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Sample records for high arsenic exposure

  1. Chronic subhepatotoxic exposure to arsenic enhances hepatic injury caused by high fat diet in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Min; Schmidt, Robin H.; Beier, Juliane I. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville Health Sciences Center, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); Department of Medicine, University of Louisville Health Sciences Center, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); Watson, Walter H. [Department of Medicine, University of Louisville Health Sciences Center, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); University of Louisville Alcohol Research Center, University of Louisville Health Sciences Center, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); Zhong, Hai [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville Health Sciences Center, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); University of Louisville Alcohol Research Center, University of Louisville Health Sciences Center, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); States, J. Christopher [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville Health Sciences Center, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); Arteel, Gavin E., E-mail: gavin.arteel@louisville.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville Health Sciences Center, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); University of Louisville Alcohol Research Center, University of Louisville Health Sciences Center, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    Arsenic is a ubiquitous contaminant in drinking water. Whereas arsenic can be directly hepatotoxic, the concentrations/doses required are generally higher than present in the US water supply. However, physiological/biochemical changes that are alone pathologically inert can enhance the hepatotoxic response to a subsequent stimulus. Such a '2-hit' paradigm is best exemplified in chronic fatty liver diseases. Here, the hypothesis that low arsenic exposure sensitizes liver to hepatotoxicity in a mouse model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease was tested. Accordingly, male C57Bl/6J mice were exposed to low fat diet (LFD; 13% calories as fat) or high fat diet (HFD; 42% calories as fat) and tap water or arsenic (4.9 ppm as sodium arsenite) for ten weeks. Biochemical and histologic indices of liver damage were determined. High fat diet ({+-} arsenic) significantly increased body weight gain in mice compared with low-fat controls. HFD significantly increased liver to body weight ratios; this variable was unaffected by arsenic exposure. HFD caused steatohepatitis, as indicated by histological assessment and by increases in plasma ALT and AST. Although arsenic exposure had no effect on indices of liver damage in LFD-fed animals, it significantly increased the liver damage caused by HFD. This effect of arsenic correlated with enhanced inflammation and fibrin extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition. These data indicate that subhepatotoxic arsenic exposure enhances the toxicity of HFD. These results also suggest that arsenic exposure might be a risk factor for the development of fatty liver disease in human populations. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characterizes a mouse model of arsenic enhanced NAFLD. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Arsenic synergistically enhances experimental fatty liver disease at concentrations that cause no overt hepatotoxicity alone. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This effect is associated with increased inflammation.

  2. Cryptic exposure to arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossy, Kathleen M; Janusz, Christopher A; Schwartz, Robert A

    2005-01-01

    Arsenic is an odorless, colorless and tasteless element long linked with effects on the skin and viscera. Exposure to it may be cryptic. Although human intake can occur from four forms, elemental, inorganic (trivalent and pentavalent arsenic) and organic arsenic, the trivalent inorganic arsenicals constitute the major human hazard. Arsenic usually reaches the skin from occupational, therapeutic, or environmental exposure, although it still may be employed as a poison. Occupations involving new technologies are not exempt from arsenic exposure. Its acute and chronic effects are noteworthy. Treatment options exist for arsenic-induced pathology, but prevention of toxicity remains the main focus. Vitamin and mineral supplementation may play a role in the treatment of arsenic toxicity.

  3. Cryptic exposure to arsenic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossy Kathleen

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic is an odorless, colorless and tasteless element long linked with effects on the skin and viscera. Exposure to it may be cryptic. Although human intake can occur from four forms, elemental, inorganic (trivalent and pentavalent arsenic and organic arsenic, the trivalent inorganic arsenicals constitute the major human hazard. Arsenic usually reaches the skin from occupational, therapeutic, or environmental exposure, although it still may be employed as a poison. Occupations involving new technologies are not exempt from arsenic exposure. Its acute and chronic effects are noteworthy. Treatment options exist for arsenic-induced pathology, but prevention of toxicity remains the main focus. Vitamin and mineral supplementation may play a role in the treatment of arsenic toxicity.

  4. High exposure to inorganic arsenic by food: the need for risk reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundert-Remy, Ursula; Damm, Georg; Foth, Heidi; Freyberger, Alexius; Gebel, Thomas; Golka, Klaus; Röhl, Claudia; Schupp, Thomas; Wollin, Klaus-Michael; Hengstler, Jan Georg

    2015-12-01

    Arsenic is a human carcinogen that occurs ubiquitously in soil and water. Based on epidemiological studies, a benchmark dose (lower/higher bound estimate) between 0.3 and 8 μg/kg bw/day was estimated to cause a 1 % increased risk of lung, skin and bladder cancer. A recently published study by EFSA on dietary exposure to inorganic arsenic in the European population reported 95th percentiles (lower bound min to upper bound max) for different age groups in the same range as the benchmark dose. For toddlers, a highly exposed group, the highest values ranged between 0.61 and 2.09 µg arsenic/kg bw/day. For all other age classes, the margin of exposure is also small. This scenario calls for regulatory action to reduce arsenic exposure. One priority measure should be to reduce arsenic in food categories that contribute most to exposure. In the EFSA study the food categories 'milk and dairy products,' 'drinking water' and 'food for infants' represent major sources of inorganic arsenic for infants and also rice is an important source. Long-term strategies are required to reduce inorganic arsenic in these food groups. The reduced consumption of rice and rice products which has been recommended may be helpful for a minority of individuals consuming unusually high amounts of rice. However, it is only of limited value for the general European population, because the food categories 'grain-based processed products (non rice-based)' or 'milk and dairy products' contribute more to the exposure with inorganic arsenic than the food category 'rice.' A balanced regulatory activity focusing on the most relevant food categories is required. In conclusion, exposure to inorganic arsenic represents a risk to the health of the European population, particularly to young children. Regulatory measures to reduce exposure are urgently required.

  5. Metabolism of inorganic arsenic in children with chronic high arsenic exposure in northern Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concha, G; Nermell, B; Vahter, M V

    1998-01-01

    This study concerns the metabolism of inorganic arsenic (As) in children in three villages in northern Argentina: San Antonio de los Cobres and Taco Pozo, each with about 200 microg As/l in the drinking water, and Rosario de Lerma, with 0.65 microg As/l. Findings show that the concentrations of As in the blood and urine of the children in the two As-rich villages were on average 9 and 380 microg/l, respectively, the highest ever recorded for children. The concentrations were about 10 and 30 times higher for blood and urine, respectively, than in Rosario de Lerma. Total As in urine was only slightly higher than the sum of metabolites of inorganic As (U-Asmet), i.e., inorganic As, methylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA); this shows that inorganic As was the main form of As ingested. In contrast to previous studies on urinary metabolites of inorganic As in various population groups, the children and women in the present study excreted very little MMA. Thus, there seems to be a polymorphism for the enzymes (methyltransferases) involved in the methylation of As. Interestingly, the children had a significantly higher percentage of inorganic As in urine than the women, about 50% versus 32%. Also, the percentage of inorganic As in the children is considerably higher than in previous studies on children (about 13% in the two studies available) and adults (about 15-25%) in other population groups. This may indicate that children are more sensitive to As-induced toxicity than adults, as the methylated metabolites bind less to tissue constituents than inorganic As. In the children, the percentage inorganic arsenic in urine decreased, and the percentage of DMA increased with increasing U-Asmet, indicating an induction of As methylation with increasing exposure. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9618352

  6. Binational Arsenic Exposure Survey: Methodology and Estimated Arsenic Intake from Drinking Water and Urinary Arsenic Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin B. Harris

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Binational Arsenic Exposure Survey (BAsES was designed to evaluate probable arsenic exposures in selected areas of southern Arizona and northern Mexico, two regions with known elevated levels of arsenic in groundwater reserves. This paper describes the methodology of BAsES and the relationship between estimated arsenic intake from beverages and arsenic output in urine. Households from eight communities were selected for their varying groundwater arsenic concentrations in Arizona, USA and Sonora, Mexico. Adults responded to questionnaires and provided dietary information. A first morning urine void and water from all household drinking sources were collected. Associations between urinary arsenic concentration (total, organic, inorganic and estimated level of arsenic consumed from water and other beverages were evaluated through crude associations and by random effects models. Median estimated total arsenic intake from beverages among participants from Arizona communities ranged from 1.7 to 14.1 µg/day compared to 0.6 to 3.4 µg/day among those from Mexico communities. In contrast, median urinary inorganic arsenic concentrations were greatest among participants from Hermosillo, Mexico (6.2 µg/L whereas a high of 2.0 µg/L was found among participants from Ajo, Arizona. Estimated arsenic intake from drinking water was associated with urinary total arsenic concentration (p < 0.001, urinary inorganic arsenic concentration (p < 0.001, and urinary sum of species (p < 0.001. Urinary arsenic concentrations increased between 7% and 12% for each one percent increase in arsenic consumed from drinking water. Variability in arsenic intake from beverages and urinary arsenic output yielded counter intuitive results. Estimated intake of arsenic from all beverages was greatest among Arizonans yet participants in Mexico had higher urinary total and inorganic arsenic concentrations. Other contributors to urinary arsenic concentrations should be evaluated.

  7. Binational arsenic exposure survey: methodology and estimated arsenic intake from drinking water and urinary arsenic concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberge, Jason; O'Rourke, Mary Kay; Meza-Montenegro, Maria Mercedes; Gutiérrez-Millán, Luis Enrique; Burgess, Jefferey L; Harris, Robin B

    2012-04-01

    The Binational Arsenic Exposure Survey (BAsES) was designed to evaluate probable arsenic exposures in selected areas of southern Arizona and northern Mexico, two regions with known elevated levels of arsenic in groundwater reserves. This paper describes the methodology of BAsES and the relationship between estimated arsenic intake from beverages and arsenic output in urine. Households from eight communities were selected for their varying groundwater arsenic concentrations in Arizona, USA and Sonora, Mexico. Adults responded to questionnaires and provided dietary information. A first morning urine void and water from all household drinking sources were collected. Associations between urinary arsenic concentration (total, organic, inorganic) and estimated level of arsenic consumed from water and other beverages were evaluated through crude associations and by random effects models. Median estimated total arsenic intake from beverages among participants from Arizona communities ranged from 1.7 to 14.1 µg/day compared to 0.6 to 3.4 µg/day among those from Mexico communities. In contrast, median urinary inorganic arsenic concentrations were greatest among participants from Hermosillo, Mexico (6.2 µg/L) whereas a high of 2.0 µg/L was found among participants from Ajo, Arizona. Estimated arsenic intake from drinking water was associated with urinary total arsenic concentration (p < 0.001), urinary inorganic arsenic concentration (p < 0.001), and urinary sum of species (p < 0.001). Urinary arsenic concentrations increased between 7% and 12% for each one percent increase in arsenic consumed from drinking water. Variability in arsenic intake from beverages and urinary arsenic output yielded counter intuitive results. Estimated intake of arsenic from all beverages was greatest among Arizonans yet participants in Mexico had higher urinary total and inorganic arsenic concentrations. Other contributors to urinary arsenic concentrations should be evaluated.

  8. Environmental source of arsenic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jin-Yong; Yu, Seung-Do; Hong, Young-Seoub

    2014-09-01

    Arsenic is a ubiquitous, naturally occurring metalloid that may be a significant risk factor for cancer after exposure to contaminated drinking water, cigarettes, foods, industry, occupational environment, and air. Among the various routes of arsenic exposure, drinking water is the largest source of arsenic poisoning worldwide. Arsenic exposure from ingested foods usually comes from food crops grown in arsenic-contaminated soil and/or irrigated with arsenic-contaminated water. According to a recent World Health Organization report, arsenic from contaminated water can be quickly and easily absorbed and depending on its metabolic form, may adversely affect human health. Recently, the US Food and Drug Administration regulations for metals found in cosmetics to protect consumers against contaminations deemed deleterious to health; some cosmetics were found to contain a variety of chemicals including heavy metals, which are sometimes used as preservatives. Moreover, developing countries tend to have a growing number of industrial factories that unfortunately, harm the environment, especially in cities where industrial and vehicle emissions, as well as household activities, cause serious air pollution. Air is also an important source of arsenic exposure in areas with industrial activity. The presence of arsenic in airborne particulate matter is considered a risk for certain diseases. Taken together, various potential pathways of arsenic exposure seem to affect humans adversely, and future efforts to reduce arsenic exposure caused by environmental factors should be made.

  9. Arsenic pesticides and environmental pollution: exposure, poisoning, hazards and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bahnasawy, Mamdouh M; Mohammad, Amina El-Hosini; Morsy, Tosson A

    2013-08-01

    Arsenic is a metalloid element. Acute high-dose exposure to arsenic can cause severe systemic toxicity and death. Lower dose chronic arsenic exposure can result in subacute toxicity that can include peripheral sensorimotor neuropathy, skin eruptions, and hepatotoxicity. Long-term effects of arsenic exposure include an in Due to the physiologic effects of the arsenic on all body systems, thus, chronic arsenic-poisoned patient is a major nursing challenge. The critical care nurse provides valuable assessment and interventions that prevent major multisystem complications from arsenic toxicity.

  10. Binational Arsenic Exposure Survey: Methodology and Estimated Arsenic Intake from Drinking Water and Urinary Arsenic Concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Robin B.; Burgess, Jefferey L; Maria Mercedes Meza-Montenegro; Luis Enrique Gutiérrez-Millán; Mary Kay O’Rourke; Jason Roberge

    2012-01-01

    The Binational Arsenic Exposure Survey (BAsES) was designed to evaluate probable arsenic exposures in selected areas of southern Arizona and northern Mexico, two regions with known elevated levels of arsenic in groundwater reserves. This paper describes the methodology of BAsES and the relationship between estimated arsenic intake from beverages and arsenic output in urine. Households from eight communities were selected for their varying groundwater arsenic concentrations in Arizona, USA and...

  11. Associations of arsenic metabolites, methylation capacity, and skin lesions caused by chronic exposure to high arsenic in tube well water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Linsheng; Chai, Yuanqing; Yu, Jiangping; Wei, Binggan; Xia, Yajuan; Wu, Kegong; Gao, Jianwei; Guo, Zhiwei; Cui, Na

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the interaction between skin lesion status and arsenic methylation profiles, the concentrations and proportions of arsenic metabolites in urine and arsenic methylation capacities of study subjects were determined. The results showed that the mean urinary concentrations of iAs (inorganic arsenic), MMA (monomethylarsonic acid), DMA (dimethylarsinic acid), and TAs (total arsenic) were 75.65, 68.78, 265.81, and 410.24 μg/L, respectively, in the skin lesions subjects. The highest values were observed in the multiple skin lesions subjects. Higher %iAs and %MMA, and lower %DMA, PMI (primary methylation index), and SMI (secondary methylation index) were found in skin lesions subjects. The multiple skin lesions subjects had highest %iAs and %MMA, and lowest %DMA, PMI, and SMI. The prevalence of skin lesions strongly, positively correlated with arsenic levels in drinking water. The elder persons also had higher frequency of skin lesions compared with younger persons. It can be concluded that arsenic levels in drinking water significantly affected the prevalence of skin lesions. Male subjects usually had higher proportions of skin lesions when compared with female subjects. Moreover, it may be concluded that MMA was significantly related to single skin lesion, whereas DMA and iAs were associated with multiple skin lesions. It seemed that MMA had greater toxicity to hyperkeratosis, whereas DMA and iAs had higher toxicity to depigmentation or pigmentation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 28-36, 2017.

  12. [Tracing for arsenic exposure--a differentiation of arsenic compounds is essential for the health assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weistenhöfer, Wobbeke; Ochsmann, Elke; Drexler, Hans; Göen, Thomas; Klotz, Katrin

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic is ubiquitous and harmful to health in occupation and environment. Arsenic exposure is measured through analysis of arsenic compounds in urine. The identification of several arsenic species is necessary to understand the hazardous potential of the arsenic compounds which differ highly in their toxicity. To estimate the extent of an occupational exposure to arsenic, arsenic species were evaluated for the first time by the working group "Setting of Threshold Limit Values in Biological Material" of the DFG Commission for the Investigation of Health Hazards of Chemical Compounds in the Work Area and Biologische Arbeitsstoffreferenzwerte (BAR) of 0.5 μg / L urine for arsenic (III), 0.5 μg / L urine for arsenic (V), 2 μg / L urine for monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and 10 μg / L urine for dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) were set. If the reference value for total arsenic is exceeded, a further differentiation of arsenic species now enables to estimate the individual health risks taking into account special influences such as seafood consumption.

  13. Arsenic metabolism and one-carbon metabolism at low-moderate arsenic exposure: Evidence from the Strong Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spratlen, Miranda Jones; Gamble, Mary V; Grau-Perez, Maria; Kuo, Chin-Chi; Best, Lyle G; Yracheta, Joseph; Francesconi, Kevin; Goessler, Walter; Mossavar-Rahmani, Yasmin; Hall, Meghan; Umans, Jason G; Fretts, Amanda; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2017-07-01

    B-vitamins involved in one-carbon metabolism (OCM) can affect arsenic metabolism efficiency in highly arsenic exposed, undernourished populations. We evaluated whether dietary intake of OCM nutrients (including vitamins B2, B6, folate (B9), and B12) was associated with arsenic metabolism in a more nourished population exposed to lower arsenic than previously studied. Dietary intake of OCM nutrients and urine arsenic was evaluated in 405 participants from the Strong Heart Study. Arsenic exposure was measured as the sum of iAs, monomethylarsonate (MMA) and dimethylarsenate (DMA) in urine. Arsenic metabolism was measured as the individual percentages of each metabolite over their sum (iAs%, MMA%, DMA%). In adjusted models, increasing intake of vitamins B2 and B6 was associated with modest but significant decreases in iAs% and MMA% and increases in DMA%. A significant interaction was found between high folate and B6 with enhanced arsenic metabolism efficiency. Our findings suggest OCM nutrients may influence arsenic metabolism in populations with moderate arsenic exposure. Stronger and independent associations were observed with B2 and B6, vitamins previously understudied in relation to arsenic. Research is needed to evaluate whether targeting B-vitamin intake can serve as a strategy for the prevention of arsenic-related health effects at low-moderate arsenic exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Chronic arsenic poisoning from burning high-arsenic-containing coal in Guizhou, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, J.; Zheng, B.S.; Aposhian, H.V.; Zhou, Y.S.; Chen, M.L.; Zhang, A.H.; Waalkes, M.P. [NIEHS, Research Triangle Park, NC (USA)

    2002-07-01

    Arsenic is an environmental hazard and the reduction of drinking water arsenic levels is under consideration. People are exposed to arsenic not only through drinking water but also through arsenic-contaminated air and food. Here the health effects of arsenic exposure from burning high arsenic-containing coal in Guizhou, China was investigated. Coal is burned inside the home in open pits for daily cooking and crop drying, producing a high concentration of arsenic in indoor air. Arsenic in the air coats and permeates food being dried producing high concentrations in food; however, arsenic concentrations in the drinking water are in the normal range. The estimated sources of total arsenic exposure in this area are from arsenic-contaminated food (50-80%), air (10-20%), water (1-5%), and direct contact in coal-mining workers (1%). At least 3,000 patients with arsenic poisoning were found in the Southwest Prefecture of Guizhou, and approximately 200,000 people are at risk for such over exposures. Skin lesions are common, including keratosis of the hands and feet, pigmentation on the trunk, skin ulceration, and skin cancers. Toxicities to internal organs, including lung dysfunction, neuropathy, and nephrotoxicity, are clinically evident. The prevalence of hepatomegaly was 20%, and cirrhosis, ascites, and liver cancer are the most serious outcomes of arsenic poisoning. The Chinese government and international organizations are attempting to improve the house conditions and the coal source, and thereby protect human health in this area.

  15. Exposure to inorganic arsenic in soil increases urinary inorganic arsenic concentrations of residents living in old mining areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinwood, Andrea L; Sim, Malcolm R; Jolley, Damien; de Klerk, Nick; Bastone, Elisa B; Gerostamoulos, Jim; Drummer, Olaf H

    2004-03-01

    The short term human exposure studies conducted on populations exposed to high concentrations of inorganic arsenic in soil have been inconsistent in demonstrating a relationship between environmental concentrations and exposure measures. In Australia there are many areas with very high arsenic concentrations in residential soil most typically associated with gold mining activities in rural areas. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between environmental arsenic and urinary inorganic arsenic concentrations in a population living in a gold mining area (soil arsenic concentrations between 9 and 9900 mg kg(-1)), and a control population with low arsenic levels in soil (between 1 and 80 mg kg(-1)). Risk factors for increased urinary arsenic concentrations were also explored. There was a weak but significant relationship between soil arsenic concentrations and inorganic urinary arsenic concentration with a Spearman correlation coefficient of 0.39. When participants with greater than 100 mg kg(-1) arsenic in residential soil were selected, the coefficient increased to 0.64. The geometric mean urinary inorganic arsenic concentration for the exposed group was 1.64 microg L(-1) (risk factors. These results show that high concentrations of arsenic in soil can make a contribution to urinary inorganic arsenic concentrations.

  16. Significantly increased risk of carotid atherosclerosis with arsenic exposure and polymorphisms in arsenic metabolism genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Yi-Chen [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wusing St., Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); Lien, Li-Ming [Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); School of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Neurology, Shin Kong WHS Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chung, Wen-Ting [Department of Neurology, Wanfang Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Fang-I; Hsieh, Pei-Fan [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wusing St., Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); Wu, Meei-Maan [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wusing St., Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Basic Medicine, College of Medicine, Fu-Jen Catholic University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Tseng, Hung-Pin [Department of Neurology, Lotung Poh-Ai Hospital, I-Lan, Taiwan (China); Chiou, Hung-Yi, E-mail: hychiou@tmu.edu.tw [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wusing St., Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chien-Jen [Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2011-08-15

    Individual susceptibility to arsenic-induced carotid atherosclerosis might be associated with genetic variations in arsenic metabolism. The purpose of this study is to explore the interaction effect on risk of carotid atherosclerosis between arsenic exposure and risk genotypes of purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP), arsenic (+3) methyltransferase (As3MT), and glutathione S-transferase omega 1 (GSTO1) and omega 2 (GSTO2). A community-based case-control study was conducted in northeastern Taiwan to investigate the arsenic metabolic-related genetic susceptibility to carotid atherosclerosis. In total, 863 subjects, who had been genotyped and for whom the severity of carotid atherosclerosis had been determined, were included in the present study. Individual well water was collected and arsenic concentration determined using hydride generation combined with flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The result showed that a significant dose-response trend (P=0.04) of carotid atherosclerosis risk associated with increasing arsenic concentration. Non-significant association between genetic polymorphisms of PNP Gly51Ser, Pro57Pro, As3MT Met287Thr, GSTO1 Ala140Asp, and GSTO2 A-183G and the risk for development of carotid atherosclerosis were observed. However, the significant interaction effect on carotid atherosclerosis risk was found for arsenic exposure (>50 {mu}g/l) and the haplotypes of PNP (p=0.0115). A marked elevated risk of carotid atherosclerosis was observed in subjects with arsenic exposure of >50 {mu}g/l in drinking water and those who carried the PNP A-T haplotype and at least either of the As3MT risk polymorphism or GSTO risk haplotypes (OR, 6.43; 95% CI, 1.79-23.19). In conclusion, arsenic metabolic genes, PNP, As3MT, and GSTO, may exacerbate the formation of atherosclerosis in individuals with high levels of arsenic concentration in well water (>50 {mu}g/l). - Highlights: {yields}Arsenic metabolic genes might be associated with carotid atherosclerosis. {yields

  17. Arsenic exposure from drinking water and dyspnoea risk in Araihazar, Bangladesh: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesola, Gene R; Parvez, Faruque; Chen, Yu; Ahmed, Alauddin; Hasan, Rabiul; Ahsan, Habibul

    2012-05-01

    Bangladesh has high well water arsenic exposure. Chronic arsenic ingestion may result in diseases that manifest as dyspnoea, although information is sparse. Baseline values were obtained from an arsenic study. Trained physicians ascertained data on dyspnoea among 11,746 subjects. Data were collected on demographic factors, including smoking, blood pressure and arsenic exposure. Logistic regression models estimated odds ratios and confidence intervals for the association between arsenic exposure and dyspnoea. The adjusted odds of having dyspnoea was 1.32-fold (95% CI 1.15-1.52) greater in those exposed to high well water arsenic concentrations (≥ 50 μg · L(-1)) compared with low-arsenic-exposed nonsmokers (p<0.01). A significant dose-response relationship was found for arsenic (as well as smoking) in relation to dyspnoea. In nonsmokers, the adjusted odds of having dyspnoea were 1.36, 1.96, 2.34 and 1.80-fold greater for arsenic concentrations of 7-38, 39-90, 91-178 and 179-864 μg · L(-1), respectively, compared with the reference arsenic concentration of <7 μg · L(-1) (p<0.01; Chi-squared test for trend). Arsenic exposure through well water is associated with dyspnoea, independently of smoking status. This study suggests that mandated well water testing for arsenic with reduction in exposure may significantly reduce diseases that manifest as dyspnoea, usually cardiac or pulmonary.

  18. Hair and toenail arsenic concentrations of residents living in areas with high environmental arsenic concentrations.

    OpenAIRE

    Hinwood, Andrea L; Sim, Malcolm R; Jolley, Damien; de Klerk, Nick; Bastone, Elisa B; Gerostamoulos, Jim; Drummer, Olaf H

    2003-01-01

    Surface soil and groundwater in Australia have been found to contain high concentrations of arsenic. The relative importance of long-term human exposure to these sources has not been established. Several studies have investigated long-term exposure to environmental arsenic concentrations using hair and toenails as the measure of exposure. Few have compared the difference in these measures of environmental sources of exposure. In this study we aimed to investigate risk factors for elevated hai...

  19. Inorganic arsenic exposure and type 2 diabetes mellitus in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado-González, José Antonio; Del Razo, Luz María; García-Vargas, Gonzalo; Sanmiguel-Salazar, Francisca; Escobedo-de la Peña, Jorge

    2007-07-01

    Inorganic arsenic exposure in drinking water has been recently related to diabetes mellitus. To evaluate this relationship the authors conducted in 2003, a case-control study in an arseniasis-endemic region from Coahuila, a northern state of Mexico with a high incidence of diabetes. The present analysis includes 200 cases and 200 controls. Cases were obtained from a previous cross-sectional study conducted in that region. Diagnosis of diabetes was established following the American Diabetes Association criteria, with two fasting glucose values > or = 126 mg/100 ml (> or = 7.0 mmol/l) or a history of diabetes treated with insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents. The next subject studied, subsequent to the identification of a case in the cross-sectional study was taken as control. Inorganic arsenic exposure was measured through total arsenic concentrations in urine, measured by hydride-generation atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Subjects with intermediate total arsenic concentration in urine (63.5-104 microg/g creatinine) had two-fold higher risk of having diabetes (odds ratio=2.16; 95% confidence interval: 1.23, 3.79), but the risk was almost three times greater in subjects with higher concentrations of total arsenic in urine (odds ratio=2.84; 95% confidence interval: 1.64, 4.92). This data provides additional evidence that inorganic arsenic exposure may be diabetogenic.

  20. Arsenic exposure is associated with DNA hypermethylation of the tumor suppressor gene p16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Guangming; Xu, Huiwen; Chang, De; Wu, Zhenglai; Yao, Xiaoyuan; Zhang, Shiying; Li, Zhenlong; Bai, Jieben; Cai, Qing; Zhang, Wen

    2014-01-01

    Occupational and environmental exposure to inorganic arsenic leads to development of cancer and represents a significant health hazard in more than 70 countries. The underlying mechanism for arsenic-induced carcinogenesis remains unclear. Laboratory studies suggest that arsenic is a poor mutagen but may cause epigenetic silencing of key tumor suppressor genes such as p16 through DNA hypermethylation. However, the evidence for an association between human arsenic exposure and abnormal DNA methylation of tumor suppressor genes is lacking. Paired case-control studies were conducted involving 40 individuals with high arsenic exposure and arsenicosis, 40 individuals with similarly high exposure to arsenic but without arsenicosis, and 40 individuals with normal exposure to arsenic. DNA methylation status of p16 was determined using methylation-specific PCR. Conditional logistic regression analysis showed that DNA hypermethylation of p16 gene was significantly associated with high arsenic exposure (Odds Ratio = 10.0, P = 0.0019) independently of the development of arsenicosis (Odds Ratio = 2.0, P = 0.1343). High exposure of arsenic in human is positively linked to DNA hypermethylation of p16 gene, suggesting that epigenetic silencing of key tumor suppressor may be an important mechanism by which arsenic promotes cancer initiation.

  1. Arsenic: bioaccessibility from seaweed and rice, dietary exposure calculations and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Esther F A; Janssen, Paul J C M; de Wit-Bos, Lianne

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic is a metalloid that occurs in food and the environment in different chemical forms. Inorganic arsenic is classified as a class I carcinogen. The inorganic arsenic intake from food and drinking water varies depending on the geographic arsenic background. Non-dietary exposure to arsenic is likely to be of minor importance for the general population within the European Union. In Europe, arsenic in drinking water is on average low, but food products (e.g. rice and seaweed) are imported from all over the world including from regions with naturally high arsenic levels. Therefore, specific populations living in Europe could also have a high exposure to inorganic arsenic due to their consumption pattern. Current risk assessment is based on exposure via drinking water. For a good estimation of the risks of arsenic in food, it is important to investigate if the bioavailability of inorganic arsenic from food is different from drinking water. The present study further explores the issue of European dietary exposure to inorganic arsenic via rice and seaweed and its associated health risks. The bioavailability of inorganic arsenic was measured in in vitro digestion experiments. The data indicate that the bioavailability of inorganic arsenic is similar for rice and seaweed compared with drinking water. The calculated dietary intake for specific European Union populations varied between 0.44 and 4.51 µg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹. The margins of exposure between the inorganic intake levels and the BMDL0.5 values as derived by JECFA are low. Decreasing the intake of inorganic arsenic via Hijiki seaweed could be achieved by setting legal limits similar to those set for rice by the Codex Alimentarius Commission in July 2014.

  2. Arsenic Exposure from Drinking Water, Dietary Intakes of B Vitamins and Folate, and Risk of High Blood Pressure in Bangladesh: A Population-based, Cross-sectional Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Yu; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Howe, Geoffrey R; Graziano, Joseph H; Brandt-Rauf, Paul; Parvez, Faruque; van Geen, Alexander; Ahsan, Habibul

    The authors performed a cross-sectional analysis to evaluate the association between arsenic exposure from drinking water and blood pressure using baseline data of 10,910 participants in the Health...

  3. Exercise Prevents Memory Impairment Induced by Arsenic Exposure in Mice: Implication of Hippocampal BDNF and CREB.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-Fei Sun

    Full Text Available High concentrations of arsenic, which can be occasionally found in drinking water, have been recognized as a global health problem. Exposure to arsenic can disrupt spatial memory; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we tested whether exercise could interfere with the effect of arsenic exposure on the long-term memory (LTM of object recognition in mice. Arsenic (0, 1, 3, and 10 mg/ kg, i.g. was administered daily for 12 weeks. We found that arsenic at dosages of 1, 3, and 10 mg/kg decreased body weight and increased the arsenic content in the brain. The object recognition LTM (tested 24 h after training was disrupted by 3 mg/ kg and 10 mg/ kg, but not 1 mg/ kg arsenic exposure. Swimming exercise also prevented LTM impairment induced by 3 mg/ kg, but not with 10 mg/ kg, of arsenic exposure. The expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and phosphorylated cAMP-response element binding protein (pCREB in the CA1 and dentate gyrus areas (DG of the dorsal hippocampus were decreased by 3 mg/ kg and 10 mg/ kg, but not by 1 mg/ kg, of arsenic exposure. The decrease in BDNF and pCREB in the CA1 and DG induced by 3 mg/ kg, but not 10 mg/ kg, of arsenic exposure were prevented by swimming exercise. Arsenic exposure did not affect the total CREB expression in the CA1 or DG. Taken together, these results indicated that swimming exercise prevented the impairment of object recognition LTM induced by arsenic exposure, which may be mediated by BDNF and CREB in the dorsal hippocampus.

  4. Exercise Prevents Memory Impairment Induced by Arsenic Exposure in Mice: Implication of Hippocampal BDNF and CREB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bao-Fei; Wang, Qing-Qing; Yu, Zi-Jiang; Yu, Yan; Xiao, Chao-Lun; Kang, Chao-Sheng; Ge, Guo; Linghu, Yan; Zhu, Jun-De; Li, Yu-Mei; Li, Qiang-Ming; Luo, Shi-Peng; Yang, Dang; Li, Lin; Zhang, Wen-Yan; Tian, Guang

    2015-01-01

    High concentrations of arsenic, which can be occasionally found in drinking water, have been recognized as a global health problem. Exposure to arsenic can disrupt spatial memory; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we tested whether exercise could interfere with the effect of arsenic exposure on the long-term memory (LTM) of object recognition in mice. Arsenic (0, 1, 3, and 10 mg/ kg, i.g.) was administered daily for 12 weeks. We found that arsenic at dosages of 1, 3, and 10 mg/kg decreased body weight and increased the arsenic content in the brain. The object recognition LTM (tested 24 h after training) was disrupted by 3 mg/ kg and 10 mg/ kg, but not 1 mg/ kg arsenic exposure. Swimming exercise also prevented LTM impairment induced by 3 mg/ kg, but not with 10 mg/ kg, of arsenic exposure. The expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and phosphorylated cAMP-response element binding protein (pCREB) in the CA1 and dentate gyrus areas (DG) of the dorsal hippocampus were decreased by 3 mg/ kg and 10 mg/ kg, but not by 1 mg/ kg, of arsenic exposure. The decrease in BDNF and pCREB in the CA1 and DG induced by 3 mg/ kg, but not 10 mg/ kg, of arsenic exposure were prevented by swimming exercise. Arsenic exposure did not affect the total CREB expression in the CA1 or DG. Taken together, these results indicated that swimming exercise prevented the impairment of object recognition LTM induced by arsenic exposure, which may be mediated by BDNF and CREB in the dorsal hippocampus.

  5. EFFECTS OF ARSENIC EXPOSURE IN HUMAN HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Sueli de Lima Rodrigues

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, ingestion of inorganic arsenic from drinking water has emerged as an important public health concern. It enters drinking water supplies from natural deposits in the earth or from agricultural and industrial practices, mainly the mining. The health consequences of chronic arsenic exposure include increased risk for various forms of cancer and numerous pathologic effects, such as cutaneous effects (hyperpigmentation and hyperkeratoses, gastrointestinal effects, vascular effects, diabetes mellitus, and peripheral neuropathy. This way, this study presents through a critical revision of the literature, the more relevant current aspects on the immunological consequences, carcinogenic and resulting genetics of the human intoxication for arsenic. They were identified and analyzed 50 works published on the subject among the years of 1979 and 2008, being used as main sources LILACS-BIREME MEDLINE/Index Medicus, SciELO and PubMed. The specific Arsênio e saúde humana effects of the intoxication for arsenic about the human health are not still completely elucidated. Thus, is possible that this element affects functions still unknown, becoming important the scientificexploration on the subject.

  6. Role of complex organic arsenicals in food in aggregate exposure to arsenic

    Science.gov (United States)

    For much of the world’s population, food is the major source of exposure to arsenic. Exposure to this non-essential metalloid at relatively low levels has been linked to a wide range of adverse health effects. Thus, evaluating foods as sources of exposure to arsenic is impo...

  7. Role of complex organic arsenicals in food in aggregate exposure to arsenic

    Science.gov (United States)

    For much of the world’s population, food is the major source of exposure to arsenic. Exposure to this non-essential metalloid at relatively low levels has been linked to a wide range of adverse health effects. Thus, evaluating foods as sources of exposure to arsenic is impo...

  8. Considerations when using longitudinal cohort studies to assess dietary exposure to inorganic arsenic and chronic health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrafford, Carolyn G; Barraj, Leila M; Tsuji, Joyce S

    2016-07-01

    Dietary arsenic exposure and chronic health outcomes are of interest, due in part to increased awareness and data available on inorganic arsenic levels in some foods. Recent concerns regarding levels of inorganic arsenic, the primary form of arsenic of human health concern, in foods are based on extrapolation from adverse health effects observed at high levels of inorganic arsenic exposure; the potential for the occurrence of these health effects from lower levels of dietary inorganic arsenic exposure has not been established. In this review, longitudinal cohort studies are evaluated for their utility in estimating dietary inorganic arsenic exposure and quantifying statistically reliable associations with health outcomes. The primary limiting factor in longitudinal studies is incomplete data on inorganic arsenic levels in foods combined with the aggregation of consumption of foods with varying arsenic levels into a single category, resulting in exposure misclassification. Longitudinal cohort studies could provide some evidence to evaluate associations of dietary patterns related to inorganic arsenic exposure with risk of arsenic-related diseases. However, currently available data from longitudinal cohort studies limit causal analyses regarding the association between inorganic arsenic exposure and health outcomes. Any conclusions should therefore be viewed with knowledge of the analytical and methodological limitations.

  9. Blood Pressure Associated with Arsenic Methylation and Arsenic Metabolism Caused by Chronic Exposure to Arsenic in Tube Well Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Bing Gan; Ye, Bi Xiong; Yu, Jiang Ping; Yang, Lin Sheng; Li, Hai Rong; Xia, Ya Juan; Wu, Ke Gong

    2017-05-01

    The effects of arsenic exposure from drinking water, arsenic metabolism, and arsenic methylation on blood pressure (BP) were observed in this study. The BP and arsenic species of 560 participants were determined. Logistic regression analysis was applied to estimate the odds ratios of BP associated with arsenic metabolites and arsenic methylation capability. BP was positively associated with cumulative arsenic exposure (CAE). Subjects with abnormal diastolic blood pressure (DBP), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and pulse pressure (PP) usually had higher urinary iAs (inorganic arsenic), MMA (monomethylated arsenic), DMA (dimethylated arsenic), and TAs (total arsenic) than subjects with normal DBP, SBP, and PP. The iAs%, MMA%, and DMA% differed slightly between subjects with abnormal BP and those with normal BP. The PMI and SMI were slightly higher in subjects with abnormal PP than in those with normal PP. Our findings suggest that higher CAE may elevate BP. Males may have a higher risk of abnormal DBP, whereas females have a higher risk of abnormal SBP and PP. Higher urinary iAs may increase the risk of abnormal BP. Lower PMI may elevate the BP. However, higher SMI may increase the DBP and SBP, and lower SMI may elevate the PP. Copyright © 2017 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  10. High levels of inorganic arsenic in rice in areas where arsenic-contaminated water is used for irrigation and cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M Azizur; Hasegawa, H

    2011-10-15

    Rice is the staple food for the people of arsenic endemic South (S) and South-East (SE) Asian countries. In this region, arsenic contaminated groundwater has been used not only for drinking and cooking purposes but also for rice cultivation during dry season. Irrigation of arsenic-contaminated groundwater for rice cultivation has resulted high deposition of arsenic in topsoil and uptake in rice grain posing a serious threat to the sustainable agriculture in this region. In addition, cooking rice with arsenic-contaminated water also increases arsenic burden in cooked rice. Inorganic arsenic is the main species of S and SE Asian rice (80 to 91% of the total arsenic), and the concentration of this toxic species is increased in cooked rice from inorganic arsenic-rich cooking water. The people of Bangladesh and West Bengal (India), the arsenic hot spots in the world, eat an average of 450g rice a day. Therefore, in addition to drinking water, dietary intake of arsenic from rice is supposed to be another potential source of exposure, and to be a new disaster for the population of S and SE Asian countries. Arsenic speciation in raw and cooked rice, its bioavailability and the possible health hazard of inorganic arsenic in rice for the population of S and SE Asia have been discussed in this review. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Arsenic Exposure and the Induction of Human Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor D. Martinez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic is a metalloid, that is, considered to be a human carcinogen. Millions of individuals worldwide are chronically exposed through drinking water, with consequences ranging from acute toxicities to development of malignancies, such as skin and lung cancer. Despite well-known arsenic-related health effects, the molecular mechanisms involved are not fully understood; however, the arsenic biotransformation process, which includes methylation changes, is thought to play a key role. This paper explores the relationship of arsenic exposure with cancer development and summarizes current knowledge of the potential mechanisms that may contribute to the neoplastic processes observed in arsenic exposed human populations.

  12. Cancer excess after arsenic exposure from contaminated milk powder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Tsuda, Toshihide; Doi, Hiroyuki

    2011-01-01

    Long-term exposure to inorganic arsenic is related to increased risk of cancer in the lung, skin, bladder, and, possibly, other sites. However, little is known about the consequences of developmental exposures in regard to cancer risk. During early summer in 1955, mass arsenic poisoning of infants...

  13. Environmental arsenic exposure, selenium and sputum alpha-1 antitrypsin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burgess, Jefferey L; Kurzius-Spencer, Margaret; Poplin, Gerald S

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to arsenic in drinking water is associated with increased respiratory disease. Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) protects the lung against tissue destruction. The objective of this study was to determine whether arsenic exposure is associated with changes in airway AAT concentration and whether ...

  14. Quantitative imaging of arsenic and its species in goat following long term oral exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Pabitra Hriday; Bandyopadhyay, Samiran; Kumar, Rakesh; Datta, Bakul Kumar; Maji, Chinmoy; Biswas, Suman; Dash, Jeevan Ranjan; Sar, Tapas Kumar; Sarkar, Samar; Manna, Sanjib K; Chakraborty, Animesh Kumar; Mandal, Tapan Kumar

    2012-06-01

    Severity of arsenic toxicity was reported to vary depending on its species. The present study reflects the status of different species of arsenic in goat following long-term exposure of arsenic leading to hepatic damage. The experiment was conducted with six black Bengal goats, which were administered with sodium arsenite orally at a dose rate of 2 mgkg(-1) daily for 84 days. Faeces, urine, hair and blood samples were collected from those animals at 14 days interval. Excretion of total arsenic was reduced from 56 days onwards through both faeces and urine indicating higher accumulation of arsenic in body. The speciation study revealed that urinary arsenic was mainly of organic type, whereas hair accumulated almost equal proportion of arsenite, arsenate and organo arsenicals. Goats excreted high proportion of organo arsenicals through faeces possibly due to hepatobiliary secretion of organo arsenic into the gut. Significantly elevated serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities (pgoat. The study thus alluded that the toxicity of arsenic would aggravate if the animals were exposed for long time as the hepatotoxicity progressed resulting in decreased methylation and formation of organo arsenicals and decreased excretions through urine. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Environmental Arsenic Exposure and Microbiota in Induced Sputum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison G. White

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic exposure from drinking water is associated with adverse respiratory outcomes, but it is unknown whether arsenic affects pulmonary microbiota. This exploratory study assessed the effect of exposure to arsenic in drinking water on bacterial diversity in the respiratory tract of non-smokers. Induced sputum was collected from 10 subjects with moderate mean household water arsenic concentration (21.1 ± 6.4 ppb and 10 subjects with low household water arsenic (2.4 ± 0.8 ppb. To assess microbiota in sputum, the V6 hypervariable region amplicons of bacterial 16s rRNA genes were sequenced using the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine. Microbial community differences between arsenic exposure groups were evaluated using QIIME and Metastats. A total of 3,920,441 sequence reads, ranging from 37,935 to 508,787 per sample for 316 chips after QIIME quality filtering, were taxonomically classified into 142 individual genera and five phyla. Firmicutes (22%, Proteobacteria (17% and Bacteriodetes (12% were the main phyla in all samples, with Neisseriaceae (15%, Prevotellaceae (12% and Veillonellacea (7% being most common at the genus level. Some genera, including Gemella, Lactobacillales, Streptococcus, Neisseria and Pasteurellaceae were elevated in the moderate arsenic exposure group, while Rothia, Prevotella, Prevotellaceae Fusobacterium and Neisseriaceae were decreased, although none of these differences was statistically significant. Future studies with more participants and a greater range of arsenic exposure are needed to further elucidate the effects of drinking water arsenic consumption on respiratory microbiota.

  16. Urinary metabolomics revealed arsenic exposure related to metabolic alterations in general Chinese pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Han; Wang, Mu; Liang, Qiande; Jin, Shuna; Sun, Xiaojie; Jiang, Yangqian; Pan, Xingyun; Zhou, Yanqiu; Peng, Yang; Zhang, Bin; Zhou, Aifen; Zhang, Yiming; Chen, Zhong; Cao, Jiangxia; Zhang, Hongling; Xia, Wei; Zheng, Tongzhang; Cai, Zongwei; Li, Yuanyuan; Xu, Shunqing

    2017-01-06

    Arsenic exposure is considered a major environmental threat to human health. It is already known that high-level arsenic exposure has adverse effects on human health. Since the pregnant women are known to be more susceptible to some chemical exposures than ordinary people, the understanding regarding the health effects of low-level arsenic exposure on pregnant women is critical and remains unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate the urinary metabolic changes of pregnant women exposed to low-dose arsenic, and to identify biomarkers from metabolomics analysis. Urine samples of 246 pregnant women were collected in the first trimester of pregnancy and were divided into three groups based on the tertile distribution of urinary arsenic concentrations which were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Changes in the metabolite profile were measured using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF MS). Arsenic- related metabolic biomarkers were investigated by comparing the samples of the first and third tertiles of arsenic exposure classifications using a partial least-squares discriminant model (PLS-DA). Nine urine potential biomarkers were putatively identified, including LysoPC (14:0), glutathione, 18-carboxy-dinor-LTE4, 20-COOH-LTE4, cystathionine ketimin, 1-(beta-d-ribofuranosyl)-1,4-dihydronicotinamide, thiocysteine, p-cresol glucuronide and vanillactic acid. The obtained results showed that environmental arsenic exposure, even at low levels, could cause metabolite alterations in pregnant women which might be associated with adverse health outcomes. This is the first report on metabolic changes in pregnant women for arsenic exposure. The findings may be valuable for the arsenic risk assessment for pregnant women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. GLI3 Links Environmental Arsenic Exposure and Human Fetal Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily F. Winterbottom

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Although considerable evidence suggests that in utero arsenic exposure affects children's health, these data are mainly from areas of the world where groundwater arsenic levels far exceed the World Health Organization limit of 10 μg/L. We, and others, have found that more common levels of in utero arsenic exposure may also impact children's health. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. To address this issue, we analyzed the expression of key developmental genes in fetal placenta in a birth cohort of women using unregulated water supplies in a US region with elevated groundwater arsenic. We identified several genes whose expression associated with maternal arsenic exposure in a fetal sex-specific manner. In particular, expression of the HEDGEHOG pathway component, GLI3, in female placentae was both negatively associated with arsenic exposure and positively associated with infant birth weight. This suggests that modulation of GLI3 in the fetal placenta, and perhaps in other fetal tissues, contributes to arsenic's detrimental effects on fetal growth. We showed previously that arsenic-exposed NIH3T3 cells have reduced GLI3 repressor protein. Together, these studies identify GLI3 as a key signaling node that is affected by arsenic, mediating a subset of its effects on developmental signaling and fetal health.

  18. GLI3 Links Environmental Arsenic Exposure and Human Fetal Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterbottom, Emily F; Fei, Dennis L; Koestler, Devin C; Giambelli, Camilla; Wika, Eric; Capobianco, Anthony J; Lee, Ethan; Marsit, Carmen J; Karagas, Margaret R; Robbins, David J

    2015-06-01

    Although considerable evidence suggests that in utero arsenic exposure affects children's health, these data are mainly from areas of the world where groundwater arsenic levels far exceed the World Health Organization limit of 10 μg/L. We, and others, have found that more common levels of in utero arsenic exposure may also impact children's health. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. To address this issue, we analyzed the expression of key developmental genes in fetal placenta in a birth cohort of women using unregulated water supplies in a US region with elevated groundwater arsenic. We identified several genes whose expression associated with maternal arsenic exposure in a fetal sex-specific manner. In particular, expression of the HEDGEHOG pathway component, GLI3, in female placentae was both negatively associated with arsenic exposure and positively associated with infant birth weight. This suggests that modulation of GLI3 in the fetal placenta, and perhaps in other fetal tissues, contributes to arsenic's detrimental effects on fetal growth. We showed previously that arsenic-exposed NIH3T3 cells have reduced GLI3 repressor protein. Together, these studies identify GLI3 as a key signaling node that is affected by arsenic, mediating a subset of its effects on developmental signaling and fetal health.

  19. Human exposure to organic arsenic species from seafood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Vivien; Goodale, Britton; Raab, Andrea; Schwerdtle, Tanja; Reimer, Ken; Conklin, Sean; Karagas, Margaret R; Francesconi, Kevin A

    2017-02-15

    Seafood, including finfish, shellfish, and seaweed, is the largest contributor to arsenic (As) exposure in many human populations. In contrast to the predominance of inorganic As in water and many terrestrial foods, As in marine-derived foods is present primarily in the form of organic compounds. To date, human exposure and toxicological assessments have focused on inorganic As, while organic As has generally been considered to be non-toxic. However, the high concentrations of organic As in seafood, as well as the often complex As speciation, can lead to complications in assessing As exposure from diet. In this report, we evaluate the presence and distribution of organic As species in seafood, and combined with consumption data, address the current capabilities and needs for determining human exposure to these compounds. The analytical approaches and shortcomings for assessing these compounds are reviewed, with a focus on the best practices for characterization and quantitation. Metabolic pathways and toxicology of two important classes of organic arsenicals, arsenolipids and arsenosugars, are examined, as well as individual variability in absorption of these compounds. Although determining health outcomes or assessing a need for regulatory policies for organic As exposure is premature, the extensive consumption of seafood globally, along with the preliminary toxicological profiles of these compounds and their confounding effect on assessing exposure to inorganic As, suggests further investigations and process-level studies on organic As are needed to fill the current gaps in knowledge.

  20. Subchronic Arsenic Exposure Through Drinking Water Alters Lipid Profile and Electrolyte Status in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waghe, Prashantkumar; Sarkar, Souvendra Nath; Sarath, Thengumpallil Sasindran; Kandasamy, Kannan; Choudhury, Soumen; Gupta, Priyanka; Harikumar, Sankarankutty; Mishra, Santosh Kumar

    2017-04-01

    Arsenic is a groundwater pollutant and can cause various cardiovascular disorders in the exposed population. The aim of the present study was to assess whether subchronic arsenic exposure through drinking water can induce vascular dysfunction associated with alteration in plasma electrolytes and lipid profile. Rats were exposed to arsenic as 25, 50, and 100 ppm of sodium arsenite through drinking water for 90 consecutive days. On the 91st day, rats were sacrificed and blood was collected. Lipid profile and the levels of electrolytes (sodium, potassium, and chloride) were assessed in plasma. Arsenic reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and HDL-C/LDL-C ratio, but increased the levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and electrolytes. The results suggest that the arsenic-mediated dyslipidemia and electrolyte retention could be important mechanisms in the arsenic-induced vascular disorder.

  1. Effects of low arsenic concentration exposure on freshwater fish in the presence of fluvial biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuulaikhuu, Baigal-Amar; Bonet, Berta; Guasch, Helena

    2016-02-15

    Arsenic (As) is a highly toxic element and its carcinogenic effect on living organisms is well known. However, predicting real effects in the environment requires an ecological approach since toxicity is influenced by many environmental and biological factors. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate if environmentally-realistic arsenic exposure causes toxicity to fish. An experiment with four different treatments (control (C), biofilm (B), arsenic (+As) and biofilm with arsenic (B+As)) was conducted and each one included sediment to enhance environmental realism, allowing the testing of the interactive effects of biofilm and arsenic on the toxicity to fish. Average arsenic exposure to Eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) was 40.5 ± 7.5 μg/L for +As treatment and 34.4 ± 1.4 μg/L for B+As treatment for 56 days. Fish were affected directly and indirectly by this low arsenic concentration since exposure did not only affect fish but also the function of periphytic biofilms. Arsenic effects on the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities in the liver of mosquitofish were ameliorated in the presence of biofilms at the beginning of exposure (day 9). Moreover, fish weight gaining was only affected in the treatment without biofilm. After longer exposure (56 days), effects of exposure were clearly seen. Fish showed a marked increase in the catalase (CAT) activity in the liver but the interactive influence of biofilms was not further observed since the arsenic-affected biofilm had lost its role in water purification. Our results highlight the interest and application of incorporating some of the complexity of natural systems in ecotoxicology and support the use of criterion continuous concentration (CCC) for arsenic lower than 150 μg/L and closer to the water quality criteria to protect aquatic life recommended by the Canadian government which is 5 μg As/L.

  2. Urinary arsenic profiles reveal exposures to inorganic arsenic from private drinking water supplies in Cornwall, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, D. R. S.; Watts, M. J.; Hamilton, E. M.; Ander, E. L.; Close, R. M.; Exley, K. S.; Crabbe, H.; Leonardi, G. S.; Fletcher, T.; Polya, D. A.

    2016-05-01

    Private water supplies (PWS) in Cornwall, South West England exceeded the current WHO guidance value and UK prescribed concentration or value (PCV) for arsenic of 10 μg/L in 5% of properties surveyed (n = 497). In this follow-up study, the first of its kind in the UK, volunteers (n = 207) from 127 households who used their PWS for drinking, provided urine and drinking water samples for total As determination by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and urinary As speciation by high performance liquid chromatography ICP-MS (HPLC-ICP-MS). Arsenic concentrations exceeding 10 μg/L were found in the PWS of 10% of the volunteers. Unadjusted total urinary As concentrations were poorly correlated (Spearman’s ρ = 0.36 (P private water supplies as the dominant source of inorganic As exposure in the study population of PWS users.

  3. MDI Biological Laboratory Arsenic Summit: Approaches to Limiting Human Exposure to Arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Bruce A; Caldwell, Kathleen; Congdon, Clare Bates; Disney, Jane; Donahue, Maria; Ferguson, Elizabeth; Flemings, Elsie; Golden, Meredith; Guerinot, Mary Lou; Highman, Jay; James, Karen; Kim, Carol; Lantz, R Clark; Marvinney, Robert G; Mayer, Greg; Miller, David; Navas-Acien, Ana; Nordstrom, D Kirk; Postema, Sonia; Rardin, Laurie; Rosen, Barry; SenGupta, Arup; Shaw, Joseph; Stanton, Elizabeth; Susca, Paul

    2015-09-01

    This report is the outcome of the meeting "Environmental and Human Health Consequences of Arsenic" held at the MDI Biological Laboratory in Salisbury Cove, Maine, August 13-15, 2014. Human exposure to arsenic represents a significant health problem worldwide that requires immediate attention according to the World Health Organization (WHO). One billion people are exposed to arsenic in food, and more than 200 million people ingest arsenic via drinking water at concentrations greater than international standards. Although the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has set a limit of 10 μg/L in public water supplies and the WHO has recommended an upper limit of 10 μg/L, recent studies indicate that these limits are not protective enough. In addition, there are currently few standards for arsenic in food. Those who participated in the Summit support citizens, scientists, policymakers, industry, and educators at the local, state, national, and international levels to (1) establish science-based evidence for setting standards at the local, state, national, and global levels for arsenic in water and food; (2) work with government agencies to set regulations for arsenic in water and food, to establish and strengthen non-regulatory programs, and to strengthen collaboration among government agencies, NGOs, academia, the private sector, industry, and others; (3) develop novel and cost-effective technologies for identification and reduction of exposure to arsenic in water; (4) develop novel and cost-effective approaches to reduce arsenic exposure in juice, rice, and other relevant foods; and (5) develop an Arsenic Education Plan to guide the development of science curricula as well as community outreach and education programs that serve to inform students and consumers about arsenic exposure and engage them in well water testing and development of remediation strategies.

  4. Arsenic exposure from drinking water, arsenic methylation capacity, and carotid intima-media thickness in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Wu, Fen; Graziano, Joseph H; Parvez, Faruque; Liu, Mengling; Paul, Rina Rani; Shaheen, Ishrat; Sarwar, Golam; Ahmed, Alauddin; Islam, Tariqul; Slavkovich, Vesna; Rundek, Tatjana; Demmer, Ryan T; Desvarieux, Moise; Ahsan, Habibul

    2013-08-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study to evaluate the interrelationships between past arsenic exposure, biomarkers specific for susceptibility to arsenic exposure, and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in 959 subjects from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study in Bangladesh. We measured cIMT levels on average 7.2 years after baseline during 2010-2011. Arsenic exposure was measured in well water at baseline and in urine samples collected at baseline and during follow-up. Every 1-standard-deviation increase in urinary arsenic (357.9 µg/g creatinine) and well-water arsenic (102.0 µg/L) concentration was related to a 11.7-µm (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.8, 21.6) and 5.1-µm (95% CI: -0.2, 10.3) increase in cIMT, respectively. For every 10% increase in monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) percentage, there was an increase of 12.1 µm (95% CI: 0.4, 23.8) in cIMT. Among participants with a higher urinary MMA percentage, a higher ratio of urinary MMA to inorganic arsenic, and a lower ratio of dimethylarsinic acid to MMA, the association between well-water arsenic and cIMT was stronger. The findings indicate an effect of past long-term arsenic exposure on cIMT, which may be potentiated by suboptimal or incomplete arsenic methylation capacity. Future prospective studies are needed to confirm the association between arsenic methylation capacity and atherosclerosis-related outcomes.

  5. CHURCHILL COUNTY, NEVADA ARSENIC STUDY: WATER CONSUMPTION AND EXPOSURE BIOMARKERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US Environmental Protection Agency is required to reevaluate the Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) for arsenic in 2006. To provide data for reducing uncertainties in assessing health risks associated with exposure to low levels (<200 g/l) of arsenic, a large scale biomarker st...

  6. Postnatal arsenic exposure and attention impairment in school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Barranco, Miguel; Gil, Fernando; Hernández, Antonio F; Alguacil, Juan; Lorca, Andres; Mendoza, Ramón; Gómez, Inmaculada; Molina-Villalba, Isabel; González-Alzaga, Beatriz; Aguilar-Garduño, Clemente; Rohlman, Diane S; Lacasaña, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few decades there has been an increased concern about the health risks from exposure to metallic trace elements, including arsenic, because of their potential neurotoxic effects on the developing brain. This study assessed whether urinary arsenic (UA) levels are associated with attention performance and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children living in an area with high industrial and mining activities in Southwestern Spain. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 261 children aged 6-9 years. Arsenic levels were determined in urine samples. Attention was measured by using 4 independent tools: a) tests from the Behavioral Assessment and Research System (BARS) designed to measure attention function: Simple Reaction Time Test (RTT), Continuous Performance Test (CPT) and Selective Attention Test (SAT); b) AULA Test, a virtual reality (VR)-based test that evaluates children's response to several stimuli in an environment simulating a classroom; c) Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), administered to parents; and d) Teacher's Report Form (TRF), administered to teachers. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models, adjusted for potential confounders, were used to estimate the magnitude of the association between UA levels and attention performance scores. Higher UA levels were associated with an increased latency of response in RTT (β = 12.3; 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.5-21.1) and SAT (β = 3.6; 95% CI: .4-6.8) as well as with worse performance on selective and focalized attention in the AULA test (β for impulsivity = .6; 95% CI: .1-1.1; β for inattention = .5; 95% CI: .03-1.0). A dose-response relationship was observed between UA levels and inattention and impulsivity scores. In contrast, results from the CBCL and TRF tests failed to show a significant association with UA levels. In conclusion, UA levels were associated with impaired attention/cognitive function, even at levels considered safe. These results provide

  7. Environmental Arsenic Exposure and Urinary 8-OHdG in Arizona and Sonora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Jefferey L; Meza, María M; Josyula, Arun B; Poplin, Gerald S; Kopplin, Michael J; McClellen, Hannah E; Stürup, Stefan; Lantz, R Clark

    2007-01-01

    Although at high levels arsenic exposure is associated with increased cancer incidence, information on the health effects of lower exposure levels is limited. The objective of this study was to determine whether arsenic at concentrations below 40 microg/L in drinking water is associated with increased urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a biomarker of DNA oxidative damage and repair. Urine samples were collected from 73 nonsmoking adults residing in two communities in Arizona (mean tap water arsenic (microg/L) 4.0 +/- 2.3 and 20.3 +/- 3.7), and 51 subjects in four communities in Sonora, Mexico (mean tap water arsenic (microg/L) ranging from 4.8 +/- 0.1 to 33.3 +/- 0.6). Although urinary arsenic concentration increased with higher exposure in tap water, urinary 8-OHdG concentration did not differ by community within Arizona or Sonora, and was not associated with urinary arsenic concentration. At the exposure levels evaluated in this study, drinking water arsenic was not associated with increased DNA oxidation as measured by urinary 8-OHdG.

  8. Prenatal arsenic exposure and drowning among children in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mahfuzar; Sohel, Nazmul; Hore, Samar Kumar; Yunus, Mohammad; Bhuiya, Abbas; Streatfield, Peter Kim

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing concern regarding adverse effects of prenatal arsenic exposure on the neurodevelopment of children. We analyzed mortality data for children, who were born to 11,414 pregnant women between 2002 and 2004, with an average age of 5 years of follow-up. Individual drinking-water arsenic exposure during pregnancy was calculated using tubewell water arsenic concentration between last menstrual period and date of birth. There were 84 drowning deaths registered, with cause of death ascertained using verbal autopsy (International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision, codes X65-X70). The prenatal water arsenic exposure distribution was tertiled, and the risk of drowning mortality was estimated by Cox proportional hazard models, adjusted for potential confounders. We observed a significant association between prenatal arsenic exposure and drowning in children aged 1-5 years in the highest exposure tertile (HR=1.74, 95% CI: 1.03-2.94). This study showed that in utero arsenic exposure might be associated with excess mortality among children aged 1-5 years due to drowning.

  9. Prenatal arsenic exposure and drowning among children in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahfuzar Rahman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing concern regarding adverse effects of prenatal arsenic exposure on the neurodevelopment of children. We analyzed mortality data for children, who were born to 11,414 pregnant women between 2002 and 2004, with an average age of 5 years of follow-up. Individual drinking-water arsenic exposure during pregnancy was calculated using tubewell water arsenic concentration between last menstrual period and date of birth. There were 84 drowning deaths registered, with cause of death ascertained using verbal autopsy (International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision, codes X65–X70. The prenatal water arsenic exposure distribution was tertiled, and the risk of drowning mortality was estimated by Cox proportional hazard models, adjusted for potential confounders. We observed a significant association between prenatal arsenic exposure and drowning in children aged 1–5 years in the highest exposure tertile (HR=1.74, 95% CI: 1.03–2.94. This study showed that in utero arsenic exposure might be associated with excess mortality among children aged 1–5 years due to drowning.

  10. Long-Term Exposure to Low-Level Arsenic in Drinking Water and Diabetes Incidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, Elvira V; Nordsborg, Rikke B; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Established causes of diabetes do not fully explain the epidemic. High level arsenic exposure has been implicated in diabetes risk but the effect of low-level arsenic exposure in drinking water remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To determine if long-term exposure to low-level arsenic...... in drinking water in Denmark is associated with increased risk of diabetes using a large prospective cohort. METHODS: During 1993-1997 we recruited 57,053 persons. We followed each cohort member for diabetes occurrence from enrollment until 31 December 2006. We traced and geocoded residential addresses......, and 3,035 (5.8%) cases of diabetes based on a stricter definition. The adjusted incidence rate ratio's per 1 µg/L increment in arsenic levels in drinking water were (IRR = 1.03; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.06) and (IRR = 1.02; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.05) for all and strict diabetes cases, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Long...

  11. Low-level arsenic exposure: Nutritional and dietary predictors in first-grade Uruguayan children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordas, Katarzyna; Queirolo, Elena I; Mañay, Nelly; Peregalli, Fabiana; Hsiao, Pao Ying; Lu, Ying; Vahter, Marie

    2016-05-01

    Arsenic exposure in children is a public health concern but is understudied in relation to the predictors, and effects of low-level exposure. We examined the extent and dietary predictors of exposure to inorganic arsenic in 5-8 year old children from Montevideo, Uruguay. Children were recruited at school; 357 were enrolled, 328 collected morning urine samples, and 317 had two 24-h dietary recalls. Urinary arsenic metabolites, i.e. inorganic arsenic (iAs), methylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography with hydride generation and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-HG-ICP-MS), and the sum concentration (U-As) used for exposure assessment. Proportions of arsenic metabolites (%iAs, %MMA and %DMA) in urine were modelled in OLS regressions as functions of food groups, dietary patterns, nutrient intake, and nutritional status. Exposure to arsenic was low (median U-As: 9.9µg/L) and household water (water As: median 0.45µg/L) was not a major contributor to exposure. Children with higher consumption of rice had higher U-As but lower %iAs, %MMA, and higher %DMA. Children with higher meat consumption had lower %iAs and higher %DMA. Higher scores on "nutrient dense" dietary pattern were related to lower %iAs and %MMA, and higher %DMA. Higher intake of dietary folate was associated with lower %MMA and higher %DMA. Overweight children had lower %MMA and higher %DMA than normal-weight children. In summary, rice was an important predictor of exposure to inorganic arsenic and DMA. Higher meat and folate consumption, diet rich in green leafy and red-orange vegetables and eggs, and higher BMI contributed to higher arsenic methylation capacity.

  12. Low-level arsenic exposure: nutritional and dietary predictors in first-grade Uruguayan children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordas, Katarzyna; Queirolo, Elena I; Mañay, Nelly; Peregalli, Fabiana; Hsiao, Pao Ying; Lu, Ying; Vahter, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic exposure in children is a public health concern but is understudied in relation to the predictors, and effects of low-level exposure. We examined the extent and dietary predictors of exposure to inorganic arsenic in 5–8 year old children from Montevideo, Uruguay. Children were recruited at school; 357 were enrolled, 328 collected morning urine samples, and 317 had two 24-hour dietary recalls. Urinary arsenic metabolites, i.e. inorganic arsenic (iAs), methylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography with hydride generation and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-HG-ICP-MS), and the sum concentration (U-As) used for exposure assessment. Proportions of arsenic metabolites (%iAs, %MMA and %DMA) in urine were modelled in OLS regressions as functions of food groups, dietary patterns, nutrient intake, and nutritional status. Exposure to arsenic was low (median U-As: 9.9 µg/L) and household water (water As: median 0.45 µg/L) was not a major contributor to exposure. Children with higher consumption of rice had higher U-As but lower %iAs, %MMA, and higher %DMA. Children with higher meat consumption had lower %iAs and higher %DMA. Higher scores on ”nutrient dense” dietary pattern were related to lower %iAs and %MMA, and higher %DMA. Higher intake of dietary folate was associated with lower %MMA and higher %DMA. Overweight children had lower %MMA and higher %DMA than normal-weight children. In summary, rice was an important predictor of exposure to inorganic arsenic and DMA. Higher meat and folate consumption, diet rich in green leafy and red-orange vegetables and eggs, and higher BMI contributed to higher arsenic methylation capacity. PMID:26828624

  13. A Systematic Review of Arsenic Exposure and Its Social and Mental Health Effects with Special Reference to Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Kraemer

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Undergroundwater in many regions of the world is contaminated with high concentrations of arsenic and the resulting toxicity has created a major environmental and public health problem in the affected regions. Chronic arsenic exposure can cause many diseases, including various physical and psychological harms. Although the physical problems caused by arsenic toxicity are well reported in literature, unfortunately the consequences of arsenic exposure on mental health are not adequately studied. Therefore we conducted a review of the available literature focusing on the social consequences and detrimental effects of arsenic toxicity on mental health. Chronic arsenic exposures have serious implications for its victims (i.e. arsenicosis patients and their families including social instability, social discrimination, refusal of victims by community and families, and marriage-related problems. Some studies conducted in arsenic affected areas revealed that arsenic exposures are associated with various neurologic problems. Chronic arsenic exposure can lead to mental retardation and developmental disabilities such as physical, cognitive, psychological, sensory and speech impairments. As health is defined by the World Health Organization as “a state of complete physical, mental and social wellbeing”, the social dimensions have a large impact on individual’s mental health. Furthermore studies in China und Bangladesh have shown that mental health problems (e.g. depression are more common among the people affected by arsenic contamination. Our study indicates various neurological, mental and social consequences among arsenic affected victims. Further studies are recommended in arsenic-affected areas to understand the underlying mechanisms of poor mental health caused by arsenic exposure.

  14. Purification and characterization of thiols in an arsenic hyperaccumulator under arsenic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weihua; Cai, Yong

    2003-12-15

    Pteris vittata (Chinese brake fern) is the first reported arsenic hyperaccumulator. To investigate the arsenic tolerance mechanism in this plant, reversed-phase HPLC with postcolumn derivatization was used to analyze the thiols induced under arsenic exposure. A major thiol in the plant leaflets was found to be responsive to arsenic exposure. The arsenic-induced compound was purified on a large scale by combining covalent chromatography and preparative reversed-phase HPLC. About 2 mg of this compound was isolated from 1 kg of fresh leaflets. The purified arsenic-induced compound was characterized using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. A molecular ion (M + 1) of 540 and fragments were obtained, which indicated that the arsenic-induced thiol was a phytochelatin with two subunits (PC(2)). Compared to the classical methods for purification of phytochelatins, this new method is more specific, simple, and rapid and is suitable for purification of PCs in a large scale as well as sample preparation for mass spectrometry analysis.

