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Sample records for high anxiety level

  1. Response to induced relaxation during pregnancy: comparison of women with high versus low levels of anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alder, Judith; Urech, Corinne; Fink, Nadine; Bitzer, Johannes; Hoesli, Irene

    2011-03-01

    Relaxation exercises have become a standard intervention for individuals with anxiety disorders but little is known about their potential for anxiety relief during pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to examine psychoendocrine (i) baseline differences and (ii) changes after a standardized relaxation period in pregnant women with high versus low levels of anxiety. Thirty-nine third-trimester high and low anxious pregnant women performed active or passive relaxation while levels of anxiety, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and sympathetic-adrenal-medullary (SAM) system activity were assessed before and after the relaxation period. In women with high levels of trait anxiety, state anxiety (F(1,36) = 8.3, p = .007) and negative affect (F(1,36) = 7.99, p = .008) as well as ACTH (F(1,35) = 9.24, p = .002) remained elevated over the entire course of the experimental procedure, the last indicating increased HPA axis activity. In addition, norepinephrine showed a constricted decrease of relaxation reflecting lower response of the SAM-system (F(1,37) = 4.41, p = .043). Although relaxation exercises have become a standard intervention for individuals with anxiety, pregnant women with high levels of trait anxiety benefited less than women with low levels from a single standardized relaxation period.

  2. Associations between delayed completion of high school and educational attainment and symptom levels of anxiety and depression in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melkevik, Ole; Hauge, Lars Johan; Bendtsen, Pernille

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a higher prevalence of anxiety and depression among adults with lower educational attainment. Delayed completion of high school (HS) is common and represents a potentially complicating factor in the relationship between educational attainment and anxiety and depression...... depression and anxiety and interacts with later educational attainment in predicting symptom levels of anxiety. Individuals with a combination of delayed HS completion and lower educational attainment had particularly high symptom levels of anxiety....

  3. Do mothers with high sodium levels in their breast milk have high depression and anxiety scores?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serim Demirgoren, Burcu; Ozbek, Aylin; Ormen, Murat; Kavurma, Canem; Ozer, Esra; Aydın, Adem

    2017-04-01

    Objective This study aimed to assess the possible association of high breast milk sodium levels with postpartum depression and anxiety. Methods A total of 150 mothers and their healthy, exclusively breastfed newborns aged 8 to 15 days were recruited. Mothers were asked to complete scales for evaluation of postnatal depression and anxiety following an interview for consent and sociodemographic data collection. Breast milk samples were obtained to measure sodium and potassium (K) levels. Results Forty-nine mothers had higher than expected breast milk Na concentrations and a high Na/K ratio. These mothers scored significantly higher on the scales of postnatal depression and state anxiety ( P = 0.018 and P = 0.048, respectively). Conclusions This study shows that compared to normal breast milk Na levels and Na/K ratio, high breast milk Na and high Na/K ratio, with possible serious consequences in infants, are associated with maternal depressive and anxious symptoms in the postpartum period.

  4. High anxiety levels are associated with divergent empathising and systemising tendencies

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    Paul A. Strutt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available “Systemising” and “Empathising” are two cognitive tendencies that individuals rely on to make sense of the world. Systemising involves the observation of environmental contingencies and the consequent formulation of concrete rules to predict events. Empathising is the drive to attribute affective states to others, and to guide responses based on these inferences. High Anxiety is linked to negative, and erroneous, interpretations of social information, and it is possible that the introduction of systems, and therefore predictive utility, might appeal to anxious individuals. It was hypothesised that individuals with high trait anxiety levels would report higher systemising tendencies and lower empathising tendencies than their less anxious peers. A total of 223 participants completed measures of trait anxiety, empathising and systemising tendencies, and autistic traits. Consistent with the hypotheses, individuals with higher levels of trait anxiety demonstrated high systemising tendencies and relatively low empathising tendencies, whilst their less anxious peers demonstrated balanced tendencies in both domains. The High Anxiety group also scored highest on the self-reported measure of autistic traits. This research has identified anxiety as a potential facilitator of divergence in cognitive tendencies, which will be further enhanced by studies in clinical populations.

  5. The Attentional Blink Paradigm in Individuals with High and Low Levels of Depression and Anxiety

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    Hannah Kathleen Skinner

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The attentional biases of individuals with high and low levels of depression and anxiety were tested using the Attentional Blink paradigm. A rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP task was used to detect biases in identification of emotionally valenced target images. The independent variables were depression, anxiety, lag of target stimulus, and emotional valence of target images. The dependent variables were accuracy, reaction times, and pupil dilation. As predicted, attentional biases were found for symptoms of both depression and anxiety, independently and co-morbidly, for dependent variables. The data suggest that there are both differences and similarities in the effects of symptoms of anxiety and depression on attentional biases around emotional stimuli.

  6. Anxiety Levels in Adolescents Who Stutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood, Gordon W.; Blood, Ingrid M.; Maloney, Kristy; Meyer, Crystal; Qualls, Constance Dean

    2007-01-01

    High levels of anxiety can negatively affect the lives of children and adolescents. Thirty-six adolescents who stutter and 36 adolescents who do not stutter were administered standardized scales for anxiety and self-esteem. Significant differences were found for the total T-scores for "Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale" for the two groups,…

  7. Anxiety mediates the effect of acute stress on working memory performance when cortisol levels are high: a moderated mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Anna; Pulvers, Kim; Spady, Thomas J; Kliebenstein, Alexa; Bachand, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety is an aversive emotional state characterized by perceived uncontrollability and hypervigilance to threat that can frequently cause disruptions in higher-order cognitive processes like working memory. The attentional control theory (ACT) predicts that anxiety negatively affects the working memory system. This study tested the association between anxiety and working memory after the addition of stress and measured the glucocorticoid, cortisol. To better understand this relationship, we utilized a moderated mediation model. Undergraduate students from a public university (N = 103) self-reported their anxiety levels. Participants first completed a short-term memory test. During and after a forehead cold pressor task (stress vs. control procedure) participants completed a working memory test. Salivary cortisol was taken at baseline and after the last working memory test. Overall, acute stress had no effect on working memory. However, we found that anxiety levels mediated the influence of condition (stressed vs. control) on working memory, but only among those individuals who had high cortisol levels after exposure to acute stress, supporting a moderated mediation model. These results imply that activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis was necessary for working memory impairment in anxious individuals. These results provide support for the ACT.

  8. Do High Ability Students Have Mathematics Anxiety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Kai Kow Joseph

    2004-01-01

    This exploratory study investigates the level of mathematics anxiety among 116 high ability Secondary Two students. These students were from the top 10% of the Secondary Two students in Singapore. Mathematics Anxiety was measured using the Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Anxiety Scale (MAS) (Fennema & Sherman, 1978) which consisted of twelve items…

  9. The Effectiveness of Assertiveness Training on the Levels of Stress, Anxiety, and Depression of High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Rabiei, Leili; Afzali, Seyed Mohammad; Hamidizadeh, Saeed; Masoudi, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a transition period from childhood to early adulthood. Because of the immense pressure imposed on adolescents due to the complications and ambiguities of this transition, their level of excitement increases and sometimes it appears in the form of sensitivity and intense excitement. This study aimed at determining the effectiveness of assertiveness training on the levels of stress, anxiety, and depression of high school students. This quasi-experimental study was conducted on high school students of Isfahan in academic year 2012 - 13. A total of 126 second grade high school students were collected according to simple random sampling method and divided into two groups: experimental with 63 participants and control with the same number. Data gathering instruments included a demographic questionnaire, Gambill-Richey assertiveness scale, and depression anxiety stress scales (DASS-21). Assertiveness training was carried out on the experimental group in 8 sessions; after 8 weeks, posttest was carried out on both groups. Statistical tests such as independent t test, repeated measures ANOVA, Chi-square test, and the Mann-Whitney test were used to interpret and analyze the data. The Chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests did not show significant statistical differences between the two groups in terms of demographic variables (P ≥ 0.05). Repeated measures ANOVA showed no significant difference between the mean scores for assertiveness before (100.23 ± 7.37), immediately after (101.57 ± 16.06), and 2 months after (100.77 ± 12.50) the intervention in the control group. However, the same test found a significant difference between the mean score for assertiveness in the experimental group before (101.6 ± 9.1), immediately after (96.47 ± 10.84), and 2 months after (95.41 ± 8.37) implementing the training program (P = 0.002). The independent t test showed no significant difference in the mean score for anxiety and stress between two groups before the

  10. Differences of Anxiety Levels between Students of Natural Sciences and Social Studies Major Based on School Environmental Factors in Senior High Schools with Rintisan Sekolah Bertaraf Internasional Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arviana Adamantina Putri

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Senior High Schools with Rintisan Sekolah Bertaraf Internasional (RSBI scheme are senior high schools that pilot international standards in learning methods and high curriculum targets. This factor may lead to a rise of anxiety amongst students, both for students in Natural Sciences major and Social Studies major. There are three factors which cause anxiety in the school environment, namely: dissatisfaction towards the curriculum, the teacher, and the school management. Methods: This study used retrospective cohort design. Subjects were selected using the convenience sampling method. Natural Sciences students (n=32 and Social Studies students (n=14 had their anxiety level measured using the Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale. The dissatisfaction towards the school environment factors was assessed using a school evaluation questionnaire. Results: The anxiety measurement showed that students in both Natural Sciences and Social Studies major experienced severe anxiety (Natural Sciences vs. Social Studies: 75% vs. 86%. The study results based on the school evaluation questionnaire showed dissatisfactions towards the three school environmental factors (curriculum factor, Natural Sciences vs. Social Studies: 59% vs. 64%; teacher factor, Natural Sciences vs. Social Studies: 3% vs. 43%; school management factor, Natural Sciences vs. Social Studies: 3% vs. 14%. The chi-square test results showed that the difference in the anxiety levels between the students of Natural Sciences and Social Studies majors was insignificant (p>0.05. Conclusions: Students of Natural Sciences and Social Studies majors of senior high schools with RSBI scheme experienced severe anxiety. However, there is no strong evidence that the school environment causes this severe anxiety.

  11. Dietary patterns, n-3 fatty acids intake from seafood and high levels of anxiety symptoms during pregnancy: findings from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children.

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    Juliana dos Santos Vaz

    Full Text Available Little is known about relationships between dietary patterns, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA intake and excessive anxiety during pregnancy.To examine whether dietary patterns and n-3 PUFA intake from seafood are associated with high levels of anxiety during pregnancy.Pregnant women enrolled from 1991-1992 in ALSPAC (n 9,530. Dietary patterns were established from a food frequency questionnaire using principal component analysis. Total intake of n-3 PUFA (grams/week from seafood was also examined. Symptoms of anxiety were measured at 32 weeks of gestation with the Crown-Crisp Experiential Index; scores ≥ 9 corresponding to the 85(th percentile was defined as high anxiety symptoms. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate the OR and 95% CI, adjusted by socioeconomic and lifestyle variables.Multivariate results showed that women in the highest tertile of the health-conscious (OR 0.77; 0.65-0.93 and the traditional (OR 0.84; 0.73-0.97 pattern scores were less likely to report high levels of anxiety symptoms. Women in the highest tertile of the vegetarian pattern score (OR 1.25; 1.08-1.44 were more likely to have high levels of anxiety, as well as those with no n-3 PUFA intake from seafood (OR 1.53; 1.25-1.87 when compared with those with intake of >1.5 grams/week.The present study provides evidence of a relationship between dietary patterns, fish intake or n-3 PUFA intake from seafood and symptoms of anxiety in pregnancy, and suggests that dietary interventions could be used to reduce high anxiety symptoms during pregnancy.

  12. Anxiety: A Cause of High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions High blood pressure (hypertension) Can anxiety cause high blood pressure? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Anxiety doesn't cause long-term high blood pressure (hypertension). But episodes of anxiety can cause dramatic, ...

  13. Anxiety levels, health behaviors, and support systems of pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, S A; Rankin, M

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this correlational descriptive study was to assess health behaviors, anxiety levels, and social support of pregnant women, ages 20 to 40, who were without complications and were patients of four private obstetrical practices in a large metropolitan city. Although sampling was a nonprobability approach, various socioeconomic, racial, and religious groups were represented. The three instruments used to test the hypotheses included the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the Personal Resource Questionnaire (PRQ) and a detailed Health Behavior Demographic Questionnaire. Results of the data indicated no significant differences between pregnant smokers' and pregnant nonsmokers' STAI or PRQ scores. Significant positive correlations were revealed between the following variables: Trait anxiety with increased age of pregnancy (r = .77, p = .008); trait anxiety with high educational level (r = .72, p = .001); trait anxiety with state anxiety (r = .64, p = .001); trait anxiety with years married (r = .68, p = .018); trait anxiety with numbers of children (r = .82, p = .005); trait anxiety with high occupation level (r = .68, p = .001), increased age with PRQ support (r = -.88, p = .001); caucasian women examined breast more frequently (r = .47, p = .005); pregnant women who were smokers also were more likely to drink (r = .66, p = .03). Significant negative correlations were: Increased state anxiety with decreased social support (r = -.28, p = .05); higher trait anxiety with lower PRQ (r = -.59, p = .001), and more drinks of alcohol per day with decreased social support (r = .88, p = .04). The study indicated that the subjects who continue to smoke while pregnant were highly educated. All had at least two years of college with 45% having completed graduate school. All were working in managerial or professional jobs. This has implications for nursing interventions focused on enhancing health coping strategies at the workplace and specific health promotion

  14. Fear inhibition in high trait anxiety.

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    Kindt, Merel; Soeter, Marieke

    2014-01-01

    Trait anxiety is recognized as an individual risk factor for the development of anxiety disorders but the neurobiological mechanisms remain unknown. Here we test whether trait anxiety is associated with impaired fear inhibition utilizing the AX+/BX- conditional discrimination procedure that allows for the independent evaluation of startle fear potentiation and inhibition of fear. Sixty undergraduate students participated in the study--High Trait Anxious: n = 28 and Low Trait Anxious: n = 32. We replicated earlier findings that a transfer of conditioned inhibition for startle responses requires contingency awareness. However, contrary to the fear inhibition hypothesis, our data suggest that high trait anxious individuals show a normal fear inhibition of conditioned startle responding. Only at the cognitive level the high trait anxious individuals showed evidence for impaired inhibitory learning of the threat cue. Together with other findings where impaired fear inhibition was only observed in those PTSD patients who were either high on hyperarousal symptoms or with current anxiety symptoms, we question whether impaired fear inhibition is a biomarker for the development of anxiety disorders.

  15. Role of yoga in modifying anxiety level in women.

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    Mullur, Lata M; Khodnapur, Jyoti P; Bagali, Shrilaxmi; Aithala, Manjunatha; Dhanakshirur, G B

    2014-01-01

    Anxiety leads to derangement in physical and mental health. Anxiety levels are more in full time housewives than working women. There is a need for simple, easy treatment for anxiety to alleviate the burden on health caused by anxiety. Yoga is among the top ten complementary and alternative medicine therapies. Our study aimed to determine the anxiety levels in apparently healthy full time housewives and to study the effects of Yoga on anxiety levels among them. Present study is a comparative interventional study. Study was conducted on 50 apparently healthy full time housewives (20-50 years) who attended one month Yoga camp. Hamilton Anxiety (HAMA) Scale was used to evaluate anxiety levels before and at the end of the yoga camp. Statistical analysis was done by Paired t test using SPSS 9.0. The baseline pulse rate, SBP, DBP were 82.90 ± 4.25 bpm, 124.84 ± 11.022 mm Hg, 85.20 ± 10.81 mm Hg respectively. After four weeks yoga camp there was statistically significant lowering of pulse rate (77.58 ± 3.86 bpm), SBP (117.92 ± 6.76 mm Hg), DBP (78.68 ± 6.62 mm Hg). Before yoga training, percentage distributions of subjects with mild, moderate and severe anxiety were 6%, 18% and 76% respectively. At the end of four week yoga training, percentage distributions of subjects with mild, moderate and severe anxiety were 44.23%, 19.23% and 36.53% respectively. There was highly significant (p = 0.000) difference in the mean values of total score before (33.71 ± 4.90) and after (26.93 ± 4.53) yoga. These results indicate that there was a reduction in the severity of anxiety from severe to moderate and mild indicating decrease in anxiety following yoga. Based on the results of our study, we conclude that regular yogic practices and adapting and implementing the principals and philosophy of yoga in day to day life may decrease the anxiety level.

  16. Sleep bruxism and anxiety level in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Tomás de OLIVEIRA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the association of level of anxiety in children with and without sleep bruxism (SB. The study was performed with 84 six- to eigth-years-old children, divided into two groups: with bruxism (BG and without bruxism (CG. Following the criteria purposed by American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM to determine SB, the presence of tooth wear has been verified through clinical examinations, and the parents have answered a questionnaire about their children’s behavior and habits. Additionally, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAIC was applied to parents of the selected patients. Data analysis revealed a statistical significant difference between the groups (Student’s t-test, p= 0.0136. Based on the results, anxiety assessment revealed that children with bruxism have reached higher levels in the STAIC scale than the non-bruxism group. Therefore, it indicates a direct relationship between the presence of anxiety disorder and the onset of bruxism in children.

  17. Math Anxiety Workshop, 1993: A Program Developed for the Math Anxious Student at All Levels, but Predominantly at Developmental Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisse, Wulf Hinrich

    Research among college students has shown that the study of mathematics generates anxiety reactions among students who are not necessarily highly anxious in other situations. Because high levels of anxiety can devastate a student's ability to perform, a math anxiety workshop was field tested in 1993 at the Mohave Valley Campus of the Mohave…

  18. Anxiety and Stress Levels on Liver Transplantation Candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, H R S; Marques, D M; Lopes, A R F; Ziviani, L C; Magro, J T J; Mente, Ênio D; Castro-E-Silva, O; Galvão, C M; Mendes, K D S

    2016-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the anxiety and stress levels of liver transplant candidates during the preoperative period. A cross-sectional, prospective study was conducted on 52 liver transplantation candidates seen at a specialized public hospital outpatient clinic in the interior of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Data were collected from November 2014 to April 2015 using a self-applicable questionnaire for the assessment of anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, short version) and stress (Perceived Stress Scale), in addition to sociodemographic and clinic characterization. The mean (±SD) anxiety level detected was 23.06 ± 5.51 points, with 1.92% of the subjects showing minimum levels (0 to 12 points), 59.62% a medium level (12 to 24 points), 36.54% a moderate level (24 to 36 points), and 1.92% a severe level (36 to 48 points) of anxiety. The mean level on the stress scale was 12.10 ± 5.62 points, with 7.69% of the subjects showing high stress levels. When individuals with good and poor stress levels were compared, a significant difference was observed between them (P = .0004). The Spearman correlation test showed that the higher the stress, the higher the levels of anxiety (r = 0.4258), P stress levels since the waiting period for the organ generates emotional changes that can affect the quality of life of the patient and the success of this complex therapeutic modality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Differences of Anxiety Levels between Students of Natural Sciences and Social Studies Major Based on School Environmental Factors in Senior High Schools with Rintisan Sekolah Bertaraf Internasional Scheme

    OpenAIRE

    Arviana Adamantina Putri; Leonardo Lubis; Tatang Muchtar Sutaryan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Senior High Schools with Rintisan Sekolah Bertaraf Internasional (RSBI) scheme are senior high schools that pilot international standards in learning methods and high curriculum targets. This factor may lead to a rise of anxiety amongst students, both for students in Natural Sciences major and Social Studies major. There are three factors which cause anxiety in the school environment, namely: dissatisfaction towards the curriculum, the teacher, and the school management. Metho...

  20. Math Anxiety--Contributing School and Individual Level Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radišic, Jelena; Videnovic, Marina; Baucal, Aleksander

    2015-01-01

    PISA 2003 survey data indicate high levels of mathematics anxiety among students in Serbia. More than a half of Serbian students are concerned with whether they will have difficulties in a mathematics class or earn poor marks. At the same time, the achievement on the mathematical literacy scale is very poor. Building on control-value theory, the…

  1. Personal constructs of anxiety under the 1,5-benzodiazepine derivative clobazam related to trait-anxiety levels of the personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, A C; Kentridge, R

    1982-01-01

    In an initial interview, 20 volunteer subjects provided 32 personal constructs of anxiety, using Kelly's repertory grid technique. The bipolar ends of the anxiety constructs were then separated by 10-point rating scales. Subjects could then indicate the degree of anxiety feeling on their own personal constructs. The 20 subjects were divided into high and low trait-anxiety sub-groups, on the basis of Speilberger trait-anxiety (personality) scores. Subjects were administered acute single doses of 20 mg clobazam or matching placebo, in a counterbalanced double-blind design. Anxiety levels on the individual personal constructs of anxiety were measured 2 h after drug administration. There was a significant ANOVA interaction effect between drug condition and trait-anxiety. Of the ten subjects in the high trait-anxiety sub-group, eight demonstrated reduced levels of personal construct anxiety under clobazam (three significantly). In contrast, of the ten subjects in the low trait-anxiety sub-group, nine demonstrated increased levels of personal construct anxiety (eight significantly). The present results are discussed in relation to previous similar findings. Clobazam and other benzodiazepine derivatives (such as diazepam) are effective anxiolytics with the clinically anxious and with normal volunteers having high trait-anxiety personalities. However, normal subjects with low trait-anxiety personalities often produce paradoxical increases in anxiety feelings.

  2. The Effect of Anxiety on University-Level L2 Learner Ability to Recall Items in the Lexicon

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chen-Hong

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the effect of anxiety-producing situations on the vocabulary output performance of second language (L2) learners. Two levels of learner anxiety, high anxiety and low anxiety, were identified using the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS). High-anxiety L2 students and low-anxiety L2 students, as measured by the FLCAS, were each asked to write down as many English vocabulary words beginning with ‘b’ as they could think of in two minutes in two anxiety-producing s...

  3. Levels of Music Performance Anxiety and Test Anxiety of Turkish Prospective Music Teachers in Piano Exams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guven, Elif

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the anxiety of prospective music teachers (N = 129) during piano exams and to examine the effects of peer and self-assessments on anxiety and exam achievement of individuals with high performance and test anxiety (n = 5). Female students were more anxious compared to males, students of the fourth class…

  4. EFL students’ speaking anxiety: a case from tertiary level students

    OpenAIRE

    Tercan, Gülşah; Dikilitaş, Kenan

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety is one of the key issues in the acquisition of speaking by EFL learners in instructed language teaching context. Although extensively studied, speaking anxiety, there are still areas to be explored. With this in mind, this study investigates the causes of anxiety among foreign language learners with special refernce to “speaking” as a  skill. The major aim is to find out to what extent different variables such as proficiency level, onset of learning, and gender affect speaking anxiety...

  5. The Effects of an Exercise Program on Anxiety Levels and Metabolic Functions in Patients With Anxiety Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wei-Fen; Wu, Po-Lun; Su, Chia-Hsien; Yang, Tzu-Ching

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a home-based (HB) exercise program on anxiety levels and metabolic functions in patients with anxiety disorders in Taiwan. Purposive sampling was used to recruit 86 participants for this randomized, experimental study. Participants were asked to complete a pretest before the 3-month exercise program, a posttest at 1 week, and a follow-up test at 3 months after the exercise program. Study measures included four Self-Report Scales and biophysical assessments to collect and assess personal data, lifestyle behaviors, anxiety levels, and metabolic control functions. Of the 86 study participants, 83 completed the posttest and the 3-month follow-up test, including 41 in the experimental group and 42 in the control group. Participants in the experimental group showed significant improvements in body mass index, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and the level of moderate exercise after the program relative to the control group, as analyzed by generalized estimating equations mixed-model repeated measures. State and trait anxiety levels were also significantly improved from pretest to follow-up test in the experimental group. Finally, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome declined for participants in the experimental group. The HB exercise program produced positive effects on the metabolic indicators and anxiety levels of Taiwanese adults with anxiety disorders. Health providers should consider using similar HB exercise programs to help improve the mental and physical health of patients with anxiety disorders in their communities.

  6. Computer Anxiety Levels of Virginia Extension Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Brenda L.; Stewart, Daisy L.; Hillison, John

    2001-01-01

    Survey responses from 402 Virginia extension personnel showed that secretaries and younger staff had the lowest computer anxiety, technicians and older staff the highest. Time spent using computers, age, and years of employment were somewhat associated with anxiety. Training recommendations were made. (SK)

  7. Evaluation of Anxiety and Depressive Levels in Tinnitus Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Chang Gun; Chi, Jun Hyuk; Song, Jae-Jun; Lee, Eun Kyeong; Kim, Bo Hae

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives The aims of this study were to evaluate the relationship between tinnitus and the level of anxiety and depression experienced by subjective tinnitus patients, and to determine the effect of the level of anxiety and depression to the results of tinnitus treatment. Subjects and Methods A total of 104 patients were included in this study. All the patients conducted Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), State Trait Anxiety Inventory 1, 2 (ST...

  8. Level of Anxiety among Two Genders Appearing for National Level Test: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Zamirullah; Ahmed, Waseem; Khan, Naseem Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are the most common mental, emotional and behavioral problem that occurs during exam. University students suffer to some levels of study anxiety, such as; have new experiences, environment and situation. Study anxiety is a real phenomenon. The prevalence of study anxiety has been acknowledged by students. An attempt has been made…

  9. Research On Competitive Anxiety Of High-Level College Athletes In Inner Mongolia%内蒙古自治区高校高水平运动员运动焦虑的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵国华; 包呼格吉勒图; 张敏杰; 孟和; 李凤新

    2012-01-01

    运用问卷调查法和数理统计法对内蒙古地区部分高校运动员的运动焦虑进行了研究,探讨了年龄、项目、性别和训练年限对运动特质焦虑的影响,针对高校运动员的竞赛特质焦虑现状,对高焦虑的高水平学生运动员采取了心理技能训练,从而降低了高校学生运动员竞赛特质焦虑水平。%By using questionnaire survey and mathematical statistics,this paper analyzed college athletes' anxiety of Inner Mongolia universities to explore the influence of the age,gender and training project to trait anxiety of sports contest.Aiming at college athletes status of trait anxiety,this paper adopted psychological training to the high-level student athletes with serious anxiety,which reduces the university student athletes' competition trait anxiety level.

  10. Anxiety of Parents of Mentally Handicapped Children and Affects of Informing on Anxiety Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu Kocak Uyaroglu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study was aimed to determine effect of education on anxiety level in the parents with mentally handicapped children. METHOD: The quasi-experimental field study was performed on parents of 91 mentally handicapped children who are between 6-15 ages and live in the center of Karaman. State and Trait Anxiety Scale was applied before and after informing. RESULTS: Average age of mothers was 36.5±7.2, average state anxiety point was 47.2±13.4 and average trait anxiety point was 51.9±10.1; their father’s average age was 40.2±8.6, average state anxiety point was 35.9±6.5 and average trait anxiety point was 41.3±6.2. Anxiety points of mothers are higher. Mothers who are graduated from primary school, younger than 35 age, have a boy or child younger than 12 age, have social assurance, do not take institutional service, have low family income, and whose first or last child is mentally handicapped, whose husband do not help with caring child have significant decrease in anxiety points after informing. In the fathers, only a decrease in the trait anxiety level was significant. CONCLUSION: Education decreases the parents’ anxiety level. Institutional services have to contain all of the mentally handicapped children and should be educated the parents by nurses periodically to decrease their anxiety. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(5.000: 405-412

  11. Test Anxiety: Do Gender and School-Level Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Utkun

    2017-01-01

    The study investigated differences in students' reported overall test anxiety before, during, or after test taking among two school-levels and gender. Differences among three test anxiety components (thoughts, off-task behaviors, and autonomic reactions) were also examined. Participants were 725 primary (349 females, 376 males) and 375 middle (180…

  12. The Fear Factor: Students' Experiences of Test Anxiety when Taking A-Level Examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Suzanne; Daly, Anthony Leslie; Spalding, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a pilot study that explored students' experiences of test anxiety when taking A-level examinations. Four focus groups were convened with a sample of 19 participants in the south of England to explore the triggers of test anxiety and the perceived need for interventions to assist high test-anxious students cope…

  13. High Test Anxiety among Nursing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Richard; Evans, Ginger; Ramsey, Gary; Wheeler, Sara

    2009-01-01

    Nursing programs can be highly stressful, and the investigation was undertaken to see if nursing students are more test anxious than students in other fields. The Westside Test Anxiety Scale has administered to 298 nursing students at two colleges, and to a comparison group of 471 high school and college students. Fully 30% of nursing students…

  14. Hemoglobin levels in persons with depressive and/or anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lever-van Milligen, Bianca A; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Smit, Johannes H; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2014-04-01

    Both low and high hemoglobin levels lead to more physical diseases, and both are linked to mortality. Low hemoglobin, often classified as anemia, has also been linked to more depressive symptoms, but whether both hemoglobin extremes are associated with depressive disorder and potentially also with anxiety disorder has not been examined before. This study examines to which extent hemoglobin levels are associated with depression and anxiety disorders in a large cohort. The study sample consisted of 2920 persons from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. Hemoglobin levels were determined after venipuncture. Depressive and anxiety disorders were determined according to a DSM-IV-based psychiatric interview. Clinical psychiatric characteristics included the severity of depression and anxiety, the duration of symptoms, the age of onset and the antidepressant use. Higher hemoglobin levels were found in those with current depressive and/or anxiety disorders after sociodemographic adjustment and both higher, and lower hemoglobin levels were found in persons with higher depression and anxiety severity. However, after full adjustment for sociodemographics, disease indicators and lifestyle, associations were no longer significant. This cohort study showed that there is no independent association between depressive and/or anxiety disorders and hemoglobin levels or anemia status. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Factors Affecting Computer Anxiety in High School Computer Science Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayek, Linda M.; Stephens, Larry

    1989-01-01

    Examines factors related to computer anxiety measured by the Computer Anxiety Index (CAIN). Achievement in two programing courses was inversely related to computer anxiety. Students who had a home computer and had computer experience before high school had lower computer anxiety than those who had not. Lists 14 references. (YP)

  16. Anxiety level and self-esteem in youth with cerebral palsy

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    Aneta Rita Borkowska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The aim of the research was to compare youth with cerebral palsy (CP and healthy individuals in terms of self-esteem and anxiety level, and to evaluate the relation between self-esteem and anxiety in both study groups. Participants and procedure The study included 30 individuals with CP and 30 healthy individuals, aged 16 to 22 years. The anxiety level was assessed using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, while self-esteem was assessed using Rosenberg’s Self-Esteem Scale (SES and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (CSEI. Results No significant differences between youth with CP and healthy teenagers were observed in terms of anxiety level as a state or trait, global self-esteem and all the indicators of self-efficacy: family, friends, college, personal and the overall indicator of the sense of self-efficacy. State anxiety correlates with nearly all indicators of self-esteem in youth with CP, except for the sense of self-esteem in the family, although the control group also lacked that correlation. As far as trait anxiety is concerned, the values of correlations are higher and the relation seems to be more likely in the group with CP. Conclusions Youth with CP function like their healthy peers in terms of the anxiety level and self-esteem. The correlation between state anxiety and the dimensions of self-esteem in youth with CP suggests that their self-esteem is lower and more dependent on situational factors, especially anxiety-related ones, and the low level of trait anxiety suggested high self-esteem of an individual.

  17. Resting-State Peripheral Catecholamine and Anxiety Levels in Korean Male Adolescents with Internet Game Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nahyun; Hughes, Tonda L; Park, Chang G; Quinn, Laurie; Kong, In Deok

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the resting-state plasma catecholamine and anxiety levels of Korean male adolescents with Internet game addiction (IGA) and those without IGA. This cross-sectional comparative study was conducted with 230 male high school students in a South Korean city. Convenience and snowball sampling methods were employed, and data were collected using (1) participant blood samples analyzed for dopamine (DA), epinephrine (Epi), and norepinephrine (NE) and (2) two questionnaires to assess IGA and anxiety levels. Using SPSS 15.0, data were analyzed by descriptive analysis, χ(2)-tests, t-tests, and Pearson's correlation tests. The plasma Epi (t = 1.962, p Internet gaming over time induced decreased peripheral Epi and NE levels, thus altering autonomic regulation, and increasing anxiety levels in male high school students. Based on these physiological and psychological effects, interventions intended to prevent and treat IGA should include stabilizing Epi, NE, and anxiety levels in adolescents.

  18. Anxiety levels in mothers of children with specific learning disability

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    Karande S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Parents of children with specific learning disability (SpLD undergo stress in coping with their child′s condition. Aim : To measure the levels of anxiety and find out the cause of anxiety in mothers of children with SpLD at time of diagnosis. Settings and Design : Prospective rating-scale and interview-based study conducted in our clinic. Materials and Methods : One hundred mothers of children (70 boys, 30 girls with SpLD were interviewed using the Hamilton anxiety rating scale (HAM-A and a semi-structured questionnaire. Detailed clinical and demographic data of mothers were noted. Statistical Analysis : Chi-square test or unpaired student′s t-test was applied wherever applicable. Results : The mean age of mothers was 40.14 years (±SD 4.94, range 25.07-54.0, 73% belonged to upper or upper middle socioeconomic strata of society, 67% were graduates or postgraduates, 58% were full-time home-makers, and 33% lived in joint families. Levels of anxiety were absent in 24%, mild in 75%, and moderate in 1% of mothers. Their mean total anxiety score was 5.65 (±SD 4.75, range 0-21, mean psychic anxiety score was 3.92 (±SD 3.11, range 0-13, and mean somatic anxiety score was 1.76 (±SD 2.05, range 0-10. Their common worries were related to child′s poor school performance (95%, child′s future (90%, child′s behavior (51%, and visits to our clinic (31%. Conclusion : Most mothers of children with SpLD have already developed mild anxiety levels by the time this hidden disability is diagnosed. These anxieties should be addressed by counseling to ensure optimum rehabilitation of these children.

  19. Experiencing More Mathematics Anxiety than Expected? Contrasting Trait and State Anxiety in High Achieving Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, A.-L.; Bieg, M.; Goetz, T.; Frenzel, A. C.; Taxer, J.; Zeidner, M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined mathematics anxiety among high and low achieving students (N = 237, grades 9 and 10) by contrasting trait (habitual) and state (momentary) assessments of anxiety. Previous studies have found that trait anxiety measures are typically rated higher than state measures. Furthermore, the academic self-concept has been identified to…

  20. The Effect of English Learning Anxiety on Iranian High-School Students’ English Language Achievement

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    Sara Atef-Vahid

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study explored English language learning anxiety among 38 third-year high school students in English classrooms and its relationship with overall English achievement. Students’ foreign language anxiety was surveyed and analyzed using the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (Horwitz, Horwitz, & Cope, 1986 [14] and their English achievement was measured through their final standardized English exam administered by the school. The results showed that although some students felt extremely confident and relaxed, however, one-third of the
    students experienced moderate to high-anxiety levels while learning the English language in class. Correlational analysis revealed that the total FLCAS scores had a significantly moderate negative correlation (r=-.0586, p<.01 with the total final English exams scores of the participants. Anxiety was also analyzed according to the four different variables of anxiety (communication anxiety, test anxiety, fear of negative evaluation, English classroom anxiety which were measured by the FLCAS. The results of the Pearson correlational analysis indicated that English achievement was modestly correlated with all four anxiety variables (p<0.01. Of the four types of anxiety, English Classroom anxiety had the highest correlational value. Finally, possible anxiety provoking factors
    leading to these findings are examined and discussed, and some pedagogical implications are proposed.

  1. Dental anxiety and salivary cortisol levels before urgent dental care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanegane, Kazue; Penha, Sibele S; Munhoz, Carolina D; Rocha, Rodney G

    2009-12-01

    Dental anxiety is still prevalent, despite advances in treatment, and affects the utilization of health care services. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to determine if patients with different degrees of dental anxiety and pain undergoing emergency dental care have different stress reactions as measured by salivary cortisol. Seventy three patients completed the modified dental anxiety scale (MDAS), and described any previous dental traumatic experience. Their socio-demographic characteristics were also recorded. They also rated pain intensity on a 100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS). A saliva sample was collected before the procedure, and analyzed by enzyme immunoassay. Thirty patients were dentally anxious and forty one complained of pain. In this sample, dental anxiety was not related to gender, age, educational level and family income; however, a previous traumatic event was related to dental anxiety. There was no association between salivary cortisol concentrations and gender or dental anxiety. Patients with pain showed higher cortisol levels. When gathering patient information, the dentist should note patients' negative dental experiences in order to provide more effective, less traumatic treatment.

  2. Levels of depression and anxiety among parents of autistic children

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    Sunay Firat

    2016-09-01

    Results: Participants in the study were parents of 26 male (65% and 14 female (35% autistic children. The average age of the children was 62.9+/-16.6 months. .Mothers had higher levels of depression and anxiety scores. Mothers of autistic children who participated in the study received higher scores on depression, state anxiety and trait anxiety compared to fathers. Among mothers, a significant relationship was found between level of education and level of state anxiety. Conclusion: The findings of this study show that mothers have higher levels of depression and anxiety compared to fathers. This finding might be explained with reference to customs and traditions of the Turkish society in which the study was conducted, which require women to take more responsiblity for family matters. It is recommended that special education and rehabilitation centers provide counseling to parents about the effects of having an autistic children on their lives, and advise them on seeking psychological help if necessary. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(3.000: 539-547

  3. Evaluation of salivary cortisol and anxiety levels in myofascial pain dysfunction syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadendla, Lakshmi Kavitha; Meduri, Venkateswarlu; Paramkusam, Geetha; Pachava, Koteswara Rao

    2014-01-01

    Myofascial pain dysfunction syndrome (MPDS), otherwise called myofascial pain is one of the most common temporomandibular disorders, which in turn is the most common cause of orofacial pain of non-dental origin. Its etiology is multifactorial and still poorly understood. Psychological factors have been shown to play a role in the etiology. The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between anxiety and salivary cortisol levels in patients with myofascial pain. Twenty patients suffering from myofascial pain were recruited as the study group. The same number of age and sex matched healthy individuals were taken as the control group. The salivary samples collected between 9-9:15 am from both groups were analyzed for cortisol levels with the competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Anxiety levels of 40 patients were measured using Hamilton's anxiety scale. The mean serum cortisol level of the MPDS group showed a highly significant difference (p < 0.001) from the controls. The mean anxiety scores of the MPDS group showed a highly significant difference (p < 0.001) from the controls. A positive correlation was found between anxiety and the salivary cortisol levels in MPDS patients. These findings suggest that anxiety plays a vital role in the etio-pathogenesis of MPDS; thus, besides pharmacological treatment, psychological support is also needed.

  4. Effect of music therapy on pain and anxiety levels of cancer patients: A pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Priyadharshini Krishnaswamy; Shoba Nair

    2016-01-01

    Background: The pain associated with cancer is highly detrimental to the quality of life of the affected individuals. It also contributes to the anxiety of the patient. There is a need for a nonpharmacological approach in addition to the pharmacological therapy for the management of the pain for a more holistic improvement in the individual. With this study, we wish to achieve this through music. Objective: To assess the effect of music therapy on pain scores and anxiety levels of cancer ...

  5. Correlation among High School Senior Students' Test Anxiety, Academic Performance and Points of University Entrance Exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatas, Hakan; Alci, Bulent; Aydin, Hasan

    2013-01-01

    Test anxiety seems like a benign problem to some people, but it can be potentially serious when it leads to high levels of distress and academic failure. The aim of this study is to define the correlation among high school senior students' test anxiety, academic performance (GPA) and points of university entrance exam (UEE). The study group of…

  6. Correlation among High School Senior Students' Test Anxiety, Academic Performance and Points of University Entrance Exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatas, Hakan; Alci, Bulent; Aydin, Hasan

    2013-01-01

    Test anxiety seems like a benign problem to some people, but it can be potentially serious when it leads to high levels of distress and academic failure. The aim of this study is to define the correlation among high school senior students' test anxiety, academic performance (GPA) and points of university entrance exam (UEE). The study group of…

  7. Scales for evaluating self-perceived anxiety levels in patients admitted to intensive care units: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perpiñá-Galvañ, Juana; Richart-Martínez, Miguel

    2009-11-01

    To review studies of anxiety in critically ill patients admitted to an intensive care unit to describe the level of anxiety and synthesize the psychometric properties of the instruments used to measure anxiety. The CUIDEN, IME, ISOC, CINAHL, MEDLINE, and PSYCINFO databases for 1995 to 2005 were searched. The search focused on 3 concepts: anxiety, intensive care, and mechanical ventilation for the English-language databases and ansiedad, cuidados intensivos, and ventilación mecánica for the Spanish-language databases. Information was extracted from 18 selected articles on the level of anxiety experienced by patients and the psychometric properties of the instruments used to measure anxiety. Moderate levels of anxiety were reported. Levels were higher in women than in men, and higher in patients undergoing positive pressure ventilation regardless of sex. Most multi-item instruments had high coefficients of internal consistency. The reliability of instruments with only a single item was not demonstrated, even though the instruments had moderate-to-high correlations with other measurements. Midlength scales, such the anxiety subscale of the Brief Symptom Inventory or the shortened state version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory are best for measuring anxiety in critical care patients.

  8. Fear inhibition in high trait anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kindt, M.; Soeter, M.

    2014-01-01

    Trait anxiety is recognized as an individual risk factor for the development of anxiety disorders but the neurobiological mechanisms remain unknown. Here we test whether trait anxiety is associated with impaired fear inhibition utilizing the AX+/BX- conditional discrimination procedure that allows f

  9. NUCB2/nesfatin-1 Is Associated with Elevated Levels of Anxiety in Anorexia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Tobias; Ahnis, Anne; Elbelt, Ulf; Rose, Matthias; Klapp, Burghard F.; Stengel, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Objective NUCB2/nesfatin-1 is an anorexigenic hormone with elevated levels in obese and decreased levels in anorexia nervosa (AN) patients. Moreover, a role in the regulation of stress and emotions was suggested by several rodent and preliminary human studies. Since anxiety and depression are common comorbidities in AN, we investigated the association of NUCB2/nesfatin-1 with anxiety, depression and perceived stress in AN. Methods We analyzed circulating NUCB2/nesfatin-1 levels in 64 female inpatients diagnosed with anorexia nervosa (body mass index, BMI; mean±SD, 14.7±2.3 kg/m2). At the same time anxiety (GAD-7), depression (PHQ-9), stress (PSQ-20) and disordered eating (EDI-2) were measured psychometrically. Results No correlation was observed between NUCB2/nesfatin-1 and BMI (r = 0.06, p = 0.70). The study population was divided in patients with low anxiety (n = 32, GAD-7 scores, mean±SD, 7.5±3.3) and high anxiety (n = 32, 16.0±3.0, p0.05). EDI-2 total score was also higher in the high anxiety group (52.3±14.1 vs. 40.2±16.0, p = 0.02), while no correlations of EDI-2-scores with plasma NUCB2/nesfatin-1 were observed (p>0.05). Conclusions Circulating NUCB2/nesfatin-1 levels correlated positively with perceived anxiety, whereas no association with BMI or eating disorder symptoms was observed. NUCB2/nesfatin-1 might be primarily involved in the modulation of anxiety and subsequently in the regulation of eating habits and body weight in AN. PMID:26162003

  10. NUCB2/nesfatin-1 Is Associated with Elevated Levels of Anxiety in Anorexia Nervosa.

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    Tobias Hofmann

    Full Text Available NUCB2/nesfatin-1 is an anorexigenic hormone with elevated levels in obese and decreased levels in anorexia nervosa (AN patients. Moreover, a role in the regulation of stress and emotions was suggested by several rodent and preliminary human studies. Since anxiety and depression are common comorbidities in AN, we investigated the association of NUCB2/nesfatin-1 with anxiety, depression and perceived stress in AN.We analyzed circulating NUCB2/nesfatin-1 levels in 64 female inpatients diagnosed with anorexia nervosa (body mass index, BMI; mean±SD, 14.7±2.3 kg/m2. At the same time anxiety (GAD-7, depression (PHQ-9, stress (PSQ-20 and disordered eating (EDI-2 were measured psychometrically.No correlation was observed between NUCB2/nesfatin-1 and BMI (r = 0.06, p = 0.70. The study population was divided in patients with low anxiety (n = 32, GAD-7 scores, mean±SD, 7.5±3.3 and high anxiety (n = 32, 16.0±3.0, p0.05. EDI-2 total score was also higher in the high anxiety group (52.3±14.1 vs. 40.2±16.0, p = 0.02, while no correlations of EDI-2-scores with plasma NUCB2/nesfatin-1 were observed (p>0.05.Circulating NUCB2/nesfatin-1 levels correlated positively with perceived anxiety, whereas no association with BMI or eating disorder symptoms was observed. NUCB2/nesfatin-1 might be primarily involved in the modulation of anxiety and subsequently in the regulation of eating habits and body weight in AN.

  11. The personality profile of police recruits who are high on anxiety

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    Burgert van Jaarsveld

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The principal objective of the study was to determine the personality profile of police recruits who are high on anxiety. A secondary objective was to determine whether there are gender and ethnic differences in the levels of anxiety of those police recruits. To investigate the stated objectives the NEO Personality Inventory, Locus of Control Inventory and the IPAT Anxiety Scale were applied to 487 police recruits. Complete records were obtained for 259 participants. In comparing the personality profiles of participants who are high on anxiety and those who are low, it turned out that the biggest differences were in respect of Neuroticism, External Locus of Control and Agreeableness.

  12. EEG biofeedback improves attentional bias in high trait anxiety individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng; Zhao, Yan; Chen, Sijuan; Lin, Guiping; Sun, Peng; Wang, Tinghuai

    2013-10-07

    Emotion-related attentional bias is implicated in the aetiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders. Electroencephalogram (EEG) biofeedback can obviously improve the anxiety disorders and reduce stress level, and can also enhance attention performance in healthy subjects. The present study examined the effects and mechanisms of EEG biofeedback training on the attentional bias of high trait anxiety (HTA) individuals toward negative stimuli. Event-related potentials were recorded while HTA (n=24) and nonanxious (n=21) individuals performed the color-word emotional Stroop task. During the emotional Stroop task, HTA participants showed longer reaction times and P300 latencies induced by negative words, compared to nonanxious participants.The EEG biofeedback significantly decreased the trait anxiety inventory score and reaction time in naming the color of negative words in the HTA group. P300 latencies evoked by negative stimuli in the EEG biofeedback group were significantly reduced after the alpha training, while no significant changes were observed in the sham biofeedback group after the intervention. The prolonged P300 latency is associated with attentional bias to negative stimuli in the HTA group. EEG biofeedback training demonstrated a significant improvement of negative emotional attentional bias in HTA individuals, which may be due to the normalization of P300 latency.

  13. Evaluating High School Students' Anxiety and Self-Efficacy towards Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çimen, Osman; Yilmaz, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety and self-efficacy are among the factors that impact students' performance in biology. The current study aims to investigate high school students' perception of biology anxiety and self-efficacy, in relation to gender, grade level, interest in biology, negative experience associated with biology classes, and teachers' approaches in the…

  14. Evaluating High School Students' Anxiety and Self-Efficacy towards Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çimen, Osman; Yilmaz, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety and self-efficacy are among the factors that impact students' performance in biology. The current study aims to investigate high school students' perception of biology anxiety and self-efficacy, in relation to gender, grade level, interest in biology, negative experience associated with biology classes, and teachers' approaches in the…

  15. Circulating levels of soluble CD26 are associated with phobic anxiety in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuele, Enzo; Minoretti, Piercarlo; Martinelli, Valentina; Pesenti, Sara; Olivieri, Valentina; Aldeghi, Alessia; Politi, Pierluigi

    2006-09-30

    Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV or CD26) is an ubiquitously expressed protease that could play a role in the pathogenesis of anxiety in view of its capacity to cleave several behaviourally active neuropeptides. Hereto we sought to determine the relationship between phobic anxiety, as measured by the Crown-Crisp index, and circulating levels of soluble CD26 (sCD26) in a large cohort of 1017 Italian women participating in a general health survey. The association between sCD26 levels and phobic anxiety was tested using simple correlation analysis, linear regression and multivariate logistic regression analysis. A highly significant inverse association was found between sCD26 concentrations and anxiety scores both in simple correlation and linear regression analysis. Compared with subjects in the first tertile of sCD26 levels, the age-adjusted odds ratio for scoring >/=6 compared to scoring 0 or 1 was 0.31 (95% CI: 0.18-0.74) for the second and 0.47 (95% CI: 0.34-0.63) for the third tertile. Altogether, our data suggest that reduced plasma sCD26 concentrations could be a marker of high levels of phobic anxiety in women.

  16. Level of anxiety as one of the criteria of efficiency of emotional stability in sport dancing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermolaeva Y.S.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: improve the efficiency of performance of competitive sports dance in pairs due to the formation and improvement of indicators of emotional stability. The objectives of the study was to examine the personality characteristics of athletes in the dance couple, affecting their emotional stability. Also determine the conditions for the formation of emotional stability dancing. Material : the study involved 32 dancers aged 12-14 years old. Spielberger questionnaire was used. Results : it was found that the level of trait anxiety was 40.2 points. Athletes also met with high and low trait anxiety. The average level of situational anxiety at rest the dancers stood at 38.8 points. Before the tournament, this index increased significantly (54.5 points. Conclusions : for dancers with a high level of anxiety should generate a sense of confidence and success in their abilities. For dancers with low levels of anxiety requires waking activity, arousal of interest, a sense of responsibility in the task of training activity.

  17. An Examination of State and Trait Anxiety Levels among College Students Based on the Students' Alcohol Usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalesky, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This study examines anxiety and level of alcohol consumption among college freshman and sophomore student's to determine if state and trait anxiety are significant factors in high risk alcohol consumption or binge drinking. The State Trait Personality Inventory (STPI) and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) were administered to…

  18. Associations between dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) levels, pituitary volume, and social anxiety in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Cynthia R; Simmons, Julian G; Allen, Nicholas B; Byrne, Michelle L; Mundy, Lisa K; Seal, Marc L; Patton, George C; Olsson, Craig A; Whittle, Sarah

    2016-02-01

    Early timing of adrenarche, associated with relatively high levels of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulphate (DHEA-S) in children, has been linked with mental health problems, particularly anxiety. However, little is known about possible neurobiological mechanisms underlying this association. The pituitary gland is a key component of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the activation of which triggers the onset of adrenarche. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which pituitary gland volume mediated the relationship between levels of DHEA/DHEA-S relative to age (i.e., adrenarcheal timing) and symptoms of anxiety in 95 children (50 female, M age 9.50 years, SD 0.34 years). Relatively high DHEA and DHEA-S (DHEA/S) levels were found to be associated with larger pituitary gland volumes. There was no significant direct effect of relative DHEA/S levels on overall symptoms of anxiety. However, results supported an indirect link between relatively high DHEA/S levels and symptoms of social anxiety, mediated by pituitary gland volume. No sex differences were observed for any relationship. Our findings suggest that neurobiological mechanisms may be partly responsible for the link between relatively early adrenarche and anxiety symptoms in children. One possible mechanism for this finding is that an enlarged pituitary gland in children experiencing relatively advanced adrenarche might be associated with hyper-activity/reactivity of the HPA axis. Further research is needed to understand the role of stress in the link between adrenarcheal timing and HPA-axis function, especially in relation to the development of anxiety symptoms in children and adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Utilization of Professional Mental Health Services Related to Population-Level Screening for Anxiety, Depression, and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Among Public High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, John D; Le, Vi Donna; Baillargeon, Jacques; Temple, Jeff R

    2016-08-01

    This study examines results from three mental health screening measures in a cohort of adolescent public school students in seven public schools in Southeast Texas affiliated with the Dating it Safe study. We estimated the odds of receiving professional mental health treatment in the previous year given results from different mental health screening batteries: the CES-D 10 battery for depression screening, the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Disorders, and the Primary Care Posttraumatic Stress Disorder screen. Overall, students with higher scores on screening instruments for depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and combinations of screening instruments were more likely to have sought past-year professional mental health treatment than non-symptomatic youth. However, the proportion of students screening positive and receiving professional treatment was low, ranging from 11 to 16 %. This study emphasizes the need for broader evaluation of population-based mental health screening among adolescents.

  20. [The degree of asthma severity in children and the level of maternal anxiety and depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowska-Płusa, Urszula

    2015-02-01

    Care for sick children most often falls to mothers, which may affect their mental state, causing the states of depression and anxiety. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the severity of asthma in children and the level of anxiety and depression in mothers, taking into account the importance of the material status of the family, the educational level of the mothers, the presence of critical events, as well as the coexistence of allergic diseases in other family members. The study included 60 mothers of children with bronchial asthma. Age of mothers in the investigated families was on average 37.28 +/- 6.24 years, and most had a high school education (55.0%) or higher (28.3%). 16.7% of mothers and 8.3% fathers suffered from asthma. 13.3% of mothers of children with asthma were brought child alone. To assess the level of anxiety the inventory for measuring state and trait anxiety (STAI - State Trait Anxiety Inventory) developed by Spielberger, Gorsuch'a and Lushene'a was applied. To determine the changes in depressive the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI - Beck Depression Inventory questionnaire) was used. The Student's t test was included for two independent populations and a comparison of the results obtained in the questionnaire for diagnosing the level of anxiety and depression. For other parameters the correlation coefficient r-Pearson rank and Kendall's tau were performed. Mothers of children with moderate asthma compared to mothers of children with mild asthma had higher levels of anxiety (both state and properties), and also a slightly higher level of depression. Maternal age was connected positively and moderately strongly with the number held by children (r = 0.380; p = 0.003) and age of a child with asthma (r = 0.613, p = 0.0005). The duration of the child's disease was associated positively and moderately strongly with the level of state anxiety mother (X-1) (r = 0.345; p = 0.007) and a bit less and also positively with the

  1. The effects of lavender scent on dental patient anxiety levels: a cluster randomised-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritsidima, Metaxia; Newton, Tim; Asimakopoulou, Koula

    2010-02-01

    To review the effect of lavender scent on anticipatory anxiety in dental participants. In a cluster randomized-controlled trial, patients' (N = 340) anxiety was assessed while waiting for a scheduled dental appointment, either under the odor of lavender or with no odor. Current anxiety, assessed by the brief State Trait Anxiety Indicator (STAI-6), and generalized dental anxiety, assessed by the Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS) were examined. Analyses of variance (anovas) showed that although both groups showed similar, moderate levels of generalized dental anxiety (MDAS F((1,338)) = 2.17, P > 0.05) the lavender group reported significantly lower current anxiety (STAI: F((1,338)) = 74.69, P control group. Although anxiety about future dental visits seems to be unaffected, lavender scent reduces state anxiety in dental patients.

  2. Gender Differences and Foreign Language Reading Anxiety of High School Learners in an Iraqi EFL Context

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    Ahmed Abdulateef Sabti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the past two decades Investigation of foreign language anxiety generally has progressively caught the attention of numerous investigators in the area of foreign language. Yet, anxiety variable that affects the students’ acquisition of particular language skills for instance, reading specifically have actually seldom been investigated in the context of EFL Arab learners in particular with Iraqi students. So, the study aimed to investigate the influence of anxiety variable towards reading comprehension of Iraqi high school learners. This study also sought to examine the gender differences towards reading language anxiety. Quantitative approach was applied in this research, which involved 20 Iraqi students of a high school in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The respondents comprised 10 males and 10 females with ages between 16 years and 18 years. This study made use of Foreign Language Reading Anxiety Scale (FLRAS. The results of the study showed that both male and female participants had a high level of anxiety towards the reading comprehension. Furthermore, the analysis revealed that gender played a slight role in the results of the study. Female students showed a slightly higher level of anxiety towards the reading comprehension than their male counterparts. Iraqi learners need to be exposed to the four skills of English language generally and the reading skill in particular. This exposure makes the learners aware of the four skills (Listening, Reading, Writing and Speaking that need to be acquired and also to decrease the rate of anxiety variable in addition to its influence on their performance.

  3. Investigating the anxiety level in Iranian medical residents in 2010-2011

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    Fariborz Khorvash

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: The anxiety rate in medical students in this study compared to the findings of previous studies reveled very low anxiety in medical residents. The low rate of anxiety could be attributed to the sense of job security and the hope for a better future among residents. The high percentage of anxiolytics abuse and absence of anxiety producing factors among residents in addition to inaccurate response to the questionnaire may all contribute to the low rate of anxiety in this study.

  4. Evaluation of Exam Anxiety Level among Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences Students and its Association with Demographic Characteristics in 2014

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    MM Mohammadi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Test -anxiety is one of the most common mental health problems among the students that can impair performance and leads to failure of the exam. So, this study aimed to determine the rate of exam-anxiety among Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences' students. Methods: This cross sectional-analytic study was conducted on 510 students of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences by convenience sampling method in 2014. In this study, data collection tool was Test-Anxiety questionnaire includes 25 questions. Data were analyzed with the Pearson correlation and t-test using SPSS 16 software. Results: 198 students (38. 8% had mild exam-anxiety, 140 students (27. 5% moderate exam-anxiety and 172 students (33. 7% had severe exam-anxiety. The difference between the mean of anxiety scores was significant at various fields of study (P <0. 05.  Midwifery students experienced more stress in comparison with the students of other fields. There was a significant relationship between exam anxiety level, and the variables of gender, location, age and total grades average of students (P<0/05. There was not a significant relationship between exam anxiety level and marital status, parental occupation, semester entrance and employment of students. Conclusion: Due to the high level of exam anxiety among the different fields of medicine as well as the negative effect of this type of anxiety on academic performance of students, the necessity of the use of psychological services, counseling, identification of causes of anxiety, and planning for decreasing this problem was recommended. Obviously, in this regard, more attention should be paid to the highest-risk groups such as female midwifery students.

  5. Anxiety About Foreign Language Learning among High School Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganschow, Leonore; Sparks, Richard

    1996-01-01

    Examines the relationship between anxiety and native-language skill and foreign-language aptitude measures among high school foreign-language learners using the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS). Findings suggest that skill in one's native language may affect aptitude for learning a foreign language and that the FLCAS may provide an…

  6. Effects of Role Conflict on Counselor Trainees' Self-Statements, Anxiety Level, and Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, Myrna L.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Investigated if and how role conflict affects counselor trainees' self-statements, anxiety level, and performance. Results suggested role conflict may produce few adverse effects on beginning trainees' self-evaluations, affect, or behavior. Trainee performance was inversely related to anxiety level, and anxiety was inversely related to strength of…

  7. Relationship between appetite levels and anxiety symptoms in chronic hemodialysis patients

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    Elihud Salazar

    2012-06-01

    Very poor or poor appetite level was associated with female sex, older age, lower creatinine, lower DRI, and higher anxiety symptoms. Intervention of anxiety with cognitive behavioral therapy could improve nutritional treatment among vulnerable patients.

  8. Estimation of the level of anxiety in rats: differences in results of open-field test, elevated plus-maze test, and Vogel's conflict test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudakov, S K; Nazarova, G A; Alekseeva, E V; Bashkatova, V G

    2013-07-01

    We compared individual anxiety assessed by three standard tests, open-field test, elevated plus-maze test, and Vogel conflict drinking test, in the same animals. No significant correlations between the main anxiety parameters were found in these three experimental models. Groups of animals with high and low anxiety rats were formed by a single parameter and subsequent selection of two extreme groups (10%). It was found that none of the tests could be used for reliable estimation of individual anxiety in rats. The individual anxiety level with high degree of confidence was determined in high-anxiety and low-anxiety rats demonstrating behavioral parameters above and below the mean values in all tests used. Therefore, several tests should be used for evaluation of the individual anxiety or sensitivity to emotional stress.

