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Sample records for high antigen load

  1. Microfluidic squeezing for intracellular antigen loading in polyclonal B-cells as cellular vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee Szeto, Gregory; van Egeren, Debra; Worku, Hermoon; Sharei, Armon; Alejandro, Brian; Park, Clara; Frew, Kirubel; Brefo, Mavis; Mao, Shirley; Heimann, Megan; Langer, Robert; Jensen, Klavs; Irvine, Darrell J.

    2015-05-01

    B-cells are promising candidate autologous antigen-presenting cells (APCs) to prime antigen-specific T-cells both in vitro and in vivo. However to date, a significant barrier to utilizing B-cells as APCs is their low capacity for non-specific antigen uptake compared to “professional” APCs such as dendritic cells. Here we utilize a microfluidic device that employs many parallel channels to pass single cells through narrow constrictions in high throughput. This microscale “cell squeezing” process creates transient pores in the plasma membrane, enabling intracellular delivery of whole proteins from the surrounding medium into B-cells via mechano-poration. We demonstrate that both resting and activated B-cells process and present antigens delivered via mechano-poration exclusively to antigen-specific CD8+T-cells, and not CD4+T-cells. Squeezed B-cells primed and expanded large numbers of effector CD8+T-cells in vitro that produced effector cytokines critical to cytolytic function, including granzyme B and interferon-γ. Finally, antigen-loaded B-cells were also able to prime antigen-specific CD8+T-cells in vivo when adoptively transferred into mice. Altogether, these data demonstrate crucial proof-of-concept for mechano-poration as an enabling technology for B-cell antigen loading, priming of antigen-specific CD8+T-cells, and decoupling of antigen uptake from B-cell activation.

  2. Highly efficient gene delivery by mRNA electroporation in human hematopoietic cells: superiority to lipofection and passive pulsing of mRNA and to electroporation of plasmid cDNA for tumor antigen loading of dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Tendeloo, V F; Ponsaerts, P; Lardon, F; Nijs, G; Lenjou, M; Van Broeckhoven, C; Van Bockstaele, D R; Berneman, Z N

    2001-07-01

    Designing effective strategies to load human dendritic cells (DCs) with tumor antigens is a challenging approach for DC-based tumor vaccines. Here, a cytoplasmic expression system based on mRNA electroporation to efficiently introduce tumor antigens into DCs is described. Preliminary experiments in K562 cells using an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) reporter gene revealed that mRNA electroporation as compared with plasmid DNA electroporation showed a markedly improved transfection efficiency (89% versus 40% EGFP(+) cells, respectively) and induced a strikingly lower cell toxicity (15% death rate with mRNA versus 51% with plasmid DNA). Next, mRNA electroporation was applied for nonviral transfection of different types of human DCs, including monocyte-derived DCs (Mo-DCs), CD34(+) progenitor-derived DCs (34-DCs) and Langerhans cells (34-LCs). High-level transgene expression by mRNA electroporation was obtained in more than 50% of all DC types. mRNA-electroporated DCs retained their phenotype and maturational potential. Importantly, DCs electroporated with mRNA-encoding Melan-A strongly activated a Melan-A-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) clone in an HLA-restricted manner and were superior to mRNA-lipofected or -pulsed DCs. Optimal stimulation of the CTL occurred when Mo-DCs underwent maturation following mRNA transfection. Strikingly, a nonspecific stimulation of CTL was observed when DCs were transfected with plasmid DNA. The data clearly demonstrate that Mo-DCs electroporated with mRNA efficiently present functional antigenic peptides to cytotoxic T cells. Therefore, electroporation of mRNA-encoding tumor antigens is a powerful technique to charge human dendritic cells with tumor antigens and could serve applications in future DC-based tumor vaccines.

  3. High loading uranium plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiencek, T.C.; Domagala, R.F.; Thresh, H.R.

    1990-01-01

    Two embodiments of a high uranium fuel plate are disclosed which contain a meat comprising structured uranium compound confined between a pari of diffusion bonded ductile metal cladding plates uniformly covering the meat, the meat hiving a uniform high fuel loading comprising a content of uranium compound greater than about 45 Vol. % at a porosity not greater than about 10 Vol. %. In a first embodiment, the meat is a plurality of parallel wires of uranium compound. In a second embodiment, the meat is a dispersion compact containing uranium compound. The fuel plates are fabricated by a hot isostatic pressing process

  4. High thermal load component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuse, Toshiaki; Tachikawa, Nobuo.

    1996-01-01

    A cooling tube made of a pure copper is connected to the inner portion of an armour (heat resistant member) made of an anisotropic carbon/carbon composite (CFC) material. The CFC material has a high heat conductivity in longitudinal direction of fibers and has low conductivity in perpendicular thereto. Fibers extending in the armour from a heat receiving surface just above the cooling tube are directly connected to the cooling tube. A portion of the fibers extending from a heat receiving surface other than portions not just above the cooling tube is directly bonded to the cooling tube. Remaining fibers are disposed so as to surround the cooling tube. The armour and the cooling tube are soldered using an active metal flux. With such procedures, high thermal load components for use in a thermonuclear reactor are formed, which are excellent in a heat removing characteristic and hardly causes defects such as crackings and peeling. (I.N.)

  5. High thermal load structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujimura, Seiichi; Toyota, Masahiko.

    1995-01-01

    A highly thermal load structure applied to a plasma-opposed equipment of a thermonuclear device comprises heat resistant protection tiles and a cooling tube disposed in the protection tiles. As the protection tiles, a carbon/carbon composite material is used. The carbon/carbon composite material on the heat receiving surface comprises carbon fibers disposed in one direction (one dimensionally) arranged from the heat receiving surface toward the cooling tube. The carbon/carbon composite material on the side opposite to the heat receiving surface comprises carbon fibers arranged two-dimensionally in the direction perpendicular to the longitudinal direction of the cooling tube. Then, the cooling tube is interposed between the one-dimensional carbon/carbon composite material and the two-dimensional carbon/carbon composite material, and they are joined with each other by vacuum brazing. This can improve heat removing performance. In addition, thermal stresses at the joined portion is reduced. Further, electromagnetic force generated in the thermonuclear device is reduced. (I.N.)

  6. High thermal load structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsujimura, Seiichi; Toyota, Masahiko

    1995-06-16

    A highly thermal load structure applied to a plasma-opposed equipment of a thermonuclear device comprises heat resistant protection tiles and a cooling tube disposed in the protection tiles. As the protection tiles, a carbon/carbon composite material is used. The carbon/carbon composite material on the heat receiving surface comprises carbon fibers disposed in one direction (one dimensionally) arranged from the heat receiving surface toward the cooling tube. The carbon/carbon composite material on the side opposite to the heat receiving surface comprises carbon fibers arranged two-dimensionally in the direction perpendicular to the longitudinal direction of the cooling tube. Then, the cooling tube is interposed between the one-dimensional carbon/carbon composite material and the two-dimensional carbon/carbon composite material, and they are joined with each other by vacuum brazing. This can improve heat removing performance. In addition, thermal stresses at the joined portion is reduced. Further, electromagnetic force generated in the thermonuclear device is reduced. (I.N.).

  7. Anti-cancer vaccination by transdermal delivery of antigen peptide-loaded nanogels via iontophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoda, Mao; Hama, Susumu; Ikeda, Yutaka; Nagasaki, Yukio; Kogure, Kentaro

    2015-04-10

    Transdermal vaccination with cancer antigens is expected to become a useful anti-cancer therapy. However, it is difficult to accumulate enough antigen in the epidermis for effective exposure to Langerhans cells because of diffusion into the skin and muscle. Carriers, such as liposomes and nanoparticles, may be useful for the prevention of antigen diffusion. Iontophoresis, via application of a small electric current, is a noninvasive and efficient technology for transdermal drug delivery. Previously, we succeeded in the iontophoretic transdermal delivery of liposomes encapsulating insulin, and accumulation of polymer-based nanoparticle nanogels in the stratum corneum of the skin. Therefore, in the present study, we examined the use of iontophoresis with cancer antigen gp-100 peptide KVPRNQDWL-loaded nanogels for anti-cancer vaccination. Iontophoresis resulted in the accumulation of gp-100 peptide and nanogels in the epidermis, and subsequent increase in the number of Langerhans cells in the epidermis. Moreover, tumor growth was significantly suppressed by iontophoresis of the antigen peptide-loaded nanogels. Thus, iontophoresis of the antigen peptide-loaded nanogels may serve as an effective transdermal delivery system for anti-cancer vaccination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. High Temperature Radio Frequency Loads

    CERN Document Server

    Federmann, S; Grudiev, A; Montesinos, E; Syratchev, I

    2011-01-01

    In the context of energy saving and recovery requirements the design of reliable and robust RF power loads which permit a high outlet temperature and high pressure of the cooling water is desirable. Cooling water arriving at the outlet withmore than 150 ◦C and high pressure has a higher value than water with 50 ◦C under low pressure. Conventional RF power loads containing dielectric and magnetic materials as well as sensitive ceramic windows usually do not permit going much higher than 90 ◦C. Here we present and discuss several design concepts for "metal only" RF high power loads. One concept is the application of magnetic steel corrugated waveguides near cutoff – this concept could find practical use above several GHz. Another solution are resonant structures made of steel to be installed in large waveguides for frequencies of 500 MHz or lower. Similar resonant structures above 100 MHz taking advantage of the rather high losses of normal steel may also be used in coaxial line geometries with large di...

  9. Encapsulation of antigen-loaded silica nanoparticles into microparticles for intradermal powder injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yibin; Mathaes, Roman; Winter, Gerhard; Engert, Julia

    2014-10-15

    Epidermal powder immunisation (EPI) is being investigated as a promising needle-free delivery methods for vaccination. The objective of this work was to prepare a nanoparticles-in-microparticles (nano-in-micro) system, integrating the advantages of nanoparticles and microparticles into one vaccine delivery system for epidermal powder immunisation. Cationic mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNP-NH2) were prepared and loaded with ovalbumin as a model antigen. Loading was driven by electrostatic interactions. Ovalbumin-loaded silica nanoparticles were subsequently formulated into sugar-based microparticles by spray-freeze-drying. The obtained microparticles meet the size requirement for EPI. Confocal microscopy was used to demonstrate that the nanoparticles are homogeneously distributed in the microparticles. Furthermore, the silica nanoparticles in the dry microparticles can be re-dispersed in aqueous solution showing no aggregation. The recovered ovalbumin shows integrity compared to native ovalbumin. The present nano-in-micro system allows (1) nanoparticles to be immobilized and finely distributed in microparticles, (2) microparticle formation and (3) re-dispersion of nanoparticles without subsequent aggregation. The nanoparticles inside microparticles can (1) adsorb proteins to cationic shell/surface voids in spray-dried products without detriment to ovalbumin stability, (2) deliver antigens in nano-sized modes to allow recognition by the immune system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. High heat load synchrotron optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, D.M.

    1993-01-01

    Third generation synchrotron radiation sources currently being constructed worldwide will produce x-ray beams of unparalleled power and power density. These high heat fluxes coupled with the stringent dimensional requirements of the x-ray optical components pose a prodigious challenge to designers of x-ray optical elements, specifically x-ray mirrors and crystal monochromators. Although certain established techniques for the cooling of high heat flux components can be directly applied to this problem, the thermal management of high heat load x-ray optical components has several unusual aspects that may ultimately lead to unique solutions. This manuscript attempts to summarize the various approaches currently being applied to this undertaking and to point out the areas of research that require further development

  11. Generation of monoclonal antibodies against highly conserved antigens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongzhe Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Therapeutic antibody development is one of the fastest growing areas of the pharmaceutical industry. Generating high-quality monoclonal antibodies against a given therapeutic target is very crucial for the success of the drug development. However, due to immune tolerance, some proteins that are highly conserved between mice and humans are not very immunogenic in mice, making it difficult to generate antibodies using a conventional approach. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this report, the impaired immune tolerance of NZB/W mice was exploited to generate monoclonal antibodies against highly conserved or self-antigens. Using two highly conserved human antigens (MIF and HMGB1 and one mouse self-antigen (TNF-alpha as examples, we demonstrate here that multiple clones of high affinity, highly specific antibodies with desired biological activities can be generated, using the NZB/W mouse as the immunization host and a T cell-specific tag fused to a recombinant antigen to stimulate the immune system. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We developed an efficient and universal method for generating surrogate or therapeutic antibodies against "difficult antigens" to facilitate the development of therapeutic antibodies.

  12. APS high heat load monochromator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.K.; Mills, D.

    1993-02-01

    This document contains the design specifications of the APS high heat load (HHL) monochromator and associated accessories as of February 1993. It should be noted that work is continuing on many parts of the monochromator including the mechanical design, crystal cooling designs, etc. Where appropriate, we have tried to add supporting documentation, references to published papers, and calculations from which we based our decisions. The underlying philosophy behind performance specifications of this monochromator was to fabricate a device that would be useful to as many APS users as possible, that is, the design should be as generic as possible. In other words, we believe that this design will be capable of operating on both bending magnet and ID beamlines (with the appropriate changes to the cooling and crystals) with both flat and inclined crystal geometries and with a variety of coolants. It was strongly felt that this monochromator should have good energy scanning capabilities over the classical energy range of about 4 to 20 keywith Si (111) crystals. For this reason, a design incorporating one rotation stage to drive both the first and second crystals was considered most promising. Separate rotary stages for the first and second crystals can sometimes provide more flexibility in their capacities to carry heavy loads (for heavily cooled first crystals or sagittal benders of second crystals), but their tuning capabilities were considered inferior to the single axis approach

  13. High voltage load resistor array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Monty Ray [Smithfield, VA

    2005-01-18

    A high voltage resistor comprising an array of a plurality of parallel electrically connected resistor elements each containing a resistive solution, attached at each end thereof to an end plate, and about the circumference of each of the end plates, a corona reduction ring. Each of the resistor elements comprises an insulating tube having an electrode inserted into each end thereof and held in position by one or more hose clamps about the outer periphery of the insulating tube. According to a preferred embodiment, the electrode is fabricated from stainless steel and has a mushroom shape at one end, that inserted into the tube, and a flat end for engagement with the end plates that provides connection of the resistor array and with a load.

  14. High throughput production of mouse monoclonal antibodies using antigen microarrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Masi, Federico; Chiarella, P.; Wilhelm, H.

    2005-01-01

    Recent advances in proteomics research underscore the increasing need for high-affinity monoclonal antibodies, which are still generated with lengthy, low-throughput antibody production techniques. Here we present a semi-automated, high-throughput method of hybridoma generation and identification....... Monoclonal antibodies were raised to different targets in single batch runs of 6-10 wk using multiplexed immunisations, automated fusion and cell-culture, and a novel antigen-coated microarray-screening assay. In a large-scale experiment, where eight mice were immunized with ten antigens each, we generated...

  15. Small organic compounds enhance antigen loading of class II major histocompatibility complex proteins by targeting the polymorphic P1 pocket

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höpner, Sabine; Dickhaut, Katharina; Hofstätter, Maria

    2006-01-01

    the peptide loading rate. The effect was evident only for an allelic subset and strictly correlated with the presence of glycine at the dimorphic position beta86 of the HLA-DR molecule. The residue forms the floor of the conserved pocket P1, located in the peptide binding site of MHC molecule. Apparently......, transient occupation of this pocket by the organic compound stabilizes the peptide-receptive conformation permitting rapid antigen loading. This interaction appeared restricted to the larger Gly(beta86) pocket and allowed striking enhancements of T cell responses for antigens presented by these "adamantyl......-susceptible" MHC molecules. As catalysts of antigen loading, compounds targeting P1 may be useful molecular tools to amplify the immune response. The observation, however, that the ligand repertoire can be affected through polymorphic sites form the outside may also imply that environmental factors could induce...

  16. High thermal load receiving heat plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibutani, Jun-ichi; Shibayama, Kazuhito; Yamamoto, Keiichi; Uchida, Takaho.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention concerns a high thermal load heat receiving plate such as a divertor plate of a thermonuclear device. The high thermal load heat receiving plate of the present invention has a cooling performance capable of suppressing the temperature of an armour tile to less than a threshold value of the material against high thermal loads applied from plasmas. Spiral polygonal pipes are inserted in cooling pipes at a portion receiving high thermal loads in the high temperature load heat receiving plate of the present invention. Both ends of the polygonal pipes are sealed by lids. An area of the flow channel in the cooling pipes is thus reduced. Heat conductivity on the cooling surface of the cooling pipes is increased in the high thermal load heat receiving plate having such a structure. Accordingly, temperature elevation of the armour tile can be suppressed. (I.S.)

  17. Attentional capture under high perceptual load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosman, Joshua D; Vecera, Shaun P

    2010-12-01

    Attentional capture by abrupt onsets can be modulated by several factors, including the complexity, or perceptual load, of a scene. We have recently demonstrated that observers are less likely to be captured by abruptly appearing, task-irrelevant stimuli when they perform a search that is high, as opposed to low, in perceptual load (Cosman & Vecera, 2009), consistent with perceptual load theory. However, recent results indicate that onset frequency can influence stimulus-driven capture, with infrequent onsets capturing attention more often than did frequent onsets. Importantly, in our previous task, an abrupt onset was present on every trial, and consequently, attentional capture might have been affected by both onset frequency and perceptual load. In the present experiment, we examined whether onset frequency influences attentional capture under conditions of high perceptual load. When onsets were presented frequently, we replicated our earlier results; attentional capture by onsets was modulated under conditions of high perceptual load. Importantly, however, when onsets were presented infrequently, we observed robust capture effects. These results conflict with a strong form of load theory and, instead, suggest that exposure to the elements of a task (e.g., abrupt onsets) combines with high perceptual load to modulate attentional capture by task-irrelevant information.

  18. Vaccine adjuvant MF59 promotes the intranodal differentiation of antigen-loaded and activated monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossella Cioncada

    Full Text Available MF59 is an oil-in-water emulsion adjuvant approved for human influenza vaccination in European Union. The mode of action of MF59 is not fully elucidated yet, but results from several years of investigation indicate that MF59 establishes an immunocompetent environment at injection site which promotes recruitment of immune cells, including antigen presenting cells (APCs, that are facilitated to engulf antigen and transport it to draining lymph node (dLN where the antigen is accumulated. In vitro studies showed that MF59 promotes the differentiation of monocytes to dendritic cells (Mo-DCs. Since after immunization with MF59, monocytes are rapidly recruited both at the injection site and in dLN and appear to have a morphological change toward a DC-like phenotype, we asked whether MF59 could play a role in inducing differentiation of Mo-DC in vivo. To address this question we immunized mice with the auto-fluorescent protein Phycoerythrin (PE as model antigen, in presence or absence of MF59. We measured the APC phenotype and their antigen uptake within dLNs, the antigen distribution within the dLN compartments and the humoral response to PE. In addition, using Ovalbumin as model antigen, we measured the capacity of dLN APCs to induce antigen-specific CD4 T cell proliferation. Here, we show, for the first time, that MF59 promotes differentiation of Mo-DCs within dLNs from intranodal recruited monocytes and we suggest that this differentiation could take place in the medullary compartment of the LN. In addition we show that the Mo-DC subset represents the major source of antigen-loaded and activated APCs within the dLN when immunizing with MF59. Interestingly, this finding correlates with the enhanced triggering of antigen-specific CD4 T cell response induced by LN APCs. This study therefore demonstrates that MF59 is able to promote an immunocompetent environment also directly within the dLN, offering a novel insight on the mechanism of action of

  19. Ultrasensitive direct competitive FLISA using highly luminescent quantum dot beads for tuning affinity of competing antigens to antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Sicheng; Zhou, Yaofeng; Huang, Xiaolin [State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047 (China); Yu, Ruijin [College of Science, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Lai, Weihua [State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047 (China); Xiong, Yonghua, E-mail: yhxiongchen@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047 (China)

    2017-06-15

    Herein, for the first time we report a novel direct competitive fluorescence-linked immunosorbent assay (dcFLISA) for the ultrasensitive detection of ochratoxin A (OTA) by introducing a large size polymer beads loaded with quantum dots (QBs) as carrier of competing antigen for decreasing binding affinity to antibody and enhancing the fluorescent signal intensity. When using 255 nm QBs as carrier of competing antigen, the equilibrium dissociation constant of QB based competing antigen to antibodies can be tuned to 100 times higher than that of the horseradish peroxidase (HRP) based competing antigen by controlling labeled amounts of antigen on the surface of QBs. Various parameters that influenced the sensitivity of dcFLISA were investigated and optimized. Under optimum detection parameters, the dynamic linear range of developed dcFLISA for detecting OTA was established at 0.05 pg/mL to 1.56 pg/mL with a half maximal inhibitory concentration at 0.14 ± 0.04 pg/mL (n = 5), which is three orders of magnitude lower than that of conventional HRP-based dcELISA (0.24 ng/mL). The developed FLISA is also highly accurate, reliable, and shows no cross reaction to other mycotoxins. In summary, the proposed method offers a straightforward approach to improve the sensitivity of direct competitive immunoassay for trace small chemical molecule detection in food quality control, environmental monitoring, and clinical diagnosis. - Highlights: • Highly luminescent QBs were used as a carrier of competing antigen for ultrasensitive detection of OTA. • It is the first time to use a large size QBs as a carrier for tuning affinity of competing antigen to antibodies. • IC{sub 50} value of QB-based dcFLISA is three orders of magnitude lower than that of HRP-based dcELISA.

  20. Ultrasensitive direct competitive FLISA using highly luminescent quantum dot beads for tuning affinity of competing antigens to antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Sicheng; Zhou, Yaofeng; Huang, Xiaolin; Yu, Ruijin; Lai, Weihua; Xiong, Yonghua

    2017-01-01

    Herein, for the first time we report a novel direct competitive fluorescence-linked immunosorbent assay (dcFLISA) for the ultrasensitive detection of ochratoxin A (OTA) by introducing a large size polymer beads loaded with quantum dots (QBs) as carrier of competing antigen for decreasing binding affinity to antibody and enhancing the fluorescent signal intensity. When using 255 nm QBs as carrier of competing antigen, the equilibrium dissociation constant of QB based competing antigen to antibodies can be tuned to 100 times higher than that of the horseradish peroxidase (HRP) based competing antigen by controlling labeled amounts of antigen on the surface of QBs. Various parameters that influenced the sensitivity of dcFLISA were investigated and optimized. Under optimum detection parameters, the dynamic linear range of developed dcFLISA for detecting OTA was established at 0.05 pg/mL to 1.56 pg/mL with a half maximal inhibitory concentration at 0.14 ± 0.04 pg/mL (n = 5), which is three orders of magnitude lower than that of conventional HRP-based dcELISA (0.24 ng/mL). The developed FLISA is also highly accurate, reliable, and shows no cross reaction to other mycotoxins. In summary, the proposed method offers a straightforward approach to improve the sensitivity of direct competitive immunoassay for trace small chemical molecule detection in food quality control, environmental monitoring, and clinical diagnosis. - Highlights: • Highly luminescent QBs were used as a carrier of competing antigen for ultrasensitive detection of OTA. • It is the first time to use a large size QBs as a carrier for tuning affinity of competing antigen to antibodies. • IC_5_0 value of QB-based dcFLISA is three orders of magnitude lower than that of HRP-based dcELISA.

  1. Immunization against HTLV-I with chitosan and tri-methylchitosan nanoparticles loaded with recombinant env23 and env13 antigens of envelope protein gp46.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirnasr, Maryam; Fallah Tafti, Tannan; Sankian, Mojtaba; Rezaei, Abdorrahim; Tafaghodi, Mohsen

    2016-08-01

    To prevent the spread of HTLV-I (Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1), a safe and effective vaccine is required. To increase immune responses against the peptide antigens can be potentiated with polymer-based nanoparticles, like chitosan (CHT) and trimethylchitosan (TMC), as delivery system/adjuvant. CHT and TMC nanoparticles loaded with recombinant proteins (env23 & env13) of gp46 were prepared by direct coating of antigens with positively charged polymers. The size of CHT and TMC nanoparticles (NPs) loaded with each antigen was about 400 nm. The physical stability of NPs was followed for 4 weeks. Both formulations showed to be stable for about 15 days. The immunogenicity of NPs loaded with antigens was studied after nasal and subcutaneous immunization in mice. Three immunizations (7.5 μg antigen) were performed with 2 weeks intervals. Two weeks after the last booster dose, sera IgG subtypes were measured. After subcutaneous administration, for both nanoparticulate antigens, serum IgG1 and IgGtotal levels were higher than antigen solution (P nanoparticles showed good immunoadjuvant potential. Env23 antigen was a better candidate for vaccination against HTLV-I, as it induced higher cellular immune responses, compared with env13. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Vitrification of highly-loaded SDS zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siemens, D.H.; Bryan, G.H.; Knowlton, D.E.; Knox, C.A.

    1982-11-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is demonstrating a vitrification system designed for immobilization of highly loaded SDS zeolites. The Zeolite Vitrification Demonstration Project (ZVDP) utilizes an in-can melting process. All steps of the process have been demonstrated, from receipt of the liners through characterization of the vitrified product. The system has been tested with both nonradioactive and radioactive zeolite material. Additional high-radioactivity demonstrations are scheduled to begin in FY-83. 5 figures, 4 tables

  3. Photoelectrically automated, bakeable, high-load ultramicrobalance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czanderna, A.W.; Kollen, W.; Biegen, J.R.; Rodder, J.

    1976-01-01

    An all quartz pivotal-beam ultramicrobalance has been modified for operation as a null instrument using a dual-path photoelectric detector. The beam and newly designed stainless steel beam support have been adapted to a stainless steel enclosure for studies in uhv. A thin quartz disk, with a 600-A thick Au film for partially blocking the light path, is fused to each end of the beam. An electronic circuit minimizes the signal from the detector when the balance moves from the null by providing a current output to a magnetic compensation coil. The capacity (up to 20 g), the stability of the null reading (over six months), and the unusually high load to precision ratio (1--2x10 8 ) of the balance have been maintained with the modification. Sensibilities of 0.03--0.1 μg with 4--10-g loads have been obtained with the balance, which is now completely adapted for UHV operation

  4. Testing waste forms containing high radionuclide loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Neilson, R.M. Jr.; Rogers, R.D.

    1986-01-01

    The Low-Level Waste Data Base Development - EPICOR-II Resin/Liner Investigation Program funded by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is obtaining information on radioactive waste during NRC-prescribed tests and in a disposal environment. This paper describes the resin solidification task of that program, including the present status and results to date. An unusual aspect of this investigation is the use of commercial grade, ion exchange resins that have been loaded with over five times the radioactivity normally seen in a commercial application. That dramatically increases the total radiation dose to the resins. The objective of the resin solidification task is to determine the adequacy of test procedures specified by NRC for ion exchange resins having high radionuclide loadings

  5. Effective clinical-scale production of dendritic cell vaccines by monocyte elutriation directly in medium, subsequent culture in bags and final antigen loading using peptides or RNA transfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmann, Michael; Dörrie, Jan; Schaft, Niels; Strasser, Erwin; Hendelmeier, Martin; Kämpgen, Eckhart; Schuler, Gerold; Schuler-Thurner, Beatrice

    2007-09-01

    Dendritic cell (DC) vaccination approaches are advancing fast into the clinic. The major obstacle for further improvement is the current lack of a simple functionally "closed" system to generate standardized monocyte-derived (mo) DC vaccines. Here, we significantly optimized the use of the Elutra counterflow elutriation system to enrich monocytic DC precursors by (1) developing an algorithm to avoid red blood cell debulking and associated monocyte loss before elutriation, and (2) by elutriation directly in culture medium rather than phosphate-buffered saline. Upon elutriation the bags containing the collected monocytes are simply transferred into the incubator to generate DC progeny as the final "open" washing step is no longer required. Elutriation resulted in significantly more (> or = 2-fold) and purer DC than the standard gradient centrifugation/adherence-based monocyte enrichment, whereas morphology, maturation markers, viability, migratory capacity, and T cell stimulatory capacity were identical. Subsequently, we compared RNA transfection, as this is an increasingly used approach to load DC with antigen. Elutra-derived and adherence-derived DC could be electroporated with similar, high efficiency (on average >85% green fluorescence protein positive), and appeared also equal in antigen expression kinetics. Both Elutra-derived and adherence-derived DC, when loaded with the MelanA peptide or electroporated with MelanA RNA, showed a high T cell stimulation capacity, that is, priming of MelanA-specific CD8+ T cells. Our optimized Elutra-based procedure is straightforward, clearly superior to the standard gradient centrifugation/plastic adherence protocol, and now allows the generation of large numbers of peptide-loaded or RNA-transfected DC in a functionally closed system.

  6. Original Mycobacterial Sin, a consequence of highly homologous antigens?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jenkins, A. O.; Michel, A.; Rutten, V.

    2017-01-01

    The role of antigens shared between Mycobacteria in in-vivo cross-reactive immune responses in host animals, have been reported to be responsible for reduced BCG vaccination efficacy as well reduced specificity of routine immunological diagnostic tests. This presents with significant disease control

  7. Serum hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis B e antigen titers: disease phase influences correlation with viral load and intrahepatic hepatitis B virus markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Alexander J V; Nguyen, Tin; Iser, David; Ayres, Anna; Jackson, Kathy; Littlejohn, Margaret; Slavin, John; Bowden, Scott; Gane, Edward J; Abbott, William; Lau, George K K; Lewin, Sharon R; Visvanathan, Kumar; Desmond, Paul V; Locarnini, Stephen A

    2010-06-01

    Although threshold levels for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) titers have recently been proposed to guide therapy for chronic hepatitis B (CHB), their relationship to circulating hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA and intrahepatic HBV replicative intermediates, and the significance of emerging viral variants, remains unclear. We therefore tested the hypothesis that HBsAg and HBeAg titers may vary independently of viral replication in vivo. In all, 149 treatment-naïve CHB patients were recruited (HBeAg-positive, n = 71; HBeAg-negative, n = 78). Quantification of HBeAg and HBsAg was performed by enzyme immunoassay. Virological characterization included serum HBV DNA load, HBV genotype, basal core promoter (BCP)/precore (PC) sequence, and, in a subset (n = 44), measurement of intrahepatic covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) and total HBV DNA, as well as quantitative immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for HBsAg. In HBeAg-positive CHB, HBsAg was positively correlated with serum HBV DNA and intrahepatic cccDNA and total HBV DNA (r = 0.69, 0.71, 0.76, P < 0.01). HBeAg correlated with serum HBV DNA (r = 0.60, P < 0.0001), although emerging BCP/PC variants reduced HBeAg titer independent of viral replication. In HBeAg-negative CHB, HBsAg correlated poorly with serum HBV DNA (r = 0.28, P = 0.01) and did not correlate with intrahepatic cccDNA nor total HBV DNA. Quantitative IHC for hepatocyte HBsAg confirmed a relationship with viral replication only in HBeAg-positive patients. The correlation between quantitative HBsAg titer and serum and intrahepatic markers of HBV replication differs between patients with HBeAg-positive and HBeAg-negative CHB. HBeAg titers may fall independent of viral replication as HBeAg-defective variants emerge prior to HBeAg seroconversion. These findings provide new insights into viral pathogenesis and have practical implications for the use of quantitative serology as a clinical biomarker.

  8. Mirror benders for high thermal loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, W.; Vickery, A.P.

    1983-01-01

    The thermal conditions in high power mirrors can be very complex and the exact calculation of their thermal behaviour requires very detailed calculations. However by making some simplifying assumptions it is possible to make an analysis which indicates the sort of performance that can be expected. Further by consideration of the simplifying assumptions it is possible to see how the design may contain features to mitigate the effects that occur in the real world. A simple treatment of thermal perturbations in mirror benders is presented. The design features which can help a bender to operate with a high thermal flux are looked at. In conclusion, the way to proceed to higher thermal loadings when passive methods prove inadequate is suggested. (author)

  9. Low cognitive load strengthens distractor interference while high load attenuates when cognitive load and distractor possess similar visual characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamoto, Takehiro; Shipstead, Zach; Osaka, Naoyuki; Engle, Randall W

    2015-07-01

    Studies on visual cognitive load have reported inconsistent effects of distractor interference when distractors have visual characteristic that are similar to the cognitive load. Some studies have shown that the cognitive load enhances distractor interference, while others reported an attenuating effect. We attribute these inconsistencies to the amount of cognitive load that a person is required to maintain. Lower amounts of cognitive load increase distractor interference by orienting attention toward visually similar distractors. Higher amounts of cognitive load attenuate distractor interference by depleting attentional resources needed to process distractors. In the present study, cognitive load consisted of faces (Experiments 1-3) or scenes (Experiment 2). Participants performed a selective attention task in which they ignored face distractors while judging a color of a target dot presented nearby, under differing amounts of load. Across these experiments distractor interference was greater in the low-load condition and smaller in the high-load condition when the content of the cognitive load had similar visual characteristic to the distractors. We also found that when a series of judgments needed to be made, the effect was apparent for the first trial but not for the second. We further tested an involvement of working memory capacity (WMC) in the load effect (Experiment 3). Interestingly, both high and low WMC groups received an equivalent effect of the cognitive load in the first distractor, suggesting these effects are fairly automatic.

  10. Fc receptor-targeting of immunogen as a strategy for enhanced antigen loading, vaccination, and protection using intranasally administered antigen-pulsed dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Giang H; Iglesias, Bibiana V; Gosselin, Edmund J

    2014-09-08

    Dendritic cells (DCs) play a critical role in the generation of adaptive immunity via the efficient capture, processing, and presentation of antigen (Ag) to naïve T cells. Administration of Ag-pulsed DCs is also an effective strategy for enhancing immunity to tumors and infectious disease organisms. Studies have also demonstrated that targeting Ags to Fcγ receptors (FcγR) on Ag presenting cells can enhance humoral and cellular immunity in vitro and in vivo. Specifically, our studies using a Francisella tularensis (Ft) infectious disease vaccine model have demonstrated that targeting immunogens to FcγR via intranasal (i.n.) administration of monoclonal antibody (mAb)-inactivated Ft (iFt) immune complexes (ICs) enhances protection against Ft challenge. Ft is the causative agent of tularemia, a debilitating disease of humans and other mammals and a category A biothreat agent for which there is no approved vaccine. Therefore, using iFt Ag as a model immunogen, we sought to determine if ex vivo targeting of iFt to FcγR on DCs would enhance the potency of i.n. administered iFt-pulsed DCs. In this study, bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs) were pulsed ex vivo with iFt or mAb-iFt ICs. Intranasal administration of mAb-iFt-pulsed BMDCs enhanced humoral and cellular immune responses, as well as protection against Ft live vaccine strain (LVS) challenge. Increased protection correlated with increased iFt loading on the BMDC surface as a consequence of FcγR-targeting. However, the inhibitory FcγRIIB had no impact on this enhancement. In conclusion, targeting Ag ex vivo to FcγR on DCs provides a method for enhanced Ag loading of DCs ex vivo, thereby reducing the amount of Ag required, while also avoiding the inhibitory impact of FcγRIIB. Thus, this represents a simple and less invasive strategy for increasing the potency of ex vivo-pulsed DC vaccines against chronic infectious diseases and cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Fc Receptor-Targeting of Immunogen as a Strategy for Enhanced Antigen Loading, Vaccination, and Protection Using Intranasally-Administered Antigen-Pulsed Dendritic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Giang H.; Iglesias, Bibiana V.; Gosselin, Edmund J.

    2014-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) play a critical role in the generation of adaptive immunity via the efficient capture, processing, and presentation of antigen (Ag) to naïve T cells. Administration of Ag-pulsed DCs is also an effective strategy for enhancing immunity to tumors and infectious disease organisms. Studies have also demonstrated that targeting Ags to Fcγ receptors (FcγR) on Ag presenting cells can enhance humoral and cellular immunity in vitro and in vivo. Specifically, our studies using an F. tularensis (Ft) infectious disease vaccine model have demonstrated that targeting immunogens to FcγR via intranasal (i.n.) administration of monoclonal antibody (mAb)-inactivated Ft (iFt) immune complexes (ICs) enhances protection against Ft challenge. Ft is the causative agent of tularemia, a debilitating disease of humans and other mammals and a category A biothreat agent for which there is no approved vaccine. Therefore, using iFt Ag as a model immunogen, we sought to determine if ex vivo targeting of iFt to FcγR on DCs would enhance the potency of i.n. administered iFt-pulsed DCs. In this study, bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs) were pulsed ex vivo with iFt or mAb-iFt ICs. Intranasal administration of mAb-iFt-pulsed BMDCs enhanced humoral and cellular immune responses, as well as protection against Ft live vaccine strain (LVS) challenge. Increased protection correlated with increased iFt loading on the BMDC surface as a consequence of FcγR targeting. However, the inhibitory FcγRIIB had no impact on this enhancement. In conclusion, targeting Ag ex vivo to FcγR on DCs provides a method for enhanced Ag loading of DCs ex vivo, thereby reducing the amount of Ag required, while also avoiding the inhibitory impact of FcγRIIB. Thus, this represents a simple and less invasive strategy for increasing the potency of ex vivo-pulsed DC vaccines against chronic infectious diseases and cancer. PMID:25068496

  12. Dendritic cells induce specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes against prostate cancer TRAMP-C2 cells loaded with freeze- thaw antigen and PEP-3 peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Qi; Jiang, Rong; Li, Si-Qi; Wang, Jing; Yi, Fa-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men. In this study, we investigated immune responses of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) against TRAMP-C2 prostate cancer cells after activation by dendritic cells (DCs) loaded with TRAMP-C2 freeze-thaw antigen and/or PEP-3 peptide in vitro. Bone marrow-derived DC from the bone marrow of the C57BL/6 were induced to mature by using the cytokine of rhGM-CSF and rhIL-4, and loaded with either the freeze-thaw antigen or PEP-3 peptide or both of them. Maturation of DCs was detected by flow cytometry. The killing efficiency of the CTLs on TRAMP-C2 cells were detected by flow cytometry, CCK8, colony formation, transwell migration, and wound-healing assay. The levels of the IFN-γ, TNF-β and IL-12 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Compared with the unloaded DCs, the loaded DCs had significantly increased expression of several phenotypes related to DC maturation. CTLs activated by DCs loaded with freeze-thaw antigen and PEP-3 peptide had more evident cytotoxicity against TRAMP-C2 cells in vitro. The secretion levels of IFN-γ, TNF-β and IL-12, secreted by DCs loaded with antigen and PEP-3 and interaction with T cells, were higher than in the other groups. Our results suggest that the CTLs activated by DCs loaded with TRAMP-C2 freeze-thaw antigen and PEP-3 peptide exert a remarkable killing efficiency against TRAMP-C2 cells in vitro.

  13. N-Trimethyl chitosan (TMC) nanoparticles loaded with influenza subunit antigen for intranasal vaccination : Biological properties and immunogenicity in a mouse model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amidi, Maryam; Romeijn, Stefan G.; Verhoef, J. Coos; Junginger, Hans E.; Bungener, Laura; Huckriede, Anke; Crommelin, Daan J. A.; Jiskoot, Wim

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the potential of N-trimethyl chitosan (TMC) nanoparticles as a carrier system for the nasal delivery of a monovalent influenza subunit vaccine was investigated. The antigen-loaded nanoparticles were prepared by mixing a solution containing TMC and monovalent influenza A subunit H3N2

  14. Original Mycobacterial Sin, a consequence of highly homologous antigens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, A O; Michel, A; Rutten, V

    2017-05-01

    The role of antigens shared between Mycobacteria in in-vivo cross-reactive immune responses in host animals, have been reported to be responsible for reduced BCG vaccination efficacy as well reduced specificity of routine immunological diagnostic tests. This presents with significant disease control challenges in humans and animals. The present review highlights the results of previous studies on the effect of pre-sensitization to environmental mycobacteria on either pathogenic mycobacteria and/or M. bovis BCG, in experimental animals. It also takes an in-depth view into assessing the genetic similarities and relationships between atypical mycobacteria and Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and how they might explain the immunological imprint of environmental mycobacteria in directing the hosts' immune response upon subsequent exposure to other classes of mycobacteria. The outcome of this review suggests that genetic closeness between particular atypical mycobacteria and MTBC usually indicate a higher level of homology for certain shared protective antigens. This ultimately results in a higher level of cross reactive immune responses as compared with other atypical mycobacteria that are further away genetically. This would explain the different effects of environmental mycobacteria on MTBC that have been reported in the different studies. In other words the direction of the host immune system in response to exposure to MTBC would depend on the type of environmental mycobacteria that was encountered in the initial exposure. We also explain these mycobacterial interactions in the context of the phenomenon of "Original Mycobacterial Sin". The effects of these inevitable mycobacterial interactions on field diagnosis and control by vaccination and how to circumvent them are discussed. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. High power s-band vacuum load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubauer, Michael [Muons, Inc., Batavia, IL (United States); Dudas, Alan [Muons, Inc., Batavia, IL (United States); Krasnykh, Anatoly [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2016-12-29

    Through a combination of experimentation and calculation the components of a novel room temperature dry load were successfully fabricated. These components included lossy ceramic cylinders of various lengths, thicknesses, and percent of silicon carbide (SiC). The cylinders were then assembled into stainless steel compression rings by differential heating of the parts and a special fixture. Post machining of this assembly provided a means for a final weld. The ring assemblies were then measured for S-parameters, individually and in pairs using a low-cost TE10 rectangular to TE01 circular waveguide adapter specially designed to be part of the final load assembly. Matched pairs of rings were measured for assembly into the final load, and a sliding short designed and fabricated to assist in determining the desired short location in the final assembly. The plan for the project was for Muons, Inc. to produce prototype loads for long-term testing at SLAC. The STTR funds for SLAC were to upgrade and operate their test station to ensure that the loads would satisfy their requirements. Phase III was to be the sale to SLAC of loads that Muons, Inc. would manufacture. However, an alternate solution that involved a rebuild of the old loads, reduced SLAC budget projections, and a relaxed time for the replacement of all loads meant that in-house labor will be used to do the upgrade without the need for the loads developed in this project. Consequently, the project was terminated before the long term testing was initiated. However, SLAC can use the upgraded test stand to compare the long-term performance of the ones produced in this project with their rebuilt loads when they are available.