  15. Human biomonitoring of arsenic and antimony in case of an elevated geogenic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebel, T W; Suchenwirth, R H; Bolten, C; Dunkelberg, H H

    1998-01-01

    Part of the northern Palatinate region in Germany is characterized by elevated levels of arsenic and antimony in the soil due to the presence of ore sources and former mining activities. In a biomonitoring study, 218 residents were investigated for a putative increased intake of these elements. Seventy-six nonexposed subjects in a rural region in south lower Saxony were chosen as the reference group. Urine and scalp hair samples were obtained as surrogates to determine the internal exposures to arsenic and antimony. The analyses were performed using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry except for arsenic in urine, which was determined by the hydride technique. This method does not detect organoarsenicals from seafood, which are not toxicologically relevant. In the northern Palatinate subjects, slightly elevated arsenic contents in urine and scalp hair (presumably not hazardous) could be correlated with an increased arsenic content in the soil. On the other hand, the results did not show a correlation between the antimony contents in the soil of the housing area and those in urine and hair. Except for antimony in scalp hair, age tended to be associated with internal exposures to arsenic and antimony in both study groups. Consumption of seafood had a slight impact on the level of urinary arsenic, which is indicative of the presence of low quantities of inorganic arsenicals and dimethylarsinic acid in seafood. The arsenic and antimony contents in scalp hair were positively correlated with the 24-hr arsenic excretion in urine. However, antimony in scalp hair was not correlated with seafood consumption as was arsenic in scalp hair and in urine. This indicated the existence of unidentified common pathways of exposure contributing to the alimentary body burden. Short time peaks in the 24-hr excretion of arsenic in urine, which could not be assigned to a high consumption of seafood, were detected for six study participants. This suggests that additional factors

  16. Low-level arsenic exposure via drinking water consumption and female fecundity - A preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susko, Michele L; Bloom, Michael S; Neamtiu, Iulia A; Appleton, Allison A; Surdu, Simona; Pop, Cristian; Fitzgerald, Edward F; Anastasiu, Doru; Gurzau, Eugen S

    2017-04-01

    High level arsenic exposure is associated with reproductive toxicity in experimental and observational studies; however, few data exist to assess risks at low levels. Even less data are available to evaluate the impact of low level arsenic exposure on human fecundity. Our aim in this pilot study was a preliminary evaluation of associations between low level drinking water arsenic contamination and female fecundity. This retrospective study was conducted among women previously recruited to a hospital-based case-control study of spontaneous pregnancy loss in Timiṣ County, Romania. Women (n=94) with planned pregnancies of 5-20 weeks gestation completed a comprehensive physician-administered study questionnaire and reported the number of menstrual cycles attempting to conceive as the time to pregnancy (TTP). Drinking water samples were collected from residential drinking water sources and we determined arsenic levels using hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-AAS). Multivariable Cox-proportional hazards regression with Efron approximation was employed to evaluate TTP as a function of drinking water arsenic concentrations among planned pregnancies, adjusted for covariates. There was no main effect for drinking water arsenic exposure, yet the conditional probability for pregnancy was modestly lower among arsenic exposed women with longer TTPs, relative to women with shorter TTPs, and relative to unexposed women. For example, 1µg/L average drinking water arsenic conferred 5%, 8%, and 10% lower likelihoods for pregnancy in the 6th, 9th, and 12th cycles, respectively (P=0.01). While preliminary, our results suggest that low level arsenic contamination in residential drinking water sources may further impair fecundity among women with longer waiting times; however, this hypothesis requires confirmation by a future, more definitive study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. In utero and early life arsenic exposure in relation to long-term health and disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farzan, Shohreh F.; Karagas, Margaret R. [Children' s Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research Center at Dartmouth, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Section of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Department of Community and Family Medicine and Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Lebanon, NH 03756 (United States); Chen, Yu, E-mail: yu.chen@nyumc.org [Department of Population Health, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Background: There is a growing body of evidence that prenatal and early childhood exposure to arsenic from drinking water can have serious long-term health implications. Objectives: Our goal was to understand the potential long-term health and disease risks associated with in utero and early life exposure to arsenic, as well as to examine parallels between findings from epidemiological studies with those from experimental animal models. Methods: We examined the current literature and identified relevant studies through PubMed by using combinations of the search terms “arsenic”, “in utero”, “transplacental”, “prenatal” and “fetal”. Discussion: Ecological studies have indicated associations between in utero and/or early life exposure to arsenic at high levels and increases in mortality from cancer, cardiovascular disease and respiratory disease. Additional data from epidemiologic studies suggest intermediate effects in early life that are related to risk of these and other outcomes in adulthood. Experimental animal studies largely support studies in humans, with strong evidence of transplacental carcinogenesis, atherosclerosis and respiratory disease, as well as insight into potential underlying mechanisms of arsenic's health effects. Conclusions: As millions worldwide are exposed to arsenic and evidence continues to support a role for in utero arsenic exposure in the development of a range of later life diseases, there is a need for more prospective studies examining arsenic's relation to early indicators of disease and at lower exposure levels. - Highlights: • We review in utero and early-life As exposure impacts on lifelong disease risks. • Evidence indicates that early-life As increases risks of lung disease, cancer and CVD. • Animal work largely parallels human studies and may lead to new research directions. • Prospective studies and individual exposure assessments with biomarkers are needed. • Assessing intermediary

  18. Intra-specific variability in the response of maize to arsenic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requejo, Raquel; Tena, Manuel

    2014-09-01

    The response of maize (Zea mays L.) to inorganic arsenic exposure was studied, at the seedling stage under hydroponic conditions, preliminarily in sixteen lines (fourteen hybrids and two inbred lines) and then, more deeply, in six of these lines, selected by showing contrasting differences in their sensitivity to the metalloid. The results indicated that (i) maize is rather tolerant to arsenic toxicity, (ii) arsenite is more phytotoxic than arsenate, (iii) roots are less sensitive than shoots to the metalloid, (iv) a great accumulation of non-protein thiols (probably phytochelatins), without substantial effect on the glutathione content, is produced in roots but not in shoots of arsenic-exposed plants and (v) maize is able to accumulate high levels of arsenic in roots with very low translocation to shoots. The study, thus, suggests that maize, for its very low rate of acropetal transport of arsenic from roots to shoots, may be a safe crop in relation to the risk of entry of metalloid in the food chain and, for being an important bioenergy crop capable of expressing high levels of arsenic tolerance and accumulation in roots, may represent an interesting opportunity for the exploitation of agricultural useless arsenic contaminated lands.

  19. Arsenic Exposure, Arsenic Metabolism, and Incident Diabetes in the Strong Heart Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Barbara V.; Umans, Jason G.; Gribble, Matthew O.; Best, Lyle G.; Francesconi, Kevin A.; Goessler, Walter; Lee, Elisa; Guallar, Eliseo; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Little is known about arsenic metabolism in diabetes development. We investigated the prospective associations of low-moderate arsenic exposure and arsenic metabolism with diabetes incidence in the Strong Heart Study. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 1,694 diabetes-free participants aged 45–75 years were recruited in 1989–1991 and followed through 1998–1999. We used the proportions of urine inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethylarsonate (MMA), and dimethylarsinate (DMA) over their sum (expressed as iAs%, MMA%, and DMA%) as the biomarkers of arsenic metabolism. Diabetes was defined as fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dL, 2-h glucose ≥200 mg/dL, self-reported diabetes history, or self-reported use of antidiabetic medications. RESULTS Over 11,263.2 person-years of follow-up, 396 participants developed diabetes. Using the leave-one-out approach to model the dynamics of arsenic metabolism, we found that lower MMA% was associated with higher diabetes incidence. The hazard ratios (95% CI) of diabetes incidence for a 5% increase in MMA% were 0.77 (0.63–0.93) and 0.82 (0.73–0.92) when iAs% and DMA%, respectively, were left out of the model. DMA% was associated with higher diabetes incidence only when MMA% decreased (left out of the model) but not when iAs% decreased. iAs% was also associated with higher diabetes incidence when MMA% decreased. The association between MMA% and diabetes incidence was similar by age, sex, study site, obesity, and urine iAs concentrations. CONCLUSIONS Arsenic metabolism, particularly lower MMA%, was prospectively associated with increased incidence of diabetes. Research is needed to evaluate whether arsenic metabolism is related to diabetes incidence per se or through its close connections with one-carbon metabolism. PMID:25583752

  20. Low-level arsenic exposure from drinking water is associated with prostate cancer in Iowa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Taehyun; Lynch, Charles F; Weyer, Peter; Wang, Kai; Kelly, Kevin M; Ludewig, Gabriele

    2017-11-01

    Inorganic arsenic is a toxic naturally occurring element in soil and water in many regions of the US including the Midwest. Prostate cancer is the second most common type of cancer in men in Iowa, surpassed only by non-melanotic skin cancer. Epidemiology studies have evaluated arsenic exposure from drinking water and prostate cancer, but most have focused on high-level exposures outside the US. As drinking water from groundwater sources is a major source of arsenic exposure, we conducted an ecologic study to evaluate prostate cancer and arsenic in drinking water from public water sources and private wells in Iowa, where exposure levels are low, but duration of exposure can be long. Arsenic data from public water systems were obtained from the Iowa Safe Drinking Water Information System for the years 1994-2003 and for private wells from two Iowa Well Water Studies, the Iowa Community Private Well Study (ICPWS, 2002-2003) and Iowa Statewide Rural Well Water Survey Phase 2 (SWIRL2, 2006-2008) that provided data for 87 Iowa counties. Prostate cancer incidence data from 2009 to 2013 for Iowa were obtained from Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results' SEER*Stat software. County averages of water arsenic levels varied from 1.08 to 18.6 ppb, with three counties above the current 10 ppb limit. Based on the tertiles of arsenic levels, counties were divided into three groups: low (1.08-2.06 ppb), medium (2.07-2.98 ppb), and high (2.99-18.6 ppb). Spatial Poisson regression modeling was conducted to estimate the risk ratios (RR) of prostate cancer by tertiles of arsenic level at a county level, adjusted for demographic and risk factors. The RR of prostate cancer were 1.23 (95% CI, 1.16-1.30) and 1.28 (95% CI, 1.21-1.35) in the medium and high groups, respectively, compared to the low group after adjusting for risk factors. The RR increased to 1.36 (95% CI, 1.28-1.45) in the high group when analyses were restricted to aggressive prostate cancers (Gleason score ≥ 7). This

  1. Neonatal Metabolomic Profiles Related to Prenatal Arsenic Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, Jessica E; Bailey, Kathryn A; Olshan, Andrew F; Smeester, Lisa; Drobná, Zuzana; Stýblo, Miroslav; Douillet, Christelle; García-Vargas, Gonzalo; Rubio-Andrade, Marisela; Pathmasiri, Wimal; McRitchie, Susan; Sumner, Susan J; Fry, Rebecca C

    2017-01-03

    Prenatal inorganic arsenic (iAs) exposure is associated with health effects evident at birth and later in life. An understanding of the relationship between prenatal iAs exposure and alterations in the neonatal metabolome could reveal critical molecular modifications, potentially underpinning disease etiologies. In this study, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy-based metabolomic analysis was used to identify metabolites in neonate cord serum associated with prenatal iAs exposure in participants from the Biomarkers of Exposure to ARsenic (BEAR) pregnancy cohort, in Gómez Palacio, Mexico. Through multivariable linear regression, ten cord serum metabolites were identified as significantly associated with total urinary iAs and/or iAs metabolites, measured as %iAs, %monomethylated arsenicals (MMAs), and %dimethylated arsenicals (DMAs). A total of 17 metabolites were identified as significantly associated with total iAs and/or iAs metabolites in cord serum. These metabolites are indicative of changes in important biochemical pathways such as vitamin metabolism, the citric acid (TCA) cycle, and amino acid metabolism. These data highlight that maternal biotransformation of iAs and neonatal levels of iAs and its metabolites are associated with differences in neonate cord metabolomic profiles. The results demonstrate the potential utility of metabolites as biomarkers/indicators of in utero environmental exposure.

  2. Multimedia exposures to arsenic and lead for children near an inactive mine tailings and smelter site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Miranda M; Sugeng, Anastasia; Lothrop, Nathan; Klimecki, Walter; Cox, Melissa; Wilkinson, Sarah T; Lu, Zhenqiang; Beamer, Paloma I

    2016-04-01

    Children living near contaminated mining waste areas may have high exposures to metals from the environment. This study investigates whether exposure to arsenic and lead is higher in children in a community near a legacy mine and smelter site in Arizona compared to children in other parts of the United States and the relationship of that exposure to the site. Arsenic and lead were measured in residential soil, house dust, tap water, urine, and toenail samples from 70 children in 34 households up to 7 miles from the site. Soil and house dust were sieved, digested, and analyzed via ICP-MS. Tap water and urine were analyzed without digestion, while toenails were washed, digested and analyzed. Blood lead was analyzed by an independent, certified laboratory. Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated between each environmental media and urine and toenails for arsenic and lead. Geometric mean arsenic (standard deviation) concentrations for each matrix were: 22.1 (2.59) ppm and 12.4 (2.27)ppm for soil and house dust (<63μm), 5.71 (6.55)ppb for tap water, 14.0 (2.01)μg/L for specific gravity-corrected total urinary arsenic, 0.543 (3.22)ppm for toenails. Soil and vacuumed dust lead concentrations were 16.9 (2.03)ppm and 21.6 (1.90) ppm. The majority of blood lead levels were below the limit of quantification. Arsenic and lead concentrations in soil and house dust decreased with distance from the site. Concentrations in soil, house dust, tap water, along with floor dust loading were significantly associated with toenail and urinary arsenic but not lead. Mixed models showed that soil and tap water best predicted urinary arsenic. In our study, despite being present in mine tailings at similar levels, internal lead exposure was not high, but arsenic exposure was of concern, particularly from soil and tap water. Naturally occurring sources may be an additional important contributor to exposures in certain legacy mining areas.

  3. Current Status and Prevention Strategy for Coal-arsenic Poisoning in Guizhou, China

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Dasheng; An, Dong; Zhou, Yunsu; Liu, Jie; Waalkes, Michael P.

    2006-01-01

    Arsenic exposure from burning coal with high arsenic contents occurs in southwest Guizhou, China. Coal in this region contains extremely high concentrations of inorganic arsenic. Arsenic exposure from coal-burning is much higher than exposure from arsenic-contaminated water in other areas of China. The current status and prevention strategies for arsenic poisoning from burning high-arsenic coal in southwest Guizhou, China, is reported here. Over 3,000 arsenic-intoxicated patients were diagnos...

  4. Arsenic exposure and cognitive performance in Mexican schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado, Jorge L; Ronquillo, Dolores; Kordas, Katarzyna; Rojas, Olga; Alatorre, Javier; Lopez, Patricia; Garcia-Vargas, Gonzalo; Del Carmen Caamaño, María; Cebrián, Mariano E; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J

    2007-09-01

    Previous studies have suggested an effect of high arsenic concentration on cognitive and neurobehavioral function in humans. Our goal was to identify demographic and nutritional factors that are associated with As exposure and the influence of this exposure on cognitive function in school-age children. We recruited 602 children 6-8 years of age living within 3.5 km of a metallurgic smelter complex in the city of Torreón, Mexico, to participate in a cross-sectional evaluation. Of these, 591 had complete anthropometry, iron, and zinc status by biochemical measurements in serum, blood lead concentration (PbB), and arsenic in urine (UAs), and 557 completed several cognitive performance tests. The mean for UAs was 58.1 +/- 33.2 microg/L; 52% of the children had UAs concentrations > 50 microg/L, and 50.7% of children had PbB > or = 10 microg/dL. UAs concentration was associated with low socioeconomic status. Nutritional status indicators were not related to UAs concentrations. Linear and logistic regressions adjusted for hemoglobin concentration, PbB, and sociodemographic confounders showed a significant inverse association between UAs and Visual-Spatial Abilities with Figure Design, the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, the WISC-RM Digit Span subscale, Visual Search, and Letter Sequencing Tests (p < 0.05). Boys excreted significantly more UAs (p < 0.05) and were affected on different cognitive areas than girls. Children living in an area contaminated with both As and lead showed that As contamination can affect children's cognitive development, independent of any effect of lead.

  5. Arsenic Exposure and Cognitive Performance in Mexican Schoolchildren

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado, Jorge L.; Ronquillo, Dolores; Kordas, Katarzyna; Rojas, Olga; Alatorre, Javier; Lopez, Patricia; Garcia-Vargas, Gonzalo; del Carmen Caamaño, María; Cebrián, Mariano E.; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J.

    2007-01-01

    Background Previous studies have suggested an effect of high arsenic concentration on cognitive and neurobehavioral function in humans. Objective Our goal was to identify demographic and nutritional factors that are associated with As exposure and the influence of this exposure on cognitive function in school-age children. Methods We recruited 602 children 6–8 years of age living within 3.5 km of a metallurgic smelter complex in the city of Torreón, Mexico, to participate in a cross-sectional evaluation. Of these, 591 had complete anthropometry, iron, and zinc status by biochemical measurements in serum, blood lead concentration (PbB), and arsenic in urine (UAs), and 557 completed several cognitive performance tests. Results The mean for UAs was 58.1 ± 33.2 μg/L; 52% of the children had UAs concentrations > 50 μg/L, and 50.7% of children had PbB ≥10 μg/dL. UAs concentration was associated with low socioeconomic status. Nutritional status indicators were not related to UAs concentrations. Linear and logistic regressions adjusted for hemoglobin concentration, PbB, and sociodemographic confounders showed a significant inverse association between UAs and Visual–Spatial Abilities with Figure Design, the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, the WISC-RM Digit Span subscale, Visual Search, and Letter Sequencing Tests (p < 0.05). Boys excreted significantly more UAs (p < 0.05) and were affected on different cognitive areas than girls. Conclusions Children living in an area contaminated with both As and lead showed that As contamination can affect children’s cognitive development, independent of any effect of lead. PMID:17805430

  6. Association between type 2 diabetes and chronic arsenic exposure in drinking water: A cross sectional study in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam Md

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic exposure to high level of inorganic arsenic in drinking water has been associated with Type 2 Diabetes (T2D. Most research has been ecological in nature and has focused on high levels of arsenic exposure with few studies directly measuring arsenic levels in drinking water as an index of arsenic exposure. The effect of low to moderate levels of arsenic exposure on diabetes risk is largely unknown thus our study is adding further knowledge over previous works. Methods This cross sectional study was conducted in 1004 consenting women and men from 1682 eligible participants yielding a participation rate of 60%. These participants are aged >30 years and were living in Bangladesh and had continuously consumed arsenic-contaminated drinking water for at least 6 months. T2D cases were diagnosed using glucometer following the new diagnostic criteria (Fasting Blood Glucose > 126 mg/dl from the WHO guideline (WHO 2006, or a self-reported physician diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. Association between T2D and chronic arsenic exposure was estimated by multiple logistic regression with adjustment for age, sex, education, Body Mass Index (BMI and family history of T2D. Results A total of 1004 individuals participated in the study. The prevalence of T2D was 9% (95% CI 7-11%. After adjustment for diabetes risk factors, an increased risk of type 2 diabetes was observed for arsenic exposure over 50 μg/L with those in the highest category having almost double the risk of type 2 diabetes (OR=1.9 ; 95% CI 1.1-3.5. For most levels of arsenic exposure, the risk estimates are higher with longer exposure; a dose–response pattern was also observed. Conclusions These findings suggest an association between chronic arsenic exposure through drinking water and T2D. Risks are generally higher with longer duration of arsenic exposure. The risk of T2D is highest among those who were exposed to the highest concentration of arsenic for more than 10 years.

  7. Spatial and Temporal Variations in Arsenic Exposure via Drinking-water in Northern Argentina

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gabriela Concha; Barbro Nermell; Marie Vahter

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated the spatial, temporal and inter-individual variations in exposure to arsenic via drinking-water in Northern Argentina, based on measurements of arsenic in water, urine, and hair...

  8. Treating chronic arsenic toxicity with high selenium lentil diets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sah, Shweta [Department of Ecosystem and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 4Z6 (Canada); Vandenberg, Albert [Department of Plant Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5A8 (Canada); Smits, Judit, E-mail: judit.smits@ucalgary.ca [Department of Ecosystem and Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 4Z6 (Canada)

    2013-10-01

    Arsenic (As) toxicity causes serious health problems in humans, especially in the Indo-Gangetic plains and mountainous areas of China. Selenium (Se), an essential micronutrient is a potential mitigator of As toxicity due to its antioxidant and antagonistic properties. Selenium is seriously deficient in soils world-wide but is present at high, yet non-toxic levels in the great plains of North America. We evaluate the potential of dietary Se in counteracting chronic As toxicity in rats through serum biochemistry, blood glutathione levels, immunotoxicity (antibody response), liver peroxidative stress, thyroid response and As levels in tissues and excreta. To achieve this, we compare diets based on high-Se Saskatchewan (SK) lentils versus low-Se lentils from United States. Rats drank control (0 ppm As) or As (40 ppm As) water while consuming SK lentils (0.3 ppm Se) or northwestern USA lentils (< 0.01 ppm Se) diets for 14 weeks. Rats on high Se diets had higher glutathione levels regardless of As exposure, recovered antibody responses in As-exposed group, higher fecal and urinary As excretion and lower renal As residues. Selenium deficiency caused greater hepatic peroxidative damage in the As exposed animals. Thyroid hormones, triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), were not different. After 14 weeks of As exposure, health indicators in rats improved in response to the high Se lentil diets. Our results indicate that high Se lentils have a potential to mitigate As toxicity in laboratory mammals, which we hope will translate into benefits for As exposed humans. - Highlights: • We reduce chronic arsenic toxicity in rats with a whole food solution. • High selenium lentils decrease liver damage and increase blood glutathione levels. • High selenium lentil diets increase urinary and fecal arsenic excretion. • High selenium lentil diets decrease arsenic levels in kidney, the storage organ. • High selenium lentil diets reverse arsenic suppression of the B cell

  9. Chronic Arsenic Exposure and Risk of Post Kala-azar Dermal Leishmaniasis Development in India: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushmita Das

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis (VL, with the squeal of Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL, is a global threat for health. Studies have shown sodium stibogluconate (SSG resistance in VL patients with chronic arsenic exposure. Here, we assessed the association between arsenic exposure and risk of developing PKDL in treated VL patients.In this retrospective study, PKDL patients (n = 139, earlier treated with SSG or any other drug during VL, were selected from the study cohort. Trained physicians, unaware of arsenic exposure, interviewed them and collected relevant data in a questionnaire format. All probable water sources were identified around the patient's house and water was collected for evaluation of arsenic concentration. A GIS-based village-level digital database of PKDL cases and arsenic concentration in groundwater was developed and individual point location of PKDL cases were overlaid on an integrated GIS map. We used multivariate logistic regression analysis to assess odds ratios (ORs for association between arsenic exposure and PKDL development.Out of the 429 water samples tested, 403 had arsenic content of over 10 μg/L, with highest level of 432 μg/L among the seven study villages. Multivariate adjusted ORs for risk of PKDL development in comparison of arsenic concentrations of 10.1-200 μg/L and 200.1-432.0 μg/L were 1.85 (1.13-3.03 and 2.31 (1.39-3.8 respectively. Interestingly, similar results were found for daily dose of arsenic and total arsenic concentration in urine sample of the individual. The multivariate-adjusted OR for comparison of high baseline arsenic exposure to low baseline arsenic exposure of the individuals in the study cohort was 1.66 (95% CI 1.02-2.7; p = 0.04.Our findings indicate the need to consider environmental factors, like long time arsenic exposure, as an additional influence on treated VL patients towards risk of PKDL development in Bihar.

  10. Association between chronic arsenic exposure and nutritional status among the women of child bearing age: a case-control study in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, Abul H; Shahidullah, S M; Smith, Wayne; Hossain, Kazi S; Hasan, Ziaul; Ahmed, Kazi T

    2010-07-01

    The role of nutritional factors in arsenic metabolism and toxicity is yet to be fully elucidated. A low protein diet results in decreased excretion of DMA and increased tissue retention of arsenic in experimental studies. Malnourished women carry a higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Chronic exposure to high arsenic (>50 microg/L) through drinking water also increases the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. The synergistic effects (if any) of malnutrition and chronic arsenic exposure may worsen the adverse pregnancy outcomes. This population based case control study reports the association between chronic arsenic exposure and nutritional status among the rural women in Bangladesh. 348 cases (BMI 50 microg/L were at 1.9 times (Odds Ratio = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.1-3.6) increased risk of malnutrition compared to unexposed. The findings of this study suggest that chronic arsenic exposure is likely to contribute to poor nutritional status among women of 20-45 years.

  11. Whole-house arsenic water treatment provided more effective arsenic exposure reduction than point-of-use water treatment at New Jersey homes with arsenic in well water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spayd, Steven E.; Robson, Mark G.; Buckley, Brian T.

    2014-01-01

    A comparison of the effectiveness of whole house (point-of-entry) and point-of-use arsenic water treatment systems in reducing arsenic exposure from well water was conducted. The non-randomized observational study recruited 49 subjects having elevated arsenic in their residential home well water in New Jersey. The subjects obtained either point-of-entry or point-of-use arsenic water treatment. Prior ingestion exposure to arsenic in well water was calculated by measuring arsenic concentrations in the well water and obtaining water-use histories for each subject, including years of residence with the current well and amount of water consumed from the well per day. A series of urine samples were collected from the subjects, some starting before water treatment was installed and continuing for at least nine months after treatment had begun. Urine samples were analyzed and speciated for inorganic-related arsenic concentrations. A two-phase clearance of inorganic-related arsenic from urine and the likelihood of a significant body burden from chronic exposure to arsenic in drinking water were identified. After nine months of water treatment the adjusted mean of the urinary inorganic-related arsenic concentrations were significantly lower (p < 0.0005) in the point-of-entry treatment group (2.5 μg/g creatinine) than in the point-of-use treatment group (7.2 μg/g creatinine). The results suggest that whole house arsenic water treatment systems provide a more effective reduction of arsenic exposure from well water than that obtained by point-of-use treatment. PMID:24975493

  12. Exposure of soil microbial communities to chromium and arsenic alters their diversity and structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheik, Cody S; Mitchell, Tyler W; Rizvi, Fariha Z; Rehman, Yasir; Faisal, Muhammad; Hasnain, Shahida; McInerney, Michael J; Krumholz, Lee R

    2012-01-01

    Extensive use of chromium (Cr) and arsenic (As) based preservatives from the leather tanning industry in Pakistan has had a deleterious effect on the soils surrounding production facilities. Bacteria have been shown to be an active component in the geochemical cycling of both Cr and As, but it is unknown how these compounds affect microbial community composition or the prevalence and form of metal resistance. Therefore, we sought to understand the effects that long-term exposure to As and Cr had on the diversity and structure of soil microbial communities. Soils from three spatially isolated tanning facilities in the Punjab province of Pakistan were analyzed. The structure, diversity and abundance of microbial 16S rRNA genes were highly influenced by the concentration and presence of hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI)) and arsenic. When compared to control soils, contaminated soils were dominated by Proteobacteria while Actinobacteria and Acidobacteria (which are generally abundant in pristine soils) were minor components of the bacterial community. Shifts in community composition were significant and revealed that Cr (VI)-containing soils were more similar to each other than to As contaminated soils lacking Cr (VI). Diversity of the arsenic resistance genes, arsB and ACR3 were also determined. Results showed that ACR3 becomes less diverse as arsenic concentrations increase with a single OTU dominating at the highest concentration. Chronic exposure to either Cr or As not only alters the composition of the soil bacterial community in general, but affects the arsenic resistant individuals in different ways.

  13. Arsenic and ultraviolet radiation exposure: melanoma in a New Mexico non-Hispanic white population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Janice W; Erdei, Esther; Myers, Orrin; Siegel, Malcolm; Berwick, Marianne

    2016-06-01

    Cases of cutaneous melanoma and controls were enrolled in a New Mexico population-based study; subjects were administered questionnaires concerning ultraviolet (UV) and inorganic arsenic (iAs) exposure. Historical iAs exposure was estimated. UV exposure estimates were also derived using geospatial methods. Drinking water samples were collected for iAs analysis. Blood samples were collected for DNA repair (Comet) and DNA repair gene polymorphism assays. Arsenic concentrations were determined in urine and toenail samples. UV exposures during the previous 90 days did not vary significantly between cases and controls. Mean (±SD) current home iAs drinking water was not significantly different for cases and controls [3.98 μg/L (±3.67) vs. 3.47 μg/L (±2.40)]. iAs exposure showed no effect on DNA repair or association with melanoma. Results did not corroborate a previously reported association between toenail As and melanoma risk. Arsenic biomarkers in urine and toenail were highly significantly correlated with iAs in drinking water. A UV-DNA repair interaction for UV exposure over the previous 7-90 days was shown; cases had higher DNA damage than controls at low UV values. This novel finding suggests that melanoma cases may be more sensitive to low-level UV exposure than are controls. A UV-APEX1 interaction was shown. Subjects with the homozygous rare APEX1 DNA repair gene allele had a higher risk of early melanoma diagnosis at low UV exposure compared with those with the homozygous wild type or the heterozygote. Notably, a UV-arsenic interaction on inhibition of DNA repair was not observed at iAs drinking water concentrations below 10 ppb (μg/L).

  14. Vascular Dysfunction in Patients with Chronic Arsenosis Can Be Reversed by Reduction of Arsenic Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Pi, Jingbo; Yamauchi, Hiroshi; Sun, Guifan; Yoshida, Takahiko; Aikawa, Hiroyuki; Fujimoto, Wataru; Iso, Hiroyasu; Cui, Renzhe; Waalkes, Michael P.; Kumagai, Yoshito

    2004-01-01

    Chronic arsenic exposure causes vascular diseases associated with systematic dysfunction of endogenous nitric oxide. Replacement of heavily arsenic-contaminated drinking water with low-arsenic water is a potential intervention strategy for arsenosis, although the reversibility of arsenic intoxication has not established. In the present study, we examined urinary excretion of cyclic guanosine 3′,5′-monophosphate (cGMP), a second messenger of the vasoactive effects of nitric oxide, and signs an...

  15. Effects of arsenic exposure among semiconductor workers: a cautionary note on urinary 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chiung-Wen; Pan, Chih-Hong; Huang, Yeou-Lih; Wu, Ming-Tsang; Chang, Louis W; Wang, Chien-Jen; Chao, Mu-Rong

    2006-04-01

    Arsenic is a notorious environmental toxicant and was found to cause oxidative stress in cultured cells and animals. However, little work has been done in human studies, especially for the population occupationally exposed to arsenic. In order to investigate the effect of occupational exposure to arsenic in oxidative stress, we measured urinary 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodGuo) from 90 semiconductor workers including 50 exposed and 40 nonexposed subjects. A highly sensitive and specific isotope dilution LC-MS/MS method was used for quantification of 8-oxodGuo. The levels of inorganic arsenic (iAs3+, iAs5+), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in urine were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-flow injection atomic absorption spectrometry (HPLC-FIAAS). Results showed that the mean urinary concentrations of total arsenic and 8-oxodGuo were significantly higher for exposed workers compared with the nonexposed workers. In addition, elevated urinary 8-oxodGuo concentrations of exposed workers were correlated with urinary levels of MMA (r = 0.44, P arsenic) (r = 0.40, P arsenic could result in the induction of oxidative stress. The presence and/or formation of MMA could play an important role in arsenic-involved injuries.

  16. Arsenic methylation patterns before and after changing from high to lower concentrations of arsenic in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopenhayn-Rich, C; Biggs, M L; Kalman, D A; Moore, L E; Smith, A H

    1996-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic (In-As), an occupational and environmental human carcinogen, undergoes biomethylation to monomethylarsonate (MMA) and dimethylarsinate (DMA). It has been proposed that saturation of methylation capacity at high exposure levels may lead to a threshold for the carcinogenicity of In-As. The relative distribution of urinary In-As, MMA, and DMA is used as a measure of human methylation capacity. The most common pathway for elevated environmental exposure to In-As worldwide is through drinking water. We conducted a biomarker study in northern Chile of a population chronically exposed to water naturally contaminated with high arsenic content (600 micrograms/l). In this paper we present the results of a prospective follow-up of 73 exposed individuals, who were provided with water of lower arsenic content (45 micrograms/l) for 2 months. The proportions of In-As, MMA, and DMA in urine were compared before and after intervention, and the effect of other factors on the distribution of arsenic metabolites was also analyzed. The findings of this study indicate that the decrease in arsenic exposure was associated with a small decrease in the percent In-As in urine (from 17.8% to 14.6%) and in the MMA/DMA ratio (from 0.23 to 0.18). Other factors such as smoking, gender, age, years of residence, and ethnicity were associated mainly with changes in the MMA/DMA ratio, with smoking having the strongest effect. Nevertheless, the factors investigated accounted for only about 20% of the large interindividual variability observed. Genetic polymorphisms in As-methylating enzymes and other co-factors are likely to contribute to some of the unexplained variation. The changes observed in the percent In-As and in the MMA/DMA ratio do not support an exposure-based threshold for arsenic methylation in humans. Images Figure 1. A Figure 1. B Figure 2. A Figure 2. B PMID:8959409

  17. High fat diet aggravates arsenic induced oxidative stress in rat heart and liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Mousumi; Ghosh, Debosree; Ghosh, Arnab Kumar; Bose, Gargi; Chattopadhyay, Aindrila; Rudra, Smita; Dey, Monalisa; Bandyopadhyay, Arkita; Pattari, Sanjib K; Mallick, Sanjaya; Bandyopadhyay, Debasish

    2014-04-01

    Arsenic is a well known global groundwater contaminant. Exposure of human body to arsenic causes various hazardous effects via oxidative stress. Nutrition is an important susceptible factor which can affect arsenic toxicity by several plausible mechanisms. Development of modern civilization led to alteration in the lifestyle as well as food habits of the people both in urban and rural areas which led to increased use of junk food containing high level of fat. The present study was aimed at investigating the effect of high fat diet on heart and liver tissues of rats when they were co-treated with arsenic. This study was established by elucidating heart weight to body weight ratio as well as analysis of the various functional markers, oxidative stress biomarkers and also the activity of the antioxidant enzymes. Histological analysis confirmed the biochemical investigations. From this study it can be concluded that high fat diet increased arsenic induced oxidative stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Studies on markers of exposure and early effect in areas with arsenic pollution: methods and results of the project SEpiAs. Epidemiological studies on population exposed to low-to-moderate arsenic concentration in drinking water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustaffa, Elisa; Bianchi, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic and its inorganic compounds are classified as human carcinogens. Several epidemiological studies conducted in areas of the world characterized by high arsenic concentration in drinking water, even up to 3,000 μg/l, report associations between arsenic exposure and skin, bladder, lung, liver and kidney cancer as well as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and reproductive and developmental effects. Since general population is not exposed to these high arsenic concentrations in the last years attention focused on adverse health effects that low-to-moderate arsenic concentrations (0-150 μg/l) in drinking water could induce. The World Health Organization recommends a maximum limit of 10 μg/l for arsenic in drinking water. Almost all epidemiological studies conducted on populations exposed to low-to-moderate arsenic concentrations in drinking water are limited due to problems arising from both individual exposure assessment and low subjects number. The aim of the present review is to collect literature-based evidences regarding adverse health effects associated with exposure to low-to-moderate arsenic concentrations in drinking water (10-150 μg/l) in order to obtain a comprehensive picture of the health outcomes that such exposure can have on general population.

  19. Risk of death from cardiovascular disease associated with low-level arsenic exposure among long-term smokers in a US population-based study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farzan, Shohreh F. [Department of Epidemiology, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Lebanon, NH (United States); Departments of Population Health and Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Chen, Yu [Departments of Population Health and Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Rees, Judy R.; Zens, M. Scot [Department of Epidemiology, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Lebanon, NH (United States); Karagas, Margaret R., E-mail: margaret.r.karagas@dartmouth.edu [Department of Epidemiology, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Lebanon, NH (United States)

    2015-09-01

    High levels of arsenic exposure have been associated with increases in cardiovascular disease risk. However, studies of arsenic's effects at lower exposure levels are limited and few prospective studies exist in the United States using long-term arsenic exposure biomarkers. We conducted a prospective analysis of the association between toenail arsenic and cardiovascular disease mortality using longitudinal data collected on 3939 participants in the New Hampshire Skin Cancer Study. Using Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for potential confounders, we estimated hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals associated with the risk of death from any cardiovascular disease, ischemic heart disease, and stroke, in relation to natural-log transformed toenail arsenic concentrations. In this US population, although we observed no overall association, arsenic exposure measured from toenail clipping samples was related to an increased risk of ischemic heart disease mortality among long-term smokers (as reported at baseline), with increased hazard ratios among individuals with ≥ 31 total smoking years (HR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.02, 2.27), ≥ 30 pack-years (HR: 1.66, 95% CI: 1.12, 2.45), and among current smokers (HR: 1.69, 95% CI: 1.04, 2.75). These results are consistent with evidence from more highly exposed populations suggesting a synergistic relationship between arsenic exposure and smoking on health outcomes and support a role for lower-level arsenic exposure in ischemic heart disease mortality. - Highlights: • Arsenic (As) has been associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. • Little is known about CVD effects at lower levels of As exposure common in the US. • Few have investigated the joint effects of As and smoking on CVD in US adults. • We examine chronic low-level As exposure and smoking in relation to CVD mortality. • Arsenic exposure may increase ischemic heart disease mortality among smokers in US.

  20. Chronic arsenic exposure increases TGFalpha concentration in bladder urothelial cells of Mexican populations environmentally exposed to inorganic arsenic☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Olga L.; Germolec, Dori R.; Borja-Aburto, Víctor H.; Contreras-Ruiz, José; García-Vargas, Gonzalo G.; Del Razo, Luz M.

    2009-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic (iAs) is a well-established carcinogen and human exposure has been associated with a variety of cancers including those of skin, lung, and bladder. High expression of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-α) has associated with local relapses in early stages of urinary bladder cancer. iAs exposures are at least in part determined by the rate of formation and composition of iAs metabolites (MAsIII, MAsV, DMAsIII, DMAsV). This study examines the relationship between TGF-α concentration in exfoliated bladder urothelial cells (BUC) separated from urine and urinary arsenic species in 72 resident women (18-51 years old) from areas exposed to different concentrations of iAs in drinking water (2-378 ppb) in central Mexico. Urinary arsenic species, including trivalent methylated metabolites were measured by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry method. The concentration of TGF-α in BUC was measured using an ELISA assay. Results show a statistically significant positive correlation between TGF-α concentration in BUC and each of the six arsenic species present in urine. The multivariate linear regression analyses show that the increment of TGF-α levels in BUC was importantly associated with the presence of arsenic species after adjusting by age, and presence of urinary infection. People from areas with high arsenic exposure had a significantly higher TGF-α concentration in BUC than people from areas of low arsenic exposure (128.8 vs. 64.4 pg/mg protein; p<0.05). Notably, exfoliated cells isolated from individuals with skin lesions contained significantly greater amount of TGF-α than cells from individuals without skin lesions: 157.7 vs. 64.9 pg/mg protein (p=0.003). These results suggest that TGF-α in exfoliated BUC may serve as a susceptibility marker of adverse health effects on epithelial tissue in arsenic-endemic areas. PMID:17267001

  1. Dietary exposure to inorganic arsenic in the European population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic is a ubiquitous metalloid present at low concentrations in rocks, soil and natural ground water. A total of 103 773 food samples (including drinking water were used to calculate dietary exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs. Of these, 101 020 were based on total arsenic (tAs and 2 753 on iAs. Among the reported results on tAs, 66.1 % were below the limit of detection or quantification (left-censored; for the reported data on iAs the percentage of left-censored data was 41.9 %. Most of the data (92.5 % reported as tAs were converted to iAs using different approaches before calculating dietary exposure to iAs. The EFSA Comprehensive European Food Consumption Database was used to estimate chronic dietary exposure to iAs using 28 surveys from 17 European countries. According to the scenarios used for the treatment of left-censored data, mean dietary exposure among infants, toddlers and other children ranged from 0.20 to 1.37 μg/kg b.w. per day, while the 95th percentile dietary exposure estimates ranged from 0.36 to 2.09 μg/kg b.w. per day. Mean dietary exposure among the adult population (including adults, elderly and very elderly ranged from 0.09 to 0.38 μg/kg b.w. per day, and 95th percentile dietary exposure estimates ranged from 0.14 to 0.64 μg/kg b.w. per day. For all the age classes except infants and toddlers, the main contributor to dietary exposure to iAs was the food group ‘Grain-based processed products (non rice-based’, in particular, wheat bread and rolls. Other food groups that were important contributors to iAs exposure were rice, milk and dairy products (main contributor in infants and toddlers, and drinking water. The most important sources of uncertainty in the present assessment are related to the heterogeneity of the food consumption data, the conversion of tAs into iAs and to the treatment of the left-censored data.

  2. Arsenic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenic is a natural element found in soil and minerals. Arsenic compounds are used to preserve wood, as pesticides, and in some industries. Arsenic can get into air, water, and the ground from wind- ...

  3. Children's exposure to arsenic from CCA-treated wooden decks and playground structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemond, Harold F; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M

    2004-02-01

    CCA-treated wood is widely used in the fabrication of outdoor decks and playground equipment. Because arsenic can be removed from the surface of CCA-treated wood both by physical contact and by leaching, it is important to determine whether children who play on such structures may ingest arsenic in quantities sufficient to be of public health concern. Based on a review of existing studies, it is estimated that arsenic doses in amounts of tens of micrograms per day may be incurred by children having realistic levels of exposure to CCA-treated decks and playground structures. The most important exposure pathway appears to be oral ingestion of arsenic that is first dislodged from the wood by direct hand contact, then transferred to the mouth by children's hand-to-mouth activity. The next most important pathway appears to be dermal absorption of arsenic, while ingestion of soil that has become contaminated by leaching from CCA-treated structures appears to be of lesser importance, except possibly in the case of children with pica. Considerable uncertainty, however, is associated with quantitative estimates of children's arsenic exposure from CCA-treated wood. Priorities for refining estimates of arsenic dose include detailed studies of the hand-to-mouth transfer of arsenic, studies of the dermal and gastrointestinal absorption of dislodgeable arsenic, and studies in which doses of arsenic to children playing in contact with CCA-treated wood are directly determined by measurement of arsenic in their urine, hair, and nails.

  4. Relation of dietary inorganic arsenic exposure and urinary inorganic arsenic metabolites excretion in Japanese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguri, Tomoko; Yoshinaga, Jun; Suzuki, Yayoi; Tao, Hiroaki; Nakazato, Tetsuya

    2017-03-08

    Inorganic arsenic (InAs) is a ubiquitous metalloid that has been shown to exert multiple adverse health outcomes. Urinary InAs and its metabolite concentration has been used as a biomarker of arsenic (As) exposure in some epidemiological studies, however, quantitative relationship between daily InAs exposure and urinary InAs metabolites concentration has not been well characterized. We collected a set of 24-h duplicated diet and spot urine sample of the next morning of diet sampling from 20 male and 19 female subjects in Japan from August 2011 to October 2012. Concentrations of As species in duplicated diet and urine samples were determined by using liquid chromatography-ICP mass spectrometry with a hydride generation system. Sum of the concentrations of urinary InAs and methylarsonic acid (MMA) was used as a measure of InAs exposure. Daily dietary InAs exposure was estimated to be 0.087 µg kg(-1) day(-1) (Geometric mean, GM), and GM of urinary InAs+MMA concentrations was 3.5 ng mL(-1). Analysis of covariance did not find gender-difference in regression coefficients as significant (P > 0.05). Regression equation Log 10 [urinary InAs+MMA concentration] = 0.570× Log 10 [dietary InAs exposure level per body weight] + 1.15 was obtained for whole data set. This equation would be valuable in converting urinary InAs concentration to daily InAs exposure, which will be important information in risk assessment.

  5. Influence of glutathione chemical effectors in the response of maize to arsenic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requejo, Raquel; Tena, Manuel

    2012-05-01

    To support the key role of glutathione (GSH) in the mechanisms of tolerance and accumulation of arsenic in plants, this work examines the impact of several effectors of GSH synthesis or action in the response of maize (Zea mays L.) to arsenic. Maize was exposed in hydroponics to iso-toxic rates of 150 μM arsenate or 75 μM arsenite for 9 days and GSH effectors, flurazole (an herbicide safener), l-buthionine-sulfoximine (BSO, a known inhibitor of GSH biosynthesis), and dimercaptosuccinate (DMS) and dimercaptopropanesulfonate (DMPS) (two thiols able to displace GSH from arsenite-GSH complexes) were assayed. The main responses of plants to arsenic exposure consisted of a biomass reduction (fresh weight basis) of about 50%, an increase of non-protein thiol (NPTs) levels (especially in the GSH precursor γ-glutamylcysteine and the phytochelatins PC₂ and PC₃) in roots, with little effect in shoots, and an accumulation of between 600 and 1000 ppm of As (dry weight basis) in roots with very little translocation to shoots. Growth inhibition caused by arsenic was partially or completely reversed in plants co-treated with flurazole and arsenate or arsenite, respectively, highly exacerbated in plants co-treated with BSO, and not modified in plants co-treated with DMS or DMPS. These responses correlated well with an increase of both NPTs levels in roots and glutathione transferase activity in roots and shoots due to flurazole treatment, the decrease of NPTs levels in roots caused by BSO and the lack of effect on NPT levels caused by both DMS and DMPS. Regarding to arsenic accumulation in roots, it was not modified by flurazole, highly reduced by BSO, and increased between 2.5- and 4.0-fold by DMS and DMPS. Therefore, tolerance and accumulation of arsenic by maize could be manipulated pharmacologically by chemical effectors of GSH.

  6. Risk Analysis of Acute Or Chronic Exposure to Arsenic of the Inhabitants in a District of Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Vázquez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The arsenic occurrence in the water constitutes a serious world health concern due to its toxicity. Depending on the intensity and duration of exposure, this element can be acutely lethal or may have a wide range of health effects in humans and animals. In Argentina, the origin of arsenic is mainly natural, and related to different geological processes. The Argentinean concern about arsenic and its influence on human health dates back to the previous century. The disease ascribed to arsenic contamination was called ‘chronic regional endemic hydroarsenism’. It is produced by the consumption of water with high levels of this element. In our study, we focused in La Matanza district, a very populated site in the Buenos Aires Province. An increasing concern of the inhabitants of the area regarding health problems was detected. In order to establish a full view of arsenic exposure in the area, several matrices and targets were analyzed. As matrices, water and soil samples were analyzed. As targets, canine and human hair was studied. The aim of this study was to investigate acute and chronically exposure to arsenic of La Matanza inhabitants.

  7. Exposure and bioavailability of arsenic in contaminated soils from the La Parrilla mine, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anawar, H. M.; Garcia-Sanchez, A.; Murciego, A.; Buyolo, T.

    2006-05-01

    Arsenic derived from mining activity may contaminate water, soil and plant ecosystems resulting in human health and ecotoxicological risks. In this study, exposure assessment of arsenic (As) in soil, spoil, pondwater and plants collected from the areas contaminated by mine tailings and spoils in and around the La Parrilla mine, Caceres province, Spain, was carried out using AAS method. Water solubility, bioavailability and soil-plant transfer coefficients of As and phytoremediation potential of plants were determined. Arsenic concentrations varied from 148 to 2,540 mg/kg in soils of site 1 and from 610 to 1,285 mg/kg in site 2 exceeding the guideline limit for agricultural soil (50 mg/kg). Arsenic concentrations in pond waters varied from 8.8 to 101.4 μg/l. High concentrations of water-soluble As in the soils that ranged from 0.10 to 4.71 mg/kg in site 1 and from 0.46 to 4.75 mg/kg in site 2 exceeded the maximum permitted level of water-soluble As (0.04 mg/kg) in agricultural soils. Arsenic concentrations varied from 0.8 to 149.5 mg/kg dry wt in the plants of site 1 and from 2.0 to 10.0 mg/kg in the plants of site 2. Arsenic concentrations in plants increased in the approximate order: Retama sphaerocarpa bioavailable toxic As for the purpose of minimization of mining impacts until hypothetical hyperaccumulating and/or transgenic plants could be transplanted for the phytoremediation of As contaminated soils.

  8. Evaluation of Exposure to Arsenic in Residential Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuji, JS; Van Kerkhove, MD; Kaetzel, RS; Scrafford, CG; Mink, PJ; Barraj, LM; Crecelius, EA; Goodman, M.

    2005-01-01

    In response to concerns regarding arsenic in soil from a pesticide manufacturing plant, we conducted a biomonitoring study on children younger than 7 years of age, the age category of children most exposed to soil. Urine samples from 77 children (47% participation rate) were analyzed for total arsenic and arsenic species related to ingestion of inorganic arsenic. Older individuals also provided urine (n = 362) and toenail (n = 67) samples. Speciated urinary arsenic levels were similar between...

  9. Arsenic and cadmium exposure in children living near a smelter complex in San Luis Potosi, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Barriga, F.; Santos, M.A.; Mejia, J.J.; Batres, L.; Yanez, L.; Carrizales, L.; Vera, E.; del Razo, L.M.; Cebrian, M.E. (Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi (Mexico))

    1993-08-01

    The main purpose of this study was to assess environmental contamination by arsenic and cadmium in a smelter community (San Luis Potosi City, Mexico) and its possible contribution to an increased body burden of these elements in children. Arsenic and cadmium were found in the environment (air, soil, and household dust, and tap water) as well as in the urine and hair from children. The study was undertaken in three zones: Morales, an urban area close to the smelter complex; Graciano, an urban area 7 km away from the complex; and Mexquitic, a small rural town 25 km away. The environmental study showed that Morales is the most contaminated of the zones studied. The range of arsenic levels in soil (117-1396 ppm), dust (515-2625 ppm), and air (0.13-1.45 micrograms/m3) in the exposed area (Morales) was higher than those in the control areas. Cadmium concentrations were also higher in Morales. Estimates of the arsenic ingestion rate in Morales (1.0-19.8 micrograms/kg/day) were equal to or higher than the reference dose of 1 microgram/kg/day calculated by the Environmental Protection Agency. The range of arsenic levels in urine (69-594 micrograms/g creatinine) and hair (1.4-57.3 micrograms/g) and that of cadmium in hair (0.25-3.5 micrograms/g) indicated that environmental exposure has resulted in an increased body burden of these elements in children, suggesting that children living in Morales are at high risk of suffering adverse health effects if exposure continues.

  10. Exposure of soil microbial communities to chromium and arsenic alters their diversity and structure.

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    Cody S Sheik

    Full Text Available Extensive use of chromium (Cr and arsenic (As based preservatives from the leather tanning industry in Pakistan has had a deleterious effect on the soils surrounding production facilities. Bacteria have been shown to be an active component in the geochemical cycling of both Cr and As, but it is unknown how these compounds affect microbial community composition or the prevalence and form of metal resistance. Therefore, we sought to understand the effects that long-term exposure to As and Cr had on the diversity and structure of soil microbial communities. Soils from three spatially isolated tanning facilities in the Punjab province of Pakistan were analyzed. The structure, diversity and abundance of microbial 16S rRNA genes were highly influenced by the concentration and presence of hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI and arsenic. When compared to control soils, contaminated soils were dominated by Proteobacteria while Actinobacteria and Acidobacteria (which are generally abundant in pristine soils were minor components of the bacterial community. Shifts in community composition were significant and revealed that Cr (VI-containing soils were more similar to each other than to As contaminated soils lacking Cr (VI. Diversity of the arsenic resistance genes, arsB and ACR3 were also determined. Results showed that ACR3 becomes less diverse as arsenic concentrations increase with a single OTU dominating at the highest concentration. Chronic exposure to either Cr or As not only alters the composition of the soil bacterial community in general, but affects the arsenic resistant individuals in different ways.

  11. Ameliorative effect of polydatin on oxidative stress-mediated testicular damage by chronic arsenic exposure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ince, S; Avdatek, F; Demirel, H H; Arslan-Acaroz, D; Goksel, E; Kucukkurt, I

    2016-06-01

    Arsenic causes lipid peroxidation leading to alterations in antioxidant status in organisms. In this study, the reproductive effects of chronic exposure to arsenic and the protective effects of polydatin (PD) were evaluated in 35 Wistar male rats, which were divided equally into five groups. The control group received a normal diet and tap water, arsenic (100 mg l(-1) , approximately 1/50 of oral LD50 ) was given via drinking water to experimental groups except control group, and PD was orally given to the other groups at dose of 50, 100 and 200 mg kg(-1) for 60 days. Arsenic administration decreased sperm motility, glutathione level, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in testicular tissue of rats. In contrast, malondialdehyde level and DNA damage were found to be high levels in arsenic-treated group. Histopathologically, it was observed that decreased sperm concentration and degeneration of Sertoli cells in testicular tissue. PD administration, partially 200 mg kg(-1) , reversed arsenic-induced lipid peroxidation, DNA damage, antioxidant enzyme activity and cell integrity in testis of rats. These results demonstrate that PD decreases arsenic-induced lipid peroxidation, enhances the antioxidant defence mechanism and regenerates tissue damage in testis of rats.

  12. Ground water arsenic contamination in West Bengal, India: a risk of sub-clinical toxicity in cattle as evident by correlation between arsenic exposure, excretion and deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Asit Kumar; Rana, Tanmoy; Das, Subhshree; Bhattacharya, Debasis; Bandyopadhyay, Subhasish; Pan, Diganta; De, Sumanta; Samanta, Srikanta; Chowdhury, Atalanta Narayan; Mondal, Tapan Kumar; Das, Subrata Kumar

    2010-11-01

    Arsenic contamination of ground water in West Bengal, India, is a great concern for both human and livestock populations. Our study investigated and correlated the arsenic concentration in the drinking water, urinary excretion and deposition of total arsenic in hair of cattle at an arsenic contaminated zone in West Bengal. The results of our study indicated that the average concentration of arsenic in tube well water in contaminated villages ranged from 0.042 to 0.251 ppm and a statistical significant (p contaminated zone. The arsenic concentration in urine and hair of cattle ranged between 0.245-0.691 ppm and 0.461-0.984 ppm, respectively. A close relationship was found between the total arsenic in drinking water urinary excretion (r² = 0.03664, p arsenic concentration in hair (r² = 0.03668, p arsenic concentration in cattle urine and hair can serve as biomarkers for both present and past exposure in cattle population.

  13. Risk of death from cardiovascular disease associated with low-level arsenic exposure among long-term smokers in a US population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzan, Shohreh F.; Chen, Yu; Rees, Judy R.; Zens, M. Scot; Karagas, Margaret R.

    2015-01-01

    High levels of arsenic exposure have been associated with increases in cardiovascular disease risk. However, studies of arsenic’s effects at lower exposure levels are limited and few prospective studies exist in the United States using long-term arsenic exposure biomarkers. We conducted a prospective analysis of the association between toenail arsenic and cardiovascular disease mortality using longitudinal data collected on 3939 participants in the New Hampshire Skin Cancer Study. Using Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for potential confounders, we estimated hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals associated with the risk of death from any cardiovascular disease, ischemic heart disease, and stroke, in relation to natural-log transformed toenail arsenic concentrations. In this US population, although we observed no overall association, arsenic exposure measured from toenail clipping samples was related to an increased risk of ischemic heart disease mortality among long-term smokers (as reported at baseline), with increased hazard ratios among individuals with ≥ 31 total smoking years (HR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.02, 2.27), ≥ 30 pack-years (HR: 1.66, 95% CI: 1.12, 2.45), and among current smokers (HR: 1.69, 95% CI: 1.04, 2.75). These results are consistent with evidence from more highly exposed populations suggesting a synergistic relationship between arsenic exposure and smoking on health outcomes and support a role for lower-level arsenic exposure in ischemic heart disease mortality. PMID:26048586

  14. Fluoxetine treatment ameliorates depression induced by perinatal arsenic exposure via a neurogenic mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Christina R; Solomon, Benjamin R; Ulibarri, Adam L; Allan, Andrea M

    2014-09-01

    Several epidemiological studies have reported an association between arsenic exposure and increased rates of psychiatric disorders, including depression, in exposed populations. We have previously demonstrated that developmental exposure to low amounts of arsenic induces depression in adulthood along with several morphological and molecular aberrations, particularly associated with the hippocampus and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The extent and potential reversibility of this toxin-induced damage has not been characterized to date. In this study, we assessed the effects of fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressant, on adult animals exposed to arsenic during development. Perinatal arsenic exposure (PAE) induced depressive-like symptoms in a mild learned helplessness task and in the forced swim task after acute exposure to a predator odor (2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline, TMT). Chronic fluoxetine treatment prevented these behaviors in both tasks in arsenic-exposed animals and ameliorated arsenic-induced blunted stress responses, as measured by corticosterone (CORT) levels before and after TMT exposure. Morphologically, chronic fluoxetine treatment reversed deficits in adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) after PAE, specifically differentiation and survival of neural progenitor cells. Protein expression of BDNF, CREB, the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), and HDAC2 was significantly increased in the dentate gyrus of arsenic animals after fluoxetine treatment. This study demonstrates that damage induced by perinatal arsenic exposure is reversible with chronic fluoxetine treatment resulting in restored resiliency to depression via a neurogenic mechanism.

  15. High soil and groundwater arsenic levels induce high body arsenic loads, health risk and potential anemia for inhabitants of northeastern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, Masumeh; Mehrzad, Jalil; Mahmudy Gharaie, Mohamad Hosein; Afshari, Reza; Dadsetan, Ahmad; Hami, Shakiba

    2016-04-01

    Arsenic bioavailability in rock, soil and water resources is notoriously hazardous. Geogenic arsenic enters the body and adversely affects many biochemical processes in animals and humans, posing risk to public health. Chelpu is located in NE Iran, where realgar, orpiment and pyrite mineralization is the source of arsenic in the macroenvironment. Using cluster random sampling strategy eight rocks, 23 soils, 12 drinking water resources, 36 human urine and hair samples and 15 adult sheep urine and wool samples in several large-scale herds in the area were randomly taken for quantification of arsenic in rock/soil/water, wool/hair/urine. Arsenic levels in rock/soil/water and wool/hair/urine were measured using inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy and atomic absorption spectrophotometry, respectively. While arsenic levels in rocks, soils and water resources hazardously ranged 9.40-25,873.3 mg kg(-1), 7.10-1448.80 mg kg(-1) and 12-606 μg L(-1), respectively, arsenic concentrations in humans' hair and urine and sheep's wool and urine varied from 0.37-1.37 μg g(-1) and 9-271.4 μg L(-1) and 0.3-3.11 μg g(-1) and 29.1-1015 μg L(-1), respectively. Local sheep and human were widely sick and slightly anemic. Hematological examination of the inhabitants revealed that geogenic arsenic could harm blood cells, potentially resulting in many other hematoimmunological disorders including cancer. The findings warn widespread exposure of animals and human in this agroecologically and geopolitically important region (i.e., its proximity with Afghanistan, Pakistan and Turkmenistan) and give a clue on how arsenic could induce infectious and non-infectious diseases in highly exposed human/animals.

  16. Excretion of arsenic in urine as a function of exposure to arsenic in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon, R L; Hudgens, E; Le, X C; Schreinemachers, D; Thomas, D J

    1999-01-01

    Urinary arsenic (As) concentrations were evaluated as a biomarker of exposure in a U.S. population chronically exposed to inorganic As (InAs) in their drinking water. Ninety-six individuals who consumed drinking water with As concentrations of 8-620 microg/L provided first morning urine voids for up to 5 consecutive days. The study population was 56% male, and 44% was younger than 18 years of age. On one day of the study period, all voided urines were collected over a 24-hr period. Arsenic intake from drinking water was estimated from daily food diaries. Comparison between the concentration of As in individual urine voids with that in the 24-hr urine collection indicated that the concentration of As in urine was stable throughout the day. Comparison of the concentration of As in each first morning urine void over the 5-day study period indicated that there was little day-to-day variation in the concentration of As in urine. The concentration of As in drinking water was a better predictor of the concentration of As in urine than was the estimated intake of As from drinking water. The concentration of As in urine did not vary by gender. An age-dependent difference in the concentration of As in urine may be attributed to the higher As dosage rate per unit body weight in children than in adults. These findings suggest that the analysis of a small number of urine samples may be adequate to estimate an individual's exposure to InAs from drinking water and that the determination of the concentration of InAs in a drinking water supply may be a useful surrogate for estimating exposure to this metalloid. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:10417365

  17. Metabolomic profiles of arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase knockout mice: effect of sex and arsenic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Madelyn C; Douillet, Christelle; Su, Mingming; Zhou, Kejun; Wu, Tao; Chen, Wenlian; Galanko, Joseph A; Drobná, Zuzana; Saunders, R Jesse; Martin, Elizabeth; Fry, Rebecca C; Jia, Wei; Stýblo, Miroslav

    2017-01-01

    Arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (As3mt) is the key enzyme in the pathway for methylation of inorganic arsenic (iAs). Altered As3mt expression and AS3MT polymorphism have been linked to changes in iAs metabolism and in susceptibility to iAs toxicity in laboratory models and in humans. As3mt-knockout mice have been used to study the association between iAs metabolism and adverse effects of iAs exposure. However, little is known about systemic changes in metabolism of these mice and how these changes lead to their increased susceptibility to iAs toxicity. Here, we compared plasma and urinary metabolomes of male and female wild-type (WT) and As3mt-KO (KO) C57BL/6 mice and examined metabolomic shifts associated with iAs exposure in drinking water. Surprisingly, exposure to 1 ppm As elicited only small changes in the metabolite profiles of either WT or KO mice. In contrast, comparisons of KO mice with WT mice revealed significant differences in plasma and urinary metabolites associated with lipid (phosphatidylcholines, cytidine, acyl-carnitine), amino acid (hippuric acid, acetylglycine, urea), and carbohydrate (L-sorbose, galactonic acid, gluconic acid) metabolism. Notably, most of these differences were sex specific. Sex-specific differences were also found between WT and KO mice in plasma triglyceride and lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Some of the differentially changed metabolites (phosphatidylcholines, carnosine, and sarcosine) are substrates or products of reactions catalyzed by other methyltransferases. These results suggest that As3mt KO alters major metabolic pathways in a sex-specific manner, independent of iAs treatment, and that As3mt may be involved in other cellular processes beyond iAs methylation.

  18. Childhood cancer incidence and arsenic exposure in drinking water in Nevada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Lee E; Lu, Meng; Smith, Allan H

    2002-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic exposure through drinking water causes cancer in adults; however, the carcinogenic potential in children remains unknown. A recent leukemia cluster in Churchill County, Nevada, where arsenic levels in water supplies are relatively high, has prompted concern. The authors investigated the incidence of childhood cancer between 1979 and 1999 in all 17 Nevada counties, grouped by low (i.e., water supplies. The standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) for all childhood cancers combined were 1.00 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.94, 1.06), 0.72 (95% CI = 0.43, 1.12), and 1.25 (95% CI = 0.91, 1.69) for low-, medium-, and high-exposure counties, respectively. There was no relationship between arsenic levels in water and childhood leukemia (SIRs = 1.02, 0.61, and 0.86, respectively [95% CIIs = 0.90, 1.15; 0.12, 1.79; and 0.37, 1.70, respectively]). For all childhood cancers, excluding leukemias, the SIRs were 0.99 (95% CI = 0.92, 1.07), 0.82 (95% CI = 0.42, 1.22), and 1.37 (0.92, 1.83), respectively. The excess in 5- to 9-yr-old children and 10- to 14-yr-old children was in bone cancers, and the excess in 15- to 19-yr-old young adults was primarily in lymphomas. The findings in this study are reassuring in that leukemia risks were not increased at the concentrations of arsenic in water found in this study. Nonetheless, the results raise the possibility that there are increased risks for nonleukemic childhood cancers that require confirmation in other studies, particularly those in which higher exposures are addressed.

  19. Ultra-high purity arsenic for MBE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, R.G.L. (Johnson Matthey PLC, Royston (UK)); Emeny, M.T.; Whitehouse, C.R.; Lee, D. (Royal Signals and Radar Ets., Great Malvern (UK))

    1990-11-01

    A requirement for high purity elemental arsenic for use in compound semiconductors has become well established. The capabilities of molecular beam epitaxy as a fabrication technique are best exploited if the arsenic used has particular additional features. Prominent among these are a uniform distribution of impurities at levels down to 10 ppb, and a geometrically uniform distribution of material in the charge used. Once material such as this, of 7N purity or better, emerges from its processing, a major vulernability is from recontamination. Prevention of this is a further important requirement. Detailed examination of possible process strategies has led to an approach targeted on the manufacture of solid arsenic ''charges'' especially suited for MBE application. Factors involved are reviewed. An outline of the consequent production operation is described, based on vapour phase and laser processing. Continuous long-term reproducibility is achieved. Analysis of the product by glow discharge mass spectrometry with state-of-the-art sensitivity is used for qualification of the product and process. Results from this and supplementary techniques which have been used are presented. The utilisation of this material for GaAs has been widely tested successfully. The outcome of some of that work is shown. (orig.).

  20. Association between Chronic Arsenic Exposure and Nutritional Status among the Women of Child Bearing Age: A Case-Control Study in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abul H. Milton

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The role of nutritional factors in arsenic metabolism and toxicity is yet to be fully elucidated. A low protein diet results in decreased excretion of DMA and increased tissue retention of arsenic in experimental studies. Malnourished women carry a higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Chronic exposure to high arsenic (>50 µg/L through drinking water also increases the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. The synergistic effects (if any of malnutrition and chronic arsenic exposure may worsen the adverse pregnancy outcomes. This population based case control study reports the association between chronic arsenic exposure and nutritional status among the rural women in Bangladesh. 348 cases (BMI < 18.5 and 360 controls (BMI 18.5–24.99 were recruited from a baseline survey conducted among 2,341 women. An excess risk for malnutrition was observed among the participants chronically exposed to higher concentrations of arsenic in drinking water after adjusting for potential confounders such as participant’s age, religion, education, monthly household income and history of oral contraceptive pills. Women exposed to arsenic >50 µg/L were at 1.9 times (Odds Ratio = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.1–3.6 increased risk of malnutrition compared to unexposed. The findings of this study suggest that chronic arsenic exposure is likely to contribute to poor nutritional status among women of 20–45 years.

  1. Characterizing arsenic in preserved hair for assessing exposure potential and discriminating poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kempson, Ivan M.; Henry, Dermot; Francis, James; (Museum Vic.); (U. South Australia); (UWO)

    2009-05-21

    Advanced analytical techniques have been used to characterize arsenic in taxidermy specimens. Arsenic was examined to aid in discriminating its use as a preservative from that incorporated by ingestion and hence indicate poisoning (in the case of historical figures). The results are relevant to museum curators, occupational and environmental exposure concerns, toxicological and anthropological investigations. Hair samples were obtained from six taxidermy specimens preserved with arsenic in the late 1800s and early 1900s to investigate the arsenic incorporation. The presence of arsenic poses a potential hazard in museum and private collections. For one sample, arsenic was confirmed to be present on the hair with time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and then measured with neutron activation analysis to comprise 176 {mu}g g{sup -1}. The hair cross section was analysed with synchrotron micro-X-ray fluorescence to investigate the transverse distribution of topically applied arsenic. It was found that the arsenic had significantly penetrated all hair samples. Association with melanin clusters and the medulla was observed. Lead and mercury were also identified in one sample. X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy of the As K-edge indicated that an arsenate species predominantly existed in all samples; however, analysis was hindered by very rapid photoreduction of the arsenic. It would be difficult to discriminate arsenic consumption from topically applied arsenic based on the physical transverse distribution. Longitudinal distributions and chemical speciation may still allow differentiation.

  2. Characterizing arsenic in preserved hair for assessing exposure potential and discriminating poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempson, Ivan M; Henry, Dermot; Francis, James

    2009-05-01

    Advanced analytical techniques have been used to characterize arsenic in taxidermy specimens. Arsenic was examined to aid in discriminating its use as a preservative from that incorporated by ingestion and hence indicate poisoning (in the case of historical figures). The results are relevant to museum curators, occupational and environmental exposure concerns, toxicological and anthropological investigations. Hair samples were obtained from six taxidermy specimens preserved with arsenic in the late 1800s and early 1900s to investigate the arsenic incorporation. The presence of arsenic poses a potential hazard in museum and private collections. For one sample, arsenic was confirmed to be present on the hair with time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and then measured with neutron activation analysis to comprise 176 microg g(-1). The hair cross section was analysed with synchrotron micro-X-ray fluorescence to investigate the transverse distribution of topically applied arsenic. It was found that the arsenic had significantly penetrated all hair samples. Association with melanin clusters and the medulla was observed. Lead and mercury were also identified in one sample. X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy of the As K-edge indicated that an arsenate species predominantly existed in all samples; however, analysis was hindered by very rapid photoreduction of the arsenic. It would be difficult to discriminate arsenic consumption from topically applied arsenic based on the physical transverse distribution. Longitudinal distributions and chemical speciation may still allow differentiation.