  9. Anxiety in Cancer Patients during 18F-FDG PET/CT Low Dose: A Comparison of Anxiety Levels before and after Imaging Studies

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    Ana Grilo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Assessing the level of anxiety in oncology patients who underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT low dose scan and identifying the main reasons that generate anxiety. Material and Method. The study included 81 cancer patients submitted to the 18F-FDG PET/CT low dose scan. Patients filled in the Scan Experience Questionnaire and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI before and after 18F-FDG PET/CT low dose scan. Results. Substantial levels of anxiety were detected both before and after 18F-FDG PET/CT low dose scan (STAI mean > 30, with a significant increase in the state of anxiety after scan performance (p<0.0001, Medianpre = 31.1, and Medianpos = 33.0. 18F-FDG PET/CT low dose results are the main cause of anxiety both before (79.1% and after (86.9% the scan. The information provided by staff both before and on the 18F-FDG PET/CT low dose day was classified mostly as completely understandable (70.5% and 75.3%, resp. and as very useful (70.5% and 72.6%, resp. and correlated positively with patients’ overall satisfaction with NM Department (rS=0.372, p=0.004 and rS=0.528, p = 0.000, resp., but not with anxiety levels. Conclusions. Patients perceive high levels of anxiety during the 18F-FDG PET/CT low dose scan and the concern with scan results was pointed out as the main factor for that emotional reaction.

  10. Anxiety in Cancer Patients during (18)F-FDG PET/CT Low Dose: A Comparison of Anxiety Levels before and after Imaging Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, Ana; Vieira, Lina; Carolino, Elisabete; Oliveira, Cátia; Pacheco, Carolina; Castro, Maria; Alonso, Juan

    2017-01-01

    Objective. Assessing the level of anxiety in oncology patients who underwent (18)F-FDG PET/CT low dose scan and identifying the main reasons that generate anxiety. Material and Method. The study included 81 cancer patients submitted to the (18)F-FDG PET/CT low dose scan. Patients filled in the Scan Experience Questionnaire and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) before and after (18)F-FDG PET/CT low dose scan. Results. Substantial levels of anxiety were detected both before and after (18)F-FDG PET/CT low dose scan (STAI mean > 30), with a significant increase in the state of anxiety after scan performance (p < 0.0001, Medianpre = 31.1, and Medianpos = 33.0). (18)F-FDG PET/CT low dose results are the main cause of anxiety both before (79.1%) and after (86.9%) the scan. The information provided by staff both before and on the (18)F-FDG PET/CT low dose day was classified mostly as completely understandable (70.5% and 75.3%, resp.) and as very useful (70.5% and 72.6%, resp.) and correlated positively with patients' overall satisfaction with NM Department (rS = 0.372, p = 0.004 and rS = 0.528, p = 0.000, resp.), but not with anxiety levels. Conclusions. Patients perceive high levels of anxiety during the (18)F-FDG PET/CT low dose scan and the concern with scan results was pointed out as the main factor for that emotional reaction.

  11. Anxiety in Cancer Patients during 18F-FDG PET/CT Low Dose: A Comparison of Anxiety Levels before and after Imaging Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Lina; Carolino, Elisabete; Oliveira, Cátia; Pacheco, Carolina; Castro, Maria; Alonso, Juan

    2017-01-01

    Objective. Assessing the level of anxiety in oncology patients who underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT low dose scan and identifying the main reasons that generate anxiety. Material and Method. The study included 81 cancer patients submitted to the 18F-FDG PET/CT low dose scan. Patients filled in the Scan Experience Questionnaire and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) before and after 18F-FDG PET/CT low dose scan. Results. Substantial levels of anxiety were detected both before and after 18F-FDG PET/CT low dose scan (STAI mean > 30), with a significant increase in the state of anxiety after scan performance (p < 0.0001, Medianpre = 31.1, and Medianpos = 33.0). 18F-FDG PET/CT low dose results are the main cause of anxiety both before (79.1%) and after (86.9%) the scan. The information provided by staff both before and on the 18F-FDG PET/CT low dose day was classified mostly as completely understandable (70.5% and 75.3%, resp.) and as very useful (70.5% and 72.6%, resp.) and correlated positively with patients' overall satisfaction with NM Department (rS = 0.372, p = 0.004 and rS = 0.528, p = 0.000, resp.), but not with anxiety levels. Conclusions. Patients perceive high levels of anxiety during the 18F-FDG PET/CT low dose scan and the concern with scan results was pointed out as the main factor for that emotional reaction. PMID:28392942

  12. The level of emotion control, anxiety, and self-efficacy in the elderly in Bialystok, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cybulski, Mateusz; Cybulski, Lukasz; Krajewska-Kulak, Elzbieta; Cwalina, Urszula

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the level of emotion control, anxiety, and self-efficacy in the inhabitants of Bialystok (Poland) aged above 60. The study included 300 people above the age of 60, inhabitants of Bialystok and its neighborhoods: 100 residents of public nursing home, 100 participants of the University of the Third Age in Bialystok, and 100 students of the University of Healthy Senior. The three standardized psychometric scales were used in the study: Courtauld Emotional Control Scale (CECS), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES). The median of the overall score of CECS equaled 54 points, which is considered average in terms of negative emotions acceptance. The mean score of perceiving anxiety as the condition of STAI (X1) was 48 points, while anxiety as a trait of STAI (X2) was 49 points. The overall score for GSES proved that respondents had a subjective feeling of self-efficacy at the level of 29 points out of 40 points possible, which means that their self-efficacy was rather at the high level in their self-assessment. In women, a negative correlation was revealed between the sense of self-efficacy and age (r=-0.320, P<0.001). Analyzing the study group affiliation of respondents, a negative correlation was reported between the sense of self-efficacy and age among the elderly residents of public nursing home (r=-0.408, P<0.001). Taking into consideration the study group affiliation of respondents, a positive correlation between anger control (CECS) and the sense of anxiety as a trait of STAI (X2) was found among participants of the University of Healthy Senior (r=0.307, P=0.002). The social and demographic features (gender, group affiliation, age) analyzed in the study were found to be correlated significantly with the control of negative emotions, the level of anxiety, and self-efficacy. The study group affiliation was a key variable conditioning the relations between the analyzed features. The elderly

  13. Behavioral Indexes of Test Anxiety in Mathematics among Senior High School Students

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    DANIEL MACÍAS-MARTÍNEZ

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of Mathematics has been and is still a source of frustration and anxiety for a large number of students. The purpose of this study was to inquire systematically upon levels of test anxiety through behavioral and physiological procedures before and after a Math test, in 205 senior high school students. Academic worries were assessed by means of a computerized task based on the emotional version of the Stroop paradigm designed ex profeso to measure school anxiety (Hernández-Pozo, Macías & Torres, 2004. The Stroop task was administered, along with recordings of blood pressure and pulse, before and after the first Math test of the course. Academic general scores were inverse to the behavioral anxiety level, however the best Math scores were associated to middle levels of behavioral anxiety. Contradictory findings between academic performance in Math and global score, and the apparent lack of gender difference in anxiety measured through behavioral procedures suggests the need to review the generality of previous assertions relating academic performance inversely with levels of anxiety of high school students.

  14. Evaluating pharmacological models of high and low anxiety in sheep

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    Rebecca E. Doyle

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available New tests of animal affect and welfare require validation in subjects experiencing putatively different states. Pharmacological manipulations of affective state are advantageous because they can be administered in a standardised fashion, and the duration of their action can be established and tailored to suit the length of a particular test. To this end, the current study aimed to evaluate a pharmacological model of high and low anxiety in an important agricultural and laboratory species, the sheep. Thirty-five 8-month-old female sheep received either an intramuscular injection of the putatively anxiogenic drug 1-(m-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP; 1 mg/kg; n = 12, an intravenous injection of the putatively anxiolytic drug diazepam (0.1 mg/kg; n = 12, or acted as a control (saline intramuscular injection n = 11. Thirty minutes after the treatments, sheep were individually exposed to a variety of tests assessing their general movement, performance in a ‘runway task’ (moving down a raceway for a food reward, response to startle, and behaviour in isolation. A test to assess feeding motivation was performed 2 days later following administration of the drugs to the same animals in the same manner. The mCPP sheep had poorer performance in the two runway tasks (6.8 and 7.7 × slower respectively than control group; p < 0.001, a greater startle response (1.4 vs. 0.6; p = 0.02, a higher level of movement during isolation (9.1 steps vs. 5.4; p < 0.001, and a lower feeding motivation (1.8 × slower; p < 0.001 than the control group, all of which act as indicators of anxiety. These results show that mCPP is an effective pharmacological model of high anxiety in sheep. Comparatively, the sheep treated with diazepam did not display any differences compared to the control sheep. Thus we suggest that mCPP is an effective treatment to validate future tests aimed at assessing anxiety in sheep, and that future studies should include other subtle indicators of

  15. The differences in level of trait anxiety among girls and boys aged 13-17 years with myopia and emmetropia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łazarczyk, Joanna B; Urban, Beata; Konarzewska, Beata; Szulc, Agata; Bakunowicz-Łazarczyk, Alina; Żmudzka, Ewa; Kowzan, Urszula; Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Juszczyk-Zajkowska, Karolina

    2016-11-14

    A significant increase in myopia among children and teenagers can be observed all over the world. Yet at the same time, there is still an insignificant number of studies concerning this health problem. The aim of this study was to assess the level of trait anxiety among myopic group of teenagers in comparison to teenagers with emmetropia, and to confirm whether the level of trait anxiety relates to age and gender. Two hundred thirty-nine students aged 13-17 years were included in the study. The study group comprised 114 persons with myopia (81 girls and 33 boys), while the control group comprised 125 persons without refractive error (79 girls and 46 boys). Volunteers completed a set of questionnaires including: personal data, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAIC) (13-14 year-olds), or State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) (15-17 year-olds). The trait anxiety subscales were thus analyzed. Among younger adolescents (13-14 years of age) with myopia there was a significantly higher incidence of pathological intensification of anxiety as a constant trait. After taking into account the distribution of gender, there was a higher level of trait anxiety in the group of boys with myopia than in the control group aged 13-17 years and 13-14 years. There was also a higher level of trait anxiety detected in males than in females. Myopia may affect the level of trait anxiety among 13-14-year-olds. In both age groups of girls, a higher percentage of patients with high level of anxiety was discovered (≥7 sten), as compared to their peers without vision defects. Our results can contribute to a more accurate analysis of young teenagers' psychological problems, especially among boys diagnosed with myopia.

  16. Individual differences at high perceptual load: the relation between trait anxiety and selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, Naomi; Bredemeier, Keith

    2011-06-01

    Attentional control theory (Eysenck et al., 2007) posits that taxing attentional resources impairs performance efficiency in anxious individuals. This theory, however, does not explicitly address if or how the relation between anxiety and attentional control depends upon the perceptual demands of the task at hand. Consequently, the present study examined the relation between trait anxiety and task performance using a perceptual load task (Maylor & Lavie, 1998). Sixty-eight male college students completed a visual search task that indexed processing of irrelevant distractors systematically across four levels of perceptual load. Results indicated that anxiety was related to difficulty suppressing the behavioural effects of irrelevant distractors (i.e., decreased reaction time efficiency) under high, but not low, perceptual loads. In contrast, anxiety was not associated with error rates on the task. These findings are consistent with the prediction that anxiety is associated with impairments in performance efficiency under conditions that tax attentional resources.

  17. Computerized Adaptive Testing, Anxiety Levels, and Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritts, Barbara E.; Marszalek, Jacob M.

    2010-01-01

    This study compares the amount of test anxiety experienced on a computerized adaptive test (CAT) to a paper-and-pencil test (P&P), as well as the state test anxiety experienced between males and females. Ninety-four middle school CAT examinees were compared to 65 middle school P&P examinees on their responses to the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory…

  18. High visual working memory capacity in trait social anxiety.

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    Jun Moriya

    Full Text Available Working memory capacity is one of the most important cognitive functions influencing individual traits, such as attentional control, fluid intelligence, and also psychopathological traits. Previous research suggests that anxiety is associated with impaired cognitive function, and studies have shown low verbal working memory capacity in individuals with high trait anxiety. However, the relationship between trait anxiety and visual working memory capacity is still unclear. Considering that people allocate visual attention more widely to detect danger under threat, visual working memory capacity might be higher in anxious people. In the present study, we show that visual working memory capacity increases as trait social anxiety increases by using a change detection task. When the demand to inhibit distractors increased, however, high visual working memory capacity diminished in individuals with social anxiety, and instead, impaired filtering of distractors was predicted by trait social anxiety. State anxiety was not correlated with visual working memory capacity. These results indicate that socially anxious people could potentially hold a large amount of information in working memory. However, because of an impaired cognitive function, they could not inhibit goal-irrelevant distractors and their performance decreased under highly demanding conditions.

  19. Gender specific associations of serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molendijk, Marc L.; Bus, Boudewijn A. A.; Spinhoven, Philip; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Prickaerts, Jos; Voshaar, Richard C. Oude; Elzinga, Bernet M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. Whereas animal models indicate that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a role in anxiety-related behaviour, little is known about BDNF in patients with an anxiety disorder. We tested the hypothesis that serum BDNF levels are low in patients with an anxiety disorder as compare

  20. Factors Affecting the Level of Test Anxiety among EFL Learners at Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Selami

    2013-01-01

    Many studies on test anxiety among adult language learners have been performed, while only a few studies have dealt with overall test anxiety. In addition, these studies do not specifically address test anxiety in foreign language learning among elementary school language learners. Thus, this study aims to investigate the level of test anxiety…

  1. Anxiety Level in Students of Public Speaking: Causes and Remedies

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    Farhan Uddin Raja

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite being competent in their field of work, professional’s worldwide struggle due to lack of good public speaking skills. Their assessments and appraisals are often not depictive of their professional competitiveness; therefore, it is important for students to overcome public speaking anxiety before they transit from academic life to professional life. The purpose of this study is to analyze the reasons behind the anxiety level in undergraduate students of a public speaking class and recommend strategies to overcome this fear. This study was entailed quantitative research paradigm on a sample of 50 students using convenience sampling technique from a reputable private sector business school in Karachi. The findings showed that students who fear public speaking can perform well if they use certain strategies to fight their fears. 75% participants admitted their fear of public speaking and 95% participants agreed that if proper counseling, instruction and coaching is provided, this fear can be overcome. Research revealed that exposure to virtual environment can facilitate student confidence and enables themto face audience irrespective of the size.

  2. The level of emotion control, anxiety, and self-efficacy in the elderly in Bialystok, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cybulski, Mateusz; Cybulski, Lukasz; Krajewska-Kulak, Elzbieta; Cwalina, Urszula

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The aim of the study was to assess the level of emotion control, anxiety, and self-efficacy in the inhabitants of Bialystok (Poland) aged above 60. Patients and methods The study included 300 people above the age of 60, inhabitants of Bialystok and its neighborhoods: 100 residents of public nursing home, 100 participants of the University of the Third Age in Bialystok, and 100 students of the University of Healthy Senior. The three standardized psychometric scales were used in the study: Courtauld Emotional Control Scale (CECS), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES). Results The median of the overall score of CECS equaled 54 points, which is considered average in terms of negative emotions acceptance. The mean score of perceiving anxiety as the condition of STAI (X1) was 48 points, while anxiety as a trait of STAI (X2) was 49 points. The overall score for GSES proved that respondents had a subjective feeling of self-efficacy at the level of 29 points out of 40 points possible, which means that their self-efficacy was rather at the high level in their self-assessment. In women, a negative correlation was revealed between the sense of self-efficacy and age (r=−0.320, Page among the elderly residents of public nursing home (r=−0.408, Page) analyzed in the study were found to be correlated significantly with the control of negative emotions, the level of anxiety, and self-efficacy. The study group affiliation was a key variable conditioning the relations between the analyzed features. The elderly residents of public nursing home belonged to the group distinguishing negatively compared to other two study groups. The study respondents were characterized by the relatively high perception of anxiety, which may be as a result of the health and social problem present in this age group. In order to improve the quality of life, the study population should reduce level of perceived anxiety and increase the control of negative

  3. Drug metabolism in human brain: high levels of cytochrome P4503A43 in brain and metabolism of anti-anxiety drug alprazolam to its active metabolite.

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    Varsha Agarwal

    Full Text Available Cytochrome P450 (P450 is a super-family of drug metabolizing enzymes. P450 enzymes have dual function; they can metabolize drugs to pharmacologically inactive metabolites facilitating their excretion or biotransform them to pharmacologically active metabolites which may have longer half-life than the parent drug. The variable pharmacological response to psychoactive drugs typically seen in population groups is often not accountable by considering dissimilarities in hepatic metabolism. Metabolism in brain specific nuclei may play a role in pharmacological modulation of drugs acting on the CNS and help explain some of the diverse response to these drugs seen in patient population. P450 enzymes are also present in brain where drug metabolism can take place and modify therapeutic action of drugs at the site of action. We have earlier demonstrated an intrinsic difference in the biotransformation of alprazolam (ALP in brain and liver, relatively more alpha-hydroxy alprazolam (alpha-OHALP is formed in brain as compared to liver. In the present study we show that recombinant CYP3A43 metabolizes ALP to both alpha-OHALP and 4-hydroxy alprazolam (4-OHALP while CYP3A4 metabolizes ALP predominantly to its inactive metabolite, 4-OHALP. The expression of CYP3A43 mRNA in human brain samples correlates with formation of relatively higher levels of alpha-OH ALP indicating that individuals who express higher levels of CYP3A43 in the brain would generate larger amounts of alpha-OHALP. Further, the expression of CYP3A43 was relatively higher in brain as compared to liver across different ethnic populations. Since CYP3A enzymes play a prominent role in the metabolism of drugs, the higher expression of CYP3A43 would generate metabolite profile of drugs differentially in human brain and thus impact the pharmacodynamics of psychoactive drugs at the site of action.

  4. Behavioral Indexes of Test Anxiety in Mathematics among Senior High School Students

    OpenAIRE

    DANIEL MACÍAS-MARTÍNEZ; MARÍA DEL ROCÍO HERNÁNDEZ-POZO

    2008-01-01

    The study of Mathematics has been and is still a source of frustration and anxiety for a large number of students. The purpose of this study was to inquire systematically upon levels of test anxiety through behavioral and physiological procedures before and after a Math test, in 205 senior high school students. Academic worries were assessed by means of a computerized task based on the emotional version of the Stroop paradigm designed ex profeso to measure school anxiety (Hernández-Pozo, Mací...

  5. The sources of foreign language speaking anxiety and the relationship between proficiency level and degree of foreign language speaking anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Balemir, Serkan Hasan

    2009-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of Teaching English as a Foreign Language, Bilkent University, 2009. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2009. Includes bibliographical references leaves 87-91. This study investigated the sources of foreign language speaking anxiety and the relationship between proficiency levels and degree of foreign language speaking anxiety. The study was conducted at Hacettepe University, with the participation of 234 students from the departments of Basic E...

  6. High potassium level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperkalemia; Potassium - high; High blood potassium ... There are often no symptoms with a high level of potassium. When symptoms do occur, they may include: Nausea Slow, weak, or irregular pulse Sudden collapse, when the heartbeat gets too ...

  7. A research on the anxiety levels of parents who have mentally handicapped children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selahattin Avşaroğlu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this research, it is aimed to specify the anxiety levels of parents who have mentally handicapped children. For this purpose, the state anxiety levels of parents with mentally handicapped children that the parents will have when they spend time with their children in social environments (visiting neighbours, shopping centres, restaurants and communication in terms of reactions and the anxiety levels they always have are studied. In this study Spielberger’s “Trait-state Anxiety Inventory” and the Identity Survey developed by the researchers are used as data gathering devices. 264 mothers and 51 fathers, totally 315 parents, whose children attend a special education institution in Meram, Karatay and Selçuklu, the central districts of Konya, and Akşehir, Yunak, Ilgın, Doğanhisar and Kadınhanı, districts of Konya, form the sample of this study. According to the findings, it is seen that, state and trait anxiety levels of mothers are significantly higher than fathers’. In relation to the levels of education, there is a significant differentiation in level of state anxiety whereas there is not a significant difference in trait anxiety levels, in relation to the levels of income, there is a significant difference in trait anxiety and state anxiety.

  8. The level of emotion control, anxiety, and self-efficacy in the elderly in Bialystok, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cybulski M

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Mateusz Cybulski,1 Lukasz Cybulski,2 Elzbieta Krajewska-Kulak,1 Urszula Cwalina3 1Department of Integrated Medical Care, Faculty of Health Sciences, Medical University of Bialystok, Bialystok, 2Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Warmia and Mazury, Olsztyn, 3Department of Statistics and Medical Informatics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Medical University of Bialystok, Bialystok, Poland Purpose: The aim of the study was to assess the level of emotion control, anxiety, and self-efficacy in the inhabitants of Bialystok (Poland aged above 60. Patients and methods: The study included 300 people above the age of 60, inhabitants of Bialystok and its neighborhoods: 100 residents of public nursing home, 100 participants of the University of the Third Age in Bialystok, and 100 students of the University of Healthy Senior. The three standardized psychometric scales were used in the study: Courtauld Emotional Control Scale (CECS, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI, and General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES. Results: The median of the overall score of CECS equaled 54 points, which is considered average in terms of negative emotions acceptance. The mean score of perceiving anxiety as the condition of STAI (X1 was 48 points, while anxiety as a trait of STAI (X2 was 49 points. The overall score for GSES proved that respondents had a subjective feeling of self-efficacy at the level of 29 points out of 40 points possible, which means that their self-efficacy was rather at the high level in their self-assessment. In women, a negative correlation was revealed between the sense of self-efficacy and age (r=–0.320, P<0.001. Analyzing the study group affiliation of respondents, a negative correlation was reported between the sense of self-efficacy and age among the elderly residents of public nursing home (r=–0.408, P<0.001. Taking into consideration the study group affiliation of respondents, a positive correlation between anger control (CECS and the sense of

  9. Pain Perception and Anxiety Levels during Menstrual Cycle Associated with Periodontal Therapy

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    Nikhat Fatima

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To compare the pain perception and anxiety levels of female patients undergoing scaling and root planing during menstrual (perimenstrual period with those observed during postmenstrual period. Materials and Methods. This was a single blind study, with a split-mouth design. Forty-four women with chronic periodontitis with regular menstrual cycles were subjected to complete Corah’s Dental Anxiety Scale (DAS during their first debridement visit. Patients were randomly selected to undergo their first debridement visit during either their menstrual or postmenstrual period. Scaling was performed under local anesthesia in bilateral quadrants of patients during the periods. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS was used to score pain levels for each quadrant after performing scaling and root planing. Results. Increase in pain perception among females during their menstrual or perimenstrual period was significantly greater than their postmenstrual period (P < 0.05. It is observed that women whose first appointment was given in perimenstrual period had more pain (VAS (P = 0.0000 when compared to those women whose first appointment was given in postmenstrual period. Conclusion. Females in their menstrual period demonstrated higher pain responses and high anxiety levels to supra- and subgingival debridement. This increase in the pain levels of women during their menstrual period was statistically significant. If the appointments are given in postmenstrual period, women feel less pain.

  10. High blood cholesterol levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000403.htm High blood cholesterol levels To use the sharing features ... stroke, and other problems. The medical term for high blood cholesterol is lipid disorder, hyperlipidemia, or hypercholesterolemia. ...

  11. Perceptions of Blended Learning Competencies and Obstacles among Educational Technology Students in Light of Different Anxiety Levels and Locus of Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldalalah, Osamah Ahmad; Gasaymeh, Al-Mothana M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of locus of control and anxiety level on the Jordanian educational technology students' perceived blended learning competencies and obstacles. The independent variables were the locus of control (Internal, External) and anxiety level (Low, Moderate, High). The dependent variables were the…

  12. Anxiety and stress among anaesthesiology and critical care residents during high-fidelity simulation sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Christian; Rimmelé, Thomas; Duclos, Antoine; Prieto, Nathalie; Cejka, Jean-Christophe; Carry, Pierre-Yves; Grousson, Sébastien; Friggeri, Arnaud; Secco, Julien; Bui-Xuan, Bernard; Lilot, Marc; Lehot, Jean-Jacques

    2016-12-01

    High-fidelity simulation (HFS) calls heavily upon cognitive capacities and generates stress and anxiety. The objectives of this prospective, observational study were to assess trait anxiety and fear of negative evaluation (FNE) in anaesthesiology and critical care residents and appraise their state anxiety levels and cardiovascular responses during HFS training sessions. First-year anaesthesiology and critical care residents completed the French-Canadian adaptation of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (IASTA Y-1: state anxiety, IASTA Y-2: trait anxiety) and the French adaptation of the Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale (FNE). Their heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) were assessed before and after the training session. Twenty-three residents (8 women, 15 men) were included in the study. IASTA Y-1 and Y-2 scores were low (respectively 40.2±9.9 and 39.7±8) and FNE scores were moderate (16.7±5.5). HR measurements before and after the training sessions were significantly higher than at rest (respectively 78±19, 80±17 and 63±9b/min; Panxiety and FNE. HFS training increased their HR but not their BP. Their state anxiety also remained low. Several differences between individuals were noted, particularly between men and women. Copyright © 2016 Société française d'anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home & Community Home › Aging & Health A to Z › Anxiety Font size A A A Print Share Glossary Basic Facts & Information Causes & Symptoms Diagnosis & Tests Care & Treatment Lifestyle & Management Other Resources Caregiving How ...

  14. EXAMINING HOW WHEELCHAIR BASKETBALL PLAYERS’ SELF-ESTEEM AND MOTIVATION LEVELS IMPACT ON THEIR STATE AND TRAIT ANXIETY LEVELS

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    Hakan Kolayis

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to examine how wheelchair basketball players’ self-esteem and motivation levels impact on their state and trait anxiety levels. The Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory, Sport Motivation Scale and STAI (State Trait Anxiety Inventory were applied to the athletes before a competition. Data were collected from 124 athletes with disabilities. In this study, descriptive statistical techniques, Pearson product moment correlation and multiple regression analysis (enter method were used. Multiple regression analyses indicated that self-esteem, intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation and amotivation, all of which function as predicting variables, predicted 42% variance in state anxiety and 50% variance in trait anxiety. Motivation and self-esteem are the best predictors of trait and state anxiety among the premier league wheelchair basketball players. Finally, a review of factors that impact on anxiety and quality of performance such as motivation and self-esteem is provided.

  15. High Current Anxiety Symptoms, But Not a Past Anxiety Disorder Diagnosis, are Associated with Impaired Fear Extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duits, Puck; Cath, Danielle C; Heitland, Ivo; Baas, Johanna M P

    2016-01-01

    Although impaired fear extinction has repeatedly been demonstrated in patients with anxiety disorders, little is known about whether these impairments persist after treatment. The current comparative exploratory study investigated fear extinction in 26 patients treated for their anxiety disorder in the years preceding the study as compared to 17 healthy control subjects. Fear-potentiated startle and subjective fear were measured in a cue and context fear conditioning paradigm within a virtual reality environment. Results indicated no differences in fear extinction between treated anxiety patients and control subjects. However, scores on the Beck Anxiety Inventory across all participants revealed impaired extinction of fear potentiated startle in subjects with high compared to low anxiety symptoms over the past week. Taken together, this exploratory study found no support for impaired fear extinction in treated anxiety patients, and implies that current anxiety symptoms rather than previous patient status determine the success of extinction.

  16. High current anxiety symptoms, but not a past anxiety disorder diagnosis, are associated with impaired fear extinction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puck eDuits

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Although impaired fear extinction has repeatedly been demonstrated in patients with anxiety disorders, little is known about whether these impairments persist after treatment. The current comparative exploratory study investigated fear extinction in 26 patients treated for their anxiety disorder in the years preceding the study as compared to 17 healthy control subjects. Fear-potentiated startle and subjective fear were measured in a cue and context fear conditioning paradigm within a virtual reality environment. Results indicated no differences in fear extinction between treated anxiety patients and control subjects. However, scores on the Beck Anxiety Inventory across all participants revealed impaired extinction of fear potentiated startle in subjects with high compared to low anxiety symptoms over the past week. Taken together, this exploratory study found no support for impaired fear extinction in treated anxiety patients, and implies that current anxiety symptoms rather than previous patient status determine the success of extinction.

  17. High-level verification

    CERN Document Server

    Lerner, Sorin; Kundu, Sudipta

    2011-01-01

    Given the growing size and heterogeneity of Systems on Chip (SOC), the design process from initial specification to chip fabrication has become increasingly complex. This growing complexity provides incentive for designers to use high-level languages such as C, SystemC, and SystemVerilog for system-level design. While a major goal of these high-level languages is to enable verification at a higher level of abstraction, allowing early exploration of system-level designs, the focus so far for validation purposes has been on traditional testing techniques such as random testing and scenario-based

  18. Academic level and student’s faculty as factors of test anxiety among undergraduates in Nigeria

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    Samuel E. Oladipo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Test anxiety as a prominent problem among students has been a focus of study for decades now, with studies focusing more on such factors as age, gender and study habit in relation to test anxiety. There is a dearth of literature in respect of such factors as academic level and student’s faculty in relation to test anxiety among undergraduates. The focus of the present study therefore, was to investigate academic level and students’ faculty as factors predicting test anxiety among undergraduates in Nigeria. Using simple random sampling technique, a total of 197(126 males and 71 females undergraduates participated in the study. Their ages ranged from 16 to 30years (M=21.6,SD=2.68.Four hypotheses were tested with Pearson Product moment correlation and Multiple regression analysis. The results revealed that academic level and students’ faculty had no correlation with test anxiety. Moreover, the result of the multiple regression analysis showed that academic level and students’ faculty have no independent and joint influence on test anxiety. It was concluded that irrespective of student’s academic level and faculty, test anxiety is unavoidable. Other factors might be responsible for student test anxiety especially among undergraduates Nigeria. It is therefore recommend that more research should be conducted in this area so as to determine the salient factors that predict test anxiety.

  19. The Impact of Pathological Levels of Internet-Related Anxiety on Internet Usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnan, Mark; Joiner, Richard; Gavin, Jeff; Crook, Charles; Maras, Pam; Guiller, Jane; Scott, Adrian J.

    2012-01-01

    This article compares the use of the Internet during the first year of university education of students who have pathological levels of Internet anxiety with those who do not. Two hundred and sixteen first year psychology students (females 184, males 32) were surveyed for their levels of Internet-related anxiety, from which 12 (5.6%) were…

  20. Anxiety level and self-esteem in youth with cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Aneta Rita Borkowska

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of the research was to compare youth with cerebral palsy (CP) and healthy individuals in terms of self-esteem and anxiety level, and to evaluate the relation between self-esteem and anxiety in both study groups. Participants and procedure The study included 30 individuals with CP and 30 healthy individuals, aged 16 to 22 years. The anxiety level was assessed using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, while self-esteem was assessed using Rosenberg’s Self-Es...

  1. Anxiety and depression levels among multidisciplinary health residents

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    Daniela Salvagni Rotta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to assess symptoms of anxiety and depression of professionals of Multidisciplinary Health Residence Programs. Methods: this is a cross-sectional study, performed with fifty professionals, using three instruments: one for socioeconomic and demographic data, and the Beck’s Anxiety and Depression Scale. Results: predominance of females (92.0%, average age 26 years old, single (88.0%, family income from two to five salaries (56.0% satisfied with the work (82.0% and thought about quitting the program (56.0% showed anxiety (50.0% and depression (28.0%. Conclusion: there was an association between anxiety and depression in multidisciplinary residents, which points to the need for rethinking strategies for identifying these symptoms and control of stress factors for the promotion of mental health.

  2. Levels of state and trait anxiety in patients referred to ophthalmology by primary care clinicians: a cross sectional study.

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    Christopher J Davey

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: There is a high level of over-referral from primary eye care leading to significant numbers of people without ocular pathology (false positives being referred to secondary eye care. The present study used a psychometric instrument to determine whether there is a psychological burden on patients due to referral to secondary eye care, and used Rasch analysis to convert the data from an ordinal to an interval scale. DESIGN: Cross sectional study. PARTICIPANTS AND CONTROLS: 322 participants and 80 control participants. METHODS: State (i.e. current and trait (i.e. propensity to anxiety were measured in a group of patients referred to a hospital eye department in the UK and in a control group who have had a sight test but were not referred. Response category analysis plus infit and outfit Rasch statistics and person separation indices were used to determine the usefulness of individual items and the response categories. Principal components analysis was used to determine dimensionality. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Levels of state and trait anxiety measured using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. RESULTS: State anxiety scores were significantly higher in the patients referred to secondary eye care than the controls (p0.1. Rasch analysis highlighted that the questionnaire results needed to be split into "anxiety-absent" and "anxiety-present" items for both state and trait anxiety, but both subscales showed the same profile of results between patients and controls. CONCLUSIONS: State anxiety was shown to be higher in patients referred to secondary eye care than the controls, and at similar levels to people with moderate to high perceived susceptibility to breast cancer. This suggests that referral from primary to secondary eye care can result in a significant psychological burden on some patients.

  3. Factors associated with preoperative anxiety levels of Turkish surgical patients: from a single center in Ankara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkilic, Ezgi; Kesimci, Elvin; Soykut, Cem; Doger, Cihan; Gumus, Tülin; Kanbak, Orhan

    2017-01-01

    Background Preoperative anxiety and stress are undoubtedly a difficult experience in patients undergoing elective surgery. These unpleasant sensations depend on several factors. The objective of this study was to evaluate the preoperative anxiety levels in a sample of Turkish population, as well as the underlying causes using the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI anxiety) scale. Methods The study was conducted according to the Declaration of Helsinki and was approved by the local ethical committee. All participants gave written informed consent upon having received detailed information on the study. Upon entry in the study, state and trait anxiety questionnaires were completed by 186 patients scheduled for elective surgery. The influencing factors in regard to age, sex, educational status and others were also reported. Results There was a statistically significant positive correlation between state and trait anxiety scores in this Turkish population. While the most important predictive factors that affected state-STAI scores were age, sex and duration of sleep the night before surgery; educational status and age were the best predictors for determining the variation in trait-STAI scores. Conclusion The factors affecting anxiety levels in different populations might vary among different countries. Interestingly, in this sample of Turkish population, the trait anxiety levels were found to be higher from state-anxiety levels, especially in women and less educated people. Thus, doubts about operation and anesthesia are overlooked. This could be attributed to the low to intermediate life standards of people admitted to our hospital. PMID:28280304

  4. Decision-making performance is related to levels of anxiety and differential recruitment of frontostriatal areas in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Visser, L; Baars, A M; Lavrijsen, M; van der Weerd, C M M; van den Bos, R

    2011-06-16

    In humans, high levels of anxiety are associated with poor performance in the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). The IGT measures decision-making under conditions of uncertainty. In this study, we investigated the association between anxiety and decision-making in rats. Rats were screened for anxiety on the elevated plus maze (EPM) and subsequently tested in a rat analogue of the IGT (r-IGT). We explored the role of frontostriatal areas related to r-IGT performance using c-fos immunohistochemistry following the last training-session. High levels of anxiety were associated with poor r-IGT performance: high anxious rats made fewer choices for the advantageous option and collected fewer sucrose pellets in the r-IGT than low anxious rats. Analysis of win-stay/lose-shift behaviour of choices for the advantageous option revealed that good performing-low anxious subjects showed an increase in win-stays and a decrease in lose-shifts across trial blocks while poor performing-high anxious subjects did not. Furthermore, decision-making performance and, indirectly, anxiety levels were related to neural activity in parts of the medial prefrontal cortex, that is prelimbic and infralimbic cortex, and in parts of the striatum, that is nucleus accumbens shell and core. These data suggest a similar frontostriatal circuitry underlying affective decision-making in humans and rats.

  5. Different patterns of respiration in rat lines selectively bred for high or low anxiety.

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    Luca Carnevali

    Full Text Available In humans, there is unequivocal evidence of an association between anxiety states and altered respiratory function. Despite this, the link between anxiety and respiration has been poorly evaluated in experimental animals. The primary objective of the present study was to investigate the hypothesis that genetic lines of rats that differ largely in their anxiety level would display matching alterations in respiration. To reach this goal, respiration was recorded in high-anxiety behavior (HAB, n = 10 and low-anxiety behavior (LAB, n = 10 male rats using whole-body plethysmography. In resting state, respiratory rate was higher in HABs (85 ± 2 cycles per minute, cpm than LABs (67 ± 2 cpm, p<0.05. During initial testing into the plethysmograph and during a restraint test, HAB rats spent less time at high-frequency sniffing compared to LAB rats. In addition, HAB rats did not habituate in terms of respiratory response to repetitive acoustic stressful stimuli. Finally, HAB rats exhibited a larger incidence of sighs during free exploration of the plethysmograph and under stress conditions. We conclude that: i HAB rats showed respiratory changes (elevated resting respiratory rate, reduced sniffing in novel environment, increased incidence of sighs, and no habituation of the respiratory response to repetitive stimuli that resemble those observed in anxious and panic patients, and ii respiratory patterns may represent a promising way for assessing anxiety states in preclinical studies.

  6. A study of statistics anxiety levels of graduate dental hygiene students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Paul S; Jacks, Mary E; Smiley, Lynn A; Walden, Carolyn E; Clark, William D; Nguyen, Carol A

    2015-02-01

    In light of increased emphasis on evidence-based practice in the profession of dental hygiene, it is important that today's dental hygienist comprehend statistical measures to fully understand research articles, and thereby apply scientific evidence to practice. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate statistics anxiety among graduate dental hygiene students in the U.S. A web-based self-report, anonymous survey was emailed to directors of 17 MSDH programs in the U.S. with a request to distribute to graduate students. The survey collected data on statistics anxiety, sociodemographic characteristics and evidence-based practice. Statistic anxiety was assessed using the Statistical Anxiety Rating Scale. Study significance level was α=0.05. Only 8 of the 17 invited programs participated in the study. Statistical Anxiety Rating Scale data revealed graduate dental hygiene students experience low to moderate levels of statistics anxiety. Specifically, the level of anxiety on the Interpretation Anxiety factor indicated this population could struggle with making sense of scientific research. A decisive majority (92%) of students indicated statistics is essential for evidence-based practice and should be a required course for all dental hygienists. This study served to identify statistics anxiety in a previously unexplored population. The findings should be useful in both theory building and in practical applications. Furthermore, the results can be used to direct future research. Copyright © 2015 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  7. Listening to music during electromyography does not influence the examinee's anxiety and pain levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Alon; Drory, Vivian E

    2014-09-01

    Listening to music is a low-cost intervention that has demonstrated ability to reduce pain and anxiety levels in various medical procedures. Subjects undergoing electrophysiological examinations were randomized into a music-listening group and a control group. Visual analog scales were used to measure anxiety and pain levels during the procedure. Thirty subjects were randomized to each group. No statistically significant difference was found in anxiety or pain levels during the procedure between groups. However, most subjects in the music-listening group reported anxiety and pain reduction and would prefer to hear music in a future examination. Although listening to music during electrophysiological examinations did not reduce anxiety or pain significantly, most subjects felt a positive effect and would prefer to hear music; therefore, we suggest that music may be offered optionally in the electromyography laboratory setting. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Effects of Language Anxiety on Three Proficiency-Level Courses of Spanish as a Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos-Llinas, Monica; Garau, Maria Juan

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the effects of language anxiety on course achievement in three foreign language proficiency levels of Spanish, namely, beginner, intermediate, and advanced. Participants completed the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (Horwitz, Horwitz, & Cope, 1986) and a background questionnaire. Results showed that language…

  9. Effects of Language Anxiety on Three Proficiency-Level Courses of Spanish as a Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos-Llinas, Monica; Garau, Maria Juan

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the effects of language anxiety on course achievement in three foreign language proficiency levels of Spanish, namely, beginner, intermediate, and advanced. Participants completed the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (Horwitz, Horwitz, & Cope, 1986) and a background questionnaire. Results showed that language…

  10. The Impact of Speaking Component of an Institutional Test on Bilingual Students' Anxiety Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Selen

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate whether bilingual university/ college students may have speaking test anxiety. Additionally, it was examined whether there were differences in anxiety levels among bilingual students according to gender. To collect data, 140 bilingual university students were given a GEP-TAS (General English…

  11. High School Students' Time Management Skills in Relation to Research Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akcoltekin, Alpturk

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the opinions of high school students relating to time management and present a correlation of their time management skills with demographic variables, as well as examining the relation between their level of research anxiety and time management skills. The study group composed 270 12th-grade students (127 males and…

  12. Effectiveness of a Cognitive Behavioral Therapy-Based Indicated Prevention Program for Children with Elevated Anxiety Levels: a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Starrenburg, Manon L A; Kuijpers, Rowella C M W; Kleinjan, Marloes; Hutschemaekers, Giel J M; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2017-01-01

    Childhood anxiety is a problem not only because of its negative consequences on the well-being of children but also because of its adverse effects on society and its role in mental disorders later in life. Adequate prevention might be the key in tackling this problem. The effectiveness of Coping Cat, as an indicated CBT-based prevention program in Dutch primary school children, was assessed by means of a randomized controlled trial. In total, 141 children aged 7-13 with elevated levels of anxiety and their mothers were included and randomly assigned to an intervention group and a waiting list control group. After screening, all participants completed baseline, post-intervention, and 3-month follow-up assessments. The results showed that Coping Cat, as an indicated prevention program, reduces children's self-reported anxiety symptoms, with Cohen's effect size d of 0.66 at the 3-month follow-up. A moderating effect was found for baseline anxiety level; specifically, children with high levels of baseline anxiety who received the Coping Cat program had lower anxiety levels at follow-up compared to children with high levels of anxiety in the control condition. No moderating effects of gender or age were found. An unexpected decline in anxiety levels from screening to pre-assessment was found in both groups, and this decline was stronger in the experimental group. These promising results warrant the implementation of Coping Cat as an indicated prevention program.

  13. Evaluation of the Psychometric Properties of NOC Outcomes "Anxiety Level" and "Anxiety Self-Control" in a Portuguese Outpatient Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Francisco Miguel Correia; Araújo, Odete Sofia Silva Lomba; Sequeira, Carlos Alberto da Cruz; Lluch Canut, María Teresa; Martins, Teresa

    2017-01-25

    To adopt the language and to evaluate the psychometric properties of "Anxiety level" and "Anxiety self-control" NOC outcomes in Portuguese adult patients. Methodological design. The final European Portuguese version of the NOC outcome "Anxiety level," composed by 16 indicators, proved excellent internal consistency. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was forced to three factors. The NOC outcome "Anxiety self-control," composed of nine indicators, demonstrated a questionable internal consistency. EFA was forced to two factors. European Portuguese versions of the studied NOC outcomes proved to be tools with acceptable psychometric properties for evaluating anxiety in Portuguese patients. This study contributed to the development of NOC language and to the enrichment of nursing's body of knowledge. Adaptar a linguagem e avaliar as propriedades psicométricas dos resultados NOC "Nível de ansiedade" e "Autocontrolo da ansiedade" em utentes portugueses adultos. MÉTODOS: Estudo metodológico. A versão portuguesa do resultado NOC "Nível de ansiedade", composta por 16 indicadores, apresentou uma excelente consistência interna. A análise fatorial exploratória (AFE) foi forçada a três dimensões. O resultado NOC "Autocontrolo da ansiedade", composto por nove indicadores, apresentou uma consistência interna questionável. A AFE foi forçada a duas dimensões. CONCLUSÕES: As versões portuguesas dos resultados NOC estudados são instrumentos com propriedades psicométricas aceitáveis para avaliar a ansiedade em utentes portugueses. IMPLICAÇÕES PARA A PRÁTICA DE ENFERMAGEM: Este estudo contribuiu para o desenvolvimento da linguagem NOC e para enriquecer o corpo de conhecimento de Enfermagem. © 2017 NANDA International, Inc.

  14. Effect of music on level of anxiety in patients undergoing colonoscopy without sedation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Chia-Hui; Chen, Yi-Yu; Wu, Kuan-Ta; Wang, Shu-Chi; Yang, Jeng-Fu; Lin, Yu-Yin; Lin, Chia-I; Kuo, Hsiang-Ju; Dai, Chia-Yen; Hsieh, Meng-Hsuan

    2017-03-01

    Listening to music can be a noninvasive method for reducing the anxiety level without any adverse effects. The aim of this study was to explore whether music can reduce anxiety and to compare two different styles of music, informal classical music and light music, to ascertain the more effective style of music in reducing anxiety in patients undergoing colonoscopy without sedation. This study enrolled 138 patients who underwent colonoscopy without sedation during a general health examination from February 2009 to January 2015. The patients were randomly assigned to a group that did not listen to music, a group that listened to music by David Tolley, or a group that listened to music by Kevin Kern. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory was used to evaluate the status of anxiety. A trend test for mild anxiety was performed on the patients in the three groups, and a significant trend was noted (p=0.017 for all patients; p=0.014 for analysis by sex). Multivariate analysis for mild anxiety on the patients in each group was also performed in this study, and music by Kevin Kern was found to have the lowest odds ratio (Odds ratio=0.34, p=0.045). Listening to music, especially music by Kevin Kern, reduced the level of anxiety in patients undergoing colonoscopy examination without sedation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.

  15. Evaluation of the effect of music on anxiety level of patients hospitalized in cardiac wards before angiography

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    Zahra Pourmovahed

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients experience high levels of anxiety before angiography, which is mostly associated with irreparable effects on health status of such individuals. Use of alternative medicine to reduce stress and anxiety is of paramount importance. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of music on anxiety level of patients hospitalized in cardiac wards before angiography. Methods: This clinical trial was conducted on 70 patients admitted to cardiac wards before angiography in three selected hospitals of Shiraz, Iran in 2015. Samples were selected through randomized and available sampling and divided into two groups of control (n=35 and intervention (n=35. In this study, the intervention group received one hour of music before angiography for 20 minutes, whereas the usual care of ward was provided for the control group. Data was collected using the state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI by Spielberger one hour before angiography (immediately before the intervention and 20 minutes after angiography (immediately after the intervention through interviews with all the participants. Data analysis was performed in SPSS version 22 using descriptive statistics, Chi-square, as well as paired and independent-tests. Results: In this study, mean anxiety scores of patients in the intervention and control groups before the intervention were 48.45±6.63 and 48.25±6.63, respectively. After the intervention, these scores were changed to 44.28±5.21 and 49.02±7.74 in the intervention (P=0.004 and control (P=0.90 groups, respectively. Therefore, a significant difference was observed between the groups after the intervention (P=0.008. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, music before angiography could lead to a significant decrease in anxiety level of patients. Therefore, this approach could be used as an effective method to alleviate anxiety in patients.

  16. Evaluation of the effect of music on anxiety level of patients hospitalized in cardiac wards before angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pourmovahed Zahra

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Patients experience high levels of anxiety before angiography, which is mostly associated with irreparable effects on health status of such individuals. Use of alternative medicine to reduce stress and anxiety is of paramount importance. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of music on anxiety level of patients hospitalized in cardiac wards before angiography. Materials and Method: This clinical trial was conducted on 70 patients admitted to cardiac wards before angiography in three selected hospitals of Shiraz, Iran in 2015. Samples were randomized convenience sampling and divided into two groups of control (n=35 and intervention (n=35. In this study, the intervention group received one hour of music before angiography for 20 minutes, whereas the usual care of ward was provided for the control group. Data was collected using the state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI by Spielberger one hour before angiography (immediately before the intervention and 20 minutes after angiography (immediately after the intervention through interviews with all the participants. Data analysis was performed in SPSS version 22 using descriptive statistics, Chi-square, as well as paired and independent-tests. Results: In this study, mean anxiety scores of patients in the intervention and control groups before the intervention were 48.45±6.63 and 48.25±6.63, respectively. After the intervention, these scores were changed to 44.28±5.21 and 49.02±7.74 in the intervention (P=0.004 and control (P=0.90 groups, respectively. Therefore, a significant difference was observed between the groups after the intervention (P=0.008. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, music before angiography could lead to a significant decrease in anxiety level of patients. Therefore, this approach could be used as an effective method to alleviate anxiety in patients.

  17. How could multimedia information about dental implant surgery effects patients’ anxiety level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahhan, Ameer-Shani; Acar, Ahmet-Hüseyin

    2017-01-01

    Background To evaluate the effects of different patient education techniques on patients’ anxiety levels before and after dental implant surgery. Material and Methods Sixty patients were randomized into three groups; each contained 20 patients; [group 1, basic information given verbally, with details of operation and recovery; group 2 (study group), basic information given verbally with details of operative procedures and recovery, and by watching a movie on single implant surgery]; and a control group [basic information given verbally “but it was devoid of the details of the operative procedures and recovery”]. Anxiety levels were assessed using the Spielberger’s State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS). Pain was assessed with a visual analog scale (VAS). Results The most significant changes were observed in the movie group (P < 0.05). Patients who were more anxious also used more analgesic medication. Linear regression analysis showed that female patients had higher levels of anxiety (P < 0.05). Conclusions Preoperative multimedia information increases anxiety level. Key words:Implant, anxiety, pain, dental, video and patient knowledge. PMID:27918733

  18. Effect of Music Therapy on Pain and Anxiety Levels of Cancer Patients: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaswamy, Priyadharshini; Nair, Shoba

    2016-01-01

    Background: The pain associated with cancer is highly detrimental to the quality of life of the affected individuals. It also contributes to the anxiety of the patient. There is a need for a nonpharmacological approach in addition to the pharmacological therapy for the management of the pain for a more holistic improvement in the individual. With this study, we wish to achieve this through music. Objective: To assess the effect of music therapy on pain scores and anxiety levels of cancer patients with pain. Study Design: In this quantitative study, a comparative study was done on fourteen cancer patients admitted for pain relief under the Department of Pain and Palliative Medicine, of a tertiary care hospital, having moderate to severe pain (numerical pain rating scale [NRS] – of 4 to 10). Subjects and Methods: Convenience sampling was used. Patients were allocated to test group or control group nonrandomly. The test group patients were subjected to music therapy for 20 min while the control group patients were kept occupied by talking to them for 20 min. The NRS scale was used to assess the pre- and post-interventional pain scores and the Hamilton anxiety rating scale was used to assess the pre- and post-interventional anxiety scores in the two groups. Statistics: Student's t-test was used for comparing the pre- and post-interventional data. Two sample t-test was used to compare the data obtained from the control and study groups. Results: Statistically significant reduction seen in the pain scores in the test group after music therapy (P = 0.003). No statistically significant reduction seen in the pain score in the control group (P = 0.356). There was a statistically significant reduction in the postintervention pain scores in the test group compared to the control group (P = 0.034). The reduction in anxiety levels in both groups after intervention was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Music therapy was found to lower the pain score of a patient who

  19. Effect of music therapy on pain and anxiety levels of cancer patients: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyadharshini Krishnaswamy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The pain associated with cancer is highly detrimental to the quality of life of the affected individuals. It also contributes to the anxiety of the patient. There is a need for a nonpharmacological approach in addition to the pharmacological therapy for the management of the pain for a more holistic improvement in the individual. With this study, we wish to achieve this through music. Objective: To assess the effect of music therapy on pain scores and anxiety levels of cancer patients with pain. Study Design: In this quantitative study, a comparative study was done on fourteen cancer patients admitted for pain relief under the Department of Pain and Palliative Medicine, of a tertiary care hospital, having moderate to severe pain (numerical pain rating scale [NRS] - of 4 to 10. Subjects and Methods: Convenience sampling was used. Patients were allocated to test group or control group nonrandomly. The test group patients were subjected to music therapy for 20 min while the control group patients were kept occupied by talking to them for 20 min. The NRS scale was used to assess the pre- and post-interventional pain scores and the Hamilton anxiety rating scale was used to assess the pre- and post-interventional anxiety scores in the two groups. Statistics: Student′s t-test was used for comparing the pre- and post-interventional data. Two sample t-test was used to compare the data obtained from the control and study groups. Results: Statistically significant reduction seen in the pain scores in the test group after music therapy (P = 0.003. No statistically significant reduction seen in the pain score in the control group (P = 0.356. There was a statistically significant reduction in the postintervention pain scores in the test group compared to the control group (P = 0.034. The reduction in anxiety levels in both groups after intervention was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Music therapy was found to lower the pain score of

  20. Effect of Music Therapy on Pain and Anxiety Levels of Cancer Patients: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaswamy, Priyadharshini; Nair, Shoba

    2016-01-01

    The pain associated with cancer is highly detrimental to the quality of life of the affected individuals. It also contributes to the anxiety of the patient. There is a need for a nonpharmacological approach in addition to the pharmacological therapy for the management of the pain for a more holistic improvement in the individual. With this study, we wish to achieve this through music. To assess the effect of music therapy on pain scores and anxiety levels of cancer patients with pain. In this quantitative study, a comparative study was done on fourteen cancer patients admitted for pain relief under the Department of Pain and Palliative Medicine, of a tertiary care hospital, having moderate to severe pain (numerical pain rating scale [NRS] - of 4 to 10). Convenience sampling was used. Patients were allocated to test group or control group nonrandomly. The test group patients were subjected to music therapy for 20 min while the control group patients were kept occupied by talking to them for 20 min. The NRS scale was used to assess the pre- and post-interventional pain scores and the Hamilton anxiety rating scale was used to assess the pre- and post-interventional anxiety scores in the two groups. Student's t-test was used for comparing the pre- and post-interventional data. Two sample t-test was used to compare the data obtained from the control and study groups. Statistically significant reduction seen in the pain scores in the test group after music therapy (P = 0.003). No statistically significant reduction seen in the pain score in the control group (P = 0.356). There was a statistically significant reduction in the postintervention pain scores in the test group compared to the control group (P = 0.034). The reduction in anxiety levels in both groups after intervention was not statistically significant. Music therapy was found to lower the pain score of a patient who had received standard palliative care for pain reduction. It was also more effective than the

  1. Anxiety, Motivation and Autonomy in Iranian High School Students: A Quantitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Sanadgol

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Research in the series of second language learning certify that both cognitive and affective factors within a language learner affect the level of success that will be achieved in learning a second language. This study was an attempt to investigate the relationship among three factors of anxiety, motivation, and autonomy. To this purpose, 207 students were invited from Golestan high school in Ramian, in the north of Iran. Their age ranged from 18 to 22 years. In one session they filled out the anxiety questionnaire, in the next session they completed the motivation questionnaire, and in the third session they answered the items in the autonomy questionnaire. At the end of the term their final scores were recorded.  Analysis of the results showed that there was a meaningful relationship between anxiety and motivation, but there was no relationship between anxiety and autonomy, and no relationship autonomy and motivation. Both high-stakeholders and low-stakeholder may benefit from the findings of this study. Keywords: motivation; anxiety; autonomy; EFL learners

  2. The relationship between language anxiety and the actual and perceived levels of foreign language pronunciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Baran-Łucarz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The construct of anxiety has been captivating the interest of SLA researchers for a long time. Numerous observations show that most individuals experience anxiety when learning a foreign language (FL and using it, both in classroom and real-life contexts, though to a different extent. An analysis of studies conducted on language anxiety (LA throughout several decades (Horwitz, 2010 shows that researchers have focused, first and foremost, on examining the nature, symptoms and consequences of being anxious, proving its detrimental effect on FL and L2 learning and performance. However, the causes of LA seem to have been less thoroughly explored. The paper reports on a study investigating whether the actual level of FL learners’ pronunciation and the pronunciation level perceived by students can be considered significant sources of anxiety. It is hypothesized that both pronunciation levels are related to LA, with the latter being a more important determinant of LA than the former. To measure the subjects’ degree of anxiety, the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (Horwitz, Horwitz, & Cope, 1986 was applied. The actual level of pronunciation was diagnosed with the use of a Pronunciation Test, consisting of a Perception Test and two Production Tests (word and passage reading. The perceived pronunciation level of the participants was measured with a questionnaire designed for the purpose of this research. The Pearson moment-correlation proved LA to be significantly correlated with both levels of pronunciation, with the relationship being more meaningful in the case of the perceived FL pronunciation level.

  3. Nonadherence to anti-HIV medication is associated with higher level of anxiety: Experience from a tertiary care hospital of Odisha

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    Mousumee Panigrahi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To correlate the level of anxiety with nonadherence to antiretroviral medication. Materials and Methods: This observational, cross-sectional, hospital-based study was conducted in 78 patients attending antiretroviral therapy (ART center of a tertiary care hospital of Odisha. The study duration was 6 months. Patients were designated as nonadherent by referring to the white card. Utilization of ART drugs and adverse drug reactions were included in a predesigned format. The anxiety level of all included patients was scored as per Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale. Mean anxiety score of the adherent group was compared with that of the nonadherent group. Possible causes of nonadherence leading to high anxiety level were evaluated. Results: 46% of patients in the nonadherent group had very severe, 17% had moderate to severe, 28% had mild to moderate and 9% had a mild level of anxiety. In the adherent group, however, mild to moderate level of anxiety was observed only in 10% patients. Conclusions: Anxiety is associated with sub-optimal medication adherence in HIV infected patients.

  4. Test anxiety levels of board exam going students in Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary, Revina Ann; Marslin, Gregory; Franklin, Gregory; Sheeba, Caroline J

    2014-01-01

    The latest report by the National Crime Records Bureau has positioned Tamil Nadu as the Indian state with highest suicide rate. At least in part, this is happening due to exam pressure among adolescents, emphasizing the imperative need to understand the pattern of anxiety and various factors contributing to it among students. The present study was conducted to analyze the level of state anxiety among board exam attending school students in Tamil Nadu, India. A group of 100 students containing 50 boys and 50 girls from 10th and 12th grades participated in the study and their state anxiety before board exams was measured by Westside Test Anxiety Scale. We found that all board exam going students had increased level of anxiety, which was particularly higher among boys and 12th standard board exam going students. Analysis of various demographic variables showed that students from nuclear families presented higher anxiety levels compared to their desired competitive group. Overall, our results showing the prevalence of state anxiety among board exam going students in Tamil Nadu, India, support the recent attempt taken by Tamil Nadu government to improve student's academic performance in a healthier manner by appointing psychologists in all government schools.

  5. Association between sociodemographic characteristics and anxiety levels of violence-exposed patients admitted to emergency clinic

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    Hocagil H

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Hilal Hocagil,1 Filiz Izci,2 Abdullah Cüneyt Hocagil,1 Ebru Findikli,3 Sevda Korkmaz,4 Merve Iris Koc5 1Department of Emergency, School of Medicine, Bulent Ecevit University, Zonguldak, 2Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Istanbul Bilim University, Istanbul, 3Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Sutcu Imam University, Kahramanmaras, 4Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Firat University, Elazig, 5Department of Psychiatry, Erenkoy Training and Research Hospital for Psychiatric and Neurological Disorders, Istanbul, Turkey Background: Here we aimed to investigate sociodemographic characteristics, psychiatric history, and association between sociodemographic characteristics and anxiety levels of violence-exposed patients admitted to emergency clinic.Methods: This study consists of 73 violence-exposed patients admitted to emergency clinic who were literate and agreed to participate in the study. A sociodemographic data form created by us to investigate alcohol-substance abuse, suicide attempt, previous history of trauma, self and family history of psychiatric disorders and Beck Anxiety Inventory was given to the patients.Results: Of the patients exposed to violence 63% (n=46 were female and 27% (n=27 were male. Of these patients, 68.5% (n=50 were married, 43.8% (n=25 were workers, 34.2% were housewives, 11% were unemployed, and 11% were civil servants. Of the violence-exposed patients, 56.2% (n=41 were primary school, 21.9% (n=16 were high school, and 21.9% (n=16 were university graduates. Smoking and alcohol use rates were 54.8% (n=40 and 17.8% (n=13, respectively. The most common trauma type was assault using physical force with a ratio of 78.1% (n=57. In addition, anxiety scores were high in 42.5% (n=31 and moderate in 9.6% (n=7 of the patients. Mentioned psychiatric disorder was present in 17.8% (n=13 of the patients and 19.2% (n=14 of the patients’ relatives. The correlation between sociodemographic

  6. Oxytocin, but not vasopressin, impairs social cognitive ability among individuals with higher levels of social anxiety: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabak, Benjamin A; Meyer, Meghan L; Dutcher, Janine M; Castle, Elizabeth; Irwin, Michael R; Lieberman, Matthew D; Eisenberger, Naomi I

    2016-08-01

    Individuals with social anxiety are characterized by a high degree of social sensitivity, which can coincide with impairments in social cognitive functioning (e.g. theory of mind). Oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) have been shown to improve social cognition, and OT has been theorized as a potential therapeutic agent for individuals with social anxiety disorder. However, no study has investigated whether these neuropeptides improve social cognitive ability among socially anxious individuals. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, between-subjects design we investigated whether social anxiety moderated the effects of OT or AVP (vs placebo) on social working memory (i.e. working memory that involves manipulating social information) and non-social working memory. OT vs placebo impaired social working memory accuracy in participants with higher levels of social anxiety. No differences were found for non-social working memory or for AVP vs placebo. Results suggest that OT administration in individuals with higher levels of social anxiety may impair social cognitive functioning. Randomized-controlled trial registration: NCT01680718.