  16. High power s-band vacuum load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neubauer, Michael; Dudas, Alan; Krasnykh, Anatoly

    2016-01-01

    Through a combination of experimentation and calculation the components of a novel room temperature dry load were successfully fabricated. These components included lossy ceramic cylinders of various lengths, thicknesses, and percent of silicon carbide (SiC). The cylinders were then assembled into stainless steel compression rings by differential heating of the parts and a special fixture. Post machining of this assembly provided a means for a final weld. The ring assemblies were then measured for S-parameters, individually and in pairs using a low-cost TE10 rectangular to TE01 circular waveguide adapter specially designed to be part of the final load assembly. Matched pairs of rings were measured for assembly into the final load, and a sliding short designed and fabricated to assist in determining the desired short location in the final assembly. The plan for the project was for Muons, Inc. to produce prototype loads for long-term testing at SLAC. The STTR funds for SLAC were to upgrade and operate their test station to ensure that the loads would satisfy their requirements. Phase III was to be the sale to SLAC of loads that Muons, Inc. would manufacture. However, an alternate solution that involved a rebuild of the old loads, reduced SLAC budget projections, and a relaxed time for the replacement of all loads meant that in-house labor will be used to do the upgrade without the need for the loads developed in this project. Consequently, the project was terminated before the long term testing was initiated. However, SLAC can use the upgraded test stand to compare the long-term performance of the ones produced in this project with their rebuilt loads when they are available.

  17. The diagnosis of symptomatic acute antiretroviral syndrome during the window period with antigen/antibody testing and HIV viral load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel O. Griffin

    Full Text Available Despite much focus on moving toward a cure to end the epidemic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV epidemic there are still thousands of new infections occurring every year in the United States. Although there is ongoing transmission of HIV in the United States and a growing population of people living with HIV, the acute presentation of HIV infection can be challenging to diagnose and is often not considered when patients present to healthcare providers. Although in certain states there are HIV testing laws that require that all persons between the ages of 13 and 64 be offered HIV testing in an opt-out approach, many patient presenting with an acute illness, that would warrant diagnostic testing for HIV, leave without having an HIV test performed for either diagnostic or screening purposes.We describe the case of a woman who presented to medical attention with symptoms later confirmed to be due to acute HIV infection. She was initially discharged from the hospital and only underwent HIV testing with confirmation of her diagnosis after readmission. We describe the algorithm where fourth generation testing combined with HIV viral load testing allowed for the diagnosis of acute HIV prior to the development of a specific immunoglobulin response. Consideration of this diagnosis, improved HIV screening, and understanding of the use of antigen/antibody screening tests, combined with Multispot and HIV viral RNA detection, when appropriate, can allow for early diagnosis of HIV before progression of disease and before undiagnosed patient spread the infection to new contacts.

  18. Baseline prostatic specific antigen does not predict the outcome of high energy transurethral microwave thermotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laguna, M. Pilar; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Debruyne, Frans M. J.; de La Rosette, Jean J. M. C. H.

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: We assessed the prognostic value of baseline prostate specific antigen (PSA) for outcome after high energy transurethral thermotherapy in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data were collected prospectively in 404 consecutive patients treated with high energy

  19. Increased strength of concrete subject to high loading rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curbach, M.

    1987-01-01

    Within the scope of this work various problems are discussed which occur in connection with concrete under high tensile loading rates (e.g. when a plane crashes on a nuclear power plant very high loads occur which act only for a very short time). Particularly the causes for the already frequently noticed increases in strength with increasing loading rates are investigated and also the question whether this increased strength can be taken into account when dimensioning a construction. (MM) [de

  20. Loading capacities and failure modes of various reinforced concrete slabs subjected to high-speed loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, H.; Imamura, A.; Takeuchi, M.; Okamoto, S.; Kasai, Y.; Tsubota, H.; Yoshimura, M.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this study was to clarify experimentally and analytically the loading capacities, deformations and failure modes of various types of reinforced concrete structures subjected to loads applied at various loading rates. Flat slabs, slabs with beams and cylindrical walls were tested under static, low-speed and high-speed loading. Analysis was applied to estimate the test results by the finite element method using a layered shell element. The analysis closely simulated the experimental results until punching shear failure occurred. (author)

  1. Performance of a 2-megawatt high voltage test load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horan, D.; Kustom, R.; Ferguson, M.

    1995-01-01

    A high-power, water-cooled resistive load which simulates the electrical load characteristics of a high-power klystron, capable of 2 megawatts dissipation at 95 kV DC, was built and installed at the Advanced Photon Source for use in load-testing high voltage power supplies. During this testing, the test load has logged approximately 35 hours of operation at power levels in excess of one mezawatt. Slight variations in the resistance of the load during operation indicate that leakage currents in the cooling water may be a significant factor affecting the performance of the load. Sufficient performance data have been collected to indicate that leakage current through the deionized (DI) water coolant shunts roughly 15 percent of the full-load current around the load resistor elements. The leakage current could cause deterioration of internal components of the load. The load pressure vessel was disassembled and inspected internally for any signs of significant wear and distress. Results of this inspection and possible modifications for improved performance will be discussed

  2. Net load forecasting for high renewable energy penetration grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Amanpreet; Nonnenmacher, Lukas; Coimbra, Carlos F.M.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss methods for net load forecasting and their significance for operation and management of power grids with high renewable energy penetration. Net load forecasting is an enabling technology for the integration of microgrid fleets with the macrogrid. Net load represents the load that is traded between the grids (microgrid and utility grid). It is important for resource allocation and electricity market participation at the point of common coupling between the interconnected grids. We compare two inherently different approaches: additive and integrated net load forecast models. The proposed methodologies are validated on a microgrid with 33% annual renewable energy (solar) penetration. A heuristics based solar forecasting technique is proposed, achieving skill of 24.20%. The integrated solar and load forecasting model outperforms the additive model by 10.69% and the uncertainty range for the additive model is larger than the integrated model by 2.2%. Thus, for grid applications an integrated forecast model is recommended. We find that the net load forecast errors and the solar forecasting errors are cointegrated with a common stochastic drift. This is useful for future planning and modeling because the solar energy time-series allows to infer important features of the net load time-series, such as expected variability and uncertainty. - Highlights: • Net load forecasting methods for grids with renewable energy generation are discussed. • Integrated solar and load forecasting outperforms the additive model by 10.69%. • Net load forecasting reduces the uncertainty between the interconnected grids.

  3. Highly sensitive solid-phase radioimmunoassay for the assay of Plasmodium falciparum antigens and antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avraham, H.; Golenser, J.; Gazitt, Y.; Spira, D.T.; Sulitzeanu, D. (Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel). Hadassah Medical School)

    1982-08-27

    A highly sensitive radioimmunoassay for detection of P. falciparum antibodies and antigens is described. A partially purified P. falciparum antigen preparation is obtained from in vitro cultured parasites enriched after gelatin sedimentation by sonicating the infected red blood cells and precipitating the proteins with 50% saturated ammonium sulfate. The precipitate is dissolved in buffer, ultracentrifuged and used to coat wells of microtiter plates. Anti-P. falciparum antibodies are detected by incubating antiserum dilutions in the coated wells and detecting the bound IgG with radioiodinated staphylococcal protein A. P. falciparum antigens are detected by their ability to inhibit binding of antibodies to the coated wells. Sera of individuals with a history of P. falciparum infection contain antibodies detectable at a dilution of 1:75,000. P. falciparum RBC infected in vitro can be detected at levels of parasitemia of the order of 1 parasite or less per 10/sup 6/ RBC.

  4. A highly sensitive solid-phase radioimmunoassay for the assay of Plasmodium falciparum antigens and antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avraham, H.; Golenser, J.; Gazitt, Y.; Spira, D.T.; Sulitzeanu, D.

    1982-01-01

    A highly sensitive radioimmunoassay for detection of P. falciparum antibodies and antigens is described. A partially purified P. falciparum antigen preparation is obtained from in vitro cultured parasites enriched after gelatin sedimentation by sonicating the infected red blood cells and precipitating the proteins with 50% saturated ammonium sulfate. The precipitate is dissolved in buffer, ultracentrifuged and used to coat wells of microtiter plates. Anti-P. falciparum antibodies are detected by incubating antiserum dilutions in the coated wells and detecting the bound IgG with radioiodinated staphylococcal protein A. P. falciparum antigens are detected by their ability to inhibit binding of antibodies to the coated wells. Sera of individuals with a history of P. falciparum infection contain antibodies detectable at a dilution of 1:75,000. P. falciparum RBC infected in vitro can be detected at levels of parasitemia of the order of 1 parasite or less per 10 6 RBC. (Auth.)

  5. Low reflectance high power RF load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, R. Lawrence; Mizuhara, Yosuke M.

    2016-02-02

    A load for traveling microwave energy has an absorptive volume defined by cylindrical body enclosed by a first end cap and a second end cap. The first end cap has an aperture for the passage of an input waveguide with a rotating part that is coupled to a reflective mirror. The inner surfaces of the absorptive volume consist of a resistive material or are coated with a coating which absorbs a fraction of incident RF energy, and the remainder of the RF energy reflects. The angle of the reflector and end caps is selected such that reflected RF energy dissipates an increasing percentage of the remaining RF energy at each reflection, and the reflected RF energy which returns to the rotating mirror is directed to the back surface of the rotating reflector, and is not coupled to the input waveguide. Additionally, the reflector may have a surface which generates a more uniform power distribution function axially and laterally, to increase the power handling capability of the RF load. The input waveguide may be corrugated for HE11 mode input energy.

  6. A large, benign prostatic cyst presented with an extremely high serum prostate-specific antigen level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Han-Kuang; Pemberton, Richard

    2016-01-08

    We report a case of a patient who presented with an extremely high serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) level and underwent radical prostatectomy for presumed prostate cancer. Surprisingly, the whole mount prostatectomy specimen showed only small volume, organ-confined prostate adenocarcinoma and a large, benign intraprostatic cyst, which was thought to be responsible for the PSA elevation. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  7. Cementitious Stabilization of Mixed Wastes with High Salt Loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spence, R.D.; Burgess, M.W.; Fedorov, V.V.; Downing, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    Salt loadings approaching 50 wt % were tolerated in cementitious waste forms that still met leach and strength criteria, addressing a Technology Deficiency of low salt loadings previously identified by the Mixed Waste Focus Area. A statistical design quantified the effect of different stabilizing ingredients and salt loading on performance at lower loadings, allowing selection of the more effective ingredients for studying the higher salt loadings. In general, the final waste form needed to consist of 25 wt % of the dry stabilizing ingredients to meet the criteria used and 25 wt % water to form a workable paste, leaving 50 wt % for waste solids. The salt loading depends on the salt content of the waste solids but could be as high as 50 wt % if all the waste solids are salt

  8. High temperature and dust load in mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukhanov, V V; Bolonova, L N; Donets, I K; Mukhina, K Sh

    1989-02-01

    Presents results of study of combined load on the human system of heat and dust as encountered in deep coal mines in the Donbass. Groups of coal miners were studied to ascertain the state of their lungs, particularly the presence of free silica, dust, collagen, etc. The sickness records for a number of Donbass mining associations for the past 25 years were analyzed. Multiple regression analysis of the data obtained led to curves relating the number of shifts worked to dust levels, pulmonary ventilation (0.01 and 0.04 m/sup 3//min) and maximum admissible dust concentrations (2, 4, 6 and 10 mg/m/sup 3/). In the 25-35 C temperature range a rise of 1 C is accompanied by increases of 9.9% in dust mass, 15.4% in silica content, 10.7% in mineral impurities and 2.3% in pathomorphological changes in the lungs. An adjustment to the maximum admissible concentration correction coefficient of 10% for every 1 C over 26 C is recommended. 1 ref.

  9. Helminth antigens counteract a rapid high-fat diet-induced decrease in adipose tissue eosinophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Susan M; van Dam, Andrea D; Kusters, Pascal J H; Beckers, Linda; den Toom, Myrthe; van der Velden, Saskia; Van den Bossche, Jan; van Die, Irma; Boon, Mariëtte R; Rensen, Patrick C N; Lutgens, Esther; de Winther, Menno P J

    2017-10-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) activation and white adipose tissue (WAT) beiging can increase energy expenditure and have the potential to reduce obesity and associated diseases. The immune system is a potential target in mediating brown and beige adipocyte activation. Type 2 and anti-inflammatory immune cells contribute to metabolic homeostasis within lean WAT, with a prominent role for eosinophils and interleukin (IL)-4-induced anti-inflammatory macrophages. We determined eosinophil numbers in epididymal WAT (EpAT), subcutaneous WAT (ScAT) and BAT after 1 day, 3 days or 1 week of high-fat diet (HFD) feeding in C57Bl/6 mice. One day of HFD resulted in a rapid drop in eosinophil numbers in EpAT and BAT, and after 3 days, in ScAT. In an attempt to restore this HFD-induced drop in adipose tissue eosinophils, we treated 1-week HFD-fed mice with helminth antigens from Schistosoma mansoni or Trichuris suis and evaluated whether the well-known protective metabolic effects of helminth antigens involves BAT activation or beiging. Indeed, antigens of both helminth species induced high numbers of eosinophils in EpAT, but failed to induce beiging. In ScAT, Schistosoma mansoni antigens induced mild eosinophilia, which was accompanied by slightly more beiging. No effects were observed in BAT. To study type 2 responses on brown adipocytes directly, T37i cells were stimulated with IL-4. This increased Ucp1 expression and strongly induced the production of eosinophil chemoattractant CCL11 (+26-fold), revealing that brown adipocytes themselves can attract eosinophils. Our findings indicate that helminth antigen-induced eosinophilia fails to induce profound beiging of white adipocytes. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  10. Energy efficiency indicators for high electric-load buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aebischer, Bernard; Balmer, Markus A.; Kinney, Satkartar; Le Strat, Pascale; Shibata, Yoshiaki; Varone, Frederic

    2003-06-01

    Energy per unit of floor area is not an adequate indicator for energy efficiency in high electric-load buildings. For two activities, restaurants and computer centres, alternative indicators for energy efficiency are discussed.

  11. Part-load performance of a high temperature Kalina cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modi, Anish; Andreasen, Jesper Graa; Kærn, Martin Ryhl; Haglind, Fredrik

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Detailed algorithm to solve high temperature Kalina cycle in part load. • A central receiver concentrating solar power plant with direct vapour generation considered as case study. • Part-load performance curves and fitted equations presented. - Abstract: The Kalina cycle has recently seen increased interest as an alternative to the conventional steam Rankine cycle. The cycle has been studied for use with both low and high temperature applications such as geothermal power plants, ocean thermal energy conversion, waste heat recovery, gas turbine bottoming cycle, and solar power plants. The high temperature cycle layouts are inherently more complex than the low temperature layouts due to the presence of a distillation-condensation subsystem, three pressure levels, and several heat exchangers. This paper presents a detailed approach to solve the Kalina cycle in part-load operating conditions for high temperature (a turbine inlet temperature of 500 °C) and high pressure (100 bar) applications. A central receiver concentrating solar power plant with direct vapour generation is considered as a case study where the part-load conditions are simulated by changing the solar heat input to the receiver. Compared with the steam Rankine cycle, the Kalina cycle has an additional degree of freedom in terms of the ammonia mass fraction which can be varied in order to maximize the part-load efficiency of the cycle. The results include the part-load curves for various turbine inlet ammonia mass fractions and the fitted equations for these curves.

  12. Activities of everyday life with high spinal loads.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonius Rohlmann

    Full Text Available Activities with high spinal loads should be avoided by patients with back problems. Awareness about these activities and knowledge of the associated loads are important for the proper design and pre-clinical testing of spinal implants. The loads on an instrumented vertebral body replacement have been telemetrically measured for approximately 1000 combinations of activities and parameters in 5 patients over a period up to 65 months postoperatively. A database containing, among others, extreme values for load components in more than 13,500 datasets was searched for 10 activities that cause the highest resultant force, bending moment, torsional moment, or shear force in an anatomical direction. The following activities caused high resultant forces: lifting a weight from the ground, forward elevation of straight arms with a weight in hands, moving a weight laterally in front of the body with hanging arms, changing the body position, staircase walking, tying shoes, and upper body flexion. All activities have in common that the center of mass of the upper body was moved anteriorly. Forces up to 1650 N were measured for these activities of daily life. However, there was a large intra- and inter-individual variation in the implant loads for the various activities depending on how exercises were performed. Measured shear forces were usually higher in the posterior direction than in the anterior direction. Activities with high resultant forces usually caused high values of other load components.

  13. High level waste at Hanford: Potential for waste loading maximization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrma, P.R.; Bailey, A.W.

    1995-09-01

    The loading of Hanford nuclear waste in borosilicate glass is limited by phase-related phenomena, such as crystallization or formation of immiscible liquids, and by breakdown of the glass structure because of an excessive concentration of modifiers. The phase-related phenomena cause both processing and product quality problems. The deterioration of product durability determines the ultimate waste loading limit if all processing problems are resolved. Concrete examples and mass-balance based calculations show that a substantial potential exists for increasing waste loading of high-level wastes that contain a large fraction of refractory components

  14. Merkel cell carcinoma: histopathologic and prognostic features according to the immunohistochemical expression of Merkel cell polyomavirus large T antigen correlated with viral load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroux-Kozal, Valérie; Lévêque, Nicolas; Brodard, Véronique; Lesage, Candice; Dudez, Oriane; Makeieff, Marc; Kanagaratnam, Lukshe; Diebold, Marie-Danièle

    2015-03-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a neuroendocrine skin malignancy frequently associated with Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV), which is suspected to be oncogenic. In a series of MCC patients, we compared clinical, histopathologic, and prognostic features according to the expression of viral large T antigen (LTA) correlated with viral load. We evaluated the LTA expression by immunohistochemistry using CM2B4 antibody and quantified viral load by real-time polymerase chain reaction. We analyzed formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples (n = 36) and corresponding fresh-frozen biopsies when available (n = 12), of the primary tumor and/or metastasis from 24 patients. MCPyV was detected in 88% and 58% of MCC patients by real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry, respectively. The relevance of viral load measurements was demonstrated by the strong consistency of viral load level between FFPE and corresponding frozen tissues as well as between primary tumor and metastases. From FFPE samples, 2 MCC subgroups were distinguished based on a viral load threshold defined by the positivity of CM2B4 immunostaining. In the LTA-negative subgroup with no or low viral load (nonsignificant), tumor cells showed more anisokaryosis (P = .01), and a solar elastosis around the tumor was more frequently observed (P = .03). LTA-positive MCCs with significant viral load had a lower proliferation index (P = .03) and a longer survival of corresponding patients (P = .008). Depending on MCPyV involvement, 2 MCC subgroups can be distinguished on histopathologic criteria, and the CM2B4 antibody is able to differentiate them reliably. Furthermore, the presence of a significant viral load in tumors is predictive of better prognosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. High-Frequency Axial Fatigue Test Procedures for Spectrum Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-20

    cycle runout limit. PURPOSE 2. To develop the capability to perform High-Frequency (H-F) Spectrum Fatigue tests, an in- house Basic and...response of the test specimen to the command input signal for load cycling . These cycle -by- cycle errors accumulate over the life of the test specimen...fatigue life model. It is expected that the cycle -by- cycle P-V error may vary substantially depending on the load spectrum content, the compensation

  16. Lightweight, high-opacity Bible paper by fiber loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus Doelle; Oliver Heise; John H. Klungness; Said M. AbuBakr

    2000-01-01

    This paper has been prepared in order to discuss Fiber Loading™ for lightweight, high-opacity bible paper. Incorporating fillers within pulp fibers has been subject to research since 1960 (Green et al. 1962, Scallan et al. 1985, Allen et al. 1992). Fiber Loading™ is a method for manufacturing precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) directly within the pulp processing...

  17. High Antigen Dose Is Detrimental to Post-Exposure Vaccine Protection against Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billeskov, Rolf; Lindenstrøm, Thomas; Woodworth, Joshua; Vilaplana, Cristina; Cardona, Pere-Joan; Cassidy, Joseph P; Mortensen, Rasmus; Agger, Else Marie; Andersen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the etiologic agent of tuberculosis (TB), causes 1.8M deaths annually. The current vaccine, BCG, has failed to eradicate TB leaving 25% of the world's population with latent Mtb infection (LTBI), and 5-10% of these people will reactivate and develop active TB. An efficient therapeutic vaccine targeting LTBI could have an enormous impact on global TB incidence, and could be an important aid in fighting multidrug resistance, which is increasing globally. Here we show in a mouse model using the H56 (Ag85B-ESAT-6-Rv2660) TB vaccine candidate that post-exposure, but not preventive, vaccine protection requires low vaccine antigen doses for optimal protection. Loss of protection from high dose post-exposure vaccination was not associated with a loss of overall vaccine response magnitude, but rather with greater differentiation and lower functional avidity of vaccine-specific CD4 T cells. High vaccine antigen dose also led to a decreased ability of vaccine-specific CD4 T cells to home into the Mtb-infected lung parenchyma, a recently discovered important feature of T cell protection in mice. These results underscore the importance of T cell quality rather than magnitude in TB-vaccine protection, and the significant role that antigen dosing plays in vaccine-mediated protection.

  18. High Antigen Dose Is Detrimental to Post-Exposure Vaccine Protection against Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Billeskov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb, the etiologic agent of tuberculosis (TB, causes 1.8M deaths annually. The current vaccine, BCG, has failed to eradicate TB leaving 25% of the world’s population with latent Mtb infection (LTBI, and 5–10% of these people will reactivate and develop active TB. An efficient therapeutic vaccine targeting LTBI could have an enormous impact on global TB incidence, and could be an important aid in fighting multidrug resistance, which is increasing globally. Here we show in a mouse model using the H56 (Ag85B-ESAT-6-Rv2660 TB vaccine candidate that post-exposure, but not preventive, vaccine protection requires low vaccine antigen doses for optimal protection. Loss of protection from high dose post-exposure vaccination was not associated with a loss of overall vaccine response magnitude, but rather with greater differentiation and lower functional avidity of vaccine-specific CD4 T cells. High vaccine antigen dose also led to a decreased ability of vaccine-specific CD4 T cells to home into the Mtb-infected lung parenchyma, a recently discovered important feature of T cell protection in mice. These results underscore the importance of T cell quality rather than magnitude in TB-vaccine protection, and the significant role that antigen dosing plays in vaccine-mediated protection.

  19. High-throughput identification of potential minor histocompatibility antigens by MHC tetramer-based screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hombrink, Pleun; Hadrup, Sine R; Bakker, Arne

    2011-01-01

    the technical feasibility of high-throughput analysis of antigen-specific T-cell responses in small patient samples. However, the high-sensitivity of this approach requires the use of potential epitope sets that are not solely based on MHC binding, to prevent the frequent detection of T-cell responses that lack......T-cell recognition of minor histocompatibility antigens (MiHA) plays an important role in the graft-versus-tumor (GVT) effect of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT). However, the number of MiHA identified to date remains limited, making clinical application of MiHA reactive T......MHC-tetramer-based enrichment and multi-color flow cytometry. Using this approach, 71 peptide-reactive T-cell populations were generated. The isolation of a T-cell line specifically recognizing target cells expressing the MAP4K1(IMA) antigen demonstrates that identification of MiHA through this approach is in principle...

  20. MHC class I loaded ligands from breast cancer cell lines: A potential HLA-I-typed antigen collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozanov, Dmitri V.; Rozanov, Nikita D.; Chiotti, Kami; Reddy, Ashok; Wilmarth, Phillip A.; David, Larry L.; Cha, Seung W.; Woo, Sunghee; Pevzner, Pavel; Bafna, Vineet; Burrows, Gregory G.; Rantala, Juha K.; Levin, Trevor; Anur, Pavana; Johnson-Camacho, Katie; Tabatabaei, Shaadi; Munson, Daniel J.; Bruno, Tullia C.; Slansky, Jill E.; Kappler, John W.; Hirano, Naoto; Boegel, Sebastian; Fox, Bernard A.; Egelston, Colt; Simons, Diana L.; Jimenez, Grecia; Lee, Peter P.; Gray, Joe W.; Spellman, Paul T.

    2018-01-01

    Breast cancer therapy based on amplifying a patient’s antitumor immune response depends on the availability of appropriate MHC class I-restricted, breast cancer-specific epitopes. To build a catalog of peptides presented by breast cancer cells, we undertook systematic MHC class I immunoprecipitation followed by elution of MHC class I-loaded peptides in breast cancer cell lines. We determined the sequence of 3,196 MHC class I-bound peptides representing 1,921 proteins from a panel of 20 breast cancer cell lines including basal, luminal, and claudin-low subtypes. The data has been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD006406. After removing duplicate peptides, i.e., the same peptide eluted from more than one cell line, the total number of unique peptides was 2,740. Of the unique peptides eluted, more than 1,750 had been previously identified, and of these, sixteen have been shown to be immunogenic. Importantly, only 3 of these immunogenic peptides have been identified in breast cancer cells in earlier studies. MHC class I binding probability of eluted peptides was used to plot the distribution of MHC class I allele-specific peptides in accordance with the binding score for each breast cancer cell line. We also determined that the tested breast cancer cells presented 89 mutation-containing peptides and peptides derived from aberrantly translated genes, 7 of which were shared between four or two different cell lines. Overall, the high throughput identification of MHC class I-loaded peptides is an effective strategy for systematic characterization of cancer peptides, and could be employed for design of multi-peptide anticancer vaccines. PMID:29331515

  1. Antigen spot test (AST): a highly sensitive assay for the detection of antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbrink, P; van Bussel, F J; Warnaar, S O [Rijksuniversiteit Leiden (Netherlands)

    1982-02-12

    A method is described for detection of antibodies by means of nitrocellulose or diazobenzyloxymethyl (DBM) paper on which various antigens have been spotted. The sensitivity of this antigen spot test (AST) is comparable with that of RIA and ELISA. The method requires only nanogram amounts of antigen. Since a variety of antigens can be spotted on a single piece of nitrocellulose or DBM paper, this antigen spot test is especially useful for specificity controls on antibodies.

  2. Vaccination with Brucella abortus recombinant in vivo-induced antigens reduces bacterial load and promotes clearance in a mouse model for infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jake E Lowry

    Full Text Available Current vaccines used for the prevention of brucellosis are ineffective in inducing protective immunity in animals that are chronically infected with Brucella abortus, such as elk. Using a gene discovery approach, in vivo-induced antigen technology (IVIAT on B. abortus, we previously identified ten loci that encode products up-regulated during infection in elk and consequently may play a role in virulence. In our present study, five of the loci (D15, 0187, VirJ, Mdh, AfuA were selected for further characterization and compared with three additional antigens with virulence potential (Hia, PrpA, MltA. All eight genes were PCR-amplified from B. abortus and cloned into E. coli. The recombinant products were then expressed, purified, adjuvanted, and delivered subcutaneously to BALB/c mice. After primary immunization and two boosts, mice were challenged i.p. with 5 x 10⁴ CFU of B. abortus strain 19. Spleens from challenged animals were harvested and bacterial loads determined by colony count at various time points. While vaccination with four of the eight individual proteins appeared to have some effect on clearance kinetics, mice vaccinated with recombinant Mdh displayed the most significant reduction in bacterial colonization. Furthermore, mice immunized with Mdh maintained higher levels of IFN-γ in spleens compared to other treatment groups. Collectively, our in vivo data gathered from the S19 murine colonization model suggest that vaccination with at least three of the IVIAT antigens conferred an enhanced ability of the host to respond to infection, reinforcing the utility of this methodology for the identification of potential vaccine candidates against brucellosis. Mechanisms for immunity to one protein, Mdh, require further in vitro exploration and evaluation against wild-type B. abortus challenge in mice, as well as other hosts. Additional studies are being undertaken to clarify the role of Mdh and other IVI antigens in B. abortus virulence

  3. Highly loaded behavior of kinesins increases the robustness of transport under high resisting loads.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woochul Nam

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Kinesins are nano-sized biological motors which walk by repeating a mechanochemical cycle. A single kinesin molecule is able to transport its cargo about 1 μm in the absence of external loads. However, kinesins perform much longer range transport in cells by working collectively. This long range of transport by a team of kinesins is surprising because the motion of the cargo in cells can be hindered by other particles. To reveal how the kinesins are able to accomplish their tasks of transport in harsh intracellular circumstances, stochastic studies on the kinesin motion are performed by considering the binding and unbinding of kinesins to microtubules and their dependence on the force acting on kinesin molecules. The unbinding probabilities corresponding to each mechanochemical state of kinesin are modeled. The statistical characterization of the instants and locations of binding are captured by computing the probability of unbound kinesin being at given locations. It is predicted that a group of kinesins has a more efficient transport than a single kinesin from the perspective of velocity and run length. Particularly, when large loads are applied, the leading kinesin remains bound to the microtubule for long time which increases the chances of the other kinesins to bind to the microtubule. To predict effects of this behavior of the leading kinesin under large loads on the collective transport, the motion of the cargo is studied when the cargo confronts obstacles. The result suggests that the behavior of kinesins under large loads prevents the early termination of the transport which can be caused by the interference with the static or moving obstacles.

  4. Lie construction affects information storage under high memory load condition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqiu Liu

    Full Text Available Previous studies indicate that lying consumes cognitive resources, especially working memory (WM resources. Considering the dual functions that WM might play in lying: holding the truth-related information and turning the truth into lies, the present study examined the relationship between the information storage and processing in the lie construction. To achieve that goal, a deception task based on the old/new recognition paradigm was designed, which could manipulate two levels of WM load (low-load task using 4 items and high-load task using 6 items during the deception process. The analyses based on the amplitude of the contralateral delay activity (CDA, a proved index of the number of representations being held in WM, showed that the CDA amplitude was lower in the deception process than that in the truth telling process under the high-load condition. In contrast, under the low-load condition, no CDA difference was found between the deception and truth telling processes. Therefore, we deduced that the lie construction and information storage compete for WM resources; when the available WM resources cannot meet this cognitive demand, the WM resources occupied by the information storage would be consumed by the lie construction.

  5. Lie construction affects information storage under high memory load condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuqiu; Wang, Chunjie; Jiang, Haibo; He, Hongjian; Chen, Feiyan

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that lying consumes cognitive resources, especially working memory (WM) resources. Considering the dual functions that WM might play in lying: holding the truth-related information and turning the truth into lies, the present study examined the relationship between the information storage and processing in the lie construction. To achieve that goal, a deception task based on the old/new recognition paradigm was designed, which could manipulate two levels of WM load (low-load task using 4 items and high-load task using 6 items) during the deception process. The analyses based on the amplitude of the contralateral delay activity (CDA), a proved index of the number of representations being held in WM, showed that the CDA amplitude was lower in the deception process than that in the truth telling process under the high-load condition. In contrast, under the low-load condition, no CDA difference was found between the deception and truth telling processes. Therefore, we deduced that the lie construction and information storage compete for WM resources; when the available WM resources cannot meet this cognitive demand, the WM resources occupied by the information storage would be consumed by the lie construction.

  6. High affinity antigen recognition of the dual specific variants of herceptin is entropy-driven in spite of structural plasticity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Bostrom

    Full Text Available The antigen-binding site of Herceptin, an anti-human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (HER2 antibody, was engineered to add a second specificity toward Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF to create a high affinity two-in-one antibody bH1. Crystal structures of bH1 in complex with either antigen showed that, in comparison to Herceptin, this antibody exhibited greater conformational variability, also called "structural plasticity". Here, we analyzed the biophysical and thermodynamic properties of the dual specific variants of Herceptin to understand how a single antibody binds two unrelated protein antigens. We showed that while bH1 and the affinity-improved bH1-44, in particular, maintained many properties of Herceptin including binding affinity, kinetics and the use of residues for antigen recognition, they differed in the binding thermodynamics. The interactions of bH1 and its variants with both antigens were characterized by large favorable entropy changes whereas the Herceptin/HER2 interaction involved a large favorable enthalpy change. By dissecting the total entropy change and the energy barrier for dual interaction, we determined that the significant structural plasticity of the bH1 antibodies demanded by the dual specificity did not translate into the expected increase of entropic penalty relative to Herceptin. Clearly, dual antigen recognition of the Herceptin variants involves divergent antibody conformations of nearly equivalent energetic states. Hence, increasing the structural plasticity of an antigen-binding site without increasing the entropic cost may play a role for antibodies to evolve multi-specificity. Our report represents the first comprehensive biophysical analysis of a high affinity dual specific antibody binding two unrelated protein antigens, furthering our understanding of the thermodynamics that drive the vast antigen recognition capacity of the antibody repertoire.

  7. Design of dynamic loading support on high temperature pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitandung, Y.B.; Bandriyana, B.

    2002-01-01

    As a follow up to pipe stress analysis result caused by high temperature operation loading, a design of dynamic loading support was made. The type of variable and constant support as acceptable choosing are applicated for reduce of over stress and over load on piping system. Analysis line schedule of AP600 as an example with apply three dynamic loading support (two type variable and one type constant support). The pre-design of the third support above are based on analysis result with follow the support catalog and field condition wherein its supports are installed. To guarantee the performance and accurate of the support, checking is performed for spring working rate tolerance, support variability and swing angle. The design results of variable spring are loads, size, working rate, type tolerance, spring rate, variability, long and sway angle with each values 5000; 15; 1,25; VM; 0.655; 1080; 0.114; 114,5; 0,48 for S1 and 2045; 12; 0,583; VS; 0,237; 900; 0,132; 130; 0,34 for S3

  8. Beam loading in high-energy storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, P.B.

    1974-06-01

    The analysis of beam loading in the RF systems of high-energy storage rings (for example, the PEP e/sup /minus//e/sup +/ ring) is complicated by the fact that the time, T/sub b/, between the passage of successive bunches is comparable to the cavity filling time, T/sub b/. In this paper, beam loading expressions are first summarized for the usual case in which T/sub b/ /much lt/ T/sub f/. The theory of phase oscillations in the heavily-beam-loaded case is considered, and the dependence of the synchrotron frequency and damping constant for the oscillations on beam current and cavity tuning is calculated. Expressions for beam loading are then derived which are valid for any value of the ratio T/sub b//T/sub f/. It is shown that, for the proposed PEP e/sup /minus//e/sup +/ ring parameters, the klystron power required is increased by about 3% over that calculated using the standard beam loading expressions. Finally, the analysis is extended to take into account the additional losses associated with the excitation of higher-order cavity modes. A rough numerical estimate is made of the loss enhancement to be expected for PEP RF system. It is concluded that this loss enhancement might be substantial unless appropriate measures are taken in the design and tuning of the accelerating structure

  9. Transparent bulk-size nanocomposites with high inorganic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shi; Gaume, Romain

    2015-01-01

    With relatively high nanoparticle loading in polymer matrices, hybrid nanocomposites made by colloidal dispersion routes suffer from severe inhomogeneous agglomeration, a phenomenon that deteriorates light transmission even when the refractive indices of the inorganic and organic phases are closely matched. The dispersion of particles in a matrix is of paramount importance to obtain composites of high optical quality. Here, we describe an innovative, yet straightforward method to fabricate monolithic transparent hybrid nanocomposites with very high particle loading and high refractive index mismatch tolerance between the inorganic and organic constituents. We demonstrate 77% transmission at 800 nm in a 2 mm-thick acrylate polymer nanocomposite containing 61 vol. % CaF 2 nanoparticles. Modeling shows that similar performance could easily be obtained with various inorganic phases relevant to a number of photonic applications

  10. Loss of high-molecular-weight cytokeratin antigenicity in prostate tissue obtained by transurethral resections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Multhaupt, H A; Fessler, J N; Warhol, M J

    2000-01-01

    could be restored in these specimens by antigen retrieval in a low pH citrate buffer using a microwave heat technique. Keratin staining in needle biopsies and total prostatectomies was unaffected. CONCLUSION: In summary, our results indicate the technique of transurethral resection results in a specific......OBJECTIVE: Staining of prostatic basal cells for the expression of high-molecular-weight cytokeratin has been suggested as a way of distinguishing benign from malignant prostate glands. We evaluated the utility of high-molecular-weight cytokeratin in the diagnosis of malignancy in prostate...... specimens obtained in various ways. DESIGN: Prostate tissues obtained from needle biopsies, transurethral resections, and total prostatectomies were immunostained with monoclonal antibody 34betaE12, an antibody directed against high-molecular-weight cytokeratins. RESULTS: Antiserum to high...

  11. A viral, transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP)-independent, high affinity ligand with alternative interactions endogenously presented by the nonclassical human leukocyte antigen E class I molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorente, Elena; Infantes, Susana; Abia, David; Barnea, Eilon; Beer, Ilan; García, Ruth; Lasala, Fátima; Jiménez, Mercedes; Mir, Carmen; Morreale, Antonio; Admon, Arie; López, Daniel

    2012-10-12

    The transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) enables the flow of viral peptides generated in the cytosol by the proteasome and other proteases to the endoplasmic reticulum, where they complex with nascent human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I. Later, these peptide-HLA class I complexes can be recognized by CD8(+) lymphocytes. Cancerous cells and infected cells in which TAP is blocked, as well as individuals with unusable TAP complexes, are able to present peptides on HLA class I by generating them through TAP-independent processing pathways. Here, we identify a physiologically processed HLA-E ligand derived from the D8L protein in TAP-deficient vaccinia virus-infected cells. This natural high affinity HLA-E class I ligand uses alternative interactions to the anchor motifs previously described to be presented on nonclassical HLA class I molecules. This octameric peptide was also presented on HLA-Cw1 with similar binding affinity on both classical and nonclassical class I molecules. In addition, this viral peptide inhibits HLA-E-mediated cytolysis by natural killer cells. Comparison between the amino acid sequences of the presenting HLA-E and HLA-Cw1 alleles revealed a shared structural motif in both HLA class molecules, which could be related to their observed similar cross-reactivity affinities. This motif consists of several residues located on the floor of the peptide-binding site. These data expand the role of HLA-E as an antigen-presenting molecule.

  12. Carbohydrate-rich high-molecular-mass antigens are strongly recognized during experimental Histoplasma capsulatum infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrine Sales Massafera Tristão

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: During histoplasmosis, Histoplasma capsulatum soluble antigens (CFAg can be naturally released by yeast cells. Because CFAg can be specifically targeted during infection, in the present study we investigated CFAg release in experimental murine histoplasmosis, and evaluated the host humoral immune response against high-molecular-mass antigens (hMMAg. >150 kDa, the more immunogenic CFAg fraction. METHODS: Mice were infected with 2.2x10(4 H. capsulatum IMT/HC128 yeast cells. The soluble CFAg, IgG anti-CFAg, IgG anti-hMMAg, and IgG-hMMAg circulating immune complexes (CIC levels were determined by enzymelinked immunosorbent assay, at days 0, 7, 14, and 28 post-infection. RESULTS: We observed a progressive increase in circulating levels of CFAg, IgG anti-CFAg, IgG anti-hMMAg, and IgG-hMMAg CIC after H. capsulatum infection. The hMMAg showed a high percentage of carbohydrates and at least two main immunogenic components. CONCLUSIONS: We verified for the first time that hMMAg from H. capsulatum IMT/HC128 strain induce humoral immune response and lead to CIC formation during experimental histoplasmosis.