  3. Genetic variation in Glutathione S-Transferase Omega-1, Arsenic Methyltransferase and Methylene-tetrahydrofolate Reductase, arsenic exposure and bladder cancer: a case–control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beebe-Dimmer Jennifer L

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ingestion of groundwater with high concentrations of inorganic arsenic has been linked to adverse health outcomes, including bladder cancer, however studies have not consistently observed any elevation in risk at lower concentrations. Genetic variability in the metabolism and clearance of arsenic is an important consideration in any investigation of its potential health risks. Therefore, we examined the association between genes thought to play a role in the metabolism of arsenic and bladder cancer. Methods Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in GSTO-1, As3MT and MTHFR were genotyped using DNA from 219 bladder cancer cases and 273 controls participating in a case–control study in Southeastern Michigan and exposed to low to moderate ( Results While no single SNP in As3MT was significantly associated with bladder cancer overall, several SNPs were associated with bladder cancer among those exposed to higher arsenic levels. Individuals with one or more copies of the C allele in rs11191439 (the Met287Thr polymorphism had an elevated risk of bladder cancer (OR = 1.17; 95% CI = 1.04-1.32 per 1 μg/L increase in average exposure. However, no association was observed between average arsenic exposure and bladder cancer among TT homozygotes in the same SNP. Bladder cancer cases were also 60% less likely to be homozygotes for the A allele in rs1476413 in MTHFR compared to controls (OR = 0.40; 95% CI = 0.18-0.88. Conclusions Variation in As3MT and MTHFR is associated with bladder cancer among those exposed to relatively low concentrations of inorganic arsenic. Further investigation is warranted to confirm these findings.

  4. Comparative genomic analyses identify common molecular pathways modulated upon exposure to low doses of arsenic and cadmium

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    Fry Rebecca C

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to the toxic metals arsenic and cadmium is associated with detrimental health effects including cancers of various organs. While arsenic and cadmium are well known to cause adverse health effects at high doses, the molecular impact resulting from exposure to environmentally relevant doses of these metals remains largely unexplored. Results In this study, we examined the effects of in vitro exposure to either arsenic or cadmium in human TK6 lymphoblastoid cells using genomics and systems level pathway mapping approaches. A total of 167 genes with differential expression were identified following exposure to either metal with surprisingly no overlap between the two. Real-time PCR was used to confirm target gene expression changes. The gene sets were overlaid onto protein-protein interaction maps to identify metal-induced transcriptional networks. Interestingly, both metal-induced networks were significantly enriched for proteins involved in common biological processes such as tumorigenesis, inflammation, and cell signaling. These findings were further supported by gene set enrichment analysis. Conclusions This study is the first to compare the transcriptional responses induced by low dose exposure to cadmium and arsenic in human lymphoblastoid cells. These results highlight that even at low levels of exposure both metals can dramatically influence the expression of important cellular pathways.

  5. Arsenic exposure disrupts the normal function of the FA/BRCA repair pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peremartí, Jana; Ramos, Facundo; Marcos, Ricard; Hernández, Alba

    2014-11-01

    Chronic arsenic exposure is known to enhance the genotoxicity/carcinogenicity of other DNA-damaging agents by inhibiting DNA repair activities. Interference with nucleotide excision repair and base excision repair are well documented, but interactions with other DNA repair pathways are poorly explored so far. The Fanconi anemia FA/BRCA pathway is a DNA repair mechanism required for maintaining genomic stability and preventing cancer. Here, interactions between arsenic compounds and the FA/BRCA pathway were explored by using isogenic FANCD2(-/-) (FA/BRCA-deficient) and FANCD2(+/+) (FA/BRCA-corrected) human fibroblasts. To study whether arsenic disrupts the normal FA/BRCA function, FANCD2(+/+) cells were preexposed to subtoxic concentrations of the trivalent arsenic compounds methylarsonous acid (MMA(III)) and arsenic trioxide (ATO) for 2 weeks. The cellular response to mitomicin-C, hydroxyurea, or diepoxybutane, typical inducers of the studied pathway, was then evaluated and compared to that of FANCD2(-/-) cells. Our results show that preexposure to the trivalent arsenicals MMA(III) and ATO induces in corrected cells, a cellular FA/BRCA-deficient phenotype characterized by hypersensitivity, enhanced accumulation in the G2/M compartment and increased genomic instability--measured as micronuclei. Overall, our data demonstrate that environmentally relevant arsenic exposures disrupt the normal function of the FA/BRCA activity, supporting a novel source of arsenic co- and carcinogenic effects. This is the first study linking arsenic exposure with the FA/BRCA DNA repair pathway.

  6. Association between arsenic exposure from a coal-burning power plant and urinary arsenic concentrations in Prievidza District, Slovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranft, U.; Miskovic, P.; Pesch, B.; Jakubis, P.; Fabianova, E.; Keegan, T.; Hergemoller, A.; Jakubis, M.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M.J. [University of Dusseldorf, Dusseldorf (Germany)

    2003-06-01

    To assess the arsenic exposure of a population living in the vicinity of a coal-burning power plant with high arsenic emission in the Prievidza District, Slovakia, 548 spot urine samples were speciated for inorganic As (As-inorg), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), and their sum (As-sum). The urine samples were collected from the population of a case-control study on nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC). A total of 411 samples with complete As speciations and sufficient urine quality and without fish consumption were used for statistical analysis. Although current environmental As exposure and urinary As concentrations were low (median As in soil within 5 km distance to the power plant, 41 {mu}g/g; median urinary As-sum, 5.8 {mu}g/L), there was a significant but weak association between As in soil and urinary As-sum (r = 0.21, p {lt} 0.01). We performed a multivariate regression analysis to calculate adjusted regression coefficients for environmental As exposure and other determinants of urinary As. Persons living in the vicinity of the plant had 27% higher As-sum values (p {lt} 0.01), based on elevated concentrations of the methylated species. A 32% increase of MMA occurred among subjects who consumed homegrown food (p {lt} 0.001). NMSC cases had significantly higher levels of As-sum, DMA, and As-inorg. The methylation index As-inorg/(MMA + DMA) was about 20% lower among cases (p {lt} 0.05) and in men (p {lt} 0.05) compared with controls and females, respectively.

  7. Bladder Cancer and Arsenic Exposure: Differences in the Two Populations Enrolled in A Study in Southwest Taiwan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    STEVEN H. LAMM; DANIEL M. BYRD; MICHAEL B. KRUSE; MANNING FEINLEIB; SHENG-HAN LAI

    2003-01-01

    explained either by arsenic acting as a high-dose carcinogen or in artesian well water as a co-carcinogen with some other aspect of artesian well water (possibly humic acid). Arsenic exposure level alone appears to be an insufficient exposure measure to describe the risk of bladder cancer mortality in the BFD-endemic area. Risk analyses that fail to take water source into account are likely to misrepresent the risk characterization, particularly at low arsenic levels.

  8. Urinary total arsenic and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine are associated with renal cell carcinoma in an area without obvious arsenic exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Chao-Yuan [Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Urology, National Taiwan University Hospital, College of Medicine National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Su, Chien-Tien [Department of Family Medicine, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chung, Chi-Jung [Department of Health Risk Management, College of Public Health, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Research, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Pu, Yeong-Shiau [Department of Urology, National Taiwan University Hospital, College of Medicine National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chu, Jan-Show [Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Yang, Hsiu-Yuan [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wu, Chia-Chang [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Urology, Taipei Medical Universtiy-Shuang Ho Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hsueh, Yu-Mei, E-mail: ymhsueh@tmu.edu.tw [Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2012-08-01

    8-Hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) is one of the most reliable and abundant markers of DNA damage. The study was designed to explore the relationship between urinary 8-OHdG and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and to investigate whether individuals with a high level of 8-OHdG would have a modified odds ratio (OR) of arsenic-related RCC. This case–control study was conducted with 132 RCC patients and 245 age- and sex-matched controls from a hospital-based pool between November 2006 and May 2009. Pathological verification of RCC was completed by image-guided biopsy or surgical resection of renal tumors. Urinary 8-OHdG levels were determined using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS). Concentrations of urinary arsenic species, including inorganic arsenic, monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), were determined by a high performance liquid chromatography-linked hydride generator and atomic absorption spectrometry. Level of urinary 8-OHdG was significantly associated with the OR of RCC in a dose–response relationship after multivariate adjustment. Urinary 8-OHdG was significantly related to urinary total arsenic. The greatest OR (3.50) was seen in the individuals with high urinary 8-OHdG and high urinary total arsenic. A trend test indicated that the OR of RCC was increased with one of these factors and was further increased with both (p = 0.002). In conclusion, higher urinary 8-OHdG was a strong predictor of the RCC. High levels of 8-OHdG combined with urinary total arsenic might be indicative of arsenic-induced RCC. -- Highlights: ► Urinary 8-OHdG was significantly related to urinary total arsenic. ► Higher urinary 8-OHdG was a strong predictor of RCC risk. ► Urinary 8-OHdG may modify arsenic related RCC risk.

  9. Chromated copper arsenate–treated wood: a potential source of arsenic exposure and toxicity in dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Yuntzu-Yen Chen, MD

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic-contaminated drinking water presents a serious health hazard in certain geographic locations around the world. Chromated copper arsenate, a pesticide and preservative that was used to pressure treat residential lumber in the United States beginning in the 1940s and was banned by the Environmental Protection Agency in 2003, poses a potential source of arsenic exposure and toxicity. In this study, we review the clinical manifestations of arsenic intoxication with the focus on dermatologic manifestations. Dermatologists should be aware that although chromated copper arsenate-treated wood for residential use was banned in 2003, the exposure risk remains. Long-term follow up is necessary to detect arsenic induced cutaneous and visceral malignancy in patients with history of arsenic exposure.

  10. Association of hypothyroidism with low-level arsenic exposure in rural West Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Gordon, E-mail: gordon.gong@ttuhsc.edu [F. Marie Hall Institute for Rural and Community Health, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX (United States); Basom, Janet [F. Marie Hall Institute for Rural and Community Health, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX (United States); Department of Family and Community Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX (United States); Mattevada, Sravan [Department of Internal Medicine, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX (United States); Onger, Frederick [Department of Family and Community Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX (United States)

    2015-04-15

    It has been reported recently that a higher airborne arsenic level was correlated with higher urinary arsenic concentration and lower serum thyroxin level among urban policemen and rural highway workmen in Italy. The current study was to determine whether exposure to low-level arsenic groundwater (2–22 µg/L) is associated with hypothyroidism among 723 participants (118 male and 267 female Hispanics; 108 male and 230 female non-Hispanic whites, NHW) living in rural West Texas counties. Arsenic and iodine levels in their groundwater used for drinking and or cooking were estimated by the inverse distance weighted (IDW) interpolation technique. Groundwater arsenic was ≥8 µg/L in 36% of the subjects' wells while iodine concentration was <1 µg/L in 91% of their wells. Logistic regression analysis showed that arsenic in groundwater ≥8 µg/L and cumulative arsenic exposure (groundwater arsenic concentration multiplied by the number of years living in the current address) but not groundwater iodine concentration were significant predictors for hypothyroidism among Hispanics (p<0.05) but not NHW after adjusting for covariates such as age, gender, annual household income and health insurance coverage. The ethnic difference may be due to a marginally higher percentage of Hispanics (p=0.0622) who lived in areas with groundwater arsenic ≥8 µg/L compared with NHW. The prevalence of hypothyroidism was significantly higher in Hispanics or NHW of this rural cohort than the national prevalence. Measures should be taken to reduce arsenic in drinking water in order to prevent hypothyroidism in rural areas. - Highlights: • We determined if arsenic exposure is associated with hypothyroidism in rural Texas. • Groundwater arsenic level is associated with hypothyroidism among Hispanics only. • The rate of hypothyroidism in rural Texas was higher than the US general population.

  11. Association between arsenic exposure and behavior among first-graders from Torreón, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Aditi; Kordas, Katarzyna; Lopez, Patricia; Rosado, Jorge L; Cebrian, Mariano E; Vargas, Gonzalo Garcia; Ronquillo, Dolores; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J

    2011-07-01

    Previous studies suggest adverse effects of arsenic exposure on children's cognitive function. In this study, we examined the potential association between arsenic exposure and children's behavior. Five hundred and twenty-six children, 6-7 years old, living near a metal foundry in Torreón, Mexico, participated in the study. Arsenic exposure was measured as total urinary arsenic (UAs) and arsenic metabolites-monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) concentrations. Children's behavior was assessed by Conners Behavior Rating Scales for parents and teachers. The median (interquartile range) concentrations of UAs, MMA and DMA were 55.2 (39.7), 6.7 (5.9) and 39.3 (28.5) μg/L, respectively. The mean behavior scores from parent and teacher ratings were within the clinically normal range (T<65). The relationship between behavior and urinary arsenic was modeled in linear and logistic regression models, with UAs, MMA and DMA tested in separate models and entered as quartiles. No significant association was found between any measure of urinary arsenic and parent ratings of behavior. However, higher UAs was modestly associated with higher scores on the Oppositional, Cognitive Problems and ADHD sub-scales of the teacher ratings; a dose-response relationship was not established between UAs quartiles and behavior. Higher urinary DMA was associated with higher ratings on the Oppositional, Cognitive Problems and ADHD Index by teachers. The associations between UAs and behavior became statistically non-significant after adjustment for the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test scores, suggesting that the harmful effects of arsenic on behavior may be secondary to arsenic-induced cognitive deficits. These data suggest a potential adverse association between arsenic and children's behavior and indicate a need to further study the effects of arsenic and arsenic metabolites on neurobehavioral outcomes in children. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Assessing arsenic exposure in households using bottled water or point-of-use treatment systems to mitigate well water contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew E; Lincoln, Rebecca A; Paulu, Chris; Simones, Thomas L; Caldwell, Kathleen L; Jones, Robert L; Backer, Lorraine C

    2016-02-15

    There is little published literature on the efficacy of strategies to reduce exposure to residential well water arsenic. The objectives of our study were to: 1) determine if water arsenic remained a significant exposure source in households using bottled water or point-of-use treatment systems; and 2) evaluate the major sources and routes of any remaining arsenic exposure. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 167 households in Maine using one of these two strategies to prevent exposure to arsenic. Most households included one adult and at least one child. Untreated well water arsenic concentrations ranged from arsenic and untreated well water arsenic concentration, while accounting for documented consumption of untreated water and dietary sources. If mitigation strategies were fully effective, there should be no relationship between urinary arsenic and well water arsenic. To the contrary, we found that untreated arsenic water concentration remained a significant (p ≤ 0.001) predictor of urinary arsenic levels. When untreated water arsenic concentrations were arsenic was no longer a significant predictor of urinary arsenic. Time spent bathing (alone or in combination with water arsenic concentration) was not associated with urinary arsenic. A predictive analysis of the average study participant suggested that when untreated water arsenic ranged from 100 to 500 μg/L, elimination of any untreated water use would result in an 8%-32% reduction in urinary arsenic for young children, and a 14%-59% reduction for adults. These results demonstrate the importance of complying with a point-of-use or bottled water exposure reduction strategy. However, there remained unexplained, water-related routes of exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. GT-repeat polymorphism in the heme oxygenase-1 gene promoter and the risk of carotid atherosclerosis related to arsenic exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Meei-Maan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arsenic is a strong stimulus of heme oxygenase (HO-1 expression in experimental studies in response to oxidative stress caused by a stimulus. A functional GT-repeat polymorphism in the HO-1 gene promoter was inversely correlated to the development of coronary artery disease in diabetics and development of restenosis following angioplasty in patients. The role of this potential vascular protective factor in carotid atherosclerosis remains unclear. We previously reported a graded association of arsenic exposure in drinking water with an increased risk of carotid atherosclerosis. In this study, we investigated the relationship between HO-1 genetic polymorphism and the risk of atherosclerosis related to arsenic. Methods Three-hundred and sixty-seven participants with an indication of carotid atherosclerosis and an additional 420 participants without the indication, which served as the controls, from two arsenic exposure areas in Taiwan, a low arsenic-exposed Lanyang cohort and a high arsenic-exposed LMN cohort, were studied. Carotid atherosclerosis was evaluated using a duplex ultrasonographic assessment of the extracranial carotid arteries. Allelic variants of (GTn repeats in the 5'-flanking region of the HO-1 gene were identified and grouped into a short (S allele ( Results Analysis results showed that arsenic's effect on carotid atherosclerosis differed between carriers of the class S allele (OR 1.39; 95% CI 0.86-2.25; p = 0.181 and non-carriers (OR 2.65; 95% CI 1.03-6.82; p = 0.044 in the high-exposure LMN cohort. At arsenic exposure levels exceeding 750 μg/L, difference in OR estimates between class S allele carriers and non-carriers was borderline significant (p = 0.051. In contrast, no such results were found in the low-exposure Lanyang cohort. Conclusions This exploratory study suggests that at a relatively high level of arsenic exposure, carriers of the short (GTn allele (

  14. Arsenic exposure and adverse health effects: A review of recent findings from arsenic and health studies in Matlab, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Yunus

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The recent discovery of large-scale arsenic (As contamination of groundwater has raised much concern in Bangladesh. Reliable estimates of the magnitude of As exposure and related health problems have not been comprehensively investigated in Bangladesh. A large population-based study on As and health consequences in Matlab (AsMat was done in Matlab field site where International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh has maintained a health and demographic surveillance system registering prospectively all vital events. Taking advantage of the health and demographic surveillance system and collecting data on detailed individual level As exposure using water and urine samples, AsMat investigated the morbidity and mortality associated with As exposure. Reviews of findings to date suggest the adverse effects of As exposure on the risk of skin lesions, high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, chronic disease, and all-cause infant and adult disease mortality. Future studies of clinical endpoints will enhance our knowledge gaps and will give directions for disease prevention and mitigations.

  15. Biomarkers of exposure, effect, and susceptibility of arsenic-induced health hazards in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Jen; Hsu, Lin-I; Wang, Chih-Hao; Shih, Wei-Liang; Hsu, Yi-Hsiang; Tseng, Mei-Ping; Lin, Yu-Chun; Chou, Wei-Ling; Chen, Chia-Yen; Lee, Cheng-Yeh; Wang, Li-Hua; Cheng, Yu-Chin; Chen, Chi-Ling; Chen, Shu-Yuan; Wang, Yuan-Hung; Hsueh, Yu-Mei; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Wu, Meei-Maan

    2005-08-07

    Long-term exposure to inorganic arsenic from drinking water has been documented to induce cancers and vascular diseases in a dose-response relationship. A series of molecular environmental epidemiological studies have been carried out to elucidate biomarkers of exposure, effect, and susceptibility for arsenic-related health hazards in Taiwan. Arsenic levels in urine, hair, and nail are biomarkers for short-term (changes including sister chromatid exchange, micronuclei, and chromosome aberrations of peripheral lymphocytes. Both mutation type and hot spots of p53 gene were significantly different in arsenic-induced and non-arsenic-induced TCCs. The frequency of chromosomal imbalances analyzed by comparative genomic hybridization and the frequency of loss of heterozygosity were significantly higher in arsenic-induced TCC than non-arsenic-induced TCC at specific sites. Biomarkers of susceptibility to arsenic-induced health hazards included genetic polymorphisms of enzymes involved in xenobiotic metabolism, DNA repair, and oxidative stress, as well as serum level of carotenoids. Gene-gene and gene-environment interactions are involved in arsenic-induced health hazards through toxicological mechanisms including genomic instability and oxidative stress.

  16. The effect of arsenic exposure on the biochemical and mineral contents of Labeo rohita bones: An FT-IR study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaniappan, PL. RM.; Vijayasundaram, V.

    2009-01-01

    Arsenic compounds are ubiquitous and widespread in the environment as a result of natural or anthropogenic occurrence. Fish are the major source of protein for human consumption. They are also a source of contamination, because of the amounts of heavy elements they can contain, some of which are highly toxic. Fish bones are high in calcium, which is an essential mineral for normal body function. It consists of water, organic material, and mineral matter. Chelating agents have been used clinically as antidotes for acute and chronic metal intoxications. In the present study, an attempt is made to investigate the bio-accumulation of arsenic and its effect on the biochemical and mineral contents of Labeo rohita bones using, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The results of the present study indicate that arsenic exposure induces significant reduction on the biochemical and mineral contents of the L. rohita bones. Further, the DMSA treatment significantly improves these levels. This shows that DMSA is an effective chelator for arsenic toxicity. Quantitative curve-fitting analyses of amide I band have proved useful in studying the nature and the extent of protein conformational changes. A decrease in α-helical and random coil structures and an increase in β-sheet structures have been observed due to arsenic exposure. In conclusion, the present study shows that the FT-IR spectroscopy coupled with second derivative and curve-fitting analysis gives useful information about the biochemical and mineral contents of the L. rohita bones.

  17. Determination of multiple human arsenic metabolites employing high performance liquid chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Szabina; Liu, Guangliang; Matulis, Shannon; Boise, Lawrence H.; Cai, Yong

    2016-01-01

    During the metabolism of different arsenic-containing compounds in human, a variety of metabolites are produced with significantly varying toxicities. Currently available analytical methods can only detect a limited number of human metabolites in biological samples during one run due to their diverse characteristics. In addition, co-elution of species is often unnoticeable with most detection techniques leading to inaccurate metabolic profiles and assessment of toxicity. A high performance liquid chromatography inductively coupled mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) method was developed that can identify thirteen common arsenic metabolites possibly present in human with special attention dedicated to thiolated or thiol conjugated arsenicals. The thirteen species included in this study are arsenite (AsIII), arsino-glutathione (As(GS)3), arsenate (AsV), monomethylarsonous acid (MMAIII), monomethylarsino-glutathione (MMAIII(GS)2), monomethylarsonic acid (MMAV), dimethylarsinous acid (DMAIII (from DMAIIII)), S-(dimethylarsinic)cysteine (DMAIII(Cys)), dimethylarsino-glutathione (DMAIII(GS)), dimethylarsinic acid (DMAV), dimethylmonothioarsinic acid (DMMTAV), dimethyldithioarsinic acid (DMDTAV), dimethylarsinothioyl glutathione (DMMTAV(GS)). The developed method was applied for the analysis of cancer cells that were incubated with Darinaparsin (DMAIII(GS)), a novel chemotherapeutic agent for refractory malignancies, and the arsenic metabolic profile obtained was compared to results using a previously developed method. This method provides a useful analytical tool which is much needed in unequivocally identifying the arsenicals formed during the metabolism of environmental arsenic exposure or therapeutic arsenic administration. PMID:26708625

  18. Association of arsenic exposure with lung cancer incidence rates in the United States.

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    Joseph J Putila

    Full Text Available Although strong exposure to arsenic has been shown to be carcinogenic, its contribution to lung cancer incidence in the United States is not well characterized. We sought to determine if the low-level exposures to arsenic seen in the U.S. are associated with lung cancer incidence after controlling for possible confounders, and to assess the interaction with smoking behavior.Measurements of arsenic stream sediment and soil concentration obtained from the USGS National Geochemical Survey were combined, respectively, with 2008 BRFSS estimates on smoking prevalence and 2000 U.S. Census county level income to determine the effects of these factors on lung cancer incidence, as estimated from respective state-wide cancer registries and the SEER database. Poisson regression was used to determine the association between each variable and age-adjusted county-level lung cancer incidence. ANOVA was used to assess interaction effects between covariates.Sediment levels of arsenic were significantly associated with an increase in incident cases of lung cancer (P<0.0001. These effects persisted after controlling for smoking and income (P<0.0001. Across the U.S., exposure to arsenic may contribute to up to 5,297 lung cancer cases per year. There was also a significant interaction between arsenic exposure levels and smoking prevalence (P<0.05.Arsenic was significantly associated with lung cancer incidence rates in the U.S. after controlling for smoking and income, indicating that low-level exposure to arsenic is responsible for excess cancer cases in many parts of the U.S. Elevated county smoking prevalence strengthened the association between arsenic exposure and lung cancer incidence rate, an effect previously unseen on a population level.

  19. Human exposure to arsenic in groundwater from Lahore district, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibi, Mehwish; Hashmi, Muhammad Zaffar; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we determined As concentrations in healthy volunteers from three different age groups (children, adults and old age) residing in Lahore, Pakistan to gain insight into arsenic exposure to humans via drinking water. The results revealed that the concentrations of As were significantly (p<0.05) different among different sites, while non significant trends were observed among different age classes. As concentrations in blood and nails samples showed a significant (p<0.05) positive correlation. The mean concentrations of As were higher in nails samples (1.43μg/g) followed by blood samples (1.15μg/L); urine samples (0.82μg/l) and hair samples (0.74μg/g) based on all sites. The antioxidants enzyme activities in blood samples showed a significant (p<0.01) decrease with the increase in As concentrations. The result suggests that urgent action is needed to prevent further human exposure to As.

  20. High levels of inorganic arsenic in rice in areas where arsenic-contaminated water is used for irrigation and cooking

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, M. Azizur; Hasegawa, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Rice is the staple food for the people of arsenic endemic South (S) and South-East (SE) Asian countries. In this region, arsenic contaminated groundwater has been used not only for drinking and cooking purposes but also for rice cultivation during dry season. Irrigation of arsenic-contaminated groundwater for rice cultivation has resulted high deposition of arsenic in topsoil and uptake in rice grain posing a serious threat to the sustainable agriculture in this region. In addition, cooking r...

  1. Early life arsenic exposure, infant and child growth, and morbidity: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Anisur; Granberg, Caroline; Persson, Lars-Åke

    2017-09-14

    Epidemiological studies have suggested a negative association between early life arsenic exposure and fetal size at birth, and subsequently with child morbidity and growth. However, our understanding of the relationship between arsenic exposure and morbidity and growth is limited. This paper aims to systematically review original human studies with an analytical epidemiological study design that have assessed arsenic exposure in fetal life or early childhood and evaluated the association with one or several of the following outcomes: fetal growth, birth weight or other birth anthropometry, infant and child growth, infectious disease morbidity in infancy and early childhood. A literature search was conducted in PubMed, TOXLINE, Web of Science, SciFinder and Scopus databases filtered for human studies. Based on the predefined eligibility criteria, two authors independently evaluated the studies. A total of 707 studies with morbidity outcomes were identified, of which six studies were eligible and included in this review. For the growth outcomes, a total of 2959 studies were found and nine fulfilled the criteria and were included in the review. A majority of the papers (10/15) emanated from Bangladesh, three from the USA, one from Romania and one from Canada. All included studies on arsenic exposure and morbidity showed an increased risk of respiratory tract infections and diarrhea. The findings in the studies of arsenic exposure and fetal, infant, and child growth were heterogeneous. Arsenic exposure was not associated with fetal growth. There was limited evidence of negative associations between arsenic exposures and birth weight and growth during early childhood. More studies from arsenic-affected low- and middle-income countries are needed to support the generalizability of study findings.

  2. Paraoxonase 1 activity in subchronic low-level inorganic arsenic exposure through drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afolabi, Olusegun K; Wusu, Adedoja D; Ogunrinola, Olufunmilayo O; Abam, Esther O; Babayemi, David O; Dosumu, Oluwatosin A; Onunkwor, Okechukwu B; Balogun, Elizabeth A; Odukoya, Olusegun O; Ademuyiwa, Oladipo

    2016-02-01

    Epidemiological evidences indicate close association between inorganic arsenic exposure via drinking water and cardiovascular diseases. While the exact mechanism of this arsenic-mediated increase in cardiovascular risk factors remains enigmatic, epidemiological studies indicate a role for paraoxonase 1 (PON1) in cardiovascular diseases. To investigate the association between inorganic arsenic exposure and cardiovascular diseases, rats were exposed to sodium arsenite (trivalent; 50, 100, and 150 ppm As) and sodium arsenate (pentavalent; 100, 150, and 200 ppm As) in their drinking water for 12 weeks. PON1 activity towards paraoxon (PONase) and phenylacetate (AREase) in plasma, lipoproteins, hepatic, and brain microsomal fractions were determined. Inhibition of PONase and AREase in plasma and HDL characterized the effects of the two arsenicals. While the trivalent arsenite inhibited PONase by 33% (plasma) and 46% (HDL), respectively, the pentavalent arsenate inhibited the enzyme by 41 and 34%, respectively. AREase activity was inhibited by 52 and 48% by arsenite, whereas the inhibition amounted to 72 and 67%, respectively by arsenate. The pattern of inhibition in plasma and HDL indicates that arsenite induced a dose-dependent inhibition of PONase whereas arsenate induced a dose-dependent inhibition of AREase. In the VLDL + LDL, arsenate inhibited PONase and AREase while arsenite inhibited PONase. In the hepatic and brain microsomal fractions, only the PONase enzyme was inhibited by the two arsenicals. The inhibition was more pronounced in the hepatic microsomes where a 70% inhibition was observed at the highest dose of pentavalent arsenic. Microsomal cholesterol was increased by the two arsenicals resulting in increased cholesterol/phospholipid ratios. Our findings indicate that decreased PON1 activity observed in arsenic exposure may be an incipient biochemical event in the cardiovascular effects of arsenic. Modulation of PON1 activity by arsenic may also be

  3. Exposure to Inorganic Arsenic Is Associated with Increased Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number and Longer Telomere Length in Peripheral Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameer, Syeda S.; Xu, YiYi; Engström, Karin; Li, Huiqi; Tallving, Pia; Nermell, Barbro; Boemo, Analia; Parada, Luis A.; Peñaloza, Lidia G.; Concha, Gabriela; Harari, Florencia; Vahter, Marie; Broberg, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs) through drinking water causes cancer. Alterations in mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn) and telomere length in blood have been associated with cancer risk. We elucidated if arsenic exposure alters mtDNAcn and telomere length in individuals with different arsenic metabolizing capacity. Methods: We studied two groups in the Salta province, Argentina, one in the Puna area of the Andes (N = 264, 89% females) and one in Chaco (N = 169, 75% females). We assessed arsenic exposure as the sum of arsenic metabolites [iAs, methylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA)] in urine (U-As) using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with hydride generation and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Efficiency of arsenic metabolism was expressed as percentage of urinary metabolites. MtDNAcn and telomere length were determined in blood by real-time PCR. Results: Median U-As was 196 (5–95 percentile: 21–537) μg/L in Andes and 80 (5–95 percentile: 15–1637) μg/L in Chaco. The latter study group had less-efficient metabolism, with higher %iAs and %MMA in urine compared with the Andean group. U-As was significantly associated with increased mtDNAcn (log2 transformed to improve linearity) in Chaco (β = 0.027 per 100 μg/L, p = 0.0085; adjusted for age and sex), but not in Andes (β = 0.025, p = 0.24). U-As was also associated with longer telomere length in Chaco (β = 0.016, p = 0.0066) and Andes (β = 0.0075, p = 0.029). In both populations, individuals with above median %iAs showed significantly higher mtDNAcn and telomere length compared with individuals with below median %iAs. Conclusions: Arsenic was associated with increased mtDNAcn and telomere length, particularly in individuals with less-efficient arsenic metabolism, a group who may have increased risk for arsenic-related cancer. PMID:27597942

  4. Exposure to inorganic arsenic is associated with increased mitochondrial DNA copy number and longer telomere length in peripheral blood.

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    Syeda Shegufta Ameer

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs through drinking water causes cancer. Alterations in mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn and telomere length in blood have been associated with cancer risk. We elucidated if arsenic exposure alters mtDNAcn and telomere length in individuals with different arsenic metabolizing capacity.Methods: We studied two groups in the Salta province, Argentina, one in the Puna area of the Andes (N=264, 89% females and one in Chaco (N=169, 75% females. We assessed arsenic exposure as the sum of arsenic metabolites [iAs, methylarsonic acid (MMA, dimethylarsinic acid (DMA] in urine (U-As using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with hydride generation and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Efficiency of arsenic metabolism was expressed as percentage of urinary metabolites. MtDNAcn and telomere length were determined in blood by real-time PCR. Results: Median U-As was 196 (5 - 95 percentile: 21 - 537 µg/L in Andes and 80 (5 - 95 percentile: 15 - 1637 µg/L in Chaco. The latter study group had less-efficient metabolism, with higher %iAs and %MMA in urine compared with the Andean group. U-As was significantly associated with increased mtDNAcn (log2 transformed to improve linearity in Chaco (β=0.027 per 100 µg/L, p=0.0085; adjusted for age and sex, but not in Andes (β=0.025, p=0.24. U-As was also associated with longer telomere length in Chaco (β=0.016, p=0.0066 and Andes (β=0.0075, p=0.029. In both populations, individuals with above median %iAs showed significantly higher mtDNAcn and telomere length compared with individuals with below median %iAs. Conclusions: Arsenic was associated with increased mtDNAcn and telomere length, particularly in individuals with less-efficient arsenic metabolism, a group who may have increased risk for arsenic-related cancer.

  5. A concurrent exposure to arsenic and fluoride from drinking water in Chihuahua, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Horta, Carmen; Ballinas-Casarrubias, Lourdes; Sánchez-Ramírez, Blanca; Ishida, María C; Barrera-Hernández, Angel; Gutiérrez-Torres, Daniela; Zacarias, Olga L; Saunders, R Jesse; Drobná, Zuzana; Mendez, Michelle A; García-Vargas, Gonzalo; Loomis, Dana; Stýblo, Miroslav; Del Razo, Luz M

    2015-04-24

    Inorganic arsenic (iAs) and fluoride (F-) are naturally occurring drinking water contaminants. However, co-exposure to these contaminants and its effects on human health are understudied. The goal of this study was examined exposures to iAs and F- in Chihuahua, Mexico, where exposure to iAs in drinking water has been associated with adverse health effects. All 1119 eligible Chihuahua residents (>18 years) provided a sample of drinking water and spot urine samples. iAs and F- concentrations in water samples ranged from 0.1 to 419.8 µg As/L and from 0.05 to 11.8 mg F-/L. Urinary arsenic (U-tAs) and urinary F- (U-F-) levels ranged from 0.5 to 467.9 ng As/mL and from 0.1 to 14.4 µg F-/mL. A strong positive correlation was found between iAs and F- concentrations in drinking water (rs = 0.741). Similarly, U-tAs levels correlated positively with U-F- concentrations (rs = 0.633). These results show that Chihuahua residents exposed to high iAs concentrations in drinking water are also exposed to high levels of F-, raising questions about possible contribution of F- exposure to the adverse effects that have so far been attributed only to iAs exposure. Thus, investigation of possible interactions between iAs and F- exposures and its related health risks deserves immediate attention.

  6. Preliminary study on the mode of occurrence of arsenic in high arsenic coals from southwest Guizhou Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁振华; 郑宝山; 张杰; H.; E.; Belkin; R.; B.; Finkelman; 赵峰华; 周代兴; 周运书; 陈朝刚

    1999-01-01

    Coal samples from high arsenic coal areas have been analyzed by electron microprobe analyzer ( EMPA) , scanning electron microscopy with an energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (SEM-EDX) , X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) , low temperature ashing (LTA) , transmission electron microscopy (TEM) , X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) , instrument neutron activation analysis (INAA) and wet chemical analysis. Although some As-bearing minerals such as pyrite, arsenopyrite, realgar (?), As-bearing sulfate, and As-bearing clays are found in the high arsenic coals, their contents do not account for the abundance of arsenic in the some coals. Analysis of the coal indicates that arsenic exists mainly in the form of As5+ and As3+ , combined with compounds in the organic matrix. The occurrence of such exceptionally high arsenic contents in coal and the fact that the arsenic is dominantly organically associated are unique observations. The modes of occurrence of arsenic in high As-coals are discussed.

  7. Associations between prenatal arsenic exposure with adverse pregnancy outcome and child mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Yu-Hsuan; Islam, Tariqul; Hore, Samar Kumar; Sarwar, Golam; Shahriar, Mohammad Hasan; Yunus, Mohammad; Graziano, Joseph H; Harjes, Judith; Baron, John A; Parvez, Faruque; Ahsan, Habibul; Argos, Maria

    2017-10-01

    Chronic arsenic exposure is a public health concern in many parts of the world, with elevated concentrations in groundwater posing a threat to millions of people. Arsenic is associated with various cancers and an array of chronic diseases; however, the relationship with adverse pregnancy outcomes and child mortality is less established. We evaluated associations between individual-level prenatal arsenic exposure with adverse pregnancy outcomes and child mortality in a pregnancy study among 498 women nested in a larger population-based cohort in rural Bangladesh. Creatinine-adjusted urinary total arsenic concentration, a comprehensive measure of exposure from water, food, and air sources, reflective of the prenatal period was available for participants. Self-reported pregnancy outcomes (livebirth, stillbirth, spontaneous/elective abortion) were ascertained. Generalized estimating equations, accounting for multiple pregnancies of participants, were used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals in relation to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Vital status of livebirths was subsequently ascertained through November 2015. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals in relation to child mortality. We observed a significant association between prenatal arsenic exposure and the risk of stillbirth (greater than median; adjusted OR = 2.50; 95% CI = 1.04, 6.01). We also observed elevated risk of child mortality (greater than median; adjusted HR = 1.92; 95% CI = 0.78, 4.68) in relation to prenatal arsenic exposure. Prospective studies should continue to evaluate prenatal and early life health effects of arsenic exposure and arsenic remediation strategies for women of child-bearing age. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Arsenic drinking water regulations in developing countries with extensive exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Allan H; Smith, Meera M Hira

    2004-05-20

    The United States Public Health Service set an interim standard of 50 microg/l in 1942, but as early as 1962 the US Public Health Service had identified 10 microg/l as a goal which later became the World Health Organization Guideline for drinking water in 1992. Epidemiological studies have shown that about one in 10 people drinking water containing 500 microg/l of arsenic over many years may die from internal cancers attributable to arsenic, with lung cancer being the surprising main contributor. A prudent public health response is to reduce the permissible drinking water arsenic concentrations. However, the appropriate regulatory response in those developing countries with large populations with much higher concentrations of arsenic in drinking water, often exceeding 100 microg/l, is more complex. Malnutrition may increase risks from arsenic. There is mounting evidence that smoking and arsenic act synergistically in causing lung cancer, and smoking raises issues of public health priorities in developing countries that face massive mortality from this product. Also, setting stringent drinking water standards will impede short term solutions such as shallow dugwells. Developing countries with large populations exposed to arsenic in water might reasonably be advised to keep their arsenic drinking water standards at 50 microg/l.

  9. Dimethylarsenate (DMA) exposure influences germination rates, arsenic uptake and arsenic species formation in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Elliott G; Maher, William A; Foster, Simon D; Krikowa, Frank; O'Sullivan, Cathryn A; Roper, Margaret M

    2017-08-01

    The contamination of cereals with arsenic (As) is a global health and agronomic concern. This study compared the physiological response, As uptake and As speciation in the grains and above ground tissues of 20 wheat cultivars exposed to 5 mg As kg(-1) soil as either arsenate (As(V)) or dimethylarsenate (DMA) under glasshouse conditions. Germination rates for the majority of cultivars exceeded 80% for the majority of cultivars when exposed to As(V), but fell significantly to 20-40% when exposed to DMA. For a number of cultivars, grain yields were 20-50% lower when plants were exposed to DMA compared to As(V). Grain As concentrations were between 0.6 and 1.6 μg As g(-1) grain across the twenty cultivars when exposed to As(V), whereas grain As concentrations were much higher (2.2-4.6 μg As g(-1) grain) when exposed to DMA. When plants were exposed to As(V), 100% of the As present in the grain was found as inorganic As while in plants exposed to DMA, 70-90% of As was present as DMA with the remainder found as inorganic As. DMA is believed to be incorporated by plants via silica (Si) acid channels and assessment of grain Si concentrations demonstrated that up to 40% less Si was accumulated in grains when plants were exposed to DMA. The decreased germination rates and grain yields in the presence of DMA is similar to the symptoms described for straight head disease in rice, which has been linked to DMA exposure. The results presented here indicate some analogous processes occur in wheat to those described in rice. We hypothesise that exposure to DMA may have inhibited Si-metabolism and translocation which resulted in both developmental impairment and possibly an increased susceptibility to soil pathogens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Association between arsenic exposure from drinking water and hematuria: Results from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClintock, Tyler R. [Department of Population Health, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Department of Urology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Chen, Yu, E-mail: yu.chen@nyumc.org [Department of Population Health, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Parvez, Faruque [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Makarov, Danil V. [Department of Urology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Robert F. Wagner Graduate School of Public Service, New York University, New York, NY (United States); United States Department of Veterans Affairs Harbor Healthcare System, New York, NY (United States); New York University Cancer Institute, New York, NY (United States); Ge, Wenzhen [Department of Population Health, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Islam, Tariqul; Ahmed, Alauddin; Rakibuz-Zaman, Muhammad; Hasan, Rabiul; Sarwar, Golam [U-Chicago Research Bangladesh, Ltd., Dhaka (Bangladesh); Slavkovich, Vesna [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Bjurlin, Marc A. [Department of Urology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Graziano, Joseph H. [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); and others

    2014-04-01

    Arsenic (As) exposure has been associated with both urologic malignancy and renal dysfunction; however, its association with hematuria is unknown. We evaluated the association between drinking water As exposure and hematuria in 7843 men enrolled in the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS). Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data was conducted with As exposure assessed in both well water and urinary As measurements, while hematuria was measured using urine dipstick. Prospective analyses with Cox proportional regression models were based on urinary As and dipstick measurements obtained biannually since baseline up to six years. At baseline, urinary As was significantly related to prevalence of hematuria (P-trend < 0.01), with increasing quintiles of exposure corresponding with respective prevalence odds ratios of 1.00 (reference), 1.29 (95% CI: 1.04–1.59), 1.41 (95% CI: 1.15–1.74), 1.46 (95% CI: 1.19–1.79), and 1.56 (95% CI: 1.27–1.91). Compared to those with relatively little absolute urinary As change during follow-up (− 10.40 to 41.17 μg/l), hazard ratios for hematuria were 0.99 (95% CI: 0.80–1.22) and 0.80 (95% CI: 0.65–0.99) for those whose urinary As decreased by > 47.49 μg/l and 10.87 to 47.49 μg/l since last visit, respectively, and 1.17 (95% CI: 0.94–1.45) and 1.36 (95% CI: 1.10–1.66) for those with between-visit increases of 10.40 to 41.17 μg/l and > 41.17 μg/l, respectively. These data indicate a positive association of As exposure with both prevalence and incidence of dipstick hematuria. This exposure effect appears modifiable by relatively short-term changes in drinking water As. - Highlights: • Hematuria is the most common symptom of urinary tract disease. • Arsenic exposure is associated with renal dysfunction and urologic malignancy. • Water arsenic was positively associated with prevalence and incidence of hematuria. • Reduction in exposure lowered hematuria risk especially in low-to-moderate exposed

  11. Arsenic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... WHO Language عربي 中文 English Français Русский Español Media centre Menu Media centre News News releases Previous ... this water and eating food irrigated with arsenic-rich water, can lead to chronic arsenic poisoning. Skin ...

  12. The Role of Arsenic Speciation in Dietary Exposure Assessment and the Need to Include Bioaccessibility and Biotransformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical form specific exposure assessment for arsenic has long been identified as a source of uncertainty in estimating the risk associated with the aggregate exposure for a population. Some speciation based assessments document occurrence within an exposure route; however, the...

  13. Biomonitoring of Occupational Exposure to Total Arsenic and Total Mercury in Urine of Goldmine Workers in Southwestern Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rex Gyeabour Abrefah

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Biomonitoring of total arsenic and total mercury in the urine of goldmine workers in south-western Ghana due to occupational exposure was conducted to determine whether occupational exposure substantially contributes to their overall exposure to arsenic and mercury. The urine was collected after 2-day abstinence from sea foods by the workers and from those with no dental amalgam fillings. Total arsenic and total mercury were simultaneously determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA. After 1-hour irradiation of the urine in Ghana's miniature neutron source reactor (GHARR-1 to induce 76As and 197Hg radionuclides through nuclear reactions 75As(n, γ76As, and 196Hg(n, γ197Hg, the γ-radiation intensity of the induced 76As and 197Hg radionuclides were measured by γ-spectrometry. The validity of the INAA technique for As and Hg determination was checked by analyses of NIST SRM 3103a (As standard solution and NIST SRM 3133 (Hg standard solution, respectively. The mean mass fractions of arsenic in the urine are 6.76 µg/L ± 1.43, 7.78 µg/L ± 1.33, 8.03 µg/L ± 1.75, 10.44 µg/L ± 1.88, and 14.75 µg/L ± 1.62 for workers in offices 10 km from the mine, 2 km from the mine, 0.5 km from the mine, casual mine workers, and gold ore processing workers, respectively. The levels of arsenic in the urine are all within the 5 to 40 µg As L-1 day-1 normal range for excretion of arsenic. The observed mass fraction of As was higher in high exposure workers. The mean mass fraction of Hg in the urine are 0.36 µg/L ± 0.11, 0.47 µg/L ± 0.12, 0.51 µg/L ± 0.16, 0.57 µg/L ± 0.14, and 0.56 µg/L ± 0.21 for workers in offices 10 km from the mine, 2 km from the mine, 0.5 km from the mine, casual mine workers, and gold ore processing workers, respectively. The high Hg exposed workers engage in small scale gold mining using mercury. The exposure of the different categories of workers to both total arsenic and total mercury are safe.

  14. Arsenic pollution sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garelick, Hemda; Jones, Huw; Dybowska, Agnieszka; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia

    2008-01-01

    Arsenic is a widely dispersed element in the Earth's crust and exists at an average concentration of approximately 5 mg/kg. There are many possible routes of human exposure to arsenic from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Arsenic occurs as a constituent in more than 200 minerals, although it primarily exists as arsenopyrite and as a constituent in several other sulfide minerals. The introduction of arsenic into drinking water can occur as a result of its natural geological presence in local bedrock. Arsenic-containing bedrock formations of this sort are known in Bangladesh, West Bengal (India), and regions of China, and many cases of endemic contamination by arsenic with serious consequences to human health are known from these areas. Significant natural contamination of surface waters and soil can arise when arsenic-rich geothermal fluids come into contact with surface waters. When humans are implicated in causing or exacerbating arsenic pollution, the cause can almost always be traced to mining or mining-related activities. Arsenic exists in many oxidation states, with arsenic (III) and (V) being the most common forms. Similar to many metalloids, the prevalence of particular species of arsenic depends greatly on the pH and redox conditions of the matrix in which it exists. Speciation is also important in determining the toxicity of arsenic. Arsenic minerals exist in the environment principally as sulfides, oxides, and phosphates. In igneous rocks, only those of volcanic origin are implicated in high aqueous arsenic concentrations. Sedimentary rocks tend not to bear high arsenic loads, and common matrices such as sands and sandstones contain lower concentrations owing to the dominance of quartz and feldspars. Groundwater contamination by arsenic arises from sources of arsenopyrite, base metal sulfides, realgar and orpiment, arsenic-rich pyrite, and iron oxyhydroxide. Mechanisms by which arsenic is released from minerals are varied and are accounted for by

  15. Transplacental and early life exposure to inorganic arsenic affected development and behavior in offspring rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi, Shuhua; Jin, Yaping; Sun, Guifan [China Medical University, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, College of Public Health, Shenyang, Liaoning (China); Sun, Wenjuan; Wang, Fengzhi [Shenyang Medical College, Department of Preventive Medicine, Shenyang, Liaoning (China)

    2009-06-15

    To evaluate the developmental neurotoxicity of arsenic in offspring rats by transplacental and early life exposure to sodium arsenite in drinking water, the pregnant rats or lactating dams, and weaned pups were given free access to drinking water, which contained arsenic at concentrations of 0, 10, 50, 100 mg/L from GD 6 until PND 42. A battery of physical and behavioral tests was applied to evaluate the functional outcome of pups. Pups in arsenic exposed groups weighed less than controls throughout lactation and weaning. Body weight of 10, 50 and 100 mg/L arsenic exposed groups decreased significantly on PND 42, 16 and 12, respectively. Physical development (pinna unfolding, fur appearance, incisor eruption, or eye opening) in pups displayed no significant differences between control and arsenic treated groups. The number of incidences within the 100 mg/L arsenic treated group, in tail hung, auditory startle and visual placing showed significant decrease compared to the control group (p<0.05). In square water maze test, the trained numbers to finish the trials successfully in 50 and 100 mg/L arsenic exposed groups increased remarkably compared to control group, and there was a dose-related increase (p<0.01) observed. Taken together, these data show that exposure of inorganic arsenite to pregnant dams and offspring pups at levels up to 100 mg/L in drinking water may affect their learning and memory functions and neuromotor reflex. (orig.)

  16. Health burden of skin lesions at low arsenic exposure through groundwater in Pakistan. Is river the source?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatmi, Zafar; Azam, Iqbal; Ahmed, Faiza; Kazi, Ambreen; Gill, Albert Bruce; Kadir, Muhmmad Masood; Ahmed, Mubashir; Ara, Naseem; Janjua, Naveed Zafar

    2009-07-01

    A significant proportion of groundwater in south Asia is contaminated with arsenic. Pakistan has low levels of arsenic in groundwater compared with China, Bangladesh and India. A representative multi-stage cluster survey conducted among 3874 persons > or = 15 years of age to determine the prevalence of arsenic skin lesions, its relation with arsenic levels and cumulative arsenic dose in drinking water in a rural district (population: 1.82 million) in Pakistan. Spot-urine arsenic levels were compared among individuals with and without arsenic skin lesions. In addition, the relation of age, body mass index, smoking status with arsenic skin lesions was determined. The geographical distribution of the skin lesions and arsenic-contaminated wells in the district were ascertained using global positioning system. The total arsenic, inorganic and organic forms, in water and spot-urine samples were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The prevalence of skin lesions of arsenic was estimated for complex survey design, using surveyfreq and surveylogistic options of SAS 9.1 software.The prevalence of definitive cases i.e. hyperkeratosis of both palms and soles, was 3.4 per 1000 and suspected cases i.e. any sign of arsenic skin lesions (melanosis and/or keratosis), were 13.0 per 1000 among > or = 15-year-old persons in the district. Cumulative arsenic exposure (dose) was calculated from levels of arsenic in water and duration of use of current drinking water source. Prevalence of skin lesions increases with cumulative arsenic exposure (dose) in drinking water and arsenic levels in urine. Skin lesions were 2.5-fold among individuals with BMI Pakistan. Further investigations and focal mitigation measures for arsenic may be carried out alongside Indus River.

  17. The Association between Chronic Arsenic Exposure and Hypertension: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanvir Abir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There is inconclusive evidence from cross-sectional and cohort studies that arsenic exposure is a risk factor involved in the development of hypertension. Methods. A database search, using several keywords, was conducted to identify relevant studies. Separate odds ratio estimates for arsenic exposure with concentration only and arsenic exposure with duration, including biomarker, were extracted from studies that met all inclusion criteria. The extracted odds ratios (OR comparing the highest exposure categories with the lowest in each study were pooled using the random effects methods of meta-analysis. Heterogeneity of odds ratios in the included studies were analyzed using I2 statistics. Results. Eight studies were analyzed. Using the exposure as arsenic concentration in the drinking water, the OR estimate was 1.9 (95% CI: 1.2–3.0, with the I2 = 92%, while using the exposure as concentration and duration, the OR estimate was 1.4 (95% CI: 0.95–2.0 with the I2 = 80%. Meta-regression was done and the quality of exposure measurement was found to be significantly associated with the effect measure. For a one unit increase in the score from exposure assessment, the odds ratio decreased by 6%. No publication bias was evident. The only major weaknesses of this study were heterogeneity across studies and small sample size. Conclusions. The study findings provide limited evidence for a relationship between arsenic and hypertension. In summary, the relationship between arsenic exposure and hypertension is still inconclusive and needs further validation through prospective cohort studies.

  18. Design of a rural water provision system to decrease arsenic exposure in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathieu, Johanna [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2009-01-09

    Researchers at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory have invented ARUBA (Arsenic Removal Using Bottom Ash) a material that effectively and affordably removes high concentrations of arsenic from contaminated groundwater. The technology is cost-effective because the substrate-bottom ash from coal fired power plants-is a waste material readily available in South Asia. During fieldwork in four sub-districts of Bangladesh, ARUBA reduced groundwater arsenic concentrations as high as 680 ppb to below the Bangladesh standard of 50 ppb. Key results from three trips in Bangladesh and one trip to Cambodia include (1) ARUBA removes more than half of the arsenic from contaminated water within the first five minutes of contact, and continues removing arsenic for 2-3 days; (2) ARUBA's arsenic removal efficiency can be improved through fractionated dosing (adding a given amount of ARUBA in fractions versus all at once); (3) allowing water to first stand for two to three days followed by treatment with ARUBA produced final arsenic concentrations ten times lower than treating water directly out of the well; and (4) the amount of arsenic removed per gram of ARUBA is linearly related to the initial arsenic concentration of the water. Through analysis of existing studies, observations, and informal interviews in Bangladesh, eight design strategies have been developed and used in the design of a low-cost, community-scale water treatment system that uses ARUBA to remove arsenic from drinking water. We have constructed, tested, and analyzed a scale version of the system. Experiments have shown that the system is capable of reducing high levels of arsenic (nearly 600 ppb) to below 50 ppb, while remaining affordable to people living on less than $2 per day. The system could be sustainably implemented as a public-private partnership in rural Bangladesh.

  19. Metallothionein blocks oxidative DNA damage induced by acute inorganic arsenic exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Wei, E-mail: qu@niehs.nih.gov; Waalkes, Michael P.

    2015-02-01

    We studied how protein metallothionein (MT) impacts arsenic-induced oxidative DNA damage (ODD) using cells that poorly express MT (MT-I/II double knockout embryonic cells; called MT-null cells) and wild-type (WT) MT competent cells. Arsenic (as NaAsO{sub 2}) was less cytolethal over 24 h in WT cells (LC{sub 50} = 11.0 ± 1.3 μM; mean ± SEM) than in MT-null cells (LC{sub 50} = 5.6 ± 1.2 μM). ODD was measured by the immuno-spin trapping method. Arsenic (1 or 5 μM; 24 h) induced much less ODD in WT cells (121% and 141% of control, respectively) than in MT-null cells (202% and 260%). In WT cells arsenic caused concentration-dependent increases in MT expression (transcript and protein), and in the metal-responsive transcription factor-1 (MTF-1), which is required to induce the MT gene. In contrast, basal MT levels were not detectable in MT-null cells and unaltered by arsenic exposure. Transfection of MT-I gene into the MT-null cells markedly reduced arsenic-induced ODD levels. The transport genes, Abcc1 and Abcc2 were increased by arsenic in WT cells but either showed no or very limited increases in MT-null cells. Arsenic caused increases in oxidant stress defense genes HO-1 and GSTα2 in both WT and MT-null cells, but to much higher levels in WT cells. WT cells appear more adept at activating metal transport systems and oxidant response genes, although the role of MT in these responses is unclear. Overall, MT protects against arsenic-induced ODD in MT competent cells by potential sequestration of scavenging oxidant radicals and/or arsenic. - Highlights: • Metallothionein blocks arsenic toxicity. • Metallothionein reduces arsenic-induced DNA damage. • Metallothionein may bind arsenic or radicals produced by arsenic.

  20. Effect of acute and chronic arsenic exposure on growth, structure and virulence of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Ramansu; Ghosh, Debabrata; Saha, Dhira Rani; Padhy, Pratap Kumar; Mazumder, Shibnath

    2011-02-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila being a ubiquitous bacterium is prone to arsenic exposure. The present study was designed to determine the role of arsenic on growth and virulence of A. hydrophila. Exposure to arsenic (1 mg L(-1) and 2 mg L(-1)) had no effect on growth but significantly inhibited the hemolytic and cytotoxic potential of exposed bacteria. Transmission electron microscopy revealed loss of membrane integrity and presence of condensed cytoplasm suggestive of acute stress in bacteria exposed to arsenic. Arsenic-adapted bacteria were developed by repeated sub-culturing in presence of arsenic. Arsenic-adaptation led to significant recovery in hemolytic and cytotoxic potential. The arsenic-adapted bacteria exhibited normal membrane integrity, decreased cytoplasmic condensation and possessed scattered polysome like structures in the cytoplasm. A positive correlation was observed between arsenic tolerance and resistance to several antimicrobials. Arsenic-adaptation failed to confer cross-protection to mercury and cadmium stress. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed the expression of two new proteins of approximately 85 kDa and 79 kDa respectively in arsenic-adapted A. hydrophila. Plasmid-curing and transformation studies clearly indicate plasmid has no role on arsenic resistance trait of the bacteria. Our study, for the first time, reports a structure and function relationship of xenobiotics on bacteria.

  1. Chronic Arsenic Exposure-Induced Oxidative Stress is Mediated by Decreased Mitochondrial Biogenesis in Rat Liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Chandra; Kumar, Vijay

    2016-09-01

    The present study was executed to study the effect of chronic arsenic exposure on generation of mitochondrial oxidative stress and biogenesis in rat liver. Chronic sodium arsenite treatment (25 ppm for 12 weeks) decreased mitochondrial complexes activity in rat liver. There was a decrease in mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) activity in arsenic-treated rats that might be responsible for increased protein and lipid oxidation as observed in our study. The messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of mitochondrial and nuclear-encoded subunits of complexes I (ND1 and ND2) and IV (COX I and COX IV) was downregulated in arsenic-treated rats only. The protein and mRNA expression of MnSOD was reduced suggesting increased mitochondrial oxidative damage after arsenic treatment. There was activation of Bax and caspase-3 followed by release of cytochrome c from mitochondria suggesting induction of apoptotic pathway under oxidative stress. The entire phenomenon was associated with decrease in mitochondrial biogenesis as evident by decreased protein and mRNA expression of nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1), nuclear respiratory factor 2 (NRF-2), peroxisome proliferator activator receptor gamma-coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), and mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) in arsenic-treated rat liver. The results of the present study indicate that arsenic-induced mitochondrial oxidative stress is associated with decreased mitochondrial biogenesis in rat liver that may present one of the mechanisms for arsenic-induced hepatotoxicity.

  2. Reduced cellular DNA repair capacity after environmentally relevant arsenic exposure. Influence of Ogg1 deficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bach, Jordi; Peremartí, Jana; Annangi, Balasubramnayam [Grup de Mutagènesi, Departament de Genètica i de Microbiologia, Facultat de Biociències, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Barcelona (Spain); Marcos, Ricard, E-mail: ricard.marcos@uab.es [Grup de Mutagènesi, Departament de Genètica i de Microbiologia, Facultat de Biociències, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública, ISCIII, Madrid (Spain); Hernández, Alba, E-mail: alba.hernandez@uab.es [Grup de Mutagènesi, Departament de Genètica i de Microbiologia, Facultat de Biociències, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública, ISCIII, Madrid (Spain)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Repair ability under long-term exposure to arsenic was tested using the comet assay. • Effects were measured under Ogg1 wild-type and deficient backgrounds. • Exposed cells repair less efficiency the DNA damage induced by SA, KBrO{sub 3}, MMA{sup III} or UVC radiation. • Oxidative damage and Ogg1 deficient background exacerbate repair deficiencies. • Overexpression of the arsenic metabolizing enzyme As3mt acts as adaptive mechanism. - Abstract: Inorganic arsenic (i-As) is a genotoxic and carcinogenic environmental contaminant known to affect millions of people worldwide. Our previous work demonstrated that chronic sub-toxic i-As concentrations were able to induce biologically significant levels of genotoxic and oxidative DNA damage that were strongly influenced by the Ogg1 genotype. In order to study the nature of the observed levels of damage and the observed differences between MEF Ogg1{sup +/+} and Ogg1{sup −/−} genetic backgrounds, the genotoxic and oxidative DNA repair kinetics of 18-weeks exposed MEF cells were evaluated by the comet assay. Results indicate that MEF Ogg1{sup +/+} and Ogg1{sup −/−} cells chronically exposed to i-As repair the DNA damage induced by arsenite, potassium bromide and UVC radiation less efficiently than control cells, being that observation clearly more pronounced in MEF Ogg1{sup −/−} cells. Consequently, exposed cells accumulate a higher percentage of unrepaired DNA damage at the end of the repair period. As an attempt to eliminate i-As associated toxicity, chronically exposed MEF Ogg1{sup −/−} cells overexpress the arsenic metabolizing enzyme As3mt. This adaptive response confers cells a significant resistance to i-As-induced cell death, but at expenses of accumulating high levels of DNA damage due to their repair impairment. Overall, the work presented here evidences that i-As chronic exposure disrupts the normal cellular repair function, and that oxidative DNA damage—and Ogg1 deficiency

  3. The health effects of exposure to arsenic-contaminated drinking water: a review by global geographical distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Wu, Haiyun; van der Kuijp, Tsering Jan

    2015-01-01

    Chronic arsenic exposure through drinking water has been a vigorously studied and debated subject. However, the existing literature does not allow for a thorough examination of the potential regional discrepancies that may arise among arsenic-related health outcomes. The purpose of this article is to provide an updated review of the literature on arsenic exposure and commonly discussed health effects according to global geographical distribution. This geographically segmented approach helps uncover the discrepancies in the health effects of arsenic. For instance, women are more susceptible than men to a few types of cancer in Taiwan, but not in other countries. Although skin cancer and arsenic exposure correlations have been discovered in Chile, Argentina, the United States, and Taiwan, no evident association was found in mainland China. We then propose several globally applicable recommendations to prevent and treat the further spread of arsenic poisoning and suggestions of future study designs and decision-making.

  4. Arsenic exposure disrupts epigenetic regulation of SIRT1 in human keratinocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbert, Katharine J. [School of Health Sciences, University of Tasmania, Launceston, TAS 7250 (Australia); Holloway, Adele [Menzies Research Institute Tasmania, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS 7000 (Australia); Cook, Anthony L. [School of Health Sciences, University of Tasmania, Launceston, TAS 7250 (Australia); Chin, Suyin P. [Menzies Research Institute Tasmania, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS 7000 (Australia); Snow, Elizabeth T., E-mail: elizabeth.snow@utas.edu.au [School of Health Sciences, University of Tasmania, Launceston, TAS 7250 (Australia)

    2014-11-15

    Arsenic is an environmental toxin which increases skin cancer risk for exposed populations worldwide; however the underlying biomolecular mechanism for arsenic-induced carcinogenesis is complex and poorly defined. Recent investigations show that histone deacetylase and DNA methyltransferase activity is impaired, and epigenetic patterns of gene regulation are consistently altered in cancers associated with arsenic exposure. Expression of the histone deacetylase SIRT1 is altered in solid tumours and haematological malignancies; however its role in arsenic-induced pathology is unknown. In this study we investigated the effect of arsenic on epigenetic regulation of SIRT1 and its targeting microRNA, miR-34a in primary human keratinocytes. Acetylation of histone H4 at lysine 16 (H4K16) increased in keratinocytes exposed to 0.5 μM arsenite [As(III)]; and this was associated with chromatin remodelling at the miR-34a promoter. Moreover, although SIRT1 protein initially increased in these As(III)-exposed cells, after 24 days expression was not significantly different from untreated controls. Extended exposure to low-dose As(III) (0.5 μM; > 5 weeks) compromised the pattern of CpG methylation at SIRT1 and miR-34a gene promoters, and this was associated with altered expression for both genes. We have found that arsenic alters epigenetic regulation of SIRT1 expression via structural reorganisation of chromatin at the miR-34a gene promoter in the initial 24 h of exposure; and over time, through shifts in miR-34a and SIRT1 gene methylation. Taken together, this investigation demonstrates that arsenic produces cumulative disruptions to epigenetic regulation of miR-34a expression, and this is associated with impaired coordination of SIRT1 functional activity. - Highlights: • Submicromolar arsenic concentrations disrupt SIRT1 activity and expression in human keratinocytes. • Arsenic-induced chromatin remodelling at the miR-34a gene promoter is associated with hyperacetylation

  5. Microbial community in high arsenic shallow groundwater aquifers in Hetao Basin of Inner Mongolia, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Wang, Yanhong; Dai, Xinyue; Zhang, Rui; Jiang, Zhou; Jiang, Dawei; Wang, Shang; Jiang, Hongchen; Wang, Yanxin; Dong, Hailiang

    2015-01-01

    A survey was carried out on the microbial community of 20 groundwater samples (4 low and 16 high arsenic groundwater) and 19 sediments from three boreholes (two high arsenic and one low arsenic boreholes) in a high arsenic groundwater system located in Hetao Basin, Inner Mongolia, using the 454 pyrosequencing approach. A total of 233,704 sequence reads were obtained and classified into 12-267 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Groundwater and sediment samples were divided into low and high arsenic groups based on measured geochemical parameters and microbial communities, by hierarchical clustering and principal coordinates analysis. Richness and diversity of the microbial communities in high arsenic sediments are higher than those in high arsenic groundwater. Microbial community structure was significantly different either between low and high arsenic samples or between groundwater and sediments. Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Psychrobacter and Alishewanella were the top four genera in high arsenic groundwater, while Thiobacillus, Pseudomonas, Hydrogenophaga, Enterobacteriaceae, Sulfuricurvum and Arthrobacter dominated high arsenic sediments. Archaeal sequences in high arsenic groundwater were mostly related to methanogens. Biota-environment matching and co-inertia analyses showed that arsenic, total organic carbon, SO4(2-), SO4(2-)/total sulfur ratio, and Fe(2+) were important environmental factors shaping the observed microbial communities. The results of this study expand our current understanding of microbial ecology in high arsenic groundwater aquifers and emphasize the potential importance of microbes in arsenic transformation in the Hetao Basin, Inner Mongolia.

  6. Microbial community in high arsenic shallow groundwater aquifers in Hetao Basin of Inner Mongolia, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Li

    Full Text Available A survey was carried out on the microbial community of 20 groundwater samples (4 low and 16 high arsenic groundwater and 19 sediments from three boreholes (two high arsenic and one low arsenic boreholes in a high arsenic groundwater system located in Hetao Basin, Inner Mongolia, using the 454 pyrosequencing approach. A total of 233,704 sequence reads were obtained and classified into 12-267 operational taxonomic units (OTUs. Groundwater and sediment samples were divided into low and high arsenic groups based on measured geochemical parameters and microbial communities, by hierarchical clustering and principal coordinates analysis. Richness and diversity of the microbial communities in high arsenic sediments are higher than those in high arsenic groundwater. Microbial community structure was significantly different either between low and high arsenic samples or between groundwater and sediments. Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Psychrobacter and Alishewanella were the top four genera in high arsenic groundwater, while Thiobacillus, Pseudomonas, Hydrogenophaga, Enterobacteriaceae, Sulfuricurvum and Arthrobacter dominated high arsenic sediments. Archaeal sequences in high arsenic groundwater were mostly related to methanogens. Biota-environment matching and co-inertia analyses showed that arsenic, total organic carbon, SO4(2-, SO4(2-/total sulfur ratio, and Fe(2+ were important environmental factors shaping the observed microbial communities. The results of this study expand our current understanding of microbial ecology in high arsenic groundwater aquifers and emphasize the potential importance of microbes in arsenic transformation in the Hetao Basin, Inner Mongolia.