  7. Evaluation of children's dental anxiety levels at a kindergarten and at a dental clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilinç, Gulser; Akay, Aynur; Eden, Ece; Sevinç, Nilgün; Ellidokuz, Hülya

    2016-08-18

    This study evaluated the dental anxiety levels of preschool children at a kindergarten and at a dental clinic. The anxiety levels of ninety 4-6-year-old (4.99 ± 0.81) preschool children were evaluated according to pulse rates, the facial image scale (FIS), the Venham picture test (VPT), and the Frankl behavior rating scale. The children's mothers were asked to complete the state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI) forms 1 and 2 (STAI 2 and STAI 2). The sample t-test, Mann-Whitney U test, and Pearson's correlation test were used. A statistically significant difference was observed between the children's pulse rates when measured at the dental clinic and those when measured at the kindergarten (p kindergarten when assessed using FIS and VPT (p = 0.090 and p = 0.108, respectively). There was a statistically significant correlation between the transient anxiety levels (STAI 1) of mothers and the VPT scores of their children evaluated at the dental clinic (r = 0.506, p kindergarten, their anxiety levels seemingly increased as they arrived at the dental clinic. The significant increase observed in the children's pulse rates was a physical indicator that their anxiety levels had increased. It can be concluded that the children felt more anxious at the dental clinic that at the kindergarten.

  8. Analysis of Anxiety Levels of Nursing Students While Preparing Their Thesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aynur SARUHAN

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out as a descriptive study in order to determine the anxiety levels of third and last year students of Ege University School of Nursing while preparing their thesis and the factors affecting this. The research was performed with 142 students from third and last year students studying at Ege University School of Nursing. Data was collected using a questionnaire prepared by the researchers and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. It was determined that, 52,1% of the students were above the age of 23 years, 53,5% were last year students, 44,4% stayed in dormitory, 61,3% indicated that they experienced anxiety problems while determining the subject of thesis, and 38,7% got sufficient assistance from their supervisor. State anxiety average was 49,11± 12,23 and Trait anxiety average was 45,14± 7,8. Age groups, year of their study, staying with parents or receiving help from the supervisor were determined not to be effective in anxiety levels. Guiding and supporting attitudes of the teaching staff were thought to be helpful in increasing self-confidence of young people by reducing anxiety.

  9. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor serum levels in genetically isolated populations: gender-specific association with anxiety disorder subtypes but not with anxiety levels or Val66Met polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Carlino

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders (ADs are disabling chronic disorders with exaggerated behavioral response to threats. This study was aimed at testing the hypothesis that ADs may be associated with reduced neurotrophic activity, particularly of Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, and determining possible effects of genetics on serum BDNF concentrations. In 672 adult subjects from six isolated villages in North-Eastern Italy with high inbreeding, we determined serum BDNF levels and identified subjects with different ADs subtypes such as Social and Specific Phobias (PHSOC, PHSP, Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD, and Panic Disorder (PAD. Analysis of the population as a whole or individual village showed no significant correlation between serum BDNF levels and Val66Met polymorphism and no association with anxiety levels. Stratification of subjects highlighted a significant decrease in serum BDNF in females with GAD and males with PHSP. This study indicates low heritability and absence of any impact of the Val66Met polymorphism on circulating concentrations of BDNF. Our results show that BDNF is not a general biomarker of anxiety but serum BDNF levels correlate in a gender-specific manner with ADs subtypes.

  10. ALICE High Level Trigger

    CERN Multimedia

    Alt, T

    2013-01-01

    The ALICE High Level Trigger (HLT) is a computing farm designed and build for the real-time, online processing of the raw data produced by the ALICE detectors. Events are fully reconstructed from the raw data, analyzed and compressed. The analysis summary together with the compressed data and a trigger decision is sent to the DAQ. In addition the reconstruction of the events allows for on-line monitoring of physical observables and this information is provided to the Data Quality Monitor (DQM). The HLT can process event rates of up to 2 kHz for proton-proton and 200 Hz for Pb-Pb central collisions.

  11. Anxiety and performance: Perceptual-motor behavior in high-pressure contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuys, A.; Oudejans, R.R.D.

    2017-01-01

    When the pressure is on and anxiety levels increase it is not easy to perform well. In search of mechanisms explaining the anxiety-performance relationship, we revisit the integrated model of anxiety and perceptual-motor performance [1] and provide a critical review of contemporary literature. While

  12. Association between Anxiety Levels and Weight Change in the Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Rieke

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine the association between anxiety and weight change in a multiethnic cohort followed for approximately 10 years. Methods. The study population consisted of participants of the multiethnic study of atherosclerosis who met specified inclusion criteria (n = 5,799. Weight was measured at baseline and four subsequent follow-up exams. Anxiety was analyzed as sex-specific anxiety quartiles (QANX. The relationship between anxiety level and weight change was examined using a mixed-effect model with weight as the dependent variable, anxiety and time as the independent variables, and adjusted for covariates. Results. Average annual weight change (range was −0.17 kg (−6.04 to 4.38 kg for QANX 1 (lowest anxiety, −0.16 kg (−10.71 to 4.45 kg for QANX 2, −0.15 kg (−8.69 to 6.39 kg for QANX 3, and −0.20 kg (−7.12 to 3.95 kg for QANX 4 (highest anxiety. No significant association was noted between QANX and weight change. However, the highest QANX was associated with a −2.48 kg (95% CI = −3.65, −1.31 lower baseline weight compared to the lowest QANX after adjustment for all covariates. Conclusions. Among adults, age 45–84, higher levels of anxiety, defined by the STPI trait anxiety scale, are associated with lower average baseline weight but not with weight change.

  13. ANXIETY LEVEL OF KHO-KHO PLAYERS AT NATIONAL LEVEL: A SCIENTIFIC VIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajinder Singh Koura

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety is an unpleasant feeling of worry, nervousness, discomfort, and unease. Though it may be normal to experience anxiety once in a while, too much of it can definitely affect one's behaviour and productivity. People who are always having anxiety attacks worry too much that it affects the outcome of their whole day activity. Athletes are not spared of anxiety and just like any anxiety attack; it greatly affects physical and sports performance. Sports and anxiety is always related. The competition in sport gives an athlete the adrenalin to push himself to the win. However, it is also very likely that negative thoughts find its way to the brain which affects the athlete's activity and performance.

  14. Comparison of the Levels of Anxiety, Depression and Hopelessness of Patients with Epilepsy and Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Rabia Koç

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Epilepsy is characterized by sudden seizures and loss of control in patients; it leads to constantly be under stress. Psychiatric disorders, particularly depressive disorders are more frequent in patients with epilepsy than in the whole of society. In this study; we aimed to compare depression,anxiety and desperation levels between epileptic patients and healthy ones. METHODS: 34 patients and 34 healthy controls were enrolled to the study. Demographic features of all subjects were also recorded. Neurologic examination, Electroencephalography (EEG and cranial magnetic resonance imaging(MRI of patients were also evaluated. State-Trait Anxety Inventory (STAI is for anxiety, Beck Depression Inventory (BDE is for depression, Beck Hopelessness Scale (BUO is for hopelessness were evaluated. RESULTS: Epileptic patients were with mean age of 24.56 ± 8.49, healthy subjects were with the mean age 27.44 ± 5.66 years. 13 of patients were female(38.2% and 21 patients were male(%38.2 in all groups.There was no significant difference about demographic features(p>0.05. When continuous and instant anxiety levels of epileptic and healthy groups were compared, no significant difference was observed between instant anxiety levels(p> 0.05; but there was difference between continuous anxiety levels (p <0.05. Also, hopelessness and depression levels were similar between groups (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: The results of the study showed that depression, anxiety and hopelessness levels were higher in epileptic patients when compared to healthy people. In addition, patients with seizure control with less drug use will reduce the level of trait anxiety was concluded.

  15. The Examination of the State-Trait Anxiety Levels of the Male Football Players at the Age of 13-15 in Terms of Different Variables

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    E. Olcay KARABULUT

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study is a screening model research that aims to examine the state-trait anxiety levels of the male football players at the age of 13-15 in terms. The participants of the study include 61 volunteer footballers chosen randomly among the 80 footballers in Nike Premier Cup U-15 Turkey Championship held in Kırşehir in 2008. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory by Spielberger et al. (1970 is utilized to measure the footballers' anxiety levels. Its translation into Turkish and validity and reliability studies on it were implemented by Öner and Le Compte (1983. In the analysis of the data, their arithmetic mean, standard deviations, frequency (f levels and percentage (% values are calculated. As a result of these calculations, Mann Whitney U and Krusukal Wallis analyses are applied for the nonparametric groups and the significance level of all the data is found. As a result, at the end of the study, it is found that the participants have high anxiety levels, that the sport year and the fathers' perceived house management attitude variables cause no significant difference in state-trait anxiety levels of the footballers and that the fathers' high education levels affect the participants' anxiety levels negatively.

  16. Depression and anxiety levels in therapy-na(i)ve patients with inflammatory bowel disease and cancer of the colon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Branislav R Filipovi(c); Branka F Filipovi(c); Mirko Kerkez; Nikola Milini(c); Tomislav Ran(d)elovi(c)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To assess whether depression and anxiety are more expressed in patients with the first episode of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) than in individuals with newly discovered cancer of the colon (CCa).METHODS: A total of 32 patients with IBD including 13males and 19 females, aged 27 to 74, and 30 patients with CCa including 20 males and 10 females, aged 39-78,underwent a structured interview, which comprised Hamilton's Depression Rating Inventory, Hamilton's Anxiety Rating Inventory and Paykel's Stressful Events Rating Scale.RESULTS: Patients of the IBD group expressed both depression and anxiety. Depressive mood, sense of guilt, psychomotor retardation and somatic anxiety were also more pronounced in IBD patients. The discriminant function analysis revealed the total depressive score was of high importance for the classification of a newly diagnosed patient into one of the groups.CONCLUSION: Newly diagnosed patients with IBD have higher levels of depression and anxiety. Moreover, a psychiatrist in the treatment team is advisable from the beginning.

  17. Evaluation of Anxiety and Levels of Serum B12, Folate, TSH, Ferritin, and Zinc in Telogen Alopecia Patients with Trichodynia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Perihan; Orhan, Fatma Ozlem; Ozer, Ali; Akman, Yasemin; Kurutas, Ergul

    2012-10-01

    Trichodynia refers to pain, discomfort, and/or paresthesia of the scalp. Trichodynia may be associated with anxiety. To assess serum vitamin B12, folate, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), ferritin, and zinc levels, and to investigate anxiety in telogen alopecia patients with trichodynia. The study included 31 telogen alopecia patients who complained of trichodynia and 30 telogen alopecia patients without trichodynia. Their serum vitamin B12, folate, TSH, ferritin, and zinc levels were assessed and their anxiety levels were scored using the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). No significant difference was found in the serum levels of vitamin B12, folate, TSH, ferritin, and zinc in the patient and control groups. The anxiety scores in both groups were similar. Our data provide no evidence for the association of serum vitamin B12, folate, TSH, ferritin, and zinc levels or anxiety scores with trichodynia.

  18. Effect of a supportive-educative program in the math class for stress, anxiety, and depression in female students in the third level of junior high school: An action research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seyedeh Emamjomeh; Masoud Bahrami

    2015-01-01

    .... This in turn might lead to stress, anxiety, depression, and other health-related problems. There are a very limited number of action research studies to identify the effect of stress management techniques among students...

  19. Interpersonal Cognitive Distortions, The Level of Anxiety and Hopelessness of University Students

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    Aysel Esen ÇOBAN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study is to determine university students’ interpersonal cognitive distortions, the level of anxiety and hopelessness and to find out the differences of gender and age in terms of students’ interpersonal cognitive distortions, the level of anxiety and hopelessness. Method: To this study 287 (%78.6 female, 78 (%21.4 male, total 365 university students participated. Hopelessness Scale, anxiety Inventory, and interpersonal cognitive distortions Scale were used to collect data and the data was analyzed by using SPSS. Descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation and One Way ANOVA was used to analyze the data.Results: The results of the analyses showed that male and female university students who are age of 21-25 years old are relatively higher than other age groups in their interpersonal cognitive distortions, the level of anxiety, and hopelessness. There were no significant differences between male and female students in terms of interpersonal cognitive distortions, the level of anxiety and hopelessness. In other words, male and female university student’s interpersonal cognitive distortions, the level of anxiety and hopelessness were not significantly different and both male and female students who are age of 21-25 years old have relatively higher means in terms of interpersonal cognitive distortions, the level of anxiety and hopelessness. Conclusion: The results were not consistent with the literature. The reason of this could be that this study was made on healthy populations that are not diagnostic patients and this study was made on the students who continue to the foundation university

  20. High-Stakes Accountability: Student Anxiety and Large-Scale Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Embse, Nathaniel P.; Witmer, Sara E.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between student anxiety about high-stakes testing and their subsequent test performance. The FRIEDBEN Test Anxiety Scale was administered to 1,134 11th-grade students, and data were subsequently collected on their statewide assessment performance. Test anxiety was a significant predictor of test performance…

  1. Analysis of test anxiety in medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Pantić Marina; Latas Milan; Obradović Danilo

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. Most students experience some level of anxiety during the exam. However, when anxiety affects the exam performance, it represents a problem. Test anxiety is a special form of anxiety, which is characterized with somatic, cognitive and behavioral symptoms of anxiety in situations of preparing and performing tests and exams. Test anxiety turns into a problem when it becomes so high that it interferes with test preparation and performance. The objective of this study was to a...

  2. How to reduce negative effect of anxiety in senior high English classroom in Guizhou province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jia

    2016-01-01

    This paper mainly concerns on anxiety in English class in Guizhou province. It analyzes three essential reasons which can cause anxiety:Students'(Ss') fear of communication,unsuccessful self-image and anxiety from college entrance examination.The paper focuses on the negative effect of anxiety and try to find some settlements. The study will be helpful for senior high school teachers to make some change in their teaching.

  3. Effect of music on anxiety, stress, and depression levels in patients undergoing coronary angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradipanah, F; Mohammadi, E; Mohammadil, A Z

    2009-01-01

    Control of stress and anxiety and the promotion of comfort are challenges facing health practitioners involved in catheterization. The aim of this case-control study was to examine the effect of music on the levels of anxiety, stress, and depression experienced by patients undergoing coronary angiography, as measured by the 21-item Depression Anxiety Stress Scales. Differences in pre- and post-intervention scores demonstrated that there were significant decreases in mean scores of state anxiety (P = 0.006), stress (P = 0.001) and depression P = 0.02) in the intervention group, who listened to 20 minutes of relaxing music, as compared with the control group who had 20 minutes of bed rest.

  4. Analysis of death anxiety levels in nursing staff of critical care units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Cristina Pascual Fernández

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available When the patients are in the end-of-life, the cares would focus to favor a good death, for that reason the nursing staff must know how to integrate the death like a part of the life, being avoided that produces anxiety to them before the possibility of taking part its own fears to the death. The core of nursing staff in intensive care units is to maintain life of their patients, reason why the end-of life in them is not easy or natural.Objective: Evaluate the death anxiety levels in intensive care nursing staff.Material and method: An observational study was conducted descriptive cross hospital adult and Paediatric ICU General University Gregorio Marañón Hospital, through survey to nurses and auxiliary nurses of those units.The anxiety inventory was used to Death (Death Anxiety Inventory [DAI] for the assessment of anxiety before death. Outcomes: Paediatric ICU nurses have higher levels of anxiety that the adult ICU as well as the less experienced professionals and those declared not feel trained in the subject.Conclusions: Experience and the training are key elements that help professionals face to death, from management we must ensure that patients in stage terminal are served by professionals with this profile.

  5. Associations between parenting behavior and anxiety in a rodent model and a clinical sample: relationship to peripheral BDNF levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalle Molle, R; Portella, A K; Goldani, M Z; Kapczinski, F P; Leistner-Segal, S; Leistner-Segala, S; Salum, G A; Manfro, G G; Silveira, P P

    2012-01-01

    Adverse early-life environment is associated with anxiety-like behaviors and disorders. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is sensitive to this environment and could be a marker of underlying brain changes. We aimed at evaluating the development of anxiety-like behaviors in a rat model of early adversity, as well as the possible association with BDNF levels. Similar associations were investigated in a sample of adolescent humans. For the rat study, Wistar rat litters were divided into: early-life stress (ELS, limited access to nesting material) and control groups. Maternal behavior was observed from days 1 to 9 of life and, as adults, rats were subjected to behavioral testing and BDNF measurements in plasma, hippocampus, amygdala and periaqueductal gray. For the human study, 129 adolescents were evaluated for anxiety symptoms and perceived parental care. Serum BDNF levels and the Val66Met polymorphism of the BDNF gene were investigated. We found that ELS dams showed more pure contact, that is, contact with low care and high control, toward pups, and their adult offspring demonstrated higher anxiety-like behaviors and plasma BDNF. Also the pure contact correlated positively with adult peripheral BDNF. Similarly in humans, there was a positive correlation between maternal overprotection and serum BDNF only in Met carriers. We also found negative correlations between maternal warmth and separation anxiety, social phobia and school phobia. Finally, our translational approach revealed that ELS, mediated through variations in maternal care, is associated with anxiety in both rats and humans and increased peripheral BDNF may be marking these phenomena.

  6. Relationship between perceived parenting style with anxiety levels and loneliness in visually impaired children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mualla Hamurcu

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Visual impairment is a risk factor for psychiatric disorders in the affected children and adolescents, but there are only a limited number of studies concerning the mental health characteristics of visually impaired children and adolescents. Objective The aim of this study was to determine levels of loneliness and anxiety in visually impaired children and adolescents, to analyze parenting style perceived by visually impaired children and adolescents, to compare those with typically controls. Methods The study included 40 children and adolescents with visually impairment and 34 control group without visual impairment. Sociodemographic data form, the UCLA loneliness scale, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children were used in both groups. The parenting Style Scale was used to determine perceived parental attitudes. Results This study found more loneliness and trait anxiety levels in visually impaired children and adolescents compared to the control group. Authoritative parenting style was the most frequent type of parental attitude in the visually impaired group. In visual impairment group, loneliness level was higher in subgroups of authoritative and permissive-indulgent parenting style. However, level of trait anxiety was higher in authoritative parenting style subgroup compared to the control group. Discussion The results of this study showed higher loneliness and anxiety levels in visually impaired children and adolescents. Further studies are needed to determine psychopathological risks in this population.

  7. A research on the anxiety levels of parents who have mentally handicapped children

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    Selahattin Avşaroğlu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false TR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Normal Tablo"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} In this research, it is aimed to specify the anxiety levels of parents who have mentally handicapped children. For this purpose, the state anxiety levels of parents with mentally handicapped children that the parents will have when they spend time with their children in social environments (visiting neighbours, shopping centres, restaurants and communication in terms of reactions and the anxiety levels they always have are studied. In this study Spielberger’s “Trait-state Anxiety Inventory” and the Identity Survey developed by the researchers are used as data gathering devices. 264 mothers and 51 fathers, totally 315 parents, whose children attend a special education institution in Meram, Karatay and Selçuklu, the central districts of Konya, and Akşehir, Yunak, Ilgın, Doğanhisar and Kadınhanı, districts of Konya, form the sample of this study. According to the findings, it is seen that, state and trait anxiety levels of mothers are significantly higher than fathers’. In relation to the levels of education, there is a significant differentiation in level of state anxiety whereas there is not a significant difference in trait anxiety levels, in relation to the levels of income, there is a

  8. Psychological factors and treatment effectiveness in resistant anxiety disorders in highly comorbid inpatients

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    Ociskova M

    2016-06-01

    dissociation level, harm avoidance, and self-stigma, and higher amounts of hope and self-directedness. Also, individuals without a comorbid personality disorder improved considerably more than comorbid patients. According to backward-stepwise multiple regression, the best significant predictor of treatment effectiveness was the initial level of self-stigma. Conclusion: The initial higher levels of self-stigma predict a lower effectiveness of treatment in resistant-anxiety-disorder patients with high comorbidity with depression and/or personality disorder. The results suggest that an increased focus on self-stigma during therapy could lead to better treatment outcomes. Keywords: anxiety disorders, self-stigma, hope, personality, dissociation, treatment effectiveness

  9. The relation between serum homocysteine levels and age in patients of high blood pressure combined with anxiety state%同型半胱氨酸水平与年龄因素在高血压合并焦虑状态中的作用探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘梅颜; 姜荣环; 郭成军

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the relation between serum homocysteine levels and age in patients of high blood pressure combined with anxiety state.Methods Totally 164 patients with primary hypertension were assessed in health questionnaire depression scale (PHQ-9) and generalized anxiety scale (GAD-7).According to merge anxiety,all patients were divided into no anxiety group (28 cases),mild-to-moderate anxiety group (81 cases) and severe anxiety group (55 cases).GAD-7 levels of patients were analyzed.Homocysteine,low density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL-C),high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C),high sensitive C-reactive protein and fibrinogen level of patients were detected; the differences among the three groups and the anxiety degree of correlation in combination with high blood pressure were compared.Results Mean age of no anxiety group,mild-to-moderate anxiety group and severe anxiety group was (58.1 ± 2.4),(58.2 ± 2.0),(60.6 ± 2.3) years respectively.Hcy was (12.8 ± 0.8),(16.4 ± 0.7),(17.4 ± 1.1) μmol/L respectively; there were significant differences on the age and Hcy among three groups (P < 0.05).Analysis showed that GAD-7 score was associated with PHQ-9 scores ; correlation coefficient was 0.581 (P < 0.01).Multiple regression analysis showed that PHQ-9,Hcy and age were the important factors that affected hypertension combined anxiety state score.Conclusion Hcy levels and age factors are associated with degree of hypertension combined anxiety state.%目的 研究血清同型半胱氨酸(Hcy)水平及年龄因素在高血压患者合并焦虑状态之间的关系.方法 对164例近1周常规治疗血压仍不稳定的原发性高血压患者进行患者健康问卷抑郁量表(PHQ-9)和广泛性焦虑量表(GAD-7)抑郁焦虑状态测评,根据合并焦虑状态情况分为无焦虑组(28例)、轻中度焦虑组(81例)和重度焦虑组(55例).分析患者的GAD-7水平,同时检测患者Hcy、LDL-C、HDL-C、高敏C反应蛋白(hs-CRP

  10. Exposure to a highly caloric palatable diet during pregestational and gestational periods affects hypothalamic and hippocampal endocannabinoid levels at birth and induces adiposity and anxiety-like behaviors in male rat offspring

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    Maria Teresa eRamírez-López

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to unbalanced diets during pre-gestational and gestational periods may result in long-term alterations in metabolism and behavior. The contribution of the endocannabinoid system to these long-term adaptive responses is unknown. In the present study, we investigated the impact of female rat exposure to a hypercaloric-hypoproteic palatable diet during pre-gestational, gestational and lactational periods on the development of male offspring. In addition, the hypothalamic and hippocampal endocannabinoid contents at birth and the behavioral performance in adulthood were investigated. Exposure to a palatable diet resulted in low weight offspring who exhibited low hypothalamic contents of arachidonic acid and the two major endocannabinoids (anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol at birth. Palmitoylethanolamide, but not oleoylethanolamide, also decreased. Additionally, pups from palatable diet-fed dams displayed lower levels of anandamide and palmitoylethanolamide in the hippocampus. The low-weight male offspring, born from palatable diet exposed mothers, gained less weight during lactation and, although they recovered weight during the post-weaning period, they developed abdominal adiposity in adulthood. These animals exhibited anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus-maze and open field test and a low preference for a chocolate diet in a food preference test, indicating that maternal exposure to a hypercaloric diet induces long-term behavioral alterations in male offspring. These results suggest that maternal diet alterations in the function of the endogenous cannabinoid system can mediate the observed phenotype of the offspring, since both hypothalamic and hippocampal endocannabinoids regulate feeding, metabolic adaptions to caloric diets, learning, memory and emotions.

  11. Effect of Regular Exercise on Anxiety and Self-Esteem Level in College Students

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    Zahra Hamidah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Regular exercise is often presented as an effective tool to influence the psychological aspect of a human being. Recent studies show that anxiety and self-esteem are the most important psychological aspects especially in college students. This study aimed to determine the differences of anxiety and self-esteem level between students who joined and did not join regular exercise program, Pendidikan Dasar XXI Atlas Medical Pioneer (Pendas XXI AMP, in the Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran. Methods: A cross-sectional comparative study was carried out to 64 students who joined and did not join Pendas XXI AMP. Thirty six students (12 females and 20 males who joined Pendas XXI AMP participated in aerobic and anaerobic exercise sessions lasting for 30 minutes per session, three times in 5 months. The control group was 32 students who did not join Pendas XXI AMP, with matching gender composition as the case group (12 females and 20 males. Two questionnaires, Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale questionnaire and Rosenberg’s Self-Esteem Scale questionnaire, were administered to both groups. The data were analyzed using chi-square test (α=0.05. Results: : There were statistically significant differences in anxiety level (p=0.016 and self-esteem level (p=0.039 between case and control groups. The students who joined Pendas XXI AMP have lower anxiety and higher self-esteem levels. Conclusions: Planned, structured, and repeated physical activities have a positive influence in anxiety and self-esteem levels.

  12. Behavior characteristics of the attention network of military personnel with high and low trait anxiety.

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    Pan, Yu; Cai, Wenpeng; Dong, Wei; Xiao, Jie; Yan, Jin; Cheng, Qi

    2017-04-01

    Converging evidence reveals significant increase in both state anxiety and trait anxiety during the past 2 decades among military servicemen and servicewomen in China. In the present study, we employed the Chinese version of the State-trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) to examine trait and state anxiety in Chinese military servicemen and servicewomen. We further evaluated orienting, alerting and execution inhibition using the attention network test.Healthy military servicemen and servicewomen were recruited for the present study. The STAI was used to measure both state and trait anxiety and the attention network test was done to determine reaction time and accuracy rate.Fifty-seven subjects were eligible for the study. Their mean STAI score was 3.2 ± 2.8 (range, 1-17) and 29 (50.9%) subjects were categorized into the high trait anxiety group and 28 (49.1%) subjects into the low trait anxiety group. The reaction time of the high trait anxiety group to incongruent, congruent, and neutral target was significantly longer than that of the low trait anxiety group (P military service personnel with high trait anxiety requires more time for cognitive processing of external information but exhibits enhanced reaction accuracy rate compared to those with low trait anxiety. Our findings indicate that interventional strategies to improve the psychological wellbeing of military service personnel should be implemented to improve combat mission performance.

  13. The Level of Anxiety and Depression in Dialysis Patients Undertaking Regular Physical Exercise Training - a Preliminary Study

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    Wioletta Dziubek

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of a six-month physical training undertaken by haemodialysis (HD patients, on the depression and anxiety. Methods: Patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD were recruited from the dialysis station at the Department of Nephrology and Transplantation Medicine in Wroclaw. Physical training took place at the beginning of the first 4-hours of dialysis, three times a week for six months. A personal questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI were used in the study. Results: A total of 28 patients completed the study: 20 were randomised to endurance training and 8 were randomised to resistance training. Statistical analysis of depression and anxiety at the initial (t1 and final examination (t2 indicated a significant reduction in depression and anxiety, particularly anxiety as a trait (X2 in the whole study group. The change in anxiety as a state correlated with the disease duration, duration of dialysis and the initial level of anxiety as a state (t1X1. The change in anxiety as a trait significantly correlated with age and the initial level of anxiety (t1X2. Conclusions: Undertaking physical training during dialysis by patients with ESRD is beneficial in reducing their levels of anxiety and depression. Both resistance and endurance training improves mood, but only endurance training additionally results in anxiety reduction.

  14. The Level of Anxiety and Depression in Dialysis Patients Undertaking Regular Physical Exercise Training--a Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziubek, Wioletta; Kowalska, Joanna; Kusztal, Mariusz; Rogowski, Łukasz; Gołębiowski, Tomasz; Nikifur, Małgorzata; Szczepańska-Gieracha, Joanna; Zembroń-Łacny, Agnieszka; Klinger, Marian; Woźniewski, Marek

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of a six-month physical training undertaken by haemodialysis (HD) patients, on the depression and anxiety. Patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) were recruited from the dialysis station at the Department of Nephrology and Transplantation Medicine in Wroclaw. Physical training took place at the beginning of the first 4-hours of dialysis, three times a week for six months. A personal questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) were used in the study. A total of 28 patients completed the study: 20 were randomised to endurance training and 8 were randomised to resistance training. Statistical analysis of depression and anxiety at the initial (t1) and final examination (t2) indicated a significant reduction in depression and anxiety, particularly anxiety as a trait (X2) in the whole study group. The change in anxiety as a state correlated with the disease duration, duration of dialysis and the initial level of anxiety as a state (t1X1). The change in anxiety as a trait significantly correlated with age and the initial level of anxiety (t1X2). Undertaking physical training during dialysis by patients with ESRD is beneficial in reducing their levels of anxiety and depression. Both resistance and endurance training improves mood, but only endurance training additionally results in anxiety reduction. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Association between Level of Emotional Intelligence and Severity of Anxiety in Generalized Social Phobia

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    Jacobs, Madeline; Snow, Joseph; Geraci, Marilla; Vythilingam, Meena; Blair, R.J.R.; Charney, Dennis S.; Pine, Daniel S.; Blair, Karina S.

    2008-01-01

    Generalized Social Phobia (GSP) is characterized by a marked fear of most social situations. It is associated with an anomalous neural response to emotional stimuli, and individuals with the disorder frequently show interpretation bias in social situations. From this it might be suggested that GSP involves difficulty in accurately perceiving, using, understanding and managing emotions. Here we applied the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) to medication-free GSP (n=28) and no pathology (n=21) individuals. Patients with GSP performed within the normal range on the measure however severity of social anxiety significantly correlated with emotional intelligence (EI). Specifically, there was a negative correlation between social anxiety severity and Experiential (basic-level emotional processing) EI. In contrast, there was no significant correlation between social anxiety severity and Strategic (higher-level conscious emotional processing) EI. These results suggest that EI may index emotional processing systems that mitigate the impact of systems causally implicated in GSP. PMID:18439799

  16. Association between level of emotional intelligence and severity of anxiety in generalized social phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Madeline; Snow, Joseph; Geraci, Marilla; Vythilingam, Meena; Blair, R J R; Charney, Dennis S; Pine, Daniel S; Blair, Karina S

    2008-12-01

    Generalized social phobia (GSP) is characterized by a marked fear of most social situations. It is associated with an anomalous neural response to emotional stimuli, and individuals with the disorder frequently show interpretation bias in social situations. From this it might be suggested that GSP involves difficulty in accurately perceiving, using, understanding and managing emotions. Here we applied the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) to medication-free GSP (n=28) and no pathology (n=21) individuals. Patients with GSP performed within the normal range on the measure however severity of social anxiety significantly correlated with emotional intelligence (EI). Specifically, there was a negative correlation between social anxiety severity and Experiential (basic-level emotional processing) EI. In contrast, there was no significant correlation between social anxiety severity and Strategic (higher-level conscious emotional processing) EI. These results suggest that EI may index emotional processing systems that mitigate the impact of systems causally implicated in GSP.

  17. High intelligence prevents the negative impact of anxiety on working memory.

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    Chuderski, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Using a large sample and the confirmatory factor analysis, the study investigated the relationships between anxiety, working memory (WM) and (fluid) intelligence. The study showed that the negative impact of anxiety on WM functioning diminishes with increasing intelligence, and that anxiety can significantly affect WM only in people below average intelligence. This effect could not be fully explained by the sheer differences in WM capacity (WMC), suggesting the importance of higher-level cognition in coping with anxiety. Although intelligence moderated the impact of anxiety on WM, it was only weakly related to anxiety. In contrast to previous studies, anxiety explained the substantial amount of WMC variance (17.8%) in less intelligent participants, but none of the variance in more intelligent ones. These results can be explained in terms of either increased motivation of intelligent but anxious people to cope with a WM task, or their ability to compensate decrements in WM.

  18. The Effect of the Kampo Medicine Yokukansan on Preoperative Anxiety and Sedation Levels

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    Young-Chang Arai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Preoperative anxiety can lead to unfavorable physiological response such as tachycardia and hypertension. Prevention of preoperative anxiety improves surgical outcome and decreases inpatient stay. Yokukansan is one of prescriptions in Kampo, traditional Japanese herbal medicine, and is known to exert anxiolytic effects. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of diazepam and Yokukansan on preoperative anxiety, salivary amylase activity, and sedation levels. Methods. Seventy American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I or II patients presenting for hemicolectomy under general anesthesia combined with epidural anesthesia were enrolled. The Diazepam group received diazepam 5 mg orally and the Yokukansan group received Yokukansan 2.5 g orally. Results. Although levels of anxiety and salivary amylase activity were not different between the two groups, the modified Observer’s Assessment of Alertness/Sedation Scale of the Yokukansan group was significantly higher compared to that of the Diazepam group. Conclusion. Yokukansan alleviated preoperative anxiety without undesirable sedation, when compared with diazepam.

  19. Examining the Screen for Child Anxiety-Related Emotional Disorder-71 as an Assessment Tool for Anxiety in Children with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

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    van Steensel, Francisca J. A.; Deutschman, Amber A. C. G.; Bögels, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    The psychometric properties of a questionnaire developed to assess symptoms of anxiety disorders (SCARED-71) were compared between two groups of children: children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder and comorbid anxiety disorders (ASD-group; "n" = 115), and children with anxiety disorders (AD-group; "n" = 122).…

  20. Anxiety and compliance among women at high risk for breast cancer.

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    Lindberg, N M; Wellisch, D

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between symptoms of depression and general anxiety, patient's feelings of vulnerability to cancer, the anxiety experienced specifically in relation to various cancer-screeningprocedures, and compliance with these procedures among women atfamilial risk for breast cancer The data were obtained from 430 patients from the High Risk Clinic at the UCLA Revlon Breast Center who completed the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and answered questions about their perceived vulnerability to breast cancer; the anxiety they experienced regarding undergoing pap smear tests, mammograms, and breast self-examinations (BSEs); and their compliance with these cancer-screening procedures. Correlations were used to estimate the association between feelings of anxiety and compliance. We found that women attending programs targeting those at familial risk for breast cancer suffer from significant symptoms of general anxiety. General anxiety was found to be related to anxiety regarding specific screening practices but not to women's perceived vulnerability to cancer In general, neither general nor screening-specific anxiety were found to be related to patients 'compliance with screening practices; however, significant associations were found between patient's feelings of anxiety regarding BSEs and their actual performing them. BSE appears to be the only procedure for which compliance is negatively associated with procedure-specific anxiety. We offer possible explanations for this relation and discuss the possible psychological impact that recommendations regarding BSEs may have on highly anxious at-risk women.

  1. The Predictors of Success in Turkish High School Placement Exams: Exam Prep Courses, Perfectionism, Parental Attitudes and Test Anxiety

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    Basol, Gülsah; Zabun, Engin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to determine to what extent the following four variables explain K-8 students' SBS success levels; these variables being attendance to private SBS preperation courses, multidimensional perfectionism, parental attitude types, and test anxiety. SBS is a nationwide, high stake, high school placement test taken by…

  2. The Effect of Voice Thread® Integration on High School Students' Anxiety and Oral Proficiency in the Foreign Language Classroom

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    Dunn, Melanie Gail

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the asynchronous voice-conferencing technology, "Voice Thread"®, on the anxiety and oral proficiency of high school students in their third year of studying Spanish as a foreign language. In this quasi-experimental study students' foreign language anxiety levels and oral proficiency…

  3. Psychological factors and treatment effectiveness in resistant anxiety disorders in highly comorbid inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ociskova, Marie; Prasko, Jan; Latalova, Klara; Kamaradova, Dana; Grambal, Ales

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are a group of various mental syndromes that have been related with generally poor treatment response. Several psychological factors may improve or hinder treatment effectiveness. Hope has a direct impact on the effectiveness of psychotherapy. Also, dissociation is a significant factor influencing treatment efficiency in this group of disorders. Development of self-stigma could decrease treatment effectiveness, as well as several temperamental and character traits. The aim of this study was to explore a relationship between selected psychological factors and treatment efficacy in anxiety disorders. A total of 109 inpatients suffering from anxiety disorders with high frequency of comorbidity with depression and/or personality disorder were evaluated at the start of the treatment by the following scales: the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness scale, the Adult Dispositional Hope Scale, and the Temperament and Character Inventory - revised. The participants, who sought treatment for anxiety disorders, completed the following scales at the beginning and end of an inpatient-therapy program: Clinical Global Impression (objective and subjective) the Beck Depression Inventory - second edition, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, and the Dissociative Experiences Scale. The treatment consisted of 25 group sessions and five individual sessions of cognitive behavioral therapy or psychodynamic therapy in combination with pharmacotherapy. There was no randomization to the type of group-therapy program. Greater improvement in psychopathology, assessed by relative change in objective Clinical Global Impression score, was connected with low initial dissociation level, harm avoidance, and self-stigma, and higher amounts of hope and self-directedness. Also, individuals without a comorbid personality disorder improved considerably more than comorbid patients. According to backward-stepwise multiple regression, the best

  4. High trait anxiety: a challenge for disrupting fear memory reconsolidation

    OpenAIRE

    Marieke Soeter; Merel Kindt

    2013-01-01

    Disrupting reconsolidation may be promising in the treatment of anxiety disorders but the fear-reducing effects are thus far solely demonstrated in the average organism. A relevant question is whether disrupting fear memory reconsolidation is less effective in individuals who are vulnerable to develop an anxiety disorder. By collapsing data from six previous human fear conditioning studies we tested whether trait anxiety was related to the fear-reducing effects of a pharmacological agent targ...

  5. Differences in Music Performance Anxiety Levels between Underclassmen and Upperclassmen Music Education Undergraduates

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    Edmonson, Jordan M.

    2012-01-01

    Research looking specifically at the performance anxiety levels of undergraduate music education majors is sparse. In one of the few studies that examined this issue, Conway, Eros, Pellegrino, and West (2010) found that the different emphases placed on music education majors made for a wider array of activities and foci. Undergraduates who focus…

  6. Effects of Multiple Simulation Presentation among Students of Different Anxiety Levels in the Learning of Probability

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    Fong, Soon Fook; Por, Fei Ping; Tang, Ai Ling

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of multiple simulation presentation in interactive multimedia are on the achievement of students with different levels of anxiety in the learning of Probability. The interactive multimedia courseware was developed in two different modes, which were Multiple Simulation Presentation (MSP) and…

  7. Examination of Anxiety Levels and Anger Expression Manners of Undergraduate Table Tennis Players

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    Karademir, Tamer; Türkçapar, Ünal

    2016-01-01

    This research was done for the determination of how their anxiety levels' and anger expressions' get shaped according to some variances. For this reason there were 76 female 125 male totally 201 sportsmen, who participated to the table tennis championship between universities in 2016 and ages differ from 18 to 28, were included the research group.…

  8. EXAMINATION OF PRE-SERVICE TEACHERS' ANXIETY LEVELS ABOUT TEACHING PROFESSION

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    Ferhat Karakaya

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this research, it was aimed to determine the levels of occupational anxiety of pre-service teachers' who read science and primary school teacher programs according to various variables. In this research a questionnaire developed by Köklükaya and Yıldırım (2016 which has validity and reliability analyzes was used. Anxiety Scale for Teaching Profession (ASTP was used. The research was carried out with 266 prospective teachers who were educated at Kahramanmaras Sütcü Imam University in the academic year of 2015-2016. Independent t test, one way analysis of variance (ANOVA, Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal- Wallis analysis and Tukey significance test were used to determine the statistical significa nce of the obtained data in the research using relational screening model. According to research findings, it was determined that there was no significant difference (p <.05 in the level of vocational anxiety among the teacher candidates according to the degree of willingness to choose the department, grade level and academic achievement score. According to the gender variable, there was no significant difference in the pre-service teachers' who read in the department of primary school teachers', and it was found that the science teachers' professional anxiety levels had a significant difference according to the gender variable.

  9. Anxiety towards Mathematics and Educational Level: A Study on Means Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalera-Chávez, Milka Elena; García-Santillán, Arturo; Córdova-Rangel, Arturo; González-Gómez, Santiago; Tejada-Peña, Esmeralda

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research work is to analyze whether there is a difference in the degree of anxiety towards mathematics among students of different educational levels. The study is not experimental and cross sectional, and it is based on difference of means between groups. The sample is not probabilistic, and consisted of 226 students from…

  10. Swiss and Turkish Pre-Service Science Teachers' Anxiety Levels for Educational Technology

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    Efe, Hulya Aslan; Efe, Rifat

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to culturally explain pre-service science teachers' instructional technology-related anxiety levels by analyzing the variables of their instructional technology using experiences, frequency of using instructional technologies, access to instructional technologies, instructional technology-related attitude and their instructional…

  11. Anxiety impairs spontaneous perspective calculation: Evidence from a level-1 visual perspective-taking task.

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    Todd, Andrew R; Simpson, Austin J

    2016-11-01

    Reasoning about other people's mental states is central to social life. Yet, even neuro-typical adults sometimes have perspective-taking difficulties, particularly when another's perspective conflicts with their own. In two experiments, we examined the cognitive mechanisms underlying an affective factor known to hinder perspective taking in adults: anxiety. Using a level-1 visual perspective-taking task, we found that incidentally experiencing anxiety, relative to neutral feelings and anger, impaired the spontaneous calculation of what another social agent can see. Feeling anxious did not, however, impede perspective calculation with a non-social entity, suggesting that anxiety's disruptive effects may be particularly pronounced for social aspects of cognition. These findings help elucidate the mechanisms underlying the effects of incidental emotions on perspective taking and inform debates about "implicit" forms of mentalizing.

  12. Leader Style and Anxiety Level: Their Relation to Autonomic Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seemann, Daniel C.

    1982-01-01

    Studied effects of leader style and a group of people classified as either high-anxious or low-anxious. Measured participants' (N=71) responses to the leader styles using Galvanic Skin Response. Results indicated similar responses of participants to both autocratic and democratic leadership styles. (RC)

  13. Central serotonin transporter levels are associated with stress hormone response and anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimold, Matthias; Knobel, Astrid; Rapp, Michael A.; Batra, Anil; Wiedemann, Klaus; Ströhle, Andreas; Zimmer, Anke; Schönknecht, Peter; Smolka, Michael N.; Weinberger, Daniel R.; Goldman, David; Machulla, Hans-Jürgen; Bares, Roland; Heinz, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Rationale Negative mood states are characterized by both stress hormone dysregulation and serotonergic dysfunction, reflected by altered thalamic serotonin transporter (5-HTT) levels. However, so far, no study examined the individual association between cortisol response and cerebral in vivo 5-HTT levels in patients suffering from negative mood states. Objective The objective of this cross-sectional study was to assess the interrelation of cortisol response, thalamic 5-HTT levels, and anxiety in healthy subjects and two previously published samples of patients with unipolar major depression (UMD) and obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), controlling for age, gender, 5-HTT genotype, smoking, and seasonality. Methods Regional 5-HTT levels and cortisol response to dexamethasone-corticotropin (Dex-CRH) challenge were assessed in consecutive samples of medication-free patients suffering from UMD (N=10) and OCD (N=10), and 20 healthy volunteers. The intervention used was combined Dex-CRH test and [11C]DASB positron emission tomography. The main outcome measures were: 5-HTT binding potential (BPND) in a predefined thalamic ROI, cortisol response defined as the maximum cortisol increase in the combined Dex-CRH-test, and state of anxiety from the state-trait-anxiety inventory. Results Reduced thalamic 5-HTT BPND was associated with increased cortisol response (r=−0.35, p<0.05; in patients: r=−0.53, p<0.01) and with increased state anxiety (r=−0.46, p<0.01), surviving correction for age, gender, 5-HTT genotype, smoking, and seasonality (p<0.05). The 5-HTT genotype, on the contrary, was not significantly associated with cortisol response (p=0.19) or negative mood (p=0.23). Conclusion The association between stress hormone response, thalamic 5-HTT levels, and anxiety in patients suffering from negative mood states suggests an interaction between two major mechanisms implicated in negative mood states in humans. PMID:20585760

  14. [The effects of hatha yoga exercises on stress and anxiety levels in mastectomized women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Marina Lima Daleprane; Amorim, Maria Helena Costa; Zandonade, Eliana; Santaella, Danilo Forghieri; Barbosa, Juliana de Assis Novais

    2013-12-01

    This article seeks to evaluate the effects of hatha yoga on stress and anxiety levels in mastectomized women. It also investigates the relationship between these levels with the following variables: age; marital status; religion; instruction; profession; smoke addiction; elitism; staging of the disease; and treatment phase. This involved controlled random clinical trial sampling of 45 mastectomized women treated at the Ilza Bianco outpatient service of Santa Rita de Cássia Hospital in the Brazilian state of Espírito Santo from March to November 2010. The experimental group participated in 6 individually-applied sessions with incentive for ongoing home practice and was re-evaluated after the period, whereas the control group was re-evaluated after a proportional period. For the study of the variables, the interview and recording on a form technique was used, along with the Anxiety Trait and State Test, and the Stress Symptoms and Signs Test. For statistical treatment, the Statistical Pack for Social Sciences was used. The data are statistically significant and have shown that hatha yoga exercises decrease stress and anxiety in the experimental group. No connection between confounding variables and anxiety and stress levels was found.

  15. Amniocentesis increases level of anxiety in women with invasive prenatal diagnosis of Down syndrome

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    Yanuarita Tursinawati

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Backgound Invasive prenatal diagnosis (PND through amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling (CVS can detect Down syndrome. Pregnant women usually experience a variety of psychological responses associated with invasive PND. This study is intended to assess depression, anxiety and stress levels and the factors related to their psychological responses in pregnant women with invasive prenatal diagnosis of Down syndrome. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted at Kandang Kerbau Women’s and Children’s Hospital, Singapore. The psychological responses of 70 women undergoing PND were assessed by Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 21 (DASS 21 questionnaire. A multiple linear regression analysis was used to analyze association between knowledge and perceived risk with psychological responses (CI 95% and significance value p13 weeks who had pursued amniocentesis. Women with no previous children had higher levels of depression and stress. Women who pursued amniocentesis had significantly higher anxiety scores compared to women undergoing CVS (p=0.015. Conclusions Women’s psychological responses are associated with gestational age, type of procedure and parity. The level of anxiety increased in women who underwent amniocentesis for diagnosis of Down syndrome. Knowledge and perceived risk of having a baby with Down syndrome do not seem to have psychological effects to women.

  16. Amniocentesis increases level of anxiety in women with invasive prenatal diagnosis of Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanuarita Tursinawati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Backgound Invasive prenatal diagnosis (PND through amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling (CVS can detect Down syndrome. Pregnant women usually experience a variety of psychological responses associated with invasive PND. This study is intended to assess depression, anxiety and stress levels and the factors related to their psychological responses in pregnant women with invasive prenatal diagnosis of Down syndrome. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted at Kandang Kerbau Women’s and Children’s Hospital, Singapore. The psychological responses of 70 women undergoing PND were assessed by Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 21 (DASS 21 questionnaire. A multiple linear regression analysis was used to analyze association between knowledge and perceived risk with psychological responses (CI 95% and significance value p13 weeks who had pursued amniocentesis. Women with no previous children had higher levels of depression and stress. Women who pursued amniocentesis had significantly higher anxiety scores compared to women undergoing CVS (p=0.015. Conclusions Women’s psychological responses are associated with gestational age, type of procedure and parity. The level of anxiety increased in women who underwent amniocentesis for diagnosis of Down syndrome. Knowledge and perceived risk of having a baby with Down syndrome do not seem to have psychological effects to women.

  17. The effect of different information sources on the anxiety level of pregnant women who underwent invasive prenatal testing.

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    Çakar, Mehmet; Tari Kasnakoglu, Berna; Ökem, Zeynep Güldem; Okuducu, Ümmühan; Beksaç, M Sinan

    2016-12-01

    The goal is to explore the effects of age, education, obstetric history and information sources on the (Beck) anxiety levels of pregnant women attending invasive prenatal testing. Questionnaire results from 152 pregnant women are utilized. Results are analyzed through an independent samples t-test and a two-step cluster analysis attempting to categorize patients in terms of the chosen variables. t-Tests reveal that age, education and bad obstetric history do not significantly affect anxiety levels. Descriptive statistics indicate that almost 60% of patients feel anxious mostly because of the fear of receiving bad news, followed by the fear of miscarriage, the fear of pain and the fear of hurting the baby. According to the cluster analysis, patients who use doctors or nurses as information sources have significantly lower anxiety levels, while those who do not receive information from any source have the second lowest level of anxiety. Patients who receive information from personal sources (i.e. friends and family) have the highest level of anxiety. Anxiety levels do not change according to test type. Doctors and nurses should allocate enough time for providing information about prenatal diagnosis before the procedure. This will reduce the anxiety level as well as the felt necessity to search for information from other sources, such as personal or popular which will further increase the level of anxiety.

  18. [Effectiveness of a stretching program on anxiety levels of workers in a logistic platform: a randomized controlled study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Marín, Jesús; Asún, Sonia; Estrada-Marcén, Nerea; Romero, Rosario; Asún, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    To study the influence of a short programme of stretching exercises on anxiety levels of workers in a Spanish logistic company. A controlled clinical trial was carried out by means of an inter-subject design of random homogeneous blocks. Participants were assigned to the experimental group (n=67), treated with a programme of stretching exercises of 10-minute duration after working hours for a period of 3 months, or to the untreated control group (n=67). The primary result variable was anxiety, and the secondary variables were burnout syndrome, quality of life and flexibility. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) by intention to treat was performed on each of the result variables by controlling the baseline scores, the age and the practice of introjective activities outside the program, with the size effect calculated by means of the partial eta-squared value (η(2)). The results of the ANCOVA showed a moderate effect of the stretching exercise programme on the levels of anxiety (η(2)=0,06; P=.004). Other effects found were substantial for flexibility (η(2)=0,13; P<.001); moderately high for bodily pain (η(2)=0,08; P=.001), and moderate for vitality (η(2)=0,05; P=.016); mental health (η(2)=0,05; P=.017); general health (η(2)=0,04; P=.028) and exhaustion (η(2)=0,04; P=.025). The implementation of a short programme of stretching exercises in the work place was effective for reducing levels of anxiety, bodily pain and exhaustion, and for raising levels of vitality, mental health, general health and flexibility. This type of intervention could be seen as a low-cost strategy for improving the well-being of workers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  19. Negative correlation between CSF zinc level and anxiety in male Chinese subjects.

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    Song, Na; Yu, Dongsheng; Kang, Yimin; Cao, Zhiyong; Yang, Xiaoyu; Wang, Jian; Liu, Yanlong; Wang, Fan

    2016-12-30

    Zinc is crucial for brain development and psychiatric regulation. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) zinc level and anxiety in a group of male Chinese subjects. Results demonstrated that zinc levels had no considerable interindividual variations, ranging from 8.37 to 16.83µm. Correlation analyses revealed that CSF Zinc levels were positively correlated with education years (r=0.225, p=0.024) and negatively correlated with SAS scores (r=-0.287, p=0.004), but not associated with age or BMI. In conclusion, this present study suggests that CSF zinc level is associated with anxiety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of alprazolam on increases in hormonal and anxiety levels induced by meta-chlorophenylpiperazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevy, S; Brown, S L; Wetzler, S; Kotler, M; Molcho, A; Plutchik, R; van Praag, H M

    1994-09-01

    The effects of alprazolam, a triazolobenzodiazepine, on hormonal and behavioral responses induced by meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (MCPP), a serotonin receptor agonist, were investigated in 10 healthy men. Alprazolam (0.5 mg) or placebo was given 1 hour before MCPP (0.5 mg/kg) or placebo. Cortisol, prolactin, and growth hormone (GH) release, MCPP and alprazolam plasma levels, anxiety level, and panic symptoms were measured over 210 minutes. MCPP was found to increase cortisol, prolactin, GH, and anxiety levels. Alprazolam decreased cortisol and GH levels but had no effect on prolactin. When used in combination with MCPP, alprazolam blunted MCPP-induced cortisol and GH release, and it blocked the anxiogenic effects of MCPP.

  1. Preoperative anxiety in neurosurgical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perks, Anna; Chakravarti, Sucharita; Manninen, Pirjo

    2009-04-01

    Anxiety is common in surgical patients, with an incidence of 60% to 92%. There is little information on the incidence and severity of preoperative anxiety in patients scheduled for neurosurgery. The aim of this study was to measure the level of preoperative anxiety in neurosurgical patients and to assess any influencing factors. After the Institutional Review Board approval and informed written consent, 100 patients booked for neurosurgery were interviewed preoperatively. Each patient was asked to grade their preoperative anxiety level on a verbal analog scale, Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale, and a set of specific anxiety-related questions. The anxiety scores and the responses to the questions were compared between the sex, age, weight, diagnosis, and history of previous surgery. The mean age (+/-SD) was 50+/-13 years. The preoperative diagnosis was tumor (n=64), aneurysm (n=14), and other (n=22). Overall verbal analog scale was 5.2+/-2.7; the score was higher for female (5.8+/-2.8) than male patients (4.6+/-2.5) (PAmsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale anxiety and knowledge scores were greater for surgery than for anesthesia. Questionnaire results showed that the most common anxieties were waiting for surgery, physical/mental harm, and results of the operation. In conclusion, our study showed that neurosurgical patients have high levels of anxiety, with a higher incidence in females. There was a moderately high need for information, particularly in patients with a high level of preoperative anxiety.

  2. Predictors of dental avoidance among Australian adults with different levels of dental anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Armfield, J.M.; Ketting, M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: It has been proposed that avoidance of dental visits might be the main determinant of poor oral health outcomes in people with high dental anxiety (HDA). This study aimed to determine the predictors of dental avoidance among people with HDA and also whether these predictors differed from

  3. Predictors of dental avoidance among Australian adults with different levels of dental anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Armfield, J.M.; Ketting, M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: It has been proposed that avoidance of dental visits might be the main determinant of poor oral health outcomes in people with high dental anxiety (HDA). This study aimed to determine the predictors of dental avoidance among people with HDA and also whether these predictors differed from

  4. Reducing test anxiety and improving academic self-esteem in high school and college students with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachelka, D; Katz, R C

    1999-09-01

    Test anxiety seems like a benign problem to some people, but it can be potentially serious when it leads to high levels of distress and academic failure in otherwise capable students. Because test anxiety is common in older students with learning disabilities (LD), it is surprising that little research has been done on ways to reduce the distress these students experience in test situations. In this study, we used a randomized pretest-posttest control group design to examine the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral treatment for reducing test anxiety and improving academic self-esteem in a cohort (N = 27) of high school and college students with learning disabilities (LD). All of the students participated voluntarily. They were enrolled in classes for students with learning problems. Before the study began, they complained of test anxiety and showed an elevated score on the Test Anxiety Inventory (TAI). Eleven students (85%) completed the 8-week long treatment, which consisted of progressive muscle relaxation, guided imagery, self-instruction training, as well as training in study and test-taking skills. Results showed significant improvement in the treated group which was not evident in an untreated control group (N = 16). Compared to the control group, the treated group showed significant reductions in test anxiety on the TAI, as well as improvement in study skills and academic self-esteem as measured by the Survey of Study Habits and Attitudes, and the school scale of the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. These results extend the generality of similar studies on reducing test anxiety and improving academic self-esteem in younger students. They also suggest that relief from test anxiety can be expected fairly quickly when cognitive-behavioral methods are used. Additional implications and methodological limitations of the study are discussed.

  5. The association between self-reported daily hassles and cortisol levels in depression and anxiety in community living older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliadis, H-M; Forget, H; Préville, M

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether the association, in a naturalistic setting, between daily hassles and diurnal salivary cortisol differs in the presence of depression and anxiety in older adults. Data were assessed in a large representative community sample of older adults (n = 1760). A multinomial analysis was used to study as an outcome variable: no disorder, depression only, anxiety only and depression and anxiety, as a function of daily hassles and cortisol levels controlling for age, gender and time of saliva collection. Multivariate regression analyses were also carried out to test the association between daily hassles and cortisol levels stratified by depression and anxiety status. A significant positive association was observed between the number of daily hassles reported and cortisol levels in participants with no depression and no anxiety and in participants with anxiety. Participants without depression and anxiety, and those with depression only, had significant lower cortisol levels later in the day. This was not observed in respondents with anxiety. Stressors such as daily hassles are associated with cortisol secretion in depression and anxiety in older adults in a large epidemiologic setting. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Analysis of the relation between level of asthma control and depression and anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trzcińska, Hanna; Przybylski, Grzegorz; Kozłowski, Bartosz; Derdowski, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Frequent co-existence of bronchial asthma and depression or anxiety is an unquestioned phenomenon. In contrast, little is known about the relationship between the degree of asthma control and the prevalence of depression and anxiety. The aim of this study was to determine the potential relationship between the degree of asthma control and the prevalence of depression and anxiety. Material/Methods This study included a group of 128 randomly selected asthmatic individuals with various degree of asthma control. The study was based on a questionnaire survey, using the following tools: the Asthma Control Test, Beck Depression Inventory, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) – X-1 and X-2 questionnaires. All the questionnaires were completed during a single follow-up visit at the clinic. Results The occurrence of depression and its severity significantly correlated with the degree of asthma control. Individuals with depression were characterized by a significantly lower degree of asthma control compared to depression-free individuals (p<0.001). The degree of asthma control decreased significantly with increasing severity of depression (R=−0.367; p<0.001). No significant correlation was observed between the degree of asthma control and the levels of trait anxiety (R=−0.095; p=0.295) and state anxiety (R=−0.093; p=0.308). Conclusions The prevalence of depression and its severity significantly correlate with the degree of asthma control. Large, standardized multicenter studies of the relationship between the degree of asthma control and the prevalence of depression and other psychopathological symptoms are needed. Furthermore, it seems reasonable to introduce the screening of asthmatics for mental disorders. PMID:22367130

  7. Assessing anxiety levels and empathic tendency in blood and platelet donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılıç, Suar Çakı; Doğan, Erdoğan; Sevimligül, Gülgün; Yücel, Birsen; Bolat, Fatih; Kavakçı, Onder; Sencan, Mehmet

    2013-06-01

    In spite of a constantly-increasing requirement for blood transfusion in the world, blood donation does not exhibit an increase at the same rate. In Turkey with a population of 74 million, only 15 per 10,000 people donate blood regularly and rate of voluntary blood donation is very low compared to developed countries. The aim of this study is to determine empathic level of donors and anxiety levels of blood and platelet donors and also to enable comfort and motivation of donors by taking precautions for reducing their anxieties. This prospective and descriptive study was conducted with 100 voluntary donors (50 blood donors, 50 platelet donors) who admitted to Blood Centre of Cumhuriyet University Hospital between 15 March 2012 and 30 April 2012. Average age of these donors was 27 (19-48)years. The mean scores of donors from Empathic Tendency Scale (ETS), State Anxiety Invertory (SAI) and Trait Anxiety Inventory (TAI) were 70 (49-83), 40 (33-45) and 34 (30-44), respectively. ETS score of those donating blood/platelet for the first time was low, >1 is higher in those who donated previously. SAI and TAI scores of blood donors were higher than those of platelet donors (pempathy. Donation made during the continuous disclosure is an important factor for being a donor.

