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Sample records for high areas identified

  1. 49 CFR 192.905 - How does an operator identify a high consequence area?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Gas... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How does an operator identify a high consequence area? 192.905 Section 192.905 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued...

  2. The primary motor area for voluntary diaphragmatic motion identified by high field fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Takahiro; Fujii, Yukihiko; Suzuki, Kiyotaka; Kanazawa, Ichiro; Nakada, Tsutomu

    2004-06-01

    In order to identify the precise location of the primary motor area for the diaphragm with respect to the classical motor homunculus, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments were performed utilizing independent component-cross correlation- sequential epoch (ICS) analysis on a high-field (3.0 Tesla) system. Activations which correlated with voluntary diaphragmatic motion mapped onto the area anterolateral to that for voluntary hand motion (internal control in ICS analysis). Multiple subject analysis yielded the primary motor cortex for the diaphragm to be (+/-48, -4, 47) in the Talairach and Tournoux coordinates. The results were highly consistent with the previously reported cortical area for the diaphragm determined by transcranial electrical/magnetic stimulation.

  3. Causative factors of high intensity areas identified by MRI in the pontine base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Masaki; Takahashi, Akira [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine; Arahata, Yutaka; Motegi, Yoshimasa

    1994-08-01

    High intensity areas in the pontine base were found more frequently in patients of group A who had multiple supratentorial high intensity areas smaller than 15 mm in size and of group B whose vertebral arteries were asymmetric on MR angiography, as compared to those who had none of the above findings of MRI and MR angiography. The high intensity areas of group A were often found bilaterally in the upper pons and those of group B were present unilaterally in the lower pons. Pontine high intensity areas were found frequently on the same side as the smaller vertebral artery in group B. Periventricular hyperintensity was more severe in group A than than in group B. These results suggest that high intensity lesions in the pontine base may conform with the following conditions: (1) multiple small high intensity areas in the supratentorium due to diffuse arteriosclerosis, and (2) asymmetry of the vertebral arteries inducing hemodynamic disorders. (author).

  4. spatially identifying vulnerable areas

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    System (SMDSS) to identify factors that make forest and game reserves vulnerable .... involve the creation of a Digital Elevation Model (DEM), Slope Settlement and ... Feature). Spatial. Analyst Tool. (Slope). Buffer Tool. Buffer Tool. Buffer Tool.

  5. Using geographical information systems mapping to identify areas presenting high risk for traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colantonio Angela

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study is to show how geographical information systems (GIS can be used to track and compare hospitalization rates for traumatic brain injury (TBI over time and across a large geographical area using population based data. Results & Discussion Data on TBI hospitalizations, and geographic and demographic variables, came from the Ontario Trauma Registry Minimum Data Set for the fiscal years 1993-1994 and 2001-2002. Various visualization techniques, exploratory data analysis and spatial analysis were employed to map and analyze these data. Both the raw and standardized rates by age/gender of the geographical unit were studied. Data analyses revealed persistent high rates of hospitalization for TBI resulting from any injury mechanism between two time periods in specific geographic locations. Conclusions This study shows how geographic information systems can be successfully used to investigate hospitalizaton rates for traumatic brain injury using a range of tools and techniques; findings can be used for local planning of both injury prevention and post discharge services, including rehabilitation.

  6. Ecological Niche Modeling Identifies Fine-Scale Areas at High Risk of Dengue Fever in the Pearl River Delta, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaoxuan Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Dengue fever (DF is one of the most common and rapidly spreading mosquito-borne viral diseases in tropical and subtropical regions. In recent years, this imported disease has posed a serious threat to public health in China, especially in the Pearl River Delta (PRD. Although the severity of DF outbreaks in the PRD is generally associated with known risk factors, fine scale assessments of areas at high risk for DF outbreaks are limited. We built five ecological niche models to identify such areas including a variety of climatic, environmental, and socioeconomic variables, as well as, in some models, extracted principal components. All the models we tested accurately identified the risk of DF, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC were greater than 0.8, but the model using all original variables was the most accurate (AUC = 0.906. Socioeconomic variables had a greater impact on this model (total contribution 55.27% than climatic and environmental variables (total contribution 44.93%. We found the highest risk of DF outbreaks on the border of Guangzhou and Foshan (in the central PRD, and in northern Zhongshan (in the southern PRD. Our fine-scale results may help health agencies to focus epidemic monitoring tightly on the areas at highest risk of DF outbreaks.

  7. Temperature diagnostic to identify high risk areas and optimize Legionella pneumophila surveillance in hot water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bédard, Emilie; Fey, Stéphanie; Charron, Dominique; Lalancette, Cindy; Cantin, Philippe; Dolcé, Patrick; Laferrière, Céline; Déziel, Eric; Prévost, Michèle

    2015-03-15

    Legionella pneumophila is frequently detected in hot water distribution systems and thermal control is a common measure implemented by health care facilities. A risk assessment based on water temperature profiling and temperature distribution within the network is proposed, to guide effective monitoring strategies and allow the identification of high risk areas. Temperature and heat loss at control points (water heater, recirculation, representative points-of-use) were monitored in various sections of five health care facilities hot water distribution systems and results used to develop a temperature-based risk assessment tool. Detailed investigations show that defective return valves in faucets can cause widespread temperature losses because of hot and cold water mixing. Systems in which water temperature coming out of the water heaters was kept consistently above 60 °C and maintained above 55 °C across the network were negative for Legionella by culture or qPCR. For systems not meeting these temperature criteria, risk areas for L. pneumophila were identified using temperature profiling and system's characterization; higher risk was confirmed by more frequent microbiological detection by culture and qPCR. Results confirmed that maintaining sufficiently high temperatures within hot water distribution systems suppressed L. pneumophila culturability. However, the risk remains as shown by the persistence of L. pneumophila by qPCR.

  8. Identifying areas with high risk of wind gusts, precipitation and hail based on interpolated and recorded data in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatos, M.; Móring, A.; Szentimrey, T.; Németh, Á.; Bihari, Z.; Kovács, T.; Vincze, E.

    2012-04-01

    could be defined with the probability of the events exceeding a specific high threshold. This level was determined by the average of the yearly mean 99% percentile for each settlement. The interpolated daily fields resulted in time series for each geographical position. With using the empirical probability distribution functions the threshold of the events with less than 1% probability is designed. The ordered probabilities of the exceeding of these thresholds made possible to assess categories for ranking the Hungarian settlements according to the degree of the exposure to either the wind storm or heavy rain. In the case of hail the categories were stated simply according to the measure of the interpolated empirical probabilities of the hail occurrence. The risky locations regarding of wind, rain, hail or theirs combinations can be identified by combining the results. Category maps illustrate the Hungarian locations according to the exposure to the analysed risks.

  9. Rivers and flooded areas identified by medium-resolution remote sensing improve risk prediction of the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanapongtharm, Weerapong; Van Boeckel, Thomas P; Biradar, Chandrashekhar; Xiao, Xiang-Ming; Gilbert, Marius

    2013-11-01

    Thailand experienced several epidemic waves of the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 between 2004 and 2005. This study investigated the role of water in the landscape, which has not been previously assessed because of a lack of high-resolution information on the distribution of flooded land at the time of the epidemic. Nine Landsat 7 - Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus scenes covering 174,610 km(2) were processed using k-means unsupervised classification to map the distribution of flooded areas as well as permanent lakes and reservoirs at the time of the main epidemic HPAI H5N1 wave of October 2004. These variables, together with other factors previously identified as significantly associated with risk, were entered into an autologistic regression model in order to quantify the gain in risk explanation over previously published models. We found that, in addition to other factors previously identified as associated with risk, the proportion of land covered by flooding along with expansion of rivers and streams, derived from an existing, sub-district level (administrative level no. 3) geographical information system database, was a highly significant risk factor in this 2004 HPAI epidemic. These results suggest that water-borne transmission could have partly contributed to the spread of HPAI H5N1 during the epidemic. Future work stemming from these results should involve studies where the actual distribution of small canals, rivers, ponds, rice paddy fields and farms are mapped and tested against farm-level data with respect to HPAI H5N1.

  10. Rivers and flooded areas identified by medium-resolution remote sensing improve risk prediction of the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weerapong Thanapongtharm

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Thailand experienced several epidemic waves of the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI H5N1 between 2004 and 2005. This study investigated the role of water in the landscape, which has not been previously assessed because of a lack of high-resolution information on the distribution of flooded land at the time of the epidemic. Nine Landsat 7- Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus scenes covering 174,610 km2 were processed using k-means unsupervised classification to map the distribution of flooded areas as well as permanent lakes and reservoirs at the time of the main epidemic HPAI H5N1 wave of October 2004. These variables, together with other factors previously identified as significantly associated with risk, were entered into an autologistic regression model in order to quantify the gain in risk explanation over previously published models. We found that, in addition to other factors previously identified as associated with risk, the proportion of land covered by flooding along with expansion of rivers and streams, derived from an existing, sub-district level (administrative level no. 3 geographical information system database, was a highly significant risk factor in this 2004 HPAI epidemic. These results suggest that water-borne transmission could have partly contributed to the spread of HPAI H5N1 during the epidemic. Future work stemming from these results should involve studies where the actual distribution of small canals, rivers, ponds, rice paddy fields and farms are mapped and tested against farm-level data with respect to HPAI H5N1.

  11. High FDG uptake areas on pre-radiotherapy PET/CT identify preferential sites of local relapse after chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced oesophageal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calais, Jeremie; Lemarignier, Charles; Vera, Pierre [Henri Becquerel Cancer Center and Rouen University Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Department, Rouen (France); University of Rouen, QuantIF-LITIS (Equipe d' Accueil 4108-FR CNRS 3638), Faculty of Medicine, Rouen (France); Dubray, Bernard [University of Rouen, QuantIF-LITIS (Equipe d' Accueil 4108-FR CNRS 3638), Faculty of Medicine, Rouen (France); Centre Henri Becquerel and Rouen University Hospital, Department of Radiotherapy and Medical Physics, Rouen (France); Nkhali, Lamyaa; Thureau, Sebastien; Modzelewski, Romain; Gardin, Isabelle [Henri Becquerel Cancer Center and Rouen University Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Department, Rouen (France); University of Rouen, QuantIF-LITIS (Equipe d' Accueil 4108-FR CNRS 3638), Faculty of Medicine, Rouen (France); Centre Henri Becquerel and Rouen University Hospital, Department of Radiotherapy and Medical Physics, Rouen (France); Di Fiore, Frederic [Rouen University Hospital, Department of Gastroenterology, Rouen (France); Rouen University Hospital, Department of Oncology, Henri Becquerel Cancer Center, IRON, Rouen (France); Michel, Pierre [Rouen University Hospital, Department of Gastroenterology, Rouen (France)

    2015-05-01

    The high failure rates in the radiotherapy (RT) target volume suggest that patients with locally advanced oesophageal cancer (LAOC) would benefit from increased total RT doses. High 2-deoxy-2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) uptake (hotspot) on pre-RT FDG positron emission tomography (PET)/CT has been reported to identify intra-tumour sites at increased risk of relapse after RT in non-small cell lung cancer and in rectal cancer. Our aim was to confirm these observations in patients with LAOC and to determine the optimal maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}) threshold to delineate smaller RT target volumes that would facilitate RT dose escalation without impaired tolerance. The study included 98 consecutive patients with LAOC treated by chemoradiotherapy (CRT). All patients underwent FDG PET/CT at initial staging and during systematic follow-up in a single institution. FDG PET/CT acquisitions were coregistered on the initial CT scan. Various subvolumes within the initial tumour (30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90 % SUV{sub max} thresholds) and in the subsequent local recurrence (LR, 40 and 90 % SUV{sub max} thresholds) were pasted on the initial CT scan and compared[Dice, Jaccard, overlap fraction (OF), common volume/baseline volume, common volume/recurrent volume]. Thirty-five patients had LR. The initial metabolic tumour volume was significantly higher in LR tumours than in the locally controlled tumours (mean 25.4 vs 14.2 cc; p = 0.002). The subvolumes delineated on initial PET/CT with a 30-60 % SUV{sub max} threshold were in good agreement with the recurrent volume at 40 % SUV{sub max} (OF = 0.60-0.80). The subvolumes delineated on initial PET/CT with a 30-60 % SUV{sub max} threshold were in good to excellent agreement with the core volume (90 % SUV{sub max}) of the relapse (common volume/recurrent volume and OF indices 0.61-0.89). High FDG uptake on pretreatment PET/CT identifies tumour subvolumes that are at greater risk of recurrence after CRT in

  12. Identifying areas with potential for high indoor radon levels: analysis of the national airborne radiometric reconnaissance data for California and the Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moed, B.A.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Nero, A.V.; Schwehr, M.B.; Van Heuvelen, A.

    1984-04-01

    Radon-222 is an important indoor air pollutant which, through the inhalation of its radioactive decay products, accounts for nearly half of the effective dose equivalent to the public from natural ionizing radiation. Indoor radon concentrations vary widely, largely because of local and regional differences in the rate of entry from sources. The major sources are soil and rock near building foundations, earth-based building materials, and domestic water; of these, soil and rock are thought to be predominant in many buildings with higher-than-average concentrations. Thus, one key factor in determining radon source potential is the concentration of radium, the progenitor of radon, in surficial rocks and soils. Aerial radiometric data were analyzed, collected for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program, for seven Western states to: (1) provide information on the spatial distribution of radium contents in surficial geologic materials for those states; and (2) investigate approaches for using the aerial data, which have been collected throughout the contiguous United States and Alaska, to identify areas where high indoor radon levels may be common. Radium concentrations were found to be relatively low in central and western portions of Washington, Oregon, and northern California; they were found to be relatively high in central and southern California. A field validation study, conducted along two flight-line segments near Spokane, Washington, showed close correspondence between the aerial data, in situ measurements of both radium content and radon flux from soil, and laboratory measurements of both radium content of and radon emanation rate from soil samples. 99 references, 11 figures, 3 tables.

  13. Identifying national freshwater ecosystem priority areas

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nel, JL

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available guided selection of wetland clusters where choices existed. 4. Representation free- flowing rivers Conserves representative coarse-scale processes such as natural flow regimes, erosion and sediment transport. There are very few free-flowing rivers...: jnel@csir.co.za ? www.csir.co.za INTRODUCTION ? In this project, we identified which rivers and wetlands in South Africa are most important to be maintained in, or restored to, a good ecological condition. ? The resulting maps feed seamlessly...

  14. A Food Photograph Series for Identifying Portion Sizes of Culturally Specific Dishes in Rural Areas with High Incidence of Oesophageal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanne Senekal

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Rural areas of the Eastern Cape (EC Province, South Africa have a high incidence of squamous cell oesophageal cancer (OC and exposure to mycotoxin fumonisin has been associated with increased OC risk. However, to assess exposure to fumonisin in Xhosas—having maize as a staple food—it is necessary to determine the amount of maize consumed per day. A maize-specific food frequency questionnaire (M-FFQ has recently been developed. This study developed a food photograph (FP series to improve portion size estimation of maize dishes. Two sets of photographs were developed to be used alongside the validated M-FFQ. The photographs were designed to assist quantification of intakes (portion size photographs and to facilitate estimation of maize amounts in various combined dishes (ratio photographs using data from 24 h recalls (n = 159, dishing-up sessions (n = 35, focus group discussions (FGD (n = 56 and published literature. Five villages in two rural isiXhosa-speaking areas of the EC Province, known to have a high incidence of OC, were randomly selected. Women between the ages of 18–55 years were recruited by snowball sampling and invited to participate. The FP series comprised three portion size photographs (S, M, L of 21 maize dishes and three ratio photographs of nine combined maize-based dishes. A culturally specific FP series was designed to improve portion size estimation when reporting dietary intake using a newly developed M-FFQ.

  15. Identifying high-risk medication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sædder, Eva; Brock, Birgitte; Nielsen, Lars Peter

    2014-01-01

    salicylic acid, and beta-blockers; 30 drugs or drug classes caused 82 % of all serious MEs. The top ten drugs involved in fatal events accounted for 73 % of all drugs identified. CONCLUSION: Increasing focus on seven drugs/drug classes can potentially reduce hospitalizations, extended hospitalizations...

  16. Identifying important areas for orchid conservation in Crete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spyros Tsiftsis

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Crete is especially rich in orchids and their distribution is well known and documented by many floristic accounts. This information, however, is yet to be used to set conservation plans and priorities. We used MaxEnt incorporating both published and unpublished distribution data together with environmental variables to predict the potential distribution of orchids on Crete. The resulting probabilistic maps of species occurrence were used to identify the important areas for orchid conservation on the island. Sites prioritization was performed by applying a species weighting scheme, which was based on species niche breadth. The existence of ecological patterns determining site prioritization was determined using a regression tree analysis based on environmental variables and scores derived from Zonation analysis. The high importance sites were found on Mts Thripti, Ida and Lefka Ori, as well as at low altitude areas east of Heraklion and at the easternmost part of the island. Most of the variation in the site scores was explained by geological substrate, latitude and altitude. Based on the regression tree analysis, sites with the highest scores were at medium and high altitude areas, which are located at the interior of the island. These areas have soils mainly derived from limestones, ophiolites and deposits of calcareous rocks. The lack of a significant effect of vegetation type in explaining the distribution of high importance areas highlights the need for the establishment of micro-reserves for the conservation of orchids in Crete. Finally, endangered orchid species in need of specific conservation actions are indicated.

  17. Identifying areas susceptible to desertification in the Brazilian Northeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. da Silva Pinto Vieira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 57% of the Brazilian Northeast region is recognized as semiarid land and has been undergoing intense land use processes in the last decades, which have resulted in severe degradation of its natural assets. Therefore, the objective of this study is to identify the areas that are susceptible to desertification in this region based on the eleven driving factors of desertification (pedology, geology, geomorphology, topography data, land use and land cover change, aridity index, livestock density, rural population density, fire hot spot density, human development index (HDI, conservation units which were model-simulated for two different periods: 2000 and 2010. Each indicator were assigned weights ranging from 1 to 2 (representing the best and the worst conditions, representing classes indicating low, moderate and high susceptibility to desertification. The result indicates that 94% of the Brazilian Northeast region is under moderate to high susceptibility to desertification. The areas that were susceptible to soil desertification increased by approximately 4.6% (83.35 km2 from 2000 to 2010. The implementation of the methodology provide the technical basis for decision making that involves mitigating actions, as well as the first comprehensive national assessment within the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification framework.

  18. Identifying individual fires from satellite-derived burned area data

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Archibald, S

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available An algorithm for identifying individual fires from the Modis burned area data product is introduced for southern Africa. This algorithm gives the date of burning, size of fire, and location of the centroid for all fires identified over 8 years...

  19. Report data identify risk areas for improper payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrato, Robert R

    2011-10-01

    Hospitals should take several steps in using data from the Program for Evaluating Payment Patterns Report (PEPPER) to enhance compliance efforts and identify risk areas for improper payments: Designate one person to monitor PEPPER releases and download the quarterly report. Review the reports and list all areas where the hospital is most at risk for improper payments. Prioritize at-risk areas with the national comparison, followed by jurisdictional and state comparison. Conduct small-sample case reviews in at-risk areas and determine next steps, such as process improvement or rebilling. Include hospital finance, compliance, legal, case management, and coding experts as part of discussion.

  20. Identifying settlements on the SIR-B images of Rimbobujang and the surrounding areas, Sumatra, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutanto .

    2013-07-01

    SIR-B image proves to be a reasonably good tool to identify rural settlement in an open area, especially for that with high density of houses. Its use to identify towns and cities is more recommended.

  1. Identifying Important Atlantic Areas for the conservation of Balearic shearwaters: Spatial overlap with conservation areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Roda, Amparo; Delord, Karine; Boué, Amélie; Arcos, José Manuel; García, David; Micol, Thierry; Weimerskirch, Henri; Pinaud, David; Louzao, Maite

    2017-07-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are considered one of the main tools in both fisheries and conservation management to protect threatened species and their habitats around the globe. However, MPAs are underrepresented in marine environments compared to terrestrial environments. Within this context, we studied the Atlantic non-breeding distribution of the southern population of Balearic shearwaters (Puffinus mauretanicus) breeding in Eivissa during the 2011-2012 period based on global location sensing (GLS) devices. Our objectives were (1) to identify overall Important Atlantic Areas (IAAs) from a southern population, (2) to describe spatio-temporal patterns of oceanographic habitat use, and (3) to assess whether existing conservation areas (Natura 2000 sites and marine Important Bird Areas (IBAs)) cover the main IAAs of Balearic shearwaters. Our results highlighted that the Atlantic staging (from June to October in 2011) dynamic of the southern population was driven by individual segregation at both spatial and temporal scales. Individuals ranged in the North-East Atlantic over four main IAAs (Bay of Biscay: BoB, Western Iberian shelf: WIS, Gulf of Cadiz: GoC, West of Morocco: WoM). While most individuals spent more time on the WIS or in the GoC, a small number of birds visited IAAs at the extremes of their Atlantic distribution range (i.e., BoB and WoM). The chronology of the arrivals to the IAAs showed a latitudinal gradient with northern areas reached earlier during the Atlantic staging. The IAAs coincided with the most productive areas (higher chlorophyll a values) in the NE Atlantic between July and October. The spatial overlap between IAAs and conservation areas was higher for Natura 2000 sites than marine IBAs (areas with and without legal protection, respectively). Concerning the use of these areas, a slightly higher proportion of estimated positions fell within marine IBAs compared to designated Natura 2000 sites, with Spanish and Portuguese conservation

  2. Development of a predictive methodology for identifying high radon exhalation potential areas; Mise au point d'une methodologie predictive des zones a fort potentiel d'exhalation du radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ielsch, G

    2001-07-01

    Radon 222 is a radioactive natural gas originating from the decay of radium 226 which itself originates from the decay of uranium 23 8 naturally present in rocks and soil. Inhalation of radon gas and its decay products is a potential health risk for man. Radon can accumulate in confined environments such as buildings, and is responsible for one third of the total radiological exposure of the general public to radiation. The problem of how to manage this risk then arises. The main difficulty encountered is due to the large variability of exposure to radon across the country. A prediction needs to be made of areas with the highest density of buildings with high radon levels. Exposure to radon varies depending on the degree of confinement of the habitat, the lifestyle of the occupants and particularly emission of radon from the surface of the soil on which the building is built. The purpose of this thesis is to elaborate a methodology for determining areas presenting a high potential for radon exhalation at the surface of the soil. The methodology adopted is based on quantification of radon exhalation at the surface, starting from a precise characterization of the main local geological and pedological parameters that control the radon source and its transport to the ground/atmosphere interface. The methodology proposed is innovative in that it combines a cartographic analysis, parameters integrated into a Geographic Information system, and a simplified model for vertical transport of radon by diffusion through pores in the soil. This methodology has been validated on two typical areas, in different geological contexts, and gives forecasts that generally agree with field observations. This makes it possible to identify areas with a high exhalation potential within a range of a few square kilometers. (author)

  3. Identifying High Growth Firms in India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aggarwal, Aradhna; Sato, Takahiro

    growth and industry evolution, formulates testable hypotheses, and uses a novel methodology to identify it. The empirical analysis is based on the plant level panel data of 22 manufacturing industries in Indian manufacturing during the period 2000-01 to 2005-06. Our empirical results reveal that much...... in addressing this issue given the constantly changing population of HGFs. This study uses an alternative conceptual framework and proposes a concept of ‘High Impact Group of Firms’ (HIGF). It explains the HIGFs in the framework of a new stream of literature that focuses on business dynamics, productivity...... depends on the industry/sector specific characteristics....

  4. Identifying high-redshift GRBs with RATIR

    CERN Document Server

    Littlejohns, O M; Cucchiara, A; Watson, A M; Kutyrev, A S; Lee, W H; Richer, M G; Klein, C R; Fox, O D; Prochaska, J X; Bloom, J S; Troja, E; Ramirez-Ruiz, E; de Diego, J A; Georgiev, L; González, J; Román-Zúñiga, C G; Gehrels, N; Moseley, H

    2013-01-01

    We present a template fitting algorithm for determining photometric redshifts, $z_{\\rm phot}$, of candidate high-redshift gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Using afterglow photometry, obtained by the Reionization And Transients InfraRed (RATIR) camera, this algorithm accounts for the intrinsic GRB afterglow spectrum, host dust extinction and the effect of neutral hydrogen (local and cosmological) along the line of sight. We present the results obtained by this algorithm and RATIR photometry of GRB 130606A, finding $z_{\\rm phot} = 6.01_{-0.08}^{+0.16}$ for a model with negligible host dust extinction, consistent with spectroscopic measurements of the redshift of this GRB. Using simulated RATIR photometry, we find our algorithm provides precise measures of $z_{\\rm phot}$ in the ranges $4 4$. Further testing highlights the required caution in cases of highly dust extincted host galaxies. These tests also show that our algorithm minimizes false negatives thus allowing us to rapidly identify all potential high-redshift eve...

  5. High surface area, high permeability carbon monoliths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagasse, R.R.; Schroeder, J.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Organic Materials Processing Dept.

    1994-12-31

    The goal of this work is to prepare carbon monoliths having precisely tailored pore size distribution. Prior studies have demonstrated that poly(acrylonitrile) can be processed into a precursor having tailored macropore structure. Since the macropores were preserved during pyrolysis, this synthetic process provided a route to porous carbon having macropores with size =0.1 to 10{mu}m. No micropores of size <2 nm could be detected in the carbon, however, by nitrogen adsorption. In the present work, the authors have processed a different polymer, poly(vinylidene chloride) into a macroporous precursor, Pyrolysis produced carbon monoliths having macropores derived from the polymer precursor as well as extensive microporosity produced during the pyrolysis of the polymer. One of these carbons had BET surface area of 1,050 m{sup 2}/g and about 1.2 cc/g total pore volume, with about 1/3 of the total pore volume in micropores and the remainder in 1{mu}m macropores. No mesopores in the intermediate size range could be detected by nitrogen adsorption. Carbon materials having high surface area as well as micron size pores have potential applications as electrodes for double layer supercapacitors containing liquid electrolyte, or as efficient media for performing chemical separations.

  6. Identifying sensitive areas on intercultural contacts: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Ramos-Vidal

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the negative influence that cultural friction areas can promote on intercultural contacts. First, we expose the critical incident method like cross-cultural training model (Arthur, 2001. Then we show the negative effects that sensitive cultural zones can exert on the formation of prejudices and stereotypes about culturally diverse groups, analyzing 77 critical incidents collected in two different formative contexts. The main cultural shock areas detected are a intercultural communication barriers, b gender roles, and c the cultural expressions statement. Strategies to improve the method validity are proposed.

  7. Identifying priority areas for conservation and management in diverse tropical forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Mokany

    Full Text Available The high concentration of the world's species in tropical forests endows these systems with particular importance for retaining global biodiversity, yet it also presents significant challenges for ecology and conservation science. The vast number of rare and yet to be discovered species restricts the applicability of species-level modelling for tropical forests, while the capacity of community classification approaches to identify priorities for conservation and management is also limited. Here we assessed the degree to which macroecological modelling can overcome shortfalls in our knowledge of biodiversity in tropical forests and help identify priority areas for their conservation and management. We used 527 plant community survey plots in the Australian Wet Tropics to generate models and predictions of species richness, compositional dissimilarity, and community composition for all the 4,313 vascular plant species recorded across the region (>1.3 million communities (grid cells. We then applied these predictions to identify areas of tropical forest likely to contain the greatest concentration of species, rare species, endemic species and primitive angiosperm families. Synthesising these alternative attributes of diversity into a single index of conservation value, we identified two areas within the Australian wet tropics that should be a high priority for future conservation actions: the Atherton Tablelands and Daintree rainforest. Our findings demonstrate the value of macroecological modelling in identifying priority areas for conservation and management actions within highly diverse systems, such as tropical forests.

  8. Identifying priority areas for conservation and management in diverse tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokany, Karel; Westcott, David A; Prasad, Soumya; Ford, Andrew J; Metcalfe, Daniel J

    2014-01-01

    The high concentration of the world's species in tropical forests endows these systems with particular importance for retaining global biodiversity, yet it also presents significant challenges for ecology and conservation science. The vast number of rare and yet to be discovered species restricts the applicability of species-level modelling for tropical forests, while the capacity of community classification approaches to identify priorities for conservation and management is also limited. Here we assessed the degree to which macroecological modelling can overcome shortfalls in our knowledge of biodiversity in tropical forests and help identify priority areas for their conservation and management. We used 527 plant community survey plots in the Australian Wet Tropics to generate models and predictions of species richness, compositional dissimilarity, and community composition for all the 4,313 vascular plant species recorded across the region (>1.3 million communities (grid cells)). We then applied these predictions to identify areas of tropical forest likely to contain the greatest concentration of species, rare species, endemic species and primitive angiosperm families. Synthesising these alternative attributes of diversity into a single index of conservation value, we identified two areas within the Australian wet tropics that should be a high priority for future conservation actions: the Atherton Tablelands and Daintree rainforest. Our findings demonstrate the value of macroecological modelling in identifying priority areas for conservation and management actions within highly diverse systems, such as tropical forests.

  9. High pt identified particle production in ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Christiansen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The ALICE experiment is a dedicated heavy ion physics detector at the LHC with unique capabilities for studying identified particle production. In this proceeding preliminary results for RAA for pi and K+p (sum), are reported, based on measurements in pp at sqrt(s) = 2.76 TeV and Pb-Pb at sqrt(sNN) = 2.76 TeV. The results are compared to theoretical predictions and measurements at RHIC.

  10. Identifying High Growth Firms in India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aggarwal, Aradhna; Sato, Takahiro

    Over the past two decades, considerable interest has grown in high growth firms (HGFs). However, the concept of HGFs still remains controversial. One of the most controversial issues is size and age of these firms. The present study argues that the current literature on HGFs may offer little help...

  11. Identifying the nature of high energy Astroparticles

    CERN Document Server

    Mora, Karen Salomé Caballero

    2016-01-01

    High energy Astroparticles include Cosmic Ray, gamma ray and neutrinos, all of them coming from the universe. The origin and production, acceleration and propagation mechanisms of ultrahigh-energy CR (up to $10^{20}$ eV) are still unknown. Knowledge on particle interactions taking place at those energies, useful for studying current theories on particle physics, can be obtained only from measurements of high energy astroparticles. In the present document some techniques on data analysis of mass composition of UHECR with the Pierre Auger Observatory are described. The relevance of the muon component of air showers produced by the primary CR, as well as some low energy simulations of that component, are explained.

  12. Laser speckle contrast imaging identifies ischemic areas on gastric tube reconstructions following esophagectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Milstein, Dan M J; Ince, Can; Gisbertz, Suzanne S.; Boateng, Kofi B.; Geerts, Bart F; Hollmann, Markus W; van Berge Henegouwen, Mark I; Veelo, Denise P

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Gastric tube reconstruction (GTR) is a high-risk surgical procedure with substantial perioperative morbidity. Compromised arterial blood supply and venous congestion are believed to be the main etiologic factors associated with early and late anastomotic complications. Identifying low blood perfusion areas may provide information on the risks of future anastomotic leakage and could be essential for improving surgical techniques. The aim of this study was to generate a method for gast...

  13. Laser speckle contrast imaging identifies ischemic areas on gastric tube reconstructions following esophagectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Milstein, D.M.J.; Ince, C.; Gisbertz, S. S.; Boateng, K. B.; Geerts, B.F.; Hollmann, M.W.; van Berge Henegouwen, M. I.; Veelo, D P

    2016-01-01

    Gastric tube reconstruction (GTR) is a high-risk surgical procedure with substantial perioperative morbidity. Compromised arterial blood supply and venous congestion are believed to be the main etiologic factors associated with early and late anastomotic complications. Identifying low blood perfusion areas may provide information on the risks of future anastomotic leakage and could be essential for improving surgical techniques. The aim of this study was to generate a method for gastric micro...

  14. Identifying the Prospective Area of Sulfide Groundwater within the Area of Palvantash Oil and Gas Deposit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Zhurayev

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the methodology of prospecting for sulfide groundwater in the area of Palvantash oil fields. In result of study allowed determining the favorable conditions for the sulfide waters formation, and mapping the areas of different sulfide water concentration. The relatively permeable areas were established and the water borehole positions were recommended.

  15. Identifying areas of deforestation risk for REDD+ using a species modeling tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Amuchastegui, Naikoa; Riveros, Juan Carlos; Forrest, Jessica L

    2014-01-01

    To implement the REDD+ mechanism (Reducing Emissions for Deforestation and Forest Degradation, countries need to prioritize areas to combat future deforestation CO2 emissions, identify the drivers of deforestation around which to develop mitigation actions, and quantify and value carbon for financial mechanisms. Each comes with its own methodological challenges, and existing approaches and tools to do so can be costly to implement or require considerable technical knowledge and skill. Here, we present an approach utilizing a machine learning technique known as Maximum Entropy Modeling (Maxent) to identify areas at high deforestation risk in the study area in Madre de Dios, Peru under a business-as-usual scenario in which historic deforestation rates continue. We link deforestation risk area to carbon density values to estimate future carbon emissions. We quantified area deforested and carbon emissions between 2000 and 2009 as the basis of the scenario. We observed over 80,000 ha of forest cover lost from 2000-2009 (0.21% annual loss), representing over 39 million Mg CO2. The rate increased rapidly following the enhancement of the Inter Oceanic Highway in 2005. Accessibility and distance to previous deforestation were strong predictors of deforestation risk, while land use designation was less important. The model performed consistently well (AUC > 0.9), significantly better than random when we compared predicted deforestation risk to observed. If past deforestation rates continue, we estimate that 132,865 ha of forest could be lost by the year 2020, representing over 55 million Mg CO2. Maxent provided a reliable method for identifying areas at high risk of deforestation and the major explanatory variables that could draw attention for mitigation action planning under REDD+. The tool is accessible, replicable and easy to use; all necessary for producing good risk estimates and adapt models after potential landscape change. We propose this approach for developing

  16. Identifying hydrologically sensitive areas using LiDAR DEMs to mitigate critical source areas of diffuse pollution: development and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Ian; Jordan, Phil; Mellander, Per-Erik; Fenton, Owen; Shine, Oliver; hUallacháin, Daire Ó.; Creamer, Rachel; McDonald, Noeleen; Dunlop, Paul; Murphy, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Identifying critical source areas (CSAs) of diffuse pollution in agricultural catchments requires the accurate identification of hydrologically sensitive areas (HSAs) at highest propensity for generating surface runoff and transporting pollutants such as phosphorus (P). A new GIS-based HSA Index is presented that identifies HSAs at the sub-field scale. It uses a soil topographic index (STI) and accounts for the hydrological disconnection of overland flow via topographic impediment from flow sinks such as hedgerows and depressions. High resolution (0.25-2 m) LiDAR Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) are utilised to capture these microtopographic controls on flow pathways and hydrological connectivity. The HSA Index was applied to four agricultural catchments (~7.5-12 km2) with contrasting topography and soil types. Catchment HSA sizes were estimated using high resolution rainfall-quickflow measurements during saturated winter storm events in 2009-2014, and mapped using the HSA Index. HSA sizes ranged from 1.6-3.4% of the catchment area during median storm events and 2.9-8.5% during upper quartile events depending on whether well or poorly drained soils dominated, which validated HSA Index value distributions. Total flow sink volume capacities ranged from 8,298-59,584 m3 and caused 8.5-24.2% of overland-flow-generating-areas and 16.8-33.4% of catchment areas to become hydrologically disconnected from the open drainage channel network. HSA maps identified 'delivery points' along surface runoff pathways where transported pollutants such as P are delivered to the open drainage network. Using these as proposed locations for targeting mitigation measures such as riparian buffer strips (RBS) reduced costs compared to blanket implementation within an example agri-environment scheme by 66% and 91% over 1 and 5 years respectively, which included LiDAR DEM acquisition costs. Considering that HSAs are often the dominant P CSA factor in agricultural catchments and can override

  17. Using GIS technology to identify areas of tuberculosis transmission and incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jost Kenneth C

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently in the U.S. it is recommended that tuberculosis screening and treatment programs be targeted at high-risk populations. While a strategy of targeted testing and treatment of persons most likely to develop tuberculosis is attractive, it is uncertain how best to accomplish this goal. In this study we seek to identify geographical areas where on-going tuberculosis transmission is occurring by linking Geographic Information Systems (GIS technology with molecular surveillance. Methods This cross-sectional analysis was performed on data collected on persons newly diagnosed with culture positive tuberculosis at the Tarrant County Health Department (TCHD between January 1, 1993 and December 31, 2000. Clinical isolates were molecularly characterized using IS6110-based RFLP analysis and spoligotyping methods to identify patients infected with the same strain. Residential addresses at the time of diagnosis of tuberculosis were geocoded and mapped according to strain characterization. Generalized estimating equations (GEE analysis models were used to identify risk factors involved in clustering. Results Evaluation of the spatial distribution of cases within zip-code boundaries identified distinct areas of geographical distribution of same strain disease. We identified these geographical areas as having increased likelihood of on-going transmission. Based on this evidence we plan to perform geographically based screening and treatment programs. Conclusion Using GIS analysis combined with molecular epidemiological surveillance may be an effective method for identifying instances of local transmission. These methods can be used to enhance targeted screening and control efforts, with the goal of interruption of disease transmission and ultimately incidence reduction.

  18. Opuntia in Mexico: identifying priority areas for conserving biodiversity in a multi-use landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Illoldi-Rangel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: México is one of the world's centers of species diversity (richness for Opuntia cacti. Yet, in spite of their economic and ecological importance, Opuntia species remain poorly studied and protected in México. Many of the species are sparsely but widely distributed across the landscape and are subject to a variety of human uses, so devising implementable conservation plans for them presents formidable difficulties. Multi-criteria analysis can be used to design a spatially coherent conservation area network while permitting sustainable human usage. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Species distribution models were created for 60 Opuntia species using MaxEnt. Targets of representation within conservation area networks were assigned at 100% for the geographically rarest species and 10% for the most common ones. Three different conservation plans were developed to represent the species within these networks using total area, shape, and connectivity as relevant criteria. Multi-criteria analysis and a metaheuristic adaptive tabu search algorithm were used to search for optimal solutions. The plans were built on the existing protected areas of México and prioritized additional areas for management for the persistence of Opuntia species. All plans required around one-third of México's total area to be prioritized for attention for Opuntia conservation, underscoring the implausibility of Opuntia conservation through traditional land reservation. Tabu search turned out to be both computationally tractable and easily implementable for search problems of this kind. CONCLUSIONS: Opuntia conservation in México require the management of large areas of land for multiple uses. The multi-criteria analyses identified priority areas and organized them in large contiguous blocks that can be effectively managed. A high level of connectivity was established among the prioritized areas resulting in the enhancement of possible modes of plant dispersal as well as

  19. Expanding protected areas beyond their terrestrial comfort zone: identifying spatial options for river conservation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nel, JL

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available There has been very little consideration of freshwater ecosystems in identifying and designing protected areas. Recent studies suggest that protected areas hold enormous potential to conserve freshwater biodiversity if augmented with appropriate...

  20. Identifying and preserving high-water mark data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Todd A.; Bruce, Jennifer L.; O'Connor, Jim; McGee, Benton D.; Holmes, Jr., Robert R.; Hollins, Ryan; Forbes, Brandon T.; Kohn, Michael S.; Schellekens, Mathew; Martin, Zachary W.; Peppler, Marie C.

    2016-03-08

    High-water marks provide valuable data for understanding recent and historical flood events. The proper collection and recording of high-water mark data from perishable and preserved evidence informs flood assessments, research, and water resource management. Given the high cost of flooding in developed areas, experienced hydrographers, using the best available techniques, can contribute high-quality data toward efforts such as public education of flood risk, flood inundation mapping, flood frequency computations, indirect streamflow measurement, and hazard assessments.This manual presents guidance for skilled high-water mark identification, including marks left behind in natural and man-made environments by tranquil and rapid flowing water. This manual also presents pitfalls and challenges associated with various types of flood evidence that help hydrographers identify the best high-water marks and assess the uncertainty associated with a given mark. Proficient high-water mark data collection contributes to better understanding of the flooding process and reduces risk through greater ability to estimate flood probability.The U.S. Geological Survey, operating the Nation’s premier water data collection network, encourages readers of this manual to familiarize themselves with the art and science of high-water mark collection. The U.S. Geological survey maintains a national database at http://water.usgs.gov/floods/FEV/ that includes high-water mark information for many flood events, and local U.S. Geological Survey Water Science Centers can provide information to interested readers about participation in data collection and flood documentation efforts as volunteers or observers.

  1. Prescription opioid poisoning across urban and rural areas: identifying vulnerable groups and geographic areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdá, Magdalena; Gaidus, Andrew; Keyes, Katherine M; Ponicki, William; Martins, Silvia; Galea, Sandro; Gruenewald, Paul

    2017-01-01

    To determine (1) whether prescription opioid poisoning (PO) hospital discharges spread across space over time, (2) the locations of 'hot-spots' of PO-related hospital discharges, (3) how features of the local environment contribute to the growth in PO-related hospital discharges and (4) where each environmental feature makes the strongest contribution. Hierarchical Bayesian Poisson space-time analysis to relate annual discharges from community hospitals to postal code characteristics over 10 years. California, USA. Residents of 18 517 postal codes in California, 2001-11. Annual postal code-level counts of hospital discharges due to PO poisoning were related to postal code pharmacy density, measures of medical need for POs (i.e. rates of cancer and arthritis-related hospital discharges), economic stressors (i.e. median household income, percentage of families in poverty and the unemployment rate) and concentration of manual labor industries. PO-related hospital discharges spread from rural and suburban/exurban 'hot-spots' to urban areas. They increased more in postal codes with greater pharmacy density [rate ratio (RR) = 1.03; 95% credible interval (CI) = 1.01, 1.05], more arthritis-related hospital discharges (RR = 1.08; 95% CI = 1.06, 1.11), lower income (RR = 0.85; 95% CI = 0.83, 0.87) and more manual labor industries (RR = 1.15; 95% CI = 1.10, 1.19 for construction; RR = 1.12; 95% CI = 1.04, 1.20 for manufacturing industries). Changes in pharmacy density primarily affected PO-related discharges in urban areas, while changes in income and manual labor industries especially affected PO-related discharges in suburban/exurban and rural areas. Hospital discharge rates for prescription opioid (PO) poisoning spread from rural and suburban/exurban hot-spots to urban areas, suggesting spatial contagion. The distribution of age-related and work-place-related sources of medical need for POs in rural areas and, to a lesser extent, the availability of

  2. Identifying the breeding areas of locusts in the Yellow River estuary using Landsat ETM+ imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingsheng; Liu, Gaohuan; Yang, Yuzhen; Liu, Peng; Huang, Jianjie

    2006-03-01

    growth, and the moderate areas of locusts were percent 40, and the frequent areas were percent 50. Because of the low spatial resolution of ETM+ imagery not enough to identify vegetation structure and components, and the quick spatial and temporal change of soil water content, this research only discussed vegetation fractional cover and soil salt content, and quantitative assessment of the identification results and a detailed research need more high spatial and temporal resolution remote sensing data and surface data supports in the future.

  3. Identifying priority areas for conservation: a global assessment for forest-dependent birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme M Buchanan

    Full Text Available Limited resources are available to address the world's growing environmental problems, requiring conservationists to identify priority sites for action. Using new distribution maps for all of the world's forest-dependent birds (60.6% of all bird species, we quantify the contribution of remaining forest to conserving global avian biodiversity. For each of the world's partly or wholly forested 5-km cells, we estimated an impact score of its contribution to the distribution of all the forest bird species estimated to occur within it, and so is proportional to the impact on the conservation status of the world's forest-dependent birds were the forest it contains lost. The distribution of scores was highly skewed, a very small proportion of cells having scores several orders of magnitude above the global mean. Ecoregions containing the highest values of this score included relatively species-poor islands such as Hawaii and Palau, the relatively species-rich islands of Indonesia and the Philippines, and the megadiverse Atlantic Forests and northern Andes of South America. Ecoregions with high impact scores and high deforestation rates (2000-2005 included montane forests in Cameroon and the Eastern Arc of Tanzania, although deforestation data were not available for all ecoregions. Ecoregions with high impact scores, high rates of recent deforestation and low coverage by the protected area network included Indonesia's Seram rain forests and the moist forests of Trinidad and Tobago. Key sites in these ecoregions represent some of the most urgent priorities for expansion of the global protected areas network to meet Convention on Biological Diversity targets to increase the proportion of land formally protected to 17% by 2020. Areas with high impact scores, rapid deforestation, low protection and high carbon storage values may represent significant opportunities for both biodiversity conservation and climate change mitigation, for example through Reducing

  4. Identifying priority areas for conservation: a global assessment for forest-dependent birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Graeme M; Donald, Paul F; Butchart, Stuart H M

    2011-01-01

    Limited resources are available to address the world's growing environmental problems, requiring conservationists to identify priority sites for action. Using new distribution maps for all of the world's forest-dependent birds (60.6% of all bird species), we quantify the contribution of remaining forest to conserving global avian biodiversity. For each of the world's partly or wholly forested 5-km cells, we estimated an impact score of its contribution to the distribution of all the forest bird species estimated to occur within it, and so is proportional to the impact on the conservation status of the world's forest-dependent birds were the forest it contains lost. The distribution of scores was highly skewed, a very small proportion of cells having scores several orders of magnitude above the global mean. Ecoregions containing the highest values of this score included relatively species-poor islands such as Hawaii and Palau, the relatively species-rich islands of Indonesia and the Philippines, and the megadiverse Atlantic Forests and northern Andes of South America. Ecoregions with high impact scores and high deforestation rates (2000-2005) included montane forests in Cameroon and the Eastern Arc of Tanzania, although deforestation data were not available for all ecoregions. Ecoregions with high impact scores, high rates of recent deforestation and low coverage by the protected area network included Indonesia's Seram rain forests and the moist forests of Trinidad and Tobago. Key sites in these ecoregions represent some of the most urgent priorities for expansion of the global protected areas network to meet Convention on Biological Diversity targets to increase the proportion of land formally protected to 17% by 2020. Areas with high impact scores, rapid deforestation, low protection and high carbon storage values may represent significant opportunities for both biodiversity conservation and climate change mitigation, for example through Reducing Emissions from

  5. Incorporating climate change into conservation planning: Identifying priority areas across a species’ range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard G Pearson

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical and practical approaches associated with conservation biogeography, including ecological niche modeling, have been applied to the difficult task of determining how to incorporate climate change into conservation prioritization methodologies. Most studies have focused on identifying species that are most at risk from climate change, but here we asked, which areas within a species’ range does climate change threaten most? We explored methods for incorporating climate change within a range-wide conservation planning framework, using a case study of jaguars (Panthera onca. We used ecological niche models to estimate exposure to climate change across the range of the jaguar and incorporated these estimates into habitat quality scores for re-prioritization of high-priority areas for jaguar conservation. Methods such as these are needed to guide prioritization of geographically-specific actions for conservation across a species’ range.

  6. Using EVT for Geological Anomaly Design and Its Application in Identifying Anomalies in Mining Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feilong Qin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A geological anomaly is the basis of mineral deposit prediction. Through the study of the knowledge and characteristics of geological anomalies, the category of extreme value theory (EVT to which a geological anomaly belongs can be determined. Associating the principle of the EVT and ensuring the methods of the shape parameter and scale parameter for the generalized Pareto distribution (GPD, the methods to select the threshold of the GPD can be studied. This paper designs a new algorithm called the EVT model of geological anomaly. These study data on Cu and Au originate from 26 exploration lines of the Jiguanzui Cu-Au mining area in Hubei, China. The proposed EVT model of the geological anomaly is applied to identify anomalies in the Jiguanzui Cu-Au mining area. The results show that the model can effectively identify the geological anomaly region of Cu and Au. The anomaly region of Cu and Au is consistent with the range of ore bodies of actual engineering exploration. Therefore, the EVT model of the geological anomaly can effectively identify anomalies, and it has a high indicating function with respect to ore prospecting.

  7. ANTHROPOMETRY TO IDENTIFY HIGH VISCERAL FAT AREA IN POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondim Pitanga, Francisco José; Seara Pitanga, Cristiano Penas; Calçada Dias Gabriel, Ronaldo Eugénio; Cristina Beck, Carmem; Rodrigues Moreira, Maria Helena

    2015-12-01

    Introducción: la evaluación de la distribución de la grasa corporal por antropometría puede servir para identificar el exceso de grasa visceral. Este diagnóstico permitirá la aplicación de medidas específicas para prevenir y tratar el exceso de grasa visceral en mujeres posmenopáusicas. Objetivo: el objetivo de este estudio fue analizar diferentes indicadores antropométricos e identificar los mejores puntos de corte para discriminar sujetos con alta área de grasa visceral (AAGS) en mujeres posmenopáusicas. Métodos: estudio transversal con una muestra de 255 mujeres posmenopáusicas. Se construyeron diferentes curvas Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) y las áreas bajo ellas comparadas en términos del índice de conicidad (índice C), el índice de masa corporal (IMC), razón cintura-cadera (RCC), circunferencia de la cintura (CC), relación cintura-estatura (RCEst) y AAGS. La sensibilidad y la especificidad identificaron los mejores puntos de corte entre los diferentes indicadores antropométricos para discriminar sujetos con AAGS. El intervalo de confianza se fijó en 95%. Resultados: las zonas estadísticamente significativas bajo la curva ROC se encontraron para todos los indicadores antropométricos analizados. Fueron sugeridos los siguientes puntos de corte, con sus respectivas sensibilidades y especificidades, para discriminar sujetos con AAGS: índice C (1,19; 75,00%–74,77%); IMC (27,3 kg / m2; 81,08%–80,37%); RCC (0,98; 90,54%-83,18%); CC (85 cm; 85,14%-81,31%); y RCEst (0,55; 80,41%–80,37%). Conclusión: estos resultados demuestran que los indicadores antropométricos identifican bien a las mujeres postmenopáusicas con AAGS y pueden ser utilizados en lugar de los exámenes más sofisticados para detectar altos niveles de grasa visceral.

  8. Airborne Quercus pollen in SW Spain: Identifying favourable conditions for atmospheric transport and potential source areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maya-Manzano, José María; Fernández-Rodríguez, Santiago; Smith, Matt; Tormo-Molina, Rafael; Reynolds, Andrew M; Silva-Palacios, Inmaculada; Gonzalo-Garijo, Ángela; Sadyś, Magdalena

    2016-11-15

    The pollen grains of Quercus spp. (oak trees) are allergenic. This study investigates airborne Quercus pollen in SW Spain with the aim identifying favourable conditions for atmospheric transport and potential sources areas. Two types of Quercus distribution maps were produced. Airborne Quercus pollen concentrations were measured at three sites located in the Extremadura region (SW Spain) for 3 consecutive years. The seasonal occurrence of Quercus pollen in the air was investigated, as well as days with pollen concentrations ≥80Pm(-3). The distance that Quercus pollen can be transported in appreciable numbers was calculated using clusters of back trajectories representing the air mass movement above the source areas (oak woodlands), and by using a state-of-the-art dispersion model. The two main potential sources of Quercus airborne pollen captured in SW Spain are Q. ilex subsp. ballota and Q. suber. The minimum distances between aerobiological stations and Quercus woodlands have been estimated as: 40km (Plasencia), 66km (Don Benito), 62km (Zafra) from the context of this study. Daily mean Quercus pollen concentration can exceed 1,700Pm(-3), levels reached not less than 24 days in a single year. High Quercus pollen concentration were mostly associated with moderate wind speed events (6-10ms(-1)), whereas that a high wind speed (16-20ms(-1)) seems to be associated with low concentrations.

  9. Polycentric Structures in Latin American Metropolitan Areas : Identifying Employment Sub-centres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernández-Maldonado, Ana María; Romein, Arie; Verkoren, Otto; Parente Paula Pessoa, Renata

    2014-01-01

    Fernández-Maldonado A. M., Romein A., Verkoren O. and Parente Paula Pessoa R. Polycentric structures in Latin American metropolitan areas: identifying employment sub-centres, Regional Studies. The significant spatial transformations that have occurred within Latin American metropolitan areas since t

  10. Identifying Potential Area and Financial Prospects of Rooftop Solar Photovoltaics (PV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarawut Ninsawat

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In an urban area, the roof is the only available surface that can be utilized for installing solar photovoltaics (PV, and the active surface area depends on the type of roof. Shadows on a solar panel can be caused by nearby tall buildings, construction materials such as water tanks, or the roof configuration itself. The azimuth angle of the sun varies, based on the season and the time of day. Therefore, the simulation of shadow for one or two days or using the rule of thumb may not be sufficient to evaluate shadow effects on solar panels throughout the year. In this paper, a methodology for estimating the solar potential of solar PV on rooftops is presented, which is particularly applicable to urban areas. The objective of this method is to assess how roof type and shadow play a role in potentiality and financial benefit. The method starts with roof type extraction from high-resolution satellite imagery, using Object Base Image Analysis (OBIA, the generation of a 3D structure from height data and roof type, the simulation of shadow throughout the year, and the identification of potential and financial prospects. Based on the results obtained, the system seems to be adequate for calculating the financial benefits of solar PV to a very fine scale. The payback period varied from 7–13 years depending on the roof type, direction, and shadow impact. Based on the potentiality, a homeowner can make a profit of up to 200%. This method could help homeowners to identify potential roof area and economic interest.

  11. Combining endangered plants and animals as surrogates to identify priority conservation areas in Yunnan, China

    OpenAIRE

    Feiling Yang; Jinming Hu; Ruidong Wu

    2016-01-01

    Suitable surrogates are critical for identifying optimal priority conservation areas (PCAs) to protect regional biodiversity. This study explored the efficiency of using endangered plants and animals as surrogates for identifying PCAs at the county level in Yunnan, southwest China. We ran the Dobson algorithm under three surrogate scenarios at 75% and 100% conservation levels and identified four types of PCAs. Assessment of the protection efficiencies of the four types of PCAs showed that end...

  12. Lung cancer screening: identifying the high risk cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Marcus, Michael W.; Raji, Olaide Y; John K. Field

    2015-01-01

    Low dose computed tomography (LDCT) is a viable screening tool for early lung cancer detection and mortality reduction. In practice, the success of any lung cancer screening programme will depend on successful identification of individuals at high risk in order to maximise the benefit-harm ratio. Risk prediction models incorporating multiple risk factors have been recognised as a method of identifying individuals at high risk of developing lung cancer. Identification of individuals at high ri...

  13. Use of demand for and spatial flow of ecosystem services to identify priority areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, Willem; Kukkala, Aija S; Moilanen, Atte; van Teeffelen, Astrid J A; Verburg, Peter H

    2017-08-01

    Policies and research increasingly focus on the protection of ecosystem services (ESs) through priority-area conservation. Priority areas for ESs should be identified based on ES capacity and ES demand and account for the connections between areas of ES capacity and demand (flow) resulting in areas of unique demand-supply connections (flow zones). We tested ways to account for ES demand and flow zones to identify priority areas in the European Union. We mapped the capacity and demand of a global (carbon sequestration), a regional (flood regulation), and 3 local ESs (air quality, pollination, and urban leisure). We used Zonation software to identify priority areas for ESs based on 6 tests: with and without accounting for ES demand and 4 tests that accounted for the effect of ES flow zone. There was only 37.1% overlap between the 25% of priority areas that encompassed the most ESs with and without accounting for ES demand. The level of ESs maintained in the priority areas increased from 23.2% to 57.9% after accounting for ES demand, especially for ESs with a small flow zone. Accounting for flow zone had a small effect on the location of priority areas and level of ESs maintained but resulted in fewer flow zones without ES maintained relative to ignoring flow zones. Accounting for demand and flow zones enhanced representation and distribution of ESs with local to regional flow zones without large trade-offs relative to the global ES. We found that ignoring ES demand led to the identification of priority areas in remote regions where benefits from ES capacity to society were small. Incorporating ESs in conservation planning should therefore always account for ES demand to identify an effective priority network for ESs. © 2016 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.

  14. Rapid identifying high-influence nodes in complex networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋波; 蒋国平; 宋玉蓉; 夏玲玲

    2015-01-01

    A tiny fraction of infl uential individuals play a critical role in the dynamics on complex systems. Identifying the infl uential nodes in complex networks has theoretical and practical significance. Considering the uncertainties of network scale and topology, and the timeliness of dynamic behaviors in real networks, we propose a rapid identifying method (RIM) to find the fraction of high-infl uential nodes. Instead of ranking all nodes, our method only aims at ranking a small number of nodes in network. We set the high-infl uential nodes as initial spreaders, and evaluate the performance of RIM by the susceptible–infected–recovered (SIR) model. The simulations show that in different networks, RIM performs well on rapid identifying high-infl uential nodes, which is verified by typical ranking methods, such as degree, closeness, betweenness, and eigenvector centrality methods.

  15. Family and academic performance: identifying high school student profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Aleli Chaparro Caso López

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify profiles of high school students, based on variables related to academic performance, socioeconomic status, cultural capital and family organization. A total of 21,724 high school students, from the five municipalities of the state of Baja California, took part. A K-means cluster analysis was performed to identify the profiles. The analyses identified two clearly-defined clusters: Cluster 1 grouped together students with high academic performance and who achieved higher scores for socioeconomic status, cultural capital and family involvement, whereas Cluster 2 brought together students with low academic achievement, and who also obtained lower scores for socioeconomic status and cultural capital, and had less family involvement. It is concluded that the family variables analyzed form student profiles that can be related to academic achievement.

  16. Identifying Areas for Field Conservation of Forages in Latin American Disturbed Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Peters

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the spatial analysis tools DIVA and FloraMap to identify potential areas for the in situ conservation of a set of 10 forage species. We introduce the idea of roadside verges as conservation areas and discuss the risks and opportunities of two potential scenarios for conservation. These are the introduction of mass reservoirs outside of the original areas of collection and conservation inside the area of origin. Four potential areas for in situ conservation in Latin America are identified. Although more detailed studies using remote sensing, soil information, and field reconnaissance will be necessary for a final assessment of the suggested areas as field conservation sites, we discuss the possibilities of establishing low-maintenance communities and the potential dangers of introducing harmful weed species. We do not have final answers with regard to the permanent maintenance of genetic diversity in these areas but suggest that further studies of genetic drift in the populations would not only be scientifically useful but might also lead to identifying useful genotypes for local use.

  17. Identifying Potential Areas for Future Urban Development Using Gis-Based Multi Criteria Evaluation Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Khalid Sabbar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia likes other Asian countries has experienced rapid urbanization due to economic development, industrialization, massive migrations as well as natural population growth. This expansion particularly the unplanned has impacted negatively on farming activities and creates huge pressure arable agriculture areas. Thus, identification of potential sites for future urban development should become important issues in ensuring sustainable development. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to use GIS based multi criteria evaluation technique to identify potential areas for urban development at Balik Pulau, Penang. The study quantified spatial and temporal dynamics of land use/cover changes and identified potential areas for future development. The results indicated that large proportions of agriculture areas had been converted to built-up areas.. Urban areas increased from 1793.2 ha in 1992 to 3235.4 ha in 2002 and became 3987.8 ha in 2010. On the other hand agricultural land decreased from 6171.3ha (53.8% in 1992 to 3883 ha (35. % in 2010. The study, then, produced map showing potential sites for future urban development. The findings also indicated built-up areas would continue to encroach into flat available agricultural land which will be diminished if no restriction imposed. Thus, the information obtained from this study is useful for planners and decision makers in controlling agriculture areas and guiding new development properly.

  18. High surface area fibrous silica nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Polshettiwar, Vivek

    2014-11-11

    Disclosed are high surface area nanoparticles that have a fibrous morphology. The nanoparticles have a plurality of fibers, wherein each fiber is in contact with one other fiber and each fiber has a length of between about 1 nm and about 5000 nm. Also disclosed are applications of the nanoparticles of the present invention, and methods of fabrication of the nanoparticles of the present invention.

  19. Identifying Non-Volatile Data Storage Areas: Unique Notebook Identification Information as Digital Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikica Budimir

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The research reported in this paper introduces new techniques to aid in the identification of recovered notebook computers so they may be returned to the rightful owner. We identify non-volatile data storage areas as a means of facilitating the safe storing of computer identification information. A forensic proof of concept tool has been designed to test the feasibility of several storage locations identified within this work to hold the data needed to uniquely identify a computer. The tool was used to perform the creation and extraction of created information in order to allow the analysis of the non-volatile storage locations as valid storage areas capable of holding and preserving the data created within them.  While the format of the information used to identify the machine itself is important, this research only discusses the insertion, storage and ability to retain such information.

  20. Identifying the impact of social determinants of health on disease rates using correlation analysis of area-based summary information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ruiguang; Hall, H Irene; Harrison, Kathleen McDavid; Sharpe, Tanya Telfair; Lin, Lillian S; Dean, Hazel D

    2011-01-01

    We developed a statistical tool that brings together standard, accessible, and well-understood analytic approaches and uses area-based information and other publicly available data to identify social determinants of health (SDH) that significantly affect the morbidity of a specific disease. We specified AIDS as the disease of interest and used data from the American Community Survey and the National HIV Surveillance System. Morbidity and socioeconomic variables in the two data systems were linked through geographic areas that can be identified in both systems. Correlation and partial correlation coefficients were used to measure the impact of socioeconomic factors on AIDS diagnosis rates in certain geographic areas. We developed an easily explained approach that can be used by a data analyst with access to publicly available datasets and standard statistical software to identify the impact of SDH. We found that the AIDS diagnosis rate was highly correlated with the distribution of race/ethnicity, population density, and marital status in an area. The impact of poverty, education level, and unemployment depended on other SDH variables. Area-based measures of socioeconomic variables can be used to identify risk factors associated with a disease of interest. When correlation analysis is used to identify risk factors, potential confounding from other variables must be taken into account.

  1. Identifying and Researching Market Opportunities for New High Technology Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunstan, Peter

    Using a product called the synchro-pulse welder as a case study example, this paper discusses the activities of CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation) in identifying and marketing new high-technology products. A general discussion of CSIRO's market research plans includes two goals to be attained within the next 5…

  2. VBORNET gap analysis: Mosquito vector distribution models utilised to identify areas of potential species distribution in areas lacking records.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Schaffner

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This is the second of a number of planned data papers presenting modelled vector distributions produced originally during the ECDC funded VBORNET project. This work continues under the VectorNet project now jointly funded by ECDC and EFSA. Further data papers will be published after sampling seasons when more field data will become available allowing further species to be modelled or validation and updates to existing models.  The data package described here includes those mosquito species first modelled in 2013 & 2014 as part of the VBORNET gap analysis work which aimed to identify areas of potential species distribution in areas lacking records. It comprises three species models together with suitability masks based on land class and environmental limits. The species included as part of this phase are the mosquitoes 'Aedes vexans', 'Anopheles plumbeus' and 'Culex modestus'. The known distributions of these species within the area covered by the project (Europe, the ­Mediterranean Basin, North Africa, and Eurasia are currently incomplete to a greater or lesser degree. The models are designed to fill the gaps with predicted distributions, to provide a assistance in ­targeting surveys to collect distribution data for those areas with no field validated information, and b a first indication of the species distributions within the project areas.

  3. Exome sequencing identifies ZNF644 mutations in high myopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Shi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Myopia is the most common ocular disorder worldwide, and high myopia in particular is one of the leading causes of blindness. Genetic factors play a critical role in the development of myopia, especially high myopia. Recently, the exome sequencing approach has been successfully used for the disease gene identification of Mendelian disorders. Here we show a successful application of exome sequencing to identify a gene for an autosomal dominant disorder, and we have identified a gene potentially responsible for high myopia in a monogenic form. We captured exomes of two affected individuals from a Han Chinese family with high myopia and performed sequencing analysis by a second-generation sequencer with a mean coverage of 30× and sufficient depth to call variants at ∼97% of each targeted exome. The shared genetic variants of these two affected individuals in the family being studied were filtered against the 1000 Genomes Project and the dbSNP131 database. A mutation A672G in zinc finger protein 644 isoform 1 (ZNF644 was identified as being related to the phenotype of this family. After we performed sequencing analysis of the exons in the ZNF644 gene in 300 sporadic cases of high myopia, we identified an additional five mutations (I587V, R680G, C699Y, 3'UTR+12 C>G, and 3'UTR+592 G>A in 11 different patients. All these mutations were absent in 600 normal controls. The ZNF644 gene was expressed in human retinal and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE. Given that ZNF644 is predicted to be a transcription factor that may regulate genes involved in eye development, mutation may cause the axial elongation of eyeball found in high myopia patients. Our results suggest that ZNF644 might be a causal gene for high myopia in a monogenic form.

  4. Characterization of potential mineralization in Afghanistan: four permissive areas identified using imaging spectroscopy data

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Trude V.V.; Berger, Byron R.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2014-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey and Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations natural resources revitalization activities in Afghanistan, four permissive areas for mineralization, Bamyan 1, Farah 1, Ghazni 1, and Ghazni 2, have been identified using imaging spectroscopy data. To support economic development, the areas of potential mineralization were selected on the occurrence of selected mineral assemblages mapped using the HyMap™ data (kaolinite, jarosite, hydrated silica, chlorite, epidote, iron-bearing carbonate, buddingtonite, dickite, and alunite) that may be indicative of past mineralization processes in areas with limited or no previous mineral resource studies. Approximately 30 sites were initially determined to be candidates for areas of potential mineralization. Additional criteria and material used to refine the selection and prioritization process included existing geologic maps, Landsat Thematic Mapper data, and published literature. The HyMapTM data were interpreted in the context of the regional geologic and tectonic setting and used the presence of alteration mineral assemblages to identify areas with the potential for undiscovered mineral resources. Further field-sampling, mapping, and supporting geochemical analyses are necessary to fully substantiate and verify the specific deposit types in the four areas of potential mineralization.

  5. Hydro-geomorphic connectivity and landslide features extraction to identifying potential threats and hazardous areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarolli, Paolo; Fuller, Ian C.; Basso, Federica; Cavalli, Marco; Sofia, Giulia

    2017-04-01

    Hydro-geomorphic connectivity has significantly emerged as a new concept to understand the transfer of surface water and sediment through landscapes. A further scientific challenge is determining how the concept can be used to enable sustainable land and water management. This research proposes an interesting approach to integrating remote sensing techniques, connectivity theory, and geomorphometry based on high-resolution digital terrain model (HR-DTMs) to automatically extract landslides crowns and gully erosion, to determine the different rate of connectivity among the main extracted features and the river network, and thus determine a possible categorization of hazardous areas. The study takes place in two mountainous regions in the Wellington Region (New Zealand). The methodology is a three step approach. Firstly, we performed an automatic detection of the likely landslides crowns through the use of thresholds obtained by the statistical analysis of the variability of landform curvature. After that, the research considered the Connectivity Index to analyse how a complex and rugged topography induces large variations in erosion and sediment delivery in the two catchments. Lastly, the two methods have been integrated to create a unique procedure able to classify the different rate of connectivity among the main features and the river network and thus identifying potential threats and hazardous areas. The methodology is fast, and it can produce a detailed and updated inventory map that could be a key tool for erosional and sediment delivery hazard mitigation. This fast and simple method can be a useful tool to manage emergencies giving priorities to more failure-prone zones. Furthermore, it could be considered to do a preliminary interpretations of geomorphological phenomena and more in general, it could be the base to develop inventory maps. References Cavalli M, Trevisani S, Comiti F, Marchi L. 2013. Geomorphometric assessment of spatial sediment connectivity

  6. A simple method to identify areas of environmental risk due to manure application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Héctor; Arumí, José Luis; Rivera, Diego; Lagos, L Octavio

    2012-06-01

    The management of swine manure is becoming an important environmental issue in Chile. One option for the final disposal of manure is to use it as a biofertilizer, but this practice could impact the surrounding environment. To assess the potential environmental impacts of the use of swine manure as a biofertilizer, we propose a method to identify zones of environmental risk through indices. The method considers two processes: nutrient runoff and solute leaching, and uses available information about soils, crops and management practices (irrigation, fertilization, and rotation). We applied the method to qualitatively assess the environmental risk associated with the use of swine manure as a biofertilizer in an 8,000-pig farm located in Central Chile. Results showed that the farm has a moderate environmental risk, but some specific locations have high environmental risks, especially those associated with impacts on areas surrounding water resources. This information could assist the definition of better farm-level management practices, as well as the preservation of riparian vegetation acting as buffer strips. The main advantage of our approach is that it combines qualitative and quantitative information, including particular situations or field features based on expert knowledge. The method is flexible, simple, and can be easily extended or adapted to other processes.