  13. Nonlinear system identification of smart structures under high impact loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarp Arsava, Kemal; Kim, Yeesock; El-Korchi, Tahar; Park, Hyo Seon

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to develop numerical models for the prediction and analysis of the highly nonlinear behavior of integrated structure control systems subjected to high impact loading. A time-delayed adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (TANFIS) is proposed for modeling of the complex nonlinear behavior of smart structures equipped with magnetorheological (MR) dampers under high impact forces. Experimental studies are performed to generate sets of input and output data for training and validation of the TANFIS models. The high impact load and current signals are used as the input disturbance and control signals while the displacement and acceleration responses from the structure–MR damper system are used as the output signals. The benchmark adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is used as a baseline. Comparisons of the trained TANFIS models with experimental results demonstrate that the TANFIS modeling framework is an effective way to capture nonlinear behavior of integrated structure–MR damper systems under high impact loading. In addition, the performance of the TANFIS model is much better than that of ANFIS in both the training and the validation processes. (paper)

  14. Nonlinear system identification of smart structures under high impact loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarp Arsava, Kemal; Kim, Yeesock; El-Korchi, Tahar; Park, Hyo Seon

    2013-05-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to develop numerical models for the prediction and analysis of the highly nonlinear behavior of integrated structure control systems subjected to high impact loading. A time-delayed adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (TANFIS) is proposed for modeling of the complex nonlinear behavior of smart structures equipped with magnetorheological (MR) dampers under high impact forces. Experimental studies are performed to generate sets of input and output data for training and validation of the TANFIS models. The high impact load and current signals are used as the input disturbance and control signals while the displacement and acceleration responses from the structure-MR damper system are used as the output signals. The benchmark adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is used as a baseline. Comparisons of the trained TANFIS models with experimental results demonstrate that the TANFIS modeling framework is an effective way to capture nonlinear behavior of integrated structure-MR damper systems under high impact loading. In addition, the performance of the TANFIS model is much better than that of ANFIS in both the training and the validation processes.

  15. Identification of antigen-specific human monoclonal antibodies using high-throughput sequencing of the antibody repertoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ju; Li, Ruihua; Liu, Kun; Li, Liangliang; Zai, Xiaodong; Chi, Xiangyang; Fu, Ling; Xu, Junjie; Chen, Wei

    2016-04-22

    High-throughput sequencing of the antibody repertoire provides a large number of antibody variable region sequences that can be used to generate human monoclonal antibodies. However, current screening methods for identifying antigen-specific antibodies are inefficient. In the present study, we developed an antibody clone screening strategy based on clone dynamics and relative frequency, and used it to identify antigen-specific human monoclonal antibodies. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that at least 52% of putative positive immunoglobulin heavy chains composed antigen-specific antibodies. Combining information on dynamics and relative frequency improved identification of positive clones and elimination of negative clones. and increase the credibility of putative positive clones. Therefore the screening strategy could simplify the subsequent experimental screening and may facilitate the generation of antigen-specific antibodies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Workshop on high heat load x-ray optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    A workshop on ''High Heat Load X-Ray Optics'' was held at Argonne National Laboratory on August 3--5, 1989. The object of this workshop was to discuss recent advances in the art of cooling x-ray optics subject to high heat loads from synchrotron beams. The cooling of the first optical element in the intense photon beams that will be produced in the next generation of synchrotron sources is recognized as one of the major challenges that must be faced before one will be able to use these very intense beams in future synchrotron experiments. Considerable advances have been made in this art during the last few years, but much work remains to be done before the heating problem can be said to be completely solved. Special emphasis was placed on recent cooling experiments and detailed ''finite element'' and ''finite difference'' calculations comparing experiment with theory and extending theory to optimize performance

  17. High Level Waste (HLW) Processing Experience with Increased Waste Loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JANTZEN, CAROL

    2004-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Engineering requested characterization of glass samples that were taken after the second melter had been operational for about 5 months. After the new melter had been installed, the waste loading had been increased to about 38 weight percentage after a new quasicrystalline liquidus model had been implemented. The DWPF had also switched from processing with refractory Frit 200 to a more fluid Frit 320. The samples were taken after DWPF observed very rapid buildup of deposits in the upper pour spout bore and on the pour spout insert while processing the high waste loading feedstock. These samples were evaluated using various analytical techniques to determine the cause of the crystallization. The pour stream sample was homogeneous, amorphous, and representative of the feed batch from which it was derived. Chemical analysis of the pour stream sample indicated that a waste loading of 38.5 weight per cent had been achieved. The data analysis indicated that surface crystallization, induced by temperature and oxygen fugacity gradients in the pour spout, caused surface crystallization to occur in the spout and on the insert at the higher waste loadings even though there was no crystallization in the pour stream

  18. The human E48 antigen, highly homologous to the murine Ly-6 antigen ThB, is a GPI-anchored molecule apparently involved in keratinocyte cell-cell adhesion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brakenhoff, R H; Gerretsen, M; Knippels, E M; van Dijk, M.; van Essen, H; Weghuis, D O; Sinke, R J; Snow, G B; van Dongen, G A

    The E48 antigen, a putative human homologue of the 20-kD protein present in desmosomal preparations of bovine muzzle, and formerly called desmoglein III (dg4), is a promising target antigen for antibody-based therapy of squamous cell carcinoma in man. To anticipate the effect of high antibody dose

  19. Simulation of plasma loading of high-pressure RF cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, K.; Samulyak, R.; Yonehara, K.; Freemire, B.

    2018-01-01

    Muon beam-induced plasma loading of radio-frequency (RF) cavities filled with high pressure hydrogen gas with 1% dry air dopant has been studied via numerical simulations. The electromagnetic code SPACE, that resolves relevant atomic physics processes, including ionization by the muon beam, electron attachment to dopant molecules, and electron-ion and ion-ion recombination, has been used. Simulations studies have been performed in the range of parameters typical for practical muon cooling channels.

  20. Simulation of plasma loading of high-pressure RF cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Computational Science Initiative; Samulyak, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Computational Science Initiative; Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Applied Mathematics and Statistics; Yonehara, K. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Freemire, B. [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States)

    2018-01-11

    Muon beam-induced plasma loading of radio-frequency (RF) cavities filled with high pressure hydrogen gas with 1% dry air dopant has been studied via numerical simulations. The electromagnetic code SPACE, that resolves relevant atomic physics processes, including ionization by the muon beam, electron attachment to dopant molecules, and electron-ion and ion-ion recombination, has been used. Simulations studies have also been performed in the range of parameters typical for practical muon cooling channels.

  1. Pipe connection for high pressure and temperature loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haferkamp, D.; Hodzic, A.; Paetz, E.; Stach, H.

    1976-01-01

    The patent proposes an inprovement of the clamping device for a pipe joint connecting pipelines which are subject to high pressure and temperature loads, e.g. in a nuclear power plant. This clamping device may be tightened and loosened by remote control. The proposed clamping ring consists of several segments connected with each other by hinge-type guide pins and fishplates. (UWI) [de

  2. Performance Limiting Flow Processes in High-State Loading High-Mach Number Compressors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tan, Choon S

    2008-01-01

    In high-stage loading high-Mach number (HLM) compressors, counter-rotating pairs of discrete vortices are shed at the trailing edge of the upstream blade row at a frequency corresponding to the downstream rotor blade passing frequency...

  3. Fabrication of interconnected microporous biomaterials with high hydroxyapatite nanoparticle loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wei; Yao Donggang; Zhang Qingwei; Lelkes, Peter I; Zhou, Jack G

    2010-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) is known to promote osteogenicity and enhance the mechanical properties of biopolymers. However, incorporating a large amount of HA into a porous biopolymer still remains a challenge. In the present work, a new method was developed to produce interconnected microporous poly(glycolic-co-lactic acid) (PLGA) with high HA nanoparticle loading. First, a ternary blend comprising PLGA/PS (polystyrene)/HA (40/40/20 wt%) was prepared by melt blending under conditions for formation of a co-continuous phase structure. Next, a dynamic annealing stage under small-strain oscillation was applied to the blend to facilitate nanoparticle redistribution. Finally, the PS phase was sacrificially extracted, leaving a porous matrix. The results from different characterizations suggested that the applied small-strain oscillation substantially accelerated the migration of HA nanoparticles during annealing from the PS phase to the PLGA phase; nearly all HA particles were uniformly presented in the PLGA phase after a short period of annealing. After dissolution of the PS phase, a PLGA material with interconnected microporous structure was successfully produced, with a high HA loading above 30 wt%. The mechanisms beneath the experimental observations, particularly on the enhanced particle migration process, were discussed, and strategies for producing highly particle loaded biopolymers with interconnected microporous structures were proposed.

  4. Isolation and characterization of antigen-specific alpaca (Lama pacos) VHH antibodies by biopanning followed by high-throughput sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Nobuo; Kiyose, Norihiko; Akazawa, Yoko; Takashima, Mizuki; Hagihara, Yosihisa; Inoue, Naokazu; Matsuda, Tomonari; Ogawa, Ryu; Inoue, Seiya; Ito, Yuji

    2015-09-01

    The antigen-binding domain of camelid dimeric heavy chain antibodies, known as VHH or Nanobody, has much potential in pharmaceutical and industrial applications. To establish the isolation process of antigen-specific VHH, a VHH phage library was constructed with a diversity of 8.4 × 10(7) from cDNA of peripheral blood mononuclear cells of an alpaca (Lama pacos) immunized with a fragment of IZUMO1 (IZUMO1PFF) as a model antigen. By conventional biopanning, 13 antigen-specific VHHs were isolated. The amino acid sequences of these VHHs, designated as N-group VHHs, were very similar to each other (>93% identity). To find more diverse antibodies, we performed high-throughput sequencing (HTS) of VHH genes. By comparing the frequencies of each sequence between before and after biopanning, we found the sequences whose frequencies were increased by biopanning. The top 100 sequences of them were supplied for phylogenic tree analysis. In total 75% of them belonged to N-group VHHs, but the other were phylogenically apart from N-group VHHs (Non N-group). Two of three VHHs selected from non N-group VHHs showed sufficient antigen binding ability. These results suggested that biopanning followed by HTS provided a useful method for finding minor and diverse antigen-specific clones that could not be identified by conventional biopanning. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  5. Gasoline Engine HCCI Combustion - Extending the high load limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahl, Daniel

    2012-07-01

    There is an increasing global focus on reducing emissions of greenhouse gases. For the automotive industry this means reducing CO2 emissions of the vehicles manufactured, which is synonymous with reducing their fuel consumption or adapting them for using renewable fuels. This thesis is based on a project aimed at improving the efficiency of gasoline engines in the lower load/speed region. The focus was mainly on a combustion strategy called homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI), but also on homogeneous lean and stratified lean spark-ignited combustion. In contrast to traditional stoichiometric spark-ignited combustion, HCCI can operate with diluted mixtures, which leads to better cycle efficiency, smaller pumping losses and smaller heat losses. However, at relatively high loads, HCCI combustion becomes excessively rapid, generating in-cylinder pressure oscillations (ringing), which are perceived as noise by the human ear. The main objective of the project was to identify ways to avoid this ringing behaviour in order to increase the upper load limit of HCCI. This is vital to avoid the need for mode switches to spark-ignited combustion at higher loads and to operate the engine as much as possible in the more effective HCCI mode. The strategy for reducing ringing investigated most extensively in the project was charge stratification, achieved by injecting part of the fuel late in the compression stroke. Available literature on effects of this strategy gave conflicting indications, both positive and negative effects have been reported, depending on the type of fuel and engine used. It was soon found that the strategy is effective for reducing ringing, but with resulting increases of NOX emissions. Further, in order for the strategy to be effective, global air/fuel ratios must not be much leaner than stoichiometric. The increases in NOX emissions were countered by shifting the ratio towards stoichiometric using exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), allowing a three

  6. Age-related worm load and worm fecundity patterns in human populations, as indicated by schistosome circulating antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polman Katja

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, our group determined the relationship between serum CAA levels and fecal egg counts in two foci with very intense Schistosoma mansoni transmission: Maniema (Zaire, an area endemic for S. mansoni since several decades, and Ndombo (Senegal, where transmission has only been established since a few years. The objective was to study and compare age-related worm load and worm fecundity patterns in these two different endemic settings. Here, we will summarize the most important findings and conclusions of this study.

  7. EPR: High load variation performances with the 'Tmode' core control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossetete, A.

    2008-01-01

    The load variation performances on a PWR are directly linked to the core control design. This design is mainly characterized by the definition of the control rod banks and the way to both perform the banks movements and to modify the core boron concentration by injection of boric acid or water. The following paper presents the principles of the T mode, the new fully automatic core control mode for the EPR which provides high performance in terms of maneuverability and optimizes the effluents. First, the paper describes the division of the control rods into two control banks (Pbank for temperature and Hbank for power distribution). Then typical movements of these banks during power changes are shown. Then, the principle of the 3 control loops (Tave, AO, Pmax), used to obtain these desired control rod movements, is given. Finally, a load following transient simulation is presented. (authors)

  8. EPR: high load variation performances with the 'TMODE' core control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pairot, Frederic

    2008-01-01

    The load variation performances on a PWR are directly linked to the core control design. This design is mainly characterized by the definition of the control rod banks and the way to both perform the banks movements and to modify the core boron concentration by injection of boric acid or water. The following paper presents the principles of the T mode, the new fully automatic core control mode for the EPR which provides high performance in terms of maneuverability and optimizes the effluents. First, the paper describes the division of the control rods into two control banks (Pbank for temperature and Hbank for power distribution). Then typical movements of these banks during power changes are shown. Then, the principle of the 3 control loops (Tave, AO, Pmax), used to obtain these desired control rod movements, is given. Finally, a load following transient simulation is presented. (author)

  9. Startup analysis for a high temperature gas loaded heat pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sockol, P. M.

    1973-01-01

    A model for the rapid startup of a high-temperature gas-loaded heat pipe is presented. A two-dimensional diffusion analysis is used to determine the rate of energy transport by the vapor between the hot and cold zones of the pipe. The vapor transport rate is then incorporated in a simple thermal model of the startup of a radiation-cooled heat pipe. Numerical results for an argon-lithium system show that radial diffusion to the cold wall can produce large vapor flow rates during a rapid startup. The results also show that startup is not initiated until the vapor pressure p sub v in the hot zone reaches a precise value proportional to the initial gas pressure p sub i. Through proper choice of p sub i, startup can be delayed until p sub v is large enough to support a heat-transfer rate sufficient to overcome a thermal load on the heat pipe.

  10. Highly sensitive radioimmunoassay technique for subtyping the antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, C T; Nath, N; Berberian, H; Dodd, R Y [American Red Cross, Blood Research Laboratory, Bethesda, MD, USA

    1978-12-01

    A highly sensitive technique for determining the subtype specificity of antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) is described. Immunoadsorbent consisting of controlled pore glass coated with subtype specific HBsAg was used to remove homologous antibody from the test samples before testing them for residual antibody by a commercially available radioimmunoassay (RIA). A total of 73 anti-HBs-positive samples from asymptomatic blood donors were tested. In nearly 80% of these samples the subtype reactivity could be determined by this technique. Only 67% could be typed by conventional liquid phase absorption RIA and 22% by passive hemagglutination inhibition techniques. Among the samples with low anti-HBs titer, ad and ay subtypes were found with equal frequency; however, with the increase in anti-HBs titer, considerably higher proportion of ad specificity was detected.

  11. A 'new' Cromer-related high frequency antigen probably antithetical to WES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, G L; Green, C A; Darr, F W; Anderson, H; Sistonen, P

    1987-01-01

    An antibody to a high frequency antigen, made in a WES+ Black antenatal patient (Wash.), failed to react with the red cells of a presumed WES+ homozygote and is, therefore, probably antithetical to anti-WES. Like anti-WES, it reacted with papain, ficin, trypsin or neuraminidase treated cells but not with alpha-chymotrypsin or pronase treated cells and was specifically inhibited by concentrated serum. It also reacted more strongly in titration with WES- cells than with WES+ cells. The antibody is Cromer-related as it failed to react with Inab phenotype (IFC-) cells and reacted only weakly with Dr(a-) cells. Wash. cells and those of the other possible WES+ homozygote are Cr(a+) Tc(a+b-c-) Dr(a+) IFC+ but reacted only very weakly with anti-Esa.

  12. A highly sensitive radioimmunoassay technique for subtyping the antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, C.T.; Nath, N.; Berberian, H.; Dodd, R.Y.

    1978-01-01

    A highly sensitive technique for determining the subtype specificity of antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) is described. Immunoadsorbent consisting of controlled pore glass coated with subtype specific HBsAg was used to remove homologous antibody from the test samples before testing them for residual antibody by a commercially available radioimmunoassay (RIA). A total of 73 anti-HBs-positive samples from asymptomatic blood donors were tested. In nearly 80% of these samples the subtype reactivity could be determined by this technique. Only 67% could be typed by conventional liquid phase absorption RIA and 22% by passive hemagglutination inhibition techniques. Among the samples with low anti-HBs titer, ad and ay subtypes were found with equal frequency; however, with the increase in anti-HBs titer, considerably higher proportion of ad specificity was detected. (Auth.)

  13. Progressive high-load strength training compared with general low-load exercises in patients with rotator cuff tendinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingwersen, Kim G; Christensen, Robin; Sørensen, Lilli

    2015-01-01

    of this trial is to compare the efficacy of progressive high-load exercises with traditional low-load exercises in patients with rotator cuff tendinopathy. Methods/Design: The current study is a randomised, participant- and assessor-blinded, controlled multicentre trial. A total of 260 patients with rotator...... cuff tendinopathy will be recruited from three outpatient shoulder departments in Denmark, and randomised to either 12 weeks of progressive high-load strength training or to general low-load exercises. Patients will receive six individually guided exercise sessions with a physiotherapist and perform...

  14. Selection of antigenic markers on a GFP-Cκ fusion scaffold with high sensitivity by eukaryotic ribosome display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yongmin; Barankiewicz, Teresa J.; He Mingyue; Taussig, Michael J.; Chen, Swey-Shen

    2007-01-01

    Ribosome display is a cell-free system permitting gene selection through the physical association of genetic material (mRNA) and its phenotypic (protein) product. While often used to select single-chain antibodies from large libraries by panning against immobilized antigens, we have adapted ribosome display for use in the 'reverse' format in order to select high affinity antigenic determinants against solid-phase antibody. To create an antigenic scaffold, DNA encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) was fused to a light chain constant domain (Cκ) with stop codon deleted, and with 5' signals (T7 promoter, Kozak) enabling coupled transcription/translation in a eukaryotic cell-free system. Epitopes on either GFP (5') or Cκ (3') were selected by anti-GFP or anti-Cκ antibodies, respectively, coupled to magnetic beads. After selection, mRNA was amplified directly from protein-ribosome-mRNA (PRM) complexes by in situ PCR followed by internal amplification and reassembly PCR. As little as 10 fg of the 1 kb DNA construct, i.e. approximately 7500 molecules, could be recovered following a single round of interaction with solid-phase anti-GFP antibody. This platform is highly specific and sensitive for the antigen-antibody interaction and may permit selection and reshaping of high affinity antigenic variants of scaffold proteins

  15. Selection of antigenic markers on a GFP-C{kappa} fusion scaffold with high sensitivity by eukaryotic ribosome display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yongmin, Yang [Institute of Genetics, San Diego, CA 92121-2233 (United States); IgE Therapeutics, Inc., San Diego, CA 92121-2233 (United States); Barankiewicz, Teresa J [Institute of Genetics, San Diego, CA 92121-2233 (United States); IgE Therapeutics, Inc., San Diego, CA 92121-2233 (United States); Mingyue, He [Babraham Institute, Cambridge CB2 4AT (United Kingdom); Taussig, Michael J [Babraham Institute, Cambridge CB2 4AT (United Kingdom); Chen, Swey-Shen [Institute of Genetics, San Diego, CA 92121-2233 (United States) and IgE Therapeutics, Inc., San Diego, CA 92121-2233 (United States)

    2007-07-27

    Ribosome display is a cell-free system permitting gene selection through the physical association of genetic material (mRNA) and its phenotypic (protein) product. While often used to select single-chain antibodies from large libraries by panning against immobilized antigens, we have adapted ribosome display for use in the 'reverse' format in order to select high affinity antigenic determinants against solid-phase antibody. To create an antigenic scaffold, DNA encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) was fused to a light chain constant domain (C{kappa}) with stop codon deleted, and with 5' signals (T7 promoter, Kozak) enabling coupled transcription/translation in a eukaryotic cell-free system. Epitopes on either GFP (5') or C{kappa} (3') were selected by anti-GFP or anti-C{kappa} antibodies, respectively, coupled to magnetic beads. After selection, mRNA was amplified directly from protein-ribosome-mRNA (PRM) complexes by in situ PCR followed by internal amplification and reassembly PCR. As little as 10 fg of the 1 kb DNA construct, i.e. approximately 7500 molecules, could be recovered following a single round of interaction with solid-phase anti-GFP antibody. This platform is highly specific and sensitive for the antigen-antibody interaction and may permit selection and reshaping of high affinity antigenic variants of scaffold proteins.

  16. HIV Viral Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PF4 Antibody Hepatitis A Testing Hepatitis B Testing Hepatitis C Testing HER2/neu Herpes Testing High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein (hs-CRP) Histamine Histone Antibody HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen (p24) HIV Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Testing, Genotypic HIV Viral Load HLA Testing HLA- ...

  17. Benign prostatic hypertrophy with high levels of gamma-seminoprotein (gamma-Sm), prostate specific antigen: report of two cases

    OpenAIRE

    浅川, 正純; 安本, 亮二; 上水流, 雅人; 前川, 正信

    1988-01-01

    gamma-Seminoprotein (gamma-Sm) is recently being noted as a tumor marker of prostatic cancer. However, since gamma-Sm is a specific antigen against the prostatic tissue, high levels are also observed in patients with benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH). In this report, two patients with BPH who had high levels of gamma-Sm were studied.

  18. Antibodies against high frequency Gerbich 2 antigen (anti-Ge2: A real challenge in cross matching lab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindra P Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Transfusion management of patients′ alloimmunized against high-prevalence erythrocyte antigens is often problematic in emergency situations. Gerbich (Ge is very common blood group system and Gerbich-2 (Ge-2 antigen present in high frequency and outside Papua New Guinea population, Ge-2 negative population almost nil. To manage such kind of problems with real emergencies, implementation of rare donor registry program, cryopreservation of red cells of rare donors and biological cross matching to assess significance of these antibodies is warranted.

  19. Glycol-Substitute for High Power RF Water Loads

    CERN Document Server

    Ebert, Michael

    2005-01-01

    In water loads for high power rf applications, power is dissipated directly into the coolant. Loads for frequencies below approx. 1GHz are ordinarily using an ethylene glycol-water mixture as coolant. The rf systems at DESY utilize about 100 glycol water loads with powers ranging up to 600kW. Due to the increased ecological awareness, the use of glycol is now considered to be problematic. In EU it is forbidden to discharge glycol into the waste water system. In case of cooling system leakages one has to make sure that no glycol is lost. Since it is nearly impossible to avoid any glycol loss in large rf systems, a glycol-substitute was searched for and found. The found sodium-molybdate based substitute is actually a additive for corrosion protection in water systems. Sodium-molybdate is ecologically harmless; for instance, it is also used as fertilizer in agriculture. A homoeopathic dose of 0.4% mixed into deionised water gives better rf absorption characteristics than a 30% glycol mixture. The rf coolant feat...

  20. A high rate clarifier for load levelling in sewerage systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jago, R A; Davey, A; Li, H

    2003-01-01

    The combining of chemically assisted clarification with a proprietary physical separation technology has led to a high rate process for clarifying flocculated sewage and other waste streams. This hybrid physico-chemical system, known as the CDS Fine Solids Separation (FSS) System, was developed over a two year period within a sewage treatment plant environment. This paper summarises the results of a recent field trial of the system with a Victorian water authority which experiences heavy loading of sewers in a coastal town during holiday periods. The trial sought to evaluate the FSS as a tool for smoothing the load on the 11 km long sewer to the sewage treatment plant (STP). The FSS system could possibly enable the costly augmentation of the sewer to be deferred, particularly as the capacity of the existing sewer pipe is satisfactory for most of the year. Water quality parameters were determined for a range of flowrates and operational conditions over a two month period. Large reductions were achieved in TSS, TP, FC, turbidity and BOD5, with only minimal reductions in NH3 and TON. These results showed that the FSS could meet the authority's objectives for load levelling and would provide a 20-25% increase in effective sewer capacity. The data are also discussed in terms of possible use of the effluent from the FSS for water reuse applications.

  1. Experimental investigation of bond strength under high loading rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Mathias

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The structural behaviour of reinforced concrete is governed significantly by the transmission of forces between steel and concrete. The bond is of special importance for the overlapping joint and anchoring of the reinforcement, where rigid bond is required. It also plays an important role in the rotational capacity of plastic hinges, where a ductile bond behaviour is preferable. Similar to the mechanical properties of concrete and steel also the characteristics of their interaction changes with the velocity of the applied loading. For smooth steel bars with its main bond mechanisms of adhesion and friction, nearly no influence of loading rate is reported in literature. In contrast, a high rate dependence can be found for the nowadays mainly used deformed bars. For mechanical interlock, where ribs of the reinforcing steel are bracing concrete material surrounding the bar, one reason can be assumed to be in direct connection with the increase of concrete compressive strength. For splitting failure of bond, characterized by the concrete tensile strength, an even higher dynamic increase is observed. For the design of Structures exposed to blast or impact loading the knowledge of a rate dependent bond stress-slip relationship is required to consider safety and economical aspects at the same time. The bond behaviour of reinforced concrete has been investigated with different experimental methods at the University of the Bundeswehr Munich (UniBw and the Joint Research Centre (JRC in Ispra. Both static and dynamic tests have been carried out, where innovative experimental apparatuses have been used. The bond stress-slip relationship and maximum pull-out-forces for varying diameter of the bar, concrete compressive strength and loading rates have been obtained. It is expected that these experimental results will contribute to a better understanding of the rate dependent bond behaviour and will serve for calibration of numerical models.

  2. Prostate-Specific Antigen Bounce After High-Dose-Rate Monotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, Niraj H.; Kamrava, Mitchell; Wang, Pin-Chieh; Steinberg, Michael; Demanes, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To characterize the magnitude and kinetics of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) bounces after high-dose-rate (HDR) monotherapy and determine relationships between certain clinical factors and PSA bounce. Methods and Materials: Longitudinal PSA data and various clinical parameters were examined in 157 consecutive patients treated with HDR monotherapy between 1996 and 2005. We used the following definition for PSA bounce: rise in PSA ≥threshold, after which it returns to the prior level or lower. Prostate-specific antigen failure was defined per the Phoenix definition (nadir +2 ng/mL). Results: A PSA bounce was noted in 67 patients (43%). The number of bounces per patient was 1 in 45 cases (67%), 2 in 19 (28%), 3 in 2 (3%), 4 in 0, and 5 in 1 (1%). The median time to maximum PSA bounce was 1.3 years, its median magnitude was 0.7, and its median duration was 0.75 years. Three patients (2%) were noted to have PSA failure. None of the 3 patients who experienced biochemical failure exhibited PSA bounce. In the fully adjusted model for predicting each bounce, patients aged <55 years had a statistically significant higher likelihood of experiencing a bounce (odds ratio 2.22, 95% confidence interval 1.38-3.57, P=.001). There was also a statistically significant higher probability of experiencing a bounce for every unit decrease in Gleason score (odds ratio 1.52, 95% confidence interval 1.01-2.04, P=.045). Conclusions: A PSA bounce occurs in a significant percentage of patients treated with HDR monotherapy, with magnitudes varying from <1 in 28% of cases to ≥1 in 15%. The median duration of bounce is <1 year. More bounces were identified in patients with lower Gleason score and age <55 years. Further investigation using a model to correlate magnitude and frequency of bounces with clinical variables are under way

  3. The effect of high antigen density on solid-phase radioimmunoassays for antibody regardless of immunoglobulin class

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, R.L.; Hardtke, M.A.; Carr, R.I.

    1980-01-01

    Human sera containing antibody to casein or to bovine serum albumin were used to assess the validity and utility of a solid-phase assay for quantitating antibody activity. Rabbit anti-human immunoglobulin radiolabeled with 125 I and capable of reacting with all human immunoglobulin classes was used to detect antibody bound to antigen immobilized to polystyrene tubes by a new covalent technique. This method results in very high antigen concentrations in highly stable association with polystyrene tubes. Kinetic and absorption studies demonstrated that low avidity antibodies are better detected when antigen is immobilized by the covalent method than when passively adsorbed. Conditions are described for minimizing artifactual interactions and for obtaining results similar to those obtained with conventional, liquid-phase assays. Failure to reach equilibrium in solid-phase assays and other problems are proposed to explain, in part, the inability to obtain a better correlation between solid- and liquid-phase immunoassays. (Auth.)

  4. Gearbox Reliability Collaborative Investigation of Gearbox Motion and High-Speed-Shaft Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Jon [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Guo, Yi [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sethuraman, Latha [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-03-18

    This paper extends a model-to-test validation effort to examine the effect of different constant rotor torque and moment conditions and intentional generator misalignment on the gearbox motion and high-speed-shaft loads. Fully validating gearbox motion and high-speed-shaft loads across a range of test conditions is a critical precursor to examining the bearing loads, as the gearbox motion and high-speed-shaft loads are the drivers of these bearing loads.

  5. High Heat Load Properties of Ultra Fine Grain Tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Z.; Du, J.; Ge, C.; Linke, J.; Pintsuk, G.; Song, S.X.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Tungsten is increasingly considered as a promising candidate armour materials facing the plasma in tokamaks for medium to high heat flux components (EAST, ASDEX, ITER). Fabrication tungsten with ultra fine grain size is considered as an effective way to ameliorate some disadvantages of tungsten, such as its brittleness at room temperature. But the research data on the performance of ultra fine grain tungsten is still very limit. In this work, high heat load properties of pure ultra-fine grain tungsten have been studied. The ultra fine grain tungsten samples with average grain size of 0.2 μm, 1 μm and 3 μm were fabricated by resistance sintering under ultra high pressure. The annealing experiments for the investigation of the material resistance against grain growth have been done by annealing samples in a vacuum furnace at different temperature holding for 2 hours respectively. It is found that recrystallization and grain growth occur at heating temperature of 1250 deg. c. The finer the initial grain sizes of tungsten, the smaller its grain growth grain. The effects of transient high thermal loads (off normal events like disruptions) on tungsten surface morphology have been performed in electron beam test facility JUDITH. The thermal loads tests have been carried out with 4 ms pulses at different power density of 0.22, 0.33, 0.44, 0.55 and 0.88 GW/m 2 respectively. Horizontal cracks formed for all tungsten samples at 0.44 GW/m 2 . Particle erosions occurred for tungsten with 3 μm size at 0.33 GW/m 2 and for tungsten with 0.2 and 1 μm size at 0.55 GW/m 2 . The weight loss of tungsten with 0.2, 1 and 3 μm size are 2,0.1,0.6 mg respectively at 0.88 GW/m 2 . The effects of a large number of very short transient repetitive thermal loads (ELM-like) on tungsten surface morphology also have been performed by using a fundamental wave of a YAG laser. It is found that tungsten with 0.2 μm size has the best performance. (authors)

  6. High Heat Load Properties of Ultra Fine Grain Tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Z.; Du, J.; Ge, C. [Lab. of Special Ceramic and P/M, University of Science and Technology, 100083 Beijing (China); Linke, J.; Pintsuk, G. [FZJ-Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Association Euratom-FZJ, Institut fur Plasmaphysik, Postfach 1913, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Song, S.X. [Research Center on Fusion Materials (RCFM), University of Science and Technology Beijing (USTB), 100083 Beijing (China)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Tungsten is increasingly considered as a promising candidate armour materials facing the plasma in tokamaks for medium to high heat flux components (EAST, ASDEX, ITER). Fabrication tungsten with ultra fine grain size is considered as an effective way to ameliorate some disadvantages of tungsten, such as its brittleness at room temperature. But the research data on the performance of ultra fine grain tungsten is still very limit. In this work, high heat load properties of pure ultra-fine grain tungsten have been studied. The ultra fine grain tungsten samples with average grain size of 0.2 {mu}m, 1 {mu}m and 3 {mu}m were fabricated by resistance sintering under ultra high pressure. The annealing experiments for the investigation of the material resistance against grain growth have been done by annealing samples in a vacuum furnace at different temperature holding for 2 hours respectively. It is found that recrystallization and grain growth occur at heating temperature of 1250 deg. c. The finer the initial grain sizes of tungsten, the smaller its grain growth grain. The effects of transient high thermal loads (off normal events like disruptions) on tungsten surface morphology have been performed in electron beam test facility JUDITH. The thermal loads tests have been carried out with 4 ms pulses at different power density of 0.22, 0.33, 0.44, 0.55 and 0.88 GW/m{sup 2} respectively. Horizontal cracks formed for all tungsten samples at 0.44 GW/m{sup 2}. Particle erosions occurred for tungsten with 3 {mu}m size at 0.33 GW/m{sup 2} and for tungsten with 0.2 and 1 {mu}m size at 0.55 GW/m{sup 2}. The weight loss of tungsten with 0.2, 1 and 3 {mu}m size are 2,0.1,0.6 mg respectively at 0.88 GW/m{sup 2}. The effects of a large number of very short transient repetitive thermal loads (ELM-like) on tungsten surface morphology also have been performed by using a fundamental wave of a YAG laser. It is found that tungsten with 0.2 {mu}m size has

  7. High prevalence of HIV p24 antigen among HIV antibody negative prospective blood donors in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japhet, Margaret Oluwatoyin; Adewumi, Moses Olubusuyi; Adesina, Olufisayo Adeyemi; Donbraye, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Blood transfusion service centers in Nigeria screen donated blood for markers of HIV infection using antibody- (Ab) based rapid test and in some centers, positives are re-tested using Ab-based ELISA. Paucity of data exists on p24 antigen prevalence among HIV Ab-negative donors in Nigeria. This study aims at detecting HIV p24 antigen among prospective blood donors in Osun State, Nigeria. Prospective blood donors negative for HIV antibodies using Determine test kit were re-tested using BIORAD GENSCREEN Ultra Ag-Ab ELISA kit, a fourth-generation ELISA kit that detects HIV antibodies/p24 antigen. Of the 169 HIV Ab-negative prospective donors, 10 (5.9%) were positive for HIV p24 antigen and 70% (7/10) of them were in the age range 18-30 years. Results of this study show that blood transfusion is still one of the major routes of HIV transmission in Nigeria and a higher proportion is among youth. Inclusion of p24 antigen testing into the blood donor screening will help reduce transfusion associated HIV in Nigeria if Nucleic Acid Testing (NAT) of all blood donor samples is not affordable; also, HIV enlightenment programs tailored toward youth may help reduce this rate among donors since more young people donate blood in low/middle-income countries than in high-income countries.

  8. Identifying antigenicity associated sites in highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus hemagglutinin by using sparse learning

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Zhipeng; Ducatez, Mariette F.; Yang, Jialiang; Zhang, Tong; Long, Li-Ping; Boon, Adrianus C.; Webby, Richard J.; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2012-01-01

    Since the isolation of A/goose/Guangdong/1/1996 (H5N1) in farmed geese in southern China, highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses have posed a continuous threat to both public and animal health. The non-synonymous mutation of the H5 hemagglutinin gene has resulted in antigenic drift, leading to difficulties in both clinical diagnosis and vaccine strain selection. Characterizing H5N1’s antigenic profiles would help resolve these problems. In this study, a novel sparse learning method wa...

  9. Identifying antigenicity-associated sites in highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus hemagglutinin by using sparse learning.

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Zhipeng; Yang, Jialiang; Zhang, Tong; Long, Li-Ping; Boon, Adrianus C; Webby, Richard J; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2012-01-01

    Since the isolation of A/goose/Guangdong/1/1996 (H5N1) in farmed geese in southern China, highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses have posed a continuous threat to both public and animal health. The non-synonymous mutation of the H5 hemagglutinin (HA) gene has resulted in antigenic drift, leading to difficulties in both clinical diagnosis and vaccine strain selection. Characterizing H5N1's antigenic profiles would help resolve these problems. In this study, a novel sparse learning meth...

  10. Workshop on high heat load x-ray optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    A workshop on High Heat Load X-Ray Optics'' was held at Argonne National Laboratory on August 3--5, 1989. The object of this workshop was to discuss recent advances in the art of cooling x-ray optics subject to high heat loads from synchrotron beams. The cooling of the first optical element in the intense photon beams that will be produced in the next generation of synchrotron sources is recognized as one of the major challenges that must be faced before one will be able to use these very intense beams in future synchrotron experiments. Considerable advances have been made in this art during the last few years, but much work remains to be done before the heating problem can be said to be completely solved. Special emphasis was placed on recent cooling experiments and detailed finite element'' and finite difference'' calculations comparing experiment with theory and extending theory to optimize performance.

  11. Characterizing occipital condyle loads under high-speed head rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintar, Frank A; Yoganandan, Narayan; Baisden, Jamie

    2005-11-01

    Because of the need to evaluate anthropomorphic test device (ATD) biofidelity under high-head angular accelerations, the purpose of the present investigation was to develop appropriate instrumentation for intact post mortem human subject (PMHS) testing, validate the instrumentation, and obtain information to characterize the response of the head-neck complex under this loading scenario. A series of rigid-arm pendulum, inertially loaded ATD tests was conducted. Head and neck ATD hydraulic piston chin pull tests were conducted. Subsequently, a series of PMHS tests was conducted to derive the response of the human head-neck under high-rate chin loading. Finally, Hybrid III and THOR-NT ATD head-neck systems were evaluated under the same scenario as the PMHS. A parametric analysis for center of gravity (CG) location and accelerometer orientation determined that even small errors (+/- 3 mm or 2 degrees), produced errors in the force and moment calculations by as much as 17 %. If the moment of inertia (MOI) term was varied by 5 %, resulting moment calculations were affected by as much as 8 %. If the 5 % error in MOI was used to compute occipital condyle moments, and results compared to upper load cell derived moments, peaks differed by as much as 24 %. The head CG and mass MOI should be directly measured for each preparation to obtain accurate results. The injury run on each specimen resulted in predominantly C1-C2 separations or partial separations. The 50(th) percentile probability of AIS=2+ neck injury using tensile force was about 2400 N; for AIS=3+ neck injury the 50(th) percentile risk was about 3180 N. When inserting extension moment as the criteria, the 50(th) percentile probability of an AIS=2+ injury was 51 Nm. The AIS=3+ extension moment at the 50(th) percentile probability was 75 Nm. The new THOR-NT ATD head-neck produced more biofidelic responses with an alternate head-neck junction design compared to the Hybrid III ATD.

  12. High hydrostatic pressure affects antigenic pool in tumor cells: Implication for dendritic cell-based cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanova, Linda; Hradilova, Nada; Moserova, Irena; Vosahlikova, Sarka; Sadilkova, Lenka; Hensler, Michal; Spisek, Radek; Adkins, Irena

    2017-07-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) can be used to generate dendritic cell (DC)-based active immunotherapy for prostate, lung and ovarian cancer. We showed here that HHP treatment of selected human cancer cell lines leads to a degradation of tumor antigens which depends on the magnitude of HHP applied and on the cancer cell line origin. Whereas prostate or ovarian cell lines displayed little protein antigen degradation with HHP treatment up to 300MPa after 2h, tumor antigens are hardly detected in lung cancer cell line after treatment with HHP 250MPa at the same time. On the other hand, quick reduction of tumor antigen-coding mRNA was observed at HHP 200MPa immediately after treatment in all cell lines tested. To optimize the DC-based active cellular therapy protocol for HHP-sensitive cell lines the immunogenicity of HHP-treated lung cancer cells at 150, 200 and 250MPa was compared. Lung cancer cells treated with HHP 150MPa display characteristics of immunogenic cell death, however cells are not efficiently phagocytosed by DC. Despite induction of the highest number of antigen-specific CD8 + T cells, 150 MPa-treated lung cancer cells survive in high numbers. This excludes their use in DC vaccine manufacturing. HHP of 200MPa treatment of lung cancer cells ensures the optimal ratio of efficient immunogenic killing and delivery of protein antigens in DC. These results represent an important pre-clinical data for generation of immunogenic killed lung cancer cells in ongoing NSCLC Phase I/II clinical trial using DC-based active cellular immunotherapy (DCVAC/LuCa). Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Strong human leukocyte antigen matching effect in nonsensitized kidney recipients with high pretransplant soluble CD30.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Süsal, Caner; Pelzl, Steffen; Opelz, Gerhard

    2003-10-27

    The influence of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matching on graft survival is greater in patients with preformed lymphocytotoxic antibodies than in nonsensitized patients. Pretransplant serum soluble CD30 (sCD30) affects graft outcome independently of presensitization status. The impact of HLA compatibility on kidney transplant survival was analyzed in 3980 nonsensitized first cadaveric kidney recipients in relation to the pretransplant serum sCD30 content. Although HLA compatibility influenced graft outcome only marginally in nonsensitized recipients with low sCD30 (at 3 years: P=0.0095; at 5 years: P=0.1033), a strong HLA matching effect was observed in nonsensitized recipients with high sCD30 (at 3 years: PsCD30 benefit from an HLA well-matched kidney. Patients should be tested for sCD30 while on the waiting list for a kidney transplant, and HLA well-matched kidneys should be allocated to patients with high sCD30.