  8. The Effects of Mobile Phone Radiation on Serum Level of Cortisol and Anxiety in Male Rats

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    Rahim Ahmadi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Widespread use of cell phones is the most important risk factor f human health in the age of technology. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of mobile phone radiation on serum level of cortisol and changes in anxiety level in male rats. Materials and Method: In this laboratory-experimental study, the male Wistar rats were divided into control and exposed to cell phone radiation for 1h, 3h, and 6h/day, groups . After 8 weeks, Elevated Plus Maze was used for anxiety evaluation. Blood samples also were obtained using cardiac puncture method and after serum preparation, levels of cortisol were measured using ELFA method. The data were statistically analyzed using SPSS software version 19. Results: The results indicated that serum level of cortisol significantly increased in rats exposed to cell phone radiation for 6h/day compare to control animals (P < 0.05. Also the results of the elevated plus maze test showed that the percentage of time spent in open arms significantly decreased in all experimental groups compared with control rats (P< 0.001. There was also significant decrease in the percentage of entries into open arms in all experimental groups compared to control group (P< 0.001. Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that the exposure to cell phone radiation results in enhanced anxiety level accompanied by increased serum level of cortisol.

  9. The Relation General Anxiety Levels, Anxiety of Writing, and Attitude for Turkish Course of Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman, Havva

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzed whether secondary-school students' continuous and stationary anxieties predict their anxiety about writing and their attitudes about courses in Turkish. The research participants consisted of 281 students in Sakarya Province, 58% male and 42% female. The personal descriptive survey model was used for the research. As data…

  10. Changes on auditory physiology in response to the inactivation of amygdala nuclei in high anxiety rats expressing learned fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Manoel Jorge

    2013-06-13

    The inferior colliculus (IC) is primarily involved in the processing of acoustic stimuli, including those emitted by prey and predators. The role of the central nucleus of the IC (CIC) in fear and anxiety has been suggested based on electrophysiological, behavioral and immunohistochemical studies. The reactivity of high-anxiety rats (HA) to diverse challenges is different from low-anxiety ones (LA). In humans and laboratory animals, pathological anxiety is often accompanied by heightened vigilance and alertness, hyperactivity of the amygdala (AM), and increased amplitude of the auditory evoked potentials (AEP) from the IC. This study aims to evaluate the influence of the inactivation of the central (CEA) and basolateral (BLA) nuclei of the amygdala, after local infusions of the full GABAA agonist muscimol (1nmol/0.2μl), on the AEP elicited in the CIC of rats tested under a learned fear state. Our results showed that both BLA and CEA inactivation change the expression of conditioned fear, in a paradigm using the context as the conditioned stimulus (CS). These changes are correlated to the innate anxiety levels of the animals. It is supposed that this shortcoming is in addition to the imbalance between the regulatory role of the top-down and bottom-up processes in the control of anxiety.

  11. Effects of Yoga Versus Walking on Mood, Anxiety, and Brain GABA Levels: A Randomized Controlled MRS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Theodore H.; Owen, Liz; Rein, Tasha; Karri, Surya K.; Yakhkind, Aleksandra; Perlmutter, Ruth; Prescot, Andrew; Renshaw, Perry F.; Ciraulo, Domenic A.; Jensen, J. Eric

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Yoga and exercise have beneficial effects on mood and anxiety. γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic activity is reduced in mood and anxiety disorders. The practice of yoga postures is associated with increased brain GABA levels. This study addresses the question of whether changes in mood, anxiety, and GABA levels are specific to yoga or related to physical activity. Methods Healthy subjects with no significant medical/psychiatric disorders were randomized to yoga or a metabolically matched walking intervention for 60 minutes 3 times a week for 12 weeks. Mood and anxiety scales were taken at weeks 0, 4, 8, 12, and before each magnetic resonance spectroscopy scan. Scan 1 was at baseline. Scan 2, obtained after the 12-week intervention, was followed by a 60-minute yoga or walking intervention, which was immediately followed by Scan 3. Results The yoga subjects (n = 19) reported greater improvement in mood and greater decreases in anxiety than the walking group (n = 15). There were positive correlations between improved mood and decreased anxiety and thalamic GABA levels. The yoga group had positive correlations between changes in mood scales and changes in GABA levels. Conclusions The 12-week yoga intervention was associated with greater improvements in mood and anxiety than a metabolically matched walking exercise. This is the first study to demonstrate that increased thalamic GABA levels are associated with improved mood and decreased anxiety. It is also the first time that a behavioral intervention (i.e., yoga postures) has been associated with a positive correlation between acute increases in thalamic GABA levels and improvements in mood and anxiety scales. Given that pharmacologic agents that increase the activity of the GABA system are prescribed to improve mood and decrease anxiety, the reported correlations are in the expected direction. The possible role of GABA in mediating the beneficial effects of yoga on mood and anxiety warrants

  12. Impact of aggression, depression, and anxiety levels on quality of life in epilepsy patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izci, Filiz; Fındıklı, Ebru; Camkurt, Mehmet Akif; Tuncel, Deniz; Şahin, Merve

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of aggression levels on the quality of life (QoL) of epilepsy patients. This study was conducted on 66 volunteer control subjects, who were matched by age and sex to the patient group, which consisted of 66 patients who applied to the Psychiatry and Neurology clinics for outpatient treatment, were aged between 18 years and 65 years, and were diagnosed with epilepsy. A sociodemographic and clinical data form designed by us was distributed among the study participants, along with Buss–Perry Aggression Scale, Beck Anxiety Scale, Beck Depression Scale, and the Quality of Life Scale Short Form (SF-36). Compared with the control group, the patient group displayed higher scores in all subgroups of Buss–Perry Aggression Scale subscales at a statistically significant level (Pperception, social functioning, mental health perception, and pain subscales were statistically lower in the patient group (P<0.05). Significant links between Beck Depression Scale and Beck Anxiety Scale levels, as well as some subscales of QoL and aggression levels, were also determined. In conclusion, epilepsy patients experienced impaired QoL compared with the healthy control group and their QoL was further impaired due to increased levels of anxiety, depression, and aggression.

  13. A computational model for exploratory activity of rats with different anxiety levels in elevated plus-maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Ariadne A; Morato, Silvio; Roque, Antonio C; Tinós, Renato

    2014-10-30

    The elevated plus-maze is an apparatus widely used to study the level of anxiety in rodents. The maze is plus-shaped, with two enclosed arms and two open arms, and elevated 50cm from the floor. During a test, which usually lasts for 5min, the animal is initially put at the center and is free to move and explore the entire maze. The level of anxiety is measured by variables such as the percentage of time spent and the number of entries in the enclosed arms. High percentage of time spent at and number of entries in the enclosed arms indicate anxiety. Here we propose a computational model of rat behavior in the elevated plus-maze based on an artificial neural network trained by a genetic algorithm. The fitness function of the genetic algorithm is composed of reward (positive) and punishment (negative) terms, which are incremented as the computational agent (virtual rat) moves in the maze. The punishment term is modulated by a parameter that simulates the effects of different drugs. Unlike other computational models, the virtual rat is built independently of prior known experimental data. The exploratory behaviors generated by the model for different simulated pharmacological conditions are in good agreement with data from real rats.

  14. The effect of music on the anxiety levels of patients undergoing hysterosalpingography

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    Agwu, K.K. [Department of Medical Radiography and Radiological Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences and Technology, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus, Enugu (Nigeria)]. E-mail: kenagwu2000@yahoo.com; Okoye, I.J. [Department of Radiation Medicine, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu (Nigeria)

    2007-05-15

    Objectives: To determine the effect of music on the anxiety levels of patients undergoing a hysterosalpingography procedure. Patients and methods: One hundred hysterosalpingography referrals were randomly assigned to either the experimental or control group. Music chosen earlier by the patients was played during the hysterosalpingography procedure for the experimental group. The control group was studied without music. Certain physiological parameters and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory were used to assess the patients' anxiety levels before and during the investigation. Patient's willingness to have a repeat procedure, should it become necessary, was also assessed in both groups as a measure of acceptability of the investigation. The z-test was used to analyze the results for any statistically significant differences between the experimental and the control groups. Results: The blood pressure (BP) monitored during the procedure was reduced in 31 (62%) of the patients in the experimental group compared to their pre-investigation values. Reduction in the pulse rate (PR) in 28 (56%) of the patients was also noted in the experimental group. On the other hand, the blood pressure of 37 (74%) of the patients and the pulse rate of 32 (64%) patients in the control group were increased from their pre-investigation values. The physiological parameters in the experimental group were significantly lower than the values in the control group during the investigation (p < 0.05). A comparison of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory scores taken before and during the procedure shows significantly lower scores for the experimental group compared to those for the control group (p < 0.05). More patients, 41 (82%) in the experimental group were also willing to have a repeat procedure compared to 16 (32%) patients in the control. Conclusion: Music reduces the physiological and cognitive responses of anxiety in patients undergoing hysterosalpingography and can be harnessed for

  15. Itching, pain, and anxiety levels are reduced with massage therapy in burned adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlak Gürol, Ayşe; Polat, Sevinç; Akçay, Müfide Nuran

    2010-01-01

    Burn can be among the most severe physical and psychologic traumas a person may face. Patients with burns commonly have severe itching and pain. Severe itching has also been associated with anxiety, sleep disturbance, and disruption of daily living activities. The addition of complementary treatments to standard care may lead to improved pain management and may offer a safer approach for reducing pain and procedural anxiety for patients with burns. The authors conducted an experimental study to examine whether the effects of massage therapy reduced burned adolescents' pain, itching, and anxiety levels. Sixty-three adolescents were enrolled in this study shortly after admission (mean days = 3 +/- 0.48) at a burn unit in a large university hospital from February 2008 to June 2009. The measures including the pain, itching, and state anxiety were collected on the first and last days of the 5-week study period. The participants had an average age of 14.07 +/- 1.78 years and came usually from the lower socioeconomic strata. The authors observed that massage therapy reduced all these measures from the first to the last day of this study (P patients with burns, these applications are not yet common.

  16. Impact of aggression, depression, and anxiety levels on quality of life in epilepsy patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izci F

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Filiz Izci,1 Ebru Fındıklı,2 Mehmet Akif Camkurt,3 Deniz Tuncel,4 Merve Şahin2 1Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Istanbul Bilim University, Istanbul, 2Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Sütçü İmam University, 3Department of Psychiatry, Afşin State Hospitale, 4Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, Sütçü İmam University, Kahramanmaraş, Turkey Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of aggression levels on the quality of life (QoL of epilepsy patients. This study was conducted on 66 volunteer control subjects, who were matched by age and sex to the patient group, which consisted of 66 patients who applied to the Psychiatry and Neurology clinics for outpatient treatment, were aged between 18 years and 65 years, and were diagnosed with epilepsy. A sociodemographic and clinical data form designed by us was distributed among the study participants, along with Buss–Perry Aggression Scale, Beck Anxiety Scale, Beck Depression Scale, and the Quality of Life Scale Short Form (SF-36. Compared with the control group, the patient group displayed higher scores in all subgroups of Buss–Perry Aggression Scale subscales at a statistically significant level (P<0.05. As per the SF-36 questionnaire, physical functioning, physical role disability, general health perception, social functioning, mental health perception, and pain subscales were statistically lower in the patient group (P<0.05. Significant links between Beck Depression Scale and Beck Anxiety Scale levels, as well as some subscales of QoL and aggression levels, were also determined. In conclusion, epilepsy patients experienced impaired QoL compared with the healthy control group and their QoL was further impaired due to increased levels of anxiety, depression, and aggression. Keywords: aggression, depression, anxiety, quality of life, epilepsy

  17. High trait anxiety: a challenge for disrupting fear memory reconsolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeter, Marieke; Kindt, Merel

    2013-01-01

    Disrupting reconsolidation may be promising in the treatment of anxiety disorders but the fear-reducing effects are thus far solely demonstrated in the average organism. A relevant question is whether disrupting fear memory reconsolidation is less effective in individuals who are vulnerable to develop an anxiety disorder. By collapsing data from six previous human fear conditioning studies we tested whether trait anxiety was related to the fear-reducing effects of a pharmacological agent targeting the process of memory reconsolidation--n = 107. Testing included different phases across three consecutive days each separated by 24 h. Fear responding was measured by the eye-blink startle reflex. Disrupting the process of fear memory reconsolidation was manipulated by administering the β-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol HCl either before or after memory retrieval. Trait anxiety uniquely predicted the fear-reducing effects of disrupting memory reconsolidation: the higher the trait anxiety, the less fear reduction. Vulnerable individuals with the propensity to develop anxiety disorders may need higher dosages of propranolol HCl or more retrieval trials for targeting and changing fear memory. Our finding clearly demonstrates that we cannot simply translate observations from fundamental research on fear reduction in the average organism to clinical practice.

  18. Performance Anxiety and Academic Success Level Examination of Students in Turkey

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    Sena GÜRŞEN OTACIOĞLU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Within this scope, “performance anxiety” grades of students being educated in music education branches, conservatories and fine arts were assessed in respect to different variables (n=306. Research was carried out in order to reveal how relations of performance anxiety and academic success levels of students receiving professional music education in different universities could differ among variables. “Kenny Music Performance anxiety” inventory developed by Kenny (2004 and adopted to Turkish in order to measure “music performance anxiety level” were used in study. Research data, frequency percentage (% of variables (f and (ss values given for M.P.A inventory, “one-way analysis of variance”, independent (unrelated group t-test, M.W.U and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used. At the end of the research it was determined that there was negative relation between “musical performance anxiety” and “academic success” levels.

  19. Analyzing Musical Self-Esteem and Performance Anxiety Levels of Students Receiving Professional Music Education at Different Institutions in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otacioglu, Sena Gürsen

    2016-01-01

    The study was conducted to establish which variables cause the interrelations between musical self-esteem and performance-anxiety levels of students receiving professional music education at different institutions to vary. In relation to this framework, "musical self-esteem" and "performance anxiety" scores of students…

  20. The Effects of Guided Discussion on Math Anxiety Levels, Course Performance, and Retention in a College Algebra Internet Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emig, Christa

    2009-01-01

    The study sought to test the hypotheses that effective, guided discussions that facilitate meaningful dialogue about math anxiety would reduce levels of math anxiety in college algebra students, and would enhance course performance and course retention at a large community college in South Texas. The study was quantitative with a qualitative…

  1. Anxiety before extraction of impacted lower third molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarazona, Beatriz; Tarazona-Álvarez, Pablo; Peñarrocha-Oltra, David; Rojo-Moreno, Juan; Peñarrocha-Diago, Maria

    2015-03-01

    Assess levels of trait anxiety, state anxiety and dental anxiety before extraction of lower third molars and check the correlation and reliability of the scales used for the measurement of preoperative anxiety. A prospective study of patients treated with extraction of a lower third molar between September 2010 to December 2010 was carried out. A total of 125 patients were included in the study. All of them were patients of the Oral Surgery and Implantology Department (Valencia University Medical and Dental School, Valencia, Spain). Before surgery, patients had to complete a preoperative protocol with 4 scales: the STAI-T (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Trait) for measuring trait anxiety, the STAI-S (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-State) for measuring state anxiety, and DAS (Dental anxiety Scale of N. Corah) and APAIS (Amsterdam Preoperative anxiety and Information Scale) for measuring dental anxiety. Patients undergoing extractions of an impacted lower third molar showed low levels of trait anxiety and moderate levels of state anxiety and dental anxiety. Higher levels of trait anxiety were obtained for older patients. Women had higher mean levels of dental anxiety and state anxiety that men with a statistically significant difference in STAI-S scales, DAS, and APAIS. Patients with higher trait anxiety and state anxiety showed higher levels of dental anxiety. A significant correlation (p ≤ 0.01) (p = 0.00) was found between the four scales used to measure anxiety. The scale showed higher correlation was STAI-S scale. The 4 scales showed high reliability (α of C.> 0.80). Patients with highest levels of trait anxiety and state anxiety, had more dental anxiety. The STAI-T, STAI-S, DAS and APAIS scales provided useful information about anxiety before the extraction of lower impacted third molars. The STAI-S is the scale with highest correlation and reliability.

  2. Utilization of Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT) to Reduce Test Anxiety in High Stakes Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohler, Marie Elaine

    2013-01-01

    There are many reasons a person may fail a high stakes test such as the National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses (NCLEX-RN®). Sleep deprivation, illness, life stressors, knowledge deficit, and test anxiety are some of the common explanations. A student with test anxiety may feel threatened by this evaluation process. This…

  3. Heightened Test Anxiety among Young Children: Elementary School Students' Anxious Responses to High-Stakes Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segool, Natasha K.; Carlson, John S.; Goforth, Anisa N.; von der Embse, Nathan; Barterian, Justin A.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored differences in test anxiety on high-stakes standardized achievement testing and low-stakes testing among elementary school children. This is the first study to directly examine differences in young students' reported test anxiety between No Child Left Behind (NCLB) achievement testing and classroom testing. Three hundred…

  4. Brief Report: The Assessment of Anxiety in High-Functioning Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Susan W.; Schry, Amie R.; Maddox, Brenna B.

    2012-01-01

    Anxiety may exacerbate interpersonal difficulties and contribute to secondary behavioral problems in adolescents with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder (HFASD). This study was conducted to assess the psychometric properties and construct validity of measures of anxiety with a sample (n = 30) of adolescents with HFASD and comorbid anxiety…

  5. Determination of teacher candidates’ anxiety levels on using facebook for instructional purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cansu Meryem Birinci

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, candidate teachers’ anxiety levels were determined based on the use of Facebook for instructional purposes. The research is a clear sample of descriptive study. The research was held in the department of Computer Education and Instructional Technology of Near East University. With the aim of gathering data on this specific subject, a questionnaire was put to the participants. The sample was taken from 202 candidates between the ages of 20 and 32.

  6. The relationship between migration and depression, anxiety level and social support in pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Selma Şen; Nuray Egelioğlu; Aynur Saruhan

    2012-01-01

    The research was conducted in Izmir, which faces the highest immigration rate and which is counted among the most developed cities in Aegean Region, in order to analyze the relationship between migration and depression, anxiety level and social support in pregnancy.The research was conducted between December 2008 and April 2009, with 403 pregnant women who applied to the obstetrics and gynecology department of two different hospitals in Izmir, who have been pregnant for 36 weeks or more, who ...

  7. Performance Anxiety and Academic Success Level Examination of Students in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    GÜRŞEN OTACIOĞLU, Sena

    2016-01-01

    Within this scope, “performance anxiety” grades of students being educated in music education branches, conservatories and fine arts were assessed in respect to different variables (n=306). Research was carried out in order to reveal how relations of performance anxiety and academic success levels of students receiving professional music education in different universities could differ among variables. “Kenny Music Performance anxiety” inventory developed by Kenny (2004) a...

  8. Evaluation of Stress Intensity and Anxiety Level in Preoperative Period of Cardiac Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosiek, Anna; Kornatowski, Tomasz; Rosiek-Kryszewska, Aleksandra; Leksowski, Łukasz; Leksowski, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    The stress related to patient's stay in a hospital increases when it is necessary to perform a surgery. Therefore, the study of the phenomenon of stress intensity in hospitalized patients has become an important issue for public health. The study was conducted in University Hospital No. 1 in the cardiosurgery clinic. The study involved 58 patients who were admitted as planned to the hospital. The study used a standardized questionnaire measuring intensity of the stress and also deepened interviews with patients about stress and anxiety felt before the surgery. The greater the patient's anxiety resulting from his state of health, the greater the intensity of stress in the preoperative period. This relationship is linear. The results of the study also made it possible to see intrapersonal factors (pain, illness, and suffering) and extrapersonal factors (anesthesia, surgery, and complications after surgery), which are causes of anxiety before surgery. The research showed high (negative) results of anxiety and stress associated with the disease, surgery, and complications after cardiac surgery. Active involvement in hospitalization elements, such as patient education before surgery, psychological support, and medical care organization taking into account patient's preferences, reduces the impact of stressors.

  9. High Magnitude of Social Anxiety Disorder in School Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kindie Mekuria

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Social phobia is the most prevalent and chronic type of anxiety disorder worldwide and it affects occupational, educational, and social affairs of the individual. Social phobia is also known for its association with depression and substance use disorder. Objective. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of social phobia among high school students in Ethiopia. Methods. Cross-sectional study was conducted among 386 randomly selected students. Data were collected using pretested and self-administered questionnaire. Social phobia was assessed by using Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN. Logistic regression was used to analyze the data with 95% confidence interval and variables with p value less than 0.05 were considered as statistically significant. Results. From 386 study participants, 106 (27.5% of them were positive for social phobia. Being female (AOR = 3.1; 95% CI: 1.82–5.27, current alcohol drinking (AOR = 1.75; 95% CI: 1.03–2.98, poor social support (AOR = 2.40; 95% CI: 1.17–4.92, and living with single parent (AOR = 5.72; 95% CI: 2.98–10.99 were significantly associated with social phobia. Conclusion. The proportion of social phobia was higher compared to previous evidences. School-based youth-friendly mental health services might be helpful to tackle this problem.

  10. Phobic anxiety and plasma levels of global oxidative stress in women

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    Kaitlin A. Hagan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Psychological distress has been hypothesized to be associated with adverse biologic states such as higher oxidative stress and inflammation. Yet, little is known about associations between a common form of distress -phobic anxiety- and global oxidative stress. Thus, we related phobic anxiety to plasma fluorescent oxidation products (FlOPs, a global oxidative stress marker. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis among 1,325 women (aged 43-70 years from the Nurses' Health Study. Phobic anxiety was measured using the Crown-Crisp Index (CCI. Adjusted least-squares mean log-transformed FlOPs were calculated across phobic categories. Logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (OR comparing the highest CCI category (≥ 6 points vs. lower scores, across FlOPs quartiles. Results: No association was found between phobic anxiety categories and mean FlOP levels in multivariable adjusted linear models. Similarly, in multivariable logistic regression models there were no associations between FlOPs quartiles and likelihood of being in the highest phobic category. Comparing women in the highest vs. lowest FlOPs quartiles: FlOP_360: OR = 0.68 (95% CI: 0.40 - 1.15; FlOP_320: OR = 0.99 (95% CI: 0.61 - 1.61; FlOP_400: OR = 0.92 (95% CI: 0.52, 1.63. Conclusions: No cross-sectional association was found between phobic anxiety and a plasma measure of global oxidative stress in this sample of middle-aged and older women.

  11. Depression, anxiety and stress levels in industrial workers: A pilot study in Bangalore, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheldon Rao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mental health disorders affect around 500 million people worldwide. In India, around 10-12% of people are affected by a mental disorder either due to stress, depression, anxiety, or any other cause. Mental health of workers affects the productivity of the workplace, with estimates putting these losses to be over 100 million dollars annually. Aims: The study aims to measure depression, anxiety, and stress levels of workers in an industry and to investigate if it has any effect on productivity of the firm. Materials and Methods: The study utilized a cross-sectional design and was conducted among workmen of the firm. A sociodemographic based questionnaire and a mental health screening tool -Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21 were used for the same. A total of 90 completed questionnaires were analyzed for the study. The data was analyzed for central tendencies as well as for any associations and correlations. Results: The study showed that none of the workers had a positive score for depression. It also showed that around 36% of the workers had a positive score for anxiety and 18% of the workers had a positive score for stress on DASS-21 scale. The odds ratio between stress and number of leaves taken by a worker in the last 3 months suggested a dose-response relationship, but was statistically insignificant. Conclusion: The study found a prevalence rate of around 18-36% for anxiety and stress amongst the workers at the factory. Large-scale studies will help understand the effect mental health status has on the Indian workplace.

  12. The relationship between personality traits and anxiety/depression levels in different drug abusers' groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatalović Vorkapić, Sanja; Dadić-Hero, Elizabeta; Ružić, Klementina

    2013-01-01

    Aim. Since psychosocial characteristics of drug abuse involve mainly specific personality and emotional changes, it is very important to investigate characteristics of addictive personality in relationship with emotional state of the individual. Considering that, the objective of this study was to analyse the relationship between personality structure and emotional state of two different groups: heroin addicts and recreate drug abusers. Methods. The total of 288 (219 males and 69 females; 191 heroin addicts and 97 recreate drug users) clients of Centre for the prevention and treatment of drug abuse in Rijeka completed Eysenck's Personality Questionnaire (EPQ R/A), Beck's Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI). Their average age was 22. Results. In the group of heroin addicts, higher levels of anxiety and depression were significantly correlated with higher levels of psychoticism, neuroticism, criminality and addiction. In the group of recreate drug users, higher extraversion and social conformity were determined. Furthermore, in the first group was found even higher depression. However when the anxiety level was compared between these two groups, there was no significant difference. Conclusion. Overall, the findings implied that the used measurement instruments could serve as the useful diagnostic tools that could ensure advantageous treatment directions.

  13. Attitudes and anxiety levels of medical students towards the acquisition of competencies in communication skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loureiro, Elizabete M; Severo, Milton; Bettencourt, Paulo; Ferreira, Maria A

    2011-12-01

    Results of third year medical students' attitudes and stress levels towards the acquisition of communication skills before and after a Communication and Clinical Skills Course (CCSC) at the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Porto (FMUP), Portugal, are presented. 115 students attending third-year CCSC completed a demographic questionnaire, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Communication Skills Attitudes Scale and Interpersonal Behavior Survey. Significant negative correlation was found between anxiety levels and attitudes towards learning communication skills in general as well as the teaching and learning process. At the end of the Course students reported that when compared to the start, their communication skills are less sufficient. At the end of this CCSC at FMUP, students recognized its major importance and how they need to invest and improve communication skills. However, it seems important to monitor the attitudes and anxiety levels of students towards patient care and communication during the medical course and to identify ways of overcoming barriers towards learning communication skills. It is recommended that there should be a complete (transversal and vertical) integration of communication skills, including effective teaching methods, assessments, and examinations in order to be valued by the students. This would necessitate curricular changes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The effect of the state anxiety level on tennis exam performance in university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koray Coşkun

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of State Anxiety on tennis practical exam performance of students who have had education at Akdeniz University School of Physical Education and Sports.41 women (age 21,22±2,09 years and 61 men (age 21,53±1,70 years between age of 18-24 years students (n=102 who played some sports branches up to that time was volunteered to this study. Before the tennis exam, Sports Attainment Level, Trait Anxiety Level (TAL and State Anxiety Level (SAL surveys were conducted to students.According to the findings of this study; there was a significant negative relationship between Tennis Skill Test (TST and the SAL (r =- 0.41, p<0.01. There was no significant relationship between SAL and TST (r-0,27, p>0,05 in men but there was significant negative relationship between TST and SAL (r=-0.53, p<0.01 in women.In conclusion, SAL has an effect negatively on TST (or tennis practical exam moreover in women the effect is higher than in men.

  15. The relationship between personality traits and anxiety/depression levels in different drug abusers' groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatalović Vorkapić Sanja

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Since psychosocial characteristics of drug abuse involve mainly specific personality and emotional changes, it is very important to investigate characteristics of addictive personality in relationship with emotional state of the individual. Considering that, the objective of this study was to analyse the relationship between personality structure and emotional state of two different groups: heroin addicts and recreate drug abusers. METHODS: The total of 288 (219 males and 69 females; 191 heroin addicts and 97 recreate drug users clients of Centre for the prevention and treatment of drug abuse in Rijeka completed Eysenck's Personality Questionnaire (EPQ R/A, Beck's Anxiety Inventory (BAI and Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI. Their average age was 22. RESULTS: In the group of heroin addicts, higher levels of anxiety and depression were significantly correlated with higher levels of psychoticism, neuroticism, criminality and addiction. In the group of recreate drug users, higher extraversion and social conformity were determined. Furthermore, in the first group was found even higher depression. However when the anxiety level was compared between these two groups, there was no significant difference. CONCLUSION: Overall, the findings implied that the used measurement instruments could serve as the useful diagnostic tools that could ensure advantageous treatment directions.

  16. EFL Speaking Anxiety among Senior High School Students and Policy Recommendations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Amirul Mukminin; Masbirorotni Masbirorotni; Noprival Noprival; Sutarno Sutarno; Nelly Arif; Maimunah Maimunah

    2015-01-01

    ...’ English language speaking anxiety at senior high schools in Jambi, Indonesia. The purpose of this paper was to report some of findings from the qualitative interview data on the sources of senior high school students...

  17. Reconsidering Co-Morbid Traits in Explanatory Models of High Dental Anxiety Using a Comparison of Psychiatric and Normal Patient Samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, Rod; Jensen, Christina Gundlev; Andersen, Line Bæk

    2016-01-01

    .) versus lower or no anxiety. Patients with psychiatric diagnoses were three times more likely to have high DA and nearly two times more likely to have avoided dental treatment >2 yr.; 25.9% reported extreme DA, compared to 9.3% of controls. Models of high general fear levels, predisposing anxiety......Explanatory models of co-morbid traits related to dental anxiety (DA) as described in the literature were tested and relative strengths analyzed in two groups of Danish adults, one with psychiatric diagnoses (n = 108) and the other healthy incoming patients at a large dental school teaching clinic...... (n = 151). Dental Anxiety Scale (DAS) and self-report measures representing three co-morbidity explanatory models, 1) presence of other fears; 2) anxiety sensitivity and 3) feelings of vulnerability specific to dental treatment, were collected in subscales of a 53-item questionnaire. Other items...

  18. Auricular acupressure reduces anxiety levels and improves outcomes of in vitro fertilization: a prospective, randomized and controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Fan; Zhang, Dan; Chen, Lu-Ting; Wang, Fang-Fang; Pan, Jie-Xue; Zhu, Yi-Min; Ma, Chun-Mei; Huang, Yi-Ting; Ye, Xiao-Qun; Sun, Sai-Jun; Zheng, Wen-Jun; Zhang, Run-Ju; Xu, Jian; Xing, Lan-Feng; Huang, He-Feng

    2014-05-22

    The study was to explore whether auricular acupressure (AA) can relieve anxiety during the period from trans-vaginal oocyte retrieval to the embryo transfer in IVF treatment and whether AA can improve the outcomes of IVF. 305 infertile patients with tubal blockage who were referred for IVF were included. The women were randomized into a control group with 102 cases, a Sham-AA group with 102 cases and an AA group with 101 cases. The anxiety levels were rated with Spielberger's State Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale. Data of clinical pregnancy rate (CPR), implantation rate (IR) and live birth rate (LBR) were obtained. The levels of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) in the follicular fluids were detected with ELISA. After treatment, in AA group, the levels of state anxiety, preoperative anxiety and need-for-information were significantly lower, whereas CPR, IR, LBR and NPY levels in the follicular fluids were markedly higher than Sham-AA group and control group. We concluded that AA could help to reduce anxiety levels associated with IVF and improves the outcomes of IVF partly through increasing the levels of NPY in the follicular fluids.

  19. EFL Speaking Anxiety among Senior High School Students and Policy Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Amirul Mukminin; Masbirorotni Masbirorotni; Noprival Noprival; Sutarno Sutarno; Nelly Arif; Maimunah Maimunah

    2015-01-01

    This report drew on a larger study which was to describe and understand the sources of senior high school students’ English language speaking anxiety at senior high schools in Jambi, Indonesia. The purpose of this paper was to report some of findings from the qualitative interview data on the sources of senior high school students’ English language speaking anxiety at one senior high school in Jambi, Indonesia. Data were collected through demographic profiles and semi-structured interview wit...

  20. The relationship between migration and depression, anxiety level and social support in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Şen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted in Izmir, which faces the highest immigration rate and which is counted among the most developed cities in Aegean Region, in order to analyze the relationship between migration and depression, anxiety level and social support in pregnancy.The research was conducted between December 2008 and April 2009, with 403 pregnant women who applied to the obstetrics and gynecology department of two different hospitals in Izmir, who have been pregnant for 36 weeks or more, who emigrated from another region and who agreed to participate in the research. In order to collect data for the research which is a cross-sectional and descriptive one, "Pregnant Information Form", Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, Situational Anxiety Scale (SAS, Continuous Anxiety Scale (CAS and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSOPSS were used which determine the characteristics of socio-demographic and other variables of pregnant women who compose the research sample.The average age of pregnant women who composed the research sample was 27.15 ± 5.33, average age of marriage was 21.50 ±4.12. It was determined that 68.2% of pregnant women had relatives in case of need of help, and 32.5% of those who received help noted that her mother-in-law helped her. It was determined that 27.0% of pregnant women emigrated from Eastern Anatolian Region and 50.6% of them emigrated for their relatives live in Izmir. The average scores for the pregnant women who participated in the research were as follows: score for BDI was 18.54 ± 10.34, score for SAS was 42.90 ± 6.80, score for CAS was 47.84 ± 6.75 and score for MSOPSS was 50.50 ± 19.00. A significant difference was obtained between pregnant women's status of receiving social support and averages of depression scores, anxiety scores and social support scores. Furthermore, there is a positive, weak but fairly significant relationship between pregnant women's averages depression scores and anxiety

  1. Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF protein levels in anxiety disorders: systematic review and meta-regression analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharain eSuliman

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF is a neurotrophin that is involved in the synaptic plasticity and survival of neurons. BDNF is believed to be involved in the pathogenesis of several neuropsychiatric disorders. As findings of BDNF levels in the anxiety disorders have been inconsistent, we undertook to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies that assessed BDNF protein levels in anxiety disorders. Methods: We conducted the review using electronic databases and searched reference lists of relevant articles for any further studies. Studies that measured BDNF protein levels in any anxiety disorder and compared these to a control group were included. Effect sizes of the differences in BDNF levels between anxiety disorder and control groups were calculated. Results: Eight studies with a total of 1179 participants were included. Initial findings suggested that BDNF levels were lower in individuals with any anxiety disorder compared to those without (Standard Mean Difference [SMD]=-0.94 [-1.75, -0.12], p≤0.05. This, however, differed with regards to source of BDNF protein (plasma: SMD=-1.31 [-1.69, -0.92], p≤0.01; serum: SMD=-1.06 [-2.27, 0.16], p≥0.01 and type of anxiety disorder (PTSD: SMD=-0.05 [-1.66, 1.75], p≥0.01; OCD: SMD=-2.33 [-4.21, -0.45], p≤0.01. Conclusion: Although BDNF levels appear to be reduced in individuals with an anxiety disorder, this is not consistent across the various anxiety disorders and may largely be explained by the significantly lowered BDNF levels found in OCD. Results further appear to be mediated by differences in sampling methods. Findings are, however, limited by the lack of research in this area, and given the potential for BDNF as a biomarker of anxiety disorders it would be useful to clarify the relationship further.

  2. Co-segregation of hyperactivity, active coping styles, and cognitive dysfunction in mice selectively bred for low levels of anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Yi-Chun; Anderzhanova, Elmira; Bunck, Mirjam; Schuller, Julia; Landgraf, Rainer; Wotjak, Carsten T

    2013-01-01

    We established mouse models of extremes in trait anxiety, which are based on selective breeding for low vs. normal vs. high open-arm exploration on the elevated plus-maze. Genetically selected low anxiety-related behavior (LAB) coincided with hyperactivity in the home cage. Given the fact that several psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, mania, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) share hyperactivity symptom, we systematically examined LAB mice with respect to unique and overlapping endophenotypes of the three diseases. To this end Venn diagrams were used as an instrument for discrimination of possible models. We arranged the endophenotypes in Venn diagrams and translated them into different behavioral tests. LAB mice showed elevated levels of locomotion in the open field (OF) test with deficits in habituation, compared to mice bred for normal (NAB) and high anxiety-related behavior (HAB). Cross-breeding of hypoactive HAB and hyperactive LAB mice resulted in offspring showing a low level of locomotion comparable to HAB mice, indicating that the HAB alleles are dominant over LAB alleles in determining the level of locomotion. In a holeboard test, LAB mice spent less time in hole exploration, as shown in patients with schizophrenia and ADHD; however, LAB mice displayed no impairments in social interaction and prepulse inhibition (PPI), implying a unlikelihood of LAB as an animal model of schizophrenia. Although LAB mice displayed hyperarousal, active coping styles, and cognitive deficits, symptoms shared by mania and ADHD, they failed to reveal the classic manic endophenotypes, such as increased hedonia and object interaction. The neuroleptic haloperidol reduced locomotor activity in all mouse lines. The mood stabilizer lithium and the psychostimulant amphetamine, in contrast, selectively reduced hyperactivity in LAB mice. Based on the behavioral and pharmacological profiles, LAB mice are suggested as a novel rodent model of ADHD-like symptoms.

  3. Co-segregation of hyperactivity, active coping styles and cognitive dysfunction in mice selectively bred for low levels of anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chun eYen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We established mouse models of extremes in trait anxiety, which are based on selective breeding for low vs. normal vs. high open-arm exploration on the elevated plus-maze. Genetically selected low anxiety-related behavior (LAB coincided with hyperactivity in the home cage. Given the fact that several psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, mania and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD share hyperactivity symptom, we systematically examined LAB mice with respect to unique and overlapping endophenotypes of the three diseases. To this end Venn diagrams were used as an instrument for discrimination of possible models. We arranged the endophenotypes in Venn diagrams and translated them into different behavioral tests. LAB mice showed elevated levels of locomotion in the open field test with deficits in habituation, compared to mice bred for normal (NAB and high anxiety-related behavior (HAB. Cross-breeding of hypoactive HAB and hyperactive LAB mice resulted in offspring showing a low level of locomotion comparable to HAB mice, indicating that the HAB alleles are dominant over LAB alleles in determining the level of locomotion. In a holeboard test, LAB mice spent less time in hole exploration, as shown in patients with schizophrenia and ADHD; however, LAB mice displayed no impairments in social interaction and prepulse inhibition, implying a unlikelihood of LAB as an animal model of schizophrenia. Although LAB mice displayed hyperarousal, active coping styles and cognitive deficits, symptoms shared by mania and ADHD, they failed to reveal the classic manic endophenotypes, such as increased hedonia and object interaction. The neuroleptic haloperidol reduced locomotor activity in all mouse lines. The mood stabilizer lithium and the psychostimulant amphetamine, in contrast, selectively reduced hyperactivity in LAB mice. Based on the behavioral and pharmacological profiles, LAB mice are suggested as a novel rodent model of ADHD

  4. Styles of coping and the level of dogmatism in utterance texts as an indicator of anxiety in situations of social exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinczuk-Zielazna Joanna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out involving persons representing high-anxious, low-anxious and repressor types according to the classification of Weinberger, Davidson & Schwartz (1979, selected using the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale and the trait anxiety scale of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. In seeking indicators of anxiety in repressors and high-anxious groups, the authors decided to analyse the level of dogmatism observed in utterance texts. The research was intended to determine whether styles of coping with threatening stimuli condition the level of dogmatism, which was regarded as a cognitive defence mechanism against anxiety. The method of formal analysis of texts (speeches given by the participants in a situation of social exposure was used to identify their level of dogmatism, measured using the Dogmatism Quotient developed by Ertel. The highest value of the Dogmatism Quotient was recorded for repressors, and the lowest for the low-anxious subjects; a similar pattern was also observed for certain particular dimensions of dogmatism. Statistically significant differences in the level of dogmatism were found between the repressor and lowanxious groups and between the high-anxious and low-anxious groups. The study confirmed the previously discovered pattern whereby repressors exhibit more similarities to high-anxious than to low-anxious persons.

  5. Assessment level of anxiety and depression in patients with multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusnetsova D.E.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available

    In patients with multiple sclerosis observed polymorphism of the emergency psychiatric disorders with a wide range of psychopathological phenomena — from neurotic and personality disorders to psychotic states and epileptiform syndrome. However, the problems of mental health problems in people with MS for a long time little attention was paid. The aim of our study was to analyze the level of anxiety and depression severity in patients with multiple sclerosis. According to this objective have been identifed objectives of the study: to determine the level of depression and anxiety in MS patients according to sex, age, course, duration of disease. For our work was selected group of patients with documented diagnosis of multiple sclerosis, Charles Poser criteria, consisting of 79 persons, with a disease duration of more than 2 years. We used a specially designed questionnaire, which included a table to assess complaints, anamnesis, the neurological status of the patient, and standard questionnaires (test anxiety, Taylor Depression Scale Research psychoneurology them. Spondylitis, the index of overall psychological well-being. The study found that mood disorders such as anxiety, depression, often occurs in patients with multiple sclerosis. However, they are expressed in groups of patients receiving and not receiving DMD, in many ways. Thus, it should be recommended  Vat practical neurologists in the treatment of multiple sclerosis patients to pay attention to whether or not they have a certain range of mental disorders, and above all, anxious-depressive syndrome, which is in need of medical and non-pharmacological correction.

  6. [Levels of state-trait anxiety between mothers and fathers who have children in an intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Carrasco, Karmina Elena

    2013-01-01

    Background: when there is a child patient in the family, it is frequent that parents get upset. Anxiety in the mother and father could be different depending on the way each one lives the critical situation of the child patient. The purpose was to measure levels of anxiety in fathers and mothers who had a hospitalized child in an intensive care unit. Methods: the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) was applied to a group of 50 pairs of parents who had a hospitalized child in the intensive care unit in a pediatric hospital. A no probabilistic intentional sample was used. Differences between groups were analyzed by Student's t test. Results: no significant differences were obtained between mothers and fathers for both state-anxiety and trait-anxiety. Significant differences were obtained intra-groups between both kinds of anxiety. Conclusions: having a child who is chronically sick or hospitalized for intensive therapy causes similar levels of anxiety in both parents. Anxiety is significantly increased in both parents when their child is hospitalized in an intensive therapy unit.

  7. Evaluation of the Relationship between 5-HTT and MAO Gene Polymorphisms, Mood and Level of Anxiety among Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Grochans

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze how mood and anxiety level are related to the functional genetic polymorphism in the promoter region of SLC6A4 (5-HTTLPR and the 30-bp VNTR polymorphism in the MAO A promoter region. Methods: The study involved 272 postmenopausal women from Poland. The authors employed the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for measuring levels of anxiety, the Mood Adjective Check List for measuring mood, and genetic tests. Results: Analysis did not show any statistically significant differences in the mean levels of anxiety, and mood disorders in women in relation to genotypes of the 5-HTTLPR (SLC6A4 polymorphism and the 30-bp VNTR polymorphism in the MAO A promoter region. However, these problems were more severe among women with s/s genotype. In the case of MAO A gene polymorphism, the level of anxiety was higher in women with a 4/4 genotype. Conclusions: The study did not prove the possibility of the identification of homogeneous groups of women with an elevated risk of developing anxiety and mood disorders during the post-menopausal period. Nevertheless, it showed that respondents with s/s genotype of the 44-bp polymorphism in the 5-HTT (SLC6A4 promoter region had the highest average anxiety levels both as a state and as a trait. Furthermore, the analysis of the 30-bp VNTR polymorphism in the MAO A promoter region demonstrated slight differences in anxiety levels between the women, indicating that those with a 4/4 genotype had higher severity of anxiety symptoms.

  8. Evaluation of the Relationship between 5-HTT and MAO Gene Polymorphisms, Mood and Level of Anxiety among Postmenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grochans, Elżbieta; Jurczak, Anna; Szkup, Małgorzata; Samochowiec, Agnieszka; Włoszczak-Szubzda, Anna; Karakiewicz, Beata; Grzywacz, Anna; Brodowska, Agnieszka; Samochowiec, Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze how mood and anxiety level are related to the functional genetic polymorphism in the promoter region of SLC6A4 (5-HTTLPR) and the 30-bp VNTR polymorphism in the MAO A promoter region. Methods: The study involved 272 postmenopausal women from Poland. The authors employed the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for measuring levels of anxiety, the Mood Adjective Check List for measuring mood, and genetic tests. Results: Analysis did not show any statistically significant differences in the mean levels of anxiety, and mood disorders in women in relation to genotypes of the 5-HTTLPR (SLC6A4) polymorphism and the 30-bp VNTR polymorphism in the MAO A promoter region. However, these problems were more severe among women with s/s genotype. In the case of MAO A gene polymorphism, the level of anxiety was higher in women with a 4/4 genotype. Conclusions: The study did not prove the possibility of the identification of homogeneous groups of women with an elevated risk of developing anxiety and mood disorders during the post-menopausal period. Nevertheless, it showed that respondents with s/s genotype of the 44-bp polymorphism in the 5-HTT (SLC6A4) promoter region had the highest average anxiety levels both as a state and as a trait. Furthermore, the analysis of the 30-bp VNTR polymorphism in the MAO A promoter region demonstrated slight differences in anxiety levels between the women, indicating that those with a 4/4 genotype had higher severity of anxiety symptoms. PMID:25547397

  9. Low vagally-mediated heart rate variability and increased susceptibility to ventricular arrhythmias in rats bred for high anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevali, Luca; Trombini, Mimosa; Graiani, Gallia; Madeddu, Denise; Quaini, Federico; Landgraf, Rainer; Neumann, Inga D; Nalivaiko, Eugene; Sgoifo, Andrea

    2014-04-10

    In humans, there is a documented association between anxiety disorders and cardiovascular disease. Putative underlying mechanisms may include an impairment of the autonomic nervous system control of cardiac function. The primary objective of the present study was to characterize cardiac autonomic modulation and susceptibility to arrhythmias in genetic lines of rats that differ largely in their anxiety level. To reach this goal, electrocardiographic recordings were performed in high-anxiety behavior (HAB, n=10) and low-anxiety behavior (LAB, n=10) rats at rest, during stressful stimuli and under autonomic pharmacological manipulations, and analyzed by means of time- and frequency-domain indexes of heart rate variability. During resting conditions, HAB rats displayed a reduced heart rate variability, mostly in terms of lower parasympathetic (vagal) modulation compared to LAB rats. In HAB rats, this relatively low cardiac vagal control was associated with smaller heart rate responsiveness to acute stressors compared to LAB counterparts. In addition, beta-adrenergic pharmacological stimulation induced a larger incidence of ventricular tachyarrhythmias in HABs compared to LABs. At sacrifice, a moderate increase in heart-body weight ratio was observed in HAB rats. We conclude that high levels of anxiety-related behavior in rats are associated with signs of i) impaired autonomic modulation of heart rate (low vagally-mediated heart rate variability), ii) poor adaptive heart rate responsiveness to stressful stimuli, iii) increased arrhythmia susceptibility, and iv) cardiac hypertrophy. These results highlight the utility of the HAB/LAB model for investigating the mechanistic basis of the comorbidity between anxiety disorders and cardiovascular disease.

  10. Social anxiety in high-functioning children and adolescents with Autism and Asperger syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuusikko, Sanna; Pollock-Wurman, Rachel; Jussila, Katja; Carter, Alice S; Mattila, Marja-Leena; Ebeling, Hanna; Pauls, David L; Moilanen, Irma

    2008-10-01

    We examined social anxiety and internalizing symptoms using the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory for Children (SPAI-C), the Social Anxiety Scale for Children -Revised (SASC-R), and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) in a sample of fifty-four high-functioning subjects with autism or Asperger syndrome (HFA/AS) (M = 11.2 +/- 1.7 years) and 305 community subjects (M = 12.2 +/- 2.2 years). Children and adolescents completed the SPAI-C and SASC-R, and their parents completed the CBCL Internalizing scale. Adolescents with HFA/AS scored higher than the community sample on all measures. Behavioural avoidance and evaluative social anxiety increased by age within the HFA/AS group, whereas behavioural avoidance decreased by age in control participants. Data support that HFA/AS in adolescents may be associated with clinically relevant social anxiety symptoms.

  11. High level binocular rivalry effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal eWolf

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Binocular rivalry (BR occurs when the brain cannot fuse percepts from the two eyes because they are different. We review results relating to an ongoing controversy regarding the cortical site of the BR mechanism. Some BR qualities suggest it is low-level: 1 BR, as its name implies, is usually between eyes and only low levels have access to utrocular information. 2 All input to one eye is suppressed: blurring doesn’t stimulate accommodation; pupilary constrictions are reduced; probe detection is reduced. 3 Rivalry is affected by low level attributes, contrast, spatial frequency, brightness, motion. 4 There is limited priming due to suppressed words or pictures. On the other hand, recent studies favor a high level mechanism: 1 Rivalry occurs between patterns, not eyes, as in patchwork rivalry or a swapping paradigm. 2 Attention affects alternations. 3 Context affects dominance. There is conflicting evidence from physiological studies (single cell and fMRI regarding cortical level(s of conscious perception. We discuss the possibility of multiple BR sites and theoretical considerations that rule out this solution.We present new data regarding the locus of the BR switch by manipulating stimulus semantic content or high-level characteristics. Since these variations are represented at higher cortical levels, their affecting rivalry supports high-level BR intervention. In Experiment I, we measure rivalry when one eye views words and the other nonwords and find significantly longer dominance durations for nonwords. In Experiment II, we find longer dominance times for line drawings of simple, structurally impossible figures than for similar, possible objects. In Experiment III, we test the influence of idiomatic context on rivalry between words. Results show that generally words within their idiomatic context have longer mean dominance durations. We conclude that Binocular Rivalry has high-level cortical influences, and may be controlled by a high-level

  12. The cross-sectional study of anxiety levels and ratio of severity of thirteen symptoms of anxiety among medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Arslan Iqbal

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: Mild form of anxiety is much more common among medical students and majority of these medical students are females. Moreover, the symptoms of anxiety including tension, anxious mood, depressed mood, insomnia, fear and CVS symptoms appear with moderate severity in majority of medical students while on the other hand some symptoms including general somatic muscular and sensory symptoms, difficulties in concentration and memory, genitor-urinary symptoms, respiratory symptoms, GIT symptoms and other autonomic symptoms appear with least severity among majority of medical students. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(6.000: 2297-2304

  13. High trait anxiety: a challenge for disrupting fear memory reconsolidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soeter, M.; Kindt, M.

    2013-01-01

    Disrupting reconsolidation may be promising in the treatment of anxiety disorders but the fear-reducing effects are thus far solely demonstrated in the average organism. A relevant question is whether disrupting fear memory reconsolidation is less effective in individuals who are vulnerable to

  14. Effects of extremely low frequency magnetic field on anxiety level and spatial memory of adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Li-hua; SHI Hong-mei; LIU Tong-tong; XUYing-chun; YE Kang-ping; WANG Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Background As the widespread use of electric devices in modern life,human are exposed to extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF MF) much more frequently than ever.Over the past decades,a substantial number of epidemiological and experimental studies have demonstrated that ELF MF (50 Hz) exposure is associated with increased risk of various health effects.The present study examined the effects of chronic exposure to ELF MF on anxiety level and spatial memory of adult rats.Methods The 50-Hz ELF MF was used during the whole experimental procedures and the value of magnetic field (MF)was set to 2 mT.Adult rats were divided randomly to control,MF 1 hour and MF 4 hours group.Anxiety-related behaviors were examined in the open field test and the elevated plus maze; changes in spatial learning and memory were determined in Morris water maze after 4 weeks of daily exposure.Results Rats in MF 4 hours group had increased anxiety-like behaviors with unaltered locomotor activity.In the Morris water maze test,rats had reduced latency to find the hidden platform and improved long-term memory of former location of platform without changes in short-term memory and locomotor activity.Conclusion Chronic ELF MF exposure has anxiogenic effect on rats,and the promoting effects on spatial learning and long-term retention of spatial memory.

  15. Music Therapy’s Effects on Mexican Migrant Farmworkers’ Levels of Depression, Anxiety and Social Isolation: A Mixed Methods Randomized Control Trial Utilizing Participatory Action Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swantes, Melody

    2011-01-01

    are not able to meet the needs in culturally sensitive ways presented by this population. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of music therapy on Mexican farmworkers’ levels of depression, anxiety, and social isolation. In addition, this study sought to examine how the migrant farmworkers used...... in song writing and lyric analysis, and group music-making. Results indicated that participants in the music therapy condition across both phases did not significantly improve their depression, anxiety, and social isolation scores compared to the control/comparison group. The farmworkers who did...... working conditions create high frequencies of mental health issues. When available, the farmworkers seek out treatment for the somatic symptoms such as high heart rate, upset stomachs, and difficult breathing often associated with depression and anxiety. Mental health counselors and facilities often...

  16. Individual housing and handling procedures modify anxiety levels of Tg2576 mice assessed in the zero maze test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia, Luis; Torrente, Margarita; Domingo, José L; Colomina, María T

    2012-09-10

    The zero maze is an unconditioned anxiety test for mice, in which a number of environmental variables can modify the anxiety levels of the animals. In the present study, we have assessed how individual housing, handling procedure and interaction between individual housing and handling procedure affect the baseline anxiety of mice. Thirty-seven wild type mice and eighteen Tg2576 mice were used (obtained from crossing APPSWE hemizygous male C57BL6/SJL background with C57BL6/SJL female). Wild type mice were randomly assigned to four experimental groups: 1) group housed and unhandled, 2) group housed but handled, 3) individually housed, unhandled, and 4) individually housed and handled. In turn, Tg2576 mice were randomly assigned to two experimental groups: 1) individually housed, unhandled, and 2) individually housed and handled. The results show that individually housed mice exhibited more anxiety-related behaviors over a 5 min testing period than the other experimental groups. Use of the handling procedure was associated with a statistically significant reduction in anxiety-related behaviors among individually housed mice. No effects on anxiety-related behavior levels were observed when group housed animals were handled. When activity levels were significantly increased, a new parameter, "Time by Entries", helped to prevent activity from influencing anxiety parameters such as time in the open section of the zero maze test. This knowledge can help to design more efficient experiments without bias from data obtained by means of unconditioned tests.

  17. Level of Anxiety, Depression, Self-Esteem, Social Anxiety, and Quality of Life among the Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan Açmaz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a heterogeneous disease and many symptoms are seen with varying degrees. The aim of the present study was to determine which symptoms increased such problems as depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, and social worry by classifying PCOS according to symptoms. Methods. The study was carried out with two groups. The first group consisted of 86 patients who were diagnosed with PCOS and the second group consisted of 47 healthy volunteers. Liebowitz’ Social Anxiety Scale, Rosenberg’ Self-Esteem Scale, Short-Form 36, Quality of Life Scale, Beck Anxiety Inventory, and Beck Depression Inventory were administered to each volunteer. Results. Depression scores of infertile group were higher while anxiety scores of the obese group were bigger than other groups. It was the obesity group that received the smallest score in self-esteem and trust in people and the highest score in sensitiveness to criticism. The most affected group was oligomenorrhea-hirsutism group in terms of physical functioning, physical role function, pain, social functioning, emotional role function, and emotional well-being. Conclusion. We suggest that not only gynecologist but also a multidisciplinary team may examine these patients.

  18. A metabolomic study of fipronil for the anxiety-like behavior in zebrafish larvae at environmentally relevant levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cui; Qian, Yi; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Chen, Fang; Zhang, Quan; Li, Zhuoyu; Zhao, Meirong

    2016-04-01

    Field residue of fipronil can interfere with the physiological characters of the domesticated fish; thus, lethal dose test and the general biomarker cannot delineate the low-level situation. Manipulating by video track, we observed an anxiety-like behavior including high speed and abnormal photoperiod accommodation after exposure to fipronil at environmental typical dose in zebrafish larvae. Examining the unbiased metabolomic profiles, we found perturbation in several metabolic pathways, including the increased contents of fatty acids and glycerol and the decreased levels of the glycine, serine, and branched amino acid. We presumed that observed enhanced fatty acid utility was in response to increase energy demands caused by anxiety like behavior. Additionally, the body burden of neurotransmitter such as glycine and L-glutamate may concurrently stimulate the swimming behavior. The insight of this study showed that integral perturbation such as metabolism helps us to further understand the risk to aquatic fish at the environmentally relevant levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Anxiety and performance: perceptual-motor behavior in high-pressure contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuys, Arne; Oudejans, Raôul Rd

    2017-08-01

    When the pressure is on and anxiety levels increase it is not easy to perform well. In search of mechanisms explaining the anxiety-performance relationship, we revisit the integrated model of anxiety and perceptual-motor performance (Nieuwenhuys and Oudejans, 2012) and provide a critical review of contemporary literature. While there is increasing evidence that changes in attentional control affect the execution of goal-directed action, based on our model and emerging evidence from different scientific disciplines, we argue for a more integrated, process-based approach. That is, anxiety can affect performance on different levels of operational control (i.e., attentional, interpretational, physical) and - moving beyond the execution of action - have implications for different aspects of perceptual-motor behavior, including situational awareness and decision making. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Rachel G.

    2009-01-01

    Because of their high prevalence and their negative long-term consequences, child anxiety disorders have become an important focus of interest. Whether pathological anxiety and normal fear are similar processes continues to be controversial. Comparative studies of child anxiety disorders are scarce, but there is some support for the current…

  1. Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Rachel G.

    2009-01-01

    Because of their high prevalence and their negative long-term consequences, child anxiety disorders have become an important focus of interest. Whether pathological anxiety and normal fear are similar processes continues to be controversial. Comparative studies of child anxiety disorders are scarce, but there is some support for the current…

  2. PSYCHOLOGICAL SKILLS USAGE AND THE COMPETITIVE ANXIETY RESPONSE AS A FUNCTION OF SKILL LEVEL IN RUGBY UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Neil

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the intensity and direction of competitive anxiety symptoms and psychological skill usage in rugby union players of different skill levels. Elite (n=65 and nonelite (n=50 participants completed measures of competitive anxiety, self- confidence, and psychological skills. The elite group reported more facilitative interpretations of competitive anxiety symptoms, higher levels of self-confidence, lower relaxation usage, and greater imagery and self-talk use than their nonelite counterparts. The findings suggest that nonelite performers primarily use relaxation strategies to reduce anxiety intensity. In contrast, elite athletes appear to maintain intensity levels and adopt a combination of skills to interpret symptoms as facilitative to performance. Potential mechanisms for this process include the use of imagery and verbal persuasion efficacy-enhancement techniques to protect against debilitating symptom interpretations

  3. Mindfulness, anxiety, and high-stakes mathematics performance in the laboratory and classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellinger, David B; DeCaro, Marci S; Ralston, Patricia A S

    2015-12-01

    Mindfulness enhances emotion regulation and cognitive performance. A mindful approach may be especially beneficial in high-stakes academic testing environments, in which anxious thoughts disrupt cognitive control. The current studies examined whether mindfulness improves the emotional response to anxiety-producing testing situations, freeing working memory resources, and improving performance. In Study 1, we examined performance in a high-pressure laboratory setting. Mindfulness indirectly benefited math performance by reducing the experience of state anxiety. This benefit occurred selectively for problems that required greater working memory resources. Study 2 extended these findings to a calculus course taken by undergraduate engineering majors. Mindfulness indirectly benefited students' performance on high-stakes quizzes and exams by reducing their cognitive test anxiety. Mindfulness did not impact performance on lower-stakes homework assignments. These findings reveal an important mechanism by which mindfulness benefits academic performance, and suggest that mindfulness may help attenuate the negative effects of test anxiety.