  7. Perturbations in immune responses induced by concurrent subchronic exposure to arsenic and endosulfan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Manoj; Naraharisetti, Suresh Babu; Dandapat, S; Degen, G H; Malik, J K

    2008-09-29

    The metalloid arsenic and the chlorinated insecticide endosulfan are common environmental contaminants. Humans, animals, and birds are exposed to these chemicals through water and food. Although health effects due to either arsenic or endosulfan exposure are documented, the toxicological impact of co-exposure to these environmental pollutants is unpredictable and unknown. The present study was undertaken to assess whether concurrent exposure to arsenic and endosulfan induces significant alterations in immunological functions. Day-old chicks were exposed to 3.7 ppm of arsenic via drinking water and to 30 ppm of endosulfan-mixed feed either individually or concurrently for up to 60 days. All the chicks were vaccinated with Ranikhet disease virus (F-strain; RD-F) on days 1 and 30. During the course of study and at term, parameters of cellular and humoral immunity were determined. None of the treatments altered the absolute body weight or body weight gain, except arsenic significantly reduced weight gain on day 60. Absolute, but not the relative, weights of spleen, thymus and bursa of Fabricius were significantly reduced in all the treatment groups. The metalloid and insecticide combination significantly depressed the ability of peripheral blood and splenic lymphocytes to proliferate in response to antigen RD-F and mitogen Con A. The delayed type hypersensitivity response to 2,4-dinitro-1-chlorobenzene or to PHA-P was also significantly decreased. Nitric oxide production by RD-F or lipopolysaccharide-stimulated peripheral blood and splenic mononuclear cells was significantly suppressed following concurrent exposure to arsenic and endosulfan. Furthermore, the combined exposure also decreased the antibody response to RD-F. The suppression of cellular and humoral immune responses was also evident following administration of individual compounds, and it was not exacerbated following concurrent exposure. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the suppression

  8. Total and inorganic arsenic in dietary supplements based on herbs, other botanicals and algae—a possible contributor to inorganic arsenic exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Rikke Susanne Vingborg; Rokkjær, Inge; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    The content of total and inorganic arsenic was determined in 16 dietary supplements based on herbs, other botanicals and algae purchased on the Danish market. The dietary supplements originated from various regions, including Asia, Europe and USA. The contents of total and inorganic arsenic...... dose of the individual dietary supplement would lead to an exposure to inorganic arsenic within the range of 0.07 to 13 μg day−1. Such exposure from dietary supplements would in worst case constitute 62.4 % of the range of benchmark dose lower confidence limit values (BMDL01 at 0.3 to 8 μg kg bw−1 kg−1...... day−1) put down by European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) in 2009, for cancers of the lung, skin and bladder, as well as skin lesions. Hence, the results demonstrate that consumption of certain dietary supplements could contribute significantly to the dietary exposure to inorganic arsenic at levels...

  9. Neurobehavioral effects of arsenic exposure among secondary school children in the Kandal Province, Cambodia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vibol, Sao [United Nations University – International Institute for Global Health, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Faculty of Agricultural Technology and Management, Royal University of Agriculture, Phnom Penh (Cambodia); Hashim, Jamal Hisham, E-mail: jamalhas@hotmail.com [United Nations University – International Institute for Global Health, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Department of Community Health, National University of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Sarmani, Sukiman [Faculty of Science and Technology, National University of Malaysia, Bangi (Malaysia)

    2015-02-15

    The research was carried out at 3 study sites with varying groundwater arsenic (As) levels in the Kandal Province of Cambodia. Kampong Kong Commune was chosen as a highly contaminated site (300–500 μg/L), Svay Romiet Commune was chosen as a moderately contaminated site (50–300 μg/L) and Anlong Romiet Commune was chosen as a control site. Neurobehavioral tests on the 3 exposure groups were conducted using a modified WHO neurobehavioral core test battery. Seven neurobehavioral tests including digit symbol, digit span, Santa Ana manual dexterity, Benton visual retention, pursuit aiming, trail making and simple reaction time were applied. Children's hair samples were also collected to investigate the influence of hair As levels on the neurobehavioral test scores. The results from the inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analyses of hair samples showed that hair As levels at the 3 study sites were significantly different (p<0.001), whereby hair samples from the highly contaminated site (n=157) had a median hair As level of 0.93 μg/g, while the moderately contaminated site (n=151) had a median hair As level of 0.22 μg/g, and the control site (n=214) had a median hair As level of 0.08 μg/g. There were significant differences among the 3 study sites for all the neurobehavioral tests scores, except for digit span (backward) test. Multiple linear regression clearly shows a positive significant influence of hair As levels on all the neurobehavioral test scores, except for digit span (backward) test, after controlling for hair lead (Pb), manganese (Mn) and cadmium (Cd). Children with high hair As levels experienced 1.57–4.67 times greater risk of having lower neurobehavioral test scores compared to those with low hair As levels, after adjusting for hair Pb, Mn and Cd levels and BMI status. In conclusion, arsenic-exposed school children from the Kandal Province of Cambodia with a median hair As level of 0.93 µg/g among those from the highly

  10. Arsenic and cadmium exposure in children living near a smelter complex in San Luis Potosí, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Barriga, F; Santos, M A; Mejía, J J; Batres, L; Yáñez, L; Carrizales, L; Vera, E; del Razo, L M; Cebrián, M E

    1993-08-01

    The main purpose of this study was to assess environmental contamination by arsenic and cadmium in a smelter community (San Luis Potosí City, México) and its possible contribution to an increased body burden of these elements in children. Arsenic and cadmium were found in the environment (air, soil, and household dust, and tap water) as well as in the urine and hair from children. The study was undertaken in three zones: Morales, an urban area close to the smelter complex; Graciano, an urban area 7 km away from the complex; and Mexquitic, a small rural town 25 km away. The environmental study showed that Morales is the most contaminated of the zones studied. The range of arsenic levels in soil (117-1396 ppm), dust (515-2625 ppm), and air (0.13-1.45 micrograms/m3) in the exposed area (Morales) was higher than those in the control areas. Cadmium concentrations were also higher in Morales. Estimates of the arsenic ingestion rate in Morales (1.0-19.8 micrograms/kg/day) were equal to or higher than the reference dose of 1 microgram/kg/day calculated by the Environmental Protection Agency. The range of arsenic levels in urine (69-594 micrograms/g creatinine) and hair (1.4-57.3 micrograms/g) and that of cadmium in hair (0.25-3.5 micrograms/g) indicated that environmental exposure has resulted in an increased body burden of these elements in children, suggesting that children living in Morales are at high risk of suffering adverse health effects if exposure continues.

  11. Lung Tumors in Mice Induced by “Whole Life” Inorganic Arsenic Exposure at Human Relevant Doses

    OpenAIRE

    Waalkes, Michael P.; Qu, Wei; Tokar, Erik J.; Kissling, Grace E.; Dixon, Darlene

    2014-01-01

    In mice, inorganic arsenic in the drinking water in the parts per million (ppm) range via the dam during in utero life or with whole life exposure is a multi-site carcinogen in the offspring. However, human arsenic exposure is typically in the parts per billion (ppb) range. Thus, we studied “whole life” inorganic arsenic carcinogenesis in mice at levels more relevant to humans. Breeder male and female CD1 mice were exposed to 0, 50, 500 or 5000 ppb arsenic (as sodium arsenite) in the drinking...

  12. Evaluation of Urinary Arsenic as an Indicator of Exposure to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    komla

    As and Mn is a concern for the people consuming the contaminated water in ... Arsenic (As) is an ubiquitous element found in several forms in foods and environmental media .... They included mine workers (14 males and 1 female) and non-mine ...... Factors, such as how often fish is consumed, time of alcohol consumption, ...

  13. Concurrent subacute exposure to arsenic through drinking water and malathion via diet in male rats: effects on hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naraharisetti, Suresh Babu [Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Izatnagar, Uttar Pradesh (India); University of Washington, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Seattle, WA (United States); Aggarwal, Manoj [Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Izatnagar, Uttar Pradesh (India); Institut fuer Arbeitsphysiologie an der Universitaet Dortmund, Dortmund (Germany); Sarkar, S.N.; Malik, J.K. [Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Izatnagar, Uttar Pradesh (India)

    2008-08-15

    Arsenic is a known global groundwater contaminant, while malathion is one of the most widely used pesticides in agriculture and public health practices in the world. Here, we investigated whether repeated exposure to arsenic at the groundwater contamination levels and to malathion at sublethal levels exerts adverse effects on the hepatic drug-metabolizing system in rats, and whether concurrent exposure is more hazardous than the single agent. Male Wistar rats were exposed daily to 4 or 40 ppm of arsenic via drinking water, 50 or 500 ppm of malathion-mixed feed and in a similar fashion co-exposed to 4 ppm of arsenic and 50 ppm of malathion or 40 ppm of arsenic and 500 ppm of malathion for 28 days. At term, toxicity was assessed by evaluating changes in body weight, liver weight, levels of cytochrome P{sub 450} (CYP), cytochrome b{sub 5} and microsomal and cytosolic proteins, and activities of aminopyrine-N-demethylase (ANDM), aniline-P-hydroxylase (APH), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) in liver. Arsenic and malathion alone did not alter body weight and liver weight, but these were significantly decreased in both the co-exposed groups. These treatments decreased the activities of ANDM and APH and the levels of liver microsomal and cytosolic proteins, increased GST activity and had no effect on UGT activity. The effects of exposure to low-dose and high-dose combinations on the activities of either phase I or phase II drug-metabolizing enzymes and protein content were mostly similar to that produced by the respective low and high dose of either arsenic or malathion, except APH activity. The effect of arsenic (40 ppm) on APH activity was partially, but significantly, inhibited by malathion (500 ppm). Results indicate that the body or liver weights and the biochemical parameters were differentially affected in male rats following concurrent subacute exposure to arsenic and malathion, with the co-exposure appearing

  14. Health burden of skin lesions at low arsenic exposure through groundwater in Pakistan. Is river the source?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fatmi, Zafar, E-mail: zafar.fatmi@aku.edu [Department of Community Health Sciences, Aga Khan University, Stadium Road, P.O. Box 3500, Karachi (Pakistan); Azam, Iqbal; Ahmed, Faiza; Kazi, Ambreen; Gill, Albert Bruce; Kadir, Muhmmad Masood; Ahmed, Mubashir; Ara, Naseem; Janjua, Naveed Zafar [Department of Community Health Sciences, Aga Khan University, Stadium Road, P.O. Box 3500, Karachi (Pakistan)

    2009-07-15

    A significant proportion of groundwater in south Asia is contaminated with arsenic. Pakistan has low levels of arsenic in groundwater compared with China, Bangladesh and India. A representative multi-stage cluster survey conducted among 3874 persons {>=}15 years of age to determine the prevalence of arsenic skin lesions, its relation with arsenic levels and cumulative arsenic dose in drinking water in a rural district (population: 1.82 million) in Pakistan. Spot-urine arsenic levels were compared among individuals with and without arsenic skin lesions. In addition, the relation of age, body mass index, smoking status with arsenic skin lesions was determined. The geographical distribution of the skin lesions and arsenic-contaminated wells in the district were ascertained using global positioning system. The total arsenic, inorganic and organic forms, in water and spot-urine samples were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The prevalence of skin lesions of arsenic was estimated for complex survey design, using surveyfreq and surveylogistic options of SAS 9.1 software.The prevalence of definitive cases i.e. hyperkeratosis of both palms and soles, was 3.4 per 1000 and suspected cases i.e. any sign of arsenic skin lesions (melanosis and/or keratosis), were 13.0 per 1000 among {>=}15-year-old persons in the district. Cumulative arsenic exposure (dose) was calculated from levels of arsenic in water and duration of use of current drinking water source. Prevalence of skin lesions increases with cumulative arsenic exposure (dose) in drinking water and arsenic levels in urine. Skin lesions were 2.5-fold among individuals with BMI <18.5 kg/m{sup 2}. Geographically, more arsenic-contaminated wells and skin lesions were alongside Indus River, suggests a strong link between arsenic contamination of groundwater with proximity to river.This is the first reported epidemiological and clinical evidence of arsenic skin lesions due to groundwater in Pakistan. Further

  15. Arsenic Exposure and Glucose Intolerance/Insulin Resistance in Estrogen-Deficient Female Mice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huang, Chun-Fa; Yang, Ching-Yao; Chan, Ding-Cheng; Wang, Ching-Chia; Huang, Kuo-How; Wu, Chin-Ching; Tsai, Keh-Sung; Yang, Rong-Sen; Liu, Shing-Hwa

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported that the prevalence of diabetes in women > 40 years of age, especially those in the postmenopausal phase, was higher than in men in areas with high levels of arsenic in drinking water...

  16. Arsenic relative bioavailability from diet and airborne exposures: Implications for risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Janice W; Greene, Tracy; Schoof, Rosalind A

    2015-12-01

    Major human environmental health concern has been associated with inorganic arsenic (iAs) in drinking water in which dissolved iAs is highly bioavailable. More recently health concerns have been raised regarding the extent of iAs exposure via food and other potential sources. Arsenic relative bioavailability (RBA) in soil is known to be variable; the extent and role of iAs bioavailability in food are not well characterized. iAs in coal fly ash and bottom ash are other potential exposure media for which RBA has not been well characterized. A comprehensive literature search was conducted to support evaluation of the contribution of food and coal fly ash to iAs exposure. Few studies were found that investigated bioavailability associated with As-containing coal ash or airborne As-containing particles; estimated bioavailability in these studies ranged from 11% to 50%. The implications and potential usefulness of iAs bioavailability associated with inhalation exposure to human health risk assessment remain unknown at this time. Main sources of dietary iAs intake in the U.S. include rice and other grains, vegetables, and fruits. Due to low concentrations of iAs, seafood is not a primary contributor to dietary iAs intake. Three general kinds of food studies were identified: studies of As bioaccessibility in composites, As bioavailability and bioaccessibility in specific foods, and As consumption and urinary excretion in human volunteers. One in vivo study was identified that examined As bioavailability in food. A variety of experimental in vitro gastro-intestinal protocols have been used, however, few studies have included As speciation before and after the in vitro extraction. Current data suggest that the bioaccessibility of iAs in rice is quite high, typically 70% or more indicating that iAs in rice is highly bioavailable. Adjusting for RBA may not have a meaningful impact on iAs exposure estimates for rice-based foods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  17. Soil-Root Processes Responsible for Arsenic Uptake in Rice: A Route of Human Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfferth, A.; Fendorf, S.

    2010-12-01

    Arsenic contamination of groundwater is causing the largest mass poisoning in history, but we are only beginning to understand the extent of human exposure through contaminated food. Although second to drinking water in terms of human exposure, the consumption of As-laden food, such as rice, can be a significant portion of daily As exposure especially for populations already exposed through drinking water. Arsenic contamination of soils and groundwater is widespread In South and Southeast Asia, which is also one of the largest rice-growing regions of the world. As the demand for food has increased, so too has the use of irrigation practices to meet food demand, and much of this is via water contaminated with arsenic. In order to accurately predict human exposure to arsenic through rice consumption, we must first understand the processes that affect As dynamics in the rhizosphere and thus uptake by rice. Here, we examine As cycling in the rhizosphere, As distribution on and uptake by rice roots, the influence of Fe dynamics on As uptake, and mitigation strategies to reduce concentrations of As in rice grains.

  18. Review of arsenic contamination and human exposure through water food in rural areas in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, Celia

    2016-05-01

    The Red River Delta in Vietnam is one of the regions whose quaternary aquifers are polluted by arsenic. Chronic toxification by arsenic can cause severe illnesses such as cancer, skin lesions, developmental defects, cardiovascular and neurological diseases, and diabetes. In this study, a food processing craft village in the Red River Delta was investigated regarding the potential risk faced by the population due to arsenic. The potential sources of arsenic are the groundwater, the crops grown in the surroundings, and animal products from local husbandry. However, the occurrence of arsenic in nature is variable, and its bioavailability and toxicity depend very much on its specification: trivalent compounds are more toxic and often more mobile than pentavalent compounds, while inorganic species are generally more toxic than organic ones. Local conditions, such as the redox potential, strongly influence its specification and thus potential bioavailability. The introduction to this work elucidates the key factors which potentially cause human exposure to arsenic: the geological setting of the study area, land and water use patterns, and the current state of research regarding the mobilization, bioavailability and plant uptake of arsenic. Although the study area is located in a region where the groundwater is known to be moderately contaminated by arsenic, the level of arsenic in the groundwater in the village had not previously been determined. In this study, water use in the village was examined by a survey among the farmers and by water analyses, which are presented in the following chapters. Four main water sources (rain, river, tube well and a public municipal waterworks) are used for the different daily activities; the highest risk to human health was found to be the bore well water, which is pumped from the shallow Holocene aquifer. The water from the bore wells is commonly used for cleaning and washing as well as to feed the animals and for food processing

  19. Lung tumors in mice induced by "whole-life" inorganic arsenic exposure at human-relevant doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waalkes, Michael P; Qu, Wei; Tokar, Erik J; Kissling, Grace E; Dixon, Darlene

    2014-08-01

    In mice, inorganic arsenic in the drinking water in the parts per million range via the dam during in utero life or with whole-life exposure is a multi-site carcinogen in the offspring. However, human arsenic exposure is typically in the parts per billion (ppb) range. Thus, we studied "whole-life" inorganic arsenic carcinogenesis in mice at levels more relevant to humans. Breeder male and female CD1 mice were exposed to 0, 50, 500 or 5,000 ppb arsenic (as sodium arsenite) in the drinking water for 3 weeks prior to breeding, during pregnancy and lactation, and after weaning (at week 3) groups of male and female offspring (initial n = 40) were exposed for up to 2 years. Tumors were assessed in these offspring. Arsenic exposure had no effect on pregnant dam weights or water consumption, litter size, offspring birthweight or weight at weaning compared to control. In male offspring mice, arsenic exposure increased (p ppb group (51 %) and 500-ppb group (54 %), but not at 5,000-ppb group (28 %) compared to control (22 %). These arsenic-induced bronchiolo-alveolar tumors included increased (p ppb group (27 %) compared to controls (8 %). An increase (p ppb group compared to control (11 %) occurred in female offspring. Thus, in CD1 mice whole-life arsenic exposure induced lung tumors at human-relevant doses (i.e., 50 and 500 ppb).

  20. Lung Tumors in Mice Induced by “Whole Life” Inorganic Arsenic Exposure at Human Relevant Doses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Wei; Tokar, Erik J.; Kissling, Grace E.; Dixon, Darlene

    2014-01-01

    In mice, inorganic arsenic in the drinking water in the parts per million (ppm) range via the dam during in utero life or with whole life exposure is a multi-site carcinogen in the offspring. However, human arsenic exposure is typically in the parts per billion (ppb) range. Thus, we studied “whole life” inorganic arsenic carcinogenesis in mice at levels more relevant to humans. Breeder male and female CD1 mice were exposed to 0, 50, 500 or 5000 ppb arsenic (as sodium arsenite) in the drinking water for three weeks prior to breeding, during pregnancy and lactation, and after weaning (at week 3) groups of male and female offspring (initial n = 40) were exposed for up to 2 years. Tumors were assessed in these offspring. Arsenic exposure had no effect on pregnant dam weights or water consumption, litter size, offspring birth weight, or weight at weaning compared to control. In male offspring mice, arsenic exposure increased (p ppb (51%) and 500 ppb (54%), but not at 5000 ppb (28%) compared to control (22%). These arsenic-induced bronchiolo-alveolar tumors included increased (p ppb (27%) compared to controls (8%). An increase (p ppb group compared to control (11%) occurred in female offspring. Thus, in CD1 mice whole life arsenic exposure induced lung tumors at human relevant doses (i.e. 50 and 500 ppb). PMID:25005685

  1. Environmental Fate and Exposure Assessment for Arsenic in Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    groundwater. Geology 32 (11):953-956. Lackovic, J. A., N. P. Nikolaidis, and G. M. Dobbs. 2000. Inorganic arsenic removal by zero- valent iron...from Bangladesh tube well water with filter columns containing zerovalent iron filings and sand. Environmental Science & Technology 39 (20):8032...aquifer sands from Araihazar, Bangladesh . Environmental Science & Technology 41 (10):3639-3645. Reisinger, H. J., D. R. Burris, and J. G. Hering. 2005

  2. RKIP expression of liver and kidney after arsenic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Der-An; Tseng, Wei-Chang; Chang, Huoy-Rou

    2017-03-01

    Arsenic is associated with cancers of kidney and liver. Raf kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP) has been identified as a member of a novel class of molecules that suppress the metastatic spread of tumors. In order to investigate the effect of arsenic to RKIP of liver and kidney, the expression of RKIP of liver and kidney with As (III) was explored in this study. Thirty male mice were chronically fed with 42.5 ppm, 85 ppm NaAsO2 and water for 180 days. The kidney and liver accumulation levels of As (III) in mice were determined by electro-thermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The method of RT-PCR, Western blotting analysis and immunohistochemistry were used to determine gene expression and protein expression of RKIP. The results showed that arsenic level was significantly increased in kidney and liver of As (III)-exposed mice as compared with control group. The gene expression and protein expression of RKIP was significantly decreased in kidney and liver of As (III)-exposed mice in comparison with these of control mice. These data suggested that RKIP decrease of liver and kidney with As (III) may be dangerous index in formation of cancer. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 1079-1082, 2017.

  3. Long-term exposure to arsenic affects head kidney and impairs humoral immune responses of Clarias batrachus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Debabrata [Immunobiology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan 731235 (India); Datta, Soma [Immunobiology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan 731235 (India); Bhattacharya, Shelley [Environmental Toxicology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan 731235 (India); Mazumder, Shibnath [Immunobiology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan 731235 (India)]. E-mail: shibnath1@yahoo.co.in

    2007-02-15

    The present study was aimed at determining the effects of long-term arsenic exposure on the head kidney (HK) and ensuing humoral immune responses in Clarias batrachus L. Long-term exposure (150 days) to non-lethal concentrations of arsenic (42.42 {mu}M) resulted in significant time-dependent alterations in HK cell number eventually affecting the HK somatic index. Prolonged exposure to arsenic also suppressed HK-B cell proliferation and led to significant reduction in serum immunoglobulin levels and antigen-specific serum bacterial agglutinin titers. A decline in the number of antigen-specific plaque-forming cells with duration of arsenic exposure was noted in the HK. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assays further revealed that arsenic exposure inhibited the release of 'IL-4 like factors' from HK-T cells. Histological studies documented time-dependent changes in the structure and cellular composition of HK characterized by extensive lymphocytopenia, decrease in melano-macrophage population and hemosiderin accumulation. From exposure-challenge studies with Aeromonas hydrophila it was evident that pathogens could efficiently disseminate and colonize distant host tissues in the exposed fish. Moreover, the ability to decrease the pathogen load was also significantly reduced in the arsenic-exposed fish. Thus long-term exposure to non-lethal concentrations of arsenic affects HK and interferes with the humoral immune system of C. batrachus rendering them immunocompromised and susceptible to pathogenic challenge.

  4. Environmental exposure to arsenic and chromium in children is associated with kidney injury molecule-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas-González, M; Osorio-Yáñez, C; Gaspar-Ramírez, O; Pavković, M; Ochoa-Martínez, A; López-Ventura, D; Medeiros, M; Barbier, O C; Pérez-Maldonado, I N; Sabbisetti, V S; Bonventre, J V; Vaidya, V S

    2016-10-01

    Environmental hazards from natural or anthropological sources are widespread, especially in the north-central region of Mexico. Children represent a susceptible population due to their unique routes of exposure and special vulnerabilities. In this study we evaluated the association of exposure to environmental kidney toxicants with kidney injury biomarkers in children living in San Luis Potosi (SLP), Mexico. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 83 children (5-12 years of age) residents of Villa de Reyes, SLP. Exposure to arsenic, cadmium, chromium, fluoride and lead was assessed in urine, blood and drinking water samples. Almost all tap and well water samples had levels of arsenic (81.5%) and fluoride (100%) above the permissible levels recommended by the World Health Organization. Mean urine arsenic (45.6ppb) and chromium (61.7ppb) were higher than the biological exposure index, a reference value in occupational settings. Using multivariate adjusted models, we found a dose-dependent association between kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) across chromium exposure tertiles [(T1: reference, T2: 467pg/mL; T3: 615pg/mL) (p-trend=0.001)]. Chromium upper tertile was also associated with higher urinary miR-200c (500 copies/μl) and miR-423 (189 copies/μL). Arsenic upper tertile was also associated with higher urinary KIM-1 (372pg/mL). Other kidney injury/functional biomarkers such as serum creatinine, glomerular filtration rate, albuminuria, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and miR-21 did not show any association with arsenic, chromium or any of the other toxicants evaluated. We conclude that KIM-1 might serve as a sensitive biomarker to screen children for kidney damage induced by environmental toxic agents.

  5. Evaluation of an Elementary School–based Educational Intervention for Reducing Arsenic Exposure in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Khalid; Ahmed, Ershad; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Liu, Xinhua; Siddique, Abu B.; Wasserman, Gail A.; Slavkovich, Vesna; LEVY, Diane; Mey, Jacob L.; van Geen, Alexander; Graziano, Joseph H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic exposure to well water arsenic (As) remains a major rural health challenge in Bangladesh and some other developing countries. Many mitigation programs have been implemented to reduce As exposure, although evaluation studies for these efforts are rare in the literature. Objectives In this study we estimated associations between a school-based intervention and various outcome measures of As mitigation. Methods We recruited 840 children from 14 elementary schools in Araihazar,...

  6. High Arsenic contamination in drinking water Hand-Pumps in Khap Tola, West Champaran, Bihar, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth eBhatia

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study tests the drinking water supply of a marginalized village community of Khap Tola in the state of Bihar, a state in Northern India. Based on hand pump drinking water sample testing and analysis, we found that there was high levels of arsenic (maximum value being 397 ppb , in excess of the WHO limits of 10ppb. Analysis showed 57% of the samples from private hand-pumps in the shallow aquifer zone of 15-35m have arsenic greater than 200 ppb. Using GIS overlay analysis technique it was calculated that 25% of the residential area in the village is under high risk of arsenic contamination. Further using USEPA guidelines, it was calculated that children age group 5-10 years are under high risk of getting cancer. The Hazard Quotient calculated for 21 children taken for study, indicated that children may have adverse non-carcinogenic health impacts, in the future, with continued exposure. Since the area adds a new arsenic contaminated place in India, further geochemical analysis and health assessment needs to be done in this district of West Champaran in, Bihar.

  7. Interaction between arsenic exposure from drinking water and genetic susceptibility in carotid intima-media thickness in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fen; Jasmine, Farzana; Kibriya, Muhammad G; Liu, Mengling; Cheng, Xin; Parvez, Faruque; Paul-Brutus, Rachelle; Paul, Rina Rani; Sarwar, Golam; Ahmed, Alauddin; Jiang, Jieying; Islam, Tariqul; Slavkovich, Vesna; Rundek, Tatjana; Demmer, Ryan T; Desvarieux, Moise; Ahsan, Habibul; Chen, Yu

    2014-05-01

    Epidemiologic studies that evaluated genetic susceptibility for the effects of arsenic exposure from drinking water on subclinical atherosclerosis are limited. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 1078 participants randomly selected from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study in Bangladesh to evaluate whether the association between arsenic exposure and carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT) differs by 207 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 18 genes related to arsenic metabolism, oxidative stress, inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction. Although not statistically significant after correcting for multiple testing, nine SNPs in APOE, AS3MT, PNP, and TNF genes had a nominally statistically significant interaction with well-water arsenic in cIMT. For instance, the joint presence of a higher level of well-water arsenic (≥ 40.4 μg/L) and the GG genotype of AS3MT rs3740392 was associated with a difference of 40.9 μm (95% CI = 14.4, 67.5) in cIMT, much greater than the difference of cIMT associated with the genotype alone (β = -5.1 μm, 95% CI = -31.6, 21.3) or arsenic exposure alone (β = 7.2 μm, 95% CI = -3.1, 17.5). The pattern and magnitude of the interactions were similar when urinary arsenic was used as the exposure variable. Additionally, the at-risk genotypes of the AS3MT SNPs were positively related to the proportion of monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) in urine, which is indicative of arsenic methylation capacity. The findings provide novel evidence that genetic variants related to arsenic metabolism may play an important role in arsenic-induced subclinical atherosclerosis. Future replication studies in diverse populations are needed to confirm the findings.

  8. Exposure to non-arsenic pesticides is associated with lymphoma among farmers in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Balen, E; Font, R; Cavallé, N; Font, L; Garcia-Villanueva, M; Benavente, Y; Brennan, P; de Sanjose, S

    2006-10-01

    To estimate the risk of lymphoma among farmers in Spain. This is a multicentre case control study conducted in Spain. Cases were subjects diagnosed with lymphoma according to the World Health Organization (WHO) classification in four hospitals between 1998-2002. Hospital controls were frequency matched to the cases by sex, age, and centre. All subjects were interviewed about jobs ever held in lifetime for at least one year and the exposures in those jobs were recorded. The risk of lymphomas among subjects ever having had a job as a farmer was compared with all other occupations. Farmers were analysed according to the type of farming job performed: crop farming, animal farming, and general farming. Occupational exposure was summarised into 15 main categories: organic dust, radiation, contact with animals, PAH, non-arsenic pesticides (carbamates, organophosphates, chlorinated hydrocarbons, triazines and triazoles, phenoxy herbicides, chlorophenols, dibenzodioxin, and dibenzofuran), arsenic pesticides, contact with meat, contact with children, solvents, asbestos, soldering fumes, organic colourants, polychlorinated biphenyls, ethylene oxide, and hair dyes. Although farmers were not at an increased risk of lymphoma as compared with all other occupations, farmers exposed to non-arsenic pesticides were found to be at increased risk of lymphoma (OR = 1.8, 95% CI 1.1 to 2). This increased risk was observed among farmers working exclusively either as crop farmers or as animal farmers (OR = 2.8, 95% CI 1.3 to 5.8). Risk was highest for exposure to non-arsenic pesticides for over nine years (OR = 2.4, 95% CI 1.2 to 2.8). Long term exposure to non-arsenic pesticides may induce lymphomagenesis among farmers.

  9. Arsenic levels in immigrant children from countries at risk of consuming arsenic polluted water compared to children from Barcelona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñol, S; Sala, A; Guzman, C; Marcos, S; Joya, X; Puig, C; Velasco, M; Velez, D; Vall, O; Garcia-Algar, O

    2015-11-01

    Arsenic is a highly toxic element that pollutes groundwater, being a major environmental problem worldwide, especially in the Bengal Basin. About 40% of patients in our outpatient clinics come from those countries, and there is no published data about their arsenic exposure. This study compares arsenic exposure between immigrant and native children. A total of 114 children (57 natives, 57 immigrants), aged 2 months to 16 years, were recruited and sociodemographic and environmental exposure data were recorded. Total arsenic in urine, hair, and nails and arsenic-speciated compounds in urine were determined. We did not find significant differences in total and inorganic arsenic levels in urine and hair, but in organic arsenic monomethylarsenic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinous acid (DMA) in urine and in total arsenic in nails. However, these values were not in the toxic range. There were significant differences between longer than 5 years exposure and less than 5 years exposure (consumption of water from tube wells), with respect to inorganic and organic MMA arsenic in urine and total arsenic in nails. There was partial correlation between the duration of exposure and inorganic arsenic levels in urine. Immigrant children have higher arsenic levels than native children, but they are not toxic. At present, there is no need for specific arsenic screening or follow-up in immigrant children recently arrived in Spain from exposure high-risk countries.

  10. Association of soil arsenic and nickel exposure with cancer mortality rates, a town-scale ecological study in Suzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Liao, Qi Lin; Ma, Zong Wei; Jin, Yang; Hua, Ming; Bi, Jun; Huang, Lei

    2015-04-01

    Heavy metals and arsenic are well-known carcinogens. However, few studies have examined whether soil heavy metals and arsenic concentrations associate with cancer in the general population. In this ecological study, we aimed to evaluate the association of heavy metals and arsenic in soil with cancer mortality rates during 2005-2010 in Suzhou, China, after controlling for education and smoking prevalence. In 2005, a total of 1683 soil samples with a sampling density of one sample every 4 km(2) were analyzed. Generalized linear model with a quasi-Poisson regression was applied to evaluate the association between town-scale cancer mortality rates and soil heavy metal concentrations. Results showed that soil arsenic exposure had a significant relationship with colon, gastric, kidney, lung, and nasopharyngeal cancer mortality rates and soil nickel exposure was significantly associated with liver and lung cancer. The associations of soil arsenic and nickel exposure with colon, gastric, kidney, and liver cancer in male were higher than those in female. The observed associations of soil arsenic and nickel with cancer mortality rates were less sensitive to alternative exposure metrics. Our findings would contribute to the understanding of the carcinogenic effect of soil arsenic and nickel exposure in general population.

  11. Correlation of Breastmilk Arsenic With Maternal, Infant Urinary Arsenic and Drinking Water Arsenic in an Arsenic Affected Area of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alauddin, M.; Islam, M. R.; Milton, A. H.; Alauddin, S. T.; Mouly, T.; Behri, E.; Ayesha, A.; Akter, S.; Islam, M. M.

    2016-12-01

    About 97% of population in Bangladesh depend on groundwater as the principle source of drinking water and this water is highly contaminated with inorganic arsenic. Consumption of arsenic contaminated drinking water by pregnant women raises the prospect of early life exposure to inorganic arsenic for newborn which may be lead to adverse health effect in later life. This work was carried out in parts of Gopalganj district in Bangladesh, a region affected by arsenic contamination in groundwater. The objective of the work was to assess potential early life exposure to arsenic for infants through breastfeeding by mothers who were drinking water with arsenic levels ranging from 100 to 300 µg/l. A cohort of 30 mother-baby pairs were selected for the current study. Breastmilk samples from mothers, urine samples from each pair of subjects at 1, 6 and 9 month age of infant were collected and total arsenic were determined in these samples. In addition speciation of urinary arsenic and metabolites were carried out in 12 mother-baby pairs. Median level for breastmilk arsenic were 0.50 µg/l. Urinary arsenic of infants did not correlate with breastmilk arsenic with progressing age of infants. Maternal and infant urinary total arsenic at 1 month age of infant showed some positive correlation (r = 0.39). In infant urine major metabolite were dimethyl arsenic acid (DMA) (approximately 70%) indicating good methylating capacity for infants at 1 and 6 months of age. In conclusion, infants were not exposed to arsenic through breastfeeding even though mothers were exposed to significant levels of arsenic through drinking water.

  12. MiADMSA reverses impaired mitochondrial energy metabolism and neuronal apoptotic cell death after arsenic exposure in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwivedi, Nidhi; Mehta, Ashish; Yadav, Abhishek [Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Defence Research and Development Establishment, Gwalior-474 002 (India); Binukumar, B.K.; Gill, Kiran Dip [Department of Biochemistry, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh-160 012 (India); Flora, Swaran J.S., E-mail: sjsflora@hotmail.com [Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Defence Research and Development Establishment, Gwalior-474 002 (India)

    2011-11-15

    Arsenicosis, due to contaminated drinking water, is a serious health hazard in terms of morbidity and mortality. Arsenic induced free radicals generated are known to cause cellular apoptosis through mitochondrial driven pathway. In the present study, we investigated the effect of arsenic interactions with various complexes of the electron transport chain and attempted to evaluate if there was any complex preference of arsenic that could trigger apoptosis. We also evaluated if chelation with monoisoamyl dimercaptosuccinic acid (MiADMSA) could reverse these detrimental effects. Our results indicate that arsenic exposure induced free radical generation in rat neuronal cells, which diminished mitochondrial potential and enzyme activities of all the complexes of the electron transport chain. Moreover, these complexes showed differential responses towards arsenic. These early events along with diminished ATP levels could be co-related with the later events of cytosolic migration of cytochrome c, altered bax/bcl{sub 2} ratio, and increased caspase 3 activity. Although MiADMSA could reverse most of these arsenic-induced altered variables to various extents, DNA damage remained unaffected. Our study for the first time demonstrates the differential effect of arsenic on the complexes leading to deficits in bioenergetics leading to apoptosis in rat brain. However, more in depth studies are warranted for better understanding of arsenic interactions with the mitochondria. -- Research highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Arsenic impairs mitochondrial energy metabolism leading to neuronal apoptosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Arsenic differentially affects mitochondrial complexes, I - III and IV being more sensitive than complex II. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Arsenic-induced apoptosis initiates through ROS generation or impaired [Ca{sup 2+}]i homeostasis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MiADMSA reverses arsenic toxicity via intracellular arsenic- chelation, antioxidant

  13. Maternal/fetal metabolomes appear to mediate the impact of arsenic exposure on birth weight: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yongyue; Shi, Qianwen; Wang, Zhaoxi; Zhang, Ruyang; Su, Li; Quamruzzaman, Quazi; Rahman, Mahmuder; Chen, Feng; Christiani, David C

    2016-12-14

    Arsenic exposure has been associated with low birth weight. However, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Alterations to metabolites may act as causal mediators of the effect of arsenic exposure on low birth weight. This pilot study aimed to explore the role of metabolites in mediating the association of arsenic exposure on infant birth weight. Study samples were selected from a well-established prospectively enrolled cohort in Bangladesh comprising 35 newborns and a subset of 20 matched mothers. Metabolomics profiling was performed on 35 cord blood samples and 20 maternal peripheral blood samples collected during the second trimester of pregnancy. Inorganic arsenic (iAs) exposure was evaluated via cord blood samples and maternal toenail samples collected during the first trimester. Multiple linear regression and mediation analyses were used to explore the relationship between iAs exposure, metabolite alterations, and low birth weight. Cord blood arsenic level was correlated with elevated levels of 17-methylstearate, laurate (12:0) and 4-vinylphenol sulfate along with lower birth weight. Prenatal maternal toenail iAs level was associated with two peripheral blood metabolites (butyrylqlycine and tartarate), which likely contributed to higher cord blood iAs levels both independently and interactively. Findings of this pilot study indicate that both intrauterine and maternal peripheral blood metabolites appear to influence the toxic effect of inorganic arsenic exposure on low birth weight.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 14 December 2016; doi:10.1038/jes.2016.74.

  14. Reduced cellular DNA repair capacity after environmentally relevant arsenic exposure. Influence of Ogg1 deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Jordi; Peremartí, Jana; Annangi, Balasubramnayam; Marcos, Ricard; Hernández, Alba

    2015-09-01

    Inorganic arsenic (i-As) is a genotoxic and carcinogenic environmental contaminant known to affect millions of people worldwide. Our previous work demonstrated that chronic sub-toxic i-As concentrations were able to induce biologically significant levels of genotoxic and oxidative DNA damage that were strongly influenced by the Ogg1 genotype. In order to study the nature of the observed levels of damage and the observed differences between MEF Ogg1(+/+) and Ogg1(-/-) genetic backgrounds, the genotoxic and oxidative DNA repair kinetics of 18-weeks exposed MEF cells were evaluated by the comet assay. Results indicate that MEF Ogg1(+/+) and Ogg1(-/-) cells chronically exposed to i-As repair the DNA damage induced by arsenite, potassium bromide and UVC radiation less efficiently than control cells, being that observation clearly more pronounced in MEF Ogg1(-/-) cells. Consequently, exposed cells accumulate a higher percentage of unrepaired DNA damage at the end of the repair period. As an attempt to eliminate i-As associated toxicity, chronically exposed MEF Ogg1(-/-) cells overexpress the arsenic metabolizing enzyme As3mt. This adaptive response confers cells a significant resistance to i-As-induced cell death, but at expenses of accumulating high levels of DNA damage due to their repair impairment. Overall, the work presented here evidences that i-As chronic exposure disrupts the normal cellular repair function, and that oxidative DNA damage-and Ogg1 deficiency-exacerbates this phenomenon. The observed cell death resistance under a chronic scenario of genotoxic and oxidative stress may in turn contribute to the carcinogenic effects of i-As.

  15. Arsenic Speciation in US Consumed Rice with an Emphasis on Bioaccessiblity and the Exposure Assessment Implications Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Arsenic Speciation in US Consumed Rice with an Emphasis on Bioaccessiblity and the Exposure Assessment Implications. This dataset is associated with the following...

  16. Association of Arsenic Exposure during Pregnancy with Fetal Loss and Infant Death: A Cohort Study in Bangladesh

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rahman, Anisur; Vahter, Marie; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Golam Mustafa, Abu Haider Mohammad; Wahed, Mohammad Abdul; Yunus, Mohammed; Persson, Lars-Åke

    2007-01-01

    The authors evaluated the effect of arsenic exposure on fetal and infant survival in a cohort of 29,134 pregnancies identified by the health and demographic surveillance system in Matlab, Bangladesh, in 1991-2000...

  17. Oxidative DNA damage of peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes, selectively induced by chronic arsenic exposure, is associated with extent of arsenic-related skin lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei, Qiuling, E-mail: 924969007@qq.com [Department of Toxicology, Public Health College, Shanxi Medical University, No 56 Xin Jian Nan Lu, Taiyuan (030001) (China); Ma, Ning [Faculty of Health Science, Suzuka University of Medical Science, Suzuka, 510-0293 (Japan); Zhang, Jing; Xu, Wenchao; Li, Yong; Ma, Zhifeng; Li, Yunyun; Tian, Fengjie; Zhang, Wenping [Department of Toxicology, Public Health College, Shanxi Medical University, No 56 Xin Jian Nan Lu, Taiyuan (030001) (China); Mu, Jinjun [The Second Hospital, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan (030001) (China); Li, Yuanfei [The First Hospital, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan (030001) (China); Wang, Dongxing; Liu, Haifang; Yang, Mimi; Ma, Caifeng; Yun, Fen [Department of Toxicology, Public Health College, Shanxi Medical University, No 56 Xin Jian Nan Lu, Taiyuan (030001) (China)

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that oxidative stress is an important risk factor for arsenic-related diseases. Peripheral blood leukocytes constitute an important defense against microorganisms or pathogens, while the research on the impact of chronic arsenic exposure on peripheral blood leukocytes is much more limited, especially at low level arsenic exposure. The purpose of the present study was to explore whether chronic arsenic exposure affects oxidative stress of peripheral blood leukocytes and possible linkages between oxidative stress and arsenic-induced skin lesions. 75 male inhabitants recruited from an As-endemic region of China were investigated in the present study. The classification of arsenicosis was based on the degree of skin lesions. Arsenic levels were measured in drinking water and urine by Atomic Fluorescence Spectroscopy. Urinary 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was tested by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. 8-OHdG of peripheral blood leukocytes was evaluated using immunocytochemical staining. 8-OHdG-positive reactions were only present in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), but not in monocytes (MNs). The 8-OHdG staining of PMN cytoplasm was observed in all investigated populations, while the 8-OHdG staining of PMN nuclei was frequently found along with the elevated amounts of cell debris in individuals with skin lesion. Urinary arsenic levels were increased in the severe skin lesion group compared with the normal group. No relationship was observed between drinking water arsenic or urine 8-OHdG and the degree of skin lesions. These findings indicated that the target and persistent oxidative stress in peripheral blood PMNs may be employed as a sensitive biomarker directly to assess adverse health effects caused by chronic exposure to lower levels of arsenic. -- Highlights: ► Male inhabitants were investigated from an As-endemic region of China. ► 8-OHdG-positive reactions were only present in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs).

  18. Interaction between arsenic exposure from drinking water and genetic susceptibility in carotid intima–media thickness in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Fen [Department of Population Health, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Jasmine, Farzana; Kibriya, Muhammad G. [Department of Health Studies, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); The University of Chicago Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chicago, IL (United States); Liu, Mengling; Cheng, Xin [Department of Population Health, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Parvez, Faruque [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York City, NY (United States); Paul-Brutus, Rachelle [Department of Health Studies, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); The University of Chicago Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chicago, IL (United States); Islam, Tariqul; Paul, Rina Rani; Sarwar, Golam; Ahmed, Alauddin [U-Chicago Research Bangladesh, Ltd., Dhaka (Bangladesh); Jiang, Jieying [Department of Population Health, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Islam, Tariqul [U-Chicago Research Bangladesh, Ltd., Dhaka (Bangladesh); Slavkovich, Vesna [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York City, NY (United States); Rundek, Tatjana [Department of Neurology, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL (United States); Department of Public Health Sciences, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL (United States); Demmer, Ryan T.; Desvarieux, Moise [Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York City, NY (United States); and others

    2014-05-01

    Epidemiologic studies that evaluated genetic susceptibility for the effects of arsenic exposure from drinking water on subclinical atherosclerosis are limited. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 1078 participants randomly selected from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study in Bangladesh to evaluate whether the association between arsenic exposure and carotid artery intima–media thickness (cIMT) differs by 207 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 18 genes related to arsenic metabolism, oxidative stress, inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction. Although not statistically significant after correcting for multiple testing, nine SNPs in APOE, AS3MT, PNP, and TNF genes had a nominally statistically significant interaction with well-water arsenic in cIMT. For instance, the joint presence of a higher level of well-water arsenic (≥ 40.4 μg/L) and the GG genotype of AS3MT rs3740392 was associated with a difference of 40.9 μm (95% CI = 14.4, 67.5) in cIMT, much greater than the difference of cIMT associated with the genotype alone (β = − 5.1 μm, 95% CI = − 31.6, 21.3) or arsenic exposure alone (β = 7.2 μm, 95% CI = − 3.1, 17.5). The pattern and magnitude of the interactions were similar when urinary arsenic was used as the exposure variable. Additionally, the at-risk genotypes of the AS3MT SNPs were positively related to the proportion of monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) in urine, which is indicative of arsenic methylation capacity. The findings provide novel evidence that genetic variants related to arsenic metabolism may play an important role in arsenic-induced subclinical atherosclerosis. Future replication studies in diverse populations are needed to confirm the findings. - Highlights: • Nine SNPs had a nominally significant interaction with well-water arsenic in cIMT. • Three SNPs in AS3MT showed nominally significant interactions with urinary arsenic. • cIMT was much higher among subjects with higher arsenic exposure and AS3MT

  19. Shotgun metabolomic approach based on mass spectrometry for hepatic mitochondria of mice under arsenic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sevillano, M A; García-Barrera, T; Navarro, F; Montero-Lobato, Z; Gómez-Ariza, J L

    2015-04-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS)-based toxicometabolomics requires analytical approaches for obtaining unbiased metabolic profiles. The present work explores the general application of direct infusion MS using a high mass resolution analyzer (a hybrid systems triple quadrupole-time-of-flight) and a complementary gas chromatography-MS analysis to mitochondria extracts from mouse hepatic cells, emphasizing on mitochondria isolation from hepatic cells with a commercial kit, sample treatment after cell lysis, comprehensive metabolomic analysis and pattern recognition from metabolic profiles. Finally, the metabolomic platform was successfully checked on a case-study based on the exposure experiment of mice Mus musculus to inorganic arsenic during 12 days. Endogenous metabolites alterations were recognized by partial least squares-discriminant analysis. Subsequently, metabolites were identified by combining MS/MS analysis and metabolomics databases. This work reports for the first time the effects of As-exposure on hepatic mitochondria metabolic pathways based on MS, and reveals disturbances in Krebs cycle, β-oxidation pathway, amino acids degradation and perturbations in creatine levels. This non-target analysis provides extensive metabolic information from mitochondrial organelle, which could be applied to toxicology, pharmacology and clinical studies.

  20. Chronic inorganic arsenic exposure in vitro induces a cancer cell phenotype in human peripheral lung epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Person, Rachel J.; Olive Ngalame, Ntube N.; Makia, Ngome L.; Bell, Matthew W.; Waalkes, Michael P.; Tokar, Erik J., E-mail: tokare@niehs.nih.gov

    2015-07-01

    Inorganic arsenic is a human lung carcinogen. We studied the ability of chronic inorganic arsenic (2 μM; as sodium arsenite) exposure to induce a cancer phenotype in the immortalized, non-tumorigenic human lung peripheral epithelial cell line, HPL-1D. After 38 weeks of continuous arsenic exposure, secreted matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2) activity increased to over 200% of control, levels linked to arsenic-induced cancer phenotypes in other cell lines. The invasive capacity of these chronic arsenic-treated lung epithelial (CATLE) cells increased to 320% of control and colony formation increased to 280% of control. CATLE cells showed enhanced proliferation in serum-free media indicative of autonomous growth. Compared to control cells, CATLE cells showed reduced protein expression of the tumor suppressor gene PTEN (decreased to 26% of control) and the putative tumor suppressor gene SLC38A3 (14% of control). Morphological evidence of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) occurred in CATLE cells together with appropriate changes in expression of the EMT markers vimentin (VIM; increased to 300% of control) and e-cadherin (CDH1; decreased to 16% of control). EMT is common in carcinogenic transformation of epithelial cells. CATLE cells showed increased KRAS (291%), ERK1/2 (274%), phosphorylated ERK (p-ERK; 152%), and phosphorylated AKT1 (p-AKT1; 170%) protein expression. Increased transcript expression of metallothioneins, MT1A and MT2A and the stress response genes HMOX1 (690%) and HIF1A (247%) occurred in CATLE cells possibly in adaptation to chronic arsenic exposure. Thus, arsenic induced multiple cancer cell characteristics in human peripheral lung epithelial cells. This model may be useful to assess mechanisms of arsenic-induced lung cancer. - Highlights: • Chronic arsenic exposure transforms a human peripheral lung epithelia cell line. • Cells acquire characteristics in common with human lung adenocarcinoma cells. • These transformed cells provide a

  1. Ogg1 genetic background determines the genotoxic potential of environmentally relevant arsenic exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Jordi; Sampayo-Reyes, Adriana; Marcos, Ricard; Hernández, Alba

    2014-03-01

    Inorganic arsenic (i-As) is a well-established human carcinogen to which millions of people are exposed worldwide. It is generally accepted that the genotoxic effects of i-As after an acute exposure are partially linked to the i-As-induced production of reactive oxygen species, but it is necessary to better determine whether chronic sub-toxic i-As doses are able to induce biologically significant levels of oxidative DNA damage (ODD). To fill in this gap, we have tested the genotoxic and oxidative effects of environmentally relevant arsenic exposures using mouse embryonic fibroblast MEF mutant Ogg1 cells and their wild-type counterparts. Effects were examined by using the comet assay complemented with the use of FPG enzyme. Our findings indicate that MEF Ogg1-/- cells are more sensitive to arsenite-induced acute toxicity, genotoxicity and ODD. Long-term exposure to sub-toxic doses of arsenite generates a detectable increase in ODD and genotoxic DNA damage only in MEF Ogg1-deficient cells. Altogether, the data presented here point out the relevance of ODD and Ogg1 genetic background on the genotoxic risk of i-As at environmentally plausible doses. The persistent accumulation of DNA 8-OH-dG lesions in Ogg1-/- cells during the complete course of the exposure suggests a relevant role in arsenic-associated carcinogenic risk in turn.

  2. Arsenic exposure perturbs the gut microbiome and its metabolic profile in mice: an integrated metagenomics and metabolomics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kun; Abo, Ryan Phillip; Schlieper, Katherine Ann; Graffam, Michelle E; Levine, Stuart; Wishnok, John S; Swenberg, James A; Tannenbaum, Steven R; Fox, James G

    2014-03-01

    The human intestine is host to an enormously complex, diverse, and vast microbial community-the gut microbiota. The gut microbiome plays a profound role in metabolic processing, energy production, immune and cognitive development, epithelial homeostasis, and so forth. However, the composition and diversity of the gut microbiome can be readily affected by external factors, which raises the possibility that exposure to toxic environmental chemicals leads to gut microbiome alteration, or dysbiosis. Arsenic exposure affects large human populations worldwide and has been linked to a number of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disorders. We investigated the impact of arsenic exposure on the gut microbiome composition and its metabolic profiles. We used an integrated approach combining 16S rRNA gene sequencing and mass spectrometry-based metabolomics profiling to examine the functional impact of arsenic exposure on the gut microbiome. 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that arsenic significantly perturbed the gut microbiome composition in C57BL/6 mice after exposure to 10 ppm arsenic for 4 weeks in drinking water. Moreover, metabolomics profiling revealed a concurrent effect, with a number of gut microflora-related metabolites being perturbed in multiple biological matrices. Arsenic exposure not only alters the gut microbiome community at the abundance level but also substantially disturbs its metabolic profiles at the function level. These findings may provide novel insights regarding perturbations of the gut microbiome and its functions as a potential new mechanism by which arsenic exposure leads to or exacerbates human diseases. Lu K, Abo RP, Schlieper KA, Graffam ME, Levine S, Wishnok JS, Swenberg JA, Tannenbaum SR, Fox JG. 2014. Arsenic exposure perturbs the gut microbiome and its metabolic profile in mice: an integrated metagenomics and metabolomics analysis. Environ Health Perspect 122:284-291; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307429.

  3. The effect of cigarette smoke and arsenic exposure on urothelial carcinoma risk is modified by glutathione S-transferase M1 gene null genotype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Chi-Jung [Department of Health Risk Management, College of Public Health, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Research, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Huang, Chao-Yuan; Pu, Yeong-Shiau [Department of Urology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Shiue, Horng-Sheng [Department of Chinese Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Su, Chien-Tien [Department of Family Medicine, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hsueh, Yu-Mei, E-mail: ymhsueh@tmu.edu.tw [Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2013-01-15

    Inter-individual variation in the metabolism of xenobiotics, caused by factors such as cigarette smoking or inorganic arsenic exposure, is hypothesized to be a susceptibility factor for urothelial carcinoma (UC). Therefore, our study aimed to evaluate the role of gene–environment interaction in the carcinogenesis of UC. A hospital-based case–control study was conducted. Urinary arsenic profiles were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography–hydride generator-atomic absorption spectrometry. Genotyping was performed using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique. Information about cigarette smoking exposure was acquired from a lifestyle questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to estimate the UC risk associated with certain risk factors. We found that UC patients had higher urinary levels of total arsenic, higher percentages of inorganic arsenic (InAs%) and monomethylarsonic acid (MMA%) and lower percentages of dimethylarsinic acid (DMA%) compared to controls. Subjects carrying the GSTM1 null genotype had significantly increased UC risk. However, no association was observed between gene polymorphisms of CYP1A1, EPHX1, SULT1A1 and GSTT1 and UC risk after adjustment for age and sex. Significant gene–environment interactions among urinary arsenic profile, cigarette smoking, and GSTM1 wild/null polymorphism and UC risk were observed after adjustment for potential risk factors. Overall, gene–environment interactions simultaneously played an important role in UC carcinogenesis. In the future, large-scale studies should be conducted using tag-SNPs of xenobiotic-metabolism-related enzymes for gene determination. -- Highlights: ► Subjects with GSTM1 null genotype had significantly increased UC risk. ► UC patients had poor arsenic metabolic ability compared to controls. ► GSTM1 null genotype may modify arsenic related UC risk.

  4. Association of Environmental Arsenic Exposure, Genetic Polymorphisms of Susceptible Genes, and Skin Cancers in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-I Hsu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Deficiency in the capability of xenobiotic detoxification and arsenic methylation may be correlated with individual susceptibility to arsenic-related skin cancers. We hypothesized that glutathione S-transferase (GST M1, T1, and P1, reactive oxygen species (ROS related metabolic genes (NQO1, EPHX1, and HO-1, and DNA repair genes (XRCC1, XPD, hOGG1, and ATM together may play a role in arsenic-induced skin carcinogenesis. We conducted a case-control study consisting of 70 pathologically confirmed skin cancer patients and 210 age and gender matched participants with genotyping of 12 selected polymorphisms. The skin cancer risks were estimated by odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (CI using logistic regression. EPHX1 Tyr113His, XPD C156A, and GSTT1 null genotypes were associated with skin cancer risk (OR = 2.99, 95% CI = 1.01–8.83; OR = 2.04, 95% CI = 0.99–4.27; OR = 1.74, 95% CI = 1.00–3.02, resp.. However, none of these polymorphisms showed significant association after considering arsenic exposure status. Individuals carrying three risk polymorphisms of EPHX1 Tyr113His, XPD C156A, and GSTs presented a 400% increased skin cancer risk when compared to those with less than or equal to one polymorphism. In conclusion, GSTs, EPHX1, and XPD are potential genetic factors for arsenic-induced skin cancers. The roles of these genes for arsenic-induced skin carcinogenesis need to be further evaluated.

  5. Arsenic exposure in Latin America: biomarkers, risk assessments and related health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClintock, Tyler R; Chen, Yu; Bundschuh, Jochen; Oliver, John T; Navoni, Julio; Olmos, Valentina; Lepori, Edda Villaamil; Ahsan, Habibul; Parvez, Faruque

    2012-07-01

    In Latin America, several regions have a long history of widespread arsenic (As) contamination from both natural and anthropological sources. Yet, relatively little is known about the extent of As exposure from drinking water and its related health consequences in these countries. It has been estimated that at least 4.5 million people in Latin America are chronically exposed to high levels of As (>50 μg/L), some to as high as 2000 μg/L--200 times higher than the World Health Organization (WHO) provisional standard for drinking water. We conducted a systematic review of 82 peer reviewed papers and reports to fully explore the current understanding of As exposure and its health effects, as well as the influence of genetic factors that modulate those effects in the populations of Latin America. Despite some methodological limitations, these studies suggested important links between the high levels of chronic As exposure and elevated risks of numerous adverse health outcomes in Latin America--including internal and external cancers, reproductive outcomes, and childhood cognitive function. Several studies demonstrated genetic polymorphisms that influence susceptibility to these and other disease states through their modulation of As metabolism, with As methyltransferase (AS3MT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and genes of one-carbon metabolism being specifically implicated. While the full extent and nature of the health burden are yet to be known in Latin America, these studies have significantly enriched knowledge of As toxicity and led to subsequent research. Targeted future studies will not only yield a better understanding of the public health impact of As in Latin America populations, but also allow for effective and timely mitigation efforts.

  6. Biotransformation of inorganic arsenic in a marine herbivorous fish Siganus fuscescens after dietborne exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Chen, Lizhao; Zhou, Yanyan; Wu, Yun; Zhang, Li

    2016-03-01

    Arsenic (As) is well known to be biodiminished along marine food chains. The marine herbivorous fish at a lower trophic level are expected to accumulate more As. However, little is known about how marine herbivorous fish biotransform the potential high As bioaccumulation. Therefore, the present study quantified the biotransformation of two inorganic As species (As(III) and As(V)) in a marine herbivorous fish Siganus fuscescens following dietborne exposure. The fish were fed on As contaminated artificial diets at nominal concentrations of 400 and 1500 μg As(III) or As(V) g(-1) (dry weight) for 21 d and 42 d. After exposure, As concentrations in intestine, liver, and muscle tissues of rabbitfish increased significantly and were proportional to the inorganic As exposure concentrations. The present study demonstrated that both inorganic As(III) and As(V) in the dietborne phases were able to be biotransformed to the less toxic arsenobetaine (AsB) (63.3-91.3% in liver; 79.0%-95.2% in muscle). The processes of As biotransformation in rabbitfish could include oxidation of As(III) to As(V), reduction of As(V) to As(III), methylation to monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), and subsequent conversion to AsB. These results also demonstrated that AsB synthesis processes were diverse facing different inorganic As species in different tissues. In summary, the present study elucidated that marine herbivorous fish had high ability to biotransform inorganic As to the organic forms (mainly AsB), resulting in high As bioaccumulation. Therefore, marine herbivorous fish could detoxify inorganic As in the natural environment.

  7. Cardiovascular risk from water arsenic exposure in Vietnam: Application of systematic review and meta-regression analysis in chemical health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phung, Dung; Connell, Des; Rutherford, Shannon; Chu, Cordia

    2017-06-01

    A systematic review (SR) and meta-analysis cannot provide the endpoint answer for a chemical risk assessment (CRA). The objective of this study was to apply SR and meta-regression (MR) analysis to address this limitation using a case study in cardiovascular risk from arsenic exposure in Vietnam. Published studies were searched from PubMed using the keywords of arsenic exposure and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Random-effects meta-regression was applied to model the linear relationship between arsenic concentration in water and risk of CVD, and then the no-observable-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) were identified from the regression function. The probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) technique was applied to characterize risk of CVD due to arsenic exposure by estimating the overlapping coefficient between dose-response and exposure distribution curves. The risks were evaluated for groundwater, treated and drinking water. A total of 8 high quality studies for dose-response and 12 studies for exposure data were included for final analyses. The results of MR suggested a NOAEL of 50 μg/L and a guideline of 5 μg/L for arsenic in water which valued as a half of NOAEL and guidelines recommended from previous studies and authorities. The results of PRA indicated that the observed exposure level with exceeding CVD risk was 52% for groundwater, 24% for treated water, and 10% for drinking water in Vietnam, respectively. The study found that systematic review and meta-regression can be considered as an ideal method to chemical risk assessment due to its advantages to bring the answer for the endpoint question of a CRA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Current status of arsenic exposure and social implication in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Kongkea; Kim, Kyoung-Woong; Huoy, Laingshun; Phan, Samrach; Se, Soknim; Capon, Anthony Guy; Hashim, Jamal Hisham

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the current status of arsenic exposure in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia, field interview along with urine sample collection was conducted in the arsenic-affected area of Kandal Province, Cambodia. Urine samples were analyzed for total arsenic concentrations by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. As a result, arsenicosis patients (n = 127) had As in urine (UAs) ranging from 3.76 to 373 µg L(-1) (mean = 78.7 ± 69.8 µg L(-1); median = 60.2 µg L(-1)). Asymptomatic villagers (n = 108) had UAs ranging from 5.93 to 312 µg L(-1) (mean = 73.0 ± 52.2 µg L(-1); median = 60.5 µg L(-1)). About 24.7 % of all participants had UAs greater than 100 µg L(-1) which indicated a recent arsenic exposure. A survey found that females and adults were more likely to be diagnosed with skin sign of arsenicosis than males and children, respectively. Education level, age, gender, groundwater drinking period, residence time in the village and amount of water drunk per day may influence the incidence of skin signs of arsenicosis. This study suggests that residents in Kandal study area are currently at risk of arsenic although some mitigation has been implemented. More commitment should be made to address this public health concern in rural Cambodia.

  9. Effects of in Utero Exposure to Arsenic during the Second Half of Gestation on Reproductive End Points and Metabolic Parameters in Female CD-1 Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Karina F.; Ungewitter, Erica K.; Crespo-Mejias, Yasmin; Liu, Chang; Nicol, Barbara; Kissling, Grace E.; Yao, Humphrey Hung-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Background Mice exposed to high levels of arsenic in utero have increased susceptibility to tumors such as hepatic and pulmonary carcinomas when they reach adulthood. However, the effects of in utero arsenic exposure on general physiological functions such as reproduction and metabolism remain unclear. Objectives We evaluated the effects of in utero exposure to inorganic arsenic at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) drinking water standard (10 ppb) and at tumor-inducing levels (42.5 ppm) on reproductive end points and metabolic parameters when the exposed females reached adulthood. Methods Pregnant CD-1 mice were exposed to sodium arsenite [none (control), 10 ppb, or 42.5 ppm] in drinking water from gestational day 10 to birth, the window of organ formation. At birth, exposed offspring were fostered to unexposed dams. We examined reproductive end points (age at vaginal opening, reproductive hormone levels, estrous cyclicity, and fertility) and metabolic parameters (body weight changes, hormone levels, body fat content, and glucose tolerance) in the exposed females when they reached adulthood. Results Arsenic-exposed females (10 ppb and 42.5 ppm) exhibited early onset of vaginal opening. Fertility was not affected when females were exposed to the 10-ppb dose. However, the number of litters per female was decreased in females exposed to 42.5 ppm of arsenic in utero. In both 10-ppb and 42.5-ppm groups, arsenic-exposed females had significantly greater body weight gain, body fat content, and glucose intolerance. Conclusion Our findings revealed unexpected effects of in utero exposure to arsenic: exposure to both a human-relevant low dose and a tumor-inducing level led to early onset of vaginal opening and to obesity in female CD-1 mice. Citation Rodriguez KF, Ungewitter EK, Crespo-Mejias Y, Liu C, Nicol B, Kissling GE, Yao HH. 2016. Effects of in utero exposure to arsenic during the second half of gestation on reproductive end points and metabolic

  10. 砷暴露与肝损伤关系的 Meta分析%META analysis of arsenic exposure relation with Liver injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩俊洋; 李静; 吴顺华

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether there is correlation between the endemic arsenic poisoning and liver injury ,especially drinking water arsenic exposure .Methods Use Meta-analysis methods analyse 6 literatures which were retrieved about the arsenic exposure with liver injury in domestic and foreign endemic arsenic poisoning . Use fixed effects model and random effects model for comprehensive quantitative analysis and calculate pooled OR and OR values 95% confidence interval .The funnel plot statutory apply to assess the publication bias .Results Het-erogeneity test χ2 =8 .01 ,P=0 .16 ;fixed effects model Meta-analysis revealed the combined OR=3 .72 (95% CI 3.08~4 .49);Meta-analysis showed that arsenic exposure group having higher possibility incidence of liver damage than the control group .Conclusion Arsenic exposure in the endemic arsenic poisoning area may cause high inci-dence of liver disease to exposed populations ,long-term arsenic exposure to local residents also caused damage to liv-er function and physical .%目的:探讨地方性砷中毒尤其是饮水型砷暴露与肝损伤是否有相关性。方法检索纳入了国内外有关地方性砷中毒中砷暴露与肝损伤的文献6篇,采用M eta分析的方法,应用固定效应模型和随机效应模型进行综合的定量分析,计算合并OR值及95%可信区间,利用漏斗图法定性评价发表偏倚。结果异质性检验χ2=8.01,P=0.16,采用固定效应模型进行M eta分析,合并OR=3.72,95% C I为3.08~4.49,表明M eta分析砷暴露组的肝损害发病可能性高于对照组。结论地方性砷中毒病区的砷暴露可能会引起暴露人群的肝脏疾病损伤高发,长期砷暴露会对当地居民的肝功能或器质性损伤存在一定程度的不良影响。

  11. Exposure of Soil Microbial Communities to Chromium and Arsenic Alters Their Diversity and Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Cody S Sheik; Mitchell, Tyler W.; Fariha Z Rizvi; Yasir Rehman; Muhammad Faisal; Shahida Hasnain; McInerney, Michael J.; Krumholz, Lee R.

    2012-01-01

    Extensive use of chromium (Cr) and arsenic (As) based preservatives from the leather tanning industry in Pakistan has had a deleterious effect on the soils surrounding production facilities. Bacteria have been shown to be an active component in the geochemical cycling of both Cr and As, but it is unknown how these compounds affect microbial community composition or the prevalence and form of metal resistance. Therefore, we sought to understand the effects that long-term exposure to As and Cr ...

  12. Microbial Community of High Arsenic Groundwater in Agricultural Irrigation Area of Hetao Plain, Inner Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanhong; Li, Ping; Jiang, Zhou; Sinkkonen, Aki; Wang, Shi; Tu, Jin; Wei, Dazhun; Dong, Hailiang; Wang, Yanxin

    2016-01-01

    Microbial communities can play important role in arsenic release in groundwater aquifers. To investigate the microbial communities in high arsenic groundwater aquifers in agricultural irrigation area, 17 groundwater samples with different arsenic concentrations were collected along the agricultural drainage channels of Hangjinhouqi County, Inner Mongolia and examined by illumina MiSeq sequencing approach targeting the V4 region of the 16S rRNA genes. Both principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering results indicated that these samples were divided into two groups (high and low arsenic groups) according to the variation of geochemical characteristics. Arsenic concentrations showed strongly positive correlations with [Formula: see text] and total organic carbon (TOC). Sequencing results revealed that a total of 329-2823 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were observed at the 97% OTU level. Microbial richness and diversity of high arsenic groundwater samples along the drainage channels were lower than those of low arsenic groundwater samples but higher than those of high arsenic groundwaters from strongly reducing areas. The microbial community structure in groundwater along the drainage channels was different from those in strongly reducing arsenic-rich aquifers of Hetao Plain and other high arsenic groundwater aquifers including Bangladesh, West Bengal, and Vietnam. Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas dominated with high percentages in both high and low arsenic groundwaters. Alishewanella, Psychrobacter, Methylotenera, and Crenothrix showed relatively high abundances in high arsenic groundwater, while Rheinheimera and the unidentified OP3 were predominant populations in low arsenic groundwater. Archaeal populations displayed a low occurrence and mainly dominated by methanogens such as Methanocorpusculum and Methanospirillum. Microbial community compositions were different between high and low arsenic groundwater samples based on the results of principal

  13. Microbial Community of High Arsenic Groundwater in Agricultural Irrigation Area of Hetao Plain, Inner Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanhong; Li, Ping; Jiang, Zhou; Sinkkonen, Aki; Wang, Shi; Tu, Jin; Wei, Dazhun; Dong, Hailiang; Wang, Yanxin

    2016-01-01

    Microbial communities can play important role in arsenic release in groundwater aquifers. To investigate the microbial communities in high arsenic groundwater aquifers in agricultural irrigation area, 17 groundwater samples with different arsenic concentrations were collected along the agricultural drainage channels of Hangjinhouqi County, Inner Mongolia and examined by illumina MiSeq sequencing approach targeting the V4 region of the 16S rRNA genes. Both principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering results indicated that these samples were divided into two groups (high and low arsenic groups) according to the variation of geochemical characteristics. Arsenic concentrations showed strongly positive correlations with NH4+ and total organic carbon (TOC). Sequencing results revealed that a total of 329–2823 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were observed at the 97% OTU level. Microbial richness and diversity of high arsenic groundwater samples along the drainage channels were lower than those of low arsenic groundwater samples but higher than those of high arsenic groundwaters from strongly reducing areas. The microbial community structure in groundwater along the drainage channels was different from those in strongly reducing arsenic-rich aquifers of Hetao Plain and other high arsenic groundwater aquifers including Bangladesh, West Bengal, and Vietnam. Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas dominated with high percentages in both high and low arsenic groundwaters. Alishewanella, Psychrobacter, Methylotenera, and Crenothrix showed relatively high abundances in high arsenic groundwater, while Rheinheimera and the unidentified OP3 were predominant populations in low arsenic groundwater. Archaeal populations displayed a low occurrence and mainly dominated by methanogens such as Methanocorpusculum and Methanospirillum. Microbial community compositions were different between high and low arsenic groundwater samples based on the results of principal coordinate

  14. Biochemical and histological alterations in liver following sub chronic exposure of arsenic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhuri Mehta

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Contamination of groundwater with arsenic is of global concern. The present work was aimed to evaluate the biochemical and histological changes in liver of female rats induced by sodium arsenite at doses naturally found in groundwater of Punjab. Method: Twenty four female rats were divided into four groups of 6 animals each. Group I animals received distilled water and served as control; Group II-IV received arsenic at the dose of 10, 30 and 50 ppb (μg/L dissolved in distilled water ad libitum for 30 days. At the end of experiment, animals were sacrificed and liver was collected for biochemical and histological evaluation. Results: Biochemical analysis showed an increase in the activity of hepatic marker enzymes including transferases, phosphatases and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH. Also, the levels of antioxidant enzymes (catalase, reduced glutathione and glutathione-S-transferase decreased significantly (P<0.05 in treated animals when compared to control. A significant (P<0.05 dose dependent increase in the levels of lipid peroxidation and arsenic concentration in liver tissue was observed. Histological examination showed the presence of pyknotic bodies (necrosis and sinusoidal dilation in hepatocytes of treated groups. Conclusion: Sub chronic exposure of arsenic at these doses induces hepatotoxicity leading to oxidative stress.