  7. A multiway analysis for identifying high integrity bovine BACs

    OpenAIRE

    McEwan John C; Brauning Rudiger; McWilliam Sean; Barris Wesley; Ratnakumar Abhirami; Snelling Warren M; Dalrymple Brian P

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background In large genomics projects involving many different types of analyses of bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs), such as fingerprinting, end sequencing (BES) and full BAC sequencing there are many opportunities for the identities of BACs to become confused. However, by comparing the results from the different analyses, inconsistencies can be identified and a set of high integrity BACs preferred for future research can be defined. Results The location of each bovine BAC in...

  8. Rapid identifying high-influence nodes in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Bo; Jiang, Guo-Ping; Song, Yu-Rong; Xia, Ling-Ling

    2015-10-01

    A tiny fraction of influential individuals play a critical role in the dynamics on complex systems. Identifying the influential nodes in complex networks has theoretical and practical significance. Considering the uncertainties of network scale and topology, and the timeliness of dynamic behaviors in real networks, we propose a rapid identifying method (RIM) to find the fraction of high-influential nodes. Instead of ranking all nodes, our method only aims at ranking a small number of nodes in network. We set the high-influential nodes as initial spreaders, and evaluate the performance of RIM by the susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) model. The simulations show that in different networks, RIM performs well on rapid identifying high-influential nodes, which is verified by typical ranking methods, such as degree, closeness, betweenness, and eigenvector centrality methods. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61374180 and 61373136), the Ministry of Education Research in the Humanities and Social Sciences Planning Fund Project, China (Grant No. 12YJAZH120), and the Six Projects Sponsoring Talent Summits of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant No. RLD201212).

  9. Combining endangered plants and animals as surrogates to identify priority conservation areas in Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Feiling; Hu, Jinming; Wu, Ruidong

    2016-08-01

    Suitable surrogates are critical for identifying optimal priority conservation areas (PCAs) to protect regional biodiversity. This study explored the efficiency of using endangered plants and animals as surrogates for identifying PCAs at the county level in Yunnan, southwest China. We ran the Dobson algorithm under three surrogate scenarios at 75% and 100% conservation levels and identified four types of PCAs. Assessment of the protection efficiencies of the four types of PCAs showed that endangered plants had higher surrogacy values than endangered animals but that the two were not substitutable; coupled endangered plants and animals as surrogates yielded a higher surrogacy value than endangered plants or animals as surrogates; the plant-animal priority areas (PAPAs) was the optimal among the four types of PCAs for conserving both endangered plants and animals in Yunnan. PAPAs could well represent overall species diversity distribution patterns and overlap with critical biogeographical regions in Yunnan. Fourteen priority units in PAPAs should be urgently considered as optimizing Yunnan’s protected area system. The spatial pattern of PAPAs at the 100% conservation level could be conceptualized into three connected conservation belts, providing a valuable reference for optimizing the layout of the in situ protected area system in Yunnan.

  10. Combining endangered plants and animals as surrogates to identify priority conservation areas in Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Feiling; Hu, Jinming; Wu, Ruidong

    2016-08-19

    Suitable surrogates are critical for identifying optimal priority conservation areas (PCAs) to protect regional biodiversity. This study explored the efficiency of using endangered plants and animals as surrogates for identifying PCAs at the county level in Yunnan, southwest China. We ran the Dobson algorithm under three surrogate scenarios at 75% and 100% conservation levels and identified four types of PCAs. Assessment of the protection efficiencies of the four types of PCAs showed that endangered plants had higher surrogacy values than endangered animals but that the two were not substitutable; coupled endangered plants and animals as surrogates yielded a higher surrogacy value than endangered plants or animals as surrogates; the plant-animal priority areas (PAPAs) was the optimal among the four types of PCAs for conserving both endangered plants and animals in Yunnan. PAPAs could well represent overall species diversity distribution patterns and overlap with critical biogeographical regions in Yunnan. Fourteen priority units in PAPAs should be urgently considered as optimizing Yunnan's protected area system. The spatial pattern of PAPAs at the 100% conservation level could be conceptualized into three connected conservation belts, providing a valuable reference for optimizing the layout of the in situ protected area system in Yunnan.

  11. Environmental Quality Assessment of Built Areas with High Vacancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Y.; Yuan, Y.; Neale, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    Around the world, many urban areas are challenged by vacant and abandoned residential and business property. High vacancy areas have often been associated with increasing public safety problems and declining property values and subsequent tax base. High vacancy can lead to visible signs of city decline and significant barriers to the revitalization of cities. Addressing the problem of vacancy requires knowledge of vacancy patterns and their possible contributing factors. In this study, we evaluated the ten year (2005-2015) urban environmental changes for some high vacancy areas. Social and economic variables derived from U.S. census data such as non-white population, employment rate, housing price, and environmental variables derived from National Land Cover Data such as land cover and impervious area, were used as the basis for analysis. Correlation analysis and principle components analysis were performed at the Census Block Group level. Three components were identified and interpreted as economic status, urbanness, and greenness. A synthetic Urban Environmental Quality (UEQ) index was developed by integrating the three principle components according to their weights. Comparisons of the UEQ indices between the 2005 and 2015 in the increasingly high vacancy area provided useful information for investigating the possible associations between social, economic, and environmental factors, and the vacancy status. This study could provide useful information for understanding the complex issues leading to vacancy and facilitating future rehabilitation of vacant urban area.

  12. Leptospirosis outbreaks in Nicaragua: identifying critical areas and exploring drivers for evidence-based planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Maria Cristina; Nájera, Patricia; Aldighieri, Sylvain; Bacallao, Jorge; Soto, Aida; Marquiño, Wilmer; Altamirano, Lesbia; Saenz, Carlos; Marin, Jesus; Jimenez, Eduardo; Moynihan, Matthew; Espinal, Marcos

    2012-11-01

    Leptospirosis is an epidemic-prone zoonotic disease that occurs worldwide. In Central America, leptospirosis outbreaks have been reported in almost all countries; Nicaragua in particular has faced several outbreaks. The objective of this study was to stratify the risk and identify "critical areas" for leptospirosis outbreaks in Nicaragua, and to perform an exploratory analysis of potential "drivers". This ecological study includes the entire country (153 municipalities). Cases from 2004 to 2010 were obtained from the country's health information system, demographic and socioeconomic variables from its Census, and environmental data from external sources. Criteria for risk stratification of leptospirosis were defined. Nicaragua reported 1,980 cases of leptospirosis during this period, with the highest percentage of cases (26.36%) in León, followed by Chinandega (15.35%). Among the 153 municipalities, 48 were considered critical areas, 85 were endemic and 20 silent. Using spatial and statistical analysis, the variable presenting the most evident pattern of association with critical areas defined by top quintile of incidence rate is the percentage of municipal surface occupied by the soil combination of cambisol (over pyroclastic and lava bedrock) and andosol (over a volcanic ashes foundation). Precipitation and percentage of rural population are also associated with critical areas. This methodology and findings could be used for Nicaragua's Leptospirosis Intersectoral Plan, and to identify possible risk areas in other countries with similar drivers.

  13. Identifying key areas for active interprofessional learning partnerships: A facilitated dialogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven, Kathryn; Angus, Allyson; Breckenridge, Jenna; Davey, Peter; Tully, Vicki; Muir, Fiona

    2016-11-01

    Student and service user involvement is recognised as an important factor in creating interprofessional education (IPE) opportunities. We used a team-based learning approach to bring together undergraduate health professional students, early career professionals (ECPs), public partners, volunteers, and carers to explore learning partnerships. Influenced by evaluative inquiry, this qualitative study used a free text response to allow participants to give their own opinion. A total of 153 participants (50 public partners and 103 students and professionals representing 11 healthcare professions) took part. Participants were divided into mixed groups of six (n = 25) and asked to identify areas where students, professionals, and public could work together to improve health professional education. Each group documented their discussions by summarising agreed areas and next steps. Responses were collected and transcribed for inductive content analysis. Seven key themes (areas for joint working) were identified: communication, public as partners, standards of conduct, IPE, quality improvement, education, and learning environments. The team-based learning format enabled undergraduate and postgraduate health professionals to achieve consensus with public partners on areas for IPE and collaboration. Some of our results may be context-specific but the approach is generalisable to other areas.

  14. Laser speckle contrast imaging identifies ischemic areas on gastric tube reconstructions following esophagectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milstein, Dan M J; Ince, Can; Gisbertz, Suzanne S; Boateng, Kofi B; Geerts, Bart F; Hollmann, Markus W; van Berge Henegouwen, Mark I; Veelo, Denise P

    2016-06-01

    Gastric tube reconstruction (GTR) is a high-risk surgical procedure with substantial perioperative morbidity. Compromised arterial blood supply and venous congestion are believed to be the main etiologic factors associated with early and late anastomotic complications. Identifying low blood perfusion areas may provide information on the risks of future anastomotic leakage and could be essential for improving surgical techniques. The aim of this study was to generate a method for gastric microvascular perfusion analysis using laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) and to test the hypothesis that LSCI is able to identify ischemic regions on GTRs.Patients requiring elective laparoscopy-assisted GTR participated in this single-center observational investigation. A method for intraoperative evaluation of blood perfusion and postoperative analysis was generated and validated for reproducibility. Laser speckle measurements were performed at 3 different time pointes, baseline (devascularized) stomach (T0), after GTR (T1), and GTR at 20° reverse Trendelenburg (T2).Blood perfusion analysis inter-rater reliability was high, with intraclass correlation coefficients for each time point approximating 1 (P < 0.0001). Baseline (T0) and GTR (T1) mean blood perfusion profiles were highest at the base of the stomach and then progressively declined towards significant ischemia at the most cranial point or anastomotic tip (P < 0.01). After GTR, a statistically significant improvement in mean blood perfusion was observed in the cranial gastric regions of interest (P < 0.05). A generalized significant decrease in mean blood perfusion was observed across all GTR regions of interest during 20° reverse Trendelenburg (P < 0.05).It was feasible to implement LSCI intraoperatively to produce blood perfusion assessments on intact and reconstructed whole stomachs. The analytical design presented in this study resulted in good reproducibility of gastric perfusion measurements

  15. Using Landsat 5 TM Data to Identify and Map Areas of Mangrove in Tulum, Quintana Roo, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meachum, Samuel Standish

    Mangroves are recognized worldwide as a major ecosystem that provides significant ecosystem services. They are threatened due to rising pressures from human overpopulation and economic development. The Caribbean Coast of Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula contains mangrove habitat that have been negatively impacted by the development of the region's tourist industry. However, little research has been done to map and quantify the extent of mangrove in the region. This study used remote sensing techniques to identify mangrove in the Municipality of Tulum located in Quintana Roo, and to produce an accurate vector based thematic map that inventories these areas. Anatomical differences were analyzed and related to high-resolution field spectral data for each mangrove species. A vector map of mangrove habitat, including areas of inland mangrove, was produced with an overall accuracy of 88%. The 19,262 ha. of mangrove identified by this study represents a 140% increase in area over previous studies.

  16. Model of areas for identifying risks influencing the compliance of technological processes and products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misztal, A.; Belu, N.

    2016-08-01

    Operation of every company is associated with the risk of interfering with proper performance of its fundamental processes. This risk is associated with various internal areas of the company, as well as the environment in which it operates. From the point of view of ensuring compliance of the course of specific technological processes and, consequently, product conformity with requirements, it is important to identify these threats and eliminate or reduce the risk of their occurrence. The purpose of this article is to present a model of areas of identifying risk affecting the compliance of processes and products, which is based on multiregional targeted monitoring of typical places of interference and risk management methods. The model is based on the verification of risk analyses carried out in small and medium-sized manufacturing companies in various industries..

  17. A systematic method for identifying vital areas at complex nuclear facilities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, David Franklin; Hockert, John

    2005-05-01

    Identifying the areas to be protected is an important part of the development of measures for physical protection against sabotage at complex nuclear facilities. In June 1999, the International Atomic Energy Agency published INFCIRC/225/Rev.4, 'The Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and Nuclear Facilities.' This guidance recommends that 'Safety specialists, in close cooperation with physical protection specialists, should evaluate the consequences of malevolent acts, considered in the context of the State's design basis threat, to identify nuclear material, or the minimum complement of equipment, systems or devices to be protected against sabotage.' This report presents a structured, transparent approach for identifying the areas that contain this minimum complement of equipment, systems, and devices to be protected against sabotage that is applicable to complex nuclear facilities. The method builds upon safety analyses to develop sabotage fault trees that reflect sabotage scenarios that could cause unacceptable radiological consequences. The sabotage actions represented in the fault trees are linked to the areas from which they can be accomplished. The fault tree is then transformed (by negation) into its dual, the protection location tree, which reflects the sabotage actions that must be prevented in order to prevent unacceptable radiological consequences. The minimum path sets of this fault tree dual yield, through the area linkage, sets of areas, each of which contains nuclear material, or a minimum complement of equipment, systems or devices that, if protected, will prevent sabotage. This method also provides guidance for the selection of the minimum path set that permits optimization of the trade-offs among physical protection effectiveness, safety impact, cost and operational impact.

  18. Identifying and assessing ecotourism visitor impacts at selected protected areas in Costa Rica and Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, T.A.; Marion, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    Protected area visitation is an important component of ecotourism, and as such, must be sustainable. However, protected area visitation may degrade natural resources, particularly in areas of concentrated visitor activities like trails and recreation sites. This is an important concern in ecotourism destinations such as Belize and Costa Rica, because they actively promote ecotourism and emphasize the pristine qualities of their natural resources. Research on visitor impacts to protected areas has many potential applications in protected area management, though it has not been widely applied in Central and South America. This study targeted this deficiency through manager interviews and evaluations of alternative impact assessment procedures at eight protected areas in Belize and Costa Rica. Impact assessment procedures included qualitative condition class systems, ratings systems, and measurement-based systems applied to trails and recreation sites. The resulting data characterize manager perceptions of impact problems, document trail and recreation site impacts, and provide examples of inexpensive, efficient and effective rapid impact assessment procedures. Interview subjects reported a variety of impacts affecting trails, recreation sites, wildlife, water, attraction features and other resources. Standardized assessment procedures were developed and applied to record trail and recreation site impacts. Impacts affecting the study areas included trail proliferation, erosion and widening, muddiness on trails, vegetation cover loss, soil and root exposure, and tree damage on recreation sites. The findings also illustrate the types of assessment data yielded by several alternative methods and demonstrate their utility to protected area managers. The need for additional rapid assessment procedures for wildlife, water, attraction feature and other resource impacts was also identified.

  19. Identifying the genes of unconventional high temperature superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiangping

    We elucidate a recently emergent framework in unifying the two families of high temperature (high [Formula: see text]) superconductors, cuprates and iron-based superconductors. The unification suggests that the latter is simply the counterpart of the former to realize robust extended s-wave pairing symmetries in a square lattice. The unification identifies that the key ingredients (gene) of high [Formula: see text] superconductors is a quasi two dimensional electronic environment in which the d-orbitals of cations that participate in strong in-plane couplings to the p-orbitals of anions are isolated near Fermi energy. With this gene, the superexchange magnetic interactions mediated by anions could maximize their contributions to superconductivity. Creating the gene requires special arrangements between local electronic structures and crystal lattice structures. The speciality explains why high [Formula: see text] superconductors are so rare. An explicit prediction is made to realize high [Formula: see text] superconductivity in Co/Ni-based materials with a quasi two dimensional hexagonal lattice structure formed by trigonal bipyramidal complexes.

  20. Gender Fair Efficacy of Concept Mapping Tests in Identifying Students' Difficulties in High School Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafoor, Kunnathodi Abdul; Shilna, V.

    2014-01-01

    In view of the perceived difficulty of organic chemistry unit for high schools students, this study examined the usefulness of concept mapping as a testing device to assess students' difficulty in the select areas. Since many tests used for identifying students misconceptions and difficulties in school subjects are observed to favour one or the…

  1. Utilizing NASA Earth Observations to Monitor Sinkhole Development and Identify Risk Areas in Dougherty County, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahalan, M. D.; Berry, K.; Amin, M.; Xu, W.; Hu, T.; Milewski, A.

    2015-12-01

    Located in southwest Georgia, Dougherty County has a growing populace in an agricultural region that relies heavily on groundwater resources. Partly due to escalated groundwater extraction, this area has experienced an increase in sinkhole development over the last decade. Sinkholes pose a threat to infrastructure development, groundwater pollution, and land use operations. The NASA DEVELOP Georgia Disasters and Water Resources team partnered with the City of Albany and Dougherty County Planning and Development Services (PDS) and the Southwest Georgia Water Resources Task Force (SGWRTF) to assess past sinkhole development and identify areas susceptible to future sinkhole formation. Sinkhole mapping was completed utilizing a time-series of elevation data (1999 - 2011) from NASA's SRTM and ASTER missions, as well as European Remote-Sensing (ERS-1 and 2) satellite-derived elevation data. The sinkhole inventory maps and spatial statistical techniques (i.e., geographically-weighted regression) were employed to quantify the factors most influential in sinkhole development. With those results, the susceptibility of every area within Dougherty County to future sinkhole formation was identified. The results of this applied science project will enable the PDS and SGWRTF to make informed decisions on current and future land use, safe infrastructure development, and sustainable water resource management.

  2. Laser speckle contrast imaging identifies ischemic areas on gastric tube reconstructions following esophagectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milstein, D.M.J.; Ince, C.; Gisbertz, S.S.; Boateng, K.B.; Geerts, B.F.; Hollmann, M.W.; van Berge Henegouwen, M.I.; Veelo, D.P.

    2016-01-01

    Gastric tube reconstruction (GTR) is a high-risk surgical procedure with substantial perioperative morbidity. Compromised arterial blood supply and venous congestion are believed to be the main etiologic factors associated with early and late anastomotic complications. Identifying low blood perfusio

  3. Identifying high-redshift gamma-ray bursts with RATIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Littlejohns, O. M.; Butler, N. R. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, AZ 85287 (United States); Cucchiara, A. [Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Watson, A. M.; Lee, W. H.; Richer, M. G.; De Diego, J. A.; Georgiev, L.; González, J.; Román-Zúñiga, C. G. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 70-264, 04510 México, D. F. (Mexico); Kutyrev, A. S.; Troja, E.; Gehrels, N.; Moseley, H. [NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Klein, C. R.; Fox, O. D.; Bloom, J. S. [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Prochaska, J. X.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    We present a template-fitting algorithm for determining photometric redshifts, z {sub phot}, of candidate high-redshift gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Using afterglow photometry, obtained by the Reionization and Transients InfraRed (RATIR) camera, this algorithm accounts for the intrinsic GRB afterglow spectral energy distribution, host dust extinction, and the effect of neutral hydrogen (local and cosmological) along the line of sight. We present the results obtained by this algorithm and the RATIR photometry of GRB 130606A, finding a range of best-fit solutions, 5.6 < z {sub phot} < 6.0, for models of several host dust extinction laws (none, the Milky Way, Large Magellanic Clouds, and Small Magellanic Clouds), consistent with spectroscopic measurements of the redshift of this GRB. Using simulated RATIR photometry, we find that our algorithm provides precise measures of z {sub phot} in the ranges of 4 < z {sub phot} ≲ 8 and 9 < z {sub phot} < 10 and can robustly determine when z {sub phot} > 4. Further testing highlights the required caution in cases of highly dust-extincted host galaxies. These tests also show that our algorithm does not erroneously find z {sub phot} < 4 when z {sub sim} > 4, thereby minimizing false negatives and allowing us to rapidly identify all potential high-redshift events.

  4. Identifying desertification risk areas using fuzzy membership and geospatial technique - A case study, Kota District, Rajasthan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Arunima; Sastry, K. L. N.; Dhinwa, P. S.; Rathore, V. S.; Nathawat, M. S.

    2013-08-01

    Desertification risk assessment is important in order to take proper measures for its prevention. Present research intends to identify the areas under risk of desertification along with their severity in terms of degradation in natural parameters. An integrated model with fuzzy membership analysis, fuzzy rule-based inference system and geospatial techniques was adopted, including five specific natural parameters namely slope, soil pH, soil depth, soil texture and NDVI. Individual parameters were classified according to their deviation from mean. Membership of each individual values to be in a certain class was derived using the normal probability density function of that class. Thus if a single class of a single parameter is with mean μ and standard deviation σ, the values falling beyond μ + 2 σ and μ - 2 σ are not representing that class, but a transitional zone between two subsequent classes. These are the most important areas in terms of degradation, as they have the lowest probability to be in a certain class, hence highest probability to be extended or narrowed down in next or previous class respectively. Eventually, these are the values which can be easily altered, under extrogenic influences, hence are identified as risk areas. The overall desertification risk is derived by incorporating the different risk severity of each parameter using fuzzy rule-based interference system in GIS environment. Multicriteria based geo-statistics are applied to locate the areas under different severity of desertification risk. The study revealed that in Kota, various anthropogenic pressures are accelerating land deterioration, coupled with natural erosive forces. Four major sources of desertification in Kota are, namely Gully and Ravine erosion, inappropriate mining practices, growing urbanization and random deforestation.

  5. White spots in pharmaceutical pipelines-EMA identifies potential areas of unmet medical needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaluca, Marisa; Greco, Martina; Tognana, Enrico; Ehmann, Falk; Saint-Raymond, Agnès

    2015-05-01

    Unmet medical needs are a priority for organizations such as the WHO and major public-private initiatives, such as Innovative Medicines Initiative, were established to speed up the development of better and safer medicines for patients. To assist such projects, the EMA in its 'Road Map to 2015' considered the mapping of unmet medical needs as a priority. This study has identified medical conditions for which the EMA could not identify developments in the pharmaceutical pipelines, that is, 'white spots'. Our analysis was made using external data sources as well as mining data of the EMA. The main areas for white spots were oncology, infectious diseases and certain psychiatric conditions. According to our data and a review of literature, in a number of these white spots, diagnostic tools may even be missing. The identification of those conditions will benefit stakeholders, including regulators, research funding bodies and patients' organizations.

  6. Real-time analysis application for identifying bursty local areas related to emergency topics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Tatsuhiro; Tamura, Keiichi

    2015-01-01

    Since social media started getting more attention from users on the Internet, social media has been one of the most important information source in the world. Especially, with the increasing popularity of social media, data posted on social media sites are rapidly becoming collective intelligence, which is a term used to refer to new media that is displacing traditional media. In this paper, we focus on geotagged tweets on the Twitter site. These geotagged tweets are referred to as georeferenced documents because they include not only a short text message, but also the documents' posting time and location. Many researchers have been tackling the development of new data mining techniques for georeferenced documents to identify and analyze emergency topics, such as natural disasters, weather, diseases, and other incidents. In particular, the utilization of geotagged tweets to identify and analyze natural disasters has received much attention from administrative agencies recently because some case studies have achieved compelling results. In this paper, we propose a novel real-time analysis application for identifying bursty local areas related to emergency topics. The aim of our new application is to provide new platforms that can identify and analyze the localities of emergency topics. The proposed application is composed of three core computational intelligence techniques: the Naive Bayes classifier technique, the spatiotemporal clustering technique, and the burst detection technique. Moreover, we have implemented two types of application interface: a Web application interface and an android application interface. To evaluate the proposed application, we have implemented a real-time weather observation system embedded the proposed application. we used actual crawling geotagged tweets posted on the Twitter site. The weather observation system successfully detected bursty local areas related to observed emergency weather topics.

  7. Patient safety in plastic surgery: identifying areas for quality improvement efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Boussard, Tina; McDonald, Kathryn M; Rhoads, Kim F; Curtin, Catherine M

    2015-05-01

    Improving quality of health care is a global priority. Before quality benchmarks are established, we first must understand rates of adverse events (AEs). This project assessed risk-adjusted rates of inpatient AEs for soft tissue reconstructive procedures.Patients receiving soft tissue reconstructive procedures from 2005 to 2010 were extracted from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Inpatient AEs were identified using patient safety indicators (PSIs), established measures developed by Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.We identified 409,991 patients with soft tissue reconstruction and 16,635 (4.06%) had a PSI during their hospital stay. Patient safety indicators were associated with increased risk-adjusted mortality, longer length of stay, and decreased routine disposition (P plastic surgery patients had significantly lower risk-adjusted rate compared to other surgical inpatients for all events evaluated except for failure to rescue and postoperative hemorrhage or hematoma, which were not statistically different. Risk-adjusted rates of hematoma hemorrhage were significantly higher in patients receiving size-reduction surgery, and these rates were further accentuated when broken down by sex and payer. In general, plastic surgery patients had lower rates of in-hospital AEs than other surgical disciplines, but PSIs were not uncommon. With the establishment of national basal PSI rates in plastic surgery patients, benchmarks can be devised and target areas for quality improvement efforts identified. Further prospective studies should be designed to elucidate the drivers of AEs identified in this population.

  8. Identifying the Entrepreneurship Characteristics of the Oil Palm Community Plantation Farmers in the Riau Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brilliant Asmit

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm is an essential and strategic commodity in the Riau area because of its considerable role in supporting the peoples’ economy, especially for plantation farmers. Oil palm plantation activities have brought economic impacts to society there, both for the people who are directly involved with the plantations and for their surrounding communities. This regional advantage is a facility for farmers to be able to develop their farms as plantations. The aims of this research are to identify the entrepreneurship characteristics of the oil palm farmers, and also to identify the entrepreneurship characteristics that differentiate the farmers, as seen from their business’ achievements. The research used a grounded theory approach to identify the characteristics of oil palm farmers systematically. The sampling method used for the research was theoretical sampling, which is data gathering driven by the concepts derived from the theory of previous entrepreneurship characteristics studies. The research object is the oil palm farmers in Riau, Indonesia. The results of the analysis identified the entrepreneurship characteristics of the oil palm farmers, they are growth oriented, risk-taking, innovative, with a sense of personal control, self confident, and cooperative. But, among the characteristics, only the characteristic of their cooperation did not differentiate the oil palm farmers in the achievement of their business activities.

  9. Mangrove rehabilitation in high erosion areas: Assessment using bioindicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Stephen Ryan; Johnstone, Ron William

    2015-11-01

    This study identifies a potentially effective rehabilitation technique for implementation in high erosion areas through the use of bioindicators. This is significant given that one third of mangroves have been cleared globally with clearing continuing at a rate of 1-2% per annum. There have been various attempts to rehabilitate degraded mangrove forests, however the success or failure of these is mostly unclear due to a lack of assessment. The two rehabilitation techniques assessed in this study were a basic fence system and another more elaborate fence technique designed by the Kien Giang Biosphere Reserve Project (KGBRP), Vietnam. The assessment was conducted by comparing vegetation and faunal communities in rehabilitation areas to those in adjacent old-growth areas. The indicators included: tree and understory plant diversity and density; forest cover and the density of crabs, mudskippers and gastropods. The results show the KGBRP rehabilitation fence technique delivered tree diversity, plant diversity, tree density and forest cover that most closely resembled old-growth areas. This suggests that the additional protection provided by the KGBRP fence was instrumental in achieving these results. In terms of total mudskipper, Boleophthalmus spp., Periophthalmodon spp. and ocypodid crab density, the KGBRP rehabilitation was most similar to the old-growth areas. This similarity is thought to be related to the comparable forest cover at these sites. The density of large crab holes was much higher in old-growth areas than in basic or KGBRP rehabilitation areas. The disparity between large crab hole density at KGBRP rehabilitation and old-growth areas, despite similar levels of forest cover, is thought to be linked to the immaturity of the KGBRP rehabilitation sites. As the KGBRP rehabilitation is most similar in terms of vegetation and faunal communities to the old-growth areas, it appears to be the most successful rehabilitation.

  10. Teacher Effectiveness in Identifying High-Risk Kindergarten Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colarusso, Ronald P.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Teacher effectiveness in identifying children "at risk" for learning problems was studied with five Head Start teachers. Results showed that, after training in classroom observation techniques, paraprofessional teachers are capable of identifying developmental delays in children. (PHR)

  11. Identifying areas of the visual field important for quality of life in patients with glaucoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Murata

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to create a vision-related quality of life (VRQoL prediction system to identify visual field (VF test points associated with decreased VRQoL in patients with glaucoma.VRQoL score was surveyed in 164 patients with glaucoma using the 'Sumi questionnaire'. A binocular VF was created from monocular VFs by using the integrated VF (IVF method. VRQoL score was predicted using the 'Random Forest' method, based on visual acuity (VA of better and worse eyes (better-eye and worse-eye VA and total deviation (TD values from the IVF. For comparison, VRQoL scores were regressed (linear regression against: (i mean of TD (IVF MD; (ii better-eye VA; (iii worse-eye VA; and (iv IVF MD and better- and worse-eye VAs. The rank of importance of IVF test points was identified using the Random Forest method.The root mean of squared prediction error associated with the Random Forest method (0.30 to 1.97 was significantly smaller than those with linear regression models (0.34 to 3.38, p<0.05, ten-fold cross validation test. Worse-eye VA was the most important variable in all VRQoL tasks. In general, important VF test points were concentrated along the horizontal meridian. Particular areas of the IVF were important for different tasks: peripheral superior and inferior areas in the left hemifield for the 'letters and sentences' task, peripheral, mid-peripheral and para-central inferior regions for the 'walking' task, the peripheral superior region for the 'going out' task, and a broad scattered area across the IVF for the 'dining' task.The VRQoL prediction model with the Random Forest method enables clinicians to better understand patients' VRQoL based on standard clinical measurements of VA and VF.

  12. Theory and Method for Identifying Well Water Level Anomalies in a Groundwater Overdraft Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Suxin; Zhang Ziguang; Ren Xiaoxia; Wang Xiang

    2007-01-01

    The overexploitation of underground water leads to the continuous drawdown of groundwater levels, change of water quality and dry-up in dynamic water level observation wells. Due to land subsidence, the well pipes uplift and the observation piping systems are damaged. These environmental geology problems can present serious difficulties for the identification of earthquake anomalies by groundwater level observation. Basied on hydrogeological theories and methods, the paper analyzes the relations of the water balance state of aquifers with stressstrain conditions and the water level regime, and then discusses preliminarily the theory and method for identifying well water level anomalies in a groundwater overdraft area. The result shows that we can accurately judge the nature of the anomaly according to the diffusion character of the drawdown funnel in the well area in combination with the aforementioned theory and method and multi-year variation patterns obtained from existing data. The results of the research are helpful for distinguishing the influence of single centralized water pumping from the long-term overdraft of water on the water level, correctly recognizing water level anomalies in the groundwater overdraft area and increasing the level of earthquake analysis and prediction.

  13. Identifying Potential Areas for Siting Interim Nuclear Waste Facilities Using Map Algebra and Optimization Approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omitaomu, Olufemi A [ORNL; Liu, Cheng [ORNL; Cetiner, Sacit M [ORNL; Belles, Randy [ORNL; Mays, Gary T [ORNL; Tuttle, Mark A [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    The renewed interest in siting new nuclear power plants in the United States has brought to the center stage, the need to site interim facilities for long-term management of spent nuclear fuel (SNF). In this paper, a two-stage approach for identifying potential areas for siting interim SNF facilities is presented. In the first stage, the land area is discretized into grids of uniform size (e.g., 100m x 100m grids). For the continental United States, this process resulted in a data matrix of about 700 million cells. Each cell of the matrix is then characterized as a binary decision variable to indicate whether an exclusion criterion is satisfied or not. A binary data matrix is created for each of the 25 siting criteria considered in this study. Using map algebra approach, cells that satisfy all criteria are clustered and regarded as potential siting areas. In the second stage, an optimization problem is formulated as a p-median problem on a rail network such that the sum of the shortest distance between nuclear power plants with SNF and the potential storage sites from the first stage is minimized. The implications of obtained results for energy policies are presented and discussed.

  14. Identifying eastern Baltic cod nursery grounds using hydrodynamic modelling: knowledge for the design of Marine Protected Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald; Kraus, Gerd; Böttcher, Uwe

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of the spatial and temporal distribution of juvenile cod is essential to closing the life cycle in population dynamic models, and it is a prerequisite for the design of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) aiming at the protection of juveniles. In this study, we use a hydrodynamic model...... evidence that the final destinations of juvenile cod drift routes are affected by decadal climate variability. Application of the methodology to MPA design is discussed, e.g. identifying the overlap of areas with a high probability of successful juvenile cod settlement and regions of high fishing effort...... to examine the spatial distribution of eastern Baltic cod larvae and early juveniles. The transport patterns of the larvae spawned at the three major spawning grounds in the central Baltic Sea were investigated by drift model simulations for the period 1979–2004. We analysed potential habitats...

  15. VT High Risk Dam Inundation Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) Preliminary release Storm-Day dam inundation areas digitized from various source Emergency Action Plans. These dams were prioritized for...

  16. GIS model for identifying urban areas vulnerable to noise pollution: case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilaşco, Ştefan; Govor, Corina; Roşca, Sanda; Vescan, Iuliu; Filip, Sorin; Fodorean, Ioan

    2017-04-01

    The unprecedented expansion of the national car ownership over the last few years has been determined by economic growth and the need for the population and economic agents to reduce travel time in progressively expanding large urban centres. This has led to an increase in the level of road noise and a stronger impact on the quality of the environment. Noise pollution generated by means of transport represents one of the most important types of pollution with negative effects on a population's health in large urban areas. As a consequence, tolerable limits of sound intensity for the comfort of inhabitants have been determined worldwide and the generation of sound maps has been made compulsory in order to identify the vulnerable zones and to make recommendations how to decrease the negative impact on humans. In this context, the present study aims at presenting a GIS spatial analysis model-based methodology for identifying and mapping zones vulnerable to noise pollution. The developed GIS model is based on the analysis of all the components influencing sound propagation, represented as vector databases (points of sound intensity measurements, buildings, lands use, transport infrastructure), raster databases (DEM), and numerical databases (wind direction and speed, sound intensity). Secondly, the hourly changes (for representative hours) were analysed to identify the hotspots characterised by major traffic flows specific to rush hours. The validated results of the model are represented by GIS databases and useful maps for the local public administration to use as a source of information and in the process of making decisions.

  17. Use of rare earth oxides as tracers to identify sediment source areas for agricultural hillslopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Deasy

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding sediment sources is essential to enable more effective targeting of in-field mitigation approaches to reduce diffuse pollution from agricultural land. In this paper we report on the application of rare earth element oxides to arable soils at hillslope scale in order to determine sediment source areas and their relative importance, using a non-intrusive method of surface spraying. Runoff, sediments and rare earth elements lost from four arable hillslope lengths at a site in the UK with clay soils were monitored from three rainfall events after tracer application. Measured erosion rates were low, reflecting the typical event conditions occurring at the site, and less than 1% of the applied REO tracers were recovered, which is consistent with the results of comparable studies. Tracer recovery at the base of the hillslope was able to indicate the relative importance of different hillslope sediment source areas, which were found to be consistent between events. The principal source of eroded sediments was the upslope area, implying that the wheel tracks were principally conduits for sediment transport, and not highly active sites of erosion. Mitigation treatments for sediment losses from arable hillslopes should therefore focus on methodologies for trapping mobile sediments within wheel track areas through increasing surface roughness or reducing the connectivity of sediment transport processes.

  18. Use of rare earth oxides as tracers to identify sediment source areas for agricultural hillslopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Deasy

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding sediment sources is essential to enable more effective targeting of in-field mitigation approaches to reduce diffuse pollution from agricultural land. In this paper we report on the application of rare earth element oxides to arable soils at hillslope scale in order to determine sediment source areas and their relative importance, using a non-intrusive method of surface spraying. Runoff, sediments and rare earth elements lost from four arable hillslope lengths at a site in the UK with clay soils were monitored from three rainfall events after tracer application. Measured erosion rates were low, reflecting the typical event conditions occurring at the site, and less than 1% of the applied REO tracers were recovered, which is consistent with the results of comparable studies. Tracer recovery at the base of the hillslope was able to indicate the relative importance of different hillslope sediment source areas, which were found to be consistent between events. The principal source of eroded sediments was the upslope area, implying that the wheel tracks were principally conduits for sediment transport, and not highly active sites of erosion. Mitigation treatments for sediment losses from arable hillslopes should therefore focus on methodologies for trapping mobile sediments within wheel track areas through increasing surface roughness or reducing the connectivity of sediment transport processes.

  19. Use of rare earth oxides as tracers to identify sediment source areas for agricultural hillslopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deasy, C.; Quinton, J. N.

    2010-11-01

    Understanding sediment sources is essential to enable more effective targeting of in-field mitigation approaches to reduce diffuse pollution from agricultural land. In this paper we report on the application of rare earth element oxides to arable soils at hillslope scale in order to determine sediment source areas and their relative importance, using a non-intrusive method of surface spraying. Runoff, sediments and rare earth elements lost from four arable hillslope lengths at a site in the UK with clay soils were monitored from three rainfall events after tracer application. Measured erosion rates were low, reflecting the typical event conditions occurring at the site, and less than 1% of the applied REO tracers were recovered, which is consistent with the results of comparable studies. Tracer recovery at the base of the hillslope was able to indicate the relative importance of different hillslope sediment source areas, which were found to be consistent between events. The principal source of eroded sediments was the upslope area, implying that the wheel tracks were principally conduits for sediment transport, and not highly active sites of erosion. Mitigation treatments for sediment losses from arable hillslopes should therefore focus on methodologies for trapping mobile sediments within wheel track areas through increasing surface roughness or reducing the connectivity of sediment transport processes.

  20. How can we identify the high-risk patient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, Ashwin; Beattie, W Scott; Wijeysundera, Duminda N

    2015-08-01

    Accurate and early identification of high-risk surgical patients allows for targeted use of perioperative monitoring and interventions that may improve their outcomes. This review summarizes current evidence on how information from the preoperative, operative, and immediate postoperative periods can help identify such individuals. Simple risk indices, such as the Revised Cardiac Risk Index or American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status scale, and online calculators allow risk to be estimated with moderate accuracy using readily available preoperative clinical information. Both specific specialized tests (i.e., cardiopulmonary exercise testing and cardiac stress testing) and promising novel biomarkers (i.e., troponins and natriuretic peptides) can help refine these risk estimates before surgery. Estimates of perioperative risk can be further informed by information acquired during the operative and immediate postoperative periods, such as risk indices (i.e., surgical Apgar score), individual risk factors (i.e., intraoperative hypotension), or postoperative biomarkers (i.e., troponins and natriuretic peptides). Preoperative clinical risk indices and risk calculators estimate surgical risk with moderate accuracy. Although novel biomarkers, specialized preoperative testing, and immediate postoperative risk indices show promise as methods to refine these risk estimates, more research is needed on how best to integrate risk information from these different sources.

  1. Carboxylator: incorporating solvent-accessible surface area for identifying protein carboxylation sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Cheng-Tsung; Chen, Shu-An; Bretaña, Neil Arvin; Cheng, Tzu-Hsiu; Lee, Tzong-Yi

    2011-10-01

    In proteins, glutamate (Glu) residues are transformed into γ-carboxyglutamate (Gla) residues in a process called carboxylation. The process of protein carboxylation catalyzed by γ-glutamyl carboxylase is deemed to be important due to its involvement in biological processes such as blood clotting cascade and bone growth. There is an increasing interest within the scientific community to identify protein carboxylation sites. However, experimental identification of carboxylation sites via mass spectrometry-based methods is observed to be expensive, time-consuming, and labor-intensive. Thus, we were motivated to design a computational method for identifying protein carboxylation sites. This work aims to investigate the protein carboxylation by considering the composition of amino acids that surround modification sites. With the implication of a modified residue prefers to be accessible on the surface of a protein, the solvent-accessible surface area (ASA) around carboxylation sites is also investigated. Radial basis function network is then employed to build a predictive model using various features for identifying carboxylation sites. Based on a five-fold cross-validation evaluation, a predictive model trained using the combined features of amino acid sequence (AA20D), amino acid composition, and ASA, yields the highest accuracy at 0.874. Furthermore, an independent test done involving data not included in the cross-validation process indicates that in silico identification is a feasible means of preliminary analysis. Additionally, the predictive method presented in this work is implemented as Carboxylator (http://csb.cse.yzu.edu.tw/Carboxylator/), a web-based tool for identifying carboxylated proteins with modification sites in order to help users in investigating γ-glutamyl carboxylation.

  2. The application of geographic information systems (GIS) in identifying the priority areas for maternal care and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Fatemeh; Ahmadian, Leila

    2017-07-12

    Improving maternal health is globally introduced as an important health priority. The purpose of this study is to identify the high priority areas which require more maternal health services in Kerman, Iran. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study, performed in 2015. The literatures were first explored in order to extract geographic indicators and sub indicators relevant to the maternal health. Data were collected by the use of a questionnaire designed on the basis of AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) method. The validity and reliability of the questionnaire were confirmed by three medical informatics experts and test-retest method, respectively. Data were analyzed by Expert Choice software in order to specify the weight and importance of each indicator. The information were then added to Geographic Information System (GIS) to analyze and create the related maps. Women's access to hospitals plays an important role in identifying high priority areas which need maternal care and services. More than half of the mothers in Kerman have a moderate level of access to maternal care services. There is an association between facilities that are provided for pregnant women and the existence of healthcare centers. Moreover, there is a negative correlation between maternal death and the number of facilities provided for medical care and services for pregnant women. The application of GIS provides us with the capability to identify high priority areas which need maternal care. According to current population policies in Iran and the probable increase in the fertility rate, it is wise to plan proper schedules to improve health care services for pregnant women in Kerman.

  3. Identifying Chemistry Prospective Teachers' Difficulties Encountered in Practice of The Subject Area Textbook Analysis Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Bak Kibar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Prospective teachers should already be aware of possible mistakes in the textbooks and have knowledge of textbooks selection procedure and criteria. These knowledge is tried to being gained to prospective teachers at the Subject Area Textbook Analysis Course. It is important to identify the difficulties they encountered and the skills they gained from the point of implementing effectively this lesson. To research these problems, a case study was realized with 38 student teachers from Department of Secondary Science and Mathematics Education Chemistry Teaching Program at the Karadeniz Technical University Faculty of Fatih Education. Results suggest that prospective teachers gained the knowledge of research, teaching life, writing report, and analyzing textbook. Also, it was determined that they had difficulties in group working, literature reviewing, report writing, analyzing textbook, and critical analysis.

  4. Quantile regression and Bayesian cluster detection to identify radon prone areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarra, Annalina; Fontanella, Lara; Valentini, Pasquale; Palermi, Sergio

    2016-11-01

    Albeit the dominant source of radon in indoor environments is the geology of the territory, many studies have demonstrated that indoor radon concentrations also depend on dwelling-specific characteristics. Following a stepwise analysis, in this study we propose a combined approach to delineate radon prone areas. We first investigate the impact of various building covariates on indoor radon concentrations. To achieve a more complete picture of this association, we exploit the flexible formulation of a Bayesian spatial quantile regression, which is also equipped with parameters that controls the spatial dependence across data. The quantitative knowledge of the influence of each significant building-specific factor on the measured radon levels is employed to predict the radon concentrations that would have been found if the sampled buildings had possessed standard characteristics. Those normalised radon measures should reflect the geogenic radon potential of the underlying ground, which is a quantity directly related to the geological environment. The second stage of the analysis is aimed at identifying radon prone areas, and to this end, we adopt a Bayesian model for spatial cluster detection using as reference unit the building with standard characteristics. The case study is based on a data set of more than 2000 indoor radon measures, available for the Abruzzo region (Central Italy) and collected by the Agency of Environmental Protection of Abruzzo, during several indoor radon monitoring surveys. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Identifying high-level components in combinational circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doom, T.; White, J.; Wojcik, A. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Chisholm, G. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Decision and Information Sciences Div.

    1998-07-01

    The problem of finding meaningful subcircuits in a logic layout appears in many contexts in computer-aided design. Existing techniques rely upon finding exact matchings of subcircuit structure within the layout. These syntactic techniques fail to identify functionally equivalent subcircuits that are differently implemented, optimized, or otherwise obfuscated. The authors present a mechanism for identifying functionally equivalent subcircuits that can overcome many of these limitations. Such semantic matching is particularly useful in the field of design recovery.

  6. Mining highly stressed areas, part 1.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Johnson, R

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this long-term project has been to focus on the extreme high-stress end of the mining spectrum. Such high stress conditions will prevail in certain ultra-deep mining operation of the near future, and are already being experienced...

  7. HIGH NATURE VALUE GRASSLANDS FROM ARRHENATHERION ALLIANCE IDENTIFIED IN MUREŞ COUNTY

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Oroian; Mihaela Samarghitan; MARIANA Hiritiu; SANDA Cosarca; CORNELIU Tanase

    2016-01-01

    Arrhenatherion alliance meadows are recognized to be among the best pastures in our country due to high productivity and good nutrition value. The research was conducted in several areas of Mures County. The studied grasslands were classified into two types of Natura 2000 habitats: 6510 Lowland hay meadows (Alopecurus pratensis, Sanguisorba officinalis) and 6520 Mountain hay meadows. The identified phytocoenosis belong to two plant associations: Arrhenatheretum elatioris Br.-Bl. Ex Scherrer 1...

  8. Identifying High Potential Well Targets with 3D Seismic and Mineralogy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellors, R. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-10-30

    Seismic reflection the primary tool used in petroleum exploration and production, but use in geothermal exploration is less standard, in part due to cost but also due to the challenges in identifying the highly-permeable zones essential for economic hydrothermal systems [e.g. Louie et al., 2011; Majer, 2003]. Newer technology, such as wireless sensors and low-cost high performance computing, has helped reduce the cost and effort needed to conduct 3D surveys. The second difficulty, identifying permeable zones, has been less tractable so far. Here we report on the use of seismic attributes from a 3D seismic survey to identify and map permeable zones in a hydrothermal area.

  9. Calibration of Local Area Weather Radar—Identifying significant factors affecting the calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Lisbeth; Jensen, Niels Einar; Madsen, Henrik

    2010-07-01

    A Local Area Weather Radar (LAWR) is an X-band weather radar developed to meet the needs of high resolution rainfall data for hydrological applications. The LAWR system and data processing methods are reviewed in the first part of this paper, while the second part of the paper focuses on calibration. The data processing for handling the partial beam filling issue was found to be essential to the calibration. LAWR uses a different calibration process compared to conventional weather radars, which use a power-law relationship between reflectivity and rainfall rate. Instead LAWR uses a linear relationship of reflectivity and rainfall rate as result of the log transformation carried out by the logarithmic receiver as opposed to the linear receiver of conventional weather radars. Based on rain gauge data for a five month period from a dense network of nine gauges within a 500 × 500 m area and data from a nearby LAWR, the existing calibration method was tested and two new methods were developed. The three calibration methods were verified with three external gauges placed in different locations. It can be concluded that the LAWR calibration uncertainties can be reduced by 50% in two out of three cases when the calibration is based on a factorized 3 parameter linear model instead of a single parameter linear model.

  10. A multi-criteria approach to identify favorable areas for goat production systems in Veracruz, México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Rivera, Emmanuel de Jesús; Lopez-Collado, Jose; Díaz-Rivera, Pablo; Ortega-Jiménez, Eusebio; Torres-Hernández, Glafiro; Jacinto-Padilla, Jazmín; Herman-Lara, Erasmo

    2017-02-09

    This research identifies favorable areas for goat production systems in the state of Veracruz, Mexico. Through the use of the analytic hierarchy process, layers of biophysical and soil information were combined to generate a model of favorability. Model validation was performed by calculating the area under the curve, the true skill statistic, and a qualitative comparison with census records. The results showed the existence of regions with high (4494.3 km(2)) and moderate (2985.8 km(2)) favorability, and these areas correspond to 6.25 and 4.15%, respectively, of the state territory and are located in the regions of Sierra de Huayacocotla, Perote, and Orizaba. These regions are characterized as mountainous and having predominantly temperate-wet or cold climates, and having montane mesophilic forests, containing pine, fir, and desert scrub. The reliability of the distribution model was supported by the area under the curve value (0.96), the true skill statistic (0.86), and consistency with census records.

  11. Identifying Children at High Risk for a Child Maltreatment Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubowitz, Howard; Kim, Jeongeun; Black, Maureen M.; Weisbart, Cindy; Semiatin, Joshua; Magder, Laurence S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To help professionals identify factors that place families at risk for future child maltreatment, to facilitate necessary services and to potentially help prevent abuse and neglect. Method: The data are from a prospective, longitudinal study of 332 low-income families recruited from urban pediatric primary care clinics, followed for…

  12. Mining highly stressed areas, part 2.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Johnson, R

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available A questionnaire related to mining at great depth and in very high stress conditions has been completed with the assistance of mine rock mechanics personnel on over twenty mines in all mining districts, and covering all deep level mines...

  13. ESTIMATING VITICULTURAL FAVORABILITY OF COTNARI VINEYARD AREA AND IDENTIFYING LIMITING FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Chiriac

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available For estimating the favorability of agricultural lands for vine in Cotnari vineyard area, we used 16 indicators provided in the Methodology of Soil Survey (Second part and third part - 1986. To determine the average coefficient of evaluation, respectively the class of favorability for the vine in Cotnari Vineyard, we calculated the notes of evaluation for 10 administrative units from Cotnari Vineyard: Flămânzi, Frumuşica, Deleni, Hârlău, Scobinţi, Cepleniţa, Cotnari, Cucuteni, Todireşti, Târgu Frumos. For each administrative unit were selected the territorial units of soil (U.S. within Cotnari Vineyard, from which we extracted only the ecological homogeneous territories (TEO's that are planted with vine. Among the limiting factors identified in Cotnari Vineyard we mention the geomorphologic factor (slope, landslides, the pedological factor (gleying, stagnogleying,salinization/alkalization, texture, reaction, humus content, edaphic volume and the hydrological factor (groundwater depth, excess moisture in surface, flooding by overflow.

  14. Cervical cancer and the HPV link: identifying areas for education in Mexico City's public hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrich, Tess; Landis, Sarah; García, Sandra G; Becker, Davida; Sanhueza, Patricio; Higuera, Anjarath

    2006-01-01

    To assess Mexico City physicians' knowledge and practices regarding cervical cancer and human papillomavirus (HPV) to compare obstetricians/gynecologists (ob/gyns) and general practitioners (GPs) on these variables. In April 2003, 187 ob/gyns and GPs working in 15 hospitals affiliated with the Federal District Secretary of Health (SSDF) completed a self-administered questionnaire. Pearson's chi-square tests were used to compare ob/ gyns and GPs on outcome variables. Nearly all providers (93%) identified HPV as the principal cause of cervical cancer. Ob/gyns had more detailed knowledge about HPV than GPs and were more likely to have heard of common oncogenic strains (p = .000). Sixteen percent of all physicians incorrectly stated that Pap tests should be performed every six months regardless of previous results, and 17% recommended hysterectomy as an option for treating mild or moderate dysplasia. While SSDF physicians had basic knowledge about the cervical cancer-HPV link, screening and management norms are priority areas for educational interventions.

  15. High power/large area PV systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Joseph; Baraona, Cosmo

    1987-01-01

    The major photovoltaic power system technology drivers for a wide variety of mission types were ranked. Each technology driver was ranked on a scale of high, medium, or low in terms of importance to each particular mission type. The rankings were then compiled to determine the overall importance of each driver over the entire range of space missions. In each case cost was ranked the highest.

  16. Identifying the genes of unconventional high temperature superconductors

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Jiangping

    2016-01-01

    We elucidate a recently emergent framework in unifying the two families of high temperature (high \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document}$$T_{\\rm c}$$\\end{document} T c ) superconductors, cuprates and iron-based superconductors. The unification suggests that the latter is simply the counterpart of the forme...

  17. The Impact of Horizontal Resolution on the CNOP and on Its Identified Sensitive Areas for Tropical Cyclone Predictions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Feifan; MU Mu

    2012-01-01

    In this study,the impacts of horizontal resolution on the conditional nonlinear optimal perturbation (CNOP) and on its identified sensitive areas were investigated for tropical cyclone predictions.Three resolutions,30 km,60 km,and 120 km,were studied for three tropical cyclones,TC Mindulle (2004),TC Meari (2004),and TC Matsa (2005).Results show that CNOP may present different structures with different resolutions,and the major parts of CNOP become increasingly localized with increased horizontal resolution.CNOP produces spiral and baroclinic structures,which partially account for its rapid amplification.The differences in CNOP structures result in different sensitive areas,but there are common areas for the CNOP-identified sensitive areas at various resolutions,and the size of the common areas is different from case to case.Generally,the forecasts benefit more from the reduction of the initial errors in the sensitive areas identified using higher resolutions than those using lower resolutions.However,the largest improvement of the forecast can be obtained at the resolution that is not the highest for some cases.In addition,the sensitive areas identified at lower resolutions are also helpful for improving the forecast with a finer resolution,but the sensitive areas identified at the same resolution as the forecast would be the most beneficial.

  18. Identifying high ability students: a contribution from neuropsychological indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Dora Cortat Simonetti; Leandro S. Almeida; Zenita Guenther

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents some data on the convergence between psychometric intelligence measurements (IQ tests) and physiological signs of mental activity found in high ability adolescents. The research study focus on a small group of 15 subjects submitted to electric encephalograms, previously chosen from a larger group of 77 classmates on the basis of scores on the WISC-III IQ Test. The results suggest continuous predominance of Alpha waves for the gifted group (higher frequency percentile and h...

  19. Identifying patients at high risk of tuberculosis recurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxana T Sadikot

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have been done in relation to recurrence of tuberculosis (TB following completion of treatment. However, recurrence of TB is still a major problem from a public health perspective in high-burden countries, where no special attention is being given to this issue. Disease recurrence is an important indicator of the efficacy of antituberculosis treatment. The rate of recurrence is highly variable and has been estimated to range from 4.9% to 25%. This variability is not only a reflection of regional epidemiology of recurrence but differences in the definitions used by the TB control programs. In addition to treatment failure related to medication adherence, there are several key host factors that are associated with high rates of recurrence. The widely recognized host factors independent of treatment program that predispose to TB recurrence include: malnutrition; human immunodeficiency virus; substance abuse including tobacco use; comorbidity such as diabetes, renal failure and systemic diseases, especially immunosuppressive states; and environmental exposure such as silicosis. With improved understanding of the human genome, proteome, and metabolome, additional host-specific factors that predispose to recurrence are being discovered. Information on temporal and geographical trends of TB cases as well as genotyping might provide further information to enable us to fully understand TB recurrence and discriminate between reactivation and new infection. The recently launched World Health Organization End TB Strategy emphasizes the importance of integrated, patient-centered TB care. Continued improvement in diagnosis, treatment approaches, and defining host-specific factors are needed to fully understand the clinical epidemiological and social determinants of TB recurrence.

  20. Maternal and child health care in an underprivileged area of Bangalore city: Identifying the gaps in the continuum of care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avita R Johnson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background With over 100 million Indians living in urban slums and high child mortality among low-­‐income groups, focusing on maternal and child health (MCH among urban underprivileged is vital, if India is to achieve the fourth and fifth Millennium Development goals. Objectives To identify the gaps in the MCH Continuum of care, by assessing coverage and quality of Maternal and Child Health Services in an urban underprivileged area of Bangalore City. Methods A survey was conducted in an urban slum of Bangalore City, using systematic random sampling. A total of 178 subjects were interviewed with a pre-­‐tested questionnaire. 88 were mothers who delivered in the last one year (to assess maternal care services, and 90 were mothers of a child aged 12-­‐23 months (to assess immunization coverage. Breastfeeding practices and care during childhood illness were documented in both groups. Results Though institutional delivery rate was 97.7%, only 34.1% mothers had received full antenatal care. The quality of antenatal and postnatal services was poor, practices like prelacteal feeds and delayed initiation of breastfeeding were common. Less than 40 % of children were exclusively breastfed for at least 6 months. Only 53% of children aged 12-­‐23 months were fully immunised. Primary immunisation drop-­‐out rates were high. Mothers’ knowledge regarding vaccines was poor. Children with diarrhea received less fluids and food and only 61% received ORS. Conclusion This study identified the following gaps in the MCH Continuum of Care-­‐ lack of IFA consumption, poor quality of antenatal and postnatal care, high immunisation dropout rates, erroneous breastfeeding practices and inadequate care during diarrhoea. Further research may identify potential solutions to bridging these gaps in MCH care.

  1. Application of spatial methods to identify areas with lime requirement in eastern Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogunović, Igor; Kisic, Ivica; Mesic, Milan; Zgorelec, Zeljka; Percin, Aleksandra; Pereira, Paulo

    2016-04-01

    With more than 50% of acid soils in all agricultural land in Croatia, soil acidity is recognized as a big problem. Low soil pH leads to a series of negative phenomena in plant production and therefore as a compulsory measure for reclamation of acid soils is liming, recommended on the base of soil analysis. The need for liming is often erroneously determined only on the basis of the soil pH, because the determination of cation exchange capacity, the hydrolytic acidity and base saturation is a major cost to producers. Therefore, in Croatia, as well as some other countries, the amount of liming material needed to ameliorate acid soils is calculated by considering their hydrolytic acidity. For this research, several interpolation methods were tested to identify the best spatial predictor of hidrolitic acidity. The purpose of this study was to: test several interpolation methods to identify the best spatial predictor of hidrolitic acidity; and to determine the possibility of using multivariate geostatistics in order to reduce the number of needed samples for determination the hydrolytic acidity, all with an aim that the accuracy of the spatial distribution of liming requirement is not significantly reduced. Soil pH (in KCl) and hydrolytic acidity (Y1) is determined in the 1004 samples (from 0-30 cm) randomized collected in agricultural fields near Orahovica in eastern Croatia. This study tested 14 univariate interpolation models (part of ArcGIS software package) in order to provide most accurate spatial map of hydrolytic acidity on a base of: all samples (Y1 100%), and the datasets with 15% (Y1 85%), 30% (Y1 70%) and 50% fewer samples (Y1 50%). Parallel to univariate interpolation methods, the precision of the spatial distribution of the Y1 was tested by the co-kriging method with exchangeable acidity (pH in KCl) as a covariate. The soils at studied area had an average pH (KCl) 4,81, while the average Y1 10,52 cmol+ kg-1. These data suggest that liming is necessary

  2. Identifying high ability students: a contribution from neuropsychological indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Cortat Simonetti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some data on the convergence between psychometric intelligence measurements (IQ tests and physiological signs of mental activity found in high ability adolescents. The research study focus on a small group of 15 subjects submitted to electric encephalograms, previously chosen from a larger group of 77 classmates on the basis of scores on the WISC-III IQ Test. The results suggest continuous predominance of Alpha waves for the gifted group (higher frequency percentile and higher amplitude what was not observed in the group without any superior intellectual ability. Even taking into account methodological limitations, this study may contribute to the understanding of a relationship between the intellectual quotient (IQ and alpha waves frequency and amplitude, as observed during performance on cognitive tasks. Such results may suggest a possibility to complement psychometric measures with encephalic registers in giftedness research studies.

  3. High resolution modeling of agricultural nitrogen to identify private wells susceptible to nitrate contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, Brendalynn; White, Denis; Harding, Anna; Mueller-Warrant, George; Hope, Bruce; Main, Eric

    2014-12-01

    Given the lack of data on private wells, public health and water quality specialists must explore alternative datasets for understanding associated exposures and health risks. Characterizing agricultural nitrogen inputs would be valuable for identifying areas where well water safety may be compromised. This study incorporated existing methods for estimating nutrient loading at the county level with datasets derived from a state permitting program for confined animal feeding operations and agricultural enterprise budget worksheets to produce a high resolution agricultural nitrogen raster map. This map was combined with data on soil leachability and new well locations. An algorithm was developed to calculate nitrogen loading and leachability within 1,000 meters of each well. Wells with a nonzero nitrogen total linked to soils with high leachability were categorized and displayed on maps communicating well susceptibility across the state of Oregon. Results suggest that 4% of recently drilled wells may be susceptible to nitrate contamination, while areas identified for mitigation are too restrictive to include all susceptible wells. Predicted increases in population density and the steady addition of approximately 3,800 new wells annually may lead to a large number of residents, especially those in rural areas, experiencing long-term exposures to nitrate in drinking water.

  4. SCREENING TO IDENTIFY AND PREVENT URBAN STORM WATER PROBLEMS: ESTIMATING IMPERVIOUS AREA ACCURATELY AND INEXPENSIVELY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Complete identification and eventual prevention of urban water quality problems pose significant monitoring, "smart growth" and water quality management challenges. Uncontrolled increase of impervious surface area (roads, buildings, and parking lots) causes detrimental hydrologi...

  5. SCREENING TO IDENTIFY AND PREVENT URBAN STORM WATER PROBLEMS: ESTIMATING IMPERVIOUS AREA ACCURATELY AND INEXPENSIVELY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Complete identification and eventual prevention of urban water quality problems pose significant monitoring, "smart growth" and water quality management challenges. Uncontrolled increase of impervious surface area (roads, buildings, and parking lots) causes detrimental hydrologi...

  6. Identifying grain-size dependent errors on global forest area estimates and carbon studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daolan Zheng; Linda S. Heath; Mark J. Ducey

    2008-01-01

    Satellite-derived coarse-resolution data are typically used for conducting global analyses. But the forest areas estimated from coarse-resolution maps (e.g., 1 km) inevitably differ from a corresponding fine-resolution map (such as a 30-m map) that would be closer to ground truth. A better understanding of changes in grain size on area estimation will improve our...

  7. Identifying Landscape Areas Prone to Generating Storm Runoff in Central New York Agricultural Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, K.; Walter, M. T.

    2015-12-01

    Nonpoint source (NPS) pollution continues to be a leading cause of surface water degradation, especially in agricultural areas. In humid regions where variable source area (VSA) hydrology dominates storm runoff, NPS pollution is generated where VSAs coincide with polluting activities. Mapping storm runoff risks could allow for more precise and informed targeting of NPS pollution mitigation practices in agricultural landscapes. Topographic wetness indices (TWI) provide good approximations of relative soil moisture patterns and relative storm runoff risks. Simulation models are typically used in conjunction with TWIs to quantify VSA behavior. In this study we use empirically derived relationships between TWI values, volumetric water content (VWC) and rainfall frequencies to develop runoff probability maps. Rainfall and soil VWC were measured across regionally representative agricultural areas in central New York over three years (2012-2015) to determine the volume of runoff generated from agricultural fields in the area. We assumed the threshold for storm runoff occurs when the combination of antecedent soil water and rainfall are sufficient to saturate the soil. We determined that approximately 50% of the storm runoff volume is generated from 10% of the land area during spring, summer, and autumn seasons, while the risk of storm runoff generation is higher in the spring and autumn seasons than in the summer for the same area of land.

  8. Identifying priority areas for land protection in the South Atlantic: A landscape genetics pilot study

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Identifies genetic “hotspots” for sustaining populations and maintaining within-species adaptive capacity throughout the LCC. Evaluates the overlap between these...

  9. Using the Hestia bottom-up FFCO2 emissions estimation to identify drivers and hotspots in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, P.; Patarasuk, R.; Gurney, K. R.; o'Keefe, D.; Song, Y.; Huang, J.; Buchert, M.; Lin, J. C.; Mendoza, D. L.; Ehleringer, J. R.; Eldering, A.; Miller, C. E.; Duren, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    Urban areas occupy 3% of the earth's land surface and generate 75% of the fossil fuel carbon dioxide (FFCO2) emissions. We report on the application of the Hestia Project to the Salt Lake County (SLC) and Los Angeles (LA) domains. Hestia quantifies FFCO2 in fine space-time detail across urban domains using a scientific "bottom-up" approach. We explore the utility of the Hestia to inform both urbanization science and greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation policy. We focus on the residential sector in SLC and the onroad sector in LA as these sectors are large emissions contributors in each locale, and local governments have some authority and policy levers to mitigate these emissions. Multiple regression using sociodemographic data across SLC census block-groups shows that per capita income exhibits a positive relationship with FFCO2 emissions while household size exhibits a negative relationship, after controlling for total population. Housing units per area (i.e., compact development) has little effect on FFCO2 emissions. Rising income in the high-income group has twice as much impact on the emissions as the low-income group. Household size for the low-income group has four times the impact on the emissions as the high-income group. In LA, onroad FFCO2 emissions account for 49% of total emissions, of which 41% is from arterials (intermediate road class). Arterials also have the largest carbon emissions intensity - FFCO2/vehicle distance travelled (VKT) - possibly from high traffic congestion and fleet composition. Non-interstate hotspot emissions (> 419 tC ln-km-1) are equally dominated by particular arterials and collectors (lowest road class) though collectors have a higher VKT. These hotspots occur largely in LA (67%) and Orange (18%) counties and provide targeted information for onroad emissions reduction. Using Hestia to identify FFCO2 emissions drivers and hotpots can aid state and local policy makers in planning the most effective GHG reductions.

  10. Satellite Earth observation data to identify anthropogenic pressures in selected protected areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagendra, H.; Mairota, P.; Marangi, C.; Lucas, R.; Dimopoulos, P.; Honrado, J.P.; Niphadkara, M.; Mücher, C.A.; Tomaselli, V.; Panitsa, M.; Tarantino, C.; Manakos, I.; Blonda, P.

    2015-01-01

    Protected areas are experiencing increased levels of human pressure. To enable appropriate conservation action, it is critical to map and monitor changes in the type and extent of land cover/use and habitat classes, which can be related to human pressures over time. Satellite Earth observation (EO)

  11. Does taxonomic diversity in indicator groups influence their effectiveness in identifying priority areas for species conservation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Jesper Stentoft; Larsen, Frank Wugt; Rahbek, Carsten

    2008-01-01

    the taxonomic diversity in species indicator groups influence their effectiveness in the identification of priority areas for species conservation. We tested whether indicator groups comprising a higher taxonomic diversity (i.e. indicator groups consisting of species from many different taxonomic groups...

  12. Spatial considerations of an area restriction model for identifying harvest blocks at commercial forest plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kašpar Jan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the past few decades, ecological and environmental issues have dominated the forest industry worldwide, but economic aspects have been much less studied in this dynamic period. However, a sustainable and efficient forest biomass supply is critical for socio-economic development in many regions, particularly in rural areas. Nature protection efforts have contributed to reduced harvesting quotas, which have resulted in an imbalance of the environmental functions of the forests and forest management, particularly wood supply.

  13. Use of rare earth oxides as tracers to identify sediment source areas for agricultural hillslopes

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Understanding sediment sources is essential to enable more effective targeting of in-field mitigation approaches to reduce diffuse pollution from agricultural land. In this paper we report on the application of rare earth element oxides to arable soils at hillslope scale in order to determine sediment source areas and their relative importance, using a non-intrusive method of surface spraying. Runoff, sediments and rare earth elements lost from four arable hillslope lengths at a site in the U...