  4. Level of anxiety versus self-care in the preoperative and postoperative periods of total laryngectomy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almonacid, Clara Inés Flórez; Ramos, Alfredo Jurado; Rodríguez-Borrego, María-Aurora

    2016-06-14

    estimate the prevalence of anxiety in laryngectomy patients in the pre and postoperative periods and its relation with the self-care level. observational research of 40 patients with stage IV laryngeal cancer. Three observations took place: in the preoperative phase, at seven and at 14 days after the surgery; between June 2010 and December 2012. Two self-care levels were defined: self-sufficient and needing help for activities of daily living and treatment-related activities. To assess the anxiety levels, Zigmond's hospital anxiety scale (1983) was used. in the preoperative and postoperative phases, the patients presented high levels of anxiety. Concerning self-care, on average, self-sufficient patients presented lower levels of anxiety than patients who needed help to accomplish activities of daily living and activities deriving from the surgery, without significant differences. anxiety is present at all times in laryngectomy patients and the reduction of the self-care deficit seems to decrease it, without putting a permanent end to it. estimar a prevalência de ansiedade do paciente laringectomizado no pré-operatório e pós-operatório e sua relação com o nível de autocuidado. pesquisa observacional de 40 pacientes com câncer da laringe estágio IV. Foram realizadas 3 observações: no pré-operatório, a 7 e 14 dias pós-operatório, no período de junho de 2010 a dezembro de 2012. Dois níveis de autocuidado foram definidos: autossuficientes e precisar ajuda para as atividades da vida diária e relacionadas ao tratamento. Para avaliar a ansiedade, foi utilizada a escala de ansiedade hospitalar de Zigmond (1983). no pré-operatório e pós-operatório, os pacientes apresentaram níveis elevados de ansiedade. Com relação ao autocuidado, os pacientes autossuficientes apresentaram na média níveis inferiores de ansiedades que os pacientes que precisavam de ajuda para realizar as atividades da vida diária y as derivadas da cirurgia, sem chegar a ser

  5. Assessment Sleep Quality and its Relationship with Test Anxiety among High School Students in Qom- Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saman barmeh ziyar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Test anxiety is a special case of a general anxiety which is of particular importance in students, because students will be the future of the country and the society activists. On the other hand, sleep quality and sleep disorders, have correlation with ailments, poor performance, decreased quality of life and increase of associated costs; This study aimed to determine the quality of sleep and its relationship with test anxiety among students in Qom city, Iran. Materials and Methods This study was a cross-sectional study, which was performed among 250 students who were going to pass the exam preparation classes. In order to collect data Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI questionnaires and Test Anxiety Inventory (TAI questionnaire were used. Data were analyzed using SPSS-16 with descriptive statistics and statistical methods, independent t-test, ANOVA and Pearson correlation coefficient. Results In this study, 50% of participants were boys (n=125 and 50 percent were girls (n=125. 81.4% of subjects had poor sleep quality and 69.6% had average to high score for test anxiety. Based on the results of anxiety test and sleep quality index there was a significant correlation between anxiety and sleep quality with gender (P=0.003, r=0.447. Conclusion School children had poor sleep quality and high test anxiety, and due to their direct and significant correlation, attention to this category of students, especially for girls, is important. Therefore, anxiety and promoting sleep quality control programs are recommended in this group.

  6. Developmental trajectories of anxiety symptoms in early adolescence: the influence of anxiety sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Nicholas P; Capron, Daniel W; Lejuez, Carl W; Reynolds, Elizabeth K; MacPherson, Laura; Schmidt, Norman B

    2014-05-01

    Children and adolescents seem to suffer from anxiety disorders at rates similar to adults. Interestingly, anxiety symptoms appear to generally decline over time within children as evidenced by lower rates in early and middle adolescence. There is some evidence that there may be heterogeneous subpopulations of adolescent children with different trajectories of anxiety symptoms, including a class of adolescents with elevated levels of anxiety that do not dissipate over time. Anxiety sensitivity has been identified as an important risk factor in the development of anxiety psychopathology. This study prospectively examined the development of anxiety symptoms in a sample of 277 adolescents (M age = 11.52; 44 % female, 56 % male) over a 3 year period including the influence of anxiety sensitivity on this development. Further, this study investigated whether there were distinct classes of adolescents based on their anxiety symptom trajectories and including anxiety sensitivity as a predictor. Consistent with other reports, findings indicated an overall decline in anxiety symptoms over time in the sample. However, three classes of adolescents were found with distinct anxiety symptom trajectories and anxiety sensitivity was an important predictor of class membership. Adolescents with elevated anxiety sensitivity scores were more likely to be classified as having high and increasing anxiety symptoms over time versus having moderate to low and decreasing anxiety symptoms over time. There are important implications for identification of adolescents and children who are at risk for the development of an anxiety disorder.

  7. The role of chronotype, gender, test anxiety, and conscientiousness in academic achievement of high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahafar, Arash; Maghsudloo, Mahdis; Farhangnia, Sajedeh; Vollmer, Christian; Randler, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Previous findings have demonstrated that chronotype (morningness/intermediate/eveningness) is correlated with cognitive functions, that is, people show higher mental performance when they do a test at their preferred time of day. Empirical studies found a relationship between morningness and higher learning achievement at school and university. However, only a few of them controlled for other moderating and mediating variables. In this study, we included chronotype, gender, conscientiousness and test anxiety in a structural equation model (SEM) with grade point average (GPA) as academic achievement outcome. Participants were 158 high school students and results revealed that boys and girls differed in GPA and test anxiety significantly, with girls reporting better grades and higher test anxiety. Moreover, there was a positive correlation between conscientiousness and GPA (r = 0.17) and morningness (r = 0.29), respectively, and a negative correlation between conscientiousness and test anxiety (r = -0.22). The SEM demonstrated that gender was the strongest predictor of academic achievement. Lower test anxiety predicted higher GPA in girls but not in boys. Additionally, chronotype as moderator revealed a significant association between gender and GPA for evening types and intermediate types, while intermediate types showed a significant relationship between test anxiety and GPA. Our results suggest that gender is an essential predictor of academic achievement even stronger than low or absent test anxiety. Future studies are needed to explore how gender and chronotype act together in a longitudinal panel design and how chronotype is mediated by conscientiousness in the prediction of academic achievement.

  8. Manipulating Attention to Nonemotional Distractors Influences State Anxiety: A Proof-of-Concept Study in Low- and High-Anxious College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Jason S; Moran, Tim P; Leber, Andrew B

    2015-11-01

    Anxious individuals have difficulty inhibiting attention to salient, but nonemotional, distracting stimuli. The exact nature of this relationship remains unclear, however. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that increasing attention to salient, but nonemotional, distracting stimuli would lead to increases in state anxiety by manipulating attentional strategies during a visual search task. We randomly assigned students low and high in trait anxiety to either a 1-session singleton detection training group or a feature search group. Singleton detection training increases distraction by salient, nonemotional stimuli whereas feature search training protects attention against distracting stimuli. Findings revealed that singleton detection training not only increased distraction by salient, nonemotional stimuli but also increased state anxiety. Moreover, this increase in state anxiety was most pronounced among high trait-anxious individuals. In contrast, feature search training protected attention against distracting stimuli and against increases in state anxiety, particularly in the high trait-anxious individuals. Together, the current findings provide initial support for the notion that distraction by salient, nonemotional stimuli can increase state anxiety levels. Furthermore, these results suggest that individuals already vulnerable to experience anxiety are most likely to be affected by distraction by salient, nonemotional stimuli, and that training anxious individuals to focus on specific shape features may be a viable attention modification intervention.

  9. Alexithymia, Suicide Ideation, C-Reactive Protein, and Serum Lipid Levels Among Outpatients with Generalized Anxiety Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Berardis, Domenico; Serroni, Nicola; Campanella, Daniela; Marini, Stefano; Rapini, Gabriella; Valchera, Alessandro; Iasevoli, Felice; Mazza, Monica; Fornaro, Michele; Perna, Giampaolo; Di Iorio, Giuseppe; Martinotti, Giovanni; Di Giannantonio, Massimo

    2017-01-02

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationships between alexithymia, suicide ideation, C-Reactive Protein (CRP), and serum lipid levels in adult outpatients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD). Seventy consecutive patients with GAD were recruited and evaluated. Measures were the Hamilton Anxiety Scale, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), the Scale of Suicide Ideation (SSI), and the Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). All patients were assessed for: CRP, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceridaemia (TG), and very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C). TC/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C ratios were also evaluated. Alexithymic patients showed higher scores on almost all rating scales and altered serum CRP and lipid levels vs. non-alexithymics. In the hierarchical regression model, the presence of higher MADRS scores together with higher scores at the Difficulty in Identifying Feelings dimension of TAS-20 were associated with higher rates of suicide ideation. Although alexithymic subjects with GAD may show a CRP and cholesterol dysregulation, this latter seems independent on increased suicide ideation, rather to Difficulty in Identifying Feelings, and subthreshold depressive symptoms. Study limitations and future research implications are discussed.

  10. High Current Anxiety Symptoms, But Not a Past Anxiety Disorder Diagnosis, are Associated with Impaired Fear Extinction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duits, P.; Cath, D.C.; Heitland, I.; Baas, J.M.P.

    2016-01-01

    Although impaired fear extinction has repeatedly been demonstrated in patients with anxiety disorders, little is known about whether these impairments persist after treatment. The current comparative exploratory study investigated fear extinction in 26 patients treated for their anxiety disorder in

  11. Level of Anxiety, Depression, Self-Esteem, Social Anxiety, and Quality of Life among the Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Gökhan Açmaz; Evrim Albayrak; Banu Acmaz; Mürüvvet Başer; Murat Soyak; Gökmen Zararsız; İptisam İpekMüderris

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous disease and many symptoms are seen with varying degrees. The aim of the present study was to determine which symptoms increased such problems as depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, and social worry by classifying PCOS according to symptoms. Methods. The study was carried out with two groups. The first group consisted of 86 patients who were diagnosed with PCOS and the second group consisted of 47 healthy volunteers. Liebowitz...

  12. High-Level Radioactive Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Howard C.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a method to calculate the amount of high-level radioactive waste by taking into consideration the following factors: the fission process that yields the waste, identification of the waste, the energy required to run a 1-GWe plant for one year, and the uranium mass required to produce that energy. Briefly discusses waste disposal and…

  13. High-level Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of some of the most important papers on the application and theory of high-level Petri nets. In this way it makes the relevant literature more available. It is our hope that the book will be a useful source of information and that, e.g., it can be used in the organization of Petri net courses. To make...... there is only one kind of token and this means that the state of a place is described by an integer (and in many cases even by a boolean). In high-level nets each token can carry a complex information/data - which, e.g., may describe the entire state of a process or a data base. Today most practical...... by other papers. Thus, e.g., none of the original papers introducing the first versions of high-level Petri nets have been included. The introductions to the individual sections mention a number of researchers who have contributed to the development of high-level Petri nets. Detailed references...

  14. Acute effects of bergamot oil on anxiety-related behaviour and corticosterone level in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiyudthong, Somrudee; Marsden, Charles A

    2011-06-01

    Bergamot essential oil (BEO), Citrus aurantium subsp. bergamia (Risso) Wright & Arn. (Rutaceae), is used widely in aromatherapy to reduce stress and anxiety despite limited scientific evidence. A previous study showed that BEO significantly increased gamma-aminobutyric acid levels in rat hippocampus, suggesting potential anxiolytic properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of BEO (1.0%, 2.5% and 5.0% w/w) administered to rats on both anxiety-related behaviours (the elevated plus-maze (EPM) and hole-board tests) and stress-induced levels of plasma corticosterone in comparison with the effects of diazepam. Inhalation of BEO (1% and 2.5%) and injection of diazepam (1 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly increased the percentage of open arm entries on the EPM. The percentage time spent in the open arms was also significantly enhanced following administration of either BEO (2.5% and 5%) or diazepam. Total arm entries were significantly increased with the highest dose (5%), suggesting an increase in locomotor activity. In the hole-board test, 2.5% BEO and diazepam significantly increased the number of head dips. 2.5% BEO and diazepam attenuated the corticosterone response to acute stress caused by exposure to the EPM. In conclusion, both BEO and diazepam exhibited anxiolytic-like behaviours and attenuated HPA axis activity by reducing the corticosterone response to stress.

  15. Maternal phobic anxiety and child anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Gail A; Layne, Ann E; Egan, Elizabeth A; Nelson, Lara P

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined the relation between maternal anxiety symptoms and child anxiety symptoms and evaluated whether a reporting bias is associated with maternal anxiety. Fifty-seven mother-child pairs participated. All children had features or diagnoses of separation anxiety disorder (SAD), generalized anxiety disorder, and/or social phobia. Measures of maternal symptomatology and child anxiety were administered. Higher levels of maternal phobic anxiety on the Brief Symptom Inventory were significantly associated with higher levels of separation anxiety in children. After controlling for clinician rating of SAD severity, maternal phobic anxiety emerged as a significant predictor of maternal ratings of child separation anxiety, accounting for 19% of the variance. Phobic mothers endorsed levels of separation anxiety in their children that exceeded levels endorsed by clinicians, suggesting maternal overreporting.

  16. Research on High Examinees' Test Anxiety%高考生考试焦虑状况调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马雅菊

    2011-01-01

    Test anxiety directly affect high examinees' normal exertion, and the physical and mental health level, the test anxiety intervention is the important content for the mental-health-education work. In the study, 488 senior students were assessed with SRITA. The result show that sex, family origin, art and science have certain influence to the senior students' test anxiety, the intervention and coaching to the high examinees' test anxiety should be given pertinently.%考试焦虑直接影响考生的正常发挥和身心健康水平,对考试焦虑的干预是学校心理健康教育工作的重要内容.本研究采用考试焦虑自我检测表对488名高三学生进行问卷调查,结果表明,不同性别、家庭来源和文理科的高考生考试焦虑的来源及水平有所不同,要有针对性地对高考生的考试焦虑给予相应的干预和辅导.

  17. RPython high-level synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieszewski, Radoslaw; Linczuk, Maciej

    2016-09-01

    The development of FPGA technology and the increasing complexity of applications in recent decades have forced compilers to move to higher abstraction levels. Compilers interprets an algorithmic description of a desired behavior written in High-Level Languages (HLLs) and translate it to Hardware Description Languages (HDLs). This paper presents a RPython based High-Level synthesis (HLS) compiler. The compiler get the configuration parameters and map RPython program to VHDL. Then, VHDL code can be used to program FPGA chips. In comparison of other technologies usage, FPGAs have the potential to achieve far greater performance than software as a result of omitting the fetch-decode-execute operations of General Purpose Processors (GPUs), and introduce more parallel computation. This can be exploited by utilizing many resources at the same time. Creating parallel algorithms computed with FPGAs in pure HDL is difficult and time consuming. Implementation time can be greatly reduced with High-Level Synthesis compiler. This article describes design methodologies and tools, implementation and first results of created VHDL backend for RPython compiler.

  18. The CMS High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, W; Deldicque, C; Ero, J; Frühwirth, R; Jeitler, Manfred; Kastner, K; Köstner, S; Neumeister, N; Porth, M; Padrta P; Rohringer, H; Sakulinb, H; Strauss, J; Taurok, A; Walzel, G; Wulz, C E; Lowette, S; Van De Vyver, B; De Lentdecker, G; Vanlaer, P; Delaere, C; Lemaître, V; Ninane, A; van der Aa, O; Damgov, J; Karimäki, V; Kinnunen, R; Lampen, T; Lassila-Perini, K M; Lehti, S; Nysten, J; Tuominiemi, J; Busson, P; Todorov, T; Schwering, G; Gras, P; Daskalakis, G; Sfyrla, A; Barone, M; Geralis, T; Markou, C; Zachariadou, K; Hidas, P; Banerjee, S; Mazumdara, K; Abbrescia, M; Colaleoa, A; D'Amato, N; De Filippis, N; Giordano, D; Loddo, F; Maggi, M; Silvestris, L; Zito, G; Arcelli, S; Bonacorsi, D; Capiluppi, P; Dallavalle, G M; Fanfani, A; Grandi, C; Marcellini, S; Montanari, A; Odorici, F; Travaglini, R; Costa, S; Tricomi, A; Ciulli, a V; Magini, N; Ranieri, R; Berti, L; Biasotto, M; Gulminia, M; Maron, G; Toniolo, N; Zangrando, L; Bellato, M; Gasparini, U; Lacaprara, S; Parenti, A; Ronchese, P; Vanini, S; Zotto, S; Ventura P L; Perugia; Benedetti, D; Biasini, M; Fano, L; Servoli, L; Bagliesi, a G; Boccali, T; Dutta, S; Gennai, S; Giassi, A; Palla, F; Segneri, G; Starodumov, A; Tenchini, R; Meridiani, P; Organtini, G; Amapane, a N; Bertolino, F; Cirio, R; Kim, J Y; Lim, I T; Pac, Y; Joo, K; Kim, S B; Suwon; Choi, Y I; Yu, I T; Cho, K; Chung, J; Ham, S W; Kim, D H; Kim, G N; Kim, W; CKim, J; Oh, S K; Park, H; Ro, S R; Son, D C; Suh, J S; Aftab, Z; Hoorani, H; Osmana, A; Bunkowski, K; Cwiok, M; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, K; Kazana, M; Królikowski, J; Kudla, I; Pietrusinski, M; Pozniak, Krzysztof T; Zabolotny, W M; Zalipska, J; Zych, P; Goscilo, L; Górski, M; Wrochna, G; Zalewski, P; Alemany-Fernandez, R; Almeida, C; Almeida, N; Da Silva, J C; Santos, M; Teixeira, I; Teixeira, J P; Varelaa, J; Vaz-Cardoso, N; Konoplyanikov, V F; Urkinbaev, A R; Toropin, A; Gavrilov, V; Kolosov, V; Krokhotin, A; Oulianov, A; Stepanov, N; Kodolova, O L; Vardanyan, I; Ilic, J; Skoro, G P; Albajar, C; De Troconiz, J F; Calderón, A; López-Virto, M A; Marco, R; Martínez-Rivero, C; Matorras, F; Vila, I; Cucciarelli, S; Konecki, M; Ashby, S; Barney, D; Bartalini, P; Benetta, R; Brigljevic, V; Bruno, G; Cano, E; Cittolin, S; Della Negra, M; de Roeck, A; Favre, P; Frey, A; Funk, W; Futyan, D; Gigi, D; Glege, F; Gutleber, J; Hansen, M; Innocente, V; Jacobs, C; Jank, W; Kozlovszky, Miklos; Larsen, H; Lenzi, M; Magrans, I; Mannelli, M; Meijers, F; Meschi, E; Mirabito, L; Murray, S J; Oh, A; Orsini, L; Palomares-Espiga, C; Pollet, L; Rácz, A; Reynaud, S; Samyn, D; Scharff-Hansen, P; Schwick, C; Sguazzoni, G; Sinanis, N; Sphicas, P; Spiropulu, M; Strandlie, A; Taylor, B G; Van Vulpen, I; Wellisch, J P; Winkler, M; Villigen; Kotlinski, D; Zurich; Prokofiev, K; Speer, T; Dumanoglu, I; Bristol; Bailey, S; Brooke, J J; Cussans, D; Heath, G P; Machin, D; Nash, S J; Newbold, D; Didcot; Coughlan, A; Halsall, R; Haynes, W J; Tomalin, I R; Marinelli, N; Nikitenko, A; Rutherford, S; Seeza, C; Sharif, O; Antchev, G; Hazen, E; Rohlf, J; Wu, S; Breedon, R; Cox, P T; Murray, P; Tripathi, M; Cousins, R; Erhan, S; Hauser, J; Kreuzer, P; Lindgren, M; Mumford, J; Schlein, P E; Shi, Y; Tannenbaum, B; Valuev, V; Von der Mey, M; Andreevaa, I; Clare, R; Villa, S; Bhattacharya, S; Branson, J G; Fisk, I; Letts, J; Mojaver, M; Paar, H P; Trepagnier, E; Litvine, V; Shevchenko, S; Singh, S; Wilkinson, R; Aziz, S; Bowden, M; Elias, J E; Graham, G; Green, D; Litmaath, M; Los, S; O'Dell, V; Ratnikova, N; Suzuki, I; Wenzel, H; Acosta, D; Bourilkov, D; Korytov, A; Madorsky, A; Mitselmakher, G; Rodríguez, J L; Scurlock, B; Abdullin, S; Baden, D; Eno, S; Grassi, T; Kunori, S; Pavlon, S; Sumorok, K; Tether, S; Cremaldi, L M; Sanders, D; Summers, D; Osborne, I; Taylor, L; Tuura, L; Fisher,W C; Mans6, J; Stickland, D P; Tully, C; Wildish, T; Wynhoff, S; Padley, B P; Chumney, P; Dasu, S; Smith, W H; CMS Trigger Data Acquisition Group

    2006-01-01

    At the Large Hadron Collider at CERN the proton bunches cross at a rate of 40MHz. At the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment the original collision rate is reduced by a factor of O (1000) using a Level-1 hardware trigger. A subsequent factor of O(1000) data reduction is obtained by a software-implemented High Level Trigger (HLT) selection that is executed on a multi-processor farm. In this review we present in detail prototype CMS HLT physics selection algorithms, expected trigger rates and trigger performance in terms of both physics efficiency and timing.

  19. Serum level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in fibromyalgia syndrome correlates with depression but not anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugraha, Boya; Korallus, Christoph; Gutenbrunner, Christoph

    2013-02-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been known to play a role in fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) patients. Depression and anxiety are quite common additional symptoms in FMS. However the role of BDNF in these symptoms still needs to be elucidated. Although BDNF has been shown to be relevant in major depression, however studies could not show such differences between FMS patients with and without major depression. As mood-related symptom occurs frequently and differs in its intensity in FMS patients, BDNF level should be measured in subgroup regarding depression and anxiety scale. Therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation of BDNF in serum of FMS with intensity of depression and anxiety. Additionally, interleukin (IL)-6 was measured. This study showed that serum level of BDNF was age-dependent in HCs. FMS patients had higher level of serum BDNF as compared to HC. Additionally, serum level of BDNF showed correlation with depression, but not with anxiety. Serum level of BDNF increased with depression score in FMS. However, serum level of IL-6 was not correlated with both depression and anxiety scores. Taken together, BDNF is involved in the pathophysiology of FMS. Additionally, it seems to be correlated with intensity of depressive symptoms in FMS.

  20. Precompetitive state anxiety in judo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Montero Carretero

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2 in Spanish judokas, and calculate differences in pre-competitive state anxiety due the sport level, age and gender. We analyze these relationships using a multidimensional anxiety perspective.Method: A sample of 128 judokas from amateur to high performance level participated in our study. The intensity and directional somatic anxiety, cognitive anxiety and self confidence of the CSAI-2 were measured.Results: The results show that the questionnaire administered showed acceptable psychometric properties, and there are differences in directional somatic and cognitive anxiety for age, and in intensity self confidence for sport level. The implications of these findings for the process of training and competition are discussed in the document.

  1. In the company we keep: social physique anxiety levels differ around parents and peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunet, Jennifer; Sabiston, Catherine M

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of two scales which assessed social physique anxiety (SPA) in the context of peers (peer SPA) and parents (parent SPA), and differences in reported levels of peer SPA and parent SPA. Young adults (N = 381, 161 males, M(age) = 18.69 years) completed self-report measures. Results supported the internal consistency, convergent validity and factor structure of the peer SPA and parent SPA scales. Also, participants reported significantly higher levels of peer SPA compared to parent SPA. Findings offer preliminary support for the investigation of contextualized SPA using the scales tested in this study, and suggest more research is needed to better understand the processes that may increase or decrease SPA when surrounded by peers and parents.

  2. Age-related Differences of Individuals’ Arithmetic Strategy Utilization with Different Level of Math Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiwei Si

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study used the choice/no-choice method to investigate the effect of math anxiety on the strategy used in computational estimation and mental arithmetic tasks and to examine age-related differences in this regard. 57 fourth graders, 56 sixth graders, and 60 adults were randomly selected to participate in the experiment. Results showed the following: (1 High-anxious individuals were more likely to use a rounding-down strategy in the computational estimation task under the best-choice condition. Additionally, sixth-grade students and adults performed faster than fourth-grade students on the strategy execution parameter. Math anxiety affected response times (RTs and the accuracy with which strategies were executed. (2 The execution of the partial-decomposition strategy was superior to that of the full-decomposition strategy on the mental arithmetic task. Low-math-anxious persons provided more accurate answers than did high-math-anxious participants under the no-choice condition. This difference was significant for sixth graders. With regard to the strategy selection parameter, the RTs for strategy selection varied with age.

  3. The burden of disease of dental anxiety: generic and disease-specific quality of life in patients with and without extreme levels of dental anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermaire, J H; van Houtem, C M H H; Ross, J N; Schuller, A A

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare disease-specific (oral health-related) quality of life (OHRQoL), assessed using the Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14), and generic (health-related) quality of life (HRQoL), assessed using the EuroQol5D (EQ-5D-5L), in patients with severe dental anxiety (who were visiting a centre for special care dentistry) with a control group from the general population. Seventy-six patients with severe dental anxiety [Dental Anxiety Scale (DAS) score ≥ 13] were matched, according to age, gender, and socio-economic status, to a control group of 76 participants in a larger epidemiological study on oral health in the Netherlands (n = 1,125). The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare levels of HRQoL and OHRQoL in both groups. The total OHIP score (indicating lower OHRQoL) was higher for the patient group (10th percentile = 30.5; 90th percentile = 46.0) than for the control group (10th percentile = 1.0; 90th percentile = 14.5). The patient group showed higher scores on all seven OHIP domains. Lower utility scores were found in patients with severe dental anxiety (HRQOL: 10th percentile = 0.7; 90th percentile = 0.9) relative to the control group (HRQOL: 10th percentile = 0.9; 90th percentile = 1.0). A disease burden of 74,000 disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) was calculated for the Netherlands. The findings of this study show differences between patients visiting a dental fear clinic and matched controls from the general population for both OHRQoL and HRQoL, indicating that having severe dental anxiety generates a significant burden of disease. © 2016 Eur J Oral Sci.

  4. Effects of Wen Dan Tang on insomnia-related anxiety and levels of the brain-gut peptide Ghrelin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liye Wang; Binghe Guan; Xiaolan Liu; Yuehan Song; Feng Li; Yan Liu; Jie Ma; Meng Mao; Fengzhi Wu; Ying Wu; Sinai Li

    2014-01-01

    Ghrelin, a brain-gut peptide that induces anxiety and other abnormal emotions, contributes to the effects of insomnia on emotional behavior. In contrast, the traditional Chinese Medi-cine remedy Wen Dan Tang reduces insomnia-related anxiety, which may perhaps correspond to changes in the brain-gut axis. This suggests a possible relationship between Wen Dan Tang’s pharmacological mechanism and the brain-gut axis. Based on this hypothesis, a sleep-deprived rat model was induced and Wen Dan Tang was administered using oral gavage during model es-tablishment. Wen Dan Tang signiifcantly reduced insomnia-related anxiety and prevented Ghrelin level decreases following sleep deprivation, especially in the hypothalamus. Increased expression of Ghrelin receptor mRNA in the hypothalamus was also observed, suggesting that reduced anxi-ety may be a result of Wen Dan Tang’s regulation of Ghrelin-Ghrelin receptors.

  5. The ALICE high level trigger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, T.; Grastveit, G.; Helstrup, H.; Lindenstruth, V.; Loizides, C.; Röhrich, D.; Skaali, B.; Steinbeck, T.; Stock, R.; Tilsner, H.; Ullaland, K.; Vestbø, A.; Vik, T.; Wiebalck, A.; the ALICE Collaboration

    2004-08-01

    The ALICE experiment at LHC will implement a high-level trigger system for online event selection and/or data compression. The largest computing challenge is posed by the TPC detector, which requires real-time pattern recognition. The system entails a very large processing farm that is designed for an anticipated input data stream of 25 GB s-1. In this paper, we present the architecture of the system and the current state of the tracking methods and data compression applications.

  6. The Examination of the Effects of Writing Strategy-Based Procedural Facilitative Environments on Students' English Foreign Language Writing Anxiety Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Tsiriotakis, Ioanna K.; Vassilaki, Eleni; Spantidakis, Ioannis; Stavrou, Nektarios A. M.

    2017-01-01

    Empirical studies have shown that anxiety and negative emotion can hinder language acquisition. The present study implemented a writing instructional model so as to investigate its effects on the writing anxiety levels of English Foreign Language learners. The study was conducted with 177 participants, who were administered the Second Language Writing Anxiety Inventory (SLWAI; Cheng, 2004) that assesses somatic, cognitive and behavioral anxiety, both at baseline and following the implementati...

  7. Level of school anxiety of girls aged 12-13 years old with different kinds of postural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamozhanskaya A.V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : to identify the level of school anxiety of girls with signs of normal, round-shouldered, lardotic, kyphotic and straightened by the types of carriages during a school year. Material : the study involved 137 girls 12-13 years old. Was held diagnostics level of school anxiety Phillips. Results : It was found that girls with normal posture there is a general anxiety in school, fear of the situation knowledge test. With stooping - frustration needs to succeed, fear of self-expression. With lardotic - frustration needs to succeed, fear of self-expression. With kyphotic - general anxiety at school, frustration needs to succeed, fear not meet the expectations of others. With straight - manifestation of the general emotional state, negative attitudes and experience of anxiety in the situation knowledge test. Conclusions : factors of school anxiety have different effects on girls. It was established that during adolescence the need to integrate and correction of psychological state and the musculoskeletal system. This is due to the formation of morphological features, formation of character traits.

  8. Pooled patient-level meta-analysis of children and adults completing a computer-based anxiety intervention targeting attentional bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Rebecca B; Wallace, Meredith; Kuckertz, Jennie M; Amir, Nader; Graur, Simona; Cummings, Logan; Popa, Paul; Carlbring, Per; Bar-Haim, Yair

    2016-12-01

    Computer-based approaches, such as Attention Bias Modification (ABM), could help improve access to care for anxiety. Study-level meta-analyses of ABM have produced conflicting findings and leave critical questions unresolved regarding ABM's mechanisms of action and clinical potential. We pooled patient-level datasets from randomized controlled trials of children and adults with high-anxiety. Attentional bias (AB) towards threat, the target mechanism of ABM, was tested as an outcome and a mechanistic mediator and moderator of anxiety reduction. Diagnostic remission and Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) were clinical outcomes available in enough studies to enable pooling. Per-patient data were obtained on at least one outcome from 13/16 eligible studies [86% of eligible participants; n=778]. Significant main effects of ABM on diagnostic remission (ABM-22.6%, control-10.8%; OR=2.57; p=0.006) and AB (β* (95%CI)=-0.63 (-0.83, -0.42); p<0.00005) were observed. There was no main effect of ABM on LSAS. However, moderator analyses suggested ABM was effective for patients who were younger (≤37y), trained in the lab, and/or assessed by clinicians. Under the same conditions where ABM was effective, mechanistic links between AB and anxiety reduction were supported. Under these specific circumstances, ABM reduces anxiety and acts through its target mechanism, supporting ABM's theoretical basis while simultaneously suggesting clinical indications and refinements to improve its currently limited clinical potential. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Decreased sensitivity to thermal pain in rats bred for high anxiety-related behaviour is attenuated by citalopram or diazepam treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochum, Thomas; Boettger, Michael Karl; Wigger, Alexandra; Beiderbeck, Daniela; Neumann, Inga D; Landgraf, Rainer; Sauer, Heinrich; Bär, Karl-Jürgen

    2007-10-01

    Complex interactions between pain perception, anxiety and depressive symptoms have repeatedly been described. However, pathophysiological or biochemical mechanisms underlying the alterations of pain perception in patients suffering from anxiety or depression still remain a matter of debate. Thus, we aimed to perform an investigation on pain perception in an animal model of extremes in anxiety-related behaviour, which might provide a tool for future studies. Here, thermal pain thresholds were obtained from rats with a genetic predisposition to high anxiety-related behaviour (HAB), including signs of comorbid depression-like behaviour and from controls (low-anxiety rats (LAB); cross-bred HAB and LAB rats; Wistar rats). Furthermore, the effect of eight-week antidepressive treatment using citalopram and of short-term anxiolytic treatment with diazepam on pain-related behaviour was assessed. Simultaneously, anxiety-related behaviour was monitored. At baseline, HAB animals showed 35% higher thresholds for thermal pain than controls. These were normalized to control levels after eight weeks of continuous citalopram treatment paralleled by a reduction of anxiety-related behaviour, but also acutely after diazepam administration. Overall, thermal pain thresholds in HAB animals are shifted in a similar fashion as seen in patients suffering from major depressive disorder. Antidepressive, as well as anxiolytic treatments, attenuated these differences. As the relative importance of the factors anxiety and depression cannot be derived from this study with certainty, extending these investigations to additional animal models might represent a valuable tool for future investigations concerning the interrelations between anxiety, depression, and pain at a molecular level.

  10. An investigation of the relationship between epistemological beliefs and mathematics anxiety levels of student teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Delice

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false TR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} There is dearth of literature on the relationship between epistemological beliefs and mathematics anxiety levels at the national level. It is important from to analyze the relationship between the two variables which are effective on student teachers’ performance of mathematics as other disciplines. The aim of the study is to explore the relationship between mathematics student teachers’ epistemological beliefs and anxiety levels considering all the sub-dimensions of the variables. The study uses the quantitative paradigm and the correlational model. The sample of the study comprised of the 547 student teachers trained in Selcuk and Marmara Universities. The data collection tools are ‘epistemological beliefs scale’, ‘mathematics anxiety scale’ and personal information form. Statistical analyses were made using descriptive statistics, Pearson Product correlation and chi-square formulas. Most of the correlations between all dimensions of the two variables showed statistically meaningful relationships. The statistically meaningful and slightly below average correlations are among the noteworthy findings of the study whose reasons and implications are discussed in the paper.

  11. The relationship between alexithymia, anxiety, depression, and internet addiction severity in a sample of Italian high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scimeca, Giuseppe; Bruno, Antonio; Cava, Lucia; Pandolfo, Gianluca; Muscatello, Maria Rosaria Anna; Zoccali, Rocco

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to assess whether Internet addiction (IA) severity was related to alexithymia scores among high school students, taking into account the role of gender differences and the possible effect of anxiety, depression, and age. Participants in the study were 600 students (ages ranging from 13 to 22; 48.16% girls) recruited from three high schools in two cities from Southern Italy. Participants completed a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale, the Internet Addiction Test, the Hamilton Anxiety Scale, and the Hamilton Depression Scale. The findings of the study showed that IA scores were associated with alexithymia scores, over and above the effect of negative emotions and age. Students with pathological levels of alexithymia reported higher scores on IA severity. In particular, results showed that difficulty in identifying feelings was significantly associated with higher scores on IA severity. No effect of gender was found. Implications for clinicians were discussed.

  12. The Relationship between Alexithymia, Anxiety, Depression, and Internet Addiction Severity in a Sample of Italian High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Scimeca

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to assess whether Internet addiction (IA severity was related to alexithymia scores among high school students, taking into account the role of gender differences and the possible effect of anxiety, depression, and age. Participants in the study were 600 students (ages ranging from 13 to 22; 48.16% girls recruited from three high schools in two cities from Southern Italy. Participants completed a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale, the Internet Addiction Test, the Hamilton Anxiety Scale, and the Hamilton Depression Scale. The findings of the study showed that IA scores were associated with alexithymia scores, over and above the effect of negative emotions and age. Students with pathological levels of alexithymia reported higher scores on IA severity. In particular, results showed that difficulty in identifying feelings was significantly associated with higher scores on IA severity. No effect of gender was found. Implications for clinicians were discussed.

  13. Disability in anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, S.M.; Spijker, J.; Licht, C.M.M.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Hardeveld, F.; Graaf, R. de; Batelaan, N.M.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study compares disability levels between different anxiety disorders and healthy controls. We further investigate the role of anxiety arousal and avoidance behaviour in disability, and whether differences in these symptom patterns contribute to disability differences between anxiety

  14. Disability in anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, S.M.; Spijker, J.; Licht, C.M.; Beekman, A.T.; Hardeveld, F.; Graaf, R. de; Batelaan, N.M.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study compares disability levels between different anxiety disorders and healthy controls. We further investigate the role of anxiety arousal and avoidance behaviour in disability, and whether differences in these symptom patterns contribute to disability differences between anxiety

  15. The Influence of Social Support on the Levels of Depression, Anxiety and Stress among Students in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugbey, Nuworza; Osei-Boadi, Samuel; Atefoe, Ethel Akpene

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the impact of social support from family, friends and significant others on the levels depression, anxiety and stress among undergraduate students of University of Ghana. A total of one hundred and sixty-five (165) students were sampled from all the levels and were administered with standardized questionnaires measuring social…

  16. Academic Locus of Control, Tendencies Towards Academic Dishonesty and Test Anxiety Levels as the Predictors of Academic Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesilyurt, Etem

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have focused on finding the level of effect that academic locus of control, tendencies towards academic dishonesty, and test anxiety levels have had on academic self-efficacy, and providing a separate explanation ratio for each. The relationship among the effects of the academic locus of control, tendencies towards academic…

  17. Comparison of the effects of lavender and diazepam on the anxiety level of patients before orthopedic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Shahinfar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Waiting for surgery is one of the stressful environmental factors for each patient. The anxiety caused by waiting could have adverse effects on the patient treatment and recovery process. Given the complications caused by the management of anxiety through pharmaceutical methods, the application of complementary medicine is of paramount importance. This study aimed to compare the effects of lavender and diazepam on the anxiety level of the patients before orthopedic surgery. Methods: This clinical trial was conducted on the patients undergoing orthopedic surgery, who referred to one of the teaching hospitals of Bojnord, Iran, in 2015. In total, 60 patients were selected through randomized convenience sampling and divided into the intervention and control groups. The intervention group received 300 mg of lavender extract, whereas the control group orally consumed diazepam 5 mg prior to the surgery. The anxiety level of the patients was measured one night and one hour before the surgery using the Spielberger’s State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. The data analysis was performed in the SPSS version 16, using the paired sample t-test, Fisher’s exact test, Chi-square test, and independent t-test. Results: According to the results of the present study, the mean anxiety level of the intervention group varied from 9.8±6.0 to 76.2±5.5 (P<0.001 after the intervention. On the other hand, the mean anxiety level of the participants of the control group decreased from 100.0±5.5 to 80.0±5.7 (P<0.001. However, this difference was not statistically significant between the two groups. Conclusion: As the findings indicated, similar to diazepam, the lavender can diminish the anxiety level in the patients before the orthopedic surgery. It is recommended to use the lavender before the surgeries to decrease the anxiety level since the herbal medicine is associated with less complications, compared to the diazepam.

  18. Psychosocial stress but not exercise increases cortisol and reduces state anxiety levels in school classes - results from a stressor applicable in large group settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Mirko; Müller-Alcazar, Anett; Jäger, Anika; Machado, Sergio; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Budde, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Both, psychosocial stress and exercise in the past have been used as stressors to elevate saliva cortisol and change state anxiety levels. In the present study, high-school students at the age of 14 were randomly assigned to three experimental groups: (1) an exercise group (n = 18), that was running 15 minutes at a medium intensity level of 65-75% HRmax, (2) a psychosocial stress group (n = 19), and (3) a control group (n = 18). The psychosocial stress was induced to the students by completing a standardized intelligence test under the assumption that their IQ scores would be made public in class. Results display that only psychosocial stress but not exercise was able to significantly increase cortisol levels but decreased cognitive state anxiety in adolescents. The psychosocial stress protocol applied here is proposed for use in future stress studies with children or adolescents in group settings, e.g., in school.

  19. The ALICE high level trigger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alt, T [Kirchhoff Institute for Physics, University of Heidelberg (Germany); Grastveit, G [Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen (Norway); Helstrup, H [Faculty of Engineering, Bergen University College (Norway); Lindenstruth, V [Kirchhoff Institute for Physics, University of Heidelberg (Germany); Loizides, C [Institute for Nuclear Physics, University of Frankfurt (Germany); Roehrich, D [Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen (Norway); Skaali, B [Department of Physics, University of Oslo (Norway); Steinbeck, T [Kirchhoff Institute for Physics, University of Heidelberg (Germany); Stock, R [Institute for Nuclear Physics, University of Frankfurt (Germany); Tilsner, H [Kirchhoff Institute for Physics, University of Heidelberg (Germany); Ullaland, K [Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen (Norway); Vestboe, A [Faculty of Engineering, Bergen University College (Norway); Vik, T [Department of Physics, University of Oslo (Norway); Wiebalck, A [Kirchhoff Institute for Physics, University of Heidelberg (Germany)

    2004-08-01

    The ALICE experiment at LHC will implement a high-level trigger system for online event selection and/or data compression. The largest computing challenge is posed by the TPC detector, which requires real-time pattern recognition. The system entails a very large processing farm that is designed for an anticipated input data stream of 25 GB s{sup -1}. In this paper, we present the architecture of the system and the current state of the tracking methods and data compression applications.

  20. Anxiety and anger immediately prior to myocardial infarction and long-term mortality: Characteristics of high-risk patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeijers, Loes; Mostofsky, Elizabeth; Tofler, Geoffrey H; Muller, James E; Kop, Willem J; Mittleman, Murray A

    2017-02-01

    Acute high levels of anger and anxiety are associated with an elevated risk of myocardial infarction (MI) in the following two hours. MIs preceded by these acute negative emotions may also have a poor long-term prognosis, but information about high-risk patients is lacking. We examined whether young age and female sex are associated with MIs that are preceded by negative emotions and whether age and sex moderate the subsequent increased mortality risk following MI preceded by negative emotions. We conducted a secondary analysis of the Determinants of Myocardial Infarction Onset Study (N=2176, mean age=60.1±12.3years, 29.2% women). Anxiety and anger immediately prior to (0-2h) MI and the day before (24-26h) MI were assessed using a structured interview. Subsequent 10-year all-cause mortality was determined using the US National Death Index. Anxiety during the 0-2h pre-MI period was associated with younger age (OR=0.98,95% CI=0.96-0.99 per year) and female sex (OR=1.50,95% CI=1.11-2.02). Anger in the 0-2h pre-MI period was also associated with younger age (OR=0.95,95% CI=0.94-0.96) but not with sex (OR=0.93,95% CI=0.67-1.28). During follow-up, 580 (26.7%) patients died. Mortality rate was higher if MI occurred immediately after high anxiety, particularly in patients ≥65years (HR=1.80,95% CI=1.28-2.54) vs. younger patients (HR=0.87,95% CI=0.55-1.40; p-interaction=0.015). Other interactions with sex or anger were not significant. Patients with high anxiety or anger levels in the critical 2-hour period prior to MI are younger than those without such emotional precipitants. In addition, pre-MI anxiety is associated with an elevated 10-year mortality risk in patients aged ≥65years. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Anxiety (Low Ago Strength) And Intelligence Among Students Of High School Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, Habibollah

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between anxiety (low ago strength) and intelligence among student's mathematics. All the effects of anxiety were studied within the sample of 112 subjects (boys). 56 of them were regular of students (RS) and 56 were intelligent of students (IS) of high schools. Mean age was (17.1 years), SD (.454) and range age was 16-18 years in 3 classes of regular of high school mathematics was for regular students. For the IS, mean age was (16.75 years), SD (.436) and range age was l6-17 years in 4 classes of students exceptional talent for high school mathematics. The sampling method in this study was the simple randomization method. In this studied, for analysis of method used both descriptive and inference of research, which for description of analysis used Average and analysis of covariance and Variance, also for inference of analysis, used with t-test between two the groups of students. The Cattell of Anxiety Test (1958) (CTAT) has been used in a number of studies for measurement trait anxiety in Iran. In general, the findings were found not statistical significant between the RS and the IS of students in that factorial of low of ago strength (C-). Further research is needed to investigate whether the current findings hold for student populations by others anxiety tests.

  2. Association between amygdala volume and anxiety level: magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study in autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juranek, Jenifer; Filipek, Pauline A; Berenji, Gholam R; Modahl, Charlotte; Osann, Kathryn; Spence, M Anne

    2006-12-01

    differences between study populations regarding age at MRI, level of impairment within autistic subjects, and underlying anxiety level in the selected study groups.

  3. Attention bias to threat indicates anxiety differences in sheep

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Humans and animals show increased attention towards threatening stimuli when they are in increased states of anxiety. The few animal studies that have examined this phenomenon, known as attention bias, have applied environmental manipulations to induce anxiety but the effects of drug-induced anxiety levels on attention bias have not been demonstrated. Here, we present an attention bias test to identify high and low anxiety states in sheep using pharmacological manipulation. Increased anxiety ...

  4. Teaching the Anxiety of Learning a Foreign Language That Influences High School Students in Learning French as a Second Foreign Language "The Case of Denizli"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusçu, Ertan

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the reasons of anxiety levels of high school students who learn French as a second foreign language. The sample of the study consisted of four hundred fifty-six students from two high schools in Denizli province in 2015-2016 academic year. In this study, the effects of variables such as learners' gender,…

  5. Examining the Relationship between Superstitious Behavior in Sport and Trait Anxiety Levels among College Students Engaged in Active Sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utku Işık

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between superstitious behavior in sport and trait anxiety levels among college students engaged in active sports. 166 Pamukkale University and Ege University of School of Physical Education and Sports students who are selected simple random sampling method voluntarily participated (61 females and 105 males for the study. In the study for gathering data “Superstitious Ritual Questionnaire” and “Trait Anxiety Inventory” were used together. To examine the relationship between superstitious behavior in sport and trait anxiety levels the Pearson product-moment coefficients of correlation was used. The results indicated that the relationship between superstitious behavior in sport and trait anxiety level is positive and statistically significant (r=.208; p=.007. To explain whether there are significant differences between participants’ superstitious behavior in sport according to gender, Independent Sample T-test was used. Result of this analysis revealed no statistically significant difference between male and female students tendency to superstitious behaviors according to gender (t=1.15; p=.251. In conclusion study findings showed that anxiety is a factor that increases university students, engaging in active sport, superstitions behavior.

  6. Effect of music on labor pain relief, anxiety level and postpartum analgesic requirement: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simavli, Serap; Gumus, Ilknur; Kaygusuz, Ikbal; Yildirim, Melahat; Usluogullari, Betul; Kafali, Hasan

    2014-01-01

    The control of labor pain and the prevention of suffering are major concerns of clinicians and their patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of music on labor pain and anxiety, maternal hemodynamics, fetal-neonatal parameters and postpartum analgesic requirement in primiparous women. Overall, 156 primiparous women who expected vaginal delivery were recruited and randomly assigned to a music group (n = 77) or a control group (n = 79). Women in the music group listened to music during labor. Pain intensity and anxiety level were measured using a visual analogue scale (0-10 cm). The two groups were compared in terms of pain severity, anxiety level, maternal hemodynamics, fetal-neonatal parameters and postpartum analgesic requirement. Mothers in the music therapy group had a lower level of pain and anxiety compared with those in the control group at all stages of labor (p music therapy group (p music during labor has a positive impact on labor pain and anxiety, maternal-fetal parameters and analgesic requirement. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. An investigation of the attitudes, anxieties and self-efficacy beliefs towards mathematics lessons high school students’ in terms of gender, types of school, and students’ grades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. İzzet Kurbanoğlu

    2012-01-01

    on students to reveal relationships between students’ attitudes towards mathematics lessons, anxieties towards mathematics lessons and self-efficacy beliefs. The results obtained from scales were analyzed with SPSS 13.0.ResultsIt was observed in the findings of study that there are no statistically significant differences between students’ gender and scores of attitudes towards mathematics lessons, anxieties towards mathematics lessons and self-efficacy beliefs. But there are statistically significant differences between students’ types of school and students’ grades and scores of attitudes towards mathematics lessons, anxieties towards mathematics lessons and self-efficacy beliefs.Discussion and ConclusionsStudents’ achievements in mathematics lessons are directly related to students’ self-efficacy beliefs, attitudes towards mathematics lessons and anxieties towards mathematics lessons. Students’ mathematics achievements will increase because of students’ high self-efficacy beliefs and attitudes towards mathematics lessons. In this study, there are no statistically significant differences between students’ gender and scores of attitudes towards mathematics lessons, anxieties towards mathematics lessons and self-efficacy beliefs. But there are statistically significant differences between students’ types of school and students’ grades and scores of attitudes towards mathematics lessons, anxieties towards mathematics lessons and self-efficacy beliefs. While students’ who attended from successful schools- self-efficacy beliefs and attitudes towards mathematics lessons are high, their anxiety levels towards mathematics lessons are low. Besides, it was observed, when students’ grades increase, their self-efficacy beliefs and attitudes towards mathematics lessons get higher and their anxiety levels towards mathematics lessons get lower.

  8. Effects of a Collaborative Science Intervention on High Achieving Students' Learning Anxiety and Attitudes toward Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Zuway-R.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a collaborative science intervention on high achieving students' learning anxiety and attitudes toward science. Thirty-seven eighth-grade high achieving students (16 boys and 21 girls) were selected as an experimental group who joined a 20-week collaborative science intervention, which integrated and utilized…

  9. The Influence of Resistance Exercise Training on the Levels of Anxiety in Ischemic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe José Aidar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this pilot study was to analyze the effect of a strength training program on indicators of trait and state anxiety in patients with ischemic stroke. The subjects were divided into two groups: experimental group (EG consisting of 11 subjects aged years and a control group (CG with 13 subjects aged years. EG underwent 12 weeks of strength training, with a frequency of three times a week. For data collection, a State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI was used. Significant differences were found between pre- and posttest in EG for trait anxiety ( pretest posttest and state anxiety ( pretest posttest with no differences in CG for trait anxiety ( pretest posttest and state anxiety ( pretest posttest. In the evaluation between the groups, significant differences were found for all indicators of trait anxiety ( EG; CG and state anxiety ( EG; CG. This pilot study indicates that strength training may provide an improvement in trait and state anxiety more than one year after stroke.

  10. The Examination of the Correlation between Social Physique Anxiety Levels and Narcissism Levels of the Students Who Studied at the SPES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gezer, Engin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to discover the correlation between social physique anxiety levels and narcissism levels of the students of the school of the physical education and sports. A total of 308 students who studied at different academic departments of the school of the physical education and sports of Mustafa Kemal University participated in…

  11. The Examination of the Correlation between Social Physique Anxiety Levels and Narcissism Levels of the Students Who Studied at the SPES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gezer, Engin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to discover the correlation between social physique anxiety levels and narcissism levels of the students of the school of the physical education and sports. A total of 308 students who studied at different academic departments of the school of the physical education and sports of Mustafa Kemal University participated in…

  12. The lived experience of anxiety among late adolescents during high school: an interpretive phenomenological inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Diana R; Ray, Susan L; Evans, Marilyn

    2013-09-01

    To gain an understanding of everyday anxiety among late adolescents during high school. An interpretive phenomenological approach was utilized. A purposive sample of eight males and females in late adolescence with everyday anxiety were interviewed. Individual interviews were conducted. Data analysis was undertaken throughout the research study by utilizing a thematic analysis of text in which themes emerged to understand the lived experience of everyday anxiety among late adolescents during high school. The study revealed themes reflective of the lived body in time and space and in relation with others. The three themes were (a) the embodied experience of anxiety with the subtheme of the body and mind responds; (b) feeling uncomfortable in the lived space of school with the subthemes of the lived relations of bullying, the internal/external space of isolation, and the constant pressure to perform well; and (c) life at home with the subthemes of the lived space of home, the lived relations of pressure from parents, and life will get better. Nurses need to provide holistic care for late adolescents experiencing everyday anxiety by focusing on healing the whole person through the unity of body, mind, emotion, spirit, and environment.

  13. Anxiety, Motivation and Autonomy in Iranian High School Students: A Quantitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanadgol, Fatemeh; Abdolmanafi-Rokni, Seyed Jalal

    2016-01-01

    Research in the series of second language learning certify that both cognitive and affective factors within a language learner affect the level of success that will be achieved in learning a second language. This study was an attempt to investigate the relationship among three factors of anxiety, motivation, and autonomy. To this purpose, 207…

  14. A Survey of the Correlation between Language Anxiety and Senior High School Student’s Oral English Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴安; 甘田

    2014-01-01

    Language anxiety is a kind of apprehension occurs when student need to perform oral English.Many researchers agree that language anxiety is an important factor in English learning.This thesis is going to test 80 students from Bordertown high school,Hunan Province,to uncover the English learning situation of senior high school students,to survey the correlation between language anxiety and oral English performance,and to give inspiration for senior middle school English teaching.

  15. Anxiety and depression levels in prepubertal obese children: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esposito M

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Maria Esposito,1 Beatrice Gallai,2 Michele Roccella,3 Rosa Marotta,4 Francesco Lavano,4 Serena Marianna Lavano,4 Giovanni Mazzotta,5 Domenico Bove,6 Michele Sorrentino,1 Francesco Precenzano,1 Marco Carotenuto1 1Clinic of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, Department of Mental Health, Physical and Preventive Medicine, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy; 2Unit of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy; 3Child Neuropsychiatry, Department of Psychology, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy; 4Department of Psychiatry, “Magna Graecia” University of Catanzaro, Catanzaro, Italy; 5Unit of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, AUSL Umbria 2, Terni, Italy; 6Centro per la Diagnosi e Cura dei Disturbi dell’apprendimento e del Comportamento Associazione per la ricerca scientifica Fusis, Alvignano, Italy Introduction: Childhood obesity has become a worldwide epidemic in Western and in developing countries and has been accompanied by many serious and severe comorbidities, such as diabetes, hypertension, sleep apnea syndrome, depression, dyslipidemia, impaired glucose homeostasis, steatohepatitis, and intracranial hypertension, as well as medical concerns unique to youth, such as accelerated pubertal and skeletal development and orthopedic disorders. To date, no specific studies about the psychological assessment in pediatric obesity are present. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the putative relationship between psychological troubles and obesity in a sample of school-aged children. Materials and methods: The study population consists of 148 obese subjects (body mass index [BMI] >95th percentile (69 males, mean age 8.9±1.23 years consecutively referred from clinical pediatricians to the Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry department at the Second University of Naples. In all subjects, weight, height, and BMI z-score were evaluated. In order to assess the anxiety levels and the presence of

  16. Specificity of dysfunctional thinking in children with symptoms of social anxiety, separation anxiety and generalised anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Bogels; N. Snieder; M. Kindt

    2003-01-01

    The present study investigated whether children with high symptom levels of either social phobia (SP), separation anxiety disorder (SAD), or generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) are characterised by a specific set of dysfunctional interpretations that are consistent with the cognitive model of their s

  17. Glutamate receptor antagonism in inferior colliculus attenuates elevated startle response of high anxiety diazepam-withdrawn rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, A; De Ross, J; Castilho, V M; Brandão, M L; Nobre, M J

    2009-07-07

    Rats segregated according to low (LA) or high (HA) anxiety levels have been used as an important tool in the study of fear and anxiety. Since the efficacy of an anxiolytic compound is a function of the animal's basal anxiety level, it is possible that chronic treatment with a benzodiazepine (Bzp) affects LA and HA animals differently. Based on these assumptions, this study aimed to provide some additional information on the influence of acute, chronic (18 days) and withdrawal effects (48 h) from diazepam (10 mg/kg), in rats with LA or HA levels, on startle response amplitude. For this purpose, the elevated plus-maze (EPM) test was used. In addition, the role of glutamate receptors of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (cIC), the most important mesencephalic tectum integrative structure of the auditory pathways and a brain region that is linked to the processing of auditory information of aversive nature, was also evaluated. Our results showed that, contrary to the results obtained in LA rats, long-term treatment with diazepam promoted anxiolytic and aversive effects in HA animals that were tested under chronic effects or withdrawal from this drug, respectively. In addition, since Bzp withdrawal may function as an unconditioned stressor, the negative affective states observed in HA rats could be a by-product of GABA-glutamate imbalance in brain systems that modulate unconditioned fear and anxiety behaviors, since the blockade of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate (AMPA) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptors in the cIC clearly reduced the aversion promoted by diazepam withdrawal.

  18. Salivary Cortisol Levels in Persons With and Without Different Anxiety Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeburg, Sophie A.; Zitman, Frans G.; van Pelt, Johannes; DeRijk, Roel H.; Verhagen, Jolanda C. M.; van Dyck, Richard; Hoogendijk, Witte J. G.; Smit, Johannes H.; Penninx, Brenda

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between several subtypes of anxiety disorders and various cortisol indicators in a large cohort study. Anxiety disorders have been suggested to be linked to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, although results are scarce and inconsistent. No earl

  19. Family-Level Factors, Depression, and Anxiety among African American Children: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Tyreasa; Rose, Theda; Coard, Stephanie Irby; Patton, Desmond Upton; Young, Shelton; Giles, Sasha; Nolen, Marlon

    2017-01-01

    Background: The reported prevalence of depression and anxiety among African American children and adolescents and their negative sequalae suggest a need to further explore factors that may be protective of depression and anxiety among this population. Objective: The aim of this review was to examine empirical studies that focus on the association…

  20. Social Anxiety and Social Adaptation among Adolescents at Three Age Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Ora

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between social anxiety and social adaptation among adolescents. This is the first study to research these parameters among three age groups: early, middle and late adolescence. On the whole, a negative relation was found between social anxiety and social adaptation. Specifically, for adolescents…

  1. Salivary Cortisol Levels in Persons With and Without Different Anxiety Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeburg, Sophie A.; Zitman, Frans G.; van Pelt, Johannes; DeRijk, Roel H.; Verhagen, Jolanda C. M.; van Dyck, Richard; Hoogendijk, Witte J. G.; Smit, Johannes H.; Penninx, Brenda

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between several subtypes of anxiety disorders and various cortisol indicators in a large cohort study. Anxiety disorders have been suggested to be linked to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, although results are scarce and inconsistent. No earl

  2. Family-Level Factors, Depression, and Anxiety among African American Children: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Tyreasa; Rose, Theda; Coard, Stephanie Irby; Patton, Desmond Upton; Young, Shelton; Giles, Sasha; Nolen, Marlon

    2017-01-01

    Background: The reported prevalence of depression and anxiety among African American children and adolescents and their negative sequalae suggest a need to further explore factors that may be protective of depression and anxiety among this population. Objective: The aim of this review was to examine empirical studies that focus on the association…

  3. Reanalysis of SCOR and anxiety measures in the Israeli High-Risk Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugelmass, S; Faber, N; Ingraham, L J; Frenkel, E; Nathan, M; Mirsky, A F; Ben Shakhar, G

    1995-01-01

    In an earlier study, skin conductance orienting response (SCOR) and anxiety measures obtained when the subjects of the Israeli High-Risk Study were 11 years old were analyzed, using adult diagnostic information, when the subjects were 26 years old. The present study considers similar data obtained from most of this sample when the subjects were 16 years old. As in the earlier analysis, those subjects who would receive a schizophrenia spectrum diagnosis at 26 had higher anxiety ratings at age 16. Nondiagnosed index subjects also had significantly higher anxiety ratings than the nondiagnosed controls. The subjects who would receive affective spectrum diagnoses at age 26 had the most hyporesponsive SCORs, as predicted, while the subjects who would later be diagnosed in the schizophrenia spectrum had an unexpected hyperresponsive SCOR to the dishabituation tone in a habituation series. Further consideration of the long-term stability of SCORs seems necessary; they may be related to the developing psychopathological processes.

  4. Higher Reported Levels of Depression, Stress, and Anxiety Are Associated with Increased Endorsement of ADHD Symptoms by Postsecondary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Allyson G.; Alexander, Sandra J.; Armstrong, Irene T.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which postsecondary students endorse symptoms of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and whether experienced level of stress, depression, or anxiety are associated with higher reporting of ADHD symptoms. Students attending a combined health and counseling service completed the Conners Adult ADHD Rating…

  5. Analysis of the level of Dysphagia, anxiety, and nutritional status before and after speech therapy in patients with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdz, Daniela; Mancopes, Renata; Silva, Ana Maria Toniolo; Reppold, Caroline

    2014-04-01

     The rehabilitation in oropharyngeal dysphagia evidence-based implies the relationship between the interventions and their results.  Analyze level of dysphagia, oral ingestion, anxiety levels and nutritional status of patients with stroke diagnosis, before and after speech therapy.  Clinical assessment of dysphagia partially using the Protocol of Risk Assessment for Dysphagia (PARD), applying the scale Functional Oral Intake Scale for Dysphagia in Stroke Patients (FOIS), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and the Mini Nutritional Assessment MNA(®). The sample consisted of 12 patients, mean age of 64.6 years, with a medical diagnosis of hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke and without cognitive disorders. All tests were applied before and after speech therapy (15 sessions). Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square test or Fisher's exact test, McNemar's test, Bowker's symmetry test and Wilcoxon's test.  During the pre-speech therapy assessments, 33.3% of patients had mild to moderate dysphagia, 88.2% did not receive food orally, 47.1% of the patients showed malnutrition and 35.3% of patients had mild anxiety level. After the therapy sessions, it was found that 33.3% of patients had mild dysphagia, 16.7% were malnourished and 50% of patients had minimal level of anxiety.   There were statistically significant evolution of the level of dysphagia (p = 0.017) and oral intake (p = 0.003) post-speech therapy. Although not statistically significant, there was considerable progress in relation to the level of anxiety and nutritional status.