  14. A polyvalent vaccine for high-risk prostate patients: "are more antigens better?"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slovin, Susan F; Ragupathi, Govind; Fernandez, Celina

    2007-01-01

    vaccine of synthetic "self" antigens broke immunologic tolerance against two or more antigens in all 30 vaccinated patients, was safe, but antibody titers against several of the antigens were lower than those seen in individual monovalent trials. No impact on PSA slope was detected. We address......We have shown the immunogenicity and safety of synthetic carbohydrate vaccines when conjugated to the carrier keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) and given with the adjuvant, QS-21, in patients with biochemically relapsed prostate cancer. To determine whether immune response could be further enhanced...... and mixed with QS-21. Eight vaccinations were administered over 13 months. All 30 patients had significant elevations in antibody titers to at least two of the six antigens; 22 patients had increased reactivity with FACS. These serologic responses were lower than that seen previously in patients treated...

  15. A new UHV micro positioning system for high load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colldelram, Carles, E-mail: ccolldelram@cells.es; Nicolas, Josep, E-mail: jnicolas@cells.es; Nikitina, Liudmila, E-mail: lnikitina@cells.es [ALBA Synchrotron, Carretera BP 1413, de Cerdanyola del Vallès a Sant Cugat del Vallès, Km. 3,3, 08290 Cerdanyola del Vallès, Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-07-27

    In this work we report the design and performance of a novel compact in-vacuum actuator, designed to be compatible with all the motions required for the scissor-type ESRF mirror bender. These mirror benders include several linear actuators, which drive the mirror bending torques, as well as the main alignment motions such as pitch and translation along the normal to the mirror surface. The motions are provided by compact linear actuators, which consist of motor, reduction, spindle and nut, encapsulated on a closed air volume to provide vacuum compatibility. The actuator includes a hydroformed bellows to transmit the force to the actuator tip, and an electrical feedthrough for the motor cables. The design boundaries for these actuators are quite tight, as they must be integrated in a narrow volume, must be UHV compatible and must provide high resolution, for a relatively high load. As a result, they have limited mechanical performance, and in some cases poor reliability. To overcome these problems, we designed and implemented a different concept. In the proposed concept, the motor rotation is converted onto a linear motion by means of a cam instead of a spindle and a nut. This allows for much shorter and stiffer transmission system, with similar dimensions. The vacuum compatibility is intrinsic for this solution, since the whole mechanism of the actuator is UHV compatible. All motions are preloaded and guided by vacuum compatible (hybrid metal-ceramics) ball bearings. This allows the system reaching a repeatability and backlash well within the micron. The absence of friction allows for a high reliability and releases the maintenance needs of the system. The transmission is intrinsically irreversible, and the system can hold a load of 250 N within a few nanometers without any holding current on the motors. This allows the system to move reliably also in micro-stepping mode, providing a resolution well below the half-step nominal resolution of 100 nm. Performances

  16. A new UHV micro positioning system for high load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colldelram, Carles; Nicolas, Josep; Nikitina, Liudmila

    2016-01-01

    In this work we report the design and performance of a novel compact in-vacuum actuator, designed to be compatible with all the motions required for the scissor-type ESRF mirror bender. These mirror benders include several linear actuators, which drive the mirror bending torques, as well as the main alignment motions such as pitch and translation along the normal to the mirror surface. The motions are provided by compact linear actuators, which consist of motor, reduction, spindle and nut, encapsulated on a closed air volume to provide vacuum compatibility. The actuator includes a hydroformed bellows to transmit the force to the actuator tip, and an electrical feedthrough for the motor cables. The design boundaries for these actuators are quite tight, as they must be integrated in a narrow volume, must be UHV compatible and must provide high resolution, for a relatively high load. As a result, they have limited mechanical performance, and in some cases poor reliability. To overcome these problems, we designed and implemented a different concept. In the proposed concept, the motor rotation is converted onto a linear motion by means of a cam instead of a spindle and a nut. This allows for much shorter and stiffer transmission system, with similar dimensions. The vacuum compatibility is intrinsic for this solution, since the whole mechanism of the actuator is UHV compatible. All motions are preloaded and guided by vacuum compatible (hybrid metal-ceramics) ball bearings. This allows the system reaching a repeatability and backlash well within the micron. The absence of friction allows for a high reliability and releases the maintenance needs of the system. The transmission is intrinsically irreversible, and the system can hold a load of 250 N within a few nanometers without any holding current on the motors. This allows the system to move reliably also in micro-stepping mode, providing a resolution well below the half-step nominal resolution of 100 nm. Performances

  17. High-efficiency water-loaded microwave antenna in ultra-high-frequency band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zilun; Bartone, Chris; Yang, Fuyi; Yao, Jie

    2018-03-01

    High-index dielectrics are widely used in microwave antennas to control the radiation characteristics. Liquid water, with a high dielectric index at microwave frequency, is an interesting material to achieving tunable functionalities. Here, we demonstrate a water-loaded microwave antenna system that has high loss-tolerance and wideband tunability enabled by fluidity. Our simulation and experimental results show that the resonance frequency can be effectively tuned by the size of loading water. Furthermore, the antenna systems with water loading can achieve high radiation efficiency (>90%) in the ultra-high-frequency (0.3-3 GHz) band. This work brings about opportunities in realistic tunable microwave antenna designs enabled by liquid.

  18. Variable load failure mechanism for high-speed load sensing electro-hydrostatic actuator pump of aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cun SHI

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel transient lubrication model for the analysis of the variable load failure mechanism of high-speed pump used in Load Sensing Electro-Hydrostatic Actuator (LS-EHA. Focusing on the slipper/swashplate pair partial abrasion, which is considered as the dominant failure mode in the high-speed condition, slipper dynamic models are established. A forth sliding motion of the slipper on the swashplate surface is presented under the fact that the slipper center of mass will rotate around the center of piston ball when the swashplate angle is dynamically adjusted. Besides, extra inertial tilting moments will be produced for the slipper based on the theorem on translation of force, which will increase rapidly when LS-EHA pump operates under high-speed condition. Then, a dynamic lubricating model coupling with fluid film thickness field, temperature field and pressure field is proposed. The deformation effects caused by thermal deflection and hydrostatic pressure are considered. A numerical simulation model is established to validate the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed model. Finally, based on the load spectrum of aircraft flight profile, the variable load conditions and the oil film characteristics are analyzed, and series of variable load rules of oil film thickness with variable speed/variable pressure/variable displacement are concluded. Keywords: Coupling lubrication model, Electro-Hydrostatic Actuator (EHA, High-speed pump, Partial abrasion, Slipper pair, Variable load

  19. Antibody Binding Selectivity: Alternative Sets of Antigen Residues Entail High-Affinity Recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Nominé

    Full Text Available Understanding the relationship between protein sequence and molecular recognition selectivity remains a major challenge. The antibody fragment scFv1F4 recognizes with sub nM affinity a decapeptide (sequence 6TAMFQDPQER15 derived from the N-terminal end of human papilloma virus E6 oncoprotein. Using this decapeptide as antigen, we had previously shown that only the wild type amino-acid or conservative replacements were allowed at positions 9 to 12 and 15 of the peptide, indicating a strong binding selectivity. Nevertheless phenylalanine (F was equally well tolerated as the wild type glutamine (Q at position 13, while all other amino acids led to weaker scFv binding. The interfaces of complexes involving either Q or F are expected to diverge, due to the different physico-chemistry of these residues. This would imply that high-affinity binding can be achieved through distinct interfacial geometries. In order to investigate this point, we disrupted the scFv-peptide interface by modifying one or several peptide positions. We then analyzed the effect on binding of amino acid changes at the remaining positions, an altered susceptibility being indicative of an altered role in complex formation. The 23 starting variants analyzed contained replacements whose effects on scFv1F4 binding ranged from minor to drastic. A permutation analysis (effect of replacing each peptide position by all other amino acids except cysteine was carried out on the 23 variants using the PEPperCHIP® Platform technology. A comparison of their permutation patterns with that of the wild type peptide indicated that starting replacements at position 11, 12 or 13 modified the tolerance to amino-acid changes at the other two positions. The interdependence between the three positions was confirmed by SPR (Biacore® technology. Our data demonstrate that binding selectivity does not preclude the existence of alternative high-affinity recognition modes.

  20. Determination of High-affinity Antibody-antigen Binding Kinetics Using Four Biosensor Platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Danlin; Singh, Ajit; Wu, Helen; Kroe-Barrett, Rachel

    2017-04-17

    Label-free optical biosensors are powerful tools in drug discovery for the characterization of biomolecular interactions. In this study, we describe the use of four routinely used biosensor platforms in our laboratory to evaluate the binding affinity and kinetics of ten high-affinity monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against human proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 (PCSK9). While both Biacore T100 and ProteOn XPR36 are derived from the well-established Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) technology, the former has four flow cells connected by serial flow configuration, whereas the latter presents 36 reaction spots in parallel through an improvised 6 x 6 crisscross microfluidic channel configuration. The IBIS MX96 also operates based on the SPR sensor technology, with an additional imaging feature that provides detection in spatial orientation. This detection technique coupled with the Continuous Flow Microspotter (CFM) expands the throughput significantly by enabling multiplex array printing and detection of 96 reaction sports simultaneously. In contrast, the Octet RED384 is based on the BioLayer Interferometry (BLI) optical principle, with fiber-optic probes acting as the biosensor to detect interference pattern changes upon binding interactions at the tip surface. Unlike the SPR-based platforms, the BLI system does not rely on continuous flow fluidics; instead, the sensor tips collect readings while they are immersed in analyte solutions of a 384-well microplate during orbital agitation. Each of these biosensor platforms has its own advantages and disadvantages. To provide a direct comparison of these instruments' ability to provide quality kinetic data, the described protocols illustrate experiments that use the same assay format and the same high-quality reagents to characterize antibody-antigen kinetics that fit the simple 1:1 molecular interaction model.

  1. High working memory load leads to more Ebbinghaus illusion

    OpenAIRE

    De Fockert, J. W.; Wu, Si

    2009-01-01

    The evidence that distractor processing increases with greater load on working memory has come mainly from Stroop-type interference tasks, making it difficult to establish whether cognitive load affects distractor processing at the perceptual level or during response selection. We measured the Ebbinghaus illusion under varying levels of working memory load to test whether cognitive control is also relevant for preventing processing of distractors that do not produce any response conflict, and...

  2. A Large Size Chimeric Highly Immunogenic Peptide Presents Multistage Plasmodium Antigens as a Vaccine Candidate System against Malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, José Manuel; Varela, Yahson; Silva, Yolanda; Ardila, Karen; Forero, Martha; Guasca, Laura; Guerrero, Yuly; Bermudez, Adriana; Alba, Patricia; Vanegas, Magnolia; Patarroyo, Manuel Elkin

    2017-11-01

    Rational strategies for obtaining malaria vaccine candidates should include not only a proper selection of target antigens for antibody stimulation, but also a versatile molecular design based on ordering the right pieces from the complex pathogen molecular puzzle towards more active and functional immunogens. Classical Plasmodium falciparum antigens regarded as vaccine candidates have been selected as model targets in this study. Among all possibilities we have chosen epitopes of Pf CSP, STARP; MSA1 and Pf 155/RESA from pre- and erythrocyte stages respectively for designing a large 82-residue chimeric immunogen. A number of options aimed at diminishing steric hindrance for synthetic procedures were assessed based on standard Fmoc chemistry such as building block orthogonal ligation; pseudo-proline and microwave-assisted procedures, therefore the large-chimeric target was produced, characterized and immunologically tested. Antigenicity and functional in vivo efficacy tests of the large-chimera formulations administered alone or as antigen mixtures have proven the stimulation of high antibody titers, showing strong correlation with protection and parasite clearance of vaccinated BALB/c mice after being lethally challenged with both P. berghei -ANKA and P. yoelii 17XL malaria strains. Besides, 3D structure features shown by the large-chimera encouraged as to propose using these rational designed large synthetic molecules as reliable vaccine candidate-presenting systems.

  3. A Large Size Chimeric Highly Immunogenic Peptide Presents Multistage Plasmodium Antigens as a Vaccine Candidate System against Malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Lozano

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Rational strategies for obtaining malaria vaccine candidates should include not only a proper selection of target antigens for antibody stimulation, but also a versatile molecular design based on ordering the right pieces from the complex pathogen molecular puzzle towards more active and functional immunogens. Classical Plasmodium falciparum antigens regarded as vaccine candidates have been selected as model targets in this study. Among all possibilities we have chosen epitopes of PfCSP, STARP; MSA1 and Pf155/RESA from pre- and erythrocyte stages respectively for designing a large 82-residue chimeric immunogen. A number of options aimed at diminishing steric hindrance for synthetic procedures were assessed based on standard Fmoc chemistry such as building block orthogonal ligation; pseudo-proline and microwave-assisted procedures, therefore the large-chimeric target was produced, characterized and immunologically tested. Antigenicity and functional in vivo efficacy tests of the large-chimera formulations administered alone or as antigen mixtures have proven the stimulation of high antibody titers, showing strong correlation with protection and parasite clearance of vaccinated BALB/c mice after being lethally challenged with both P. berghei-ANKA and P. yoelii 17XL malaria strains. Besides, 3D structure features shown by the large-chimera encouraged as to propose using these rational designed large synthetic molecules as reliable vaccine candidate-presenting systems.

  4. Loads on EPR containment after RPV failure at high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, G.

    1995-01-01

    As regards the desgin of the EPR, the general strategy is to eliminate, the vessel failure at high pressure by preventive and mitigative measures. The design proposals involved trust in the reliability of dedicated devices (relief valves) for rapid depressurization. The aim is to attain a lower pressure level at the moment of vessel failure, so that the containment is capable to cope with the blowdown impact on the pit walls and the vessel supporting structures. Nevertheless, the potential of a high-pressure failure of the vessel must be kept in mind, whatever well thought-out and reliable preventive depressurization measures might be. Therefore, the reactor pressure blowdown has been studied in order to quantify the ultimate containment load, which might support future design requirements. The calculations were performed with the LWR transient analysis thermal-hydraulics computer code REALAP5/MOD3. In previous analyses, the nodalization of the problem was based on the geometrical conditions of a typical German 1300 MW(e) NPP. In the present analysis a new input model has been used, which was based on the EPR conditions. (orig./HP)

  5. High Heat Load Diamond Monochromator Project at ESRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van aerenbergh, P.; Detlefs, C.; Haertwig, J.; Lafford, T. A.; Masiello, F.; Roth, T.; Schmid, W.; Wattecamps, P.; Zhang, L.

    2010-01-01

    Due to its outstanding thermal properties, diamond is an attractive alternative to silicon as a monochromator material for high intensity X-ray beams. To date, however, the practical applications have been limited by the small size and relatively poor crystallographic quality of the crystals available. The ESRF Diamond Project Group has studied the perfection of diamonds in collaboration with industry and universities. The group has also designed and tested different stress-free mounting techniques to integrate small diamonds into larger X-ray optical elements. We now propose to develop a water-cooled Bragg-Bragg double crystal monochromator using diamond (111) crystals. It will be installed on the ESRF undulator beamline, ID06, for testing under high heat load. This monochromator will be best suited for the low energy range, typically from ∼3.4 keV to 15 keV, due to the small size of the diamonds available and the size of the beam footprint. This paper presents stress-free mounting techniques studied using X-ray diffraction imaging, and their thermal-mechanical analysis by finite element modelling, as well as the status of the ID06 monochromator project.

  6. The use of high-throughput DNA sequencing in the investigation of antigenic variation: application to Neisseria species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John K Davies

    Full Text Available Antigenic variation occurs in a broad range of species. This process resembles gene conversion in that variant DNA is unidirectionally transferred from partial gene copies (or silent loci into an expression locus. Previous studies of antigenic variation have involved the amplification and sequencing of individual genes from hundreds of colonies. Using the pilE gene from Neisseria gonorrhoeae we have demonstrated that it is possible to use PCR amplification, followed by high-throughput DNA sequencing and a novel assembly process, to detect individual antigenic variation events. The ability to detect these events was much greater than has previously been possible. In N. gonorrhoeae most silent loci contain multiple partial gene copies. Here we show that there is a bias towards using the copy at the 3' end of the silent loci (copy 1 as the donor sequence. The pilE gene of N. gonorrhoeae and some strains of Neisseria meningitidis encode class I pilin, but strains of N. meningitidis from clonal complexes 8 and 11 encode a class II pilin. We have confirmed that the class II pili of meningococcal strain FAM18 (clonal complex 11 are non-variable, and this is also true for the class II pili of strain NMB from clonal complex 8. In addition when a gene encoding class I pilin was moved into the meningococcal strain NMB background there was no evidence of antigenic variation. Finally we investigated several members of the opa gene family of N. gonorrhoeae, where it has been suggested that limited variation occurs. Variation was detected in the opaK gene that is located close to pilE, but not at the opaJ gene located elsewhere on the genome. The approach described here promises to dramatically improve studies of the extent and nature of antigenic variation systems in a variety of species.

  7. Use of I-131 labeled, murine Fab against a high molecular weight antigen of human melanoma: Preliminary experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, S.M.; Carrasquillo, J.A.; McGuffin, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    High molecular-weight antigen (HMWA) is tumor-associated proteoglycan of human malignant melanoma. I-131 labeled Fab fragments of these specific antibodies were used for preliminary feasibility studies for radioimmunodetection and therapy of human subjects who had inoperable metastatic melanoma. Ten patients received tracer doses of I-131 (anti-HMWA) Fab. All patients (8/8) who had melanoma lesions greater than 1 cm by correlative diagnosis methods had one or more lesions that had localization to tumor of the radiolabelled Fab. In all, 17 of 23 (74%) documented metastases were seen. Two patients who had avid uptake received potentially radiotherapeutic doses. For both of these patients, whole imaging studies showed that the localization of the high dose I-131 Fab was predominantly in tumor. On whole body images, the anti-Fab HMWA appears to be more tumor selective than Fab preparations that target the p97 antigen for melanoma, and there is less uptake in liver

  8. Microfluidic generation of droplets with a high loading of nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jiandi; Shi, Lei; Benson, Bryan; Bruzek, Matthew J; Anthony, John E; Sinko, Patrick J; Prudhomme, Robert K; Stone, Howard A

    2012-09-18

    Microfluidic approaches for controlled generation of colloidal clusters, for example, via encapsulation of colloidal particles in droplets, have been used for the synthesis of functional materials including drug delivery carriers. Most of the studies, however, use a low concentration of an original colloidal suspension (60 wt %) particle concentrations. Three types of microfluidic devices, PDMS flow-focusing, PDMS T-junction, and microcapillary devices, are investigated for direct encapsulation of a high concentration of polystyrene (PS) nanoparticles in droplets. In particular, it is shown that PDMS devices fabricated by soft lithography can generate droplets from a 25 wt % PS suspension, whereas microcapillary devices made from glass capillary tubes are able to produce droplets from a 67 wt % PS nanoparticle suspension. When the PS concentration is between 0.6 and 25 wt %, the size of the droplets is found to change with the oil-to-water flow rate ratio and is independent of the concentration of particles in the initial suspensions. Drop sizes from ~12 to 40 μm are made using flow rate ratios Q(oil)/Q(water) from 20 to 1, respectively, with either of the PDMS devices. However, clogging occurs in PDMS devices at high PS concentrations (>25 wt %) arising from interactions between the PS colloids and the surface of PDMS devices. Glass microcapillary devices, on the other hand, are resistant to clogging and can produce droplets continuously even when the concentration of PS nanoparticles reaches 67 wt %. We believe that our findings indicate useful approaches and guidelines for the controlled generation of emulsions filled with a high loading of nanoparticles, which are useful for drug delivery applications.

  9. Microfluidic generation of droplets with a high loading of nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jiandi; Shi, Lei; Benson, Bryan; Bruzek, Matthew J.; Anthony, John E.; Sinko, Patrick J.; Prudhomme, Robert K.; Stone, Howard A.

    2012-01-01

    Microfluidic approaches for controlled generation of colloidal clusters, e.g., via encapsulation of colloidal particles in droplets, have been used for the synthesis of functional materials including drug delivery carriers. Most of the studies, however, use a low concentration of an original colloidal suspension ( 60 wt%) particle concentrations. Three types of microfluidic devices, PDMS flow-focusing, PDMS T-junction, and microcapillary devices, are investigated for direct encapsulation of a high concentration of polystyrene (PS) nanoparticles in droplets. In particular, it is shown that PDMS devices fabricated by soft lithography can generate droplets from a 25 wt% PS suspension, whereas microcapillary devices made from glass capillary tubes are able to produce droplets from a 67 wt% PS nanoparticle suspension. When the PS concentration is between 0.6 and 25 wt%, the size of the droplets is found to change with the oil-to-water flow rate ratio and is independent of the concentration of particles in the initial suspensions. Drop sizes from ~12 to 40 μm are made using flow rate ratios Qoil/Qwater from 20 to 1, respectively, with either of the PDMS devices. However, clogging occurs in PDMS devices at high PS concentrations (> 25 wt%) arising from interactions between the PS colloids and the surface of PDMS devices. Glass microcapillary devices, on the other hand, are resistant to clogging and can produce droplets continuously even when the concentration of PS nanoparticles reaches 67 wt%. We believe that our findings indicate useful approaches and guidelines for the controlled generation of emulsions of microparticles that are filled with a high loading of nanoparticles and which are useful for drug delivery applications. PMID:22934976

  10. Wind load effects on high rise buildings in Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizamani, Z.; Thang, K. C.; Haider, B.; Shariff, M.

    2018-04-01

    Wind is a randomly varying dynamic phenomenon composed of a multitude of eddies of varying sizes and rotational characteristics along a general stream of air moving relative to the ground. These eddies give wind its gustiness, creating fluctuation and results in a complex flow characteristics. The wind vector at any point can be regarded as the sum of mean wind vector and the fluctuation components. These components not only vary with height but also dependant on the approach terrain and topography. Prevailing wind exerts pressure onto the structural surfaces. The effects of wind pressure in the form of shear and bending moments are found to be a major problem in structural failure. This study aims to study the effects of wind load on a fifteen-storey high rise building using EN 1991-1-4 code and MS1553:2002. The simulation results showed that by increasing the wind speed, the storey resultant forces, namely storey shear and storey moment increases significantly. Furthermore, simulation results according to EN 1991-1-4 yield higher values compared to the simulation results according to MS1553:2002.

  11. AERODYNAMIC LOAD OF AN AIRCRAFT WITH A HIGHLY ELASTIC WING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Schoř

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a method for calculation of air loads of an aircraft with an elastic wing is presented. The method can predict a redistribution of air loads when the elastic wing deforms. Unlike the traditional Euler or Navier-Stokes CFD to FEM coupling, the method uses 3D panel method as a source of aerodynamic data. This makes the calculation feasible on a typical recent workstation. Due to a short computational time and low hardware demands this method is suitable for both the preliminary design stage and the load evaluation stage. A case study is presented. The study compares a glider wing performing a pull maneuver at both rigid and and elastic state. The study indicates a significant redistribution of air load at the elastic case.

  12. High cycle fatigue of austenitic stainless steels under random loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauthier, J.P.; Petrequin, P.

    1987-08-01

    To investigate reactor components, load control random fatigue tests were performed at 300 0 C and 550 0 C, on specimens from austenitic stainless steels plates in the transverse orientation. Random solicitations are produced on closed loop servo-hydraulic machines by a mini computer which generates random load sequence by the use of reduced Markovian matrix. The method has the advantage of taking into account the mean load for each cycle. The solicitations generated are those of a stationary gaussian process. Fatigue tests have been mainly performed in the endurance region of fatigue curve, with scattering determination using stair case method. Experimental results have been analysed aiming at determining design curves for components calculations, depending on irregularity factor and temperature. Analysis in term of mean square root fatigue limit calculation, shows that random loading gives more damage than constant amplitude loading. Damage calculations following Miner rule have been made using the probability density function for the case where the irregularity factor is nearest to 100 %. The Miner rule is too conservative for our results. A method using design curves including random loading effects with irregularity factor as an indexing parameter is proposed

  13. Automation of the ELISpot assay for high-throughput detection of antigen-specific T-cell responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Coral-Ann M; Roberts, Steven G; Laird, Rebecca; McKinnon, Elizabeth; Ahmed, Imran; Pfafferott, Katja; Turley, Joanne; Keane, Niamh M; Lucas, Andrew; Rushton, Ben; Chopra, Abha; Mallal, Simon; John, Mina

    2009-05-15

    The enzyme linked immunospot (ELISpot) assay is a fundamental tool in cellular immunology, providing both quantitative and qualitative information on cellular cytokine responses to defined antigens. It enables the comprehensive screening of patient derived peripheral blood mononuclear cells to reveal the antigenic restriction of T-cell responses and is an emerging technique in clinical laboratory investigation of certain infectious diseases. As with all cellular-based assays, the final results of the assay are dependent on a number of technical variables that may impact precision if not highly standardised between operators. When studies that are large scale or using multiple antigens are set up manually, these assays may be labour intensive, have many manual handling steps, are subject to data and sample integrity failure and may show large inter-operator variability. Here we describe the successful automated performance of the interferon (IFN)-gamma ELISpot assay from cell counting through to electronic capture of cytokine quantitation and present the results of a comparison between automated and manual performance of the ELISpot assay. The mean number of spot forming units enumerated by both methods for limiting dilutions of CMV, EBV and influenza (CEF)-derived peptides in six healthy individuals were highly correlated (r>0.83, pautomated system compared favourably with the manual ELISpot and further ensured electronic tracking, increased through-put and reduced turnaround time.

  14. Participation of Flexible Loads in Load Frequency Control to Support High Wind Penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uslu, Umur; Zhang, Boyang; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna

    2016-01-01

    The increasing amount of fluctuating wind power penetration in power systems presents many challenges to its operation and control. The new wind power plants are replacing many of the conventional large power plants that ensure power balancing and ancillary services for stable and reliable...... operation of the grid. Therefore, new solutions for power balancing reserves have to be explored and utilized by the grid utilities. To meet these challenges, large sizable loads like alkaline electrolysers, heat pumps and electric vehicles which are gaining popularity can provide system support to the grid...... through their inherent flexibility and energy storage characteristics. This paper investigates the possibilities and potential of such flexible loads to participate in power system frequency regulation in a wind dominated power system. The results show that these consumption units provide better...

  15. An inverted-geometry, high voltage polarized electron gun with UHV load lock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breidenbach, M.; Foss, M.; Hodgson, J.; Kulikov, A.; Odian, A.; Putallaz, G.; Rogers, H.; Schindler, R.; Skarpaas, K.; Zolotorev, M.

    1994-01-01

    The design of a high voltage electron source with a GaAs photocathode and a load lock system is described. The inverted high voltage structure of the gun permits a compact and simple design. Test results demonstrate that the load lock system provides a reliable way to achieve high quantum efficiency of the photocathode in a high voltage device. ((orig.))

  16. Structural elucidation of the Brucella melitensis M antigen by high-resolution NMR at 500 MHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bundle, D.R.; Cherwonogrodzky, J.W.; Perry, M.B.

    1987-01-01

    The Brucella M antigen from the species type strain Brucella melitensis 16M has been identified as a component of the cell wall lipopolysaccharide (LPS). O polysaccharide liberated from this LPS by mild acid hydrolysis exhibited M activity in serological tests and was shown to be a homopolymer of 4-formamido-4,6-dideoxy-α-D-mannopyranosyl residues arranged in an oligosaccharide repeating unit as judged by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the native lipopolysaccharide. Structural analysis of the O polysaccharide by NMR methods was difficult due to apparent microheterogeneity of the repeating unit, which was in fact caused by the presence of rotational isomers of the N-formyl moiety. This problem was resolved by chemical modification of the polysaccharide to its amino and N-acetyl derivatives, the 500-MHz 1 H and 125-MHz 13 C NMR spectra of which could be analyzed in terms of a unique structure through application of pH-dependent β-shifts and two-dimensional techniques that included COSY, relayed COSY, and NOESY experiments together with heteronuclear C/H shift correlation spectroscopy. On the basis of these experiments and supported by methylation and periodate oxidation data, the structure of the M polysaccharide was determined as a linear polymer of unbranched pentasaccharide repeating units consisting of four 1,2-linked and one 1,3-lined 4,6-dideoxy-4-formamido-α-D-mannopyranosyl residues. The marked structural similarity of the M antigen and the A antigen, which is known to be a 1,2-linked homopolysaccharide of 4,6-dideoxy-4-formamido-α-D-mannopyranosyl units, accounts for cross-serological reactions of the two and the long-standing confusion surrounding the nature of their antigenic determinants

  17. Systems Analysis Reveals High Genetic and Antigen-Driven Predetermination of Antibody Repertoires throughout B Cell Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Greiff

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Antibody repertoire diversity and plasticity is crucial for broad protective immunity. Repertoires change in size and diversity across multiple B cell developmental stages and in response to antigen exposure. However, we still lack fundamental quantitative understanding of the extent to which repertoire diversity is predetermined. Therefore, we implemented a systems immunology framework for quantifying repertoire predetermination on three distinct levels: (1 B cell development (pre-B cell, naive B cell, plasma cell, (2 antigen exposure (three structurally different proteins, and (3 four antibody repertoire components (V-gene usage, clonal expansion, clonal diversity, repertoire size extracted from antibody repertoire sequencing data (400 million reads. Across all three levels, we detected a dynamic balance of high genetic (e.g., >90% for V-gene usage and clonal expansion in naive B cells and antigen-driven (e.g., 40% for clonal diversity in plasma cells predetermination and stochastic variation. Our study has implications for the prediction and manipulation of humoral immunity.

  18. Inductrack III configuration--a maglev system for high loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Richard F

    2013-11-12

    Inductrack III configurations are suited for use in transporting heavy freight loads. Inductrack III addresses a problem associated with the cantilevered track of the Inductrack II configuration. The use of a cantilevered track could present mechanical design problems in attempting to achieve a strong enough track system such that it would be capable of supporting very heavy loads. In Inductrack III, the levitating portion of the track can be supported uniformly from below, as the levitating Halbach array used on the moving vehicle is a single-sided one, thus does not require the cantilevered track as employed in Inductrack II.

  19. Nutrition Coupled with High-Load Traditional or Low-Load Blood Flow Restricted Exercise During Human Limb Suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackney, K. J.; Everett, M.; Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.

    2011-01-01

    High-load resistance exercise (HRE) and low-load blood flow restricted (BFR) exercise have demonstrated efficacy for attenuating unloading related muscle atrophy and dysfunction. In recreational exercisers, protein consumption immediately before and/or after exercise has been shown to increase the skeletal muscle anabolic response to resistance training. PURPOSE: To compare the skeletal muscle adaptations when chocolate milk intake was coupled with HRE or low-load BFR exercise [3 d/wk] during simulated lower limb weightlessness. METHODS: Eleven subjects were counterbalanced [based on age and gender] to HRE (31 +/- 14 yr, 170 +/- 13 cm, 71 +/- 18 kg, 2M/3W) or low-load BFR exercise (31 +/- 12 yr, 169 +/- 13 cm, 66 +/- 14 kg, 2M/4W) during 30 days of unilateral lower limb suspension (ULLS). Both HRE and BFR completed 3 sets of single leg press and calf raise exercise during ULLS. BFR exercise intensity was 20% of repetition maximum (1RM) with a cuff inflation pressure of 1.3 systolic blood pressure (143 4 mmHg). Cuff pressure was maintained during all 3 sets including rest intervals (90s). HRE intensity was 75% 1RM and was performed without cuff inflation. Immediately (HRE vs. BFR, respectively. Leg press training loads were 44 +/- 7 kg in HRE compared to 11 +/- 1 kg in BFR. Similarly, calf raise training loads were 81 +/- 11 kg in HRE and 16 +/- 1 kg in BFR. Pre to post-ULLS training adaptations in the unloaded leg are shown in the table. CONCLUSION: The preliminary results of this investigation suggest when HRE is optimized for muscle anabolism during unloading muscle size and strength are preserved (or enhanced) at the expense of muscle endurance. In contrast, when BFR exercise is optimized for muscle anabolism during unloading muscle endurance is preserved (or enhanced) at the expense of muscle size and strength

  20. High voltage-derived enhancement of electric conduction in nanogap devices for detection of prostate-specific antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyung Ju; Chi, Young Shik; Choi, Insung S.; Yun, Wan Soo

    2010-07-01

    We report a simple method of enhancing electric conductance in nanogap devices without any additional treatments, such as silver-enhancing process. The low electric conductance after selective immobilization of biofunctionalized gold nanoparticles in the gap region was greatly enhanced by repeated I-V scans at relatively high voltage ranges of -5 to 5 V, which was attributed to the formation of a new conduction pathway across the gap. The higher conduction state of the nanogap device showed a very stable I-V curve, which was used as an excellent measure of the existence of prostate-specific antigen.

  1. Review of 20 years research in fatigue of high pressure loaded components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thumser, Rayk [Bauhaus Univ. Weimar (Germany). Materialforschungs- und -pruefanstalt; Scheibe, Wolfgang

    2011-07-01

    This paper gives an overview of the research in fatigue of high pressure loaded components. In the last 20 years the main research was carried out in Germany. This research was mainly driven by the fatigue requirements for high pressure loaded Diesel engine injection parts as common rails, injectors and pipes. (orig.)

  2. A Highly Sensitive Rapid Diagnostic Test for Chagas Disease That Utilizes a Recombinant Trypanosoma cruzi Antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barfield, C. A.; Barney, R. S.; Crudder, C. H.; Wilmoth, J. L.; Stevens, D. S.; Mora-Garcia, S.; Yanovsky, M. J.; Weigl, B. H.; Yanovsky, J.

    2011-01-01

    Improved diagnostic tests for Chagas disease are urgently needed. A new lateral flow rapid test for Chagas disease is under development at PATH, in collaboration with Laboratorio Lemos of Argentina, which utilizes a recombinant antigen for detection of antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi. To evaluate the performance of this test, 375 earlier characterized serum specimens from a region where Chagas is endemic were tested using a reference test (the Ortho T. cruzi ELISA, Johnson & Johnson), a commercially available rapid test (Chagas STAT-PAK, Chembio), and the PATH–Lemos rapid test. Compared to the composite reference tests, the PATH–Lemos rapid test demonstrated an optimal sensitivity of 99.5% and specificity of 96.8%, while the Chagas STAT-PAK demonstrated a sensitivity of 95.3% and specificity of 99.5%. These results indicate that the PATH–Lemos rapid test shows promise as an improved and reliable tool for screening and diagnosis of Chagas disease. PMID:21342808

  3. A High Precision Artificial Neural Networks Model for Short-Term Energy Load Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Huan Kuo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important research topics in smart grid technology is load forecasting, because accuracy of load forecasting highly influences reliability of the smart grid systems. In the past, load forecasting was obtained by traditional analysis techniques such as time series analysis and linear regression. Since the load forecast focuses on aggregated electricity consumption patterns, researchers have recently integrated deep learning approaches with machine learning techniques. In this study, an accurate deep neural network algorithm for short-term load forecasting (STLF is introduced. The forecasting performance of proposed algorithm is compared with performances of five artificial intelligence algorithms that are commonly used in load forecasting. The Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE and Cumulative Variation of Root Mean Square Error (CV-RMSE are used as accuracy evaluation indexes. The experiment results show that MAPE and CV-RMSE of proposed algorithm are 9.77% and 11.66%, respectively, displaying very high forecasting accuracy.

  4. The High-Strain Rate Loading of Structural Biological Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proud, W. G.; Nguyen, T.-T. N.; Bo, C.; Butler, B. J.; Boddy, R. L.; Williams, A.; Masouros, S.; Brown, K. A.

    2015-10-01

    The human body can be subjected to violent acceleration as a result of explosion caused by military ordinance or accident. Blast waves cause injury and blunt trauma can be produced by violent impact of objects against the human body. The long-term clinical manifestations of blast injury can be significantly different in nature and extent to those suffering less aggressive insult. Similarly, the damage seen in lower limbs from those injured in explosion incidents is in general more severe than those falling from height. These phenomena increase the need for knowledge of the short- and long-term effect of transient mechanical loading to the biological structures of the human body. This paper gives an overview of some of the results of collaborative investigation into blast injury. The requirement for time-resolved data, appropriate mechanical modeling, materials characterization and biological effects is presented. The use of a range of loading platforms, universal testing machines, drop weights, Hopkinson bars, and bespoke traumatic injury simulators are given.

  5. Low profile, high load vertical rolling positioning stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Deming; Barraza, Juan

    1996-01-01

    A stage or support platform assembly for use in a synchrotron accurately positions equipment to be used in the beam line of the synchrotron. The support platform assembly includes an outer housing in which is disposed a lifting mechanism having a lifting platform or stage at its upper extremity on which the equipment is mounted. A worm gear assembly is located in the housing and is adapted to raise and lower a lifting shaft that is fixed to the lifting platform by an anti-binding connection. The lifting platform is moved vertically as the lifting shaft is moved vertically. The anti-binding connection prevents the shaft from rotating with respect to the platform, but does permit slight canting of the shaft with respect to the lifting platform so as to eliminate binding and wear due to possible tolerance mismatches. In order to ensure that the lifting mechanism does not move in a horizontal direction as it is moved vertically, at least three linear roller bearing assemblies are arranged around the outer-periphery of the lifting mechanism. One of the linear roller bearing assemblies can be adjusted so that the roller bearings apply a loading force against the lifting mechanism. Alternatively, a cam mechanism can be used to provide such a loading force.

  6. Additives for high-load extruders; Additivsysteme fuer hochbelastete Spritzgussmaschinen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fletschinger, M.; Brand, F. [Ciba Speciality Chemicals Inc., Basel (Switzerland)

    2004-12-01

    The requirement for tight sealing of hydraulic systems, such as between the moving cylinders and the seals in extruders, has led to the development of new technologies in particular with respect to the sealing materials. Today PTFE/bronze (Poly-Tetra-Fluoro-Ethylene/embedded bronze powder) seals are widely used for these applications, which require in addition reliability and long seal life. Needs to replace environmentally problematic hydraulic fluids based on ZnDTP has gained momentum and therefore new lubricants have also been evaluated for these hydraulic systems. The well-known seal manufacturer Busak + Shamban observed axial tiny scratches in the contact area cylinder-seal on the metal surface when replacing ZnDTP based with Zn-free lubricants. ''Micro-scratching'' refers to this phenomenon, which ultimately leads to fluid leakage thus reducing the efficiency of the hydraulic systems. A first assumption was that this problem is associated with the additive technology. A subsequent root cause analysis clearly showed that this preliminary hypothesis was incorrect. An in depth investigation showed that the phenomenon occurs when the load carrying capacity of the lubricant is insufficient and is not associated with the lubricant additive technology (Zn-free vs. Zn-containing). The load carrying capacity is predominantly determined by the selection of the correct lubricant viscosity and by its appropriate wear inhibition system. In this work it could be demonstrated that there are also Zn-free lubricants available which meet all these requirements. (orig.)

  7. Stimulus recognition occurs under high perceptual load: Evidence from correlated flankers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosman, Joshua D; Mordkoff, J Toby; Vecera, Shaun P

    2016-12-01

    A dominant account of selective attention, perceptual load theory, proposes that when attentional resources are exhausted, task-irrelevant information receives little attention and goes unrecognized. However, the flanker effect-typically used to assay stimulus identification-requires an arbitrary mapping between a stimulus and a response. We looked for failures of flanker identification by using a more-sensitive measure that does not require arbitrary stimulus-response mappings: the correlated flankers effect. We found that flanking items that were task-irrelevant but that correlated with target identity produced a correlated flanker effect. Participants were faster on trials in which the irrelevant flanker had previously correlated with the target than when it did not. Of importance, this correlated flanker effect appeared regardless of perceptual load, occurring even in high-load displays that should have abolished flanker identification. Findings from a standard flanker task replicated the basic perceptual load effect, with flankers not affecting response times under high perceptual load. Our results indicate that task-irrelevant information can be processed to a high level (identification), even under high perceptual load. This challenges a strong account of high perceptual load effects that hypothesizes complete failures of stimulus identification under high perceptual load. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Gearbox Reliability Collaborative Investigation of High-Speed-Shaft Bearing Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Jonathan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Guo, Yi [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-06-01

    The loads and contact stresses in the bearings of the high speed shaft section of the Gearbox Reliability Collaborative gearbox are examined in this paper. The loads were measured though strain gauges installed on the bearing outer races during dynamometer testing of the gearbox. Loads and stresses were also predicted with a simple analytical model and higher-fidelity commercial models. The experimental data compared favorably to each model, and bearing stresses were below thresholds for contact fatigue and axial cracking.