  15. Inorganic arsenic and respiratory health, from early life exposure to sex-specific effects: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Tiffany R; Perzanowski, Matthew; Graziano, Joseph H

    2016-05-01

    This systematic review synthesizes the diverse body of epidemiologic research accrued on inorganic arsenic exposure and respiratory health effects. Twenty-nine articles were identified that examined the relationship between inorganic arsenic exposure and respiratory outcomes (i.e. lung function, symptoms, acute respiratory infections, chronic non-malignant lung diseases, and non-malignant lung disease mortality). There was strong evidence of a general association between arsenic and non-malignant respiratory illness, including consistent evidence on lung function impairment, acute respiratory tract infections, respiratory symptoms, and non-malignant lung disease mortality. Overall, early life exposure (i.e. in utero and/or early-childhood) had a marked effect throughout the lifespan. This review also identified some research gaps, including limited evidence at lower levels of exposure (water arsenic arsenic and any single non-malignant respiratory disease or pathological process. Common limitations, including potential publication bias; non-comparability of outcome measures across included articles; incomplete exposure histories; and limited confounder control attenuated the cumulative strength of the evidence as it relates to US populations. This systematic review provides a comprehensive assessment of the epidemiologic evidence and should be used to guide future research on arsenic's detrimental effects on respiratory health.

  16. A consecutive study on arsenic exposure and intelligence quotient (IQ) of children in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Mst Nasrin; Inaoka, Tsukasa; Fujimura, Miho

    2014-05-01

    In a recent cross-sectional investigation, we reported the intellectual function of adolescents (aged 14 and 15 years) in Bangladesh who had been exposed to arsenic (As). Here, we report a consecutive investigation on the intelligence quotient (IQ) of 408 children who are living in the Sonargoan Thana of Bangladesh (two age groups: 9 and 10 years; 4 and 5 years) were exposed to high levels of As in the groundwater. Urine and water samples were collected to assess As exposure. The IQ of the children was estimated using the Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices and the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test. Information on parents' socioeconomic status (SES) was collected as confounding factors. The results indicate that As exposure was responsible for a lower IQ. The concentration of urinary As ([As]u) was associated with reduced intellectual function in a dose-response manner. A stronger association was found between reduced intellectual function (IQ) and [As]u than the level of As in the drinking water [As]w. There was no association between verbal IQ scores and [As]u of children in early childhood (aged 4 and 5 years). Based on these results, we conclude that current levels of As in the urine ([As]u), which we considered to reflect recent exposure to As from all possible sources, including groundwater, food, among others, were negatively associated to the IQ of the children tested, and that this adverse effect of As may also gradually accumulate over time among the poor.

  17. Influence of co-contaminant exposure on the absorption of arsenic, cadmium and lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollson, Cameron J; Smith, Euan; Herde, Paul; Juhasz, Albert L

    2017-02-01

    Incidental ingestion of contaminated soil and dust is a major pathway for human exposure to many inorganic contaminants. To date, exposure research has focused on arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb), however, these studies have typically assessed metal(loid) bioavailability individually, even when multiple elements are present in the same matrix. As a consequence, it is unclear whether interactions between these elements occur within the gastro-intestinal tract, which may impact absorption and accumulation. In this study, the influence of contaminant co-exposure was assessed using a mouse bioassay and soluble forms of As, Cd and Pb supplied in mouse chow as individual, binary and tertiary elemental combinations. Arsenic urinary excretion and Pb-liver accumulation were unaffected by As-Pb co-exposure (1-10 mg As kg(-1) and 3-30 mg Pb kg(-1)) while Cd-kidney accumulation was unaffected by the presence of As and/or Pb. However, Cd co-exposure decreased As urinary excretion and increased Pb-liver accumulation. It was hypothesized that Cd influenced arsenate absorption as a consequence of the impairment of phosphate transporters. Although the reason for increasing Pb-liver accumulation following Cd co-exposure is unclear, enhanced Pb accumulation may occur as a result of transport protein overexpression or changes in divalent metal compartmentalization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Arsenic Uptake by Muskmelon (Cucumis melo) Plants from Contaminated Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettick, Bryan E; Cañas-Carrell, Jaclyn E; Martin, Kirt; French, Amanda D; Klein, David M

    2016-09-01

    Arsenic is a carcinogenic element that occurs naturally in the environment. High levels of arsenic are found in water in some parts of the world, including Texas. The aims of this study were to determine the distribution of arsenic in muskmelon (Cucumis melo) plants accumulated from arsenic spiked water and to observe effects on plant biomass. Plants were grown and irrigated using water spiked with variable concentrations of arsenic. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to quantify arsenic in different parts of the plant and fruit. Under all conditions tested in this study, the highest concentrations of arsenic were found in the leaves, soil, and roots. Arsenic in the water had no significant effect on plant biomass. Fruits analyzed in this study had arsenic concentrations of 101 μg/kg or less. Consuming these fruits would result in less arsenic exposure than drinking water at recommended levels.

  19. Maternal arsenic exposure and DNA damage biomarkers, and the associations with birth outcomes in a general population from Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chun Chou

    Full Text Available Inorganic arsenic (iAs is an established transplacental agent known to affect fetal development in animal studies. However, iAs has not been adequately studied in the general population with respect to iAs exposure during pregnancy and its impact on the health status of newborns. The aims of this study were to 1 elucidate the association between arsenic exposure and oxidative/methylated DNA damage in pregnant women, and 2 determine the association with birth outcomes. A birth cohort study of 299 pregnant mother-newborn pairs was recruited during 2001-2002 in Taiwan. We collected maternal urine samples during the 3(rd trimester for measuring iAs and its metabolites. We used high-performance liquid chromatography/inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS for quantifications of the arsenic species. Liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometer (LC-MS/MS was used to measure the 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG and N(7-methylguanosine (N(7-MeG DNA damage biomarkers. Birth outcomes were collected to assess the associations with maternal arsenic exposure and the DNA damage biomarkers. Multiple regression analyses showed that maternal urinary iAs had positive associations with the methylated N(7-MeG (beta = 0.35, p<0.001 and oxidative 8-oxodG (beta = 0.24, p<0.001 DNA damage biomarkers, and a decreased one-minute (1-min Apgar score (beta = -0.23, p = 0.041. Maternal N(7-MeG was also associated with a decreased 1-min Apgar score (beta = -0.25, p = 0.042. Mutual adjustment for iAs and N(7-MeG showed an independent and significant prediction for a decreased 1-min Apgar score of iAs (beta = -0.28, p = 0.036. Maternal iAs exposure was associated with both maternal DNA damage and adverse newborn health. Maternal N(7-MeG levels might be a novel biomarker for monitoring fetal health related to iAs.

  20. Effects of low-level lead and arsenic exposure on copper smelter workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilis, R.; Valciukas, J.A.; Malkin, J.; Weber, J.P.

    An analysis of reported symptoms and their relationship with indicators of lead absorption - blood lead (Pb-B) and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) - and of arsenic absorption - urinary arsenic (As-U) - was undertaken among 680 active copper smelter workers. Lead and arsenic absorption in the copper smelter employees were characterized by the median values of 30.4 ..mu..g/dl for Pb-B, 41.5 ..mu..g/dl for ZPP, and 26 ..mu..g/L for As-U. Blood lead was 40 ..mu..g/dl or higher in 16.7% or cases, ZPP was 50 ..mu..g/dl or higher in 31.2%, and urinary arsenic was 50 ..mu..g/L or higher in 16.4% of currently active copper smelter workers. The number of reported symptoms (from a total of 14 symptoms) increased with ZPP levels; the relationship with Pb-B was less marked. Arsenic contributed relatively little. Mean Pb-B, ZPP, and As-U levels for subjects reporting each of the 14 symptoms were compared with those of subjects who did not report the symptoms. Mean Pb-B was found to differ significantly for one symptom, fatigue. Significant differences in mean ZPP levels were found for fatigue, sleep disturbances, weakness, paresthesia, and joint pain. Prevalence rates for these symptoms rose more markedly with increasing ZPP than with Pb-B levels. The results indicate a relationship between certain CNS and musculo-skeletal symptoms and increased lead absorption in this population. Adherence to exposure standards that preclude undue lead absorption and appropriate biological monitoring including ZPP levels, are necessary to prevent adverse, especially long-term, health effects.

  1. Arsenic Exposure and Predicted 10-Year Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Risk Using the Pooled Cohort Equations in U.S. Hypertensive Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nong, Qingjiao; Zhang, Yiyi; Guallar, Eliseo; Zhong, Qiuan

    2016-11-07

    This study was to evaluate the association of urine arsenic with predicted 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk in U.S. adults with hypertension. Cross-sectional analysis was conducted in 1570 hypertensive adults aged 40-79 years in the 2003-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) with determinations of urine arsenic. Predicted 10-year ASCVD risk was estimated by the Pooled Cohort Equations, developed by the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association in 2013. For men, after adjustment for sociodemographic factors, urine dilution, ASCVD risk factors and organic arsenic intake from seafood, participants in the highest quartiles of urine arsenic had higher 10-year predicted ASCVD risk than in the lowest quartiles; the increases were 24% (95% confidence interval (CI): 2%, 53%) for total arsenic, 13% (95% CI: 2%, 25%) for dimethylarsinate and 22% (95% CI: 5%, 40%) for total arsenic minus arsenobetaine separately. For women, the corresponding increases were 5% (95% CI: -15%, 29%), 10% (95% CI: -8%, 30%) and 0% (95% CI: -15%, 19%), respectively. Arsenic exposure, even at low levels, may contribute to increased ASCVD risk in men with hypertension. Furthermore, our findings suggest that particular circumstances need urgently to be considered while elucidating cardiovascular effects of low inorganic arsenic levels.

  2. Urinary Arsenic Metabolites of Subjects Exposed to Elevated Arsenic Present in Coal in Shaanxi Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linsheng Yang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to arsenic (As poisoning caused by naturally occurring inorganic arsenic-contaminated water consumption, coal arsenic poisoning (CAP induced by elevated arsenic exposure from coal combustion has rarely been reported. In this study, the concentrations and distributions of urinary arsenic metabolites in 57 volunteers (36 subjects with skin lesions and 21 subjects without skin lesions, who had been exposed to elevated levels of arsenic present in coal in Changshapu village in the south of Shaanxi Province (China, were reported. The urinary arsenic species, including inorganic arsenic (iAs [arsenite (iAsIII and arsenate (iAsV], monomethylarsonic acid (MMAV and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAV, were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC combined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS. The relative distributions of arsenic species, the primary methylation index (PMI = MMAV/iAs and the secondary methylation index (SMI = DMAV/MMAV were calculated to assess the metabolism of arsenic. Subjects with skin lesions had a higher concentration of urinary arsenic and a lower arsenic methylation capability than subjects without skin lesions. Women had a significantly higher methylation capability of arsenic than men, as defined by a higher percent DMAV and SMI in urine among women, which was the one possible interpretation of women with a higher concentration of urinary arsenic but lower susceptibility to skin lesions. The findings suggested that not only the dose of arsenic exposure but also the arsenic methylation capability have an impact on the individual susceptibility to skin lesions induced by coal arsenic exposure.

  3. Urinary Arsenic Metabolites of Subjects Exposed to Elevated Arsenic Present in Coal in Shaanxi Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jianwei; Yu, Jiangping; Yang, Linsheng

    2011-01-01

    In contrast to arsenic (As) poisoning caused by naturally occurring inorganic arsenic-contaminated water consumption, coal arsenic poisoning (CAP) induced by elevated arsenic exposure from coal combustion has rarely been reported. In this study, the concentrations and distributions of urinary arsenic metabolites in 57 volunteers (36 subjects with skin lesions and 21 subjects without skin lesions), who had been exposed to elevated levels of arsenic present in coal in Changshapu village in the south of Shaanxi Province (China), were reported. The urinary arsenic species, including inorganic arsenic (iAs) [arsenite (iAsIII) and arsenate (iAsV)], monomethylarsonic acid (MMAV) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAV), were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) combined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The relative distributions of arsenic species, the primary methylation index (PMI = MMAV/iAs) and the secondary methylation index (SMI = DMAV/MMAV) were calculated to assess the metabolism of arsenic. Subjects with skin lesions had a higher concentration of urinary arsenic and a lower arsenic methylation capability than subjects without skin lesions. Women had a significantly higher methylation capability of arsenic than men, as defined by a higher percent DMAV and SMI in urine among women, which was the one possible interpretation of women with a higher concentration of urinary arsenic but lower susceptibility to skin lesions. The findings suggested that not only the dose of arsenic exposure but also the arsenic methylation capability have an impact on the individual susceptibility to skin lesions induced by coal arsenic exposure. PMID:21776214

  4. Chronic arsenic trioxide exposure leads to enhanced aggressiveness via Met oncogene addiction in cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryeziu, Kushtrim; Pirker, Christine; Englinger, Bernhard; van Schoonhoven, Sushilla; Spitzwieser, Melanie; Mohr, Thomas; Körner, Wilfried; Weinmüllner, Regina; Tav, Koray; Grillari, Johannes; Cichna-Markl, Margit; Berger, Walter; Heffeter, Petra

    2016-01-01

    As an environmental poison, arsenic is responsible for many cancer deaths. Paradoxically, arsenic trioxide (ATO) presents also a powerful therapy used to treat refractory acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) and is intensively investigated for treatment of other cancer types. Noteworthy, cancer therapy is frequently hampered by drug resistance, which is also often associated with enhancement of tumor aggressiveness. In this study, we analyzed ATO-selected cancer cells (A2780ATO) for the mechanisms underlying their enhanced tumorigenicity and aggressiveness. These cells were characterized by enhanced proliferation and spheroid growth as well as increased tumorigenicity of xenografts in SCID mice. Noteworthy, subsequent studies revealed that overexpression of Met receptor was the underlying oncogenic driver of these effects, as A2780ATO cells were characterized by collateral sensitivity against Met inhibitors. This finding was also confirmed by array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) and whole genome gene expression arrays, which revealed that Met overexpression by chronic ATO exposure was based on the transcriptional regulation via activation of AP-1. Finally, it was shown that treatment with the Met inhibitor crizotinib was also effective against A2780ATO cell xenografts in vivo, indicating that targeting of Met presents a promising strategy for the treatment of Met-overexpressing tumors after either arsenic exposure or failure to ATO treatment. PMID:27036042

  5. Arsenic Exposure and Prevalence of the Varicella Zoster Virus in the United States: NHANES (2003–2004 and 2009–2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas, Andres; Smit, Ellen; Houseman, E. Andres; Kerkvliet, Nancy I.; Bethel, Jeffrey W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Arsenic is an immunotoxicant. Clinical reports observe the reactivation of varicella zoster virus (VZV) in people who have recovered from arsenic poisoning and in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia that have been treated with arsenic trioxide. Objective We evaluated the association between arsenic and the seroprevalence of VZV IgG antibody in a representative sample of the U.S. population. Methods We analyzed data from 3,348 participants of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003–2004 and 2009–2010 pooled survey cycles. Participants were eligible if they were 6–49 years of age with information on both VZV IgG and urinary arsenic concentrations. We used two measures of total urinary arsenic (TUA): TUA1 was defined as the sum of arsenite, arsenate, monomethylarsonic acid, and dimethylarsinic acid, and TUA2 was defined as total urinary arsenic minus arsenobetaine and arsenocholine. Results The overall weighted seronegative prevalence of VZV was 2.2% for the pooled NHANES sample. The geometric means of TUA1 and TUA2 were 6.57 μg/L and 5.64 μg/L, respectively. After adjusting for age, sex, race, income, creatinine, and survey cycle, odds ratios for a negative VZV IgG result in association with 1-unit increases in natural log-transformed (ln)-TUA1 and ln-TUA2 were 1.87 (95% CI: 1.03, 3.44) and 1.40 (95% CI: 1.0, 1.97), respectively. Conclusions In this cross-sectional analysis, urinary arsenic was inversely associated with VZV IgG seroprevalence in the U.S. population. This finding is in accordance with clinical observations of zoster virus reactivation from high doses of arsenic. Additional studies are needed to confirm the association and evaluate causal mechanisms. Citation Cardenas A, Smit E, Houseman EA, Kerkvliet NI, Bethel JW, Kile ML. 2015. Arsenic exposure and prevalence of the varicella zoster virus in the United States: NHANES (2003–2004 and 2009–2010). Environ Health Perspect 123:590–596;

  6. [The establishment of the arsenic poisoning rats model caused by corn flour baked by high-arsenic coal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Mao-lin; Zhang, Ai-hua; Yu, Chun; Xu, Yu-yan; Hu, Yong; Xiao, Ting-ting; Wang, Lei

    2013-09-01

    To establish coal arsenic poisoning rat model by feeding the rats with the corn powder baked by high arsenic coal as the main raw material. Fifty Wistar rats, healthy, were randomly divided into 5 groups according to the figures of their weights, including control group, drinking arsenic poisoning water group, low, medium and high arsenic contaminated grain group, 10 rats for each.Rats in control group and drinking arsenic poisoning water group were fed with standard feed without any arsenic containing. Rats in water group would drink 100 mg/L As2O3 solution and the rats in arsenic grain groups would be fed with the arsenic contaminated grain at the dose of 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, respectively. The duration would last for 3 months.General situation and weight were observed. At the same time, the arsenic contents of urine, hair, liver and kidney of the rats in each group were detected, as well as the histopathology changes of liver and kidney, and the ultra structure of liver was observed. The arsenic contents of urine (median(min-max)) of the rats in the arsenic water group, low, medium and high arsenic grain groups were separately 3055.59 (722.43-6389.05), 635.96(367.85-1551.31), 1453.84 (593.27-5302.94) and 3101.11 (666.64-6858.61) µg/g Cr; while the arsenic contents of hair of the rats in the above groups were separately (23.07 ± 10.38), (8.87 ± 3.31), (12.43 ± 6.65) and (25.68 ± 7.16) µg/g; the arsenic contents of liver of the rats in the above groups were separately (5.68 ± 3.13), (2.64 ± 1.52), (3.89 ± 1.76) and (5.34 ± 2.78) µg/g; and the arsenic contents of kidney were separately (6.90 ± 1.94), (3.48 ± 1.96), (5.03 ± 2.08) and (7.02 ± 1.62) µg/g; which were all significantly higher than those in the control group (86.70 (49.71-106.104) µg/g Cr,(1.28 ± 0.37) µg/g, (1.01 ± 0.34) µg/g and (1.82 ± 1.09) µg/g, respectively). The difference showed significance (P arsenic contaminated grain group. The contents of aspartate transaminase (AST

  7. Reverse Osmosis Filter Use and High Arsenic Levels in Private Well Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Christine M.; Smith, Allan H.; Kalman, David A.; Steinmaus, Craig M.

    2013-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic causes cancer, and millions of people worldwide are exposed to arsenic-contaminated water. Regulatory standards for arsenic levels in drinking water generally do not apply to private domestic wells. Reverse osmosis (RO) units commonly are used by well owners to reduce arsenic concentrations, but may not always be effective. In a survey of 102 homes in Nevada, 19 used RO devices. Pre- and post-RO filtration arsenic concentrations averaged 443 μg/l and 87 μg/l, respectively. The average absolute and percent reductions in arsenic concentrations after filtration were 356 μg/l and 79%, respectively. Postfiltration concentrations were higher than 10 μg/l in 10 homes and higher than 100 μg/l in 4 homes. These findings provide evidence that RO filters do not guarantee safe drinking water and, despite regulatory standards, some people continue to be exposed to very high arsenic concentrations. PMID:17867571

  8. What Do We Know of Childhood Exposures to Metals (Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, and Mercury) in Emerging Market Countries?

    OpenAIRE

    Lindsey M. Horton; Mortensen, Mary E.; Yulia Iossifova; Wald, Marlena M.; Paula Burgess

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury present potential health risks to children who are exposed through inhalation or ingestion. Emerging Market countries experience rapid industrial development that may coincide with the increased release of these metals into the environment. A literature review was conducted for English language articles from the 21st century on pediatric exposures to arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury in the International Monetary Fund's (IMF) top 10 Emerging Market countr...

  9. Obesity and excess weight in early adulthood and high risks of arsenic-related cancer in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmaus, Craig; Castriota, Felicia; Ferreccio, Catterina; Smith, Allan H; Yuan, Yan; Liaw, Jane; Acevedo, Johanna; Pérez, Liliana; Meza, Rodrigo; Calcagno, Sergio; Uauy, Ricardo; Smith, Martyn T

    2015-10-01

    Elevated body mass index (BMI) is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, and other diseases. Inflammation or oxidative stress induced by high BMI may explain some of these effects. Millions of people drink arsenic-contaminated water worldwide, and ingested arsenic has also been associated with inflammation, oxidative stress, and cancer. To assess the unique situation of people living in northern Chile exposed to high arsenic concentrations in drinking water and investigate interactions between arsenic and BMI, and associations with lung and bladder cancer risks. Information on self-reported body mass index (BMI) at various life stages, smoking, diet, and lifetime arsenic exposure was collected from 532 cancer cases and 634 population-based controls. In subjects with BMIs lung and bladder cancer combined for arsenic concentrations of 800 µg/L were 1.00, 1.64 (95% CI, 1.19-2.27), and 3.12 (2.30-4.22). In subjects with BMIs ≥90th percentile in early adulthood, the corresponding ORs were higher: 1.00, 1.84 (0.75-4.52), and 9.37 (2.88-30.53), respectively (synergy index=4.05, 95% CI, 1.27-12.88). Arsenic-related cancer ORs >20 were seen in those with elevated BMIs in both early adulthood and in later life. Adjustments for smoking, diet, and other factors had little impact. These findings provide novel preliminary evidence supporting the notion that environmentally-related cancer risks may be markedly increased in people with elevated BMIs, especially in those with an elevated BMI in early-life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessment of arsenic in colostrum and cord serum and risk exposure to neonates from an island population in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chenye; Tang, Mengling; Zhu, Siyu; Naranmandura, Hua; Liu, Weiping

    2016-11-01

    Arsenic (As) has been proven to be highly toxic to humans, but limited attention has focused on exposure levels and potential risks to mother-neonate pairs of coastal populations. This study was conducted by examining the As concentration in colostrum and umbilical cord serum collected from 106 mother-neonate pairs living on Shengsi Island, facing the Yangtze River estuary and Hangzhou Bay in China. Average concentrations of total As in colostrum and cord serum were 18.51 ± 7.00 and 19.83 ± 10.50 μg L(-1). One-way ANOVA analysis showed delivered ages and source of drinking water played significant roles in influencing the maternal exposure patterns. Correlation analysis indicated a significantly positive association between As concentrations in colostrum and cord serum. Multivariable linear regression models adjusted for other confounders clarified the dose-response relationship with a coefficient value of 0.23 and a 95 % confidence interval of (0.006, 0.492); p colostrum As, especially the most toxic species, inorganic arsenic (iAs), would pose a risk to neonates.

  11. Probabilistic Risk Assessment of Cancer from Exposure Inorganic Arsenic in Duplicate Food by Villagers in Ronphibun, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyawat Saipan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Ronphibun district is a district in Nakorn Si Thammarat province, within southern Thailand. This district is the site of several former tin mines that were in operation 100 years ago. Arsenic contamination caused by past mining activities remains in the area. The specific purpose of this study was conducted to assess cancer risk in people living within Ronphibun district from exposure to inorganic arsenic via duplicate food using probabilistic risk assessment. A hundred and fifty duplicate food samples were collected from participants. Inorganic arsenic concentrations are determined by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. Inorganic arsenic concentrations in duplicate food ranged from 0.16 to 0.42 μg/g dry weight. The probabilistic carcinogenic risk levels were 6.76 x 10-4 and 1.74 x 10-3 based on the 50th and 95th percentile, respectively. Risk values for people in Ronphibun from exposure to inorganic arsenic remained higher than the acceptable target risk. Sensitivity analysis indicted that exposure duration and concentrations of arsenic in food were the two most influential of cancer risk estimates.

  12. Prolonged exposure to arsenic in UK private water supplies: toenail, hair and drinking water concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, D R S; Watts, M J; Hamilton, E M; Fletcher, T; Leonardi, G S; Close, R M; Exley, K S; Crabbe, H; Polya, D A

    2016-05-18

    Chronic exposure to arsenic (As) in drinking water is an established cause of cancer and other adverse health effects. Arsenic concentrations >10 μg L(-1) were previously measured in 5% of private water supplies (PWS) in Cornwall, UK. The present study investigated prolongued exposure to As by measuring biomarkers in hair and toenail samples from 212 volunteers and repeated measurements of As in drinking water from 127 households served by PWS. Strong positive Pearson correlations (rp = 0.95) indicated stability of water As concentrations over the time period investigated (up to 31 months). Drinking water As concentrations were positively correlated with toenail (rp = 0.53) and hair (rp = 0.38) As concentrations - indicative of prolonged exposure. Analysis of washing procedure solutions provided strong evidence of the effective removal of exogenous As from toenail samples. Significantly higher As concentrations were measured in hair samples from males and smokers and As concentrations in toenails were negatively associated with age. A positive association between seafood consumption and toenail As and a negative association between home-grown vegetable consumption and hair As was observed for volunteers exposed to hair biomarkers. Substantial variation in biomarker As concentrations remained unaccounted for, with soil and dust exposure as possible explanations.

  13. CD44v6 expression in human skin keratinocytes as a possible mechanism for carcinogenesis associated with chronic arsenic exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Inorganic arsenic is a well-known human skin carcinogen. Chronic arsenic exposure results in various types of human skin lesions, including squamous cell carcinoma (SCC. To investigate whether mutant stem cells participate in arsenic-associated carcinogenesis, we repeatedly exposed the HaCaT cells line to an environmentally relevant level of arsenic (0.05 ppm in vitro for 18 weeks. Following sodium arsenic arsenite administration, cell cycle, colony-forming efficiency (CFE, cell tumorigenicity, and expression of CD44v6, NF-κB and p53, were analyzed at different time points (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 passages. We found that a chronic exposure of HaCaT cells to a low level of arsenic induced a cancer stem- like phenotype. Furthermore, arsenic-treated HaCaT cells also became tumorigenic in nude mice, their growth cycle was predominantly in G2/M and S phases. Relative to nontreated cells, they exhibited a higher growth rate and a significant increase in CFE. Western blot analysis found that arsenic was capable of increasing cell proliferation and sprouting of cancer stem-like phenotype. Additionally, immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that CD44v6 expression was up-regulated in HaCaT cells exposed to a low level of arsenic during early stages of induction. The expression of CD44v6 in arsenic-treated cells was positively correlated with their cloning efficiency in soft agar (r=0.949, P=0.01. Likewise, the expressions of activating transcription factor NF-κB and p53 genes in the arsenic-treated HaCaT cells were significantly higher than that in non-treated cells. Higher expressions of CD44v6, NF-κB and p53 were also observed in tumor tissues isolated from Balb/c nude mice. The present results suggest that CD44v6 may be a biomarker of arsenic-induced neoplastic transformation in human skin cells, and that arsenic promotes malignant transformation in human skin lesions through a NF-κB signaling pathway-stimulated expression of CD44v6.

  14. Relationship between arsenic skin lesions and the age of natural menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Fakir Md; Rahman, Musarrat Jabeen; Alam, Md Zahidul; Hore, Samar Kumar; Rahman, Mahfuzar

    2014-05-02

    Chronic exposure to arsenic is associated with neoplastic, cardiovascular, endocrine, neuro-developmental disorders and can have an adverse effect on women's reproductive health outcomes. This study examined the relationship between arsenic skin lesions (a hallmark sign of chronic arsenic poisoning) and age of natural menopause (final menopausal period) in populations with high levels of arsenic exposure in Bangladesh. We compared menopausal age in two groups of women--with and without arsenic skin lesions; and presence of arsenic skin lesions was used as an indicator for chronic arsenic exposure. In a cross-sectional study, a total of 210 participants were randomly identified from two ongoing studies--participants with arsenic skin lesions were identified from an ongoing clinical trial and participants with no arsenic skin lesions were identified from an ongoing cohort study. Mean age of menopause between these two groups were calculated and compared. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate the relationship between the status of the arsenic skin lesions and age of natural menopause in women. Women with arsenic skin lesions were 1.5 years younger (p arsenic skin lesions. After adjusting with contraceptive use, body mass index, urinary arsenic level and family history of premature menopause, the difference between the groups' age at menopause was 2.1 years earlier (p arsenic skin lesions. The study showed a statistically significant association between chronic exposure to arsenic and age at menopause. Heavily exposed women experienced menopause two years earlier than those with lower or no exposure.

  15. Current status and prevention strategy for coal-arsenic poisoning in Guizhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dasheng; An, Dong; Zhou, Yunsu; Liu, Jie; Waalkes, Michael P

    2006-09-01

    Arsenic exposure from burning coal with high arsenic contents occurs in southwest Guizhou, China. Coal in this region contains extremely high concentrations of inorganic arsenic. Arsenic exposure from coal-burning is much higher than exposure from arsenic-contaminated water in other areas of China. The current status and prevention strategies for arsenic poisoning from burning high-arsenic coal in southwest Guizhou, China, is reported here. Over 3,000 arsenic-intoxicated patients were diagnosed based on skin lesions and urinary arsenic excretion. Non-cancerous toxicities and malignancies were much more common and severe in these patients than in other arsenic-affected populations around the world. The high incidence of cancer and arsenic-related mortality in this cohort is alarming. Chelation therapy was performed but the long-term therapeutic effects are not satisfactory. The best prevention strategy is to eliminate arsenic exposure. Funds from the Chinese Government are currently available to solve this arsenic exposure problem. Strategies include the installation of vented stoves, the use of marsh gas to replace coal, health education, the improvement of nutritional status, and the use of various therapies to treat arsenic-induced skin and liver diseases.

  16. Current Status and Prevention Strategy for Coal-arsenic Poisoning in Guizhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Dong; Zhou, Yunsu; Liu, Jie; Waalkes, Michael P.

    2006-01-01

    Arsenic exposure from burning coal with high arsenic contents occurs in southwest Guizhou, China. Coal in this region contains extremely high concentrations of inorganic arsenic. Arsenic exposure from coal-burning is much higher than exposure from arsenic-contaminated water in other areas of China. The current status and prevention strategies for arsenic poisoning from burning high-arsenic coal in southwest Guizhou, China, is reported here. Over 3,000 arsenic-intoxicated patients were diagnosed based on skin lesions and urinary arsenic excretion. Non-cancerous toxicities and malignancies were much more common and severe in these patients than in other arsenic-affected populations around the world. The high incidence of cancer and arsenic-related mortality in this cohort is alarming. Chelation therapy was performed but the long-term therapeutic effects are not satisfactory. The best prevention strategy is to eliminate arsenic exposure. Funds from the Chinese Government are currently available to solve this arsenic exposure problem. Strategies include the installation of vented stoves, the use of marsh gas to replace coal, health education, the improvement of nutritional status, and the use of various therapies to treat arsenic-induced skin and liver diseases. PMID:17366768

  17. An insight of environmental contamination of arsenic on animal health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramita Mandal

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The main threats to human health from heavy metals are associated with exposure to lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic. Exposure to arsenic is mainly via intake of food and drinking water, food being the most important source in most populations. Although adverse health effects of heavy metals have been known for a long time, exposure to heavy metals continues and is even increasing in some areas. Long-term exposure to arsenic in drinking-water is mainly related to increased risks of skin cancer, but also some other cancers, as well as other skin lesions such as hyperkeratosis and pigmentation changes. Therefore, measures should be taken to reduce arsenic exposure in the general population in order to minimize the risk of adverse health effects. Animal are being exposed to arsenic through contaminated drinking water, feedstuff, grasses, vegetables and different leaves. Arsenic has been the most common causes of inorganic chemical poisoning in farm animals. Although, sub-chronic and chronic exposure of arsenic do not generally reveal external signs or symptoms in farm animals but arsenic (or metabolites concentrations in blood, hair, hoofs and urine are remained high in animals of arsenic contaminated zones. So it is assumed that concentration of arsenic in blood, urine, hair or milk have been used as biomarkers of arsenic exposure in field animals.

  18. Geostatistical modelling of arsenic in drinking water wells and related toenail arsenic concentrations across Nova Scotia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dummer, T J B; Yu, Z M; Nauta, L; Murimboh, J D; Parker, L

    2015-02-01

    Arsenic is a naturally occurring class 1 human carcinogen that is widespread in private drinking water wells throughout the province of Nova Scotia in Canada. In this paper we explore the spatial variation in toenail arsenic concentrations (arsenic body burden) in Nova Scotia. We describe the regional distribution of arsenic concentrations in private well water supplies in the province, and evaluate the geological and environmental features associated with higher levels of arsenic in well water. We develop geostatistical process models to predict high toenail arsenic concentrations and high well water arsenic concentrations, which have utility for studies where no direct measurements of arsenic body burden or arsenic exposure are available. 892 men and women who participated in the Atlantic Partnership for Tomorrow's Health Project provided both drinking water and toenail clipping samples. Information on socio-demographic, lifestyle and health factors was obtained with a set of standardized questionnaires. Anthropometric indices and arsenic concentrations in drinking water and toenails were measured. In addition, data on arsenic concentrations in 10,498 private wells were provided by the Nova Scotia Department of Environment. We utilised stepwise multivariable logistic regression modelling to develop separate statistical models to: a) predict high toenail arsenic concentrations (defined as toenail arsenic levels ≥0.12 μg g(-1)) and b) predict high well water arsenic concentrations (defined as well water arsenic levels ≥5.0 μg L(-1)). We found that the geological and environmental information that predicted well water arsenic concentrations can also be used to accurately predict toenail arsenic concentrations. We conclude that geological and environmental factors contributing to arsenic contamination in well water are the major contributing influences on arsenic body burden among Nova Scotia residents. Further studies are warranted to assess appropriate

  19. Chronic Inorganic Arsenic Exposure In Vitro Induces a Cancer Cell Phenotype in Human Peripheral Lung Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, Rachel J.; Olive Ngalame, Ntube N.; Makia, Ngome L.; Bell, Matthew W.; Waalkes, Michael P.; Tokar, Erik J.

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic is a human lung carcinogen. We studied the ability of chronic inorganic arsenic (2 μM; as sodium arsenite) exposure to induce a cancer phenotype in the immortalized, non-tumorigenic human lung peripheral epithelial cell line, HPL-1D. After 38 weeks of continuous arsenic exposure, secreted matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2) activity increased to over 200% of control, levels linked to arsenic-induced cancer phenotypes in other cell lines. The invasive capacity of these chronic arsenic-treated lung epithelial (CATLE) cells increased to 320% of control and colony formation increased to 280% of control. CATLE cells showed enhanced proliferation in serum-free media indicative of autonomous growth. Compared to control cells, CATLE cells showed reduced protein expression of the tumor suppressor gene PTEN (decreased to 26% of control) and the putative tumor suppressor gene SLC38A3 (14% of control). Morphological evidence of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) occurred in CATLE cells together with appropriate changes in expression of the EMT markers vimentin (VIM; increased to 300% of control) and e-cadherin (CDH1; decreased to 16% of control). EMT is common in carcinogenic transformation of epithelial cells. CATLE cells showed increased KRAS (291%), ERK1/2 (274%), phosphorylated ERK (p-ERK; 152%), and phosphorylated AKT1 (p-AKT1; 170%) protein expression. Increased transcript expression of metallothioneins, MT1A and MT2A and the stress response genes HMOX1 (690%) and HIF1A (247%) occurred in CATLE cells possibly in adaptation to chronic arsenic exposure. Thus, arsenic induced multiple cancer cell characteristics in human peripheral lung epithelial cells. This model may be useful to assess mechanisms of arsenic-induced lung cancer. PMID:25804888

  20. 一种新的砷暴露标志物-唾液砷%Salivary Arsenic, A New Biomarker of Arsenic Exposure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王大朋; 刘建; 安艳

    2011-01-01

    Arsenism is a serious public health hazard to human health. The mechanism for understanding arsenic toxicity remains vague and there is still no effective treatment for arsenism so far. Finding a quick and simple biomarker of arsenic exposure is crucial to the prevention of arsenism. Because saliva is easy to collect and store, noninvasive, suitable for all age groups, saliva has been widely used in recent years to diagnose various diseases and detect environmental pollutants, including arsenic exposure. This article reviewed the application of saliva testing and the feasibility of salivary arsenic as a biomarker of arsenic exposure.%慢性砷中毒是一种严重危害人类健康的公共卫生疾病,其中毒机制尚不明确且无有效的治疗手段,因此早期的砷暴露筛查尤为重要.找到一种快速、简便的砷暴露检测标志物是预防砷中毒的关键.由于唾液有采样方便,无创伤,易储存,对不同年龄段的人群均适合等一系列优点,近年来唾液标本已广泛的应用到各种疾病及有害因子的诊断和检测当中,包括砷暴露的检测.该文就近年来唾液检测的应用及唾液砷作为砷暴露标志物的可行性等方面研究做一综述.

  1. Hematological effects of arsenic in rats after subchronical exposure during pregnancy and lactation: the protective role of antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio Garcia, Maria Teresa; Herrera Dueñas, Amparo; Pineda Pampliega, Javier

    2013-07-01

    Free radicals production is involved in the toxicity of arsenic. The aim of this study was to determine whether biochemical changes occurred in the blood of arsenic-exposed pups during gestation and lactation, and additionally to investigate the potential beneficial role of the administration of certain antioxidants against arsenic exposure damage. Pregnant wistar rats received the following treatments as drinking water: (1) distilled water; (2) arsenic (50 mg/L); (3) antioxidants: zinc (20 mg/L)+vitamin C (2 g/L)+vitamin E (500 mg/L); (4) arsenic (50 mg/L)+antioxidants: zinc (20 mg/L)+vitamin C (2 g/L)+vitamin E (500 mg/L). We found a normocytic and normochromic anemia as well as a significant increase in hemolysis, TBARS production and catalase activity in the blood of arsenic intoxicated pups. Moreover, this metalloid produced a significant increase of serum cholesterol, triglicerids and urea levels whereas the proteins diminished. These effects were palliated in some extent by the coadministration of vitamins and zinc. Our findings suggest that administration of antioxidants during gestation and lactation could prevent some of the negative effects of arsenic.

  2. Arsenic species in drinking water wells in the USA with high arsenic concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorg, Thomas J; Chen, Abraham S C; Wang, Lili

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic exists in ground water as oxyanions having two oxidation states, As(III) and As(V), and its concentrations vary widely and regionally across the United States (USA). Because of the difference in toxicity and removability of As(III) and As(V), arsenic speciation is important in the selection and design of an arsenic treatment systems. Identifying the arsenic species is also helpful in explaining and understanding the behavior and characteristics of arsenic in the environment. Although laboratory methods exist for speciating arsenic in water samples, the lack of a universal preservation method has led to the predominant use of field separation methods that are somewhat complex and costly. Thus, very few studies have incorporated arsenic speciation. A U.S. Environmental protection Agency (EPA) arsenic treatment research program provided a unique opportunity to speciate the naturally occurring arsenic in 65 well waters scattered across the USA with many of them being speciated monthly for up to three years. Speciation test data showed that 31 wells had predominantly As(V), 29 had predominantly As(III) and five had a mixture of both. A general pattern was found where As(III) was the dominant species in midwest ground waters where anoxic conditions and elevated iron concentrations prevailed and the well waters in the east, west and farwest had either As(III) or As(V) as the dominant species. The monthly (12-36) speciation tests results at many of these sites also found no major changes in arsenic species over time.

  3. Arsenic ototoxicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gulin Gokçen Kesici

    2016-01-01

    High levels of arsenic are found in many parts of the world and more than 100 million people may have been exposed to it. There is growing evidence to indicate that arsenic has a deleterious effect on the auditory system. This paper provides the general information of arsenic and its ototoxic effects.

  4. Arsenic in private well water part 3 of 3: Socioeconomic vulnerability to exposure in Maine and New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Sara V; Spayd, Steven E; Procopio, Nicholas A; Marvinney, Robert G; Smith, Andrew E; Chillrud, Steven N; Braman, Stuart; Zheng, Yan

    2016-08-15

    Arsenic is a naturally occurring toxic element often concentrated in groundwater at levels unsafe for human consumption. Private well water in the United States is mostly unregulated by federal and state drinking water standards. It is the responsibility of the over 13 million U.S. households regularly depending on private wells for their water to ensure it is safe for drinking. There is a consistent graded association with health outcomes at all levels of socioeconomic status (SES) in the U.S. Differential exposure to environmental risk may be contributing to this persistent SES-health gradient. Environmental justice advocates cite overwhelming evidence that income and other SES measures are consistently inversely correlated with exposure to suboptimal environmental conditions including pollutants, toxins, and their impacts. Here we use private well household surveys from two states to investigate the association between SES and risks for arsenic exposure, examining the potentially cumulative effects of residential location, testing and treatment behavior, and psychological factors influencing behavior. We find that the distribution of natural arsenic hazard in the environment is socioeconomically random. There is no evidence that higher SES households are avoiding areas with arsenic or that lower SES groups are disproportionately residing in areas with arsenic. Instead, disparities in exposure arise from differing rates of protective action, primarily testing well water for arsenic, and secondly treating or avoiding contaminated water. We observe these SES disparities in behavior as well as in the psychological factors that are most favorable to these behaviors. Assessment of risk should not be limited to the spatial occurrence of arsenic alone. It is important that social vulnerability factors are incorporated into risk modeling and identifying priority areas for intervention, which should include strategies that specifically target socioeconomically vulnerable

  5. Significance of private water supply wells in a rural Nevada area as a route of exposure to aqueous arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Mark; Benson, Marnee; Shaw, W Douglass

    2005-09-01

    In many rural areas domestic drinking water needs are met by a mixture of public water supplies and private water supplies. Private supplies are not subject to the regulations and management requirements of the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). Amendments to the SDWA recently lowered the standard for arsenic from 50 to 10 ppb in public water supplies (effective in 2006). Churchill County, Nevada, has approximately 25,000 residents. Slightly more than half (13,500) rely on private domestic wells for water supply. Ample data and media publicity about high arsenic concentrations in water supplies and a federally led investigation of a leukaemia cluster suggested that residents of the county would be aware that arsenic concentrations in private wells were highly likely to exceed the 10 ppb standard. A survey carried out in 2002 showed that a majority of respondents (72%) consumed water from private wells and among them a minority (38%) applied treatment. Maximum, median and minimum concentrations of arsenic from all samples (n = 351) were 2,100, 26 and risks. However, those who applied treatment were approximately 0.3 times as likely to be consuming water with > 10 ppb arsenic than those who consumed water that was not treated. In areas where concentrations of arsenic have been demonstrated to be high, it may be important to conduct a focused educational effort for private well owners to ensure that they take the steps needed to assess and reduce risks associated with contaminants found in tap water, including arsenic. An educational effort could include promoting sampling efforts to determine the magnitude of arsenic concentrations, explaining the risk associated with arsenic consumption and providing information about choices for home treatment systems that are likely to be effective in removing arsenic. This may be especially important in rural areas where adverse health effects are not evident to local populations.

  6. Arsenic levels in wipe samples collected from play structures constructed with CCA-treated wood: Impact on exposure estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barraj, Leila M. [Chemical Regulation and Food Safety, Exponent, Inc., Suite 1100, 1150 Connecticut Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20036 (United States)], E-mail: lbarraj@exponent.com; Scrafford, Carolyn G. [Chemical Regulation and Food Safety, Exponent, Inc., Suite 1100, 1150 Connecticut Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20036 (United States); Eaton, W. Cary [RTI International, 3040 Cornwallis Road, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Rogers, Robert E.; Jeng, Chwen-Jyh [Toxcon Health Sciences Research Centre Inc., 9607 - 41 Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta, T6E 5X7 (Canada)

    2009-04-01

    Lumber treated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA) has been used in residential outdoor wood structures and playgrounds. The U.S. EPA has conducted a probabilistic assessment of children's exposure to arsenic from CCA-treated structures using the Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation model for the wood preservative scenario (SHEDS-Wood). The EPA assessment relied on data from an experimental study using adult volunteers and designed to measure arsenic in maximum hand and wipe loadings. Analyses using arsenic handloading data from a study of children playing on CCA-treated play structures in Edmonton, Canada, indicate that the maximum handloading values significantly overestimate the exposure that occurs during actual play. The objective of our paper is to assess whether the dislodgeable arsenic residues from structures in the Edmonton study are comparable to those observed in other studies and whether they support the conclusion that the values derived by EPA using modeled maximum loading values overestimate hand exposures. We compared dislodgeable arsenic residue data from structures in the playgrounds in the Edmonton study to levels observed in studies used in EPA's assessment. Our analysis showed that the dislodgeable arsenic levels in the Edmonton playground structures are similar to those in the studies used by EPA. Hence, the exposure estimates derived using the handloading data from children playing on CCA-treated structures are more representative of children's actual exposures than the overestimates derived by EPA using modeled maximum values. Handloading data from children playing on CCA-treated structures should be used to reduce the uncertainty of modeled estimates derived using the SHEDS-Wood model.

  7. Neurodevelopmental outcomes among 2- to 3-year-old children in Bangladesh with elevated blood lead and exposure to arsenic and manganese in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Ema G; Bellinger, David C; Valeri, Linda; Hasan, Md Omar Sharif Ibne; Quamruzzaman, Quazi; Golam, Mostofa; Kile, Molly L; Christiani, David C; Wright, Robert O; Mazumdar, Maitreyi

    2016-03-12

    The people of Bangladesh are currently exposed to high concentrations of arsenic and manganese in drinking water, as well as elevated lead in many regions. The objective of this study was to investigate associations between environmental exposure to these contaminants and neurodevelopmental outcomes among Bangladeshi children. We evaluated data from 524 children, members of an ongoing prospective birth cohort established to study the effects of prenatal and early childhood arsenic exposure in the Sirajdikhan and Pabna Districts of Bangladesh. Water was collected from the family's primary drinking source during the first trimester of pregnancy and at ages 1, 12 and 20-40 months. At age 20-40 months, blood lead was measured and neurodevelopmental outcomes were assessed using a translated, culturally-adapted version of the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (BSID-III). Median blood lead concentrations were higher in Sirajdikhan than Pabna (7.6 vs. water arsenic concentrations were lower (1.5 vs 25.7 μg/L, p water arsenic was associated with decreased cognitive scores in Pabna (β = -0.06, SE = 0.03, p = 0.05). Water manganese was associated with fine motor scores in an inverse-U relationship in Pabna. Where blood lead levels are high, lead is associated with decreased cognitive scores on the BSID-III, and effects of other metals are not detected. In the setting of lower lead levels, the adverse effects of arsenic and manganese on neurodevelopment are observed.

  8. An assessment of health risks associated with arsenic exposure via consumption of homegrown vegetables near contaminated glassworks sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddh-Söderberg, Terese E; Gunnarsson, Sara J; Hogmalm, K Johan; Lindegård, M I Boel G; Augustsson, Anna L M

    2015-12-01

    The health risk posed by arsenic in vegetables grown in private gardens near 22 contaminated glassworks sites was investigated in this study. Firstly, vegetable (lettuce and potato) and soil samples were collected and arsenic concentrations measured to characterize the arsenic uptake in the selected crops. Secondly, a probabilistic exposure assessment was conducted to estimate the average daily intake (ADIveg), which was then evaluated against toxicological reference values by the calculation of hazard quotients (HQs) and cancer risks (CRs). The results show that elevated arsenic concentrations in residential garden soils are mirrored by elevated concentrations in vegetables, and that consumption of these vegetables alone may result in an unacceptable cancer risk; the calculated reasonable maximum exposure, for example, corresponded to a cancer incidence 20 times higher than the stated tolerance limit. However, the characterization of risk depends to a great extent on which toxicological reference value is used for comparison, as well as how the exposure is determined. Based on the assumptions made in the present study, the threshold levels for chronic non-carcinogenic or acute effects were not exceeded, but the cancer risks indicated highlight the need for further exposure studies, as dietary intake involves more than just homegrown vegetables and total exposure is a function of more than just one exposure pathway. In addition, glassworks sites--and contaminated sites in general--contain multiple contaminants, affecting the final and total risk. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Arsenic-cadmium interaction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Barriga, F; Llamas, E; Mejía, J J; Carrizales, L; Santoyo, M E; Vega-Vega, L; Yáñez, L

    1990-11-01

    Simultaneous exposure to cadmium and arsenic is highly probable in the urban area of San Luis Potosi, Mexico due to common localization of copper and zinc smelters. Therefore, in this work, rats were intraperitoneally exposed either to cadmium or arsenic alone, or simultaneously to both metals. The effects of these treatments on three different toxicological parameters were studied. Cadmium modified the LD50 of arsenic and conversely arsenic modified the LD50 for cadmium. At the histopathological level, arsenic appeared to protect against the cadmium effects, especially on testes. This protective effect seemed to be related to the glutathione levels found in this tissue: rats exposed to both arsenic and cadmium, presented glutathione values intermediate to those observed after exposure to either metal alone; arsenic had the highest value and cadmium the lowest. In liver, rats exposed to arsenic, cadmium or arsenic and cadmium, presented glutathione values below those in the saline group, with the lowest value corresponding to the arsenic and cadmium treatment. The results appear to support the proposed interaction between arsenic and cadmium and coexposure to both metals seems to alter certain effects produced by either metal alone.

  10. Maternal Arsenic Exposure and DNA Damage Biomarkers, and the Associations with Birth Outcomes in a General Population from Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Wei-Chun Chou; Yu-The Chung; Hsiao-Yen Chen; Chien-Jen Wang; Tsung-Ho Ying; Chun-Yu Chuang; Ying-Chih Tseng; Shu-Li Wang

    2014-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic (iAs) is an established transplacental agent known to affect fetal development in animal studies. However, iAs has not been adequately studied in the general population with respect to iAs exposure during pregnancy and its impact on the health status of newborns. The aims of this study were to 1) elucidate the association between arsenic exposure and oxidative/methylated DNA damage in pregnant women, and 2) determine the association with birth outcomes. A birth cohort study ...

  11. Culturable associated-bacteria of the sponge Theonella swinhoei show tolerance to high arsenic concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray eKeren

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sponges are potent filter feeders and as such are exposed to high fluxes of toxic trace elements, which can accumulate in their body over time. Such is the case of the Red Sea sponge Theonella swinhoei, which has been shown to accumulate up to 8500 mg/Kg of the highly toxic element arsenic. T. swinhoei is known to harbor a multitude of sponge-associated bacteria, so it is hypothesized that the associated-bacteria will be tolerant to high arsenic concentration. This study also investigates the fate of the arsenic accumulated in the sponge to test if the associated-bacteria have an important role in the arsenic accumulation process of their host, since bacteria are key players in the natural arsenic cycle. Separation of the sponge to sponge cells and bacteria enriched fractions showed that arsenic is accumulated by the bacteria. Sponge-associated, arsenic-tolerant bacteria were cultured in the presence of 5 mM of either arsenate or arsenite (equivalent to 6150 mg/Kg arsenic, dry weight. The 54 isolated bacteria were grouped to 15 OTUs and isolates belonging to 12 OTUs were assessed for tolerance to arsenate at increased concentrations up to 100 mM. Eight of the 12 OTUs tolerated an order of magnitude increase in the concentration of arsenate, and some exhibited external biomineralization of arsenic-magnesium salts. The biomineralization of this unique mineral was directly observed in bacteria for the first time. These results may provide an explanation for the ability of the sponge to accumulate considerable amounts of arsenic. Furthermore arsenic-mineralizing bacteria can potentially be used for the study of bioremediation, as arsenic toxicity affects millions of people worldwide.

  12. Arsenic methylation and skin lesions in migrant and native adult women with chronic exposure to arsenic from drinking groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Binggan; Yu, Jiangping; Yang, Linsheng; Li, Hairong; Chai, Yuanqing; Xia, Yajuan; Wu, Kegong; Gao, Jianwei; Guo, Zhiwei; Cui, Na

    2017-02-01

    In order to figure out the prevalence of skin lesions and methylation capacity for migrant and native adult women in an endemic area for arsenic poisoning in Inner Mongolia, China, 207 adult women were selected for study subjects. The results showed that the prevalence of skin lesions for the external group, provincial group and native group was 36.54, 26.15 and 35.56 %, respectively. The nail content of arsenic and urinary concentrations of dimethylarsenic (DMA), monomethylarsenic (MMA) and inorganic arsenic (iAs) were significantly higher in women with skin lesions than in those without skin lesions. The highest urinary concentrations of DMA, MMA and iAs were 213.93, 45.72 and 45.01 μg/L in the native group. The arsenic methylation capacity index revealed that the external group had the greatest capacity, while the native group had the lowest. The odds ratios of skin lesions in relation to arsenic metabolites and arsenic methylation capacity varied widely among the three groups. Urinary MMA and iAs concentrations were positively associated with risk of skin lesions in the three groups of adult women, while primary and secondary methylation capacities were negatively related to risk of skin lesions in native and provincial groups. The external group might be more susceptible to MMA and iAs, while the provincial and native groups were more tolerance to MMA and iAs. Lower primary and secondary arsenic methylation capacities increased the risk of skin lesions in native and provincial groups. Moreover, higher nail arsenic concentration increased the risk of skin lesions of adult women.

  13. Subchronic Arsenic Exposure Induces Anxiety-Like Behaviors in Normal Mice and Enhances Depression-Like Behaviors in the Chemically Induced Mouse Model of Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Yu Chang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence implicates that subchronic arsenic exposure causes cerebral neurodegeneration leading to behavioral disturbances relevant to psychiatric disorders. However, there is still little information regarding the influence of subchronic exposure to arsenic-contaminated drinking water on mood disorders and its underlying mechanisms in the cerebral prefrontal cortex. The aim of this study is to assess the effects of subchronic arsenic exposure (10 mg/LAs2O3 in drinking water on the anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in normal mice and in the chemically induced mouse model of depression by reserpine pretreatment. Our findings demonstrated that 4 weeks of arsenic exposure enhance anxiety-like behaviors on elevated plus maze (EPM and open field test (OFT in normal mice, and 8 weeks of arsenic exposure augment depression-like behaviors on tail suspension test (TST and forced swimming test (FST in the reserpine pretreated mice. In summary, in this present study, we demonstrated that subchronic arsenic exposure induces only the anxiety-like behaviors in normal mice and enhances the depression-like behaviors in the reserpine induced mouse model of depression, in which the cerebral prefrontal cortex BDNF-TrkB signaling pathway is involved. We also found that eight weeks of subchronic arsenic exposure are needed to enhance the depression-like behaviors in the mouse model of depression. These findings imply that arsenic could be an enhancer of depressive symptoms for those patients who already had the attribute of depression.

  14. Arsenic (As Contamination in Different Food and Dietary Samples from Several Districts of Bangladesh and Arsenic (As Detection, Mitigation and Toxicity Measurement and impact of Dietary Arsenic Exposure on Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M A Awal

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the level of arsenic concentration in vegetables and other food categories in three selected areas of Pabna district and to estimate quantitatively the dietary arsenic exposure in one of the arsenic contaminated areas of Bangladesh.Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in CharRuppur, Char mirkamari and Lakshmikunda village of IshwardiUpzila in Pabna district. Ishwardi (Town consists of 12 wardsand 37 mahallas. Arsenic was detected in the ADM Lab,Department of Pharmacology, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh with Hydride Generation Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (HG-AAS; PG-990, PG Instruments Ltd. UK. Arsenic was detected by forming AsH3 at below pH 1.0 after the reaction of As with a solution of sodiumborohydride (NaBH4, sodium hydroxide (NaOH, M=40,000g/mol, and 10% HCl. In this test, standard was maintained asAsV ranging from 0 to 12.5 μg/L.Results: A total of 120 vegetable samples, 15 rice samples and15 fish samples were collected from five different markets ofthree different villages of Pabna district and were tested forarsenic concentration. Findings demonstrated that the mean concentration of As in leafy vegetables (0.52 μg g-1 was significantly higher compared to those found in fruity (0.422μg g-1 and root & tuber vegetables (0.486 μg g-1.Conclusion: Underground Contaminated water was the major source for the As contamination of various products in Pabna.The arsenic levels were found higher among the leafy vegetables samples in comparison to fruit and root & tuber vegetables. Further studies will be conducted to search the genetic risk factors of arsenic toxicity in the population of the mostly affected people.

  15. Bioavailability study of arsenic and mercury in traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) using an animal model after a single dose exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinggi, Ujang; Sadler, Ross; Ng, Jack; Noller, Barry; Seawright, Alan

    2016-04-01

    Traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) are increasingly being used as alternative medicines in many countries, and this has caused concern because of adverse health effects from toxic metal bioavailability such as mercury (Hg) and arsenic (As). The aim of this study was to investigate the bioavailability of As and Hg from TCM after a single exposure dose using an animal model of female Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were divided into 6 groups which included four groups treated with sodium arsenite (NaAsO2), arsenic sulfide (As2S3), mercuric chloride (HgCl2), mercuric sulfide (HgS), and two groups treated with TCM containing high Hg or As (Liu Shen Wan: As 7.7-9.1% and Hg 1.4-5.0%; Niuhang Jie du Pian: As 6.2-7.9% and Hg bioavailability of As and Hg from TCM as indicated by low relative bioavailability of As (0.60-1.10%) and Hg (<0.001%). Histopathological examination of rat kidney and liver tissues did not show toxic effects from TCM. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Environmental geochemistry of high arsenic groundwater at western Hetao plain, Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun HE; Teng MA; Yamin DENG; Hui YANG; Yanxin WANG

    2009-01-01

    Environmental geochemistry of high arsenic groundwater at Hetao plain was studied on the basis of geochemical survey of the groundwater and a core sediment. Arsenic concentration in groundwater samples varies from 76 to 1093 μg/L. The high arsenic groundwater mostly appears to be weakly alkaline. The concentrations of NO3 and SO42- are relatively low, while the concentrations ofDOC, NH4+, dissolved Fe and sulfide are relatively great. Analysis of arsenic speciation in 21 samples shows that arsenic is present in the solution predominantly as As(Ⅲ), while particulate arsenic constitutes about 10% of the total arsenic. Methane is detected in five samples with the greatest content being 5107 μg/L.The shallow aquifer in Hangjinhouqi of western Hetao plain is of strongly reducing condition. The arsenic content in 23 core sediment samples varies from 7.7 to 34.6 mg/kg, with great value in clay and mild clay layer. The obvious positive relationship in content between Fe203, Mn, Sb, B, V and As indicates that the distribution of arsenic in the sediments may be related to Fe and Mn oxides, and the mobilization of Sb, B and V may be affected by similar geochemical processes as that of As.

  17. A study of lipid- and water-soluble arsenic species in liver of Northeast Arctic cod (Gadus morhua) containing high levels of total arsenic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sele, Veronika; Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Julshamn, Kale;

    2015-01-01

    In the present study liver samples (n = 26) of Northeast Arctic cod (Gadus morhua), ranging in total arsenic concentrations from 2.1 to 240 mg/kg liver wet weight (ww), were analysed for their content of total arsenic and arsenic species in the lipid-soluble and water-soluble fractions. The arsenic...... concentrations in the lipid fractions ranged from 1.8 to 16.4 mg As/kg oil of liver, and a linear correlation (r(2) = 0.80, p arsenic concentrations in liver and the total arsenic concentrations in the respective lipid fractions of the same livers. The relative proportion...... of arsenolipids was considerably lower in liver samples with high total arsenic levels (33-240 mg/kg ww), which contained from 3 to 7% of the total arsenic in the lipid-soluble fraction. In contrast liver samples with low arsenic concentrations (2.1-33 mg/kg ww) contained up to 50% of the total arsenic as lipid...

  18. Characteristics of high arsenic groundwater in Hetao Basin, Inner Mongolia, northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YangChun Zhu; XueYong Zhao; Min Chen; YongQing Luo; Xin Zhou

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that the Hetao Basin is one of the most seriously arsenic-affected groundwater areas in China. In order to understand the characteristics of high arsenic (As) groundwater in the Basin, a brief overview of arsenic in groundwater follows. High arsenic in the Basin commonly occurs in shallow groundwater and the total arsenic concentrations range from 0.58 to 572 µg/L (average 99.73 µg/L), exceeding the maximum mandated value of 10 µg/L for drinking water in China;As(Ш) is the predominant species. The regional distribution pattern of arsenic in the groundwater increases from south/southeast to north/northwest. Hangjinhouqi and Wuyuan counties are considered as the most seriously affected areas, with high incidences of endemic arsenicosic diseases in the Hetao Basin. High groundwater arsenic correlates with the increase of well depth. Previous studies proposed that groundwater arsenic in the Basin is mainly originated from desorption of some natural solid materials in the sediments, under reducing condition. Generally, reducing condition is believed to be the primary factor for arsenic releasing from the sediment to groundwater in the region. Under inorganic or bacterial processes, Fe2O3 changes to FeS and arsenic adsorbed to Fe(OH)3 dissolves into groundwater, and As(V) is re-duced to As(Ш). Besides, reducing environments, groundwater hydraulic gradients, organic matter, pH, evapotranspiration, and soil texture are presumed to be the predominant factors that control arsenic mobilization.

  19. Estimating Inorganic Arsenic Exposure from U.S. Rice and Total Water Intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantha, Madhavi; Yeary, Edward; Trent, John; Creed, Patricia A; Kubachka, Kevin; Hanley, Traci; Shockey, Nohora; Heitkemper, Douglas; Caruso, Joseph; Xue, Jianping; Rice, Glenn; Wymer, Larry; Creed, John T

    2017-05-30

    Among nonoccupationally exposed U.S. residents, drinking water and diet are considered primary exposure pathways for inorganic arsenic (iAs). In drinking water, iAs is the primary form of arsenic (As), while dietary As speciation techniques are used to differentiate iAs from less toxic arsenicals in food matrices. Our goal was to estimate the distribution of iAs exposure rates from drinking water intakes and rice consumption in the U.S. population and ethnic- and age-based subpopulations. The distribution of iAs in drinking water was estimated by population, weighting the iAs concentrations for each drinking water utility in the Second Six-Year Review data set. To estimate the distribution of iAs concentrations in rice ingested by U.S. consumers, 54 grain-specific, production-weighted composites of rice obtained from U.S. mills were extracted and speciated using both a quantitative dilute nitric acid extraction and speciation (DNAS) and an in vitro gastrointestinal assay to provide an upper bound and bioaccessible estimates, respectively. Daily drinking water intake and rice consumption rate distributions were developed using data from the What We Eat in America (WWEIA) study. Using these data sets, the Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation (SHEDS) model estimated mean iAs exposures from drinking water and rice were 4.2 μg/day and 1.4 μg/day, respectively, for the entire U.S. population. The Tribal, Asian, and Pacific population exhibited the highest mean daily exposure of iAs from cooked rice (2.8 μg/day); the mean exposure rate for children between ages 1 and 2 years in this population is 0.104 μg/kg body weight (BW)/day. An average consumer drinking 1.5 L of water daily that contains between 2 and 3 ng iAs/mL is exposed to approximately the same amount of iAs as a mean Tribal, Asian, and Pacific consumer is exposed to from rice. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP418. Among nonoccupationally exposed U.S. residents, drinking water and diet are considered

  20. Chronic Arsenic Poisoning Probably Caused by Arsenic-Based Pesticides: Findings from an Investigation Study of a Household

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongfang; Ye, Feng; Wang, Anwei; Wang, Da; Yang, Boyi; Zheng, Quanmei; Sun, Guifan; Gao, Xinghua

    2016-01-01

    In addition to naturally occurring arsenic, man-made arsenic-based compounds are other sources of arsenic exposure. In 2013, our group identified 12 suspected arsenicosis patients in a household (32 living members). Of them, eight members were diagnosed with skin cancer. Interestingly, all of these patients had lived in the household prior to 1989. An investigation revealed that approximately 2 tons of arsenic-based pesticides had been previously placed near a well that had supplied drinking water to the family from 1973 to 1989. The current arsenic level in the well water was 620 μg/L. No other high arsenic wells were found near the family’s residence. Based on these findings, it is possible to infer that the skin lesions exhibited by these family members were caused by long-term exposure to well water contaminated with arsenic-based pesticides. Additionally, biochemical analysis showed that the individuals exposed to arsenic had higher levels of aspartate aminotransferase and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase than those who were not exposed. These findings might indicate the presence of liver dysfunction in the arsenic-exposed individuals. This report elucidates the effects of arsenical compounds on the occurrence of high levels of arsenic in the environment and emphasizes the severe human health impact of arsenic exposure. PMID:26784217

  1. Chronic Arsenic Poisoning Probably Caused by Arsenic-Based Pesticides: Findings from an Investigation Study of a Household

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongfang Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In addition to naturally occurring arsenic, man-made arsenic-based compounds are other sources of arsenic exposure. In 2013, our group identified 12 suspected arsenicosis patients in a household (32 living members. Of them, eight members were diagnosed with skin cancer. Interestingly, all of these patients had lived in the household prior to 1989. An investigation revealed that approximately 2 tons of arsenic-based pesticides had been previously placed near a well that had supplied drinking water to the family from 1973 to 1989. The current arsenic level in the well water was 620 μg/L. No other high arsenic wells were found near the family’s residence. Based on these findings, it is possible to infer that the skin lesions exhibited by these family members were caused by long-term exposure to well water contaminated with arsenic-based pesticides. Additionally, biochemical analysis showed that the individuals exposed to arsenic had higher levels of aspartate aminotransferase and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase than those who were not exposed. These findings might indicate the presence of liver dysfunction in the arsenic-exposed individuals. This report elucidates the effects of arsenical compounds on the occurrence of high levels of arsenic in the environment and emphasizes the severe human health impact of arsenic exposure.

  2. Chronic Arsenic Poisoning Probably Caused by Arsenic-Based Pesticides: Findings from an Investigation Study of a Household.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongfang; Ye, Feng; Wang, Anwei; Wang, Da; Yang, Boyi; Zheng, Quanmei; Sun, Guifan; Gao, Xinghua

    2016-01-16

    In addition to naturally occurring arsenic, man-made arsenic-based compounds are other sources of arsenic exposure. In 2013, our group identified 12 suspected arsenicosis patients in a household (32 living members). Of them, eight members were diagnosed with skin cancer. Interestingly, all of these patients had lived in the household prior to 1989. An investigation revealed that approximately 2 tons of arsenic-based pesticides had been previously placed near a well that had supplied drinking water to the family from 1973 to 1989. The current arsenic level in the well water was 620 μg/L. No other high arsenic wells were found near the family's residence. Based on these findings, it is possible to infer that the skin lesions exhibited by these family members were caused by long-term exposure to well water contaminated with arsenic-based pesticides. Additionally, biochemical analysis showed that the individuals exposed to arsenic had higher levels of aspartate aminotransferase and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase than those who were not exposed. These findings might indicate the presence of liver dysfunction in the arsenic-exposed individuals. This report elucidates the effects of arsenical compounds on the occurrence of high levels of arsenic in the environment and emphasizes the severe human health impact of arsenic exposure.