  6. Meaningful Hope for Teachers in Times of High Anxiety and Low Morale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Carrie; Stitzlein, Sarah Marie

    2011-01-01

    Many teachers struggle to maintain or build hope among themselves and their students in today's climate of high anxiety and low morale. This article describes and responds to those challenging conditions. It offers teachers and scholars of education a philosophically sophisticated and feasible understanding of hope. This notion of hope is grounded…

  7. Unforgiving Confucian Culture: A Breeding Ground for High Academic Achievement, Test Anxiety and Self-Doubt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankov, Lazar

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews findings from several studies that contribute to our understanding of cross-cultural differences in academic achievement, anxiety and self-doubt. The focus is on comparisons between Confucian Asian and European regions. Recent studies indicate that high academic achievement of students from Confucian Asian countries is…

  8. High phobic anxiety is related to lower leukocyte telomere length in women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia I Okereke

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic psychological distress has been linked to shorter telomeres, an indication of accelerated aging. Yet, little is known about relations of anxiety to telomeres. We examined whether a typically chronic form of anxiety--phobic anxiety--is related to telomere length. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Relative telomere lengths (RTLs in peripheral blood leukocytes were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction among 5,243 women (aged 42-69 years who: were participants in the Nurses' Health Study; were controls in prior case-control studies of telomeres and disease, or randomly selected healthy participants in a cognitive function sub-study; had completed the Crown-Crisp phobic index proximal to blood collection. Adjusted least-squares mean RTLs (z-scores were calculated across phobic categories. Higher phobic anxiety was generally associated with lower RTLs (age-adjusted p-trend = 0.09; this association was similar after adjustment for confounders--paternal age-at-birth, smoking, body mass index (BMI and physical activity (p-trend = 0.15. Notably, a threshold was identified. Among women with Crown-Crisp<6 points, the multivariable-adjusted least-squares mean RTL z-score = 0.02 standard units; however, among the most phobic women (Crown-Crisp ≥ 6, the multivariable-adjusted least-squares mean RTL z-score = -0.09 standard units (mean difference = -0.10 standard units; p = 0.02. The magnitude of this difference was comparable to that for women 6 years apart in age. Finally, effect modification by BMI, smoking and paternal age was observed: associations were stronger among highly phobic women with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2, without smoking history, or born to fathers aged ≥ 40 years. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In this large, cross-sectional study high phobic anxiety was associated with shorter telomeres. These results point toward prospective investigations relating anxiety to telomere length change.

  9. An empirical investigation on college teachers'foreign language anxiety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘苑

    2015-01-01

    The author adopted an empirical quantitative method by employing Horwitz's Teacher Foreign Language Anxiety Scale (TFLAS)to determine the anxiety level of ninety teacher participants from Tianjin Foreign Studies University.SPSS11.5 was used for data analysis and the results showed that no one experienced high level's anxiety and student teachers were commonly more anxious than in-service teachers.

  10. High anxiety is a predisposing endophenotype for loss of control over cocaine, but not heroin, self-administration in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dilleen, Ruth; Pelloux, Yann; Mar, Adam C

    2012-01-01

    RATIONALE: Although high anxiety is commonly associated with drug addiction, its causal role in this disorder is unclear. OBJECTIVES: In light of strong evidence for dissociable neural mechanisms underlying heroin and cocaine addiction, the present study investigated whether high anxiety predicts...

  11. High level white noise generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkowski, Casimer J.; Blalock, Theron V.

    1979-01-01

    A wide band, stable, random noise source with a high and well-defined output power spectral density is provided which may be used for accurate calibration of Johnson Noise Power Thermometers (JNPT) and other applications requiring a stable, wide band, well-defined noise power spectral density. The noise source is based on the fact that the open-circuit thermal noise voltage of a feedback resistor, connecting the output to the input of a special inverting amplifier, is available at the amplifier output from an equivalent low output impedance caused by the feedback mechanism. The noise power spectral density level at the noise source output is equivalent to the density of the open-circuit thermal noise or a 100 ohm resistor at a temperature of approximately 64,000 Kelvins. The noise source has an output power spectral density that is flat to within 0.1% (0.0043 db) in the frequency range of from 1 KHz to 100 KHz which brackets typical passbands of the signal-processing channels of JNPT's. Two embodiments, one of higher accuracy that is suitable for use as a standards instrument and another that is particularly adapted for ambient temperature operation, are illustrated in this application.

  12. The Intervening Role of Alexithymia in the Relationship between Attachment Styles and Test Anxiety among Gifted High School Students

    OpenAIRE

    Sepahvand, Esfandiar; Zakiei, Ali; Rafieian, Keivan; Roumani, Saeid; Komasi, Saeid; Reshadat, Soheyla

    2015-01-01

    Background Given the importance of test anxiety among gifted students, the present study was conducted to assess the intervening role of alexithymia in the relationship between test anxiety and attachment styles. Methods By means of simple random sampling, 300 participants were selected out of all the students at two high schools in Khorramabad, which are affiliated with the Iranian National Organization for Development of Exceptional Talents (SAMPAD). Test anxiety, alexithymia, and attachmen...

  13. Correlative study of peripheral ATP1A1 gene expression level to anxiety severity score on major depressive disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jingjie; Guo, Xu; Du, Yi; Han, Yu; Wang, Yongzhi; Li, Li; Qian, Jialin; Li, Mingzhen; Wu, Huijuan; Golden, Teresa; Wu, Ning

    2016-11-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) frequently co-occurs with other psychiatric problems. Our previous study showed that ATP1A1 gene expression level was significantly decreased in MDD patients. This research explores the potential correlations between the ATP1A1 expression level reduction and MDD patients' clinical manifestation. All participant patients were diagnosed by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - 4th edition (DSM-IV). Hamilton rating scale for depression (HAM-D) and anxiety (HAM-A) were applied to group patients into different categories. ATP1A1 expression level was measured by reverse transcript real-time polymerase chain reaction. ATP1A1 expression levels of all MDD subgroups showed significant reduction compared to the control group (p0.05). ATP1A1 expression level reduction is related to MDD anxiety score, which may be an explanation for the clinical manifestations and the underlining physiological mechanisms.

  14. Comparison of the pre and post game state and trait anxiety levels of individual and team athletes*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adem Civan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present research is to determine the pre and post game state and trait anxiety levels of individual and team athletes. The research sample includes 107 females and 289 males, a total of 396 athletes from various sports (individual sports, racket sports and team sports who participated in the games of 1999-2000 Turkey Universities Championships. In the research, a 10-item socio-demographic questionnaire and the Spielberger Trait-State Anxiety Inventory were used as data collection tools. The results of the research concluded that in terms of pre game state anxiety level those who engaged in individual sports and in terms of trait anxiety level those who engaged in team sports showed a significant difference compared to the others. There was no significant difference among the sport branches in terms of age and gender variables.  

  15. High Current Anxiety Symptoms, But Not a Past Anxiety Disorder Diagnosis, are Associated with Impaired Fear Extinction

    OpenAIRE

    Puck eDuits; Danielle C. eCath; Ivo eHeitland; Johanna M. P. eBaas

    2016-01-01

    Although impaired fear extinction has repeatedly been demonstrated in patients with anxiety disorders, little is known about whether these impairments persist after treatment. The current comparative exploratory study investigated fear extinction in 26 patients treated for their anxiety disorder in the years preceding the study as compared to 17 healthy control subjects. Fear-potentiated startle and subjective fear were measured in a cue and context fear conditioning paradigm within a virtual...

  16. Factors Related to Mathematics Anxiety in the Secondary School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandman, Richard S.

    This study indicates that eighth graders have higher mathematics anxiety than eleventh graders, and boys have higher mathematics anxiety than girls. Eighth-grade classes with high mathematics anxiety tend to have high motivation in mathematics, but tend to see mathematics as not very useful in society. Both grade levels show a positive…

  17. Fears and Related Anxieties in Chinese High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huijun; Prevatt, Frances

    2008-01-01

    Chinese students from different high school settings face unique academic and emotional challenges. They are in a very vulnerable position due to high parent and teacher expectations and pressure to succeed in college entrance examinations and honour the family and the school. They are also vulnerable due to possible inappropriate parenting…

  18. Fears and Related Anxieties in Chinese High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huijun; Prevatt, Frances

    2008-01-01

    Chinese students from different high school settings face unique academic and emotional challenges. They are in a very vulnerable position due to high parent and teacher expectations and pressure to succeed in college entrance examinations and honour the family and the school. They are also vulnerable due to possible inappropriate parenting…

  19. Certain Less Invasive Infertility Treatments Associated with Different Levels of Pregnancy-Related Anxiety in Pregnancies Conceived via In Vitro Fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Eleanor Lowndes; Sloane, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Background: Research supports that in vitro fertilization causes anxiety and that anxiety can continue into the resulting pregnancy. Most women who have IVF will have a less invasive treatment for infertility prior to IVF; however, it is unclear if specific less invasive treatment cycles impact anxiety that is experienced in the pregnancy resulting from IVF. Methods: A prospective study was conducted for women who became pregnant via IVF, and data was collected about reported previous non-IVF treatment cycles as well as Pregnancy Related Anxiety Measure. Latent Class Analysis was conducted A p-value of ≤0.05 was considered significant. Results: 144 subjects participated and were highly educated, affluent, married, and primarily white. The LCA process yielded two groups that on average had similar levels on most items except for use of intra uterine insemination and/or ovarian stimulation. This information was used to generate four exhaustive and mutually exclusive groups: Stimulation Only (stim-only), Stimulation and Intra uterine Insemination (stim-IUI), Intra uterine Insemination only (IUI only), or No Treatment (No Tx). ANOVA found that those in the Stim Only group had statistically significantly higher PRAM scores than the Stim IUI (p=0.0036), the IUI only group (p=0.05), and the No Tx group (p=0.0013). Conclusion: Women who become pregnant via IVF and had a history of non-in vitro fertilization cycles that only involved ovarian stimulation experienced more pregnancy-specific anxiety in the pregnancy that results from in vitro fertilization.

  20. How Do Tests and Summary Writing Tasks Enhance Long-Term Retention of Students with Different Levels of Test Anxiety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Wilson Shun; Chan, Winnie Wai

    2016-01-01

    Testing has been found to facilitate students' long-term retention of information. However, the learning performance of highly test-anxious students can be impaired by tests. Thus, these students may learn ineffectively in a testing context. By contrast, summary writing may not trigger test anxiety and is therefore another learning strategy to…

  1. Test Anxiety and Foreign Language Reading Anxiety in a Reading-Proficiency Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Chin Tsai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The impact of foreign-language anxiety has been researched with respect to the reading domain; however, how it affects reading proficiency in relation to test anxiety in a test situation is yet to be explored. Approach: This study investigated possible relationships between test anxiety, foreign language reading anxiety and English reading proficiency by using scales published in previous studies. A total of 302 EFL college freshmen enrolled in Freshman English were assessed with the Test Anxiety Scale, the Foreign Language Reading Anxiety Scale and a reading-proficiency test. Data were analyzed by means of Pearson’s product-moment correlations and independent-samples t-tests. Results: Several findings were reported. First, English reading proficiency was found negatively related to test anxiety and foreign language reading anxiety. Second, test anxiety was found correlated positively with foreign language reading anxiety. Third, the reading-proficiency difference between Low Anxiety Testees and High Anxiety Testees did not reach a significance level. Fourth, the reading-proficiency difference between Low Anxiety Readers and High Anxiety Readers did not reach a significance level, either. Conclusion/Recommendations: It was possible that the sample sizes may not be enough to make the reading-proficiency difference between LAT and HAT or between LAR and HAR reach a significance level. In addition, the reading-proficiency test in the form of multiple-choice questions could not have differentiated low anxiety participants from high anxiety ones. In the future, the number of participants should be increased to increase the power of the statistical procedure. In addition, various reading-proficiency assessments should be considered.

  2. Examining the Pre - competition Anxiety Levels of Sportsmen Participating in a Folk Dance Branch in Terms of Some Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan HACICAFEROĞLU

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out with in order to determine the pre - competition anxiety levels of sportsmen participating in the Turkish Folk Dance branch in terms of some variables. The population of the study, which was carried out using a general screening model, consisted of 253 sportsmen, partici pated with the local halay dance in the group competition, organized by the Turkish Folk Dance Federation in city of Malatya , and its sampling consisted of 187 sportsmen chosen from the population by a random method. State (instantaneous Anxiety part of t he State - Trait Continuous Anxiety Scale was used in the study. In analyzing the data, frequency, percentage, standard deviation, arithmetic mean, t - test and one - way analysis of variance (ANOVA and Tukey's test were used in the study to find the source of the difference. As the result of the study, it has been determined that the ove rall arithmetic mean of the pre - competition instantaneous anxiety state felt by the sportsmen, statistically was 2. 34. A statistically significant difference was found in the r esearch in terms of pre - competition instantaneous anxiety state of feeling of the sportsmen, depending on the variables of gender, age and folk playing time. Nonetheless, depending on the gender, it was determined in the research, that the sportsmen of 2 0 - 22 and 17 - 19 age groups, in favour of the female athletes and according to the age variable, the sportsmen who played folk dances less than a year according to the dancing time variable, felt more pre - competition instantaneous anxiety compared to the sportsmen of other groups.

  3. A novel visual facial anxiety scale for assessing preoperative anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xuezhao; Yumul, Roya; Elvir Lazo, Ofelia Loani; Friedman, Jeremy; Durra, Omar; Zhang, Xiao; White, Paul F.

    2017-01-01

    Background There is currently no widely accepted instrument for measuring preoperative anxiety. The objective of this study was to develop a simple visual facial anxiety scale (VFAS) for assessing acute preoperative anxiety. Methods The initial VFAS was comprised of 11 similarly styled stick-figure reflecting different types of facial expressions (Fig 1). After obtaining IRB approval, a total of 265 participant-healthcare providers (e.g., anesthesiologists, anesthesiology residents, and perioperative nurses) were recruited to participate in this study. The participants were asked to: (1) rank the 11 faces from 0–10 (0 = no anxiety, while 10 = highest anxiety) and then to (2) match one of the 11 facial expression with a numeric verbal rating scale (NVRS) (0 = no anxiety and 10 = highest level of anxiety) and a specific categorical level of anxiety, namely no anxiety, mild, mild-moderate, moderate, moderate-high or highest anxiety. Based on these data, the Spearman correlation and frequencies of the 11 faces in relation to the 11-point numerical anxiety scale and 6 categorical anxiety levels were calculated. The highest frequency of a face assigned to a level of the numerical anxiety scale resulted in a finalized order of faces corresponding to the 11-point numeric rating scale. Results The highest frequency for each of the NVRS anxiety scores were as follow: A0, A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, A7, A6, A8, A9 and A10 (Fig 2). For the six categorical anxiety levels, a total of 260 (98.1%) participants chose the face A0 as representing ‘no’ anxiety, 250 (94.3%) participants chose the face A10 as representing ‘highest’ anxiety and 147 (55.5%) participants chose the face A8 as representing ‘moderate-high’ anxiety. Spearman analysis showed a significant correlation between the faces A3 and A5 assigned to the mild-moderate anxiety category (r = 0.58), but A5 was ultimately chosen due to its higher frequency compared to the frequency of A3 (30.6% vs 24.9%)(Fig 3

  4. Effectiveness of an educational intervention on levels of pain, anxiety and self-efficacy for patients with musculoskeletal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Eliza Mi-Ling; Chan, Sally Wai-Chi; Chair, Sek-Ying

    2010-05-01

    This paper is a report of a study of the effectiveness of a pain management educational intervention on level of pain, anxiety and self-efficacy among patients with musculoskeletal trauma and consequent orthopaedic surgery. Substantial evidence supports the use of preoperative education to improve patient outcomes. Educational interventions are common in preparing patients for orthopaedic surgery. A pre- and post-test design (quasi-experimental) was employed in 2006 with patients assigned either to a control (usual care) or an experimental group (usual care plus educational intervention). The 30-minute educational intervention consisted of information about pain, coping strategies and breathing relaxation exercises. The outcome measures were scores for pain, anxiety, self-efficacy, analgesic use and length of hospital stay and these were measured before surgery and on day 2, day 4, day 7, 1 month and 3 months after surgery. A total of 125 patients completed the study (control, n = 63; experimental = 62). The experimental group reported statistically significantly lower levels of pain, less anxiety and better self-efficacy during hospitalization (before surgery to day 7), as compared to the control group. The experimental group had more requests for analgesics at day 2 only. There were no statistically significant effects on length of stay. At the 3-month evaluation, a statistically significant effect on anxiety level was found in favour of the experimental group. Patients may benefit from this educational intervention in terms of relieving pain, anxiety and improving self-efficacy, and the educational intervention could be incorporated as part of routine care to prepare musculoskeletal trauma patients for surgery.

  5. Evaluation of the Effect of the Education Module “Preparing For Childbirth” on the Level of Anxiety during Pregnancy and Labor in Primigravida Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Ismaeili

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Women are likely to be involved in anxiety two times more than men. One of the reasons for this increase is that stressors like pregnancy and labor are specific for women. 70 percent of primigravidas and 75 percent of multigravidas experience anxiety during their pregnancy. So, this research was done with the aim of evaluating the effect of education module “Preparing for childbirth” on the level of anxiety during pregnancy and labor in primigravidas referring to the Social Security Insurance clinic in Mashad. Material & Methods: This study was a kind of semi-experimental clinical research that was done on 110 primigavidas. The method was goal-center sampling on three occasions; beginning of research, pregnancy period and labor by using the Cattells anxiety test. After determination of primary anxiety, experimental group was educated for “preparation for childbirth” in 3 meetings for 3 weeks, and about four weeks after the determination of primary anxiety. During labor, (dilation 3-5 cm anxiety in two groups was measured. Results: Findings showed that education significantly decreases the anxiety during pregnancy (p<0.0001 and labor (p<0.0001 , while in the control group, the level of anxiety during pregnancy and labor as compared to the initial stage was significantly higher. There was a straight correlation between hidden anxiety and the acquired scores during education.(P=0.018, r=0.28 Conclusion: “Preparation for labor” education declines the anxiety of pregnant females during their pregnant period and as soon as the education is stopped, its effect gradually decreases and anxiety again increases. The researcher therefore proposes that for reduction of anxiety in pregnant females, continuous education should be imparted to pregnant women.

  6. A Test of the Tripartite Model of Anxiety and Depression in Elementary and High School Boys and Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Heather A. K.; Mash, Eric J.

    2004-01-01

    The applicability of the tripartite model of emotion, which distinguishes the shared aspect of depression and anxiety, negative affect (NA), from their respective specific components of low positive affect (PA) and physiological hyperarousal (PH), was examined in 472 elementary and high school students. The relations among depression, anxiety, and…

  7. Test Anxiety Associated with High-Stakes Testing among Elementary School Children: Prevalence, Predictors, and Relationship to Student Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segool, Natasha Katherine

    2009-01-01

    The current study explored differences in test anxiety on high-stakes standardized achievement testing and classroom testing among elementary school children. This is the first study to directly examine differences in student test anxiety across two testing conditions with different stakes among young children. Three hundred and thirty-five…

  8. 焦虑水平与应付方式关系的初步研究%Research on the relationship between the level of anxiety and style of coping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭梅英; 阎克乐; 梁会霞; 魏铁军

    2001-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between anxiety level and style of coping.Method The General Anxiety Test and Coping Style Inventory was used to study 116 junior middle school students. Results There was high negative correlation between anxiety level and coping style for problem-solving . There was high positive correlation between anxiety level and self-accusation, fancying , withdrawal, rationalization. There was zero correlation between anxiety level and help-seeking. Conclusion   If coping style is different , anxiety level different .To reduce anxiety ,to use effective coping technique.%目的 探求学生焦虑水平与应付方式的关系。方法 用一般焦虑问卷(GAT)和应对方式问卷测查某中学初二学生共116名。结果 解决问题的应付方式和焦虑总水平及对人不安、身体征候、恐惧倾向三个焦虑分量表呈显著负相关;自责、幻想、退避和合理化的应付方式与焦虑水平之间存在显著正相关;而求助和焦虑总水平及各个焦虑分量表之间不相关或相关很小。结论 焦虑水平与应付方式之间关系密切,应付方式不同,焦虑水平就可能不同,为了降低焦虑水平,应掌握有效的应付方式。

  9. [State and trait anxiety level and increase of depression among mothers of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and conduct disorder. pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolafnczyk, Tomasz; Wolafnczyk, Tomasz; Kolakowski, Artur; Pisula, Agnieszka; Liwska, Monika; Zlotkowska, Malgorzata; Srebnicki, Tomasz; Bryliska, Anita

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate anxiety level (as a trait and as a state) and the intensity of depressive symptoms in mothers of children with hyperkinetic disorder (HD) and with and without comorbid conduct disorder (CD); to determine the relationship between the intensity of anxiety and depression and intensity of symptoms of HD. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and STAI questionnaire to measure state-trait anxiety were filled by 24 mothers of children with HD and 26 mothers of children without HD. Mothers of children with HD were also asked to complete the Conners Questionnaire for Parents and Teachers (IOWA). Teachers were asked to complete the Conners Questionnaire for Teachers (RCTS). 75% of HD subjects had a comorbid CD, in comparison with 19.2 % in the control group. No significant differences were found between the mothers of children with HD and the control group in the results of BDI scale and STAI questionnaire in anxiety state and anxiety trait subscales. The difference was found between mothers of children with CD and without CD in anxiety-state subscale in STAI questionnaire. No correlations were found between the number of depressive symptoms, anxiety as a state and as a trait and the results of Conners IOWA and RCTS. The presence of HD in children does not correlate with the level of depression and anxiety in their mothers. There is a relationship between the presence of CD in children and elevated levels of state anxiety in their mothers.

  10. State-trait anxiety and motocross performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMojà, C A; DeMojà, G

    1986-02-01

    The prediction from state-trait theory that subjects low in anxiety will perform better than highly anxious subjects on a more difficult task was tested on a motocross competition. We analyzed the relationships among the entire rank order of finish and state and trait anxiety measured by State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for 32 motocross riders (males whose age ranged from 16 to 27 yr.) participating in a national competition in Italy. A negative correlation between performance (measured by rank at the finish of the competition) and state anxiety was noted. The r for state and trait anxiety scores was also negative, but that between performance and trait anxiety was nonsignificant. Additional studies of high level sport competition will provide data relevant to planning interventions to control athletes' anxiety.

  11. Stuttering and social anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraaimaat, Floris W; Vanryckeghem, Martine; Van Dam-Baggen, Rien

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of social anxiety in adults who stutter. This was done by administering the Inventory of Interpersonal Situations (IIS) (Van Dam-Baggen & Kraaimaat, 1999), a social anxiety inventory, to a group of 89 people who stuttered and 131 people who did not stutter. Two components of social anxiety were measured by the ISS, the extent to which emotional tension or discomfort is perceived in social situations and the frequency with which social responses are executed. The people who stuttered displayed significantly higher levels of emotional tension or discomfort in social situations. They also reported a significantly lower frequency of social responses compared to their nonstuttering peers. In addition, about 50% of the scores of the people who stuttered fell within the range of a group of highly socially anxious psychiatric patients. The results of the study suggest that the measurement of social anxiety is an important element in the assessment of adults who stutter. The reader will learn about and be able to describe (1) the IIS as an assessment procedure for evaluating social anxiety, (2) the level of discomfort expressed by adult stutterers in social situations, and (3) the effect of social anxiety on stutterers' responsiveness in social situations.

  12. EFL Speaking Anxiety among Senior High School Students and Policy Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirul Mukminin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This report drew on a larger study which was to describe and understand the sources of senior high school students’ English language speaking anxiety at senior high schools in Jambi, Indonesia. The purpose of this paper was to report some of findings from the qualitative interview data on the sources of senior high school students’ English language speaking anxiety at one senior high school in Jambi, Indonesia. Data were collected through demographic profiles and semi-structured interview with senior high school students. The demographic data were analysed descriptively while the interview data were transcribed and analysed line by line to generate and develop codes and themes. An analysis of the interview data revealed that five major themes were related to students’ English language speaking anxiety, including (1 low speaking skill due to lack of vocabulary and grammar, (2 fear of negative responses from others, (3 low self-esteem to speak in English, (4 fear of being evaluated by teachers, and (5 cultural influences to speak English due to a more teacher-centred style. Suggestions and policy implications are also discussed.

  13. The relation between child and parent anxiety and parental control: A meta-analytic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.O. van der Bruggen; G.J.J.M. Stams; S.M. Bögels

    2008-01-01

    Background: There is growing research interest in the association between parental control and child anxiety. Parental control may enhance child anxiety and parents may exert control in anticipation of their child's anxiety-related distress. Moreover, high levels of anxiety in parents could influenc

  14. The Relationship between Anxiety and Repetitive Behaviours in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, J.; Glod, M.; Connolly, B.; McConachie, H.

    2012-01-01

    Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder are vulnerable to anxiety. Repetitive behaviours are a core feature of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and have been associated with anxiety. This study examined repetitive behaviours and anxiety in two groups of children with autism spectrum disorder, those with high anxiety and those with lower levels of…

  15. Learning strategies, test anxiety and academic success of primary and high- school students at biology class

    OpenAIRE

    Stražar, Klavdija

    2016-01-01

    The extent of learning success of students in school depends upon many factors, among them are having a significant impact learning strategies and influence of test anxiety. Test anxiety refers to the anxiety that occurs in individuals in situations of assessment and evaluation in school. Anxiety in humans is expressed as a long-lasting feeling of anxiety, tension and discomfort that occurs without a specific reason. Persons who are experiencing feelings of anxiety find it difficult to face a...

  16. An investigation into Spanish EFL learners' anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan de Dios Martínez Agudo

    Full Text Available This research article reports the results of a study designed to measure and analyse Spanish students' perceived anxiety when learning and using EFL inside the classroom. This article first includes a review of the literature on foreign language anxiety. Then it describes the participants of the investigation and the research methodology procedures. This is followed by the presentation and discussion of the results and, finally, the conclusions derived from this study. The resulting data revealed interesting information about the anxiety levels present among Spanish EFL learners. While relatively high levels of speaking anxiety have been identified, somewhat lower levels of listening anxiety associated with error correction, by contrast, have also been found. More specifically, the results suggested that the level of listening anxiety seems to slightly increase when error correction is somehow involved in the process.

  17. Foreign Language Anxiety in Saudi Classroom: A Case Study of Saudi Tertiary Female Students in Prince Sattam University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balla, Asjad Ahmed Saeed

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the level of anxiety due to learning English as a foreign language. It tries to answer these questions: (1) Is anxiety a factor in hindering English proficiency? (2) Does anxiety lead to fear of communication? (3) Which type of anxiety is high among tertiary level female Saudi students? The Foreign Language Anxiety…

  18. The effect of giving detailed information about intravenous radiopharmaceutical administration on the anxiety level of patients who request more information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Eser; Ciftci, Ismail; Demirel, Reha; Cigerci, Yeliz; Gecici, Omer

    2010-02-01

    Nuclear medicine procedures use radiopharmaceuticals, which produce radiation and potential adverse reactions, albeit at a low rate. It is the patient's ethical, legal, and medical right to be informed of the potential side effects of procedures applied to them. Our purpose was to determine the effect of providing information about intravenous radiopharmaceutical administration on the anxiety level of patients who request more information. This study was completed in two separate Nuclear Medicine Departments. The study included 620 (247 M, 373 F) patients who had been referred for myocardial perfusion, bone, dynamic renal, and thyroid scintigraphic examinations. The patients were divided into two groups according to whether they requested more information or not. Group 1 consisted of 388 patients who wanted to receive more information about the procedure, while Group 2 consisted of 232 patients who did not request additional information. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-S and STAI-T) was used to determine a patient's anxiety level. After simple information was given, state and trait anxiety levels were measured in both groups. We gave detailed information to the patients in Group 1 and then measured state anxiety again. Detailed information included an explanation of the radiopharmaceutical risk and probable side effects due to the scan procedure. There was no statistical difference between Groups 1 and 2 in STAI-T or STAI-S scores after simple information was given (p = 0.741 and p = 0.945, respectively). The mean value of STAI-S score was increased after the provision of detailed information and there was a statistically significant difference between after simple information SATI-S and after detailed information STAI-S (p information, while there was no change in 32 patients. After detailed information, the greatest increase in STAI-S score was seen in the myocardial perfusion scan patients, when evaluating according to scan procedure (p Informed consent

  19. Cognitive-behavioral therapy augmentation of SSRI reduces cortisol levels in older adults with generalized anxiety disorder: A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosnick, Christopher B; Wetherell, Julie L; White, Kamila S; Andreescu, Carmen; Dixon, David; Lenze, Eric J

    2016-04-01

    Elevated cortisol in stress and aging, such as has been seen in late-life anxiety disorders, is postulated to accelerate cognitive and physiological decline in this large and increasing population. Selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) are both effective treatments for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in older adults. On the other hand, there is very little research examining the effect of combining these therapies on peak cortisol levels. For the current analyses, we examined the effectiveness of CBT augmentation on peak cortisol levels in older adults diagnosed with GAD. The sample consisted of 42 individuals with late-life GAD who received an acute course of the SSRI escitalopram and then entered a 16-week randomized phase. Twenty-one participants were randomized to receive 16 sessions of CBT in addition to continuing escitalopram and the remaining 21 participants continued on escitalopram without CBT. Generalized estimating equations were performed to assess the effectiveness of CBT augmentation on peak cortisol levels (30 min after waking). Older adults with GAD who received both escitalopram and CBT demonstrated a significant reduction in peak cortisol levels at posttreatment compared to the group who received escitalopram without CBT augmentation. CBT augmentation of SSRI treatment reduced peak cortisol levels for older adults with GAD. Since persistently high cortisol levels in aging are thought to increase age-related cognitive and medical problems, our findings suggest that there may be a benefit to health and cognition of CBT augmentation for late-life anxiety disorders. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. The Study on the Writing Anxiety Levels of Primary School 6, 7 and 8th Year Students in Terms of Several Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucgun, Duygu

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the writing anxiety levels of primary school 6, 7 and 8th year students in terms of several variables using the "writing anxiety scale" developed by Yaman (2010). The study group is composed of 1407 students enrolled at the 6, 7 and 8th years of 10 primary schools in Sarkisla district of Sivas province. The…

  1. Effect of the video output of the dental operating microscope on anxiety levels in a pediatric population during restorative procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed, Abrar; Ranna, Vinisha; Padawe, Dimple; Takate, Vilas

    2016-01-01

    Adapting a child to the alien settings of a dental operatory is a major challenge to the dentist. Fear of the unknown and preconceived notions of dental pain causes anxiety in the pediatric patient. This often leads to disruptive and uncooperative behavior in the dental operatory. Many methods of behavior management have been described, of which the Tell-Show-Do (TSD) is an established and time-tested technique of behavior management. To determine if a live visual output of the dental operating microscope (DOM) could be used as an adjunct to the TSD technique, to involve the child more completely in the procedure and reduce the fear of the unknown. The study was a randomized, controlled, crossover, and cross-sectional clinical trial. Data were obtained from two visits. 90 children having carious lesions on both lower first molars, in the 7-9 years age group were selected and divided randomly into two groups. Restorative procedures were performed on one tooth per visit, with visits 1 week apart. Live display of the procedure was shown to the patient using video output of the DOM displayed on a 72 inch LCD monitor, angled for best visibility of the child. Anxiety levels were evaluated using Venhams picture selection test and pulse oximetry. Student's t-test was used to compare the anxiety scores obtained from the two groups. The results showed there was a decrease in the anxiety from the first visit to the second visit. (P = 0.05 for Group A and P = 0.003 for Group B). The patients preferred the visit in which the DOM was used. The operator reported an increased patient compliance and reduced patient movement in the visits in which the DOM was used. There is a reduction in anxiety from the first visit to the second visit for restorative treatment when the DOM is used.

  2. Effect of the video output of the dental operating microscope on anxiety levels in a pediatric population during restorative procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrar Sayed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adapting a child to the alien settings of a dental operatory is a major challenge to the dentist. Fear of the unknown and preconceived notions of dental pain causes anxiety in the pediatric patient. This often leads to disruptive and uncooperative behavior in the dental operatory. Many methods of behavior management have been described, of which the Tell-Show-Do (TSD is an established and time-tested technique of behavior management. Aim: To determine if a live visual output of the dental operating microscope (DOM could be used as an adjunct to the TSD technique, to involve the child more completely in the procedure and reduce the fear of the unknown. Materials and Methods: The study was a randomized, controlled, crossover, and cross-sectional clinical trial. Data were obtained from two visits. 90 children having carious lesions on both lower first molars, in the 7-9 years age group were selected and divided randomly into two groups. Restorative procedures were performed on one tooth per visit, with visits 1 week apart. Live display of the procedure was shown to the patient using video output of the DOM displayed on a 72 inch LCD monitor, angled for best visibility of the child. Anxiety levels were evaluated using Venhams picture selection test and pulse oximetry. Statistical Analysis: Student′s t-test was used to compare the anxiety scores obtained from the two groups. Results: The results showed there was a decrease in the anxiety from the first visit to the second visit. (P = 0.05 for Group A and P = 0.003 for Group B. The patients preferred the visit in which the DOM was used. The operator reported an increased patient compliance and reduced patient movement in the visits in which the DOM was used. Conclusion: There is a reduction in anxiety from the first visit to the second visit for restorative treatment when the DOM is used.

  3. Effect of lavender essence inhalation on the level of anxiety and blood cortisol in candidates for open-heart surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, SeyedAbedin; Heydari, Alemeh; Vakili, MohammadAli; Moghadam, Shahram; Tazyky, SadeghAli

    2016-01-01

    Background: Surgery, as a treatment, is a stressful experience. The anxiety is more severe in open-heart surgery patients due to its risk and complications. The present study aimed to determine the effect of lavender essence on the levels of anxiety and blood cortisol in candidates for open-heart surgery. Materials and Methods: This was a single-blind clinical trial, a random allocation study with a control group conducted on 90 candidates for open-heart surgery in two groups of study and control. The study and control groups inhaled two drops of lavender and distilled water for 20 min, respectively. Spielberger questionnaire was filled by the patients. A 2 ml blood sample was taken to measure the cortisol level and patients’ vital signs were recorded before and after intervention. Data were analyzed by chi-square in the form of mean, SD, and frequency distribution, independent t-test, paired t-test, and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), with a significance level of P = 0.05 to modify the pre-test scores. Results: Results showed a significant reduction in mean anxiety score from 56.73 (5.67) to 54.73 (5.42) after intervention in the study group, compared to the control group [1.11 (1.17)] (P Aromatherapy with lavender is suggested to be considered as a nursing intervention in clinical settings. PMID:27563324

  4. The negative effects of alcohol hangover on high-anxiety phenotype rats are influenced by the glutamate receptors of the dorsal midbrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezequiel Leite, L; Nobre, M J

    2012-06-28

    Alcoholism is a chronic disorder characterized by the appearance of a withdrawal syndrome following the abrupt cessation of alcohol intake that includes symptoms of physical and emotional disturbances, anxiety being the most prevalent symptom. In humans, it was shown that anxiety may increase the probability of relapse. In laboratory animals, however, the use of anxiety to predict alcohol preference has remained difficult. Excitatory amino acids as glutamate have been implicated in alcohol hangover and may be responsible for the seizures and anxiety observed during withdrawal. The dorsal periaqueductal gray (DPAG) is a midbrain region critical for the modulation/expression of anxiety- and fear-related behaviors and the propagation of seizures induced by alcohol withdrawal, the glutamate neurotransmission being one of the most affected. The present study was designed to evaluate whether low- (LA) and high-anxiety rats (HA), tested during the alcohol hangover phase, in which anxiety is the most prevalent symptom, are more sensitive to the reinforcing effects of alcohol when tested in a voluntary alcohol drinking procedure. Additionally, we were interested in investigating the main effects of reducing the excitatory tonus of the dorsal midbrain, after the blockade of the ionotropic glutamate receptors into the DPAG, on the voluntary alcohol intake of HA and LA motivated rats that were made previously experienced with the free operant response of alcohol drinking. For this purpose, we used local infusions of the N-metil D-Aspartato (NMDA) and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)-kainate receptors antagonist DL-2-Amino-7-phosphonoheptanoic acid - DL-AP7 (10 nmol/0.2 μl) and l-glutamic acid diethyl ester - GDEE (160 nmol/0.2 μl), respectively. Alcohol intoxication was produced by 10 daily bolus intraperitonial (IP) injections of alcohol (2.0 g/kg). Peak-blood alcohol levels were determined by gas-chromatography analysis in order to assess blood

  5. The Cool Little Kids randomised controlled trial: Population-level early prevention for anxiety disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiscock Harriet

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization predicts that by 2030 internalising problems (e.g. depression and anxiety will be second only to HIV/AIDS in international burden of disease. Internalising problems affect 1 in 7 school aged children, impacting on peer relations, school engagement, and later mental health, relationships and employment. The development of early childhood prevention for internalising problems is in its infancy. The current study follows two successful 'efficacy' trials of a parenting group intervention to reduce internalising disorders in temperamentally inhibited preschool children. Cool Little Kids is a population-level randomised trial to determine the impacts of systematically screening preschoolers for inhibition then offering a parenting group intervention, on child internalising problems and economic costs at school entry. Methods/Design This randomised trial will be conducted within the preschool service system, attended by more than 95% of Australian children in the year before starting school. In early 2011, preschool services in four local government areas in Melbourne, Australia, will distribute the screening tool. The ≈16% (n≈500 with temperamental inhibition will enter the trial. Intervention parents will be offered Cool Little Kids, a 6-session group program in the local community, focusing on ways to develop their child's bravery skills by reducing overprotective parenting interactions. Outcomes one and two years post-baseline will comprise child internalising diagnoses and symptoms, parenting interactions, and parent wellbeing. An economic evaluation (cost-consequences framework will compare incremental differences in costs of the intervention versus control children to incremental differences in outcomes, from a societal perspective. Analyses will use the intention-to-treat principle, using logistic and linear regression models (binary and continuous outcomes respectively to compare outcomes

  6. The Effects of Rational and Irrational Self-Verbalizations on Performance Efficiency and Levels of Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosin, Lindsay; Nelson, W. M. III

    1983-01-01

    Investigated effects of rational vs. irrational belief systems and rational vs. irrational self-verbalizations on anxiety and persistence. Subjects (N=40) were instructed to assemble a virtually insolvable task called Soma, and were assigned to either a rational or irrational self-talk condition. Rational self-talk subjects showed a significant…

  7. Mindfulness significantly reduces self-reported levels of anxiety and depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Würtzen, Hanne; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Elsass, Peter

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: As the incidence of and survival from breast cancer continue to raise, interventions to reduce anxiety and depression before, during and after treatment are needed. Previous studies have reported positive effects of a structured 8-week group mindfulness-based stress reduction program...

  8. Aversive learning and generalization predict subclinical levels of anxiety : a six-month longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenaert, Bert; Boddez, Yannick; Griffith, James W; Vervliet, Bram; Schruers, Koen; Hermans, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    The identification of premorbid markers of risk for psychopathology is one of the most important challenges for present-day psychiatric research. This study focuses on behavioral vulnerability factors that contribute to the development of anxiety. Little is known about the role of aversive learning

  9. Mathematics anxiety in secondary students in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, Steve

    2009-02-01

    Whatever the changes that are made to the mathematics curriculum in England, there will always remain a problem with mathematics anxiety. Maths anxiety is rarely facilitative. This study examined aspects of mathematics in secondary schools and how students rated them as sources of anxiety. Over 2000 students in independent and mainstream schools in England completed a 20-item questionnaire designed to investigate maths anxiety levels. The same questionnaire was given to over 440 dyslexic males in specialist schools within the same age range. The results showed that examinations and tests create high levels of anxiety in approximately 4% of students. The results suggest that certain aspects and topics in the maths curriculum, such as long division, cause similar levels of anxiety for students in all year groups in secondary schools.

  10. Influence of age on reactivity to diverse emotional challenges in low- and high-anxiety rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Luciana C; Gomes, Margareth Z; Brandão, Marcus L

    2011-02-01

    Studies have revealed that the extent of reactivity of high-anxiety rats to diverse challenges is different than low-anxiety rats and have provided important insights into the psychopathology of anxiety. Various factors intervene to allow defensive mechanisms to react to diverse threatening challenges, including ontogeny and the nature of the emotional challenge (e.g., conditioned vs. unconditioned). The present study investigated the extent to which a particular type of fear extrapolates to other emotional responses to diverse threatening challenges. Groups of 30- and 60-day-old rats were assigned to low freezing behavior (LFB) and high freezing behavior (HFB) groups using the contextual fear conditioning paradigm and subjected to either the fear-potentiated startle (FPS) test, novelty-induced ultrasound vocalizations (USVs) or elevated plus-maze (EPM) tests. At 30 days of age, HFB rats exhibited greater FPS than LFB rats. In contrast, prior selection of HFB and LFB did not affect the performance of 30-day-old animals in the EPM and novelty-induced USVs. Sixty-day-old animals exhibited a performance deficit in all three tests. These data suggest that the performance of young rats in animal models of anxiety parallels their selection as LFB and HFB in the contextual fear conditioning paradigm. However, the increased fear-like behavior exhibited by the 60-day-old HFB rats may elicit performance deficits in conditioned and unconditioned fear tests. These results suggest that the interaction between hyperanxiety and age may cause a performance deficit despite the animals' increased fear-like behavior when facing emotional challenges, thus resembling psychiatric patients in many respects. Copyright © 2010 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Stress, anxiety, depression and migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacogne, C; Lacoste, J P; Guillibert, E; Hugues, F C; Le Jeunne, C

    2003-07-01

    This study investigated the intensity of stress, anxiety and depression in a sample of 141 migraineurs compared with a control group of 109 non-migraine workers matched for age and sex. Stress was measured using the Perceived Stress Questionnaire, and anxiety and depression using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Results indicated that stress and anxiety were higher in the migraine group than in the control group and above the clinical level. Depression scores remained low in both groups, under clinical relevance. Stress is a primordial factor in the triggering and perpetuation of migraine attacks. The high score of the items 'morning fatigue', 'intrusive thoughts about work', 'feeling under pressure', 'impatience', and 'irritability' of the stress questionnaire in the migraineurs is particularly significant in the intensive stress response. It seems necessary to manage stress to improve the daily life of migraineurs and to study the link between stress, anxiety and migraine.

  12. The Effect o f Twelve - Week Recreation Act i v ities on the Anxiety Level of Female Pri soners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zekiye B AŞARAN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available T h e a i m o f t h e s t u d y w a s to examine the effect of twelve - weeks recreation activities on the trait anxiety level of female prisoners in the prisons. The sampling of this study consists of 45 female prisoners who are in the Open Prison in Kandira, 22 of whom are in the experimental group and 23 of whom are in the control group. Different activities, such as music, dance, meditatio n, sportive activities, movies and videos, fun and entertainment activities and competitions, were performed one and half hours a day and two days a week. This lasted for twelve weeks. The data were collected by pre - tests and post - tests that were given bo th at the beginning and at the end of this program. Personal information form and Spielberger anxiety inventory were used as the data collecting tool. The reliability coefficient (Cronbach Alpha was calculated as ,873. The data were analysed with SPSS Win dows 18 programme. Descriptive statistics and Wilcoxon test were conducted. A si gnificant statistical correlation was determined between the prisoners’ pre - tests and post - tests scores in the experimental group (p <0.05. A s c o n c l u s i o n , a positive impact on trait anxiety levels of prisoners w a s f o u n d a f t e r 12 weeks o f recreational activities.

  13. Mathematics teaching experiences of elementary preservice teachers with high and low mathematics anxiety during student teaching: A multiple case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisbet, Leslie Deanna

    This study investigated the teaching experiences of six elementary preservice teachers (EPTs), three with high mathematics anxiety and three with low mathematics anxiety, during their student teaching semester. The EPTs were selected from an initial pool of 121 EPTs who took the Abbreviated Mathematics Anxiety Scale. The cases were compared in a cross case analysis to highlight mathematics teaching experiences among EPTs. Data sources included EPT and researcher journal entries, interview transcripts, pre-lesson surveys, field notes, lesson plans, and artifacts of observed lessons. Data were coded using Shulman's content knowledge, Graeber's mathematics pedagogical content knowledge, and mathematics anxiety characteristics. Findings revealed both similarities and differences across EPTs as related to four major categories: (a) planning and resources used, (b) role of the cooperating teacher, (c) content knowledge, and (d) pedagogical content knowledge. All EPTs used mostly direct instruction and relied on the course textbook and their respective cooperating teacher as their primary resources for planning. Additionally, across participants, the cooperating teacher influenced EPTs' perceptions of students and teaching. Also, EPTs with high mathematics anxiety were weaker with respect to content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge. Findings suggest a need to re-design methods courses to address improving the pedagogical content knowledge of EPTs with mathematics anxiety. Findings also suggest a need to develop content specific mathematics courses for EPTs to improve their content knowledge. Future studies could include a longitudinal study to follow highly anxious EPTs who take content specific elementary mathematics courses to observe their content knowledge and mathematics anxiety.

  14. The GABAА receptors agonists and antagonists influence on formation of a latent inhibition at rats with different levels of anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Redkina; L. V. Loskutova; Т. A. Zamoshchina

    2012-01-01

    Latent inhibition phenomenon indexes the ability to ignore irrelevant stimuli. Disturbance of latent inhibition is registered in different psychiatric populations with pathology in the emotional and cognitive spheres. In our experiments latent inhibition was measured in a conditioned passive avoidance reaction in rats that previously received 0 or 20 conditioned stimuli exposures followed by foot shock. Latent inhibition was disrupted in high-anxiety rats and pathologically enhanced in low-an...

  15. The Effects of a Test-Taking Strategy Intervention for High School Students with Test Anxiety in Advanced Placement Science Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markus, Doron J.

    2011-01-01

    Test anxiety is one of the most debilitating and disruptive factors associated with underachievement and failure in schools (Birenbaum, Menucha, Nasser, & Fadia, 1994; Tobias, 1985). Researchers have suggested that interventions that combine multiple test-anxiety reduction techniques are most effective at reducing test anxiety levels (Ergene,…

  16. A quasi randomized-controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of clowntherapy on children's anxiety and pain levels in emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felluga, Margherita; Rabach, Ingrid; Minute, Marta; Montico, Marcella; Giorgi, Rita; Lonciari, Isabella; Taddio, Andrea; Barbi, Egidio

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate if the presence of medical clowns during painful procedures in the emergency department (ED) affects children's anxiety and pain. Forty children (4-11 years) admitted to the ED with the need of painful procedures were prospectively enrolled. They were randomly assigned to the clown group, where children interacted with clowns or to the control group in which they were entertained by parents and ED nurses. The children's anxiety was assessed by the Children's Anxiety and Pain Scales; pain was evaluated with the Numerical Rating Scale and Wong-Backer Scale, according to the children's age. Staff and clown's opinions were evaluated by means of dedicated questionnaires. Children's anxiety levels in the clown group were significantly lower than those compared with the control group, while children's pain levels did not change between the two groups. The presence of clowns in the ED before and during painful procedures was effective in reducing children's anxiety. • Anxiety and fear caused by medical procedures exacerbate children's pain and may interfere with the procedure. • To reduce anxiety, fear, and pain and to facilitate patient's evaluation, different non-pharmacological approaches have been proposed and positive effects of laughter and humor have been reported. What is New: • The presence of clowns in the waiting room and in the ED during medical evaluation and painful procedures helps to reduce children's anxiety.

  17. The Examination of the Effects of Writing Strategy-Based Procedural Facilitative Environments on Students' English Foreign Language Writing Anxiety Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiriotakis, Ioanna K; Vassilaki, Eleni; Spantidakis, Ioannis; Stavrou, Nektarios A M

    2016-01-01

    Empirical studies have shown that anxiety and negative emotion can hinder language acquisition. The present study implemented a writing instructional model so as to investigate its effects on the writing anxiety levels of English Foreign Language learners. The study was conducted with 177 participants, who were administered the Second Language Writing Anxiety Inventory (SLWAI; Cheng, 2004) that assesses somatic, cognitive and behavioral anxiety, both at baseline and following the implementation of a writing instructional model. The hypothesis stated that the participant's writing anxiety levels would lessen following the provision of a writing strategy-based procedural facilitative environment that fosters cognitive apprenticeship. The initial hypothesis was supported by the findings. Specifically, in the final measurement statistical significant differences appeared where participants in the experimental group showed notable lower mean values of the three factors of anxiety, a factor that largely can be attributed to the content of the intervention program applied to this specific group. The findings validate that Foreign Language writing anxiety negatively effects Foreign Language learning and performance. The findings also support the effectiveness of strategy-based procedural facilitative writing environments that foster cognitive apprenticeship, so as to enhance language skill development and reduce feelings of Foreign Language writing anxiety.

  18. The Examination of the Effects of Writing Strategy-Based Procedural Facilitative Environments on Students' English Foreign Language Writing Anxiety Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiriotakis, Ioanna K.; Vassilaki, Eleni; Spantidakis, Ioannis; Stavrou, Nektarios A. M.

    2017-01-01

    Empirical studies have shown that anxiety and negative emotion can hinder language acquisition. The present study implemented a writing instructional model so as to investigate its effects on the writing anxiety levels of English Foreign Language learners. The study was conducted with 177 participants, who were administered the Second Language Writing Anxiety Inventory (SLWAI; Cheng, 2004) that assesses somatic, cognitive and behavioral anxiety, both at baseline and following the implementation of a writing instructional model. The hypothesis stated that the participant's writing anxiety levels would lessen following the provision of a writing strategy-based procedural facilitative environment that fosters cognitive apprenticeship. The initial hypothesis was supported by the findings. Specifically, in the final measurement statistical significant differences appeared where participants in the experimental group showed notable lower mean values of the three factors of anxiety, a factor that largely can be attributed to the content of the intervention program applied to this specific group. The findings validate that Foreign Language writing anxiety negatively effects Foreign Language learning and performance. The findings also support the effectiveness of strategy-based procedural facilitative writing environments that foster cognitive apprenticeship, so as to enhance language skill development and reduce feelings of Foreign Language writing anxiety. PMID:28119658

  19. Study on Writing Anxiety among Iranian EFL Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naghmeh Jebreil

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aimed at investigating the level of writing anxiety of the Iranian EFL students with different proficiency levels. To do so, 45 students (elementary, intermediate, and advanced learners studying in Azad University of Ilam, Iran were selected based on random sampling. Second, Language Writing Anxiety Inventory SLWAI (Cheng, 2004 was used to measure anxiety.  Both descriptive and inferential statistics including One-way ANOVA were run to analyze the data. Statistical analysis was conducted using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS. The results of the study indicated that the selected Iranian EFL students majoring in English language teaching experienced a high level of anxiety. In addition, students with elementary level were found to suffer higher level of English writing anxiety than the students with intermediate and advanced levels. Finally, based on the findings, cognitive anxiety was the most common type of anxiety, followed by somatic anxiety, and avoidance behavior. The results also highlighted the fact that foreign and second language teachers should be cautious of the dangers of  anxiety  and try  to  make  the  atmosphere  of  class  as  stress-free  as possible  in  order  to  improve  students’ performance. Keywords: Writing Anxiety, EFL Students, Cognitive Anxiety, Somatic Anxiety, Avoidance

  20. Measurement of the levels anxiety, self-perception of preparation and expectations for success using an objective structured clinical examination, a written examination, and a preclinical preparation test in Kerman dental students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantari, Mahsa; Zadeh, Nazila Lashkari; Agahi, Raha Habib; Navabi, Nader; Hashemipour, Maryam Alsadat; Nassab, Amir Hossein Gandjalikhan

    2017-01-01

    Examinations have an important role in evaluating students' learning outcomes and their mastery of a subject. Passing or failing an examination can have far-reaching consequences for the students. Therefore, it is not surprising that international studies consistently show that dental students report examinations and grades among the highest ranking stressors in dental schools. The aim of this research was to measure the levels of anxiety, self-perception of preparation and expectations for success using an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE), a written examination and a preclinical preparation test, and to examine the effects of the three predictive variables on the outcomes of assessments. The present research is a cross-sectional study. The population under consideration was students of Kerman Dental School in 2013. Examination anxiety was measured with Spielberger's state anxiety inventory. Preparation for the assessment (I am fully prepared = 4, I am prepared = 3, I'm not prepared = 2, I'm not fully prepared = 1) and expectation to succeed (I am quite successful = 4, I am successful = 3, I'm not successful = 2, I'm not quite successful = 1) were quantified with Likert scale. The questionnaire was completed during an OSCE, a written examination, a preclinical crown and bridge preparation test and a nonexamination situation. The study population consisted of 138 4(th), 5(th), and 6(th) year Kerman dental students (65 males and 73 females). The results showed that all the assessment methods induced a significant increase in state anxiety compared to baseline levels with the highest anxiety levels reported during an OSCE (62.4 ± 8.1, P = 0.04) and a written examination (48.8 ± 9.2, P = 0.04). The preparation levels in females were significantly higher than those in males in OSCE (P = 0.03) and written (P = 0.04). State anxiety was high in all the three assessment methods. OSCE induced more anxiety than other assessment formats. However, anxiety was

  1. High-fat diet transition reduces brain DHA levels associated with altered brain plasticity and behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sandeep; Zhuang, Yumei; Gomez-Pinilla, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    To assess how the shift from a healthy diet rich in omega-3 fatty acids to a diet rich in saturated fatty acid affects the substrates for brain plasticity and function, we used pregnant rats fed with omega-3 supplemented diet from their 2nd day of gestation period as well as their male pups for 12 weeks. Afterwards, the animals were randomly assigned to either a group fed on the same diet or a group fed on a high-fat diet (HFD) rich in saturated fats for 3 weeks. We found that the HFD increased vulnerability for anxiety-like behavior, and that these modifications harmonized with changes in the anxiety-related NPY1 receptor and the reduced levels of BDNF, and its signalling receptor pTrkB, as well as the CREB protein. Brain DHA contents were significantly associated with the levels of anxiety-like behavior in these rats.

  2. Using effort-reward imbalance theory to understand high rates of depression and anxiety among clergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proeschold-Bell, Rae Jean; Miles, Andrew; Toth, Matthew; Adams, Christopher; Smith, Bruce W; Toole, David

    2013-12-01

    The clergy occupation is unique in its combination of role strains and higher calling, putting clergy mental health at risk. We surveyed all United Methodist clergy in North Carolina, and 95% (n = 1,726) responded, with 38% responding via phone interview. We compared clergy phone interview depression rates, assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), to those of in-person interviews in a representative United States sample that also used the PHQ-9. The clergy depression prevalence was 8.7%, significantly higher than the 5.5% rate of the national sample. We used logistic regression to explain depression, and also anxiety, assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. As hypothesized by effort-reward imbalance theory, several extrinsic demands (job stress, life unpredictability) and intrinsic demands (guilt about not doing enough work, doubting one's call to ministry) significantly predicted depression and anxiety, as did rewards such as ministry satisfaction and lack of financial stress. The high rate of clergy depression signals the need for preventive policies and programs for clergy. The extrinsic and intrinsic demands and rewards suggest specific actions to improve clergy mental health.

  3. Assessment of Preoperative Anxiety in Cardiac Surgery Patients Lacking a History of Anxiety: Contributing Factors and Postoperative Morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Palazón, Joaquín; Fuentes-García, Diego; Falcón-Araña, Luis; Roca-Calvo, María José; Burguillos-López, Sebastián; Doménech-Asensi, Paloma; Jara-Rubio, Rubén

    2017-04-26

    The aim of this study was to measure the level of preoperative anxiety in patients scheduled for cardiac surgery, identify any influencing clinical factors, and assess the relationship between anxiety and postoperative morbidity. A prospective and consecutive study. A single university hospital. The study comprised 200 patients scheduled for cardiac surgery. Each patient was asked to grade his or her preoperative anxiety level using the Visual Analogue Scale for Anxiety, Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale, and set of specific anxiety-related questions. Demographic data (age, sex, body mass index) and anesthetic and surgical data (American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status, EuroSCORE surgical risk, preoperative length of stay, and previous anesthetic experience) were registered. Also, postoperative morbidity was assessed. Twenty-eight percent of the patients developed high preoperative anxiety. The mean Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale score was 11.4 ± 4.3, and the mean Visual Analogue Scale for Anxiety score was 48 ± 21. Patients scheduled for coronary artery bypass surgery, who had no previous anesthetic experience, and who were hospitalized before surgery, had higher anxiety scores. Coronary bypass surgery (odds ratio 3.026; 1.509-6.067; p = 0.002) was associated independently with preoperative high-level anxiety. Anxiety most commonly was caused by waiting for surgery, not knowing what is happening, fearing not being able to awaken from anesthesia, and being at the mercy of staff. Anxiety did not modify the postoperative course. In patients waiting to undergo cardiac surgery, both fear of the unknown and lack of information, especially related to the surgery, are crucial factors in high levels of preoperative anxiety in cardiac surgery. Coronary bypass surgery is a determining factor for preoperative anxiety. The anxiety level did not modify the postoperative course in these patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier

  4. Test anxiety, coping strategies, and perceived health in a group of high school students: a Turkish sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aysan, F; Thompson, D; Hamarat, E

    2001-12-01

    A group of high school juniors and a group of high school seniors in Izmir, Turkey completed measures of test anxiety, coping skills, and perceived health status both before and after a major exam period. Students with high test anxiety used less effective coping mechanisms and tended to have poorer perceptions of their health. Prior to the exams, juniors displayed higher test anxiety and used less effective coping mechanisms than seniors. After the exam periods, improvements were seen for both age groups on perceived health, but scores of younger students remained significantly higher than scores of seniors on one of the key measures of test anxiety. Results of the study lend support to those of previous studies done in other cultural contexts, and findings have implications for the development of interventions designed to help students cope with stress.

  5. Hemoglobin levels in persons with depressive and/or anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lever-van Milligen, Bianca A.; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Smit, Johannes H.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Both low and high hemoglobin levels lead to more physical diseases, and both are linked to mortality. Low hemoglobin, often classified as anemia, has also been linked to more depressive symptoms, but whether both hemoglobin extremes are associated with depressive disorder and potentially

  6. Examination of “Pre-competition” anxiety levels, of mid-distance runners: A quantitative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bebetsos Evangelos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mid-distance runners are subject to intense cognitive and somatic anxiety, not only during competition but also during practice. An important variable which may influence athletes’ performance is perceived behavioral control on anxiety. The aim of the present study was to examine whether aspects such as sex, sport/competition experience and weekly practices, differentiated the participants respectively. The participants consisted of 110 athletes, 61 male and 49 female athletes, between the ages of 15 and 28 (Μ=20.05, SD=2.82.They all completed the Greek version of the “Pre- Race Questionnaire”. Results indicated differences between the less experienced and more experienced athletes in almost all factors of the questionnaire, for both sport/competition experience, and weekly practices. No gender differences were shown. Overall, results could help sport professionals such as coaches and the athletes themselves, become more familiar with the sport-specific psychological aspects involved in their unique sport.