  9. Effect of highly reflective roofing sheet on building thermal loads for a school in Osaka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Jihui

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, urban heat island (UHI phenomenon and building energy consumptions are becoming serious. Strategies to mitigate UHI and reduce building energy consumptions are implemented worldwide. In Japan, as an effective means of mitigating UHI and saving energy of buildings, highly reflective (HR and green roofs are increasingly used. In order to evaluate the effect of roofs with high reflection and thermal insulation on the energy conservation of buildings, we investigated the roof solar reflectivity of the subject school in Osaka, in which the HR roofing sheet was installed on the roof from 2010. Thermal loads, including cooling and heating loads of the top floor of school, were calculated using the thermal load calculation software, New HASP/ACLD-β. Comparing the thermal loads after HR roofing sheet installation to previous, the annual thermal load decreased about 25 MJ/m2-year and the cooling load decreased about 112 MJ/m2-year. However, the heating load increased about 87 MJ/m2-year in winter. To minimize the annual thermal load, thermal insulation of the roof was also considered be used together with HR roofing sheet in this study. The results showed that the combination of HR roofing sheet and high thermal insulation is more effective to reduce the annual thermal load.

  10. Vertically loaded pivot bearing for high-speed shafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zippe, G.; Werner, D.; Keller, A.; Stephan, E.

    1974-01-01

    The pivot bearing subjected to vertical loads has a pivot with a rounded end and a diametral slot and a cup-shaped recess in the bearing box. The end of the pivot and the recess constitute a gap which widens towards the periphery of the bearing. The bearing box carries an attachment with a clearance, the shape of a hollow cylinder and accomodating the pivot and its shaft. To feed the lubricating oil surrounding and filling the bearing there is a groove either in the wall of the clearance or at the end of the pivot in the direction of rotation of the shaft or against it. The oil carried to the support point flows back into the oil bath surrounding the bearing through a slot in the bearing box. (DG) [de

  11. Analyses of divertor high heat-flux components on thermal and electromagnetic loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araki, M.; Kitamura, K.; Suzuki, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; Urata, K. [Mitsubishi Geavy Industries Ltd., 2-5-1, Marunouchi,Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100 (Japan)

    1998-09-01

    In the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), the divertor high heat-flux components are subjected not to only severe heat and particle loads, but also to large electromagnetic loads during reactor operation. A great deal of R and D has been carried out throughout the world with regard to the design of robust high heat-flux components. Based on R and D results, small and intermediate size mock-ups constructed from various armor tile materials have been successfully developed with respect to a thermomechanical point of view. However, little analysis has been carried out with regard to the elastic stresses induced with in the high heat-flux components via the electromagnetic loads during a plasma disruption. Furthermore, past research has only considered thermomechanical and electromagnetic loadings separately and uncoupled. Therefore, a systematic analysis of the combined effects of thermomechanical and electromagnetic loadings has been performed, with the analytical results assessed by ASME section 3 evaluation code. (orig.) 20 refs.

  12. Analyses of divertor high heat-flux components on thermal and electromagnetic loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, M.; Kitamura, K.; Suzuki, S.

    1998-01-01

    In the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), the divertor high heat-flux components are subjected not to only severe heat and particle loads, but also to large electromagnetic loads during reactor operation. A great deal of R and D has been carried out throughout the world with regard to the design of robust high heat-flux components. Based on R and D results, small and intermediate size mock-ups constructed from various armor tile materials have been successfully developed with respect to a thermomechanical point of view. However, little analysis has been carried out with regard to the elastic stresses induced with in the high heat-flux components via the electromagnetic loads during a plasma disruption. Furthermore, past research has only considered thermomechanical and electromagnetic loadings separately and uncoupled. Therefore, a systematic analysis of the combined effects of thermomechanical and electromagnetic loadings has been performed, with the analytical results assessed by ASME section 3 evaluation code. (orig.)

  13. Detection of prostate-specific antigen with biomolecule-gated AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia-dong; Cheng, Jun-jie; Miao, Bin; Wei, Xiao-wei; Xie, Jie; Zhang, Jin-cheng; Zhang, Zhi-qiang; Wu, Dong-min

    2014-07-01

    In order to improve the sensitivity of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) biosensors, a simple biomolecule-gated AlGaN/GaN HEMT structure was designed and successfully fabricated for prostate specific antigen (PSA) detection. UV/ozone was used to oxidize the GaN surface and then a 3-aminopropyl trimethoxysilane (APTES) self-assembled monolayer was bound to the sensing region. This monolayer serves as a binding layer for attachment of the prostate specific antibody (anti-PSA). The biomolecule-gated AlGaN/GaN HEMT sensor shows a rapid and sensitive response when the target prostate-specific antigen in buffer solution was added to the antibody-immobilized sensing area. The current change showed a logarithm relationship against the PSA concentration from 0.1 pg/ml to 0.993 ng/ml. The sensitivity of 0.215% is determined for 0.1 pg/ml PSA solution. The above experimental result of the biomolecule-gated AlGaN/GaN HEMT biosensor suggested that this biosensor might be a useful tool for prostate cancer screening.

  14. Detection of prostate-specific antigen with biomolecule-gated AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jia-dong; Miao, Bin; Wei, Xiao-wei; Xie, Jie; Wu, Dong-min; Cheng, Jun-jie; Zhang, Jin-cheng; Zhang, Zhi-qiang

    2014-01-01

    In order to improve the sensitivity of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) biosensors, a simple biomolecule-gated AlGaN/GaN HEMT structure was designed and successfully fabricated for prostate specific antigen (PSA) detection. UV/ozone was used to oxidize the GaN surface and then a 3-aminopropyl trimethoxysilane (APTES) self-assembled monolayer was bound to the sensing region. This monolayer serves as a binding layer for attachment of the prostate specific antibody (anti-PSA). The biomolecule-gated AlGaN/GaN HEMT sensor shows a rapid and sensitive response when the target prostate-specific antigen in buffer solution was added to the antibody-immobilized sensing area. The current change showed a logarithm relationship against the PSA concentration from 0.1 pg/ml to 0.993 ng/ml. The sensitivity of 0.215% is determined for 0.1 pg/ml PSA solution. The above experimental result of the biomolecule-gated AlGaN/GaN HEMT biosensor suggested that this biosensor might be a useful tool for prostate cancer screening. (paper)

  15. The urinary antigen tests have high sensitivity in diagnosis of Pneumococcus caused community-acquired pneumonia posterior to antimicrobial therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Zhou, Ming; Xiao, Wei; Ai, Biao; Liu, Xuezheng; Li, Yan

    2014-11-01

    Antibiotic treatment before microbiological test significant reduces the positive rate of culture methods of Streptococcus pneumoniae. The Binax NOW S. pneumoniae immunochromatographic test (ICT) has become a more commonly used procedure to diagnose S. pneumoniae from community-acquired pneumonia in adults. However, performance of this test after empirical antimicrobial therapy is uncertain. Therefore, in this prospective study, we evaluate the impact of antimicrobial therapy on sensitivity of ICT test in 487 hospitalized adult patients. The results showed that 192 (39.4 %) and 295 (60.6 %) specimens were collected before (Group 1) or after antibiotic treatment (Group 2), respectively. S. pneumoniae was detected by ICT in 21 (10.9 %) patients in the Group 1 and 39 (13.2 %) in the Group 2 and their positive rates were not different (P > 0.05). However, The positive rate of blood and pleural fluid was declined from 5.7 to 2.7 % and sputum, from 9.9 to 4.7 % after the antibiotic treatment, respectively. This study confirmed that the ICT urinary antigen test remained to have a high sensitivity for diagnosis of pneumococcal infection after empiric antibiotic treatment was started. The ICT urinary antigen test would have a potential to guide the right choice of therapy for pneumonia in adults earlier.

  16. A self-amplified transistor immunosensor under dual gate operation: highly sensitive detection of hepatitis B surface antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, I.-K.; Jeun, M.; Jang, H.-J.; Cho, W.-J.; Lee, K. H.

    2015-10-01

    Ion-sensitive field-effect transistors (ISFETs), although they have attracted considerable attention as effective immunosensors, have still not been adopted for practical applications owing to several problems: (1) the poor sensitivity caused by the short Debye screening length in media with high ion concentration, (2) time-consuming preconditioning processes for achieving the highly-diluted media, and (3) the low durability caused by undesirable ions such as sodium chloride in the media. Here, we propose a highly sensitive immunosensor based on a self-amplified transistor under dual gate operation (immuno-DG ISFET) for the detection of hepatitis B surface antigen. To address the challenges in current ISFET-based immunosensors, we have enhanced the sensitivity of an immunosensor by precisely tailoring the nanostructure of the transistor. In the pH sensing test, the immuno-DG ISFET showed superior sensitivity (2085.53 mV per pH) to both standard ISFET under single gate operation (58.88 mV per pH) and DG ISFET with a non-tailored transistor (381.14 mV per pH). Moreover, concerning the detection of hepatitis B surface antigens (HBsAg) using the immuno-DG ISFET, we have successfully detected trace amounts of HBsAg (22.5 fg mL-1) in a non-diluted 1× PBS medium with a high sensitivity of 690 mV. Our results demonstrate that the proposed immuno-DG ISFET can be a biosensor platform for practical use in the diagnosis of various diseases.Ion-sensitive field-effect transistors (ISFETs), although they have attracted considerable attention as effective immunosensors, have still not been adopted for practical applications owing to several problems: (1) the poor sensitivity caused by the short Debye screening length in media with high ion concentration, (2) time-consuming preconditioning processes for achieving the highly-diluted media, and (3) the low durability caused by undesirable ions such as sodium chloride in the media. Here, we propose a highly sensitive immunosensor

  17. Synthetic oligorotaxanes exert high forces when folding under mechanical load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluysmans, Damien; Hubert, Sandrine; Bruns, Carson J.; Zhu, Zhixue; Stoddart, J. Fraser; Duwez, Anne-Sophie

    2018-01-01

    Folding is a ubiquitous process that nature uses to control the conformations of its molecular machines, allowing them to perform chemical and mechanical tasks. Over the years, chemists have synthesized foldamers that adopt well-defined and stable folded architectures, mimicking the control expressed by natural systems1,2. Mechanically interlocked molecules, such as rotaxanes and catenanes, are prototypical molecular machines that enable the controlled movement and positioning of their component parts3-5. Recently, combining the exquisite complexity of these two classes of molecules, donor-acceptor oligorotaxane foldamers have been synthesized, in which interactions between the mechanically interlocked component parts dictate the single-molecule assembly into a folded secondary structure6-8. Here we report on the mechanochemical properties of these molecules. We use atomic force microscopy-based single-molecule force spectroscopy to mechanically unfold oligorotaxanes, made of oligomeric dumbbells incorporating 1,5-dioxynaphthalene units encircled by cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) rings. Real-time capture of fluctuations between unfolded and folded states reveals that the molecules exert forces of up to 50 pN against a mechanical load of up to 150 pN, and displays transition times of less than 10 μs. While the folding is at least as fast as that observed in proteins, it is remarkably more robust, thanks to the mechanically interlocked structure. Our results show that synthetic oligorotaxanes have the potential to exceed the performance of natural folding proteins.

  18. Enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass at high-solids loadings – A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modenbach, Alicia A.; Nokes, Sue E.

    2013-01-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis is the unit operation in the lignocellulose conversion process that utilizes enzymes to depolymerize lignocellulosic biomass. The saccharide components released are the feedstock for fermentation. When performed at high-solids loadings (≥15% solids, w/w), enzymatic hydrolysis potentially offers many advantages over conversions performed at low- or moderate-solids loadings, including increased sugar and ethanol concentrations and decreased capital and operating costs. The goal of this review is to provide a consolidated source of information on studies using high-solids loadings in enzymatic hydrolysis. Included in this review is a brief discussion of the limitations, such as a lack of available water, difficulty with mixing and handling, insufficient mass and heat transfer, and increased concentration of inhibitors, associated with the use of high solids, as well as descriptions and findings of studies that performed enzymatic hydrolysis at high-solids loadings. Reactors designed and/or equipped for improved handling of high-solids slurries are also discussed. Lastly, this review includes a brief discussion of some of the operations that have successfully scaled-up and implemented high-solids enzymatic hydrolysis at pilot- and demonstration-scale facilities. -- Highlights: •High solids enzymatic hydrolysis needed for conversion process to be cost-effective. •Limitations must be addressed before benefits of high-solid loadings fully realized. •Some success with high-solids loadings at pilot and demonstration scale

  19. Structural response of full-scale concrete bridges subjected to high load magnitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halding, Philip Skov; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup; Jensen, Thomas Westergaard

    -shaped concrete elements. The test method is outlined in the paper, which includes a description of a novel test-rig used to apply a high magnitude loading. It was shown that the test rig could perform controlled testing in only one day, which is an important aspect, since available time (due to traffic...... disturbance) often is an issue when testing on site. Also, different types of measuring equipment such as lasers, LVDT’s and DIC-cameras was investigated, in order to evaluate the deformations during loading of one of the OT-beam bridges. The monitoring equipment was studied to verify if such equipment...... efficiently could be used for in-situ measurements. The load was applied semi-deformation controlled by a combination of dead load and hydraulic jacks. The novel high magnitude loading-rig worked well. It was also possible to achieve good readings from the monitoring equipment in combination with the applied...

  20. Influence of loading distribution on the performance of high pressure turbine blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corriveau, Daniel

    Midspan measurements were made in a transonic wind tunnel for three High Pressure (HP) turbine blade cascades at both design and off-design incidences. Comparisons with two-dimensional numerical simulations of the cascade flow were also made. The baseline profile is the midspan section of a HP turbine blade of fairly recent design. It is considered mid-loaded. To gain a better understanding of blade loading limits and the influence of loading distributions, the profile of the baseline airfoil was modified to create two new airfoils having aft-loaded and front-loaded pressure distributions. Tests were performed for exit Mach numbers between 0.6 and 1.2. In addition, measurements were made for an extended range of Reynolds numbers for constant Mach numbers of 0.6, 0.85, 0.95 and 1.05. At the design exit Mach number of 1.05 and at design incidence, the aft-loaded airfoil showed a reduction of almost 20% in the total pressure losses compared with the baseline airfoil. Based on the analysis of wake traverse data and base pressure measurements combined with numerical results, it was found that the poorer loss performance of the baseline mid-loaded profile compared to the aft-loaded blade could be attributed to the former's higher rear suction side curvature, which resulted in higher flow velocity in that region, which, in turn, contributed to reducing the base pressure. The lower base pressure at the trailing edge resulted in a stronger trailing edge shock system for the mid-loaded blade. This shock system increased the losses for the mid-loaded baseline profile when compared to the aft-loaded profile. On the negative side, it was also found that as Mach numbers were increased beyond the design value the performance of the aft-loaded blade deteriorated rapidly. Under such conditions, the front-loaded airfoil showed generally inferior performance compared with the baseline airfoil. At off-design incidence, the aft-loaded blade maintained a superior loss performance over a

  1. How the definition of acceptable antigens and epitope analysis can facilitate transplantation of highly sensitized patients with excellent long-term graft survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidt, Sebastiaan; Haasnoot, Geert W; Claas, Frans H J

    2018-05-24

    Highly sensitized patients awaiting a renal transplant have a low chance of receiving an organ offer. Defining acceptable antigens and using this information for allocation purposes can vastly enhance transplantation of this subgroup of patients, which is the essence of the Eurotransplant Acceptable Mismatch program. Acceptable antigens can be determined by extensive laboratory testing, as well as on basis of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) epitope analyses. Within the Acceptable Mismatch program, there is no effect of HLA mismatches on long-term graft survival. Furthermore, patients transplanted through the Acceptable Mismatch program have similar long-term graft survival to nonsensitized patients transplanted through regular allocation. Although HLA epitope analysis is already being used for defining acceptable HLA antigens for highly sensitized patients in the Acceptable Mismatch program, increasing knowledge on HLA antibody - epitope interactions will pave the way toward the definition of acceptable epitopes for highly sensitized patients in the future. Allocation based on acceptable antigens can facilitate transplantation of highly sensitized patients with excellent long-term graft survival.

  2. Optimal design of high-speed loading spindle based on ABAQUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xudong; Dong, Yu; Ge, Qingkuan; Yang, Hai

    2017-12-01

    The three-dimensional model of high-speed loading spindle is established by using ABAQUS’s modeling module. A finite element analysis model of high-speed loading spindle was established by using spring element to simulate bearing boundary condition. The static and dynamic performance of the spindle structure with different specifications of the rectangular spline and the different diameter neck of axle are studied in depth, and the influence of different spindle span on the static and dynamic performance of the high-speed loading spindle is studied. Finally, the optimal structure of the high-speed loading spindle is obtained. The results provide a theoretical basis for improving the overall performance of the test-bed

  3. Highly specific expression of luciferase gene in lungs of naive nude mice directed by prostate-specific antigen promoter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hongwei; Li Jinzhong; Helm, Gregory A.; Pan Dongfeng

    2005-01-01

    PSA promoter has been demonstrated the utility for tissue-specific toxic gene therapy in prostate cancer models. Characterization of foreign gene overexpression in normal animals elicited by PSA promoter should help evaluate therapy safety. Here we constructed an adenovirus vector (AdPSA-Luc), containing firefly luciferase gene under the control of the 5837 bp long prostate-specific antigen promoter. A charge coupled device video camera was used to non-invasively image expression of firefly luciferase in nude mice on days 3, 7, 11 after injection of 2 x 10 9 PFU of AdPSA-Luc virus via tail vein. The result showed highly specific expression of the luciferase gene in lungs of mice from day 7. The finding indicates the potential limitations of the suicide gene therapy of prostate cancer based on selectivity of PSA promoter. By contrary, it has encouraging implications for further development of vectors via PSA promoter to enable gene therapy for pulmonary diseases

  4. Human Leukocyte Antigen Typing Using a Knowledge Base Coupled with a High-Throughput Oligonucleotide Probe Array Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guang Lan; Keskin, Derin B.; Lin, Hsin-Nan; Lin, Hong Huang; DeLuca, David S.; Leppanen, Scott; Milford, Edgar L.; Reinherz, Ellis L.; Brusic, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Human leukocyte antigens (HLA) are important biomarkers because multiple diseases, drug toxicity, and vaccine responses reveal strong HLA associations. Current clinical HLA typing is an elimination process requiring serial testing. We present an alternative in situ synthesized DNA-based microarray method that contains hundreds of thousands of probes representing a complete overlapping set covering 1,610 clinically relevant HLA class I alleles accompanied by computational tools for assigning HLA type to 4-digit resolution. Our proof-of-concept experiment included 21 blood samples, 18 cell lines, and multiple controls. The method is accurate, robust, and amenable to automation. Typing errors were restricted to homozygous samples or those with very closely related alleles from the same locus, but readily resolved by targeted DNA sequencing validation of flagged samples. High-throughput HLA typing technologies that are effective, yet inexpensive, can be used to analyze the world’s populations, benefiting both global public health and personalized health care. PMID:25505899

  5. Soil mechanical stresses in high wheel load agricultural field traffic: a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamandé, Mathieu; Schjønning, Per

    2017-01-01

    highly skewed. Across tyres, the maximum stress in the contact area correlated linearly with, but was much higher than, the mean ground pressure. For each of the three soil depths, the maximum stresses under the tyres were significantly correlated with the wheel load, but not with other loading......Subsoil compaction is a serious long-term threat to soil functions. Only a few studies have quantified the mechanical stresses reaching deep subsoil layers for modern high wheel load machinery. In the present study we measured the vertical stresses in the tyre–soil contact area and at 0.3, 0...

  6. Extrinsic Cognitive Load Impairs Spoken Word Recognition in High- and Low-Predictability Sentences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Cynthia R; Pisoni, David B

    Listening effort (LE) induced by speech degradation reduces performance on concurrent cognitive tasks. However, a converse effect of extrinsic cognitive load on recognition of spoken words in sentences has not been shown. The aims of the present study were to (a) examine the impact of extrinsic cognitive load on spoken word recognition in a sentence recognition task and (b) determine whether cognitive load and/or LE needed to understand spectrally degraded speech would differentially affect word recognition in high- and low-predictability sentences. Downstream effects of speech degradation and sentence predictability on the cognitive load task were also examined. One hundred twenty young adults identified sentence-final spoken words in high- and low-predictability Speech Perception in Noise sentences. Cognitive load consisted of a preload of short (low-load) or long (high-load) sequences of digits, presented visually before each spoken sentence and reported either before or after identification of the sentence-final word. LE was varied by spectrally degrading sentences with four-, six-, or eight-channel noise vocoding. Level of spectral degradation and order of report (digits first or words first) were between-participants variables. Effects of cognitive load, sentence predictability, and speech degradation on accuracy of sentence-final word identification as well as recall of preload digit sequences were examined. In addition to anticipated main effects of sentence predictability and spectral degradation on word recognition, we found an effect of cognitive load, such that words were identified more accurately under low load than high load. However, load differentially affected word identification in high- and low-predictability sentences depending on the level of sentence degradation. Under severe spectral degradation (four-channel vocoding), the effect of cognitive load on word identification was present for high-predictability sentences but not for low

  7. Part-load performance of a high temperature Kalina cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Modi, Anish; Andreasen, Jesper Graa; Kærn, Martin Ryhl

    2015-01-01

    The Kalina cycle has recently seen increased interest as an alternative to the conventional steam Rankine cycle. The cycle has been studied for use with both low and high temperature applications such as geothermal power plants, ocean thermal energy conversion, waste heat recovery, gas turbine...

  8. Characteristic study of high-Tc superconducting maglev under side-loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wei; Wang Jiasu; Liu Wei; Zheng Jun; Lin Qunxu; Pan Siting; Deng Zigang; Ma Guangtong; Wang Suyu

    2009-01-01

    In practical application of High-T c Superconducting (HTS) maglev, slant is an observable defect. It was caused by constantly one side on and off the vehicle by passengers. So far, this phenomenon has not been reported yet. In order to understand its influence on the stability of the HTS maglev, we experimentally studied the dynamic characteristic and slant effect of HTS maglev under center-load and side-load. It was found that load destabilizes the vehicle, and the side-load can obviously slant the vehicle body. In the end, the pre-load method was proposed to enhance the dynamic stability and suppress the slant, which proved to be considerably effective. These results are critical in practical running of HTS maglev

  9. Characteristic study of high-T{sub c} superconducting maglev under side-loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Wei [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, M/S 152, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China)], E-mail: frank.weiwang@gmail.com; Wang Jiasu [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, M/S 152, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China)], E-mail: asclab@asclab.cn; Liu Wei; Zheng Jun; Lin Qunxu; Pan Siting; Deng Zigang; Ma Guangtong; Wang Suyu [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, M/S 152, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China)

    2009-02-15

    In practical application of High-T{sub c} Superconducting (HTS) maglev, slant is an observable defect. It was caused by constantly one side on and off the vehicle by passengers. So far, this phenomenon has not been reported yet. In order to understand its influence on the stability of the HTS maglev, we experimentally studied the dynamic characteristic and slant effect of HTS maglev under center-load and side-load. It was found that load destabilizes the vehicle, and the side-load can obviously slant the vehicle body. In the end, the pre-load method was proposed to enhance the dynamic stability and suppress the slant, which proved to be considerably effective. These results are critical in practical running of HTS maglev.

  10. Controlled nanostructure and high loading of single-walled carbon nanotubes reinforced polycarbonate composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shiren; Liang Zhiyong; Pham, Giang; Park, Young-Bin; Wang, Ben; Zhang, Chuck; Kramer, Leslie; Funchess, Percy

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an effective technique to fabricate thermoplastic nanocomposites with high loading of well-dispersed single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). SWNT membranes were made from a multi-step dispersion and filtration method, and then impregnated with polycarbonate solution to make thermoplastic nanocomposites. High loading of nanotubes was achieved by controlling the viscosity of polycarbonate solution. SEM and AFM characterization results revealed the controlled nanostructure in the resultant nanocomposites. Dynamic mechanical property tests indicated that the storage modulus of the resulting nanocomposites at 20 wt% nanotubes loading was improved by a factor of 3.4 compared with neat polycarbonate material. These results suggest the developed approach is an effective way to fabricate thermoplastic nanocomposites with good dispersion and high SWNT loading

  11. Meeting the energy demand of high load density areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rillo, Carlos O.

    1997-01-01

    Due to the high cost of land and in some places, unavailability of land, the existing standard substation of Meralco (Manila Electric Company) can no longer be used in many places of Metro Manila. To cope with this problem, the GIS (Gas Insulated System) substation is now being resorted to. There are various schemes of developing a GIS substation, each fitted to certain particular conditions. Cost implications and design considerations were also briefly discussed. (author)

  12. Mesoscale modeling of metal-loaded high explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bdzil, John Bohdan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lieberthal, Brandon [UNIV OF ILLINOIS; Srewart, Donald S [UNIV OF ILLINOIS

    2010-01-01

    We describe a 3D approach to modeling multi-phase blast explosive, which is primarily condensed explosive by volume with inert embedded particles. These embedded particles are uniform in size and placed on the array of a regular lattice. The asymptotic theory of detonation shock dynamics governs the detonation shock propagation in the explosive. Mesoscale hydrodynamic simulations are used to show how the particles are compressed, deformed, and accelerated by the high-speed detonation products flow.

  13. The analytical description of high temperature tensile creep for cavitating materials subjected to time variable loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocek, M.

    A phenomenological cavitation model is presented by means of which the life time as well as the creep curve equations can be calculated for cavitating materials subjected to time variable tensile loads. The model precludes the proportionality between the damage A and the damage rate (dA/dt) resp. Both are connected by the life time function tau. The latter is derived from static stress rupture tests and contains the loading conditions. From this model the life fraction rule (LFR) is derived. The model is used to calculate the creep curves of cavitating materials subjected at high temperatures to non-stationary tensile loading conditions. In the present paper the following loading procedures are considered: creep at constant load F and true stress s; creep at linear load increase ((dF/dt)=const) and creep at constant load amplitude cycling (CLAC). For these loading procedures the creep equations for cavitating and non-cavitating specimens are derived. Under comparable conditions the creep rate of cavitating materials are higher than for non-cavitating ones. (author)

  14. Identification by genotyping of a commercial antigen preparation as the source of a laboratory contamination with Coxiella burnetii and as an unexpected rich source of control DNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tilburg, Jeroen J. H. C.; Horrevorts, Alphons M.; Peeters, Marcel F.; Klaassen, Corne H. W.; Rossen, John W. A.

    By performing genotyping, a laboratory contamination involving Q fever was traced back to the antigen preparation used in a commercially available complement fixation test. It was established that such antigen preparations contain relatively high loads of DNA/RNA, making them potential sources of

  15. Shock loading influence on mechanical behavior of high purity iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buy, Francois; Voltz, Christophe

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes the analysis of shock wave effects for high purity iron. The method developed is based on the characterization of the mechanical behavior of as received and shocked material. Shock effect is generated through plate impact tests performed in the range of 4 GPa to 39 GPa on a single stage light gas gun or a powder gun. Therefore, as-received and impacted materials are characterized. A formalism proposed by J.R.Klepaczko and based on physical relations has been adopted to describe stress strain curves

  16. Future residential loads profiles : scenario-based analysis of high penetration of heavy loads and distributed generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asare-Bediako, B.; Kling, W.L.; Ribeiro, P.F.

    2014-01-01

    Electric load profiles are useful for accurate load forecasting, network planning and optimal generation capacity. They represent electricity demand patterns and are to a large extent predictable. However, new and heavier loads (heat pumps and electric vehicles), distributed generation, and home

  17. Correlation and agreement between eplet mismatches calculated using serological, low-intermediate and high resolution molecular human leukocyte antigen typing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, Samantha; D'Orsogna, Lloyd; Irish, Ashley B; Lewis, Joshua R; Wong, Germaine; Lim, Wai H

    2018-03-02

    Structural human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matching at the eplet level can be identified by HLAMatchmaker, which requires the entry of four-digit alleles. The aim of this study was to evaluate the agreement between eplet mismatches calculated by serological and two-digit typing methods compared to high-resolution four-digit typing. In a cohort of 264 donor/recipient pairs, the evaluation of measurement error was assessed using intra-class correlation to confirm the absolute agreement between the number of eplet mismatches at class I (HLA-A, -B, C) and II loci (HLA-DQ and -DR) calculated using serological or two-digit molecular typing compared to four-digit molecular typing methods. The proportion of donor/recipient pairs with a difference of >5 eplet mismatches between the HLA typing methods was also determined. Intra-class correlation coefficients between serological and four-digit molecular typing methods were 0.969 (95% confidence intervals [95% CI] 0.960-0.975) and 0.926 (95% CI 0.899-0.944), respectively; and 0.995 (95% CI 0.994-0.996) and 0.993 (95% CI 0.991-0.995), respectively between two-digit and four-digit molecular typing methods. The proportion of donor/recipient pairs with a difference of >5 eplet mismatches at class I and II loci was 4% and 16% for serological versus four-digit molecular typing methods, and 0% and 2% for two-digit versus four-digit molecular typing methods, respectively. In this small predominantly Caucasian population, compared with serology, there is a high level of agreement in the number of eplet mismatches calculated using two-compared to four-digit molecular HLA-typing methods, suggesting that two-digit typing may be sufficient in determining eplet mismatch load in kidney transplantation.

  18. Optimization of biomethanation focusing on high ammonia loaded processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Han

    , could theoretically mitigate the ammonia inhibition problem (Angelidaki et al., 1999). Therefore, the effect of co-digestion of cattle manure with lipids (i.e. glycerol trioleate (GTO)) under high ammonia levels (5 g NH4+-N·L-1) in anaerobic continuous stirred tank (CSTR) reactors (RGTO) was assessed....... Additionally, for comparison purposes, a soluble carbohydrate (i.e. glucose) was also used as a co-substrate in an identical CSTR reactor (RGLU). At 5 g NH4+-N·L-1, relative methane production of RGTO and RGLU, was 10.5% and 41% compared to the expected uninhibited production, respectively. At the same time....... The results derived from this study clearly demonstrated a 31.3% increase in methane production yield in the CSTR reactor, at steady-state, after bioaugmentation. It indicated that this new solution to counteract ammonia inhibition was more practical and effective compared with other methods applied today...

  19. High shock load testing of lithium-thionyl chloride batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epstein, J.; Marincic, N.

    1983-10-01

    Low rate cylindrical cells have been developed, capable of withstanding mechanical shocks up to 23,000 g's for one millisecond. The cells were based on the lithium-thionyl chloride battery system and totally hermetic stainless steel hardware incorporating a glass sealed positive terminal. Four cells in series were required to deliver 25 mA pulses at a minimum voltage of 10 V before and after such exposure to one mechanical shock. Batteries were contained in a hardened steel housing and mounted within a projectile accelerated by means of a gas gun. The velocity of the projectile was measured with electronic probes immediately before impact and the deceleration was effected using a special aluminum honeycomb structure from which the g values were calculated. A high survival rate for the cells was achieved in spite of some mechanical damage to the battery housing still present.

  20. Design and performance of a 2-megawatt high voltage dc test load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horan, D.; Kustom, R.; Ferguson, M.

    1994-01-01

    A high-power water-cooled resistive load which simulates the electrical load characteristics of a high-power klystron, capable of a 2 MW dissipation at 95 kV DC, is designed and installed. The load utilizes wirewound resistor elements suspended inside G-11 insulated tubing contained within a single-wall 316 stainless steel pressure vessel with flanged elliptical heads. The vessel supplies a continuous flow of deionized water. Baffles fabricated from G-10 sheets support the tubing and promote water turbulence to maximize heat removal. A companion oil tank houses resistive filament and mod-anode power supply test loads, plus an electrical interlock system which provides protection from inadequate water flow, excessive oil temperature, and arcing in either the pressure vessel or oil tank. A secondary safety system consists of both hydrostatic and steam pressure relief valves on the pressure vessel. Power supply tests indicate the load simulates the electrical load characteristics of a high-power klystron to a degree sufficient to accurately performance-test the rf high voltage power supplies used at the Advanced Photon Source

  1. Modeling and Depletion Simulations for a High Flux Isotope Reactor Cycle with a Representative Experiment Loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, David [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Reactor and Nuclear Systems Division; Betzler, Ben [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Reactor and Nuclear Systems Division; Hirtz, Gregory John [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Reactor and Nuclear Systems Division; Ilas, Germina [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Reactor and Nuclear Systems Division; Sunny, Eva [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Reactor and Nuclear Systems Division

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to document a high-fidelity VESTA/MCNP High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) core model that features a new, representative experiment loading. This model, which represents the current, high-enriched uranium fuel core, will serve as a reference for low-enriched uranium conversion studies, safety-basis calculations, and other research activities. A new experiment loading model was developed to better represent current, typical experiment loadings, in comparison to the experiment loading included in the model for Cycle 400 (operated in 2004). The new experiment loading model for the flux trap target region includes full length 252Cf production targets, 75Se production capsules, 63Ni production capsules, a 188W production capsule, and various materials irradiation targets. Fully loaded 238Pu production targets are modeled in eleven vertical experiment facilities located in the beryllium reflector. Other changes compared to the Cycle 400 model are the high-fidelity modeling of the fuel element side plates and the material composition of the control elements. Results obtained from the depletion simulations with the new model are presented, with a focus on time-dependent isotopic composition of irradiated fuel and single cycle isotope production metrics.

  2. High-Speed Shaft Bearing Loads Testing and Modeling in the NREL Gearbox Reliability Collaborative: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNiff, B.; Guo, Y.; Keller, J.; Sethuraman, L.

    2014-12-01

    Bearing failures in the high speed output stage of the gearbox are plaguing the wind turbine industry. Accordingly, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC) has performed an experimental and theoretical investigation of loads within these bearings. The purpose of this paper is to describe the instrumentation, calibrations, data post-processing and initial results from this testing and modeling effort. Measured HSS torque, bending, and bearing loads are related to model predictions. Of additional interest is examining if the shaft measurements can be simply related to bearing load measurements, eliminating the need for invasive modifications of the bearing races for such instrumentation.

  3. A method for calculation of finite fatigue life under multiaxial loading in high-cycle domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Malnati

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A method for fatigue life assessment in high-cycle domain under multiaxial loading is presented in this paper. This approach allows fatigue assessment under any kind of load history, without limitations. The methodology lies on the construction - at a macroscopic level - of an “indicator” in the form of a set of cycles, representing plasticity that can arise at mesoscopic level throughout fatigue process. During the advancement of the loading history new cycles are created and a continuous evaluation of the damage is made.

  4. High rate loading tests and impact tests of concrete and reinforcement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, J.I.; Tachikawa, H.; Fujimoto, K.

    1982-01-01

    The responses of reinforced concrete structural members and structures subjected to impact or impulsive loadings are affected by the behavior of constituent concrete and reinforcement which are the synthesis of the rate effects and the contribution of propagating stress waves of them. The rate effects and the contribution of stress waves do not have the same tendency in the variation of magnitude of them with speed of impact or impulsive loadings. Therefore the rate effects, mentioned above, should be obtained by the tests minimized the effect of stress waves (high rate loading test). This paper deals with the testing techniques with high rate loadings and impact, and also reports the main results of these tests. (orig.) [de

  5. Fluorescent QDs-polystyrene composite nanospheres for highly efficient and rapid protein antigen detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Changhua; Mao, Mao [Henan University, Key Laboratory for Special Functional Materials of the Ministry of Education (China); Yuan, Hang [Tsinghua University, Life Science Division, Graduate School at Shenzhen (China); Shen, Huaibin [Henan University, Key Laboratory for Special Functional Materials of the Ministry of Education (China); Wu, Feng; Ma, Lan, E-mail: malan@sz.tsinghua.edu.cn [Tsinghua University, Life Science Division, Graduate School at Shenzhen (China); Li, Lin Song, E-mail: lsli@henu.edu.cn [Henan University, Key Laboratory for Special Functional Materials of the Ministry of Education (China)

    2013-09-15

    In this paper, high-quality carboxyl-functionalized fluorescent (red, green, and blue emitting) nanospheres (46-103 nm) consisting of hydrophobic quantum dots (QDs) and polystyrene were prepared by a miniemulsion polymerization approach. This miniemulsion polymerization approach induced a homogeneous distribution and high aqueous-phase transport efficiency of fluorescent QDs in composite nanospheres, which proved the success of our encoding QDs strategy. The obtained fluorescent nanospheres exhibited high stability in aqueous solution under a wide range of pH, different salt concentrations, PBS buffer, and thermal treatment at 80 Degree-Sign C. Based on the red emitting composite nanosphere, we performed fluorescent lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) strips for high-sensitivity and rapid alpha-fetal protein detection. The detection limit reached 0.1 ng/mL, which was 200 times higher than commercial colloidal gold-labeled LFIA strips, and it reached similar detection level in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit.

  6. Thyroid hormones and carcinoembryonic antigen in persons with a high risk of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svetukhina, E.S.; Bukhteeva, N.F.; Sapozhkova, L.P.; Maripova, Eh.M.

    1984-01-01

    An attempt was made to study CEA and thyroid hormones in high risk groups as there is evidence of their change in lung cancer patients. A questionnaire to distinguish between 4 types of the probability of lung cancer development and a method of radioimmunoassay to study the concentration of CEA and thyroid hormones in the blood serum were used. A high risk group included 320 practically healthy persons, a control group 108 patients with verified lung cancer. The results of the study have shown that the concentration of CEA and thyroid hormones increases more often in persons of the high risk group with noncancerous diseases than in persons without pathological pulmonary changes. With an increase in the degree of probability the frequency of a high concentration of CEA and thyroid hormones grows. The older the persons with a high risk of lung cancer, the higher the frequency of concentration of the thyroid hormones. Studies of CEA and thyroid hormones can be used for dynamic observation of persons with a high risk of lung cancer

  7. Highly efficient gene transfer using a retroviral vector into murine T cells for preclinical chimeric antigen receptor-expressing T cell therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusabuka, Hotaka; Fujiwara, Kento; Tokunaga, Yusuke; Hirobe, Sachiko; Nakagawa, Shinsaku; Okada, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    Adoptive immunotherapy using chimeric antigen receptor-expressing T (CAR-T) cells has attracted attention as an efficacious strategy for cancer treatment. To prove the efficacy and safety of CAR-T cell therapy, the elucidation of immunological mechanisms underlying it in mice is required. Although a retroviral vector (Rv) is mainly used for the introduction of CAR to murine T cells, gene transduction efficiency is generally less than 50%. The low transduction efficiency causes poor precision in the functional analysis of CAR-T cells. We attempted to improve the Rv gene transduction protocol to more efficiently generate functional CAR-T cells by optimizing the period of pre-cultivation and antibody stimulation. In the improved protocol, gene transduction efficiency to murine T cells was more than 90%. In addition, almost all of the prepared murine T cells expressed CAR after puromycin selection. These CAR-T cells had antigen-specific cytotoxic activity and secreted multiple cytokines by antigen stimulation. We believe that our optimized gene transduction protocol for murine T cells contributes to the advancement of T cell biology and development of immunotherapy using genetically engineered T cells. - Highlights: • We established highly efficient gene transduction protocols for murine T cells. • CD8"+ CAR-T cells had antigen-specific cytotoxic activity. • CD4"+ CAR-T cells secreted multiple cytokines by antigen stimulation. • This finding can contribute to the development of T-cell biology and immunotherapy.