  3. Urinary arsenic speciation and its correlation with 8-OHdG in Chinese residents exposed to arsenic through coal burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, X.; Pi, J.B.; Li, B.; Xu, Y.Y.; Jin, Y.P.; Sun, G.F. [China Medical University, Shenyang (China). Dept. for Occupational & Environmental Health

    2008-10-15

    In contrast to arsenicosis caused by consumption of water contaminated by naturally occurring inorganic arsenic, human exposure to this metalloid through coal burning has been rarely reported. In this study, arsenic speciation and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels in urine were determined in the Chinese residents exposed to arsenic through coal burning in Guizhou, China, an epidemic area of chronic arsenic poisoning caused by coal burning. The urinary concentrations of inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and total arsenic (tAs) of high-arsenic exposed subjects were significantly higher than those of low-arsenic exposed residents. A biomarker of oxidative DNA damage, urinary 8-OHdG level was significantly higher in high-arsenic exposed subjects than that of low exposed. Significant positive correlations were found between 8-OHdG levels and concentrations of iAs, MMA, DMA and tAs, respectively. In addition, a significant negative correlation was observed between 8-OHdG levels and the secondary methylation ratio (DMA/(MMA + DMA)). The results suggest that chronic arsenic exposure through burning coal rich in arsenic is associated with oxidative DNA damages, and that secondary methylation capacity is potentially related to the susceptibility of individuals to oxidative DNA damage induced by arsenic exposure through coal burning in domestic living.

  4. Wild plants as tools for the remediation of abandoned mining sites with a high arsenic content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Lopez, Salvadora; Martínez-Sanchez, MJose; Perez-Sirvent, Carmen; Martínez, Lucia B.; Bech, Jaume

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the environmental risk posed by arsenic when new vegetation types are introduced, analyzing the transfer of arsenic in different plant species that grow spontaneously in mining areas of SE Spain (Sierra Minera of Cartagena), and the contribution of such plants to the environmental risk represented by their ingestion by animals living in the same ecosystems. When dealing with remediation projects in zones affected by mining activities, the risk posed by the ingestion of the plants by fauna is often forgotten. To study the transfer to the trophic chain, two mammals, sheep and vole, were selected. The risk analysis was centered in the contribution of these natural plants to the ingestion calculated. For this study, 21 vegetal species naturally growing in the soils were collected from the Sierra Minera. The vegetal material studied is clearly associated with the Mediterranean Region (S.E. of Spain) and the plant species collected are endemisms and plants characteristic of the zone. Physico-chemical properties were obtained by means of the usual procedures. To determine the arsenic content, the soil samples and plant materials were digested in a microwave system and the arsenic concentration was determined using atomic fluorescence spectrometry with an automated continuous flow hydride generation system. A semiquantitative estimation of the mineralogical composition of the samples was made by X Ray Diffraction analysis. The soils were classified into three groups: Low (group 1) (7-35 mg/kg) medium (group 2) (35-327 mg/kg) and high (group 3) (> 327 mg/kg), according to their As content. The mineralogy and As content of the soils studied depends on the materials related with mining activity. The descriptive statistical analysis of the population of plants studied showed the As range in roots to be 0.31-150 mg/kg while leaf concentrations were lower (0.21-83.4 mg/kg). The potential risk of As entering the food chain through of the plant

  5. Contribution of inorganic arsenic sources to population exposure risk on a regional scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Wei-Chun; Chen, Jein-Wen; Liao, Chung-Min

    2016-07-01

    Chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs) in the human population is associated with various internal cancers and other adverse outcomes. The purpose of this study was to estimate a population-scale exposure risk attributable to iAs consumptions by linking a stochastic physiological-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model and biomonitoring data of iAs in urine. The urinary As concentrations were obtained from a total of 1,043 subjects living in an industrial area of Taiwan. The results showed that the study subjects had an iAs exposure risk of 27 % (the daily iAs intake for 27 % study subjects exceeded the WHO-recommended value, 2.1 μg iAs day(-1) kg(-1) body weight). Moreover, drinking water and cooked rice contributed to the iAs exposure risk by 10 and 41 %, respectively. The predicted risks in the current study were 4.82, 27.21, 34.69, and 64.17 %, respectively, among the mid-range of Mexico, Taiwan (this study), Korea, and Bangladesh reported in the literature. In conclusion, we developed a population-scale-based risk model that covered the broad range of iAS exposure by integrating stochastic PBPK modeling and reverse dosimetry to generate probabilistic distribution of As intake corresponding to urinary As measured from the cohort study. The model can also be updated as new urinary As information becomes available.

  6. Arsenate and arsenite exposure modulate antioxidants and amino acids in contrasting arsenic accumulating rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Richa; Tripathi, Rudra Deo; Dwivedi, Sanjay; Tripathi, Preeti; Dixit, Garima; Sharma, Yogesh Kumar; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar; Corpas, Francisco J; Barroso, Juan B; Chakrabarty, Debasis

    2013-11-15

    Carcinogenic arsenic (As) concentrations are found in rice due to irrigation with contaminated groundwater in South-East Asia. The present study evaluates comparative antioxidant property and specific amino acid accumulation in contrasting rice genotypes corresponding to differential As accumulation during arsenate (As(V)) and arsenite (As(III)) exposures. The study was conducted on two contrasting As accumulating rice genotypes selected from 303 genotype accessions, in hydroponic conditions. Maximum As accumulation was up to 1181 μg g(-1) dw in the roots of high As accumulating genotype (HARG), and 89 μg g(-1) dw in low As accumulating genotype (LARG) under As(III) exposures. The inorganic As was correlated more significantly upon exposures to As(III) than As(V). In the presence of As(V) various antioxidant enzymes guiacol peroxidase (GPX), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were highly stimulated in HARG. The stress responsive amino acids proline, cysteine, glycine, glutamic acid and methionine showed higher accumulation in HARG than LARG. A clear correlation was found between stress responsive amino acids, As accumulation and antioxidative response. The comparisons between the contrasting genotypes helped to determine the significance of antioxidants and specific amino acid response to As stress.

  7. Chronic occupational exposure to arsenic induces carcinogenic gene signaling networks and neoplastic transformation in human lung epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stueckle, Todd A., E-mail: tstueckle@hsc.wvu.edu [Department of Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Health Effects Laboratory Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV 26505 (United States); Lu, Yongju, E-mail: yongju6@hotmail.com [Department of Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Davis, Mary E., E-mail: mdavis@wvu.edu [Department of Physiology, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Wang, Liying, E-mail: lmw6@cdc.gov [Health Effects Laboratory Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV 26505 (United States); Jiang, Bing-Hua, E-mail: bhjiang@jefferson.edu [Department of Pathology, Anatomy and Cell Biology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (United States); Holaskova, Ida, E-mail: iholaskova@hsc.wvu.edu [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Cell Biology, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Schafer, Rosana, E-mail: rschafer@hsc.wvu.edu [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Cell Biology, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Barnett, John B., E-mail: jbarnett@hsc.wvu.edu [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Cell Biology, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Rojanasakul, Yon, E-mail: yrojan@hsc.wvu.edu [Department of Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Chronic arsenic exposure remains a human health risk; however a clear mode of action to understand gene signaling-driven arsenic carcinogenesis is currently lacking. This study chronically exposed human lung epithelial BEAS-2B cells to low-dose arsenic trioxide to elucidate cancer promoting gene signaling networks associated with arsenic-transformed (B-As) cells. Following a 6 month exposure, exposed cells were assessed for enhanced cell proliferation, colony formation, invasion ability and in vivo tumor formation compared to control cell lines. Collected mRNA was subjected to whole genome expression microarray profiling followed by in silico Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) to identify lung carcinogenesis modes of action. B-As cells displayed significant increases in proliferation, colony formation and invasion ability compared to BEAS-2B cells. B-As injections into nude mice resulted in development of primary and secondary metastatic tumors. Arsenic exposure resulted in widespread up-regulation of genes associated with mitochondrial metabolism and increased reactive oxygen species protection suggesting mitochondrial dysfunction. Carcinogenic initiation via reactive oxygen species and epigenetic mechanisms was further supported by altered DNA repair, histone, and ROS-sensitive signaling. NF-κB, MAPK and NCOR1 signaling disrupted PPARα/δ-mediated lipid homeostasis. A ‘pro-cancer’ gene signaling network identified increased survival, proliferation, inflammation, metabolism, anti-apoptosis and mobility signaling. IPA-ranked signaling networks identified altered p21, EF1α, Akt, MAPK, and NF-κB signaling networks promoting genetic disorder, altered cell cycle, cancer and changes in nucleic acid and energy metabolism. In conclusion, transformed B-As cells with their whole genome expression profile provide an in vitro arsenic model for future lung cancer signaling research and data for chronic arsenic exposure risk assessment. Highlights: ► Chronic As{sub 2}O

  8. Association of inorganic arsenic exposure with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weijing; Xie, Zhutian; Lin, Yan; Zhang, Dongfeng

    2014-02-01

    The association of long-term effects of inorganic arsenic (iAs) exposure with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) risk remains controversial. A literature search was performed in PubMed, China National Knowledge Infrastructure and Web of Knowledge for relevant available articles published in English or Chinese from 1 January 1990 to 5 June 2013. Case-control, cohort or cross-sectional studies evaluating iAs and T2DM were included. The DerSimonian and Laird random effect model was adopted as the pooling method. Dose-response relationship was assessed by restricted cubic spline model and multivariate random-effect meta-regression. Of the 569 articles identified through searching databases, 17 published articles with 2,243,745 participants for iAs in drinking water and 21 083 participants for total arsenic (tAs) in urine were included for this meta-analysis. The pooled relative risk with 95% CI of T2DM for the highest versus lowest category of iAs exposure level in drinking water was 1.75 (1.20 to 2.54). After removing three studies that had a strong effect on heterogeneity, the pooled relative risk was 1.23 (1.12 to 1.36). Dose-response analysis suggested T2DM risk increased by 13% (1.13 (1.00 to 1.27)) for every 100 µg/L increment of iAs in drinking water. Significant association of T2DM risk with tAs in urine was also found 1.28 (1.14 to 1.44). This meta-analysis indicates that long-term iAs exposure might be positively associated with T2DM risk.

  9. Sampling private wells at past homes to estimate arsenic exposure: a methodologic study in New England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colt, Joanne S; Baris, Dalsu; Clark, Stewart F; Ayotte, Joseph D; Ward, Mary; Nuckols, John R; Cantor, Kenneth P; Silverman, Debra T; Karagas, Margaret

    2002-09-01

    We are conducting a collaborative, population-based case-control study in Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont to investigate the reasons for the elevated bladder cancer mortality in northern New England. Arsenic in drinking water is one of the primary exposures under investigation. To estimate subjects' lifetime exposure to waterborne arsenic, it will be necessary to obtain water samples from private wells that subjects used in the past. We conducted a methodologic study to assess the feasibility of locating and sampling from private wells at subjects' past residences. Ninety-eight New Hampshire residents (mean age 67 years) completed a questionnaire requesting the complete address, dates of occupancy, and drinking water sources for each home lived in since birth. An interviewer then asked subjects for more detailed information about each home to assist in a field search of past homes in the three-state study area of Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont. Fifty-eight of the 98 subjects indicated that they had used a total of 103 private wells in 95 previous homes located in these three states. We conducted a field search to locate these 95 homes, visited town offices to find the properties on tax maps and obtain the current owners' names and addresses, attempted to obtain permission from the current owners to sample the wells, and collected water samples. In all, 48 (47%) of the 103 past wells in the study area were sampled successfully. The remaining wells were not sampled because the homes were not located (22%) or had been demolished (2%), permission to sample the wells was not obtained (17%), the wells had been destroyed (7%) or could not be found on the grounds of the residence (3%), or for other reasons (2%). Various approaches for improving the success rates for sampling water from private wells are discussed, as is the use of predictive modeling to impute exposures when sampling is not feasible.

  10. Association of arsenic exposure with smoking, alcohol, and caffeine consumption: data from NHANES 2005-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Ram B

    2015-03-01

    Association of arsenic exposure with smoking, alcohol, and caffeine consumption was investigated. Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the years 2005-2010 were used for this investigation. Urinary levels of total arsenic (UAS) and dimethylarsonic acid (UDMA) were evaluated for children aged 6-12 years and adolescents and adults aged ≥ 12 years. Urinary levels of arsenobetaine (UAB) were evaluated for adolescents and adults only. Regression models were fitted for log transformed values of UAB, UAS, and UDMA. For the models for children, however, gender, race/ethnicity, SES, and fish/shell fish consumption during the last 30 days were the only independent variables that were included in the models. Nonsmokers were found to have higher levels of UAS and UDMA than smokers. Elevated levels of UAB, UAS, and UDMA were associated with higher amounts of daily alcohol consumption. The associations were in the opposite direction for daily caffeine consumption. Females were found to have statistically significantly lower adjusted levels of UDMA than males for those aged ≥ 12 years. Irrespective of age, those with unclassified race/ethnicity had the highest levels of UAB, UAS, and UDMA and non-Hispanic whites had the lowest levels. Adolescents had the higher levels of UAB, UAS, and UDMA than adults. Higher SES was associated with higher levels of UAB, UAS, and UDMA among adolescents and adults. Irrespective of age, fish consumption was associated with higher levels of UAB, UAS, and UDMA. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Systems-level modeling the effects of arsenic exposure with sequential pulsed and fluctuating patterns for tilapia and freshwater clam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, W.-Y. [Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Tsai, J.-W. [Institute of Ecology and Evolutionary Ecology, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China); Ju, Y.-R. [Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Liao, C.-M., E-mail: cmliao@ntu.edu.t [Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2010-05-15

    The purpose of this paper was to use quantitative systems-level approach employing biotic ligand model based threshold damage model to examine physiological responses of tilapia and freshwater clam to sequential pulsed and fluctuating arsenic concentrations. We tested present model and triggering mechanisms by carrying out a series of modeling experiments where we used periodic pulses and sine-wave as featured exposures. Our results indicate that changes in the dominant frequencies and pulse timing can shift the safe rate distributions for tilapia, but not for that of freshwater clam. We found that tilapia increase bioenergetic costs to maintain the acclimation during pulsed and sine-wave exposures. Our ability to predict the consequences of physiological variation under time-varying exposure patterns has also implications for optimizing species growing, cultivation strategies, and risk assessment in realistic situations. - Systems-level modeling the pulsed and fluctuating arsenic exposures.

  12. Speciation of arsenic using chelation solvent extraction and high performance liquid chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cathum, Shamil J.; Obenauf, Alison; Punt, Monique [SAIC Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Brown, Carl E. [Emergencies Engineering Technology Office, Environmental Technology Centre, Environment Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2007-02-15

    Research interest in speciation of arsenic stems from its species dependent behavior in the environment and in living organisms. The complexity of the matrix to be analyzed and low concentrations of target arsenic species that may be labile or difficult to chromatogram, indicate that a suitable pre-treatment methodology is required. This study investigated the usefulness of chelation solvent extraction - high performance liquid chromatography (CSE-HPLC) for the speciation of arsenic in water. It involved reacting arsenic with the chelant known for its affinity towards arsenic, followed by extraction, separation, and identification of the arsenic-chelant-arsenic complex. Arsenic species having different physicochemical properties were investigated. Species, such as, As{sub 2}O{sub 3}, As{sub 3}O{sub 5}, KH{sub 2}AsO{sub 4}, Na{sub 2}HAsO{sub 4}, and NaAsO{sub 2}were detected as a group of closely eluted peaks with different retention times and spectral properties, whereas, the organic arsenic species CH {sub 3}Na {sub 2}AsO {sub 3}, o-arsanilic acid, roxarson and triphenyl arsine separated quite well on the EnviroseP-CM HPLC column. Key method parameters, such as, type of HPLC column, composition of mobile phase and organic solvents affecting peak resolution and sensitivity were optimized. Real environmental matrices contaminated with arsenic were analyzed under varying wavelengths ({lambda}{sub max} = 190, 210, 220, 234, 244, and 282 nm), with good precision. Different arsenic species were detected in these samples with excellent background and signal-to-noise ratios demonstrating the robustness of the method. The detection limit, reproducibility, selectivity, accuracy, and dynamic range of the calibration curves were evaluated. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  13. In vivo assessment of arsenic bioavailability in rice and its significance for human health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhasz, Albert L; Smith, Euan; Weber, John; Rees, Matthew; Rofe, Allan; Kuchel, Tim; Sansom, Lloyd; Naidu, Ravi

    2006-12-01

    Millions of people worldwide consume arsenic-contaminated rice; however, little is known about the uptake and bioavailability of arsenic species after arsenic-contaminated rice ingestion. In this study, we assessed arsenic speciation in greenhouse-grown and supermarket-bought rice, and determined arsenic bioavailability in cooked rice using an in vivo swine model. In supermarket-bought rice, arsenic was present entirely in the inorganic form compared to greenhouse-grown rice (using irrigation water contaminated with sodium arsenate), where most (approximately 86%) arsenic was present as dimethylarsinic acid (organic arsenic). Because of the low absolute bioavailability of dimethylarsinic acid and the high proportion of dimethylarsinic acid in greenhouse-grown rice, only 33 +/- 3% (mean +/- SD) of the total rice-bound arsenic was bioavailable. Conversely, in supermarket-bought rice cooked in water contaminated with sodium arsenate, arsenic was present entirely in the inorganic form, and bioavailability was high (89 +/- 9%). These results indicate that arsenic bioavailability in rice is highly dependent on arsenic speciation, which in turn can vary depending on rice cultivar, arsenic in irrigation water, and the presence and nature of arsenic speciation in cooking water. Arsenic speciation and bioavailability are therefore critical parameters for reducing uncertainties when estimating exposure from the consumption of rice grown and cooked using arsenic-contaminated water.

  14. Human arsenic exposure and risk assessment at the landscape level: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nasreen Islam; Owens, Gary; Bruce, David; Naidu, Ravi

    2009-04-01

    Groundwater contaminated with arsenic (As), when extensively used for irrigation, causes potentially long term detrimental effects to the landscape. Such contamination can also directly affect human health when irrigated crops are primarily used for human consumption. Therefore, a large number of humans are potentially at risk worldwide due to daily As exposure. Numerous previous studies have been severely limited by small sample sizes which are not reliably extrapolated to large populations or landscapes. Human As exposure and risk assessment are no longer simple assessments limited to a few food samples from a small area. The focus of more recent studies has been to perform risk assessment at the landscape level involving the use of biomarkers to identify and quantify appropriate health problems and large surveys of human dietary patterns, supported by analytical testing of food, to quantify exposure. This approach generates large amounts of data from a wide variety of sources and geographic information system (GIS) techniques have been used widely to integrate the various spatial, demographic, social, field, and laboratory measured datasets. With the current worldwide shift in emphasis from qualitative to quantitative risk assessment, it is likely that future research efforts will be directed towards the integration of GIS, statistics, chemistry, and other dynamic models within a common platform to quantify human health risk at the landscape level. In this paper we review the present and likely future trends of human As exposure and GIS application in risk assessment at the landscape level.

  15. Prenatal exposure to arsenic impairs behavioral flexibility and cortical structure in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyaw Htet eAung

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to arsenic from well water in developing countries is suspected to cause developmental neurotoxicity. Although it has been demonstrated that exposure to sodium arsenite (NaAsO2 suppresses neurite outgrowth of cortical neurons in vitro, it is largely unknown how developmental exposure to NaAsO2 impairs higher brain function and affects cortical histology. Here, we investigated the effect of prenatal NaAsO2 exposure on the behavior of mice in adulthood, and evaluated histological changes in the prelimbic cortex (PrL, which is a part of the medial prefrontal cortex that is critically involved in cognition. Drinking water with or without NaAsO2 (85 ppm was provided to pregnant C3H mice from gestational days 8 to 18, and offspring of both sexes were subjected to cognitive behavioral analyses at 60 weeks of age. The brains of female offspring were subsequently harvested and used for morphometrical analyses. We found that both male and female mice prenatally exposed to NaAsO2 displayed an impaired adaptation to repetitive reversal tasks. In morphometrical analyses of Nissl- or Golgi-stained tissue sections, we found that NaAsO2 exposure was associated with a significant increase in the number of pyramidal neurons in layers V and VI of the PrL, but not other layers of the PrL. More strikingly, prenatal NaAsO2 exposure was associated with a significant decrease in neurite length but not dendrite spine density in all layers of the PrL. Taken together, our results indicate that prenatal exposure to NaAsO2 leads to behavioral inflexibility in adulthood and cortical disarrangement in the PrL might contribute to this behavioral impairment.

  16. Comparative oxidation state specific analysis of arsenic species by high-performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled-mass spectrometry and hydride generation-cryotrapping-atomic absorption spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The formation of methylarsonous acid (MAsIII) and dimethylarsinous acid (DMAsIII) in the course of inorganic arsenic (iAs) metabolism plays an important role in the adverse effects of chronic exposure to iAs. High-performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass ...

  17. Survey of total and inorganic arsenic content in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) from Norwegian fiords: Revelation of unusual high levels of inorganic arsenic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Julshamn, Kåre

    2008-01-01

    The present study reports the findings of unusual high levels of inorganic arsenic in samples of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.). A total of 175 pooled samples of blue mussels from various locations along the Norwegian coastline were analyzed for their content of total arsenic and inorganic...

  18. Family aggregation in a population of chronic arsenic poisoning associated with high arsenic coal burning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LinGF; ChenJG

    2002-01-01

    About 2600 cases of chronic arsenic poisoning (CAP) in Southwest China-Guizhou Povince represent a unique case of CAP in the world associated with indoor high As coal burning.An epidemiological investigation in 4 clans (694 subjects,male 299,female 395) was launched in one Cun(village) in JL area(21000 residents,about 2000 CAP cases).(1)Clan G(possible Hanized Yi origin).The ancestors,a couple settled here in Qing dynasty.CAP prevalence was 43.3%(93/215).It was found that in 9 of 25 brotherhood groups all the members suffered with CAP.(2) An non-consanguinous branch of family G.The ancestor,a boy was adopted by family G in 1890s.The incidence rate was 20.8%(11/53) which was lower than that in clan G(consanguineous)(P=0.00261,r=0.344),though both clans have been living in the same family for 4 generations.(3)Clan B(Han origin).The ancestor moved the family from Nanjing in Ming dynasty.The CAP prevalence is 45.5%(75/165).(4)Clan P(ethnic Miao).The CAP prevalence is 3.9(9/232),far less than other ethnic clans,for example,less than clan G (consanguineous)(P=3.706E=23,r=0.052944).The observation suggests possible family aggregation of CAP in high As coal using area.further work is required.

  19. Nonmalignant Respiratory Effects of Chronic Arsenic Exposure from Drinking Water among Never-Smokers in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvez, Faruque; Chen, Yu; Brandt-Rauf, Paul W.; Bernard, Alfred; Dumont, Xavier; Slavkovich, Vesna; Argos, Maria; D’Armiento, Jeanine; Foronjy, Robert; Hasan, M. Rashidul; Eunus, HEM Mahbubul; Graziano, Joseph H.; Ahsan, Habibul

    2008-01-01

    Background Arsenic from drinking water has been associated with malignant and nonmalignant respiratory illnesses. The association with nonmalignant respiratory illnesses has not been well established because the assessments of respiratory symptoms may be influenced by recall bias or interviewer bias because participants had visible skin lesions. Objectives We examined the relationship of the serum level of Clara cell protein CC16—a novel biomarker for respiratory illnesses—with well As, total urinary As, and urinary As methylation indices. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study in nonsmoking individuals (n = 241) selected from a large cohort with a wide range of As exposure (0.1–761 μg/L) from drinking water in Bangladesh. Total urinary As, urinary As metabolites, and serum CC16 were measured in urine and serum samples collected at baseline of the parent cohort study. Results We observed an inverse association between urinary As and serum CC16 among persons with skin lesions (β = −0.13, p = 0.01). We also observed a positive association between secondary methylation index in urinary As and CC16 levels (β = 0.12, p = 0.05) in the overall study population; the association was stronger among people without skin lesions (β = 0.18, p = 0.04), indicating that increased methylation capability may be protective against As-induced respiratory damage. In a subsample of study participants undergoing spirometric measures (n = 31), we observed inverse associations between urinary As and predictive FEV1 (forced expiratory volume measured in 1 sec) (r = −0.37; FEV1/forced vital capacity ratio and primary methylation index (r = −0.42, p = 0.01). Conclusions The findings suggest that serum CC16 may be a useful biomarker of epithelial lung damage in individuals with arsenical skin lesions. Also, we observed the deleterious respiratory effects of As exposure at concentrations lower than reported in earlier studies. PMID:18288317

  20. Influence of prenatal arsenic exposure and newborn sex on global methylation of cord blood DNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Richard Pilsner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An emerging body of evidence indicates that early-life arsenic (As exposure may influence the trajectory of health outcomes later in life. However, the mechanisms underlying these observations are unknown. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of prenatal As exposure on global methylation of cord blood DNA in a study of mother/newborn pairs in Matlab, Bangladesh. DESIGN: Maternal and cord blood DNA were available from a convenience sample of 101 mother/newborn pairs. Measures of As exposure included maternal urinary As (uAs, maternal blood As (mbAs and cord blood As (cbAs. Several measures of global DNA methylation were assessed, including the [3H]-methyl-incorporation assay and three Pyrosequencing assays: Alu, LINE-1 and LUMA. RESULTS: In the total sample, increasing quartiles of maternal uAs were associated with an increase in covariate-adjusted means of newborn global DNA methylation as measured by the [3H]-methyl-incorporation assay (quartile 1 (Q1 and Q2 vs. Q4; p = 0.06 and 0.04, respectively. Sex-specific linear regression analyses, while not reaching significance level of 0.05, indicated that the associations between As exposures and Alu, LINE-1 and LUMA were positive among male newborns (N = 58 but negative among female newborns (N = 43; tests for sex differences were borderline significant for the association of cbAs and mbAs with Alu (p = 0.05 and 0.09, respectively and for the association between maternal uAs and LINE-1 (p = 0.07. Sex-specific correlations between maternal urinary creatinine and newborn methyl-incorporation, Alu and LINE-1 were also evident (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that prenatal As exposure is associated with global DNA methylation in cord blood DNA, possibly in a sex-specific manner. Arsenic-induced epigenetic modifications in utero may potentially influence disease outcomes later in life. Additional studies are needed to confirm

  1. Arsenic Species in Drinking Water Wells in the USA with High Arsenic Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) arsenic treatment demonstration program, 65 five well waters scattered across the US were speciated for As(III) and As(V). The speciation test data showed that most (60) well waters had one dominant species, but...

  2. Arsenic Species in Drinking Water Wells in the USA with High Arsenic Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) arsenic treatment demonstration program, 65 five well waters scattered across the US were speciated for As(III) and As(V). The speciation test data showed that most (60) well waters had one dominant species, but...

  3. Relationship between long-term exposure to low-level arsenic in drinking water and the prevalence of abnormal blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuanwu; Mao, Guangyun; He, Suxia; Yang, Zuopeng; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Xiaojing; Qiu, Wenting; Ta, Na; Cao, Li; Yang, Hui; Guo, Xiaojuan

    2013-11-15

    Arsenic increases the risk and incidence of cardiovascular disease. To explore the impact of long-term exposure to low-level arsenic in drinking water on blood pressure including pulse pressure (PP) and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), a cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010 in which the blood pressure of 405 villagers was measured, who had been drinking water with an inorganic arsenic content 63-3.35) increase in the group with >30-50 years of arsenic exposure and a 2.95-fold (95%CI: 1.31-6.67) increase in the group with >50 years exposure. Furthermore, the odds ratio for prevalence of abnormal PP and MAP were 1.06 (95%CI: 0.24-4.66) and 0.87 (95%CI: 0.36-2.14) in the group with >30-50 years of exposure, and were 2.46 (95%CI: 0.87-6.97) and 3.75 (95%CI: 1.61-8.71) for the group with >50 years exposure, compared to the group with arsenic exposure ≤ 30 years respectively. Significant trends for Hypertension (parsenic exposure population, and significantly increases with the duration of arsenic exposure.

  4. One century of arsenic exposure in Latin America: a review of history and occurrence from 14 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundschuh, Jochen; Litter, Marta I; Parvez, Faruque; Román-Ross, Gabriela; Nicolli, Hugo B; Jean, Jiin-Shuh; Liu, Chen-Wuing; López, Dina; Armienta, María A; Guilherme, Luiz R G; Cuevas, Alina Gomez; Cornejo, Lorena; Cumbal, Luis; Toujaguez, Regla

    2012-07-01

    The global impact on public health of elevated arsenic (As) in water supplies is highlighted by an increasing number of countries worldwide reporting high As concentrations in drinking water. In Latin America, the problem of As contamination in water is known in 14 out of 20 countries: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Peru and Uruguay. Considering the 10 μg/L limit for As in drinking water established by international and several national agencies, the number of exposed people is estimated to be about 14 million. Health effects of As exposure were identified for the first time already in the 1910s in Bellville (Córdoba province, Argentina). Nevertheless, contamination of As in waters has been detected in 10 Latin American countries only within the last 10 to 15 years. Arsenic is mobilized predominantly from young volcanic rocks and their weathering products. In alluvial aquifers, which are water sources frequently used for water supply, desorption of As from metal oxyhydroxides at high pH (>8) is the predominant mobility control; redox conditions are moderate reducing to oxidizing and As(V) is the predominant species. In the Andes, the Middle American cordillera and the Transmexican Volcanic Belt, oxidation of sulfide minerals is the primary As mobilization process. Rivers that originate in the Andean mountains, transport As to more densely populated areas in the lowlands (e.g. Rímac river in Peru, Pilcomayo river in Bolivia/Argentina/Paraguay). In many parts of Latin America, As often occurs together with F and B; in the Chaco-Pampean plain As is found additionally with V, Mo and U whereas in areas with sulfide ore deposits As often occurs together with heavy metals. These co-occurrences and the anthropogenic activities in mining areas that enhance the mobilization of As and other pollutants make more dramatic the environmental problem.

  5. Lung cancer and arsenic exposure in drinking water: a case-control study in northern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catterina Ferreccio

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In some Chilean cities, levels of arsenic (As in drinking water reached 800 µg/L between 1950 and 1970, while current levels are 40 µg/L. To evaluate the causal role of this exposure in lung and bladder cancers, we conducted a case-control study in Regions I, II, and III of the country. From 1994 to 1996, cases diagnosed as lung cancer and two hospital controls were entered in the study; one control was a patient with a cancer, while the other was a patient without cancer, both conditions unrelated to As. Controls were matched with cases by age and sex. A standard survey containing questions about residence, employment, health history, was administered to study subjects. Data on As concentrations in water were obtained from records of the municipal water companies. A total of 151 lung cancer cases and 419 controls (167 with cancer and 242 without cancer were enrolled. Median level of lifetime As exposure was significantly higher among cases, with a clear dose-response relationship between mean As exposure levels, with an OR (95% CI of: 1, 1.7 (0.5-5.1, 3.9 (1.2-13.4, 5.5 (2.2-13.5, and 9.0 (3.6-22 for strata one to five respectively. This study provides new evidence that As in drinking water can cause internal cancers and gives an estimate of the form of this relationship.

  6. Effect of Environmental Exposure of Arsenic on Cattle and Poultry in Nadia District, West Bengal, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Bakul Kumar; Bhar, Moloy Kumar; Patra, Pabitra Hriday; Majumdar, Debasish; Dey, Radha Raman; Sarkar, Samar; Mandal, Tapan Kumar; Chakraborty, Animesh Kumar

    2012-01-01

    A study was undertaken to evaluate an alternative source of arsenicosis in human food chain through livestock. Thirty milch cattle and 20 poultry birds along with their eggs were selected randomly from two endemic villages of Nadia district and one nonendemic villages of Hooghly district in West Bengal, India. Milk, feces, urine, and hair samples of cattle and feed materials, such as water and straw, were collected to analyze arsenic status. Arsenic concentration in egg yolk and albumen from poultry eggs and different poultry organs after culling was estimated. Distribution of arsenic in animal body indicates that major portion of arsenic was eliminated through feces, urine, and milk. Poultry egg yolk, albumen, and poultry products retain arsenic in all organs. Cows and poultry birds reared in endemic zone retain significantly higher concentration of arsenic. Consumption of egg, agricultural produces grown in contaminated soil, and milk might have produced arsenicosis and may be considered as alternative source of arsenic contamination. PMID:22736905

  7. Speciation and Source Identification for Arsenic in the Southern High Plains Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataraman, K.; Rainwater, K.; Jackson, W. A.; Ridley, M. K.

    2009-12-01

    Significant levels of arsenic have been detected in the groundwater of the Southern High Plains. The potential sources include atmospheric deposition, the use of agricultural defoliants and natural subsurface geochemical interactions. To identify the source of arsenic, groundwater and soil samples were collected by the Texas Tech University Water Resources Center from sites spread over 18 counties in the West Texas region. Arsenic and its inorganic species were quantified along with commonly occurring and related cations and anions such as iron, manganese, copper and sulfate. Correlation studies were conducted to understand the variation of arsenical species with related parameters. A geochemical modeling tool, MINTEQ was used to predict the speciation of arsenic and compare these results with lab analyses. Sensitivity analysis was also conducted with MINTEQ to study the behavior of arsenical species with variations in total iron and field parameters such as pH, ORP, and DO. The distribution of arsenic and its species in the soil profiles tested indicated a positive correlation with depth. The highest concentrations were found close to the water table while the upper soil layers had low to non-detect concentrations. In the groundwater samples, arsenic concentration and speciation varied significantly between sites. As (III) was found to be the dominant species in the majority (>80%) of the samples. MINTEQ speciation forecasts compared favorably with a majority of the groundwater analyses. Sensitivity analyses indicated a negative correlation between As(III) and ORP, while increasing iron concentration increased the levels of As(III). Decreasing iron caused no significant change in the concentration of As(III). Low concentrations of arsenic in the shallow layers of the soil have led to the elimination of atmospheric deposition and the use of defoliants as potential sources of contamination. The combination of analytical results and the geochemical simulations

  8. Hypoxia-induced exposure of isaza fish to manganese and arsenic at the bottom of Lake Biwa, Japan: experimental and geochemical verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itai, Takaaki; Hayase, Daisuke; Hyobu, Yuika; Hirata, Sawako H; Kumagai, Michio; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2012-06-05

    In December 2007, a mass mortality of isaza (Gymnogobius isaza), a goby fish in Lake Biwa, Japan, was observed under severe hypoxia. Considering the level of manganese and arsenic in the dead isaza during the event was much higher than that in live isaza, hypoxia-induced mobilization of manganese and arsenic and subsequent exposure could be the reason for this adverse effect. However, secondary accumulation of manganese and arsenic after the mortality event could not be ruled out. To test this hypothesis, we conducted tissue distribution/speciation analysis and absorption tests on dead specimens. All the results, particularly the limited absorption of arsenic in the absorption tests, indicated that the isaza were exposed to arsenic before the mortality event. Parallel to this, the geochemical behavior of manganese and arsenic in oxygen-rich conditions (June) and oxygen-poor conditions (December) was investigated to verify the mechanism of exposure. Considerable enrichment of manganese and arsenic in a thin surface layer of sediment was a common feature in all seven stations studied. In the water at the bottom of the lake, a clear increase of arsenite in December was observed, and the manganese level was several hundred times higher in both seasons than the average level of the lake. Although further verification is needed, the data provided here support exposure to manganese and arsenic under hypoxia.

  9. Identification and quantification of phytochelatins in roots of rice to long-term exposure: evidence of individual role on arsenic accumulation and translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Bruno Lemos; Nigar, Meher; Mestrot, Adrien; Rocha, Bruno Alves; Barbosa Júnior, Fernando; Price, Adam H; Raab, Andrea; Feldmann, Jörg

    2014-04-01

    Rice has the predilection to take up arsenic in the form of methylated arsenic (o-As) and inorganic arsenic species (i-As). Plants defend themselves using i-As efflux systems and the production of phytochelatins (PCs) to complex i-As. Our study focused on the identification and quantification of phytochelatins by HPLC-ICP-MS/ESI-MS, relating them to the several variables linked to As exposure. GSH, 11 PCs, and As-PC complexes from the roots of six rice cultivars (Italica Carolina, Dom Sofid, 9524, Kitrana 508, YRL-1, and Lemont) exposed to low and high levels of i-As were compared with total, i-As, and o-As in roots, shoots, and grains. Only Dom Sofid, Kitrana 508, and 9524 were found to produce higher levels of PCs even when exposed to low levels of As. PCs were only correlated to i-As in the roots (r=0.884, P <0.001). However, significant negative correlations to As transfer factors (TF) roots-grains (r= -0.739, P <0.05) and shoots-grains (r= -0.541, P <0.05), suggested that these peptides help in trapping i-As but not o-As in the roots, reducing grains' i-As. Italica Carolina reduced i-As in grains after high exposure, where some specific PCs had a special role in this reduction. In Lemont, exposure to elevated levels of i-As did not result in higher i-As levels in the grains and there were no significant increases in PCs or thiols. Finally, the high production of PCs in Kitrana 508 and Dom Sofid in response to high As treatment did not relate to a reduction of i-As in grains, suggesting that other mechanisms such as As-PC release and transport seems to be important in determining grain As in these cultivars.

  10. Fluoride and arsenic exposure through water and grain crops in Nagarparkar, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahman, Kapil D; Kazi, Tasneem G; Baig, Jameel A; Afridi, Hassan I; Khan, Abdullah; Arain, Sadaf S; Arain, Muhammad B

    2014-04-01

    The aim of present study was to simultaneously estimate the arsenic (As) and fluoride (F(-)) concentrations in irrigated surface water, soil and grain crops of Nagarparkar, Pakistan during 2010-2012. The As and F(-) were analyzed by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometer and ion selective electrode, respectively. Total arsenic (As(T)) and F(-) in irrigated surface water samples were found in the range of 360-683 μg L(-1) and 18.5-35.4 mg L(-1), respectively. While As(T) and F(-) concentrations in agriculture soil samples were observed in the range of 110-266 and 125-566 mg kg(-1), respectively. The water extractable As and F(-) were found 3-4% of total concentration of these in soils. The As(T) concentration was higher in kidney been (KB) as compared to pearl millet (PM) and green gram (GG), whereas GG had higher F(-) levels as compared to other two grain crops (p<0.05). The KB samples grown in nine sites shows BCF of As in the range of 0.018-0.038. The GG has higher BCF of F(-) as compared to KB and PM (p<0.05) grown in all sites. The exposure dose and risk factor of As and F(-) were obtained by estimated daily intake (EDI) and hazardous index (HI). It was found that all understudy age groups were at the severe risk of arsenicosis and fluorosis, but the severity is higher in younger age group (7-15 years) as compared to elder groups (p<0.05). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Embryonic-only arsenic exposure in killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) reduces growth and alters muscle IGF levels one year later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymkowicz, Dana B; Sims, Kaleigh C; Castro, Noemi M; Bridges, William C; Bain, Lisa J

    2017-05-01

    Arsenic is a contaminant of drinking water and crops in many parts of the world. Epidemiological studies have shown that arsenic exposure is linked to decreased birth weight, weight gain, and proper skeletal muscle function. The goal of this study was to use killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) as a model to determine the long-term effects of embryonic-only arsenic exposure on muscle growth and the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) pathway. Killifish embryos were exposed to 0, 50, 200 or 800ppb As(III) from fertilization until hatching. Juvenile fish were reared in clean water and muscle samples were collected at 16, 28, 40 and 52 weeks of age. There were significant reductions in condition factors, ranging from 12 to 17%, in the fish exposed to arsenic at 16, 28 and 40 weeks of age. However, by 52 weeks, no significant changes in condition factors were seen. Alterations in IGF-1R and IGF-1 levels were assessed as a potential mechanism by which growth was reduced. While there no changes in hepatic IGF-1 transcripts, skeletal muscle cells can also produce their own IGF-1 and/or alter IGF-1 receptor levels to help enhance growth. After a 200 and 800ppb embryonic exposure, fish grown in clean water for 16 weeks had IGF-1R transcripts that were 2.8-fold and 2-fold greater, respectively, than unexposed fish. Through 40 weeks of age, IGF1-R remained elevated in the 200ppb and 800ppb embryonic exposure groups by 1.8-3.9-fold, while at 52 weeks of age, IGF-1R levels were still significantly increased in the 800ppb exposure group. Skeletal muscle IGF-1 transcripts were also significantly increased by 1.9-5.1 fold through the 52 weeks of grow-out in clean by water in the 800ppb embryonic exposure group. Based on these results, embryonic arsenic exposure has long-term effects in that it reduces growth and increases both IGF-1 and IGF-1R levels in skeletal muscle even 1year after the exposure has ended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Highly selective and rapid arsenic removal by metabolically engineered Escherichia coli cells expressing Fucus vesiculosus metallothionein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shailendra; Mulchandani, Ashok; Chen, Wilfred

    2008-05-01

    An arsenic-chelating metallothionein (fMT) from the arsenic-tolerant marine alga Fucus vesiculosus was expressed in Escherichia coli, resulting in 30- and 26-fold-higher As(III) and As(V) binding, respectively. Coexpression of the As(III)-specific transporter GlpF with fMT further improved arsenic accumulation and offered high selectivity toward As. Resting E. coli cells coexpressing fMT and GlpF completely removed trace amounts (35 ppb) of As(III) within 20 min, providing a promising technology for compliance with the As limit of 10 ppb newly recommended by the U.S. EPA.

  13. Highly Selective and Rapid Arsenic Removal by Metabolically Engineered Escherichia coli Cells Expressing Fucus vesiculosus Metallothionein▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shailendra; Mulchandani, Ashok; Chen, Wilfred

    2008-01-01

    An arsenic-chelating metallothionein (fMT) from the arsenic-tolerant marine alga Fucus vesiculosus was expressed in Escherichia coli, resulting in 30- and 26-fold-higher As(III) and As(V) binding, respectively. Coexpression of the As(III)-specific transporter GlpF with fMT further improved arsenic accumulation and offered high selectivity toward As. Resting E. coli cells coexpressing fMT and GlpF completely removed trace amounts (35 ppb) of As(III) within 20 min, providing a promising technology for compliance with the As limit of 10 ppb newly recommended by the U.S. EPA. PMID:18326684

  14. Neurological effects of inorganic arsenic exposure: altered cysteine/glutamate transport, NMDA expression and spatial memory impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio A Ramos-Chávez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Inorganic arsenic (iAs is an important natural pollutant. Millions of individuals worldwide drink water with high levels of iAs. Chronic exposure to iAs has been associated with lower IQ and learning disabilities as well as memory impairment. iAs is methylated in tissues such as the brain generating mono and dimethylated species. iAs methylation requires cellular glutathione (GSH, which is the main antioxidant in the central nervous system. In humans, As species cross the placenta and are found in cord blood. A CD1 mouse model was used to investigate effects of gestational iAs exposure which can lead to oxidative damage, disrupted cysteine/glutamate transport and its putative impact in learning and memory. On postnatal days (PNDs 1, 15 and 90, the expression of membrane transporters related to GSH synthesis and glutamate transport and toxicity, such as xCT, EAAC1, GLAST and GLT1, as well as LAT1, were analyzed. Also, the expression of the glutamate receptor N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDAR subunits NR2A and B as well as the presence of As species in cortex and hippocampus were investigated. On PND 90, an object location task was performed to associate exposure with memory impairment. Gestational exposure to iAs affected the expression of cysteine/glutamate transporters in cortex and hippocampus and induced a negative modulation of NMDAR NR2B subunit in the hippocampus. Behavioral tasks showed significant spatial memory impairment in males while the effect was marginal in females.

  15. Impact of exposure to tobacco smoke, arsenic, and phthalates on locally advanced cervical cancer treatment—preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia A. Neamtiu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Cancer research is a national and international priority, with the efficiency and effectiveness of current anti-tumor therapies being one of the major challenges with which physicians are faced. Objective To assess the impact of exposure to tobacco smoke, arsenic, and phthalates on cervical cancer treatment. Methods We investigated 37 patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma who underwent chemotherapy and radiotherapy. We determined cotinine and five phthalate metabolites in urine samples collected prior to cancer treatment, by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, and urinary total arsenic by atomic absorption spectrometry with hydride generation. We used linear regression to evaluate the effects of cotinine, arsenic, and phthalates on the change in tumor size after treatment, adjusted for confounding variables. Results We detected no significant associations between urinary cotinine, arsenic, or phthalate monoesters on change in tumor size after treatment, adjusted for urine creatinine, age, baseline tumor size, and cotinine (for arsenic and phthalates. However, higher %mono-ethylhexyl phthalate (%MEHP, a putative indicator of phthalate diester metabolism, was associated with a larger change in tumor size (β = 0.015, 95% CI [0.003–0.03], P = 0.019. Conclusion We found no statistically significant association between the urinary levels of arsenic, cotinine, and phthalates metabolites and the response to cervical cancer treatment as measured by the change in tumor size. Still, our results suggested that phthalates metabolism may be associated with response to treatment for locally advanced cervical cancer. However, these observations are preliminary and will require confirmation in a larger, more definitive investigation.

  16. Impact of exposure to tobacco smoke, arsenic, and phthalates on locally advanced cervical cancer treatment—preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Michael S.; Dumitrascu, Irina; Roba, Carmen A.; Pop, Cristian; Ordeanu, Claudia; Balacescu, Ovidiu; Gurzau, Eugen S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cancer research is a national and international priority, with the efficiency and effectiveness of current anti-tumor therapies being one of the major challenges with which physicians are faced. Objective To assess the impact of exposure to tobacco smoke, arsenic, and phthalates on cervical cancer treatment. Methods We investigated 37 patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma who underwent chemotherapy and radiotherapy. We determined cotinine and five phthalate metabolites in urine samples collected prior to cancer treatment, by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, and urinary total arsenic by atomic absorption spectrometry with hydride generation. We used linear regression to evaluate the effects of cotinine, arsenic, and phthalates on the change in tumor size after treatment, adjusted for confounding variables. Results We detected no significant associations between urinary cotinine, arsenic, or phthalate monoesters on change in tumor size after treatment, adjusted for urine creatinine, age, baseline tumor size, and cotinine (for arsenic and phthalates). However, higher %mono-ethylhexyl phthalate (%MEHP), a putative indicator of phthalate diester metabolism, was associated with a larger change in tumor size (β = 0.015, 95% CI [0.003–0.03], P = 0.019). Conclusion We found no statistically significant association between the urinary levels of arsenic, cotinine, and phthalates metabolites and the response to cervical cancer treatment as measured by the change in tumor size. Still, our results suggested that phthalates metabolism may be associated with response to treatment for locally advanced cervical cancer. However, these observations are preliminary and will require confirmation in a larger, more definitive investigation. PMID:27652000

  17. Concentrations of Inorganic Arsenic in Milled Rice from China and Associated Dietary Exposure Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yatao; Wang, Min; Mao, Xuefei; Qian, Yongzhong; Chen, Tianjin; Zhang, Ying

    2015-12-23

    Total arsenic (As) and inorganic As (Asi) in milled rice (n = 1653) collected from China were studied to evaluate the contamination level, distribution, and health risks. The mean concentrations of the total As and Asi were 116.5 and 90.9 μg/kg, respectively. There were significant differences (P < 0.01) between the 11 provinces, and 1.1% of samples exceeded the maximum contaminant level established by Chinese legislation. According to the exposure assessment method of probabilistic simulation, all values of the target hazard quotients (THQs) for chronic noncarcinogenic risks (skin lesions as the point of departure) were below 1, suggesting that the Chinese population will not encounter a significant noncarcinogenic risk. However, the mean values of margin of exposure (MOE) for lung cancer risks ranging from 3.86 to 8.54 were under 100 for all age groups and genders of the Chinese population; moreover, MOE values for some major rice-producing and -consuming countries, such as Japan, Thailand, Bangladesh, and the United States, were all also below 100. More attention should be paid to carcinogenic risks from rice Asi intake, and some control measures to reduce rice Asi intake should be taken.

  18. Arsenic species in poultry feather meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachman, K E; Raber, G; Francesconi, K A; Navas-Acien, A; Love, D C

    2012-02-15

    Organoarsenical drugs are widely used in the production of broiler chickens in the United States. Feathers from these chickens are processed into a meal product that is used as an animal feed additive and as an organic fertilizer. Research conducted to date suggests that arsenical drugs, specifically roxarsone, used in poultry production result in the accumulation of arsenic in the keratinous material of poultry feathers. The use of feather meal product in the human food system and in other settings may result in human exposures to arsenic. Consequently, the presence and nature of arsenic in twelve samples of feather meal product from six US states and China were examined. Since arsenic toxicity is highly species-dependent, speciation analysis using HPLC/ICPMS was performed to determine the biological relevance of detected arsenic. Arsenic was detected in all samples (44-4100 μg kg(-1)) and speciation analyses revealed that inorganic forms of arsenic dominated, representing 37 - 83% of total arsenic. Roxarsone was not detected in the samples (arsenic in the food system, and may pose additional risks to humans as a result of its use as an organic fertilizer and when animal waste is managed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The epigenetic effects of a high prenatal folate intake in male mouse fetuses exposed in utero to arsenic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsang, Verne [Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Fry, Rebecca C. [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Niculescu, Mihai D. [UNC Nutrition Research Institute, Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Rager, Julia E. [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Saunders, Jesse; Paul, David S. [Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Zeisel, Steven H. [Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); UNC Nutrition Research Institute, Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Waalkes, Michael P. [NIEHS, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Stýblo, Miroslav [Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Drobná, Zuzana, E-mail: drobnazu@med.unc.edu [Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Inorganic arsenic (iAs) is a complete transplacental carcinogen in mice. Previous studies have demonstrated that in utero exposure to iAs promotes cancer in adult mouse offspring, possibly acting through epigenetic mechanisms. Humans and rodents enzymatically convert iAs to its methylated metabolites. This reaction requires S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) as methyl group donor. SAM is also required for DNA methylation. Supplementation with folate, a major dietary source of methyl groups for SAM synthesis, has been shown to modify iAs metabolism and the adverse effects of iAs exposure. However, effects of gestational folate supplementation on iAs metabolism and fetal DNA methylation have never been thoroughly examined. In the present study, pregnant CD1 mice were fed control (i.e. normal folate, or 2.2 mg/kg) or high folate diet (11 mg/kg) from gestational day (GD) 5 to 18 and drank water with 0 or 85 ppm of As (as arsenite) from GD8 to 18. The exposure to iAs significantly decreased body weight of GD18 fetuses and increased both SAM and S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) concentrations in fetal livers. High folate intake lowered the burden of total arsenic in maternal livers but did not prevent the effects of iAs exposure on fetal weight or hepatic SAM and SAH concentrations. In fact, combined folate-iAs exposure caused further significant body weight reduction. Notably, iAs exposure alone had little effect on DNA methylation in fetal livers. In contrast, the combined folate-iAs exposure changed the CpG island methylation in 2,931 genes, including genes known to be imprinted. Most of these genes were associated with neurodevelopment, cancer, cell cycle, and signaling networks. The canonical Wnt-signaling pathway, which regulates fetal development, was among the most affected biological pathways. Taken together, our results suggest that a combined in utero exposure to iAs and a high folate intake may adversely influence DNA methylation profiles and weight of fetuses

  20. Conditioned Flavor Aversion and Brain Fos Expression Following Exposure to Arsenic

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Recent advances in the knowledge of the cellular effects of arsenic have provided insights into the molecular mechanisms of arsenic-associated carcinogenesis, immunotoxicity and cardiovascular disease. In the present experiments we tested the hypothesis that the arrival of arsenic to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is detected by the gut-brain axis, which includes hindbrain and forebrain nuclei activated by GI stimulation. As a marker of neuronal activation we measured Fos expression using im...

  1. Treating chronic arsenic toxicity with high selenium lentil diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sah, Shweta; Vandenberg, Albert; Smits, Judit

    2013-10-01

    Arsenic (As) toxicity causes serious health problems in humans, especially in the Indo-Gangetic plains and mountainous areas of China. Selenium (Se), an essential micronutrient is a potential mitigator of As toxicity due to its antioxidant and antagonistic properties. Selenium is seriously deficient in soils world-wide but is present at high, yet non-toxic levels in the great plains of North America. We evaluate the potential of dietary Se in counteracting chronic As toxicity in rats through serum biochemistry, blood glutathione levels, immunotoxicity (antibody response), liver peroxidative stress, thyroid response and As levels in tissues and excreta. To achieve this, we compare diets based on high-Se Saskatchewan (SK) lentils versus low-Se lentils from United States. Rats drank control (0ppm As) or As (40ppm As) water while consuming SK lentils (0.3ppm Se) or northwestern USA lentils (mitigate As toxicity in laboratory mammals, which we hope will translate into benefits for As exposed humans.

  2. Prenatal arsenic exposure alters gene expression in the adult liver to a proinflammatory state contributing to accelerated atherosclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Christopher States

    Full Text Available The mechanisms by which environmental toxicants alter developmental processes predisposing individuals to adult onset chronic disease are not well-understood. Transplacental arsenic exposure promotes atherogenesis in apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE(-/- mice. Because the liver plays a central role in atherosclerosis, diabetes and metabolic syndrome, we hypothesized that accelerated atherosclerosis may be linked to altered hepatic development. This hypothesis was tested in ApoE(-/- mice exposed to 49 ppm arsenic in utero from gestational day (GD 8 to term. GD18 hepatic arsenic was 1.2 µg/g in dams and 350 ng/g in fetuses. The hepatic transcriptome was evaluated by microarray analysis to assess mRNA and microRNA abundance in control and exposed pups at postnatal day (PND 1 and PND70. Arsenic exposure altered postnatal developmental trajectory of mRNA and microRNA profiles. We identified an arsenic exposure related 51-gene signature at PND1 and PND70 with several hubs of interaction (Hspa8, IgM and Hnf4a. Gene ontology (GO annotation analyses indicated that pathways for gluconeogenesis and glycolysis were suppressed in exposed pups at PND1, and pathways for protein export, ribosome, antigen processing and presentation, and complement and coagulation cascades were induced by PND70. Promoter analysis of differentially-expressed transcripts identified enriched transcription factor binding sites and clustering to common regulatory sites. SREBP1 binding sites were identified in about 16% of PND70 differentially-expressed genes. Western blot analysis confirmed changes in the liver at PND70 that included increases of heat shock protein 70 (Hspa8 and active SREBP1. Plasma AST and ALT levels were increased at PND70. These results suggest that transplacental arsenic exposure alters developmental programming in fetal liver, leading to an enduring stress and proinflammatory response postnatally that may contribute to early onset of atherosclerosis. Genes

  3. Geospatial modeling of widespread arsenic contamination in unconfined, high-pH aquifers in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgorski, J. E.; Eqani, S. A. M. A. S.; Heqing, S.; Berg, M.

    2016-12-01

    Arsenic-contaminated aquifers are presently estimated to affect approximately 150 million people worldwide. However, the full extent of the problem remains unknown. This is the case also in Pakistan, where previously conducted studies have focused only on individual areas of limited extent. Using a new dataset of nearly 1,200 groundwater quality samples throughout Pakistan along with existing measurements, we have created statistically based hazard and risk models of arsenic contamination in groundwater for thresholds of 10 and 50 µg/L, corresponding to the WHO and local guidelines, respectively. Logistic regression analysis was conducted using a variety of environmental indicators selected for their potential association with arsenic release and accumulation. The best logistic regression was achieved using the predictor variables of slope, Holocene geology, fluvisols, soil pH and soil organic carbon. The resultant hazard model (attached figure) shows that much of the flat, arid Indus Plain has a high probability of elevated arsenic concentrations. Other indicators that are highly correlated with elevated arsenic are aridity and proportion of land under irrigation. Unlike other known arsenic-contaminated areas of Asia, the arsenic release process in the arid Indus Plain appears to be dominated by elevated-pH dissolution, which is a consequence of alkaline topsoil and unconfined aquifers. However, pockets of reductive dissolution may also occur, primarily as a result of local groundwater contamination from municipal and agricultural sewage. Although the average pH of surface soil in the Indus Plain generally ranges between 8.0-8.5, the average pH of groundwater samples with high arsenic from this area is only 7.6. A likely scenario is that pH-induced arsenic release is occurring in the surface sediments and migrating downward into the underlying unconfined aquifer. The role of irrigation in arsenic release is unclear, although it could have a significant influence

  4. Expression of the sFLT1 gene in cord blood cells is associated to maternal arsenic exposure and decreased birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Remy, Sylvie; Govarts, Eva; Bruckers, Liesbeth

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing epidemiologic evidence that arsenic exposure in utero is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes and may contribute to long-term health effects. These effects may occur at low environmental exposures but the underlying molecular mechanism is not clear. We collected cord blood...... that birth weight decreased with 47 g (95% CI: 16-78 g) for an interquartile range increase of 0.99 μg/L arsenic. The model was adjusted for child's sex, maternal smoking during pregnancy, gestational age, and parity. Higher arsenic concentrations and reduced birth weight were positively associated...... of fetal development, inhibition of placental angiogenesis leads to impaired nutrition and hence to growth retardation. Various genes related to DNA methylation and oxidative stress showed also changed expression in relation to arsenic exposure but were not related to birth outcome parameters...

  5. DIETARY ARSENIC EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT USING ENZYMATIC BASED EXTRACTION CONDITIONS AND DETECTION OF URINARY THIO-ARSENICALS AS METABOLITES OF EXPOSURE - MCEARD2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inorganic arsenic is classified as a carcinogen and has been linked to lung and bladder cancer as well as other non-cancerous health effects. Because of these health effects the U.S. EPA has set a Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) at 10ppb based on a linear extrapolation of risk an...

  6. Effect of Vitamin E Supplementation on Hematological and Plasma Biochemical Parameters during Long Term Exposure of Arsenic in Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapan Kumar Das

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was designed to determine whether supplementation of different level of vitamin E for 12 months to arsenic exposed goats (50 ppm as sodium arsenite affords protection against the blood hemato-biochemical parameters caused by the metalloid. A total of 24 crossbred (Alpine×Beetal lactating goats were assigned randomly into 4 equal groups (control, T1, T2 and T3 of 6 in each, on the basis of average body weight (36.10±0.11 kg and milk yield (1.61±0.04 kg/d. The animals in T1, T2 and T3 were given 50 ppm arsenic, while in T2 and T3, additionally; vitamin E at the rate of 100 IU and 150 IU/kg dry matter (DM respectively was additionally supplemented for the period of 12 months. Hemoglobin (Hb, total leukocyte (TLC and blood lymphocyte % were decreased (p0.05 but creatinine level was periodically increased in all As supplemented groups and vitamin E supplementation did not produce any protective effect. It can be concluded that arsenic exposure resulted in varying degree of changes in hemato-biochemical parameters and activities of antioxidant enzymes in goats but concomitant treatment with Vitamin E is partially helpful in reducing the burden of arsenic induced effect.

  7. Chronic exposure to low levels of inorganic arsenic causes alterations in locomotor activity and in the expression of dopaminergic and antioxidant systems in the albino rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Verónica Mireya; Limón-Pacheco, Jorge Humberto; Carrizales, Leticia; Mendoza-Trejo, María Soledad; Giordano, Magda

    2010-01-01

    Several studies have associated chronic arsenicism with decreases in IQ and sensory and motor alterations in humans. Likewise, studies of rodents exposed to inorganic arsenic ((i)As) have found changes in locomotor activity, brain neurochemistry, behavioral tasks, oxidative stress, and in sensory and motor nerves. In the current study, male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to environmentally relevant doses of (i)As (0.05, 0.5 mg (i)As/L) and to a high dose (50 mg (i)As/L) in drinking water for one year. Hypoactivity and increases in the striatal dopamine content were found in the group treated with 50 mg (i)As/L. Exposure to 0.5 and 50 mg (i)As/L increased the total brain content of As. Furthermore, (i)As exposure produced a dose-dependent up-regulation of mRNA for Mn-SOD and Trx-1 and a down-regulation of DAR-D₂ mRNA levels in the nucleus accumbens. DAR-D₁ and Nrf2 mRNA expression were down-regulated in nucleus accumbens in the group exposed to 50 mg (i)As/L. Trx-1 mRNA levels were up-regulated in the cortex in an (i)As dose-dependent manner, while DAR-D₁ mRNA expression was increased in striatum in the 0.5 mg (i)As/L group. These results show that chronic exposure to low levels of arsenic causes subtle but region-specific changes in the nervous system, especially in antioxidant systems and dopaminergic elements. These changes became behaviorally evident only in the group exposed to 50 mg (i)As/L.

  8. Dietary exposure assessment for arsenic and mercury following submarine tailings placement in Ratatotok Sub-district, North Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Keith; Soebandrio, Amin

    2017-08-01

    The Mesel gold mine in the Ratatotok Sub-district operated between 1996 and 2004 with tailings disposal via an engineered submarine tailings placement (STP) into Buyat Bay. This operation raised concerns of increased levels of arsenic (As) and mercury (Hg) associated disease in the local communities from consumption of seafood contaminated with anthropogenic As and Hg. This report uses the dietary exposure to As and Hg, from local fishermen and market-purchased Codex "as consumed" and environmental fish results from the pre-mining baseline (1990-1995), the mine operational (1996-2004) and post-closure monitoring (2007-2016) to examine the potential health effects. The Ratatotok Sub-district consumers total As average daily intake from fish was between 152 and 317 μg/day (adults) and 58 and 105 μg/day (infants). The average daily intake of inorganic arsenic (Asi) from the dietary staples fish and rice and drinking water consumption was 77 μg/day (adults) and 35 μg/day (infants) at Buyat Pantai and 39 μg/day (adults) and 19 μg/day (infants) at Ratatotok township. Fish consumption contributed 8.2% (adults) and 6.5% (infants) to total daily Asi intake. Average Hg intake from fish consumption, exceeded the FAO WHO PTWI for methylmercury (MeHg) for all age and gender groups at Buyat Pantai 4.6 μg/kg bw/wk (adults) and 7.3 μg/kg bw/wk (infants) and for the infants at Buyat village and Ratatotok township (2.5 and 2.8 μg/kg bw/wk respectively). The Manado City consumers had average intakes below the MeHg PTWI. The Hg exceedances resulted from the high fish consumption in coastal communities and not elevated levels of Hg in fish. Hg exposure levels from the pre-mining baseline, Mesel STP operation and post-closure monitoring, confirmed that exceedances were unrelated to the tailings deposited into Buyat Bay. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of thermal treatments on arsenic species contents in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devesa, V; Vélez, D; Montoro, R

    2008-01-01

    In arsenic-endemic and other areas, food is an important path of exposure to this contaminant. Food is generally consumed in processed form, after a preservation treatment or cooking, which may alter the concentrations and chemical forms of arsenic. This article summarizes and discusses the work so far published on the effect that thermal treatment used in the cooking or processing of food, including sterilization and preservation stages, has on total arsenic and arsenic species contents. It also reviews possible transformations in arsenic species. The studies included use model systems or food products of marine or vegetable origin. Processing may cause a considerable increase or decrease in the real arsenic intake from food. For example, traditional washing and soaking of Hizikia fusiforme seaweed, which has very high inorganic arsenic contents, may reduce the contents by up to 60%. On the other hand, all the arsenic present in cooking water may be retained during boiling of rice, increasing the contents of this metalloid to significant levels from a toxicological viewpoint. This calls for modifications in arsenic risk assessment, hitherto based on analysis of the raw product. It is necessary to consider the effect of processing on total arsenic and arsenical species in order to obtain a realistic view of the risk associated with intake in arsenic-endemic and other areas.

  10. Cancer incidence and soil arsenic exposure in a historical gold mining area in Victoria, Australia: a geospatial analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Dora Claire; Dowling, Kim; Sim, Malcolm Ross

    2012-01-01

    Soil and mine waste around historical gold mining sites may have elevated arsenic concentrations. Recent evidence suggests some systemic arsenic absorption by residents in the goldfields region of Victoria, Australia. Victorian Cancer Registry and geochemical data were accessed for an ecological geographical correlation study, 1984-2003. Spatial empirical Bayes smoothing was applied when estimating standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) for cancers in 61 statistical local areas. The derived soil arsenic exposure metric ranged from 1.4 to 1857 mg/kg. Spatial autoregressive modelling detected increases in smoothed SIRs for all cancers of 0.05 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.02-0.08) and 0.04 (0.01-0.07) per 2.7-fold increase in the natural log-transformed exposure metric for males and females, respectively, in more socioeconomically disadvantaged areas; for melanoma in males (0.05 (0.01-0.08) adjusted for disadvantage) and females (0.05 (0.02-0.09) in disadvantaged areas). Excess risks were estimated for all cancers (relative risk 1.21 (95% CI, 1.15-1.27) and 1.08 (1.03-1.14)), and melanoma (1.52 (1.25-1.85) and 1.29 (1.08-1.55)), for males and females, respectively, in disadvantaged areas in the highest quintile of the exposure metric relative to the lowest. Our findings suggest small but significant increases in past cancer risk associated with increasing soil arsenic in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas and demonstrate the robustness of this geospatial approach.

  11. Arsenic species extraction of biological marine samples (Periwinkles, Littorina littorea) from a highly contaminated site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whaley-Martin, K J; Koch, I; Reimer, K J

    2012-01-15

    Arsenic is ubiquitous in the tissues of marine organisms and in uncontaminated environments it is dominantly present as the highly soluble and easily extractable non-toxic arsenical, arsenobetaine. However in contaminated environments, higher proportions of inorganic arsenic, which is much less soluble, are accumulated into the tissues of marine organisms, resulting in lower extraction efficiencies (defined as the percent extracted arsenic of the total arsenic). This study carried out a comparative analysis between three different two-step arsenic extraction methods based on Foster et al. [27] from highly contaminated tissue of the marine periwinkle, Littorina littorea. The first extraction step used 100% water, 1:1 methanol-water, or a 9:1 methanol-water as the extraction solvent and the second step consisted of a gently heated dilute nitric acid extraction. The optimized two step extraction method was 1:1 methanol-water extraction followed by a 2% HNO(3) extraction, based on maximum amounts of extracted species, including organoarsenic species.

  12. Human Arsenic exposure via dust across the different ecological zones of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamdar, Ambreen; Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah; Ali, Saeed Waqar; Sohail, Mohammad; Bhowmik, Avit Kumar; Cincinelli, Alessandra; Subhani, Marghoob; Ghaffar, Bushra; Ullah, Rizwan; Huang, Qingyu; Shen, Heqing

    2016-04-01

    The present study aims to assess the arsenic (As) levels into dust samples and its implications for human health, of four ecological zones of Pakistan, which included northern frozen mountains (FMZ), lower Himalyian wet mountains (WMZ), alluvial riverine plains (ARZ), and low lying agricultural areas (LLZ). Human nail samples (N=180) of general population were also collected from the similar areas and all the samples were analysed by using ICP-MS. In general the higher levels (pPakistan. Risk estimation reflected higher hazard index (HI) values of non-carcinogenic risk (HI>1) for children populations in all areas (except FMZ), and for adults in LLZ (0.74) and ARZ (0.55), suggesting that caution should be paid about the dust exposure. Similarly, carcinogenic risk assessment also highlighted potential threats to the residents of LLZ and ARZ, as in few cases (5-10%) the values exceeded the range of US-EPA threshold limits (10(-6)-10(-4)).

  13. Mechanism of Arsenic Sequestration in High-Iron Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, R. A.; Campbell, K. M.; Hering, J. G.; O'Day, P. A.

    2005-12-01

    Naturally occurring elevated concentrations of arsenic in the runoff of the eastern Sierra Nevada and feed waters of the Los Angeles Aqueduct are remediated by the Los Angeles Department of Power and Water (LADPW) up stream of the Haiwee Reservoir (Olancha, CA). To reduce total arsenic in drinking water supplies, the LADPW adds ferric chloride and a cationic polymer coagulant to the aqueduct. The treatment precipitates as an amorphous iron oxide, spectrally similar to 6-line ferrihydrite, that adsorbs and sequesters arsenic as arsenate. As the channeled flow enters North Haiwee Reservoir, the As(V)-enriched iron floc settles as sediments in the inlet channel. Buried As(V) is reduced to As(III) near the sediment-water interface (0-10cm), and only As(III) is observed at depths below the steep (1-2cm) near-surface redox gradient. Sediment samples from 30-cm push cores were collected from the edge of the reservoir along the inlet channel in tandem with in situ porewater measurements using an inert polyacrylamide gel probe sampler. Sediments were analyzed to characterize the redox gradient, host mineralogy, and variation in bulk elemental composition with depth. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) was used to determine the depth of the microbially driven redox boundary where As (V) is reduced to As (III) and to investigate the molecular bonding of arsenic adsorbed to iron hydroxide surfaces. Specific and characteristic iron and arsenic phases were isolated by sequential extraction; extracted and bulk concentrations were determined by ICP-MS. Splits of specific extraction steps were analyzed by synchrotron EXAFS and XRD to determine the identity of separated phases. The primary mineralogy of sediments along the inlet channel is detrital quartz, plagioclase feldspar, and phyllosilicates weathered from the Sierra Nevada granitic batholith. Notably, crystalline magnetite, hematite, and goethite, phases that would indicate transformation of hydrous iron phases to more stable

  14. Potential arsenic exposures in 25 species of zoo animals living in CCA-wood enclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gress, J; da Silva, E B; de Oliveira, L M; Zhao, Di; Anderson, G; Heard, D; Stuchal, L D; Ma, L Q

    2016-05-01

    Animal enclosures are often constructed from wood treated with the pesticide chromated copper arsenate (CCA), which leaches arsenic (As) into adjacent soil during normal weathering. This study evaluated potential pathways of As exposure in 25 species of zoo animals living in CCA-wood enclosures. We analyzed As speciation in complete animal foods, dislodgeable As from CCA-wood, and As levels in enclosure soils, as well as As levels in biomarkers of 9 species of crocodilians (eggs), 4 species of birds (feathers), 1 primate species (hair), and 1 porcupine species (quills). Elevated soil As in samples from 17 enclosures was observed at 1.0-110mg/kg, and enclosures housing threatened and endangered species had As levels higher than USEPA's risk-based Eco-SSL for birds and mammals of 43 and 46mg/kg. Wipe samples of CCA-wood on which primates sit had dislodgeable As residues of 4.6-111μg/100cm(2), typical of unsealed CCA-wood. Inorganic As doses from animal foods were estimated at 0.22-7.8μg/kg bw/d. Some As levels in bird feathers and crocodilian eggs were higher than prior studies on wild species. However, hair from marmosets had 6.37mg/kg As, 30-fold greater than the reference value, possibly due to their inability to methylate inorganic As. Our data suggested that elevated As in soils and dislodgeable As from CCA-wood could be important sources of As exposure for zoo animals.