  7. Health Anxiety Levels in Patients Admitted to Internal Medicine Outpatient Clinic for Several Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Gul

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Health anxiety (HA in patients consist of incorrect reference to normal bodily sensations as a signs of a serious disease. The aim of this study is to investigate the HA in patients admitted to internal medicine outpatient clinic for several times within one year. Material and Method: 60 patients who admitted more than one time to internal medicine outpatient clinic within one year and the control group consisted of 60 people were enrolled in this study. Short-form of health anxiety inventory (SAE-KF was given to these groups, The results were compared statistically. Results: SAE-KF scores were significantly higher in the patient group (11.17 ± 6.07 than the control group (10.71±4.44 (Z=-5.96, P

  8. Diazepam effects on aversive memory retrieval and extinction: Role of anxiety levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leão, Anderson H F F; Cabral, Alícia; Izídio, Geison S; Ribeiro, Alessandra M; Silva, Regina H

    2016-02-01

    Benzodiazepines (BDZs) are anxiolytic drugs that impair memory acquisition. Previous studies using the plus-maze discriminative avoidance task (PMDAT, which assesses memory and anxiety concomitantly) indicated that the effects of BDZs on anxiety and acquisition are related to each other. The possible influence of the anxiolytic action of BDZs on their effects on memory retrieval and extinction are poorly understood. This is relevant considering the relationship between aversive memories and anxiety disorders. We designed a modified protocol of PMDAT that evaluates anxiety during retrieval and extinction of the task. Male Wistar rats were trained in the PMDAT (plus-maze with two open and two enclosed arms) using a standard or a modified protocol. In the standard protocol, the aversive stimuli were presented in one of the enclosed arms during training, and the animal had free access to the whole apparatus. In the modified protocol, the open arms were blocked with glass walls. Twenty-four hours after training, the animals subjected to each of the protocols were treated with saline or 2.0mg/kg of diazepam (DZP) 30min before the test. There was a third session in the maze (retest) 24h after the test. During the test, DZP impaired and improved retrieval in rats that had been trained in the standard and the modified protocol when compared to the respective saline-treated groups. In addition, treatment with DZP prior to the test induced anxiolysis, but only in the animals that were not pre-exposed to the open arms of the apparatus (modified protocol). In these animals, DZP impaired extinction, which was evaluated during retest session. The impairing effect of DZP on extinction seems to be related to its anxiolytic action during the test (extinction learning). Further, we suggest that aversive memory retrieval depends on both the treatment and the arousal elicited by exposure to the apparatus.

  9. The Effect of Concept Mapping on L2 Writing Performance: Examining Possible Effects of Trait-Level Writing Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machida, Naoko; Dalsky, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Research on anxiety in a foreign language-learning context is well-documented; however, few studies have directly focused on anxiety occurring within writing contexts despite the fact that writing anxiety is known to affect students' learning. The present study examined the effectiveness of concept mapping considering students' writing anxiety.…

  10. Assessment of Preoperative and Postoperative Anxiety: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Research on measurement of anxiety in patients booked for surgery ... though heightened anxiety levels in such patients is commonly observed. ... the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), in the measurement of anxiety in patients ...

  11. Anxiety in preoperative anesthetic procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela Millán, Jaquelyn; Barrera Serrano, José René; Ornelas Aguirre, José Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Preoperative anxiety is a common and poorly evaluated condition in patients who will undergo an anesthetic and surgical intervention. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of anxiety in a group of patients undergoing elective surgery, as assessed by the Amsterdam Anxiety Preoperative and Information (AAPI) scale. We studied 135 patients scheduled for elective surgery applying the AAPI scale 24 h before the surgical procedure to evaluate the presence of anxiety and patient characteristics. A descriptive analysis with mean +/- standard deviation for categorical variables was done. For intragroup differences, chi(2) test was used. Pearson correlation for the association between anxiety and postoperative complications was carried out. A value of p =0.05 was considered significant. One hundred six patients were surgically treated, 88% were female (average age 44 +/- 12 years). Some degree of preoperative anxiety was present in 72 patients (76%; p = 0.001) with a grade point average on the AAPI scale equal to 17 +/- 7 points, of which 95 (70%, OR = 5.08; p = 0.002) were females. Results of this study suggest the presence of high levels of preoperative anxiety in patients scheduled for elective surgery. The origin of the anxiety appears to be related to many factors that can be evaluated in pre-anesthetic consultation. Further study is needed to prevent the presence of this disorder.

  12. Combined and Relative Effect Levels of Perceived Risk, Knowledge, Optimism, Pessimism, and Social Trust on Anxiety among Inhabitants Concerning Living on Heavy Metal Contaminated Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhongjun; Guo, Zengli; Zhou, Li; Xue, Shengguo; Zhu, Qinfeng; Zhu, Huike

    2016-11-02

    This research aims at combined and relative effect levels on anxiety of: (1) perceived risk, knowledge, optimism, pessimism, and social trust; and (2) four sub-variables of social trust among inhabitants concerning living on heavy metal contaminated soil. On the basis of survey data from 499 Chinese respondents, results suggest that perceived risk, pessimism, optimism, and social trust have individual, significant, and direct effects on anxiety, while knowledge does not. Knowledge has significant, combined, and interactive effects on anxiety together with social trust and pessimism, respectively, but does not with perceived risk and optimism. Social trust, perceived risk, pessimism, knowledge, and optimism have significantly combined effects on anxiety; the five variables as a whole have stronger predictive values than each one individually. Anxiety is influenced firstly by social trust and secondly by perceived risk, pessimism, knowledge, and optimism. Each of four sub-variables of social trust has an individual, significant, and negative effect on anxiety. When introducing four sub-variables into one model, trust in social organizations and in the government have significantly combined effects on anxiety, while trust in experts and in friends and relatives do not; anxiety is influenced firstly by trust in social organization, and secondly by trust in the government.

  13. High-level language computer architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Chu, Yaohan

    1975-01-01

    High-Level Language Computer Architecture offers a tutorial on high-level language computer architecture, including von Neumann architecture and syntax-oriented architecture as well as direct and indirect execution architecture. Design concepts of Japanese-language data processing systems are discussed, along with the architecture of stack machines and the SYMBOL computer system. The conceptual design of a direct high-level language processor is also described.Comprised of seven chapters, this book first presents a classification of high-level language computer architecture according to the pr

  14. A randomised controlled trial examining the effect of acupuncture at the EX-HN3 (Yintang) point on pre-operative anxiety levels in neurosurgical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiles, M D; Mamdani, J; Pullman, M; Andrzejowski, J C

    2017-03-01

    Pre-operative anxiety is an unpleasant state of psychological distress that occurs in up to 87% of patients awaiting neurosurgical procedures. Sedative medication is undesirable in this population due to the need for early postoperative neurological assessment. Acupuncture has previously been shown to reduce pre-operative anxiety, but studies involving neurosurgical patients are lacking. This single-centre, prospective, randomised controlled trial was designed to determine the effect of acupuncture at the EX-HN3 (Yintang point) on pre-operative anxiety levels in neurosurgical patients. The study was prospectively registered before participant recruitment. After measuring baseline anxiety levels, 128 patients were randomly allocated in a 1:1 ratio by a web-based computer program to receive either acupuncture at the EX-HN3 (Yintang) point (acupuncture group) or no intervention (control group). Participants were not blinded, but all analyses were performed by a member of the research team who was unaware of the group allocation. The primary outcome measure was anxiety level after 30 min, as measured by the six-item short form of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (possible score range 20-80). Sixty-two patients in each group were subsequently analysed. Median (IQR [range]) anxiety State-Trait Anxiety Inventory score reduced significantly in the acupuncture group (46.7 (36.7-53.3 [23.3-70.0]) to 40.0 (30.0-46.7) [20.0-53.3]), p < 0.001), with no change seen in the control group (41.7 (33.3-53.3 [20.0-76.7]) to 43.3 (36.7-50.0 [20.0-76.7]), p = 0.829). There were no adverse events in either group. Acupuncture at the EX-HN3 point reduces pre-operative anxiety levels in patients awaiting neurosurgery.

  15. Utilization of social media and web forums by HIV patients - A cross-sectional study on adherence and reported anxiety level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longinetti, Elisa; Manoharan, Vinoth; Ayoub, Hala; Surkan, Pamela J; El-Khatib, Ziad

    2017-06-01

    Due to the high stigma surrounding the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), people living with HIV (PLWH) often reach out peers over the Internet for emotional and social support. The purpose of this study was to assess the characteristics of PLWH who use HIV internet forums. A cross-sectional study was conducted using an online survey investigating demographic characteristics of PLWH, level of satisfaction of the HIV Internet forums, time living with HIV, forum users' anxiety levels, self-reported adherence to antiretroviral treatment (ART), and reasons for missing pills (n = 222). Logistic regression models were constructed to compare the use of general HIV forums with social networking sites, general HIV forums with group emails, and social networking sites with group emails. Two hundred and twenty-two patients responded to the survey. Social networking sites were used by recently diagnosed PLWH who were on antiretroviral treatment (ART) > 1 year. Young patients (≤ 40 years) and those diagnosed  40 years), those diagnosed > 5 years, and from low- and middle-income countries, were more likely to use emailing lists. There was no significant difference between PLWH's adherence to treatment and anxiety levels and the usage of different Internet forums. PLWH's Internet resource choice varied depending on the availability of Internet and illness duration. Different segments of the population could be reached via social networking sites versus group emails to provide HIV information.

  16. Maternal anxiety, maternal sensitivity, and attachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevenson-Hinde, J.; Chicot, R.; Schouldice, A.; Hinde, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has related maternal anxiety to insecurity of attachment. Here we ask whether different aspects of maternal sensitivity mediate this link. From a community sample of intact families with 1-3 children, mothers with 4.5-year-olds were selected for low, medium, or high anxiety levels

  17. Maternal anxiety, maternal sensitivity, and attachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevenson-Hinde, J.; Chicot, R.; Schouldice, A.; Hinde, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has related maternal anxiety to insecurity of attachment. Here we ask whether different aspects of maternal sensitivity mediate this link. From a community sample of intact families with 1-3 children, mothers with 4.5-year-olds were selected for low, medium, or high anxiety levels

  18. Disability in anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Sanne M; Spijker, Jan; Licht, Carmilla M M; Beekman, Aartjan T F; Hardeveld, Florian; de Graaf, Ron; Batelaan, Neeltje M; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2014-09-01

    This study compares disability levels between different anxiety disorders and healthy controls. We further investigate the role of anxiety arousal and avoidance behaviour in disability, and whether differences in these symptom patterns contribute to disability differences between anxiety disorders. Data were from 1826 subjects from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). The Composite Interview Diagnostic Instrument was used to diagnose anxiety disorders. The World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II was used to measure disability in six domains (cognition, mobility, selfcare, social interaction, life activities, participation). Severity of anxiety arousal and avoidance behaviour symptoms was measured using the Beck Anxiety Inventory and the Fear Questionnaire. All anxiety disorders were associated with higher disability. Disability was generally highest in multiple anxiety disorder (e.g. mean disability in cognition=33.7) and social anxiety disorder (mean=32.7), followed by generalized anxiety disorder (mean=27.2) and panic disorder with agoraphobia (mean=26.3), and lowest in panic disorder without agoraphobia (mean=22.1). Anxiety arousal was more associated with disability in life activities (B=8.5, panxiety disorders were not completely explained by anxiety arousal and avoidance behaviour. The cross-sectional study design precludes any causal interpretations. In order to examine the full range of comorbidity among anxiety, a greater range of anxiety disorders would have been preferable. Disability is highest in social anxiety disorder and multiple anxiety disorder. Both anxiety arousal and avoidance behaviour are associated with higher disability levels but do not fully explain the differences across anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effectiveness of music interventions for women with high anxiety during coronary angiographic procedures: a randomized controlled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Ulrica

    2012-06-01

    The purpose was to investigate if women with high pre-procedural anxiety reported higher degree of relaxation and comfort if listening to music during coronary angiographic procedures. A prospective randomized controlled trial was used included 68 patients undergoing coronary angiography and/or PCI. The women were allocated to receive calming music and standard care or standard care only. Relaxation, environmental sound and discomfort associated with lying still were assessed. There was significantly more positive impression of the sound environment and less discomfort associated with lying still in women listening to music in comparison to women who received only standard care. No effect in relaxation was found.

  20. Math anxiety differentially affects WAIS-IV arithmetic performance in undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buelow, Melissa T; Frakey, Laura L

    2013-06-01

    Previous research has shown that math anxiety can influence the math performance level; however, to date, it is unknown whether math anxiety influences performance on working memory tasks during neuropsychological evaluation. In the present study, 172 undergraduate students completed measures of math achievement (the Math Computation subtest from the Wide Range Achievement Test-IV), math anxiety (the Math Anxiety Rating Scale-Revised), general test anxiety (from the Adult Manifest Anxiety Scale-College version), and the three Working Memory Index tasks from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV Edition (WAIS-IV; Digit Span [DS], Arithmetic, Letter-Number Sequencing [LNS]). Results indicated that math anxiety predicted performance on Arithmetic, but not DS or LNS, above and beyond the effects of gender, general test anxiety, and math performance level. Our findings suggest that math anxiety can negatively influence WAIS-IV working memory subtest scores. Implications for clinical practice include the utilization of LNS in individuals expressing high math anxiety.

  1. Anxiety trajectories and identity development in adolescence: a five-wave longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocetti, Elisabetta; Klimstra, Theo; Keijsers, Loes; Hale, William W; Meeus, Wim

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this five-wave longitudinal study was to investigate the relationship between anxiety and adolescent identity development. Participants were 1,313 adolescents who annually completed measures of anxiety and identity. Growth Mixture Modeling (GMM) analyses demonstrated that the adolescent population was best typified by two latent growth trajectory classes: a low anxiety class (n = 1,199) characterized by a low initial level of anxiety that decreased over time and a high anxiety class (n = 114) characterized by a higher initial level of anxiety that increased over time. To answer our research question, we tested a model in which the anxiety classes predicted initial levels and rates of change of three identity dimensions: commitment, in-depth exploration, and reconsideration of commitment. Findings indicated that the high anxiety adolescents displayed a more troublesome identity development than their low anxiety peers, since their commitments became weaker with age, and they reconsidered them intensively.

  2. Effect of oral-transmucosal midazolam sedation on anxiety levels of 3-4 years old children during a Class II restorative procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, Aditi; Chawla, H S; Gauba, K; Goyal, A; Bhardwaj, N

    2014-07-01

    A double-blind randomized control trial was conducted to assess the effect of oral-transmucosal midazolam sedation on changes in anxiety levels of precooperative children during a Class II amalgam restorative procedure. A sample of 40 healthy, American Society of Anesthesiologists I, children aged 3-4 years having at least one carious primary mandibular molar requiring a Class II amalgam restoration with no previous dental history were randomly divided into experimental and control groups comprising of 20 children each. The children in the experimental group (Group I) received 0.5 mg/kg body weight of midazolam mixed in strawberry syrup and those in the control group (Group II) received the same syrup mixed in saline, 15 min prior to the restorative procedure. Routine nonpharmacological behavior management techniques were used in both groups. The anxiety levels were recorded using Venham's anxiety scale at the start and end of each procedural step. There was a significant (P anxiety levels of children in the experimental group on entry into the operatory compared with the control group. Introduction of each fear evoking stimuli showed a somewhat similar increase in anxiety levels in the two groups. In spite of a similar trend, the anxiety levels remained much lower in Group I than in Group II. Midazolam in conjunction with behavior management is more helpful in relaxing the child initially than behavior management alone, thus increasing the chances of successful and easy accomplishment of further treatment steps.

  3. Preoperative anxiety-an important but neglected issue: A narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teena Bansal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety is an emotional state characterized by apprehension and fear resulting from the anticipation of a threatening event. The incidence of preoperative anxiety ranges from 11% to 80% in adult patients and also varies among different surgical groups. Preoperative anxiety may lead to various problems and a wide range of physiological and psychological responses. A variety of objective and subjective methods are available for measuring preoperative anxiety. Every patient scheduled for surgery should be assessed for the presence of anxiety in their routine preoperative anesthesia assessment, and counseling should be done by anesthesiologist in patients with a high level of anxiety. Surgery information reduces anxiety in the preoperative period.

  4. Attentional Bias in Math Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orly eRubinsten

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive theory from the field of general anxiety suggests that the tendency to display attentional bias toward negative information results in anxiety. Accordingly, the current study aims to investigate whether attentional bias is involved in math anxiety as well (i.e., a persistent negative reaction to math. Twenty seven participants (14 with high levels of math anxiety and 13 with low levels of math anxiety were presented with a novel computerized numerical version of the well established dot probe task. One of 6 types of prime stimuli, either math related or typically neutral, were presented on one side of a computer screen. The prime was preceded by a probe (either one or two asterisks that appeared in either the prime or the opposite location. Participants had to discriminate probe identity (one or two asterisks. Math anxious individuals reacted faster when the probe was at the location of the numerical related stimuli. This suggests the existence of attentional bias in math anxiety. That is, for math anxious individuals, the cognitive system selectively favored the processing of emotionally negative information (i.e., math related words. These findings suggest that attentional bias is linked to unduly intense math anxiety symptoms.

  5. Maladaptive cognitive appraisals in children with high-functioning autism: associations with fear, anxiety and theory of mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shilpi; Woolfson, Lisa M; Hunter, Simon C

    2014-04-01

    Despite the well-documented success of cognitive restructuring techniques in the treatment of anxiety disorders, there is still little clarity on which cognitions underpin fear and anxiety in children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder. This study examined whether certain cognitive appraisals, known to be associated with fear and anxiety in typically developing groups, may help explain these emotions in children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder. It also investigated relations between these cognitive appraisals and theory of mind. Appraisals, fear and anxiety were assessed using a vignette approach in 22 children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders and 22 typically developing children. The two groups differed significantly on all four appraisal types. Anxiety was negatively correlated with future expectancy and positively with problem-focused coping potential in the high-functioning autism spectrum disorder group but was not correlated with appraisals in the typically developing group. The two appraisals associated with fear were emotion-focused coping potential (in the high-functioning autism spectrum disorder group only) and self-accountability (in the typically developing group only). Linear regression analysis found that appraisals of emotion-focused coping potential, problem-focused coping potential and future expectancy were significant predictors of theory-of-mind ability in the high-functioning autism spectrum disorders group. These findings indicate that specific, problematic patterns of appraisal may characterise children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders.

  6. Job Satisfaction, Anxiety Level and Associated Factors in a Group of Residents in a University Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Yaşan

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In present study, we aimed to research the job satisfaction among the residents at Dicle University Medical Faculty Hospital, some factors affecting this and some psychological effects of not being pleased with their jobs. With respect to this aim, socio demographic data form, Minnesota Job Satisfaction, Beck Anxiety Inventory, State Trait Anger Scale were given to 140 residents at University who accepted to join this study and were collected the following day. In study, 35 percent of the participants having joined the study weren’t pleased with their works. The number of satisfied residents was higher among the willingly choice making residents in favour of their Works(34.8% than the participants who were unwilling to choice the department (65.2% they are working now (x2:11.046, p<0.01. Beck anxiety results were found to be much higher in the residents who were not pleased with their workers than the workers pleased with their works. Finally, there are some factors determining the job satisfaction. There is relationship between job satisfaction and mental health. Because this can give rise to negative effects on the performance of the work, it is required that some solution ways be found in order to increase the work contention.

  7. Association studies of genetic scores of serum vitamin B12 and folate levels with symptoms of depression and anxiety in two danish population studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllehave, L T; Skaaby, T; Simonsen, K S

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Observational studies have suggested low serum levels of vitamin B12 or folate to be risk factors of depression and anxiety. However, these results may be biased by confounding and reverse causation. Mendelian randomization studies are not subject to these limitations....... The aim was to examine the association of genetic scores of vitamin B12 and folate-associated alleles with depression and anxiety. SUBJECTS/METHODS: The study included 4126 participants from two Danish population-based studies. Serum vitamin B12 and folate were measured. Weighed allele scores were...... calculated as the sum of weights (genetic effect sizes) for 12 and two variants increasing circulating levels of vitamin B12 and folate, respectively. Symptoms of depression and anxiety were assessed by the Symptom Check List (SCL)-90-R, and self-reported doctor-diagnosed depression and anxiety. RESULTS...

  8. The bold and the fearless among us: elevated psychopathic traits and levels of anxiety and fear are associated with specific aberrant driving behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panayiotou, Georgia

    2015-06-01

    In spite of the well-documented connection between personality traits like impulsivity, sensation seeking and fearlessness with aberrant driving behaviors, scarce research exists to examine the association between risky and aggressive driving and psychopathic characteristics, which encompass the above traits. The present investigation examines in two studies the association between specific sub-types of driving misconduct, i.e., unintentional mistakes and deliberate rule violations with psychopathic characteristics, with a focus on the role of levels of fear and anxiety in aberrant driving. Findings support the hypotheses that fearlessness, i.e., the bold, unemotional aspect of psychopathic traits, characterizes drivers who engage in frequent deliberate driving code violations, whereas the more impulsive/antisocial aspect of psychopathy, associated with higher levels of fear and anxiety, is more characteristic of drivers who engage in unintentional mistakes. Fearless features are also associated with higher self-reported driving misconduct and accidents. Study 2 conceptually replicated this finding by showing that mistakes are positively related to high sensitivity to punishment, while violations are negatively related to it. Findings are discussed in light of psychopathy theory and in relation to prevention and intervention.

  9. Profile of mathematics anxiety of 7th graders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udil, Patrisius Afrisno; Kusmayadi, Tri Atmojo; Riyadi

    2017-08-01

    Mathematics anxiety is one of the important factors affect students mathematics achievement. This present research investigates profile of students' mathematics anxiety. This research focuses on analysis and description of students' mathematics anxiety level generally and its dominant domain and aspect. Qualitative research with case study strategy was used in this research. Subject in this research involved 15 students of 7th grade chosen with purposive sampling. Data in this research were students' mathematics anxiety scale result, interview record, and observation result during both mathematics learning activity and test. They were asked to complete mathematics anxiety scale before interviewed and observed. The results show that generally students' mathematics anxiety was identified in the moderate level. In addition, students' mathematics anxiety during mathematics test was identified in the high level, but it was in the moderate level during mathematics learning process. Based on the anxiety domain, students have a high mathematics anxiety on cognitive domain, while it was in the moderate level for psychological and physiological domains. On the other hand, it was identified in low level for psychological domain during mathematics learning process. Therefore, it can be concluded that students have serious and high anxiety regarding mathematics on the cognitive domain and mathematics test aspect.

  10. Vocational High School Students’ Sense of Self-Efficacy and Test Anxiety Regarding Biology Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Serdar KÖKSAL

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Self-regulation perspective on motivation provides an important model to study on motivation in biologyeducation. Motivational part of the Pintrich’s model as one of the most studied models has self-efficacy andtest-anxiety factors as two dominant factors reflecting positive and negative sides of the model in terms ofnumber of relationship with other factors in the model. In the study, two hundred thirteen vocational highschool students were included and survey technique was used for examining the factors across grade level inthe study. Two subscales of MSLQ were applied to collect data. The data was analyzed by using MANOVAand Pearson-product moment correlation via SPSS 13. The results showed self-efficacy and test anxietyscores differed significantly between ninth and tenth graders. Again, they were correlated negatively at thesame levels.

  11. Cyberchondria: Parsing Health Anxiety From Online Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty-Torstrick, Emily R; Walton, Kate E; Fallon, Brian A

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with questions about their health often turn to the Internet for information about their symptoms, but the degree to which health anxiety is related to online checking, and clinical variables, remains unclear. The clinical profiles of highly anxious Internet checkers, and the relationship to checking behavior itself, have not previously been reported. In this article, we test the hypothesis, derived from cognitive-behavioral models, that individuals with higher levels of illness anxiety would recall having experienced worsening anxiety after reassurance-seeking on the Internet. Data from 731 volunteers who endorsed engaging in online symptom-searching were collected using an online questionnaire. Severity of health anxiety was assessed with the Whiteley Index, functional impairment with the Sheehan Disability Scale, and distress recall during and after searching with a modified version of the Clinician׳s Global Impairment scale. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to determine variables contributing to distress during and after Internet checking. Severity of illness anxiety on the Whiteley Index was the strongest predictor of increase in anxiety associated with, and consequent to, online symptom-searching. Individuals with high illness anxiety recalled feeling worse after online symptom-checking, whereas those with low illness anxiety recalled relief. Longer-duration online health-related use was associated with increased functional impairment, less education, and increased anxiety during and after checking. Because individuals with moderate-high levels of illness anxiety recall experiencing more anxiety during and after searching, such searching may be detrimental to their health. If replicated in controlled experimental settings, this would suggest that individuals with illness anxiety should be advised to avoid using the Internet for illness-related information. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier

  12. Factors influencing competitive anxiety in Brazilian athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Gimenes Fernandes

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The study of factors influencing competitive anxiety, according to a multidimensional perspective and supported by valid instruments, is scarce among Brazilian athletes of different sports. The present study aims to: i investigate the theoretical relationship between the different dimensions of the multidimensional theory of anxiety (i.e., cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and self-confidence; and ii investigate the effects of gender, type of sport (individual or collective and competitive experience levels on cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and self-confidence. A total of 303 athletes (233 males and 70 females, from different sports, aged between 18 and 40 years (M =24.22, SD = 5.07 completed a shortened version of CSAI-2 (i.e., CSAI-2R, about one hour before the start of competitions. Results revealed significant correlations between cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and self-confidence dimensions, in accordance with the assumptions of the multidimensional theory. Additionally, comparative analyses indicated that female athletes and athletes from collective sports showed higher levels of cognitive anxiety, while male athletes and athletes with high competitive experience reported higher levels of self-confidence. These results were discussed taking into account the theoretical and practical implications of these findings for planning interventions of sport psychology in Brazil with athletes of different contexts.

  13. Should Test Anxiety Be Measured Differently for Males and Females? Examination of Measurement Bias across Gender on Measures of Test Anxiety for Middle and High School, and College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined measurement invariance across gender and gender differences on two measures of test anxiety developed for U.S. middle and high school, and college students. It was hypothesized that measurement invariance and gender differences would be found on the two measures of test anxiety, suggesting no separate scoring system is…

  14. Plasma insulin-like growth factor I levels are higher in depressive and anxiety disorders, but lower in antidepressant medication users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bot, Mariska; Milaneschi, Yuri; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Drent, Madeleine L

    2016-06-01

    It has been postulated that many peripheral and (neuro)biological systems are involved in psychiatric disorders such as depression. Some studies found associations of depression and antidepressant treatment with insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I) - a pleiotropic hormone affecting neuronal growth, survival and plasticity - but evidence is mixed. We therefore studied whether depressive and anxiety disorders were associated with plasma IGF-I, and explored the role of antidepressant medication in this association in a large observational study. The sample consisted of 2714 participants enrolled in The Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety, classified as healthy controls (n=602), antidepressant users (76 remitted and 571 with current depressive and/or anxiety disorder(s), n=647), persons having remitted depressive and/or anxiety disorder(s) without antidepressant use (n=502), and persons having current depressive and/or anxiety disorder(s) without antidepressant use (n=963). Associations with IGF-I concentrations were studied and adjusted for socio-demographic, health, and lifestyle variables. Relative to healthy controls, antidepressant-free individuals with current disorders had significantly higher IGF-I levels (Cohen's d=0.08, p=0.006), whereas antidepressant-free individuals with remitted disorders had a trend towards higher IGF-I levels (d=0.06, p=0.09). Associations were evident for depressive and for anxiety disorders. In contrast, antidepressant users had significantly lower IGF-I levels compared to healthy controls (d=-0.08, p=0.028). Our findings suggests that antidepressant medication use modifies the association between depressive/anxiety disorders and plasma IGF-I. These results corroborate with findings of some previous small-scale case-control and intervention studies. The higher IGF-I levels related to depression and anxiety might point to a compensatory mechanism to counterbalance the impaired neurogenesis, although future studies are needed to

  15. The prevalence and correlates of adult separation anxiety disorder in an anxiety clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Renate

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adult separation anxiety disorder (ASAD has been identified recently, but there is a paucity of data about its prevalence and associated characteristics amongst anxiety patients. This study assessed the prevalence and risk factor profile associated with ASAD in an anxiety clinic. Methods Clinical psychologists assigned 520 consecutive patients to DSM-IV adult anxiety subcategories using the SCID. We also measured demographic factors and reports of early separation anxiety (the Separation Anxiety Symptom Inventory and a retrospective diagnosis of childhood separation anxiety disorder. Other self-report measures included the Adult Separation Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire (ASA-27, the Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scales (DASS-21, personality traits measured by the NEO PI-R and the Work and Social Adjustment Scale. These measures were included in three models examining for overall differences and then by gender: Model 1 compared the conventional SCID anxiety subtypes (excluding PTSD and OCD because of insufficient numbers; Model 2 divided the sample into those with and without ASAD; Model 3 compared those with ASAD with the individual anxiety subtypes in the residual group. Results Patients with ASAD had elevated early separation anxiety scores but this association was unique in females only. Except for social phobia in relation to some comparisons, those with ASAD recorded more severe symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress, higher neuroticism scores, and greater levels of disability. Conclusions Patients with ASAD attending an anxiety clinic are highly symptomatic and disabled. The findings have implications for the classification, clinical identification and treatment of adult anxiety disorders.

  16. Testing a Model of Teaching for Anxiety and Success for English Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Önem, Evrim; Ergenç, Iclal

    2013-01-01

    Much research has shown that there is a negative relationship between high levels of anxiety and success for English language teaching. This paper aimed to test a model of teaching for anxiety and success in English language teaching to affect anxiety and success levels at the same time in a control-experiment group with pre- and post-test study…

  17. [Evaluation of exploratory activity and anxiety in rats with different levels of impulsive behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levandovskaia, A A; Zaĭchenko, M I; Merzhanova, G H; Salozhin, S V

    2013-01-01

    Rats were divided into 3 groups according to their preference for reinforcements of different values. Animals that preferred valuable but delayed reinforcement in more than 70% of cases formed as self-controlled group, less than 30% of cases formed an impulsive group, the rest formed an ambivalent group. Behavior of animals of different groups was scored for exploratory activity and anxiety in x-maze, fear-conditioning and novelty suppressed feeding. The least active and the most anxious in all procedures used were self-controlled rats. Ambivalent animals as compared to self-controlled and impulsive rats were the least anxious in x-maze and had more successful trials in novelty suppressed feeding test. Impulsive animals demonstrated greater percent of freezing response during acquisition of conditioned fear and they were quicker in finding food in novel environment.

  18. Anxiety level differentiation in 6-12 years old children before and after loss dental care using topical anasthesy at Dental Hospital Hasanuddin University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Malik Hamudeng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety is a psychological and physiological condition which signed by emotion, cognitive, and someone’s behavioral component. Anxiety behavior has long been recognized as the most difficult aspect in the management of patients and may frustrate a dental treatment that will be carried out, especially in children ages 6-12 years. Fear of treatment tooth extraction and local anesthesia is the main reason for kids disliking dental care. This type of research is observational analytic with nonprobability sampling technique, because this study used a population of pediatric patients who visited the location of the research that has been determined. Total sample of this research are 30 people who fulfill the criteria. The sample consist of 16 boys and 14 girls with age range of 6 to 12 years old. The level of anxiety before and after tooth extraction assessed using Facial Image Scale (FIS. Facial Image Scale (FIS has five criteria which describe the level of anxiety in children, very happy by point 1, happy by point 2, normal by point 3, unhappy by point 4, and very unhappy by point 5. The results of the analysis of differences in anxiety with FIS measurement tools show there are differences in the level of anxiety in children before and after tooth loss based on the location of the jaw, the type of anesthesia applied topically, gender, and overall. Overall, there is a difference in children before and after tooth loss and the difference is significant

  19. The Effect of Child Distress on Accommodation of Anxiety: Relations With Maternal Beliefs, Empathy, and Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settipani, Cara A; Kendall, Philip C

    2015-12-16

    Little is known about the influence of child behaviors on accommodation of anxiety and how accommodation relates to other parent factors. The present study examined the comparative effect of high and low levels of child distress on mother-reported accommodation, mother factors in relation to accommodation, and moderators of the relation between accommodation and child distress. Maternal perceptions of accommodation were measured by vignettes depicting youth exhibiting high or low levels of distress in anxiety-provoking situations that elicited social anxiety, generalized anxiety, or separation anxiety in a sample of 7- to 17-year-old youth with anxiety disorders (N = 70, M = 11.66, 47.1% male). Findings indicated an effect of child distress on mother-reported accommodation of youth anxiety, such that mothers reported more overall accommodation under conditions of high child distress; situation-level analyses revealed this effect for social and generalized anxiety situations. Furthermore, an association was found between greater mother-reported accommodation and more negative beliefs about their child's experience of anxiety, which held across situations. Maternal empathy moderated the relation between overall accommodation and child distress. Maternal anxiety also moderated the relation between accommodation and child distress, with results varying based on situation type. Findings, consistent with theory, indicate a relation between child distress and mother-reported accommodation and suggest that maternal beliefs about anxiety are an important treatment target. High maternal empathy may be related to a greater degree of adaptability in response to child behaviors, whereas maternal anxiety may be linked with less adaptive responses to child behaviors.

  20. Persistent and fluctuating anxiety levels in the 18 months following acute myocardial infarction: the role of personality.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteeg, H; Roest, Annelieke; Denollet, J.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify the varying courses of anxiety symptoms in the first 18 months after a myocardial infarction (MI) and to examine the importance of personality in determining elevated anxiety. METHODS: Four hundred eighty-six MI patients completed the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory during hospi

  1. Ropren(®) treatment reverses anxiety-like behavior and monoamines levels in gonadectomized rat model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedotova, Julia; Soultanov, Vagif; Nikitina, Tamara; Roschin, Victor; Ordyan, Natalia; Hritcu, Lucian

    2016-10-01

    Previous studies indicated that reduced androgen levels may contribute to both physical and cognitive disorders in men, including Alzheimer's disease. New drug candidates for Alzheimer's disease in patients with androgen deficiency should ideally be able to act not only on multiple brain targets but also to correct impaired endocrine functions in hypogonadal men with Alzheimer's disease. Ropren(®) is one such candidate for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease in men with an imbalance of androgens. Accordingly, the aim of the current study was to examine the effects of long-term Ropren(®) administration (8.6mg/kg, orally, once daily, for 28 days) on the anxiety-like behavior and monoamines levels in the rat hippocampus using a β-amyloid (25-35) rat model of Alzheimer's disease following gonadectomy. Ropren(®) was administered to the gonadectomized (GDX) rats and GDX rats treated with testosterone propionate (TP, 0.5mg/kg, subcutaneous, once daily, for 28 days). Anxiety-like behavior was assessed in the elevated plus maze (EPM) and the light-dark test (LDT), locomotor and grooming activities were assessed in the open field test (OFT). Ropren(®) alone or in combination with TP-induced anxiolytic effects as evidenced in the EPM and in the LDT and increased locomotor activity in the OFT. Additionally, it was observed that dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) levels increased while 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA)/5-HT ratio in the hippocampus decreased. Our results indicate that Ropren(®) has a marked anxiolytic-like action due to an increase in the monoamines levels in the experimental rat model of Alzheimer's disease with altered levels of androgens.

  2. SIGWX Charts - High Level Significant Weather

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — High level significant weather (SIGWX) forecasts are provided for the en-route portion of international flights. NOAA's National Weather Service Aviation Center...

  3. High-Level Dialogue on International Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UNHCR

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available UNHCR wishes to bring the following observations andrecommendations to the attention of the High-LevelDialogue (HLD on International Migration and Development,to be held in New York, 14-15 September 2006:

  4. High-level binocular rivalry effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Michal; Hochstein, Shaul

    2011-01-01

    Binocular rivalry (BR) occurs when the brain cannot fuse percepts from the two eyes because they are different. We review results relating to an ongoing controversy regarding the cortical site of the BR mechanism. Some BR qualities suggest it is low-level: (1) BR, as its name implies, is usually between eyes and only low-levels have access to utrocular information. (2) All input to one eye is suppressed: blurring doesn't stimulate accommodation; pupilary constrictions are reduced; probe detection is reduced. (3) Rivalry is affected by low-level attributes, contrast, spatial frequency, brightness, motion. (4) There is limited priming due to suppressed words or pictures. On the other hand, recent studies favor a high-level mechanism: (1) Rivalry occurs between patterns, not eyes, as in patchwork rivalry or a swapping paradigm. (2) Attention affects alternations. (3) Context affects dominance. There is conflicting evidence from physiological studies (single cell and fMRI) regarding cortical level(s) of conscious perception. We discuss the possibility of multiple BR sites and theoretical considerations that rule out this solution. We present new data regarding the locus of the BR switch by manipulating stimulus semantic content or high-level characteristics. Since these variations are represented at higher cortical levels, their affecting rivalry supports high-level BR intervention. In Experiment I, we measure rivalry when one eye views words and the other non-words and find significantly longer dominance durations for non-words. In Experiment II, we find longer dominance times for line drawings of simple, structurally impossible figures than for similar, possible objects. In Experiment III, we test the influence of idiomatic context on rivalry between words. Results show that generally words within their idiomatic context have longer mean dominance durations. We conclude that BR has high-level cortical influences, and may be controlled by a high-level mechanism.

  5. Visual Analogue Scale for Anxiety and Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety Scale Provide a Simple and Reliable Measurement of Preoperative Anxiety in Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery

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    Joaquín Hernández-Palazón

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anxiety is an emotional state characterized by apprehension and fear resulting from anticipation of a threatening event. Objectives: The present study aimed to analyze the incidence and level of preoperative anxiety in the patients scheduled for cardiac surgery by using a Visual Analogue Scale for Anxiety (VAS-A and Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS and to identify the influencing clinical factors. Patients and Methods: This prospective, longitudinal study was performed on 300 cardiac surgery patients in a single university hospital. The patients were assessed regarding their preoperative anxiety level using VAS-A, APAIS, and a set of specific anxiety-related questions. Their demographic features as well as their anesthetic and surgical characteristics (ASA physical status, EuroSCORE, preoperative Length of Stay (LoS, and surgical history were recorded, as well. Then, one-way ANOVA and t-test were applied along with odds ratio for risk assessment. Results: According to the results, 94% of the patients presented preoperative anxiety, with 37% developing high anxiety (VAS-A ≥ 7. Preoperative LoS > 2 days was the only significant risk factor for preoperative anxiety (odds ratio = 2.5, CI 95%, 1.3 - 5.1, P = 0.009. Besides, a positive correlation was found between anxiety level (APAISa and requirement of knowledge (APAISk. APAISa and APAISk scores were greater for surgery than for anesthesia. Moreover, the results showed that the most common anxieties resulted from the operation, waiting for surgery, not knowing what is happening, postoperative pain, awareness during anesthesia, and not awakening from anesthesia. Conclusions: APAIS and VAS-A provided a quantitative assessment of anxiety and a specific qualitative questionnaire for preoperative anxiety in cardiac surgery. According to the results, preoperative LoS > 2 days and lack of information related to surgery were the risk factors for high anxiety levels.

  6. Test Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I Help Someone Who's Being Bullied? Volunteering Test Anxiety KidsHealth > For Teens > Test Anxiety Print A A ... with their concentration or performance. What Is Test Anxiety? Test anxiety is actually a type of performance ...

  7. Anxiety in individuals with ASD: Prevalence, phenomenology, etiology, assessment, and interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Steensel, F.J.A.; Bögels, S.M.; Magiati, I.; Perrin, S.; Patel, V.B.; Preedy, V.R.; Martin, C.R.

    2014-01-01

    ndividuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) experience high levels of anxiety symptomatology with an estimated prevalence rate of anxiety disorders as high as 40 %. It is likely that anxiety is prominent in individuals with ASD throughout the life-span and that factors such as age, IQ, and ASD sy

  8. Anxiety in individuals with ASD: Prevalence, phenomenology, etiology, assessment, and interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Steensel, F.J.A.; Bögels, S.M.; Magiati, I.; Perrin, S.; Patel, V.B.; Preedy, V.R.; Martin, C.R.

    2014-01-01

    ndividuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) experience high levels of anxiety symptomatology with an estimated prevalence rate of anxiety disorders as high as 40 %. It is likely that anxiety is prominent in individuals with ASD throughout the life-span and that factors such as age, IQ, and ASD

  9. Anxiety in individuals with ASD: Prevalence, phenomenology, etiology, assessment, and interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Steensel, F.J.A.; Bögels, S.M.; Magiati, I.; Perrin, S.; Patel, V.B.; Preedy, V.R.; Martin, C.R.

    2014-01-01

    ndividuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) experience high levels of anxiety symptomatology with an estimated prevalence rate of anxiety disorders as high as 40 %. It is likely that anxiety is prominent in individuals with ASD throughout the life-span and that factors such as age, IQ, and ASD sy

  10. Parental Anxiety and Child Symptomatology: An Examinzation of Additive and Interactive Effects of Parent Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Golda S.; Tein, Jenn-Yun

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined relations between parent anxiety and child anxiety, depression, and externalizing symptoms. In addition, the study tested the additive and interactive effects of parent anxiety with parent depression and externalizing symptoms in relation to child symptoms. Forty-eight parents with anxiety disorders and 49 parents without any psychiatric disorder participated with one of their children (ages 6 to 14 years; 46.4% male; 75.8% Caucasian). Parent anxiety was related to both child anxiety and depression, but not child externalizing symptoms. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that only parent externalizing symptoms had additive effects, beyond parent anxiety symptoms, in relation to child anxiety symptoms. Further, parent anxiety symptoms moderated the relationship between parent and child externalizing symptoms, such that the strength of this relationship was reduced in the presence of high levels of parent anxiety symptoms. Results of this study illuminate the role of parent comorbidity in understanding relations between parent and child symptoms. PMID:20432062

  11. Foreign Language Speaking Anxiety: A Study of Chinese Language Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Luo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates Chinese Language Speaking Anxiety and its associated factors among college-level students who learn Chinese as a foreign language (CFL in the U.S. Although the Speaking Anxiety scores of the participants were not high on average, but frequency analyses showed that quite a number of learners experienced high levels of anxiety when speaking Chinese. The results of ANOVA analyses indicated that gender had a significant effect on Speaking Anxiety, but proficiency level and the elective-required status did not. Correlation and multiple regression results showed that perceived difficulty level of the Chinese language, self-perceived language learning ability, and self-perceived achievement in Chinese classes were significant predictors of Speaking Anxiety and altogether accounted for 21.4% of the variance in Speaking Anxiety.

  12. Tools to reduce first year nursing students' anxiety levels prior to undergoing objective structured clinical assessment (OSCA) and how this impacts on the student's experience of their first clinical placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stunden, Annette; Halcomb, Elizabeth; Jefferies, Diana

    2015-09-01

    One form of assessment that tests students' theoretical skills and confidence in their clinical practice is known as the Objective Structured Clinical Assessment (OSCA). Traditionally it was first launched from medical education, and is now being incorporated by other disciplines, such as nursing. This review seeks to present the best available evidence into strategies that help reduce first year nursing students' anxiety levels prior to undergoing OSCA and clinical placement. A systematic literature search was performed using Medline and CINAHL. This review considered any English language original research published between 2005 and 2013. A literature search located 117 articles. Eight articles were identified as meeting the inclusion in criteria. Majority of studies reported simulation session prior to the OSCA increased students confidence and reduced their anxiety levels. This resulted in students' reporting that they valued the OSCA as a worthwhile assessment. However there were four major themes: that students were anxious about attending the OSCA; that adequate preparation was seen as a coping strategy; that simulation was a further cause for anxiety; and that the simulation experience could also be used as an OSCA tool. Students who have been exposed to simulation scenarios before the OSCA are able to cope much better during the OSCA. Therefore, it is highly recommended to incorporate simulation scenarios into the nursing curricula for first year nursing students' clinical units to help reduce their anxiety levels prior to OCSA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The problems during choice of profession and comparison of these problems with anxiety and depression in final year of high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veysel Kars

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to investigate the relationship between prevalence of anxiety, depressive disorder symptoms and some sociodemographic variables in the final year of high-school students, secondly to determine the socio-economic and cultural factors which affect choosing professions among the high school senior students in the province of Van. Methods: In this context, the study was performed in the provincial center of Van in the second semester of 2011. Unpaired t test and one way Anova test were used for statistical analysis. Socio-demographic Information Form, Awareness of Career Choice Form, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI were applied to a total of 412 students. Results: In this study BAI and BDI scores were 15.4±13.3 and 15.3±12.8 respectively. BAI scores of the students in Anatolian high school were found higher than the normal high school. Both the anxiety and depressive levels of female students were higher than the males. The mean age was 16,8 years, 73.8% of whom were male. In 58% of the students’ BAI point, in 66% BDI point were higher than 41; and in 37% BDI point were higher than 17. Female students had higher BAI points. There was a positive correlation between BAI and BDI points. Conclusion: It was noticed in our study that the great amount of anxiety discovered in last grade high school students affect. The student’s job choice negatively. We think that providing last grade high school students with guidance service about job selection will be useful.

  14. The Influence of Personality and Chronotype on Distance Learning Willingness and Anxiety among Vocational High School Students in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Randler

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There are many studies related to distance learning. Willingness and anxiety are important variables for distance learning. Recent research has shown that anxiety and willingness towards distance learning are moderated by personality. This study sought to investigate whether distance learning willingness and distance learning anxiety are associated with age, gender, occupation, chronotype and personality in a Turkish vocational high school students sample. Two measures of individual differences were implemented: chronotype (morningness/eveningness preference and BIG-5 dimensions (agreeableness, conscientiousness, extraversion, neuroticism, and openness. Seven hundred and sixty-nine vocational high school students from Turkey filled out a self-administered questionnaire. Evening types, older, and female students had higher distance learning willingness scores than morning types, younger, and male students. No significant difference was found between chronotype groups with respect to distance learning anxiety. Furthermore, extraverted students reported a lower distance learning anxiety. Openness to experience was associated with high distance learning willingness. We conclude that evening types may benefit from distance learning more than other types.

  15. ANXIETY DISORDERS: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arya Ashwani

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders are a highly prevalent and disabling class of psychiatric disorders. Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent and associated with substantial distress, morbidity and mortality. Recent epidemiological studies of anxiety disorders provided evidence of their high frequency in the general population worldwide. Anxiety disorders afflict an estimated 15.7 million people in the United States each year. Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent in adults with females showing higher preponderance of 2:1 as compared to males. Anxiety disorders are a group of mental disorders characterized by various combinations of key features - Irritability, fear, Insomnia, Nervousness, Tachycardia, Inability to concentrate, poor coping skills, Palpitation, Sweating, Agoraphobia and Social Withdrawal. The anxiety disorders, including panic disorder (PD, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD, social anxiety disorder (SAD, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, are among the disabling medical disorders. The neurobiology of anxiety disorders is not fully understood, but several different biologic abnormalities have been implicated in their etiology. The GABA, NE and 5HT systems play crucial roles in mediating the affective circuitry underlying the highly related clinical disorders of anxiety. Anxiety is a common psychiatric condition characterized by unnecessary aggression, poor quality of life, fear, worry, avoidance, and compulsive rituals that are associated with significant distress.

  16. Epilepsy and anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marly de Albuquerque

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available We have analyzed 155 subjects with STAI (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory: 75 epileptic patients and 80 normal subjects used as a control group. A higher trait-anxiety score (chronic anxiety than that of controls was found for the epileptic group. For the epileptic group higher levels of the A-trait occurred in patients with EEG abnormalities with left temporal localization. We have also observed that the shorter the epilepsy lasts (less than two years, the higher the trait-anxiety levels. Convulsions and awareness loss during epileptic seizures do not modify state and trait-anxiety scores.

  17. A Comparative Study of Foreign Language Anxiety and Motivation of Academic- and Vocational-Track High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui-ju; Chen, Chien-wei

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate EFL learner language anxiety and learning motivation of high school students. Subjects included 155 students from the same private senior high school in central Taiwan, 60 in academic track and 95 in vocational track. The majority of the participants started taking English lessons either before entering elementary…

  18. The burden of disease of dental anxiety: generic and disease-specific quality of life in patients with and without extreme levels of dental anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermaire, J.H.; Houtem, C.M. van; Ross, J.N.; Schuller, A.A.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare disease-specific (oral health-related) quality of life (OHRQoL), assessed using the Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14), and generic (health-related) quality of life (HRQoL), assessed using the EuroQol5D (EQ-5D-5L), in patients with severe dental anxiety (who

  19. The burden of disease of dental anxiety : generic and disease-specific quality of life in patients with and without extreme levels of dental anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermaire, J. H.; van Houtem, C. M. H. H.; Ross, J. N.; Schuller, A. A.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare disease-specific (oral health-related) quality of life (OHRQoL), assessed using the Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14), and generic (health-related) quality of life (HRQoL), assessed using the EuroQol5D (EQ-5D-5L), in patients with severe dental anxiety (who

  20. Sport-related performance anxiety in young female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dilip R; Omar, Hatim; Terry, Marisa

    2010-12-01

    The prevalence of anxiety disorders in adolescents range from 6% to 20%, and it is much higher for anxiety symptoms not meeting criteria for a specific anxiety disorder. The prevalence is much higher in females. Athletes participating in sports experience different levels of stress from competitive sports. For most young athletes (generally 13 to 24 years old, i.e., high-school and college age group) sport participation is reported to be no more stressful than many other activities of daily student or work life in general where competition is involved and performance is measured. Some level of sport related performance anxiety is considered to be normal and healthy; however, extreme anxiety in athletes can be detrimental in these performance situations. A number of factors may contribute to the development, severity, and persistence of performance anxiety related to sport participation. This article reviews the definitions, theories, clinical presentation, evaluation, and management principles of performance anxiety symptoms in young athletes.

  1. Prevalence and characteristics of dental anxiety in Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, Rod; Birn, H.; Kirkegaard, E.;

    1993-01-01

    Prevalence, characteristics and consequences of dental anxiety in a randomly selected sample of 645 Danish adults were explored in telephone interviews. Participation rate was 88%. Demographics, fear of specific procedures, negative dentist contacts, general fear tendency, treatment utilization...... and perceived oral conditions were explored by level of dental anxiety using a modified Dental Anxiety Scale (DAS). A Seattle fear survey item and a summary item from the Dental Fear Survey (DFS) were also included for fear description comparisons. Correlation between these indices (DAS-DFS: rs = 0.72; DAS......-Seattle item: rs = 0.68) aided semantic validation of DAS anxiety intensity levels. Extreme dental anxiety (DAS > or = 15) was found in 4.2% of the sample and 6% reported moderate anxiety (DAS scores 14-12). Bivariate (B) and logistic regression (L) odds ratios (OR) showed that high dental anxiety...

  2. [Anxiety level during morphine abstinence correlates with the status of nitrergic system in the rat hippocampus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peregud, D I; Vorontsova, O N; Iakovlev, A A; Panchenko, L F; Guliaeva, N V

    2007-04-01

    Opiate addiction is accompanied by long-term structural and functional changes in brain regions persisting during abstinence, this status being an experimental model of the aberrant neuroplasticity. Nitric oxide is known to be involved in mechanisms of psychopathological events during opiate abstinence. In this study, indices of a nitregic system (nitric synthase activity--NOS, nitrites and nitrates concentration--NOx-) were measured in the rat brain region during morphine abstinence. Prior to this, the rats were tested for anxiety in an elevated plus maze. NOS activity increased in hippocampus 3 days after morphine withdrawal, while NOx--6 days after withdrawal. No changes of the nitrergic system could be revealed in other brain regions under study. Six days (but not 3 days) after morphine withdrawal, rats visited the open arms of the plus maze more frequently and spent more time in these arms as compared with respective controls. The data suggest that nitrergic system changes in the hippocampus may be involved in molecular mechanisms of behavioural alteration during morphine abstinence in rats.

  3. High Phobic Anxiety Is Related to Lower Leukocyte Telomere Length in Women

    OpenAIRE

    Okereke, Olivia I.; Jennifer Prescott; Wong, Jason Y.Y.; Jiali Han; Rexrode, Kathryn M; Immaculata De Vivo

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic psychological distress has been linked to shorter telomeres, an indication of accelerated aging. Yet, little is known about relations of anxiety to telomeres. We examined whether a typically chronic form of anxiety--phobic anxiety--is related to telomere length. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Relative telomere lengths (RTLs) in peripheral blood leukocytes were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction among 5,243 women (aged 42-69 years) who: were parti...

  4. Anxiety and depression in polycystic ovary syndrome: a comprehensive investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeks, Amanda A; Gibson-Helm, Melanie E; Teede, Helena J

    2010-05-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with high levels of depression, which impact quality of life and limit self-efficacy, yet less is known about prevalence of anxiety. This cross-sectional, observational study of community-based women with PCOS comprehensively examined mood and found that anxiety existed at higher levels than depression, anxiety was underdiagnosed, and more women with PCOS who reported infertility were depressed.

  5. The Effect of Citrus Aurantium Flowers Aqueous Extract on Sleeping Time and the Level of Anxiety in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahideh Sadat Abbasnia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: In Iranian traditional medicine Citrus Aurantium flower extract is used to treat some neural diseases. Tendency to use medicinal herbs is increasing. The present  study was done to determine the effect of Citrus Aurantium flowers on sleeping time and the level of anxiety in mice. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 80 male albino mice (25-30 g were  randomly divided into 8 equal groups. In order to measure . the sleeping time of the subjects . Angel’s method  was applied and the animals were divided into three experimental.groups (200, 400 and 600 mg/kg and one control group. To evaluate their anxiety levels. they were randomly divided into three experimental and one  control group;and for their evaluation plus maze (EPM model was used. The evaluation of anxiety indices included number and percent of time spent in open arm. Different doses of the aqueous extract of Citrus Aurantium flowers (200, 400, 600 mg/kg IP; respectively were intraperitoneally injected into the treated groups.  But, the controls received 10 ml/kg/BW normal saline intraperitoneally in both of the methods. The obtained data was analyzed by means of SPSS . software (V:17 using one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test(α=0.05. Results: The extract of  Citrus aurantium flowers (200, 400 and 600 mg/kg significantly increased  sleeping time (12/2±0/53, (14/4±037, (15/5±1/22, time-spent of open arm entries (64/4±4/01, (75±3/01, (78±2/01 and arm entries into open arms(5/9±021, (6/6±0/41, (6/8±72 compared to the control group (P<0.05. Conclusion: The current study showed that the aqueous extract of Citrus Aurantium flowers incerases the sleeping time and decreases level of anxity in mice.

  6. Deconstructing Test Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putwain, David William

    2008-01-01

    Recent changes to educational policy which have focused attention on the use of high stakes testing as performance and accountability measures have renewed interest in test anxiety both in the UK and the USA. The aim of this paper is to provide a critical examination of the test anxiety construct, and explore the ways in which test anxiety is…

  7. Grape powder intake prevents ovariectomy-induced anxiety-like behavior, memory impairment and high blood pressure in female Wistar rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Patki

    Full Text Available Diminished estrogen influence at menopause is reported to be associated with cognitive decline, heightened anxiety and hypertension. While estrogen therapy is often prescribed to overcome these behavioral and physiological deficits, antioxidants which have been shown beneficial are gaining nutritional intervention and popularity. Therefore, in the present study, utilizing the antioxidant properties of grapes, we have examined effect of 3 weeks of grape powder (GP; 15 g/L dissolved in tap water treatment on anxiety-like behavior, learning-memory impairment and high blood pressure in ovariectomized (OVX rats. Four groups of female Wistar rats were used; sham control, sham-GP treated, OVX and OVX+GP treated. We observed a significant increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure in OVX rats as compared to sham-controls. Furthermore, ovariectomy increased anxiety-like behavior and caused learning and memory impairment in rats as compared to sham-controls. Interestingly, providing grape powder treated water to OVX rats restored both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, decreased anxiety-like behavior and improved memory function. Moreover, OVX rats exhibited an impaired long term potentiation which was restored with grape powder treatment. Furthermore, ovariectomy increased oxidative stress in the brain, serum and urine, selectively decreasing antioxidant enzyme, glyoxalase-1 protein expression in the hippocampus but not in the cortex and amygdala of OVX rats, while grape powder treatment reversed these effects. Other antioxidant enzyme levels, including manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD and Cu/Zn SOD remained unchanged. We suggest that grape powder by regulating oxidative stress mechanisms exerts its protective effect on blood pressure, learning-memory and anxiety-like behavior. Our study is the first to examine behavioral, biochemical, physiological and electrophysiological outcome of estrogen depletion in rats and to test protective role

  8. Social Anxiety and Mental Health Service Use Among Asian American High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice, Chad; Masia Warner, Carrie; Okazaki, Sumie; Ma, Pei-Wen Winnie; Sanchez, Amanda; Esseling, Petra; Lynch, Chelsea

    2015-10-01

    Asian American adults endorse more symptoms of social anxiety (SA) on self-report measures than European Americans, but demonstrate lower prevalence rates of SA disorder in epidemiological studies. These divergent results create ambiguity concerning the mental health needs of Asian Americans. The present study is the first to investigate this issue in adolescents through assessment of self-reported SA in Asian American high school students. Parent and self-ratings of impairment related to SA and self-reported mental health service use for SA were also measured. Asian American students endorsed a greater number of SA symptoms and scored in the clinical range more frequently than other ethnic groups. Also, Asian American and Latino students endorsed more school impairment related to SA than other ethnic groups. No differences in parent-reported impairment or service utilization were identified. Implications for future research and treatment for SA among Asian American adolescents are discussed.

  9. Internet addiction is associated with social anxiety in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Aviv; Dorani, Dikla; Elhadif, Rotem; Bukovza, Yehely; Yarmulnik, Anastasya; Dannon, Pinhas

    2015-02-01

    Problematic Internet use or excessive Internet use is characterized by excessive or poorly controlled preoccupations, urges, or behaviors regarding computer use, and Internet access that leads to impairment or distress. Cross-sectional studies on samples of patients reported high comorbidity of Internet addiction with psychiatric disorders, especially affective disorders (including depression), anxiety disorders (generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder), and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. We have investigated the association between Internet addiction and social anxiety in 2 samples of 120 university students (60 males and 60 females in each sample). We found a correlation between Internet addiction and social anxiety in the 2 samples (r=0.411, PInternet addiction. Thirdly, we did not find a preference for social networks among participants with high levels of social anxiety. The results of the study support previous evidence for co-occurrence of Internet addiction and social anxiety, but further studies need to clarify this association.

  10. Mind-Body Interactions in Anxiety and Somatic Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallorquí-Bagué, Núria; Bulbena, Antonio; Pailhez, Guillem; Garfinkel, Sarah N; Critchley, Hugo D

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety and somatic symptoms have a high prevalence in the general population. A mechanistic understanding of how different factors contribute to the development and maintenance of these symptoms, which are highly associated with anxiety disorders, is crucial to optimize treatments. In this article, we review recent literature on this topic and present a redefined model of mind-body interaction in anxiety and somatic symptoms, with an emphasis on both bottom-up and top-down processes. Consideration is given to the role played in this interaction by predisposing physiological and psychological traits (e.g., interoception, anxiety sensitivity, and trait anxiety) and to the levels at which mindfulness approaches may exert a therapeutic benefit. The proposed model of mind-body interaction in anxiety and somatic symptoms is appraised in the context of joint hypermobility syndrome, a constitutional variant associated with autonomic abnormalities and vulnerability to anxiety disorders.

  11. EAP high-level product architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guðlaugsson, Tómas Vignir; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Sarban, Rahimullah

    2013-01-01

    the function of the EAP transducers to be changed, by basing the EAP transducers on a different combination of organ alternatives. A model providing an overview of the high level product architecture has been developed to support daily development and cooperation across development teams. The platform approach...... of EAP technology products while keeping complexity under control. High level product architecture has been developed for the mechanical part of EAP transducers, as the foundation for platform development. A generic description of an EAP transducer forms the core of the high level product architecture....... Initial results from applying the platform on demonstrator design for potential applications are promising. The scope of the article does not include technical details. © 2013 SPIE....

  12. THE ANXIETY OF LEARNING A FOREIGN LANGUAGE THAT INFLUENCES HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS IN LEARNING FRENCH AS THE SECOND FOREIGN LANGUAGE “THE SAMPLE OF DENİZLİ” / LİSE ÖĞRENCİLERİNİN İKİNCİ YABANCI DİL FRANSIZCA ÖĞRENİMLERİNİ ETKİLEYEN YABANCI DİL KAYGISI “DENİZLİ ÖRNEĞİ”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertan KUŞÇU

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the reasons of French second foreign language learning anxiety levels of high school students. The sample of the study consisted of four hundred fifty six students from two high schools in Denizli province in 2015–2016 academic year. In this work, it has investigated that whether learners’ parents’ education and occupation, sex, class and theirs success levels, and investigated the effects on the level of foreign language anxiety. Results revealed that learners’ anxiety levels were not affected by the mentioned factors. However, it was found that in some of the students, anxiety level was high, the students’ success was low. It was identified that secondary school students’ anxiety level influenced those learners’ academic performance.

