruction of organizational identity. The study highlights how intense positive coverage – to the point of turning an organization into a ‘celebrity’– influences both the way members understand the...

  13. [Athletic pubalgia and hip impingement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthaudin, A; Schindler, M; Ziltener, J-L; Menetrey, J

    2014-07-16

    Athletic pubalgia is a painful and complex syndrom encountered by athletes involved in pivoting and cutting sports such as hockey and soccer. To date, there is no real consensus on the criteria for a reliable diagnostic, the different investigations, and the appropriate therapy. Current literature underlines intrinsic and extrinsic factors contributing to athletic pubalgia. This review article reports upon two novelties related to the issue: the importance and efficience of prevention program and the association of femoro-acetabular impingement with the pubalgia.

  14. Body Mass-Related Predictors of the Female Athlete Triad Among Adolescent Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thralls, Katie J; Nichols, Jeanne F; Barrack, Michelle T; Kern, Mark; Rauh, Mitchell J

    2016-02-01

    Early detection of the female athlete triad is essential for the long-term health of adolescent female athletes. The purpose of this study was to assess relationships between common anthropometric markers (ideal body weight [IBW] via the Hamwi formula, youth-percentile body mass index [BMI], adult BMI categories, and body fat percentage [BF%]) and triad components, (low energy availability [EA], measured by dietary restraint [DR], menstrual dysfunction [MD], low bone mineral density [BMD]). In the sample (n = 320) of adolescent female athletes (age 15.9± 1.2 y), Spearman's rho correlations and multiple logistic regression analyses evaluated associations between anthropometric clinical cutoffs and triad components. All underweight categories for the anthropometric measures predicted greater likelihood of MD and low BMD. Athletes with an IBW >85% were nearly 4 times more likely to report MD (OR = 3.7, 95% CI [1.8, 7.9]) and had low BMD (OR = 4.1, 95% CI [1.2, 14.2]). Those in Athletes with a high BF% were almost 3 times more likely to report DR (OR = 2.8, 95% CI [1.4, 6.1]). Our study indicates that low age-adjusted BMI and low IBW may serve as evidence-based clinical indicators that may be practically evaluated in the field, predicting MD and low BMD in adolescents. These measures should be tested for their ability as tools to minimize the risk for the triad.

  15. Gender role influences on Turkish adolescents' self-identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, A

    1997-01-01

    This study investigated gender role influences on Turkish adolescents' self-identity process as part of the International Self-Identity Research Project. A total of 154 male and 119 female adolescents ages 14 through 17 from urban and rural areas of Turkey were surveyed through a questionnaire. The results indicated that "family" was the dominant source of belongingness for both males and females, followed by "friendships" and "school." Friendships and education were valued more by females than by males. Symbolic items (e.g., relationships, happiness) influenced females' self-identity more than they did males, while males tended to place greater importance on material items (e.g., home, TV, sports equipment). Athletic activities were highly important in males' self-validation process while females were oriented more toward the artistic and creative. General affective attributes (e.g., honesty, respect, thoughtfulness) were similarly valued by males and females as important criteria for self-evaluation. Finally, males were more religious, patriotic, and felt stronger ties to ancestors while females appeared to be more altruistic and placed high importance on social relations.

  16. YOUNG ATHLETES' MOTIVATIONAL PROFILES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Moreno Murcia

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between motivational characteristics and dispositional flow. In order to accomplish this goal, motivational profiles emerging from key constructs within Achievement Goal Theory and Self-Determination Theory were related to the dispositional flow measures. A sample of 413 young athletes (Age range 12 to 16 years completed the PMCSQ-2, POSQ, SMS and DFS measures. Cluster analysis results revealed three profiles: a "self-determined profile" characterised by higher scores on the task-involving climate perception and on the task orientation; a "non-self-determined profile", characterised by higher scores on ego-involving climate perception and ego orientation; and a "low self-determined and low non-self-determined profile" which had the lowest dispositional flow. No meaningful differences were found between the "self-determined profile" and the "non-self-determined profile" in dispositional flow. The "self-determined profile" was more commonly associated with females, athletes practising individual sports and those training more than three days a week. The "non-self-determined profile" was more customary of males and athletes practising team sports as well as those training just two or three days a week