  8. Highly efficient gene transfer using a retroviral vector into murine T cells for preclinical chimeric antigen receptor-expressing T cell therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusabuka, Hotaka; Fujiwara, Kento; Tokunaga, Yusuke; Hirobe, Sachiko; Nakagawa, Shinsaku, E-mail: nakagawa@phs.osaka-u.ac.jp; Okada, Naoki, E-mail: okada@phs.osaka-u.ac.jp

    2016-04-22

    Adoptive immunotherapy using chimeric antigen receptor-expressing T (CAR-T) cells has attracted attention as an efficacious strategy for cancer treatment. To prove the efficacy and safety of CAR-T cell therapy, the elucidation of immunological mechanisms underlying it in mice is required. Although a retroviral vector (Rv) is mainly used for the introduction of CAR to murine T cells, gene transduction efficiency is generally less than 50%. The low transduction efficiency causes poor precision in the functional analysis of CAR-T cells. We attempted to improve the Rv gene transduction protocol to more efficiently generate functional CAR-T cells by optimizing the period of pre-cultivation and antibody stimulation. In the improved protocol, gene transduction efficiency to murine T cells was more than 90%. In addition, almost all of the prepared murine T cells expressed CAR after puromycin selection. These CAR-T cells had antigen-specific cytotoxic activity and secreted multiple cytokines by antigen stimulation. We believe that our optimized gene transduction protocol for murine T cells contributes to the advancement of T cell biology and development of immunotherapy using genetically engineered T cells. - Highlights: • We established highly efficient gene transduction protocols for murine T cells. • CD8{sup +} CAR-T cells had antigen-specific cytotoxic activity. • CD4{sup +} CAR-T cells secreted multiple cytokines by antigen stimulation. • This finding can contribute to the development of T-cell biology and immunotherapy.

  9. Near-infrared labeled, ovalbumin loaded polymeric nanoparticles based on a hydrophilic polyester as model vaccine : In vivo tracking and evaluation of antigen-specific CD8+ T cell immune response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahimian, Sima; Kleinovink, Jan Willem; Fransen, Marieke F.; Mezzanotte, Laura; Gold, Henrik; Wisse, Patrick; Overkleeft, Hermen; Amidi, Maryam; Jiskoot, Wim; Lo¨wik, Clemens W.; Ossendorp, Ferry; Hennink, Wim E.

    2015-01-01

    Particulate antigen delivery systems aimed at the induction of antigen-specific T cells form a promising approach in immunotherapy to replace pharmacokinetically unfavorable soluble antigen formulations. In this study, we developed a delivery system using the model protein antigen ovalbumin (OVA)

  10. Phosphorylation at tyrosine 114 of Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) is required for adipogenesis in response to high fat diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, Yuan-Hung; Ho, Po-Chun; Chen, Min-Shan; Hugo, Eric; Ben-Jonathan, Nira [Department of Cancer Biology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, 3125 Eden Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45267-0521 (United States); Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, 3223 Eden Avenue, Kettering Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH 45267-0056 (United States); Wang, Shao-Chun, E-mail: shao-chun.wang@uc.edu [Department of Cancer Biology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, 3125 Eden Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45267-0521 (United States); Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, 3223 Eden Avenue, Kettering Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH 45267-0056 (United States)

    2013-01-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) is phosphorylated at Y114. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phospho-Y114 of PCNA is not required for cell proliferation for normal growth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MCE during adipogenesis is abolished in the lack of the phosphorylation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Homozygous Y114F mice are resistant to high fat diet induced obesity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our results shed light on the interface between proliferation and differentiation. -- Abstract: Clonal proliferation is an obligatory component of adipogenesis. Although several cell cycle regulators are known to participate in the transition between pre-adipocyte proliferation and terminal adipocyte differentiation, how the core DNA synthesis machinery is coordinately regulated in adipogenesis remains elusive. PCNA (Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen) is an indispensable component for DNA synthesis during proliferation. Here we show that PCNA is subject to phosphorylation at the highly conserved tyrosine residue 114 (Y114). Replacing the Y114 residue with phenylalanine (Y114F), which is structurally similar to tyrosine but cannot be phosphorylated, does not affect normal animal development. However, when challenged with high fat diet, mice carrying homozygous Y114F alleles (PCNA{sup F/F}) are resistant to adipose tissue enlargement in comparison to wild-type (WT) mice. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) harboring WT or Y114F mutant PCNA proliferate at similar rates. However, when subjected to adipogenesis induction in culture, PCNA{sup F/F} MEFs are not able to re-enter the cell cycle and fail to form mature adipocytes, while WT MEFs undergo mitotic clonal expansion in response to the adipogenic stimulation, accompanied by enhanced Y114 phosphorylation of PCNA, and differentiate to mature adipocytes. Consistent with the function of Y114 phosphorylation in clonal proliferation in adipogenesis, fat tissues isolated from WT

  11. Structural insights into a high affinity nanobody:antigen complex by homology modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skottrup, Peter Durand

    2017-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is a major periodontitis-causing pathogens. P. gingivalis secrete a cysteine protease termed RgpB, which is specific for Arg-Xaa bonds in substrates. Recently, a nanobody-based assay was used to demonstrate that RgpB could represent a novel diagnostic target, thereby...... simplifying. P. gingivalis detection. The nanobody, VHH7, had a high binding affinity and was specific for RgpB, when tested towards the highly identical RgpA. In this study a homology model of VHH7 was build. The complementarity determining regions (CDR) comprising the paratope residues responsible for Rgp...

  12. Method for exciting inductive-resistive loads with high and controllable direct current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, H.M. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The apparatus and method for transmitting dc power to a load circuit by applying a dc voltage from a standard waveform synthesizer to duration modulate a bipolar rectangular wave generator are described. As the amplitude of the dc voltage increases, the widths of the rectangular wave generator output pulses increase, and as the amplitude of the dc voltage decreases, the widths of the rectangular wave generator output pulses decrease. Thus, the waveform synthesizer selectively changes the durations of the rectangular wave generator bipolar output pulses so as to produce a rectangular wave ac carrier that is duration modulated in accordance with and in direct proportion to the voltage amplitude from the synthesizer. Thereupon, by transferring the carrier to the load circuit through an amplifier and a rectifier, the load current also corresponds directly to the voltage amplitude from the synthesizer. To this end, the rectified wave at less than 100 percent duty factor amounts to a doubled frequency direct voltage pulse train for applying a direct current to the load, while the current ripple is minimized by a high L/R in the load circuit. In one embodiment, a power transmitting power amplifier means having a dc power supply is matched to the load circuit through a transformer for current magnification without sacrificing load current duration capability, while negative voltage and current feedback are provided in order to insure good output fidelity. 4 Claims, 18 Drawing Figures

  13. Effect of Pulsed Ultraviolet Light and High Hydrostatic Pressure on the Antigenicity of Almond Protein Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The efficacy of pulsed ultraviolet light (PUV) and high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) on reducing the IgE binding to the almond extracts, was studied using SDS-PAGE, Western Blot, and ELISA probed with human plasma containing IgE antibodies to almond allergens, and a polyclonal antibody against almond ...

  14. Fatigue in Welded High-Strength Steel Plate Elements under Stochastic Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerskov, Henning; Petersen, R.I.; Martinez, L. Lopez

    1999-01-01

    The present project is a part of an investigation on fatigue in offshore structures in high-strength steel. The fatigue life of plate elements with welded attachments is studied. The material used has a yield stress of ~ 810-840 MPa, and high weldability and toughness properties. Fatigue test...... series with constant amplitude loading and with various types of stochastic loading have been carried through on test specimens in high-strength steel, and - for a comparison - on test specimens in conventional offshore structural steel with a yield stress of ~ 400-410 MPa.A comparison between constant...... amplitude and variable amplitude fatigue test results shows shorter fatigue lives in variable amplitude loading than should be expected from the linear fatigue damage accumulation formula. Furthermore, in general longer fatigue lives were obtained for the test specimens in high-strength steel than those...

  15. In-situ investigations of structural changes during cyclic loading by high resolution reciprocal space mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichs, Annika M.; Thiel, Felix; Lienert, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    dislocation structures can be identified using advanced electron microscopy and synchrotron techniques. A detailed characterization of the microstructure during cyclic loading by in-situ monitoring the internal structure within individual grains with high energy x-rays can help to understand and predict...... the materials behavior during cyclic deformation and to improve the material design. While monitoring macroscopic stress and strain during cyclic loading, reciprocal space maps of diffraction peaks from single grains are obtained with high resolution. High Resolution Reciprocal Space Mapping was applied...

  16. Structural insights into the adaptation of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) from Haloferax volcanii to a high-salt environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgunova, Ekaterina; Gray, Fiona C.; MacNeill, Stuart A.; Ladenstein, Rudolf

    2009-01-01

    The crystal structure of PCNA from the halophilic archaeon H. volcanii reveals specific features of the charge distribution on the protein surface that reflect adaptation to a high-salt environment and suggests a different type of interaction with DNA in halophilic PCNAs. The sliding clamp proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) plays vital roles in many aspects of DNA replication and repair in eukaryotic cells and in archaea. Realising the full potential of archaea as a model for PCNA function requires a combination of biochemical and genetic approaches. In order to provide a platform for subsequent reverse genetic analysis, PCNA from the halophilic archaeon Haloferax volcanii was subjected to crystallographic analysis. The gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli and the protein was purified by affinity chromatography and crystallized by the vapour-diffusion technique. The structure was determined by molecular replacement and refined at 3.5 Å resolution to a final R factor of 23.7% (R free = 25%). PCNA from H. volcanii was found to be homotrimeric and to resemble other homotrimeric PCNA clamps but with several differences that appear to be associated with adaptation of the protein to the high intracellular salt concentrations found in H. volcanii cells

  17. Structural insights into a high affinity nanobody:antigen complex by homology modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skottrup, Peter Durand

    2017-09-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is a major periodontitis-causing pathogens. P. gingivalis secrete a cysteine protease termed RgpB, which is specific for Arg-Xaa bonds in substrates. Recently, a nanobody-based assay was used to demonstrate that RgpB could represent a novel diagnostic target, thereby simplifying. P. gingivalis detection. The nanobody, VHH7, had a high binding affinity and was specific for RgpB, when tested towards the highly identical RgpA. In this study a homology model of VHH7 was build. The complementarity determining regions (CDR) comprising the paratope residues responsible for RgpB binding were identified and used as input to the docking. Furthermore, residues likely involved in the RgpB epitope was identified based upon RgpB:RgpA alignment and analysis of residue surface accessibility. CDR residues and putitative RgpB epitope residues were used as input to an information-driven flexible docking approach using the HADDOCK server. Analysis of the VHH7:RgpB model demonstrated that the epitope was found in the immunoglobulin-like domain and residue pairs located at the molecular paratope:epitope interface important for complex stability was identified. Collectively, the VHH7 homology model and VHH7:RgpB docking supplies knowledge of the residues involved in the high affinity interaction. This information could prove valuable in the design of an antibody-drug conjugate for specific RgpB targeting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Dynamic response of the high flux isotope reactor structure caused by nearby heavy load drop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Shih-Jung.

    1995-01-01

    A heavy load of 50,000 lb is assumed to drop from 10 ft above the bottom of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) pool at the loading station. The consequences of the dynamic impact to the bottom slab of the pool and to the nearby HFIR reactor vessel are analyzed by applying the ABAQUS computer code The results show that both the BM vessel structure and its supporting legs are subjected to elastic disturbances only and, therefore, will not be damaged. The bottom slab of the pool, however, will be damaged to about half of the slab thickness. The velocity response spectrum at the concrete floor next to the HFIR vessel as a result of the vibration caused by the impact is obtained. It is concluded, that the damage caused by heavy load drop at the loading station is controlled by the slab damage and the nearby HFIR vessel and the supporting legs will not be damaged

  19. Protection Conferred by recombinant Yersinia pestis Antigens Produced by a Rapid and Highly Scalable Plant Expression System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Santi, Luca; Giritch, Anatoli; Roy, Chad J; Marillonnet, Sylvestre; Klimyuk, Victor; Gleba, Yuri; Webb, Robert; Arntzen, Charles J; Mason, Hugh S

    2006-01-01

    ... have highlighted the need for a safe, efficacious, and rapidly producible vaccine. The use of F1 and V antigens and the derived protein fusion F1-V has shown great potential as a protective vaccine in animal studies...

  20. Possible factors influencing high serum Prostate-specific Antigen (PSA in Indonesian patients with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djoko Rahardjo

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH cases in Indonesia frequently associated with high serum prostate specific antigen (PSA. To explore possible factors that could increase serum PSA level, we performed a retrospective, cross-sectional study on 805 consecutive patients in Sumber Waras and Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospitals from 1994 to 1997. Clinical manifestations were evaluated and prostate biopsies were performed if indicated. Complete histopathological data were only available in 82 BPH patients with no urinary retention from 1998-1999 and a thin section of paraffin blocks of BPH patients which still could be found from 1994-1999 was analyzed using flow cytometer to obtain the S-phase fraction as a parameter of proliferative activity, From 805 patients, 461 (57% presented with urinary retention and need to be catheteized. Catheteization significantly increased PSA level if compared to noncatheterized patients (16.3 vs. 6,8 ng/mL, p= 0,000. Another data of 82 uncatheteized patients from 1998-1999 has revealed that 79 patients (96.3% had chronic prostatitis and 19 (23.2% showed the presence of prostatic-intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN with an increase of PSA level (5.4 ng/mL. The S-phase fraction of BPH without PIN cases was significantly higher in cases with PSA > 4 ng/ml than patients with PSA ≤ 4 ng/ml (I3.1% vs. 8.9%, p=0,008. As conclusion, the high serum PSA level was mostly due to urethral catheteization and increased prostate volume. There was a tendency of increasing PSA in subclinical inflammation and PIN. Cases with high PSA also showed high proliferative activities which is suggestive of mitogenic activity. (Med J Indones 2001; 10:22-8Keywords: BPH, high PSA, PIN, proliferative activity, s-phase fraction

  1. On-load Tap Changer Diagnosis on High-Voltage Power Transformers using Dynamic Resistance Measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erbrink, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    High-voltage transformers have tap changers to regulate the voltage in the high-voltage network when the load changes. Those tap changers are subject to different degradation mechanisms and need regular maintenance. Various defects, like contact degradation, often remain undetected and the

  2. Manufacture of highly loaded silica-supported cobalt Fischer–Tropsch catalysts from a metal organic framework

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Xiaohui; Suarez, Alma I. Olivos; Meijerink, Mark; van Deelen, Tom; Ould-Chikh, Samy; Zečević, Jovana; de Jong, Krijn P.; Kapteijn, Freek; Gascon, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    The development of synthetic protocols for the preparation of highly loaded metal nanoparticle-supported catalysts has received a great deal of attention over the last few decades. Independently controlling metal loading, nanoparticle size

  3. Performance of an optimally contact-cooled high-heat-load mirror at the APS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Z.; Khounsary, A.; Lai, B.; McNulty, I.; Yun, W.

    1998-01-01

    X-ray undulator beamlines at third-generation synchrotrons facilities use either a monochromator or a mirror as the first optical element. In this paper, the thermal and optical performance of an optimally designed contact-cooled high-heat-load x-ray mirror used as the first optical element on the 2ID undulator beamline at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) is reported. It is shown that this simple and economical mirror design can comfortably handle the high heat load of undulator beamlines and provide good performance with long-term reliability and ease of operation. Availability and advantages of such mirrors can make the mirror-first approach to high-heat-load beamline design an attractive alternative to monochromator-first beamlines in many circumstances

  4. Presentation of lipid antigens to T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Lucia; De Libero, Gennaro

    2008-04-15

    T cells specific for lipid antigens participate in regulation of the immune response during infections, tumor immunosurveillance, allergy and autoimmune diseases. T cells recognize lipid antigens as complexes formed with CD1 antigen-presenting molecules, thus resembling recognition of MHC-peptide complexes. The biophysical properties of lipids impose unique mechanisms for their delivery, internalization into antigen-presenting cells, membrane trafficking, processing, and loading of CD1 molecules. Each of these steps is controlled at molecular and celular levels and determines lipid immunogenicity. Lipid antigens may derive from microbes and from the cellular metabolism, thus allowing the immune system to survey a large repertoire of immunogenic molecules. Recognition of lipid antigens facilitates the detection of infectious agents and the initiation of responses involved in immunoregulation and autoimmunity. This review focuses on the presentation mechanisms and specific recognition of self and bacterial lipid antigens and discusses the important open issues.

  5. Rational design of protamine nanocapsules as antigen delivery carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Aramundiz, José Vicente; Presas, Elena; Dalmau-Mena, Inmaculada; Martínez-Pulgarín, Susana; Alonso, Covadonga; Escribano, José M; Alonso, María J; Csaba, Noemi Stefánia

    2017-01-10

    Current challenges in global immunization indicate the demand for new delivery strategies, which could be applied to the development of new vaccines against emerging diseases, as well as to improve safety and efficacy of currently existing vaccine formulations. Here, we report a novel antigen nanocarrier consisting of an oily core and a protamine shell, further stabilized with pegylated surfactants. These nanocarriers, named protamine nanocapsules, were rationally designed to promote the intracellular delivery of antigens to immunocompetent cells and to trigger an efficient and long-lasting immune response. Protamine nanocapsules have nanometric size, positive zeta potential and high association capacity for H1N1 influenza hemagglutinin, a protein that was used here as a model antigen. The new formulation shows an attractive stability profile both, as an aqueous suspension or a freeze-dried powder formulation. In vitro studies showed that protamine nanocapsules were efficiently internalized by macrophages without eliciting significant toxicity. In vivo studies indicate that antigen-loaded nanocapsules trigger immune responses comparable to those achieved with alum, even when using significantly lower antigen doses, thus indicating their adjuvant properties. These promising in vivo data, alongside with their versatility for the loading of different antigens and oily immunomodulators and their excellent stability profile, make these nanocapsules a promising platform for the delivery of antigens. Protamine sulphate (PubChem SID: 7849283), Sodium Cholate (PubChem CID: 23668194), Miglyol (PubChem CID: 53471835), α tocopherol (PubChem CID: 14985), Tween® 20(PubChem CID: 443314), Tween® 80(PubChem CID: 5281955), TPGS (PubChem CID: 71406). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Better target detection in the presence of collinear flankers under high working memory load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan W. De Fockert

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available There are multiple ways in which working memory can influence selective attention. Aside from the content-specific effects of working memory on selective attention, whereby attention is more likely to be directed towards information that matches the contents of working memory, the mere level of load on working memory has also been shown to have an effect on selective attention. Specifically, high load on working memory is associated with increased processing of irrelevant information. In most demonstrations of the effect to-date, this has led to impaired target performance, leaving open the possibility that the effect partly reflects an increase in general task difficulty under high load. Here we show that working memory load can result in a performance gain when processing of distracting information aids target performance. The facilitation in the detection of a low-contrast Gabor stimulus in the presence of collinear flanking Gabors was greater when load on a concurrent working memory task was high, compared to low. This finding suggests that working memory can interact with selective attention at an early stage in visual processing.

  7. Polybiguanide (PHMB) loaded in PLA scaffolds displaying high hydrophobic, biocompatibility and antibacterial properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llorens, Elena; Calderón, Silvia [Departament d' Enginyeria Química, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Av. Diagonal 647, Barcelona E-08028 (Spain); Valle, Luis J. del, E-mail: luis.javier.del.valle@upc.edu [Departament d' Enginyeria Química, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Av. Diagonal 647, Barcelona E-08028 (Spain); Puiggalí, Jordi [Departament d' Enginyeria Química, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Av. Diagonal 647, Barcelona E-08028 (Spain); Center for Research in Nano-Engineering (CrNE), Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Edifici C, C/Pasqual i Vila s/n, Barcelona E-08028 (Spain)

    2015-05-01

    Polyhexamethylenebiguanide hydrochloride (PHMB), a low molecular weight polymer related to chlorohexidine (CHX), is a well-known antibacterial agent. In this study, polylactide (PLA) nanofibers loaded with PHMB were produced by electrospinning to obtain 3D biodegradable scaffolds with antibacterial properties. PLA fibers loaded with CHX were used as control. The electrospun fibers were studied and analyzed by SEM, FTIR, DSC and contact angle measurements. PHMB and CHX release from loaded scaffolds was evaluated, as well as their antibacterial activity and biocompatibility. The results showed that the nanofibers became smoother and their diameter smaller with increasing the amount of loaded PHMB. This feature led to an increase of both surface roughness and hydrophobicity of the scaffold. PHMB release was highly dependent on the hydrophilicity of the medium and differed from that determined for CHX. Lastly, PHMB-loaded PLA scaffolds showed antibacterial properties since they inhibited adhesion and bacterial growth, and exhibited biocompatible characteristics for the adhesion and proliferation of both fibroblast and epithelial cell lines. - Highlights: • Nanofibers of PLA-PHMB (antibacterial polymer) were prepared by electrospinning. • PHMB has hydrophilic character but the PLA-PHMB scaffolds were highly hydrophobic. • The high-hydrophobicity of the new scaffolds conditioned the release of PHMB. • The controlled release of PHMB inhibited the growth and bacterial adhesion. • PLA-PHMB scaffolds have biocompatibility with fibroblast and epithelial cells.

  8. Polybiguanide (PHMB) loaded in PLA scaffolds displaying high hydrophobic, biocompatibility and antibacterial properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llorens, Elena; Calderón, Silvia; Valle, Luis J. del; Puiggalí, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Polyhexamethylenebiguanide hydrochloride (PHMB), a low molecular weight polymer related to chlorohexidine (CHX), is a well-known antibacterial agent. In this study, polylactide (PLA) nanofibers loaded with PHMB were produced by electrospinning to obtain 3D biodegradable scaffolds with antibacterial properties. PLA fibers loaded with CHX were used as control. The electrospun fibers were studied and analyzed by SEM, FTIR, DSC and contact angle measurements. PHMB and CHX release from loaded scaffolds was evaluated, as well as their antibacterial activity and biocompatibility. The results showed that the nanofibers became smoother and their diameter smaller with increasing the amount of loaded PHMB. This feature led to an increase of both surface roughness and hydrophobicity of the scaffold. PHMB release was highly dependent on the hydrophilicity of the medium and differed from that determined for CHX. Lastly, PHMB-loaded PLA scaffolds showed antibacterial properties since they inhibited adhesion and bacterial growth, and exhibited biocompatible characteristics for the adhesion and proliferation of both fibroblast and epithelial cell lines. - Highlights: • Nanofibers of PLA-PHMB (antibacterial polymer) were prepared by electrospinning. • PHMB has hydrophilic character but the PLA-PHMB scaffolds were highly hydrophobic. • The high-hydrophobicity of the new scaffolds conditioned the release of PHMB. • The controlled release of PHMB inhibited the growth and bacterial adhesion. • PLA-PHMB scaffolds have biocompatibility with fibroblast and epithelial cells

  9. Lightweight Potential of Welded High-strength Steel Joints from S700 Under Constant and Variable Amplitude Loading by High-frequency Mechanical Impact (HFMI) Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Yıldırım, Halid Can; Marquis, Gary; Sonsino, Cetin Morris

    2015-01-01

    Investigations with longitudinal stiffeners of the steel grade S700 under fully-reversed, constant amplitude loading and under variable amplitude loading with a straight-line spectrum show impressive fatigue strength improvement by high-frequency mechanical impact (HFMI) treatment. However, the degree of improvement was for variable amplitude loading lower when compared to constant amplitude loading due to local plasticity which occurs during larger load levels and consequently reduces the be...

  10. Advances in High Power Calorimetric Matched Loads for Short Pulses and CW Gyrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bin, W.M.; Bruschi, A.; Cirant, S.; Gandini, F.; Granucci, G.; Mellera, V.; Muzzini, V.; Nardone, A.; Sozzi, C.; Spinicchia, N.

    2006-01-01

    The development of high power gyrotrons for plasma physics research needs proper matched and calorimetric loads able to absorb and measure the power, which nowadays is foreseen to be as high as 2 MW during CW operations. To this end IFP/CNR has developed a family of matched loads useful in the mm-wave frequency band for applications ranging from a few ms to CW in pulse length. The different loads in the family, made of an integrating sphere with a partially reflecting coating on the inner wall, are characterized by having the same absorbing geometry for the incoming beam and a different heat removal system for the specific application. Some important advances have been recently achieved from the point of view of the uniformity of power distribution on the absorbing wall and of the load construction. With high precision achieved in the coating thickness a better control of the heating power distribution is possible by proper shaping of the local reflectivity, in addition to the shaping of the mirror dispersing the input beam. A more sophisticated model describing the power distribution has been developed, taking into account a variable thickness of the absorbing coating, the proper shape of the spreading mirror, the frequency of the incoming radiation and the shape of the input beam. Lower coating thickness is shown to be preferable, at equal local reflectivity, from the point of view of a lower peak temperature and thermal stress. The paper describes a load with variable coating thickness along the meridian of the sphere, showing a uniform power deposition on the inner walls. The cooling pipe is completely electroformed on the spherical copper shell, ensuring the maintenance of the correct curvature of the inner surface and a fast heat conduction from the absorbing coating to the water through the thin copper body. For CW use all heated parts of the load must be cooled and this is achieved by 16 electroformed spiral channels. Both short pulse loads (0.1-1 s) and

  11. Behavior of quenched and tempered steels under high strain rate compression loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, L.W.; Seifert, K.; Abdel-Malek, S.

    1997-01-01

    Two quenched and tempered steels were tested under compression loading at strain rates of ε = 2.10 2 s -1 and ε = 2.10 3 s -1 . By applying the thermal activation theory, the flow stress at very high strain rates of 10 5 to 10 6 s -1 is derived from low temperature and high strain rate tests. Dynamic true stress - true strain behaviour presents, that stress increases with increasing strain until a maximum, then it decreases. Because of the adiabatic process under dynamic loading the maximum flow stress will occur at a lower strain if the strain rate is increased. Considering strain rate, strain hardening, strain rate hardening and strain softening, a constitutive equation with different additive terms is successfully used to describe the behaviour of material under dynamic compression loading. Results are compared with other models of constitutive equations. (orig.)

  12. Cavity resonance absorption in ultra-high bandwidth CRT deflection structure by a resistive load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, M.E.; Hudson, C.L.

    1993-05-11

    An improved ultra-high bandwidth helical coil deflection structure for a cathode ray tube is described comprising a first metal member having a bore therein, the metal walls of which form a first ground plane; a second metal member coaxially mounted in the bore of the first metal member and forming a second ground plane; a helical deflection coil coaxially mounted within the bore between the two ground planes; and a resistive load disposed in one end of the bore and electrically connected to the first and second ground planes, the resistive load having an impedance substantially equal to the characteristic impedance of the coaxial line formed by the two coaxial ground planes to inhibit cavity resonance in the structure within the ultra-high bandwidth of operation. Preferably, the resistive load comprises a carbon film on a surface of an end plug in one end of the bore.

  13. Power quality improvement in highly varying loads using thyristor-switched capacitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poshtan, M. [Petroleum Inst., Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Mokhtari, H.; Esmaeili, A. [Sharif Univ. of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    Ordinary contactor-based-capacitor (CBC) banks may not be able to response quickly enough in highly varying electrical loads such as welding machines or arc furnace loads. Thyristor-switched capacitor (TSC) banks are therefore used to compensate for reactive power of highly varying loads. In this paper, the performance of a TSC was compared to CBC banks. The 2 systems, were also compared in terms of energy saving in transmission systems. Simulations carried out using PSCAD/EMTDC software showed that there was a considerable difference in the performance of the 2 systems. The shortcomings of existing CBC systems include slow response of mechanical switching systems; problem of switching more than one bank into the system; and, voltage/current transients during on-off switching. 3 refs., 6 tabs., 14 figs.

  14. New load cycling strategy for enhanced durability of high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, Sobi; Jeppesen, Christian; Steenberg, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to develop a new operational strategy to increase the lifetime of a high temperature proton exchange membrane (HT-PEMFCs) fuel cell system by using load cycling patterns to reduce the phosphoric acid loss from the fuel cell. Four single cells were operated under.......8 Acm-2 for the higher end, were selected for the load cycling operation. The relaxation time, which is the period of time spent at low current density operation, is varied to understand how the performance over prolonged period behaves. The duration of the high current density operation is selected...... based on the relaxation time in order to have the same average current density of (0.55 Acm-2 ) for all the cells. Cell 5, with a relaxation time of 2 min performs best and shows lower degradation rate of 36 μVh-1 compared to other load cycling cells with smaller relaxation times. The cell operated...

  15. Brittle materials at high-loading rates: an open area of research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Brittle materials are extensively used in many civil and military applications involving high-strain-rate loadings such as: blasting or percussive drilling of rocks, ballistic impact against ceramic armour or transparent windshields, plastic explosives used to damage or destroy concrete structures, soft or hard impacts against concrete structures and so on. With all of these applications, brittle materials are subjected to intense loadings characterized by medium to extremely high strain rates (few tens to several tens of thousands per second) leading to extreme and/or specific damage modes such as multiple fragmentation, dynamic cracking, pore collapse, shearing, mode II fracturing and/or microplasticity mechanisms in the material. Additionally, brittle materials exhibit complex features such as a strong strain-rate sensitivity and confining pressure sensitivity that justify expending greater research efforts to understand these complex features. Currently, the most popular dynamic testing techniques used for this are based on the use of split Hopkinson pressure bar methodologies and/or plate-impact testing methods. However, these methods do have some critical limitations and drawbacks when used to investigate the behaviour of brittle materials at high loading rates. The present theme issue of Philosophical Transactions A provides an overview of the latest experimental methods and numerical tools that are currently being developed to investigate the behaviour of brittle materials at high loading rates. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Experimental testing and modelling of brittle materials at high strain rates’. PMID:27956517

  16. Brittle materials at high-loading rates: an open area of research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forquin, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    Brittle materials are extensively used in many civil and military applications involving high-strain-rate loadings such as: blasting or percussive drilling of rocks, ballistic impact against ceramic armour or transparent windshields, plastic explosives used to damage or destroy concrete structures, soft or hard impacts against concrete structures and so on. With all of these applications, brittle materials are subjected to intense loadings characterized by medium to extremely high strain rates (few tens to several tens of thousands per second) leading to extreme and/or specific damage modes such as multiple fragmentation, dynamic cracking, pore collapse, shearing, mode II fracturing and/or microplasticity mechanisms in the material. Additionally, brittle materials exhibit complex features such as a strong strain-rate sensitivity and confining pressure sensitivity that justify expending greater research efforts to understand these complex features. Currently, the most popular dynamic testing techniques used for this are based on the use of split Hopkinson pressure bar methodologies and/or plate-impact testing methods. However, these methods do have some critical limitations and drawbacks when used to investigate the behaviour of brittle materials at high loading rates. The present theme issue of Philosophical Transactions A provides an overview of the latest experimental methods and numerical tools that are currently being developed to investigate the behaviour of brittle materials at high loading rates. This article is part of the themed issue 'Experimental testing and modelling of brittle materials at high strain rates'.

  17. High-uranium-loaded U3O8--Al fuel element development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, M.M.

    1978-01-01

    The High-Uranium-Loaded U 3 O 8 --Al Fuel Development Program supports Argonne National Laboratory efforts to develop high-uranium-density research and test reactor fuel to accommodate use of low-uranium enrichment. The goal is to fuel most research and test reactors with uranium of less than 20% enrichment for the purpose of lowering the potential for diversion of highly-enriched material for nonpeaceful usages

  18. Reduced Frontal Activations at High Working Memory Load in Mild Cognitive Impairment: Near-Infrared Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Michael K; Sze, Sophia L; Woo, Jean; Kwok, Timothy; Shum, David H K; Yu, Ruby; Chan, Agnes S

    2016-01-01

    Some functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have reported altered activations in the frontal cortex during working memory (WM) performance in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), but the findings have been mixed. The objective of the present study was to utilize near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), an alternative imaging technique, to examine neural processing during WM performance in individuals with MCI. Twenty-six older adults with MCI (7 males; mean age 69.15 years) were compared with 26 age-, gender-, handedness-, and education-matched older adults with normal cognition (NC; 7 males; mean age 68.87 years). All of the participants undertook an n-back task with a low (i.e., 0-back) and a high (i.e., 2-back) WM load condition while their prefrontal dynamics were recorded by a 16-channel NIRS system. Although behavioral results showed that the two groups had comparable task performance, neuroimaging results showed that the MCI group, unlike the NC group, did not exhibit significantly increased frontal activations bilaterally when WM load increased. Compared to the NC group, the MCI group had similar frontal activations at low load (p > 0.05 on all channels) but reduced activations at high load (p load in individuals with MCI. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Material Compressing Test of the High Polymer Part Used in Draft Gear of Heavy Load Locomotive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yangang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the actual load cases of heavy load locomotive, the material compressing tests of the high polymer parts used in the locomotive are researched. The relationship between stress and strain during the material compressing are acquired by means of comparing the many results of the material compressing tests under different test condition. The relationship between stress and strain during the material compressing is nonlinear in large range of strain, but the relationship is approximately linear in small range of strain. The material of the high polymer made in China and the material of the high polymer imported are compared through the tests. The results show that the compressing property of the material of the high polymer made in China and the material of the high polymer imported are almost same. The research offers the foundation to study the structure elasticity of the draft gear.

  20. Feasibility of minimally invasive radical prostatectomy in prostate cancer patients with high prostate-specific antigen. Feasibility and 1-year outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Do, M.; Ragavan, N.; Dietel, A.; Liatsikos, E.; Stolzenburg, J.U.; Anderson, C.; McNeill, A.

    2012-01-01

    Urologists are cautious to offer minimally invasive radical prostatectomy in prostate cancer patients with high prostate-specific antigen (and therefore anticipated to have locally advanced or metastatic disease) because of concerns regarding lack of complete cure after minimally invasive radical prostatectomy and of worsening of continence if adjuvant radiotherapy is used. A retrospective review of our institutional database was carried out to identify patients with prostate specific antigen (PSA) ≥20 ng/mL who underwent minimally invasive radical prostatectomy between January 2002 and October 2010. Intraoperative, pathological, functional and short-term oncological outcomes were assessed. Overall, 233 patients met study criteria and were included in the analysis. The median prostate-specific antigen and prostate size were 28.5 ng/mL and 47 mL, respectively. Intraoperative complications were the following: rectal injury (0.86%) and blood transfusion (1.7%). Early postoperative complications included prolonged (>6 days) catheterization (9.4%), hematoma (4.7%), deep venous thrombosis (0.86%) and lymphocele (5.1%). Late postoperative complications included cerebrovascular accident (0.4%) and anastomotic stricture (0.8%). Pathology revealed poorly differentiated cancer in 48.9%, pT3/pT4 disease in 55.8%, positive margins in 28.3% and lymph node disease in 20.2% of the cases. Adverse pathological findings were more frequent in patients with prostate-specific antigen >40 ng/mL and (or) in those with locally advanced disease (pT3/pT4). In 62.2% of the cases, adjuvant radiotherapy was used. At 1-year follow up, 80% of patients did not show evidence of biochemical recurrence and 98.8% of them had good recovery of continence. Minimally invasive radical prostatectomy might represent a reasonable option in prostate cancer patients with high prostate-specific antigen as a part of a multimodality treatment approach. (author)

  1. Influence of different SSF conditions on ethanol production from corn stover at high solids loadings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gladis, Arne; Bondesson, Pia-Maria; Galbe, Mats

    2015-01-01

    In this study, three different kinds of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of washed pretreated corn stover with water-insoluble solids (WIS) content of 20% were investigated to find which one resulted in highest ethanol yield at high-solids loadings. The different methods were...

  2. Residual stress in a M3:2 PM high speed steel; effect of mechanical loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højerslev, Christian; Odén, Magnus; Carstensen, Jesper V.

    2001-01-01

    X-ray lattice strains were investigated in an AISI M3:2 PM high-speed steel in the as heat treated condition and after exposure to alternating mechanical load. The volume changes during heat treatment were monitored with dilatometry. Hardened and tempered AISI M3:2 steel consists of tempered lath...

  3. A novel monochromator for high heat-load synchrotron x-ray radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khounsary, A.M.

    1992-01-01

    The high heat load associated with the powerful and concentrated x-ray beams generated by the insertion devices at a number of present and many of the future (planned or under construction) synchrotron radiation facilities pose a formidable engineering challenge in the designer of the monochromators and other optical devices. For example, the Undulator A source on the Advanced Photon Source (APS) ring (being constructed at the Argonne National Laboratory) will generate as much as 10 kW of heat deposited on a small area (about 1 cm 2 ) of the first optics located some 24 m from the source. The peak normal incident heat flux can be as high as 500 W/mm 2 . Successful utilization of the intense x-ray beams from insertion devices critically depends on the development, design, and availability of optical elements that provide acceptable performance under high heat load. Present monochromators can handle, at best, heat load levels that are an order of magnitude lower than those generated by such sources. The monochromator described here and referred to as the open-quote inclinedclose quotes monochromator can provide a solution to high heat-load problems

  4. Indoor climate design for a monumental building with periodic high indoor moisture loads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijndel, van A.W.M.; Lony, R.J.M.; Schellen, H.L.

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents a case study on the performance based design for the indoor climate of a monumental building with periodic high indoor moisture loads. Several scenarios of the past performance and new control classes are simulated and evaluated. The results include the influence of hygric inertia

  5. Indoor climate design for a monumental building with incidental high indoor moisture loads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijndel, van A.W.M.

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents a study of the indoor climate of a monumental building with periodic high indoor moisture loads. Several scenarios of the past performance and new control classes are simulated and evaluated. The results include the influence of hygric inertia on the indoor climate and

  6. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure processing on the background microbial loads and quality of cantaloupe puree

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to investigate and evaluate the effects of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) applied to cantaloupe puree (CP) on microbial loads and product quality during storage for 10 days at 4 degrees C. Freshly prepared, double sealed and double bagged CP (ca. 5 g) was pressure tr...

  7. Nanotwin Formation in High-Manganese Austenitic Steels Under Explosive Shock Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadinc, D.; Uzer, B.; Elmadagli, M.; Guner, F.

    2018-04-01

    The micro-deformation mechanisms active in a high-manganese austenitic steel were investigated upon explosive shock loading. Single system of nanotwins forming within primary twins were shown to govern the deformation despite the elevated temperatures attained during testing. The benefits of nanotwin formation for potential armor materials were demonstrated.

  8. Using high-resolution human leukocyte antigen typing of 11,423 randomized unrelated individuals to determine allelic varieties, deduce probable human leukocyte antigen haplotypes, and observe linkage disequilibria between human leukocyte antigen-B and-C and human leukocyte antigen-DRB1 and-DQB1 alleles in the Taiwanese Chinese population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Liang Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We report here the human leukocyte antigen (HLA allelic variety and haplotype composition in a cohort of the Taiwanese Chinese population and their patterns of linkage disequilibria on HLA-B: HLA-C alleles and HLA-DRB1: HLA-DQB1 alleles at a high-resolution level. Materials and Methods: Peripheral whole blood from 11,423 Taiwanese Chinese unrelated individuals was collected in acid citrate dextrose. Genomic DNA was extracted using the QIAamp DNA Blood Mini Kit. The DNA material was subjected to HLA genotyping for HLA-A,-B,-C,-DRB1, and-DQB1 loci using a commercial polymerase chain reaction-sequence-based typing (PCR-SBT kit, the SeCore® A/B/C/DRB1/DQB1 Locus Sequencing kit. High-resolution allelic sequencing was performed as previously described. Results: The number of individual HLA-B alleles detected was greater than the number of alleles recognized in the both the HLA-A and-DRB1 loci. Several novel alleles were discovered as a result of employing the SBT method and the high number of donors tested. In addition, we observed a genetic polymorphic feature of association between HLA-A and-B, HLA-B and-C, and HLA-DRB1 and-DQB1 alleles. Further, the homozygous haplotype frequencies of HLA-A and-B; HLA-A,-C, and-B; HLA-A,-C,-B, and-DRB1; and HLA-A,-C,-B,-DRB1, and-DQB1 in Taiwanese Chinese population are presented. Conclusion: As increasing number of HLA alleles are being discovered, periodic HLA profile investigation in a given population is essential to recognize the HLA complexity in that population. Population study can also provide an up-to-date strategic plan for future needs in terms of compatibility measurement for HLA matching between transplant donors and patients.

  9. Immunity to tumour antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Geng; Ali, Selman A; McArdle, Stephanie E B; Mian, Shahid; Ahmad, Murrium; Miles, Amanda; Rees, Robert C

    2005-01-01

    During the last decade, a large number of human tumour antigens have been identified. These antigens are classified as tumour-specific shared antigens, tissue-specific differentiation antigens, overexpressed antigens, tumour antigens resulting from mutations, viral antigens and fusion proteins. Antigens recognised by effectors of immune system are potential targets for antigen-specific cancer immunotherapy. However, most tumour antigens are self-proteins and are generally of low immunogenicity and the immune response elicited towards these tumour antigens is not always effective. Strategies to induce and enhance the tumour antigen-specific response are needed. This review will summarise the approaches to discovery of tumour antigens, the current status of tumour antigens, and their potential application to cancer treatment.