  14. Wind and Wildlife in the Northern Great Plains: Identifying Low-Impact Areas for Wind Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fargione, Joseph; Kiesecker, Joseph; Slaats, M. Jan; Olimb, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Wind energy offers the potential to reduce carbon emissions while increasing energy independence and bolstering economic development. However, wind energy has a larger land footprint per Gigawatt (GW) than most other forms of energy production and has known and predicted adverse effects on wildlife. The Northern Great Plains (NGP) is home both to some of the world’s best wind resources and to remaining temperate grasslands, the most converted and least protected ecological system on the planet. Thus, appropriate siting and mitigation of wind development is particularly important in this region. Steering energy development to disturbed lands with low wildlife value rather than placing new developments within large and intact habitats would reduce impacts to wildlife. Goals for wind energy development in the NGP are roughly 30 GW of nameplate capacity by 2030. Our analyses demonstrate that there are large areas where wind development would likely have few additional impacts on wildlife. We estimate there are ∼1,056 GW of potential wind energy available across the NGP on areas likely to have low-impact for biodiversity, over 35 times development goals. New policies and approaches will be required to guide wind energy development to low-impact areas. PMID:22848505

  15. Representing biodiversity: data and procedures for identifying priority areas for conservation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C R Margules; R L Pressey; P H Williams

    2002-07-01

    Biodiversity priority areas together should represent the biodiversity of the region they are situated in. To achieve this, biodiversity has to be measured, biodiversity goals have to be set and methods for implementing those goals have to be applied. Each of these steps is discussed. Because it is impossible to measure all of biodiversity, biodiversity surrogates have to be used. Examples are taxa sub-sets, species assemblages and environmental domains. Each of these has different strengths and weaknesses, which are described and evaluated. In real-world priority setting, some combination of these is usually employed. While a desirable goal might be to sample all of biodiversity from genotypes to ecosystems, an achievable goal is to represent, at some agreed level, each of the biodiversity features chosen as surrogates. Explicit systematic procedures for implementing such a goal are described. These procedures use complementarity, a measure of the contribution each area in a region makes to the conservation goal, to estimate irreplaceability and flexibility, measures of the extent to which areas can be substituted for one another in order to take competing land uses into account. Persistence and vulnerability, which also play an important role in the priority setting process, are discussed briefly.

  16. Post-Arab Spring Governments in North Africa: Identifying Focus Areas for Economic Advancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    level of socioeconomic development, high unemployment for the young and well-educated, high adult illiteracy rates and poor regulatory quality...general, primarily due to its relatively high rate of adult illiteracy (23.1%).”87 This confirms the assertion presented in Section B that education is a...Bertelsmann Stiftung, 2009, 12, and is mirrored in the 2012 report, though adult illiteracy is estimated at 22% in that publication. 70 assertion is more an

  17. Research Area 7.4: Identifying a Path Towards Rapid Discrimination of Infection Disease Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-15

    a sophisticated analysis identified the source, many countries acted proactively to remove cucumbers and tomatoes from store shelves, Russia issued...Eisenstein, M. (2012). Oxford Nanopore announcement sets sequencing sector abuzz. Nature Biotechnology , 30(4), 295–6. doi:10.1038/nbt0412-295... Biotechnology , 29(7). Grad, Y. H., Lipsitch, M., Feldgarden, M., Arachchi, H. M., Cerqueira, G. C., Fitzgerald, M., .. . Hanage, W. P. (2012). Genomic

  18. Calibration of Local Area Weather Radar-Identifying significant factors affecting the calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lisbeth; Jensen, Niels Einar; Madsen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    on calibration. The data processing for handling the partial beam filling issue was found to be essential to the calibration. LAWR uses a different calibration process compared to conventional weather radars, which use a power-law relationship between reflectivity and rainfall rate. Instead LAWR uses a linear...... relationship of reflectivity and rainfall rate as result of the log transformation carried out by the logarithmic receiver as opposed to the linear receiver of conventional weather radars. Based on rain gauge data for a five month period from a dense network of nine gauges within a 500 x 500 m area and data...

  19. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: Can the noninvasive diagnostic testing identify high risk patients?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li; Zhang; Obinna; Mmagu; Liwen; Liu; Dayuan; Li; Yuxin; Fan; Adrian; Baranchuk; Peter; R; Kowey

    2014-01-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy(HCM) is the most common cause of sudden cardiac death(SCD) in the young, particularly among athletes. Identifying high risk individuals is very important for SCD prevention. The purpose of this review is to stress that noninvasive diagnostic testing is important for risk assessment. Extreme left ventricular hypertrophy and documented ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation increase the risk of SCD. Fragmented QRS and T wave inversion in multiple leads are more common in high risk patients. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging provides complete visualization of the left ventricular chamber, allowing precise localization of the distribution of hypertrophy and measurement of wall thickness and cardiac mass. Moreover, with late gadolinium enhancement, patchy myocardial fibrosis within the area of hypertrophy can be detected, which is also helpful in risk stratification. Genetic testing is encouraged in all cases, especially in those with a family history of HCM and SCD.

  20. Integrating Terrain and Vegetation Indices for Identifying Potential Soil Erosion Risk Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arabinda Sharma

    2010-01-01

    The present paper offers an innovative method to monitor the change in soil erosion potential by integrating terrain and vegetation indices derived from remote sensing data. Three terrain indices namely, topographic wetness index (TWI), stream power index (SPI) and slope length factor (LS), were derived from the digital elevation model. Normalized vegetation index (NDVI) was derived for the year 1988 and 2004 using remote sensing images. K-mean clustering was performed on staked indices to categorize the study area into four soil erosion potential classes. The validation of derived erosion potential map using USLE model showed a good agreement. Results indicated that there was a significant change in the erosion potential of the watershed and a gradual shifting of lower erosion potential class to next higher erosion potential class over the study period.

  1. Large area stress distribution in crystalline materials calculated from lattice deformation identified by electron backscatter diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yongliang; Zhang, Lei; Hao, Xiaopeng; Wu, Yongzhong; Dai, Yuanbin; Tian, Yuan; Huo, Qin

    2014-08-05

    We report a method to obtain the stress of crystalline materials directly from lattice deformation by Hooke's law. The lattice deformation was calculated using the crystallographic orientations obtained from electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technology. The stress distribution over a large area was obtained efficiently and accurately using this method. Wurtzite structure gallium nitride (GaN) crystal was used as the example of a hexagonal crystal system. With this method, the stress distribution of a GaN crystal was obtained. Raman spectroscopy was used to verify the stress distribution. The cause of the stress distribution found in the GaN crystal was discussed from theoretical analysis and EBSD data. Other properties related to lattice deformation, such as piezoelectricity, can also be analyzed by this novel approach based on EBSD data.

  2. Southern Tunisia: A still high endemicity area for hepatitis A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neffatti, Houcine; Lebraud, Patricia; Hottelet, Corinne; Gharbi, Jawher; Challouf, Taieb; Roque-Afonso, Anne-Marie

    2017-01-01

    Hepatitis A (HAV) and E (HEV) viruses are responsible for enterically transmitted hepatitis. Tunisia is reported to be of intermediate endemicity for HAV and of low seroprevalence for HEV; however, data from rural areas of South Tunisia are lacking. Sera from 216 asymptomatic pregnant women and from 92 patients with acute hepatitis were collected between October 2014 and November 2015. Total and IgM anti-HAV immunoglobulins and anti-HEV IgG and IgM were investigated. Anti-HAV IgM-positive samples were subjected to RT-PCR targeting the VP1/2A region and sequenced. HEV IgM positive samples and all samples from acute hepatitis patients were assessed for HEV RNA. Among pregnant women (mean age 32+/-8), HAV seroprevalence was 98.6%, none presented anti-HAV IgM; HEV seroprevalence was 5.1% and three presented weakly reactive anti-HEV IgM without detectable RNA. Among acute hepatitis patients (mean age 18.5 +/- 14), HEV seroprevalence was 19,5%, none presented anti-HEV IgM, nor HEV RNA. HAV seroprevalence exceeded 90% by age 5 and acute HAV infection was detected in 20 patients (21,7%), younger than patients with other hepatitis causes (9,8 years vs. 20,4 years, p = 0,004); 65% were male. Most acute HAV infections were observed in a coastal area where HAV infections represented 52% of hepatitis etiology. Phylogenetic analysis identified genotype IA strains, clustering close to previously published Tunisian sequences. The present study confirmed a low HEV endemicity and evidenced a still high level of HAV circulation in Southern Tunisia, suggesting distinct dissemination patterns for these viruses.

  3. Identifying Areas of Tension in the Field of Technology-Enhanced Learning: Results of an International Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesch, Christine; Kaendler, Celia; Rummel, Nikol; Wiedmann, Michael; Spada, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Despite steady progress in research in technology-enhanced learning (TEL), the translation of research findings and technology into educational practices falls short of expectations. We present five Areas of Tension which were identified and evaluated in an international Delphi study on TEL. These tensions might impede a more comprehensive…

  4. Classroom-Level Positive Behavior Supports in Schools Implementing SW-PBIS: Identifying Areas for Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinke, Wendy M.; Herman, Keith C.; Stormont, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the use of classroom-level behavior management strategies that align with School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SW-PBIS). Direct observations of universal classroom management strategies were conducted across 33 elementary classrooms in elementary schools implementing SW-PBIS with high fidelity. Findings…

  5. Teacher- and School-Level Predictors of Teacher Efficacy and Burnout: Identifying Potential Areas for Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pas, Elise T.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Hershfeldt, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    Although several studies relate low teacher efficacy and high burnout to the quality of instruction and students' academic achievement, there has been limited research examining factors that predict teacher efficacy and burnout. The current study employed a longitudinal, multilevel modeling approach to examine the influence of teacher- and…

  6. Facile synthesis of high surface area molybdenum nitride and carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Aaron; Serov, Alexey; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Brosha, Eric L.; Atanassov, Plamen; Ward, Tim L.

    2015-08-01

    The synthesis of high surface area γ-Mo2N and α-Mo2C is reported (116 and 120 m2/g) without the temperature programmed reduction of MoO3. γ-Mo2N was prepared in an NH3-free synthesis using forming gas (7 at% H2, N2-balance) as the reactive atmosphere. Three precursors were studied ((NH4)6Mo7O24·4H2O, (NH4)2 Mg(MoO4)2, and MgMoO4) along with the sacrificial support method (SSM) as a means of reducing the particle size of Mo2N and Mo2C. In situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies were carried out to identify reaction intermediates, the temperature at which various intermediates form, and the average domain size of the Mo2N products. Materials were synthesized in bulk and further characterized by XRD, HRTEM, XPS, and BET.

  7. Comparison of remote sensing image processing techniques to identify tornado damage areas from Landsat TM data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myint, S.W.; Yuan, M.; Cerveny, R.S.; Giri, C.P.

    2008-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques have been shown effective for large-scale damage surveys after a hazardous event in both near real-time or post-event analyses. The paper aims to compare accuracy of common imaging processing techniques to detect tornado damage tracks from Landsat TM data. We employed the direct change detection approach using two sets of images acquired before and after the tornado event to produce a principal component composite images and a set of image difference bands. Techniques in the comparison include supervised classification, unsupervised classification, and objectoriented classification approach with a nearest neighbor classifier. Accuracy assessment is based on Kappa coefficient calculated from error matrices which cross tabulate correctly identified cells on the TM image and commission and omission errors in the result. Overall, the Object-oriented Approach exhibits the highest degree of accuracy in tornado damage detection. PCA and Image Differencing methods show comparable outcomes. While selected PCs can improve detection accuracy 5 to 10%, the Object-oriented Approach performs significantly better with 15-20% higher accuracy than the other two techniques. ?? 2008 by MDPI.

  8. Remote Sensing as a Landscape Epidemiologic Tool to Identify Villages at High Risk for Malaria Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Louisa R.; Rodriquez, Mario H.; Dister, Sheri W.; Rodriquez, Americo D.; Rejmankova, Eliska; Ulloa, Armando; Meza, Rosa A.; Roberts, Donald R.; Paris, Jack F.; Spanner, Michael A.; hide

    1994-01-01

    A landscape approach using remote sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS) technologies was developed to discriminate between villages at high and low risk for malaria transmission, as defined by adult Anopheles albimanus abundance. Satellite data for an area in southern Chiapas, Mexico were digitally processed to generate a map of landscape elements. The GIS processes were used to determine the proportion of mapped landscape elements surrounding 40 villages where An. albimanus data had been collected. The relationships between vector abundance and landscape element proportions were investigated using stepwise discriminant analysis and stepwise linear regression. Both analyses indicated that the most important landscape elements in terms of explaining vector abundance were transitional swamp and unmanaged pasture. Discriminant functions generated for these two elements were able to correctly distinguish between villages with high ind low vector abundance, with an overall accuracy of 90%. Regression results found both transitional swamp and unmanaged pasture proportions to be predictive of vector abundance during the mid-to-late wet season. This approach, which integrates remotely sensed data and GIS capabilities to identify villages with high vector-human contact risk, provides a promising tool for malaria surveillance programs that depend on labor-intensive field techniques. This is particularly relevant in areas where the lack of accurate surveillance capabilities may result in no malaria control action when, in fact, directed action is necessary. In general, this landscape approach could be applied to other vector-borne diseases in areas where: 1. the landscape elements critical to vector survival are known and 2. these elements can be detected at remote sensing scales.

  9. Biotic and Climatic Velocity Identify Contrasting Areas of Vulnerability to Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Carlos; Lawler, Joshua J; Roberts, David R; Hamann, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Metrics that synthesize the complex effects of climate change are essential tools for mapping future threats to biodiversity and predicting which species are likely to adapt in place to new climatic conditions, disperse and establish in areas with newly suitable climate, or face the prospect of extirpation. The most commonly used of such metrics is the velocity of climate change, which estimates the speed at which species must migrate over the earth's surface to maintain constant climatic conditions. However, "analog-based" velocities, which represent the actual distance to where analogous climates will be found in the future, may provide contrasting results to the more common form of velocity based on local climate gradients. Additionally, whereas climatic velocity reflects the exposure of organisms to climate change, resultant biotic effects are dependent on the sensitivity of individual species as reflected in part by their climatic niche width. This has motivated development of biotic velocity, a metric which uses data on projected species range shifts to estimate the velocity at which species must move to track their climatic niche. We calculated climatic and biotic velocity for the Western Hemisphere for 1961-2100, and applied the results to example ecological and conservation planning questions, to demonstrate the potential of such analog-based metrics to provide information on broad-scale patterns of exposure and sensitivity. Geographic patterns of biotic velocity for 2954 species of birds, mammals, and amphibians differed from climatic velocity in north temperate and boreal regions. However, both biotic and climatic velocities were greatest at low latitudes, implying that threats to equatorial species arise from both the future magnitude of climatic velocities and the narrow climatic tolerances of species in these regions, which currently experience low seasonal and interannual climatic variability. Biotic and climatic velocity, by approximating lower and

  10. Identifying resident care areas for a quality improvement intervention in long-term care: a collaborative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cranley Lisa A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Canada, healthcare aides (also referred to as nurse aides, personal support workers, nursing assistants are unregulated personnel who provide 70-80% of direct care to residents living in nursing homes. Although they are an integral part of the care team their contributions to the resident care planning process are not always acknowledged in the organization. The purpose of the Safer Care for Older Persons [in residential] Environments (SCOPE project was to evaluate the feasibility of engaging front line staff (primarily healthcare aides to use quality improvement methods to integrate best practices into resident care. This paper describes the process used by teams participating in the SCOPE project to select clinical improvement areas. Methods The study employed a collaborative approach to identify clinical areas and through consensus, teams selected one of three areas. To select the clinical areas we recruited two nursing homes not involved in the SCOPE project and sampled healthcare providers and decision-makers within them. A vote counting method was used to determine the top five ranked clinical areas for improvement. Results Responses received from stakeholder groups included gerontology experts, decision-makers, registered nurses, managers, and healthcare aides. The top ranked areas from highest to lowest were pain/discomfort management, behaviour management, depression, skin integrity, and assistance with eating. Conclusions Involving staff in selecting areas that they perceive as needing improvement may facilitate staff engagement in the quality improvement process.

  11. Identifying firing mammalian neurons in networks with high-resolution multi-transistor array (MTA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambacher, A.; Vitzthum, V.; Zeitler, R.; Eickenscheidt, M.; Eversmann, B.; Thewes, R.; Fromherz, P.

    2011-01-01

    The electrical activity of a network of mammalian neurons is mapped with a Multi-Transistor Array (MTA) fabricated with extended CMOS technology. The spatial resolution is 7.4 μm on an area of 1 mm2 at a sampling frequency of 6 kHz for a complete readout of 16,384 sensor transistors. Action potentials give rise to extracellular voltages with amplitudes in a range of 500 μV. On the basis of the high resolution in space and time, correlation algorithms are used to identify single action potentials with amplitudes as low as about 200μV, and to assign the signals to the activity of individual neurons even in a dense network.

  12. Identifying solar energy potentials and intensifying the climate-friendly use of photovoltaics within urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, N.

    2016-04-01

    Limited non-renewable fossil energy reserves and the essential ideas of sustainability have caused an increase in the demand for solar energy. The intensified use of renewable energy in Germany is primarily encouraged by the German renewable-energy-law. Solar panels mounted on roofs generate electricity using the energy radiated from the sun by taking advantage of the photovoltaic effect. However, not every roof is usable for power generation through solar energy. Therefore, web-based solar energy registers for multiple regions in Germany have been developed that provide detailed information on roofs suitable for carrying solar panels. The analyses are based on a digital object model derived from airborne laser scanning data of high accuracy and a fully automated technology to classify the points. First, roof points are separated according to their single roof sides and are converted into polygons. Then, exposure, slope, size of the roof, and particularly shading effects are computed to calculate the solar potential of each roof side. The web-GIS provides detailed information about the roof's suitability, such as the installable capacity and the expected generation of electricity. Thus, it helps house owners to calculate their investment and later revenues.

  13. Monitoring the cluster of high-risk mortality areas in the southwest of Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Buxó-Pujolràs

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Inspired by a previous study showing a striking geographical mortality clustering, not attributable to chance, in the south-western region of Spain in 1987-1995, the authors have conducted an ecological study of time trends in all-cause mortality risk between 1987-1995 and 1996-2004 in 2,218 small areas of Spain. To identify high-risk areas, age-adjusted relative risks for each area, stratified by sex and time period, were computed using a Bayesian approach. Areas of high-risk in both periods, or in the second period only, were identified. Annual excess mortality and percentage of people living in these high-risk areas, again stratified by sex and time period, were estimated. The cluster of high mortality risk areas identified in the southwest of Spain during 1987-1995 persisted in the period 1996-2004 with an increase in the number of highrisk areas and in annual excess of mortality. These increases showed a gender difference, being more pronounced in women.

  14. High surface area carbon and process for its production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanos, Jimmy; Burress, Jacob; Pfeifer, Peter; Rash, Tyler; Shah, Parag; Suppes, Galen

    2016-12-13

    Activated carbon materials and methods of producing and using activated carbon materials are provided. In particular, biomass-derived activated carbon materials and processes of producing the activated carbon materials with prespecified surface areas and pore size distributions are provided. Activated carbon materials with preselected high specific surface areas, porosities, sub-nm (carbon consumption and metallic potassium intercalation into the carbon lattice during the activation process.

  15. Wavy channel transistor for area efficient high performance operation

    KAUST Repository

    Fahad, Hossain M.

    2013-04-05

    We report a wavy channel FinFET like transistor where the channel is wavy to increase its width without any area penalty and thereby increasing its drive current. Through simulation and experiments, we show the effectiveness of such device architecture is capable of high performance operation compared to conventional FinFETs with comparatively higher area efficiency and lower chip latency as well as lower power consumption.

  16. Recruiting and retaining high-quality teachers in rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, David H

    2007-01-01

    In examining recruitment and retention of teachers in rural areas, David Monk begins by noting the numerous possible characteristics of rural communities--small size, sparse settlement, distance from population concentrations, and an economic reliance on agricultural industries that are increasingly using seasonal and immigrant workers to minimize labor costs. Many, though not all, rural areas, he says, are seriously impoverished. Classes in rural schools are relatively small, and teachers tend to report satisfaction with their work environments and relatively few problems with discipline. But teacher turnover is often high, and hiring can be difficult. Monk observes that rural schools have a below-average share of highly trained teachers. Compensation in rural schools tends to be low, perhaps because of a lower fiscal capacity in rural areas, thus complicating efforts to attract and retain teachers. Several student characteristics, including relatively large shares of students with special needs and with limited English skills and lower shares of students attending college, can also make it difficult to recruit and retain high-quality teachers. Other challenges include meeting the needs of highly mobile children of low-income migrant farm workers. With respect to public policy, Monk asserts a need to focus on a subcategory of what might be called hard-to-staff rural schools rather than to develop a blanket set of policies for all rural schools. In particular, he recommends a focus on such indicators as low teacher qualifications, teaching in fields far removed from the area of training, difficulty in hiring, high turnover, a lack of diversity among teachers in the school, and the presence of migrant farm workers' children. Successful efforts to stimulate economic growth in these areas would be highly beneficial. He also calls attention to the potential for modern telecommunication and computing technologies to offset some of the drawbacks associated with teaching

  17. [Predicting individual risk of high healthcare cost to identify complex chronic patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coderch, Jordi; Sánchez-Pérez, Inma; Ibern, Pere; Carreras, Marc; Pérez-Berruezo, Xavier; Inoriza, José M

    2014-01-01

    To develop a predictive model for the risk of high consumption of healthcare resources, and assess the ability of the model to identify complex chronic patients. A cross-sectional study was performed within a healthcare management organization by using individual data from 2 consecutive years (88,795 people). The dependent variable consisted of healthcare costs above the 95th percentile (P95), including all services provided by the organization and pharmaceutical consumption outside of the institution. The predictive variables were age, sex, morbidity-based on clinical risk groups (CRG)-and selected data from previous utilization (use of hospitalization, use of high-cost drugs in ambulatory care, pharmaceutical expenditure). A univariate descriptive analysis was performed. We constructed a logistic regression model with a 95% confidence level and analyzed sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values (PPV), and the area under the ROC curve (AUC). Individuals incurring costs >P95 accumulated 44% of total healthcare costs and were concentrated in ACRG3 (aggregated CRG level 3) categories related to multiple chronic diseases. All variables were statistically significant except for sex. The model had a sensitivity of 48.4% (CI: 46.9%-49.8%), specificity of 97.2% (CI: 97.0%-97.3%), PPV of 46.5% (CI: 45.0%-47.9%), and an AUC of 0.897 (CI: 0.892 to 0.902). High consumption of healthcare resources is associated with complex chronic morbidity. A model based on age, morbidity, and prior utilization is able to predict high-cost risk and identify a target population requiring proactive care. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Use of Parsimony Analysis to Identify Areas of Endemism of Chinese Birds: Implications for Conservation and Biogeography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Lei Huang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Parsimony analysis of endemicity (PAE was used to identify areas of endemism (AOEs for Chinese birds at the subregional level. Four AOEs were identified based on a distribution database of 105 endemic species and using 18 avifaunal subregions as the operating geographical units (OGUs. The four AOEs are the Qinghai-Zangnan Subregion, the Southwest Mountainous Subregion, the Hainan Subregion and the Taiwan Subregion. Cladistic analysis of subregions generally supports the division of China’s avifauna into Palaearctic and Oriental realms. Two PAE area trees were produced from two different distribution datasets (year 1976 and 2007. The 1976 topology has four distinct subregional branches; however, the 2007 topology has three distinct branches. Moreover, three Palaearctic subregions in the 1976 tree clustered together with the Oriental subregions in the 2007 tree. Such topological differences may reflect changes in the distribution of bird species through circa three decades.

  19. Using Range-Wide Abundance Modeling to Identify Key Conservation Areas for the Micro-Endemic Bolson Tortoise (Gopherus flavomarginatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthya A Ureña-Aranda

    Full Text Available A widespread biogeographic pattern in nature is that population abundance is not uniform across the geographic range of species: most occurrence sites have relatively low numbers, whereas a few places contain orders of magnitude more individuals. The Bolson tortoise Gopherus flavomarginatus is endemic to a small region of the Chihuahuan Desert in Mexico, where habitat deterioration threatens this species with extinction. In this study we combined field burrows counts and the approach for modeling species abundance based on calculating the distance to the niche centroid to obtain range-wide abundance estimates. For the Bolson tortoise, we found a robust, negative relationship between observed burrows abundance and distance to the niche centroid, with a predictive capacity of 71%. Based on these results we identified four priority areas for the conservation of this microendemic and threatened tortoise. We conclude that this approach may be a useful approximation for identifying key areas for sampling and conservation efforts in elusive and rare species.

  20. A clinical model to identify patients with high-risk coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yelin; Chen, Li; Yam, Yeung; Achenbach, Stephan; Al-Mallah, Mouaz; Berman, Daniel S; Budoff, Matthew J; Cademartiri, Filippo; Callister, Tracy Q; Chang, Hyuk-Jae; Cheng, Victor Y; Chinnaiyan, Kavitha; Cury, Ricardo; Delago, Augustin; Dunning, Allison; Feuchtner, Gudrun; Hadamitzky, Martin; Hausleiter, Jörg; Karlsberg, Ronald P; Kaufmann, Philipp A; Kim, Yong-Jin; Leipsic, Jonathon; LaBounty, Troy; Lin, Fay; Maffei, Erica; Raff, Gilbert L; Shaw, Leslee J; Villines, Todd C; Min, James K; Chow, Benjamin J W

    2015-04-01

    This study sought to develop a clinical model that identifies patients with and without high-risk coronary artery disease (CAD). Although current clinical models help to estimate a patient's pre-test probability of obstructive CAD, they do not accurately identify those patients with and without high-risk coronary anatomy. Retrospective analysis of a prospectively collected multinational coronary computed tomographic angiography (CTA) cohort was conducted. High-risk anatomy was defined as left main diameter stenosis ≥50%, 3-vessel disease with diameter stenosis ≥70%, or 2-vessel disease involving the proximal left anterior descending artery. Using a cohort of 27,125, patients with a history of CAD, cardiac transplantation, and congenital heart disease were excluded. The model was derived from 24,251 consecutive patients in the derivation cohort and an additional 7,333 nonoverlapping patients in the validation cohort. The risk score consisted of 9 variables: age, sex, diabetes, hypertension, current smoking, hyperlipidemia, family history of CAD, history of peripheral vascular disease, and chest pain symptoms. Patients were divided into 3 risk categories: low (≤7 points), intermediate (8 to 17 points) and high (≥18 points). The model was statistically robust with area under the curve of 0.76 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.75 to 0.78) in the derivation cohort and 0.71 (95% CI: 0.69 to 0.74) in the validation cohort. Patients who scored ≤7 points had a low negative likelihood ratio (risk CAD was 1% in patients with ≤7 points and 16.7% in those with ≥18 points. We propose a scoring system, based on clinical variables, that can be used to identify patients at high and low pre-test probability of having high-risk CAD. Identification of these populations may detect those who may benefit from a trial of medical therapy and those who may benefit most from an invasive strategy. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by

  1. Using a partial sum method and GPS tracking data to identify area restricted search by artisanal fishers at moored fish aggregating devices in the Commonwealth of Dominica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvard, Michael; Carlson, David; McGaffey, Ethan

    2015-01-01

    Foragers must often travel from a central place to exploit aggregations of prey. These patches can be identified behaviorally when a forager shifts from travel to area restricted search, identified by a decrease in speed and an increase in sinuosity of movement. Faster, more directed movement is associated with travel. Differentiating foraging behavior at patches from travel to patches is important for a variety of research questions and has now been made easier by the advent of small, GPS devices that can track forager movement with high resolution. In the summer and fall of 2012, movement data were collected from GPS devices placed on foraging trips originating in the artisanal fishing village of Desa Ikan (pseudonym), on the east coast of the Caribbean island nation of the Commonwealth Dominica. Moored FADs are human-made structures anchored to the ocean floor with fish attraction material on or near the surface designed to effectively create a resource patch. The ultimate goal of the research is to understand how property rights are emerging after the introduction of fish aggregating device (FAD) technology at the site in 1999. This paper reports on research to identify area-restricted search foraging behavior at FAD patches. For 22 foraging trips simultaneous behavioral observations were made to ground-truth the GPS movement data. Using a cumulative sum method, area restricted search was identified as negative deviations from the mean travel speed and the method was able to correctly identify FAD patches in every case.

  2. A systematic review of prevalence, disease characteristics and management of systemic lupus erythematosus in Australia: identifying areas of unmet need.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikpour, M; Bridge, J A; Richter, S

    2014-12-01

    Few epidemiological studies of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have been conducted in Australia, and current management practice and levels of unmet need in this country are not well characterised. To perform a systematic literature review to identify Australia-specific information on SLE, particularly areas of unmet need. MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library were searched (1 January 1990 to 29 November 2013). All articles on prevalence, disease characteristics, management and outcomes of SLE in Australia were included. There is limited published information on SLE in Australia. Of 24 articles included, 18 described results from observational studies, three were narrative reviews, one was a clinical update, and two were medical education articles. In remote regions, SLE was reported to be more prevalent in Aboriginal Australians than non-Aboriginal Australians; information in urban populations is lacking. Asian Australians may be more affected by SLE than non-Asian Australians. Pregnancy outcomes may also be adversely affected. Many Australians with SLE may experience high levels of unmet need, including delayed diagnosis, ongoing symptoms, flares, depression/anxiety, sleeping difficulty and decreased quality of life. Published guidance on the SLE management in Australia is limited and dated. Published information on SLE in Australia is limited, but suggests that ethnicity may affect the prevalence and disease characteristics and that many Australians with SLE have unmet needs. Improvements in diagnosis, treatment and management are needed to alleviate these needs. Up-to-date guidance on the management of SLE would benefit healthcare professionals and patients. © 2014 The Authors; Internal Medicine Journal © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  3. Storage Area Networks and The High Performance Storage System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulen, H; Graf, O; Fitzgerald, K; Watson, R W

    2002-03-04

    The High Performance Storage System (HPSS) is a mature Hierarchical Storage Management (HSM) system that was developed around a network-centered architecture, with client access to storage provided through third-party controls. Because of this design, HPSS is able to leverage today's Storage Area Network (SAN) infrastructures to provide cost effective, large-scale storage systems and high performance global file access for clients. Key attributes of SAN file systems are found in HPSS today, and more complete SAN file system capabilities are being added. This paper traces the HPSS storage network architecture from the original implementation using HIPPI and IPI-3 technology, through today's local area network (LAN) capabilities, and to SAN file system capabilities now in development. At each stage, HPSS capabilities are compared with capabilities generally accepted today as characteristic of storage area networks and SAN file systems.

  4. High surface area graphene foams by chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drieschner, Simon; Weber, Michael; Wohlketzetter, Jörg; Vieten, Josua; Makrygiannis, Evangelos; Blaschke, Benno M.; Morandi, Vittorio; Colombo, Luigi; Bonaccorso, Francesco; Garrido, Jose A.

    2016-12-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) graphene-based structures combine the unique physical properties of graphene with the opportunity to get high electrochemically available surface area per unit of geometric surface area. Several preparation techniques have been reported to fabricate 3D graphene-based macroscopic structures for energy storage applications such as supercapacitors. Although reaserch has been focused so far on achieving either high specific capacitance or high volumetric capacitance, much less attention has been dedicated to obtain high specific and high volumetric capacitance simultaneously. Here, we present a facile technique to fabricate graphene foams (GF) of high crystal quality with tunable pore size grown by chemical vapor deposition. We exploited porous sacrificial templates prepared by sintering nickel and copper metal powders. Tuning the particle size of the metal powders and the growth temperature allow fine control of the resulting pore size of the 3D graphene-based structures smaller than 1 μm. The as-produced 3D graphene structures provide a high volumetric electric double layer capacitance (165 mF cm-3). High specific capacitance (100 Fg-1) is obtained by lowering the number of layers down to single layer graphene. Furthermore, the small pore size increases the stability of these GFs in contrast to the ones that have been grown so far on commercial metal foams. Electrodes based on the as-prepared GFs can be a boost for the development of supercapacitors, where both low volume and mass are required.

  5. High Incidence of Mammalian Orthoreovirus Identified by Environmental Surveillance in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew C Y Lim

    Full Text Available Wild poliovirus (WPV persists in diverse locales worldwide, spreading outward from endemic areas. In response to the international threat of WPV transmission and changes in the national vaccination policy, we established an environmental surveillance system to monitor the circulation of wild and vaccine-related poliovirus in Taiwan. From July 2012 to December 2013, we collected sewage specimens every month from 10 sewage treatment plants located throughout Taiwan. The specimens were concentrated by the two-phase separation method and then inoculated into L20B, RD, and A549 cells for virus isolation. Viral isolates were identified and serotyped by immunofluorescence assay or molecular analysis. A total of 300 sewage samples were collected, and the results showed 163 samples (54.3% were positive for virus, and 268 isolates were identified. Among these, 75 samples (25% were positive for enterovirus (EV, but no poliovirus was found. In addition, 92 isolates were identified as enteroviruses and the most common serotypes were coxsackievirus B4, coxsackievirus B3, and coxsackievirus B2. Interestingly, 102 (34% and 82 (27.3% specimens were positive for mammalian orthoreovirus (MRV and adenovirus, respectively. This study confirmed that sewage surveillance can be a useful additional modality for monitoring the possible presence of wild-type or vaccine-derived poliovirus in wastewater, and can indicate the current types of viruses circulating in the population. Furthermore, since MRV was found in children with acute necrotizing encephalopathy and meningitis, the high incidence of MRV detected by environmental surveillance warrants further investigation.

  6. High surface area carbon and process for its production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanos, Jimmy; Burress, Jacob; Pfeifer, Peter; Rash, Tyler; Shah, Parag; Suppes, Galen

    2016-12-13

    Activated carbon materials and methods of producing and using activated carbon materials are provided. In particular, biomass-derived activated carbon materials and processes of producing the activated carbon materials with prespecified surface areas and pore size distributions are provided. Activated carbon materials with preselected high specific surface areas, porosities, sub-nm (<1 nm) pore volumes, and supra-nm (1-5 nm) pore volumes may be achieved by controlling the degree of carbon consumption and metallic potassium intercalation into the carbon lattice during the activation process.

  7. High-Throughput Dry Processes for Large-Area Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BUSS,RICHARD J.; HEBNER,GREGORY A.; RUBY,DOUGLAS S.; YANG,PIN

    1999-11-01

    In October 1996, an interdisciplinary team began a three-year LDRD project to study the plasma processes of reactive ion etching and plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition on large-area silicon devices. The goal was to develop numerical models that could be used in a variety of applications for surface cleaning, selective etching, and thin-film deposition. Silicon solar cells were chosen as the experimental vehicle for this project because an innovative device design was identified that would benefit from immediate performance improvement using a combination of plasma etching and deposition processes. This report presents a summary of the technical accomplishments and conclusions of the team.

  8. Estimating Demand for and Supply of Pediatric Preventive Dental Care for Children and Identifying Dental Care Shortage Areas, Georgia, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shanshan; Gentili, Monica; Griffin, Paul M; Griffin, Susan O; Harati, Pravara; Johnson, Ben; Serban, Nicoleta; Tomar, Scott

    Demand for dental care is expected to outpace supply through 2025. The objectives of this study were to determine the extent of pediatric dental care shortages in Georgia and to develop a general method for estimation that can be applied to other states. We estimated supply and demand for pediatric preventive dental care for the 159 counties in Georgia in 2015. We compared pediatric preventive dental care shortage areas (where demand exceeded twice the supply) designated by our methods with dental health professional shortage areas designated by the Health Resources & Services Administration. We estimated caries risk from a multivariate analysis of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data and national census data. We estimated county-level demand based on the time needed to perform preventive dental care services and the proportion of time that dentists spend on pediatric preventive dental care services from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Pediatric preventive dental care supply exceeded demand in Georgia in 75 counties: the average annual county-level pediatric preventive dental care demand was 16 866 hours, and the supply was 32 969 hours. We identified 41 counties as pediatric dental care shortage areas, 14 of which had not been designated by the Health Resources & Services Administration. Age- and service-specific information on dental care shortage areas could result in more efficient provider staffing and geographic targeting.

  9. Attempt to identify the functional areas of the cerebral cortex on CT slices parallel to the orbito-meatal line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanabe, Hirotaka; Okuda, Junichiro; Nishikawa, Takashi; Nishimura, Tsuyoshi (Osaka Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Shiraishi, Junzo

    1982-06-01

    In order to identify the functional brain areas, such as Broca's area, on computed tomography slices parallel to the orbito-meatal line, the numbers of Brodmann's cortical mapping were shown on a diagram of representative brain sections parallel to the orbito-meatal line. Also, we described a method, using cerebral sulci as anatomical landmarks, for projecting lesions shown by CT scan onto the lateral brain diagram. The procedures were as follows. The distribution of lesions on CT slices was determined by the identification of major cerebral sulci and fissures, such as the Sylvian fissure, the central sulcus, and the superior frontal sulcus. Those lesions were then projected onto the lateral diagram by comparing each CT slice with the horizontal diagrams of brain sections. The method was demonstrated in three cases developing neuropsychological symptoms.

  10. Blood pressure percentile charts to identify high or low blood pressure in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banker, Ashish; Bell, Cynthia; Gupta-Malhotra, Monesha; Samuels, Joshua

    2016-07-19

    The goal was to develop familiar blood pressure (BP) charts representing BP percentile curves similar to CDC growth charts to improve screening of both high and low BP in children. Since height accounts for substantially more BP variability than age and is a more direct measure of body size and maturation in children, height-specific BP percentile curves were drawn separately for males and females. We used the 2004 Fourth Report data source and equations to calculate the BP threshold value for each gender and 5 cm height group. By slightly underestimating a child's BP percentile for high BP and slightly overestimating a child's BP percentile for low BP, these charts guarantee 100 % sensitivity in detecting abnormal BP. Sensitivity and specificity of the chart cut-offs were confirmed in a sample of 1254 healthy children from a school-based blood pressure screening program. The 1st, 5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, 95th, and 99th BP percentile curves are depicted in the chart for each corresponding gender and height from 85 to 190 cm, mimicking the ubiquitous CDC "growth charts". Shaded areas of the chart differentiate abnormal BP status categories: hypotension, normal BP, prehypertension, Stage 1 hypertension, and Stage 2 hypertension. Sensitivity was confirmed to be 100 % with specificity above 94 %. These simplified BP charts improve upon currently available BP screening reference with the following features: (a) tracking BP longitudinally in an individual child, (b) full physiological range of BP percentiles represented in percentile curve format for rapid identification both high and low BP, (c) easy to use with absolute height alone avoiding the additional step of determining height percentile, (d) incorporation of adult threshold for pre-hypertension to assist in accurate transition from adolescence into adulthood, (e) high sensitivity and specificity to ensure all children at risk are identified with very few false positives.

  11. Identifying desertification risk areas using fuzzy membership and geospatial technique – A case study, Kota District, Rajasthan

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arunima Dasgupta; K L N Sastry; P S Dhinwa; V S Rathore; M S Nathawat

    2013-08-01

    Desertification risk assessment is important in order to take proper measures for its prevention. Present research intends to identify the areas under risk of desertification along with their severity in terms of degradation in natural parameters. An integrated model with fuzzy membership analysis, fuzzy rulebased inference system and geospatial techniques was adopted, including five specific natural parameters namely slope, soil pH, soil depth, soil texture and NDVI. Individual parameters were classified according to their deviation from mean. Membership of each individual values to be in a certain class was derived using the normal probability density function of that class. Thus if a single class of a single parameter is with mean and standard deviation , the values falling beyond + 2 and − 2 are not representing that class, but a transitional zone between two subsequent classes. These are the most important areas in terms of degradation, as they have the lowest probability to be in a certain class, hence highest probability to be extended or narrowed down in next or previous class respectively. Eventually, these are the values which can be easily altered, under extrogenic influences, hence are identified as risk areas. The overall desertification risk is derived by incorporating the different risk severity of each parameter using fuzzy rule-based interference system in GIS environment. Multicriteria based geo-statistics are applied to locate the areas under different severity of desertification risk. The study revealed that in Kota, various anthropogenic pressures are accelerating land deterioration, coupled with natural erosive forces. Four major sources of desertification in Kota are, namely Gully and Ravine erosion, inappropriate mining practices, growing urbanization and random deforestation.

  12. Competency Skills Assessment: Successes and Areas for Improvement Identified During Collaboration Between Informaticists and a National Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipes, Carolyn; Hunter, Kathy; McGonigle, Dee; Hebda, Toni; Hill, Taryn; Lamblin, Jean

    2016-01-01

    The Association of periOperative Registered Nurses (AORN) approached the Nursing Informatics Research Team (NIRT) with a request to collaborate and conduct a competency assessment for their organization. An online tool was developed to determine current technology in perioperative settings. This presentation shares the process used to conduct research that led to a method for assessing perioperative nurses' competencies skills in their practice as well as identified gaps in curricula that faculty could address. Both successes and areas for improvement are detailed. The outcome of the process demonstrated a need to understand what skills are being assessed as AORN did not know what technology existed or how existing equipment was being used.

  13. Studies on wind environment around high buildings in urban areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Huizhi; JIANG; Yujun; LIANG; Bin; ZHU; Fengrong; ZHAN

    2005-01-01

    High buildings or architectural complex in urban areas remarkably distort the urban surface wind fields. As the air flow approaches,local strong wind may appear around the buildings. The strong wind makes the pedestrians on sidewalks, entrances and terrace very uncomfortable and causes the pedestrian level wind environment problem. In this studies, hot-wire wind measurement, wind scouring in wind tunnel and numerical computation were carried out to evaluate the wind environment of tall buildings in the prevailing flow conditions in Beijing areas. The results obtained by three techniques were compared and mutually verified. The conclusions drawn from three approaches agree with each other. Also the advantages and limitations of each method were analyzed. It is suggested that the combination of different techniques may produce better assessment of wind environment around high buildings.

  14. CO(2) partial pressure and calcite saturation in springs - useful data for identifying infiltration areas in mountainous environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilberg, Sylke; Brandstätter, Jennifer; Glück, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    Mountainous regions such as the Central European Alps host considerable karstified or fractured groundwater bodies, which meet many of the demands concerning drinking water supply, hydropower or agriculture. Alpine hydrogeologists are required to describe the dynamics in fractured aquifers in order to assess potential impacts of human activities on water budget and quality. Delineation of catchment areas by means of stable isotopes and hydrochemical data is a well established method in alpine hydrogeology. To achieve reliable results, time series of (at least) one year and spatial and temporal close-meshed data are necessary. In reality, test sites in mountainous regions are often inaccessible due to the danger of avalanches in winter. The aim of our work was to assess a method based on the processes within the carbonic acid system to delineate infiltration areas by means of single datasets consisting of the main hydrochemical parameters of each spring. In three geologically different mountainous environments we managed to classify the investigated springs into four groups. (1) High PCO2 combined with slight super-saturation in calcite, indicating relatively low infiltration areas. (2) Low PCO2 near atmospheric conditions in combination with calcite saturation, which is indicative of relatively high infiltration areas and a fractured aquifer which is not covered by topsoil layers. (3) High PCO2 in combination with sub-saturation in calcite, representing a shallow aquifer with a significant influence of the topsoil layer. (4) The fourth group of waters is characterized by low PCO2 and sub-saturation in calcite, which is interpreted as evidence for a shallow aquifer without significant influence of any hard rock aquifer or topsoil layer. This study shows that CO2-partial pressure can be an ideal natural tracer to estimate the elevation of infiltration areas, especially in non-karstified fractured groundwater bodies.

  15. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to identify key beliefs underlying chlamydia testing intentions in a sample of young people living in deprived areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Amy R; Norman, Paul; Harris, Peter R; Goyder, Elizabeth

    2015-09-01

    The Theory of Planned Behavior was used to identify the key behavioural, normative and control beliefs underlying intentions to test regularly for chlamydia among young people living in socially and economically deprived areas - a high-risk group for infection. Participants (N = 278, 53% male; mean age 17 years) were recruited from a vocational college situated in an area in the most deprived national quintile (England). Participants completed measures of behavioural, normative and control beliefs, plus intention to test regularly for chlamydia. The behavioural, normative and control beliefs most strongly correlated with intentions to test regularly for chlamydia were beliefs about stopping the spread of infection, partners' behaviour and the availability of testing. These beliefs represent potential targets for interventions to increase chlamydia testing among young people living in deprived areas.

  16. Geothermal Energy Potential in Low Enthalpy Areas as a Future Energy Resource: Identifying Feasible Targets, Quebec, Canada, Study Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Majorowicz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Heat flow of the sedimentary succession of the Eastern Canada Sedimentary Basins varies from 40 mW/m2 close to the exposed shield in the north to high 60–70 mW/m2 in the southwest–northeast St. Lawrence corridor. As high fluid flow rates are required for a successful geothermal application, the most important targets are deep existing permeable aquifers rather than hard rock, which would need to be fracked. Unfortunately, the ten most populated Québec urban centers are in the areas where the Grenville (Canadian Shield is exposed or at shallow depths with sedimentary cover where temperatures are 30 °C or less. The city of Drummondville will be the exception, as the basement deepens sharply southwest, and higher temperatures reaching >120 °C are expected in the deep Cambrian sedimentary aquifers near a 4–5-km depth. Deep under the area where such sediments could be occurring under Appalachian nappes, temperatures significantly higher than 140 °C are predicted. In parts of the deep basin, temperatures as high as 80 °C–120 °C exist at depths of 3–4 km, mainly southeast of the major geological boundary: the Logan line. There is a large amount of heat resource at such depths to be considered in this area for district heating.

  17. Geothermal Energy Potential in Low Enthalpy Areas as a Future Energy Resource: Identifying Feasible Targets, Quebec, Canada, Study Case

    OpenAIRE

    Jacek Majorowicz; Vasile Minea

    2015-01-01

    Heat flow of the sedimentary succession of the Eastern Canada Sedimentary Basins varies from 40 mW/m2 close to the exposed shield in the north to high 60–70 mW/m2 in the southwest–northeast St. Lawrence corridor. As high fluid flow rates are required for a successful geothermal application, the most important targets are deep existing permeable aquifers rather than hard rock, which would need to be fracked. Unfortunately, the ten most populated Québec urban centers are in the areas where the ...

  18. Multiscale, multispectral and multitemporal satellite data to identify archaeological remains in the archaeological area of Tiwanaku (Bolivia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masini, Nicola; Lasaponara, Rosa

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the cultural landscape of the archaeological area of Tiwanaku (Bolivia) using multiscale, multispectral and multitemporal satellite data. Geospatial analysis techniques were applied to the satellite data sets in order to enhance and map traces of past human activities and perform a spatial characterization of environmental and cultural patterns. In particular, in the Tiwanaku area, the approach based on local indicators of spatial autocorrelation (LISA) applied to ASTER data allowed us to identify traces of a possible ancient hydrographic network with a clear spatial relation with the well-known moat surrounding the core of the monumental area. The same approach applied to QuickBird data, allowed us to identify numerous traces of archaeological interest, in Mollo Kontu mound, less investigated than the monumental area. Some of these traces were in perfect accordance with the results of independent studies, other were completely unknown. As a whole, the detected features, composing a geometric pattern with roughly North-South orientation, closely match those of the other residential contexts at Tiwanaku. These new insights, captured from multitemporal ASTER and QuickBird data processing, suggested new questions on the ancient landscape and provided important information for planning future field surveys and archaeogeophyical investigations. Reference [1] Lasaponara R., Masini N. 2014. Beyond modern landscape features: New insights in thearchaeological area of Tiwanaku in Bolivia from satellite data. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, 26, 464-471, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jag.2013.09.00. [2] Tapete D., Cigna F., Masini N., Lasaponara R. 2013. Prospection and monitoring of the archaeological heritage of Nasca, Peru, with ENVISAT ASAR, Archaeological Prospection, 20, 133-147, doi: 10.1002/arp.1449. [3] Lasaponara R, N Masini, 2012 Satellite Remote Sensing, A New Tool for Archaeology (Series

  19. Identifying mismatches between institutional perceptions of water-related risk drivers and water management strategies in three river basin areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räsänen, Aleksi; Juhola, Sirkku; Monge Monge, Adrián; Käkönen, Mira; Kanninen, Markku; Nygren, Anja

    2017-07-01

    Water-related risks and vulnerabilities are driven by variety of stressors, including climate and land use change, as well as changes in socio-economic positions and political landscapes. Hence, water governance, which addresses risks and vulnerabilities, should target multiple stressors. We analyze the institutional perceptions of the drivers and strategies for managing water-related risks and vulnerabilities in three regionally important river basin areas located in Finland, Mexico, and Laos. Our analysis is based on data gathered through participatory workshops and complemented by qualitative content analysis of relevant policy documents. The identified drivers and proposed risk reduction strategies showed the multidimensionality and context-specificity of water-related risks and vulnerabilities across study areas. Most of the identified drivers were seen to increase risks, but some of the drivers were positive trends, and drivers also included also policy instruments that can both increase or decrease risks. Nevertheless, all perceived drivers were not addressed with suggested risk reduction strategies. In particular, most of the risk reduction strategies were incremental adjustments, although many of the drivers classified as most important were large-scale trends, such as climate change, land use changes and increase in foreign investments. We argue that there is a scale mismatch between the identified drivers and suggested strategies, which questions the opportunity to manage the drivers by single-scale incremental adjustments. Our study suggests that for more sustainable risk and vulnerability reduction, the root causes of water-related risks and vulnerabilities should be addressed through adaptive multi-scale governance that carefully considers the context-specificity and the multidimensionality of the associated drivers and stressors.

  20. A Clinical model to identify patients with high-risk coronary artery disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Yang (Yelin); L. Chen (Li); Y. Yam (Yeung); S. Achenbach (Stephan); M. Al-Mallah (Mouaz); D.S. Berman (Daniel); M.J. Budoff (Matthew); F. Cademartiri (Filippo); T.Q. Callister (Tracy); H.-J. Chang (Hyuk-Jae); V.Y. Cheng (Victor); K. Chinnaiyan (Kavitha); R.C. Cury (Ricardo); A. Delago (Augustin); A. Dunning (Allison); G.M. Feuchtner (Gudrun); M. Hadamitzky (Martin); J. Hausleiter (Jörg); R.P. Karlsberg (Ronald); P.A. Kaufmann (Philipp); Y.-J. Kim (Yong-Jin); J. Leipsic (Jonathon); T.M. LaBounty (Troy); F.Y. Lin (Fay); E. Maffei (Erica); G.L. Raff (Gilbert); L.J. Shaw (Leslee); T.C. Villines (Todd); J.K. Min (James K.); B.J.W. Chow (Benjamin)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractObjectives This study sought to develop a clinical model that identifies patients with and without high-risk coronary artery disease (CAD). Background Although current clinical models help to estimate a patient's pre-test probability of obstructive CAD, they do not accurately identify th

  1. A Clinical model to identify patients with high-risk coronary artery disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Yang (Yelin); L. Chen (Li); Y. Yam (Yeung); S. Achenbach (Stephan); M. Al-Mallah (Mouaz); D.S. Berman (Daniel); M.J. Budoff (Matthew); F. Cademartiri (Filippo); T.Q. Callister (Tracy); H.-J. Chang (Hyuk-Jae); V.Y. Cheng (Victor); K. Chinnaiyan (Kavitha); R.C. Cury (Ricardo); A. Delago (Augustin); A. Dunning (Allison); G.M. Feuchtner (Gudrun); M. Hadamitzky (Martin); J. Hausleiter (Jörg); R.P. Karlsberg (Ronald); P.A. Kaufmann (Philipp); Y.-J. Kim (Yong-Jin); J. Leipsic (Jonathon); T.M. LaBounty (Troy); F.Y. Lin (Fay); E. Maffei (Erica); G.L. Raff (Gilbert); L.J. Shaw (Leslee); T.C. Villines (Todd); J.K. Min (James K.); B.J.W. Chow (Benjamin)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractObjectives This study sought to develop a clinical model that identifies patients with and without high-risk coronary artery disease (CAD). Background Although current clinical models help to estimate a patient's pre-test probability of obstructive CAD, they do not accurately identify th

  2. HIGH NATURE VALUE GRASSLANDS FROM ARRHENATHERION ALLIANCE IDENTIFIED IN MUREŞ COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Oroian

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Arrhenatherion alliance meadows are recognized to be among the best pastures in our country due to high productivity and good nutrition value. The research was conducted in several areas of Mures County. The studied grasslands were classified into two types of Natura 2000 habitats: 6510 Lowland hay meadows (Alopecurus pratensis, Sanguisorba officinalis and 6520 Mountain hay meadows. The identified phytocoenosis belong to two plant associations: Arrhenatheretum elatioris Br.-Bl. Ex Scherrer 1925 and Poo Trisetetum flavescentis (Knapp 1951 Oberd. 1957. The analysis of data collected in the field reveals that the current state of conservation of the two types of habitat is good and very good. Habitats in a good and very good state of preservation is distinguish by a great floristic composition: approx. 100-150 cormophyte species with good and very good forage value. As habitats are more susceptible to the management applied and any changes to land use can affect habitat quality (eg abandoning  mowing and turning the land into pasture, the ecological functions of this habitat will be satisfied as long as they are mowed after Poaceae species matured.

  3. Multicomponent statistical analysis to identify flow and transport processes in a highly-complex environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeck, Christian; Radny, Dirk; Borer, Paul; Rothardt, Judith; Auckenthaler, Adrian; Berg, Michael; Schirmer, Mario

    2016-11-01

    A combined approach of multivariate statistical analysis, namely factor analysis (FA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), interpretation of geochemical processes, stable water isotope data and organic micropollutants enabling to assess spatial patterns of water types was performed for a study area in Switzerland, where drinking water production is close to different potential input pathways for contamination. To avoid drinking water contamination, artificial groundwater recharge with surface water into an aquifer is used to create a hydraulic barrier between potential intake pathways for contamination and drinking water extraction wells. Inter-aquifer mixing in the subsurface is identified, where a high amount of artificial infiltrated surface water is mixed with a lesser amount of water originating from the regional flow pathway in the vicinity of drinking water extraction wells. The spatial distribution of different water types can be estimated and a conceptual system understanding is developed. Results of the multivariate statistical analysis are comparable with gained information from isotopic data and organic micropollutants analyses. The integrated approach using different kinds of observations can be easily transferred to a variety of hydrological settings to synthesise and evaluate large hydrochemical datasets. The combination of additional data with different information content is conceivable and enabled effective interpretation of hydrological processes. Using the applied approach leads to more sound conceptual system understanding acting as the very basis to develop improved water resources management practices in a sustainable way.

  4. Identified Moderate and High Temperature Geothermal Systems of the Western United States including AK and HI

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This layer contains the locations of identified moderate (90 - 150° C) and high (> 150° C) temperature geothermal systems and associated reservoir volumes,...

  5. Carotid Magnetic Resonance Imaging A Window to Study Atherosclerosis and Identify High-Risk Plaques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oikawa, Minako; Ota, Hideki; Takaya, Norihide; Miller, Zach; Hatsukami, Thomas S; Yuan, Chun

    2009-01-01

    ...: the so-called "vulnerable plaque". A reliable, in vivo, imaging method capable of identifying plaque characteristics associated with high-risk plaque will be immensely useful for evaluating plaque status and predicting future events...

  6. High surface area graphene-supported metal chalcogenide assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsley, Marcus A.; Kuntz, Joshua; Orme, Christine A.

    2016-04-19

    A composition comprising at least one graphene-supported assembly, which comprises a three-dimensional network of graphene sheets crosslinked by covalent carbon bonds, and at least one metal chalcogenide compound disposed on said graphene sheets, wherein the chalcogen of said metal chalcogenide compound is selected from S, Se and Te. Also disclosed are methods for making and using the graphene-supported assembly, including graphene-supported MoS.sub.2. Monoliths with high surface area and conductivity can be achieved. Lower operating temperatures in some applications can be achieved. Pore size and volume can be tuned.

  7. Using Workflow Modeling to Identify Areas to Improve Genetic Test Processes in the University of Maryland Translational Pharmacogenomics Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutting, Elizabeth M; Overby, Casey L; Banchero, Meghan; Pollin, Toni; Kelemen, Mark; Shuldiner, Alan R; Beitelshees, Amber L

    Delivering genetic test results to clinicians is a complex process. It involves many actors and multiple steps, requiring all of these to work together in order to create an optimal course of treatment for the patient. We used information gained from focus groups in order to illustrate the current process of delivering genetic test results to clinicians. We propose a business process model and notation (BPMN) representation of this process for a Translational Pharmacogenomics Project being implemented at the University of Maryland Medical Center, so that personalized medicine program implementers can identify areas to improve genetic testing processes. We found that the current process could be improved to reduce input errors, better inform and notify clinicians about the implications of certain genetic tests, and make results more easily understood. We demonstrate our use of BPMN to improve this important clinical process for CYP2C19 genetic testing in patients undergoing invasive treatment of coronary heart disease.

  8. Identifying High School Physical Education Physical Activity Patterns after High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barney, David; Pleban, Francis T.; Wilkinson, Carol; Prusak, Keven A.

    2015-01-01

    National standards for physical education (PE) encompass five principles for the purpose of defining what high school students should recognize and be able to perform as a result of a quality PE program. The expectation is that youth will develop an active, healthy lifestyle into adulthood from activities and skills taught in PE. Researchers from…

  9. Imaging Gallium Nitride High Electron Mobility Transistors to Identify Point Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE IMAGING GALLIUM NITRIDE HIGH ELECTRON MOBILITY TRANSISTORS TO IDENTIFY...Identification of these trends will assist in the improvement of gallium nitride HEMT fabrication processes leading to the development of more...reliable devices. 14. SUBJECT TERMS Electron microscopy, Gallium Nitride (GaN), high electron mobility transistor (HEMT

  10. Identifying the Best Candidate for Radical Prostatectomy Among Patients with High-Risk Prostate Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Briganti, Alberto; Joniau, Steven; Gontero, Paolo; Abdollah, Firas; Passoni, Niccolo M.; Tombal, Bertrand; Marchioro, Giansilvio; Kneitz, Burkhard; Walz, Jochen; Frohneberg, Detlef; Bangma, Chris H.; Graefen, Markus; Tizzani, Alessandro; Frea, Bruno; Karnes, R. Jeffrey; Montorsi, Francesco; Van Poppel, Hein; Spahn, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Background: The current role of radical prostatectomy (RP) in patients with high-risk disease remains controversial. Objective: To identify which high-risk prostate cancer (PCa) patients might have favorable pathologic outcomes when surgically treated. Design, setting, and participants: We evaluated

  11. A model to identify high crash road segments with the dynamic segmentation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroujerdian, Amin Mirza; Saffarzadeh, Mahmoud; Yousefi, Hassan; Ghassemian, Hassan

    2014-12-01

    Currently, high social and economic costs in addition to physical and mental consequences put road safety among most important issues. This paper aims at presenting a novel approach, capable of identifying the location as well as the length of high crash road segments. It focuses on the location of accidents occurred along the road and their effective regions. In other words, due to applicability and budget limitations in improving safety of road segments, it is not possible to recognize all high crash road segments. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to identify high crash road segments and their real length to be able to prioritize the safety improvement in roads. In this paper, after evaluating deficiencies of the current road segmentation models, different kinds of errors caused by these methods are addressed. One of the main deficiencies of these models is that they can not identify the length of high crash road segments. In this paper, identifying the length of high crash road segments (corresponding to the arrangement of accidents along the road) is achieved by converting accident data to the road response signal of through traffic with a dynamic model based on the wavelet theory. The significant advantage of the presented method is multi-scale segmentation. In other words, this model identifies high crash road segments with different lengths and also it can recognize small segments within long segments. Applying the presented model into a real case for identifying 10-20 percent of high crash road segment showed an improvement of 25-38 percent in relative to the existing methods.

  12. Highly Flexible and High-Performance Complementary Inverters of Large-Area Transition Metal Dichalcogenide Monolayers

    KAUST Repository

    Pu, Jiang

    2016-03-23

    Complementary inverters constructed from large-area monolayers of WSe2 and MoS2 achieve excellent logic swings and yield an extremely high gain, large total noise margin, low power consumption, and good switching speed. Moreover, the WSe2 complementary-like inverters built on plastic substrates exhibit high mechanical stability. The results provide a path toward large-area flexible electronics. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. High surface area aerogels for energy storage and efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Ryan Patrick

    ADAI are demonstrated in a third-generation prototypical thermoelectric generator for automotive waste heat recovery. The second chapter then details two different aerogel-based materials for electrochemical energy storage. It begins with lithium titanate aerogel, which takes advantage of the high surface area of the aerogel morphology to display a batt-cap behavior. This should allow the lithium titanate aerogel to perform at higher rates than would normally be expected for the bulk oxide material. Additionally, the flexibility of the sol-gel process is demonstrated through the incorporation of electrically conductive high-surface area exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets in the oxide. The last section describes the characterization of a LiMn2O 4 spinel coated carbon nanofoam in a non-aqueous electrolyte. The short diffusion path, high surface area and intimately wired architecture of the nanofoam allows the oxide to retain its capacity at significantly higher rates when compared with literature values for the bulk oxide. Additionally, the nanometric length scale improves cycle life, and the high surface area dramatically increases the insertion capacity by providing a higher concentration of surface defects. Taken together, it is clear that aerogels are an extremely attractive class of material for applications pertaining to energy and efficiency, and further research in this area will provide valuable solutions for pressing societal needs. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  14. Myocardial Infarction Area Quantification using High-Resolution SPECT Images in Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Luciano Fonseca Lemos de [Divisão de Cardiologia, Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Mejia, Jorge [Faculdade de Medicina de São José do Rio Preto, São José do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil); Carvalho, Eduardo Elias Vieira de; Lataro, Renata Maria; Frassetto, Sarita Nasbine [Divisão de Cardiologia, Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Fazan, Rubens Jr.; Salgado, Hélio Cesar [Departamento de Fisiologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Galvis-Alonso, Orfa Yineth [Faculdade de Medicina de São José do Rio Preto, São José do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil); Simões, Marcus Vinícius, E-mail: msimoes@fmrp.usp.br [Divisão de Cardiologia, Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-15

    Imaging techniques enable in vivo sequential assessment of the morphology and function of animal organs in experimental models. We developed a device for high-resolution single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging based on an adapted pinhole collimator. To determine the accuracy of this system for quantification of myocardial infarct area in rats. Thirteen male Wistar rats (250 g) underwent experimental myocardial infarction by occlusion of the left coronary artery. After 4 weeks, SPECT images were acquired 1.5 hours after intravenous injection of 555 MBq of 99mTc-Sestamibi. The tomographic reconstruction was performed by using specially developed software based on the Maximum Likelihood algorithm. The analysis of the data included the correlation between the area of perfusion defects detected by scintigraphy and extent of myocardial fibrosis assessed by histology. The images showed a high target organ/background ratio with adequate visualization of the left ventricular walls and cavity. All animals presenting infarction areas were correctly identified by the perfusion images. There was no difference of the infarct area as measured by SPECT (21.1 ± 21.2%) and by histology (21.7 ± 22.0%; p=0.45). There was a strong correlation between individual values of the area of infarction measured by these two methods. The developed system presented adequate spatial resolution and high accuracy for the detection and quantification of myocardial infarction areas, consisting in a low cost and versatile option for high-resolution SPECT imaging of small rodents.

  15. Identifying High-Risk Alcohol Users in First-Year College Students: Attitude, Intention, and Facebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pumper, Megan A; Moreno, Megan A

    2013-07-29

    It is challenging to identify older adolescents at risk for alcohol dependence. This study investigated first-year college students who scored as dependent alcohol users (DAU), and examined their alcohol use and Facebook displays. This longitudinal study recruited college students at two universities to complete a phone interview prior to college (Time 1) and one year later (Time 2). Interviews assessed lifetime and current alcohol use, and attitude (scale of 0=very negative to 6=very positive) and intention (scale of 0=not at all likely to 5=very likely) toward alcohol use. The alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT) was administered at Time 2. Facebook profiles were evaluated for the presence of references to alcohol use and intoxication/problematic drinking (I/PD) prior to and throughout the participants first year at the university. Analyses included Chi-squared tests and Wilcoxon sign rank tests. Of 315 participants in the study, a total of 21 (6.7%) of participants met criteria as a DAU at Time 2. DAUs were 54.5% female, 86.4% Caucasian, and 73.7% from University A. At Time 1 all DAUs reported lifetime alcohol use and 91.1% were current drinkers. At Time 2, 95.7% were current drinkers. At Time 1, DAU's mean attitude toward alcohol was 4.0 (SD=1.0) and mean intention was 4.0 (SD=1.4); by Time 2 attitude was 4.6 (SD=0.9), p=0.02, and intention was 4.9 (SD=0.3). At Time 1, 39.1% of DAUs displayed alcohol references on Facebook but only one referenced I/PD. By Time 2, 20 DAU profile owners (90.4%) displayed some reference to alcohol and 52.2% referenced I/PD. Findings suggest areas in which dependence could be identified early, specifically attitude towards alcohol and assessment of Facebook profiles for references to alcohol. These findings have the potential to guide future intervention efforts for this high-risk population.

  16. Identifying Effective Strategies for Climate Change Education: The Coastal Areas Climate Change Education (CACCE) Partnership Audiences and Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, J. G.; Feldman, A.; Muller-Karger, F. E.; Gilbes, F.; Stone, D.; Plank, L.; Reynolds, C. J.

    2011-12-01

    Many past educational initiatives focused on global climate change have foundered on public skepticism and disbelief. Some key reasons for these past failures can be drawn directly from recognized best practices in STEM education - specifically, the necessity to help learners connect new knowledge with their own experiences and perspectives, and the need to create linkages with issues or concerns that are both important for and relevant to the audiences to be educated. The Coastal Areas Climate Change Education (CACCE) partnership has sought to follow these tenets as guiding principles in identifying critical audiences and developing new strategies for educating the public living in the low-lying coastal areas of Florida and the Caribbean on the realities, risks, and adaptation and mitigation strategies for dealing with the regional impacts of global climate change. CACCE is currently focused on three key learner audiences: a) The formal education spectrum, targeting K-12 curricula through middle school marine science courses, and student and educator audiences through coursework and participatory research strategies engaging participants in a range of climate-related investigations. b) Informal science educators and outlets, in particular aquaria and nature centers, as an avenue toward K-12 teacher professional development as well as for public education. c) Regional planning, regulatory and business professionals focused on the built environment along the coasts, many of whom require continuing education to maintain licensing and/or other professional certifications. Our current activities are focused on bringing together an effective set of educational, public- and private-sector partners to target the varied needs of these audiences in Florida and the U.S. Caribbean, and tailoring an educational plan aimed at these stakeholder audiences that starts with the regionally and topically relevant impacts of climate change, and strategies for effective adaptation and

  17. High Resolution Aircraft Scanner Mapping of Geothermal and Volcanic Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mongillo, M.A.; Cochrane, G.R.; Wood, C.P.; Shibata, Y.