  15. What Do We Know of Childhood Exposures to Metals (Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, and Mercury in Emerging Market Countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey M. Horton

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury present potential health risks to children who are exposed through inhalation or ingestion. Emerging Market countries experience rapid industrial development that may coincide with the increased release of these metals into the environment. A literature review was conducted for English language articles from the 21st century on pediatric exposures to arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury in the International Monetary Fund's (IMF top 10 Emerging Market countries: Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Poland, Russia, South Korea, Taiwan, and Turkey. Seventy-six peer-reviewed, published studies on pediatric exposure to metals met the inclusion criteria. The reported concentrations of metals in blood and urine from these studies were generally higher than US reference values, and many studies identified adverse health effects associated with metals exposure. Evidence of exposure to metals in the pediatric population of these Emerging Market countries demonstrates a need for interventions to reduce exposure and efforts to establish country-specific reference values through surveillance or biomonitoring. The findings from review of these 10 countries also suggest the need for country-specific public health policies and clinician education in Emerging Markets.

  16. What do we know of childhood exposures to metals (arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury) in emerging market countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Lindsey M; Mortensen, Mary E; Iossifova, Yulia; Wald, Marlena M; Burgess, Paula

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury present potential health risks to children who are exposed through inhalation or ingestion. Emerging Market countries experience rapid industrial development that may coincide with the increased release of these metals into the environment. A literature review was conducted for English language articles from the 21st century on pediatric exposures to arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury in the International Monetary Fund's (IMF) top 10 Emerging Market countries: Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Poland, Russia, South Korea, Taiwan, and Turkey. Seventy-six peer-reviewed, published studies on pediatric exposure to metals met the inclusion criteria. The reported concentrations of metals in blood and urine from these studies were generally higher than US reference values, and many studies identified adverse health effects associated with metals exposure. Evidence of exposure to metals in the pediatric population of these Emerging Market countries demonstrates a need for interventions to reduce exposure and efforts to establish country-specific reference values through surveillance or biomonitoring. The findings from review of these 10 countries also suggest the need for country-specific public health policies and clinician education in Emerging Markets.

  17. Association of arsenic, cadmium and manganese exposure with neurodevelopment and behavioural disorders in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Barranco, Miguel; Lacasaña, Marina; Aguilar-Garduño, Clemente; Alguacil, Juan; Gil, Fernando; González-Alzaga, Beatriz; Rojas-García, Antonio

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the scientific evidence published to date on the potential effects on neurodevelopment and behavioural disorders in children exposed to arsenic, cadmium and manganese and to quantify the magnitude of the effect on neurodevelopment by pooling the results of the different studies. We conducted a systematic review of original articles from January 2000 until March 2012, that evaluate the effects on neurodevelopment and behavioural disorders due to pre or post natal exposure to arsenic, cadmium and manganese in children up to 16 years of age. We also conducted a meta-analysis assessing the effects of exposure to arsenic and manganese on neurodevelopment. Forty-one articles that evaluated the effects of metallic elements on neurodevelopment and behavioural disorders met the inclusion criteria: 18 examined arsenic, 6 cadmium and 17 manganese. Most studies evaluating exposure to arsenic (13 of 18) and manganese (14 of 17) reported a significant negative effect on neurodevelopment and behavioural disorders. Only two studies that evaluated exposure to cadmium found an association with neurodevelopmental or behavioural disorders. The results of our meta-analysis suggest that a 50% increase of arsenic levels in urine would be associated with a 0.4 decrease in the intelligence quotient (IQ) of children aged 5-15 years. Moreover a 50% increase of manganese levels in hair would be associated with a decrease of 0.7 points in the IQ of children aged 6-13 years. There is evidence that relates arsenic and manganese exposure with neurodevelopmental problems in children, but there is little information on cadmium exposure. Few studies have evaluated behavioural disorders due to exposure to these compounds, and manganese is the only one for which there is more evidence of the existence of association with attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Chronic exposure to arsenic in drinking water can lead to resistance to antimonial drugs in a mouse model of visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Meghan R; Wyllie, Susan; Raab, Andrea; Feldmann, Joerg; Fairlamb, Alan H

    2013-12-03

    The Indian subcontinent is the only region where arsenic contamination of drinking water coexists with widespread resistance to antimonial drugs that are used to treat the parasitic disease visceral leishmaniasis. We have previously proposed that selection for parasite resistance within visceral leishmaniasis patients who have been exposed to trivalent arsenic results in cross-resistance to the related metalloid antimony, present in the pentavalent state as a complex in drugs such as sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam) and meglumine antimonate (Glucantime). To test this hypothesis, Leishmania donovani was serially passaged in mice exposed to arsenic in drinking water at environmentally relevant levels (10 or 100 ppm). Arsenic accumulation in organs and other tissues was proportional to the level of exposure and similar to that previously reported in human liver biopsies. After five monthly passages in mice exposed to arsenic, isolated parasites were found to be completely refractory to 500 μg · mL(-1) Pentostam compared with the control passage group (38.5 μg · mL(-1)) cultured in vitro in mouse peritoneal macrophages. Reassessment of resistant parasites following further passage for 4 mo in mice without arsenic exposure showed that resistance was stable. Treatment of infected mice with Pentostam confirmed that resistance observed in vitro also occurred in vivo. We conclude that arsenic contamination may have played a significant role in the development of Leishmania antimonial resistance in Bihar because inadequate treatment with antimonial drugs is not exclusive to India, whereas widespread antimonial resistance is.

  19. Arsenic in tree rings at a highly contaminated site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhongqi; Buckley, Brendan M; Katz, Beth; Wright, William; Bailey, Richard; Smith, Kevin T; Li, Jingbo; Curtis, Ashley; Geen, Alexander van

    2007-04-15

    Arsenic concentrations were measured in annual rings, pith, bark, and leaves of five tree species (four genera) from a site highly contaminated with As in Vineland, New Jersey, and two nearby uncontaminated areas. The highest As concentrations were found in bark (0.68+/-0.89 mg/kg, n=16) and leaves (1.9+/-1.8 mg/kg, n=4) from the contaminated area. Tree-ring As levels from the contaminated area (0.28+/-0.15 mg/kg, n=32) were low but still considerably higher than those from the control areas (0.06+/-0.06 mg/kg, n=30). There is a generally positive relationship between soil and tree-ring As levels. The overall low uptake of As by trees contrasts with that of P, a chemical analog for As(V) in aerated soils. Much higher P concentration in sapwood than in heartwood indicates that P is exported into more recently formed wood during the conversion from sapwood to heartwood; this again is drastically different than the behavior of As which is present in sapwood and heartwood at comparable levels. Variable sapwood As concentrations observed in detailed radial profiles of tree-ring chemistry of a pine and an oak from the contaminated site suggest that As is most likely transported among multiple rings within the sapwood. Therefore, tree species for which sapwood is thin (e.g., oak as in this study) should be preferred for reconstructing the history of contamination of a site. Due to the possibility of lateral translocation between growth rings, further studies are necessary to understand within-tree As transport and storage before dendrochemistry can be confidently accepted for such applications.

  20. Metagenomic analysis revealed highly diverse microbial arsenic metabolism genes in paddy soils with low-arsenic contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ke-Qing; Li, Li-Guan; Ma, Li-Ping; Zhang, Si-Yu; Bao, Peng; Zhang, Tong; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2016-04-01

    Microbe-mediated arsenic (As) metabolism plays a critical role in global As cycle, and As metabolism involves different types of genes encoding proteins facilitating its biotransformation and transportation processes. Here, we used metagenomic analysis based on high-throughput sequencing and constructed As metabolism protein databases to analyze As metabolism genes in five paddy soils with low-As contents. The results showed that highly diverse As metabolism genes were present in these paddy soils, with varied abundances and distribution for different types and subtypes of these genes. Arsenate reduction genes (ars) dominated in all soil samples, and significant correlation existed between the abundance of arr (arsenate respiration), aio (arsenite oxidation), and arsM (arsenite methylation) genes, indicating the co-existence and close-relation of different As resistance systems of microbes in wetland environments similar to these paddy soils after long-term evolution. Among all soil parameters, pH was an important factor controlling the distribution of As metabolism gene in five paddy soils (p = 0.018). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study using high-throughput sequencing and metagenomics approach in characterizing As metabolism genes in the five paddy soil, showing their great potential in As biotransformation, and therefore in mitigating arsenic risk to humans.

  1. Arsenic speciation and sorption in natural environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Kate M.; Nordstrom, D. Kirk

    2014-01-01

    Aqueous arsenic speciation, or the chemical forms in which arsenic exists in water, is a challenging, interesting, and complicated aspect of environmental arsenic geochemistry. Arsenic has the ability to form a wide range of chemical bonds with carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and sulfur, resulting in a large variety of compounds that exhibit a host of chemical and biochemical properties. Besides the intriguing chemical diversity, arsenic also has the rare capacity to capture our imaginations in a way that few elements can duplicate: it invokes images of foul play that range from sinister to comedic (e.g., “inheritance powder” and arsenic-spiked elderberry wine). However, the emergence of serious large-scale human health problems from chronic arsenic exposure in drinking water has placed a high priority on understanding environmental arsenic mobility, toxicity, and bioavailability, and chemical speciation is key to these important questions. Ultimately, the purpose of arsenic speciation research is to predict future occurrences, mitigate contamination, and provide successful management of water resources.

  2. Arsenic contamination of the soil-wheat system irrigated with high arsenic groundwater in the Hetao Basin, Inner Mongolia, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Junting; Guo, Huaming; Wei, Chao

    2014-10-15

    As one of the most important crop in the world, wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was irrigated with low As water and high As water. However, little is known about As cycling in the soil-wheat-water system. Two wheat fields (site G and site Y), irrigated with high dissolved As (178 μg L(-1)) groundwater and low dissolved As (8.2 μg L(-1)) surface water, respectively, were systematically sampled in the Hetao Basin, including irrigation water, soils and plants. The annual As (including dissolved As and suspended As) input per m(2) was estimated at 140 and 36.7 mg in site G and site Y, respectively. Topsoils of site G contained relatively higher As content (average 18.8 mg kg(-1)) than those of site Y (13.8 mg kg(-1)). Arsenic content of wheat grains in site G is systematically higher than in the site Y, which were positively correlated with non-specifically sorbed-As and amorphous Fe/Al oxide-bound As in topsoils. Arsenic-contaminated groundwater led to As accumulation in irrigated soils and the increase in As bioavailability, and subsequently resulted in the increase in As content of wheat grain. It suggested that less problematic water resources should be used for wheat irrigation in order to avoid As accumulation in the soil-plant system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. ARSENIC SPECIATION ANALYSIS IN HUMAN SALIVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Determination of arsenic species in human saliva is potentially useful for biomonitoring of human exposure to arsenic and for studying arsenic metabolism. However, there is no report on the speciation analysis of arsenic in saliva. Methods: Arsenic species in saliva ...

  4. ARSENIC SPECIATION ANALYSIS IN HUMAN SALIVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Determination of arsenic species in human saliva is potentially useful for biomonitoring of human exposure to arsenic and for studying arsenic metabolism. However, there is no report on the speciation analysis of arsenic in saliva. Methods: Arsenic species in saliva ...

  5. Water Arsenic Exposure and Intellectual Function in 6-Year-Old Children in Araihazar, Bangladesh

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gail A. Wasserman; Xinhua Liu; Faruque Parvez; Habibul Ahsan; Pam Factor-Litvak; Jennie Kline; Alexander van Geen; Vesna Slavkovich; Nancy J. Lolacono; Diane Levy; Zhongqi Cheng; Joseph H. Graziano

    Background: We recently reported results of a cross-sectional investigation of intellectual function in 10-year-olds in Bangladesh, who had been exposed to arsenic from drinking water in their home wells. Objectives...

  6. Association between arsenic exposure and soluble thrombomodulin: A cross sectional study in Bangladesh

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    M M Hasibuzzaman; Shakhawoat Hossain; Shofikul Islam; Atiqur Rahman; Adiba Anjum; Faruk Hossain; Nayan Chandra Mohanto; Rezaul Karim; Mominul Hoque; Zahangir Alam Saud; Hideki Miyataka; Seiichiro Himeno; Khaled Hossain

    2017-01-01

    .... Endothelial dysfunction plays a central role in the development of CVD. We hypothesized that endothelial damage or dysfunction is an important aspect and may be an early event of arsenic-related CVD...

  7. Relationship between arsenic skin lesions and the age of natural menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic exposure to arsenic is associated with neoplastic, cardiovascular, endocrine, neuro-developmental disorders and can have an adverse effect on women’s reproductive health outcomes. This study examined the relationship between arsenic skin lesions (a hallmark sign of chronic arsenic poisoning) and age of natural menopause (final menopausal period) in populations with high levels of arsenic exposure in Bangladesh. Methods We compared menopausal age in two groups of women – with and without arsenic skin lesions; and presence of arsenic skin lesions was used as an indicator for chronic arsenic exposure. In a cross-sectional study, a total of 210 participants were randomly identified from two ongoing studies— participants with arsenic skin lesions were identified from an ongoing clinical trial and participants with no arsenic skin lesions were identified from an ongoing cohort study. Mean age of menopause between these two groups were calculated and compared. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate the relationship between the status of the arsenic skin lesions and age of natural menopause in women. Results Women with arsenic skin lesions were 1.5 years younger (p arsenic skin lesions. After adjusting with contraceptive use, body mass index, urinary arsenic level and family history of premature menopause, the difference between the groups’ age at menopause was 2.1 years earlier (p arsenic skin lesions. Conclusions The study showed a statistically significant association between chronic exposure to arsenic and age at menopause. Heavily exposed women experienced menopause two years earlier than those with lower or no exposure. PMID:24886424

  8. Summary of four scientific studies on Arsenicum album high dilution effect against Arsenic intoxication in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Terzan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Groundwater arsenic affects millions of people in about 20 countries. In West Bengal (India and Bangladesh alone over 100 million people are exposed. The arsenic concentration in contaminated groundwater in Bangladesh was above the maximum permissible level of 0.05 mg/l as recommended by WHO for developing countries [1]. Drinking water is not the only source of poisoning. In arsenic contaminated areas, crops, vegetables, cereals, poultry, cattle, etc, also contain traces of arsenic. Chronic arsenic intoxication has been associated with several diseases such as melanosis, leuco-melanosis, hyperkeratosis, oedema, skin cancer… Cazin et al [2], have demonstrated the effect of high dilutions of arsenic compounds. They noted increased arsenic elimination from blood through urine and faeces in intoxicated rats. According to these research, the aim of Khuda Buksh studies [3-4-5] was to investigate whether high dilution Arsenicum album have any effect on arsenic accumulation in different tissues and to understand also how this high dilution could produce a protective effect on all the different organs. Methodology: Firstly, the effect of Arsenicum album 30 cH on the amount of arsenic accumulation was determined by spectrophotometric analysis in four tissues namely liver, kidney and testis in mice intoxicated by arsenic. The protective effect in chronic and acute arsenic intoxicated mice of Arsenicum Album 6cH, 30cH and 200cH has been evaluated using not only the activities of enzymatic and biomarker toxicity (aspartate amino transferase (AST, alanine amino transferase (ALT, acid phosphatase (AcP, alkaline phosphatase (AlkP, lipid peroxidation (LPO and reduced glutathione (GSH but also the cytogenetical parameters (chromosome aberrations (CA, mitotic index (MI, sperm head anomaly (SHA etc., . Because, it is well demonstrated that these enzymes biomarkers reflect the degree of hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress caused by

  9. Spatial Analysis of Human Health Risk Due to Arsenic Exposure through Drinking Groundwater in Taiwan’s Pingtung Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Ping Liang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic arsenic (As exposure continues to be a public health problem of major concern worldwide, affecting hundreds of millions of people. A long-term groundwater quality survey has revealed that 20% of the groundwater in southern Taiwan’s Pingtung Plain is clearly contaminated with a measured As concentration in excess of the maximum level of 10 µg/L recommended by the World Health Organization. The situation is further complicated by the fact that more than half of the inhabitants in this area continue to use groundwater for drinking. Efforts to assess the health risk associated with the ingestion of As from the contaminated drinking water are required in order to determine the priorities for health risk management. The conventional approach to conducting a human health risk assessment may be insufficient for this purpose, so this study adopts a geostatistical Kriging method to perform a spatial analysis of the health risk associated with ingesting As through drinking groundwater in the Pingtung Plain. The health risk is assessed based on the hazard quotient (HQ and target cancer risk (TR established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The results show that most areas where the HQ exceeds 1 are in the southwestern part of the study area. In addition, the high-population density townships of Daliao, Linyuan, Donggang, Linbian, Jiadong, and Fangliao presently have exceedingly high TR values that are two orders of magnitude higher than the acceptable standard. Thus, the use of groundwater for drinking in these townships should be strictly avoided. A map that delineates areas with high TR values and high population densities is provided. The findings broaden the scope of the spatial analysis of human health risk and provide a basis for improving the decision-making process.

  10. Spatial Analysis of Human Health Risk Due to Arsenic Exposure through Drinking Groundwater in Taiwan’s Pingtung Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ching-Ping; Chien, Yi-Chi; Jang, Cheng-Shin; Chen, Ching-Fang; Chen, Jui-Sheng

    2017-01-01

    Chronic arsenic (As) exposure continues to be a public health problem of major concern worldwide, affecting hundreds of millions of people. A long-term groundwater quality survey has revealed that 20% of the groundwater in southern Taiwan’s Pingtung Plain is clearly contaminated with a measured As concentration in excess of the maximum level of 10 µg/L recommended by the World Health Organization. The situation is further complicated by the fact that more than half of the inhabitants in this area continue to use groundwater for drinking. Efforts to assess the health risk associated with the ingestion of As from the contaminated drinking water are required in order to determine the priorities for health risk management. The conventional approach to conducting a human health risk assessment may be insufficient for this purpose, so this study adopts a geostatistical Kriging method to perform a spatial analysis of the health risk associated with ingesting As through drinking groundwater in the Pingtung Plain. The health risk is assessed based on the hazard quotient (HQ) and target cancer risk (TR) established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The results show that most areas where the HQ exceeds 1 are in the southwestern part of the study area. In addition, the high-population density townships of Daliao, Linyuan, Donggang, Linbian, Jiadong, and Fangliao presently have exceedingly high TR values that are two orders of magnitude higher than the acceptable standard. Thus, the use of groundwater for drinking in these townships should be strictly avoided. A map that delineates areas with high TR values and high population densities is provided. The findings broaden the scope of the spatial analysis of human health risk and provide a basis for improving the decision-making process. PMID:28098817

  11. Spatial Analysis of Human Health Risk Due to Arsenic Exposure through Drinking Groundwater in Taiwan's Pingtung Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ching-Ping; Chien, Yi-Chi; Jang, Cheng-Shin; Chen, Ching-Fang; Chen, Jui-Sheng

    2017-01-14

    Chronic arsenic (As) exposure continues to be a public health problem of major concern worldwide, affecting hundreds of millions of people. A long-term groundwater quality survey has revealed that 20% of the groundwater in southern Taiwan's Pingtung Plain is clearly contaminated with a measured As concentration in excess of the maximum level of 10 µg/L recommended by the World Health Organization. The situation is further complicated by the fact that more than half of the inhabitants in this area continue to use groundwater for drinking. Efforts to assess the health risk associated with the ingestion of As from the contaminated drinking water are required in order to determine the priorities for health risk management. The conventional approach to conducting a human health risk assessment may be insufficient for this purpose, so this study adopts a geostatistical Kriging method to perform a spatial analysis of the health risk associated with ingesting As through drinking groundwater in the Pingtung Plain. The health risk is assessed based on the hazard quotient (HQ) and target cancer risk (TR) established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The results show that most areas where the HQ exceeds 1 are in the southwestern part of the study area. In addition, the high-population density townships of Daliao, Linyuan, Donggang, Linbian, Jiadong, and Fangliao presently have exceedingly high TR values that are two orders of magnitude higher than the acceptable standard. Thus, the use of groundwater for drinking in these townships should be strictly avoided. A map that delineates areas with high TR values and high population densities is provided. The findings broaden the scope of the spatial analysis of human health risk and provide a basis for improving the decision-making process.

  12. Effectiveness of household reverse-osmosis systems in a Western U.S. region with high arsenic in groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, M.; Seiler, R.L.; Meinert, M.

    2008-01-01

    It is well known to the public in Lahontan Valley in rural Nevada, USA, that local aquifers produce water with varied, but sometimes very high concentrations of arsenic (> 4??ppm). As a result, many residents of the area have installed household reverse-osmosis (RO) systems to produce drinking water. We examined performance of RO systems and factors associated with arsenic removal efficiency in 59 households in Lahontan Valley. The sampling results indicated that RO systems removed an average of 80.2% of arsenic from well water. In 18 of the 59 households, arsenic concentrations exceeded 10??ppb in treated water, with a maximum in treated water of 180??ppb. In 3 of the 59 households, RO treatment had little effect on specific conductance, indicating that the RO system was not working properly. Two main factors lead to arsenic levels in treated water exceeding drinking-water standards in the study area. First, arsenic concentrations were high enough in some Lahontan Valley wells that arsenic levels exceeded 10??ppb even though RO treatment removed more than 95% of the arsenic. Second, trivalent As+ 3 was the dominant arsenic species in approximately 15% of the wells, which significantly reduced treatment efficiency. Measurements of specific conductance indicated that efficiency in reducing arsenic levels did not always correlate with reductions in total dissolved solids. As a consequence, improvements in taste of the water or simple measurements of specific conductance made by technicians to test RO systems can mislead the public into assuming the water meets safety standards. Actual measurements of treated water are necessary to assure that household RO systems are reducing arsenic concentrations to safe levels, particularly in areas where groundwater has high arsenic concentrations or where As+ 3 is the dominant species. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. High Exposure Facility Technical Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, Gregory L.; Stithem, Arthur R.; Murphy, Mark K.; Smith, Alex K.

    2008-02-12

    The High Exposure Facility is a collimated high-level gamma irradiator that is located in the basement of the 318 building. It was custom developed by PNNL back in 1982 to meet the needs for high range radiological instrument calibrations and dosimeter irradiations. At the time no commercially available product existed that could create exposure rates up to 20,000 R/h. This document is intended to pass on the design criteria that was employed to create this unique facility, while maintaining compliance with ANSI N543-1974, "General Safety Standard for Installations Using Non-Medical X-Ray and Sealed Gamma-Ray Sources, Energies up to 10 MeV."

  14. Expression of the sFLT1 gene in cord blood cells is associated to maternal arsenic exposure and decreased birth weight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Remy

    Full Text Available There is increasing epidemiologic evidence that arsenic exposure in utero is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes and may contribute to long-term health effects. These effects may occur at low environmental exposures but the underlying molecular mechanism is not clear. We collected cord blood samples of 183 newborns to identify associations between arsenic levels and birth anthropometric parameters in an area with very low arsenic exposure. Our core research aim was to screen for transcriptional marks that mechanistically explain these associations. Multiple regression analyses showed that birth weight decreased with 47 g (95% CI: 16-78 g for an interquartile range increase of 0.99 μg/L arsenic. The model was adjusted for child's sex, maternal smoking during pregnancy, gestational age, and parity. Higher arsenic concentrations and reduced birth weight were positively associated with changes in expression of the sFLT1 (soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 gene in cord blood cells in girls. The protein product of sFLT1 is a scavenger of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF in the extracellular environment and plays a key role in the inhibition of placental angiogenesis. In terms of fetal development, inhibition of placental angiogenesis leads to impaired nutrition and hence to growth retardation. Various genes related to DNA methylation and oxidative stress showed also changed expression in relation to arsenic exposure but were not related to birth outcome parameters. In conclusion, this study suggests that increased expression of sFLT1 is an intermediate marker that points to placental angiogenesis as a pathway linking prenatal arsenic exposure to reduced birth weight.

  15. On the arsenic source mobilisation and its natural enrichment in the sediments of a high mountain cirque in the Pyrenees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharescu, Dragos George; Hooda, Peter S; Fernandez, Javier; Soler, Antonio Palanca; Burghelea, Carmen Ionela

    2009-11-01

    Recently arsenic contamination and its environmental and human health problems have been raising concerns worldwide. The occurrence of natural high levels of arsenic contamination has generally been reported for low altitude environments. Here we report a study conducted to assess the extent of arsenic mobilisation/transportation from previously identified arsenic source areas in a high altitude cirque of the Pyrenees as well as the potential contribution of As by snow. The concentration of arsenic in sediments of several tributaries was enriched up to about ten folds due to mobilisation of arsenic from the source areas within the catchment. The highest arsenic enrichments were found in an area dominated by quartzite and slate formation in the southern side of the basin, and it generally diminished towards the major lake downstream, possible due to mixing with sediments from non-source areas. At these sites arsenic exceeded the hazard quotient (HQ) limits for the protection of aquatic life. The potential hazard of the As-enriched sediments may be further enhanced outside the catchment as samples collected downstream the cirque have also shown arsenic concentration exceeding HQ unity. The arsenic concentrations in the water collected at a number of sites exceeded its guide value for the protection of aquatic life. The potential As contribution by snow in the area was low and was largely of lithospheric origin. The PCA analysis showed strong association of arsenic in sediments with the sediment mineralogical composition (Fe2O3, TiO2 and Mn). Arsenic in water was positively correlated with its concentration in the sediments and could potentially increase if the environmental/climate conditions change.

  16. A comparison of batch and single wafer high dose arsenic ion implantation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irwin, R.B.; Filo, A.J.; Kannan, V.C.; Feygenson, A.; Prematta, R.J.

    1989-04-01

    High dose, low energy (4x10/sup 15/ cm/sup -2/ at 15 keV) arsenic ion implantation into silicon was performed in batch and single wafer mode using medium and high current ion implanters. An investigation of implanted and annealed samples by Rutherford backscattering (RBS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermal wave technique, and sheet resistance mapping showed little to no difference of arsenic profiles and residual damage between batch and single wafer implantation conditions when the sample temperature during implantation was kept below 120/sup 0/C. (orig.).

  17. A comparison of batch and single wafer high dose arsenic ion implantation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, R. B.; Filo, A. J.; Kannan, V. C.; Feygenson, A.; Prematta, R. J.

    1989-04-01

    High dose, low energy (4×10 15 cm -2 at 15 keV) arsenic ion implantation into silicon was performed in batch and single wafer mode using medium and high current ion implanters. An investigation of implanted and annealed samples by Rutherford backscattering (RBS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermal wave technique, and sheet resistance mapping showed little to no difference of arsenic profiles and residual damage between batch and single wafer implantation conditions when the sample temperature during implantation was kept below 120° C.

  18. Elevated lactate dehydrogenase activity and increased cardiovascular mortality in the arsenic-endemic areas of southwestern Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Ya-Tang [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taiwan (China); Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chien-Jen [Graduate Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taiwan (China); Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taiwan (China); Li, Wan-Fen [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Ling-I [Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Li-Yu; Huang, Yeou-Lih [Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, Kaohsiung Medical University, Taiwan (China); Sun, Chien-Wen [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan (China); Chen, Wei J., E-mail: wjchen@ntu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taiwan (China); Genetic Epidemiology Core Laboratory, National Taiwan University Center for Genomic Medicine, Taiwan (China); Wang, Shu-Li, E-mail: slwang@nhri.org.tw [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan (China); Department of Public Health, College of Public Health, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China)

    2012-08-01

    Arsenic ingestion has been linked to increasing global prevalence of and mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD); arsenic can be removed from drinking water to reduce related health effects. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is used for the evaluation of acute arsenic toxicity in vivo and in vitro, but it is not validated for the evaluation of long-term, chronic arsenic exposure. The present study examined the long-term effect of chronic arsenic exposure on CVD and serum LDH levels, after consideration of arsenic metabolism capacity. A total of 380 subjects from an arseniasis-endemic area and 303 from a non-endemic area of southwestern Taiwan were recruited in 2002. Various urinary arsenic species were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and hydride generation systems. Fasting serum was used for quantitative determination of the total LDH activity. A significant dose–response relationship was observed between arsenic exposure and LDH elevation, independent of urinary arsenic profiles (P < 0.001). Furthermore, abnormal LDH elevation was associated with CVD mortality after adjustment for Framingham risk scores for 10-year CVD and arsenic exposure (hazard ratio, 3.98; 95% confidence interval, 1.07–14.81). LDH was elevated in subjects with arsenic exposure in a dose-dependent manner. LDH is a marker of arsenic toxicity associated with CVD mortality. Results of this study have important implications for use in ascertaining long-term arsenic exposure risk of CVD. -- Highlights: ► We showed that arsenic exposure was correlated with LDH elevation. ► LDH elevation was related to arsenic methylation capacity. ► Abnormal LDH elevation can be a marker of susceptibility to CVD mortality.

  19. Potential arsenic exposures in 25 species of zoo animals living in CCA-wood enclosures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gress, J. [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Jiangsu 201146 (China); Soil and Water Science Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Silva, E.B. da; Oliveira, L.M. de [Soil and Water Science Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Zhao, Di [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Jiangsu 201146 (China); Anderson, G. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Heard, D. [Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States); Stuchal, L.D. [Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Department of Environmental and Global Health, College of Public Health and Health Professions, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Ma, L.Q., E-mail: lqma@ufl.edu [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Jiangsu 201146 (China); Soil and Water Science Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Animal enclosures are often constructed from wood treated with the pesticide chromated copper arsenate (CCA), which leaches arsenic (As) into adjacent soil during normal weathering. This study evaluated potential pathways of As exposure in 25 species of zoo animals living in CCA-wood enclosures. We analyzed As speciation in complete animal foods, dislodgeable As from CCA-wood, and As levels in enclosure soils, as well as As levels in biomarkers of 9 species of crocodilians (eggs), 4 species of birds (feathers), 1 primate species (hair), and 1 porcupine species (quills). Elevated soil As in samples from 17 enclosures was observed at 1.0–110 mg/kg, and enclosures housing threatened and endangered species had As levels higher than USEPA's risk-based Eco-SSL for birds and mammals of 43 and 46 mg/kg. Wipe samples of CCA-wood on which primates sit had dislodgeable As residues of 4.6–111 μg/100 cm{sup 2}, typical of unsealed CCA-wood. Inorganic As doses from animal foods were estimated at 0.22–7.8 μg/kg bw/d. Some As levels in bird feathers and crocodilian eggs were higher than prior studies on wild species. However, hair from marmosets had 6.37 mg/kg As, 30-fold greater than the reference value, possibly due to their inability to methylate inorganic As. Our data suggested that elevated As in soils and dislodgeable As from CCA-wood could be important sources of As exposure for zoo animals. - Highlights: • Daily inorganic As dose from zoo animal foods was 0.22–7.8 μg/kg bw/day. • Total As concentrations in soils of zoo animal enclosures were 1.0–110 mg/kg. • Endangered zoo animals live in soils with As above USEPA Eco-SSLs for avian and mammal species. • Dislodgeable As on CCA-wood beams where primates sit was 4.6–111 μg/100 cm{sup 2}. • Marmoset hair had 6.37 mg/kg As compared to a reference value of 0.21 mg/kg.

  20. Effect of Vitamin E Supplementation on Hematological and Plasma Biochemical Parameters during Long Term Exposure of Arsenic in Goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Tapan Kumar; Mani, Veena; Kaur, Harjit; Kewalramani, Neelam; Agarwal, Anjali

    2012-09-01

    The present investigation was designed to determine whether supplementation of different level of vitamin E for 12 months to arsenic exposed goats (50 ppm as sodium arsenite) affords protection against the blood hemato-biochemical parameters caused by the metalloid. A total of 24 crossbred (Alpine×Beetal) lactating goats were assigned randomly into 4 equal groups (control, T1, T2 and T3) of 6 in each, on the basis of average body weight (36.10±0.11 kg) and milk yield (1.61±0.04 kg/d). The animals in T1, T2 and T3 were given 50 ppm arsenic, while in T2 and T3, additionally; vitamin E at the rate of 100 IU and 150 IU/kg dry matter (DM) respectively was additionally supplemented for the period of 12 months. Hemoglobin (Hb), total leukocyte (TLC) and blood lymphocyte % were decreased (parsenic fed groups and vitamin E supplementation in the experimental group showed a protective potential. Significant increases (parsenic supplemented groups were recorded, however vitamin E supplementation at higher doses showed a protective effect (p0.05) but creatinine level was periodically increased in all As supplemented groups and vitamin E supplementation did not produce any protective effect. It can be concluded that arsenic exposure resulted in varying degree of changes in hemato-biochemical parameters and activities of antioxidant enzymes in goats but concomitant treatment with Vitamin E is partially helpful in reducing the burden of arsenic induced effect.

  1. Arsenic responsive microRNAs in vivo and their potential involvement in arsenic-induced oxidative stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Xuefeng, E-mail: xuefengr@buffalo.edu [Department of Epidemiology and Environmental Health, School of Public Health and Health Professions, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Biomedical Sciences, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States); Gaile, Daniel P. [Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health and Health Professions, the State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States); Gong, Zhihong [Department of Epidemiology and Environmental Health, School of Public Health and Health Professions, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States); Qiu, Wenting [School of Public Health, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325035 (China); Ge, Yichen [Department of Epidemiology and Environmental Health, School of Public Health and Health Professions, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States); Zhang, Chuanwu; Huang, Chenping; Yan, Hongtao [School of Public Health, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325035 (China); Olson, James R. [Department of Epidemiology and Environmental Health, School of Public Health and Health Professions, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Biomedical Sciences, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States); Kavanagh, Terrance J. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Wu, Hongmei, E-mail: hongmeiwwu@hotmail.com [School of Public Health, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325035 (China)

    2015-03-15

    Arsenic exposure is postulated to modify microRNA (miRNA) expression, leading to changes of gene expression and toxicities, but studies relating the responses of miRNAs to arsenic exposure are lacking, especially with respect to in vivo studies. We utilized high-throughput sequencing technology and generated miRNA expression profiles of liver tissues from Sprague Dawley (SD) rats exposed to various concentrations of sodium arsenite (0, 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 mg/L) for 60 days. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis of the miRNA expression profiles clustered the SD rats into different groups based on the arsenic exposure status, indicating a highly significant association between arsenic exposure and cluster membership (p-value of 0.0012). Multiple miRNA expressions were altered by arsenic in an exposure concentration-dependent manner. Among the identified arsenic-responsive miRNAs, several are predicted to target Nfe2l2-regulated antioxidant genes, including glutamate–cysteine ligase (GCL) catalytic subunit (GCLC) and modifier subunit (GCLM) which are involved in glutathione (GSH) synthesis. Exposure to low concentrations of arsenic increased mRNA expression for Gclc and Gclm, while high concentrations significantly reduced their expression, which were correlated to changes in hepatic GCL activity and GSH level. Moreover, our data suggested that other mechanisms, e.g., miRNAs, rather than Nfe2l2-signaling pathway, could be involved in the regulation of mRNA expression of Gclc and Gclm post-arsenic exposure in vivo. Together, our findings show that arsenic exposure disrupts the genome-wide expression of miRNAs in vivo, which could lead to the biological consequence, such as an altered balance of antioxidant defense and oxidative stress. - Highlights: • Chronic arsenic exposure induces changes of hepatic miRNA expression profiles. • Hepatic GCL activity and GSH level in rats are altered following arsenic exposure. • Arsenic induced GCL expression change is

  2. Effects of health intervention programs and arsenic exposure on child mortality from acute lower respiratory infections in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochem, Warren C; Razzaque, Abdur; Root, Elisabeth Dowling

    2016-09-01

    Respiratory infections continue to be a public health threat, particularly to young children in developing countries. Understanding the geographic patterns of diseases and the role of potential risk factors can help improve future mitigation efforts. Toward this goal, this paper applies a spatial scan statistic combined with a zero-inflated negative-binomial regression to re-examine the impacts of a community-based treatment program on the geographic patterns of acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) mortality in an area of rural Bangladesh. Exposure to arsenic-contaminated drinking water is also a serious threat to the health of children in this area, and the variation in exposure to arsenic must be considered when evaluating the health interventions. ALRI mortality data were obtained for children under 2 years old from 1989 to 1996 in the Matlab Health and Demographic Surveillance System. This study period covers the years immediately following the implementation of an ALRI control program. A zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) regression model was first used to simultaneously estimate mortality rates and the likelihood of no deaths in groups of related households while controlling for socioeconomic status, potential arsenic exposure, and access to care. Next a spatial scan statistic was used to assess the location and magnitude of clusters of ALRI mortality. The ZINB model was used to adjust the scan statistic for multiple social and environmental risk factors. The results of the ZINB models and spatial scan statistic suggest that the ALRI control program was successful in reducing child mortality in the study area. Exposure to arsenic-contaminated drinking water was not associated with increased mortality. Higher socioeconomic status also significantly reduced mortality rates, even among households who were in the treatment program area. Community-based ALRI interventions can be effective at reducing child mortality, though socioeconomic factors may

  3. Extensive arsenic contamination in high-pH unconfined aquifers in the Indus Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgorski, Joel E.; Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah; Khanam, Tasawar; Ullah, Rizwan; Shen, Heqing; Berg, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Arsenic-contaminated aquifers are currently estimated to affect ~150 million people around the world. However, the full extent of the problem remains elusive. This is also the case in Pakistan, where previous studies focused on isolated areas. Using a new data set of nearly 1200 groundwater quality samples throughout Pakistan, we have created state-of-the-art hazard and risk maps of arsenic-contaminated groundwater for thresholds of 10 and 50 μg/liter. Logistic regression analysis was used with 1000 iterations, where surface slope, geology, and soil parameters were major predictor variables. The hazard model indicates that much of the Indus Plain is likely to have elevated arsenic concentrations, although the rest of the country is mostly safe. Unlike other arsenic-contaminated areas of Asia, the arsenic release process in the arid Indus Plain appears to be dominated by elevated-pH dissolution, resulting from alkaline topsoil and extensive irrigation of unconfined aquifers, although pockets of reductive dissolution are also present. We estimate that approximately 50 million to 60 million people use groundwater within the area at risk, with hot spots around Lahore and Hyderabad. This number is alarmingly high and demonstrates the urgent need for verification and testing of all drinking water wells in the Indus Plain, followed by appropriate mitigation measures. PMID:28845451

  4. Determination of Total Arsenic in Seaweed Products by Neutron Activation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Salim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Seaweed products are widely consumed as food nowadays. Seaweeds are known to contain arsenic due to their capability to accumulate arsenic from the environment. Arsenic is a known toxic element which naturally occurs in the environment. Ingestion of high levels of arsenic will cause several adverse health effects. Arsenic in food occurs at trace concentrations which require sensitive and selective analysis methods to perform elemental analysis on. Validated neutron activation analysis was used to determine the arsenic contents in seaweed products namely catoni from domestic product and nori from foreign products. The total arsenic concentration in the samples analyzed ranges from 0.79 mg/kg to 30.14 mg/kg with mean concentration 14.39 mg/kg. The estimated exposure to arsenic contributed by the analyzed products is from 0.07% up to 8.54% of the established provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI which is still far below the maximum tolerable level

  5. An Investigation of Bioaccessibility of Arsenic in Rice using IC-ICP-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenic exposure occurs mainly through drinking water and food; therefore, both aspects should be incorporated into any aggregate exposure assessment. Drinking water exposures are predominately inorganic arsenic while dietary exposures are made up of a diverse set of arsenicals w...

  6. Arsenic and nicotine co-exposure lead to some synergistic effects on oxidative stress and apoptotic markers in young rat blood, liver, kidneys and brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshu Jain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic and nicotine exposure has been a major health concern globally. Individually both these toxicants increase the risk to various diseases including cancers. However, limited information exists on the co-exposure. In this study, we evaluate the effects of their individual and combined exposure and if co-exposure to these toxicants might have a synergism or antagonism. Male rats were exposed to a very low dose of arsenic (25 ppm in drinking water or nicotine (0.25 mg/kg, sub-cutaneously for a period of 5 months and post exposure various biochemical variables indicative of oxidative stress and apoptosis evaluated. Almost all glutathione linked enzymes showed marked alteration in individual as well as co-exposure treated groups. While serum creatinine and apoptosis indicator, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH were significantly increased in both treatments, an additive effect was noted in co-exposure group. A similar trend was also seen in brain and liver but not in kidneys. Gene expression studies showed marked reduction in catalase, Cu-Zn SOD, GST, there was a significant up regulation in Bax, caspase 3 in various tissues along with urinary 8-OHdG levels, indicative of DNA damage and apoptosis. Interestingly, a decrease in liver arsenic concentration was noted in co-exposed group compared to arsenic alone exposed group. In conclusion, the present study suggests that arsenic and nicotine exhibited significant toxicity during individual exposure whereas co-exposure to these toxins showed variable conditions (indicative of both synergism and antagonism in male rats.

  7. Pattern of skin bacteria in palmar arsenical keratosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Bintha Khalil

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine the involvement of skin bacteria in the pathogenesis of keratosis. Skin swab of five different sites (palm, dorsum of the hand, chest, axilla and alar crease from arsenic unexposed volunteer (n = 15, arsenic exposed (n = 15 and arsenicosis patients (n= 20 were collected for bacterial culture. The skin of arsenic unexposed volunteers contained Staphylococcus epidermidis and Bacillus spp. Chronic exposure to high concentration of arsenic through drinking water altered the skin bacterial pattern. The growth of Pseudomonas spp. increased in different sites of the skin. But in patient of arsenicosis, the skin of the palm shows the growth of Enterobacter spp.

  8. An Interesting Case of Basal Cell Carcinoma with Raynaud's Phenomenon Following Chronic Arsenic Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulshan, S; Rahman, M J; Sarkar, R; Ghosh, S; Hazra, R

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic is commonly known to be associated with squamous cell carcinoma. Among the lesser known associations is basal cell carcinoma and even rarer is its effect on blood vessels causing peripheral vascular disease. Here we present a case of a 55 yr old man with ulceroproliferative lesions on scalp and forehead along with several hyperpigmented patches on trunk and extremities. He had symptoms suggestive of Raynaud's phenomenon that eventually led to digital gangrene. FNAC was done which was suggestive of basal cell carcinoma. On further enquiry, he was found to reside in an arsenic endemic zone and was investigated for blood arsenic level which was elevated. Punch biopsy from different lesions from body confirmed nodular basal cell carcinoma. Presently the patient has stopped drinking water from the local tubewell. On follow-up he shows improvement of Raynaud's phenomenon and skin lesions.

  9. Isotopic Abundances and Ratios in Arsenic Irradiated by High-Energy Neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, W. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hall, J. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2010-06-07

    This document provides derivations of the 73As, 74As and 75As isotopic abundances and ratios in an arsenic sample irradiated by high-energy (14 MeV) neutrons for 0 ≤ t ≤ T, where T is short compared to the natural decay times of the reaction products (t1/2 (73As) ~ 80.3 d, t1/2 (74As) ~ 17.8 d). The document also outlines the historic approach used to analyze arsenic data from experiments.

  10. Assessment of exposure to soils contaminated with lead, cadmium, and arsenic near a zinc smelter, Cassiopée Study, France, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Cécile; Sauthier, Nicolas; Schwoebel, Valérie

    2015-06-01

    After 150 years of industrial activity, significant pollution of surface soils in private gardens and locally produced vegetables with lead, cadmium, and arsenic has recently been observed in Viviez (Southern France). A public health intervention was conducted in 2008 to identify individual health risks of Viviez inhabitants and to analyze their environmental exposure to these pollutants. Children and pregnant women in Viviez were screened for lead poisoning. Urinary cadmium testing was proposed to all inhabitants. Those with urinary cadmium levels over 1 μg/g creatinine were then tested for kidney damage. Urinary cadmium and arsenic levels were compared between participants with non-occupational exposure from Viviez and Montbazens, a nearby town not exposed to these two pollutants, in order to identify environmental factors contributing to impregnation. No case of lead poisoning was detected in Viviez, but 23 % of adults had urinary cadmium over 1 μg/g creatinine, 14 % of whom having markers of kidney damage. Viviez adults had higher levels of urinary cadmium, and to a lesser extent, higher levels of urinary arsenic than those from Montbazens. Consumption of local produce (vegetables and animals) and length of residence in Viviez were associated with higher urinary cadmium levels, independently of known confounding factors, suggesting persisting environmental exposure to contaminated soil. To conclude, health risks related to cadmium exposure were identified in the Viviez population living on contaminated soils. Lead and arsenic exposure did not pose health concerns. Interventions were proposed to reduce exposure and limit health consequences.

  11. Arsenic in rice: A cause for concern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hojsak, Iva; Braegger, Christian; Bronsky, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic intake is likely to affect long-term health. High concentrations are found in some rice-based foods and drinks widely used in infants and young children. In order to reduce exposure we recommend avoidance of rice drinks for infants and young children. For all rice products, strict...... regulation should be enforced regarding arsenic content. Moreover, infants and young children should consume a balanced diet including a variety of grains as carbohydrate sources. While rice protein based infant formulas are an option for infants with cows' milk protein allergy, the inorganic arsenic content...

  12. Sequencing and expression of two arsenic resistance operons with different functions in the highly arsenic-resistant strain Ochrobactrum tritici SCII24T

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Ana-Paula

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arsenic (As is a natural metalloid, widely used in anthropogenic activities, that can exist in different oxidation states. Throughout the world, there are several environments contaminated with high amounts of arsenic where many organisms can survive. The most stable arsenical species are arsenate and arsenite that can be subject to chemically and microbiologically oxidation, reduction and methylation reactions. Organisms surviving in arsenic contaminated environments can have a diversity of mechanisms to resist to the harmful effects of arsenical compounds. Results The highly metal resistant Ochrobactrum tritici SCII24 was able to grow in media with arsenite (50 mM, arsenate (up to 200 mM and antimonite (10 mM. This strain contains two arsenic and antimony resistance operons (ars1 and ars2, which were cloned and sequenced. Sequence analysis indicated that ars1 operon contains five genes encoding the following proteins: ArsR, ArsD, ArsA, CBS-domain-containing protein and ArsB. The ars2 operon is composed of six genes that encode two other ArsR, two ArsC (belonging to different families of arsenate reductases, one ACR3 and one ArsH-like protein. The involvement of ars operons in arsenic resistance was confirmed by cloning both of them in an Escherichia coli ars-mutant. The ars1 operon conferred resistance to arsenite and antimonite on E. coli cells, whereas the ars2 operon was also responsible for resistance to arsenite and arsenate. Although arsH was not required for arsenate resistance, this gene seems to be important to confer high levels of arsenite resistance. None of ars1 genes were detected in the other type strains of genus Ochrobactrum, but sequences homologous with ars2 operon were identified in some strains. Conclusion A new strategy for bacterial arsenic resistance is described in this work. Two operons involved in arsenic resistance, one giving resistance to arsenite and antimonite and the other giving resistance

  13. Arsenic exposure affects plasma insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 in children in rural Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan Ahmed

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Exposure to inorganic arsenic (As through drinking water during pregnancy is associated with lower birth size and child growth. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of As exposure on child growth parameters to evaluate causal associations. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: Children born in a longitudinal mother-child cohort in rural Bangladesh were studied at 4.5 years (n=640 as well as at birth (n=134. Exposure to arsenic was assessed by concurrent and prenatal (maternal urinary concentrations of arsenic metabolites (U-As. Associations with plasma concentrations of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1, calcium (Ca, vitamin D (Vit-D, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (B-ALP, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH, and phosphate (PO4 were evaluated by linear regression analysis, adjusted for socioeconomic factor, parity and child sex. Child U-As (per 10 µg/L was significantly inversely associated with concurrent plasma IGF-1 (β=-0.27; 95% confidence interval: -0.50, -0.0042 at 4.5 years. The effect was more obvious in girls (β=-0.29; -0.59, 0.021 than in boys, and particularly in girls with adequate height (β=-0.491; -0.97, -0.02 or weight (β=-0.47; 0.97, 0.01. Maternal U-As was inversely associated with child IGF-1 at birth (r=-0.254, P=0.003, but not at 4.5 years. There was a tendency of positive association between U-As and plasma PO4 in stunted boys (β=0.27; 0.089, 0.46. When stratified by % monomethylarsonic acid (MMA, arsenic metabolite (median split at 9.7%, a much stronger inverse association between U-As and IGF-1 in the girls (β=-0.41; -0.77, -0.03 was obtained above the median split. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that As-related growth impairment in children is mediated, at least partly, through suppressed IGF-1 levels.

  14. Biochemical and histological alterations in liver following sub chronic exposure of arsenic

    OpenAIRE

    Madhuri Mehta; S.S. Hundal

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Contamination of groundwater with arsenic is of global concern. The present work was aimed to evaluate the biochemical and histological changes in liver of female rats induced by sodium arsenite at doses naturally found in groundwater of Punjab. Method: Twenty four female rats were divided into four groups of 6 animals each. Group I animals received distilled water and served as control; Group II-IV received arsenic at the dose of 10, 30 and 50 ppb (μg/L) dissolved in distilled wat...

  15. NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) testimony to DOL (Department of Labor) on proposed standard for occupational exposure to inorganic arsenic by Edward J. Baier, September 8, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-09-08

    The testimony addressed three technical issues concerning the arsenic (7440382) standard. These three aspects were sampling and analysis, sputum cytology, and respiratory protection. NIOSH concluded that personal sampling can be used to collect air samples to measure worker exposure to arsenic at the recommended level with a precision of about plus or minus 25% at the 95% confidence level of 0.8-micrometer pore-size filter-collected samples using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Analysis of 0.06 to 0.200 microgram samples of arsenic will yield an absorbance which may be too low for acceptable quantitative analysis. Efforts were underway to develop a reliable method for determining arsine in the desired range. Reviews of work on sputum cytology indicated that periodic exfoliative cytological study of individuals who were at an elevated risk of lung cancer assisted in identifying individuals with premalignant disease and aided in the early diagnosis of malignant disease. Concerning respiratory protection, the proposed OSHA standard for inorganic arsenic specified half mask respirators with high efficiency filters as minimum air purifying respiratory protection. The minimal respiratory protection recommended was an approved gas mask with a chin style or a front or back mounted acid gas canister with a high-efficiency particulate filter.

  16. Urinary arsenic metabolism in a Western Chinese population exposed to high-dose inorganic arsenic in drinking water: Influence of ethnicity and genetic polymorphisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Songbo [Center for Endemic Disease Control, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Harbin Medical University, Key Lab of Etiology and Epidemiology, Education Bureau of Hei Long Jiang Province and Ministry of Health (23618104), Harbin 150081 (China); Wu, Jie [Laboratory of Medical Genetics, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150081 (China); Li, Yuanyuan [Center for Endemic Disease Control, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Harbin Medical University, Key Lab of Etiology and Epidemiology, Education Bureau of Hei Long Jiang Province and Ministry of Health (23618104), Harbin 150081 (China); Liu, Yan [Department of Health Statistics, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150081 (China); Gao, Yanhui; Yao, Feifei [Center for Endemic Disease Control, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Harbin Medical University, Key Lab of Etiology and Epidemiology, Education Bureau of Hei Long Jiang Province and Ministry of Health (23618104), Harbin 150081 (China); Qiu, Chuanying [Dongcheng District Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100009 (China); Song, Li; Wu, Yu [Center for Endemic Disease Control, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Harbin Medical University, Key Lab of Etiology and Epidemiology, Education Bureau of Hei Long Jiang Province and Ministry of Health (23618104), Harbin 150081 (China); Liao, Yongjian [Gansu Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 730020 (China); Sun, Dianjun, E-mail: hrbmusdj@163.com [Center for Endemic Disease Control, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Harbin Medical University, Key Lab of Etiology and Epidemiology, Education Bureau of Hei Long Jiang Province and Ministry of Health (23618104), Harbin 150081 (China)

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the differences in urinary arsenic metabolism patterns of individuals exposed to a high concentration of inorganic arsenic (iAs) in drinking water, an epidemiological investigation was conducted with 155 individuals living in a village where the arsenic concentration in the drinking water was 969 μg/L. Blood and urine samples were collected from 66 individuals including 51 cases with skin lesions and 15 controls without skin lesions. The results showed that monomethylated arsenic (MMA), the percentage of MMA (%MMA) and the ratio of MMA to iAs (MMA/iAs) were significantly increased in patients with skin lesions as compared to controls, while dimethylated arsenic (DMA), the percentage of DMA (%DMA) and the ratio of DMA to MMA (DMA/MMA) were significantly reduced. The percent DMA of individuals with the Ala/Asp genotype of glutathione S-transferase omega 1 (GSTO1) was significantly lower than those with Ala/Ala. The percent MMA of individuals with the A2B/A2B genotype of arsenic (+ 3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT) was significantly lower than those with AB/A2B. The iAs and total arsenic (tAs) content in the urine of a Tibetan population were significantly higher than that of Han and Hui ethnicities, whereas MMA/iAs was significantly lower than that of Han and Hui ethnicities. Our results showed that when exposed to the same arsenic environment, different individuals exhibited different urinary arsenic metabolism patterns. Gender and ethnicity affect these differences and above polymorphisms may be effectors too. - Highlights: • We first survey a village with high iAs content in the drinking water (969 μg/L). • 90 villagers suffered typical skin lesions with a morbidity rate of 58%. • Cases exhibited higher %MMA and MMA/iAs, and lower %DMA and DMA/MMA than controls. • Gender and ethnicity affect the differences of iAs methylation metabolism levels. • GSTO1 and AS3MT gene polymorphisms may be factors too.

  17. Arsenic-doped high-resistivity-silicon epitaxial layers for integrating low-capacitance diodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sakic, A.; Scholtes, T.L.M.; De Boer, W.B.; Golshani, N.; Derakhshandeh, J.; Nanver, L.K.

    2011-01-01

    An arsenic doping technique for depositing up to 40-μm-thick high-resistivity layers is presented for fabricating diodes with low RC constants that can be integrated in closely-packed configurations. The doping of the as-grown epi-layers is controlled down to 5 × 1011 cm−3, a value that is solely li

  18. Mode of occurrence of arsenic in high-As coals from endemic arsenosis areas in southwestern Guizhou Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Zhen-hua; ZHENG Bao-shao; ZHUANG Min; HU Tian-dou

    2007-01-01

    The use of high As-bearing coals has caused more than 3,000 cases of arsenosis patients in southwest Guizhou Province, China. The mode of occurrence of arsenic in coal is an important key role in understanding its behavior during usage and damage pathway to human health. Coal samples from endemic arsenosis areas were analyzed with INAA, EMPA, SEM-EDX, LTA, XRD, XAFS, and sequential leaching experiment. Arsenic in pyrite is from under the limit of EMPA to 1.75%, and in most cases, the content of arsenic is lower than 0.5%. Besides pyrite and arsenopyrite, SEM-EDX combined with LTA and XRD find that sulfates, clay and phosphates also contain arsenic. XAFS shows that arsenic mainly exists in the form of As5+. More than 50% of arsenic stayes in residual solid and combined with organic matrix in two samples, but most arsenic is leached out in other samples. The occurrence of such exceptionally high As contents in coal and the fact that the arsenic is dominantly organically associated are unique observations.

  19. Review of arsenic contamination, exposure through water and food and low cost mitigation options for rural areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Anitha Kumari; Tjell, Jens Christian; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is a toxic metalloid found to be an important groundwater contaminant of mainly natural geogenic origin worldwide particularly in large deltas and along major rivers in poor regions of South- and East-Asia. Excessive and long-term human intake of toxic inorganic As with food and water...... chemical threat to public health ever experienced and arsenicosis is spreading to regions where near-sterile well water loaded with As has replaced microbial suspect surface water containing lower As concentrations. This review provides an overview of the state of the art knowledge on the water and food...... As intake and exposure, and how the As chemistry in water and food may influence chosen mitigation strategies. Although reports on severe health effects from exposure to As in water are abundant there are several weak points in our knowledge on causes and prevalence of arsenicosis in order to devise...

  20. High attributable risk due to arsenic for lung cancer in Yunnan tin mine reported by WD Hazelton et al%对Hazelton等提出的云锡矿工肺癌主要危险来自砷的商榷

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙世荃

    2004-01-01

    Using two-stage clonal expansion model with data-base provided by Lubin, WD Hazehon et al indicated the high risk of arsenic, but not radon, in the etiology of Yunnan tin miner' s lung cancer. The author of this review iterated the problems in the data-base of Lubin,and considered that it may result in low estimate for the risk of radon in paper of Hazehon et al. Attributable risk was estimated by them with changing exposure patterns of each individual, but the efficacy of this two-stage model will be violated by the invariability of appointed radon/arsenic exposures. Risk comparison was used to distinguish the contribution from radon/arsenic, which was hampered by the high correlation between their joint exposures. As Lubin, Hazehon et al neglected the confounding from environmental arsenic pollution in early years. From all of above, their viewpoint is worth to be deliberated.

  1. Evaluation of a novel portable x-ray fluorescence screening tool for detection of arsenic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIver, David J; VanLeeuwen, John A; Knafla, Anthony L; Campbell, Jillian A; Alexander, Kevin M; Gherase, Mihai R; Guernsey, Judith R; Fleming, David E B

    2015-12-01

    A new portable x-ray fluorescence (XRF) screening tool was evaluated for its effectiveness in arsenic (As) quantification in human finger and toe nails ([Formula: see text]). Nail samples were measured for total As concentration by XRF and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Using concordance correlation coefficient (CCC), kappa, diagnostic sensitivity (Sn) and specificity (Sp), and linear regression analyses, the concentration of As measured by XRF was compared to ICP-MS. The CCC peaked for scaled values of fingernail samples, at 0.424 (95% CI: 0.065-0.784). The largest kappa value, 0.400 (95% CI:  -0.282-1.000), was found at a 1.3 μg g(-1) cut-off concentration, for fingernails only, and the largest kappa at a clinically relevant cut-off concentration of 1.0 μg g(-1) was 0.237 (95% CI:  -0.068-0.543), again in fingernails. Analyses generally showed excellent XRF Sn (up to 100%, 95% CI: 48-100%), but low Sp (up to 30% for the same analysis, 95% CI: 14-50%). Portable XRF shows some potential for use as a screening tool with fingernail samples. The difference between XRF and ICP-MS measurements decreased as sample mass increased to 30 mg. While this novel method of As detection in nails has shown relatively high agreement in some scenarios, this portable XRF is not currently considered suitable as a substitute for ICP-MS.

  2. Exposure assessment of organochlorine pesticides, arsenic, and lead in children from the major agricultural areas in Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza-Montenegro, Maria M; Valenzuela-Quintanar, Ana I; Balderas-Cortés, José J; Yañez-Estrada, Leticia; Gutiérrez-Coronado, Maria L; Cuevas-Robles, Alberto; Gandolfi, A Jay

    2013-04-01

    There is a lack of information of exposure to organochlorine pesticides (OCP) and some metals, such as lead (Pb) and arsenic (As), both of which were used as arsenicals pesticides, in children living in the major agricultural areas of Mexico. The objective of this study was to assess the exposure of children to different OCP, As, and Pb in the Yaqui and Mayo valleys of Sonora to generate population baseline levels of these toxins. A cross-sectional study was undertaken in 165 children (age 6-12 years old) from 10 communities from both valleys during 2009. Blood samples were analyzed for OCP and Pb and first morning void urine for inorganic As (InAs). All of the blood samples had detectable levels of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) ranging from 0.25 to 10.3 μg/L. However lindane, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT), aldrin, and endosulfan were detected in far less of the population (36.4, 23.6, 9.1, and 3 %, respectively). Methoxychlor and endrin were not found in any sample. The average value of Pb in this population was 3.2 μg Pb/dL (range 0.17-9.0) with 8.5 % of the samples having levels 50 μg/L were observed in 12.7 % of the samples. Our results show that is important to start a risk-reduction program to decrease exposure to these toxins in Mexican communities. In addition, the results can be used to establish the baseline levels of exposure to these toxins in this agricultural region and may be used as a reference point for regulatory agencies.

  3. Arsenic cardiotoxicity: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamolhodaei, Nafiseh Sadat; Shirani, Kobra; Karimi, Gholamreza

    2015-11-01

    Arsenic, a naturally ubiquitous element, is found in foods and environment. Cardiac dysfunction is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in the world. Arsenic exposure is associated with various cardiopathologic effects including ischemia, arrhythmia and heart failure. Possible mechanisms of arsenic cardiotoxicity include oxidative stress, DNA fragmentation, apoptosis and functional changes of ion channels. Several evidences have shown that mitochondrial disruption, caspase activation, MAPK signaling and p53 are the pathways for arsenic induced apoptosis. Arsenic trioxide is an effective and potent antitumor agent used in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia and produces dramatic remissions. As2O3 administration has major limitations such as T wave changes, QT prolongation and sudden death in humans. In this review, we discuss the underlying pathobiology of arsenic cardiotoxicity and provide information about cardiac health effects associated with some medicinal plants in arsenic toxicity.

  4. Sulforaphane prevents pulmonary damage in response to inhaled arsenic by activating the Nrf2-defense response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Yi [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110001 (China); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Arizona, 1703 East Mabel Street, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Tao, Shasha [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Arizona, 1703 East Mabel Street, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Lian, Fangru [Department of Pathology, University of Arizona, 1501 North Campbell Ave, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States); Chau, Binh T. [Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, The University of Arizona, 1501 North Campbell Ave, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States); Chen, Jie; Sun, Guifan [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110001 (China); Fang, Deyu [Department of Pathology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States); Lantz, R. Clark [Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, The University of Arizona, 1501 North Campbell Ave, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States); Arizona Cancer Center, University of Arizona, 1515 North Campbell Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States); Zhang, Donna D., E-mail: dzhang@pharmacy.arizona.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Arizona, 1703 East Mabel Street, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Arizona Cancer Center, University of Arizona, 1515 North Campbell Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Exposure to arsenic is associated with an increased risk of lung disease. Novel strategies are needed to reduce the adverse health effects associated with arsenic exposure in the lung. Nrf2, a transcription factor that mediates an adaptive cellular defense response, is effective in detoxifying environmental insults and prevents a broad spectrum of diseases induced by environmental exposure to harmful substances. In this report, we tested whether Nrf2 activation protects mice from arsenic-induced toxicity. We used an in vivo arsenic inhalation model that is highly relevant to low environmental human exposure to arsenic-containing dusts. Two-week exposure to arsenic-containing dust resulted in pathological alterations, oxidative DNA damage, and mild apoptotic cell death in the lung; all of which were blocked by sulforaphane (SF) in an Nrf2-dependent manner. Mechanistically, SF-mediated activation of Nrf2 alleviated inflammatory responses by modulating cytokine production. This study provides strong evidence that dietary intervention targeting Nrf2 activation is a feasible approach to reduce adverse health effects associated with arsenic exposure. -- Highlights: ► Exposed to arsenic particles and/or SF have elevated Nrf2 and its target genes. ► Sulforaphane prevents pathological alterations, oxidative damage and cell death. ► Sulforaphane alleviates infiltration of inflammatory cells into the lungs. ► Sulforaphane suppresses arsenic-induced proinflammatory cytokine production.

  5. Isotopic evidence for a link between agricultural irrigation and high arsenic concentrations in groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M.; Wang, Y.; Shock, E.

    2011-12-01

    An isotope-based survey was carried out in the Datong Basin, northern China to investigate the hydrogeology of groundwater with high arsenic concentrations. Oxygen isotope (δ18O), hydrogen isotope (δD) and radioactive hydrogen isotope (3H) measurements were conducted with the aim of characterizing the groundwater origins and flow dynamics in this arsenic-contaminated groundwater system. Groundwater dating results from 3H measurements show that groundwaters from 20m ~ 70m have a wide range of ages (10a~ 191a), indicating diverse groundwater sources. In contrast, deeper groundwaters (70m ~90m) display a narrower age range (35a ~ 47a). In addition, the shallow-aquifer (70m) possess relatively narrower isotopic ranges and mostly lighter isotopic ratios, from -12.8% to -8.88% and -97.6% to -71.7%, respectively. Comparison with the local meteoric water line shows that groundwater δ18O and δD values plot with a shallower slope, consistent with the arid-semiarid climate of the Datong Basin, as well as a meteoric origin of the groundwater, and points to precipitation as the dominant source of recharge to the deeper aquifers in the study area. Groundwaters with high arsenic concentrations (100μg/L ~ 309μg/L) mainly occur in aquifers at depths between 20m and 70m, while shallower (70m) groundwaters carry relatively lower arsenic concentrations (Science of the Total Environment 407(12): 3823-3835.

  6. Evidence from Chile that arsenic in drinking water may increase mortality from pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Allan H; Marshall, Guillermo; Yuan, Yan; Liaw, Jane; Ferreccio, Catterina; Steinmaus, Craig

    2011-02-15

    Arsenic in drinking water causes increased mortality from several cancers, ischemic heart disease, bronchiectasis, and other diseases. This paper presents the first evidence relating arsenic exposure to pulmonary tuberculosis, by estimating mortality rate ratios for Region II of Chile compared with Region V for the years 1958-2000. The authors compared mortality rate ratios with time patterns of arsenic exposure, which increased abruptly in 1958 in Region II and then declined starting in 1971. Tuberculosis mortality rate ratios in men started increasing in 1968, 10 years after high arsenic exposure commenced. The peak male 5-year mortality rate ratio occurred during 1982-1986 (rate ratio = 2.1, 95% confidence interval: 1.7, 2.6; P cause of chronic lung disease. Finding weaker associations in women is unsurprising, because this is true of most arsenic-caused health effects. Confirmatory evidence is needed from other arsenic-exposed populations.

  7. Evaluation of gamma gluthamyl transferase and uric acid levels in arsenic exposed subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceylan Bal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Arsenic is a metal with a widespread industrial usage and causing oxidative stress. Studies shows serum uric acid and gamma gluthamyl transferase (GGT levels are increasing in oxidative stress. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of arsenic exposure on serum uric acid and GGT levels. Methods: 500 patients who refer to Ankara Occupational Disease Hospital between 2010 to 2014 for periodic examination and urinary arsenic, serum uric acid and serum GGT levels assessed are included in this study. 268 patients with urinary arsenic levels over 35μg/L are defined as exposed and below 35μg/L are controls. Results: Data of 500 patients were analysed. 268 of them had high urine arsenic levels and 232 had normal urine arsenic levels. In the high urine arsenic level group the median serum uric acid level was 5.4 (2.60-7.20 and median serum GGT level was 27 (10-51 in the other group with normal urine arsenic levels the median serum uric acid level was 4.9 (2.5-7 and median serum GGT level was 22 (10-52. The difference between two groups was statistically significant (p value: 0.002 and <0.001 respectively Conclusion: Arsenic exposure may be associated with hyperuricemia and high levels of GGT and with prospective studies the causal relationship between arsenic exposure and hyperuricemia and GGT can be revealed.