  10. Treatment Outcomes in Non-Metastatic Prostate Cancer Patients With Ultra-High Prostate-Specific Antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tai, Patricia; Tonita, Jon; Woitas, Carla; Zhu Tong; Joseph, Kurian; Skarsgard, David

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: It is commonly believed that prostate cancer patients with very high prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels are unlikely to benefit from definitive local treatment, and patients with very high PSA are often underrepresented in, or excluded from, randomized clinical trials. Consequently, little is known about their optimal treatment or prognosis. We performed a registry-based analysis of management and outcome in this population of patients. Methods and Materials: Our provincial Cancer Registry was used to identify all men who were diagnosed with prostate cancer from 1990 to 2001. A retrospective chart review provided information on stage, Gleason score, PSA at diagnosis, and treatment. In this study, ultra-high PSA was defined as PSA of ≥50 ng/ml. For a more complete perspective, treatment outcomes of patients with PSA of 20 to 49.9 ng/ml were also studied. Results: Of the 8378 men diagnosed with prostate cancer during this period, 6,449 had no known nodal or distant metastatic disease. The median follow-up of this group was 67.2 months (range, 0–192 months). A total of 1534 patients had PSA of ≥20 ng/ml. Among the 995 patients with PSA 20 to 49.9 ng/ml, 85 had radical prostatectomy (RP), and their 5- and 10-year cause-specific survivals (CSS) were 95% and 84%, respectively. The 497 patients treated with radiotherapy (RT) had 5- and 10-year CSS of 92% and 71%. For the 332 patients with PSA 50–99.9 ng/ml, RT was associated with 5- and 10-year CSS of 81% and 55%. For the 207 patients with PSA of ≥100 ng/ml, RT was associated with 5- and 10-year CSS of 80% and 54%. Conclusions: This is the largest series in the world on non metastatic cancer patients with ultra-high PSA at diagnosis. Even in the setting of a very high presenting PSA level, prostatectomy and radiotherapy are often associated with prolonged survival.

  11. Study of surfaces and surface layers on high temperature materials after short-time thermal loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolt, H.; Hoven, H.; Koizlik, K.; Linke, J.; Nickel, H.; Wallura, E.

    1985-11-01

    Being part of the plasma-wall interaction during TOKAMAK operation, erosion- and redeposition processes of First Wall materials substantially influence plasma parameters as well as the properties of the First Wall. An important redeposition process of eroded material is the formation of thin films by atomic condensation. Examinations of First Wall components after TOKAMAK operation lead to the assumption that these thin metallic films tend to agglomerate to small particles under subsequent heat load. In laboratory experiments it is shown that thin metallic films on various substrates can agglomerate under short time high heat fluxes and also under longer lasting lower thermal loads, thus verifying the ''agglomeration hypothesis''. (orig.) [de

  12. Load Torque Compensator for Model Predictive Direct Current Control in High Power PMSM Drive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preindl, Matthias; Schaltz, Erik

    2011-01-01

    The widely used cascade speed and torque controllers have a limited control performance in most high power applications due to the low switching frequency of power electronic converters and the convenience to avoid speed overshoots and oscillations for lifetime considerations. Model Predictive...... Direct Current Control (MPDCC) leads to an increase of torque control performance taking into account the discrete nature of inverters but temporary offsets and poor responses to load torque variations are still issues in speed control. A load torque estimator is proposed in this paper in order...

  13. Assessment of Gearbox Operational Loads and Reliability under High Mean Wind Speeds

    OpenAIRE

    Dabrowski, Dariusz; Natarajan, Anand

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the dynamic loads occurring in the drivetrain of wind turbines with a focus on offshore applications. Herein a model of the gearbox of the 5 MW wind turbine is presented. The model is developed in a multi-body framework using commercial software MSC ADAMS. Validation of the model was based on the experimental data provided by NREL for 750 kW prototype gearbox. Failures of gearboxes caused by high dynamic loads have a significant influence on the cost of operation of wi...

  14. Damage process of high purity tungsten coatings by hydrogen beam heat loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, S.; Tokunaga, K.; Yoshida, N.; Taniguchi, M.; Ezato, K.; Sato, K.; Suzuki, S.; Akiba, M.; Tsunekawa, Y.; Okumiya, M.

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the synergistic effects of heat load and hydrogen irradiation, cyclic heat load tests with a hydrogen beam and a comparable electron beam were performed for high purity CVD-tungsten coatings. Surface modification was examined as a function of the peak temperature by changing the heat flux. Scanning Electron Microscopy analysis showed that the surface damage caused by the hydrogen beam was more severe than that by the electron beam. In the hydrogen beam case, cracking at the surface occurred at all peak temperatures examined from 300 deg. C to 1600 deg. C. These results indicate that the injected hydrogen induces embrittlement for the CVD-tungsten coating

  15. An attempt to explain strength increase due to high loading rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eibl, J.; Curbach, M.

    1989-01-01

    Most materials such as steel, concrete, ceramics, polymers, etc. show an increase of strength due to high loading rates. A number of mathematical equations are available to describe this behaviour. Nevertheless the physical reasons for these observations are still unknown. The common behaviour of a number of materials leads to the assumption that at least some explanations are material independent. Due to this reason the results of the research done at the Institute for Concrete Structures in Karlsruhe are presented in this paper to furnish new ideas for the material research due to dynamic loading. (orig.)

  16. A Nacre-Like Carbon Nanotube Sheet for High Performance Li-Polysulfide Batteries with High Sulfur Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zheng-Ze; Lv, Wei; He, Yan-Bing; Zhao, Yan; Zhou, Guangmin; Dong, Liubing; Niu, Shuzhang; Zhang, Chen; Lyu, Ruiyang; Wang, Cong; Shi, Huifa; Zhang, Wenjie; Kang, Feiyu; Nishihara, Hirotomo; Yang, Quan-Hong

    2018-06-01

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries are considered as one of the most promising energy storage systems for next-generation electric vehicles because of their high-energy density. However, the poor cyclic stability, especially at a high sulfur loading, is the major obstacles retarding their practical use. Inspired by the nacre structure of an abalone, a similar configuration consisting of layered carbon nanotube (CNT) matrix and compactly embedded sulfur is designed as the cathode for Li-S batteries, which are realized by a well-designed unidirectional freeze-drying approach. The compact and lamellar configuration with closely contacted neighboring CNT layers and the strong interaction between the highly conductive network and polysulfides have realized a high sulfur loading with significantly restrained polysulfide shuttling, resulting in a superior cyclic stability and an excellent rate performance for the produced Li-S batteries. Typically, with a sulfur loading of 5 mg cm -2 , the assembled batteries demonstrate discharge capacities of 1236 mAh g -1 at 0.1 C, 498 mAh g -1 at 2 C and moreover, when the sulfur loading is further increased to 10 mg cm -2 coupling with a carbon-coated separator, a superhigh areal capacity of 11.0 mAh cm -2 is achieved.

  17. Effects of Brass (Cu3Zn2) as High Thermal Expansion Material on Shrink Disc Performance During High Thermal Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazlan, MIS; Mohd, SA; Bahar, ND; Aziz, SAA

    2018-03-01

    This research work is focused on shrink disc operation at high temperature. Geometrical and material design selections have been done by taking into consideration the existing shrink disc operating at high temperature condition. The existing shrink disc confronted slip between shaft and shaft sleeve during thermal loading condition. The assessment has been obtained through virtual experiment by using Finite Element Analysis (FEA) -Thermal Transient Stress for 900 seconds with 300 °C of thermal loading. This investigation consists of the current and improved version of shrink disc, where identical geometries and material properties were utilized. High Thermal Expansion (HTE) material has been introduced to overcome the current design of the shrink disc. Brass (Cu3Zn2) has been selected as the HTE material in the improved shrink disc design due to its high thermal expansion properties. The HTE has shown a significant improvement on the total contact area and contact pressure on the shaft and the shaft sleeve. The improved shrink disc embedded with HTE during thermal loading exhibit a minimum of 1244.1 mm2 of the total area on shaft and shaft sleeve which uninfluenced the total contact area at normal condition which is 1254.3 mm2. Meanwhile, the total pressure of improved shrink disc had an increment of 108.1 MPa while existing shrink disc total pressure has lost 17.2 MPa during thermal loading.

  18. Individual differences at high perceptual load: the relation between trait anxiety and selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, Naomi; Bredemeier, Keith

    2011-06-01

    Attentional control theory (Eysenck et al., 2007) posits that taxing attentional resources impairs performance efficiency in anxious individuals. This theory, however, does not explicitly address if or how the relation between anxiety and attentional control depends upon the perceptual demands of the task at hand. Consequently, the present study examined the relation between trait anxiety and task performance using a perceptual load task (Maylor & Lavie, 1998). Sixty-eight male college students completed a visual search task that indexed processing of irrelevant distractors systematically across four levels of perceptual load. Results indicated that anxiety was related to difficulty suppressing the behavioural effects of irrelevant distractors (i.e., decreased reaction time efficiency) under high, but not low, perceptual loads. In contrast, anxiety was not associated with error rates on the task. These findings are consistent with the prediction that anxiety is associated with impairments in performance efficiency under conditions that tax attentional resources.

  19. Experiences with tungsten coatings in high heat flux tests and under plasma load in ASDEX Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, A; Greuner, H; Fuchs, J C; Marne, P de; Neu, R

    2009-01-01

    ASDEX Upgrade was operated with about 6400 s plasma discharge during the scientific program in 2007/2008 exploring tungsten as a first wall material in tokamaks. In the first phase, the heating power was restricted to 10 MW. It was increased to 15 MW in the second phase. During this operational period, a delamination of the 200 μm W-VPS coating happened at 2 out of 128 tiles of the outer divertor and an unscheduled opening was required. In the third phase, ASDEX Upgrade was operated with partly predamaged tiles and up to 15 MW heating power. The target load was actively controlled by N 2 -seeding. This paper presents the screening test of target tiles in the high heat flux test facility GLADIS, experiences with operation and detected damages of the outer divertor as well as the heat load to the outer divertor and the reasons for the toroidal asymmetry of the divertor load.

  20. High power passive μDMFC with low catalyst loading for small power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.M.; Kamarudin, S.K.; Daud, W.R.W.; Yaakub, Z.

    2010-01-01

    The main constraint for commercialization of micro direct methanol fuel cell (μDMFC) for small power generation is the performance of the fuel cell. In this study, a high power μDMFC with a power output of 56 mW and an active area of 4 cm 2 was successfully developed. The cell required low catalyst loading of 5 mg cm -2 and 0.5 mg cm -2 at the anode and cathode, respectively. Optimal design parameters for methanol concentration and catalyst loading were examined. Finally, long-term performance testing was performed and OCV curves are reported. The results obtained for this gives the highest power density at low catalyst loading as compare to other researchers in this area.

  1. Simplified static method for determining seismic loads on equipment in moderate and high hazard facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, M.A.; Holmes, P.A.

    1991-01-01

    A simplified static analysis methodology is presented for qualifying equipment in moderate and high-hazard facility-use category structures, where the facility use is defined in Design and Evaluation Guidelines for Department of Energy Facilities Subjected to Natural Phenomena Hazards, UCRL-15910. Currently there are no equivalent simplified static methods for determining seismic loads on equipment in these facility use categories without completing dynamic analysis of the facility to obtain local floor accelerations or spectra. The requirements of UCRL-15910 specify the use of open-quotes dynamicclose quotes analysis methods, consistent with Seismic Design Guidelines for Essential Buildings, Chapter 6, open-quotes Nonstructural Elements,close quotes TM5-809-10-1, be used for determining seismic loads on mechanical equipment and components. Chapter 6 assumes that the dynamic analysis of the facility has generated either floor response spectra or model floor accelerations. These in turn are utilized with the dynamic modification factor and the actual demand and capacity ratios to determine equipment loading. This complex methodology may be necessary to determine more exacting loads for hard to qualify equipment but does not provide a simple conservative loading methodology for equipment with ample structural capacity

  2. Low Substrate Loading Limits Methanogenesis and Leads to High Coulombic Efficiency in Bioelectrochemical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom H. J. A. Sleutels

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A crucial aspect for the application of bioelectrochemical systems (BESs as a wastewater treatment technology is the efficient oxidation of complex substrates by the bioanode, which is reflected in high Coulombic efficiency (CE. To achieve high CE, it is essential to give a competitive advantage to electrogens over methanogens. Factors that affect CE in bioanodes are, amongst others, the type of wastewater, anode potential, substrate concentration and pH. In this paper, we focus on acetate as a substrate and analyze the competition between methanogens and electrogens from a thermodynamic and kinetic point of view. We reviewed experimental data from earlier studies and propose that low substrate loading in combination with a sufficiently high anode overpotential plays a key-role in achieving high CE. Low substrate loading is a proven strategy against methanogenic activity in large-scale reactors for sulfate reduction. The combination of low substrate loading with sufficiently high overpotential is essential because it results in favorable growth kinetics of electrogens compared to methanogens. To achieve high current density in combination with low substrate concentrations, it is essential to have a high specific anode surface area. New reactor designs with these features are essential for BESs to be successful in wastewater treatment in the future.

  3. Low Substrate Loading Limits Methanogenesis and Leads to High Coulombic Efficiency in Bioelectrochemical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleutels, Tom H. J. A.; Molenaar, Sam D.; Heijne, Annemiek Ter; Buisman, Cees J. N.

    2016-01-01

    A crucial aspect for the application of bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) as a wastewater treatment technology is the efficient oxidation of complex substrates by the bioanode, which is reflected in high Coulombic efficiency (CE). To achieve high CE, it is essential to give a competitive advantage to electrogens over methanogens. Factors that affect CE in bioanodes are, amongst others, the type of wastewater, anode potential, substrate concentration and pH. In this paper, we focus on acetate as a substrate and analyze the competition between methanogens and electrogens from a thermodynamic and kinetic point of view. We reviewed experimental data from earlier studies and propose that low substrate loading in combination with a sufficiently high anode overpotential plays a key-role in achieving high CE. Low substrate loading is a proven strategy against methanogenic activity in large-scale reactors for sulfate reduction. The combination of low substrate loading with sufficiently high overpotential is essential because it results in favorable growth kinetics of electrogens compared to methanogens. To achieve high current density in combination with low substrate concentrations, it is essential to have a high specific anode surface area. New reactor designs with these features are essential for BESs to be successful in wastewater treatment in the future. PMID:27681899

  4. Low Substrate Loading Limits Methanogenesis and Leads to High Coulombic Efficiency in Bioelectrochemical Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleutels, Tom H J A; Molenaar, Sam D; Heijne, Annemiek Ter; Buisman, Cees J N

    2016-01-05

    A crucial aspect for the application of bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) as a wastewater treatment technology is the efficient oxidation of complex substrates by the bioanode, which is reflected in high Coulombic efficiency (CE). To achieve high CE, it is essential to give a competitive advantage to electrogens over methanogens. Factors that affect CE in bioanodes are, amongst others, the type of wastewater, anode potential, substrate concentration and pH. In this paper, we focus on acetate as a substrate and analyze the competition between methanogens and electrogens from a thermodynamic and kinetic point of view. We reviewed experimental data from earlier studies and propose that low substrate loading in combination with a sufficiently high anode overpotential plays a key-role in achieving high CE. Low substrate loading is a proven strategy against methanogenic activity in large-scale reactors for sulfate reduction. The combination of low substrate loading with sufficiently high overpotential is essential because it results in favorable growth kinetics of electrogens compared to methanogens. To achieve high current density in combination with low substrate concentrations, it is essential to have a high specific anode surface area. New reactor designs with these features are essential for BESs to be successful in wastewater treatment in the future.

  5. Prostate-specific antigen bounce after high-dose rate brachytherapy with external beam radiation therapy for prostate cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Naotaka; Kakinoki, Hiroaki; Tsutsui, Akio; Yoshikawa, Masahiro; Iguchi, Atsushi; Matsunobu, Toru; Uehara, Satoru

    2008-01-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) bounce after high-dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) for prostate cancer patients was evaluated. Sixty-one patients treated with HDR-brachytherapy followed by EBRT had a minimum follow-up of 12 months (median, 24 months) in our institute. A PSA bounce was defined as a rise of at least 0.1 ng/ml greater than a previous PSA level, with a subsequent decline equal to, or less than, the initial nadir. A PSA bounce was noted in 16 (26.2%) of 61 patients (one patient had a PSA bounce twice). Median time to develop a PSA bounce was 18 months, but 23.5% developed a PSA bounce after 24 months. Median duration of PSA bounce was 6 months and 11.8% had increased PSA within a period of 12 months. Median bounce height was 0.2 ng/ml (range, 0.1 to 3.39 ng/ml). A bounce height of gerater than 2 ng/ml was seen in 11.8%. Clinical characteristics (age, prostate volume, neoadjuvant endocrine therapy, risk classification, stage, pretreatment PSA, Gleason score) do not predict whether or not there will be a PSA bounce. In patients treated with HDR-brachytherapy followed by EBRT, the incidence and characteristics of PSA bounce were similar to those in patients treated with low-dose rate brachytherapy. Physicians should be aware of the possibility of PSA bounce following HDR-brachytherapy with EBRT. (author)

  6. High Dietary Protein Intake and Protein-Related Acid Load on Bone Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jay J

    2017-12-01

    Consumption of high-protein diets is increasingly popular due to the benefits of protein on preserving lean mass and controlling appetite and satiety. The paper is to review recent clinical research assessing dietary protein on calcium metabolism and bone health. Epidemiological studies show that long-term, high-protein intake is positively associated with bone mineral density and reduced risk of bone fracture incidence. Short-term interventional studies demonstrate that a high-protein diet does not negatively affect calcium homeostasis. Existing evidence supports that the negative effects of the acid load of protein on urinary calcium excretion are offset by the beneficial skeletal effects of high-protein intake. Future research should focus on the role and the degree of contribution of other dietary and physiological factors, such as intake of fruits and vegetables, in reducing the acid load and further enhancing the anabolic effects of protein on the musculoskeletal system.

  7. Stochastic clustering of material surface under high-heat plasma load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budaev, Viacheslav P.

    2017-11-01

    The results of a study of a surface formed by high-temperature plasma loads on various materials such as tungsten, carbon and stainless steel are presented. High-temperature plasma irradiation leads to an inhomogeneous stochastic clustering of the surface with self-similar granularity - fractality on the scale from nanoscale to macroscales. Cauliflower-like structure of tungsten and carbon materials are formed under high heat plasma load in fusion devices. The statistical characteristics of hierarchical granularity and scale invariance are estimated. They differ qualitatively from the roughness of the ordinary Brownian surface, which is possibly due to the universal mechanisms of stochastic clustering of material surface under the influence of high-temperature plasma.

  8. Experimental Investigation and FE Analysis on Constitutive Relationship of High Strength Aluminum Alloy under Cyclic Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanqing Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiments of 17 high strength aluminum alloy (7A04 specimens were conducted to investigate the constitutive relationship under cyclic loading. The monotonic behavior and hysteretic behavior were focused on and the fracture surface was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM to investigate the microfailure modes. Based on Ramberg-Osgood model, stress-strain skeleton curves under cyclic loading were fitted. Parameters of combined hardening model including isotropic hardening and kinematic hardening were calibrated from test data according to Chaboche model. The cyclic tests were simulated in finite element software ABAQUS. The test results show that 7A04 aluminum alloy has obvious nonlinearity and ultra-high strength which is over 600 MPa, however, with relatively poor ductility. In the cyclic loading tests, 7A04 aluminum alloy showed cyclic hardening behavior and when the compressive strain was larger than 1%, the stiffness degradation and strength degradation occurred. The simulated curves derived by FE model fitted well with experimental curves which indicates that the parameters of this combined model can be used in accurate calculation of 7A04 high strength aluminum structures under cyclic loading.

  9. High expression of carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule (CEACAM) 6 and 8 in primary myelofibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riley, Caroline Hasselbalch; Skov, Vibe; Larsen, Thomas Stauffer

    2011-01-01

    for the egress of CD34+ cells from the bone marrow. Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule (CEACAM) 6 has been implicated in cell adhesion, cellular invasiveness, angiogenesis, and inflammation, which are all key processes in the pathophysiology of PMF. Accordingly, CEACAMs may play an important...

  10. High-precision solution to the moving load problem using an improved spectral element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Shu-Rui; Wu, Zhi-Jing; Lu, Nian-Li

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, the spectral element method (SEM) is improved to solve the moving load problem. In this method, a structure with uniform geometry and material properties is considered as a spectral element, which means that the element number and the degree of freedom can be reduced significantly. Based on the variational method and the Laplace transform theory, the spectral stiffness matrix and the equivalent nodal force of the beam-column element are established. The static Green function is employed to deduce the improved function. The proposed method is applied to two typical engineering practices—the one-span bridge and the horizontal jib of the tower crane. The results have revealed the following. First, the new method can yield extremely high-precision results of the dynamic deflection, the bending moment and the shear force in the moving load problem. In most cases, the relative errors are smaller than 1%. Second, by comparing with the finite element method, one can obtain the highly accurate results using the improved SEM with smaller element numbers. Moreover, the method can be widely used for statically determinate as well as statically indeterminate structures. Third, the dynamic deflection of the twin-lift jib decreases with the increase in the moving load speed, whereas the curvature of the deflection increases. Finally, the dynamic deflection, the bending moment and the shear force of the jib will all increase as the magnitude of the moving load increases.

  11. A 2-megawatt load for testing high voltage DC power supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horan, D.; Kustom, R.; Ferguson, M.; Primdahl, K.

    1993-01-01

    A high power water-cooled resistive load, capable of dissipating 2 Megawatts at 95 kilovolts is being designed and built. The load utilizes wirewound resistor elements suspended inside insulating tubing contained within a pressure vessel which is supplied a continuous flow of deionized water for coolant. A sub-system of the load is composed of non-inductive resistor elements in an oil tank. Power tests conducted on various resistor types indicate that dissipation levels as high as 22 times the rated dissipation in air can be achieved when the resistors are placed in a turbulent water flow of at least 15 gallons per minute. Using this data, the load was designed using 100 resistor elements in a series arrangement. A single-wall 316 stainless steel pressure vessel with flanged torispherical heads is built to contain the resistor assembly and deionized water. The resistors are suspended within G-11 tubing which span the cylindrical length of the vessel. These tubes are supported by G-10 baffles which also increase convection from the tubes by promoting turbulence within the surrounding water

  12. Evaluation of high temperature gas reactor for demanding cogeneration load follow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Xing L.; Sato, Hiroyuki; Tachibana, Yukio; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko; Hino, Ryutaro

    2012-01-01

    Modular nuclear reactor systems are being developed around the world for new missions among which is cogeneration for industries and remote areas. Like existing fossil energy counterpart in these markets, a nuclear plant would need to demonstrate the feasibility of load follow including (1) the reliability to generate power and heat simultaneously and alone and (2) the flexibility to vary cogeneration rates concurrent to demand changes. This article reports the results of JAEA's evaluation on the high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) to perform these duties. The evaluation results in a plant design based on the materials and design codes developed with JAEA's operating test reactor and from additional equipment validation programs. The 600 MWt-HTGR plant generates electricity efficiently by gas turbine and 900degC heat by a topping heater. The heater couples via a heat transport loop to industrial facility that consumes the high temperature heat to yield heat product such as hydrogen fuel, steel, or chemical. Original control methods are proposed to automate transition between the load duties. Equipment challenges are addressed for severe operation conditions. Performance limits of cogeneration load following are quantified from the plant system simulation to a range of bounding events including a loss of either load and a rapid peaking of electricity. (author)

  13. Efficiency and Loading Evaluation of High Efficiency Mist Eliminators (HEME) - 12003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giffin, Paxton K.; Parsons, Michael S.; Waggoner, Charles A. [Institute for Clean Energy Technology, Mississippi State University, 205 Research Blvd Starkville, MS 39759 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    High efficiency mist eliminators (HEME) are filters primarily used to remove moisture and/or liquid aerosols from an air stream. HEME elements are designed to reduce aerosol and particulate load on primary High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters and to have a liquid particle removal efficiency of approximately 99.5% for aerosols down to sub-micron size particulates. The investigation presented here evaluates the loading capacity of the element in the absence of a water spray cleaning system. The theory is that without the cleaning system, the HEME element will suffer rapid buildup of solid aerosols, greatly reducing the particle loading capacity. Evaluation consists of challenging the element with a waste surrogate dry aerosol and di-octyl phthalate (DOP) at varying intervals of differential pressure to examine the filtering efficiency of three different element designs at three different media velocities. Also, the elements are challenged with a liquid waste surrogate using Laskin nozzles and large dispersion nozzles. These tests allow the loading capacity of the unit to be determined and the effectiveness of washing down the interior of the elements to be evaluated. (authors)

  14. Laboratory-scale method for enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass at high-solids loadings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dibble Clare J

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Screening new lignocellulosic biomass pretreatments and advanced enzyme systems at process relevant conditions is a key factor in the development of economically viable lignocellulosic ethanol. Shake flasks, the reaction vessel commonly used for screening enzymatic saccharifications of cellulosic biomass, do not provide adequate mixing at high-solids concentrations when shaking is not supplemented with hand mixing. Results We identified roller bottle reactors (RBRs as laboratory-scale reaction vessels that can provide adequate mixing for enzymatic saccharifications at high-solids biomass loadings without any additional hand mixing. Using the RBRs, we developed a method for screening both pretreated biomass and enzyme systems at process-relevant conditions. RBRs were shown to be scalable between 125 mL and 2 L. Results from enzymatic saccharifications of five biomass pretreatments of different severities and two enzyme preparations suggest that this system will work well for a variety of biomass substrates and enzyme systems. A study of intermittent mixing regimes suggests that mass transfer limitations of enzymatic saccharifications at high-solids loadings are significant but can be mitigated with a relatively low amount of mixing input. Conclusion Effective initial mixing to promote good enzyme distribution and continued, but not necessarily continuous, mixing is necessary in order to facilitate high biomass conversion rates. The simplicity and robustness of the bench-scale RBR system, combined with its ability to accommodate numerous reaction vessels, will be useful in screening new biomass pretreatments and advanced enzyme systems at high-solids loadings.

  15. Self-healing of mechanically-loaded self consolidating concretes with high volumes of fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustafa Sahmaran; Suleyman B. Keskin; Gozde Ozerkan; Ismail O. Yaman [University of Gaziantep, Gaziantep (Turkey). Department of Civil Engineering

    2008-11-15

    This article discusses the effects of self-healing on self consolidating concretes incorporating high volumes of fly ash (HVFA-SCC) when subjected to continuous water exposure. For this purpose, self consolidating concretes with fly ash replacement ratios of 0%, 35%, and 55% were prepared having a constant water-cementitious material ratio of 0.35. A uniaxial compression load was applied to generate microcracks in concrete where cylindrical specimens were pre-loaded up to 70% and 90% of the ultimate compressive load determined at 28 days. Later, the extent of damage was determined as percentage of loss in mechanical properties and percentage of increase in permeation properties. After pre-loading, concrete specimens were stored in water for a month and the mechanical and permeation properties are monitored at every two weeks. It was observed that HVFA-SCC mixtures initially lost 27% of their strength when pre-loaded up to 90% of their ultimate strength, and after 30 days of water curing that reduction was only 7%, indicating a substantial healing. On the other hand, for SCC specimens without fly ash that were pre-loaded to the same level, the loss in strength was initially 19%, and after a month of moist curing it was only 13%. Similar observations were also made on the permeation properties with greater effects. As the HVFA-SCCs studied have an important amount of unhydrated fly ash available in their microstructure, these observations are attributed to the self-healing of the pre-existing cracks, mainly by hydration of anhydrous fly ash particles on the crack surfaces.

  16. Direct FEM-computation of load carrying capacity of highly loaded passive components; Direkte FEM - Berechnung der Tragfaehigkeit hochbeanspruchter passiver Komponenten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staat, M; Heitzer, M [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Sicherheitsforschung und Reaktortechnik

    1998-11-01

    Detailed, inelastic FEM analyses yield accurate information about the stresses and deformations in passive components. The local loading conditions, however, cannot be directly compared with a limit load in terms of structural mechanics. Concentration on the load carrying capacity is an approach simplifying the analysis. Based on the plasticity theory, limit and shakedown analyses calculate the load carrying capacities directly and exactly. The paper explains the implementation of the limit and shakedown data sets in a general FEM program and the direct calculation of the load carrying capacities of passive components. The concepts used are explained with respect to common structural analysis. Examples assuming high local stresses illustrate the application of FEM-based limit and shakedown analyses. The calculated interaction diagrams present a good insight into the applicable operational loads of individual passive components. The load carrying analysis also opens up a structure mechanics-based approach to assessing the load-to-collapse of cracked components made of highly ductile fracture-resistant material. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Genaue Kenntnis der Spannungen und Verformungen in passiven Komponenten gewinnt man mit detailierten inelastischen FEM Analysen. Die lokale Beanspruchung laesst sich aber nicht direkt mit einer Beanspruchbarkeit im strukturmechanischen Sinne vergleichen. Konzentriert man sich auf die Frage nach der Tragfaehigkeit, dann vereinfacht sich die Analyse. Im Rahmen der Plastizitaetstheorie berechnen Traglast- und Einspielanalyse die tragbaren Lasten direkt und exakt. In diesem Beitrag wird eine Implementierung der Traglast- und Einspielsaetze in ein allgemeines FEM Programm vorgestellt, mit der die Tragfaehigkeit passiver Komponenten direkt berechnet wird. Die benutzten Konzepte werden in Bezug auf die uebliche Strukturanalyse erlaeutert. Beispiele mit lokal hoher Beanspruchung verdeutlichen die Anwendung der FEM basierten Traglast- und

  17. Precision cancer immunotherapy: optimizing dendritic cell-based strategies to induce tumor antigen-specific T-cell responses against individual patient tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osada, Takuya; Nagaoka, Koji; Takahara, Masashi; Yang, Xiao Yi; Liu, Cong-Xiao; Guo, Hongtao; Roy Choudhury, Kingshuk; Hobeika, Amy; Hartman, Zachary; Morse, Michael A; Lyerly, H Kim

    2015-05-01

    Most dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccines have loaded the DC with defined antigens, but loading with autologos tumor-derived antigens would generate DCs that activate personalized tumor-specific T-cell responses. We hypothesized that DC matured with an optimized combination of reagents and loaded with tumor-derived antigens using a clinically feasible electroporation strategy would induce potent antitumor immunity. We first studied the effects on DC maturation and antigen presentation of the addition of picibanil (OK432) to a combination of zoledronic acid, tumor necrosis factor-α, and prostaglandin E2. Using DC matured with the optimized combination, we tested 2 clinically feasible sources of autologous antigen for electroloading, total tumor mRNA or total tumor lysate, to determine which stimulated more potent antigen-specific T cells in vitro and activated more potent antitumor immunity in vivo. The combination of tumor necrosis factor-α/prostaglandin E2/zoledronic acid/OK432 generated DC with high expression of maturation markers and antigen-specific T-cell stimulatory function in vitro. Mature DC electroloaded with tumor-derived mRNA [mRNA electroporated dendritic cell (EPDC)] induced greater expansion of antigen-specific T cells in vitro than DC electroloaded with tumor lysate (lysate EPDC). In a therapeutic model of MC38-carcinoembryonic antigen colon cancer-bearing mice, vaccination with mRNA EPDC induced the most efficient anti-carcinoembryonic antigen cellular immune response, which significantly suppressed tumor growth. In conclusion, mature DC electroloaded with tumor-derived mRNA are a potent cancer vaccine, especially useful when specific tumor antigens for vaccination have not been identified, allowing autologous tumor, and if unavailable, allogeneic cell lines to be used as an unbiased source of antigen. Our data support clinical testing of this strategy.

  18. Low-load high volume resistance exercise stimulates muscle protein synthesis more than high-load low volume resistance exercise in young men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A Burd

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We aimed to determine the effect of resistance exercise intensity (%1 repetition maximum-1RM and volume on muscle protein synthesis, anabolic signaling, and myogenic gene expression. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Fifteen men (21+/-1 years; BMI=24.1+/-0.8 kg/m2 performed 4 sets of unilateral leg extension exercise at different exercise loads and/or volumes: 90% of repetition maximum (1RM until volitional failure (90FAIL, 30% 1RM work-matched to 90%FAIL (30WM, or 30% 1RM performed until volitional failure (30FAIL. Infusion of [ring-13C6] phenylalanine with biopsies was used to measure rates of mixed (MIX, myofibrillar (MYO, and sarcoplasmic (SARC protein synthesis at rest, and 4 h and 24 h after exercise. Exercise at 30WM induced a significant increase above rest in MIX (121% and MYO (87% protein synthesis at 4 h post-exercise and but at 24 h in the MIX only. The increase in the rate of protein synthesis in MIX and MYO at 4 h post-exercise with 90FAIL and 30FAIL was greater than 30WM, with no difference between these conditions; however, MYO remained elevated (199% above rest at 24 h only in 30FAIL. There was a significant increase in AktSer473 at 24h in all conditions (P=0.023 and mTORSer2448 phosphorylation at 4 h post-exercise (P=0.025. Phosporylation of Erk1/2Tyr202/204, p70S6KThr389, and 4E-BP1Thr37/46 increased significantly (P<0.05 only in the 30FAIL condition at 4 h post-exercise, whereas, 4E-BP1Thr37/46 phosphorylation was greater 24 h after exercise than at rest in both 90FAIL (237% and 30FAIL (312% conditions. Pax7 mRNA expression increased at 24 h post-exercise (P=0.02 regardless of condition. The mRNA expression of MyoD and myogenin were consistently elevated in the 30FAIL condition. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that low-load high volume resistance exercise is more effective in inducing acute muscle anabolism than high-load low volume or work matched resistance exercise modes.

  19. Concepts and applications for influenza antigenic cartography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhipeng; Zhang, Tong; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2011-01-01

    Influenza antigenic cartography projects influenza antigens into a two or three dimensional map based on immunological datasets, such as hemagglutination inhibition and microneutralization assays. A robust antigenic cartography can facilitate influenza vaccine strain selection since the antigenic map can simplify data interpretation through intuitive antigenic map. However, antigenic cartography construction is not trivial due to the challenging features embedded in the immunological data, such as data incompleteness, high noises, and low reactors. To overcome these challenges, we developed a computational method, temporal Matrix Completion-Multidimensional Scaling (MC-MDS), by adapting the low rank MC concept from the movie recommendation system in Netflix and the MDS method from geographic cartography construction. The application on H3N2 and 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza A viruses demonstrates that temporal MC-MDS is effective and efficient in constructing influenza antigenic cartography. The web sever is available at http://sysbio.cvm.msstate.edu/AntigenMap. PMID:21761589

  20. Increased antibody responses to Herpes virus papio (HVP) antigens in pre-lymphomatous baboons (Papio hamadryas) of the Sukhumi high lymphoma stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voevodin, A F; Yakovleva, L A; Lapin, B A; Ponomarjeva, T I

    1983-11-15

    Antibody responses to Herpes virus papio (HVP) antigens were studied in 21 pre-lymphoma baboons (which subsequently died of malignant lymphoma), 21 paired controls, i.e. age-, sex- and population-matched healthy baboons, and 185 randomly selected healthy baboons of the same population. The sera were all collected at the same time and were tested blind in the fixed-cell indirect immunofluorescence test against HVP viral capsid antigen (VCA)-positive, early antigen (EA)-positive cell targets before and after absorption with HVP. Eleven of the pre-lymphoma sera were anti-EA-positive whereas none of the paired controls contained anti-EA. Anti-VCA titers of pre-lymphoma sera were higher than those of paired controls in thirteen cases. Only in four cases were anti-VCA titers of pre-lymphoma sera lower than those of paired controls. Qualitatively, the same results were obtained when anti-VCA and anti-EA titers of pre-lymphoma sera were compared with respective mean population values. The differences between pre-lymphoma group and control groups, especially in the case of anti-EA, were statistically highly significant. Thus, elevated anti-HVP titers in healthy baboons of the Sukhumi lymphoma-prone stock can be considered as a marker of high risk for development of malignant lymphoma.

  1. Multifunctional Structures for High-Energy Lightweight Load-Bearing Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyselle, Patricia L.

    2018-01-01

    This is a pull-up banner of the Multifunctional Structures for High-Energy Lightweight Load-bearing Storage (M-SHELLS) technology that will be on display at the SciTech Conference in January 2018. Efforts in Multifunctional Structures for High Energy Load-Bearing Storage (M-Shells) are pushing the boundaries of development for hybrid electric propulsion for future commercial aeronautical transport. The M-Shells hybrid material would serve as the power/energy storage of the vehicle and provide structural integrity, freeing up usable volume and mass typically occupied by bulky batteries. The ultimate goal is to demonstrate a system-level mass savings with a multifunctional structure with energy storage.

  2. Graphene oxide-loaded shortening as an environmentally friendly heat transfer fluid with high thermal conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vongsetskul Thammasit

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Graphene oxide-loaded shortening (GOS, an environmentally friendly heat transfer fluid with high thermal conductivity, was successfully prepared by mixing graphene oxide (GO with a shortening. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that GO particles, prepared by the modified Hummer’s method, dispersed well in the shortening. In addition, the latent heat of GOS decreased while their viscosity and thermal conductivity increased with increasing the amount of loaded GO. The thermal conductivity of the GOS with 4% GO was higher than that of pure shortening of ca. three times, from 0.1751 to 0.6022 W/mK, and increased with increasing temperature. The GOS started to be degraded at ca. 360°C. After being heated and cooled at 100°C for 100 cycles, its viscosity slightly decreased and no chemical degradation was observed. Therefore, the prepared GOS is potentially used as environmentally friendly heat transfer fluid at high temperature.

  3. Fusion surface material melting, ablation, and ejection under high heat loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holliday, M.R.; Doster, J.M.; Gilligan, J.G.

    1986-01-01

    Limiters, divertor plates, and sections of the first wall are exposed to intense heat loads during normal operation and plasma disruptions. This results in severe thermal stresses as well as erosion of the surface material. Large surface areas of compact high-field tokamaks are expected to be exposed to these high heat loads. The need for a fast and accurate computational model describing the heat transfer and phase change process has arisen as a part of the larger model of the plasma-edge region. The authors report on a solution scheme that has been developed that minimizes computational time for this time-dependent, one-dimensional, moving boundary problem. This research makes use of the heat balance integral technique, which is at least an order of magnitude faster than previous finite difference techniques. In addition, we report on the effect of molten material ejection (by external forces) on the total surface erosion rate

  4. High heat load properties of TiC dispersed Mo alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, Kazutoshi; Yoshida, Naoaki; Miura, Yasushi; Kurishita, Hiroaki; Kitsunai, Yuji; Kayano, Hideo.

    1996-01-01

    Electron beam high heat load experiment of new developed three kinds of TiC dispersed Mo alloys (Mo-0.1wt%TiC, Mo-0.5wt%TiC and Mo-1.0wt%TiC) was studied so as to evaluate it's high heat load at using as the surface materials of divertor. The obtained results indicated that cracks were not observed by embrittlement by recrystallization until about 2200degC of surface temperature and the gas emission properties were not different from sintered molibdenum. However, at near melting point, deep cracks on grain boundary and smaller gas emission than that of sintered Mo were observed. So that, we concluded that TiC dispersed Mo alloy was good surface materials used under the conditions of the stationary heat flux and less than the melting point, although not good one to be melted under nonstationary large heat flux. (S.Y.)

  5. High temperature fatigue behaviour of TZM molybdenum alloy under mechanical and thermomechanical cyclic loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, H.J.; Niu, L.S.; Korn, C.; Pluvinage, G.

    2000-01-01

    High temperature isothermal mechanical fatigue and in-phase thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) tests in load control were carried out on a molybdenum-based alloy, one of the best known of the refractory alloys, TZM. The stress-strain response and the cyclic life of the material were measured during the tests. The fatigue lives obtained in the in-phase TMF tests are lower than those obtained in the isothermal mechanical tests at the same load amplitude. It appears that an additional damage is produced by the reaction of mechanical stress cycles and temperature cycles in TMF situation. Ratcheting phenomenon occurred during the tests with an increasing creep rate and it was dependent on temperature and load amplitude. A model of lifetime prediction, based on the Woehler-Miner law, was discussed. Damage coefficients that are functions of the maximum temperature and the variation of temperature are introduced in the model so as to evaluate TMF lives in load control. With this method the lifetime prediction gives results corresponding well to experimental data

  6. Experimental studies on the performance of novel layered materials under highly dynamic loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukla, A, E-mail: shuklaa@egr.uri.ed [Dynamic Photomechanics Laboratory Department of Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI 02881 (United States)

    2009-08-01

    This paper focuses on the experimental observations of the performance of different layered composite material systems subjected to blast loadings. These material systems include layered composites and sandwich composite materials. A controlled blast loading of pre-defined pressure magnitude and rise time were obtained using a shock tube apparatus. Rectangular plate elements of the desired material system were subjected to such a controlled blast loading and the effects of the blast loading on these elements were studied using optical and residual strength measurements. A high speed imaging technique was utilized to study the damage modes and mechanisms in real time. It was observed that layering of a conventional composite material with a soft visco-elastic polymer provided better blast resistance and sandwiching the polymer greatly enhanced its survivability under extreme air blast conditions. Aside from layering the conventional composite material with a soft visco-elastic polymer, it was observed that layering or grading the core can successfully mitigate the impact damage and thus improve the overall blast resistance as well. In addition to these, three dimensional (3D) woven skin and core reinforcements were introduced in the conventional sandwich composites and their effects on the blast resistance were studied experimentally. It was observed that these reinforcements also enhance the blast resistance of conventional sandwich composites by changing the mechanism of failure initiation and propagation in these sandwich structures.