    1995-01-01

    High spectral resolution GEOSCAN Mkll multispectral aircraft scanner imagery has been acquired, at 3-6 m spatial resolutions, over much of the Taupo Volcanic Zone as part of continuing investigations aimed at developing remote sensing techniques for exploring and mapping geothermal and volcanic areas. This study examined the 24-band: visible, near-IR (NIR), mid-IR (MIR) and thermal-IR (TIR) imagery acquired over Waiotapu geothermal area (3 m spatial resolution) and White Island volcano (6 m resolution). Results show that color composite images composed of visible and NIR wavelengths that correspond to color infrared (CIR) photographic wavelengths can be useful for distinguishing among bare ground, water and vegetation features and, in certain cases, for mapping various vegetation types. However, combinations which include an MIR band ({approx} 2.2 {micro}m) with either visible and NIR bands, or two NIR bands, are the most powerful for mapping vegetation types, water bodies, and bare and hydrothermally altered ground. Combinations incorporating a daytime TIR band with NIR and MIR bands are also valuable for locating anomalously hot features and distinguishing among different types of surface hydrothermal alteration.

  18. Radioactivity in the groundwater of a high background radiation area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabana, E I; Kinsara, A A

    2014-11-01

    Natural radioactivity was measured in groundwater samples collected from 37 wells scattered in an inhabited area of high natural background radiation, in a purpose of radiation protection. The study area is adjacent to Aja heights of granitic composition in Hail province, Saudi Arabia. Initial screening for gross α and gross β activities showed levels exceeded the national regulation limits set out for gross α and gross β activities in drinking water. The gross α activity ranged from 0.17 to 5.41 Bq L(-)(1) with an average value of 2.15 Bq L(-)(1), whereas gross β activity ranged from 0.48 to 5.16 Bq L(-)(1), with an average value of 2.60 Bq L(-)(1). The detail analyses indicated that the groundwater of this province is contaminated with uranium and radium ((226)Ra and (228)Ra). The average activity concentrations of (238)U, (234)U, (226)Ra and (228)Ra were 0.40, 0.77, 0.29 and 0.46 Bq L(-)(1), respectively. The higher uranium content was found in the samples of granitic aquifers, whereas the higher radium content was found in the samples of sandstone aquifers. Based on the obtained results, mechanism of leaching of the predominant radionuclides has been discussed in detail.

  19. Implementation of magnetic, gravity and resistivity data in identifying groundwater occurrences in El Qaa Plain area, Southern Sinai, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selim, El Sayed; Abdel-Raouf, Osama; Mesalam, Mohamed

    2016-10-01

    El Qaa plain is one of the areas that have been proved to be promising as to its soil and groundwater resources in the southwestern part of Sinai. This study was carried out to study the lateral and vertical variations in the subsurface lithologic properties in El Qaa plain area and delineating the subsurface structure that affecting El Qaa plain depression. Gravity, magnetic data, fifty-one (51) vertical electrical sounding (Ves's) and Digital Elevation Model (DEM) map were used. Two-dimensional density modeling, analytical signal, tilt derivatives, Euler deconvolution techniques and interpretation of the resistivity data were applied on potential data. This study concluded that, El Qaa plain is a NE-SW depression confined by two normal faults and subdivided into five sedimentary units. Rock fragments and boulders derived to the plain from the surrounding highlands are the main components of the first surface unit that characterized by high resistivity values. This layer is overly another unit composed of gravelly sand with thickness ranging between 10 and 140 m. The third unit is composed mainly of sand with intercalations of clay with thickness ranging from 2 to 152 m. A Reefal limestone unit is a fourth unit interpreted from this study. The fifth unit is composed of clay. The water bearing formations in El Qaa Plain area are located principally in the second and the third layers. Finally, the depth to the basement surface ranges from 400 m to more than 1.5 km below sea level. Also, there are many minor structural trends interpreted from this study and affecting the El Qaa plain are striking in N-S, E-W and NE-SW directions.

  20. Manganese Dioxide with High Specific Surface Area for Alkaline Battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG You-ju; LIN Yu-li; LI Wei-shan

    2012-01-01

    The authors reported a facile method for the synthesis of manganese dioxide without any template and catalyst at a low-temperature.The prepared sample was characterized with X-ray diffraction(XRD),scanning electron microscopy(SEM),Brunauer-Emmett-Teller(BET) surface analysis,Fourier transform infrared(FTIR) spectrometry,cyclic voltammetry,altemative current(AC) impedance test and battery discharge test.It is found that the prepared sample belongs to α-MnO2 and has a microsphere morphology and a large BET surface area.The electrochemical characterization indicates that the prepared sample displays a larger electrochemical capacitance than the commercial electrolytic manganese dioxides(EMD) in Na2SO4 solution,and exhibits larger discharge capacity than EMD,especially at a high rate discharge condition when it is used as cathode of alkaline Zn/MnO2 battery.

  1. High surface area ThO/sub 2/ catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmenares, C.A.; Somorjai, G.A.; Maj, J.J.

    1983-06-21

    A ThO/sub 2/ catalyst having a high surface area of about 80 to 125m/sup 2//g is synthesized. The compound is synthesized by simultaneously mixing an aqueous solution of ThNO/sub 3/(NO/sub 3/)/sub 4/.4H/sub 2/O with an aqueous solution of Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/.H/sub 2/O, to produce a solution and solid ThOCO/sub 3/. The solid ThOCO/sub 3/ is separated from the solution, and then calcined at a temperature of about 225 to 300/sup 0/C for about 40 to 55 hours to produce ThO/sub 2/. The ThO/sub 2/ catalyst produced includes Na present as a substitutional cation in an amount equal to about 5 to 10 at. %.

  2. Leaf Area Index Retrieval Using High Resolution Remote Sensing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Rinaldi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation indices obtained from remote sensed data can be used to characterize crop canopy on a large scale using a non-destructive method. With the recent launch of the IKONOS satellite, very high spatial resolution (1 meter images are available for the detailed monitoring of ecosystems as well as for precision agriculture. The aim of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of leaf area index (LAI retrieval over agricultural area that can be obtained by empirical relationships between different spectral vegetation indices (VI and LAI measured on three different dates over the spring-summer period of 2008, in the Capitanata plain (Southern Italy. All the VIs used (NDVI, RDVI, WDVI, MSAVI and GEMI were related to the LAI through exponential regression functions, either global or crop-dependent. In the first case, LAI was estimated with comparable accuracies for all VIs employed, with a slightly higher accuracy for GEMI, which determination coefficient achieved the value of 0.697. Whereas the LAI regression functions were calculated separately for each crop, the WDVI, GEMI and RDVI vegetation indices provided the highest determination coefficients with values close to 0.90 for wheat and sugar beet, and with values close to 0.70 for tomatoes. A validation of the models was carried out with a selection of independent sampling data. The validation confirmed that WDVI and GEMI were the VIs that provided the highest LAI retrieval accuracies, with RMSE values of about to 1.1 m2 m-2. The exponential functions, calibrated and validated to calculate LAI from GEMI, were used to derive LAI maps from IKONOS high-resolution remote sensing images with good accuracy. These maps can be used as input variables for crop growth models, obtaining relevant information that can be useful in agricultural management strategies (in particular irrigation and fertilization, as well as in the application of precision farming.

  3. Portland Identification and Early Referral: A Community-Based System for Identifying and Treating Youths at High Risk of Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, William R.; Cook, William L.; Downing, Donna; Verdi, Mary B.; Woodberry, Kristen A.; Ruff, Anita

    2010-01-01

    Objective The Portland [Maine] Identification and Early Referral (PIER) Program was established in 2001 as a prevention system for identifying and treating youths at high risk of an initial psychotic episode. Methods During six years, 7,270 professionals from the educational, general medical, and mental health sectors were provided information on prodromal symptoms and means for rapid referral of at-risk youth, which resulted in referral of 780 youths who met eligibility criteria. Results After screening, 37% of the community referrals were found to be at high risk of psychosis, and another 20% had untreated psychosis, yielding an efficiency ratio of 57%. Prodromal cases identified were 46% of the expected incidence of psychosis in the catchment area. Community educational presentations were significantly associated with referrals six months later; half of referrals were from outside the mental health system. Conclusions Community-based identification is an efficient public health strategy, offering the opportunity for preventive intervention. PMID:20439374

  4. Distribution of endemic and alien plants along Mediterranean rivers: a useful tool to identify areas in need of protection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angiolini, Claudia; Nucci, Alessia; Landi, Marco; Bacchetta, Gianluigi

    2013-08-01

    The main aim was to obtain information about the more critical sectors of Mediterranean-type rivers, especially in the islands where the percentage of endemic species is high, even in riparian habitats. Our hypothesis was that endemic and alien species, considered important in defining conservation priorities along rivers, have different patterns of distribution and their coexistence indicates human impacts on fluvial systems, which can cause natural habitat loss. Generalized Additive Models were used to model the distribution patterns of endemic and alien species along the longitudinal gradient. They showed that endemic species were linked to the most natural areas in the middle and upper sections of the rivers, whereas the distribution of aliens in middle and lower sections can be regarded as a consequence of human impact. This finding underlined the presence in the middle sections of the rivers of areas with important floristic features that are also affected by alien species. What currently seems a situation of equilibrium turns out to call for careful control, first and foremost, by maintaining riparian vegetation. Our results highlighted the utility of our method for rapidly obtaining information about the criticalities of rivers in Mediterranean biodiversity hotspots. Copyright © 2013 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Identifying and Remediating High Water Production Problems in Basin-Centered Formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.L. Billingsley

    2005-12-01

    Through geochemical analyses of produced waters, petrophysics, and reservoir simulation we developed concepts and approaches for mitigating unwanted water production in tight gas reservoirs and for increasing recovery of gas resources presently considered noncommercial. Only new completion research (outside the scope of this study) will validate our hypothesis. The first task was assembling and interpreting a robust regional database of historical produced-water analyses to address the production of excessive water in basin-centered tight gas fields in the Greater Green (GGRB ) and Wind River basins (WRB), Wyoming. The database is supplemented with a sampling program in currently active areas. Interpretation of the regional water chemistry data indicates most produced waters reflect their original depositional environments and helps identify local anomalies related to basement faulting. After the assembly and evaluation phases of this project, we generated a working model of tight formation reservoir development, based on the regional nature and occurrence of the formation waters. Through an integrative approach to numerous existing reservoir concepts, we synthesized a generalized development scheme organized around reservoir confining stress cycles. This single overarching scheme accommodates a spectrum of outcomes from the GGRB and Wind River basins. Burial and tectonic processes destroy much of the depositional intergranular fabric of the reservoir, generate gas, and create a rock volume marked by extremely low permeabilities to gas and fluids. Stress release associated with uplift regenerates reservoir permeability through the development of a penetrative grain bounding natural fracture fabric. Reservoir mineral composition, magnitude of the stress cycle and local tectonics govern the degree, scale and exact mechanism of permeability development. We applied the reservoir working model to an area of perceived anomalous water production. Detailed water analyses

  6. High-density polymer microarrays: identifying synthetic polymers that control human embryonic stem cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Anne; Mjoseng, Heidi K; Zhang, Rong; Kalloudis, Michail; Koutsos, Vasileios; de Sousa, Paul A; Bradley, Mark

    2014-06-01

    The fabrication of high-density polymer microarray is described, allowing the simultaneous and efficient evaluation of more than 7000 different polymers in a single-cellular-based screen. These high-density polymer arrays are applied in the search for synthetic substrates for hESCs culture. Up-scaling of the identified hit polymers enables long-term cellular cultivation and promoted successful stem-cell maintenance. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Identifying sensitive areas of adaptive observations for prediction of the Kuroshio large meander using a shallow-water model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Guang'an; Wang, Qiang; Mu, Mu

    2016-09-01

    Sensitive areas for prediction of the Kuroshio large meander using a 1.5-layer, shallow-water ocean model were investigated using the conditional nonlinear optimal perturbation (CNOP) and first singular vector (FSV) methods. A series of sensitivity experiments were designed to test the sensitivity of sensitive areas within the numerical model. The following results were obtained: (1) the eff ect of initial CNOP and FSV patterns in their sensitive areas is greater than that of the same patterns in randomly selected areas, with the eff ect of the initial CNOP patterns in CNOP sensitive areas being the greatest; (2) both CNOP- and FSV-type initial errors grow more quickly than random errors; (3) the eff ect of random errors superimposed on the sensitive areas is greater than that of random errors introduced into randomly selected areas, and initial errors in the CNOP sensitive areas have greater eff ects on final forecasts. These results reveal that the sensitive areas determined using the CNOP are more sensitive than those of FSV and other randomly selected areas. In addition, ideal hindcasting experiments were conducted to examine the validity of the sensitive areas. The results indicate that reduction (or elimination) of CNOP-type errors in CNOP sensitive areas at the initial time has a greater forecast benefit than the reduction (or elimination) of FSV-type errors in FSV sensitive areas. These results suggest that the CNOP method is suitable for determining sensitive areas in the prediction of the Kuroshio large-meander path.

  8. ION COMPOSITION ELUCIDATION (ICE): A HIGH RESOLUTION MASS SPECTROMETRIC TECHNIQUE FOR IDENTIFYING COMPOUNDS IN COMPLEX MIXTURES

    Science.gov (United States)

    When tentatively identifying compounds in complex mixtures using mass spectral libraries, multiple matches or no plausible matches due to a high level of chemical noise or interferences can occur. Worse yet, most analytes are not in the libraries. In each case, Ion Composition El...

  9. High-throughput genotoxicity assay identifies antioxidants as inducers of DNA damage response and cell death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human ATAD5 is an excellent biomarker for identifying genotoxic compounds because ATADS protein levels increase post-transcriptionally following exposure to a variety of DNA damaging agents. Here we report a novel quantitative high-throughput ATAD5-Iuciferase assay that can moni...

  10. Screening of high temperature adhesives for large area bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenersen, A. A.; Wykes, D. H.

    1980-01-01

    High temperature-resistant adhesive systems were screened for processability, mechanical and physical properties, operational capability at 589 K (600 F), and the ability to produce large area bonds of high quality in fabricating Space Shuttle components. The adhesives consisted primarily of polyimide systems, including FM34B-18, NR-150B2 (DuPont), PMR-15, LARC-13, LARC-160, Thermid 600, and AI-1130L (AMOCA). The processing studies included preparation of polyimide resins, fabrication of film adhesives, development of lay-up and cure procedures, fabrication of honeycomb sandwich panels, and fabrication of mid-plane bonded panels in joints up to 30.5 cm (12 in.) wide. The screening program included tests for tack and drape properties, reticulation and filleting characteristics, ability to produce void-free or low porosity bonds in mid-plane bonded panels, out-time stability, lap shear strength, climbing drum peel strength, and glass transition temperature (Tg). This paper describes the processing methods developed and the test results.

  11. Identification of area-level influences on regions of high cancer incidence in Queensland, Australia: a classification tree approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengersen Kerrie L

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Strategies for cancer reduction and management are targeted at both individual and area levels. Area-level strategies require careful understanding of geographic differences in cancer incidence, in particular the association with factors such as socioeconomic status, ethnicity and accessibility. This study aimed to identify the complex interplay of area-level factors associated with high area-specific incidence of Australian priority cancers using a classification and regression tree (CART approach. Methods Area-specific smoothed standardised incidence ratios were estimated for priority-area cancers across 478 statistical local areas in Queensland, Australia (1998-2007, n = 186,075. For those cancers with significant spatial variation, CART models were used to identify whether area-level accessibility, socioeconomic status and ethnicity were associated with high area-specific incidence. Results The accessibility of a person's residence had the most consistent association with the risk of cancer diagnosis across the specific cancers. Many cancers were likely to have high incidence in more urban areas, although male lung cancer and cervical cancer tended to have high incidence in more remote areas. The impact of socioeconomic status and ethnicity on these associations differed by type of cancer. Conclusions These results highlight the complex interactions between accessibility, socioeconomic status and ethnicity in determining cancer incidence risk.

  12. Field manual for identifying and preserving high-water mark data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feaster, Toby D.; Koenig, Todd A.

    2017-09-26

    This field manual provides general guidance for identifying and collecting high-water marks and is meant to be used by field personnel as a quick reference. The field manual describes purposes for collecting and documenting high-water marks along with the most common types of high-water marks. The manual provides a list of suggested field equipment, describes rules of thumb and best practices for finding high-water marks, and describes the importance of evaluating each high-water mark and assigning a numeric uncertainty value as part of the flagging process. The manual also includes an appendix of photographs of a variety of high-water marks obtained from various U.S. Geological Survey field investigations along with general comments about the logic for the assigned uncertainty values.

  13. Crop area estimation using high and medium resolution satellite imagery in areas with complex topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husak, G.J.; Marshall, M. T.; Michaelsen, J.; Pedreros, Diego; Funk, Christopher C.; Galu, G.

    2008-01-01

    Reliable estimates of cropped area (CA) in developing countries with chronic food shortages are essential for emergency relief and the design of appropriate market-based food security programs. Satellite interpretation of CA is an effective alternative to extensive and costly field surveys, which fail to represent the spatial heterogeneity at the country-level. Bias-corrected, texture based classifications show little deviation from actual crop inventories, when estimates derived from aerial photographs or field measurements are used to remove systematic errors in medium resolution estimates. In this paper, we demonstrate a hybrid high-medium resolution technique for Central Ethiopia that combines spatially limited unbiased estimates from IKONOS images, with spatially extensive Landsat ETM+ interpretations, land-cover, and SRTM-based topography. Logistic regression is used to derive the probability of a location being crop. These individual points are then aggregated to produce regional estimates of CA. District-level analysis of Landsat based estimates showed CA totals which supported the estimates of the Bureau of Agriculture and Rural Development. Continued work will evaluate the technique in other parts of Africa, while segmentation algorithms will be evaluated, in order to automate classification of medium resolution imagery for routine CA estimation in the future.

  14. Spatial distribution of child pedestrian injuries along census tract boundaries: Implications for identifying area-based correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Jacqueline W

    2017-01-01

    Census tracts are often used to investigate area-based correlates of a variety of health outcomes. This approach has been shown to be valuable in understanding the ways that health is shaped by place and to design appropriate interventions that account for community-level processes. Following this line of inquiry, it is common in the study of pedestrian injuries to aggregate the point level locations of these injuries to the census tracts in which they occur. Such aggregation enables investigation of the relationships between a range of socioeconomic variables and areas of notably high or low incidence. This study reports on the spatial distribution of child pedestrian injuries in a mid-sized U.S. city over a three-year period. Utilizing a combination of geospatial approaches, Near Analysis, Kernel Density Estimation, and Local Moran's I, enables identification, visualization, and quantification of close proximity between incidents and tract boundaries. Specifically, results reveal that nearly half of the 100 incidents occur within roads that are also census tract boundaries. Results also uncover incidents that occur on tract boundaries, not merely near them. This geographic pattern raises the question of the utility of associating area-based census data from any one tract to the injuries occurring in these border zones. Furthermore, using a standard spatial join technique in a Geographic Information System (GIS), these points located on the border are counted as falling into census tracts on both sides of the boundary, which introduces uncertainty in any subsequent analysis. Therefore, two additional approaches of aggregating points to polygons were tested in this study. Results differ with each approach, but without any alert of such differences to the GIS user. This finding raises a fundamental concern about techniques through which points are aggregated to polygons in any study using point level incidents and their surrounding census tract socioeconomic data to

  15. Hydrological Dynamics In High Mountain Catchment Areas of Central Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löffler, Jörg; Rößler, Ole

    Large-scaled landscape structure is regarded as a mosaic of ecotopes where process dynamics of water and energy fluxes are analysed due to its effects on ecosystem functioning. The investigations have been carried out in the continental most Vågå/Oppland high mountains in central Norway since 1994 (LÖFFLER &WUNDRAM 1999, 2000, 2001). Additionally, comparable investigations started in 2000 dealing with the oceanic high mountain landscapes on same latitudes (LÖFFLER et al. 2001). The theoretical and methodological framework of the project is given by the Landscape-Ecological Complex Analysis (MOSIMANN 1984, 1985) and its variations due to technical and principle methodical challenges in this high mountain landscape (KÖHLER et al. 1994, LÖFFLER 1998). The aim of the project is to characterize high mountain ecosystem structure, functioning and dynamics within small catchment areas, that are chosen in two different altitudinal belts each in the eastern continental and the western oceanic region of central Norway. In the frame of this research project hydrological and meteorological measurements on ground water, percolation and soil moisture dynamics as well as on evaporation, air humidity and air-, surface- and soil-temperatures have been conducted. On the basis of large-scaled landscape-ecological mappings (LÖFFLER 1997) one basic meteorological station and several major data logger run stations have been installed in representative sites of each two catchment areas in the low and mid alpine belts of the investigation regions ( JUNGet al. 1997, LÖFFLER &WUNDRAM 1997). Moreover, spatial differentiations of groundwater level, soil moisture and temperature profiles have been investigated by means of hand held measurements at different times of the day, during different climatic situations and different seasons. Daily and annual air-, surface- and soil-temperature dynamics are demonstrated by means of thermoisopleth-diagrams for different types of ecotopes of the

  16. The phenotypic patterns of essential hypertension are the key to identifying "high blood pressure" genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korner, P I

    2010-01-01

    hypertension provide targets for identifying high BP genes. Reading the genome from the phenotype will require new approaches, such as those used in developmental genetics. In addition, transgenic technology may help verify hypotheses and examine whether an observed effect is through single or multiple mechanisms. To obtain answers will require substantial collaborative efforts between physiologists and geneticists.

  17. High resolution modelling of extreme precipitation events in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemerink, Martijn; Volp, Nicolette; Schuurmans, Wytze; Deckers, Dave

    2015-04-01

    The present day society needs to adjust to the effects of climate change. More extreme weather conditions are expected, which can lead to longer periods of drought, but also to more extreme precipitation events. Urban water systems are not designed for such extreme events. Most sewer systems are not able to drain the excessive storm water, causing urban flooding. This leads to high economic damage. In order to take appropriate measures against extreme urban storms, detailed knowledge about the behaviour of the urban water system above and below the streets is required. To investigate the behaviour of urban water systems during extreme precipitation events new assessment tools are necessary. These tools should provide a detailed and integral description of the flow in the full domain of overland runoff, sewer flow, surface water flow and groundwater flow. We developed a new assessment tool, called 3Di, which provides detailed insight in the urban water system. This tool is based on a new numerical methodology that can accurately deal with the interaction between overland runoff, sewer flow and surface water flow. A one-dimensional model for the sewer system and open channel flow is fully coupled to a two-dimensional depth-averaged model that simulates the overland flow. The tool uses a subgrid-based approach in order to take high resolution information of the sewer system and of the terrain into account [1, 2]. The combination of using the high resolution information and the subgrid based approach results in an accurate and efficient modelling tool. It is now possible to simulate entire urban water systems using extreme high resolution (0.5m x 0.5m) terrain data in combination with a detailed sewer and surface water network representation. The new tool has been tested in several Dutch cities, such as Rotterdam, Amsterdam and The Hague. We will present the results of an extreme precipitation event in the city of Schiedam (The Netherlands). This city deals with

  18. High risk of lead contamination for scavengers in an area with high moose hunting success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legagneux, Pierre; Suffice, Pauline; Messier, Jean-Sébastien; Lelievre, Frédérick; Tremblay, Junior A; Maisonneuve, Charles; Saint-Louis, Richard; Bêty, Joël

    2014-01-01

    Top predators and scavengers are vulnerable to pollutants, particularly those accumulated along the food chain. Lead accumulation can induce severe disorders and alter survival both in mammals (including humans) and in birds. A potential source of lead poisoning in wild animals, and especially in scavengers, results from the consumption of ammunition residues in the tissues of big game killed by hunters. For two consecutive years we quantified the level lead exposure in individuals of a sentinel scavenger species, the common raven (Corvus corax), captured during the moose (Alces alces) hunting season in eastern Quebec, Canada. The source of the lead contamination was also determined using stable isotope analyses. Finally, we identified the different scavenger species that could potentially be exposed to lead by installing automatic cameras targeting moose gut piles. Blood lead concentration in ravens increased over time, indicating lead accumulation over the moose-hunting season. Using a contamination threshold of 100 µg x L(-1), more than 50% of individuals were lead-contaminated during the moose hunting period. Lead concentration was twice as high in one year compared to the other, matching the number of rifle-shot moose in the area. Non-contaminated birds exhibited no ammunition isotope signatures. The isotope signature of the lead detected in contaminated ravens tended towards the signature from lead ammunition. We also found that black bears (Ursus americanus), golden eagles and bald eagles (Aquila chrysaetos and Haliaeetus leucocephalus, two species of conservation concern) scavenged heavily on moose viscera left by hunters. Our unequivocal results agree with other studies and further motivate the use of non-toxic ammunition for big game hunting.

  19. High risk of lead contamination for scavengers in an area with high moose hunting success.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Legagneux

    Full Text Available Top predators and scavengers are vulnerable to pollutants, particularly those accumulated along the food chain. Lead accumulation can induce severe disorders and alter survival both in mammals (including humans and in birds. A potential source of lead poisoning in wild animals, and especially in scavengers, results from the consumption of ammunition residues in the tissues of big game killed by hunters. For two consecutive years we quantified the level lead exposure in individuals of a sentinel scavenger species, the common raven (Corvus corax, captured during the moose (Alces alces hunting season in eastern Quebec, Canada. The source of the lead contamination was also determined using stable isotope analyses. Finally, we identified the different scavenger species that could potentially be exposed to lead by installing automatic cameras targeting moose gut piles. Blood lead concentration in ravens increased over time, indicating lead accumulation over the moose-hunting season. Using a contamination threshold of 100 µg x L(-1, more than 50% of individuals were lead-contaminated during the moose hunting period. Lead concentration was twice as high in one year compared to the other, matching the number of rifle-shot moose in the area. Non-contaminated birds exhibited no ammunition isotope signatures. The isotope signature of the lead detected in contaminated ravens tended towards the signature from lead ammunition. We also found that black bears (Ursus americanus, golden eagles and bald eagles (Aquila chrysaetos and Haliaeetus leucocephalus, two species of conservation concern scavenged heavily on moose viscera left by hunters. Our unequivocal results agree with other studies and further motivate the use of non-toxic ammunition for big game hunting.

  20. High Surface Area Ceria Nanoparticles via Hydrothermal Synthesis Experiment Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Kurajica

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrothermal synthesis of CeO2 was optimized on two reactant concentrations and synthesis temperature and duration, in order to achieve material having the greatest specific surface area (SSA. Taguchi method of experimental design was employed in evaluation of the relative importance of synthesis parameters. CeO2 nanoparticles were characterized using X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms, and scanning electron microscopy. Optimum conditions for obtaining particles with greater SSA were calculated according to Taguchi’s model “the-higher-the-better.” Synthesis temperature was found to be the only parameter significant for enabling nanoparticles with greater SSA. Mesoporous nanocrystalline ceria with SSA as great as 226 m2 g−1 was achieved, which is unprecedented for the hydrothermally synthesized ceria. The reason for this achievement was found in temperature dependence of the diffusion coefficient which, when low, favors nucleation yielding with fine particles, while when high it favors crystal growth and formation of one-dimensional structures. The occurrence of 1D-structure in sample exhibiting the smallest SSA was confirmed. Very fine crystallites with crystallite size as low as 5.9 nm have been obtained being roughly inverse proportional to SSA. Selected samples were tested as catalyst for soot oxidation. Catalyst morphology turned out to be decisive factor for catalytic activity.

  1. Augmenting Chinese hamster genome assembly by identifying regions of high confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwanathan, Nandita; Bandyopadhyay, Arpan A; Fu, Hsu-Yuan; Sharma, Mohit; Johnson, Kathryn C; Mudge, Joann; Ramaraj, Thiruvarangan; Onsongo, Getiria; Silverstein, Kevin A T; Jacob, Nitya M; Le, Huong; Karypis, George; Hu, Wei-Shou

    2016-09-01

    Chinese hamster Ovary (CHO) cell lines are the dominant industrial workhorses for therapeutic recombinant protein production. The availability of genome sequence of Chinese hamster and CHO cells will spur further genome and RNA sequencing of producing cell lines. However, the mammalian genomes assembled using shot-gun sequencing data still contain regions of uncertain quality due to assembly errors. Identifying high confidence regions in the assembled genome will facilitate its use for cell engineering and genome engineering. We assembled two independent drafts of Chinese hamster genome by de novo assembly from shotgun sequencing reads and by re-scaffolding and gap-filling the draft genome from NCBI for improved scaffold lengths and gap fractions. We then used the two independent assemblies to identify high confidence regions using two different approaches. First, the two independent assemblies were compared at the sequence level to identify their consensus regions as "high confidence regions" which accounts for at least 78 % of the assembled genome. Further, a genome wide comparison of the Chinese hamster scaffolds with mouse chromosomes revealed scaffolds with large blocks of collinearity, which were also compiled as high-quality scaffolds. Genome scale collinearity was complemented with EST based synteny which also revealed conserved gene order compared to mouse. As cell line sequencing becomes more commonly practiced, the approaches reported here are useful for assessing the quality of assembly and potentially facilitate the engineering of cell lines.

  2. Integrated techniques to identify groundwater vulnerability to pollution in a highly industrialized terrain, Tamilnadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasamoorthy, Krishnaraj; Vijayaraghavan, K; Vasanthavigar, Murugesan; Rajivgandhi, R; Sarma, V S

    2011-11-01

    Investigation has been made to identify groundwater vulnerability to pollution by using geoelectric and hydrochemical investigations in an important industrial town Mettur located in Tamilnadu state of India. Schlumberger vertical electric soundings were carried out in 23 locations and groundwater samples collected from bore wells in the same locations. The resistivity value with groundwater in areas influenced by sewages from industries, domestic and agricultural practices in the central and southern part of the study area. The calculated specific conductance was noted higher than EC in central and southern part of the study area with low resistivity indicating the contaminated nature of groundwater. Concentrations of Ca, Na, Mg and K along with Cl, HCO(3), SO(4) and NO(3) were higher in certain locations when compared with WHO and ISI standards. The facies concept demarcated four groups based on the nature of groundwater contamination. The trace elements Fe and Pb were higher in locations confined to industrial zones and Zn and Cu were within the prescribed limit in all the samples.

  3. A Clinical Drug Library Screen Identifies Tosufloxacin as Being Highly Active against Staphylococcus aureus Persisters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxia Niu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available To identify effective compounds that are active against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus persisters, we screened a clinical drug library consisting of 1524 compounds and identified six drug candidates that had anti-persister activity: tosufloxacin, clinafloxacin, sarafloxacin, doxycycline, thiostrepton, and chlorosalicylanilide. Among them, tosufloxacin had the highest anti-persister activity, which could completely eradicate S. aureus persisters within 2 days in vitro. Clinafloxacin ranked the second with very few persisters surviving the drug exposure. Interestingly, we found that both tosufloxacin and trovafloxacin that had high activity against persisters contained at the N-1 position the 2,4-difluorophenyl group, which is absent in other less active quinolones and may be associated with the high anti-persister activity. Further studies are needed to evaluate tosufloxacin in animal models and to explain its unique activity against bacterial persisters. Our findings may have implications for improved treatment of persistent bacterial infections.

  4. Whole-exome sequencing identified mutational profiles of high-grade colon adenomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Min; Rhee, Je-Keun; Park, Hyeon-Chun; Sung, Min Kim; Kim, Sung Soo; Hyeok, Chang An; Lee Hyung, Sug; Chung, Yeun-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Although gene-to-gene analyses identified genetic alterations such as APC, KRAS and TP53 mutations in colon adenomas, it is largely unknown whether there are any others in them. Mutational profiling of high-grade colon adenoma (HGCA) that just precedes colon carcinoma might identify not only novel adenoma-specific genes but also critical genes for its progression to carcinoma. For this, we performed whole-exome sequencing (WES) of 12 HGCAs and identified 11 non-hypermutated and one hypermutated (POLE-mutated) cases. We identified 22 genes including APC, KRAS, TP53, GNAS, NRAS, SMAD4, ARID2, and PIK3CA with non-silent mutations in the cancer Census Genes. Bi-allelic and mono-allelic APC alterations were found in nine and one HGCAs, respectively, while the other two harbored wild-type APC. Five HGCAs harbored either mono-allelic (four HGCAs) or bi-allelic (one HGCA) SMAD4 mutation or 18q loss that had been known as early carcinoma-specific changes. We identified MTOR, ACVR1B, GNAQ, ATM, CNOT1, EP300, ARID2, RET and MAP2K4 mutations for the first time in colon adenomas. Our WES data is largely matched with the earlier ‘adenoma-carcinoma model’ (APC, KRAS, NRAS and GNAS mutations), but there are newly identified SMAD4, MTOR, ACVR1B, GNAQ, ATM, CNOT1, EP300, ARID2, RET and MAP2K4 mutations in this study. Our findings provide resource for understanding colon premalignant lesions and for identifying genomic clues for differential diagnosis and therapy options for colon adenomas and carcinomas. PMID:28179590

  5. Identify high risk estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer patients for extended endocrine therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, JunJie; Jiang, Yizhou; Liu, Yirong; Shao, Zhimin

    2017-02-01

    To demonstrate the patterns of breast cancer-specific mortality (BCSM) in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive diseases and to identify high-risk candidates for extended endocrine therapy. Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database, we identified ER-positive patients diagnosed between 1990 and 2000 (cohort 1 [C1]) and between 2001 and 2005 (cohort 2 [C2]). The patterns of BCSM were calculated using Cox proportional hazard regression models. A risk classification model was developed, and X-tile software was used to divide patients with high BCSM rates into 3 risk groups. The annual BCSM rate of C2 was decreased by one-third and was maintained at 10-15 (per 1000 persons per year) from year 2 to year 10. Long-term mortality risks still persisted in C2, especially in patients with node-positive, grade 3 or T3 disease, who should be considered as "clinical-high-risk". These patients were further divided into 3 risk groups through our model: for C1, 42.2% were in the low-risk group, 38.9% in the medium-risk group, and 18.9% in the high-risk group; and for C2, 45.5% were in the low-risk group, 38.2% in the medium-risk group and 16.2% in the high-risk group (p risk group. ER-positive patients with node-positive, grade 3 or T3 diseases had sustained risks of death throughout the 10-year time frame, and our model is helpful to identify patients with high risk who are candidates for extended endocrine therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A BSL-4 High-Throughput Screen Identifies Sulfonamide Inhibitors of Nipah Virus

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Nipah virus is a biosafety level 4 (BSL-4) pathogen that causes severe respiratory illness and encephalitis in humans. To identify novel small molecules that target Nipah virus replication as potential therapeutics, Southern Research Institute and Galveston National Laboratory jointly developed an automated high-throughput screening platform that is capable of testing 10,000 compounds per day within BSL-4 biocontainment. Using this platform, we screened a 10,080-compound library using a cell-...

  7. A high-throughput approach to identify compounds that impair envelope integrity in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Kristin Renee; Jana, Bimal; Franzyk, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    was to develop and validate an assay for identifying compounds that increase envelope permeability, thereby conferring antimicrobial susceptibility by weakening of the cell envelope barrier in Gram-negative bacteria. A high-throughput whole-cell screening platform was developed to measure Escherichia coli......- to 125-fold) the MICs of erythromycin, fusidic acid, novobiocin and rifampin and displayed synergy (fractional inhibitory concentration index, risk multidrug-resistant, CTX-M-15-producing...

  8. A BSL-4 high-throughput screen identifies sulfonamide inhibitors of Nipah virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tigabu, Bersabeh; Rasmussen, Lynn; White, E Lucile; Tower, Nichole; Saeed, Mohammad; Bukreyev, Alexander; Rockx, Barry; LeDuc, James W; Noah, James W

    2014-04-01

    Nipah virus is a biosafety level 4 (BSL-4) pathogen that causes severe respiratory illness and encephalitis in humans. To identify novel small molecules that target Nipah virus replication as potential therapeutics, Southern Research Institute and Galveston National Laboratory jointly developed an automated high-throughput screening platform that is capable of testing 10,000 compounds per day within BSL-4 biocontainment. Using this platform, we screened a 10,080-compound library using a cell-based, high-throughput screen for compounds that inhibited the virus-induced cytopathic effect. From this pilot effort, 23 compounds were identified with EC50 values ranging from 3.9 to 20.0 μM and selectivities >10. Three sulfonamide compounds with EC50 values BSL-4 containment changes the paradigm for drug discovery for highly pathogenic agents because this platform can be readily modified to identify prophylactic and postexposure therapeutic candidates against other BSL-4 pathogens, particularly Ebola, Marburg, and Lassa viruses.

  9. Accurate structure prediction of peptide–MHC complexes for identifying highly immunogenic antigens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Min-Sun; Park, Sung Yong; Miller, Keith R.; Collins, Edward J.; Lee, Ha Youn

    2013-11-01

    Designing an optimal HIV-1 vaccine faces the challenge of identifying antigens that induce a broad immune capacity. One factor to control the breadth of T cell responses is the surface morphology of a peptide–MHC complex. Here, we present an in silico protocol for predicting peptide–MHC structure. A robust signature of a conformational transition was identified during all-atom molecular dynamics, which results in a model with high accuracy. A large test set was used in constructing our protocol and we went another step further using a blind test with a wild-type peptide and two highly immunogenic mutants, which predicted substantial conformational changes in both mutants. The center residues at position five of the analogs were configured to be accessible to solvent, forming a prominent surface, while the residue of the wild-type peptide was to point laterally toward the side of the binding cleft. We then experimentally determined the structures of the blind test set, using high resolution of X-ray crystallography, which verified predicted conformational changes. Our observation strongly supports a positive association of the surface morphology of a peptide–MHC complex to its immunogenicity. Our study offers the prospect of enhancing immunogenicity of vaccines by identifying MHC binding immunogens.

  10. COMPARISON OF MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCE AREAS OF STUDENTS AT SPORTS HIGH SCHOOLS AND PUBLIC HIGH SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet GÜLLÜ

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to compare multiple intelligence areas of students at sports high schools and at public high schools. Research group was composed of totally 658 students who were chosen randomly 321 students at sports high schools and 346 students at public high schools in Malatya, Eskişehir, Trabzon and Erzurum Cities. As data collection tool in this research,” The Multiple Intelligence Areas Scale For Educationist” improved by Saban (2003 was used. As data collection tool in this research,” The Multiple Intelligence Areas Scale for Educationist” improved by Saban (2003 was used. Independent–samples T Test for comparing pair and One-way Anova Test and LSD Test for comparing multiple were used in analyzing the data and significant level was chosen as α=0,05. As a result of the research, it was found that according to their sexuality, there was the meaningful different (p< 0,05 among verbal, visual, musical, interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligences in girls’ favour; that according to their class, there was the meaningful different (p< 0,05 among verbal, logical, interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligences of all students; that only the bodily intelligence of students at high schools was better than students at public high schools; that verbal, logical, visual and intrapersonal intelligences of students at public high schools were better than students at sports high schools (p< 0,05. Besides it was determined that development levels of musical, interpersonal and naturalistic intelligences of both students at public high schools and sports high schools were same.Key Words: .

  11. Identifying positive selection candidate loci for high-altitude adaptation in Andean populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bigham Abigail W

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract High-altitude environments (>2,500 m provide scientists with a natural laboratory to study the physiological and genetic effects of low ambient oxygen tension on human populations. One approach to understanding how life at high altitude has affected human metabolism is to survey genome-wide datasets for signatures of natural selection. In this work, we report on a study to identify selection-nominated candidate genes involved in adaptation to hypoxia in one highland group, Andeans from the South American Altiplano. We analysed dense microarray genotype data using four test statistics that detect departures from neutrality. Using a candidate gene, single nucleotide polymorphism-based approach, we identified genes exhibiting preliminary evidence of recent genetic adaptation in this population. These included genes that are part of the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIF pathway, a biochemical pathway involved in oxygen homeostasis, as well as three other genomic regions previously not known to be associated with high-altitude phenotypes. In addition to identifying selection-nominated candidate genes, we also tested whether the HIF pathway shows evidence of natural selection. Our results indicate that the genes of this biochemical pathway as a group show no evidence of having evolved in response to hypoxia in Andeans. Results from particular HIF-targeted genes, however, suggest that genes in this pathway could play a role in Andean adaptation to high altitude, even if the pathway as a whole does not show higher relative rates of evolution. These data suggest a genetic role in high-altitude adaptation and provide a basis for genotype/phenotype association studies that are necessary to confirm the role of putative natural selection candidate genes and gene regions in adaptation to altitude.

  12. Assessing Landscape Scale Wildfire Exposure for Highly Valued Resources in a Mediterranean Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcasena, Fermín J.; Salis, Michele; Ager, Alan A.; Arca, Bachisio; Molina, Domingo; Spano, Donatella

    2015-05-01

    We used a fire simulation modeling approach to assess landscape scale wildfire exposure for highly valued resources and assets (HVR) on a fire-prone area of 680 km2 located in central Sardinia, Italy. The study area was affected by several wildfires in the last half century: some large and intense fire events threatened wildland urban interfaces as well as other socioeconomic and cultural values. Historical wildfire and weather data were used to inform wildfire simulations, which were based on the minimum travel time algorithm as implemented in FlamMap. We simulated 90,000 fires that replicated recent large fire events in the area spreading under severe weather conditions to generate detailed maps of wildfire likelihood and intensity. Then, we linked fire modeling outputs to a geospatial risk assessment framework focusing on buffer areas around HVR. The results highlighted a large variation in burn probability and fire intensity in the vicinity of HVRs, and allowed us to identify the areas most exposed to wildfires and thus to a higher potential damage. Fire intensity in the HVR buffers was mainly related to fuel types, while wind direction, topographic features, and historically based ignition pattern were the key factors affecting fire likelihood. The methodology presented in this work can have numerous applications, in the study area and elsewhere, particularly to address and inform fire risk management, landscape planning and people safety on the vicinity of HVRs.

  13. Seasonal spatial patterns in seabird and marine mammal distribution in the eastern Chukchi and western Beaufort seas: Identifying biologically important pelagic areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuletz, Kathy J.; Ferguson, Megan C.; Hurley, Brendan; Gall, Adrian E.; Labunski, Elizabeth A.; Morgan, Tawna C.

    2015-08-01

    The Chukchi and Beaufort seas are undergoing rapid climate change and increased human activity. Conservation efforts for upper trophic level predators such as seabirds and marine mammals require information on species' distributions and identification of important marine areas. Here we describe broad-scale distributions of seabirds and marine mammals. We examined spatial patterns of relative abundance of seabirds and marine mammals in the eastern Chukchi and western Beaufort seas during summer (15 June-31 August) and fall (1 September-20 November) from 2007 to 2012. We summarized 49,206 km of shipboard surveys for seabirds and 183,157 km of aerial surveys for marine mammals into a grid of 40-km × 40-km cells. We used Getis-Ord Gi∗ hotspot analysis to test for cells with higher relative abundance than expected when compared to all cells within the study area. We identified cells representing single species and taxonomic group hotspots, cells representing hotspots for multiple species, and cells representing hotspots for both seabirds and marine mammals. The locations of hotspots varied among species but often were located near underwater canyons or over continental shelf features and slopes. Hotspots for seabirds, walrus, and gray whales occurred primarily in the Chukchi Sea. Hotspots for bowhead whales and other pinnipeds (i.e., seals) occurred near Barrow Canyon and along the Beaufort Sea shelf and slope. Hotspots for belugas occurred in both the Chukchi and Beaufort seas. There were three hotspots shared by both seabirds and marine mammals in summer: off Wainwright in the eastern Chukchi Sea, south of Hanna Shoal, and at the mouth of Barrow Canyon. In fall, the only identified shared hotspot occurred at the mouth of Barrow Canyon. Shared hotspots are characterized by strong fronts caused by upwelling and currents, and these areas can have high densities of euphausiids in summer and fall. Due to the high relative abundance of animals and diversity of taxa

  14. A High-affinity Activator of G551D-CFTR Chloride Channel Identified By High Throughput Screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Lu; HE Cheng-yan; LIU Yan-li; ZHOU Hong-lan; ZHOU Jin-song; SHANG De-jing; YANG Hong

    2004-01-01

    A stably transfected CHO cell line coexpressing G551D-CFTR and iodide-sensitive yellow fluorescent protein mutant EYFP-H148Q-I152L was successfully established and used as assay model to identify small-molecule activators of G551D-CFTR chloride channel from 100000 diverse combinatorial compounds by high throughput screening on a customized Beckman robotic system. A bicyclooctane compound was identified to activate G551D-CFTR chloride channel with high-affinity(Kd=1.8 μmol/L). The activity of the bicyclooctane compound is G551D-CFTR-specific, reversible and non-toxic. The G551D-CFTR activator may be useful as a tool to study the mutant G551D-CFTR chloride channel structure and transport properties and as a candidate drug to cure cystic fibrosis caused by G551D-CFTR mutation.

  15. Counter-Stereotypes and Feminism Promote Leadership Aspirations in Highly Identified Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leicht, Carola; Gocłowska, Małgorzata A; Van Breen, Jolien A; de Lemus, Soledad; Randsley de Moura, Georgina

    2017-01-01

    Although women who highly identify with other women are more susceptible to stereotype threat effects, women's identification might associate with greater leadership aspirations contingent on (1) counter-stereotype salience and (2) feminist identification. When gender counter-stereotypes are salient, women's identification should associate with greater leadership aspiration regardless of feminism, while when gender stereotypes are salient, women's identification would predict greater leadership aspirations contingent on a high level of feminist identification. In our study US-based women (N = 208) attended to gender stereotypic (vs. counter-stereotypic) content. We measured identification with women and identification with feminism, and, following the manipulation, leadership aspirations in an imagined work scenario. The interaction between identification with women, identification with feminism, and attention to stereotypes (vs. counter-stereotypes) significantly predicted leadership aspirations. In the counter-stereotypic condition women's identification associated with greater leadership aspirations regardless of feminist identification. In the stereotypic condition women's identification predicted leadership aspirations only at high levels of feminist identification. We conclude that salient counter-stereotypes and a strong identification with feminism may help high women identifiers increase their leadership aspirations.

  16. Clusters of Factors Identify A High Prevalence of Pregnancy Involvement Among US Adolescent Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, May; Lin, Hua; Flores, Glenn

    2015-08-01

    The study purpose was to use recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) to identify factors that, when clustered, are associated with a high prevalence of pregnancy involvement among US adolescent males. The National Survey of Family Growth is a nationally representative survey of individuals 15-44 years old. RPA was done for the 2002 and 2006-2010 cycles to identify factors which, when combined, identify adolescent males with the highest prevalence of pregnancy involvement. Pregnancy-involvement prevalence among adolescent males was 6 %. Two clusters of adolescent males have the highest pregnancy-involvement prevalence, at 84-87 %. In RPA, the highest pregnancy-involvement prevalence (87 %) was seen in adolescent males who ever HIV tested, had >4 lifetime sexual partners, reported less than an almost certain chance of feeling less physical pleasure with condom use, had an educational attainment of 4 lifetime sexual partners, reported less than an almost certain chance of feeling less physical pleasure with condom use, had an educational attainment ≥11th grade, were >17 years old, and had their first contraceptive education ≥10th grade, had a pregnancy-involvement prevalence of 84 %. Pregnancy-prevention efforts among adolescent males who have been involved in a pregnancy may need to target risk factors identified in clusters with the highest pregnancy prevalence to prevent subsequent pregnancies in these adolescent males and improve their future outcomes.

  17. Keeping Minorities Happy: Hierarchy Maintenance and Whites' Decreased Support for Highly Identified White Politicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Sora; Lowery, Brian S; Guillory, Lucia

    2017-08-01

    We test the hypothesis that, to avoid provoking minorities, Whites will withhold their support for White political candidates who are highly identified with their race. In Study 1, we found that White Republicans were less supportive of White candidates the higher the perceived White identity of the candidate due to beliefs that such candidates would provoke racial minorities. In Study 2, we replicated this effect with a manipulation of candidates' White identity. Study 3 found that Whites reported less support for high-identity candidates when they were led to believe that the hierarchy was unstable rather than stable. Consistent with our hypothesis that those who have the most to lose are most likely to avoid provoking minorities, in Study 4, we found that Whites with high subjective socioeconomic status (SES) varied their support for provocative White candidates as a function of hierarchy stability, whereas those with low subjective SES did not.

  18. Field-based high throughput phenotyping rapidly identifies genomic regions controlling yield components in rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanger, Paul; Klassen, Stephen; Mojica, Julius P.; Lovell, John T.; Moyers, Brook T.; Baraoidan, Marietta; Naredo, Maria Elizabeth B.; McNally, Kenneth L.; Poland, Jesse; Bush, Daniel R.; Leung, Hei; Leach, Jan E.; McKay, John K.

    2017-01-01

    To ensure food security in the face of population growth, decreasing water and land for agriculture, and increasing climate variability, crop yields must increase faster than the current rates. Increased yields will require implementing novel approaches in genetic discovery and breeding. Here we demonstrate the potential of field-based high throughput phenotyping (HTP) on a large recombinant population of rice to identify genetic variation underlying important traits. We find that detecting quantitative trait loci (QTL) with HTP phenotyping is as accurate and effective as traditional labor-intensive measures of flowering time, height, biomass, grain yield, and harvest index. Genetic mapping in this population, derived from a cross of an modern cultivar (IR64) with a landrace (Aswina), identified four alleles with negative effect on grain yield that are fixed in IR64, demonstrating the potential for HTP of large populations as a strategy for the second green revolution. PMID:28220807

  19. Field-based high throughput phenotyping rapidly identifies genomic regions controlling yield components in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanger, Paul; Klassen, Stephen; Mojica, Julius P; Lovell, John T; Moyers, Brook T; Baraoidan, Marietta; Naredo, Maria Elizabeth B; McNally, Kenneth L; Poland, Jesse; Bush, Daniel R; Leung, Hei; Leach, Jan E; McKay, John K

    2017-02-21

    To ensure food security in the face of population growth, decreasing water and land for agriculture, and increasing climate variability, crop yields must increase faster than the current rates. Increased yields will require implementing novel approaches in genetic discovery and breeding. Here we demonstrate the potential of field-based high throughput phenotyping (HTP) on a large recombinant population of rice to identify genetic variation underlying important traits. We find that detecting quantitative trait loci (QTL) with HTP phenotyping is as accurate and effective as traditional labor-intensive measures of flowering time, height, biomass, grain yield, and harvest index. Genetic mapping in this population, derived from a cross of an modern cultivar (IR64) with a landrace (Aswina), identified four alleles with negative effect on grain yield that are fixed in IR64, demonstrating the potential for HTP of large populations as a strategy for the second green revolution.

  20. High-throughput screening to identify selective inhibitors of microbial sulfate reduction (and beyond)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, H. K.; Coates, J. D.; Deutschbauer, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    The selective perturbation of complex microbial ecosystems to predictably influence outcomes in engineered and industrial environments remains a grand challenge for geomicrobiology. In some industrial ecosystems, such as oil reservoirs, sulfate reducing microorganisms (SRM) produce hydrogen sulfide which is toxic, explosive and corrosive. Current strategies to selectively inhibit sulfidogenesis are based on non-specific biocide treatments, bio-competitive exclusion by alternative electron acceptors or sulfate-analogs which are competitive inhibitors or futile/alternative substrates of the sulfate reduction pathway. Despite the economic cost of sulfidogenesis, there has been minimal exploration of the chemical space of possible inhibitory compounds, and very little work has quantitatively assessed the selectivity of putative souring treatments. We have developed a high-throughput screening strategy to target SRM, quantitatively ranked the selectivity and potency of hundreds of compounds and identified previously unrecognized SRM selective inhibitors and synergistic interactions between inhibitors. Once inhibitor selectivity is defined, high-throughput characterization of microbial community structure across compound gradients and identification of fitness determinants using isolate bar-coded transposon mutant libraries can give insights into the genetic mechanisms whereby compounds structure microbial communities. The high-throughput (HT) approach we present can be readily applied to target SRM in diverse environments and more broadly, could be used to identify and quantify the potency and selectivity of inhibitors of a variety of microbial metabolisms. Our findings and approach are relevant for engineering environmental ecosystems and also to understand the role of natural gradients in shaping microbial niche space.

  1. Exome sequencing identifies potential risk variants for Mendelian disorders at high prevalence in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Flores, Juan L; Fakhro, Khalid; Hackett, Neil R; Salit, Jacqueline; Fuller, Jennifer; Agosto-Perez, Francisco; Gharbiah, Maey; Malek, Joel A; Zirie, Mahmoud; Jayyousi, Amin; Badii, Ramin; Al-Nabet Al-Marri, Ajayeb; Chouchane, Lotfi; Stadler, Dora J; Mezey, Jason G; Crystal, Ronald G

    2014-01-01

    Exome sequencing of families of related individuals has been highly successful in identifying genetic polymorphisms responsible for Mendelian disorders. Here, we demonstrate the value of the reverse approach, where we use exome sequencing of a sample of unrelated individuals to analyze allele frequencies of known causal mutations for Mendelian diseases. We sequenced the exomes of 100 individuals representing the three major genetic subgroups of the Qatari population (Q1 Bedouin, Q2 Persian-South Asian, Q3 African) and identified 37 variants in 33 genes with effects on 36 clinically significant Mendelian diseases. These include variants not present in 1000 Genomes and variants at high frequency when compared with 1000 Genomes populations. Several of these Mendelian variants were only segregating in one Qatari subpopulation, where the observed subpopulation specificity trends were confirmed in an independent population of 386 Qataris. Premarital genetic screening in Qatar tests for only four out of the 37, such that this study provides a set of Mendelian disease variants with potential impact on the epidemiological profile of the population that could be incorporated into the testing program if further experimental and clinical characterization confirms high penetrance. © 2013 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  2. Assessment and application of a snowblow modelling approach for identifying enhanced snow accumulation in areas of former glaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Stephanie; Smith, Michael; Le Brocq, Anne; Ardakova, Ekaterina; Hillier, John; Boston, Clare

    2016-04-01

    The redistribution of snow by wind can play an important role in providing additional mass to the surface of glaciers and can, therefore, have an impact on the glacier's surface mass balance. In areas of marginal glaciation, this local topo-climatic effect may be prove crucial for the initiation and survival of glaciers, whilst it can also increase heterogeneity in the distribution of snow on ice caps and ice sheets. We present a newly developed snowblow model which calculates spatial variations in relative snow accumulation that result from variations in topography. We apply this model to areas of former marginal glaciation in the Brecon Beacons, Wales and an area of former plateau icefield glaciation in the Monadhliath, Scotland. We can then determine whether redistribution by snow can help explain variations in the estimated equilibrium line altitudes (ELAs) of these former glaciers. Specifically, we compare the areas where snow is modelled as accumulating, to the reconstructed glacier surface, which is based on mapped moraines believed to be of Younger Dryas age. The model is applied to 30 m resolution DEMs and potential snow accumulation is simulated from different wind directions in order to determine the most likely contributing sector. Total snow accumulation in sub-set areas is then calculated and compared to the reconstructed glacier area. The results suggest that areas with larger amounts of snow accumulation often correspond with those where the ELA is lower than surrounding glaciers and vice versa, in both the marginal and icefield setting, suggesting that the role of snowblow in supplying additional mass to the surface of glaciers is significant.

  3. Scanning genomic areas under selection sweep and association mapping as tools to identify horticultural important genes in watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) contains 88% water, sugars, and several important health-related compounds, including lycopene, citrulline, arginine, and glutathione. The current genetic diversity study uses microsatellites with known map positions to identify genomic regions that under...

  4. Molecular characterization of a novel luteovirus from peach identified by high-throughput sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, L-P; Liu, H-W; Bateman, M; Liu, Z; Li, R

    2017-05-26

    Contigs with sequence homologies to cherry-associated luteovirus were identified by high-throughput sequencing analysis in two peach accessions. Complete genomic sequences of the two isolates of this virus were determined to be 5,819 and 5,814 nucleotides long, respectively. The genome of the new virus is typical of luteoviruses, containing eight open reading frames in a very similar arrangement. Its genomic sequence is 58-74% identical to those of other members of the genus Luteovirus. These sequences thus belong to a new virus, which we have named "peach-associated luteovirus".

  5. Towards the high spin–isospin frontier using isotopically-identified fission fragments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navin, A., E-mail: navin@ganil.fr [GANIL, CEA/DSM–CNRS/IN2P3, Bd Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France); Rejmund, M.; Schmitt, C. [GANIL, CEA/DSM–CNRS/IN2P3, Bd Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France); Bhattacharyya, S. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Lhersonneau, G.; Van Isacker, P. [GANIL, CEA/DSM–CNRS/IN2P3, Bd Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France); Caamaño, M. [USC, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, E-15706 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Clément, E.; Delaune, O.; Farget, F.; France, G. de; Jacquot, B. [GANIL, CEA/DSM–CNRS/IN2P3, Bd Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France)

    2014-01-20

    Measurements of prompt γ rays in coincidence with isotopically-identified fission fragments, produced in collisions of {sup 238}U on a {sup 9}Be target, at an energy around the Coulomb barrier are reported. This technique provides simultaneous access to the spectroscopy of many nuclei, extending to very neutron-rich isotopes and fairly high angular momenta. The structural evolution of the neutron-rich zirconium isotopes is discussed in the light of the present measurements in {sup 105,106}Zr and in the context of the interacting boson model with a global parameterization that includes triaxiality but no shape coexistence.

  6. High-resolution water column survey to identify active sublacustrine hydrothermal discharge zones within Lake Rotomahana, North Island, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Sharon L.; de Ronde, Cornel E. J.; Fornari, Daniel; Tivey, Maurice A.; Stucker, Valerie K.

    2016-03-01

    Autonomous underwater vehicles were used to conduct a high-resolution water column survey of Lake Rotomahana using temperature, pH, turbidity, and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) to identify active hydrothermal discharge zones within the lake. Five areas with active sublacustrine venting were identified: (1) the area of the historic Pink Terraces; (2) adjacent to the western shoreline subaerial "Steaming Cliffs," boiling springs and geyser; (3) along the northern shoreline to the east of the Pink Terrace site; (4) the newly discovered Patiti hydrothermal system along the south margin of the 1886 Tarawera eruption rift zone; and (5) a location in the east basin (northeast of Patiti Island). The Pink Terrace hydrothermal system was active prior to the 1886 eruption of Mount Tarawera, but venting along the western shoreline, in the east basin, and the Patiti hydrothermal system appear to have been initiated in the aftermath of the eruption, similar to Waimangu Valley to the southwest. Different combinations of turbidity, pH anomalies (both positive and negative), and ORP responses suggest vent fluid compositions vary over short distances within the lake. The seasonal period of stratification limits vertical transport of heat to the surface layer and the hypolimnion temperature of Lake Rotomahana consequently increases with an average warming rate of ~ 0.010 °C/day due to both convective hydrothermal discharge and conductive geothermal heating. A sudden temperature increase occurred during our 2011 survey and was likely the response to an earthquake swarm just 11 days prior.

  7. Geophysical surveys combined with laboratory soil column experiments to identify and explore risk areas for soil and water pollution in feedlots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espejo-Pérez, Antonio Jesus; Sainato, Claudia Mabel; Jairo Márquez-Molina, John; Giráldez, Juan Vicente; Vanderlinden, Karl

    2014-05-01

    pattern of moisture, although the absolute values were far from the real values obtained by gravimetric method due to the effect of the high OM. The lower zone in one of the pens showed greater values of ECa and soil moisture, in agreement with a major water retention and a lower Ks. The water retention was higher in the other corral with higher variability in Ks. A general decrease of soil moisture was found near 0.2 m soil depth. Leaching experiments detected greater volumes with higher electrical conductivity in low lying areas of the pen. Although differences were not observed as clearly as before, the low and intermediate low areas of the pen showed a faster rate of leaching. In summary geophysical surveys allowed identifying risk areas of high ECa and moisture which in fact had higher volumes of leachate with elevated electrical conductivities. This may be a good approach to control and reduce soil and groundwater contamination and to model in future works the process in order to establish management decisions.

  8. Human Adenine Nucleotide Translocase (ANT) Modulators Identified by High-Throughput Screening of Transgenic Yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yujian; Tian, Defeng; Matsuyama, Hironori; Hamazaki, Takashi; Shiratsuchi, Takayuki; Terada, Naohiro; Hook, Derek J; Walters, Michael A; Georg, Gunda I; Hawkinson, Jon E

    2016-04-01

    Transport of ADP and ATP across mitochondria is one of the primary points of regulation to maintain cellular energy homeostasis. This process is mainly mediated by adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) located on the mitochondrial inner membrane. There are four human ANT isoforms, each having a unique tissue-specific expression pattern and biological function, highlighting their potential as drug targets for diverse clinical indications, including male contraception and cancer. In this study, we present a novel yeast-based high-throughput screening (HTS) strategy to identify compounds inhibiting the function of ANT. Yeast strains generated by deletion of endogenous proteins with ANT activity followed by insertion of individual human ANT isoforms are sensitive to cell-permeable ANT inhibitors, which reduce proliferation. Screening hits identified in the yeast proliferation assay were characterized in ADP/ATP exchange assays employing recombinant ANT isoforms expressed in isolated yeast mitochondria and Lactococcus lactis as well as by oxygen consumption rate in mammalian cells. Using this approach, closantel and CD437 were identified as broad-spectrum ANT inhibitors, whereas leelamine was found to be a modulator of ANT function. This yeast "knock-out/knock-in" screening strategy is applicable to a broad range of essential molecular targets that are required for yeast survival. © 2016 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  9. Validation of a Predictive Model to Identify Patients at High Risk for Hospital Readmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiva, LeeAnna; Hand, Marti; VanBrackle, Lewis; McVay, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Hospital readmission is an adverse patient outcome that is serious, common, and costly. For hospitals, identifying patients at risk for hospital readmission is a priority to reduce costs and improve care. The purposes were to validate a predictive algorithm to identify patients at a high risk for preventable hospital readmission within 30 days after discharge and determine if additional risk factors enhance readmission predictability. A retrospective study was conducted on a randomized sample of 598 patients discharged from a Southeast community hospital. Data were collected from the organization's database and manually abstracted from the electronic medical record using a structured tool. Two separate logistic regression models were fit for the probability of readmission within 30 days after discharge. The first model used the LACE index as the predictor variable, and the second model used the LACE index with additional risk factors. The two models were compared to determine if additional risk factors increased the model's predictive ability. The results indicate both models have reasonable prognostic capability. The LACE index with additional risk factors did little to improve prognostication, while adding to the model's complexity. Findings support the use of the LACE index as a practical tool to identify patients at risk for readmission.

  10. High Throughput Screening Identifies a Novel Compound Protecting Cardiomyocytes from Doxorubicin-Induced Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabolcs Gergely

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Antracyclines are effective antitumor agents. One of the most commonly used antracyclines is doxorubicin, which can be successfully used to treat a diverse spectrum of tumors. Application of these drugs is limited by their cardiotoxic effect, which is determined by a lifetime cumulative dose. We set out to identify by high throughput screening cardioprotective compounds protecting cardiomyocytes from doxorubicin-induced injury. Ten thousand compounds of ChemBridge’s DIVERSet compound library were screened to identify compounds that can protect H9C2 rat cardiomyocytes against doxorubicin-induced cell death. The most effective compound proved protective in doxorubicin-treated primary rat cardiomyocytes and was further characterized to demonstrate that it significantly decreased doxorubicin-induced apoptotic and necrotic cell death and inhibited doxorubicin-induced activation of JNK MAP kinase without having considerable radical scavenging effect or interfering with the antitumor effect of doxorubicin. In fact the compound identified as 3-[2-(4-ethylphenyl-2-oxoethyl]-1,2-dimethyl-1H-3,1-benzimidazol-3-ium bromide was toxic to all tumor cell lines tested even without doxorubicine treatment. This benzimidazole compound may lead, through further optimalization, to the development of a drug candidate protecting the heart from doxorubicin-induced injury.

  11. Identifying fade mechanisms in high-power lithium-ion cells.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, D. P.; Knuth, J.; Dees, D. W.; Jansen, A. N.; Sammann, E.; Haasch, R.; Twesten, R. D.; MacLaren, S.; Chemical Engineering; Univ. of Illinois

    2004-01-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) need long-lived high-power batteries as energy storage devices. Batteries based on lithium-ion technology can meet the high-power goals but have been unable to meet HEV calendar-life requirements. As part of the US Department of Energy's Advanced Technology Development (ATD) Program, diagnostic studies are being conducted on 18650-type lithium-ion cells that were subjected to accelerated aging tests at temperatures ranging from 40 to 70 C. This article summarizes data obtained by gas chromatography, liquid chromatography, electron microscopy, X-ray spectroscopy and electrochemical techniques, and identifies cell components that are responsible for the observed impedance rise and power fade.

  12. High Volume Throughput Computing: Identifying and Characterizing Throughput Oriented Workloads in Data Centers

    CERN Document Server

    Zhan, Jianfeng; Sun, Ninghui; Wang, Lei; Jia, Zhen; Luo, Chunjie

    2012-01-01

    For the first time, this paper systematically identifies three categories of throughput oriented workloads in data centers: services, data processing applications, and interactive real-time applications, whose targets are to increase the volume of throughput in terms of processed requests or data, or supported maximum number of simultaneous subscribers, respectively, and we coins a new term high volume throughput computing (in short HVC) to describe those workloads and data center systems designed for them. We characterize and compare HVC with other computing paradigms, e.g., high throughput computing, warehouse-scale computing, and cloud computing, in terms of levels, workloads, metrics, coupling degree, data scales, and number of jobs or service instances. We also preliminarily report our ongoing work on the metrics and benchmarks for HVC systems, which is the foundation of designing innovative data center systems for HVC workloads.

  13. Identification and prioritization of areas with high environmental risk in Mediterranean coastal areas: A flexible approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marignani, Michela; Bruschi, Daniele; Astiaso Garcia, Davide; Frondoni, Raffaella; Carli, Emanuela; Pinna, Maria Silvia; Cumo, Fabrizio; Gugliermetti, Franco; Saatkamp, Arne; Doxa, Aggeliki; Queller, Emi Martín; Chaieb, Mohamed; Bou Dagher-Kharrat, Magda; El Zein, Rana; El Jeitani, Sarah; Khater, Carla; Mansour, Sophie; Al-Shami, Anwar; Harik, Ghinwa; Alameddine, Ibrahim; El-Fadel, Mutasem; Blasi, Carlo

    2017-07-15

    Interdisciplinarity and transdisciplinarity are the cornerstone for the future management of coastal ecosystems with many vulnerability and hazard indexes developed for this purpose, especially in the engineering literature, but with limited studies that considered ecological implications within a risk assessment. Similarly, the concept of prioritization of sites has been widely examined in biodiversity conservation studies, but only recently as an instrument for territory management. Considering coastal plant diversity at the species and community levels, and their vulnerability to three main potential hazards threatening coastal areas (oil spills, Hazardous and Noxious Substances pollution, fragmentation of natural habitats), the objective of this paper is to define an easy-to-use approach to locate and prioritize the areas more susceptible to those stressors, in order to have a practical instrument for risk management in the ordinary and extra-ordinary management of the coastline. The procedure has been applied at pilot areas in four Mediterranean countries (Italy, France, Lebanon and Tunisia). This approach can provide policy planners, decision makers and local communities an easy-to-use instrument able to facilitate the implementation of the ICZM (Integrated Coastal Zone Management) process in their territory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. High-Throughput Chemical Screens Identify Disulfiram as an Inhibitor of Human Glioblastoma Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hothi, Parvinder; Martins, Timothy J.; Chen, LiPing; Deleyrolle, Loic; Yoon, Jae-Geun; Reynolds, Brent; Foltz, Greg

    2012-01-01

    Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) continues to have a poor patient prognosis despite optimal standard of care. Glioma stem cells (GSCs) have been implicated as the presumed cause of tumor recurrence and resistance to therapy. With this in mind, we screened a diverse chemical library of 2,000 compounds to identify therapeutic agents that inhibit GSC proliferation and therefore have the potential to extend patient survival. High-throughput screens (HTS) identified 78 compounds that repeatedly inhibited cellular proliferation, of which 47 are clinically approved for other indications and 31 are experimental drugs. Several compounds (such as digitoxin, deguelin, patulin and phenethyl caffeate) exhibited high cytotoxicity, with half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) in the low nanomolar range. In particular, the FDA approved drug for the treatment of alcoholism, disulfiram (DSF), was significantly potent across multiple patient samples (IC50 of 31.1 nM). The activity of DSF was potentiated by copper (Cu), which markedly increased GSC death. DSF–Cu inhibited the chymotrypsin-like proteasomal activity in cultured GSCs, consistent with inactivation of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and the subsequent induction of tumor cell death. Given that DSF is a relatively non-toxic drug that can penetrate the blood-brain barrier, we suggest that DSF should be tested (as either a monotherapy or as an adjuvant) in pre-clinical models of human GBM. Data also support targeting of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway as a therapeutic approach in the treatment of GBM. PMID:23165409

  15. A High-Throughput Screen Identifies a New Natural Product with Broad-Spectrum Antibacterial Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ymele-Leki, Patrick; Cao, Shugeng; Sharp, Jared; Lambert, Kathleen G.; McAdam, Alexander J.; Husson, Robert N.; Tamayo, Giselle; Clardy, Jon; Watnick, Paula I.