  8. Association of arsenic, cadmium and manganese exposure with neurodevelopment and behavioural disorders in children: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez-Barranco, Miguel [Andalusian School of Public Health (EASP), Granada (Spain); Lacasaña, Marina, E-mail: marina.lacasana.easp@juntadeandalucia.es [Andalusian School of Public Health (EASP), Granada (Spain); CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Aguilar-Garduño, Clemente [CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Centre Superior d' Investigació en Salut Pública, Conselleria de Sanitat, Valencia (Spain); Alguacil, Juan [CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Department of Environmental Biology and Public Health, University of Huelva, Huelva (Spain); Gil, Fernando [Department of Legal Medicine and Toxicology, University of Granada, Granada (Spain); González-Alzaga, Beatriz [Andalusian School of Public Health (EASP), Granada (Spain); Rojas-García, Antonio [CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain)

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the scientific evidence published to date on the potential effects on neurodevelopment and behavioural disorders in children exposed to arsenic, cadmium and manganese and to quantify the magnitude of the effect on neurodevelopment by pooling the results of the different studies. We conducted a systematic review of original articles from January 2000 until March 2012, that evaluate the effects on neurodevelopment and behavioural disorders due to pre or post natal exposure to arsenic, cadmium and manganese in children up to 16 years of age. We also conducted a meta-analysis assessing the effects of exposure to arsenic and manganese on neurodevelopment. Forty-one articles that evaluated the effects of metallic elements on neurodevelopment and behavioural disorders met the inclusion criteria: 18 examined arsenic, 6 cadmium and 17 manganese. Most studies evaluating exposure to arsenic (13 of 18) and manganese (14 of 17) reported a significant negative effect on neurodevelopment and behavioural disorders. Only two studies that evaluated exposure to cadmium found an association with neurodevelopmental or behavioural disorders. The results of our meta-analysis suggest that a 50% increase of arsenic levels in urine would be associated with a 0.4 decrease in the intelligence quotient (IQ) of children aged 5–15 years. Moreover a 50% increase of manganese levels in hair would be associated with a decrease of 0.7 points in the IQ of children aged 6–13 years. There is evidence that relates arsenic and manganese exposure with neurodevelopmental problems in children, but there is little information on cadmium exposure. Few studies have evaluated behavioural disorders due to exposure to these compounds, and manganese is the only one for which there is more evidence of the existence of association with attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity. - Highlights: • We evaluated the association between As, Cd and Mn with neurodevelopment in

  9. Environmental justice implications of arsenic contamination in California's San Joaquin Valley: a cross-sectional, cluster-design examining exposure and compliance in community drinking water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balazs, Carolina L; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Hubbard, Alan E; Ray, Isha

    2012-11-14

    Few studies of environmental justice examine inequities in drinking water contamination. Those studies that have done so usually analyze either disparities in exposure/harm or inequitable implementation of environmental policies. The US EPA's 2001 Revised Arsenic Rule, which tightened the drinking water standard for arsenic from 50 μg/L to 10 μg/L, offers an opportunity to analyze both aspects of environmental justice. We hypothesized that Community Water Systems (CWSs) serving a higher proportion of minority residents or residents of lower socioeconomic status (SES) have higher drinking water arsenic levels and higher odds of non-compliance with the revised standard. Using water quality sampling data for arsenic and maximum contaminant level (MCL) violation data for 464 CWSs actively operating from 2005-2007 in California's San Joaquin Valley we ran bivariate tests and linear regression models. Higher home ownership rate was associated with lower arsenic levels (ß-coefficient= -0.27 μg As/L, 95% (CI), -0.5, -0.05). This relationship was stronger in smaller systems (ß-coefficient = -0.43, CI, -0.84, -0.03). CWSs with higher rates of homeownership had lower odds of receiving an MCL violation (OR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.16, 0.67); those serving higher percentages of minorities had higher odds (OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.2, 5.4) of an MCL violation. We found that higher arsenic levels and higher odds of receiving an MCL violation were most common in CWSs serving predominantly socio-economically disadvantaged communities. Our findings suggest that communities with greater proportions of low SES residents not only face disproportionate arsenic exposures, but unequal MCL compliance challenges.

  10. Clam Ruditapes philippinarum recovery from short-term exposure to the combined effect of salinity shifts and Arsenic contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez, Catia; Teixeira, Miguel; Wrona, Frederick J; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Figueira, Etelvina; Freitas, Rosa

    2016-04-01

    The current study assessed the biochemical alterations induced in the clam species Ruditapes philippinarum after exposure to salinity shifts (14, 28 and 42) and arsenic (As) contamination (0 and 2mg/L). The capacity of this species to recover (96h and 28 days) after exposure (96h) to both stressors, acting alone and in combination, was also evaluated. After exposure, regardless of the salinity tested, clams contaminated with As showed higher concentrations than non-contaminated specimens. After recovery, As concentration in clams decreased, with contaminated and non-contaminated specimens presenting similar values. The results obtained further demonstrated that exposure to As (2mg/L) at different salinities (salinities 14, 28 and 42) and salinity 42 (As 0mg/L) lead to an increase of lipid peroxidation and detoxification mechanisms in clams, compared with non-contaminated clams at salinities of 14 and 28. After recovery, at salinities 14 and 28, clams previously exposed to As were capable to decrease their oxidative stress to levels found in non-contaminated clams. Nevertheless, at salinity 42 both contaminated and non-contaminated clams did not survive. Overall results of measured energy-related parameters, indicators of oxidative stress, antioxidant and biotransformation enzymes indicated that As exposure and salinity shifts caused biochemical alterations in R. philippinarum, with stronger impacts when both stressors were acting in combination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Use of mode of action data to inform a dose-response assessment for bladder cancer following exposure to inorganic arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, P R; Yager, J W; Clewell, R A; Clewell, H J

    2014-10-01

    In the recent National Research Council report on conducting a dose-response assessment for inorganic arsenic, the committee remarked that mode of action data should be used, to the extent possible, to extrapolate below the observed range for epidemiological studies to inform the shape of the dose-response curve. Recent in vitro mode of action studies focused on understanding the development of bladder cancer following exposure to inorganic arsenic provide data to inform the dose-response curve. These in vitro data, combined with results of bladder cancer epidemiology studies, inform the dose-response curve in the low-dose region, and include values for both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic variability. Integration of these data provides evidence of a range of concentrations of arsenic for which no effect on the bladder would be expected. Specifically, integration of these results suggest that arsenic exposures in the range of 7-43 ppb in drinking water are exceedingly unlikely to elicit changes leading to key events in the development of cancer or noncancer effects in bladder tissue. These findings are consistent with the lack of evidence for bladder cancer following chronic ingestion of arsenic water concentrations <100 ppb in epidemiological studies.

  12. Arsenic residues in soil at cattle dip tanks in the Vhembe district, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marubini R. Ramudzuli

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic-based compounds have been used for cattle dipping for about half a century to combat East Coast Fever in cattle in South Africa. The government introduced a compulsory dipping programme in communal areas to eradicate the disease in 1911. Concern has been raised regarding the ecological legacy of the use of arsenic-based compounds in these areas. We investigated the incidence of arsenic residue in soil at 10 dip sites in the Vhembe district of Limpopo Province, South Africa. We found high levels of arsenic contamination at a depth of 300 mm at some sites. Control samples indicated that these high arsenic levels are the result of the application of inorganic arsenic. Variation of arsenic concentrations is attributed to duration of exposure to the chemical, soil properties and distance from the dip tank. Concerns are raised regarding the structural condition of the dip tanks, encroaching villages and possible health threats to the human population in the area.

  13. Subchronic exposure to arsenic disturbed the biogenic amine neurotransmitter level and the mRNA expression of synthetase in mice brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Liu, X; Zhao, L; Hu, S; Li, S; Piao, F

    2013-06-25

    Little is known about the influence of arsenic (As) exposure on monoamine neurotransmitters and the underlying mechanisms, although arsenic toxicity on the central nervous system has been well documented. In the present study, the levels of norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), and 5-HT were determined by high performance liquid chromatography in the cerebrum and cerebellum of mice exposed to 1, 2 and 4 ppm As2O3 through drinking water for 60 days. The ultra-structural change of vesicles in the synapses of mice brains was observed by transmission electron microscopy; the mRNA expressions of dopamine beta hydroxylase (DBH), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) as NE, DA and 5-HT synthetases were quantitatively assessed by real time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. It was shown that the concentrations of NE, DA and 5-HT in the cerebrum or cerebellum of mice exposed to As were significantly lower than those in the control group. The number of synaptic vesicles significantly decreased in the brain of mice exposed to As. Moreover, the expressions of TH, TPH and DBH genes were significantly lower in the brains of mice exposed to As than those in the controls. These results suggested that subchronic exposure to As might decrease the concentrations of the three monoamine neurotransmitters in the mouse brain and downregulate TH, TPH and DBH gene expressions. It was also indicated that the decreased concentrations of the three monoamine neurotransmitters in the brain might be related to the down-regulated gene expressions of these synthetases by As.

  14. Bioaccessibility and Human Exposure Assessment of Cadmium and Arsenic in Pakchoi Genotypes Grown in Co-Contaminated Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yanyan; Zheng, Xiaoman; Shohag, Md Jahidul Islam; Gu, Minghua

    2017-08-29

    In many countries cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) commonly coexist in soils contaminated by mining activities, and can easily enter the human body via consumption of leafy vegetables, like the popularly consumed pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.), causing major health concerns. In the present study, bioaccessibility and human exposure of Cd and As were assessed in twenty genotypes of pakchoi cultured at two different levels of co-contamination to identify low health risk genotypes. The bioaccessibilities of Cd and As represent a fraction of the total metals content could be bioaccessible for human, in the present study, significant differences in pakchoi Cd and As bioaccessibility were observed among all tested genotypes and co-contaminated levels. Cd and As bioaccessibility of pakchoi were in the ranges of 24.0-87.6% and 20.1-82.5%, respectively, for in the high level co-contaminated soils, which was significantly higher than for low level co-contaminated soils with 7.9-71.8% for Cd bioaccessibility and 16.1-59.0% for As bioaccessibility. The values of bioaccessible established daily intakes (BEDI) and the total bioaccessible target hazard quotients (TBTHQ) of Cd and As were also considerably higher in high level co-contaminated soils than in low level co-contaminated soils. Two genotypes (Meiguanqinggengcai and Zhenqing60F1) contained relatively low concentrations and bioaccessible Cd and As and, their BEDI and TBTHQ for Cd and As ranged below the tolerable limits set by the FAO/WHO (BEDI of Cd < 0.83 μg kg(-1) bw day(-1), BEDI of As < 3 μg kg(-1) bw day(-1)) and United States Environmental Protection Agency (TBTHQ for Cd and As < 1), this applied for both levels of co-contaminated soils for adults and children. Consequently, these findings suggest identification of safe genotypes in leafy vegetable with low health risk via genotypic screening and breeding methods could be a useful strategy to ensure the safety of food crops grown in those Cd and As co

  15. Arsenic Attenuates GLI Signaling, Increasing or Decreasing its Transcriptional Program in a Context-Dependent Manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Giambelli, Camilla; Tang, Bo; Winterbottom, Emily; Long, Jun; Jin, Ke; Wang, Zhiqiang; Fei, Dennis Liang; Nguyen, Dao M; Athar, Mohammad; Wang, Baolin; Subbarayan, Pochi R; Wang, Lily; Rai, Priyamvada; Ardalan, Bach; Capobianco, Anthony J; Robbins, David J

    2016-02-01

    The metalloid arsenic is a worldwide environmental toxicant, exposure to which is associated with many adverse outcomes. Arsenic is also an effective therapeutic agent in certain disease settings. Arsenic was recently shown to regulate the activity of the Hedgehog (HH) signal transduction pathway, and this regulation of HH signaling was proposed to be responsible for a subset of arsenic's biologic effects. Surprisingly, these separate reports proposed contradictory activities for arsenic, as either an agonist or antagonist of HH signaling. Here we provide in vitro and in vivo evidence that arsenic acts as a modulator of the activity of the HH effector protein glioma-associated oncogene family zinc finger (GLI), activating or inhibiting GLI activity in a context-dependent manner. This arsenic-induced modulation of HH signaling is observed in cultured cells, patients with colorectal cancer who have received arsenic-based therapy, and a mouse colorectal cancer xenograft model. Our results show that arsenic activates GLI signaling when the intrinsic GLI activity is low but inhibits signaling in the presence of high-level GLI activity. Furthermore, we show that this modulation occurs downstream of primary cilia, evidenced by experiments in suppressor of fused homolog (SUFU) deficient cells. Combining our findings with previous reports, we present an inclusive model in which arsenic plays dual roles in GLI signaling modulation: when GLIs are primarily in their repressor form, arsenic antagonizes their repression capacity, leading to low-level GLI activation, but when GLIs are primarily in their activator form, arsenic attenuates their activity.

  16. Change in Localizations of Arsenic in Rice Grains After Cooking with High Arsenic Waters - µXRF and XANES studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, S.; Ryan, B.; Kumar, N.; Bortz, T.; Bolen, Z. T.

    2016-12-01

    Threats of Arsenic (As) through food uptake, via consumption of rice, is a potential pathway that presents a concern not only for the millions of inhabitants who reside in river valleys and irrigate their soil with contaminated water, but the global rice market as well. This study focuses on high As rice from India and Bangladesh grown in such soils, and the effect of boiling rice with As-contaminated water in preparation for dietary intake. Husked and unhusked rice grains were boiled with >500 µg/L As-bearing water from the field to simulate local cooking methods. The resulting cooked water was analyzed using iCAP low limit detection via ICP-MS to understand the changes in dissolved elemental concentrations before and after cooking, and HPLC was introduced to measure for changes in As speciation in the waters. Using spectroscopic methods such as µXRF mapping associated with µXANES, distribution/localization and speciation changes of As in rice grains were identified. Further, with Linear Combination Fitting (LCF) of XANES spectra utilizing relevant reference compounds (As-S, AsIII, AsV, MMA and DMA), organic and inorganic As species were able to be mapped within rice grains. The results for uncooked/raw grains showed that predominantly As-S combined with AsIII and AsV accounted for 90% of speciation in most samples, localized in areas such as the outer aleurone layer. When analyzing cooked rice grains, the speciation appears to be an unidentified As species while the best LCF shows between 63-93% of As as MMA. Arsenic was found less localized throughout the cooked grains but rather heterogeneously distributed when compared to the uncooked/raw samples. The analyses of boiled/cooked water resulted in a significant decrease in dissolved As post-cooking (90%), but a subsequent increase in elements such as K, La, Li, Mo, Na, Ni, and Zr was observed; As-V was shown to be the main in-As species in the cooked water. The impact that this study portrays is consuming rice

  17. The High Price of Noise Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Hearing Disorders The High Price of Noise Exposure Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... on both loudness and time—the longer the exposure, the more likely the damage. In addition, the ...

  18. Assessment of Potential Location of High Arsenic Contamination Using Fuzzy Overlay and Spatial Anisotropy Approach in Iron Mine Surrounding Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanes Weerasiri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fuzzy overlay approach on three raster maps including land slope, soil type, and distance to stream can be used to identify the most potential locations of high arsenic contamination in soils. Verification of high arsenic contamination was made by collection samples and analysis of arsenic content and interpolation surface by spatial anisotropic method. A total of 51 soil samples were collected at the potential contaminated location clarified by fuzzy overlay approach. At each location, soil samples were taken at the depth of 0.00-1.00 m from the surface ground level. Interpolation surface of the analysed arsenic content using spatial anisotropic would verify the potential arsenic contamination location obtained from fuzzy overlay outputs. Both outputs of the spatial surface anisotropic and the fuzzy overlay mapping were significantly spatially conformed. Three contaminated areas with arsenic concentrations of 7.19±2.86, 6.60±3.04, and 4.90±2.67 mg/kg exceeded the arsenic content of 3.9 mg/kg, the maximum concentration level (MCL for agricultural soils as designated by Office of National Environment Board of Thailand. It is concluded that fuzzy overlay mapping could be employed for identification of potential contamination area with the verification by surface anisotropic approach including intensive sampling and analysis of the substances of interest.

  19. Assessment of potential location of high arsenic contamination using fuzzy overlay and spatial anisotropy approach in iron mine surrounding area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerasiri, Thanes; Wirojanagud, Wanpen; Srisatit, Thares

    2014-01-01

    Fuzzy overlay approach on three raster maps including land slope, soil type, and distance to stream can be used to identify the most potential locations of high arsenic contamination in soils. Verification of high arsenic contamination was made by collection samples and analysis of arsenic content and interpolation surface by spatial anisotropic method. A total of 51 soil samples were collected at the potential contaminated location clarified by fuzzy overlay approach. At each location, soil samples were taken at the depth of 0.00-1.00 m from the surface ground level. Interpolation surface of the analysed arsenic content using spatial anisotropic would verify the potential arsenic contamination location obtained from fuzzy overlay outputs. Both outputs of the spatial surface anisotropic and the fuzzy overlay mapping were significantly spatially conformed. Three contaminated areas with arsenic concentrations of 7.19 ± 2.86, 6.60 ± 3.04, and 4.90 ± 2.67 mg/kg exceeded the arsenic content of 3.9 mg/kg, the maximum concentration level (MCL) for agricultural soils as designated by Office of National Environment Board of Thailand. It is concluded that fuzzy overlay mapping could be employed for identification of potential contamination area with the verification by surface anisotropic approach including intensive sampling and analysis of the substances of interest.

  20. Thyroid hormone related gene transcription in southern sand flathead (Platycephalus bassensis) is associated with environmental mercury and arsenic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Dingkun; Leef, Melanie; Nowak, Barbara; Bridle, Andrew

    2017-07-01

    Arsenic (As) and mercury (Hg) are ubiquitous elements known to disrupt thyroid function in vertebrates. To explore the underlying mechanisms of Hg and As on the fish thyroid system, we investigated the associations between muscle concentrations of Hg and As with thyroid-related gene transcription in flathead (Platycephalus bassensis) from a contaminated estuary. We sampled fish at several sites to determine the hepatic expression of genes including deiodinases (D1 and D2), transthyretin (TTR), thyroid hormone receptors (TRα and TRβ) and related them to Hg and As levels in the same individuals. Negative correlations were observed between Hg levels and D2, TTR, TRα and TRβ, whereas positive associations were found between As concentrations and TTR and TRβ. These results suggest that Hg and As exposures from environmental pollution affect the regulation of genes important for normal thyroid function in fish. These thyroid-related genes could be used as biomarkers for monitoring environmental thyroid-hormone disrupting chemicals.

  1. Time to revisit arsenic regulations: comparing drinking water and rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Current arsenic regulations focus on drinking water without due consideration for dietary uptake and thus seem incoherent with respect to the risks arising from rice consumption. Existing arsenic guidelines are a cost-benefit compromise and, as such, they should be periodically re-evaluated. Discussion Literature data was used to compare arsenic exposure from rice consumption relative to exposure arising from drinking water. Standard risk assessment paradigms show that arsenic regulations for drinking water should target a maximum concentration of nearly zero to prevent excessive lung and bladder cancer risks (among others). A feasibility threshold of 3 μg As l-1 was determined, but a cost-benefit analysis concluded that it would be too expensive to target a threshold below 10 μg As l-1. Data from the literature was used to compare exposure to arsenic from rice and rice product consumption relative to drinking water consumption. The exposure to arsenic from rice consumption can easily be equivalent to or greater than drinking water exposure that already exceeds standard risks and is based on feasibility and cost-benefit compromises. It must also be emphasized that many may disagree with the implications for their own health given the abnormally high cancer odds expected at the cost-benefit arsenic threshold. Summary Tighter drinking water quality criteria should be implemented to properly protect people from excessive cancer risks. Food safety regulations must be put in place to prevent higher concentrations of arsenic in various drinks than those allowed in drinking water. Arsenic concentrations in rice should be regulated so as to roughly equate the risks and exposure levels observed from drinking water. PMID:24884827

  2. Evidences of Protective Potentials of Microdoses of Ultra-High Diluted Arsenic Trioxide in Mice Receiving Repeated Injections of Arsenic Trioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pathikrit Banerjee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to examine if microdoses of ultra-high diluted arsenic trioxide (a potentized homeopathic remedy, Arsenicum Album 200C, diluted 10-400 times have hepatoprotective potentials in mice subjected to repeated injections of arsenic trioxide. Arsenic intoxicated mice were divided into: (i those receiving Arsenicum Album-200C daily, (ii those receiving the same dose of diluted succussed alcohol (Alc 200C and (iii another group receiving neither drug nor succussed alcohol. Two other control groups were also maintained: one fed normal diet only and the other receiving normal diet and Alc-200C. Toxicity biomarkers like aspartate and alanine aminotransferases, glutathione reductase, catalase, succinate dehydrogenase, superoxide dismutase and reduced glutathione contents were periodically assayed keeping the observer “blinded”. Additionally, electron microscopic studies and gelatin zymography for matrix metalloproteinases of liver tissues were made at day 90 and 120. Blood glucose, hemoglobin, estradiol and testosterone contents were also studied. Compared to controls, Arsenicum Album-200C fed mice showed positive modulations of all parameters studied, thereby providing evidence of protective potentials of the homeopathic drug against chronic arsenic poisoning.

  3. Current developments in toxicological research on arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolt, Hermann M

    2013-01-01

    There is a plethora of recent publications on all aspects relevant to the toxicology of arsenic (As). Over centuries exposures to arsenic continue to be a major public health problem in many countries. In particular, the occurrence of high As concentrations in groundwater of Southeast Asia receives now much attention. Therefore, arsenic is a high-priority matter for toxicological research. Key exposure to As are (traditional) medicines, combustion of As-rich coal, presence of As in groundwater, and pollution due to mining activities. As-induced cardiovascular disorders and carcinogenesis present themselves as a major research focus. The high priority of this issue is now recognized politically in a number of countries, research funds have been made available. Also experimental research on toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics and on modes of toxic action is moving very rapidly. The matter is of high regulatory concern, and effective preventive measures are required in a number of countries.

  4. Polymorphisms in DNA repair genes XRCC1 and XRCC3, occupational exposure to arsenic and sunlight, and the risk of non-melanoma skin cancer in a European case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surdu, Simona; Fitzgerald, Edward F; Bloom, Michael S; Boscoe, Francis P; Carpenter, David O; Haase, Richard F; Gurzau, Eugen; Rudnai, Peter; Koppova, Kvetoslava; Vahter, Marie; Leonardi, Giovanni; Goessler, Walter; Kumar, Rajiv; Fletcher, Tony

    2014-10-01

    X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) and group 3 (XRCC3) polymorphisms are relatively frequent in Caucasian populations and may have implications in skin cancer modulation. A few studies have evaluated their association with non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), but the results are inconsistent. In the current study, we aim to assess the impact of XRCC1 R399Q and XRCC3 T241M polymorphisms on the risk of NMSC associated with sunlight and arsenic exposure. Study participants consist of 618 new cases of NMSC and 527 hospital-based controls frequency matched on age, sex, and county of residence from Hungary, Romania, and Slovakia. Adjusted effects are estimated using multivariable logistic regression. The results indicate an increased risk of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) for the homozygous variant genotype of XRCC1 R399Q (OR 2.53, 95% CI 1.14-5.65) and a protective effect against basal cell carcinoma (BCC) for the homozygous variant genotype of XRCC3 T241M (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.41-0.92), compared with the respective homozygous common genotypes. Significant interactions are detected between XRCC3 T241M and sunlight exposure at work, and between XRCC3 T241M and exposure to arsenic in drinking water (p-value for interaction exposure to sunlight or arsenic. Given the high prevalence of genetic polymorphisms modifying the association between exposure to environmental carcinogens and NMSC, these results are of substantial relevance to public health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Therapeutic profile of T11TS vs. T11TS+MiADMSA: a hunt for a more effective therapeutic regimen for arsenic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Suhnrita; Acharya, Sagar; Chatterjee, Sirshendu; Kumar, Pankaj; Singh, Manoj Kumar; Bhattacharya, Debanjan; Basu, Anjan Kumar; Dasgupta, Shyamal; Flora, S J S; Chaudhuri, Swapna

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic exposure is a serious health hazard worldwide. We have previously established that it may result in immune suppression by upregulating Th2 cytokines while downregulating Th1 cytokines and causing lymphocytic death. Treatment modalities for arsenic poisoning have mainly been restricted to the use of chelating agents in the past. Only recently have combination therapies using a chelating agent in conjunction with other compounds such as anti-oxidants, micronutrients and various plant products, been introduced. In the present study, we used T11TS, a novel immune potentiating glycopeptide alone and in combination with the sulfhydryl-containing chelator, mono-iso-amyl-dimarcaptosuccinic acid (MiADMSA) as a therapeutic regimen to combat arsenic toxicity in a mouse model. Results indicated that Th1 cytokines such as TNF-α, IFNγ, IL12 and the Th2 cytokines such as IL4, IL6, IL10 which were respectively downregulated and upregulated following arsenic induction were more efficiently restored to their near normal levels by T11TS alone in comparison with the combined regimen. Similar results were obtained with the apoptotic proteins studied, FasL, BAX, BCL2 and the caspases 3, 8 and 9, where again T11TS proved more potent than in combination with MiADMSA in preventing lymphocyte death. The results thus indicate that T11TS alone is more efficient in immune re-establishment after arsenic exposureas compared to combination therapy with T11TS+MiADMSA.

  6. Evaluating the spatial distribution of quantitative risk and hazard level of arsenic exposure in groundwater, case study of Qorveh County, Kurdistan Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrabadi, Touraj; Bidabadi, Niloufar Shirani

    2013-01-01

    Regional distribution of quantitative risk and hazard levels due to arsenic poisoning in some parts of Iran's Kurdistan province is considered. To investigate the potential risk and hazard level regarding arsenic-contaminated drinking water and further carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic effects on villagers, thirteen wells in rural areas of Qorveh County were considered for evaluation of arsenic concentration in water. Sampling campaign was performed in August 2010 and arsenic concentration was measured via the Silver Diethyldithiocarbamate method. The highest and lowest arsenic concentration are reported in Guilaklu and Qezeljakand villages with 420 and 67 μg/L, respectively. None of thirteen water samples met the maximum contaminant level issued by USEPA and Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran (10 ppb). The highest arsenic concentration and consequently risk and hazard levels belong to villages situated alongside the eastern frontiers of the county. Existence of volcanic activities within the upper Miocene and Pleistocene in this part of the study area may be addressed as the main geopogenic source of arsenic pollution. Quantitative risk values are varying from 1.49E-03 in Qezeljakand to 8.92E-03 in Guilaklu and may be interpreted as very high when compared by similar studies in Iran. Regarding non-carcinogenic effects, all thirteen water samples are considered hazardous while all calculated chronic daily intakes are greater than arsenic reference dose. Such drinking water source has the potential to impose adverse carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic effects on villagers. Accordingly, an urgent decision must be made to substitute the current drinking water source with a safer one.

  7. Evaluating the Spatial Distribution of Quantitative Risk and Hazard Level of Arsenic Exposure in Groundwater, case Study of Qorveh County, Kurdistan Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Touraj Nasrabadi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Regional distribution of quantitative risk and hazard levels due to arsenic poisoning in some parts of Iran’s Kurdistan province is considered. To investigate the potential risk and hazard level regarding arsenic-contaminated drinking water and further carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic effects on villagers, thirteen wells in rural areas of Qorveh County were considered for evaluation of arsenic concentration in water. Sampling campaign was performed in August 2010 and arsenic concentration was measured via the Silver Diethyldithiocarbamate method. The highest and lowest arsenic concentration are reported in Guilaklu and Qezeljakand villages with 420 and 67 μg/L, respectively. None of thirteen water samples met the maximum contaminant level issued by USEPA and Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran (10 ppb. The highest arsenic concentration and consequently risk and hazard levels belong to villages situated alongside the eastern frontiers of the county. Existence of volcanic activities within the upper Miocene and Pleistocene in this part of the study area may be addressed as the main geopogenic source of arsenic pollution. Quantitative risk values are varying from 1.49E-03 in Qezeljakand to 8.92E-03 in Guilaklu and may be interpreted as very high when compared by similar studies in Iran. Regarding non-carcinogenic effects, all thirteen water samples are considered hazardous while all calculated chronic daily intakes are greater than arsenic reference dose. Such drinking water source has the potential to impose adverse carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic effects on villagers. Accordingly, an urgent decision must be made to substitute the current drinking water source with a safer one.

  8. Resveratrol, a natural antioxidant, has a protective effect on liver injury induced by inorganic arsenic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhigang; Gao, Li; Cheng, Yanyan; Jiang, Jing; Chen, Yan; Jiang, Huijie; Yu, Hongxiang; Shan, Anshan; Cheng, Baojing

    2014-01-01

    Resveratrol (Rev) can ameliorate cytotoxic chemotherapy-induced toxicity and oxidative stress. Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) is a known cytotoxic environmental toxicant and a potent chemotherapeutic agent. However, the mechanisms by which resveratrol protects the liver against the cytotoxic effects of As2O3 are not known. Therefore, in the present study we investigated the mechanisms involved in the action of resveratrol using a cat model in which hepatotoxicity was induced by means of As2O3 treatment. We found that pretreatment with resveratrol, administered using a clinically comparable dose regimen, reversed changes in As2O3-induced morphological and liver parameters and resulted in a significant improvement in hepatic function. Resveratrol treatment also improved the activities of antioxidant enzymes and attenuated As2O3-induced increases in reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde production. In addition, resveratrol attenuated the As2O3-induced reduction in the ratio of reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione and the retention of arsenic in liver tissue. These findings provide a better understanding of the mechanisms whereby resveratrol modulates As2O3-induced changes in liver function and tissue morphology. They also provide a stronger rationale for the clinical utilization of resveratrol for the reduction of As2O3-induced hepatotoxicity.

  9. Short-term arsenic exposure reduces diatom cell size in biofilm communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barral-Fraga, Laura; Morin, Soizic; Rovira, Marona D M; Urrea, Gemma; Magellan, Kit; Guasch, Helena

    2016-03-01

    Arsenic (As) pollution in water has important impacts for human and ecosystem health. In freshwaters, arsenate (As(V)) can be taken up by microalgae due to its similarity with phosphate molecules, its toxicity being aggravated under phosphate depletion. An experiment combining ecological and ecotoxicological descriptors was conducted to investigate the effects of As(V) (130 μg L(-1) over 13 days) on the structure and function of fluvial biofilm under phosphate-limiting conditions. We further incorporated fish (Gambusia holbrooki) into our experimental system, expecting fish to provide more available phosphate for algae and, consequently, protecting algae against As toxicity. However, this protection role was not fully achieved. Arsenic inhibited algal growth and productivity but not bacteria. The diatom community was clearly affected showing a strong reduction in cell biovolume; selection for tolerant species, in particular Achnanthidium minutissimum; and a reduction in species richness. Our results have important implications for risk assessment, as the experimental As concentration used was lower than acute toxicity criteria established by the USEPA.

  10. Resveratrol, a Natural Antioxidant, Has a Protective Effect on Liver Injury Induced by Inorganic Arsenic Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol (Rev can ameliorate cytotoxic chemotherapy-induced toxicity and oxidative stress. Arsenic trioxide (As2O3 is a known cytotoxic environmental toxicant and a potent chemotherapeutic agent. However, the mechanisms by which resveratrol protects the liver against the cytotoxic effects of As2O3 are not known. Therefore, in the present study we investigated the mechanisms involved in the action of resveratrol using a cat model in which hepatotoxicity was induced by means of As2O3 treatment. We found that pretreatment with resveratrol, administered using a clinically comparable dose regimen, reversed changes in As2O3-induced morphological and liver parameters and resulted in a significant improvement in hepatic function. Resveratrol treatment also improved the activities of antioxidant enzymes and attenuated As2O3-induced increases in reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde production. In addition, resveratrol attenuated the As2O3-induced reduction in the ratio of reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione and the retention of arsenic in liver tissue. These findings provide a better understanding of the mechanisms whereby resveratrol modulates As2O3-induced changes in liver function and tissue morphology. They also provide a stronger rationale for the clinical utilization of resveratrol for the reduction of As2O3-induced hepatotoxicity.

  11. Sediment biomarker, bacterial community characterization of high arsenic aquifers in Jianghan Plain, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Hengpeng; Yang, Zeyu; Wu, Xiang; Wang, Jingwen; Du, Dongyun; Cai, Jian; Lv, Kangle; Chen, Huiyun; Mei, Jingkun; Chen, Mengqi; Du, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Representative biomarkers (e.g., n-alkanes), diversity and microbial community in the aquifers contaminated by high concentration of arsenic (As) in different sediment depth (0–30 m) in Jianghan Plain, Hubei, China, were analyzed to investigate the potential mechanism of As enrichment in groundwater. The concentration of As was abundant in top soil and sand, but not in clay. The analysis of the distribution of n-alkanes, CPI values, and wax to total n-alkane ratio (Wax(n)%) indicated that the organic matter (OM) from fresh terrestrial plants were abundant in the shallow sediment. However, n-alkanes have suffered from significant biodegradation from the depth of 16 m to 30 m. The deposition of fresh terrestrial derived organic matters may facilitate the release of As from sediment to groundwater in the sediment of 0–16 m. However, the petroleum derived organic matters may do the favor to the release of As in the deeper section of borehole (16 m to 30 m). The 16S rRNA gene sequences identification indicated that Acidobacteria, Actinomycetes and Hydrogenophaga are abundant in the sediments with high arsenic. Therefore, microbes and organic matters from different sources may play important roles in arsenic mobilization in the aquifers of the study area. PMID:28165031

  12. Effects of different inorganic arsenic species in Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae) tissues after short-time exposure: Bioaccumulation, biotransformation and biological responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ventura-Lima, Juliane [Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande - FURG, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Fisiologicas - Fisiologia Animal Comparada (FURG), Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Fattorini, Daniele; Regoli, Francesco [Istituto di Biologia e Genetica, Universita Politecnica delle Marche, 60100, Ancona (Italy); Monserrat, Jose M., E-mail: josemmonserrat@pesquisador.cnpq.b [Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande - FURG, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Fisiologicas - Fisiologia Animal Comparada (FURG), Rio Grande, RS (Brazil)

    2009-12-15

    Differences in the toxicological and metabolic pathway of inorganic arsenic compounds are largely unknown for aquatic species. In the present study the effects of short-time and acute exposure to As{sup III} and As{sup V} were investigated in gills and liver of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae), measuring accumulation and chemical speciation of arsenic, and the activity of glutathione-S-transferase omega (GST OMEGA), the rate limiting enzyme in biotransformation of inorganic arsenic. Oxidative biomarkers included antioxidant defenses (total glutathione-S-transferases, glutathione reductase, glutathione, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase), total scavenging capacity toward peroxyl radicals, reactive oxygen species (ROS) measurement and lipid peroxidation products. A marked accumulation of arsenic was observed only in gills of carps exposed to 1000 ppb As{sup V}. Also in gills, antioxidant responses were mostly modulated through a significant induction of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity which probably contributed to reduce ROS formation; however this increase was not sufficient to prevent lipid peroxidation. No changes in metal content were measured in liver of exposed carps, characterized by lower activity of GST OMEGA compared to gills. On the other hand, glutathione metabolism was more sensitive in liver tissue, where a significant inhibition of glutathione reductase was concomitant with increased levels of glutathione and higher total antioxidant capacity toward peroxyl radicals, thus preventing lipid peroxidation and ROS production. The overall results of this study indicated that exposure of C. carpio to As{sup III} and As{sup V} can induce different responses in gills and liver of this aquatic organism. - Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) presented marked differences between gills and liver after arsenic exposure in terms of antioxidant responses and also in biotransformation.

  13. Correlation of in vivo relative bioavailability to in vitro bioaccessibility for arsenic in household dust from China and its implication for human exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-Bo; Li, Jie; Juhasz, Albert L; Ma, Lena Q

    2014-12-01

    Incidental ingestion of household dust is an important arsenic (As) exposure pathway for children. However, compared to soils, assessment of As relative bioavailability (RBA) in household dust is limited. In this study, As-RBA in 12 household dust samples (7–38 mg kg(–1)) was measured using an in vivo mouse model and compared to As bioaccessibility determined using 4 assays [Solubility Bioaccessibility Research Consortium method (SBRC), in vitro gastrointestinal method (IVG), Deutsches Institut für Normunge.V. method (DIN), and physiologically based extraction test (PBET)]. Arsenic RBA ranged from 21.8 ± 1.6 to 85.6 ± 7.2% with samples containing low Fe and high total organic carbon content having higher As-RBA. Strong in vivo–in vitro correlations (IVIVC) were found between As-RBA and As bioaccessibility for SBRC and DIN (r2 = 0.63–0.85), but weaker ones were obtained for IVG and PBET (r2 = 0.29–0.55). The developed IVIVC for SBRC and DIN were used to calculate As-RBA based on As bioaccessibility for an additional 12 household dust samples. Although As bioaccessibility differed significantly (up to 7.7-fold) based on in vitro methods, predicted As-RBA was less variable (up to 3.0-fold) when calculated using As bioaccessibility data and the corresponding IVIVC. Our data suggested that both SBRC and DIN had potential to assess As bioavailability in household dust samples; however, additional research is needed.

  14. Exposure to arsenic in drinking water is associated with increased prevalence of diabetes: a cross-sectional study in the Zimapán and Lagunera regions in Mexico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Del Razo, Luz M; García-Vargas, Gonzalo G; Valenzuela, Olga L; Castellanos, Erika Hernández; Sánchez-Peña, Luz C; Currier, Jenna M; Drobná, Zuzana; Loomis, Dana; Stýblo, Miroslav

    2011-01-01

    .... Arsenic levels in drinking water and urine were determined to estimate exposure to iAs. Urinary concentrations of iAs and its trivalent and pentavalent methylated metabolites were measured to assess iAs metabolism...

  15. High level arsenic resistance in bacteria present in biooxidation tanks used to treat gold-bearing arsenopyrite concentrates: A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D.E.RAWLINGS

    2008-01-01

    The microbial consortium used in continuous-flow,stirred tank processes to treat gold-bearing arsenopyrite concentrates became adapted to high concentrations of arsenic over a number of years.The dominant microorganisms,Acidithiobacillus caldus and Leptospirillum ferriphilum,were found to contain two sets of arsenic resistance genes.One set of ars genes was present in all isolates of a species irrespective of whether they were highly arsenic resistant or not.A second set of ars genes was present on Tn21-like transposons and was found in all strains tested that had been adapted to high concentrations of arsenic.The arsenic resistance transposons present in At.caldus and L.ferriphilum were closely related,but sufficiently different for them to have been acquired independently rather than having been passed from one bacterium to the other.The transposons were transpositionally active in Escherchia coli and were shown to confer higher levels of arsenic resistance than the chromosomally-located ars genes where it was possible to test this.Transposons containing arsenic resistance genes that were identical or closely related to the transposon from L.ferriphilum,originally found in South Africa,were also found in both L.ferrooxidans and L.ferriphilum isolates from South America and Europe.An arsB gene knockout of At.caldus was produced by homologous recombination that demonstrated both the ability of the chromosomal ars genes to confer low levels of arsenic resistance in At.caldus and the development of a genetic system for the creation of knock-out mutants.

  16. Effects of Water Management, Arsenic and Phosphorus Levels on Rice Yield in High-Arsenic Soil-Water System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. S. M. H. M. TALUKDER; C. A. MEISNER; M. A. R. SARKAR; M. S. ISLAM; K. D. SAYRE

    2014-01-01

    Aerobic rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivation is considered an alternative production system to combat increased water scarcity and arsenic (As) contamination in the food chain. Pot experiments were conducted at the Wheat Research Centre, Dinajpur, Bangladesh to examine the role of water management (WM), As and phosphorus (P) on yield and yield attributes of boro (variety BRRI dhan 29) and aman (variety BRRI dhan 32) rice. A total of 18 treatment combinations of the three levels of As (0, 20 and 40 mg/kg) and P (0, 12.5 and 25.0 mg/kg) and two WM strategies (aerobic and anaerobic) were investigated. Yield attributes were significantly affected by increasing As levels. Grain yields of BRRI dhan 29 and BRRI dhan 32 were reduced from 63.0 to 7.7 and 35.0 to 16.5 g/pot with increasing As application, respectively, indicating a greater sensitivity of BRRI dhan 29 than BRRI dhan 32. Moreover, As toxicity was reduced with aerobic compared to anaerobic WM for all P levels. During early growth stages, phytotoxic symptoms appeared on BRRI dhan 29 and BRRI dhan 32 rice stems with increasing As levels without applying P under anaerobic WM. Under anaerobic and As-contaminated conditions, BRRI dhan 29 was highly susceptible to straighthead, which dramatically reduced grain yields. There were significant relationships between the number of effective tillers per pot and root dry weight, grain yield, and number of fertile and unfertile grains per pot for both BRRI dhan 29 and BRRI dhan 32 (P<0.001). Our findings indicate that rice could be grown aerobically in As-contaminated areas with a reduced risk of As toxicity and yield loss.

  17. Factors Affecting Arsenic Methylation in Arsenic-Exposed Humans: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hui; Niu, Qiang; Xu, Mengchuan; Rui, Dongsheng; Xu, Shangzhi; Feng, Gangling; Ding, Yusong; Li, Shugang; Jing, Mingxia

    2016-02-06

    Chronic arsenic exposure is a critical public health issue in many countries. The metabolism of arsenic in vivo is complicated because it can be influenced by many factors. In the present meta-analysis, two researchers independently searched electronic databases, including the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Springer, Embase, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure, to analyze factors influencing arsenic methylation. The concentrations of the following arsenic metabolites increase (parsenic exposure: inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethyl arsenic (MMA), dimethyl arsenic (DMA), and total arsenic. Additionally, the percentages of iAs (standard mean difference (SMD): 1.00; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.60-1.40; parsenic methylation, and arsenic methylation is more efficient in women than in men. The results of this analysis may provide information regarding the role of arsenic oxidative methylation in the arsenic poisoning process.

  18. Rapid Reduction in Breast Cancer Mortality With Inorganic Arsenic in Drinking Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan H. Smith

    2014-11-01

    Interpretation: We found biologically plausible major reductions in breast cancer mortality during high exposure to inorganic arsenic in drinking water which could not be attributed to bias or confounding. We recommend clinical trial assessment of inorganic arsenic in the treatment of advanced breast cancer.

  19. Quantification of inorganic arsenic exposure and cancer risk via consumption of vegetables in southern selected districts of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Zahir Ur; Khan, Sardar; Qin, Kun; Brusseau, Mark L; Shah, Mohammad Tahir; Din, Islamud

    2016-04-15

    Human exposures to arsenic (As) through different pathways (dietary and non-dietary) are considered to be one of the primary worldwide environmental health risks to humans. This study was conducted to investigate the presence of As in soil and vegetable samples collected from agricultural lands located in selected southern districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) Province, Pakistan. We examined the concentrations of total arsenic (TAs), organic species of As such as monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsonic acid (DMA), and inorganic species including arsenite (AsIII) and arsenate (AsV) in both soil and vegetables. The data were used to determine several parameters to evaluate human health risk, including bioconcentration factor (BCF) from soil to plant, average daily intake (ADI), health risk index (HRI), incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILTCR), and hazard quotient (HQ). The total As concentration in soil samples of the five districts ranged from 3.0-3.9mgkg(-1), exhibiting minimal variations from site to site. The mean As concentration in edible portions of vegetable samples ranged from 0.03-1.38mgkg(-1). It was observed that As concentrations in 75% of the vegetable samples exceeded the safe maximum allowable limit (0.1mgkg(-1)) set by WHO/FAO. The highest value of ADI for As was measured for Momordica charantia, while the lowest was for Allium chinense. The results of this study revealed minimal health risk (HIvegetables for the local inhabitants. The ILTCR values for inorganic As indicated a minimal potential cancer risk through ingestion of vegetables. In addition, the HQ values for total As were <1, indicating minimal non-cancer risk.

  20. Arsenic immunotoxicity: a review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dangleben, Nygerma L; Skibola, Christine F; Smith, Martyn T

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to arsenic (As) is a global public health problem because of its association with various cancers and numerous other pathological effects, and millions of people worldwide are exposed to As on a regular basis...

  1. Education, fish consumption, well water, chicken coops, and cooking fires: Using biogeochemistry and ethnography to study exposure of children from Yucatan, Mexico to metals and arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcega-Cabrera, Flor; Fargher, Lane F

    2016-10-15

    Around the world, the nocuous health effects of exposure to environmental contaminants, especially metals and Arsenic, are a growing health concern. This is especially the case in Mexico, where corruption and ineffective political administration are contributing to increasing deterioration in the environment. Importantly, shallow soils and the karstic nature of bedrock in Yucatan, Mexico make the subterranean aquifer especially susceptible to contamination because contaminates are carried to it with little resistance. Given these environmental conditions, we developed a multi/interdisciplinary project to evaluate the impact of metal and Arsenic pollution on a sample of 107 children, ages 6 to 9years, living in the urban areas of Progreso, Merida, and Ticul, in the State of Yucatan using urine and blood samples. In addition, ethnographic research was carried out in the homes of the children that participated in the study to identify potential exposure pathways. This research proved invaluable because the complexity of human social organization, lifestyles, and geographical patterning create an intricate array of exposure pathways that vary across social sectors and geographic space. In the following article, we use nonparametric univariate statistical analysis to reveal potential exposure pathways among sub-populations included in our sample. These analyses show that children from poor/marginal families tend to be exposed to Copper, Lead, and Nickel; whereas, children, from wealthier families, tend to be exposed to Cadmium, Arsenic, and inorganic Copper (Copper Sulfate).

  2. An in vitro assessment of bioaccessibility of arsenicals in rice and the use of this estimate within a probabilistic exposure model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenary, Heather R; Creed, Patricia A; Young, Andrea R; Mantha, Madhavi; Schwegel, Carol A; Xue, Jianping; Kohan, Michael J; Herbin-Davis, Karen; Thomas, David J; Caruso, Joseph A; Creed, John T

    2012-07-01

    In this study, an in vitro synthetic gastrointestinal extraction protocol was used to estimate bioaccessibility of different arsenicals present in 17 rice samples of various grain types that were collected across the United States. The across matrix average for total arsenic was 209 ng/g±153 (\\[xmacr]±2σ). The bioaccessibility estimate produced an across matrix average of 61%±19 (\\[xmacr]±2σ). The across matrix average concentrations of inorganic arsenic (iAs) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) were 81 ng/g±67.7 and 41 ng/g±58.1 (\\[xmacr]±2σ), respectively. This distribution of iAs concentrations in rice was combined with the distribution of consumption patterns (from WWEIA) in a Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulator model to estimate population-based exposures. The mean consumption rate for the population as a whole was 15.7 g per day resulting in a 0.98 μg iAs per day exposure. The mean consumption rate for children 1-2 years old was 7 g per day resulting in a 0.48 μg iAs per day exposure. Presystemic biotransformation of DMA in rice was examined using an in vitro assay containing the anaerobic microbiota of mouse cecum. This assay indicated that DMA extracted from the rice was converted to dimethylthioarsinic acid, although a second oxygen-sulfur exchange to produce DMDTA was not observed.

  3. Human electrocardiogram changes caused by exposure to arsenic through drinking water%水砷暴露致人群心电图改变的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅扬; 李媛媛; 高彦辉; 赵丽军; 刘加勇; 孙殿军

    2015-01-01

    Objective Through studying the relationship between different concentrations of arsenic in drinking water and ECG changes,to investigate the effects of arsenic on human cardiovascular system.Methods During 2008-2013,people that over 20 years old and over 10 years of drinking arsenic water were investigated in 15 villages of Shanxi Province and Inner Mongolia according to the historical data of endemic arsenic poisoning through drinking water,who were divided into control group (< 0.01 mg/L),low arsenic group (0.01-< 0.05 mg/L),medium arsenic group (0.05-< 0.10 mg/L) and high arsenic group (≥0.10 mg/L) according to the concentration of water arsenic.Arsenic concentrations in drinking water samples were detected by the method of hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry.ECG-site inspections were finished to record 12-lead ECG.The effect of different concentrations of arsenic in drinking water on ECG was studied.Results ECG of 1341 people were surveyed,and abnormal rate was 11.56% (155/1 341),including abnormal rate of control group,low arsenic group,medium arsenic group and high arsenic group which was 5.7% (9/158),12.85% (59/459),12.02% (28/233),and 12.02% (59/491),respectively.The abnormal rate of control group was lower than that of low arsenic group,medium arsenic group and high arsenic group (x2 =6.141,4.391,5.090,all P < 0.05).ECG changes were characterized by cardiac arrhythmias and ST-T changes.A variety of arrhythmias abnormal rate of control group [0(0/158)] was lower than that of low arsenic group,medium arsenic group and high arsenic group [4.58% (21/459),3.86% (9/233),3.46% (17/491); x2 =7.483,6.247,5.618,all P < 0.05].In addition,there were significant differences among the four groups in the rates of right ventricular enlargement and myocardial ischemia (x2 =9.525,9.848,all P < 0.05).Conclusions ECG changes of the residents in the areas of water-borne-endemic arsenic poisoning are characterized by cardiac

  4. Exposure of Brassica juncea (L) to arsenic species in hydroponic medium: comparative analysis in accumulation and biochemical and transcriptional alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mohd Anwar; Gupta, Meetu

    2013-11-01

    Arsenic (As) contamination in the environment has attracted considerable attention worldwide. The objective of the present study was to see the comparative effect of As species As(III) and As(V) on accumulation, biochemical responses, and gene expression analysis in Brassica juncea var. Pusa Jaganath (PJn). Hydroponically grown 14-day-old seedlings of B. juncea were treated with different concentrations of As(III) and As(V). Accumulation of total As increased with increasing concentration of both As species and exposure time, mainly in roots. Reduction in seed germination, root-shoot length, chlorophyll, and protein content were observed with increasing concentration and exposure time of both As species, being more in As(III)-treated leaves. PJn variety showed that antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX)) and stress-related parameters (cysteine, proline, and malondialdehyde (MDA)) were stimulated and allows plant to tolerate both As species. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis in leaves showed significant changes in protein profile with more stringent effect with As(III) stress. Semiquantitative RT-PCR analysis showed regulation in expression of phytochelatin synthase (PCS), metallothionine-2 (MT-2), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione synthetase (GS) genes under both As(III) and As(V) stresses. Results suggested that accumulation and inhibition on physiological parameters differ according to the As species, while molecular and biochemical parameters showed a combinatorial type of tolerance mechanism against As(III) and As(V) stresses.

  5. Environmental arsenic exposure from a coal-burning power plant as a potential risk factor for nonmelanoma skin carcinoma: Results from a case-control study in the district of Prievidza, Slovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesch, B.; Ranft, U.; Jakubis, P.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M.J.; Hergemoller, A.; Unfried, K.; Jakubis, M.; Miskovic, P.; Keegan, T. [University of Dusseldorf, Dusseldorf (Germany)

    2002-05-01

    To investigate the risk of arsenic exposure from a coal-burning power plant in Slovakia on nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) development, a 1996-1999 population-based case-control study was conducted with 264 cases and 286 controls. Exposure assessment was based on residential history and annual emissions (Asres1, Asres2) and on nutritional habits and arsenic content in food (Asnut1, Asnut2). Asres1 was assessed as a function of the distance of places of residence to the plant. Asres2 additionally considered workplace locations. Asnut1 was used to calculate arsenic uptake by weighting food frequencies with arsenic concentrations and annual consumption of food items. Asnut2 additionally considered consumption of local products. Age- and gender-adjusted risk estimates for NMSC in the highest exposure category (90th vs. 30th percentile) were 1.90 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.39, 2.60) for Asres1, 1.90 (95% CI: 1.38, 2.62) for Asres2, 1.19 (95% CI: 0.64, 2.12) for Asnut1, and 1.83 (95% CI: 0.98, 3.43) for Asnut2. No interaction was found between arsenic exposure and dietary and residential data. Other plant emissions could have confounded the distance-based exposure variables. Consumption of contaminated vegetables and fruits could be confounded by the protective effects of such a diet. Nevertheless, the authors found an excess NMSC risk for environmental arsenic exposure.

  6. Assessment of exposure to soils contaminated with lead, cadmium, and arsenic near a zinc smelter, Cassiopée Study, France, 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Durand, Cécile; Sauthier, Nicolas; Schwoebel, Valérie

    2015-01-01

    After 150 years of industrial activity, significant pollution of surface soils in private gardens and locally produced vegetables with lead, cadmium, and arsenic has recently been observed in Viviez (Southern France). A public health intervention was conducted in 2008 to identify individual health risks of Viviez inhabitants and to analyze their environmental exposure to these pollutants. Children and pregnant women in Viviez were screened for lead poisoning. Urinary cadmium testing was propo...

  7. Arsenic contamination in sesame and possible mitigation through organic interventions in the lower Gangetic Plain of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Bishwajit; Bhattacharyya, Kallol; Giri, Pradip K; Sarkar, Supradip

    2011-12-01

    The widespread geogenic arsenic contamination of groundwater in the Gangetic Delta of West Bengal, leading to toxicities through the food chain-principally through irrigated rice-drew due attention from researchers. Oilseeds such as sesame might be a remunerative alternative to rice and can be grown with small quantities of contaminated groundwater. The present study was conducted to explore the efficiency of organic matter in reducing arsenic accumulation in sesame. Accumulation of total arsenic in sesame seed and available arsenic in post-harvest soils varied from 0.08 to 0.58 mg kg(-1) and from 3.87 to 8.89 kg ha(-1) , respectively. The organic manures added as soil amendment significantly reduced the accumulation (concentration) of arsenic in sesame seed to a maximum extent of 65.5% (vermicompost), 50% (phosphocompost), 42% (mustard cake) and 40% (farmyard manure (FYM)) compared with the control counterpart. The risk associated with dietary exposure to arsenic-contaminated sesame oil reached a value of 15.55% of provisional tolerable weekly intake for arsenic at the maximum accumulation of arsenic in sesame oil. Substantial accumulation of arsenic in the soil-plant system was found. Risks of exposure to arsenic-contaminated oil remained considerably high. Irrigation through surface water and organic amendments both significantly reduced arsenic accumulation in sesame. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Bladder Cancer Mortality Associated with Arsenic in Drinking Water in Argentina

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Claudia Hopenhayn-Rich; Mary Lou Biggs; Analía Fuchs; Remo Bergoglio; Enrique E. Tello; Hugo Nicolli; Allan H. Smith

    1996-01-01

    ... and generalizability of the findings. Several areas of Argentina have had high exposures to arsenic from naturally contaminated drinking water, particularly the eastern region of the province of Córdoba...

  9. Geochemistry and health risk assessment of arsenic exposure to street dust in the zinc smelting district, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Sujuan; Zheng, Na; Liu, Jingshuang; Wang, Yang; Chang, Shouzhi

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate arsenic (As) accumulation in street dust and health risk of population. The investigation concentrated on: a. pollution levels of As in street dust; b. spatial distribution of As in street dust; c. physicochemical properties analysis of street dust; and d. assessment of population health risk due to As exposure to street dust. As concentration in street dust ranged from 3.33 to 185.1 mg kg(-1), with a mean of 33.10 mg kg(-1), which was higher than the background value of Liaoning soil. As contamination level of the area closing to Huludao Zinc Plant (HZP) was highest. Spatial variation showed that the pollution center was close to HZP, formed radial distribution pattern and extended to the northeast and southwest of HZP. The pH and organic matter of street dust were both higher than the background values of soil in Liaoning. There was significantly negative correlation between As concentration and the pH. The mass percentages of particles 180-100, 63, and 63 μm were 29.8, 3.7, 21.3, and 4.2 %, respectively. The highest of As concentration was found in the smallest particle size (63 μm). As loadings in the particles of grain size 180-100 and 63 μm were higher than other particle fractions. Results of the risk assessment indicated that the highest risk was associated with the ingestion of street dust particles. Health risk for different use scenarios to human decreased in the order of HZP > Industrial district > School > Commercial center > Residential area. Around HZP, Hazard Index (HI) for children and cancer risk of As by street dust exposure exceeded the acceptable values. It indicated that there was a potential adverse effect on children health by As exposure to the street dust of Huludao.

  10. Dissemination of well water arsenic results to homeowners in Central Maine: Influences on mitigation behavior and continued risks for exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Sara V.; Marvinney, Robert G.; Johnston, Robert A.; Yang, Qiang; Zheng, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Private wells in the United States are unregulated for drinking water standards and are the homeowner’s responsibility to test and treat. Testing for water quality parameters such as arsenic (As) is a crucial first step for homeowners to take protective actions. This study seeks to identify key behavioral factors influencing homeowners’ decisions to take action after receiving well As test results. A January 2013 survey of central Maine households (n=386, 73% response) who were notified 3–7 years earlier that their well water contained As above 10 μg/L found that 43% of households report installing As treatment systems. Another 30% report taking other mitigation actions such as drinking bottled water because of the As, but the remaining 27% of households did not act. Well water As level appears to be a motivation for mitigation: 31% of households with well water level between 10 and 50 μg/L did not act, compared to 13% of households with well water > 50 μg/L. Belief that the untreated water is not safe to drink (risk) and that reducing drinking water As would increase home value (instrumental attitude) were identified as significant predictors of mitigating As. Mitigating As exposure is associated with less worry about the As level (affective attitude), possibly because those acting to reduce exposure feel less worried about As. Use of a treatment system specifically was significantly predicted by confidence that one can maintain a treatment system, even if there are additional costs (self-efficacy). An assessment of As treatment systems used by 68 of these households with well water As >10 μg/L followed up with in August-November 2013 found that 15% of treatment units failed to produce water below As 10 μg/L, suggesting there are continued risks for exposure even after the decision is made to treat. PMID:24726512

  11. Effect of water management, arsenic and phosphorus levels on rice in a high-arsenic soil-water system: II. Arsenic uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukder, A S M H M; Meisner, C A; Sarkar, M A R; Islam, M S; Sayre, K D; Duxbury, J M; Lauren, J G

    2012-06-01

    Rice consumption is one of the major pathways for As intake in populations that depend on a rice diet in several countries of South and South-east Asia. Pot experiments were undertaken to investigate the effects of water management (WM), arsenic (As) contaminated soil-water and Phosphorus (P) rates on As uptake in rice plants. There were 18 treatments comprising of three each of As rates (0, 20 and 40 mg kg(-1) soil) and P rates (0, 12.5 and 25 mg kg(-1) soil) and two WM (aerobic and anaerobic) strategies on winter (boro var. BRRI dhan 29) and monsoon (aman var. BRRI dhan 32) rice at the Wheat Research Center (WRC), Nashipur, Dinajpur, Bangladesh. Arsenic concentrations in rice grain and straw increased significantly (P ≤ 0.01) with the increasing As rates in the soil. Arsenic availability in soil pore-water solution was less (58%) under aerobic WM (redox potential-Eh=+135 to +138 mV; pH-6.50 at 24.3 °C) as compared to anaerobic WM (flooded: Eh=-41 to -76 mV; pH-6.43 at 23 °C). The highest total grain As content 2.23 ± 0.12 mg kg(-1) and 0.623 ± 0.006 mg kg(-1) was found in T(6) (P(12.5)As(40)-anaerobic) and T(9) (P(25)As(40)-anaerobic) in BRRI dhan 29 and BRRI dhan 32, respectively, which was significantly higher (41-45%) than in the same As and P treatments for pots under aerobic WM. The As content in rice straw (up to 24.7 ± 0.49 ppm in BRRI dhan 29, 17.3 ± 0.49 mg kg(-1) in BRRI dhan 32 with the highest As level) suggested that As can more easily be translocated to the shoots under anaerobic conditions than aerobic condition. BRRI dhan 29 was more sensitive to As than BRRI dhan 32. Under aerobic WM, P soil amendments reduced As uptake by rice plants. The study demonstrated that aerobic water management along with optimum P amendment and selection of arsenic inefficient rice varieties are appropriate options that can be applied to minimize As accumulation in rice which can reduce effects on human and cattle health risk as well as soil contamination.

  12. Transcriptomic analysis reveals adaptive responses of an Enterobacteriaceae strain LSJC7 to arsenic exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingjiao eZhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic (As resistance determinant ars operon is present in many bacteria and has been demonstrated to enhance As(V resistance of bacteria. However, whole molecular mechanism adaptations of bacteria in response to As(V stress remain largely unknown. In this study, transcriptional profiles of Enterobacteriaceae strain LSJC7 responding to As(V stress were analyzed using RNA-seq and qRT-PCR. As expected, genes involved in As(V uptake were down-regulated, those involved in As(V reduction and As(III efflux were up-regulated, which avoided cellular As accumulation. Reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide (NO were induced, which caused cellular damages including DNA, proteins, and Fe-S clusters damages in LSJC7. The expression of specific genes encoding transcriptional regulators, such as nsrR and soxRS were also induced. NsrR and SoxRS modulated many critical metabolic activities in As(V stressed LSJC7 cells, including reactive species scavenging and repairing the damages of DNA, proteins, and Fe-S clusters. Therefore, besides As uptake, reduction, and efflux, oxidative stress defense and damage repair were the main cellular adaptive responses of LSJC7 to As(V stress.

  13. Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals Adaptive Responses of an Enterobacteriaceae Strain LSJC7 to Arsenic Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingjiao; Chen, Songcan; Hao, Xiuli; Su, Jian-Qiang; Xue, Ximei; Yan, Yu; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Ye, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic (As) resistance determinant ars operon is present in many bacteria and has been demonstrated to enhance As(V) resistance of bacteria. However, whole molecular mechanism adaptations of bacteria in response to As(V) stress remain largely unknown. In this study, transcriptional profiles of Enterobacteriaceae strain LSJC7 responding to As(V) stress were analyzed using RNA-seq and qRT-PCR. As expected, genes involved in As(V) uptake were down-regulated, those involved in As(V) reduction and As(III) efflux were up-regulated, which avoided cellular As accumulation. Reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide (NO) were induced, which caused cellular damages including DNA, protein, and Fe-S cluster damage in LSJC7. The expression of specific genes encoding transcriptional regulators, such as nsrR and soxRS were also induced. NsrR and SoxRS modulated many critical metabolic activities in As(V) stressed LSJC7 cells, including reactive species scavenging and repairing damaged DNA, proteins, and Fe-S clusters. Therefore, besides As uptake, reduction, and efflux; oxidative stress defense and damage repair were the main cellular adaptive responses of LSJC7 to As(V) stress.

  14. Dietary arsenic exposure in Brazil: The contribution of rice and beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciminelli, Virginia S T; Gasparon, Massimo; Ng, Jack C; Silva, Gabriela C; Caldeira, Claudia L

    2017-02-01

    The human health risk associated with arsenic in food in Southeast Brazil was quantified. Based on the most commonly consumed food types in the Brazilian diet, the maximum inorganic As (iAs) daily intake from food (0.255 μg kg(-1) body weight per day) is approximately 9% of the Benchmark Dose Lower Limit (BMDL0.5) of 3 μg kg(-1) body weight per day set by the World Health Organization (WHO) and Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Joint Expert Committee in Food Additives (JECFA). When water is included, the contribution of food to the total intake varies from 96.9% to 39.7%. Rice and beans, the main Brazilian staple food, contribute between 67 and 90% of the total As intake from food (46-79% from rice and 11-23% from beans). The substantial contribution of beans to total As food intake is reported for the first time. The broad range of As concentrations in rice and beans highlights the variable and potentially large contribution of both to As food intake in places where diet consists largely of these two food categories.

  15. The relationship between obesity, insulin and arsenic methylation capability in Taiwan adolescents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Chien-Tien [Department of Family Medicine, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, Hsiu-Chen [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Laboratory Medicine, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Choy, Cheuk-Sing [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Emergency Department, Taipei Hospital, Department of Health, Taiwan (China); Huang, Yung-Kai [School of Oral Hygiene, College of Oral Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Huang, Shiau-Rung [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hsueh, Yu-Mei, E-mail: ymhsueh@tmu.edu.tw [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluated the arsenic methylation profile of adolescents and explored the influence of body mass index (BMI) on the arsenic methylation profile of adolescents in an area of Taiwan with no-obvious arsenic exposure. Methods: This study evaluated 202 normal weight students and 101 obese students from eight elementary schools, recruited from September 2009 to December 2009. Concentrations of urinary arsenic species, including inorganic arsenic, monomethylarsonic acid (MMA{sup 5+}) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA{sup 5+}) were determined by a high-performance liquid chromatography-linked hydride generator and atomic absorption spectrometry. Results: Urinary total arsenic was significantly decreased with increasing BMI, indicating that obese children may retain higher levels of arsenic in the body, as compared to normal weight children. Participants with obesity accompanied by high insulin levels had higher inorganic arsenic, significantly higher MMA percentage and significantly lower DMA percentage than those with obesity and low insulin levels. It seems children with obesity and high insulin levels had lower arsenic methylation capacity than those with obesity and low insulin. Conclusions: This is the first study to demonstrate that total urinary arsenic is negatively associated with the BMI in adolescents in Taiwan, adjusted for age and sex. Obese adolescents with high insulin levels had significantly higher MMA% and significantly lower DMA% than obese adolescents with low insulin. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This is the first to find that urinary total arsenic is related inversely to the BMI. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Arsenic methylation capability may be associated with obesity and insulin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Obese adolescents with high insulin had low arsenic methylation capacity.

  16. Arsenic speciation of geothermal waters in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Gillian; Kim, Nick; Ward, Neil I

    2012-12-01

    Total arsenic and four arsenic species; arsenite (iAs(III)), arsenate (iAs(V)), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA(V)) and monomethylarsonic acid (MA(V)), are reported in 28 geothermal features from the Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ) and Waikato region of New Zealand. Samples were collected for arsenic speciation analysis via a solid phase extraction (SPE) kit allowing the separation, stabilisation and pre-concentration of the species at the time of sample collection in the field. This is the first research to present data for arsenic species collected by this technique in geothermal waters from New Zealand. Total arsenic concentrations, determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), ranged from 0.008 to 9.08 mg l⁻¹ As. The highest levels were discovered in three features in Tokaanu (Taumatapuhipuhi, Takarea #5 and #6), with arsenic concentrations of 8.59, 8.70 and 9.08 mg l⁻¹ As, respectively. Inorganic arsenic species were predominant in the geothermal waters, with arsenite contributing to more than 70% of the total arsenic in the majority of samples. Organic species were also determined in all samples, indicating the presence of microbial activity. A potential risk to human health was highlighted due to the high levels of arsenic, mainly as arsenite, in geothermal features linked to bathing pools. Further research is needed into dermal absorption as a potential route of arsenic exposure whilst bathing in these hot pools, as it may contribute to an occurrence of acute arsenic-related health problems.

  17. Assessing vanadium and arsenic exposure of people living near a petrochemical complex with two-stage dispersion models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chio, Chia-Pin; Yuan, Tzu-Hsuen; Shie, Ruei-Hao; Chan, Chang-Chuan

    2014-04-30

    The goal of this study is to demonstrate that it is possible to construct a two-stage dispersion model empirically for the purpose of estimating air pollution levels in the vicinity of petrochemical plants. We studied oil refineries and coal-fired power plants in the No. 6 Naphtha Cracking Complex, an area of 2,603-ha situated on the central west coast of Taiwan. The pollutants targeted were vanadium (V) from oil refineries and arsenic (As) from coal-fired power plants. We applied a backward fitting method to determine emission rates of V and As, with 192 PM10 filters originally collected between 2009 and 2012. Our first-stage model estimated emission rates of V and As (median and 95% confidence intervals at 0.0202 (0.0040-0.1063) and 0.1368 (0.0398-0.4782) g/s, respectively. In our second stage model, the predicted zone-average concentrations showed a strong correlation with V, but a poor correlation with As. Our findings show that two-stage dispersion models are relatively precise for estimating V levels at residents' addresses near the petrochemical complex, but they did not work as well for As levels. In conclusion, our model-based approach can be widely used for modeling exposure to air pollution from industrial areas in countries with limited resources. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Geochemistry of redox-sensitive elements and sulfur isotopes in the high arsenic groundwater system of Datong Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xianjun; Ellis, Andre; Wang, Yanxin; Xie, Zuoming; Duan, Mengyu; Su, Chunli

    2009-06-01

    High arsenic groundwater in the Quaternary aquifers of Datong Basin, northern China contain As up to 1820 microg/L and the high concentration plume is located in the slow flowing central parts of the basin. In this study we used hydrochemical data and sulfur isotope ratios of sulfate to better understand the conditions that are likely to control arsenic mobilization. Groundwater and spring samples were collected along two flow paths from the west and east margins of the basin and a third set along the basin flow path. Arsenic concentrations range from 68 to 670 microg/L in the basin and from 3.1 to 44 microg/L in the western and eastern margins. The margins have relatively oxidized waters with low contents of arsenic, relatively high proportions of As(V) among As species, and high contents of sulfate and uranium. By contrast, the central parts of the basin are reducing with high contents of arsenic in groundwater, commonly with high proportions of As(III) among As species, and low contents of sulfate and uranium. No statistical correlations were observed between arsenic and Eh, sulfate, Fe, Mn, Mo and U. While the mobility of sulfate, uranium and molybdenum is possibly controlled by the change in redox conditions as the groundwater flows towards central parts of the basin, the reducing conditions alone cannot account for the occurrence of high arsenic groundwater in the basin but it does explain the characteristics of arsenic speciation. With one exception, all the groundwaters with As(III) as the major As species have low Eh and those with As(V) have high Eh. Reductive dissolution of Fe-oxyhydroxides or reduction of As(V) are consistent with the observations, however no increase in dissolved Fe concentration was noted. Furthermore, water from the well with the highest arsenic was relatively oxidizing and contained mostly As(V). From previous work Fe-oxyhydroxides are speculated to exist as coatings rather than primary minerals. The wide range of delta(34)S([SO4