  13. Comparison of the effect of acupressure at spleen 6 and liver 3 points on the anxiety level of patients with primary dysmenorrhea- Blind randomized controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboobeh Kafaei Atrian

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anxiety is a factor that is associated with dysmenorrhea. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of acupressure at spleen 6 and liver 3 points on the anxiety level of patients with primary dysmenorrhea. Methods: In this randomized clinical trial study, acupressure was applied on spleen 6 and liver 3 points. Sixty seven students were evaluated in three menstrual periods. They were assigned to groups using a randomized block design with allocation ratio of 1:1 based on the severity of pain. Spielberger state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI and visual analogue scale for pain intensity were used. Analysis was performed by SPSS-16 software using chi-square, t-test, Mann–Whitney, paired sample t-test and covariance analysis. Results: In liver 3 and spleen 6 groups, 11 and 17 students were studied, respectively. The mean ±SD values of apparent anxiety before and after intervention for liver 3 group were 45.100±9.769 and 38.100±10.608 and for spleen 6 group were 46.823±12.248 and 44.352±11.942, respectively. Reduction of apparent anxiety was only significant in the liver 3 group (p0.05 in both groups. There was no difference between groups before and after intervention (p>0.05. Conclusion: Since pressure on liver 3 point reduced apparent anxiety, pressure on liver 3 point is recommended in patients with dysmenorrhea.

  14. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes increase anxiety levels in rats and reduce exploratory activity in the open field test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayapina, N V; Batalova, T A; Chaika, V V; Kuznetsov, V L; Sergievich, A A; Kolosov, V P; Perel'man, Yu M; Golokhvast, K S

    2015-01-01

    The results of the first study on the effects of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) on the exploratory activity and the emotional state in laboratory rats assessed by the open field test are reported. During three or ten days, rats received 8-10 nm MWNTs added to their food at a dose of 500 mg/kg. It was demonstrated that, in the group of rats which were fed with MWNTs, the integrated anxiety level index began to increase as early as the third day of the experiment; on the tenth day, it appeared to be twice increased. It was also demonstrated that MWNTs decreased the integrated exploratory activity index nearly twofold on the third day and nearly fourfold on the tenth day.

  15. 高二学生数学焦虑与数学成绩的相关性%Study on the Correlation between Anxiety about Mathematics and Achievement of Mathematics of Grade 2-High School Student

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏红; 刘咏梅; 温芳勇

    2012-01-01

    高二学生数学焦虑与数学成绩呈显著负相关,且不同水平的数学焦虑被试者在数学成绩上存在显著性差异.数学焦虑程度越高,数学成绩越差,两者是一种线性关系.高二学生数学焦虑在性别、文理科方面的整体特点是:女生数学焦虑水平高于男生数学焦虑水平;理科生数学焦虑水平高于文科生数学焦虑水平.%There is a negative correlation between anxiety about mathematics and achievement of mathematics of Grade 2-High school students. What's more, the achievement of mathematics leaded by different levels of mathematics anxieties have significant differences. The higher the mathematics anxiety is, the worse the mathematics achievement is, the relationship between them is a linear. The general characteristics of anxiety mathematics of Grade 2-high students in gender differences and in subject differences are: (1) The mathematics anxiety of female students is bigger than male students'. (2) The mathematics anxiety of science students is bigger than arts students'.

  16. Financial Anxiety, Physiological Arousal, and Planning Intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Grable

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Results from this exploratory clinical study indicate that financial anxiety—holding an unhealthy attitude about one’s financial situation—and physiological arousal—the physical precursor to behavior—play important roles in shaping consumer intention to engage in future financial planning activity. Findings suggest that those who are most likely to engage the services of a financial adviser exhibit low levels of financial anxiety and moderate to high levels of physiological arousal. The least likely to seek the help of a financial adviser are those who exhibit high financial anxiety and low physiological arousal. Results support findings documented in the literature that high anxiety levels often lead to a form of self-imposed helplessness. In order to move those experiencing financial anxiety towards financial solutions, financial advisers ought to take steps to simultaneously reduce financial stressors and stimulate arousal as a way to promote behavioral change and help seeking.

  17. Heritability of major depressive and comorbid anxiety disorders in multi-generational families at high risk for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guffanti, Guia; Gameroff, Marc J; Warner, Virginia; Talati, Ardesheer; Glatt, Charles E; Wickramaratne, Priya; Weissman, Myrna M

    2016-12-01

    Family studies have shown that MDD is highly transmittable but have not studied its heritability. Twin studies show heritability of about 40% and do not include anxiety disorders. We assessed heritability of MDD and comorbid anxiety disorders in a multigenerational study of family members at high risk for MDD. In addition, we tested the hypothesis that examined clinical subtypes of MDD defined by early and late age of onset would be under relatively stronger genetic control than broadly defined DSM-IV MDD. The first generation with moderate to severe MDD was recruited from an ambulatory psychiatric treatment setting, and their descendants in the second, third, and fourth generation, were interviewed by clinicians up to six times during a 30-year period. Lifetime rates of MDD and anxiety disorders were collected for 545 participants from 65 multigenerational families. The heritability (h(2) ) of MDD in this high risk sample was estimated at 67%. Anxiety and sequential comorbidity of anxiety disorders and MDD revealed h(2) of 49% and 53%, respectively, and strong positive genetic correlation (rhog  = 0.92, P = 7.3 × 10(-7) ). Early onset MDD did not appear to be under greater genetic control than broadly defined DSM-IV MDD. Individuals who are direct descendants of subjects ascertained for moderate to severe MDD have strong genetic vulnerability to develop anxiety or MDD. Our findings support family based studies as appropriate and useful design to understand the heritability of common disorders such as MDD. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Effect of music therapy on the anxiety levels and pregnancy rate of women undergoing in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aba, Yilda Arzu; Avci, Dilek; Guzel, Yilmaz; Ozcelik, Semanur Kumral; Gurtekin, Basak

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of music therapy on the anxiety levels and pregnancy rates of women who underwent in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer. This prospective randomized controlled trial was conducted with 186 infertile women who presented to the In Vitro Fertilization Unit at the American Hospital in Turkey between April 2015 and April 2016. The infertile women who met the inclusion criteria were assigned to the music therapy group or the standard therapy group through block randomization. The study data were collected using the Personal Information Form, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Early treatment success was determined by serum beta human chorionic gonadotrophin levels seven or ten days after the luteal day zero. For the analysis, descriptive statistics, chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, independent sample t-test were used. After the embryo transfer, the mean state anxiety scores decreased in both groups, and the mean trait anxiety score decreased in the music therapy group; however, the difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05). Clinical pregnancy rates did not differ between the music (48.3%) and standard (46.4%) therapy groups. After the two sessions of music therapy, state and trait anxiety levels decreased and pregnancy rates increased, but the difference was not significant. Therefore, larger sample sizes and more sessions are needed to evaluate whether music therapy has an effect on clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Sirtuin 1 and 7 mediate resveratrol-induced recovery from hyper-anxiety in high-fructose-fed prediabetic rats

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B RAGHUNATH REDDY; SWATI MAITRA; PRIYA JHELUM; K PRAVEEN KUMAR; PANKAJ K BAGUL; GAGANDEEP KAUR; SANJAY K BANERJEE; ARVIND KUMAR; SUMANA CHAKRAVARTY

    2016-09-01

    Hyperglycaemia in diabetes is either caused by reduced availability of insulin (type 1 diabetes, T1D) or insulinresistance to the cells (type 2 diabetes, T2D). In recent years, the prevalence of T2D has increased to an alarmingproportion, encompassing 95% of the total diabetic burden, probably due to economy-driven changes in lifestyle.Recent epidemiological studies show comorbid depression, anxiety and related mental illness. To explore themolecular mechanisms underlying this comorbid conditions, we used Sprague–Dawley rats on high-fructose dietfor 8 weeks to induce prediabetic condition. Rats with this metabolic syndrome also showed hyper-anxiety when theywere subjected to anxiety-related behavioural assays. Rats were administered with resveratrol, an activator of sirtuins,and metformin, a standard antidiabetic drug, simultaneously with fructose. We observed that resveratrol was moreeffective in protecting from both the metabolic (prediabetic) and affective (anxiety) disorders than metformin.Molecular studies showed that recovery was associated with the upregulation of few nuclear sirtuins that actepigenetically – Sirt 1 and 7, which were significantly attenuated in the striatum of prediabetic rats. In conclusion,our study showed that hyper-anxiety associated with prediabetic condition is ameliorated by resveratrol throughmodulation of sirtuins, which is more or less similar to metformin.

  20. Improvement of the symptoms of anxiety and anxiety sensitivity through the application of a mindfulness meditation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Yagüe

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of a training program mindfulness to reduce anxiety levels. The sample consisted of 20 participants suffering from anxiety and high scores on ASI-3 and subscale of anxiety from SCL-90. A quasi-experimental comparison group design with pretest-posttest measurement with an experimental group and a control group with 10 participants each group was performed. As instruments of assessment questionnaires ASI-3, MAAS, and SCL-90 were used. Statistical analyzes show a reduction in all in dimensions of anxiety sensitivity factor and anxiety subscale of the SCL-90 once the interventions as well as improvement in the ability to be present or mindfulness measured by the MAAS scale. The results are consistent with other research which has show the effectiveness of mindfulness techniques in improving the symptoms of anxiety

  1. The Influence of Mathematics Anxiety in Middle and High School Students Math Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Mutawah, Masooma Ali

    2015-01-01

    Math anxiety has been the focus of much psychological and educational research in the past few years, there are many international studies showing that mathematics anxiety is an influence on student's achievements in school, but little research has been done about this issue in Bahrain. Bahrain is a country in the Arabian Gulf region, its economic…

  2. Oxidative Stress and Anxiety: Relationship and Cellular Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaouad Bouayed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available High O2 consumption, modest antioxidant defenses and a lipid-rich constitution make the brain highly vulnerable to redox imbalances. Oxidative damage in the brain causes nervous system impairment. Recently, oxidative stress has also been implicated in depression, anxiety disorders and high anxiety levels. The findings which establish a link between oxidative stress and pathological anxiety have inspired a number of other recent studies focusing on the link between oxidative status and normal anxiety and also on a possible causal relationship between cellular oxidative stress and emotional stress. This review examines the recent discoveries made on the link between oxidative status and normal anxiety levels and the putative role of oxidative stress in genesis of anxiety. We discuss the different opinions and questions that exist in the field and review the methodological approaches that are being used to determine a causal relationship between oxidative and emotional stress.

  3. The Effects of Mind Subtraction Meditation on Depression, Social Anxiety, Aggression, and Salivary Cortisol Levels of Elementary School Children in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Yang-Gyeong; Lee, Duck-Joo; Lee, In-Soo; Shin, Namin; Park, Ju-Yeon; Yoon, Mi-Ra; Yu, Boas

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzed the effects of a school-based mind subtraction meditation program on depression, social anxiety, aggression, and salivary cortisol levels of 42 elementary school children in South Korea. The research design was a nonequivalent group comparison with pretest and post-test. The experimental group was given 8weeks of the meditation program. The results showed social anxiety, aggression, and salivary cortisol levels were significantly lowered in the experimental group. This demonstrated that the school-based mind subtraction meditation program could be effective in improving psychosocial and behavioral aspects of mental health in elementary school children.

  4. Anxiety in Youth With Type 1 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechenberg, Kaitlyn; Whittemore, Robin; Grey, Margaret

    Mental health conditions are prevalent in youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Anxiety symptoms and depressive symptoms are highly correlated and are two of the most prevalent mental health conditions in youth in the general population. The detrimental effect of depressive symptoms in youth with T1D has been well documented, but the effects of anxiety symptoms are not well understood. Studies were included if they were published between 1990 and 2015, and evaluated anxiety symptoms in a population of youth with T1D. A total of 20 studies were identified from a sample of 338 papers. Anxiety symptoms were prevalent in youth with T1D. Anxiety symptoms were associated with higher glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, poorer self-management and coping behaviors, depressive symptoms, fear of hypoglycemia, and lower blood glucose monitoring frequency. State anxiety and trait anxiety symptoms affected health outcomes differently. Girls were at a higher risk of anxiety symptoms than boys. Anxiety symptoms in youth with T1D have detrimental effects on health outcomes, including self-management, quality of life, and HbA1c. Future research should aim to improve our current screening and treatment practices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Nicotine modulation of fear memories and anxiety: Implications for learning and anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutlu, Munir Gunes; Gould, Thomas J

    2015-10-15

    Anxiety disorders are a group of crippling mental diseases affecting millions of Americans with a 30% lifetime prevalence and costs associated with healthcare of $42.3 billion. While anxiety disorders show high levels of co-morbidity with smoking (45.3% vs. 22.5% in healthy individuals), they are also more common among the smoking population (22% vs. 11.1% in the non-smoking population). Moreover, there is clear evidence that smoking modulates symptom severity in patients with anxiety disorders. In order to better understand this relationship, several animal paradigms are used to model several key symptoms of anxiety disorders; these include fear conditioning and measures of anxiety. Studies clearly demonstrate that nicotine mediates acquisition and extinction of fear as well as anxiety through the modulation of specific subtypes of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in brain regions involved in emotion processing such as the hippocampus. However, the direction of nicotine's effects on these behaviors is determined by several factors that include the length of administration, hippocampus-dependency of the fear learning task, and source of anxiety (novelty-driven vs. social anxiety). Overall, the studies reviewed here suggest that nicotine alters behaviors related to fear and anxiety and that nicotine contributes to the development, maintenance, and reoccurrence of anxiety disorders.

  6. Evaluation of Exam Anxiety Level among Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences Students and its Association with Demographic Characteristics in 2014

    OpenAIRE

    MM Mohammadi; Sh Parandin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Test -anxiety is one of the most common mental health problems among the students that can impair performance and leads to failure of the exam. So, this study aimed to determine the rate of exam-anxiety among Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences' students. Methods: This cross sectional-analytic study was conducted on 510 students of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences by convenience sampling method in 2014. In this study, data collection tool was Test-Anxiety que...

  7. Attention network functioning in children with anxiety disorders, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and non-clinical anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogg, K; Salum, G A; Bradley, B P; Gadelha, A; Pan, P; Alvarenga, P; Rohde, L A; Pine, D S; Manfro, G G

    2015-01-01

    Research with adults suggests that anxiety is associated with poor control of executive attention. However, in children, it is unclear (a) whether anxiety disorders and non-clinical anxiety are associated with deficits in executive attention, (b) whether such deficits are specific to anxiety versus other psychiatric disorders, and (c) whether there is heterogeneity among anxiety disorders (in particular, specific phobia versus other anxiety disorders). We examined executive attention in 860 children classified into three groups: anxiety disorders (n = 67), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; n = 67) and no psychiatric disorder (n = 726). Anxiety disorders were subdivided into: anxiety disorders excluding specific phobia (n = 43) and specific phobia (n = 21). The Attention Network Task was used to assess executive attention, alerting and orienting. Findings indicated heterogeneity among anxiety disorders, as children with anxiety disorders (excluding specific phobia) showed impaired executive attention, compared with disorder-free children, whereas children with specific phobia showed no executive attention deficit. Among disorder-free children, executive attention was less efficient in those with high, relative to low, levels of anxiety. There were no anxiety-related deficits in orienting or alerting. Children with ADHD not only had poorer executive attention than disorder-free children, but also higher orienting scores, less accurate responses and more variable response times. Impaired executive attention in children (reflected by difficulty inhibiting processing of task-irrelevant information) was not fully explained by general psychopathology, but instead showed specific associations with anxiety disorders (other than specific phobia) and ADHD, as well as with high levels of anxiety symptoms in disorder-free children.

  8. Chronic high fat feeding increases anxiety-like behaviour and reduces transcript abundance of glucocorticoid signalling genes in the hippocampus of female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivanathan, Shathveekan; Thavartnam, Kabriya; Arif, Shahneen; Elegino, Trisha; McGowan, Patrick O

    2015-06-01

    The consumption of diets high in saturated fats and obesity have been associated with impaired physical and mental health. Previous studies indicate that chronic high fat diet consumption leads to systemic inflammation in humans and non-human animal models. Studies in non-human animals suggest that altered physiological responses to stress are also a consequence of high fat diet consumption. Glucocorticoid signalling mechanisms may link immune and stress-related pathways in the brain, and were shown to be significantly altered in the brains of female rat offspring of mothers exposed to chronic high fat diet during pregnancy and lactation. For adult females, the consequence of chronic high fat diet consumption on these signalling pathways and their relationship to stress-related behaviour is not known. In this study, we examined the effects of chronic consumption of a high fat diet compared to a low fat control diet among adult female Long Evans rats. We found significant differences in weight gain, caloric intake, anxiety-related behaviours, and glucocorticoid-related gene expression over a 10-week exposure period. As expected, rats in the high fat diet group gained the most weight and consumed the greatest number of calories. Rats in the high fat diet group showed significantly greater levels of anxiety-related behaviour in the Light Dark and Open Field tasks compared to rats in the low fat diet group. Rats consuming high fat diet also exhibited reduced transcript abundance in the hippocampus of stress-related mineralocorticoid receptor and glucocorticoid receptor genes, as well as nuclear factor kappa beta gene expression, implicated in inflammatory processes. Together, these data indicate that chronic high fat diet consumption may increase anxiety-like behaviour at least in part via alterations in glucocorticoid signalling mechanisms in limbic brain regions.

  9. Effect of oral-transmucosal midazolam sedation on anxiety levels of 3-4 years old children during a Class II restorative procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi Kapur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: A double-blind randomized control trial was conducted to assess the effect of oral-transmucosal midazolam sedation on changes in anxiety levels of precooperative children during a Class II amalgam restorative procedure. Methodology: A sample of 40 healthy, American Society of Anesthesiologists I, children aged 3-4 years having at least one carious primary mandibular molar requiring a Class II amalgam restoration with no previous dental history were randomly divided into experimental and control groups comprising of 20 children each. The children in the experimental group (Group I received 0.5 mg/kg body weight of midazolam mixed in strawberry syrup and those in the control group (Group II received the same syrup mixed in saline, 15 min prior to the restorative procedure. Routine nonpharmacological behavior management techniques were used in both groups. The anxiety levels were recorded using Venham′s anxiety scale at the start and end of each procedural step. Results: There was a significant (P < 0.001 reduction in the anxiety levels of children in the experimental group on entry into the operatory compared with the control group. Introduction of each fear evoking stimuli showed a somewhat similar increase in anxiety levels in the two groups. In spite of a similar trend, the anxiety levels remained much lower in Group I than in Group II. Conclusion: Midazolam in conjunction with behavior management is more helpful in relaxing the child initially than behavior management alone, thus increasing the chances of successful and easy accomplishment of further treatment steps.

  10. Eating-related anxiety in individuals with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, C M; Thuras, P; Peterson, C B; Lampert, J; Miller, D; Crow, S J

    2011-12-01

    Although previous research has supported the importance of anxiety as an etiological and maintenance factor for eating disorders, the specific mechanisms are not well understood. The role of anxiety in the context of eating behavior is especially unclear. The purpose of this study was to identify anxiety-eliciting eating situations and anxiety management strategies patients use to mitigate anxiety experienced in the context of eating as determined by diagnostic groups and symptom patterns. Fifty-three eating disorder outpatients were administered the Eating and Anxiety Questionnaire (EAQ) and the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale. Ratings indicated significant anxiety in most eating situations, whereas management strategies were more limited yet regularly employed. Factor analysis of the EAQ revealed a 6-factor solution for anxiety management strategies and a 4-factor solution for anxiety-eliciting situations. These results indicate patients with eating disorders report high levels of anxiety associated with eating behaviors but utilize limited yet consistent anxiety management strategies. Effective intervention strategies for managing eating-related anxiety should be incorporated into treatment and may need to be specified for different diagnostic subgroups.

  11. PAIRWISE BLENDING OF HIGH LEVEL WASTE (HLW)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CERTA, P.J.

    2006-02-22

    The primary objective of this study is to demonstrate a mission scenario that uses pairwise and incidental blending of high level waste (HLW) to reduce the total mass of HLW glass. Secondary objectives include understanding how recent refinements to the tank waste inventory and solubility assumptions affect the mass of HLW glass and how logistical constraints may affect the efficacy of HLW blending.

  12. Building and Sustaining Hope. A Response to "Meaningful Hope for Teachers in a Time of High Anxiety and Low Morale"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hytten, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    In this essay, I respond to Carrie Nolan and Sarah M. Stitzlein's article "Meaningful Hope for Teachers in a Time of High Anxiety and Low Morale" and support their argument for meaningful hope grounded in pragmatist philosophy. I agree that while hope is routinely called for in the educational literature, it is often done so in superficial and…

  13. Self-Concealment, Social Network Sites Usage, Social Appearance Anxiety, Loneliness of High School Students: A Model Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Ugur; Çolak, Tugba Seda

    2016-01-01

    This study was tested a model for explain to social networks sites (SNS) usage with structural equation modeling (SEM). Using SEM on a sample of 475 high school students (35% male, 65% female) students, model was investigated the relationship between self-concealment, social appearance anxiety, loneliness on SNS such as Twitter and Facebook usage.…

  14. The Prevention of Depression and Anxiety in a Sample of High-Risk Adolescents: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Keith S.; Hopkins, Jamie Ahnberg; Fata, Ladan; Scherrer, Martin; Allan, Lauren C.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) techniques in preventing depression and anxiety in a group of adolescent high school students with elevated risk for developing emotional disorders. Students were screened using a measure of depression severity and clinical interview. Following screening procedures,…

  15. 不同状态焦虑水平下跆拳道运动员视觉搜索效率研究%Visual search efficiency of taekwondo athletes under various status anxiety levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周文芳; 刘尚礼

    2015-01-01

    探讨不同状态焦虑水平下跆拳道运动员视觉搜索效率。被试为60名跆拳道运动员,通过情绪诱发程序,以威胁性和中性图片为刺激材料,分别对不同状态焦虑水平下跆拳道运动员的视觉搜索反应时和反应正确率进行考察。结果发现:高状态焦虑被试的视觉搜索反应时长于低状态焦虑被试;高状态焦虑被试的反应正确率低于低状态焦虑被试;在有威胁刺激条件下的反应时长于无威胁刺激条件下的反应时;高状态焦虑条件下,男性被试的反应时要长于女性被试。%In order to discuss the efficiency of visual search of taekwondo athletes with different status anxiety levels,this article has selected 60 taekwondo athletes as the testees and taken threatening and neutral pictures as the stimulus material so as to respectively conduct investigations on the visual search reaction time and accuracy of taekwondo athletes at different anxiety levels through emotion induction programs.The results show that the visual search reaction time of individuals with high status anxieties is longer than that with low status anxieties;the reaction accuracy of individuals of high status anxieties is lower than that with low status anxieties;and the reaction time under threatening stimuli is longer than that under no conditions of threatening stimuli.In addition,under the condition of high status anxiety the male's reaction time is longer than the female's,and there is no significant gender difference in the aspects of both the visual search reaction time and reaction accuracy among the testees.

  16. High spin levels in /sup 151/Ho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gizon, J.; Gizon, A.; Andre, S.; Genevey, J.; Jastrzebski, J.; Kossakowski, R.; Moszynski, M.; Preibisz, Z.

    1981-07-01

    We report here on the first study of the level structure of /sup 151/Ho. High spin levels in /sup 151/Ho have been populated in the /sup 141/Pr + /sup 16/O and /sup 144/Sm + /sup 12/C reactions. The level structure has been established up to 6,6 MeV energy and the spins and parities determined up to 49/2/sup -/. Most of the proposed level configurations can be explained by the coupling of h sub(11/2) protons to fsub(7/2) and/or hsub(9/2) neutrons. An isomer with 14 +- 3 ns half-life and a delayed gamma multiplicity equal to 17 +- 2 has been found. Its spin is larger than 57/2 h units.

  17. High spin levels in /sup 151/Ho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gizon, J.; Gizon, A.; Andre, S.; Genevey, J.; Jastrzebski, J.; Kossakowski, R.; Moszynski, M.; Preibisz, Z.

    1981-07-01

    We report here on the first study of the level structure of /sup 151/Ho. High spin levels in /sup 151/Ho have been populated in the /sup 141/Pr + /sup 16/O and /sup 144/Sm + /sup 12/C reactions. The level structure has been established up to 6.6 MeV energy and the spins and parities determined up to 49/2/sup -/. Most of the proposed level configurations can be explained by the coupling of hsub(11/2) protons to fsub(7/2) and/or hsub(9/2) neutrons. An isomer with 14 +- 3 ns half-life and a delayed gamma multiplicity equal 17 +- 2 has been found. Its spin is larger than 57/2 h units.

  18. The Role of Anxiety in Prostate Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, William; Bilir, Pinar; Han, Misop; Meltzer, David

    2010-01-01

    Although the impact of anxiety on patients with some types of cancer is well recognized, to the authors knowledge its impact on patients with prostate carcinoma has not been studied as thoroughly. The authors conducted a systematic review of the medical literature for high-quality articles that quantified anxiety levels in men with prostate carcinoma and identified 29 articles. Using the clinical timeline of prostate carcinoma to organize the articles, cross-sectional studies that reflected anxiety prevalence in populations and longitudinal studies that reflected changes in anxiety over time were identified. Anxiety appeared to fluctuate over the clinical timeline in response to stressors and uncertainty (such as at the time of screening and/or biopsy), rising before these times and falling afterward. Although anxiety levels in men age > 55 years who were at risk for prostate carcinoma were modest (10–15%), multiple studies found that these levels were substantially higher in men who presented for screening (> 50%), and “seeking peace of mind” was the motivation cited most frequently for pursuing screening. Most studies demonstrated a significant decrease in anxiety levels after a normal screening or biopsy result, although the proportion of men who remained anxious afterward did not fall to baseline levels (20–36%). Men who presented for prostate-specific antigen monitoring after treatment had elevated anxiety levels at the time of testing (23–33%). Many years after therapy for localized disease, anxiety levels were lower after prostatectomy (23%) compared with the levels after watchful waiting (31%). PMID:15959911

  19. Examination of Science and Math Course Achievements of Vocational High School Students in the Scope of Self-Efficacy and Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksel, Mehmet; Geban, Ömer

    2016-01-01

    This study attempted to predict physics, chemistry, and biology and math course achievements of vocational high school students according to the variables of student self-efficacy, academic self-efficacy, state anxiety and trait anxiety. Study data were collected using a questionnaire administered to the students of a vocational high school…

  20. Computer Assisted Automatization of Multiplication Facts Reduces Mathematics Anxiety in Elementary School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittman, Timothy K.; Marcinkiewicz, Henryk R.; Hamodey-Douglas, Stacie

    Fourth grade elementary school children exhibiting high and low mathematics anxiety were trained on multiplication facts using the Math Builder Program, a computer program designed to bring their performance to the automaticity level. Mathematics anxiety, measured by the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale--Elementary version (MARS-E), was assessed…

  1. Parental anxiety before and after food challenges in children with suspected peanut and hazelnut allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, Wieneke T.; Flinterman, Annebeth E.; Soeters, Lotte; Knulst, Andre C.; Sinnema, Gerben; L'Hoir, Monique P.; Pasmans, Suzanne G.

    2010-01-01

    As ingestion of peanut and hazelnut by allergic children is potentially life threatening, parents of these children need to be vigilant about their child's dietary intake. This may cause high levels of anxiety. To assess parental anxiety about food-allergic reaction in their child (state anxiety) an

  2. Effects of a Classroom Intervention on Academic Engagement of Elementary School Students with Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatham, Lychelle

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of anxiety reduction on academic engagement for eight students experiencing significant anxiety in grades three through five. All participating students showed high anxiety levels that appeared to be impacting performance on at least one academic task in the classroom, according to teacher report. Student…

  3. Anxiety over EFL Speaking and Writing: A View from Language Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkonou, Christina

    2011-01-01

    The assumption that foreign language learners experience a high level of anxiety mainly when faced with speaking activities implies that research should focus on those learners prone to anxiety over that skill. Despite not being widely investigated, foreign language writing anxiety also seems to be a concern for a large number of students. Drawing…

  4. Music Performance Anxiety Scale for High School Students: Validity and Reliability Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Palancı

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to develop a Music Performance Anxiety Scale (MPAS for high school students, and to conduct a validity and reliability study. In this respect, a scale will be developed to be used for high school students (adolescents, and differences between the genders will be examined. The study was conducted on 546 high school students. Of these students, 185 (33.9% were male, 361 (66.1% were female, and the average age was 16.81 with the ages ranging from 15 to 20. Correlational values of the scale items among themselves and with item totals were examined as a preliminary analysis. As a result of the EFA’s principal components technique, promax rotation technique and the analyses, a construct with three factors explaining a total of 42.74% of the total variance was attained. The structure attained was validated by CFA, and fit indices were found to be within the acceptance interval. In the reliability study, Cronbach’s alpha internal consistency coefficient was calculated as .86 for the entire scale, 27% for the lower-upper group comparison and test-retest analyses were conducted. The t-test was performed to attain the difference between genders. As a result of the study, a valid and reliable scale was seen to have been developed and a difference between the genders was apparent.

  5. Effect of spiritual therapy on blood pressure, anxiety and quality of life in patients with high blood pressure

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background: High blood pressure is the most important risk factor of cardiovascular diseases. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of spiritual therapy on blood pressure, anxiety and quality of life in patients with high blood pressure. Method: This study was quasi-experimentalwith apretest-posttest and control group design. The sample consisted of 30 patients with high blood pressure refering to Kangavar Healthcare center that were selected through convenience sampling and...

  6. Python based high-level synthesis compiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieszewski, Radosław; Pozniak, Krzysztof; Romaniuk, Ryszard

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents a python based High-Level synthesis (HLS) compiler. The compiler interprets an algorithmic description of a desired behavior written in Python and map it to VHDL. FPGA combines many benefits of both software and ASIC implementations. Like software, the mapped circuit is flexible, and can be reconfigured over the lifetime of the system. FPGAs therefore have the potential to achieve far greater performance than software as a result of bypassing the fetch-decode-execute operations of traditional processors, and possibly exploiting a greater level of parallelism. Creating parallel programs implemented in FPGAs is not trivial. This article describes design, implementation and first results of created Python based compiler.

  7. DUACS: Toward High Resolution Sea Level Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faugere, Y.; Gerald, D.; Ubelmann, C.; Claire, D.; Pujol, M. I.; Antoine, D.; Desjonqueres, J. D.; Picot, N.

    2016-12-01

    The DUACS system produces, as part of the CNES/SALP project, and the Copernicus Marine Environment and Monitoring Service, high quality multimission altimetry Sea Level products for oceanographic applications, climate forecasting centers, geophysic and biology communities... These products consist in directly usable and easy to manipulate Level 3 (along-track cross-calibrated SLA) and Level 4 products (multiple sensors merged as maps or time series) and are available in global and regional version (Mediterranean Sea, Arctic, European Shelves …).The quality of the products is today limited by the altimeter technology "Low Resolution Mode" (LRM), and the lack of available observations. The launch of 2 new satellites in 2016, Jason-3 and Sentinel-3A, opens new perspectives. Using the global Synthetic Aperture Radar mode (SARM) coverage of S3A and optimizing the LRM altimeter processing (retracking, editing, ...) will allow us to fully exploit the fine-scale content of the altimetric missions. Thanks to this increase of real time altimetry observations we will also be able to improve Level-4 products by combining these new Level-3 products and new mapping methodology, such as dynamic interpolation. Finally these improvements will benefit to downstream products : geostrophic currents, Lagrangian products, eddy atlas… Overcoming all these challenges will provide major upgrades of Sea Level products to better fulfill user needs.

  8. Trait anxiety affects decision-making differently in healthy men and women: towards gender-specific endophenotypes of anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Visser, L; van der Knaap, L J; van de Loo, A J A E; van der Weerd, C M M; Ohl, F; van den Bos, R

    2010-05-01

    Excessive levels of trait anxiety are a risk factor for psychiatric conditions, including anxiety disorders and substance abuse. High trait anxiety has been associated with altered cognitive functioning, in particular with an attentional bias towards aversive stimuli. Decision-making is a crucial aspect of cognitive functioning that relies on the correct processing and control of emotional stimuli. Interestingly, anxiety and decision-making share underlying neural substrates, involving cortico-limbic pathways, including the amygdala, striatum and medial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between trait anxiety, measured by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and complex decision-making, measured by the Iowa Gambling Task, in healthy male and female volunteers. The main focus of this study was the inclusion of gender as a discriminative factor. Indeed, we found distinct gender-specific effects of trait anxiety: in men, both low and high anxiety groups showed impaired decision-making compared to medium anxiety individuals, whereas in women only high anxiety individuals performed poorly. Furthermore, anxiety affected decision-making in men early in the task, i.e. the exploration phase, as opposed to an effect on performance in women during the second part of the test, i.e. the exploitation phase. These findings were related to different profiles of trait anxiety in men and women, and were independent of performance in the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and cortisol levels. Our data show gender-specific effects of trait anxiety on emotional decision-making. We suggest gender-specific endophenotypes of anxiety to exist, that differentially affect cognitive functioning.

  9. Exercise as Treatment for Anxiety: Systematic Review and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonerock, Gregory L.; Hoffman, Benson M.; Smith, Patrick J.; Blumenthal, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Exercise has been shown to reduce symptoms of anxiety, but few studies have studied exercise in individuals pre-selected because of their high anxiety. Purpose To review and critically evaluate studies of exercise training in adults with either high levels of anxiety or an anxiety disorder. Methods We conducted a systematic review of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) in which anxious adults were randomized to an exercise or non-exercise control condition. Data were extracted concerning anxiety outcomes and study design. Existing meta-analyses were also reviewed. Results Evidence from 12 RCTs suggested benefits of exercise, for select groups, similar to established treatments and greater than placebo. However, most studies had significant methodological limitations, including small sample sizes, concurrent therapies, and inadequate assessment of adherence and fitness levels. Conclusions Exercise may be a useful treatment for anxiety, but lack of data from rigorous, methodologically sound RCTs precludes any definitive conclusions about its effectiveness. PMID:25697132

  10. Patient anxiety in magnetic resonance imaging centres: Is further intervention needed?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tischler, Victoria [University of Nottingham, Division of Psychiatry, A Floor, South Block, QMC, Nottingham NG7 2UH (United Kingdom)], E-mail: victoria.tischler@nottingham.ac.uk; Calton, Tim; Williams, Michael [University of Nottingham, Division of Psychiatry, A Floor, South Block, QMC, Nottingham NG7 2UH (United Kingdom); Cheetham, Anna [Nottinghamshire Healthcare NHS Trust (United Kingdom)

    2008-08-15

    Background: Anxiety is commonly reported by patients attending for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scanning. This cross sectional postal survey sought the views of radiographers regarding: levels of patient anxiety, methods used to manage this before and during scanning, and the need for additional interventions to reduce anxiety. Results: Participants reported that they used procedures such as information leaflets, pre-scan visits and music to inform patients about the scan procedure and to reduce anxiety. Despite this, high levels of patient anxiety were reported, leading to scan disruption in some centres. The causes of anxiety concurred with previous research findings, for example, the scan environment, noise levels and fear of what the scan may reveal. Most participants were opposed to the idea of a multi-media intervention to reduce anxiety but this was often related to resource restrictions. Conclusions: Despite most centres using anxiety reducing techniques, many still report scan disruption suggesting there is a need to improve support for patients.

  11. Tracking at High Level Trigger in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Tosi, Mia

    2014-01-01

    A reduction of several orders of magnitude of the event rate is needed to reach values compatible with detector readout, offline storage and analysis capability. The CMS experiment has been designed with a two-level trigger system: the Level-1 Trigger (L1T), implemented on custom-designed electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. A software trigger system requires a trade-off between the complexity of the algorithms, the sustainable output rate, and the selection efficiency. With the computing power available during the 2012 data taking the maximum reconstruction time at HLT was about 200 ms per event, at the nominal L1T rate of 100 kHz. Track reconstruction algorithms are widely used in the HLT, for the reconstruction of the physics objects as well as in the identification of b-jets and lepton iso...

  12. High-Level Waste Melter Study Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, Joseph M.; Bickford, Dennis F.; Day, Delbert E.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Lambert, Steven L.; Marra, Sharon L.; Peeler, David K.; Strachan, Denis M.; Triplett, Mark B.; Vienna, John D.; Wittman, Richard S.

    2001-07-13

    At the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, the path to site cleanup involves vitrification of the majority of the wastes that currently reside in large underground tanks. A Joule-heated glass melter is the equipment of choice for vitrifying the high-level fraction of these wastes. Even though this technology has general national and international acceptance, opportunities may exist to improve or change the technology to reduce the enormous cost of accomplishing the mission of site cleanup. Consequently, the U.S. Department of Energy requested the staff of the Tanks Focus Area to review immobilization technologies, waste forms, and modifications to requirements for solidification of the high-level waste fraction at Hanford to determine what aspects could affect cost reductions with reasonable long-term risk. The results of this study are summarized in this report.

  13. Service-oriented high level architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Wenguang; Li, Qun; Wang, Weiping; Liu, Xichun

    2009-01-01

    Service-oriented High Level Architecture (SOHLA) refers to the high level architecture (HLA) enabled by Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) and Web Services etc. techniques which supports distributed interoperating services. The detailed comparisons between HLA and SOA are made to illustrate the importance of their combination. Then several key enhancements and changes of HLA Evolved Web Service API are introduced in comparison with native APIs, such as Federation Development and Execution Process, communication mechanisms, data encoding, session handling, testing environment and performance analysis. Some approaches are summarized including Web-Enabling HLA at the communication layer, HLA interface specification layer, federate interface layer and application layer. Finally the problems of current research are discussed, and the future directions are pointed out.

  14. High-Level Waste Melter Study Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Jr, Joseph M; Bickford, Dennis F; Day, Delbert E; Kim, Dong-Sang; Lambert, Steven L; Marra, Sharon L; Peeler, David K; Strachan, Denis M; Triplett, Mark B; Vienna, John D; Wittman, Richard S

    2001-07-13

    At the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, the path to site cleanup involves vitrification of the majority of the wastes that currently reside in large underground tanks. A Joule-heated glass melter is the equipment of choice for vitrifying the high-level fraction of these wastes. Even though this technology has general national and international acceptance, opportunities may exist to improve or change the technology to reduce the enormous cost of accomplishing the mission of site cleanup. Consequently, the U.S. Department of Energy requested the staff of the Tanks Focus Area to review immobilization technologies, waste forms, and modifications to requirements for solidification of the high-level waste fraction at Hanford to determine what aspects could affect cost reductions with reasonable long-term risk. The results of this study are summarized in this report.

  15. High-level radioactive wastes. Supplement 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaren, L.H. (ed.)

    1984-09-01

    This bibliography contains information on high-level radioactive wastes included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from August 1982 through December 1983. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes, each preceded by a brief description, are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number. 1452 citations.

  16. Commissioning of the CMS High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Agostino, Lorenzo; Beccati, Barbara; Behrens, Ulf; Berryhil, Jeffrey; Biery, Kurt; Bose, Tulika; Brett, Angela; Branson, James; Cano, Eric; Cheung, Harry; Ciganek, Marek; Cittolin, Sergio; Coarasa, Jose Antonio; Dahmes, Bryan; Deldicque, Christian; Dusinberre, Elizabeth; Erhan, Samim; Gigi, Dominique; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino, Robert; Gutleber, Johannes; Hatton, Derek; Laurens, Jean-Francois; Loizides, Constantin; Ma, Frank; Meijers, Frans; Meschi, Emilio; Meyer, Andreas; Mommsen, Remigius K; Moser, Roland; O'Dell, Vivian; Oh, Alexander; Orsini, Luciano; Patras, Vaios; Paus, Christoph; Petrucci, Andrea; Pieri, Marco; Racz, Attila; Sakulin, Hannes; Sani, Matteo; Schieferdeckerd, Philipp; Schwick, Christoph; Serrano Margaleff, Josep Francesc; Shpakov, Dennis; Simon, Sean; Sumorok, Konstanty; Sungho Yoon, Andre; Wittich, Peter; Zanetti, Marco

    2009-01-01

    The CMS experiment will collect data from the proton-proton collisions delivered by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at a centre-of-mass energy up to 14 TeV. The CMS trigger system is designed to cope with unprecedented luminosities and LHC bunch-crossing rates up to 40 MHz. The unique CMS trigger architecture only employs two trigger levels. The Level-1 trigger is implemented using custom electronics, while the High Level Trigger (HLT) is based on software algorithms running on a large cluster of commercial processors, the Event Filter Farm. We present the major functionalities of the CMS High Level Trigger system as of the starting of LHC beams operations in September 2008. The validation of the HLT system in the online environment with Monte Carlo simulated data and its commissioning during cosmic rays data taking campaigns are discussed in detail. We conclude with the description of the HLT operations with the first circulating LHC beams before the incident occurred the 19th September 2008.

  17. Commissioning of the CMS High Level Trigger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agostino, Lorenzo; et al.

    2009-08-01

    The CMS experiment will collect data from the proton-proton collisions delivered by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at a centre-of-mass energy up to 14 TeV. The CMS trigger system is designed to cope with unprecedented luminosities and LHC bunch-crossing rates up to 40 MHz. The unique CMS trigger architecture only employs two trigger levels. The Level-1 trigger is implemented using custom electronics, while the High Level Trigger (HLT) is based on software algorithms running on a large cluster of commercial processors, the Event Filter Farm. We present the major functionalities of the CMS High Level Trigger system as of the starting of LHC beams operations in September 2008. The validation of the HLT system in the online environment with Monte Carlo simulated data and its commissioning during cosmic rays data taking campaigns are discussed in detail. We conclude with the description of the HLT operations with the first circulating LHC beams before the incident occurred the 19th September 2008.

  18. Commissioning of the CMS High Level Trigger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agostino, Lorenzo; et al.

    2009-08-01

    The CMS experiment will collect data from the proton-proton collisions delivered by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at a centre-of-mass energy up to 14 TeV. The CMS trigger system is designed to cope with unprecedented luminosities and LHC bunch-crossing rates up to 40 MHz. The unique CMS trigger architecture only employs two trigger levels. The Level-1 trigger is implemented using custom electronics, while the High Level Trigger (HLT) is based on software algorithms running on a large cluster of commercial processors, the Event Filter Farm. We present the major functionalities of the CMS High Level Trigger system as of the starting of LHC beams operations in September 2008. The validation of the HLT system in the online environment with Monte Carlo simulated data and its commissioning during cosmic rays data taking campaigns are discussed in detail. We conclude with the description of the HLT operations with the first circulating LHC beams before the incident occurred the 19th September 2008.

  19. Meditation therapy for anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krisanaprakornkit, T; Krisanaprakornkit, W; Piyavhatkul, N; Laopaiboon, M

    2006-01-25

    Anxiety disorders are characterised by long term worry, tension, nervousness, fidgeting and symptoms of autonomic system hyperactivity. Meditation is an age-old self regulatory strategy which is gaining more interest in mental health and psychiatry. Meditation can reduce arousal state and may ameliorate anxiety symptoms in various anxiety conditions. To investigate the effectiveness of meditation therapy in treating anxiety disorders Electronic databases searched include CCDANCTR-Studies and CCDANCTR-References, complementary and alternative medicine specific databases, Science Citation Index, Health Services/Technology Assessment Text database, and grey literature databases. Conference proceedings, book chapters and references were checked. Study authors and experts from religious/spiritual organisations were contacted. Types of studies: Randomised controlled trials. patients with a diagnosis of anxiety disorders, with or without another comorbid psychiatric condition. Types of interventions: concentrative meditation or mindfulness meditation. Comparison conditions: one or combination of 1) pharmacological therapy 2) other psychological treatment 3) other methods of meditation 4) no intervention or waiting list. Types of outcome: 1) improvement in clinical anxiety scale 2) improvement in anxiety level specified by triallists, or global improvement 3) acceptability of treatment, adverse effects 4) dropout. Data were independently extracted by two reviewers using a pre-designed data collection form. Any disagreements were discussed with a third reviewer, and the authors of the studies were contacted for further information. Two randomised controlled studies were eligible for inclusion in the review. Both studies were of moderate quality and used active control comparisons (another type of meditation, relaxation, biofeedback). Anti-anxiety drugs were used as standard treatment. The duration of trials ranged from 3 months (12 weeks) to 18 weeks. In one study

  20. Preoperative anxiety in surgical patients - experience of a single unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthias, Anne Thushara; Samarasekera, Dharmanbandhu Nandadeva

    2012-03-01

    Preoperative anxiety has a significant effect on the outcome of anesthesia and surgery. At present, there is no published data on the preoperative anxiety levels in Sri Lankan patients. In the West, several validated questionnaires such as The Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS) and State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) are used. To measure the preoperative anxiety levels in patients using APAIS and to analyze the factors affecting anxiety and the role played by the anesthetist in allaying anxiety. One hundred patients scheduled for elective surgery were prospectively studied using the APAIS. The internal consistency was checked using Cronbach's alpha. The ages varied 25 to 72 years (mean=48.7 years, SD=13.6). Reliability of the APAIS was high; Cronbach's alpha=0.864 in the overall component and 0.84, 0.73 and 0.97 in the anxiety related to surgery, anesthesia and in the information desire components, respectively. Females were more anxious than males (p=0.02) and those who had never sustained surgery were more anxious than those who previously had surgery (p=0.05). An anesthetist's visit and premedication reduced total anxiety scores (Z=-3.07, p=0.002) and anesthesia related anxiety scores (Z=-3.45, p=0.001). The prevalence of anxiety is high among Sri Lankan patients. Females are more anxious than males and those who have never had surgery are more anxious than those who have had surgery. The anesthetist's visit could reduce anxiety. Sinhala version of the APAIS is highly reliable in assessing the preoperative anxiety levels. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Perception matters for clinical perfectionism and social anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Cheri A; Rodebaugh, Thomas L; Shumaker, Erik A; Menatti, Andrew R; Weeks, Justin W; White, Emily K; Heimberg, Richard G; Warren, Cortney S; Blanco, Carlos; Schneier, Franklin; Liebowitz, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    Despite research documenting a relationship between social anxiety and perfectionism, very little research has examined the relationship between social anxiety and clinical perfectionism, defined as the combination of high personal standards and high maladaptive perfectionistic evaluative concern. In the current studies we examined whether clinical perfectionism predicted social anxiety in a large sample of undergraduates (N=602), in a clinical sample of participants diagnosed with social anxiety disorder (SAD; N=180), and by using a variance decomposition model of self- and informant-report of perfectionism (N=134). Using self-report, we found that an interaction of personal standards and evaluative concern predicted both social interaction anxiety and fear of scrutiny, but not in the theorized direction. Specifically, we found that self-report of low standards and high evaluative concern was associated with the highest levels of social anxiety, suggesting that when individuals with SAD hold low expectations for themselves combined with high concerns about evaluation, social anxiety symptoms may increase. Alternatively, when an informants' perspective was considered, and more consistent with the original theory, we found that the interaction of informant-only report of personal standards and shared-report (between both primary participant and informant) of concern over mistakes was associated with self-reported social anxiety, such that high concern over mistakes and high personal standards predicted the highest levels of social anxiety. Theoretical, clinical, and measurement implications for clinical perfectionism are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Factors Affecting Noise Levels of High-Speed Handpieces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    office communication and increase patient anxiety. Purpose: To determine if three noise-reducing techniques utilized in larger scale , non- dental...hearing loss may cause confusion, fear, and loneliness , and that sometimes hearing loss is accompanied by dizziness, which would be a handicap in the...employee noise exposures equal or exceed an 8- hour time-weighted average sound level (TWA) of 85 decibels measured on the A scale (slow response) or

  3. The ALICE Dimuon Spectrometer High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, B; Cicalo, Corrado; Das, Indranil; de Vaux, Gareth; Fearick, Roger; Lindenstruth, Volker; Marras, Davide; Sanyal, Abhijit; Siddhanta, Sabyasachi; Staley, Florent; Steinbeck, Timm; Szostak, Artur; Usai, Gianluca; Vilakazi, Zeblon

    2009-01-01

    The ALICE Dimuon Spectrometer High Level Trigger (dHLT) is an on-line processing stage whose primary function is to select interesting events that contain distinct physics signals from heavy resonance decays such as J/psi and Gamma particles, amidst unwanted background events. It forms part of the High Level Trigger of the ALICE experiment, whose goal is to reduce the large data rate of about 25 GB/s from the ALICE detectors by an order of magnitude, without loosing interesting physics events. The dHLT has been implemented as a software trigger within a high performance and fault tolerant data transportation framework, which is run on a large cluster of commodity compute nodes. To reach the required processing speeds, the system is built as a concurrent system with a hierarchy of processing steps. The main algorithms perform partial event reconstruction, starting with hit reconstruction on the level of the raw data received from the spectrometer. Then a tracking algorithm finds track candidates from the recon...

  4. The antecedents and implications of interracial anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, E Ashby; Devine, Patricia G

    2003-06-01

    Drawing on previous theorizing from both the prejudice and social anxiety literatures, a model of the antecedents and implications of intergroup anxiety is offered. It is argued that a lack of positive previous experiences with outgroup members creates negative expectancies about interracial interactions, which result in intergroup anxiety. This anxiety is posited to result in heightened hostility toward outgroup members and a desire to avoid interacting with outgroup members. Study 1 examined White participants' responses to interacting with Black people using a range of self-report measures; the associations between these responses supported the relationships outlined in the model. Study 2 explored White participants' responses to an anticipated interaction with a Black person or a White person. The findings revealed that high levels of anxiety about an interaction with a Black person, but not a White person, were associated with a lower likelihood of returning for the interaction.

  5. Childhood Anxiety/Withdrawal, Adolescent Parent-Child Attachment and Later Risk of Depression and Anxiety Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, I. S.; Horwood, L. J.; Fergusson, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown that children with high levels of early anxiety/withdrawal are at increased risk of later anxiety and depression. It has also been found that positive parent-child attachment reduces the risk of these disorders. The aim of this paper was to examine the extent to which...... positive parent-child attachment acted to mitigate the risk of later internalising disorders amongst children with high levels of early anxiety/withdrawal using data from a 30 years longitudinal study of a New Zealand birth cohort. The findings of this study showed that: (a) increasing rates of early...... anxiety/withdrawal were associated with an increased risk of later anxiety and depression; (b) positive parent-child attachment in adolescence was associated with a decline in the risk of later anxiety and depression; and (c) these associations persisted even after controlling for confounding factors...

  6. The relationship between communication of nurses and level of anxiety of patient's family in emergency room dr. Dradjat Prawiranegara hospital, Serang Banten, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukmanulhakim

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions: Nurse is required to be able to perform their therapeutic communication skill effectively so that the anxiety level of family members is decreasing. As a result, the stable emotion of family members affect to the appropriate decision making of medical treatment. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(12.000: 5456-5462

  7. Assessment of State and Trait Anxiety Level of Physical Education and Sports' Students before the Term Final Examinations: Example of Halic University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgan, Cigdem; Odabas, Hatice Ilhan; Dal, Suzan; Meçu, Elif; Aydin, Mensure

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was the evaluation of state and trait anxiety levels of students in Halic University, School of Physical Education and Sports, during final exams according to their age, department and year in school. For this research, 469 students (mean age 21,17 ± 2,27) studying in 2014-2015 spring term were chosen randomly. As data…

  8. Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Anxiety Disorders KidsHealth > For Teens > Anxiety Disorders A A ... Do en español Trastornos de ansiedad What Is Anxiety? Liam had always looked out for his younger ...

  9. Performance of the CMS High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Perrotta, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The CMS experiment has been designed with a 2-level trigger system. The first level is implemented using custom-designed electronics. The second level is the so-called High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. For Run II of the Large Hadron Collider, the increases in center-of-mass energy and luminosity will raise the event rate to a level challenging for the HLT algorithms. The increase in the number of interactions per bunch crossing, on average 25 in 2012, and expected to be around 40 in Run II, will be an additional complication. We present here the expected performance of the main triggers that will be used during the 2015 data taking campaign, paying particular attention to the new approaches that have been developed to cope with the challenges of the new run. This includes improvements in HLT electron and photon reconstruction as well as better performing muon triggers. We will also present the performance of the improved trac...

  10. Abnormal Axon Reflex-Mediated Sweating Correlates with High State of Anxiety in Atopic Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Kijima

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: Although the number of study subjects was little, abnormal AXR sweating in patients with AD was observed. Correlative analysis suggests possible involvement of continuous anxiety and the immune system in such abnormal sudomotor function.

  11. Countries with Higher Levels of Gender Equality Show Larger National Sex Differences in Mathematics Anxiety and Relatively Lower Parental Mathematics Valuation for Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoet, Gijsbert; Bailey, Drew H; Moore, Alex M; Geary, David C

    2016-01-01

    Despite international advancements in gender equality across a variety of societal domains, the underrepresentation of girls and women in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) related fields persists. In this study, we explored the possibility that the sex difference in mathematics anxiety contributes to this disparity. More specifically, we tested a number of predictions from the prominent gender stratification model, which is the leading psychological theory of cross-national patterns of sex differences in mathematics anxiety and performance. To this end, we analyzed data from 761,655 15-year old students across 68 nations who participated in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). Most importantly and contra predictions, we showed that economically developed and more gender equal countries have a lower overall level of mathematics anxiety, and yet a larger national sex difference in mathematics anxiety relative to less developed countries. Further, although relatively more mothers work in STEM fields in more developed countries, these parents valued, on average, mathematical competence more in their sons than their daughters. The proportion of mothers working in STEM was unrelated to sex differences in mathematics anxiety or performance. We propose that the gender stratification model fails to account for these national patterns and that an alternative model is needed. In the discussion, we suggest how an interaction between socio-cultural values and sex-specific psychological traits can better explain these patterns. We also discuss implications for policies aiming to increase girls' STEM participation.

  12. An empirical investigation on college teachers’ foreign language anxiety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘苑

    2015-01-01

    The author adopted an empirical quantitative method by employing Horwitz’s Teacher Foreign Language Anxiety Scale(TFLAS)to determine the anxiety level of ninety teacher participants from Tianjin Foreign Studies University.SPSS11.5was used for data analysis and the results showed that no one experienced high level’s anxiety and student teachers were commonly more anxious than in-service teachers.

  13. The relationship between MAOA gene polymorphism and test anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yangyang; Lu, Zuhong

    2013-12-01

    In a sample of 569 Chinese high school students, the present findings indicated that students with the 4-repeat genotype showed a higher level of test anxiety. Furthermore, the prediction of academic performance on test anxiety was stronger among students with the 3-repeat genotype than those with the 4-repeat genotype. The present findings suggest that mono-amine-oxidase type A gene polymorphism is significantly related to test anxiety.

  14. The level and influence factors of anxiety among nursing students before the nurse qualification test%护生护士资格考试前焦虑状况及影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李美仙; 窦娟花; 李宁

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the level and influencing factors of anxiety among nursing students before the nurse qualification test.Method Totally 1527 nursing students in Xi'an were investigated with the Sarason Test Anxiety Scale (TAS) two weeks before the qualification test.Results The total TAS score of nursing students was (19.45±6.24).About 44.83% of the diploma students,46.80% of the associate students and 27.59% of the undergraduate students showed high level of anxiety.The factors influencing the anxiety of nursing students were concerning about their future,confidence,uncomfortable reaction before the test,level of attention that schools pay on this test,professional attitudes,clinic practice or not,personalities and opinions about reform in the test.Conclusion The anxiety of nursing students with different educational backgrounds before the nurse qualification test was at a moderate level.Schools can provide psychological counseling before the exam,if necessary,to mitigate the anxiety level of the nursing students.%目的 调查护生护士资格考试前焦虑程度及影响因素.方法 抽取西安市1527名护生,采用Sarason考试焦虑量表在考试前2周进行调查.结果 护生考试焦虑量表总分为(19.45±6.24)分,分别有44.83%、46.80%、27.59%的中专、大专和高职、本科护生存在高度焦虑.担心前途、自信心、考试前不适反应、学校重视程度、对护理专业的态度、是否继续临床实习、性格及对考试改革的看法是护生考试前焦虑状况的影响因素.结论 不同层次护生护士资格考试前处于中等焦虑水平,学校可开设心理咨询,必要时进行考前心理辅导,降低护生的焦虑水平.

  15. The Prevalence of Internet Addiction and its Association with Depression, Anxiety, and Stress, among High-School Students

    OpenAIRE

    Batool Gholamian; Hossein Shahnazi; Akbar Hassanzadeh

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The Internet is an integral part of our everyday life. Aside from its positive effects, what have garnered researchers’ attention are its adverse side effects and adolescents’ addiction to it. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of Internet addiction and its relationship to anxiety, stress, and depression among Iranian high-school students in Shahr-e Kord, Iran. Materials and Methods The current cross-sectional study was conducted on 417high-school boys and girls ...

  16. Effect of Social Familiarity on Salivary Cortisol and Self-Reports of Social Anxiety and Stress in Children with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopata, Christopher; Volker, Martin A.; Putnam, Susan K.; Thomeer, Marcus L.; Nida, Robert E.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effect of social familiarity on salivary cortisol and social anxiety/stress for a sample of children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders. The relationship between self-reported social anxiety/stress and salivary cortisol was also examined. Participants interacted with a familiar peer on one occasion and an…

  17. The Assessment of the Anxiety of High School Students Who Are Learning Turkish as a Foreign Language in Turkey in Term of Certain Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göçer, Ali

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the anxiety connected with target language of the high school students who are learning Turkish as a foreign language in terms of certain variables. The study used FLCAS--Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale that was developed by Horwitz, Horwitz and Cope (1986) and was made validity and reliability by…

  18. Effect of Social Familiarity on Salivary Cortisol and Self-Reports of Social Anxiety and Stress in Children with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopata, Christopher; Volker, Martin A.; Putnam, Susan K.; Thomeer, Marcus L.; Nida, Robert E.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effect of social familiarity on salivary cortisol and social anxiety/stress for a sample of children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders. The relationship between self-reported social anxiety/stress and salivary cortisol was also examined. Participants interacted with a familiar peer on one occasion and an…

  19. [Anxiety, life style and obstetric history of women working in a high-fashion clothing industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouri, S; Di Giampaolo, L; Toto, E; Cerrone, T; Boscolo, P

    2001-01-01

    Women with a mean age of 38 years (range 20-62) were employed in an industry producing clothes of high fashion. A part of them (n = 210) performed their activities with hands and others (n = 90) utilising machines with more repetitive procedures. All the recruited women answered to a questionnaire including the state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI) test, working activities, lifestyle and obstetric history. There was no relation between obstetric history and working activities. The group of women with age ranging from 35 to 42 years showed the score of the STAI higher than that of the younger women and slightly lower than that of the subjects with older age. This may depend on the "healthy worker effect" in the old subjects able to continue their job. The scores of the STAI were also slightly influenced by the repetitive tasks utilising machines. On the whole, the working activity of women had beneficial effect on their role inside the family and in the social life.

  20. Is There Any Relationship Between Making Fire Insurance With Persons ’Demog raphics Features And Otherwise With Persons’ Anxiety Level?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Burak Gümüş

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study builds individual households on the reasons for taking or not taking out a fire insurance policy. The main purpose of this study was to determine either demographic characteristics or level of anxiety was effective in taking out fire insurance policy. However, information about individuals’ perception of fire insurance was tried to be reached. For this purpose a questionnaire involving some demographic characteristics of individuals and also an international –Beck A-anxiety scale which aims at the determination of individuals level of anxiety was designed. The survey about individuals’ perce ptions of fire insurance was conducted face-to-face to 619 homeowners after excluding incorrectly entered questionnaires. According to the survey results obtained from the analysis, there is a significant association between the anxiety levels and taking out fire insurance policy. In addition, value of the housing and witnessing a fire within the vicinity of the house affect the perception of fire insurance policy. Individuals have been acted in agreement with expected utility theory, at the same time have not been acted different from efficient market hypothesis