    2012-01-01

    Due to the inexorable invasion of our hospitals and communities by drug-resistant bacteria, there is a pressing need for novel antibacterial agents. Here we report the development of a sensitive and robust but low-tech and inexpensive high-throughput metabolic screen for novel antibiotics. This screen is based on a colorimetric assay of pH that identifies inhibitors of bacterial sugar fermentation. After validation of the method, we screened over 39,000 crude extracts derived from organisms that grow in the diverse ecosystems of Costa Rica and identified 49 with reproducible antibacterial effects. An extract from an endophytic fungus was further characterized, and this led to the discovery of three novel natural products. One of these, which we named mirandamycin, has broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Vibrio cholerae, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This demonstrates the power of simple high throughput screens for rapid identification of new antibacterial agents from environmental samples. PMID:22359585

  16. High expression of CD26 accurately identifies human bacteria-reactive MR1-restricted MAIT cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Prabhat K; Wong, Emily B; Napier, Ruth J; Bishai, William R; Ndung'u, Thumbi; Kasprowicz, Victoria O; Lewinsohn, Deborah A; Lewinsohn, David M; Gold, Marielle C

    2015-07-01

    Mucosa-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells express the semi-invariant T-cell receptor TRAV1-2 and detect a range of bacteria and fungi through the MHC-like molecule MR1. However, knowledge of the function and phenotype of bacteria-reactive MR1-restricted TRAV1-2(+) MAIT cells from human blood is limited. We broadly characterized the function of MR1-restricted MAIT cells in response to bacteria-infected targets and defined a phenotypic panel to identify these cells in the circulation. We demonstrated that bacteria-reactive MR1-restricted T cells shared effector functions of cytolytic effector CD8(+) T cells. By analysing an extensive panel of phenotypic markers, we determined that CD26 and CD161 were most strongly associated with these T cells. Using FACS to sort phenotypically defined CD8(+) subsets we demonstrated that high expression of CD26 on CD8(+)  TRAV1-2(+) cells identified with high specificity and sensitivity, bacteria-reactive MR1-restricted T cells from human blood. CD161(hi) was also specific for but lacked sensitivity in identifying all bacteria-reactive MR1-restricted T cells, some of which were CD161(dim) . Using cell surface expression of CD8, TRAV1-2, and CD26(hi) in the absence of stimulation we confirm that bacteria-reactive T cells are lacking in the blood of individuals with active tuberculosis and are restored in the blood of individuals undergoing treatment for tuberculosis.

  17. A simple and highly effective process for the preparation of activated carbons with high surface area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Ying, E-mail: liyingjlu@163.com [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Ding Xuefeng; Guo Yupeng; Wang Lili; Rong Chunguang; Qu Yuning; Ma Xiaoyu [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Wang Zichen, E-mail: wangzc@jlu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: {yields} High surface area activated carbon can be prepared by rice husk H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} without pretreatment. {yields} The characteristics of the activated carbon were greatly influenced by post-processing method. {yields} The lower SiO{sub 2} content of the activated carbons, the higher pore volume the carbons had. {yields} Some silica in rice husk reacted with H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} to form SiP{sub 2}O{sub 7} which could be removed by post-process. - Abstract: Activated carbons with high surface area were prepared by phosphoric acid as activation agent and rice husks as precursors. It was found that the characteristics of the activated carbons were influenced not only by the preparation but also by the post-processing method. The high surface area of the activated carbons was prepared under the optimum condition (50% H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} with impregnation ratio of 5:1, activation temperature of 500 deg. C, activation time of 0.5 h, wash water temperature of 100 deg. C). SiO{sub 2} content could affect the surface area of activated carbons, either. The lower SiO{sub 2} content of the activated carbons, the higher pore volume the carbons had. The SiO{sub 2} content was 11.2% when used the optimum condition. The explanation was that silicon element in rice husks reacted with H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} to form silicon phosphate (SiP{sub 2}O{sub 7}), and it could be proved further by X-ray diffraction analysis, SiP{sub 2}O{sub 7} could be removed by post-process.

  18. Identifying sources of B and As contamination in surface water and groundwater downstream of the Larderello geothermal - industrial area (Tuscany-Central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Sergio; Amadori, Michele; Pennisi, Maddalena; Cortecci, Gianni

    2014-02-01

    A study on the upper reaches of the Cecina River (Tuscany-Central Italy) and the associated unconfined aquifer was carried out from September 2007 to August 2008. The study aimed to identify the sources of B and As contamination in stream water and groundwater, and record contamination levels. The study area, which comprises a northern sector of the Larderello geothermal field, has in time been contaminated by both surface geothermal manifestations (now thought to have ceased) and anthropogenic activity. The latter refers to the disposal of spent geothermal fluids and borogypsum sludge, by-product of colemanite treatment with sulphuric acid, which until the late '70s were discharged in the Larderello area into the Possera Creek, a southern tributary of the Cecina River. A network of 22 stream sections and 9 observation wells was defined. Stream discharge (16 sites), well water levels and chemical concentrations (mainly B, As and anions) in water were measured monthly. Together, discharge and chemical concentrations were used to define the source of contamination by calculating the contaminant load in successive sections of the river network. Due to the stream's intermittent flow, only 50% of the performed monthly surveys could be used in comparing the contaminant load at different sections. Both contaminant loads (referring to median to high flow conditions) and chemical concentrations suggest that B mainly derives from the leakage of a concentrated Na-SO4 water rich in B, SO4, NO3 likely from a small aquitard located in the Larderello area. The B load from this area is about 2 kg/h and increases to approximately 2.7 kg/h in the final section of the study area, likely due to contribution of groundwater. As mainly derives from dissolution and adsorption-desorption processes involving water and As-rich stream bed sediments. Of the total 15 g/h As load measured at the end section, only about 3 g/h derive from the Larderello area. Further to stream bed, As

  19. Surrogate models for identifying robust, high yield regions of parameter space for ICF implosion simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humbird, Kelli; Peterson, J. Luc; Brandon, Scott; Field, John; Nora, Ryan; Spears, Brian

    2016-10-01

    Next-generation supercomputer architecture and in-transit data analysis have been used to create a large collection of 2-D ICF capsule implosion simulations. The database includes metrics for approximately 60,000 implosions, with x-ray images and detailed physics parameters available for over 20,000 simulations. To map and explore this large database, surrogate models for numerous quantities of interest are built using supervised machine learning algorithms. Response surfaces constructed using the predictive capabilities of the surrogates allow for continuous exploration of parameter space without requiring additional simulations. High performing regions of the input space are identified to guide the design of future experiments. In particular, a model for the yield built using a random forest regression algorithm has a cross validation score of 94.3% and is consistently conservative for high yield predictions. The model is used to search for robust volumes of parameter space where high yields are expected, even given variations in other input parameters. Surrogates for additional quantities of interest relevant to ignition are used to further characterize the high yield regions. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344, Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC. LLNL-ABS-697277.

  20. High throughput atmospheric pressure plasma-induced graft polymerization for identifying protein-resistant surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Minghao; Kilduff, James E; Belfort, Georges

    2012-02-01

    Three critical aspects of searching for and understanding how to find highly resistant surfaces to protein adhesion are addressed here with specific application to synthetic membrane filtration. They include the (i) discovery of a series of previously unreported monomers from a large library of monomers with high protein resistance and subsequent low fouling characteristics for membrane ultrafiltration of protein-containing fluids, (ii) development of a new approach to investigate protein-resistant mechanisms from structure-property relationships, and (iii) adaptation of a new surface modification method, called atmospheric pressure plasma-induced graft polymerization (APP), together with a high throughput platform (HTP), for low cost vacuum-free synthesis of anti-fouling membranes. Several new high-performing chemistries comprising two polyethylene glycol (PEG), two amines and one zwitterionic monomers were identified from a library (44 commercial monomers) of five different classes of monomers as strong protein-resistant monomers. Combining our analysis here, using the Hansen solubility parameters (HSP) approach, and data from the literature, we conclude that strong interactions with water (hydrogen bonding) and surface flexibility are necessary for producing the highest protein resistance. Superior protein-resistant surfaces and subsequent anti-fouling performance was obtained with the HTP-APP as compared with our earlier HTP-photo graft-induced polymerization (PGP).

  1. Hypercellularity Components of Glioblastoma Identified by High b-Value Diffusion-Weighted Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pramanik, Priyanka P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Parmar, Hemant A. [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Mammoser, Aaron G.; Junck, Larry R. [Department of Neurology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Kim, Michelle M.; Tsien, Christina I.; Lawrence, Theodore S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Cao, Yue, E-mail: yuecao@med.umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: Use of conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for target definition may expose glioblastomas (GB) to inadequate radiation dose coverage of the nonenhanced hypercellular subvolume. This study aimed to develop a technique to identify the hypercellular components of GB by using high b-value diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and to investigate its relationship with the prescribed 95% isodose volume (PDV) and progression-free survival (PFS). Methods and Materials: Twenty-one patients with GB underwent chemoradiation therapy post-resection and biopsy. Radiation therapy (RT) treatment planning was based upon conventional MRI. Pre-RT DWIs were acquired in 3 orthogonal directions with b-values of 0, 1000, and 3000 s/mm{sup 2}. Hypercellularity volume (HCV) was defined on the high b-value (3000 s/mm{sup 2}) DWI by a threshold method. Nonenhanced signified regions not covered by the Gd-enhanced gross tumor volume (GTV-Gd) on T1-weighted images. The PDV was used to evaluate spatial coverage of the HCV by the dose plan. Association between HCV and PFS or other clinical covariates were assessed using univariate proportional hazards regression models. Results: HCVs and nonenhanced HCVs varied from 0.58 to 67 cm{sup 3} (median: 9.8 cm{sup 3}) and 0.15 to 60 cm{sup 3} (median: 2.5 cm{sup 3}), respectively. Fourteen patients had incomplete dose coverage of the HCV, 6 of whom had >1 cm{sup 3} HCV missed by the 95% PDV (range: 1.01-25.4 cm{sup 3}). Of the 15 patients who progressed, 5 progressed earlier, within 6 months post-RT, and 10 patients afterward. Pre-RT HCVs within recurrent GTVs-Gd were 78% (range: 65%-89%) for the 5 earliest progressions but lower, 53% (range: 0%-85%), for the later progressions. HCV and nonenhanced HCV were significant negative prognostic indicators for PFS (P<.002 and P<.01, respectively). The hypercellularity subvolume not covered by the 95% PDV was a significant negative predictor for PFS (P<.05). Conclusions: High b-value DWI

  2. High Energy Astrophysics with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the findings of the Large Area Telescope (LAT) aboard the Fermi Observatory. It includes information about the LAT, and the Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GBM), detection of the quiet sun and the moon in gamma rays, Pulsars observed by the observatory, Globular Star Clusters, Active Galactic Nucleus, and Gamma-Ray Bursts, with specific information about GRB 080916C.

  3. HIgh-Latitude Neutral Hydrogen Shells identified in GALFA-HI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallmen, Shauna; Taylor, Rebecca; Korpela, Eric J.; Goldston Peek, Joshua Eli; Babler, Brian

    2017-08-01

    Supernovae and stellar winds are important processes in the development and evolution of galaxies. Due to these effects in generations of stars, the interstellar medium (ISM) is turbulent, multiphase, and filled with complex interacting structures. HI (neutral hydrogen) shells are formed when hot, expanding bubbles sweep up shells of neutral material. These shells gradually cool, slow down, and mix with the surrounding interstellar material, but we still lack a complete, detailed picture of the physical state and evolution of gas in our Galaxy's ISM. Studies of numerous shells at different stages of evolution are needed, but biases in search techniques and limitations of data quality and coverage have hindered our efforts. The Galactic Arecibo L-band Feed Array (GALFA) 21-cm survey of the Arecibo sky provides have uniquely high angular resolution except within a few degrees of the Galactic plane. A visual search of these data can therefore identify new structures with small angular diameter at high Galactic latitudes, at all stages of evolution. We present the results of a partial search of these data, focusing on high Galactic latitudes. For each potential shell, the location, velocity, angular size, and velocity range were determined, as well as estimates of the shell wall completeness and persistence of shell completeness, shape, and location across its velocity range. To date, we have identified over 100 potential new shells, ranging in size from 0.1 to 4.5 degrees. Approximately 2/3 of these are smaller than 2 degrees in diameter, a size range that was significantly underrepresented in previous searches. The statistical properties of these newly found shells will be presented, along with details on selected examples.

  4. High-risk carotid plaques identified by CT-angiogram can predict acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosleh, Wassim; Adib, Keenan; Natdanai, Punnanithinont; Carmona-Rubio, Andres; Karki, Roshan; Paily, Jacienta; Ahmed, Mohamed Abdel-Aal; Vakkalanka, Sujit; Madam, Narasa; Gudleski, Gregory D; Chung, Charles; Sharma, Umesh C

    2016-11-19

    Prior studies identified the incremental value of non-invasive imaging by CT-angiogram (CTA) to detect high-risk coronary atherosclerotic plaques. Due to their superficial locations, larger calibers and motion-free imaging, the carotid arteries provide the best anatomic access for the non-invasive characterization of atherosclerotic plaques. We aim to assess the ability of predicting obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) or acute myocardial infarction (MI) based on high-risk carotid plaque features identified by CTA. We retrospectively examined carotid CTAs of 492 patients that presented with acute stroke to characterize the atherosclerotic plaques of the carotid arteries and examined development of acute MI and obstructive CAD within 12-months. Carotid lesions were defined in terms of calcifications (large or speckled), presence of low-attenuation plaques, positive remodeling, and presence of napkin ring sign. Adjusted relative risks were calculated for each plaque features. Patients with speckled (<3 mm) calcifications and/or larger calcifications on CTA had a higher risk of developing an MI and/or obstructive CAD within 1 year compared to patients without (adjusted RR of 7.51, 95%CI 1.26-73.42, P = 0.001). Patients with low-attenuation plaques on CTA had a higher risk of developing an MI and/or obstructive CAD within 1 year than patients without (adjusted RR of 2.73, 95%CI 1.19-8.50, P = 0.021). Presence of carotid calcifications and low-attenuation plaques also portended higher sensitivity (100 and 79.17%, respectively) for the development of acute MI. Presence of carotid calcifications and low-attenuation plaques can predict the risk of developing acute MI and/or obstructive CAD within 12-months. Given their high sensitivity, their absence can reliably exclude 12-month events.

  5. Quantitative high-throughput screen identifies inhibitors of the Schistosoma mansoni redox cascade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Simeonov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a tropical disease associated with high morbidity and mortality, currently affecting over 200 million people worldwide. Praziquantel is the only drug used to treat the disease, and with its increased use the probability of developing drug resistance has grown significantly. The Schistosoma parasites can survive for up to decades in the human host due in part to a unique set of antioxidant enzymes that continuously degrade the reactive oxygen species produced by the host's innate immune response. Two principal components of this defense system have been recently identified in S. mansoni as thioredoxin/glutathione reductase (TGR and peroxiredoxin (Prx and as such these enzymes present attractive new targets for anti-schistosomiasis drug development. Inhibition of TGR/Prx activity was screened in a dual-enzyme format with reducing equivalents being transferred from NADPH to glutathione via a TGR-catalyzed reaction and then to hydrogen peroxide via a Prx-catalyzed step. A fully automated quantitative high-throughput (qHTS experiment was performed against a collection of 71,028 compounds tested as 7- to 15-point concentration series at 5 microL reaction volume in 1536-well plate format. In order to generate a robust data set and to minimize the effect of compound autofluorescence, apparent reaction rates derived from a kinetic read were utilized instead of end-point measurements. Actives identified from the screen, along with previously untested analogues, were subjected to confirmatory experiments using the screening assay and subsequently against the individual targets in secondary assays. Several novel active series were identified which inhibited TGR at a range of potencies, with IC(50s ranging from micromolar to the assay response limit ( approximately 25 nM. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of a large-scale HTS to identify lead compounds for a helminthic disease, and provides a paradigm that can be used to jump

  6. [Fever monitoring program in areas with high incidence of typhoid and paratyphoid fever in Guizhou province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Guang-hai; Tang, Guang-peng; Tian, Ke-cheng; Zhang, Jing; Sun, Jun-ling; Wang, Zi-jun; Jiang, You-qin; Zhao, Qi-liang; Chen, Xue; Chen, Shao-fen; Liu, Ming-qiang; Lu, Rong; Li, Ming; Wang, Ding-ming

    2013-03-01

    To understand the incidence rates of both typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever in the high prevalent areas of Guizhou province so as to provide evidence for the development of programs on comprehensive intervention and effectiveness evaluation. Six townships in Pingba county were selected as intervention areas while six townships in Kaiyang county were taken as control. All hospitals and clinics were classified into A, B and C types according to its level and the capacity of the blood culture. Surveillance on typhoid and paratyphoid fever was conducted based on all population and all hospitals, clinics and county CDCs among the patients with unknown fever. In the surveillance area in those two counties, there were 12 944 blood samples from patients with unknown fever which have been tested and cultured. Among them, 200 strains of Salmonella including 16 typhoid strains, 184 paratyphoid A strains were identified, with the total positive rate as 1.55%. The positive rate before the intervention program was higher than the after. The detection rate was 1.91% in the type A hospitals. 39 strains of Salmonella have been cultured from 2039 samples which accounting for 19.50% (39/200) of the total strains. 4315 blood samples were cultured at the 'Class B' sites which isolated 82 strains of Salmonella, accounting for 41.00% (82/200), with a detection rate as 1.90%. 6590 samples were cultured at the 'Class C' sites, which identified 79 strains of Salmonella, accounting for 39.50% (79/200), with a detection rate as 1.20%. The detection rate was much higher before the use of antibiotics than after using them (P typhoid and paratyphoid fever were not typical. Typhoid and paratyphoid monitoring programs which covered primary health care institutions in the high incidence area seemed to be effective in reflecting the pictures as well as the burden of both typhoid and paratyphoid.

  7. A High-Resolution Aeromagnetic Survey to Identify Buried Faults at Dixie Valley, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Richard Paul; Grauch, V. J. S.; Blackwell, David D.

    2002-09-01

    Preliminary results from a high-resolution aeromagnetic survey (200m line spacing) acquired in Dixie Valley early in 2002 provide confirmation of intra-basin faulting based on subtle surface indications. In addition the data allow identification of the locations and trends of many faults that have not been recognized at the surface, and provide a picture of intrabasin faulting patterns not possible using other techniques. The data reveal a suite of northeasterly-trending curving and branching faults that surround a relatively coherent block in the area of Humboldt Salt Marsh, the deepest part of the basin. The producing reservoir occurs at the north end of this coherent block, where rampart faults from the northwest side of the valley merge with anthithetic faults from the central and southeast parts of the valley.

  8. Method for the preparation of high surface area high permeability carbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagasse, R.R.; Schroeder, J.L.

    1999-05-11

    A method for preparing carbon materials having high surface area and high macropore volume to provide high permeability. These carbon materials are prepared by dissolving a carbonizable polymer precursor, in a solvent. The solution is cooled to form a gel. The solvent is extracted from the gel by employing a non-solvent for the polymer. The non-solvent is removed by critical point drying in CO{sub 2} at an elevated pressure and temperature or evaporation in a vacuum oven. The dried product is heated in an inert atmosphere in a first heating step to a first temperature and maintained there for a time sufficient to substantially cross-link the polymer material. The cross-linked polymer material is then carbonized in an inert atmosphere. 3 figs.

  9. Method for the preparation of high surface area high permeability carbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagasse, Robert R. (Albuquerque, NM); Schroeder, John L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1999-05-11

    A method for preparing carbon materials having high surface area and high macropore volume to provide high permeability. These carbon materials are prepared by dissolving a carbonizable polymer precursor, in a solvent. The solution is cooled to form a gel. The solvent is extracted from the gel by employing a non-solvent for the polymer. The non-solvent is removed by critical point drying in CO.sub.2 at an elevated pressure and temperature or evaporation in a vacuum oven. The dried product is heated in an inert atmosphere in a first heating step to a first temperature and maintained there for a time sufficient to substantially cross-link the polymer material. The cross-linked polymer material is then carbonized in an inert atmosphere.

  10. High-throughput bacterial SNP typing identifies distinct clusters of Salmonella Typhi causing typhoid in Nepalese children

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Holt, Kathryn E

    2010-05-31

    Abstract Background Salmonella Typhi (S. Typhi) causes typhoid fever, which remains an important public health issue in many developing countries. Kathmandu, the capital of Nepal, is an area of high incidence and the pediatric population appears to be at high risk of exposure and infection. Methods We recently defined the population structure of S. Typhi, using new sequencing technologies to identify nearly 2,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that can be used as unequivocal phylogenetic markers. Here we have used the GoldenGate (Illumina) platform to simultaneously type 1,500 of these SNPs in 62 S. Typhi isolates causing severe typhoid in children admitted to Patan Hospital in Kathmandu. Results Eight distinct S. Typhi haplotypes were identified during the 20-month study period, with 68% of isolates belonging to a subclone of the previously defined H58 S. Typhi. This subclone was closely associated with resistance to nalidixic acid, with all isolates from this group demonstrating a resistant phenotype and harbouring the same resistance-associated SNP in GyrA (Phe83). A secondary clone, comprising 19% of isolates, was observed only during the second half of the study. Conclusions Our data demonstrate the utility of SNP typing for monitoring bacterial populations over a defined period in a single endemic setting. We provide evidence for genotype introduction and define a nalidixic acid resistant subclone of S. Typhi, which appears to be the dominant cause of severe pediatric typhoid in Kathmandu during the study period.

  11. Prospective validation of text categorization filters for identifying high-quality, content-specific articles in MEDLINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aphinyanaphongs, Yindalon; Aliferis, Constantin

    2006-01-01

    In prior work, we introduced a machine learning method to identify high quality MEDLINE documents in internal medicine. The performance of the original filter models built with this corpus on years outside 1998-2000 was not assessed directly. Validating the performance of the original filter models on current corpora is crucial to validate them for use in current years, to verify that the model fitting and model error estimation procedures do not over-fit the models, and to validate consistency of the chosen ACPJ gold standard (i.e., that ACPJ editorial policies and criteria are stable over time). Our prospective validation results indicated that in the categories of treatment, etiology, diagnosis, and prognosis, the original machine learning filter models built from the 1998-2000 corpora maintained their discriminatory performance of 0.97, 0.97, 0.94, and 0.94 area under the curve in each respective category when applied to a 2005 corpus. The ACPJ is a stable, reliable gold standard and the machine learning methodology provides robust models and model performance estimates. Machine learning filter models built with 1998-2000 corpora can be applied to identify high quality articles in recent years.

  12. A Class of High-affinity Bicyclooctane G551D-CFTR Activators Identified by High Throughput Screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Cheng-yan; ZHAO Lu; LIU Yan-li; XU Li-na; SHANG De-jing; YANG Hong

    2004-01-01

    The glycine-to-aspartic acid missense mutation at the codon 551(G551D) of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator(CFTR) is one of the five most frequent cystic fibrosis(CF) mutations associated with a severe CF phenotype. To explore the feasibility of pharmacological correction of disrupted activation of CFTR chloride channel caused by G551D mutation, we developed a halide-sensitive fluorescence miniassay for G551D-CFTR in Fisher rat thyroid(FRT) epithelial cells for the discovery of novel activators of G551D-CFTR. A class of bicyclooctane small molecule compounds that efficiently stimulate G551D-CFTR chloride channel activity was identified by high throughput screening via the FRT cell-based assay. This class of compounds selectively activates G551D-CFTR with a high affinity, whereas little effect of the compounds on wildtype CFTR can be seen. The discovery of a class of bicyclooctane G551D-CFTR activators will permit the analysis of structure-activity relationship of the compounds to identify ideal leads for in vivo therapeutic studies.

  13. Using very high resolution satellite images to identify coastal zone dynamics at North Western Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florin Zoran, Liviu; Ionescu Golovanov, Carmen; Zoran, Maria

    2010-05-01

    The availability of updated information about the extension and characteristics of land cover is a crucial issue in the perspective of a correct landscape planning and management of marine coastal zones. Satellite remote sensing data can provide accurate information about land coverage at different scales and the recent availability of very high resolution images definitely improved the precision of coastal zone spatio-temporal changes. The Romanian North Western coastal and shelf zones of the Black Sea and Danube delta are a mosaic of complex, interacting ecosystems, rich natural resources and socio-economic activity. Dramatic changes in the Black Sea's ecosystem and resources are due to natural and anthropogenic causes (increase in the nutrient and pollutant load of rivers input, industrial and municipal wastewater pollution along the coast, and dumping on the open sea). A scientific management system for protection, conservation and restoration must be based on reliable information on bio-geophysical and geomorphologic processes, coastal erosion, sedimentation dynamics, mapping of macrophyte fields, water quality, and climatic change effects. Use of satellite images is of great help for coastal zone monitoring and environmental impact assessment. Synergetic use of in situ measurements with multisensors satellite data could provide a complex assessment of spatio-temporal changes. In this study was developed a method for extracting coastal zone features information as well as landcover dynamics from IKONOS, very high resolution images for North-Western Black Sea marine coastal zone. The main objective was obtaining reliable data about the spatio-temporal coastal zone changes in two study areas located in Constanta urban area and Danube Delta area. We used an object-oriented approach based on preliminary segmentation and classification of the resulting object. First of all, segmentation parameters were tested and selected comparing segmented polygons with

  14. Potential High-Temperature Shape-Memory Alloys Identified in the Ti(Ni,Pt) System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noebe, Ronald D.; Biles, Tiffany A.; Garg, Anita; Nathal, Michael V.

    2004-01-01

    "Shape memory" is a unique property of certain alloys that, when deformed (within certain strain limits) at low temperatures, will remember and recover to their original predeformed shape upon heating. It occurs when an alloy is deformed in the low-temperature martensitic phase and is then heated above its transformation temperature back to an austenitic state. As the material passes through this solid-state phase transformation on heating, it also recovers its original shape. This behavior is widely exploited, near room temperature, in commercially available NiTi alloys for connectors, couplings, valves, actuators, stents, and other medical and dental devices. In addition, there are limitless applications in the aerospace, automotive, chemical processing, and many other industries for materials that exhibit this type of shape-memory behavior at higher temperatures. But for high temperatures, there are currently no commercial shape-memory alloys. Although there are significant challenges to the development of high-temperature shape-memory alloys, at the NASA Glenn Research Center we have identified a series of alloy compositions in the Ti-Ni-Pt system that show great promise as potential high-temperature shape-memory materials.

  15. Evaluation of approaches for identifying population informative markers from high density SNP Chips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKay Stephanie D

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic markers can be used to identify and verify the origin of individuals. Motivation for the inference of ancestry ranges from conservation genetics to forensic analysis. High density assays featuring Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP markers can be exploited to create a reduced panel containing the most informative markers for these purposes. The objectives of this study were to evaluate methods of marker selection and determine the minimum number of markers from the BovineSNP50 BeadChip required to verify the origin of individuals in European cattle breeds. Delta, Wright's FST, Weir & Cockerham's FST and PCA methods for population differentiation were compared. The level of informativeness of each SNP was estimated from the breed specific allele frequencies. Individual assignment analysis was performed using the ranked informative markers. Stringency levels were applied by log-likelihood ratio to assess the confidence of the assignment test. Results A 95% assignment success rate for the 384 individually genotyped animals was achieved with ST (60 to 140 SNPs depending on the chosen degree of confidence. Certain breeds required fewer markers ( 95% assignment success. The power of assignment success, and therefore the number of SNP markers required, is dependent on the levels of genetic heterogeneity and pool of samples considered. Conclusions While all SNP selection methods produced marker panels capable of breed identification, the power of assignment varied markedly among analysis methods. Thus, with effective exploration of available high density genetic markers, a diagnostic panel of highly informative markers can be produced.

  16. Application of (13)C flux analysis to identify high-productivity CHO metabolic phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Neil; Smith, Kevin D; McAtee-Pereira, Allison G; Dorai, Haimanti; Betenbaugh, Michael J; Lang, Steven E; Young, Jamey D

    2017-01-23

    Industrial bioprocesses place high demands on the energy metabolism of host cells to meet biosynthetic requirements for maximal protein expression. Identifying metabolic phenotypes that promote high expression is therefore a major goal of the biotech industry. We conducted a series of (13)C flux analysis studies to examine the metabolic response to IgG expression during early stationary phase of CHO cell cultures grown in 3L fed-batch bioreactors. We examined eight clones expressing four different IgGs and compared with three non-expressing host-cell controls. Some clones were genetically manipulated to be apoptosis-resistant by expressing Bcl-2Δ, which correlated with increased IgG production and elevated glucose metabolism. The metabolic phenotypes of the non-expressing, IgG-expressing, and Bcl-2Δ/IgG-expressing clones were fully segregated by hierarchical clustering analysis. Lactate consumption and citric acid cycle fluxes were most strongly associated with specific IgG productivity. These studies indicate that enhanced oxidative metabolism is a characteristic of high-producing CHO cell lines.

  17. Nosocomial infections in brazilian pediatric patients: using a decision tree to identify high mortality groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia M.M. Lopes

    Full Text Available Nosocomial infections (NI are frequent events with potentially lethal outcomes. We identified predictive factors for mortality related to NI and developed an algorithm for predicting that risk in order to improve hospital epidemiology and healthcare quality programs. We made a prospective cohort NI surveillance of all acute-care patients according to the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System guidelines since 1992, applying the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 1988 definitions adapted to a Brazilian pediatric hospital. Thirty-eight deaths considered to be related to NI were analyzed as the outcome variable for 754 patients with NI, whose survival time was taken into consideration. The predictive factors for mortality related to NI (p < 0.05 in the Cox regression model were: invasive procedures and use of two or more antibiotics. The mean survival time was significantly shorter (p < 0.05 with the Kaplan-Meier method for patients who suffered invasive procedures and for those who received two or more antibiotics. Applying a tree-structured survival analysis (TSSA, two groups with high mortality rates were identified: one group with time from admission to the first NI less than 11 days, received two or more antibiotics and suffered invasive procedures; the other group had the first NI between 12 and 22 days after admission and was subjected to invasive procedures. The possible modifiable factors to prevent mortality involve invasive devices and antibiotics. The TSSA approach is helpful to identify combinations of predictors and to guide protective actions to be taken in continuous-quality-improvement programs.

  18. Nosocomial infections in brazilian pediatric patients: using a decision tree to identify high mortality groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia M.M. Lopes

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Nosocomial infections (NI are frequent events with potentially lethal outcomes. We identified predictive factors for mortality related to NI and developed an algorithm for predicting that risk in order to improve hospital epidemiology and healthcare quality programs. We made a prospective cohort NI surveillance of all acute-care patients according to the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System guidelines since 1992, applying the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 1988 definitions adapted to a Brazilian pediatric hospital. Thirty-eight deaths considered to be related to NI were analyzed as the outcome variable for 754 patients with NI, whose survival time was taken into consideration. The predictive factors for mortality related to NI (p < 0.05 in the Cox regression model were: invasive procedures and use of two or more antibiotics. The mean survival time was significantly shorter (p < 0.05 with the Kaplan-Meier method for patients who suffered invasive procedures and for those who received two or more antibiotics. Applying a tree-structured survival analysis (TSSA, two groups with high mortality rates were identified: one group with time from admission to the first NI less than 11 days, received two or more antibiotics and suffered invasive procedures; the other group had the first NI between 12 and 22 days after admission and was subjected to invasive procedures. The possible modifiable factors to prevent mortality involve invasive devices and antibiotics. The TSSA approach is helpful to identify combinations of predictors and to guide protective actions to be taken in continuous-quality-improvement programs.

  19. Large-Area High Aspect Ratio Plasmonic Interference Lithography Utilizing a Single High-k Mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Yang, Fan; Zhang, Cheng; Zhou, Jing; Guo, L Jay

    2016-04-26

    Plasmonic lithography, which utilizes subwavelength confinement of surface plasmon polartion (SPP) waves, has the capability of breaking the diffraction limit and delivering high resolution. However, all previously reported results suffer from critical issues, such as shallow pattern depth and pattern nonuniformity even over small exposure areas, which limit the application of the technology. In this work, periodic patterns with high aspect ratios and a half-pitch of about 1/6 of the wavelength were achieved with pattern uniformity in square centimeter areas. This was accomplished by designing a special mask and photoresist (PR) system to select a single high spatial frequency mode and incorporating the PR into a waveguide configuration to ensure uniform light exposure over the entire depth of the photoresist layer. In addition to the experimental progress toward large-scale applications of plasmonic interference lithography, the general criteria of designing such an exposure system is also discussed, which can be used for nanoscale fabrication in this fashion for various applications with different requirements for wavelength, pitch, aspect ratio, and structure.

  20. High Resolution Orthoimagery = Orthorectified Metro Areas: 2000 - Present

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — High resolution orthorectified images combine the image characteristics of an aerial photograph with the geometric qualities of a map. An orthoimage is a...

  1. Prevalence and factors associated with Leishmania infantum infection of dogs from an urban area of Brazil as identified by molecular methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendel Coura-Vital

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Various factors contribute to the urbanization of the visceral leishmaniasis (VL, including the difficulties of implementing control measures relating to the domestic reservoir. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of canine visceral leishmaniasis in an urban endemic area in Brazil and the factors associated with Leishmania infantum infection among seronegative and PCR-positive dogs. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Blood samples were collected from 1,443 dogs. Serology was carried out by using two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (Biomanguinhos/FIOCRUZ/RJ and "in house", and molecular methods were developed, including PCR-RFLP. To identify the factors associated with early stages of infection, only seronegative (n = 1,213 animals were evaluated. These animals were divided into two groups: PCR-positive (n = 296 and PCR-negative (n = 917 for L. infantum DNA. A comparison of these two groups of dogs taking into consideration the characteristics of the animals and their owners was performed. A mixed logistic regression model was used to identify factors associated with L. infantum infection. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Of the 1,443 dogs examined, 230 (15.9% were seropositive in at least one ELISA, whereas PCR-RFLP revealed that 356 animals (24.7% were positive for L. infantum DNA. Results indicated that the associated factors with infection were family incomehigh prevalence of L. infantum infection in dogs in an area under the Control Program of VL intervention. Socioeconomic variables, dog behavior and the knowledge of the owner regarding the vector were

  2. High Yield Chemical Vapor Deposition Growth of High Quality Large-Area AB Stacked Bilayer Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lixin; Zhou, Hailong; Cheng, Rui; Yu, Woo Jong; Liu, Yuan; Chen, Yu; Shaw, Jonathan; Zhong, Xing; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2012-01-01

    Bernal stacked (AB stacked) bilayer graphene is of significant interest for functional electronic and photonic devices due to the feasibility to continuously tune its band gap with a vertical electrical field. Mechanical exfoliation can be used to produce AB stacked bilayer graphene flakes but typically with the sizes limited to a few micrometers. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has been recently explored for the synthesis of bilayer graphene but usually with limited coverage and a mixture of AB and randomly stacked structures. Herein we report a rational approach to produce large-area high quality AB stacked bilayer graphene. We show that the self-limiting effect of graphene growth on Cu foil can be broken by using a high H2/CH4 ratio in a low pressure CVD process to enable the continued growth of bilayer graphene. A high temperature and low pressure nucleation step is found to be critical for the formation of bilayer graphene nuclei with high AB stacking ratio. A rational design of a two-step CVD process is developed for the growth of bilayer graphene with high AB stacking ratio (up to 90 %) and high coverage (up to 99 %). The electrical transport studies demonstrated that devices made of the as-grown bilayer graphene exhibit typical characteristics of AB stacked bilayer graphene with the highest carrier mobility exceeding 4,000 cm2/V·s at room temperature, comparable to that of the exfoliated bilayer graphene. PMID:22906199

  3. High Resolution Marine Magnetic Survey of Shallow Water Littoral Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Sharvit

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present a system developed for detection andaccurate mapping of ferro-metallic objects buried below the seabed in shallow waters. Thesystem comprises a precise magnetic gradiometer and navigation subsystem, both installedon a non-magnetic catamaran towed by a low-magnetic interfering boat. In addition wepresent the results of a marine survey of a near-shore area in the vicinity of Atlit, a townsituated on the Mediterranean coast of Israel, about 15 km south of Haifa. The primarypurpose of the survey was to search for a Harvard airplane that crashed into the sea in 1960.A magnetic map of the survey area (3.5 km2 on a 0.5 m grid was created revealing theanomalies at sub-meter accuracy. For each investigated target location a correspondingferro-metallic item was dug out, one of which turned to be very similar to a part of thecrashed airplane. The accuracy of location was confirmed by matching the position of theactual dug artifacts with the magnetic map within a range of ± 1 m, in a water depth of 9 m.

  4. Data sources on landscape structure in a highly industrialized area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazurek Kinga

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Landscape may be described as a part of space characterized by a certain physiognomy, which is a dynamic system subject to evolution. An important factor influencing the type and condition of the landscape is human activity which shapes or rebuilds its structure. Interesting results may be obtained on comparison of archival cartographic materials with contemporary studies and zoning plans. The Upper Silesian Coal Basin is a region with a clearly transformed landscape. The determinant of the geographical environment transformation here is the anthropogenic factor. The study area includes the upper part of the Kłodnica catchment (229.6 sq km. The study is a review, and its aim is to systematize data sources used in the research on the transformation of landscape structure of a heavily industrialized area. In the first half of the nineteenth century created the "Urmesstischblätter" in the scale of 1:25 000. Afterwards preparations began to take new topographic images of the country (the "Messtischblätter". In the 1990s initiated the development of a new topographic map (in the scale of 1:10 000. Recent data source is for example the project CORINE Land Cover 2006. There are many of various sources of data on land cover. An important aspect is the proper selection of documents and maps, and their proper interpretation.

  5. High Energy Wide Area Blunt Impact on Composite Aircraft Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFrancisci, Gabriela K.

    The largest source of damage to commercial aircraft is caused by accidental contact with ground service equipment (GSE). The cylindrical bumper typically found on GSE distributes the impact load over a large contact area, possibly spanning multiple internal structural elements (frame bays) of a stiffened-skin fuselage. This type of impact can lead to damage that is widespread and difficult to detect visually. To address this problem, monolithic composite panels of various size and complexity have been modeled and tested quasi-statically and dynamically. The experimental observations have established that detectability is dependent on the impact location and immediately-adjacent internal structure of the panel, as well as the impactor geometry and total deformation of the panel. A methodology to model and predict damage caused by wide area blunt impact events was established, which was then applied to more general cases that were not tested in order to better understand the nature of this type of impact event and how it relates to the final damage state and visual detectability.

  6. Corifungin, a new drug lead against Naegleria, identified from a high-throughput screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Anjan; Tunac, Josefino B; Galindo-Gómez, Silvia; Silva-Olivares, Angélica; Shibayama, Mineko; McKerrow, James H

    2012-11-01

    Primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) is a rapidly fatal infection caused by the free-living ameba Naegleria fowleri. The drug of choice in treating PAM is the antifungal antibiotic amphotericin B, but its use is associated with severe adverse effects. Moreover, few patients treated with amphotericin B have survived PAM. Therefore, fast-acting and efficient drugs are urgently needed for the treatment of PAM. To facilitate drug screening for this pathogen, an automated, high-throughput screening methodology was developed and validated for the closely related species Naegleria gruberi. Five kinase inhibitors and an NF-kappaB inhibitor were hits identified in primary screens of three compound libraries. Most importantly for a preclinical drug discovery pipeline, we identified corifungin, a water-soluble polyene macrolide with a higher activity against Naegleria than that of amphotericin B. Transmission electron microscopy of N. fowleri trophozoites incubated with different concentrations of corifungin showed disruption of cytoplasmic and plasma membranes and alterations in mitochondria, followed by complete lysis of amebae. In vivo efficacy of corifungin in a mouse model of PAM was confirmed by an absence of detectable amebae in the brain and 100% survival of mice for 17 days postinfection for a single daily intraperitoneal dose of 9 mg/kg of body weight given for 10 days. The same dose of amphotericin B did not reduce ameba growth, and mouse survival was compromised. Based on these results, the U.S. FDA has approved orphan drug status for corifungin for the treatment of PAM.

  7. Automated neural network classifiers for identifying micrometastases in peripheral blood via high-throughput microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustin, Ramses M.; Azimi, Behrad; Price, Jeffrey H.

    2007-02-01

    Tissue-specific biomarkers have been studied to identify micrometastases in bone marrow and/or peripheral blood. Many studies, however, have shown conflicting results for sensitivity and specificity of detection, forestalling translation of these findings into routine clinical use for prognosis or diagnosis. Genetic instability and heterogeneity of cancers may make using an absolute set of differential expression markers difficult, if not impossible, for accurate detection of rare cancer cells via a simple blood test. The literature is rich with examples of pathologists using morphology to identify cancer in tissue sections. We hypothesize that morphological features based on fluorescent staining of common subcellular compartments, in particular, the nucleus, may be useful for detection and classification. Highthroughput/ high-content image cytometry and computer-automated classification can aid pathologists to find suspicious cells, independent of biomarkers. Feature data are collected from an in vitro spiked model of breast cancer in the circulation; prestaining with CellTracker Orange creates a gold standard for assessing cancer origin. A neural network classifier is designed using seven nuclear morphology features thought a priori to be important for classification. With adequate training data, sensitive and specific detection may be achieved. Neural networks may be robustly trained to assist pathologists in detecting a wide variety of cancers.

  8. Identifying and quantifying heterogeneity in high content analysis: application of heterogeneity indices to drug discovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert H Gough

    Full Text Available One of the greatest challenges in biomedical research, drug discovery and diagnostics is understanding how seemingly identical cells can respond differently to perturbagens including drugs for disease treatment. Although heterogeneity has become an accepted characteristic of a population of cells, in drug discovery it is not routinely evaluated or reported. The standard practice for cell-based, high content assays has been to assume a normal distribution and to report a well-to-well average value with a standard deviation. To address this important issue we sought to define a method that could be readily implemented to identify, quantify and characterize heterogeneity in cellular and small organism assays to guide decisions during drug discovery and experimental cell/tissue profiling. Our study revealed that heterogeneity can be effectively identified and quantified with three indices that indicate diversity, non-normality and percent outliers. The indices were evaluated using the induction and inhibition of STAT3 activation in five cell lines where the systems response including sample preparation and instrument performance were well characterized and controlled. These heterogeneity indices provide a standardized method that can easily be integrated into small and large scale screening or profiling projects to guide interpretation of the biology, as well as the development of therapeutics and diagnostics. Understanding the heterogeneity in the response to perturbagens will become a critical factor in designing strategies for the development of therapeutics including targeted polypharmacology.

  9. Identifying the 'inorganic gene' for high-temperature piezoelectric perovskites through statistical learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, Prasanna V; Broderick, Scott R; Rajan, Krishna

    2011-08-01

    This paper develops a statistical learning approach to identify potentially new high-temperature ferroelectric piezoelectric perovskite compounds. Unlike most computational studies on crystal chemistry, where the starting point is some form of electronic structure calculation, we use a data-driven approach to initiate our search. This is accomplished by identifying patterns of behaviour between discrete scalar descriptors associated with crystal and electronic structure and the reported Curie temperature (TC) of known compounds; extracting design rules that govern critical structure-property relationships; and discovering in a quantitative fashion the exact role of these materials descriptors. Our approach applies linear manifold methods for data dimensionality reduction to discover the dominant descriptors governing structure-property correlations (the 'genes') and Shannon entropy metrics coupled to recursive partitioning methods to quantitatively assess the specific combination of descriptors that govern the link between crystal chemistry and TC (their 'sequencing'). We use this information to develop predictive models that can suggest new structure/chemistries and/or properties. In this manner, BiTmO3-PbTiO3 and BiLuO3-PbTiO3 are predicted to have a TC of 730(°)C and 705(°)C, respectively. A quantitative structure-property relationship model similar to those used in biology and drug discovery not only predicts our new chemistries but also validates published reports.

  10. Accuracy of the high-throughput amplicon sequencing to identify species within the genus Aspergillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungeun; Yamamoto, Naomichi

    2015-12-01

    This study characterized the accuracy of high-throughput amplicon sequencing to identify species within the genus Aspergillus. To this end, we sequenced the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1), β-tubulin (BenA), and calmodulin (CaM) gene encoding sequences as DNA markers from eight reference Aspergillus strains with known identities using 300-bp sequencing on the Illumina MiSeq platform, and compared them with the BLASTn outputs. The identifications with the sequences longer than 250 bp were accurate at the section rank, with some ambiguities observed at the species rank due to mostly cross detection of sibling species. Additionally, in silico analysis was performed to predict the identification accuracy for all species in the genus Aspergillus, where 107, 210, and 187 species were predicted to be identifiable down to the species rank based on ITS1, BenA, and CaM, respectively. Finally, air filter samples were analysed to quantify the relative abundances of Aspergillus species in outdoor air. The results were reproducible across biological duplicates both at the species and section ranks, but not strongly correlated between ITS1 and BenA, suggesting the Aspergillus detection can be taxonomically biased depending on the selection of the DNA markers and/or primers.

  11. Using high frequency consumption data to identify demand response potential for solar energy integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, L.; Borgeson, S.; Fredman, D.; Hans, L.; Spurlock, A.; Todd, A.

    2015-12-01

    California's renewable portfolio standard (2012) requires the state to get 33% of its electricity from renewable sources by 2020. Increased share of variable renewable sources such as solar and wind in the California electricity system may require more grid flexibility to insure reliable power services. Such grid flexibility can be potentially provided by changes in end use electricity consumptions in response to grid conditions (demand-response). In the solar case, residential consumption in the late afternoon can be used as reserve capacity to balance the drop in solar generation. This study presents our initial attempt to identify, from a behavior perspective, residential demand response potentials in relation to solar ramp events using a data-driven approach. Based on hourly residential energy consumption data, we derive representative daily load shapes focusing on discretionary consumption with an innovative clustering analysis technique. We aggregate the representative load shapes into behavior groups in terms of the timing and rhythm of energy use in the context of solar ramp events. Households of different behavior groups that are active during hours with high solar ramp rates are identified for capturing demand response potential. Insights into the nature and predictability of response to demand-response programs are provided.

  12. A p53 drug response signature identifies prognostic genes in high-risk neuroblastoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveline Barbieri

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy induces apoptosis and tumor regression primarily through activation of p53-mediated transcription. Neuroblastoma is a p53 wild type malignancy at diagnosis and repression of p53 signaling plays an important role in its pathogenesis. Recently developed small molecule inhibitors of the MDM2-p53 interaction are able to overcome this repression and potently activate p53 dependent apoptosis in malignancies with intact p53 downstream signaling. We used the small molecule MDM2 inhibitor, Nutlin-3a, to determine the p53 drug response signature in neuroblastoma cells. In addition to p53 mediated apoptotic signatures, GSEA and pathway analysis identified a set of p53-repressed genes that were reciprocally over-expressed in neuroblastoma patients with the worst overall outcome in multiple clinical cohorts. Multifactorial regression analysis identified a subset of four genes (CHAF1A, RRM2, MCM3, and MCM6 whose expression together strongly predicted overall and event-free survival (p<0.0001. The expression of these four genes was then validated by quantitative PCR in a large independent clinical cohort. Our findings further support the concept that oncogene-driven transcriptional networks opposing p53 activation are essential for the aggressive behavior and poor response to therapy of high-risk neuroblastoma.

  13. High-throughput drug library screening identifies colchicine as a thyroid cancer inhibitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Le; Yang, Zhaoying; Granieri, Letizia; Pasculescu, Adrian; Datti, Alessandro; Asa, Sylvia L.; Xu, Zheli; Ezzat, Shereen

    2016-01-01

    We employed a high-throughput drug library screening platform to identify novel agents affecting thyroid cancer cells. We used human thyroid cancer cell lines to screen a collection of approximately 5200 small molecules with biological and/or pharmacologial properties. Parallel primary screens yielded a number of hits differentially active between thyroid and melanoma cells. Amongst compounds specifically targeting thyroid cancer cells, colchicine emerged as an effective candidate. Colchicine inhibited cell growth which correlated with G2 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. These effects were hampered through inhibition of MEK1/2 and JNK. In contrast, inhibition of p38-MAPK had little effect, and AKT had no impact on colchicine action. Systemic colchicine inhibited thyroid cancer progression in xenografted mice. These findings demonstrate that our screening platform is an effective vehicle for drug reposition and show that colchicine warrants further attention in well-defined clinical niches such as thyroid cancer. PMID:26942566

  14. High-throughput drug library screening identifies colchicine as a thyroid cancer inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Le; Yang, Zhaoying; Granieri, Letizia; Pasculescu, Adrian; Datti, Alessandro; Asa, Sylvia L; Xu, Zheli; Ezzat, Shereen

    2016-04-12

    We employed a high-throughput drug library screening platform to identify novel agents affecting thyroid cancer cells. We used human thyroid cancer cell lines to screen a collection of approximately 5200 small molecules with biological and/or pharmacologial properties. Parallel primary screens yielded a number of hits differentially active between thyroid and melanoma cells. Amongst compounds specifically targeting thyroid cancer cells, colchicine emerged as an effective candidate. Colchicine inhibited cell growth which correlated with G2 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. These effects were hampered through inhibition of MEK1/2 and JNK. In contrast, inhibition of p38-MAPK had little effect, and AKT had no impact on colchicine action. Systemic colchicine inhibited thyroid cancer progression in xenografted mice. These findings demonstrate that our screening platform is an effective vehicle for drug reposition and show that colchicine warrants further attention in well-defined clinical niches such as thyroid cancer.

  15. Applying Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Model to Identify the Negative Influences Facing Children with Physical Disabilities in Rural Areas in Kwa-Zulu Natal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-David, Brenda; Nel, Norma

    2013-01-01

    Children with visible physical disabilities (CWPDs) living in rural areas of South Africa are a matter of particular concern. While all children living in rural areas face negative influences such as poverty and the high incidence of HIV/AIDS, this situation is exacerbated for CWPDs who are more vulnerable to these influences (Human Sciences…

  16. Yeast-Based High-Throughput Screens to Identify Novel Compounds Active against Brugia malayi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Bilsland

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymphatic filariasis is caused by the parasitic worms Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi or B. timori, which are transmitted via the bites from infected mosquitoes. Once in the human body, the parasites develop into adult worms in the lymphatic vessels, causing severe damage and swelling of the affected tissues. According to the World Health Organization, over 1.2 billion people in 58 countries are at risk of contracting lymphatic filariasis. Very few drugs are available to treat patients infected with these parasites, and these have low efficacy against the adult stages of the worms, which can live for 7-15 years in the human body. The requirement for annual treatment increases the risk of drug-resistant worms emerging, making it imperative to develop new drugs against these devastating diseases.We have developed a yeast-based, high-throughput screening system whereby essential yeast genes are replaced with their filarial or human counterparts. These strains are labeled with different fluorescent proteins to allow the simultaneous monitoring of strains with parasite or human genes in competition, and hence the identification of compounds that inhibit the parasite target without affecting its human ortholog. We constructed yeast strains expressing eight different Brugia malayi drug targets (as well as seven of their human counterparts, and performed medium-throughput drug screens for compounds that specifically inhibit the parasite enzymes. Using the Malaria Box collection (400 compounds, we identified nine filarial specific inhibitors and confirmed the antifilarial activity of five of these using in vitro assays against Brugia pahangi.We were able to functionally complement yeast deletions with eight different Brugia malayi enzymes that represent potential drug targets. We demonstrated that our yeast-based screening platform is efficient in identifying compounds that can discriminate between human and filarial enzymes. Hence, we are confident

  17. Method for producing high surface area chromia materials for catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gash, Alexander E.; Satcher, Joe; Tillotson, Thomas; Hrubesh, Lawrence; Simpson, Randall

    2007-05-01

    Nanostructured chromium(III)-oxide-based materials using sol-gel processing and a synthetic route for producing such materials are disclosed herein. Monolithic aerogels and xerogels having surface areas between 150 m.sup.2/g and 520 m.sup.2/g have been produced. The synthetic method employs the use of stable and inexpensive hydrated-chromium(III) inorganic salts and common solvents such as water, ethanol, methanol, 1-propanol, t-butanol, 2-ethoxy ethanol, and ethylene glycol, DMSO, and dimethyl formamide. The synthesis involves the dissolution of the metal salt in a solvent followed by an addition of a proton scavenger, such as an epoxide, which induces gel formation in a timely manner. Both critical point (supercritical extraction) and atmospheric (low temperature evaporation) drying may be employed to produce monolithic aerogels and xerogels, respectively.

  18. Low-level waste disposal in highly populated areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalski, E.; McCombie, C.; Issler, H. [NAGRA-Swiss National Cooperative for the Storage of Radioactive Waste, Baden (Switzerland)

    1989-11-01

    Nuclear-generated electricity supplies almost 40% of the demand in Switzerland (the rest being hydro-power). Allowing for a certain reserve and assuming an operational life-time of 40 years for each reactor, and taking into account wastes from decommissioning and from medicine, industry and research, the total amount of low-level radioactive waste to be disposed of is about 175,000 m{sup 3}. Since there are no unpopulated areas in Switzerland, and since Swiss Federal Law specifies that the safety of disposal may not depend upon supervision of the repository, no shallow-land burial has been foreseen, even for short-lived low-level waste. Instead, geological disposal in a mined cavern system with access through a horizontal tunnel was selected as the best way of meeting the requirements and ensuring the necessary public acceptance.

  19. Climatologies at high resolution for the Earth land surface areas

    CERN Document Server

    Karger, Dirk Nikolaus; Böhner, Jürgen; Kawohl, Tobias; Kreft, Holger; Soria-Auza, Rodrigo Wilber; Zimmermann, Niklaus; Linder, H Peter; Kessler, Michael

    2016-01-01

    High resolution information of climatic conditions is essential to many application in environmental sciences. Here we present the CHELSA algorithm to downscale temperature and precipitation estimates from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) climatic reanalysis interim (ERA-Interim) to a high resolution of 30 arc sec. The algorithm for temperature is based on a statistical downscaling of atmospheric temperature from the ERA-Interim climatic reanalysis. The precipitation algorithm incorporates orographic predictors such as wind fields, valley exposition, and boundary layer height, and a bias correction using Global Precipitation Climatology Center (GPCC) gridded and Global Historical Climate Network (GHCN) station data. The resulting data consist of a monthly temperature and precipitation climatology for the years 1979-2013. We present a comparison of data derived from the CHELSA algorithm with two other high resolution gridded products with overlapping temporal resolution (Tropical R...

  20. Fundamental research in the area of high temperature fuel cells in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyomin, A.K.

    1996-04-01

    Research in the area of molten carbonate and solid oxide fuel cells has been conducted in Russia since the late 60`s. Institute of High Temperature Electrochemistry is the lead organisation in this area. Research in the area of materials used in fuel cells has allowed us to identify compositions of electrolytes, electrodes, current paths and transmitting, sealing and structural materials appropriate for long-term fuel cell applications. Studies of electrode processes resulted in better understanding of basic patterns of electrode reactions and in the development of a foundation for electrode structure optimization. We have developed methods to increase electrode activity levels that allowed us to reach current density levels of up to 1 amper/cm{sup 2}. Development of mathematical models of processes in high temperature fuel cells has allowed us to optimize their structure. The results of fundamental studies have been tested on laboratory mockups. MCFC mockups with up to 100 W capacity and SOFC mockups with up to 1 kW capacity have been manufactured and tested at IHTE. There are three SOFC structural options: tube, plate and modular.

  1. Neurophysiological Problems in Snow Bound High Altitude Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Selvamurthy

    1984-10-01

    Full Text Available A series of studies have been conducted to evaluate the neurophysiological responses in young healthy soldiers during acclimatization at 3,500m altitude in Western Himalayas. The responses of autonomic nervous system, electroencephalogram hypothalamic thermoregulatory efficiency, orthostatic tolerance, sleep profile and effects of sleep deprivation have been studied in fresh inductees during three to five weeks of acclimatization at high altitude and compared with those of one year acclimatized lowlanders and high altitude natives. Physiological significance of these neurophysiological responses in the process of altitude adaptation is discussed in the light of current knowledge in the field.

  2. A novel algorithm to identifying vehicle travel path in elevated road area based on GPS trajectory data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianrui XU; Xiaojie LI; Yujie HU; Zhongren PENG

    2012-01-01

    In recent years,the increasing development of traffic information collection technology based on floating car data has been recognized,which gives rise to the establishment of real-time traffic information dissemination system in many cities.However,the recent massive construction of urban elevated roads hinders the processing of corresponding GPS data and further extraction of traffic information (e.g.,identifying the real travel path),as a result of the frequent transfer of vehicles between ground and elevated road travel.Consequently,an algorithm for identifying the travel road type (i.e.,elevated or ground road) of vehicles is designed based on the vehicle traveling features,geometric and topological characteristics of the elevated road network,and a trajectory model proposed in the present study.To be specific,the proposed algorithm can detect the places where a vehicle enters,leaves or crosses under elevated roads.An experiment of 10 sample taxis in Shanghai,China was conducted,and the comparison of our results and results that are obtained from visual interpretation validates the proposed algorithm.

  3. Identifying the sources of nitrate contamination of groundwater in an agricultural area (Haean basin, Korea) using isotope and microbial community analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Heejung [School of Earth and Environmental Sciences (BK21 SEES), Seoul National University, Seoul 151–747 (Korea, Republic of); Kaown, Dugin, E-mail: dugin1@snu.ac.kr [School of Earth and Environmental Sciences (BK21 SEES), Seoul National University, Seoul 151–747 (Korea, Republic of); Mayer, Bernhard [Department of Geoscience, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary T2N 1N4, Alberta (Canada); Lee, Jin-Yong [Department of Geology, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 200–701 (Korea, Republic of); Hyun, Yunjung [Planning and Management Group, Korea Environment Institute, Sejong 339-007 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kang-Kun [School of Earth and Environmental Sciences (BK21 SEES), Seoul National University, Seoul 151–747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    An integrated study based on hydrogeochemical, microbiological and dual isotopic approaches for nitrate and sulfate was conducted to elucidate sources and biogeochemical reactions governing groundwater contaminants in different seasons and under different land use in a basin of Korea. The land use in the study area is comprised of forests (58.0%), vegetable fields (27.6%), rice paddy fields (11.4%) and others (3.0%). The concentrations of NO{sub 3}–N and SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} in groundwater in vegetable fields were highest with 4.2–15.2 mg L{sup −1} and 1.6–19.7 mg L{sup −1} respectively, whereas under paddy fields NO{sub 3}–N concentrations ranged from 0 to 10.7 mg L{sup −1} and sulfate concentrations were ~ 15 mg L{sup −1}. Groundwater with high NO{sub 3}–N concentrations of > 10 mg L{sup −1} had δ{sup 15}N–NO{sub 3}{sup −} values ranging from 5.2 to 5.9‰ and δ{sup 18}O values of nitrate between 2.7 and 4.6‰ suggesting that the nitrate was mineralized from soil organic matter that was amended by fertilizer additions. Elevated concentrations of SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} with δ{sup 34}S–SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} values between 1 and 6‰ in aquifers in vegetable fields indicated that a mixture of sulfate from atmospheric deposition, mineralization of soil organic matter and from synthetic fertilizers is the source of groundwater sulfate. Elevated δ{sup 18}O–NO{sub 3}{sup −} and δ{sup 18}O–SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} values in samples collected from the paddy fields indicated that denitrification and bacterial sulfate reduction are actively occurring removing sulfate and nitrate from the groundwater. This was supported by high occurrences of denitrifying and sulfate reducing bacteria in groundwater of the paddy fields as evidenced by 16S rRNA pyrosequencing analysis. This study shows that dual isotope techniques combined with microbial data can be a powerful tool for identification of sources and microbial processes affecting NO{sub 3}{sup

  4. A Scoring Tool to Identify East African HIV-1 Serodiscordant Partnerships with a High Likelihood of Pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renee Heffron

    Full Text Available HIV-1 prevention programs targeting HIV-1 serodiscordant couples need to identify couples that are likely to become pregnant to facilitate discussions about methods to minimize HIV-1 risk during pregnancy attempts (i.e. safer conception or effective contraception when pregnancy is unintended. A clinical prediction tool could be used to identify HIV-1 serodiscordant couples with a high likelihood of pregnancy within one year.Using standardized clinical prediction methods, we developed and validated a tool to identify heterosexual East African HIV-1 serodiscordant couples with an increased likelihood of becoming pregnant in the next year. Datasets were from three prospectively followed cohorts, including nearly 7,000 couples from Kenya and Uganda participating in HIV-1 prevention trials and delivery projects.The final score encompassed the age of the woman, woman's number of children living, partnership duration, having had condomless sex in the past month, and non-use of an effective contraceptive. The area under the curve (AUC for the probability of the score to correctly predict pregnancy was 0.74 (95% CI 0.72-0.76. Scores ≥ 7 predicted a pregnancy incidence of >17% per year and captured 78% of the pregnancies. Internal and external validation confirmed the predictive ability of the score.A pregnancy likelihood score encompassing basic demographic, clinical and behavioral factors defined African HIV-1 serodiscordant couples with high one-year pregnancy incidence rates. This tool could be used to engage African HIV-1 serodiscordant couples in counseling discussions about fertility intentions in order to offer services for safer conception or contraception that align with their reproductive goals.

  5. Preparation and Characterization of Highly Spherical Silica-titania Aerogel Beads with High Surface Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YU Yu-xi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The silica-titania aerogel beads were synthesized through sol-gel reaction followed by supercritical drying, in which TEOS and TBT as co-precursors, EtOH as solvents, HAC and NH3·H2O as catalysts. The as-prepared aerogel beads were characterized by SEM,TEM,XRD,FT-IR,TG-DTA and nitrogen adsorption-desorption. The results indicate that the diameter distribution of beads are between 1-8mm, the average diameter of beads is 3.5mm. The aerogel beads have nanoporous network structure with high specific surface area of 914.5m2/g, and the TiO2 particles are distributed in the aerogel uniformly, which keep the anatase crystal under high temperature.

  6. The Surface Chemical Properties of Novel High Surface Area Solids ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and MFA3 are the result of the high chromium content in the original ash (UFA1). ... ties has a significant influence on the crystal form produced during zeolite ... that the surface is enriched in Si compared with the bulk compo- sition. This is ...

  7. Cultivation of microalgae in a high irradiance area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuaresma, M.

    2011-01-01


    Microalgae are a promising source of high-value products (i.e. carotenoids, ω-3 fatty acids), as well as feedstocks for food, bulk chemicals and biofuels. Industrial production is, however, still limited because the technology needs further development. One of the main bottlenecks is th

  8. Cultivation of microalgae in a high irradiance area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuaresma, M.

    2011-01-01


    Microalgae are a promising source of high-value products (i.e. carotenoids, ω-3 fatty acids), as well as feedstocks for food, bulk chemicals and biofuels. Industrial production is, however, still limited because the technology needs further development. One of the main bottlenecks is th

  9. Exploiting jet binning to identify the initial state of high-mass resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Ebert, Markus A; Moult, Ian; Stewart, Iain W; Tackmann, Frank J; Tackmann, Kerstin; Zeune, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    If a new high-mass resonance is discovered at the Large Hadron Collider, model-independent techniques to identify the production mechanism will be crucial to understand its nature and effective couplings to Standard Model particles. We present a powerful and model-independent method to infer the initial state in the production of any high-mass color-singlet system by using a tight veto on accompanying hadronic jets to divide the data into two mutually exclusive event samples (jet bins). For a resonance of several hundred GeV, the jet binning cut needed to discriminate quark and gluon initial states is in the experimentally accessible range of several tens of GeV. It also yields comparable cross sections for both bins, making this method viable already with the small event samples available shortly after a discovery. Theoretically, the method is made feasible by utilizing an effective field theory setup to compute the jet cut dependence precisely and model-independently and to systematically control all source...

  10. Exploiting jet binning to identify the initial state of high-mass resonances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Markus A.; Liebler, Stefan; Moult, Ian; Stewart, Iain W.; Tackmann, Frank J.; Tackmann, Kerstin; Zeune, Lisa

    2016-09-01

    If a new high-mass resonance is discovered at the Large Hadron Collider, model-independent techniques to identify the production mechanism will be crucial to understand its nature and effective couplings to Standard Model particles. We present a powerful and model-independent method to infer the initial state in the production of any high-mass color-singlet system by using a tight veto on accompanying hadronic jets to divide the data into two mutually exclusive event samples (jet bins). For a resonance of several hundred GeV, the jet binning cut needed to discriminate quark and gluon initial states is in the experimentally accessible range of several tens of GeV. It also yields comparable cross sections for both bins, making this method viable already with the small event samples available shortly after a discovery. Theoretically, the method is made feasible by utilizing an effective field theory setup to compute the jet cut dependence precisely and model independently and to systematically control all sources of theoretical uncertainties in the jet binning, as well as their correlations. We use a 750 GeV scalar resonance as an example to demonstrate the viability of our method.

  11. Identifying galaxy candidates in WSRT HI imaging of ultra-compact high velocity clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, Elizabeth A K; Cannon, John M; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P

    2016-01-01

    Ultra-compact high velocity clouds (UCHVCs) were identified in the ALFALFA HI survey as potential gas-bearing dark matter halos. Here we present higher resolution neutral hydrogen (HI) observations of twelve UCHVCS with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT). The UCHVCs were selected based on a combination of size, isolation, large recessional velocity and high column density as the best candidate dark matter halos. The WSRT data were tapered to image the UCHVCs at 210" (comparable to Arecibo) and 105" angular resolution. In a comparison of the single-dish to interferometer data, we find that the line flux recovered in the WSRT observations is comparable to that from the single-dish ALFALFA data. In addition, any structure seen in the ALFALFA data is reproduced in the WSRT maps at the same angular resolution. At 210'" resolution all the sources are generally compact with a smooth HI morphology, as expected from their identification as UCHVCs. At the higher angular resolution, a majority of the source...