  17. The young female athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurvitz, Michal; Weiss, Ram

    2009-12-01

    Participation of adolescents and young women in strenuous sports activity may lead to various metabolic and psychological derangements of clinical relevance to the endocrinologist. The most common manifestations encountered in practice are primary and secondary amenorrhea, reduced bone mineral density and eating disorders. The occurrence of all three together has been named "the athletic triad". The underlying hormonal drivers that lead to some of these manifestations are the reduced leptin level as well as the persistent low grade stress response commonly observed in such females. "Exercise-related female reproductive dysfunction" (ERFRD), can possibly include short-term (infertility) and long-term (osteoporosis) consequences. Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea, a manifestation of ERFRD in adolescence, is an integrated response to the combination of excessive physical and emotional stress, exercise, and/or reduced food intake characterized by decreased endogenous GNRH secretion. The primary aim of treating these athletes should be the prevention of the development of any component of the triad as well as the whole complex by educating athletes, trainers, parents and health care professionals about proper nutrition and safe training. The long term prognosis is good. However, significant long term morbidity may affect these young women later in life.

  18. [ERGOGENIC SPORT SUPPLEMENTS FOR ATHLETES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arieli, Rakefet; Lahav, Yair

    2016-06-01

    Use of performance-enhancing supplements occurs at all levels of sports, from recreational athletes to professional athletes. Although some supplements do enhance athletic performance, many have no proven benefits and have adverse effects. Nutritional supplements are categorized into the following categories: I. Apparently Effective. II. Possibly Effective. III. Too Early To Tell. IV. Apparently Ineffective. This article will review 4 ergogenic supplements which are categorized in the first category--"Apparently Effective"--1) Buffer agents 2) Creatine 3) Caffeine and 4 Nitric Oxide. Given the widespread use of performance enhancing supplements, physicians, and dietitians should be prepared to counsel athletes about their effectiveness, safety and legality.

  19. Elite athletes and pubertal delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapczuk, Karina

    2017-10-01

    Intensive physical training and participation in competitive sports during childhood and early adolescence may affect athletes' pubertal development. On the other hand, pubertal timing, early or late, may impact on an athlete selection for a particular sport. Genetic predisposition, training load, nutritional status and psychological stress determine athletes' pubertal timing. Athletes that practice esthetic sports, especially gymnasts, are predisposed to a delay in pubertal development. The growing evidence indicates that energy deficiency, not a systemic training per se, plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of functional hypothalamic hypogonadism in female athletes. Metabolic and psychologic stress activate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and suppress hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Female athletes who do not begin secondary sexual development by the age of 14 or menstruation by the age of 16 warrant a comprehensive evaluation and a targeted treatment. Somatic growth and sexual maturation of elite female athletes are largely sport-specific since each sport favors a particular somatotype and requires a specific training. Chronic negative energy balance resulting from a systemic physical training and inadequate energy intake may delay pubertal development in elite athletes. Youth athletes, especially those engaged in competitive sports that emphasize prepubertal or lean appearance, are at risk of developing relative energy deficiency in sport associated with disordered eating or eating disorders. Management strategies should address the complex conditions underlying functional hypothalamic hypogonadism.

  20. The use of dietary supplements by athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, Ronald J; Depiesse, Frederic; Geyer, Hans

    2007-01-01

    Many athletes use dietary supplements as part of their regular training or competition routine, including about 85% of elite track and field athletes. Supplements commonly used include vitamins, minerals, protein, creatine, and various "ergogenic" compounds. These supplements are often used without a full understanding or evaluation of the potential benefits and risks associated with their use, and without consultation with a sports nutrition professional. A few supplements may be helpful to athletes in specific circumstances, especially where food intake or food choice is restricted. Vitamin and mineral supplements should be used only when a food-based solution is not available. Sports drinks, energy bars, and protein-carbohydrate shakes may all be useful and convenient at specific times. There are well-documented roles for creatine, caffeine, and alkalinizing agents in enhancing performance in high-intensity exercise, although much of the evidence does not relate to specific athletic events. There are potential costs associated with all dietary supplements, including the risk of a positive doping result as a consequence of the presence of prohibited substances that are not declared on the label.