  12. Duplex high-throughput flow cytometry screen identifies two novel formylpeptide receptor family probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Susan M; Bologa, Cristian M; Fara, Dan; Bryant, Bj K; Strouse, Juan Jacob; Arterburn, Jeffrey B; Ye, Richard D; Oprea, Tudor I; Prossnitz, Eric R; Sklar, Larry A; Edwards, Bruce S

    2009-03-01

    Of recent, clinical interest have been two related human G-protein coupled receptors: formylpeptide receptor (FPR), linked to antibacterial inflammation and malignant glioma cell metastasis; and FPR like-1 (FPRL1), linked to chronic inflammation in systemic amyloidosis, Alzheimer's disease, and prion diseases. In association with the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Molecular Library Screening Network, we implemented a flow-cytometry-based high-throughput screening (HTS) approach for identifying selective small molecule FPR and FPRL1 ligands. The screening assay measured the ability of test compounds to competitively displace a high-affinity, fluorescein- labeled peptide ligand from FPR, FPRL1, or both. U937 cells expressing FPR and rat basophil leukemia (RBL) cells expressing FPRL1 were tested together in a "duplex" format. The U937 cells were color coded with red-fluorescent dye allowing their distinction during analysis. Compounds, cells, and fluorescent ligand were sequentially combined (no wash) in 15 microl assay volumes in 384-well plates. Throughput averaged approximately 11 min per plate to analyze approximately 4,000 cells ( approximately 2,000/receptor) in a 2 microl aspirate from each well. In primary single concentration HTS of 24,304 NIH Small Molecule Repository compounds, 253 resulted in inhibition >30% (181 for FPR, 72 for FPRL1) of which 40 had selective binding inhibition constants (K(i)) probes.

  13. Exploiting jet binning to identify the initial state of high-mass resonances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, Markus A.; Liebler, Stefan; Tackmann, Frank J.; Tackmann, Kerstin [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Moult, Ian; Stewart, Iain W. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States). Center for Theoretical Physics; Zeune, Lisa [NIKHEF, Amsterdam (Netherlands). Theory Group

    2016-05-15

    If a new high-mass resonance is discovered at the Large Hadron Collider, model-independent techniques to identify the production mechanism will be crucial to understand its nature and effective couplings to Standard Model particles. We present a powerful and model-independent method to infer the initial state in the production of any high-mass color-singlet system by using a tight veto on accompanying hadronic jets to divide the data into two mutually exclusive event samples (jet bins). For a resonance of several hundred GeV, the jet binning cut needed to discriminate quark and gluon initial states is in the experimentally accessible range of several tens of GeV. It also yields comparable cross sections for both bins, making this method viable already with the small event samples available shortly after a discovery. Theoretically, the method is made feasible by utilizing an effective field theory setup to compute the jet cut dependence precisely and model-independently and to systematically control all sources of theoretical uncertainties in the jet binning, as well as their correlations. We use a 750 GeV scalar resonance as an example to demonstrate the viability of our method.

  14. Cortical thickness and surface area in neonates at high risk for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Wang, Li; Shi, Feng; Lyall, Amanda E; Ahn, Mihye; Peng, Ziwen; Zhu, Hongtu; Lin, Weili; Gilmore, John H; Shen, Dinggang

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with subtle abnormal cortical thickness and cortical surface area. However, it is unclear whether these abnormalities exist in neonates associated with genetic risk for schizophrenia. To this end, this preliminary study was conducted to identify possible abnormalities of cortical thickness and surface area in the high-genetic-risk neonates. Structural magnetic resonance images were acquired from offspring of mothers (N = 21) who had schizophrenia (N = 12) or schizoaffective disorder (N = 9), and also matched healthy neonates of mothers who were free of psychiatric illness (N = 26). Neonatal cortical surfaces were reconstructed and parcellated as regions of interest (ROIs), and cortical thickness for each vertex was computed as the shortest distance between the inner and outer surfaces. Comparisons were made for the average cortical thickness and total surface area in each of 68 cortical ROIs. After false discovery rate (FDR) correction, it was found that the female high-genetic-risk neonates had significantly thinner cortical thickness in the right lateral occipital cortex than the female control neonates. Before FDR correction, the high-genetic-risk neonates had significantly thinner cortex in the left transverse temporal gyrus, left banks of superior temporal sulcus, left lingual gyrus, right paracentral cortex, right posterior cingulate cortex, right temporal pole, and right lateral occipital cortex, compared with the control neonates. Before FDR correction, in comparison with control neonates, male high-risk neonates had significantly thicker cortex in the left frontal pole, left cuneus cortex, and left lateral occipital cortex; while female high-risk neonates had significantly thinner cortex in the bilateral paracentral, bilateral lateral occipital, left transverse temporal, left pars opercularis, right cuneus, and right posterior cingulate cortices. The high-risk neonates also had significantly

  15. High-surface-area silica nanospheres (KCC-1) with a fibrous morphology

    KAUST Repository

    Polshettiwar, Vivek

    2010-08-02

    Fibrous nanosilica: A new family of high-surface-area silica nanospheres (KCC-1) have been prepared (see picture). KCC-1 features excellent physical properties, including high surface area, unprecedented fibrous surface morphology, high thermal (up to 950 °C) and hydrothermal stabilities, and high mechanical stability. Copyright © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Identifying the Correlation between Professional Learning Communities and Collective Teacher Efficacy for Math Data Teams in Kaua'i Complex Area Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellwood, Cheryl Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    Professional learning communities and teacher efficacy are at the core of many of the current educational reform models. The intention of this dissertation was to identify the correlation between professional learning communities and collective teacher efficacy for math data teams in the six Kaua'i Complex Area secondary schools, as measured by…

  17. Use of object-oriented classification and fragmentation analysis (1985-2008) to identify important areas for conservation in Cockpit Country, Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Minke E; McLaren, Kurt P; Wilson, Byron S

    2011-01-01

    Forest fragmentation is one of the most important threats to global biodiversity, particularly in tropical developing countries. Identifying priority areas for conservation within these forests is essential to their effective management. However, this requires current, accurate environmental information that is often lacking in developing countries. The Cockpit Country, Jamaica, contains forests of international importance in terms of levels of endemism and overall diversity. These forests are under severe threat from the prospect of bauxite mining and other anthropogenic disturbances. In the absence of adequate, up-to-date ecological information, we used satellite remote sensing data and fragmentation analysis to identify interior forested areas that have experienced little or no change as priority conservation sites. We classified Landsat images from 1985, 1989, 1995, 2002, and 2008, using an object-oriented method, which allowed for the inclusion of roads. We conducted our fragmentation analysis using metrics to quantify changes in forest patch number, area, shape, and aggregation. Deforestation and fragmentation fluctuated within the 23-year period but were mostly confined to the periphery of the forest, close to roads and access trails. An area of core forest that remained intact over the period of study was identified within the largest forest patch, most of which was located within the boundaries of a forest reserve and included the last remaining patches of closed-broadleaf forest. These areas should be given highest priority for conservation, as they constitute important refuges for endemic or threatened biodiversity. Minimizing and controlling access will be important in maintaining this core.

  18. 49 CFR 195.452 - Pipeline integrity management in high consequence areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... as to fall within the definition in § 195.450 of a high population area or other populated area, the... protection history; (iv) Product transported; (v) Operating stress level; (vi) Existing or projected... failure would affect the high consequence area, such as location of the water intake. (h) What...

  19. Novel high-molecular weight fucosylated milk oligosaccharides identified in dairy streams.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Mehra

    Full Text Available Oligosaccharides are the third largest component in human milk. This abundance is remarkable because oligosaccharides are not digestible by the newborn, and yet they have been conserved and amplified during evolution. In addition to encouraging the growth of a protective microbiota dominated by bifidobacteria, oligosaccharides have anti-infective activity, preventing pathogens from binding to intestinal cells. Although it would be advantageous adding these valuable molecules to infant milk formula, the technologies to reproduce the variety and complexity of human milk oligosaccharides by enzymatic/organic synthesis are not yet mature. Consequently, there is an enormous interest in alternative sources of these valuable oligosaccharides. Recent research has demonstrated that bovine milk and whey permeate also contain oligosaccharides. Thus, a thorough characterization of oligosaccharides in bovine dairy streams is an important step towards fully assessing their specific functionalities. In this study, bovine milk oligosaccharides (BMOs were concentrated by membrane filtration from a readily available dairy stream called "mother liquor", and analyzed by high accuracy MALDI FT-ICR mass spectrometry. The combination of HPLC and accurate mass spectrometry allowed the identification of ideal processing conditions leading to the production of Kg amount of BMO enriched powders. Among the BMOs identified, 18 have high-molecular weight and corresponded in size to the most abundant oligosaccharides present in human milk. Notably 6 oligosaccharides contained fucose, a sugar monomer that is highly abundant in human milk, but is rarely observed in bovine milk. This work shows that dairy streams represent a potential source of complex milk oligosaccharides for commercial development of unique dairy ingredients in functional foods that reproduce the benefits of human milk.

  20. Identifying seawater intrusion in coastal areas by means of 1D and quasi-2D joint inversion of TDEM and VES data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Moreno, F. J.; Monteiro-Santos, F. A.; Bernardo, I.; Farzamian, M.; Nascimento, C.; Fernandes, J.; Casal, B.; Ribeiro, J. A.

    2017-09-01

    Seawater intrusion is an increasingly widespread problem in coastal aquifers caused by climate changes -sea-level rise, extreme phenomena like flooding and droughts- and groundwater depletion near to the coastline. To evaluate and mitigate the environmental risks of this phenomenon it is necessary to characterize the coastal aquifer and the salt intrusion. Geophysical methods are the most appropriate tool to address these researches. Among all geophysical techniques, electrical methods are able to detect seawater intrusions due to the high resistivity contrast between saltwater, freshwater and geological layers. The combination of two or more geophysical methods is recommended and they are more efficient when both data are inverted jointly because the final model encompasses the physical properties measured for each methods. In this investigation, joint inversion of vertical electric and time domain soundings has been performed to examine seawater intrusion in an area within the Ferragudo-Albufeira aquifer system (Algarve, South of Portugal). For this purpose two profiles combining electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and time domain electromagnetic (TDEM) methods were measured and the results were compared with the information obtained from exploration drilling. Three different inversions have been carried out: single inversion of the ERT and TDEM data, 1D joint inversion and quasi-2D joint inversion. Single inversion results identify seawater intrusion, although the sedimentary layers detected in exploration drilling were not well differentiated. The models obtained with 1D joint inversion improve the previous inversion due to better detection of sedimentary layer and the seawater intrusion appear to be better defined. Finally, the quasi-2D joint inversion reveals a more realistic shape of the seawater intrusion and it is able to distinguish more sedimentary layers recognised in the exploration drilling. This study demonstrates that the quasi-2D joint

  1. High Speed Area Efficient 8-point FFT using Vedic Multiplier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avneesh Kumar Mishra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A high speed fast fourier transform (FFT design by using three algorithm is presented in this paper. In algorithm 3, 4-bit Vedic multiplier based technique are used in FFT. In this technique used in three 4-bit ripple carry adder and four 2*2 Vedic multiplier. The main parameter of this paper is number of slice, 4-input LUTS and maximum combinational path delay were calculate.

  2. ISD97, a computer program to analyze data from a series of in situ measurements on a grid and identify potential localized areas of elevated activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reginatto, M.; Shebell, P.; Miller, K.M.

    1997-10-01

    A computer program, ISD97, was developed to analyze data from a series of in situ measurements on a grid and identify potential localized areas of elevated activity. The ISD97 code operates using a two-step process. A deconvolution of the data is carried out using the maximum entropy method, and a map of activity on the ground that fits the data within experimental error is generated. This maximum entropy map is then analyzed to determine the locations and magnitudes of potential areas of elevated activity that are consistent with the data. New deconvolutions are then carried out for each potential area of elevated activity identified by the code. Properties of the algorithm are demonstrated using data from actual field measurements.

  3. Quantitative high-throughput screening identifies 8-hydroxyquinolines as cell-active histone demethylase inhibitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver N F King

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Small molecule modulators of epigenetic processes are currently sought as basic probes for biochemical mechanisms, and as starting points for development of therapeutic agents. N(ε-Methylation of lysine residues on histone tails is one of a number of post-translational modifications that together enable transcriptional regulation. Histone lysine demethylases antagonize the action of histone methyltransferases in a site- and methylation state-specific manner. N(ε-Methyllysine demethylases that use 2-oxoglutarate as co-factor are associated with diverse human diseases, including cancer, inflammation and X-linked mental retardation; they are proposed as targets for the therapeutic modulation of transcription. There are few reports on the identification of templates that are amenable to development as potent inhibitors in vivo and large diverse collections have yet to be exploited for the discovery of demethylase inhibitors. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: High-throughput screening of a ∼236,000-member collection of diverse molecules arrayed as dilution series was used to identify inhibitors of the JMJD2 (KDM4 family of 2-oxoglutarate-dependent histone demethylases. Initial screening hits were prioritized by a combination of cheminformatics, counterscreening using a coupled assay enzyme, and orthogonal confirmatory detection of inhibition by mass spectrometric assays. Follow-up studies were carried out on one of the series identified, 8-hydroxyquinolines, which were shown by crystallographic analyses to inhibit by binding to the active site Fe(II and to modulate demethylation at the H3K9 locus in a cell-based assay. CONCLUSIONS: These studies demonstrate that diverse compound screening can yield novel inhibitors of 2OG dependent histone demethylases and provide starting points for the development of potent and selective agents to interrogate epigenetic regulation.

  4. Grapevine powdery mildew resistance and susceptibility loci identified on a high-resolution SNP map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba, Paola; Cadle-Davidson, Lance; Harriman, James; Glaubitz, Jeffrey C; Brooks, Siraprapa; Hyma, Katie; Reisch, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Improved efficacy and durability of powdery mildew resistance can be enhanced via knowledge of the genetics of resistance and susceptibility coupled with the development of high-resolution maps to facilitate the stacking of multiple resistance genes and other desirable traits. We studied the inheritance of powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator) resistance and susceptibility of wild Vitis rupestris B38 and cultivated V. vinifera 'Chardonnay', finding evidence for quantitative variation. Molecular markers were identified using genotyping-by-sequencing, resulting in 16,833 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) based on alignment to the V. vinifera 'PN40024' reference genome sequence. With an average density of 36 SNPs/Mbp and uniform coverage of the genome, this 17K set was used to identify 11 SNPs on chromosome 7 associated with a resistance locus from V. rupestris B38 and ten SNPs on chromosome 9 associated with a locus for susceptibility from 'Chardonnay' using single marker association and linkage disequilibrium analysis. Linkage maps for V. rupestris B38 (1,146 SNPs) and 'Chardonnay' (1,215 SNPs) were constructed and used to corroborate the 'Chardonnay' locus named Sen1 (Susceptibility to Erysiphe necator 1), providing the first insight into the genetics of susceptibility to powdery mildew from V. vinifera. The identification of markers associated with a susceptibility locus in a V. vinifera background can be used for negative selection among breeding progenies. This work improves our understanding of the nature of powdery mildew resistance in V. rupestris B38 and 'Chardonnay', while applying next-generation sequencing tools to advance grapevine genomics and breeding.

  5. A prognostic tool to identify adolescents at high risk of becoming daily smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paradis Gilles

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The American Academy of Pediatrics advocates that pediatricians should be involved in tobacco counseling and has developed guidelines for counseling. We present a prognostic tool for use by health care practitioners in both clinical and non-clinical settings, to identify adolescents at risk of becoming daily smokers. Methods Data were drawn from the Nicotine Dependence in Teens (NDIT Study, a prospective investigation of 1293 adolescents, initially aged 12-13 years, recruited in 10 secondary schools in Montreal, Canada in 1999. Questionnaires were administered every three months for five years. The prognostic tool was developed using estimated coefficients from multivariable logistic models. Model overfitting was corrected using bootstrap cross-validation. Goodness-of-fit and predictive ability of the models were assessed by R2, the c-statistic, and the Hosmer-Lemeshow test. Results The 1-year and 2-year probability of initiating daily smoking was a joint function of seven individual characteristics: age; ever smoked; ever felt like you needed a cigarette; parent(s smoke; sibling(s smoke; friend(s smoke; and ever drank alcohol. The models were characterized by reasonably good fit and predictive ability. They were transformed into user-friendly tables such that the risk of daily smoking can be easily computed by summing points for responses to each item. The prognostic tool is also available on-line at http://episerve.chumontreal.qc.ca/calculation_risk/daily-risk/daily_smokingadd.php. Conclusions The prognostic tool to identify youth at high risk of daily smoking may eventually be an important component of a comprehensive tobacco control system.

  6. Analyzing treatment aggressiveness and identifying high-risk patients in diabetic foot ulcer return to care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remington, Austin C; Hernandez-Boussard, Tina; Warstadt, Nicholus M; Finnegan, Micaela A; Shaffer, Robyn; Kwong, Jereen Z; Curtin, Catherine

    2016-07-01

    Rates of diabetes and its associated comorbidities have been increasing in the United States, with diabetic foot ulcer treatment representing a large cost to the patient and healthcare system. These ulcers often result in multiple hospital admissions. This study examined readmissions following inpatient care for a diabetic foot ulcer and identified modifiable factors associated with all-cause 30-day readmissions to the inpatient or emergency department (ED) setting. We hypothesized that patients undergoing aggressive treatment would have lower 30-day readmission rates. We identified patient discharge records containing International Classification of Disease ninth revision codes for both diabetes mellitus and distal foot ulcer in the State Inpatient and Emergency Department databases from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project in Florida and New York, 2011-2012. All-cause 30-day return to care visits (ED or inpatient) were analyzed. Patient demographics and treatment characteristics were evaluated using univariate and multivariable regression models. The cohort included 25,911 discharges, having a mean age of 63 and an average of 3.8 comorbidities. The overall rate of return to care was 30%, and 21% of subjects underwent a toe or midfoot amputation during their index stay. The most common diagnosis codes upon readmission were diabetes mellitus (19%) and infection (13%). Patients with a toe or midfoot amputation procedure were less likely to be readmitted within 30 days (odds ratio: 0.78; 95% confidence interval: 0.73, 0.84). Presence of comorbidities, black and Hispanic ethnicities, and Medicare and Medicaid payer status were also associated with higher odds of readmission following initial hospitalization (p < 0.05). The study suggests that there are many factors that affect readmission rates for diabetic foot ulcer patients. Understanding patients at high-risk for readmission can improve counseling and

  7. NSC23925, identified in a high-throughput cell-based screen, reverses multidrug resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenfeng Duan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Multidrug resistance (MDR is a major factor which contributes to the failure of cancer chemotherapy, and numerous efforts have been attempted to overcome MDR. To date, none of these attempts have yielded a tolerable and effective therapy to reverse MDR; thus, identification of new agents would be useful both clinically and scientifically. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To identify small molecule compounds that can reverse chemoresistance, we developed a 96-well plate high-throughput cell-based screening assay in a paclitaxel resistant ovarian cancer cell line. Coincubating cells with a sublethal concentration of paclitaxel in combination with each of 2,000 small molecule compounds from the National Cancer Institute Diversity Set Library, we identified a previously uncharacterized molecule, NSC23925, that inhibits Pgp1 and reverses MDR1 (Pgp1 but does not inhibit MRP or BCRP-mediated MDR. The cytotoxic activity of NSC23925 was further evaluated using a panel of cancer cell lines expressing Pgp1, MRP, and BCRP. We found that at a concentration of >10 microM NSC23925 moderately inhibits the proliferation of both sensitive and resistant cell lines with almost equal activity, but its inhibitory effect was not altered by co-incubation with the Pgp1 inhibitor, verapamil, suggesting that NSC23925 itself is not a substrate of Pgp1. Additionally, NSC23925 increases the intracellular accumulation of Pgp1 substrates: calcein AM, Rhodamine-123, paclitaxel, mitoxantrone, and doxorubicin. Interestingly, we further observed that, although NSC23925 directly inhibits the function of Pgp1 in a dose-dependent manner without altering the total expression level of Pgp1, NSC23925 actually stimulates ATPase activity of Pgp, a phenomenon seen in other Pgp inhibitors. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The ability of NSC23925 to restore sensitivity to the cytotoxic effects of chemotherapy or to prevent resistance could significantly benefit cancer patients.

  8. High and far: biases in the location of protected areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas N Joppa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: About an eighth of the earth's land surface is in protected areas (hereafter "PAs", most created during the 20(th century. Natural landscapes are critical for species persistence and PAs can play a major role in conservation and in climate policy. Such contributions may be harder than expected to implement if new PAs are constrained to the same kinds of locations that PAs currently occupy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Quantitatively extending the perception that PAs occupy "rock and ice", we show that across 147 nations PA networks are biased towards places that are unlikely to face land conversion pressures even in the absence of protection. We test each country's PA network for bias in elevation, slope, distances to roads and cities, and suitability for agriculture. Further, within each country's set of PAs, we also ask if the level of protection is biased in these ways. We find that the significant majority of national PA networks are biased to higher elevations, steeper slopes and greater distances to roads and cities. Also, within a country, PAs with higher protection status are more biased than are the PAs with lower protection statuses. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In sum, PAs are biased towards where they can least prevent land conversion (even if they offer perfect protection. These globally comprehensive results extend findings from nation-level analyses. They imply that siting rules such as the Convention on Biological Diversity's 2010 Target [to protect 10% of all ecoregions] might raise PA impacts if applied at the country level. In light of the potential for global carbon-based payments for avoided deforestation or REDD, these results suggest that attention to threat could improve outcomes from the creation and management of PAs.

  9. Rates, Associations, and Predictors of Psychopathology in a Convenience Sample of School-Aged Latino Youth: Identifying Areas for Mental Health Outreach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, Lauren M; Kapke, Theresa L; Gerdes, Alyson C

    2016-07-01

    The Latino youth population is rapidly growing and expected to comprise nearly 40% of the total youth population by 2060. Unfortunate disparities exist in the United States (U.S.), such that young Latinos are less likely than non-Hispanic Whites to receive and benefit from mental health services. In order to identify and prioritize specific areas of mental health outreach, the current study examined preliminary rates, associations, and predictors of child psychopathology in a convenience sample of Latino youth. 123 Spanish and English speaking Latino parents of school-aged children completed a series of questionnaires regarding child and family functioning. Latino youth in the current sample demonstrated comparable rates of psychopathology to non-referred, normative samples. Parental acculturation (particularly Separated parental acculturation status: high orientation to Latino culture and low orientation to U.S. mainstream culture) was associated with an increased prevalence of clinically significant psychopathology across several domains, and socioeconomic status was associated with an increased prevalence of thought problems. Additionally, Separated parental acculturation status significantly predicted the prevalence of clinically significant anxious/depressed problems, such that youth of parents displaying Separated acculturation status were significantly more represented in the clinically-elevated groups than the functional groups. These preliminary results suggest that prioritizing outreach to Latino youth of parents maintaining orientation to Latino culture but not U.S. mainstream culture may be necessary in order to begin addressing existing mental health disparities in the U.S.

  10. Guide for Identifying and Converting High-Potential Petroleum Brownfield Sites to Alternative Fuel Stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.; Hettinger, D.; Mosey, G.

    2011-05-01

    Former gasoline stations that are now classified as brownfields can be good sites to sell alternative fuels because they are in locations that are convenient to vehicles and they may be seeking a new source of income. However, their success as alternative fueling stations is highly dependent on location-specific criteria. First, this report outlines what these criteria are, how to prioritize them, and then applies that assessment framework to five of the most popular alternative fuels--electricity, natural gas, hydrogen, ethanol, and biodiesel. The second part of this report delves into the criteria and tools used to assess an alternative fuel retail site at the local level. It does this through two case studies of converting former gasoline stations in the Seattle-Eugene area into electric charge stations. The third part of this report addresses steps to be taken after the specific site has been selected. This includes choosing and installing the recharging equipment, which includes steps to take in the permitting process and key players to include.

  11. Assessment of Atmospheric Algorithms to Retrieve Vegetation in Natural Protected Areas Using Multispectral High Resolution Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Marcello

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The precise mapping of vegetation covers in semi-arid areas is a complex task as this type of environment consists of sparse vegetation mainly composed of small shrubs. The launch of high resolution satellites, with additional spectral bands and the ability to alter the viewing angle, offers a useful technology to focus on this objective. In this context, atmospheric correction is a fundamental step in the pre-processing of such remote sensing imagery and, consequently, different algorithms have been developed for this purpose over the years. They are commonly categorized as imaged-based methods as well as in more advanced physical models based on the radiative transfer theory. Despite the relevance of this topic, a few comparative studies covering several methods have been carried out using high resolution data or which are specifically applied to vegetation covers. In this work, the performance of five representative atmospheric correction algorithms (DOS, QUAC, FLAASH, ATCOR and 6S has been assessed, using high resolution Worldview-2 imagery and field spectroradiometer data collected simultaneously, with the goal of identifying the most appropriate techniques. The study also included a detailed analysis of the parameterization influence on the final results of the correction, the aerosol model and its optical thickness being important parameters to be properly adjusted. The effects of corrections were studied in vegetation and soil sites belonging to different protected semi-arid ecosystems (high mountain and coastal areas. In summary, the superior performance of model-based algorithms, 6S in particular, has been demonstrated, achieving reflectance estimations very close to the in-situ measurements (RMSE of between 2% and 3%. Finally, an example of the importance of the atmospheric correction in the vegetation estimation in these natural areas is presented, allowing the robust mapping of species and the analysis of multitemporal variations

  12. Identifying Children at Risk of High Myopia Using Population Centile Curves of Refraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanxian; Zhang, Jian; Morgan, Ian G; He, Mingguang

    2016-01-01

    To construct reference centile curves of refraction based on population-based data as an age-specific severity scale to evaluate their efficacy as a tool for identifying children at risk of developing high myopia in a longitudinal study. Data of 4218 children aged 5-15 years from the Guangzhou Refractive Error Study in Children (RESC) study, and 354 first-born twins from the Guangzhou Twin Eye Study (GTES) with annual visit were included in the analysis. Reference centile curves for refraction were constructed using a quantile regression model based on the cycloplegic refraction data from the RESC. The risk of developing high myopia (spherical equivalent ≤ -6 diopters [D]) was evaluated as a diagnostic test using the twin follow-up data. The centile curves suggested that the 3rd, 5th, and 10th percentile decreased from -0.25 D, 0.00 D and 0.25 D in 5 year-olds to -6.00 D, -5.65D and -4.63 D in 15 year-olds in the population-based data from RESC. In the GTES cohort, the 5th centile showed the most effective diagnostic value with a sensitivity of 92.9%, a specificity of 97.9% and a positive predictive value (PPV) of 65.0% in predicting high myopia onset (≤-6.00D) before the age of 15 years. The PPV was highest (87.5%) in 3rd centile but with only 50.0% sensitivity. The Mathew's correlation coefficient of 5th centile in predicting myopia of -6.0D/-5.0D/-4.0D by age of 15 was 0.77/0.51/0.30 respectively. Reference centile curves provide an age-specific estimation on a severity scale of refractive error in school-aged children. Children located under lower percentiles at young age were more likely to have high myopia at 15 years or probably in adulthood.

  13. High throughput sequencing in mice: a platform comparison identifies a preponderance of cryptic SNPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darakjian Priscila

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Allelic variation is the cornerstone of genetically determined differences in gene expression, gene product structure, physiology, and behavior. However, allelic variation, particularly cryptic (unknown or not annotated variation, is problematic for follow up analyses. Polymorphisms result in a high incidence of false positive and false negative results in hybridization based analyses and hinder the identification of the true variation underlying genetically determined differences in physiology and behavior. Given the proliferation of mouse genetic models (e.g., knockout models, selectively bred lines, heterogeneous stocks derived from standard inbred strains and wild mice and the wealth of gene expression microarray and phenotypic studies using genetic models, the impact of naturally-occurring polymorphisms on these data is critical. With the advent of next-generation, high-throughput sequencing, we are now in a position to determine to what extent polymorphisms are currently cryptic in such models and their impact on downstream analyses. Results We sequenced the two most commonly used inbred mouse strains, DBA/2J and C57BL/6J, across a region of chromosome 1 (171.6 – 174.6 megabases using two next generation high-throughput sequencing platforms: Applied Biosystems (SOLiD and Illumina (Genome Analyzer. Using the same templates on both platforms, we compared realignments and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP detection with an 80 fold average read depth across platforms and samples. While public datasets currently annotate 4,527 SNPs between the two strains in this interval, thorough high-throughput sequencing identified a total of 11,824 SNPs in the interval, including 7,663 new SNPs. Furthermore, we confirmed 40 missense SNPs and discovered 36 new missense SNPs. Conclusion Comparisons utilizing even two of the best characterized mouse genetic models, DBA/2J and C57BL/6J, indicate that more than half of naturally

  14. Identifying Standing Dead Trees in Forest Areas Based on 3d Single Tree Detection from Full Waveform LIDAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, W.; Krzystek, P.; Heurich, M.

    2012-07-01

    In forest ecology, a snag refers to a standing, partly or completely dead tree, often missing a top or most of the smaller branches. The accurate estimation of live and dead biomass in forested ecosystems is important for studies of carbon dynamics, biodiversity, and forest management. Therefore, an understanding of its availability and spatial distribution is required. So far, LiDAR remote sensing has been successfully used to assess live trees and their biomass, but studies focusing on dead trees are rare. The paper develops a methodology for retrieving individual dead trees in a mixed mountain forest using features that are derived from small-footprint airborne full waveform LIDAR data. First, 3D coordinates of the laser beam reflections, the pulse intensity and width are extracted by waveform decomposition. Secondly, 3D single trees are detected by an integrated approach, which delineates both dominate tree crowns and understory small trees in the canopy height model (CHM) using the watershed algorithm followed by applying normalized cuts segmentation to merged watershed areas. Thus, single trees can be obtained as 3D point segments associated with waveform-specific features per point. Furthermore, the tree segments are delivered to feature definition process to derive geometric and reflectional features at single tree level, e.g. volume and maximal diameter of crown, mean intensity, gap fraction, etc. Finally, the spanned feature space for the tree segments is forwarded to a binary classifier using support vector machine (SVM) in order to discriminate dead trees from the living ones. The methodology is applied to datasets that have been captured with the Riegl LMSQ560 laser scanner at a point density of 25 points/m2 in the Bavarian Forest National Park, Germany, respectively under leaf-on and leaf-off conditions for Norway spruces, European beeches and Sycamore maples. The classification experiments lead in the best case to an overall accuracy of 73% in a leaf

  15. A computational method to help identify and measure metal lines in high resolution QSO spectra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi-Heng Shi; David Tytler; Jin-Liang Hou; David Kirkman; Jeffery Lee; Benjamin Ou

    2011-01-01

    A computational code is developed to help identify metal absorption lines in high resolution QSO spectra,especially in the Lyα forest.The input to the code includes a list of line central wavelengths,column densities and Doppler widths.The code then searches for candidate metal absorption systems and assesses the probability that each system could be real.The framework of the strategy we employ is described in detail and we discuss how to estimate the errors in line profile fitting that are essential to identification.A series of artificial spectra is constructed to calibrate the performance of the code.Due to the effects of blending and noise on Voigt profile fitting,the completeness of the identification depends on the column density of absorbers.For intermediate and strong artificial metal absorbers,more than 90% could be confirmed by the code.The results of applying the code to the real spectra of QSOs HS0757+5218 and Q0100+1300 are also presented.

  16. Efficacy of the Kyoto Classification of Gastritis in Identifying Patients at High Risk for Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Mitsushige; Ban, Hiromitsu; Ichikawa, Hitomi; Sahara, Shu; Otsuka, Taketo; Inatomi, Osamu; Bamba, Shigeki; Furuta, Takahisa; Andoh, Akira

    2017-01-01

    Objective The Kyoto gastritis classification categorizes the endoscopic characteristics of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection-associated gastritis and identifies patterns associated with a high risk of gastric cancer. We investigated its efficacy, comparing scores in patients with H. pylori-associated gastritis and with gastric cancer. Methods A total of 1,200 patients with H. pylori-positive gastritis alone (n=932), early-stage H. pylori-positive gastric cancer (n=189), and successfully treated H. pylori-negative cancer (n=79) were endoscopically graded according to the Kyoto gastritis classification for atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, fold hypertrophy, nodularity, and diffuse redness. Results The prevalence of O-II/O-III-type atrophy according to the Kimura-Takemoto classification in early-stage H. pylori-positive gastric cancer and successfully treated H. pylori-negative cancer groups was 45.1%, which was significantly higher than in subjects with gastritis alone (12.7%, pgastritis scores of atrophy and intestinal metaplasia in the H. pylori-positive cancer group were significantly higher than in subjects with gastritis alone (all pgastritis classification may thus be useful for detecting these patients.

  17. Identified particle yield associated with a high-$p_T$ trigger particle at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Veldhoen, Misha; van Leeuwen, Marco

    Identified particle production ratios are important observables, used to constrain models of particle production in heavy-ion collisions. Measurements of the inclusive particle ratio in central heavy-ion collisions showed an increase of the baryon-to-meson ratio compared to proton-proton collisions at intermediate pT, the so-called baryon anomaly. One possible explanation of the baryon anomaly is that partons from the thermalized deconfined QCD matter hadronize in a different way compared to hadrons produced in a vacuum jet. In this work we extend on previous measurements by measuring particle ratios in the yield associated with a high-pT trigger particle. These measurements can potentially further constrain the models of particle production since they are sensitive to the difference between particles from a jet and particles that are produced in the bulk. We start by developing a particle identification method that uses both the specific energy loss of a particle and the time of flight. From there, we presen...

  18. Preparation of activated carbon with high surface area for high-capacity methane storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bingsi Liua; Wenshuo Wanga; Na Wanga; Peter Chak Tong Aub

    2014-01-01

    Activated carbon (AC) was fabricated from corncob, which is cheap and abundant. Experimental parameters such as particle size of corncob, KOH/char weight ratio, and activation temperature and time were optimized to generate AC, which shows high methane sorption capacity. AC has high specific surface area (3227 m2/g), with pore volume and pore size distribution equal to 1.829 cm3/g and ca. 1.7-2.2 nm, respectively. Under the condition of 2◦C and less than 7.8 MPa, methane sorption in the presence of water (Rw=1.4) was as high as 43.7 wt%methane per unit mass of dry AC. The result is significantly higher than those of coconut-derived AC (32 wt%) and ordered mesoporous carbon (41.2 wt%, Rw=4.07) under the same condition. The physical properties and amorphous chaotic structure of AC were characterized by N2 adsorption isotherms, XRD, SEM and HRTEM. Hence, the corncob-derived AC can be considered as a competitive methane-storage material for vehicles, which are run by natural gas.

  19. Identifying, monitoring and implementing "sustainable" agricultural practices for smallholder farmers over large geographic areas in India and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritee, K.; Ahuja, R.; Nair, D.; Esteves, T.; Rudek, J.; Thu Ha, T.

    2015-12-01

    Industrial agriculture systems, mostly in developed and some emerging economies, are far different from the small-holder farms (size families, we have worked actively in five states in India and two provinces in Vietnam for the last five years to understand how sustainable and climate smart farming practices can be monitored at small-holder farms. Here, any approach to monitor farming must begin by accounting for the tremendous management variability from farm to farm and also the current inability to ground-truth remote sensing data due to lack of relaible basic parameters (e.g., yields, N use, farm boundaries) which are necessary for calibrating empirical/biogeochemical models. While we continue to learn from new research, we have found that it is crucial to follow some steps if sustainable farming programs are to succeed at small-holder farms Demographic data collection and GPS plot demarcation to establish farm size and ownership Baseline nutrient, water & energy use and crop yield determination via surveys and self-reporting which are verifiable through farmer networks given the importance of peer to peer learning in the dissemination of new techniques in such landscapes "Sustainable" practice determination in consultation with local universities/NGO experts Measurements on representative plots for 3-4 years to help calibrate biogeochemical models and/or empirical equations and establish which practices are truly "sustainable" (e.g., GHG emission reduction varies from 0-7 tCO2e/acre for different sustainable practices). Propagation of sustainable practices across the landscape via local NGOs/governments after analyzing the replicability of identified farming practices in the light of local financial, cultural or socio-political barriers. We will present results from representative plots (including soil and weather parameters, GHG emissions, yields, inputs, economic and environmental savings), farmer surveys and diary data; and discuss our key conclusions based

  20. Identifying Sources of Volatile Organic Compounds and Aldehydes in a High Performance Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, Anna C.; Russell, Marion; Lee, Wen-Yee; Apte, Michael; Maddalena, Randy

    2010-09-20

    The developers of the Paharpur Business Center (PBC) and Software Technology Incubator Park in New Delhi, India offer an environmentally sustainable building with a strong emphasis on energy conservation, waste minimization and superior indoor air quality (IAQ). To achieve the IAQ goal, the building utilizes a series of air cleaning technologies for treating the air entering the building. These technologies include an initial water wash followed by ultraviolet light treatment and biolfiltration using a greenhouse located on the roof and numerous plants distributed throughout the building. Even with the extensive treatment of makeup air and room air in the PBC, a recent study found that the concentrations of common volatile organic compounds and aldehydes appear to rise incrementally as the air passes through the building from the supply to the exhaust. This finding highlights the need to consider the minimization of chemical sources in buildings in combination with the use of advanced air cleaning technologies when seeking to achieve superior IAQ. The goal of this project was to identify potential source materials for indoor chemicals in the PBC. Samples of building materials, including wood paneling (polished and unpolished), drywall, and plastic from a hydroponic drum that was part of the air cleaning system, were collected from the building for testing. All materials were collected from the PBC building and shipped to the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) for testing. The materials were pre-conditioned for two different time periods before measuring material and chemical specific emission factors for a range of VOCs and Aldehydes. Of the six materials tested, we found that the highest emitter of formaldehyde was new plywood paneling. Although polish and paint contribute to some VOC emissions, the main influence of the polish was in altering the capacity of the surface to accumulate formaldehyde. Neither the new nor aged polish contributed

  1. Towards a Healthy High Street: Identifying Skill Needs in Small Independent Retailers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrom, John; Parker, Cathy; Harris, John

    2002-01-01

    Secondary analysis of data from a study of skill needs in the British independent retail sector suggests there is justification for focusing on higher-level training in three areas: building and sustaining competitive advantage, e-commerce, and retail operations. These areas are the core modules in a distance learning initiative that resulted from…

  2. Comparison of Free-Living Amoebae in Hot Water Systems of Hospitals with Isolates from Moist Sanitary Areas by Identifying Genera and Determining Temperature Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohr, Ute; Weber, Susanne; Michel, Rolf; Selenka, Fidelis; Wilhelm, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Legionella-contaminated hot water systems and moist sanitary areas in six hospitals were sampled for amoebae by following a standardized collection protocol. Genus identifications and temperature tolerance determinations were made. Amoebae identified as Hartmannella vermiformis (65%), Echinamoebae spp. (15%), Saccamoebae spp. (12%), and Vahlkampfia spp. (9%) were detected in 29 of 56 (52%) hot water samples. Twenty-three of 49 (47%) swabs obtained from moist areas were amoeba positive. The following genera were identified: Acanthamoeba (22%), Naegleria (22%), Vahlkampfia (20%), Hartmannella (15%), and Vanella (7%). The temperature tolerance of amoebae from hot water systems was strikingly different from that of amoebae from moist areas. At 44°C on agar, 59% of amoebic isolates sampled from hot water systems showed growth. The corresponding value for isolates from moist areas was only 17%. Six Acanthamoeba isolates from the moist areas were considered potential pathogens. Four Hartmannella and two Saccamoeba isolates from hot water could be cultured at 53°C. PMID:9572957

  3. Optimal Cutoff Points of Anthropometric Parameters to Identify High Coronary Heart Disease Risk in Korean Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Hyuck; Choi, Hyunrim; Won, Chang Won; Kim, Byung-Sung

    2016-01-01

    Several published studies have reported the need to change the cutoff points of anthropometric indices for obesity. We therefore conducted a cross-sectional study to estimate anthropometric cutoff points predicting high coronary heart disease (CHD) risk in Korean adults. We analyzed the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data from 2007 to 2010. A total of 21,399 subjects aged 20 to 79 yr were included in this study (9,204 men and 12,195 women). We calculated the 10-yr Framingham coronary heart disease risk score for all individuals. We then estimated receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves for body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and waist-to-height ratio to predict a 10-yr CHD risk of 20% or more. For sensitivity analysis, we conducted the same analysis for a 10-yr CHD risk of 10% or more. For a CHD risk of 20% or more, the area under the curve of waist-to-height ratio was the highest, followed by waist circumference and BMI. The optimal cutoff points in men and women were 22.7 kg/m(2) and 23.3 kg/m(2) for BMI, 83.2 cm and 79.7 cm for waist circumference, and 0.50 and 0.52 for waist-to-height ratio, respectively. In sensitivity analysis, the results were the same as those reported above except for BMI in women. Our results support the re-classification of anthropometric indices and suggest the clinical use of waist-to-height ratio as a marker for obesity in Korean adults.

  4. Projecting crop yield in northern high latitude area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Kanichiro

    2014-01-01

    Changing climatic conditions on seasonal and longer time scales influence agricultural production. Improvement of soil and fertilizer is a strong factor in agricultural production, but agricultural production is influenced by climate conditions even in highly developed countries. It is valuable if fewer predictors make it possible to conduct future projections. Monthly temperature and precipitation, wintertime 500hPa geopotential height, and the previous year's yield are used as predictors to forecast spring wheat yield in advance. Canadian small agricultural divisions (SAD) are used for analysis. Each SAD is composed of a collection of Canadian Agricultural Regions (CAR) of similar weather and growing conditions. Spring wheat yields in each CAR are forecast from the following variables: (a) the previous year's yield, (b) earlier stages of the growing season's climate conditions and, (c) the previous year's wintertime northern hemisphere 500hPa geopotential height field. Arctic outflow events in the Okanagan Valley in Canada are associated with episodes of extremely low temperatures during wintertime. Principal component analysis (PCA) is applied for wintertime northern hemisphere 500hPa geopotential height anomalies. The spatial PCA mode1 is defined as Arctic Oscillation and it influences prevailing westerlies. The prevailing westerlies meanders and influences climatic conditions. The spatial similarity between wintertime top 5 Arctic outflow event year's composites of 500hPa geopotential height anomalies and mode 3's spatial pattern is found. Mode 3's spatial pattern looks like the Pacific/North American (PNA) pattern which describes the variation of atmospheric circulation pattern over the Pacific Ocean and North America. Climate conditions from April to June, May to July, mode 3's time coefficients, and previous year's yield are used for forecasting spring wheat yield in each SAD. Cross-validation procedure which generates eight sets of models for the eight

  5. Diferenças no padrão de ocorrência da mortalidade neonatal e pós-neonatal no Município de Goiânia, Brasil, 1992-1996: análise espacial para identificação das áreas de risco Differential patterns of neonatal and post-neonatal mortality rates in Goiânia, Brazil, 1992-1996: use of spatial analysis to identify high-risk areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otaliba Libânio de Morais Neto

    2001-10-01

    . Results of post-neonatal mortality showed a high-risk cluster located on the outskirts of the city. For the neonatal period, a heterogeneous mortality pattern was found with high-risk districts in all regions, including central areas.

  6. Whole-exome sequencing and high throughput genotyping identified KCNJ11 as the thirteenth MODY gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amélie Bonnefond

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Maturity-onset of the young (MODY is a clinically heterogeneous form of diabetes characterized by an autosomal-dominant mode of inheritance, an onset before the age of 25 years, and a primary defect in the pancreatic beta-cell function. Approximately 30% of MODY families remain genetically unexplained (MODY-X. Here, we aimed to use whole-exome sequencing (WES in a four-generation MODY-X family to identify a new susceptibility gene for MODY. METHODOLOGY: WES (Agilent-SureSelect capture/Illumina-GAIIx sequencing was performed in three affected and one non-affected relatives in the MODY-X family. We then performed a high-throughput multiplex genotyping (Illumina-GoldenGate assay of the putative causal mutations in the whole family and in 406 controls. A linkage analysis was also carried out. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By focusing on variants of interest (i.e. gains of stop codon, frameshift, non-synonymous and splice-site variants not reported in dbSNP130 present in the three affected relatives and not present in the control, we found 69 mutations. However, as WES was not uniform between samples, a total of 324 mutations had to be assessed in the whole family and in controls. Only one mutation (p.Glu227Lys in KCNJ11 co-segregated with diabetes in the family (with a LOD-score of 3.68. No KCNJ11 mutation was found in 25 other MODY-X unrelated subjects. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Beyond neonatal diabetes mellitus (NDM, KCNJ11 is also a MODY gene ('MODY13', confirming the wide spectrum of diabetes related phenotypes due to mutations in NDM genes (i.e. KCNJ11, ABCC8 and INS. Therefore, the molecular diagnosis of MODY should include KCNJ11 as affected carriers can be ideally treated with oral sulfonylureas.

  7. A high throughput genetic screen identifies new early meiotic recombination functions in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud De Muyt

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Meiotic recombination is initiated by the formation of numerous DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs catalysed by the widely conserved Spo11 protein. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Spo11 requires nine other proteins for meiotic DSB formation; however, unlike Spo11, few of these are conserved across kingdoms. In order to investigate this recombination step in higher eukaryotes, we took advantage of a high-throughput meiotic mutant screen carried out in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. A collection of 55,000 mutant lines was screened, and spo11-like mutations, characterised by a drastic decrease in chiasma formation at metaphase I associated with an absence of synapsis at prophase, were selected. This screen led to the identification of two populations of mutants classified according to their recombination defects: mutants that repair meiotic DSBs using the sister chromatid such as Atdmc1 or mutants that are unable to make DSBs like Atspo11-1. We found that in Arabidopsis thaliana at least four proteins are necessary for driving meiotic DSB repair via the homologous chromosomes. These include the previously characterised DMC1 and the Hop1-related ASY1 proteins, but also the meiotic specific cyclin SDS as well as the Hop2 Arabidopsis homologue AHP2. Analysing the mutants defective in DSB formation, we identified the previously characterised AtSPO11-1, AtSPO11-2, and AtPRD1 as well as two new genes, AtPRD2 and AtPRD3. Our data thus increase the number of proteins necessary for DSB formation in Arabidopsis thaliana to five. Unlike SPO11 and (to a minor extent PRD1, these two new proteins are poorly conserved among species, suggesting that the DSB formation mechanism, but not its regulation, is conserved among eukaryotes.

  8. High occurrence of jellyfish predation by black-browed and Campbell albatross identified by DNA metabarcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnes, Julie C; Alderman, Rachael; Lea, Mary-Anne; Raymond, Ben; Deagle, Bruce E; Phillips, Richard A; Stanworth, Andrew; Thompson, David R; Catry, Paulo; Weimerskirch, Henri; Suazo, Cristián G; Gras, Michaël; Jarman, Simon N

    2017-07-22

    Gelatinous zooplankton are a large component of the animal biomass in all marine environments, but are considered to be uncommon in the diet of most marine top predators. However, the diets of key predator groups like seabirds have conventionally been assessed from stomach content analyses, which cannot detect most gelatinous prey. As marine top predators are used to identify changes in the overall species composition of marine ecosystems, such biases in dietary assessment may impact our detection of important ecosystem regime shifts. We investigated albatross diet using DNA metabarcoding of scats to assess the prevalence of gelatinous zooplankton consumption by two albatross species, one of which is used as an indicator species for ecosystem monitoring. Black-browed and Campbell albatross scats were collected from eight breeding colonies covering the circumpolar range of these birds over two consecutive breeding seasons. Fish was the main dietary item at most sites; however, cnidarian DNA, primarily from scyphozoan jellyfish, was present in 42% of samples overall and up to 80% of samples at some sites. Jellyfish was detected during all breeding stages and consumed by adults and chicks. Trawl fishery catches of jellyfish near the Falkland Islands indicate a similar frequency of jellyfish occurrence in albatross diets in years of high and low jellyfish availability, suggesting jellyfish consumption may be selective rather than opportunistic. Warmer oceans and overfishing of finfish are predicted to favour jellyfish population increases, and we demonstrate here that dietary DNA metabarcoding enables measurements of the contribution of gelatinous zooplankton to the diet of marine predators. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Highly efficient gluten degradation with a newly identified prolyl endoprotease: implications for celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepniak, Dariusz; Spaenij-Dekking, Liesbeth; Mitea, Cristina; Moester, Martine; de Ru, Arnoud; Baak-Pablo, Renee; van Veelen, Peter; Edens, Luppo; Koning, Frits

    2006-10-01

    Celiac disease is a T cell-driven intolerance to wheat gluten. The gluten-derived T cell epitopes are proline-rich and thereby highly resistant to proteolytic degradation within the gastrointestinal tract. Oral supplementation with prolyl oligopeptidases has therefore been proposed as a potential therapeutic approach. The enzymes studied, however, have limitations as they are irreversibly inactivated by pepsin and acidic pH, both present in the stomach. As a consequence, these enzymes will fail to degrade gluten before it reaches the small intestine, the site where gluten induces inflammatory T cell responses that lead to celiac disease. We have now determined the usefulness of a newly identified prolyl endoprotease from Aspergillus niger for this purpose. Gluten and its peptic/tryptic digest were treated with prolyl endoprotease, and the destruction of the T cell epitopes was tested using mass spectrometry, T cell proliferation assays, ELISA, reverse-phase HPLC, SDS-PAGE, and Western blotting. We observed that the A. niger prolyl endoprotease works optimally at 4-5 pH, remains stable at 2 pH, and is completely resistant to digestion with pepsin. Moreover, the A. niger-derived enzyme efficiently degraded all tested T cell stimulatory peptides as well as intact gluten molecules. On average, the endoprotease from A. niger degraded gluten peptides 60 times faster than a prolyl oligopeptidase. Together these results indicate that the enzyme from A. niger efficiently degrades gluten proteins. Future studies are required to determine if the prolyl endoprotease can be used as an oral supplement to reduce gluten intake in patients.

  10. Forecasting and analyzing high O3 time series in educational area through an improved chaotic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Nor Zila Abd; Adenan, Nur Hamiza; Noorani, Mohd Salmi Md

    2017-08-01

    Forecasting and analyzing the ozone (O3) concentration time series is important because the pollutant is harmful to health. This study is a pilot study for forecasting and analyzing the O3 time series in one of Malaysian educational area namely Shah Alam using chaotic approach. Through this approach, the observed hourly scalar time series is reconstructed into a multi-dimensional phase space, which is then used to forecast the future time series through the local linear approximation method. The main purpose is to forecast the high O3 concentrations. The original method performed poorly but the improved method addressed the weakness thereby enabling the high concentrations to be successfully forecast. The correlation coefficient between the observed and forecasted time series through the improved method is 0.9159 and both the mean absolute error and root mean squared error are low. Thus, the improved method is advantageous. The time series analysis by means of the phase space plot and Cao method identified the presence of low-dimensional chaotic dynamics in the observed O3 time series. Results showed that at least seven factors affect the studied O3 time series, which is consistent with the listed factors from the diurnal variations investigation and the sensitivity analysis from past studies. In conclusion, chaotic approach has been successfully forecast and analyzes the O3 time series in educational area of Shah Alam. These findings are expected to help stakeholders such as Ministry of Education and Department of Environment in having a better air pollution management.

  11. Pulmonary tuberculosis and associated factors in areas of high levels of poverty in Chiapas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Pérez, H; Flores-Hernández, J; Jansá, J; Caylá, J; Martín-Mateo, M

    2001-04-01

    To estimate the prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and factors associated with PTB in areas of high levels of poverty in Chiapas, Mexico. In 1998 active case-finding was carried out among those aged over 14 years who had a cough of > or =15 days duration, in a convenience sample of 1894 households in 32 communities selected at random based on the level of poverty and on the level of access to health services, measured by travelling time ( or =1 hour) from the community to the nearest health care unit. Of the 277 identified with a productive cough, we obtained sputum samples from 228 for the purposes of detecting PTB through acid-fast smears and cultures. Mycobacteria characterization was carried out using the BACTEC method. The identification of factors associated with PTB was performed using bivariate analysis and via logistic regression models. A PTB rate of 276.9 per 100 000 persons aged > or =15 years was found (95% CI : 161-443). Blood in sputum was the only factor associated with PTB (none of the demographic or socioeconomic characteristics were). Of 16 positive cultures, 14 became contaminated. The two cultures characterized were Mycobacterium tuberculosis (one being multiresistant). The high prevalence of PTB detected indicates the need, both in the area studied and in others with similar conditions, to develop PTB control programmes which give priority to early diagnosis and to the provision of adequate treatment.

  12. Identifying modular flows on multilayer networks reveals highly overlapping organization in social systems

    CERN Document Server

    De Domenico, Manlio; Arenas, Alex; Rosvall, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Unveiling the community structure of networks is a powerful methodology to comprehend interconnected systems across the social and natural sciences. To identify different types of functional modules in interaction data aggregated in a single network layer, researchers have developed many powerful methods. For example, flow-based methods have proven useful for identifying modular dynamics in weighted and directed networks that capture constraints on flow in the systems they represent. However, many networked systems consist of agents or components that exhibit multiple layers of interactions. Inevitably, representing this intricate network of networks as a single aggregated network leads to information loss and may obscure the actual organization. Here we propose a method based on compression of network flows that can identify modular flows in non-aggregated multilayer networks. Our numerical experiments on synthetic networks show that the method can accurately identify modules that cannot be identified in agg...

  13. A Clinical Algorithm to Identify HIV Patients at High Risk for Incident Active Tuberculosis: A Prospective 5-Year Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Shin-Jung Lee

    Full Text Available Predicting the risk of tuberculosis (TB in people living with HIV (PLHIV using a single test is currently not possible. We aimed to develop and validate a clinical algorithm, using baseline CD4 cell counts, HIV viral load (pVL, and interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA, to identify PLHIV who are at high risk for incident active TB in low-to-moderate TB burden settings where highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART is routinely provided.A prospective, 5-year, cohort study of adult PLHIV was conducted from 2006 to 2012 in two hospitals in Taiwan. HAART was initiated based on contemporary guidelines (CD4 count < = 350/μL. Cox regression was used to identify the predictors of active TB and to construct the algorithm. The validation cohorts included 1455 HIV-infected individuals from previous published studies. Area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was calculated.Seventeen of 772 participants developed active TB during a median follow-up period of 5.21 years. Baseline CD4 < 350/μL or pVL ≥ 100,000/mL was a predictor of active TB (adjusted HR 4.87, 95% CI 1.49-15.90, P = 0.009. A positive baseline IGRA predicted TB in patients with baseline CD4 ≥ 350/μL and pVL < 100,000/mL (adjusted HR 6.09, 95% CI 1.52-24.40, P = 0.01. Compared with an IGRA-alone strategy, the algorithm improved the sensitivity from 37.5% to 76.5%, the negative predictive value from 98.5% to 99.2%. Compared with an untargeted strategy, the algorithm spared 468 (60.6% from unnecessary TB preventive treatment. Area under the ROC curve was 0.692 (95% CI: 0.587-0.798 for the study cohort and 0.792 (95% CI: 0.776-0.808 and 0.766 in the 2 validation cohorts.A validated algorithm incorporating the baseline CD4 cell count, HIV viral load, and IGRA status can be used to guide targeted TB preventive treatment in PLHIV in low-to-moderate TB burden settings where HAART is routinely provided to all PLHIV. The implementation of this algorithm will avoid unnecessary

  14. Array Manipulation And Matrix-Tree Method To Identify High Concentration Regions HCRs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachana Arora

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract-Sequence Alignment and Analysis is one of the most important applications of bioinformatics. It involves alignment a pair or more sequences with each other and identify a common pattern that would ultimately lead to conclusions of homology or dissimilarity. A number of algorithms that make use of dynamic programming to perform alignment between sequences are available. One of their main disadvantages is that they involve complicated computations and backtracking methods that are difficult to implement. This paper describes a much simpler method to identify common regions in 2 sequences and align them based on the density of common sequences identified.

  15. Novel Dielectric Coagulometer Identifies Hypercoagulability in Patients with a High CHADS2 Score without Atrial Fibrillation.

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    Yuki Hasegawa

    Full Text Available Recent reports showed that the CHADS2 score predicted the risk of strokes in patients without atrial fibrillation (AF. Although the hypercoagulability may contribute to the thrombogenesis, it has not been fully investigated due to a lack of a sensitive evaluation modality. Recently a novel dielectric blood coagulometry (DBCM was invented for evaluating the coagulability by measuring the temporal change in whole blood dielectric permittivity.We evaluated the utility of the DBCM for identifying the coagulability.For fundamental experiments, 133 citrated blood samples were drawn from subjects with or without heparin administration. A DBCM analysis was performed to find the adequate coagulation index, and to delineate its measurement range by adding recombinant human tissue factor (TF or heparin. Then the coagulability was assessed by DBCM and conventional coagulation assays in 84 subjects without AF, who were divided into 3 groups by their CHADS2 score. Another 17 patients who received warfarin were also assessed by DBCM to evaluate the effect of anticoagulants.We calculated the derivative of the dielectric permittivity change after recalcification, and extracted the end of acceleration time (EAT as a novel index. The EAT showed a dose-dependent shortening with the addition of serial dilutions of TF (×10-2 to ×10-4, and a dose-dependent prolongation with the addition of heparin (0.05 to 0.15 U/ml. The EAT was significantly shorter in the higher CHADS2 score group (19.8 ± 4.8, 18.6 ± 3.1, and 16.3 ± 2.7 min in the CHADS2 = 0, 1, and ≥2 groups, respectively, p = 0.0065 by ANOVA. Patients receiving warfarin had a significantly more prolonged EAT than those without warfarin (18.6±4.2 vs. 25.8±7.3 min, p <0.001. DBCM detected the whole blood coagulability with a high sensitivity. Subjects with higher CHADS2 scores exhibited hypercoagulability without AF.

  16. Preoperative 3T high field blood oxygen level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging for glioma involving sensory cortical areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shao-wu; WANG Jiang-fei; JIANG Tao; LI Shou-wei; ZHANG Wen-bo; LI Zi-xiao; ZHANG Zhong; DAI Jian-ping; WANG Zhong-cheng

    2010-01-01

    Background Localization of sensory cortical areas during the operation is essential to preserve the sensory function.Intraoperative direct electrostimulation under awake anesthesia is the golden standard but time-consuming. We applied 3T high field blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify the relationship between glioma and cortical sensory areas preoperatively and to guide intraoperative direct electrostimulation for quick and precise localization.Methods Five glioma patients with sensory cortex involvement by or next to the lesion had preoperative BOLD fMRI to determine the spatial relationship of cortical sensory areas to the tumours. Bilateral hand opposite movement was performed by these patients for fMRI. Precentral and postcentral gyri were identified by electrical stimulation during the operation. Karnofsky Performance Status scores of the patients' pre- and postoperative and the role of BOLD fMRI were evaluated.Results The cortical sensory areas were all activated in five glioma patients involving postcentral gyrus areas by BOLDf MRI with bilateral hand opposite movement. The detected activation areas corresponded with the results from cortical electrical stimulation.Conclusions The relationship between cortical sensory areas and tumour can be accurately shown by BOLD fMRI before operation. And the information used to make the tumour resection could obtain good clinical results.

  17. A Prospective Cohort Study of Absconsion Incidents in Forensic Psychiatric Settings: Can We Identify Those at High-Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Alexis E; Jewell, Amelia; Tully, John; Coghlan, Suzanne; Dean, Kimberlie; Fahy, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Incidents of absconsion in forensic psychiatric units can have potentially serious consequences, yet surprisingly little is known about the characteristics of patients who abscond from these settings. The few previous studies conducted to date have employed retrospective designs, and no attempt has been made to develop an empirically-derived risk assessment scale. In this prospective study, we aimed to identify predictors of absconsion over a two-year period and investigate the feasibility of developing a brief risk assessment scale. The study examined a representative sample of 135 patients treated in forensic medium- and low-secure wards. At baseline, demographic, clinical, treatment-related, and offending/behavioural factors were ascertained from electronic medical records and the treating teams. Incidents of absconsion (i.e., failure to return from leave, incidents of escape, and absconding whilst on escorted leave) were assessed at a two-year follow-up. Logistic regression analyses were used to determine the strongest predictors of absconsion which were then weighted according to their ability to discriminate absconders and non-absconders. The predictive utility of a brief risk assessment scale based on these weighted items was evaluated using receiver operator characteristics (ROC). During the two-year follow-up period, 27 patients (20%) absconded, accounting for 56 separate incidents. In multivariate analyses, four factors relating to offending and behaviour emerged as the strongest predictors of absconsion: history of sexual offending, previous absconsion, recent inpatient verbal aggression, and recent inpatient substance use. The weighted risk scale derived from these factors had moderate-to-good predictive accuracy (ROC area under the curve: 0.80; sensitivity: 067; specificity: 0.71), a high negative predictive value (0.91), but a low positive predictive value (0.34). Potentially-targetable recent behaviours, such as inpatient verbal aggression and

  18. Reflections on Developing Secondary Vocational Education in High-Poverty Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiang; Chen, Guofeng

    2013-01-01

    Developing vocational education is a necessity for the economic and social development of high-poverty areas in China. But vocational education in impoverished areas lacks social recognition and faces funding shortages, along with difficulties in recruiting students. Vocational high schools themselves also have shortcomings. This article considers…

  19. Reflections on Developing Secondary Vocational Education in High-Poverty Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiang; Chen, Guofeng

    2013-01-01

    Developing vocational education is a necessity for the economic and social development of high-poverty areas in China. But vocational education in impoverished areas lacks social recognition and faces funding shortages, along with difficulties in recruiting students. Vocational high schools themselves also have shortcomings. This article considers…

  20. A Comparative Study of Two Groups of Sex Offenders Identified as High and Low Risk on the Static-99

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coxe, Ray; Holmes, William

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify possible differences between high- and low-risk sex offenders. The subjects included 285 sex offenders on probation. They were evaluated with the Static-99, Abel Assessment, Raven's, and MMPI-2. A criminal history review identified the number of prior offenses and the age/sex category in the index offense.…

  1. The Development of Deaf and Hard of Hearing Children Identified Early through the High-Risk Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apuzzo, Mah-rya L.; Yoshinaga-Itano, Christine

    1998-01-01

    This study examined developmental characteristics of 82 deaf and hard-of-hearing children identified through the high-risk registry in Colorado either before or after 6 months of age. Children identified early and receiving intervention two to three months after identification had significantly higher levels of receptive and expressive language,…

  2. Detection of previously undiagnosed cases of COPD in a high-risk population identified in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkke, Anders; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Dahl, Ronald;

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aim: Under-diagnosis of COPD is a widespread problem. This study aimed to identify previously undiagnosed cases of COPD in a high-risk population identified through general practice. Methods: Participating GPs (n = 241) recruited subjects with no previous diagnosis of lung disease,...

  3. Case finding for patients at risk of readmission to hospital: development of algorithm to identify high risk patients

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    John Billings; Jennifer Dixon; Tod Mijanovich; David Wennberg

    2006-01-01

    Objective To develop a method of identifying patients at high risk of readmission to hospital in the next 12 months for practical use by primary care trusts and general practices in the NHS in England...

  4. A sanitary cooperation project in Gorontalo province, Indonesia. Methodology to identifying critical areas, possible strengthening and improving of the health system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Reginato

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Following an agreement between UNDP (United Nations Development Program and ANAAO Assomed (Italian Hospital Doctors Association, a team of ANAAO conducted a survey of the health system of the Province of Gorontalo (Sulawesi – Indonesia. The survey was carried out following WHO methodology. This approach provided a comprehensive assessment which cut across WHO’s six technical building blocks of the health system: 1 Service delivery, 2 Health workforce, 3 Health information system, 4 Medical products (drugs etc. vaccines and technologies, 5 Health financing, 6 Leadership and governance. The team visited the hospitals and a significant number of peripheral health structures within the Province.
    Several meetings were conducted with the staff from both local political and institutions, with the aim of identifying critical areas, that would inform the development of a cooperation project to strengthen and improve the local health system.
    At the end of the survey, a workshop was conducted with the Governor of Gorontalo and representatives of
    the local institutions to identify possible areas of cooperation between ANAAO Assomed and the Gorontalo
    Province.
    The initial proposals that were developed concerned short, medium and long term projects, identifying areas
    where immediate actions were required: i Basic organization of a health system (collection of data and their use, budget, economical sector and primary health care: ii Public hygiene and preventive medicine, iii Gynaecology, to help identify at risk pregnancies and reduce the known risk of maternal mortality, iv Surgery, with regards to the re-organization of the surgical sector, training for specialized nurses and basic surgical training at the territorial health posts, v Intensive care units and emergency medicine.

  5. Detection of flood extent in urban areas using high resolution TerraSAR-X data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, D.; Speck, R.; Devereux, B.; Schumann, G.; Neal, J.; Bates, P.

    2009-04-01

    Flooding is a major hazard in both rural and urban areas worldwide, but it is in urban areas that the impacts are most severe. An investigation of the ability of high resolution TerraSAR-X data to detect flooded regions in urban areas is described. An important application for this would be the calibration and validation of the flood extent predicted by an urban flood inundation model. To date, research on such models has been hampered by lack of suitable distributed validation data. The study uses a 3m resolution TerraSAR-X image of a 1-in-150 year flood near Tewkesbury, UK, in 2007, for which contemporaneous aerial photography exists for validation. The DLR SETES SAR simulator was used in conjunction with airborne LiDAR data to estimate regions of the TerraSAR-X image in which water would not be visible due to radar shadow or layover caused by buildings and taller vegetation, and these regions were masked out in the flood detection process. A semi-automatic algorithm for the detection of floodwater was developed, based on a hybrid approach. Flooding in rural areas adjacent to the urban areas was detected using an active contour model (snake) region-growing algorithm seeded using the un-flooded river channel network, which was applied to the TerraSAR-X image fused with the LiDAR DTM to ensure the smooth variation of heights along the reach. A simpler region-growing approach was used in the urban areas, which was initialized using knowledge of the flood waterline in the rural areas. Seed pixels having low backscatter were identified in the urban areas using supervised classification based on training areas for water taken from the rural flood, and non-water taken from the higher urban areas. Seed pixels were required to have heights less than a spatially-varying height threshold determined from nearby rural waterline heights. Seed pixels were clustered into urban flood regions based on their close proximity, rather than requiring that all pixels in the region

  6. High-density genetic mapping identifies new susceptibility loci for rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eyre, Steve; Bowes, John; Diogo, Dorothee; Lee, Annette; Barton, Anne; Martin, Paul; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Stahl, Eli; Viatte, Sebastien; McAllister, Kate; Amos, Christopher I.; Padyukov, Leonid; Toes, Rene E. M.; Huizinga, Tom W. J.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Trynka, Gosia; Franke, Lude; Westra, Harm-Jan; Alfredsson, Lars; Hu, Xinli; Sandor, Cynthia; de Bakker, Paul I. W.; Davila, Sonia; Khor, Chiea Chuen; Heng, Khai Koon; Andrews, Robert; Edkins, Sarah; Hunt, Sarah E.; Langford, Cordelia; Symmons, Deborah; Concannon, Pat; Onengut-Gumuscu, Suna; Rich, Stephen S.; Deloukas, Panos; Gonzalez-Gay, Miguel A.; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Luis; Arlsetig, Lisbeth; Martin, Javier; Rantapaa-Dahlqvist, Solbritt; Plenge, Robert M.; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Klareskog, Lars; Gregersen, Peter K.; Worthington, Jane

    2012-01-01

    Using the Immunochip custom SNP array, which was designed for dense genotyping of 186 loci identified through genome-wide association studies (GWAS), we analyzed 11,475 individuals with rheumatoid arthritis (cases) of European ancestry and 15,870 controls for 129,464 markers. We combined these data

  7. Identified particle yield associated with a high-pT trigger particle at the LHC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhoen, M.

    2016-01-01

    Identified particle production ratios are important observables, used to constrain models of particle production in heavy-ion collisions. Measurements of the inclusive particle ratio in central heavy-ion collisions showed an increase of the baryon-to-meson ratio compared to proton-proton collisions

  8. Identifying Modular Flows on Multilayer Networks Reveals Highly Overlapping Organization in Interconnected Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Domenico, Manlio; Lancichinetti, Andrea; Arenas, Alex; Rosvall, Martin

    2015-01-01

    To comprehend interconnected systems across the social and natural sciences, researchers have developed many powerful methods to identify functional modules. For example, with interaction data aggregated into a single network layer, flow-based methods have proven useful for identifying modular dynamics in weighted and directed networks that capture constraints on flow processes. However, many interconnected systems consist of agents or components that exhibit multiple layers of interactions, possibly from several different processes. Inevitably, representing this intricate network of networks as a single aggregated network leads to information loss and may obscure the actual organization. Here, we propose a method based on a compression of network flows that can identify modular flows both within and across layers in nonaggregated multilayer networks. Our numerical experiments on synthetic multilayer networks, with some layers originating from the same interaction process, show that the analysis fails in aggregated networks or when treating the layers separately, whereas the multilayer method can accurately identify modules across layers that originate from the same interaction process. We capitalize on our findings and reveal the community structure of two multilayer collaboration networks with topics as layers: scientists affiliated with the Pierre Auger Observatory and scientists publishing works on networks on the arXiv. Compared to conventional aggregated methods, the multilayer method uncovers connected topics and reveals smaller modules with more overlap that better capture the actual organization.

  9. High-throughput respirometric assay identifies predictive toxicophore of mitochondrial injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wills, Lauren P. [MitoHealth Inc., Charleston, SC 29403 (United States); Beeson, Gyda C.; Trager, Richard E.; Lindsey, Christopher C. [Department of Drug Discovery and Biomedical Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States); Beeson, Craig C. [MitoHealth Inc., Charleston, SC 29403 (United States); Peterson, Yuri K. [Department of Drug Discovery and Biomedical Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States); Schnellmann, Rick G., E-mail: schnell@musc.edu [Department of Drug Discovery and Biomedical Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States); Ralph H. Johnson VA Medical Center, Charleston, SC 29401 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Many environmental chemicals and drugs negatively affect human health through deleterious effects on mitochondrial function. Currently there is no chemical library of mitochondrial toxicants, and no reliable methods for predicting mitochondrial toxicity. We hypothesized that discrete toxicophores defined by distinct chemical entities can identify previously unidentified mitochondrial toxicants. We used a respirometric assay to screen 1760 compounds (5 μM) from the LOPAC and ChemBridge DIVERSet libraries. Thirty-one of the assayed compounds decreased uncoupled respiration, a stress test for mitochondrial dysfunction, prior to a decrease in cell viability and reduced the oxygen consumption rate in isolated mitochondria. The mitochondrial toxicants were grouped by chemical similarity and two clusters containing four compounds each were identified. Cheminformatic analysis of one of the clusters identified previously uncharacterized mitochondrial toxicants from the ChemBridge DIVERSet. This approach will enable the identification of mitochondrial toxicants and advance the prediction of mitochondrial toxicity for both drug discovery and risk assessment. - Highlights: • Respirometric assay conducted in RPTC to create mitochondrial toxicant database. • Chemically similar mitochondrial toxicants aligned as mitochondrial toxicophores • Mitochondrial toxicophore identifies five novel mitochondrial toxicants.

  10. The Baby TALK Model: An Innovative Approach to Identifying High-Risk Children and Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalpando, Aimee Hilado; Leow, Christine; Hornstein, John

    2012-01-01

    This research report examines the Baby TALK model, an innovative early childhood intervention approach used to identify, recruit, and serve young children who are at-risk for developmental delays, mental health needs, and/or school failure, and their families. The report begins with a description of the model. This description is followed by an…

  11. Application of Geographic Information System Methods to Identify Areas Yielding Water that will be Replaced by Water from the Colorado River in the Vidal and Chemehuevi Areas, California, and the Mohave Mesa Area, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangler, Lawrence E.; Angeroth, Cory E.; Walton, Sarah J.

    2008-01-01

    Relations between the elevation of the static water level in wells and the elevation of the accounting surface within the Colorado River aquifer in the vicinity of Vidal, California, the Chemehuevi Indian Reservation, California, and on Mohave Mesa, Arizona, were used to determine which wells outside the flood plain of the Colorado River are presumed to yield water that will be replaced by water from the Colorado River. Wells that have a static water-level elevation equal to or below the elevation of the accounting surface are presumed to yield water that will be replaced by water from the Colorado River. Geographic Information System (GIS) interpolation tools were used to produce maps of areas where water levels are above, below, and near (within ? 0.84 foot) the accounting surface. Calculated water-level elevations and interpolated accounting-surface elevations were determined for 33 wells in the vicinity of Vidal, 16 wells in the Chemehuevi area, and 35 wells on Mohave Mesa. Water-level measurements generally were taken in the last 10 years with steel and electrical tapes accurate to within hundredths of a foot. A Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) was used to determine land-surface elevations to within an operational accuracy of ? 0.43 foot, resulting in calculated water-level elevations having a 95-percent confidence interval of ? 0.84 foot. In the Vidal area, differences in elevation between the accounting surface and measured water levels range from -2.7 feet below to as much as 17.6 feet above the accounting surface. Relative differences between the elevation of the water level and the elevation of the accounting surface decrease from west to east and from north to south. In the Chemehuevi area, differences in elevation range from -3.7 feet below to as much as 8.7 feet above the accounting surface, which is established at 449.6 feet in the vicinity of Lake Havasu. In all of the Mohave Mesa area, the water-level elevation is near or below the

  12. Identifying a guiding list of high involvement practices in human resource management

    OpenAIRE

    M. Rosario Perello-Marin; Gabriela Ribes-Giner

    2014-01-01

    In today global competitiveness, it is becoming increasingly frequent, the introduction of new management practices to organizations, seeking to enhance performance as a form of Management Innovation (MI). This is so because such practices are usually difficult to replicate exactly from one company to another, provided they are well rooted in the daily work in the organization. The main purpose of this paper is, by reviewing the previous work done in this area, to present a general list of Hu...

  13. Sex Differences in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Identified within a High-Risk Infant Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Bryson, Susan E.; Szatmari, Peter; Brian, Jessica; Smith, Isabel M.; Roberts, Wendy; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Roncadin, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    Sex differences were examined in 3-year-olds with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) ascertained from a high-risk cohort, and high- and low-risk comparison groups. Participants included 319 high-risk siblings and 129 low-risk controls. Eighty-five siblings were diagnosed with ASD, including 57 of 176 boys (32.4%) and 28 of 143 girls (19.6%), implying…

  14. High Resolution Downscaling For Mesoamerica And The Caribbean Of CMIP5 Global Model Simulations: Identifying Vulnerability And Adaptation Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oglesby, R. J.; Rowe, C. M.; Hays, C.

    2012-12-01

    High-resolution (4-12 km) dynamical downscaling simulations of future climate change between now and 2060 have been made for Mesoamerica and the Caribbean. We use the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) regional climate model to downscale results from the NCAR CCSM4 CMIP5 RCP8.5 global simulation. The entire region is covered at 12 km horizontal spatial resolution, with as much as possible (especially in mountainous regions) at 4 km. We compare a control period (2006-2010) with 50 years into the future (2056-2060). The motivation for making these computationally-demanding model simulations is to better define local and regional climate change effects so as to better identify and quantify impacts and associated vulnerabilities. This is an essential precursor to developing robust adaptation strategies. These simulations have been made in conjunction with our partners from the countries involved. As expected, all areas warm, with the warming in general largest in inland regions, and less towards coastal regions. Higher elevation regions also tend to warm somewhat more than lower elevation regions, a result that could not be reliably obtained, in detail, from coarse-scale global models. The precipitation signal is much more mixed, and demonstrates more clearly the need for high resolution. The effects of changes in the large-scale trade wind regime tend to be restricted to the immediate Atlantic coast, while the interior is less-well posed, with some indication of a northward shift in precipitation regime, due to changes both in the large-scale ITCZ, and the regional scale Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico low-level jets. Topographic resolution continues to play a key role. The new results are currently being used by both climate scientists and policy makers to evaluate vulnerabilities, and hence develop adaptation strategies for the affected countries.

  15. High Resolution Tsunami Modelling for the Evaluation of Potential Risk Areas in Setubal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, João.; Silva, Adélio; Leitão, Paulo

    2010-05-01

    Modeling has a relevant role in today's natural hazards mitigation planning as it can cover a wide range of natural phenomena. This is also the case for an event like a tsunami. In order to support the urban planning or prepare emergency response plans it is of major importance to be able to properly evaluate the vulnerability associated with different areas and/or equipments. The use of high resolution models can provide relevant information about the most probable inundation areas which complemented with other data such as the type of buildings, location of prioritary equipments, etc., may effectively contribute to better identify the most vulnerable zones, define rescue and escape routes and adequate the emergency plans to the constraints associated to these type of events. In the framework of FP6 SCHEMA project these concepts are being applied to different test sites and a detailed evaluation of the vulnerability of buildings and people to a tsunami event is being evaluated. One of the sites selected it is located in Portugal, in the Atlantic coast, and it refers to Setúbal area which is located about 40 km south of Lisbon. Within this site two specific locations are being evaluated: one is the city of Setúbal (in the Sado estuary right margin) and the other is the Tróia peninsula (in the Sado estuary left margin). Setúbal city is a medium size town with about 114,000 inhabitants while Tróia is a touristic resort located in a shallow area with a high seasonal occupation and has the river Sado as one of the main sources of income to the city. Setúbal was one of the Portuguese villages that was seriously damaged by the of 1755 earthquake event. The 1755 earthquake, also known as the Great Lisbon Earthquake, took place on 1 November 1755, the catholic holiday of All Saints, around 09:30 AM. The earthquake was followed by a tsunami and fires which caused a huge destruction of Lisboa and Setúbal In the framework of the present study, a detailed evaluation of

  16. Analytical Study of Interdisciplinary Relations in Selected High Priority Areas of Science and Technology Based on Data of ISI Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehri Sedighi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to investigate the interdisciplinary relations in selected high priority areas of science and technology based on ISI data. This is an applied study using scientometric, citation analysis and network analysis methods. After identifying and extracting data from WOS, in order to determine the interdisciplinary relations and the evolution of these relationships, all citations of these records have been analysed. In order to judge the interdisciplinarity of data, the results of the two approaches have been considered: 1-To determine the subject areas of the journals 2- To determine the institutional affiliation of the authors.There is a positive correlation between co-authorship and interdisciplinary approach in all studied areas. There is no significant relation between the number of citations and interdisciplinary approach. Mapping of interdisciplinary relationships in nanotechnology showed this is a unique method to discover the structural patterns of a research area.

  17. Scoring clinical signs can help diagnose canine visceral leishmaniasis in a highly endemic area in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Kleverton Ribeiro; de Mendonça, Vitor Rosa Ramos; Silva, Kellen Matuzzy; do Nascimento, Leopoldo Fabrício Marçal; Mendes-Sousa, Antonio Ferreira; de Pinho, Flaviane Alves; Barral-Netto, Manoel; Barral, Aldina Maria Prado; Cruz, Maria do Socorro Pires e

    2017-01-01

    Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) diagnosis is still a challenge in endemic areas with limited diagnostic resources. This study proposes a score with the potential to distinguish positive CVL cases from negative ones. We studied 265 dogs that tested positive for CVL on ELISA and parasitological tests. A score ranging between 0 and 19 was recorded on the basis of clinical signs. Dogs with CVL had an overall higher positivity of the majority of clinical signs than did dogs without CVL or with ehrlichiosis. Clinical signs such as enlarged lymph nodes (83.93%), muzzle/ear lesions (55.36%), nutritional status (51.79%), bristle condition (57.14%), pale mucosal colour (48.21%), onychogryphosis (58.93%), skin lesion (39.28%), bleeding (12.50%), muzzle depigmentation (41.07%), alopecia (39.29%), blepharitis (21.43%), and keratoconjunctivitis (42.86%) were more frequent in dogs with CVL than in dogs with ehrlichiosis or without CVL. Moreover, the clinical score increased according to the positivity of all diagnostic tests (ELISA, p < 0.001; parasite culture, p = 0.0021; and smear, p = 0.0003). Onychogryphosis (long nails) [odds ratio (OR): 3.529; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.832-6.796; p < 0.001], muzzle depigmentation (OR: 4.651; 95% CI: 2.218-9.750; p < 0.001), and keratoconjunctivitis (OR: 5.400; 95% CI: 2.549-11.441; p < 0.001) were highly associated with CVL. Interestingly, a score cut-off value ≥ 6 had an area under the curve of 0.717 (p < 0.0001), sensitivity of 60.71%, and specificity of 73.64% for CVL diagnosis. The clinical sign-based score for CVL diagnosis suggested herein can help veterinarians reliably identify dogs with CVL in endemic areas with limited diagnostic resources. PMID:28076469

  18. Effect of Activating Agent on the Preparation of Bamboo-Based High Surface Area Activated Carbon by Microwave Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hongying; Wu, Jian; Srinivasakannan, Chandrasekar; Peng, Jinhui; Zhang, Libo

    2016-06-01

    The present work attempts to convert bamboo into a high surface area activated carbon via microwave heating. Different chemical activating agents such as KOH, NaOH, K2CO3 and Na2CO3 were utilized to identify a most suitable activating agent. Among the activating agents tested KOH was found to generate carbon with the highest porosity and surface area. The effect of KOH/C ratio on the porous nature of the activated carbon has been assessed. An optimal KOH/C ratio of 4 was identified, beyond which the surface area as well as the pore volume were found to decrease. At the optimized KOH/C ratio the surface area and the pore volume were estimated to be 3,441 m2/g and 2.093 ml/g, respectively, with the significant proportion of which being microporous (62.3%). Activated carbon prepared under the optimum conditions was further characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Activated carbons with so high surface area and pore volume are very rarely reported, which could be owed to the nature of the precursor and the optimal conditions of mixture ratio adopted in the present work.

  19. Expert Opinion to Identify High-Risk Entry Routes of Canine Rabies into Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, V J; Ward, M P

    2017-03-01

    The proximity of Papua New Guinea (PNG) to canine rabies-endemic countries in South-East Asia presents a risk of incursion of this disease into PNG and the rest of the Oceanic region. The objective of this study was to identify the highest risk routes for entry of dogs - associated with movement of people - into PNG from canine rabies-endemic countries. A structured, in-country expert-elicitation workshop was used, and 20 entry routes were identified. The highest risk routes were three land routes from Papua, Indonesia (hunters, traditional border crossers and unregulated, unchecked 'shopper-crossers') and two sea routes (fishing and logging). These results will be used to direct more detailed risk assessments to develop surveillance strategies and incursion response plans.

  20. Identifying Students' Misconceptions about Nuclear Chemistry: A Study of Turkish High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakiboglu, Canan; Tekin, Berna Bulbul

    2006-01-01

    This study represents the first attempt to elucidate and detail the types of misconceptions high school students hold relating to basic concepts and topics of nuclear chemistry. A diagnostic multiple-choice test was administered to 157 tenth-grade students (15-16 years old) and the data were analyzed. The results show that high school students…

  1. Using High Throughput Screens to Identify Lead Compounds for Alzheimer’s Disease Therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    26  Figure 2.3. Selection rules to identify compounds hits in the AB-GFP fusion assay...example, γ secretase is critical for Notch signaling in embryological development, so completely inhibiting this secretase may have undesirable side...concentrations of AB (68). However, the 12 13 FDA recently ruled that the data from the Phase III clinical trial were inconclusive and problematic

  2. Genetic mapping identifies novel highly protective antigens for an apicomplexan parasite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damer P Blake

    Full Text Available Apicomplexan parasites are responsible for a myriad of diseases in humans and livestock; yet despite intensive effort, development of effective sub-unit vaccines remains a long-term goal. Antigenic complexity and our inability to identify protective antigens from the pool that induce response are serious challenges in the development of new vaccines. Using a combination of parasite genetics and selective barriers with population-based genetic fingerprinting, we have identified that immunity against the most important apicomplexan parasite of livestock (Eimeria spp. was targeted against a few discrete regions of the genome. Herein we report the identification of six genomic regions and, within two of those loci, the identification of true protective antigens that confer immunity as sub-unit vaccines. The first of these is an Eimeria maxima homologue of apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA-1 and the second is a previously uncharacterised gene that we have termed 'immune mapped protein-1' (IMP-1. Significantly, homologues of the AMA-1 antigen are protective with a range of apicomplexan parasites including Plasmodium spp., which suggest that there may be some characteristic(s of protective antigens shared across this diverse group of parasites. Interestingly, homologues of the IMP-1 antigen, which is protective against E. maxima infection, can be identified in Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum. Overall, this study documents the discovery of novel protective antigens using a population-based genetic mapping approach allied with a protection-based screen of candidate genes. The identification of AMA-1 and IMP-1 represents a substantial step towards development of an effective anti-eimerian sub-unit vaccine and raises the possibility of identification of novel antigens for other apicomplexan parasites. Moreover, validation of the parasite genetics approach to identify effective antigens supports its adoption in other parasite systems where legitimate

  3. High density genetic mapping identifies new susceptibility loci for rheumatoid arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Eyre, Steve; Bowes, John; Diogo, Dorothée; Lee, Annette; Barton, Anne; Martin, Paul; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Stahl, Eli; Viatte, Sebastien; McAllister, Kate; Amos, Christopher I.; Padyukov, Leonid; Toes, Rene E. M.; Huizinga, Tom W J; Wijmenga, Cisca

    2012-01-01

    Summary Using the Immunochip custom single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array, designed for dense genotyping of 186 genome wide association study (GWAS) confirmed loci we analysed 11,475 rheumatoid arthritis cases of European ancestry and 15,870 controls for 129,464 markers. The data were combined in meta-analysis with GWAS data from additional independent cases (n=2,363) and controls (n=17,872). We identified fourteen novel loci; nine were associated with rheumatoid arthritis overall and 5 ...

  4. Role of dispersants of oil on copepods in high arctic areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavson, Kim; Nørregaard, Rasmus Dyrmose; Møller, Eva Friis;

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the project is to increase the knowledge on the effects of using dispersants on oil spills in high arctic areas: more precisely, to investigate accumulation in and effects on high arctic copepods. Such knowledge is crucial for performing a robust net environmental benefit analysis...... prior to making a decision as to whether or not dispersant may be allowed as an operational oil spill response in high arctic sea areas....

  5. Beta-Blockers for Exams Identify Students at High Risk of Psychiatric Morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butt, Jawad H; Dalsgaard, Søren; Torp-Pedersen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Beta-blockers relieve the autonomic symptoms of exam-related anxiety and may be beneficial in exam-related and performance anxiety, but knowledge on related psychiatric outcomes is unknown. We hypothesized that beta-blocker therapy for exam-related anxiety identifies young students at...... (HR, 2.67 [95% CI, 1.04-6.82] p = 0.04). CONCLUSION: In healthy students, use of beta-blockers during the exam period was associated with an increased risk of psychiatric outcomes and might identify psychologically vulnerable students who need special attention.......OBJECTIVES: Beta-blockers relieve the autonomic symptoms of exam-related anxiety and may be beneficial in exam-related and performance anxiety, but knowledge on related psychiatric outcomes is unknown. We hypothesized that beta-blocker therapy for exam-related anxiety identifies young students...... at risk of later psychiatric events. METHODS: Using Danish nationwide administrative registries, we studied healthy students aged 14-30 years (1996-2012) with a first-time claimed prescription for a beta-blocker during the exam period (May-June); students who were prescribed a beta-blocker for medical...

  6. Area and Delay Estimation for Constraint-Driven High-Level Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourani-Dargiri, Mehrdad

    1994-01-01

    The flurry of activity in high level synthesis and its increasing popularity as a research topic, both in industry and academia, is a natural consequence of the progress in VLSI design technology and methodology. High level synthesis (HLS) fills the gap between behavioral level and layout level by automatically generating an RTL datapath realization from a behavioral description. The actual circuit layout can be generated later from the RTL datapath using a silicon compiler. A common characteristic of most HLS systems is the lack of consideration to the logic and layout synthesis aspects during the HLS process. The designs generated by these systems may or may not satisfy the initial design requirements and thus the design may need to be changed or modified. One method to address this deficiency is to use estimators, as a bridge between high and low levels, during HLS. The estimators can be iteratively invoked at high levels (e.g. scheduling and allocation) to provide a guiding mechanism to search the design space, which in turn leads to improved design quality and shorter design turnaround time. Motivated by the above observations, in this dissertation we present methods to cover the gap between high and low levels of design hierarchy, including: (1) Scheduling and mixed scheduling-allocation algorithms under time and resource constraints based on Liapunov stability theorem; (2) A neural network based scheduling as an alternative for implementing on parallel machines; (3) A layout estimation method which uses non-probabilistic analytical formulas in a constructive algorithm to estimate the overall area of a datapath; (4) A delay estimation algorithm which identifies false paths at the RTL and computes the static and dynamic critical delay in a datapath. Incorporation of these tools into an experimental HLS system, SYNTEST, has been completed with the overall objective of generating a structural VHDL description of a self-testable RTL datapath from a given

  7. Identifying optimal sites for natural recovery and restoration of impacted biogenic habitats in a special area of conservation using hydrodynamic and habitat suitability modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsäßer, Björn; Fariñas-Franco, Jose M.; Wilson, Conor David; Kregting, Louise; Roberts, Dai

    2013-03-01

    Selection of sites for successful restoration of impacted shellfish populations depends on understanding the dispersion capability and habitat requirements of the species involved. In Strangford Lough, Northern Ireland, the horse mussel (Modiolus modiolus) biogenic reefs cover only a fraction of their historical range with the remaining reefs badly damaged and requiring restoration. Previous experimental trials suggest that translocation of horse mussels accelerates reef recovery and has therefore been proposed as a suitable restoration technique. We used a series of coupled hydrodynamic and particle dispersal models to assess larval dispersion from remnant and translocated populations to identify suitable areas for adult live M. modiolus translocation in Strangford Lough, Northern Ireland. A maximum entropy model (MAXENT) was used to identify if dispersing larvae could reach habitat suitable for adult M. modiolus. From these we predicted if translocated mussels will reseed themselves or be able to act as larval sources for nearby reefs. The dispersal models showed that the remnant M. modiolus populations are largely self-recruiting with little connectivity between them. The majority of larvae settled near the sources and movement was largely dependent on the tides and not influenced by wind or waves. Higher reef elevation resulted in larvae being able to disperse further away from the release point. However, larval numbers away from the source population are likely to be too low for successful recruitment. There was also little connectivity between the Irish Sea and Strangford Lough as any larvae entering the Lough remained predominantly in the Strangford Narrows. The areas covered by these self-seeding populations are suitable for M. modiolus translocation according to the MAXENT model. As a result of this work and in conjunction with other field work we propose a combination of total protection of all remaining larval sources and small scale translocations onto

  8. The abilities of new anthropometric indices in identifying cardiometabolic abnormalities, and influence of residence area and lifestyle on these anthropometric indices in a Chinese community-dwelling population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu S

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Shihui Fu,1 Leiming Luo,1 Ping Ye,1 Yuan Liu,1 Bing Zhu,1 Yongyi Bai,1 Jie Bai2 1Department of Geriatric Cardiology, 2Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital, Beijing, People's Republic of China Objective: The study aimed to investigate the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and cardiometabolic abnormalities, the influence of residence area, occupation, and lifestyle on new anthropometric indices, and the relationship between anthropometric indices and cardiometabolic abnormalities in a Chinese community-dwelling population. Methods: The study included 4,868 residents through a large health check-up program in Beijing. Results: Overall obesity existed in 22.2% of men and 28.1% of women. 67.1% of men and 65.2% of women were overweight. 65.99% of men and 65.97% of women had central obesity. Residents of rural areas, manual workers, and smokers had significantly higher anthropometric indices. The power of each anthropometric index varied for identifying different cardiometabolic abnormalities, and the ability of the waist-to-height ratio to identify participants with greater than one or two cardiometabolic abnormalities was optimal. The appropriate cut-off values of all anthropometric indices for cardiometabolic abnormalities were obtained. Conclusion: Overweight is common for both sexes in the People's Republic of China, as are general and central obesity. Residents of rural areas, manual workers, and smokers have significantly higher anthropometric indices. Waist-to-height ratio has the ability to reflect the compound risk of different cardiometabolic abnormalities and the greatest potential to be widely applied in clinical practice. Keywords: anthropometric indices, residence area, lifestyle, cardiometabolic abnormalities, Chinese community-dwelling population

  9. [Lead exposure of people living in a lead high exposure area from local diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yong; He, Liping; Huang, Xiao; He, Junshan

    2011-11-01

    To study the lead exposure of people living in a lead high exposure area from local diet, and to assess its health risks. Thirty five subjects were selected by random from a mining area and another 30 subjects were selected from a non-polluted area. The exposure of lead was estimated by the content of lead in drinking water and vegetables, and health risks was estimated by the levels of lead in blood and urine. The content of lead in drinking water and vegetables in the mining area was 20.6 microg/L and 1.61mg/kg (geometric mean) respectively, which were higher than that in the unpolluted area (6.0 microg/L and 0.56 mg/kg, geometric mean) (P area from diet was 16.88 microg/kg and 16.09 microg/kg respectively, which was higher than that in the unpolluted area (P 0.05). Blood lead and urine lead of inhabitants in the mining-area were higher than those in the unpolluted area. The health risks for male and female inhabitants in the mining area were 4.73 and 4.51. The health risks of lead exposure caused by diet (drinking water and food) were relatively high in the mining area.

  10. Genome-wide methylation profiling identifies hypermethylated biomarkers in high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lendvai, Ágnes; Johannes, Frank; Grimm, Christina; Eijsink, Jasper J H; Wardenaar, René; Volders, Haukeline H; Klip, Harry G; Hollema, Harry; Jansen, Ritsert C; Schuuring, Ed; Wisman, G Bea A; van der Zee, Ate G J

    2012-01-01

    Epigenetic modifications, such as aberrant DNA promoter methylation, are frequently observed in cervical cancer. Identification of hypermethylated regions allowing discrimination between normal cervical epithelium and high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2/3), or worse, may improve curr

  11. Identifying suitable substrates for high-quality graphene-based heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banszerus, L.; Janssen, H.; Otto, M.; Epping, A.; Taniguchi, T.; Watanabe, K.; Beschoten, B.; Neumaier, D.; Stampfer, C.

    2017-06-01

    We report on a scanning confocal Raman spectroscopy study investigating the strain-uniformity and the overall strain and doping of high-quality chemical vapour deposited (CVD) graphene-based heterostuctures on a large number of different substrate materials, including hexagonal boron nitride (hBN), transition metal dichalcogenides, silicon, different oxides and nitrides, as well as polymers. By applying a hBN-assisted, contamination free, dry transfer process for CVD graphene, high-quality heterostructures with low doping densities and low strain variations are assembled. The Raman spectra of these pristine heterostructures are sensitive to substrate-induced doping and strain variations and are thus used to probe the suitability of the substrate material for potential high-quality graphene devices. We find that the flatness of the substrate material is a key figure for gaining, or preserving high-quality graphene.

  12. Genome-wide methylation profiling identifies hypermethylated biomarkers in high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lendvai, Ágnes; Johannes, Frank; Grimm, Christina; Eijsink, Jasper J H; Wardenaar, René; Volders, Haukeline H; Klip, Harry G; Hollema, Harry; Jansen, Ritsert C; Schuuring, Ed; Wisman, G Bea A; van der Zee, Ate G J

    2012-01-01

    Epigenetic modifications, such as aberrant DNA promoter methylation, are frequently observed in cervical cancer. Identification of hypermethylated regions allowing discrimination between normal cervical epithelium and high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2/3), or worse, may improve curr

  13. Beta-Blockers for Exams Identify Students at High Risk of Psychiatric Morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Jawad H; Dalsgaard, Søren; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Køber, Lars; Gislason, Gunnar H; Kruuse, Christina; Fosbøl, Emil L

    2017-04-01

    Beta-blockers relieve the autonomic symptoms of exam-related anxiety and may be beneficial in exam-related and performance anxiety, but knowledge on related psychiatric outcomes is unknown. We hypothesized that beta-blocker therapy for exam-related anxiety identifies young students at risk of later psychiatric events. Using Danish nationwide administrative registries, we studied healthy students aged 14-30 years (1996-2012) with a first-time claimed prescription for a beta-blocker during the exam period (May-June); students who were prescribed a beta-blocker for medical reasons were excluded. We matched these students on age, sex, and time of year to healthy and study active controls with no use of beta-blockers. Risk of incident use of antidepressants, incident use of other psychotropic medications, and suicide attempts was examined by cumulative incidence curves for unadjusted associations and multivariable cause-specific Cox proportional hazard analyses for adjusted hazard ratios (HRs). We identified 12,147 healthy students with exam-related beta-blocker use and 12,147 matched healthy students with no current or prior use of beta-blockers (median age, 19 years; 80.3% women). Among all healthy students, 0.14% had a first-time prescription for a beta-blocker during the exam period with the highest proportion among students aged 19 years (0.39%). Eighty-one percent of the students filled only that single prescription for a beta-blocker during follow-up. During follow-up, 2225 (18.3%) beta-blocker users and 1400 (11.5%) nonbeta-blocker users were prescribed an antidepressant (p risk of antidepressant use (adjusted HRs, 1.68 [95% confidence intervals (CIs), 1.57-1.79], p risk of psychiatric outcomes and might identify psychologically vulnerable students who need special attention.

  14. High density genetic mapping identifies new susceptibility loci for rheumatoid arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyre, Steve; Bowes, John; Diogo, Dorothée; Lee, Annette; Barton, Anne; Martin, Paul; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Stahl, Eli; Viatte, Sebastien; McAllister, Kate; Amos, Christopher I.; Padyukov, Leonid; Toes, Rene E.M.; Huizinga, Tom W.J.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Trynka, Gosia; Franke, Lude; Westra, Harm-Jan; Alfredsson, Lars; Hu, Xinli; Sandor, Cynthia; de Bakker, Paul I.W.; Davila, Sonia; Khor, Chiea Chuen; Heng, Khai Koon; Andrews, Robert; Edkins, Sarah; Hunt, Sarah E; Langford, Cordelia; Symmons, Deborah; Concannon, Pat; Onengut-Gumuscu, Suna; Rich, Stephen S; Deloukas, Panos; Gonzalez-Gay, Miguel A.; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Luis; Ärlsetig, Lisbeth; Martin, Javier; Rantapää-Dahlqvist, Solbritt; Plenge, Robert; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Klareskog, Lars; Gregersen, Peter K; Worthington, Jane

    2012-01-01

    Summary Using the Immunochip custom single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array, designed for dense genotyping of 186 genome wide association study (GWAS) confirmed loci we analysed 11,475 rheumatoid arthritis cases of European ancestry and 15,870 controls for 129,464 markers. The data were combined in meta-analysis with GWAS data from additional independent cases (n=2,363) and controls (n=17,872). We identified fourteen novel loci; nine were associated with rheumatoid arthritis overall and 5 specifically in anti-citrillunated peptide antibody positive disease, bringing the number of confirmed European ancestry rheumatoid arthritis loci to 46. We refined the peak of association to a single gene for 19 loci, identified secondary independent effects at six loci and association to low frequency variants (minor allele frequency <0.05) at 4 loci. Bioinformatic analysis of the data generated strong hypotheses for the causal SNP at seven loci. This study illustrates the advantages of dense SNP mapping analysis to inform subsequent functional investigations. PMID:23143596

  15. Engaging Communities in Identifying Local Strategies for Expanding Integrated Employment During and After High School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Erik W; Blustein, Carly L; Bumble, Jennifer L; Harvey, Sarah; Henderson, Lynnette M; McMillan, Elise D

    2016-09-01

    Amidst decades of attention directed toward improving employment outcomes for people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD), few efforts have been made to engage communities in identifying local solutions for expanding integrated employment opportunities. We examined the implementation and outcomes of "community conversation" events held in 6 geographically and economically diverse locales. Each event used an asset-based dialogue approach called the World Café ( Brown & Isaacs, 2005 ) to solicit ideas from a broad cross-section of community members on improving integrated employment that reflect local priorities and possibilities. Six key themes encapsulated the 1,556 strategies generated by the almost 400 attendees. Although considerable consistency was found among the categories of strategies raised across events, the manner in which those individual strategies would be implemented locally reflected the unique accent of each community. Attendees also viewed these events as promising and productive pathways for identifying next steps for their community. We offer recommendations for community-level intervention efforts and suggest directions for future research.

  16. Identifying and assessing highly hazardous drugs within quality risk management programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Robert G; Schatz, Anthony R; Kimmel, Tracy A; Ader, Allan; Naumann, Bruce D; Weideman, Patricia A

    2016-08-01

    Historically, pharmaceutical industry regulatory guidelines have assigned certain active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) to various categories of concern, such as "cytotoxic", "hormones", and "steroids". These categories have been used to identify APIs requiring segregation or dedication in order to prevent cross-contamination and protect the quality and safety of drug products. Since these terms were never defined by regulatory authorities, and many novel pharmacological mechanisms challenge these categories, there is a recognized need to modify the historical use of these terms. The application of a risk-based approach using a health-based limit, such as an acceptable daily exposure (ADE), is more appropriate for the development of a Quality Risk Management Program (QRMP) than the use of categories of concern. The toxicological and pharmacological characteristics of these categories are discussed to help identify and prioritize compounds requiring special attention. Controlling airborne concentrations and the contamination of product contact surfaces in accordance with values derived from quantitative risk assessments can prevent adverse effects in workers and patients, regardless of specific categorical designations to which these APIs have been assigned. The authors acknowledge the movement away from placing compounds into categories and, while not yet universal, the importance of basing QRMPs on compound-specific ADEs and risk assessments. Based on the results of a risk assessment, segregation and dedication may also be required for some compounds to prevent cross contamination during manufacture of APIs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Clinical significance of pontine high signals identified on magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Masaki; Takahashi, Akira (Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Arahata, Yutaka; Motegi, Yoshimasa; Furuse, Masahiro

    1993-07-01

    Spin-echo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was evaluated to 530 cases in order to investigate the clinical significance of pontine high signals. The subjects comprised 109 cases of pontine infarction with high signal on T[sub 2]-weighted image and low signal on T[sub 1]-weighted image (PI group), 145 of pontine high signal with high signal on T[sub 2]-weighted image but normal signal on T[sub 1]-weighted image (PH group) and 276 of age-matched control without abnormality either on T[sub 1] or T[sub 2]-weighted images (AC group). Subjective complaints such as vertigo-dizziness were more frequent in the PH group than in the PI group. In both PI and groups, periventricular hyperintensity as well as subcortical high signals in the supratentorium were more severe than in the AC group. These degrees were higher in the PI group than in the PH group. In conclusion, PH as well as PI may result from diffuse arteriosclerosis and PH is considered to be an early finding of pontine ischemia. (author).

  18. Identifying a guiding list of high involvement practices in human resource management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rosario Perello-Marin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In today global competitiveness, it is becoming increasingly frequent, the introduction of new management practices to organizations, seeking to enhance performance as a form of Management Innovation (MI. This is so because such practices are usually difficult to replicate exactly from one company to another, provided they are well rooted in the daily work in the organization. The main purpose of this paper is, by reviewing the previous work done in this area, to present a general list of Human Resource Practices (HRM practices geared towards improving organizational effectiveness and hence better performance outcomes. Many work has been done to date within this topic, but it is difficult to find a consensus about the best way to address to this practices, and this fact makes difficult to compare different studies and their results. We present a detailed but synthesized list of those HR practices to be used as a starting point in any sector whether industrial or services

  19. Combining infobuttons and semantic web rules for identifying patterns and delivering highly-personalized education materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulse, Nathan C; Long, Jie; Tao, Cui

    2013-01-01

    Infobuttons have been established to be an effective resource for addressing information needs at the point of care, as evidenced by recent research and their inclusion in government-based electronic health record incentive programs in the United States. Yet their utility has been limited to wide success for only a specific set of domains (lab data, medication orders, and problem lists) and only for discrete, singular concepts that are already documented in the electronic medical record. In this manuscript, we present an effort to broaden their utility by connecting a semantic web-based phenotyping engine with an infobutton framework in order to identify and address broader issues in patient data, derived from multiple data sources. We have tested these patterns by defining and testing semantic definitions of pre-diabetes and metabolic syndrome. We intend to carry forward relevant information to the infobutton framework to present timely, relevant education resources to patients and providers.

  20. High-throughput sequencing enhanced phage display identifies peptides that bind mycobacteria

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ngubane, NAC

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available tuberculosis. Chest 95: 1193–1197. 7. Davis JL, Huang L, Worodria W, Masur H, Cattamanchi A, et al. (2011) Nucleic acid amplification tests for diagnosis of smear-negative TB in a high HIV-prevalence setting: a prospective cohort study. PLoS One 6: e16321. 8...

  1. The habits of highly effective phages: population dynamics as a framework for identifying therapeutic phages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J Bull

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of bacteriophages as antibacterial agents is being actively researched on a global scale. Typically, the phages used are isolated from the wild by plating on the bacteria of interest, and a far larger set of candidate phages is often available than can be used in any application. When an excess of phages is available, how should the best phages be identified? Here we consider phage-bacterial population dynamics as a basis for evaluating and predicting phage success. A central question is whether the innate dynamical properties of phages are the determinants of success, or instead, whether extrinsic, indirect effects can be responsible. We address the dynamical perspective, motivated in part by the absence of dynamics in previously suggested principles of phage therapy. Current mathematical models of bacterial-phage dynamics do not capture the realities of in vivo dynamics, nor is this likely to change, but they do give insight to qualitative properties that may be generalizable. In particular, phage adsorption rate may be critical to treatment success, so understanding the effects of the in vivo environment on host availability may allow prediction of useful phages prior to in vivo experimentation. Principles for predicting efficacy may be derived by developing a greater understanding of the in vivo system, or such principles could be determined empirically by comparing phages with known differences in their dynamic properties. The comparative approach promises to be a powerful method of discovering the key to phage success. We offer five recommendations for future study: (i compare phages differing in treatment efficacy to identify the phage properties associated with success, (ii assay dynamics in vivo, (iii understand mechanisms of bacterial escape from phages, (iv test phages in model infections that are relevant to the intended clinical applications, and (v develop new classes of models for phage growth in spatially heterogeneous

  2. Identifying high risk individuals for targeted lung cancer screening: Independent validation of the PLCOm2012 risk prediction tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Marianne; Yap, Sarsha; Goldsbury, David; Manners, David; Tammemagi, Martin; Marshall, Henry; Brims, Fraser; McWilliams, Annette; Fong, Kwun; Kang, Yoon Jung; Caruana, Michael; Banks, Emily; Canfell, Karen

    2017-07-15

    Lung cancer screening with computerised tomography holds promise, but optimising the balance of benefits and harms via selection of a high risk population is critical. PLCOm2012 is a logistic regression model based on U.S. data, incorporating sociodemographic and health factors, which predicts 6-year lung cancer risk among ever-smokers, and thus may better predict those who might benefit from screening than criteria based solely on age and smoking history. We aimed to validate the performance of PLCOm2012 in predicting lung cancer outcomes in a cohort of Australian smokers. Predicted risk of lung cancer was calculated using PLCOm2012 applied to baseline data from 95,882 ever-smokers aged ≥45 years in the 45 and Up Study (2006-2009). Predictions were compared to lung cancer outcomes captured to June 2014 via linkage to population-wide health databases; a total of 1,035 subsequent lung cancer diagnoses were identified. PLCOm2012 had good discrimination (area under the receiver-operating-characteristic-curve; AUC 0.80, 95%CI 0.78-0.81) and excellent calibration (mean and 90th percentiles of absolute risk difference between observed and predicted outcomes: 0.006 and 0.016, respectively). Sensitivity (69.4%, 95%CI, 65.6-73.0%) of the PLCOm2012 criteria in the 55-74 year age group for predicting lung cancers was greater than that using criteria based on ≥30 pack-years smoking and ≤15 years quit (57.3%, 53.3-61.3%; p cancer screening using PLCOm2012 might improve the balance of benefits versus harms, and cost-effectiveness of lung cancer screening. © 2017 UICC.

  3. Kalam's visit to cement Indo-Swiss ties in high tech area

    CERN Multimedia

    Sumir, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Seeking to boost Indo-Swiss cooperation in high tech areas, President APJ Abdul Kalam arrived in Geneva on a four-day visit to Switzerland aimed at firming up plans for future cooperation with the CERN

  4. Melatonin in edible plants identified by radioimmunoassay and by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubbels, R.; Klenke, E.; Schnakenberg, E.; Ehlers, C.; Schloot, W. [Univ. of Bremen, Center of Human Genetics and Genetic Counselling, Bremen (Germany); Reiter, R.J. [The Univ. of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, Dept. of Cellular and Structural Biology, San Antonio, Texas (United States); Goebel, A.; Schiware, H.W. [Gemeinschaftslabor Dr. Schiwara et al., Breman (Germany)

    1995-01-01

    Melatonin, the chief hormone of the pineal gland in vertebrates, is widely distributed in the animal kingdom. Among many functions, melatonin synchronizes circadian and circannual rhythms, stimulates immune function, may increase life span, inhibits growth of cancer cells in vitro and cancer progression and promotion in vivo, and was recently shown to be a potent hydroxyl radical scavenger and antioxidant. Hydroxyl radicals are highly toxic by-products of oxygen metabolism that damage cellular DNA and other macromolecules. Herein we report that melatonin, in varying concentrations, is also found in a variety of plants. Melatonin concentrations, measured in nine different plants by radioimmunoassay, ranged from 0 to 862 pg melatonin/mg protein. The presence of melatonin was verified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Our findings suggest that the consumption of plant materials that contain high levels of melatonin could alter blood melatonin levels of the indole as well as provide protection of macromolecules against oxidative damage. (au) 30 refs.

  5. Identifying relevant areas of functioning in children and youth with Cerebral Palsy using the ICF-CY coding system: from whose perspective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiariti, Veronica; Mâsse, Louise C

    2014-09-01

    A standardized methodology endorsed by the World Health Organization was used to select the most relevant International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health for children and youth (ICF-CY) categories to inform the development of the ICF Core Sets for CY with Cerebral Palsy (CP). The aim of this study was to appraise comparatively the results of the four studies included in the preparatory phase of the project exploring relevant areas of functioning in CY with CP. ICF-CY categories identified in the preparatory studies - systematic review, global expert survey, qualitative study, and clinical study - were ranked. We compared the ranking percentile scores of the categories across studies. Each study emphasized different ICF-CY components and provided unique categories. Professionals from the health, education and social sectors described areas of functioning that were well distributed across the ICF-CY components (global expert survey), CY with CP and caregivers highlighted areas within the components activity and participation (a & p) and environmental factors (qualitative study), while the research community and clinical encounters mainly focused on body functions and a & p (systematic review and clinical study). This study highlights the need to consider all relevant perspectives when describing the functional profile of CY with CP. Copyright © 2014 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. High-index immersion lithography: preventing lens photocontamination and identifying optical behavior of LuAG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberman, V.; Rothschild, M.; Palmacci, S. T.; Bristol, R.; Byers, J.; Turro, N. J.; Lei, X.; O'Connor, N.; Zimmerman, P. A.

    2008-03-01

    A potential extension of water-based 193-nm immersion lithography involves transition to a higher refractive index organic immersion fluid coupled with a higher index last lens element. While considerable progress has been made in improving the photo-durability of the immersion fluid itself, photo-induced contamination of the last lens element caused by laser exposure in the presence of such organic fluids remains a major concern. In this work, we study remediation strategies for such contamination, which would be compatible with conventional lithographic production environments. In general, surface photocontamination layers were found to be highly graphitic in nature, where the first monolayer is strongly bound to the substrate. We have attempted to develop a surface passivation treatment for altering the monolayer chemistry and preventing large-scale contamination, but found such treatments to be unstable under laser irradiation. On the other hand, using hydrogen peroxide as a in-situ cleaning solution has been shown to be extremely effective. We also present first laser-based durability results of LuAG, which is a leading candidate material for high index last element to be used with high index fluids.

  7. Identifying undetected cases of chronic kidney disease in Mexico. Targeting high-risk populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-García, Guillermo; Gutiérrez-Padilla, Alfonso J; Chávez-Iñiguez, Jonathan; Pérez-Gómez, Héctor R; Mendoza-García, Martha; González-De la Peña, Ma Del Mar; Tonelli, Marcello

    2013-11-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major public health problem in Mexico. Current guidelines recommend routine CKD testing in patients at increased risk for CKD. We undertook this study to examine the diagnostic yield of targeted screening (case-finding) for CKD in high-risk populations in rural and urban communities in Jalisco, Mexico. In a cross-sectional study, we did laboratory tests searching for CKD and its risk factors and compared the characteristics of participants with those reported by the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 (NHNS). Individuals who were aware that they had CKD and those 126 mg/dl (56.1 vs. 14.4%, p = 0.0001) were more prevalent among the participants; self-reported hypertension (41.9 vs. 7.3%, p = 0.0001), systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mm Hg (52.5 vs. 43.2%, p = 0.0001), and obesity (42.8. vs. 29.3%, p = 0.0001) were also more frequent among participants. There were 19.7% with proteinuria; CKD was more prevalent among the high risk participants in our study (31.3 vs. 8.0%, p = 0.0001) than in the general population. CKD was detected frequently in high-risk Mexican populations. Trials of case-finding and intervention are feasible and warranted in Mexico. Copyright © 2013 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. High-Throughput Screening Methodology to Identify Alpha-Synuclein Aggregation Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujols, Jordi; Peña-Díaz, Samuel; Conde-Giménez, María; Pinheiro, Francisca; Navarro, Susanna; Sancho, Javier; Ventura, Salvador

    2017-03-02

    An increasing number of neurodegenerative diseases are being found to be associated with the abnormal accumulation of aggregated proteins in the brain. In Parkinson's disease, this process involves the aggregation of alpha-synuclein (α-syn) into intraneuronal inclusions. Thus, compounds that inhibit α-syn aggregation represent a promising therapeutic strategy as disease-modifying agents for neurodegeneration. The formation of α-syn amyloid aggregates can be reproduced in vitro by incubation of the recombinant protein. However, the in vitro aggregation of α-syn is exceedingly slow and highly irreproducible, therefore precluding fast high throughput anti-aggregation drug screening. Here, we present a simple and easy-to-implement in-plate method for screening large chemical libraries in the search for α-syn aggregation modulators. It allows us to monitor aggregation kinetics with high reproducibility, while being faster and requiring lower protein amounts than conventional aggregation assays. We illustrate how the approach enables the identification of strong aggregation inhibitors in a library of more than 14,000 compounds.

  9. Identification of high radon areas with passive methods and geological assessments in some Italian regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Marta; Bartolomei, Paolo; Esposito, Massimo; Marrocchino, Elena; Vaccaro, Carmela

    2010-05-01

    geological knowledge of the high concentration macro-areas identified in this work in order to better determine them. This study has allowed to point out not negligible radon concentrations also in traditionally no-risk zone; moreover the application of the developed methodology will be useful to give advices in order to fill Italian legislation gaps or to draft urban development plans. In particular, the correlation between radon concentrations and some geological features has been proved in Lombardia and some hypothesis have been formulated to understand the geological origin of the radon source. The high radon concentrations in the North of the Region are related to the high uranium content in different rock types distributed in these areas. For the flat area in correspondence of the Milan Province and the city of Milan, traditionally considered a no-risk zone, we have done some hypothesis of correlation between radon and the geochemical processes occurred in this area and soil permeability and fracturation by means of the existing geological sections. The application of the developed methodology will be useful to give advices to fill legislation gaps or to draft urban development plans.

  10. Development of CAPS markers to identify Indian tea (Camellia sinensis) clones with high catechin content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elangbam, M; Misra, A K

    2016-06-10

    Tea leaves are rich in plant secondary phenolics, especially flavonoids. Catechins are considered to be the most valuable flavonoids, and the catechin content in tea is an important trait for determining its quality. We have developed cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS)-based markers for evaluating total catechin content that target two important secondary metabolite pathway genes, PAL (phenylalanine ammonia-lyase) and CHS (chalcone synthase). Catechin content levels in the tea samples tested ranged from 9 to 33 mg/mg. The CAPS technique identified clones with the homozygous profile PRc1, which has relatively lower catechin content than clones with the heterozygous profile PRc2. A significant difference (t = 16.85) in the level of catechin content was also detected between heterozygotes and homozygotes in the tea seed stock TS379. We found a polynomial relationship between the marker developed for CHS2 and catechin content in these tea samples with R2 = 0.9788. Moreover, PAL has less of a relationship with catechin content. Therefore, we recommend tea clones with heterozygous CAPS profiles for the gene CHS2+RcaI for the further improvement in these clones.

  11. Study on environmental etiology of high incidence areas of liver cancer in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nian-Feng Lin; Jie Tang; Hoteyi S. Mohamed Ismael

    2000-01-01

    China is a country with a high incidence of liver cancer in some areas[1]. Liver cancer has a wide distribution and threatens human health seriously. A rough estimation shows that out of a population of 1.2 × 108 in liver cancer areas patients are more than 1.0 × 105. The environment of the liver cancer area is very complicated and has different characteristics in different regions. But the epidemic regularity of liver cancer is obvious, and the environment in the cancer areas has also distinct characteristics that contribute to the study on the environmental etiology of liver cancer[2-5].

  12. Diversity of Borrelia genospecies in Ixodes ricinus ticks in a Lyme borreliosis endemic area in Switzerland identified by using new probes for reverse line blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gern, Lise; Douet, Véronique; López, Zully; Rais, Olivier; Cadenas, Francisca Morán

    2010-03-01

    In Europe, 7 Borrelia species belonging to the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex have been reported in Ixodes ricinus ticks. In addition, another Borrelia, related to the relapsing fever spirochaetes, has also been described. In the present study, we designed probes for reverse line blotting allowing detection and identification of all these Borrelia species after amplification of the variable spacer region between the 23S and 5S ribosomal genes. These new probes allowed us investigate the diversity of Borrelia in 915 I. ricinus collected on the south-facing slope of Chaumont (Switzerland). Among the 159 infected ticks, 7 Borrelia species were identified, and B. spielmanii and relapsing fever-like (RFL) spirochaetes were identified in this area for the first time. B. valaisiana and B. spielmanii were significantly less present in male than in female or nymphal ticks. Mixed infection with RFL spirochaetes and Lyme borreliosis spirochaetes were detected in 4 ticks. In addition, the set of probes could identify the recently described species, B. bavariensis.

  13. Preparation of Zirconia-Ceria Powders with High Specific Surface Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Enguo; Mei Fang

    2004-01-01

    Zirconia-ceria mixed oxide powders were prepared by high temperature aging method.The effects of the temperature and the time of aging, cerium content and calcination on powder performance were studied.The result shows that high temperature aging is an efficient way of preparation of ZrO2-CeO2 mixed oxide powders with high specific surface area and good thermal stability, and that addition of a small amount of cerium to hydrous zirconia can promote the preparation of high specific surface area powders.

  14. High performance poly(etherketoneketone) (PEKK) composite parts fabricated using Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunc, Vlastimil [ORNL; Kishore, Vidya [ORNL; Chen, Xun [ORNL; Ajinjeru, Christine [ORNL; Duty, Chad [University of Tennessee (UTK) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Hassen, Ahmed A [ORNL

    2016-09-01

    ORNL collaborated with Arkema Inc. to investigate poly(etherketoneketone) (PEKK) and its composites as potential feedstock material for Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) system. In this work thermal and rheological properties were investigated and characterized in order to identify suitable processing conditions and material flow behavior for BAAM process.

  15. Exome sequencing identifies highly recurrent MED12 somatic mutations in breast fibroadenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Weng Khong; Ong, Choon Kiat; Tan, Jing; Thike, Aye Aye; Ng, Cedric Chuan Young; Rajasegaran, Vikneswari; Myint, Swe Swe; Nagarajan, Sanjanaa; Nasir, Nur Diyana Md; McPherson, John R; Cutcutache, Ioana; Poore, Gregory; Tay, Su Ting; Ooi, Wei Siong; Tan, Veronique Kiak Mien; Hartman, Mikael; Ong, Kong Wee; Tan, Benita K T; Rozen, Steven G; Tan, Puay Hoon; Tan, Patrick; Teh, Bin Tean

    2014-08-01

    Fibroadenomas are the most common breast tumors in women under 30 (refs. 1,2). Exome sequencing of eight fibroadenomas with matching whole-blood samples revealed recurrent somatic mutations solely in MED12, which encodes a Mediator complex subunit. Targeted sequencing of an additional 90 fibroadenomas confirmed highly frequent MED12 exon 2 mutations (58/98, 59%) that are probably somatic, with 71% of mutations occurring in codon 44. Using laser capture microdissection, we show that MED12 fibroadenoma mutations are present in stromal but not epithelial mammary cells. Expression profiling of MED12-mutated and wild-type fibroadenomas revealed that MED12 mutations are associated with dysregulated estrogen signaling and extracellular matrix organization. The fibroadenoma MED12 mutation spectrum is nearly identical to that of previously reported MED12 lesions in uterine leiomyoma but not those of other tumors. Benign tumors of the breast and uterus, both of which are key target tissues of estrogen, may thus share a common genetic basis underpinned by highly frequent and specific MED12 mutations.

  16. Fluoroquinolone Prophylaxis Against Febrile Neutropenia in Areas With High Fluoroquinolone Resistance—An Asian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Shu-Ting Ng

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Febrile neutropenia remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients receiving chemotherapy. Major prophylactic strategies include granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and antibiotics, the most widely used of which are fluoroquinolones. While fluoroquinolone prophylaxis has been shown to be effective in areas where fluoroquinolone resistance is low, this same efficacy has not been proven in areas where resistance is high, such as in Asia. Given the increase in antimicrobial resistance with the use of prophylaxis, the risks and benefits of this strategy need to be carefully considered. This review presents the evidence for and against fluoroquinolone prophylaxis in areas of high fluoroquinolone resistance.

  17. Fluoroquinolone prophylaxis against febrile neutropenia in areas with high fluoroquinolone resistance--an Asian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Esther Shu-Ting; Liew, Yixin; Koh, Liang Piu; Hsu, Li Yang

    2010-09-01

    Febrile neutropenia remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients receiving chemotherapy. Major prophylactic strategies include granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and antibiotics, the most widely used of which are fluoroquinolones. While fluoroquinolone prophylaxis has been shown to be effective in areas where fluoroquinolone resistance is low, this same efficacy has not been proven in areas where resistance is high, such as in Asia. Given the increase in antimicrobial resistance with the use of prophylaxis, the risks and benefits of this strategy need to be carefully considered. This review presents the evidence for and against fluoroquinolone prophylaxis in areas of high fluoroquinolone resistance.

  18. Relationship Model Between Nightlight Data and Floor Area Ratio from High Resolution Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, M.; Xu, L.

    2017-09-01

    It is a hotpot that extraction the floor area ratio from high resolution remote sensing images. It is a development trend of using nightlight data to survey the urban social and economic information. This document aims to provide a conference relationship model for VIIRS/NPP nightlight data and floor Area Ratio from High Resolution ZY-3 Images. It shows that there is a lineal relationship between the shadow and the floor area ratio, and the R2 is 0.98. It shows that there is a quadratic polynomial relationship between the floor area ratio and the nightlight, and the R2 is 0.611. We can get a conclusion that, VIIRS/NPP nightlights data may show the floor area ratio in an extent at level of administrative street.

  19. Identifying Unidentified Fermi-LAT Objects (UFOs) at High-Latitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Chi Teddy

    2009-09-01

    We propose a Chandra study of 8 high Galactic latitude gamma-ray sources in the Fermi-LAT bright source list. These sources are currently unidentified, i.e., they are not clearly associated with established classes of gamma-ray emitters like blazars and pulsars. The proposed observations will determine the basic properties (fluxes, positions, hardness ratio/spectra) of all X-ray sources down to a 0.3-10 keV flux limit of 1.5e-14 erg/cm2/s within the Fermi-LAT localization circles. This will enable further follow-up at other wavelengths, with the ultimate goal to reveal the nature of these enigmatic gamma-ray sources.

  20. High-throughput screening identifies small molecules that enhance the pharmacological effects of oligonucleotides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, B.; Ming, X.; Cao, C.; Laing, B.; Yuan, A.; Porter, M. A.; Hull-Ryde, E. A.; Maddry, J.; Suto, M.; Janzen, W. P.; Juliano, R. L.

    2015-01-01

    The therapeutic use of antisense and siRNA oligonucleotides has been constrained by the limited ability of these membrane-impermeable molecules to reach their intracellular sites of action. We sought to address this problem using small organic molecules to enhance the effects of oligonucleotides by modulating their intracellular trafficking and release from endosomes. A high-throughput screen of multiple small molecule libraries yielded several hits that markedly potentiated the actions of splice switching oligonucleotides in cell culture. These compounds also enhanced the effects of antisense and siRNA oligonucleotides. The hit compounds preferentially caused release of fluorescent oligonucleotides from late endosomes rather than other intracellular compartments. Studies in a transgenic mouse model indicated that these compounds could enhance the in vivo effects of a splice-switching oligonucleotide without causing significant toxicity. These observations suggest that selected small molecule enhancers may eventually be of value in oligonucleotide-based therapeutics. PMID:25662226

  1. Exploring High-Dimensional Data Space: Identifying Optimal Process Conditions in Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, C.; Biagioni, D.; Glynn, S.; Scharf, J.; Contreras, M. A.; Noufi, R.; Jones, W. B.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate how advanced exploratory data analysis coupled to data-mining techniques can be used to scrutinize the high-dimensional data space of photovoltaics in the context of thin films of Al-doped ZnO (AZO), which are essential materials as a transparent conducting oxide (TCO) layer in CuIn{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}Se{sub 2} (CIGS) solar cells. AZO data space, wherein each sample is synthesized from a different process history and assessed with various characterizations, is transformed, reorganized, and visualized in order to extract optimal process conditions. The data-analysis methods used include parallel coordinates, diffusion maps, and hierarchical agglomerative clustering algorithms combined with diffusion map embedding.

  2. Exploring High-Dimensional Data Space: Identifying Optimal Process Conditions in Photovoltaics: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, C.; Glynn, S.; Scharf, J.; Contreras, M. A.; Noufi, R.; Jones, W. B.; Biagioni, D.

    2011-07-01

    We demonstrate how advanced exploratory data analysis coupled to data-mining techniques can be used to scrutinize the high-dimensional data space of photovoltaics in the context of thin films of Al-doped ZnO (AZO), which are essential materials as a transparent conducting oxide (TCO) layer in CuInxGa1-xSe2 (CIGS) solar cells. AZO data space, wherein each sample is synthesized from a different process history and assessed with various characterizations, is transformed, reorganized, and visualized in order to extract optimal process conditions. The data-analysis methods used include parallel coordinates, diffusion maps, and hierarchical agglomerative clustering algorithms combined with diffusion map embedding.

  3. High-Temperature-Short-Time Annealing Process for High-Performance Large-Area Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minjin; Kim, Gi-Hwan; Oh, Kyoung Suk; Jo, Yimhyun; Yoon, Hyun; Kim, Ka-Hyun; Lee, Heon; Kim, Jin Young; Kim, Dong Suk

    2017-06-27

    Organic-inorganic hybrid metal halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) are attracting tremendous research interest due to their high solar-to-electric power conversion efficiency with a high possibility of cost-effective fabrication and certified power conversion efficiency now exceeding 22%. Although many effective methods for their application have been developed over the past decade, their practical transition to large-size devices has been restricted by difficulties in achieving high performance. Here we report on the development of a simple and cost-effective production method with high-temperature and short-time annealing processing to obtain uniform, smooth, and large-size grain domains of perovskite films over large areas. With high-temperature short-time annealing at 400 °C for 4 s, the perovskite film with an average domain size of 1 μm was obtained, which resulted in fast solvent evaporation. Solar cells fabricated using this processing technique had a maximum power conversion efficiency exceeding 20% over a 0.1 cm(2) active area and 18% over a 1 cm(2) active area. We believe our approach will enable the realization of highly efficient large-area PCSs for practical development with a very simple and short-time procedure. This simple method should lead the field toward the fabrication of uniform large-scale perovskite films, which are necessary for the production of high-efficiency solar cells that may also be applicable to several other material systems for more widespread practical deployment.

  4. First steps for mitigating bycatch of Pink-footed Shearwaters Ardenna creatopus: Identifying overlap of foraging areas and fisheries in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carle, Ryan; Felis, Jonathan J.; López, Verónica; Adams, Josh; Hodum, Peter; Beck, Jessie; Colodro, Valentina; Vega, Rodrigo; González, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    The Pink-footed Shearwater, Ardenna creatopus, is listed as in danger of extinction by Chile and under Annex 1 of ACAP, with an estimated global population of approximately 56,000 individuals. Incidental bycatch of this species in fisheries is thought to be an important cause in population decline (i.e. annual estimated mortality of >1000 adults). This species is an endemic breeder in Chile, nesting only on the Juan Fernandez Archipelago (JFI; 30% of global population), and Isla Mocha (70% of global population). Using miniature GPS and satellite transmitters, we determined foraging areas of Pink-footed Shearwaters during the chick-rearing period in 2002 (JFI) and 2015-2016 (Isla Mocha). We overlaid shearwater tracking data with data from the Instituto de Fomento Pesquero (IFOP) on fishing effort in Chile (type of fishery, number sets per day, location of sets, and target species) to identify fisheries and fishing zones with the greatest potential for Pink-footed Shearwater bycatch. During the 2002-2006 (N = 28 birds total) and 2015 (N = 18 birds) breeding periods, foraging areas were associated with the continental shelf and shelf-break, generally less than 30 km offshore. All foraging trips occurred between 31.5 and 40.0 degrees south, and birds remained in Chile territorial waters 100% of the time. We identified two primary foraging hotspots, one offshore near Talcahuano, Chile (approximately 36-37.5° south), and one offshore north of Valdivia, Chile (approximately 39-39.5° south). Birds tracked from the Juan Fernández Archipelago foraged in the Talcahuano hotspot but did not visit the southerly hotspot near Valdivia. Birds tracked from Isla Mocha used both areas, with a greater proportion of birds using the Valdivia hotspot than the Talcahuano hotspot. Other major areas of use were around the respective breeding colonies from which the birds were tracked. Overlay of these data with fisheries data is currently in progress. Preliminary results indicate

  5. M2KMIX: Identifying the Type of High Rate Flooding Attacks using a Mixture of Expert Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Raj Kumar P.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available High rate flooding attacks such as SYN flood, UDP flood, and HTTP flood have been posing a perilous threat to Web servers, DNS servers, Mail servers, VoIP servers, etc. These high rate flooding attacks deplete the limited capacity of the server resources. Hence, there is a need for the protection of these critical resources from high rate flooding attacks. Existing detection techniques used in Firewalls, IPS, IDS, etc., fail to identify the illegitimate traffic due to its self-similarity nature of legitimate traffic and suffer from low detection accuracy and high false alarms. Also, very few in the literature have focused on identifying the type of attack. This paper focuses on the identification of type of high rate flooding attack with High detection accuracy and fewer false alarms. The attack type identification is achieved by training the classifiers with different feature subsets. Therefore, each trained classifier is an expert in different feature space. High detection accuracy is achieved by creating a mixture of expert classifiers and the ensemble output decisions are identified by our proposed Preferential Agreement (PA rule. Our proposed classification algorithm, M2KMix (mixture of two Multi Layer Perceptron and one K-Nearest Neighbor models differs from the existing solutions in feature selection, error cost reduction, and attack type identification. M2KMix was trained and tested with our own SSE Lab 2011 dataset and CAIDA dataset. Detection accuracy and False Alarms are the two metrics used to analyze the performance of the proposed M2KMix algorithm with the existing output combination methods such as mean, maximum, minimum, and product. From the simulation results, it is evident that M2KMix algorithm achieves high detection accuracy (97.8% with fewer false alarms than the existing output combination methods. M2KMix identifies three types of flooding attacks, viz., the SYN Flood, UDP flood, and HTTP Flood, effectively with detection

  6. High content analysis at single cell level identifies different cellular responses dependent on nanomaterial concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manshian, Bella B; Munck, Sebastian; Agostinis, Patrizia; Himmelreich, Uwe; Soenen, Stefaan J

    2015-09-08

    A mechanistic understanding of nanomaterial (NM) interaction with biological environments is pivotal for the safe transition from basic science to applied nanomedicine. NM exposure results in varying levels of internalized NM in different neighboring cells, due to variances in cell size, cell cycle phase and NM agglomeration. Using high-content analysis, we investigated the cytotoxic effects of fluorescent quantum dots on cultured cells, where all effects were correlated with the concentration of NMs at the single cell level. Upon binning the single cell data into different categories related to NM concentration, this study demonstrates, for the first time, that quantum dots activate both cytoprotective and cytotoxic mechanisms, resulting in a zero net result on the overall cell population, yet with significant effects in cells with higher cellular NM levels. Our results suggest that future NM cytotoxicity studies should correlate NM toxicity with cellular NM numbers on the single cell level, as conflicting mechanisms in particular cell subpopulations are commonly overlooked using classical toxicological methods.

  7. Identifying Contributing Harmonics in the Gravitational Wave Spectrum of Highly Eccentric EMRIs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Andrew; Stone, Jordan; Ahrens, Sloan; Kennefick, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    In the study of gravitational waves emitted from extreme mass ratio inspirals highly eccentric orbits are problematic because of the large number of harmonics, and thus the lengthy computation times that were thought to be inherent to it. The issue however, is made simpler because the spectrum is not that broad and is fairly localized. The true complexity lies in finding the peaks of the largest contributors to accurately describe the complete spectrum, since for any given multipole of the spectrum the position of the peak in the emission is difficult to predict. This project uses two methods of finding the peak harmonic of a given spectrum. The first method uses a skipping algorithm to systematically jump over harmonics with insignificant contributions to the total waveform. Because this method is still not completely efficient, a second method uses a Newtonian order approximation given by Peters and Matthews to give an estimate of the frequency of the actual waveform peak, and then fills in around this harmonics to give the spectrum. The two methods are complementary since the skipping algorithm can be used when the Newtonian estimation fails to find the peak immediately.

  8. Applying high-resolution melting (HRM) technology to identify five commonly used Artemisia species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ming; Li, Jingjian; Xiong, Chao; Liu, Hexia; Liang, Junsong

    2016-01-01

    Many members of the genus Artemisia are important for medicinal purposes with multiple pharmacological properties. Often, these herbal plants sold on the markets are in processed forms so it is difficult to authenticate. Routine testing and identification of these herbal materials should be performed to ensure that the raw materials used in pharmaceutical products are suitable for their intended use. In this study, five commonly used Artemisia species included Artemisia argyi, Artemisia annua, Artemisia lavandulaefolia, Artemisia indica, and Artemisia atrovirens were analyzed using high resolution melting (HRM) analysis based on the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) sequences. The melting profiles of the ITS2 amplicons of the five closely related herbal species are clearly separated so that they can be differentiated by HRM method. The method was further applied to authenticate commercial products in powdered. HRM curves of all the commercial samples tested are similar to the botanical species as labeled. These congeneric medicinal products were also clearly separated using the neighbor-joining (NJ) tree. Therefore, HRM method could provide an efficient and reliable authentication system to distinguish these commonly used Artemisia herbal products on the markets and offer a technical reference for medicines quality control in the drug supply chain. PMID:27698485

  9. High content analysis at single cell level identifies different cellular responses dependent on nanomaterial concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manshian, Bella B.; Munck, Sebastian; Agostinis, Patrizia; Himmelreich, Uwe; Soenen, Stefaan J.

    2015-09-01

    A mechanistic understanding of nanomaterial (NM) interaction with biological environments is pivotal for the safe transition from basic science to applied nanomedicine. NM exposure results in varying levels of internalized NM in different neighboring cells, due to variances in cell size, cell cycle phase and NM agglomeration. Using high-content analysis, we investigated the cytotoxic effects of fluorescent quantum dots on cultured cells, where all effects were correlated with the concentration of NMs at the single cell level. Upon binning the single cell data into different categories related to NM concentration, this study demonstrates, for the first time, that quantum dots activate both cytoprotective and cytotoxic mechanisms, resulting in a zero net result on the overall cell population, yet with significant effects in cells with higher cellular NM levels. Our results suggest that future NM cytotoxicity studies should correlate NM toxicity with cellular NM numbers on the single cell level, as conflicting mechanisms in particular cell subpopulations are commonly overlooked using classical toxicological methods.

  10. Using the CPTAC Assay Portal to identify and implement highly characterized targeted proteomics assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteaker, Jeffrey R; Halusa, Goran N; Hoofnagle, Andrew N; Sharma, Vagisha; MacLean, Brendan; Yan, Ping; Wrobel, John A; Kennedy, Jacob; Mani, DR; Zimmerman, Lisa J; Meyer, Matthew R.; Mesri, Mehdi; Abbatiello, Susan E; Boja, Emily; Carr, Steven A.; Chan, Daniel W.; Chen, Xian; Chen, Jing; Davies, Sherri R; Ellis, Matthew J. C.; Fenyö, David; Hiltke, Tara; Ketchum, Karen A.; Kinsinger, Chris; Kuhn, Eric; Liebler, Daniel C.; Lin, De; Liu, Tao; Loss, Michael; MacCoss, Michael J; Qian, Wei-Jun; Rivers, Robert; Rodland, Karin D.; Ruggles, Kelly V; Scott, Mitchell G; Smith, Richard D.; Thomas, Stefani; Townsend, R. Reid; Whiteley, Gordon; Wu, Chaochao; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Zhen; Rodriguez, Henry; Paulovich, Amanda G

    2016-01-01

    Summary The Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) has launched an Assay Portal (http://assays.cancer.gov) to serve as an open-source repository of well-characterized targeted proteomic assays. The portal is designed to curate and disseminate highly characterized, targeted mass spectrometry (MS)-based assays by providing detailed assay performance characterization data, standard operating procedures, and access to reagents. Assay content is accessed via the portal through queries to find assays targeting proteins associated with specific cellular pathways, protein complexes, or specific chromosomal regions. The position of the peptide analytes for which there are available assays are mapped relative to other features of interest in the protein, such as sequence domains, isoforms, single nucleotide polymorphisms, and post-translational modifications. The overarching goals are to enable robust quantification of all human proteins and to standardize the quantification of targeted MS-based assays to ultimately enable harmonization of results over time and across laboratories. PMID:26867747

  11. Identifying highly connected counties compensates for resource limitations when evaluating national spread of an invasive pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutrave, Sweta; Scoglio, Caterina; Isard, Scott A; Hutchinson, J M Shawn; Garrett, Karen A

    2012-01-01

    Surveying invasive species can be highly resource intensive, yet near-real-time evaluations of invasion progress are important resources for management planning. In the case of the soybean rust invasion of the United States, a linked monitoring, prediction, and communication network saved U.S. soybean growers approximately $200 M/yr. Modeling of future movement of the pathogen (Phakopsora pachyrhizi) was based on data about current disease locations from an extensive network of sentinel plots. We developed a dynamic network model for U.S. soybean rust epidemics, with counties as nodes and link weights a function of host hectarage and wind speed and direction. We used the network model to compare four strategies for selecting an optimal subset of sentinel plots, listed here in order of increasing performance: random selection, zonal selection (based on more heavily weighting regions nearer the south, where the pathogen overwinters), frequency-based selection (based on how frequently the county had been infected in the past), and frequency-based selection weighted by the node strength of the sentinel plot in the network model. When dynamic network properties such as node strength are characterized for invasive species, this information can be used to reduce the resources necessary to survey and predict invasion progress.

  12. Identifying highly connected counties compensates for resource limitations when evaluating national spread of an invasive pathogen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweta Sutrave

    Full Text Available Surveying invasive species can be highly resource intensive, yet near-real-time evaluations of invasion progress are important resources for management planning. In the case of the soybean rust invasion of the United States, a linked monitoring, prediction, and communication network saved U.S. soybean growers approximately $200 M/yr. Modeling of future movement of the pathogen (Phakopsora pachyrhizi was based on data about current disease locations from an extensive network of sentinel plots. We developed a dynamic network model for U.S. soybean rust epidemics, with counties as nodes and link weights a function of host hectarage and wind speed and direction. We used the network model to compare four strategies for selecting an optimal subset of sentinel plots, listed here in order of increasing performance: random selection, zonal selection (based on more heavily weighting regions nearer the south, where the pathogen overwinters, frequency-based selection (based on how frequently the county had been infected in the past, and frequency-based selection weighted by the node strength of the sentinel plot in the network model. When dynamic network properties such as node strength are characterized for invasive species, this information can be used to reduce the resources necessary to survey and predict invasion progress.

  13. Cry me a river: identifying the behavioral consequences of extremely high-stakes interpersonal deception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Brinke, Leanne; Porter, Stephen

    2012-12-01

    Deception evolved as a fundamental aspect of human social interaction. Numerous studies have examined behavioral cues to deception, but most have involved inconsequential lies and unmotivated liars in a laboratory context. We conducted the most comprehensive study to date of the behavioral consequences of extremely high-stakes, real-life deception--relative to comparable real-life sincere displays--via 3 communication channels: speech, body language, and emotional facial expressions. Televised footage of a large international sample of individuals (N = 78) emotionally pleading to the public for the return of a missing relative was meticulously coded frame-by-frame (30 frames/s for a total of 74,731 frames). About half of the pleaders eventually were convicted of killing the missing person on the basis of overwhelming evidence. Failed attempts to simulate sadness and leakage of happiness revealed deceptive pleaders' covert emotions. Liars used fewer words but more tentative words than truth-tellers, likely relating to increased cognitive load and psychological distancing. Further, each of these cues explained unique variance in predicting pleader sincerity.

  14. Using the CPTAC Assay Portal to identify and implement highly characterized targeted proteomics assays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whiteaker, Jeffrey R.; Halusa, Goran; Hoofnagle, Andrew N.; Sharma, Vagisha; MacLean, Brendan; Yan, Ping; Wrobel, John; Kennedy, Jacob; Mani, DR; Zimmerman, Lisa J.; Meyer, Matthew R.; Mesri, Mehdi; Boja, Emily; Carr, Steven A.; Chan, Daniel W.; Chen, Xian; Chen, Jing; Davies, Sherri; Ellis, Matthew; Fenyo, David; Hiltket, Tara; Ketchum, Karen; Kinsinger, Christopher; Kuhn, Eric; Liebler, Daniel; Liu, Tao; Loss, Michael; MacCoss, Michael; Qian, Weijun; Rivers, Robert; Rodland, Karin D.; Ruggles, Kelly; Scott, Mitchell; Smith, Richard D.; Thomas, Stefani N.; Townsend, Reid; Whiteley, Gordon; Wu, Chaochao; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Zhen; Rodriguez, Henry; Paulovich, Amanda G.

    2016-02-12

    The Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) has launched an Assay Portal (http://assays.cancer.gov) to serve as an open-source repository of well-characterized targeted proteomic assays. The portal is designed to curate and disseminate highly characterized, targeted mass spectrometry (MS)-based assays by providing detailed assay performance characterization data, standard operating procedures, and access to reagents. Assay content is accessed via the portal through queries to find assays targeting proteins associated with specific cellular pathways, protein complexes, or specific chromosomal regions. The position of the peptide analytes for which there are available assays are mapped relative to other features of interest in the protein, such as sequence domains, isoforms, single nucleotide polymorphisms, and post-translational modifications. The overarching goals are to enable robust quantification of all human proteins and to standardize the quantification of targeted MS-based assays to ultimately enable harmonization of results over time and across laboratories.

  15. 78 FR 20672 - Literature Review Approach “Identifying Research Needs for Assessing Safe Use of High Intakes of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Literature Review Approach ``Identifying Research Needs for... Assessing Safe Use of High Intakes of Folic Acid,'' for review of the pertinent literature. The document is... discussion at the workshop. As background for the workshop, a literature review document on these...

  16. Refining prognosis and identifying targetable pathways for high-risk endometrial cancer; a TransPORTEC initiative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stelloo, Ellen; Bosse, Tjalling; Nout, Remi A.; MacKay, Helen J.; Church, David N.; Nijman, Hans W.; Leary, Alexandra; Edmondson, Richard J.; Powell, Melanie E.; Crosbie, Emma J.; Kitchener, Henry C.; Mileshkin, Linda; Pollock, Pamela M.; Smit, Vincent T.; Creutzberg, Carien L.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether molecular analysis can be used to refine risk assessment, direct adjuvant therapy, and identify actionable alterations in high-risk endometrial cancer. TransPORTEC, an international consortium related to the PORTEC3 trial, was established for translational res

  17. The development and validation of two prediction models to identify employees at risk of high sickness absence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, Corne A.; van Rhenen, Willem; Groothoff, Johan W.; van der Klink, Jac J.; Bultmann, Ute; Heymans, Martijn W.

    Background: Sickness absence (SA) is a public health risk marker for morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to develop and validate prediction models to identify employees at risk of high SA. Methods: Two prediction models were developed using self-rated health (SRH) and prior SA as

  18. Novel target for high-risk neuroblastoma identified in pre-clinical research | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pre-clinical research by investigators at the Center for Cancer Research and their colleagues have identified a number of novel epigenetic targets for high-risk neuroblastoma and validated a promising new targeted inhibitor in pre-clinical models.  Read more...

  19. High-throughput library screening identifies two novel NQO1 inducers in human lung cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiang-Lin; Marquardt, Gaby; Massimi, Aldo B; Shi, Miao; Han, Weiguo; Spivack, Simon D

    2012-03-01

    Many phytochemicals possess antioxidant and cancer-preventive properties, some putatively through antioxidant response element-mediated phase II metabolism, entailing mutagen/oxidant quenching. In our recent studies, however, most candidate phytochemical agents were not potent in inducing phase II genes in normal human lung cells. In this study, we applied a messenger RNA (mRNA)-specific gene expression-based high throughput in vitro screening approach to discover new, potent plant-derived phase II inducing chemopreventive agents. Primary normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells and immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) were exposed to 800 individual compounds in the MicroSource Natural Products Library. At a level achievable in humans by diet (1.0 μM), 2,3-dihydroxy-4-methoxy-4'-ethoxybenzophenone (DMEBP), triacetylresveratrol (TRES), ivermectin, sanguinarine sulfate, and daunorubicin induced reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) mRNA and protein expression in NHBE cells. DMEBP and TRES were the most attractive agents as coupling potency and low toxicity for induction of NQO1 (mRNA level, ≥3- to 10.8-fold that of control; protein level, ≥ two- to fourfold that of control). Induction of glutathione S-transferase pi mRNA expression was modest, and none was apparent for glutathione S-transferase pi protein expression. Measurements of reactive oxygen species and glutathione/oxidized glutathione ratio showed an antioxidant effect for DMEBP, but no definite effect was found for TRES in NHBE cells. Exposure of NHBE cells to H(2)O(2) induced nuclear translocation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2, but this translocation was not significantly inhibited by TRES and DMEBP. These studies show that potency and low toxicity may align for two potential NQO1-inducing agents, DMEBP and TRES.

  20. Remotely sensed high resolution irrigated area mapping in India for 2000 to 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambika, Anukesh Krishnankutty; Wardlow, Brian; Mishra, Vimal

    2016-12-01

    India is among the countries that uses a significant fraction of available water for irrigation. Irrigated area in India has increased substantially after the Green revolution and both surface and groundwater have been extensively used. Under warming climate projections, irrigation frequency may increase leading to increased irrigation water demands. Water resources planning and management in agriculture need spatially-explicit irrigated area information for different crops and different crop growing seasons. However, annual, high-resolution irrigated area maps for India for an extended historical record that can be used for water resources planning and management are unavailable. Using 250 m normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and 56 m land use/land cover data, high-resolution irrigated area maps are developed for all the agroecological zones in India for the period of 2000-2015. The irrigated area maps were evaluated using the agricultural statistics data from ground surveys and were compared with the previously developed irrigation maps. High resolution (250 m) irrigated area maps showed satisfactory accuracy (R2=0.95) and can be used to understand interannual variability in irrigated area at various spatial scales.

  1. Roles of the Wada Test and Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Identifying the Language-dominant Hemisphere among Patients with Gliomas Located near Speech Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    ISHIKAWA, Tatsuya; MURAGAKI, Yoshihiro; MARUYAMA, Takashi; ABE, Kayoko; KAWAMATA, Takakazu

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the accuracy of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in identifying the language-dominant hemisphere and the situations in which the Wada test can be skipped among patients with gliomas located near speech areas. We examined 74 patients [48 men (64.9%); mean ± standard deviation age of 42.7 ± 13.6 years (range: 13 to 70 years); 71 right-handed, 2 left-handed, and 1 ambidextrous] with gliomas located near speech areas. All patients underwent the Wada test and fMRI, and 34 patients underwent awake surgery. The “last-and-first” task was administered during fMRI. The Wada test was successful in determining the language-dominant hemisphere in 73 patients (98.6%): left hemisphere in 68 patients (91.9%), right hemisphere in 4 patients (5.4%), and bilateral in 1 patient (1.4%). The dominant hemisphere for right-handed patients (n = 71) was the left hemisphere in 67 patients (94.3%), right hemisphere in 3 patients (4.2%), and undetectable in 1 patient (1.4%). The fMRI was successful in determining the language-dominant hemisphere in 53 patients (71.6%). The results of the Wada test and fMRI were inconsistent in 5 patients (8.6%), of which 3 (5.2%) exhibited dominance in opposite hemispheres. Furthermore, 2 of these 3 cases (2.7%) were contralateral false positive cases, whereby fMRI identified the right-hemisphere as language dominant for right-handed individuals with tumors in the left hemisphere. Based on these findings, we concluded that the Wada test can be skipped if language dominancy can be detected by fMRI. PMID:27980284

  2. Classification of basic facilities for high-rise residential: A survey from 100 housing scheme in Kajang area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ani, Adi Irfan Che; Sairi, Ahmad; Tawil, Norngainy Mohd; Wahab, Siti Rashidah Hanum Abd; Razak, Muhd Zulhanif Abd

    2016-08-01

    High demand for housing and limited land in town area has increasing the provision of high-rise residential scheme. This type of housing has different owners but share the same land lot and common facilities. Thus, maintenance works of the buildings and common facilities must be well organized. The purpose of this paper is to identify and classify basic facilities for high-rise residential building hoping to improve the management of the scheme. The method adopted is a survey on 100 high-rise residential schemes that ranged from affordable housing to high cost housing by using a snowball sampling. The scope of this research is within Kajang area, which is rapidly developed with high-rise housing. The objective of the survey is to list out all facilities in every sample of the schemes. The result confirmed that pre-determined 11 classifications hold true and can provide the realistic classification for high-rise residential scheme. This paper proposed for redefinition of facilities provided to create a better management system and give a clear definition on the type of high-rise residential based on its facilities.

  3. Role of dispersants of oil on copepods in high arctic areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavson, Kim; Nørregaard, Rasmus Dyrmose; Møller, Eva Friis

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the project is to increase the knowledge on the effects of using dispersants on oil spills in high arctic areas: more precisely, to investigate accumulation in and effects on high arctic copepods. Such knowledge is crucial for performing a robust net environmental benefit analysis...

  4. ANALYZING SPECTRAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SHADOW AREA FROM ADS-40 HIGH RADIOMETRIC RESOLUTION AERIAL IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-T. Hsieh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The shadows in optical remote sensing images are regarded as image nuisances in numerous applications. The classification and interpretation of shadow area in a remote sensing image are a challenge, because of the reduction or total loss of spectral information in those areas. In recent years, airborne multispectral aerial image devices have been developed 12-bit or higher radiometric resolution data, including Leica ADS-40, Intergraph DMC. The increased radiometric resolution of digital imagery provides more radiometric details of potential use in classification or interpretation of land cover of shadow areas. Therefore, the objectives of this study are to analyze the spectral properties of the land cover in the shadow areas by ADS-40 high radiometric resolution aerial images, and to investigate the spectral and vegetation index differences between the various shadow and non-shadow land covers. According to research findings of spectral analysis of ADS-40 image: (i The DN values in shadow area are much lower than in nonshadow area; (ii DN values received from shadowed areas that will also be affected by different land cover, and it shows the possibility of land cover property retrieval as in nonshadow area; (iii The DN values received from shadowed regions decrease in the visible band from short to long wavelengths due to scattering; (iv The shadow area NIR of vegetation category also shows a strong reflection; (v Generally, vegetation indexes (NDVI still have utility to classify the vegetation and non-vegetation in shadow area. The spectral data of high radiometric resolution images (ADS-40 is potential for the extract land cover information of shadow areas.

  5. Analyzing Spectral Characteristics of Shadow Area from ADS-40 High Radiometric Resolution Aerial Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yi-Ta; Wu, Shou-Tsung; Chen, Chaur-Tzuhn; Chen, Jan-Chang

    2016-06-01

    The shadows in optical remote sensing images are regarded as image nuisances in numerous applications. The classification and interpretation of shadow area in a remote sensing image are a challenge, because of the reduction or total loss of spectral information in those areas. In recent years, airborne multispectral aerial image devices have been developed 12-bit or higher radiometric resolution data, including Leica ADS-40, Intergraph DMC. The increased radiometric resolution of digital imagery provides more radiometric details of potential use in classification or interpretation of land cover of shadow areas. Therefore, the objectives of this study are to analyze the spectral properties of the land cover in the shadow areas by ADS-40 high radiometric resolution aerial images, and to investigate the spectral and vegetation index differences between the various shadow and non-shadow land covers. According to research findings of spectral analysis of ADS-40 image: (i) The DN values in shadow area are much lower than in nonshadow area; (ii) DN values received from shadowed areas that will also be affected by different land cover, and it shows the possibility of land cover property retrieval as in nonshadow area; (iii) The DN values received from shadowed regions decrease in the visible band from short to long wavelengths due to scattering; (iv) The shadow area NIR of vegetation category also shows a strong reflection; (v) Generally, vegetation indexes (NDVI) still have utility to classify the vegetation and non-vegetation in shadow area. The spectral data of high radiometric resolution images (ADS-40) is potential for the extract land cover information of shadow areas.

  6. Detailed and Highly Accurate 3d Models of High Mountain Areas by the Macs-Himalaya Aerial Camera Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauchle, J.; Hein, D.; Berger, R.

    2015-04-01

    Remote sensing in areas with extreme altitude differences is particularly challenging. In high mountain areas specifically, steep slopes result in reduced ground pixel resolution and degraded quality in the DEM. Exceptionally high brightness differences can in part no longer be imaged by the sensors. Nevertheless, detailed information about mountainous regions is highly relevant: time and again glacier lake outburst floods (GLOFs) and debris avalanches claim dozens of victims. Glaciers are sensitive to climate change and must be carefully monitored. Very detailed and accurate 3D maps provide a basic tool for the analysis of natural hazards and the monitoring of glacier surfaces in high mountain areas. There is a gap here, because the desired accuracies are often not achieved. It is for this reason that the DLR Institute of Optical Sensor Systems has developed a new aerial camera, the MACS-Himalaya. The measuring unit comprises four camera modules with an overall aperture angle of 116° perpendicular to the direction of flight. A High Dynamic Range (HDR) mode was introduced so that within a scene, bright areas such as sun-flooded snow and dark areas such as shaded stone can be imaged. In 2014, a measuring survey was performed on the Nepalese side of the Himalayas. The remote sensing system was carried by a Stemme S10 motor glider. Amongst other targets, the Seti Valley, Kali-Gandaki Valley and the Mt. Everest/Khumbu Region were imaged at heights up to 9,200 m. Products such as dense point clouds, DSMs and true orthomosaics with a ground pixel resolution of up to 15 cm were produced. Special challenges and gaps in the investigation of high mountain areas, approaches for resolution of these problems, the camera system and the state of evaluation are presented with examples.

  7. Electricity demand profile with high penetration of heat pumps in Nordic area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhaoxi; Wu, Qiuwei; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the heat pump (HP) demand profile with high HP penetration in the Nordic area in order to achieve the carbon neutrality power system. The calculation method in the European Standard EN14825 was used to estimate the HP electricity demand profile. The study results show there wi......This paper presents the heat pump (HP) demand profile with high HP penetration in the Nordic area in order to achieve the carbon neutrality power system. The calculation method in the European Standard EN14825 was used to estimate the HP electricity demand profile. The study results show...... there will be high power demand from HPs and the selection of supplemental heating for heat pumps has a big impact on the peak electrical power load of heating. The study in this paper gives an estimate of the scale of the electricity demand with high penetration of heat pumps in the Nordic area....

  8. Massive Endoscopic Screening for Esophageal and Gastric Cancers in a High-Risk Area of China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianzhi Zheng

    Full Text Available This study aims to describe the findings from a massive endoscopic screening program in a high-risk area of China and to evaluate the prognosis of patients diagnosed through endoscopic screening compared with those diagnosed at usual hospital visits because of illness.In 2006, an early detection and treatment program was initiated in Yangzhong county, China. Local residents aged 40-69 years were eligible for free endoscopic screening. Endoscopic examination was performed with Lugol's iodine staining, followed by biopsies. Patients diagnosed with esophageal or gastric cancer were referred for treatment and followed to assess their long-term survival status.From 2006 through 2012, we screened 12453 participants, including 5334 (42.8% men and 7119 (57.2% women. The average age was 52.8 ± 8.0 years. We detected 166 patients with upper digestive tract cancers, including 106 cancers in the esophagus (detection rate: 0.85% and 60 cancers in the stomach (detection rate: 0.48%. Of these patients, 98.11% with esophageal cancer and 100% with gastric cancer were defined as at the early stage. In the process of follow-up, 17 patients died from cancer-related causes, and the median survival time was greater than 85 months. The overall survival rates for 1, 3 and 5 years were 98.0%, 90.0% and 89.0%, respectively. A significant positive effect was observed for the long-term survival of patients diagnosed through massive endoscopic screening.In a high-risk population, massive endoscopic screening can identify early stage carcinoma of esophageal and gastric cancers and improve patients' prognosis through early detection and treatment.

  9. Control over self-assembly of diblock copolymers on hexagonal and square templates for high area density circuit boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jie; Cavicchi, Kevin A; Heinz, Hendrik

    2011-12-27

    Self-assembled diblock copolymer melts on patterned substrates can induce a smaller characteristic domain spacing compared to predefined lithographic patterns and enable the manufacture of circuit boards with a high area density of computing and storage units. Monte Carlo simulation using coarse-grain models of polystyrene-b-polydimethylsiloxane shows that the generation of high-density hexagonal and square patterns is controlled by the ratio N(D) of the surface area per post and the surface area per spherical domain of neat block copolymer. N(D) represents the preferred number of block copolymer domains per post. Selected integer numbers support the formation of ordered structures on hexagonal (1, 3, 4, 7, 9) and square (1, 2, 5, 7) templates. On square templates, only smaller numbers of block copolymer domains per post support the formation of ordered arrays with significant stabilization energies relative to hexagonal morphology. Deviation from suitable integer numbers N(D) increases the likelihood of transitional morphologies between square and hexagonal. Upon increasing the spacing of posts on the substrate, square arrays, nested square arrays, and disordered hexagonal morphologies with multiple coordination numbers were identified, accompanied by a decrease in stabilization energy. Control over the main design parameter N(D) may allow an up to 7-fold increase in density of spherical block copolymer domains per surface area in comparison to the density of square posts and provide access to a wide range of high-density nanostructures to pattern electronic devices.

  10. Rethinking the Well Woman Visit: A Scoping Review to Identify Eight Priority Areas for Well Woman Care in the Era of the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascale, Alisa; Beal, Margaret W; Fitzgerald, Thérèse

    2016-01-01

    The annual pap smear for cervical cancer screening, once a mainstay of the well woman visit (WWV), is no longer recommended for most low-risk women. This change has led many women and their health care providers to wonder if they should abandon this annual preventive health visit altogether. Changing guidelines coinciding with expanded WWV coverage for millions of American women under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act have created confusion for health care consumers and care givers alike. Is there evidence to support continued routine preventive health visits for women and, if so, what would ideally constitute the WWV of today? A scoping review of the literature was undertaken to appraise the current state of evidence regarding a wide range of possible elements to identify priority areas for the WWV. A population health perspective taking into consideration the reproductive health needs of women as well as the preventable and modifiable leading causes of death and disability was used to identify eight domains for the WWV of today: 1) reproductive life planning and sexual health, 2) cardiovascular disease and stroke, 3) prevention, screening, and early detection of cancers, 4) unintended injury, 5) anxiety, depression, substance abuse, and suicidal intent, 6) intimate partner violence, assault, and homicide, 7) lower respiratory disease, and 8) arthritis and other musculoskeletal problems. The WWV remains a very important opportunity for prevention, health education, screening, and early detection and should not be abandoned. Copyright © 2016 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Identify Current Deficiencies in Public Private Partnership Practices and Areas which Resist PPP Being an Attractive Investment Model in Infrastructure Developments – Case Study from Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. S. L. Perera

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Public- Private Partnerships is becoming a popular investment model since late 1980s and 1990s in the world. PPPs in the delivery of public services have become a phenomenon which is spreading around the globe and generating great interest among governments, investors and other key project stakeholders. Public- Private Partnerships avoid the often negative effects of either exclusive public ownership or outright privatization. This is seen as a win-win situation for both public and private entities where they undertake large scale projects. This balanced approach is especially welcomed in public services which touch on every human being‟s basic needs & economic development of a country. Basically in this research, it is attempted to address three main objectives, which are to identify the current Public- Private Partnerships coverage on infrastructure projects in Sri Lanka, to identify current deficiencies in Public- Private Partnerships practices and areas which resist Public- Private Partnerships being an attractive investment model in infrastructure developments in Sri Lankan context and to propose an improved PublicPrivate Partnerships framework/model that can be used effectively and address the identified problems in infrastructure developments in Sri Lanka. Based on a structured questionnaire, data collection has been done using a selected sample. Then, the data set has been evaluated using Likert Scale and giving weights for that and the total percentage of score. Lack of the knowledge and deficiencies of the PPP framework are main issues in PPP practice in Sri Lanka. Thus, it is not much popular investment model to infrastructure development at the moment. Further the government should change their role from developer and operator to facilitator to improve the PPP practice in Sri Lanka

  12. Landuse change detection in a surface coal mine area using multi-temporal high resolution satellite images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirel, N.; Duzgun, S.; Kemal Emil, M. [Middle East Technical Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Changes in the landcover and landuse of a mine area can be caused by surface mining activities, exploitation of ore and stripping and dumping overburden. In order to identify the long-term impacts of mining on the environment and land cover, these changes must be continuously monitored. A facility to regularly observe the progress of surface mining and reclamation is important for effective enforcement of mining and environmental regulations. Remote sensing provides a powerful tool to obtain rigorous data and reduce the need for time-consuming and expensive field measurements. The purpose of this study was to conduct post classification change detection for identifying, quantifying, and analyzing the spatial response of landscape due to surface lignite coal mining activities in Goynuk, Bolu, Turkey, from 2004 to 2008. The paper presented the research algorithm which involved acquiring multi temporal high resolution satellite data; preprocessing the data; performing image classification using maximum likelihood classification algorithm and performing accuracy assessment on the classification results; performing post classification change detection algorithm; and analyzing the results. Specifically, the paper discussed the study area, data and methodology, and image preprocessing using radiometric correction. Image classification and change detection were also discussed. It was concluded that the mine and dump area decreased by 192.5 ha from 2004 to 2008 and was caused by the diminishing reserves in the area and decline in the required production. 5 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  13. Automatic Open Space Area Extraction and Change Detection from High Resolution Urban Satellite Images

    CERN Document Server

    Kodge, B G

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we study efficient and reliable automatic extraction algorithm to find out the open space area from the high resolution urban satellite imagery, and to detect changes from the extracted open space area during the period 2003, 2006 and 2008. This automatic extraction and change detection algorithm uses some filters, segmentation and grouping that are applied on satellite images. The resultant images may be used to calculate the total available open space area and the built up area. It may also be used to compare the difference between present and past open space area using historical urban satellite images of that same projection, which is an important geo spatial data management application.

  14. A clinical decision model identifies patients at risk for delayed diagnosed injuries after high-energy trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoek, Anniek; Dekker, Maaike; Lagrand, Tjerk; Epema, Anniek; van der Ploeg, Tjeerd; van den Brand, J G H

    2013-06-01

    Tertiary trauma survey is widely implemented in trauma care to identify all injuries in trauma patients. However, various studies consistently show that some trauma patients have missed injuries. In this study, we developed a clinical decision model to identify patients who are at risk for delayed diagnosed injuries. During a period of 18 months, we collected the medical records of all the adult patients who presented after a high-energy trauma at the emergency department of a Dutch trauma centre. The type of trauma, patient characteristics, the radiology studies performed, Glasgow Coma Scale, Revised Trauma Score, and Injury Severity Score (ISS) were registered. We thoroughly screened all medical records for delayed diagnosed injuries. Stepwise logistic regression analysis was used to identify the variables associated with the outcome delayed diagnosed injuries and to develop a clinical prediction model. We included 475 patients. Thirteen (2.7%) patients with delayed diagnosed injuries were identified. Stepwise logistic regression analysis revealed several models with the ISS, ICU admittance, and CT-head as predictive variables. The model we proposed with the ISS could identify patients who are at a risk for delayed diagnosed injuries with a sensitivity of 92.3% and a specificity of 86.4%. Our newly developed clinical decision model can identify patients who are at a risk for delayed diagnosed injuries and who should undergo an intensified search for potential unidentified injuries.

  15. Big data in health care: using analytics to identify and manage high-risk and high-cost patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, David W; Saria, Suchi; Ohno-Machado, Lucila; Shah, Anand; Escobar, Gabriel

    2014-07-01

    The US health care system is rapidly adopting electronic health records, which will dramatically increase the quantity of clinical data that are available electronically. Simultaneously, rapid progress has been made in clinical analytics--techniques for analyzing large quantities of data and gleaning new insights from that analysis--which is part of what is known as big data. As a result, there are unprecedented opportunities to use big data to reduce the costs of health care in the United States. We present six use cases--that is, key examples--where some of the clearest opportunities exist to reduce costs through the use of big data: high-cost patients, readmissions, triage, decompensation (when a patient's condition worsens), adverse events, and treatment optimization for diseases affecting multiple organ systems. We discuss the types of insights that are likely to emerge from clinical analytics, the types of data needed to obtain such insights, and the infrastructure--analytics, algorithms, registries, assessment scores, monitoring devices, and so forth--that organizations will need to perform the necessary analyses and to implement changes that will improve care while reducing costs. Our findings have policy implications for regulatory oversight, ways to address privacy concerns, and the support of research on analytics. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  16. The reliability of echocardiographic left ventricular wall motion index to identify high-risk patients for multicenter studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gislason, Gunnar H; Gadsbøll, Niels; Quinones, Miguel A

    2006-01-01

    overall agreement for identifying patients with severe impairment of LV function. This not only underscores the value of LV-WMI as a useful tool for selecting high-risk patients to be included in multicenter studies but also serves to warn against the use of rigid cutoff values for WMI in the treatment......OBJECTIVE: To study whether the use of echocardiographic left ventricular (LV) wall motion index (WMI) is a dependable parameter for identifying patients with LV dysfunction to be enrolled in multicenter trials. METHODS: Videotaped echocardiographic examinations from 200 randomly selected patients...

  17. Method of forming macro-structured high surface area transparent conductive oxide electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forman, Arnold J.; Chen, Zhebo; Jaramillo, Thomas F.

    2016-01-05

    A method of forming a high surface area transparent conducting electrode is provided that includes depositing a transparent conducting thin film on a conductive substrate, where the transparent conducting thin film includes transparent conductive particles and a solution-based transparent conducting adhesive layer which serves to coat and bind together the transparent conducting particles, and heat treating the transparent conducting adhesion layer on the conductive substrate, where an increased surface area transparent conducting electrode is formed.

  18. Incidence of cancer among residents of high temperature geothermal areas in Iceland: a census based study 1981 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristbjornsdottir Adalbjorg

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Residents of geothermal areas are exposed to geothermal emissions and water containing hydrogen sulphide and radon. We aim to study the association of the residence in high temperature geothermal area with the risk of cancer. Methods This is an observational cohort study where the population of a high-temperature geothermal area (35,707 person years was compared with the population of a cold, non-geothermal area (571,509 person years. The cohort originates from the 1981 National Census. The follow up from 1981 to 2010 was based on record linkage by personal identifier with nation-wide death and cancer registries. Through the registries it was possible to ascertain emigration and vital status and to identify the cancer cases, 95% of which had histological verification. The hazard ratio (HR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated in Cox-model, adjusted for age, gender, education and housing. Results Adjusted HR in the high-temperature geothermal area for all cancers was 1.22 (95% CI 1.05 to 1.42 as compared with the cold area. The HR for pancreatic cancer was 2.85 (95% CI 1.39 to 5.86, breast cancer 1.59 (95% CI 1.10 to 2.31, lymphoid and hematopoietic cancer 1.64 (95% CI 1.00 to 2.66, and non-Hodgkins lymphoma 3.25 (95% CI 1.73 to 6.07. The HR for basal cell carcinoma of the skin was 1.61 (95% CI 1.10 to 2.35. The HRs were increased for cancers of the nasal cavities, larynx, lung, prostate, thyroid gland and for soft tissue sarcoma; however the 95% CIs included unity. Conclusions More precise information on chemical and physical exposures are needed to draw firm conclusions from the findings. The significant excess risk of breast cancer, and basal cell carcinoma of the skin, and the suggested excess risk of other radiation-sensitive cancers, calls for measurement of the content of the gas emissions and the hot water, which have been of concern in previous studies in volcanic areas. There are indications of an exposure

  19. Identifying individuals at high risk of psychosis: predictive utility of Support Vector Machine using structural and functional MRI data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel eValli

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The identification of individuals at high risk of developing psychosis is entirely based on clinical assessment, associated with limited predictive potential. There is therefore increasing interest in the development of biological markers that could be used in clinical practice for this purpose. We studied 25 individuals with an At Risk Mental State for psychosis and 25 healthy controls using structural MRI, and functional MRI in conjunction with a verbal memory task. Data were analysed using a standard univariate analysis, and with Support Vector Machine (SVM, a multivariate pattern recognition technique that enables statistical inferences to be made at the level of the individual, yielding results with high translational potential. The application of SVM to structural MRI data permitted the identification of individuals at high risk of psychosis with a sensitivity of 68% and a specificity of 76%, resulting in an accuracy of 72% (p<0.001. Univariate volumetric between-group differences did not reach statistical significance. In contrast, the univariate fMRI analysis identified between-group differences (p<0.05 corrected while the application of SVM to the same data did not. Since SVM is well suited at identifying the pattern of abnormality that distinguishes two groups, whereas univariate methods are more likely to identify regions that individually are most different between two groups, our results suggest the presence of focal functional abnormalities in the context of a diffuse pattern of structural abnormalities in individuals at high clinical risk of psychosis.

  20. Identifying Individuals at High Risk of Psychosis: Predictive Utility of Support Vector Machine using Structural and Functional MRI Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valli, Isabel; Marquand, Andre F.; Mechelli, Andrea; Raffin, Marie; Allen, Paul; Seal, Marc L.; McGuire, Philip

    2016-01-01

    The identification of individuals at high risk of developing psychosis is entirely based on clinical assessment, associated with limited predictive potential. There is, therefore, increasing interest in the development of biological markers that could be used in clinical practice for this purpose. We studied 25 individuals with an at-risk mental state for psychosis and 25 healthy controls using structural MRI, and functional MRI in conjunction with a verbal memory task. Data were analyzed using a standard univariate analysis, and with support vector machine (SVM), a multivariate pattern recognition technique that enables statistical inferences to be made at the level of the individual, yielding results with high translational potential. The application of SVM to structural MRI data permitted the identification of individuals at high risk of psychosis with a sensitivity of 68% and a specificity of 76%, resulting in an accuracy of 72% (p < 0.001). Univariate volumetric between-group differences did not reach statistical significance. By contrast, the univariate fMRI analysis identified between-group differences (p < 0.05 corrected), while the application of SVM to the same data did not. Since SVM is well suited at identifying the pattern of abnormality that distinguishes two groups, whereas univariate methods are more likely to identify regions that individually are most different between two groups, our results suggest the presence of focal functional abnormalities in the context of a diffuse pattern of structural abnormalities in individuals at high clinical risk of psychosis. PMID:27092086

  1. Identifying Areas for High School Teacher Development: A Study of Assessment Literacy in the Central Bucks School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidheiser, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding and implementing effective classroom assessments are essential to increasing student achievement (Marzano, 2000). Teachers' assessment literacy is viewed as a key link in the connection between assessment quality and student achievement. According to Marzano, the relationship is seen as important as any other in the teaching and…

  2. Synthetic microfluidic paper: high surface area and high porosity polymer micropillar arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Jonas; Yasuga, Hiroki; Haraldsson, Tommy; van der Wijngaart, Wouter

    2016-01-21

    We introduce Synthetic Microfluidic Paper, a novel porous material for microfluidic applications that consists of an OSTE polymer that is photostructured in a well-controlled geometry of slanted and interlocked micropillars. We demonstrate the distinct benefits of Synthetic Microfluidic Paper over other porous microfluidic materials, such as nitrocellulose, traditional paper and straight micropillar arrays: in contrast to straight micropillar arrays, the geometry of Synthetic Microfluidic Paper was miniaturized without suffering capillary collapse during manufacturing and fluidic operation, resulting in a six-fold increased internal surface area and a three-fold increased porous fraction. Compared to commercial nitrocellulose materials for capillary assays, Synthetic Microfluidic Paper shows a wider range of capillary pumping speed and four times lower device-to-device variation. Compared to the surfaces of the other porous microfluidic materials that are modified by adsorption, Synthetic Microfluidic Paper contains free thiol groups and has been shown to be suitable for covalent surface chemistry, demonstrated here for increasing the material hydrophilicity. These results illustrate the potential of Synthetic Microfluidic Paper as a porous microfluidic material with improved performance characteristics, especially for bioassay applications such as diagnostic tests.

  3. Levels of thoron and progeny in high background radiation area of southeastern coast of Odisha, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramola, R C; Gusain, G S; Rautela, B S; Sagar, D V; Prasad, G; Shahoo, S K; Ishikawa, T; Omori, Y; Janik, M; Sorimachi, A; Tokonami, S

    2012-11-01

    Exposure to radon, (222)Rn, is assumed to be the most significant source of natural radiation to human beings in most cases. It is thought that radon and its progeny are major factors that cause cancer. The presence of thoron, (220)Rn, was often neglected because it was considered that the quantity of thoron in the environment is less than that of radon. However, recent studies have shown that a high thoron concentration was found in some regions and the exposure to (220)Rn and its progeny can equal or several time exceed that of (220)Rn and its progeny. The results of thoron and its progeny measurements in the houses of high background radiation area (HBRA) of the southeastern coast of Odisha, India presented here. This area is one of the high background radiation areas in India with a large deposit of monazite sand which is the probable source of thoron. Both active and passive methods were employed for the measurement of thoron and its progeny in cement, brick and mud houses in the study area. Thoron concentration was measured using RAD-7 and Raduet. A CR-39 track detector was employed for the measurement of environmental thoron progeny, both in active and passive modes. Thoron and its progeny concentrations were found to be comparatively high in the area. A comparison between the results obtained with various techniques is presented in this paper.

  4. New findings: a very high natural radiation area in Afra hot springs, Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajlouni, Abdul-Wali; Abdelsalam, Manal; Abu-Haija, Osama; Joudeh, Bassam

    2009-01-01

    A high natural radiation zone was investigated for the first time in Afra hot springs of Jordan. The radiation levels were measured using a portable Geiger-Muller counter and an Na(Tl) detector. The measured absorbed dose rates in air ranged from 10 to 1800 nGy h(-1), suggesting that the concentration of natural radioactive materials is very high compared with their normal abundance in crustal rocks. A single high-radiation zone was also found in a nearby area where a gamma radiation dose rate of 4.0 mGy h(-1) was measured. On the basis of this measurement, the area was marked as a high-radiation zone. This region is far from tourist areas and not easily reached. No intervention measures are needed to protect people because the spa area is not well inhabited, having only daily visitors (average frequency of 10 days per year per individual). The dose received by workers in the spa area should be considered and the worker should be monitored by personal radiation dosimeters, such as thermoluminescent dosimeters.

  5. The Identification of Technology Platforms and Innovation Areas with High Regional Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Urbančíková

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the process of identification of the technological platforms and innovation areas with high regional impact. The aim is to discover future fields of technological innovation which are having a high qualitative and quantitative demand of high potentials. The research has been undertaken within project Innovative Development of European Areas by fostering transnational Knowledge Development – IDEA/ 2CE1175P1 funded by Central Europe Programme. The aim of IDEA project is the development of an adequate strategy which enables the small and medium sized enterprises in the regions of Central Europe to face the increasing demand of high potentials with tested methods and instruments. The target group of IDEA project are so called “high potentials” in the engineering and scientific sector where future-oriented technologies are one of the main sources of innovation.

  6. A high-content EMT screen identifies multiple receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors with activity on TGFβ receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerknecht, Sabine; Lehembre, François; Fink, Tobias; Stritt, Manuel; Wirth, Matthias; Pavan, Simona; Bill, Ruben; Regenass, Urs; Christofori, Gerhard; Meyer-Schaller, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    An epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) enables epithelial tumor cells to break out of the primary tumor mass and to metastasize. Understanding the molecular mechanisms driving EMT in more detail will provide important tools to interfere with the metastatic process. To identify pharmacological modulators and druggable targets of EMT, we have established a novel multi-parameter, high-content, microscopy-based assay and screened chemical compounds with activities against known targets. Out of 3423 compounds, we have identified 19 drugs that block transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ)-induced EMT in normal murine mammary gland epithelial cells (NMuMG). The active compounds include inhibitors against TGFβ receptors (TGFBR), Rho-associated protein kinases (ROCK), myosin II, SRC kinase and uridine analogues. Among the EMT-repressing compounds, we identified a group of inhibitors targeting multiple receptor tyrosine kinases, and biochemical profiling of these multi-kinase inhibitors reveals TGFBR as a thus far unknown target of their inhibitory spectrum. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of a multi-parameter, high-content microscopy screen to identify modulators and druggable targets of EMT. Moreover, the newly discovered “off-target” effects of several receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors have important consequences for in vitro and in vivo studies and might beneficially contribute to the therapeutic effects observed in vivo. PMID:27036020

  7. A high-content EMT screen identifies multiple receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors with activity on TGFβ receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotz-Jenne, Carina; Lüthi, Urs; Ackerknecht, Sabine; Lehembre, François; Fink, Tobias; Stritt, Manuel; Wirth, Matthias; Pavan, Simona; Bill, Ruben; Regenass, Urs; Christofori, Gerhard; Meyer-Schaller, Nathalie

    2016-05-03

    An epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) enables epithelial tumor cells to break out of the primary tumor mass and to metastasize. Understanding the molecular mechanisms driving EMT in more detail will provide important tools to interfere with the metastatic process. To identify pharmacological modulators and druggable targets of EMT, we have established a novel multi-parameter, high-content, microscopy-based assay and screened chemical compounds with activities against known targets. Out of 3423 compounds, we have identified 19 drugs that block transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ)-induced EMT in normal murine mammary gland epithelial cells (NMuMG). The active compounds include inhibitors against TGFβ receptors (TGFBR), Rho-associated protein kinases (ROCK), myosin II, SRC kinase and uridine analogues. Among the EMT-repressing compounds, we identified a group of inhibitors targeting multiple receptor tyrosine kinases, and biochemical profiling of these multi-kinase inhibitors reveals TGFBR as a thus far unknown target of their inhibitory spectrum. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of a multi-parameter, high-content microscopy screen to identify modulators and druggable targets of EMT. Moreover, the newly discovered "off-target" effects of several receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors have important consequences for in vitro and in vivo studies and might beneficially contribute to the therapeutic effects observed in vivo.

  8. LTE Micro-cell Deployment for High-Density Railway Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sniady, Aleksander; Kassab, Mohamed; Soler, José

    2014-01-01

    Long Term Evolution (LTE) is a serious candidate for the future releases of the European Rail Traffic Management System (ERTMS). LTE offers more capacity and supports new communication-based applications and services for railways. Nevertheless, even with this technology, the classical macro......-cell radio deployments reach overload, especially in high-density areas, such as major train stations. In this paper, an LTE micro-cell deployment is investigated in high-density railway areas. Copenhagen Main Station is considered as a realistic deployment study case, with a set of relevant railway...

  9. Transverse momentum distributions of identified particles produced in , $p(d)A$, and collisions at high energies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ya-Qin Gao; Cai-Xing Tian; Mai-Ying Duan; Bao-Chun Li; Fu-Hu Liu

    2012-12-01

    Using a unified description on multiplicity distributions of final-state particles, the transverse momentum distributions of identified particles produced in proton–proton (), proton– and deuteron–nucleus $[p(d)A]$, and nucleus–nucleus () collisions at high energies are studied in this paper. We assume that the transverse momentum distributions of identified particles measured in final state are contributed by a few energy sources which can be regarded as partons or quarks in the interacting system. The particle is contributed by each source with gluons which have transverse momentum distributions in an exponential form. The modelling results are compared and found to be in agreement with the experimental data at high energies.

  10. Identifying Sources and Assessing Potential Risk of Exposure to Heavy Metals and Hazardous Materials in Mining Areas: The Case Study of Panasqueira Mine (Central Portugal as an Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Candeias

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Sn-W Panasqueira mine, in activity since the mid-1890s, is one of the most important economic deposits in the world. Arsenopyrite is the main mineral present as well as rejected waste sulphide. The long history is testified by the presence of a huge amount of tailings, which release considerable quantities of heavy metal(loids into the environment. This work assesses soil contamination and evaluates the ecological and human health risks due to exposure to hazardous materials. The metal assemblage identified in soil (Ag-As-Bi-Cd-Cu-W-Zn; potentially toxic elements (PTEs reflects the influence of the tailings, due to several agents including aerial dispersion. PTEs and pH display a positive correlation confirming that heavy metal mobility is directly related to pH and, therefore, affects their availability. The estimated contamination factor classified 92.6% of soil samples as moderately to ultra-highly polluted. The spatial distribution of the potential ecological risk index classified the topsoil as being of a very high ecological risk, consistent with wind direction. Non-carcinogenic hazard of topsoil, for children (1–6 years, showed that for As the non-carcinogenic hazard represents a high health risk. The carcinogenic risks, both for children and adult alike, reveal a very high cancer risk mostly due to As ingestion.

  11. SSR_pipeline: a bioinformatic infrastructure for identifying microsatellites from paired-end Illumina high-throughput DNA sequencing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mark P.; Knaus, Brian J.; Mullins, Thomas D.; Haig, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    SSR_pipeline is a flexible set of programs designed to efficiently identify simple sequence repeats (e.g., microsatellites) from paired-end high-throughput Illumina DNA sequencing data. The program suite contains 3 analysis modules along with a fourth control module that can automate analyses of large volumes of data. The modules are used to 1) identify the subset of paired-end sequences that pass Illumina quality standards, 2) align paired-end reads into a single composite DNA sequence, and 3) identify sequences that possess microsatellites (both simple and compound) conforming to user-specified parameters. The microsatellite search algorithm is extremely efficient, and we have used it to identify repeats with motifs from 2 to 25bp in length. Each of the 3 analysis modules can also be used independently to provide greater flexibility or to work with FASTQ or FASTA files generated from other sequencing platforms (Roche 454, Ion Torrent, etc.). We demonstrate use of the program with data from the brine fly Ephydra packardi (Diptera: Ephydridae) and provide empirical timing benchmarks to illustrate program performance on a common desktop computer environment. We further show that the Illumina platform is capable of identifying large numbers of microsatellites, even when using unenriched sample libraries and a very small percentage of the sequencing capacity from a single DNA sequencing run. All modules from SSR_pipeline are implemented in the Python programming language and can therefore be used from nearly any computer operating system (Linux, Macintosh, and Windows).

  12. Using areas of known occupancy to identify sources of variation in detection probability of raptors: taking time lowers replication effort for surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murn, Campbell; Holloway, Graham J

    2016-10-01

    Species occurring at low density can be difficult to detect and if not properly accounted for, imperfect detection will lead to inaccurate estimates of occupancy. Understanding sources of variation in detection probability and how they can be managed is a key part of monitoring. We used sightings data of a low-density and elusive raptor (white-headed vulture Trigonoceps occipitalis) in areas of known occupancy (breeding territories) in a likelihood-based modelling approach to calculate detection probability and the factors affecting it. Because occupancy was known a priori to be 100%, we fixed the model occupancy parameter to 1.0 and focused on identifying sources of variation in detection probability. Using detection histories from 359 territory visits, we assessed nine covariates in 29 candidate models. The model with the highest support indicated that observer speed during a survey, combined with temporal covariates such as time of year and length of time within a territory, had the highest influence on the detection probability. Averaged detection probability was 0.207 (s.e. 0.033) and based on this the mean number of visits required to determine within 95% confidence that white-headed vultures are absent from a breeding area is 13 (95% CI: 9-20). Topographical and habitat covariates contributed little to the best models and had little effect on detection probability. We highlight that low detection probabilities of some species means that emphasizing habitat covariates could lead to spurious results in occupancy models that do not also incorporate temporal components. While variation in detection probability is complex and influenced by effects at both temporal and spatial scales, temporal covariates can and should be controlled as part of robust survey methods. Our results emphasize the importance of accounting for detection probability in occupancy studies, particularly during presence/absence studies for species such as raptors that are widespread and

  13. Rats with high left ventricular end-diastolic pressure can be identified by Doppler echocardiography one week after myocardial infarction

    OpenAIRE

    R.M. Saraiva; Kanashiro-Takeuchi,R.M.; E.L. Antonio; Campos, O; P.J.F. Tucci; Moisés,V.A.

    2007-01-01

    The severity of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction in rats with myocardial infarction (MI) varies widely. Because homogeneity in baseline parameters is essential for experimental investigations, a study was conducted to establish whether Doppler echocardiography (DE) could accurately identify animals with high LV end-diastolic pressure as a marker of LV dysfunction soon after MI. Direct measurements of LV end-diastolic pressure were made and DE was performed simultaneously 1 week after surgica...

  14. Genotoxicity detected in wild mice living in a highly polluted wetland area in south western Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mateos, Santiago; Daza, Paula; Dominguez, Inmaculada; Cardenas, Jose Antonio [University of Seville, Department of Cell Biology, Faculty of Biology, Avenida de la Reina Mercedes no 6, E-41012 Seville (Spain); Cortes, Felipe [University of Seville, Department of Cell Biology, Faculty of Biology, Avenida de la Reina Mercedes no 6, E-41012 Seville (Spain)], E-mail: cortes@us.es

    2008-06-15

    A field study was carried out in the south of the Iberian Peninsula in an industrial area in the neighbourhood of Huelva city, SW Spain, and in a natural area (Donana National Park) for comparison, to estimate the genetic risk induced by environmental pollution in wild mice. Genotoxic effects in a sentinel organism, the Algerian mice (Mus spretus) free living in the industrial area were compared with animals of the same species living in the natural protected area. The single cell gel electrophoresis, or Comet assay, was performed as a genotoxicity test in peripheral blood of mice. Our results clearly show that mice free living in the contaminated area bear a high burden of genetic damage as compared with control individuals. The results suggest that the assessing of genotoxicity levels by the Comet assay in wild mice can be used as a valuable test in pollution monitoring and environmental conservation. - We have found an increased genotoxic damage in wild mice in a highly polluted area from industry, mining and agriculture in SW Spain, as assessed by the Comet assay.

  15. Preparation and Characterization of Porous Yttrium Oxide Powders with High Specific Surface Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The porous cubic yttrium oxides with high specific surface area were prepared by the explosive decomposition of yttrium nitrate and its complex formed with methyl salicylate. The specific surface area and properties of powders synthesized at various temperatures were characterized using BET, X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectra (IR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results indicate that the highest specific surface area is found to be 65.37 m2*g-1 at the calcination temperature of 600 ℃, and then decreases to 20.33 m2*g-1 with the calcination temperature rising from 600 to 900 ℃. The powders show strong surface activity for adsorping water and carbon dioxide in air, which also decreases with the rising calcination temperature. The drop both on the surface area and surface activity of samples at higher temperatures may be due to pore-narrowing(sintering) effects.

  16. Comparison between summing-up algorithms to determine areas of small peaks on high baselines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Quanlin; Zhang, Jiamei; Chang, Yongfu; Qian, Shaojun

    2005-12-01

    It is found that the minimum detectable activity (MDA) has a same tendency as the relative standard deviation (RSD) and a particular application is characteristic of the ratio of the peak area to the baseline height. Different applications need different algorithms to reduce the RSD of peak areas or the MDA of potential peaks. A model of Gaussian peaks superposed on linear baselines is established to simulate the multichannel spectrum and summing-up algorithms such as total peak area (TPA), and Covell and Sterlinski are compared to find the most appropriate algorithm for different applications. The results show that optimal Covell and Sterlinski algorithms will yield MDA or RSD half lower than TPA when the areas of small peaks on high baselines are to be determined. The conclusion is proved by experiment.

  17. Use of the plasma triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio to identify cardiovascular disease in hypertensive subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Martin R; Carbajal, Horacio A; Espeche, Walter G; Aizpurúa, Marcelo; Leiva Sisnieguez, Carlos E; Leiva Sisnieguez, Betty C; March, Carlos E; Stavile, Rodolfo N; Balbín, Eduardo; Reaven, Gerald M

    2014-10-01

    This analysis evaluated the hypothesis that the plasma triglyceride (TG)/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration ratio can help identify patients with essential hypertension who are insulin-resistant, with the cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk profile associated with that defect. Data from a community-based study developed between 2003 and 2012 were used to compare CVD risk factors and outcome. Plasma TG/HDL-C cut-points of 2.5 (women) and 3.5 (men) subdivided normotensive (n = 574) and hypertensive (n = 373) subjects into "high" and "low" risk groups. Metabolic syndrome criteria (MetS) were also used to identify "high" and "low" risk groups. The baseline cardio-metabolic profile was significantly more adverse in 2003 in "high" risk subgroups, irrespective of BP classification or definition of risk (TG/HDL-C ratio vs. MetS criteria). Crude incidence of combined CVD events increased across risk groups, ranging from 1.9 in normotensive-low TG/HDL-C subjects to 19.9 in hypertensive-high TG/HDL-C ratio individuals (P for trends <.001). Adjusted hazard ratios for CVD events also increased with both hypertension and TG/HDL-C. Comparable findings were seen when CVD outcome was predicted by MetS criteria. The TG/HDL-C concentration ratio and the MetS criteria identify to a comparable degree hypertensive subjects who are at greatest cardio-metabolic risk and develop significantly more CVD.

  18. Respiratory allergy in immigrants to a highly industrialised area in Italy according to area of origin and time period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minetti, S; Raffetti, E; Lodi-Rizzini, F; Facchetti, S; Schlanser, E; Colombo, E; Cinquini, M; Donato, F; Tosoni, C

    2015-01-01

    Migrants from developing to Western countries tend to become more sensitised to host than to origin country allergens, although substantial changes in migration patterns have occurred in recent decades. We investigated adult immigrants with respiratory allergy, first tested for allergic sensitisation between 1985 and 2012 in a highly industrialised area in Italy. A comparison was made of the sensitisation pattern between immigrants and a random sample of native-born subjects affected by a respiratory allergy, and among immigrants according to macro-region of origin and time period. Between 1985 and 2012, 480 immigrants with respiratory allergy had a first positive allergy test. Immigrants were sensitised mainly to grass (67.1%), house dust mites (HDM) (38.5%) and birch (27.5%), with a pattern of sensitisation very similar to that observed in Italians (native-born). An increase in the proportion of subjects with asthma and of subjects with polysensitisation was observed from the first (1985-2002) to the middle (2003-2007) and the most recent period (2008-2012). In recent years, the proportion of subjects with polysensitisation in immigrants is higher than in Italians (native-born) (53.3% vs. 40.1%). Among immigrants, the risk of sensitisation to grass was higher in those from Sub-Saharan Africa (odds ratio, OR=2.76) and Latin America (OR=2.49), whereas risk of sensitisation to HDM was higher among immigrants from South Asia (OR=2.71), compared to immigrants from Eastern Europe. Immigrants develop multiple sensitisations more frequently than native-born people, and are especially sensitised to local allergens; the country of origin seems to play a role. Copyright © 2014 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. High-resolution linkage analyses to identify genes that influence Varroa sensitive hygiene behavior in honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuruda, Jennifer M; Harris, Jeffrey W; Bourgeois, Lanie; Danka, Robert G; Hunt, Greg J

    2012-01-01

    Varroa mites (V. destructor) are a major threat to honey bees (Apis melilfera) and beekeeping worldwide and likely lead to colony decline if colonies are not treated. Most treatments involve chemical control of the mites; however, Varroa has evolved resistance to many of these miticides, leaving beekeepers with a limited number of alternatives. A non-chemical control method is highly desirable for numerous reasons including lack of chemical residues and decreased likelihood of resistance. Varroa sensitive hygiene behavior is one of two behaviors identified that are most important for controlling the growth of Varroa populations in bee hives. To identify genes influencing this trait, a study was conducted to map quantitative trait loci (QTL). Individual workers of a backcross family were observed and evaluated for their VSH behavior in a mite-infested observation hive. Bees that uncapped or removed pupae were identified. The genotypes for 1,340 informative single nucleotide polymorphisms were used to construct a high-resolution genetic map and interval mapping was used to analyze the association of the genotypes with the performance of Varroa sensitive hygiene. We identified one major QTL on chromosome 9 (LOD score = 3.21) and a suggestive QTL on chromosome 1 (LOD = 1.95). The QTL confidence interval on chromosome 9 contains the gene 'no receptor potential A' and a dopamine receptor. 'No receptor potential A' is involved in vision and olfaction in Drosophila, and dopamine signaling has been previously shown to be required for aversive olfactory learning in honey bees, which is probably necessary for identifying mites within brood cells. Further studies on these candidate genes may allow for breeding bees with this trait using marker-assisted selection.

  20. Rats with high left ventricular end-diastolic pressure can be identified by Doppler echocardiography one week after myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, R M; Kanashiro-Takeuchi, R M; Antonio, E L; Campos, O; P J F, Tucci; Moisés, V A

    2007-11-01

    The severity of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction in rats with myocardial infarction (MI) varies widely. Because homogeneity in baseline parameters is essential for experimental investigations, a study was conducted to establish whether Doppler echocardiography (DE) could accurately identify animals with high LV end-diastolic pressure as a marker of LV dysfunction soon after MI. Direct measurements of LV end-diastolic pressure were made and DE was performed simultaneously 1 week after surgically induced MI (N = 16) or sham-operation (N = 17) in female Wistar rats (200 to 250 g). The ratio of peak early (E) to late (A) diastolic LV filling velocities and the ratio of E velocity to peak early (Em) diastolic myocardial velocity were the best predictors of high LV end-diastolic pressure (>12 mmHg) soon after MI. Cut-off values of 1.77 for the E/A ratio (P = 0.001) identified rats with elevated LV end-diastolic pressure with 90% sensitivity and 80% specificity. Cut-off values of 20.4 for the E/Em ratio (P = 0.0001) identified rats with elevated LV end-diastolic pressure with 81.8% sensitivity and 80% specificity. Moreover, E/A and E/Em ratios were the only echocardiographic parameters independently associated with LV end-diastolic pressure in multiple linear regression analysis. Therefore, DE identifies rats with high LV end-diastolic pressure soon after MI. These findings have implications for using serial DE in animal selection and in the assessment of their response to experimental therapies.

  1. Systems for Hazards Identification in High Mountain Areas:An Example from the Kullu District,Western Himalaya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James S. Gardner; Eric Saczuk

    2004-01-01

    Methods and techniques for the identification, monitoring and management of natural hazards in high mountain areas are enumerated and described. A case study from the western Himalayan Kullu District in Himachal Pradesh, India is used to illustrate some of the methods. Research on the general topic has been conducted over three decades and that in the Kullu District has been carried out since 1994. Early methods of hazards identification in high mountain areas involved intensive and lengthy fieldwork and mapping with primary reliance on interpretation of landforms, sediments and vegetation thought to be indicative of slope failures, rock falls,debris flows, floods and accelerated soil surface erosion. Augmented by the use of airphotos and ad hoc observations of specific events over time, these methods resulted in the gradual accumulation of information on hazardous sites and the beginnings of a chronology of occurrences in an area. The use of historical methods applied to written and photographic material, often held in archives and libraries, further improved the resolution of hazards information. In the past two decades, both the need for, and the ability to, accurately identify potential hazards have increased. The need for accurate information and monitoring comes about as a result of rapid growth in population, settlements,transportation infrastructure and intensified land uses and, therefore, risk and vulnerability in mountain areas. Ability has improved as the traditional methods of gathering and manipulating data have been supplemented by the use of remote sensing, automated terrain modeling, global positioning systems and geographical information systems. This paper focuses on the development and application of the latter methods and techniques to characterize and monitor hazards in high mountain areas.

  2. Condensation-Enhanced Self-Assembly as a Route to High Surface Area alpha-Aluminas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perez, Lidia Lopez; Zarubina, Valeriya; Heeres, Hero Jan; Melian-Cabrera, Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    High surface area nanosized alpha-alumina has been obtained by thermally treating a sol-gel-derived mesophase at 1200 degrees C; the mesophase was synthesized by a sol-gel route involving evaporation induced self-assembly (EISA) of a hydrolyzed gel from Al-tri-sec-butoxide in s-BuOH in the presence

  3. 76 FR 50540 - Pilot Program of Enhanced Contract Care Authority for Veterans in Highly Rural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-15

    ... AFFAIRS Pilot Program of Enhanced Contract Care Authority for Veterans in Highly Rural Areas AGENCY... implementing Sec. 403 of Public Law (Pub. L.) 110-387, ``Veterans' Mental Health and Other Care Improvements Act of 2008,'' which requires VA to establish a pilot program to contract with non-VA health...

  4. Fabrication of nanoelectromechanical systems via the integration of high surface area glancing angle deposition thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westwood, J. N.; Sauer, V. T. K.; Kwan, J. K.; Hiebert, W. K.; Sit, J. C.

    2014-06-01

    Nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) coated with a high surface area thin film are fabricated. Glancing angle deposition (GLAD) is used to uniformly deposit high surface area, nanostructured SiO2 films on top of released NEMS. The resonance frequencies and quality factors are measured to assess the potential of the high surface area NEMS for sensing experiments. Resonance frequencies of coated cantilevers, although reduced by mass loading, can be predicted accurately using our derived model. Compressive stress makes the resonance frequencies of coated doubly-clamped beams difficult to predict. The quality factors of the coated NEMS are reduced by one order of magnitude by a quasi-continuous layer at the base of the GLAD film, which also introduces an estimated compressive stress of 5.3-9.3 MPa. The limit of detection is demonstrated to be ˜2 pg cm-2. With this successful proof-of-concept demonstration, we anticipate the future use of these devices as high surface area gravimetric mass sensors for applications such as gas chromatography.

  5. High surface area carbon for bifunctional air electrodes applied in zinc-air batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arai, H. [on leave from NTT Laboratories (Japan); Mueller, S.; Haas, O. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    Bifunctional air electrodes with high surface area carbon substrates showed low reduction overpotential, thus are promising for enhancing the energy efficiency and power capability of zinc-air batteries. The improved performance is attributed to lower overpotential due to diffusion of the reaction intermediate, namely the peroxide ion. (author) 1 fig., 2 refs.

  6. Use of high-stability composts in recreational areas: assays on cold season turf grasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez de Barreda-Ferraz, D.; Albiach, M. R.; Pomares, F.; Ingelmo, F.; Canet, R.

    2009-07-01

    Recreational and sport areas, steadily increasing on number and occupied surface, show great interest as consumers of large amounts of organic products. High-quality composts could be used to improve soil properties, increasing its water-hold capacity and reducing the amounts of synthetic fertilizers needed to support the vegetal cover. (Author)

  7. Turbostratic boron nitride coated on high-surface area metal oxide templates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitgaard, Søren Kegnæs; Egeblad, Kresten; Brorson, M.

    2007-01-01

    Boron nitride coatings on high-surface area MgAl2O4 and Al2O3 have been synthesized and characterized by transmission electron microscopy and by X-ray powder diffraction. The metal oxide templates were coated with boron nitride using a simple nitridation in a flow of ammonia starting from ammonium...

  8. RADIU-226 CONTENT IN SOIL OF THE HIGH NATURAL BACKGROUND RADIATION AREA OF RAMSAR (IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.Khademi

    1978-11-01

    Full Text Available The existence of a high natural radiation area in the northern part of Iran (Ramsar is proved. Ra 226 in soil is measured. The results are: minimum 23.5 pCi/g and maximum 999 pCi/g soil. Environmental radioactivity is from 0.1 to 5 mr/h.

  9. Condensation-Enhanced Self-Assembly as a Route to High Surface Area alpha-Aluminas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perez, Lidia Lopez; Zarubina, Valeriya; Heeres, Hero Jan; Melian-Cabrera, Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    High surface area nanosized alpha-alumina has been obtained by thermally treating a sol-gel-derived mesophase at 1200 degrees C; the mesophase was synthesized by a sol-gel route involving evaporation induced self-assembly (EISA) of a hydrolyzed gel from Al-tri-sec-butoxide in s-BuOH in the presence

  10. Development of a Brief Pre-Implementation Screening Tool to Identify Teachers Who Are at Risk for Not Implementing Intervention Curriculum and High-Implementing Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Stanton, Bonita; Lunn, Sonja; Patel, Pooja; Koci, Veronica; Deveaux, Lynette

    2017-02-01

    Few questionnaires have been developed to screen for potentially poor implementers of school-based interventions. This study combines teacher characteristics, perceptions, and teaching/training experiences to develop a short screening tool that can identify potential "low-performing" or "high-performing" teachers pre-implementation. Data were gathered from 208 teachers and 4,411 students who participated in the national implementation of an evidence-based HIV intervention in The Bahamas. Sensitivity and specificity were evaluated for the detection of "low-performing" and "high-performing" teachers. The validity of the screening tool was assessed using receiver operating characteristics analysis. The School Pre-implementation Screening Tool consists of seven predictive factors: duration as teacher, working site, attendance at training workshops, training in interactive teaching, perceived importance of the intervention, comfort in teaching the curriculum, and program priority. The sensitivity and specificity were 74% and 57% in identifying "low-performing" teachers and 81% and 65% with "high-performing" teachers. The screening tool demonstrated an acceptable/good validity (area under the receiver operating characteristics curve was 0.68 for "low-performing teachers" and 0.78 for "high-performing" teachers). Our brief screening tool can facilitate teacher training and recruitment of engaged teachers in implementation o