  7. Modeling of high-strength concrete-filled FRP tube columns under cyclic load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Kee-Yen; Ma, Chau-Khun; Apandi, Nazirah Mohd; Awang, Abdullah Zawawi; Omar, Wahid

    2018-05-01

    The behavior of high-strength concrete (HSC) - filled fiber-reinforced-polymer (FRP) tubes (HSCFFTs) column subjected to cyclic lateral loading is presented in this paper. As the experimental study is costly and time consuming, a finite element analysis (FEA) is chosen for the study. Most of the previous studies have focused on examining the axial load behavior of HSCFFT column instead of seismic behavior. The seismic behavior of HSCFFT columns has been the main interest in the industry. The key objective of this research is to develop a reliable numerical non-linear FEA model to represent the seismic behavior of such column. A FEA model was developed using the Concrete Damaged Plasticity Model (CDPM) available in the finite element software package (ABAQUS). Comparisons between experimental results from previous research and the predicted results were made based on load versus displacement relationships and ultimate strength of the column. The results showed that the column increased in ductility and able to deform to a greater extent with the increase of the FRP confinement ratio. With the increase of confinement ratio, HSCFFT column achieved a higher moment resistance, thus indicated a higher failure strength in the column under cyclic lateral load. It was found that the proposed FEA model can regenerate the experimental results with adequate accuracy.

  8. Simultaneous saccharification and ethanol fermentation at high corn stover solids loading in a helical stirring bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Chu, Deqiang; Huang, Juan; Yu, Zhanchun; Dai, Gance; Bao, Jie

    2010-03-01

    The higher ethanol titer inevitably requires higher solids loading during the simultaneous enzymatic saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using lignocellulose as the feedstock. The mixing between the solid lignocellulose and the liquid enzyme is crucially important. In this study, a bioreactor with a novel helical impeller was designed and applied to the SSF operation of the steam explosion pretreated corn stover under different solids loadings and different enzyme dosages. The performances using the helical impeller and the common Rushton impeller were compared and analyzed by measuring rheological properties and the mixing energy consumption. The results showed that the new designed stirring system had better performances in the saccharification yield, ethanol titer, and energy cost than those of the Rushton impeller stirring. The mixing energy consumption under different solids loadings and enzyme dosages during SSF operation were analyzed and compared to the thermal energy in the ethanol produced. A balance for achieving the optimal energy cost between the increased mixing energy cost and the reduced distillation energy cost at the high solids loading should be made. The potentials of the new bioreactor were tested under various SSF conditions for obtaining optimal ethanol yield and titer. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. High antibody titer against apical membrane antigen-1 is required to protect against malaria in the Aotus model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheetij Dutta

    Full Text Available A Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 strain Apical Membrane Antigen-1 (AMA1 vaccine, formulated with AS02(A adjuvant, slowed parasite growth in a recent Phase 1/2a trial, however sterile protection was not observed. We tested this AS02(A, and a Montanide ISA720 (ISA formulation of 3D7 AMA1 in Aotus monkeys. The 3D7 parasite does not invade Aotus erythrocytes, hence two heterologous strains, FCH/4 and FVO, were used for challenge, FCH/4 AMA1 being more homologous to 3D7 than FVO AMA1. Following three vaccinations, the monkeys were challenged with 50,000 FCH/4 or 10,000 FVO parasites. Three of the six animals in the AMA+ISA group were protected against FCH/4 challenge. One monkey did not become parasitemic, another showed only a short period of low level parasitemia that self-cured, and a third animal showed a delay before exhibiting its parasitemic phase. This is the first protection shown in primates with a recombinant P. falciparum AMA1 without formulation in Freund's complete adjuvant. No animals in the AMA+AS02(A group were protected, but this group exhibited a trend towards reduced growth rate. A second group of monkeys vaccinated with AMA+ISA vaccine was not protected against FVO challenge, suggesting strain-specificity of AMA1-based protection. Protection against FCH/4 strain correlated with the quantity of induced antibodies, as the protected animals were the only ones to have in vitro parasite growth inhibitory activity of >70% at 1:10 serum dilution; immuno-fluorescence titers >8,000; ELISA titers against full-length AMA1 >300,000 and ELISA titer against AMA1 domains1+2 >100,000. A negative correlation between log ELISA titer and day 11 cumulative parasitemia (Spearman rank r = -0.780, p value = 0.0001, further confirmed the relationship between antibody titer and protection. High titers of cross-strain inhibitory antibodies against AMA1 are therefore critical to confer solid protection, and the Aotus model can be used to down-select future AMA1

  10. Analysis of underground concrete pipelines subjected to seismic high-frequency loads

    OpenAIRE

    Abbasiverki, Roghayeh

    2016-01-01

    Buried pipelines are tubular structures that are used for transportation of important liquid materials and gas in order to provide safety for human life. During an earthquake, imposed loads from soil deformations on concrete pipelines may cause severe damages, possibly causing disturbance in vital systems, such as cooling of nuclear power facilities. The high level of safety has caused a demand for reliable seismic analyses, also for structures built in the regions that have not traditionally...

  11. A fracture mechanics study of tungsten failure under high heat flux loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Muyuan

    2015-01-01

    The performance of fusion devices is highly dependent on plasma-facing components. Tungsten is the most promising candidate material for armors in plasma-facing components in ITER and DEMO. However, the brittleness of tungsten below the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature is very critical to the reliability of plasma-facing components. In this work, thermo-mechanical and fracture behaviors of tungsten are predicted numerically under fusion relevant thermal loadings.

  12. Microbial activities in a vertical-flow wetland system treating sewage sludge with high organic loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, R. Y.; Perissol, C.; Baldy, V.; Bonin, G.; Korboulewsky, N.

    2009-07-01

    The rhizosphere is the most active zone in treatment wetlands where take place physicochemical and biological processes between the substrate, plants, microorganisms, and contaminants. Microorganisms play the key role in the mineralisation of organic matter. substrate respiration and phosphatase activities (acid and alkaline) were chosen as indicators of microbial activities, and studied in a vertical-flow wetland system receiving sewage sludge with high organic loads under the Mediterranean climate. (Author)

  13. High Mass Loading MnO2 with Hierarchical Nanostructures for Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zi-Hang; Song, Yu; Feng, Dong-Yang; Sun, Zhen; Sun, Xiaoqi; Liu, Xiao-Xia

    2018-04-24

    Metal oxides have attracted renewed interest as promising electrode materials for high energy density supercapacitors. However, the electrochemical performance of metal oxide materials deteriorates significantly with the increase of mass loading due to their moderate electronic and ionic conductivities. This limits their practical energy. Herein, we perform a morphology and phase-controlled electrodeposition of MnO 2 with ultrahigh mass loading of 10 mg cm -2 on a carbon cloth substrate to achieve high overall capacitance without sacrificing the electrochemical performance. Under optimum conditions, a hierarchical nanostructured architecture was constructed by interconnection of primary two-dimensional ε-MnO 2 nanosheets and secondary one-dimensional α-MnO 2 nanorod arrays. The specific hetero-nanostructures ensure facile ionic and electric transport in the entire electrode and maintain the structure stability during cycling. The hierarchically structured MnO 2 electrode with high mass loading yields an outstanding areal capacitance of 3.04 F cm -2 (or a specific capacitance of 304 F g -1 ) at 3 mA cm -2 and an excellent rate capability comparable to those of low mass loading MnO 2 electrodes. Finally, the aqueous and all-solid asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs) assembled with our MnO 2 cathode exhibit extremely high volumetric energy densities (8.3 mWh cm -3 at the power density of 0.28 W cm -3 for aqueous ASC and 8.0 mWh cm -3 at 0.65 W cm -3 for all-solid ASC), superior to most state-of-the-art supercapacitors.

  14. Biofiltration of high loads of ethyl acetate in the presence of toluene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshusses, M; Johnson, C T; Leson, G

    1999-08-01

    To date, biofilters have been used primarily to control dilute, usually odorous, off-gases with relatively low volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations (elimination capacities for ethyl acetate were typically in the range of 200 g m-3 hr-1. Despite the presence of toluene degraders, the removal of toluene was inhibited by high loads of ethyl acetate. Several byproducts, particularly ethanol, were formed. Short-term dry-out and temperature excursions resulted in reduced performance.

  15. 3D extrusion printing of high drug loading immediate release paracetamol tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaled, Shaban A; Alexander, Morgan R; Wildman, Ricky D; Wallace, Martin J; Sharpe, Sonja; Yoo, Jae; Roberts, Clive J

    2018-03-01

    The manufacture of immediate release high drug loading paracetamol oral tablets was achieved using an extrusion based 3D printer from a premixed water based paste formulation. The 3D printed tablets demonstrate that a very high drug (paracetamol) loading formulation (80% w/w) can be printed as an acceptable tablet using a method suitable for personalisation and distributed manufacture. Paracetamol is an example of a drug whose physical form can present challenges to traditional powder compression tableting. Printing avoids these issues and facilitates the relatively high drug loading. The 3D printed tablets were evaluated for physical and mechanical properties including weight variation, friability, breaking force, disintegration time, and dimensions and were within acceptable range as defined by the international standards stated in the United States Pharmacopoeia (USP). X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRPD) was used to identify the physical form of the active. Additionally, XRPD, Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to assess possible drug-excipient interactions. The 3D printed tablets were evaluated for drug release using a USP dissolution testing type I apparatus. The tablets showed a profile characteristic of the immediate release profile as intended based upon the active/excipient ratio used with disintegration in less than 60 s and release of most of the drug within 5 min. The results demonstrate the capability of 3D extrusion based printing to produce acceptable high-drug loading tablets from approved materials that comply with current USP standards. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Means of achieving high load factors at Olkiluoto 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrakka, E.

    2001-01-01

    Teollisuuden Voima Oy operates two BWR units Olkiluoto 1 and 2 that have achieved load factors typically higher than 90%. The operating experiences gained in the 1990s is summarised and the factors contributing to the high capacity factors are addressed. These include the general objectives for operation and maintenance, plant modernisation programme, maintenance principles, and outage policy and experiences. Finally, the international evaluations performed at Olkiluoto are mentioned. (author)

  17. Carcinoma-associated antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartorelli, A.; Accinni, R.

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to novel antigens associated with breast carcinoma, anti-sera specific to said antigens, 125 I-labeled forms of said antigens and methods of detecting said antigens in serum or plasma. The invention also relates to a diagnostic kit containing standardised antigens or antisera or marked forms thereof for the detection of said antigens in human blood, serum or plasma. (author)

  18. Load balancing in highly parallel processing of Monte Carlo code for particle transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higuchi, Kenji; Takemiya, Hiroshi; Kawasaki, Takuji

    1998-01-01

    In parallel processing of Monte Carlo (MC) codes for neutron, photon and electron transport problems, particle histories are assigned to processors making use of independency of the calculation for each particle. Although we can easily parallelize main part of a MC code by this method, it is necessary and practically difficult to optimize the code concerning load balancing in order to attain high speedup ratio in highly parallel processing. In fact, the speedup ratio in the case of 128 processors remains in nearly one hundred times when using the test bed for the performance evaluation. Through the parallel processing of the MCNP code, which is widely used in the nuclear field, it is shown that it is difficult to attain high performance by static load balancing in especially neutron transport problems, and a load balancing method, which dynamically changes the number of assigned particles minimizing the sum of the computational and communication costs, overcomes the difficulty, resulting in nearly fifteen percentage of reduction for execution time. (author)

  19. Nonlinear behaviors of FRP-wrapped tall trees subjected to high wind loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, J.; Yi, Z. Z.; Choi, S. G.

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated the mechanical stability of historical tall trees wrapped with fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) laminates using finite element (FE) analysis. High wind loads are considered as external loading conditions as they are one of the major threats on the structural stability of tall old trees. There have been several traditional practices to enhance the stability of tall trees exposed to high windstorms such as tree supporters and anchorages. They, however, have been sometimes causing negative effects with their misuses as the application guidelines for those methods were not adequately studied or documented. Furthermore, the oldest known trees in the country should be protected from the damage of external surface as well as ruin of the landscape. The objective of this study was to evaluate the structural effects of FRP wraps applied to tall trees subjected to high wind loads. The anisotropic material properties of wood and FRP laminates were considered in the analysis in addition to geometrically nonlinear behaviors. This study revealed that FRP wrapping for tall trees could effectively reduce the deflections and maximum stresses of trees, which results in the enhanced stability of tall trees. The optimum geometry and thicknesses of FRP wraps proposed in this study would provide fundemental guidelines for designing and constructing the application of innovative FRP wraps on tall trees, which are structurally unstable or should be preserved nationally and historically.

  20. Enhanced microwave shielding and mechanical properties of high loading MWCNT–epoxy composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, B. P.; Prasanta; Choudhary, Veena; Saini, Parveen; Pande, Shailaja; Singh, V. N.; Mathur, R. B.

    2013-01-01

    Dispersion of high loading of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in epoxy resin is a challenging task for the development of efficient and thin electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding materials. Up to 20 wt% of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) loading in the composite was achieved by forming CNT prepreg in the epoxy resin as a first step. These prepreg laminates were then compression molded to form composites which resulted in EMI shielding effectiveness of −19 dB for 0.35 mm thick film and −60 dB at for 1.75 mm thick composites in the X-band (8.2–12.4 GHz). One of the reasons for such high shielding is attributed to the high electrical conductivity of the order of 9 S cm −1 achieved in these composites which is at least an order of magnitude higher than previously reported results at this loading. In addition, an improvement of 40 % in the tensile strength over the neat resin value is observed. Thermal conductivity of the MWCNTs–epoxy composite reached 2.18 W/mK as compared to only 0.14 W/mK for cured epoxy.

  1. Enhanced microwave shielding and mechanical properties of high loading MWCNT-epoxy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, B. P.; Prasanta; Choudhary, Veena; Saini, Parveen; Pande, Shailaja; Singh, V. N.; Mathur, R. B.

    2013-04-01

    Dispersion of high loading of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in epoxy resin is a challenging task for the development of efficient and thin electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding materials. Up to 20 wt% of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) loading in the composite was achieved by forming CNT prepreg in the epoxy resin as a first step. These prepreg laminates were then compression molded to form composites which resulted in EMI shielding effectiveness of -19 dB for 0.35 mm thick film and -60 dB at for 1.75 mm thick composites in the X-band (8.2-12.4 GHz). One of the reasons for such high shielding is attributed to the high electrical conductivity of the order of 9 S cm-1 achieved in these composites which is at least an order of magnitude higher than previously reported results at this loading. In addition, an improvement of 40 % in the tensile strength over the neat resin value is observed. Thermal conductivity of the MWCNTs-epoxy composite reached 2.18 W/mK as compared to only 0.14 W/mK for cured epoxy.

  2. DM100 AND DM1200 MELTER TESTING WITH HIGH WASTE LOADING GLASS FORMULATIONS FOR HANFORD HIGH-ALUMINUM HLW STREAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; KOT WK; PEGG IL; JOSEPH I

    2009-12-30

    This Test Plan describes work to support the development and testing of high waste loading glass formulations that achieve high glass melting rates for Hanford high aluminum high level waste (HLW). In particular, the present testing is designed to evaluate the effect of using low activity waste (LAW) waste streams as a source of sodium in place ofchemical additives, sugar or cellulose as a reductant, boehmite as an aluminum source, and further enhancements to waste processing rate while meeting all processing and product quality requirements. The work will include preparation and characterization of crucible melts in support of subsequent DuraMelter 100 (DM 100) tests designed to examine the effects of enhanced glass formulations, glass processing temperature, incorporation of the LAW waste stream as a sodium source, type of organic reductant, and feed solids content on waste processing rate and product quality. Also included is a confirmatory test on the HLW Pilot Melter (DM1200) with a composition selected from those tested on the DM100. This work builds on previous work performed at the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) for Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of River Protection (ORP) to increase waste loading and processing rates for high-iron HLW waste streams as well as previous tests conducted for ORP on the same waste composition. This Test Plan is prepared in response to an ORP-supplied statement of work. It is currently estimated that the number of HLW canisters to be produced in the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is about 12,500. This estimate is based upon the inventory ofthe tank wastes, the anticipated performance of the sludge treatment processes, and current understanding of the capability of the borosilicate glass waste form. The WTP HLW melter design, unlike earlier DOE melter designs, incorporates an active glass bubbler system. The bubblers create active glass pool convection and thereby improve heat

  3. Degradation of isobutanal at high loading rates in a compost biofilter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sercu, Bram; Demeestere, Kristof; Baillieul, Hans; Van Langenhove, Herman; Verstraete, Willy

    2005-08-01

    Biofiltration has been increasingly used for cleaning waste gases, mostly containing low concentrations of odorous compounds. To expand the application area of this technology, the biofiltration of higher pollutant loading rates has to be investigated. This article focuses on the biodegradation of isobutanal (IBAL) in a compost biofilter (BF) at mass loading rates between 211 and 4123 g/m3/day (30-590 ppm(v)). At mass loading rates up to 785 g/m3/day, near 100% removal efficiencies could be obtained. However, after increasing the loading rate to 1500-1900 g/m3/ day, the degradation efficiency decreased to 62-98%. In addition, a pH decrease and production of isobutanol (IBOL) and isobutyric acid (IBAC) were observed. This is the first report showing that an aldehyde can act as electron donor as well as acceptor in a BF. To study the effects of pH, compost moisture content, and electron acceptor availability on the biofiltration of IBAL, IBOL, and IBAC, additional batch and continuous experiments were performed. A pH of 5.2 reduced the IBAL degradation rate and inhibited the IBOL degradation, although adaptation of the microorganisms to low pH was observed in the BFs. IBAC was not degraded in the batch experiments. High moisture content (51%) initially had no effect on the IBOL production, although it negatively affected the IBAL elimination increasingly during a 21-day time-course experiment. In batch experiments, the reduction of IBAL to IBOL did not decrease when the amount of available electron acceptors (oxygen or nitrate) was increased. The IBAL removal efficiency at higher loading rates was limited by a combination of nutrient limitation, pH decrease, and dehydration, and the importance of each limiting factor depended on the influent concentration.

  4. Antigenic, genetic, and pathogenic characterization of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses isolated from dead whooper swans (Cygnus cygnus) found in northern Japan in 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Tanaka, Tomohisa; Yamamoto, Naoki; Sakoda, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Takashi; Tsuda, Yoshimi; Isoda, Norikazu; Kokumai, Norihide; Takada, Ayato; Umemura, Takashi; Kida, Hiroshi

    2010-12-01

    In April and May 2008, whooper swans (Cygnus cygnus) were found dead in Hokkaido in Japan. In this study, an adult whooper swan found dead beside Lake Saroma was pathologically examined and the identified H5N1 influenza virus isolates were genetically and antigenically analyzed. Pathological findings indicate that the swan died of severe congestive edema in the lungs. Phylogenetic analysis of the HA genes of the isolates revealed that they are the progeny viruses of isolates from poultry and wild birds in China, Russia, Korea, and Hong Kong. Antigenic analyses indicated that the viruses are distinguished from the H5N1 viruses isolated from wild birds and poultry before 2007. The chickens vaccinated with A/duck/Hokkaido/Vac-1/2004 (H5N1) survived for 14 days after challenge with A/whooper swan/Hokkaido/1/2008 (H5N1), although a small amount of the challenge virus was recovered from the tissues of the birds. These findings indicate that H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses are circulating in wild birds in addition to domestic poultry in Asia and exhibit antigenic variation that may be due to vaccination.

  5. Chimeric antigen receptors with human scFvs preferentially induce T cell anti-tumor activity against tumors with high B7H6 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gacerez, Albert T; Hua, Casey K; Ackerman, Margaret E; Sentman, Charles L

    2018-05-01

    B7H6 is emerging as a promising tumor antigen that is known to be expressed on a wide array of tumors and is reported to stimulate anti-tumor responses from the immune system. As such, B7H6 presents a good target for tumor-specific immunotherapies. B7H6-specific chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) based on a murine antibody showed successful targeting and elimination of tumors expressing B7H6. However, mouse single chain variable fragments (scFvs) have the potential to induce host anti-CAR responses that may limit efficacy, so human scFvs specific for B7H6 were selected by yeast surface display. In this study, we validate the functionality of these human scFvs when formatted into chimeric antigen receptors. The data indicate that T cells expressing these B7H6-specific human scFvs as CARs induced potent anti-tumor activity in vitro and in vivo against tumors expressing high amounts of B7H6. Importantly, these human scFv-based CARs are sensitive to changes in B7H6 expression which may potentially spare non-tumor cells that express B7H6 and provides the foundation for future clinical development.

  6. Measurement of circumsolar ratio in high dust loading regions using a photographic method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ansary, Hany; Shafiq, Talha; Rizvi, Arslan; El-Leathy, Abdelrahman

    2017-06-01

    Performance of concentrating solar power (CSP) plants is highly affected by direct normal irradiance (DNI). However, it is also important to consider circumsolar radiation in any simulation of a CSP plant, especially in desert regions where dust loading in the atmosphere is expected. There are a number of methods to measure circumsolar radiation. However, most of them require expensive instrumentation. This work introduces a simple method to estimate circumsolar radiation. It involves taking high-resolution photographs of the sun and processing them using a computer code that identifies the sun's disk. The code then uses pixel intensities to obtain the solar intensity distribution across the sun's disk and in the aureole region. The solar intensity distribution is then used to obtain the circumsolar ratio (CSR) which represents the shape of the sun. To test this method, numerous photos of the sun were taken during the month of April and September 2016 at King Saud University in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Riyadh is a region that is well known for high dust-loading, especially during the summer. Two days of different atmospheric conditions were selected in September for comparative analysis. Results show that this method produces repeatable results, and that the CSR can increase significantly due to high dust loading and passing clouds. The CSR is found to be a strong function of DNI, ranging from about 4.5% at DNI values above 800 W/m2 and increasing to as much as 8.5% when DNI drops to about 400 W/m2, due to passing clouds. Furthermore, the results show that circumsolar ratio tends to be high in the early morning and late afternoon due to the high air mass, while its values tend to be lowest around solar noon when the air mass is lowest.

  7. Rapid, highly sensitive detection of herpes simplex virus-1 using multiple antigenic peptide-coated superparamagnetic beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Ying-Fen; Fields, Conor; Muzard, Julien; Liauchuk, Viktoryia; Carr, Michael; Hall, William; Lee, Gil U

    2014-12-07

    A sensitive, rapid, and label free magnetic bead aggregation (MBA) assay has been developed that employs superparamagnetic (SPM) beads to capture, purify, and detect model proteins and the herpes simplex virus (HSV). The MBA assay is based on monitoring the aggregation state of a population of SPM beads using light scattering of individual aggregates. A biotin-streptavidin MBA assay had a femtomolar (fM) level sensitivity for analysis times less than 10 minutes, but the response of the assay becomes nonlinear at high analyte concentrations. A MBA assay for the detection of HSV-1 based on a novel peptide probe resulted in the selective detection of the virus at concentrations as low as 200 viral particles (vp) per mL in less than 30 min. We define the parameters that determine the sensitivity and response of the MBA assay, and the mechanism of enhanced sensitivity of the assay for HSV. The speed, relatively low cost, and ease of application of the MBA assay promise to make it useful for the identification of viral load in resource-limited and point-of-care settings where molecular diagnostics cannot be easily implemented.

  8. Long-duration heat load measurement approach by novel apparatus design and highly efficient algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yanwei; Yi, Fajun; Meng, Songhe; Zhuo, Lijun; Pan, Weizhen

    2017-11-01

    Improving the surface heat load measurement technique for vehicles in aerodynamic heating environments is imperative, regarding aspects of both the apparatus design and identification efficiency. A simple novel apparatus is designed for heat load identification, taking into account the lessons learned from several aerodynamic heating measurement devices. An inverse finite difference scheme (invFDM) for the apparatus is studied to identify its surface heat flux from the interior temperature measurements with high efficiency. A weighted piecewise regression filter is also proposed for temperature measurement prefiltering. Preliminary verification of the invFDM scheme and the filter is accomplished via numerical simulation experiments. Three specific pieces of apparatus have been concretely designed and fabricated using different sensing materials. The aerodynamic heating process is simulated by an inductively coupled plasma wind tunnel facility. The identification of surface temperature and heat flux from the temperature measurements is performed by invFDM. The results validate the high efficiency, reliability and feasibility of heat load measurements with different heat flux levels utilizing the designed apparatus and proposed method.

  9. Long-duration heat load measurement approach by novel apparatus design and highly efficient algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Yanwei; Yi, Fajun; Meng, Songhe; Zhuo, Lijun; Pan, Weizhen

    2017-01-01

    Improving the surface heat load measurement technique for vehicles in aerodynamic heating environments is imperative, regarding aspects of both the apparatus design and identification efficiency. A simple novel apparatus is designed for heat load identification, taking into account the lessons learned from several aerodynamic heating measurement devices. An inverse finite difference scheme (invFDM) for the apparatus is studied to identify its surface heat flux from the interior temperature measurements with high efficiency. A weighted piecewise regression filter is also proposed for temperature measurement prefiltering. Preliminary verification of the invFDM scheme and the filter is accomplished via numerical simulation experiments. Three specific pieces of apparatus have been concretely designed and fabricated using different sensing materials. The aerodynamic heating process is simulated by an inductively coupled plasma wind tunnel facility. The identification of surface temperature and heat flux from the temperature measurements is performed by invFDM. The results validate the high efficiency, reliability and feasibility of heat load measurements with different heat flux levels utilizing the designed apparatus and proposed method. (paper)

  10. Numerical Simulation and Validation of a High Head Model Francis Turbine at Part Load Operating Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Rahul; Trivedi, Chirag; Kumar Gandhi, Bhupendra; Cervantes, Michel J.

    2017-07-01

    Hydraulic turbines are operated over an extended operating range to meet the real time electricity demand. Turbines operated at part load have flow parameters not matching the designed ones. This results in unstable flow conditions in the runner and draft tube developing low frequency and high amplitude pressure pulsations. The unsteady pressure pulsations affect the dynamic stability of the turbine and cause additional fatigue. The work presented in this paper discusses the flow field investigation of a high head model Francis turbine at part load: 50% of the rated load. Numerical simulation of the complete turbine has been performed. Unsteady pressure pulsations in the vaneless space, runner, and draft tube are investigated and validated with available experimental data. Detailed analysis of the rotor stator interaction and draft tube flow field are performed and discussed. The analysis shows the presence of a rotating vortex rope in the draft tube at the frequency of 0.3 times of the runner rotational frequency. The frequency of the vortex rope precession, which causes severe fluctuations and vibrations in the draft tube, is predicted within 3.9% of the experimental measured value. The vortex rope results pressure pulsations propagating in the system whose frequency is also perceive in the runner and upstream the runner.

  11. Direct Numerical Simulations of Microstructure Effects During High-Rate Loading of Additively Manufactured Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaile, Corbett; Owen, Steven; Moore, Nathan

    2017-06-01

    The properties of most engineering materials depend on the characteristics of internal microstructures and defects. In additively manufactured (AM) metals, these can include polycrystalline grains, impurities, phases, and significant porosity that qualitatively differ from conventional engineering materials. The microscopic details of the interactions between these internal defects, and the propagation of applied loads through the body, act in concert to dictate macro-observable properties like strength and compressibility. In this work, we used Sandia's ALEGRA finite element software to simulate the high-strain-rate loading of AM metals from laser engineered net shaping (LENS) and thermal spraying. The microstructural details of the material were represented explicitly, such that internal features like second phases and pores are captured and meshed as individual entities in the computational domain. We will discuss the dependence of the high-strain-rate mechanical properties on microstructural characteristics such as the shapes, sizes, and volume fractions of second phases and pores. In addition, we will examine how the details of the microstructural representation affect the microscopic material response to dynamic loads, and the effects of using ``stair-step'' versus conformal interfaces smoothed via the SCULPT tool in Sandia's CUBIT software. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the US DOE NNSA under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  12. A facile doxorubicin-dichloroacetate conjugate nanomedicine with high drug loading for safe drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Conglian; Wu, Tingting; Qin, Yuting; Qi, Yan; Sun, Yu; Kong, Miao; Jiang, Xue; Qin, Xianya; Shen, Yaqi; Zhang, Zhiping

    2018-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is an effective chemotherapeutic agent but severe side effects limit its clinical application. Nanoformulations can reduce the toxicity while still have various limitations, such as complexity, low drug loading capability and excipient related concerns. An amphiphilic conjugate, doxorubicin-dichloroacetate, was synthesized and the corresponding nanoparticles were prepared. The in vitro cytotoxicity and intracellular uptake, in vivo imaging, antitumor effects and systemic toxicities of nanoparticles were carried out to evaluate the therapeutic efficiency of tumor. Doxorubicin-dichloroacetate conjugate can self-assemble into nanoparticles with small amount of DSPE-PEG 2000 , leading to high drug loading (71.8%, w/w) and diminished excipient associated concerns. The nanoparticles exhibited invisible systemic toxicity and high maximum tolerated dose of 75 mg DOX equiv./kg, which was 15-fold higher than that of free DOX. It also showed good tumor targeting capability and enhanced antitumor efficacy in murine melanoma model. This work provides a promising strategy to simplify the drug preparation process, increase drug loading content, reduce systemic toxicity as well as enhance antitumor efficiency.

  13. High-Resolution Gas Metering and Nonintrusive Appliance Load Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewolde, Mahder

    This thesis deals with design and implementation of a high-resolution metering system for residential natural gas meters. Detailed experimental measurements are performed on the meter to characterize and understand its measurement properties. Results from these experiments are used to develop a simple, fast and accurate technique to non-intrusively monitor the gas consumption of individual appliances in homes by resolving small amounts of gas usage. The technique is applied on an existing meter retrofitted with a module that includes a high-resolution encoder to collect gas flow data and a microprocessor to analyze and identify appliance load profiles. This approach provides a number of appealing features including low cost, easy installation and integration with automated meter reading (AMR) systems. The application of this method to residential gas meters currently deployed is also given. This is done by performing a load simulation on realistic gas loads with the aim of identifying the necessary parameters that minimize the cost and complexity of the mechanical encoder module. The primary benefits of the system are efficiency analysis, appliance health monitoring and real-time customer feedback of gas usage. Additional benefits of include the ability to detect very small leaks and theft. This system has the potential for wide scale market adoption.

  14. Cognitive load, emotion, and performance in high-fidelity simulation among beginning nursing students: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlairet, Maura C; Schlairet, Timothy James; Sauls, Denise H; Bellflowers, Lois

    2015-03-01

    Establishing the impact of the high-fidelity simulation environment on student performance, as well as identifying factors that could predict learning, would refine simulation outcome expectations among educators. The purpose of this quasi-experimental pilot study was to explore the impact of simulation on emotion and cognitive load among beginning nursing students. Forty baccalaureate nursing students participated in teaching simulations, rated their emotional state and cognitive load, and completed evaluation simulations. Two principal components of emotion were identified representing the pleasant activation and pleasant deactivation components of affect. Mean rating of cognitive load following simulation was high. Linear regression identiffed slight but statistically nonsignificant positive associations between principal components of emotion and cognitive load. Logistic regression identified a negative but statistically nonsignificant effect of cognitive load on assessment performance. Among lower ability students, a more pronounced effect of cognitive load on assessment performance was observed; this also was statistically non-significant. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. Automated load balancing in the ATLAS high-performance storage software

    CERN Document Server

    Le Goff, Fabrice; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment collects proton-proton collision events delivered by the LHC accelerator at CERN. The ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) system selects, transports and eventually records event data from the detector at several gigabytes per second. The data are recorded on transient storage before being delivered to permanent storage. The transient storage consists of high-performance direct-attached storage servers accounting for about 500 hard drives. The transient storage operates dedicated software in the form of a distributed multi-threaded application. The workload includes both CPU-demanding and IO-oriented tasks. This paper presents the original application threading model for this particular workload, discussing the load-sharing strategy among the available CPU cores. The limitations of this strategy were reached in 2016 due to changes in the trigger configuration involving a new data distribution pattern. We then describe a novel data-driven load-sharing strategy, designed to automatical...

  16. Fast commutation of high current in double wire array Z-pinch loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.; Gondarenko, N.A.; Velikovich, A.L.

    1997-01-01

    A dynamic model of multi-MA current commutation in a double wire array Z-pinch load is proposed and studied theoretically. Initially, the load is configured as nested concentric wire arrays, with the current driven through the outer array and imploding it. Once the outer array or the annular plasma shell formed from it approaches the inner array, the imploded plasma might penetrate through the gaps between the wires, but the azimuthal magnetic field is trapped due to both the high conductivity of the inner wires and the inductive coupling between the two parts of the array, causing a rapid switching of the total current to the inner part of the array. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  17. Curvilinear steel elements in load-bearing structures of high-rise building spatial frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibragimov Alexander

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of curvilinear elements in load-bearing metal structures of high-rise buildings supposes ensuring of their bearing capacity and serviceability. There may exist a great variety of shapes and orientations of such structural elements. In particular, it may be various flat curves of an open or closed oval profile such as circular or parabolic arch or ellipse. The considered approach implies creating vast internal volumes without loss in the load-bearing capacity of the frame. The basic concept makes possible a wide variety of layout and design solutions. The presence of free internal spaces of large volume in "skyscraper" type buildings contributes to resolving a great number of problems, including those of communicative nature. The calculation results confirm the basic assumptions.

  18. Curvilinear steel elements in load-bearing structures of high-rise building spatial frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibragimov, Alexander; Danilov, Alexander

    2018-03-01

    The application of curvilinear elements in load-bearing metal structures of high-rise buildings supposes ensuring of their bearing capacity and serviceability. There may exist a great variety of shapes and orientations of such structural elements. In particular, it may be various flat curves of an open or closed oval profile such as circular or parabolic arch or ellipse. The considered approach implies creating vast internal volumes without loss in the load-bearing capacity of the frame. The basic concept makes possible a wide variety of layout and design solutions. The presence of free internal spaces of large volume in "skyscraper" type buildings contributes to resolving a great number of problems, including those of communicative nature. The calculation results confirm the basic assumptions.

  19. A study on fatigue crack growth model considering high mean loading effects based on structural stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Sung; Kim, Cheol; Jin, Tae Eun; Dong, P.

    2004-01-01

    The mesh-insensitive structural stress procedure by Dong is modified to apply to the welded joints with local thickness variation and inarguable shear/normal stresses along local discontinuity surface. In order to make use of the structural stress based K solution for fatigue correlation of welded joints, a proper crack growth model needs to be developed. There exist some significant discrepancies in inferring the slope or crack growth exponent in the conventional Paris law regime. Two-stage crack growth model was not considered since its applications are focused upon the fatigue behavior in welded joints in which the load ratio effects are considered negligible. In this paper, a two-stage crack growth law considering high mean loading is proposed and proven to be effective in unifying the so-called anomalous short crack growth data

  20. A Hall-current model of electron loss after POS opening into high-impedance loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenly, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    The author discusses how a self-consistent relativistic model of laminar Hall (E x B) electron flow across a POS plasma allows a loss mechanism after opening even in a strongly magnetically-insulated line, downstream of the remaining POS plasma. Opening is assumed to occur at the cathode, either by erosion or push-back. The loss results only when a large voltage appears after opening into a high impedance load. Then the difference in potential between the plasma, which is near anode potential, and the cathode results in an axial component of E at the load end of the plasma, which supports an E x B drift of electrons across the gap. The analytic model predicts that this loss should increase with higher voltage after opening, and could be eliminated only by removing the plasma from the gap, or eliminating cathode electron emission (both difficult), or by confining this downstream electron flow with an applied magnetic field

  1. High-Velocity Impact Behaviour of Prestressed Composite Plates under Bird Strike Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Heimbs

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental and numerical analysis of the response of laminated composite plates under high-velocity impact loads of soft body gelatine projectiles (artificial birds is presented. The plates are exposed to tensile and compressive preloads before impact in order to cover realistic loading conditions of representative aeronautic structures under foreign object impact. The modelling methodology for the composite material, delamination interfaces, impact projectile, and preload using the commercial finite element code Abaqus are presented in detail. Finally, the influence of prestress and of different delamination modelling approaches on the impact response is discussed and a comparison to experimental test data is given. Tensile and compressive preloading was found to have an influence on the damage pattern. Although this general behaviour could be predicted well by the simulations, further numerical challenges for improved bird strike simulation accuracy are highlighted.

  2. Sparking limits, cavity loading, and beam breakup instability associated with high-current rf linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faehl, R.J.; Lemons, D.S.; Thode, L.E.

    1982-01-01

    The limitations on high-current rf linacs due to gap sparking, cavity loading, and the beam breakup instability are studied. It appears possible to achieve cavity accelerating gradients as high as 35 MV/m without sparking. Furthermore, a linear analysis, as well as self-consistent particle simulations of a multipulsed 10 kA beam, indicated that only a negligible small fraction of energy is radiated into nonfundamental cavity modes. Finally, the beam breakup instability is analyzed and found to be able to magnify initial radial perturbations by a factor of no more than about 20 during the beam transit time through a 1 GeV accelerator

  3. Oncogenic cancer/testis antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerstorff, Morten F; Andersen, Mads H; Ditzel, Henrik J

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments have set the stage for immunotherapy as a supplement to conventional cancer treatment. Consequently, a significant effort is required to further improve efficacy and specificity, particularly the identification of optimal therapeutic targets for clinical testing. Cancer....../testis antigens are immunogenic, highly cancer-specific, and frequently expressed in various types of cancer, which make them promising candidate targets for cancer immunotherapy, including cancer vaccination and adoptive T-cell transfer with chimeric T-cell receptors. Our current understanding of tumor...... immunology and immune escape suggests that targeting oncogenic antigens may be beneficial, meaning that identification of cancer/testis antigens with oncogenic properties is of high priority. Recent work from our lab and others provide evidence that many cancer/testis antigens, in fact, have oncogenic...

  4. Constructive systems, load-bearing and enclosing structures of high-rise buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anatol'evna Korol', Elena; Olegovna Kustikova, Yuliya

    2018-03-01

    As the height of the building increases, loads on load-carrying structures increase dramatically, and as a result of the development of high-rise construction, several structural systems of such buildings have been developed: frame, frame-frame, cross-wall, barrel, box-type, box-to-wall ("pipe in pipe", "Trumpet in the farm"), etc. In turn, the barrel systems have their own versions: cantilever support of the ceilings on the trunk, suspension of the outer part of the overlap to the upper carrying console "hanging house" or its support by means of the walls on the lower bearing cantilever, intermediate position of the supporting cantilevers in height to the floor, from a part of floors. The object of the study are the structural solutions of high-rise buildings. The subject of the study is the layout of structural schemes of high-rise buildings, taking into account the main parameters - altitude (height), natural climatic conditions of construction, materials of structural elements and their physical and mechanical characteristics. The purpose of the study is to identify the features and systematization of structural systems of high-rise buildings and the corresponding structural elements. The results of the research make it possible, at the stage of making design decisions, to establish rational parameters for the correspondence between the structural systems of high-rise buildings and their individual elements.

  5. Experimental Investigation into Corrosion Effect on Mechanical Properties of High Strength Steel Bars under Dynamic Loadings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The tensile behaviors of corroded steel bars are important in the capacity evaluation of corroded reinforced concrete structures. The present paper studies the mechanical behavior of the corroded high strength reinforcing steel bars under static and dynamic loading. High strength reinforcing steel bars were corroded by using accelerated corrosion methods and the tensile tests were carried out under different strain rates. The results showed that the mechanical properties of corroded high strength steel bars were strain rate dependent, and the strain rate effect decreased with the increase of corrosion degree. The decreased nominal yield and ultimate strengths were mainly caused by the reduction of cross-sectional areas, and the decreased ultimate deformation and the shortened yield plateau resulted from the intensified stress concentration at the nonuniform reduction. Based on the test results, reduction factors were proposed to relate the tensile behaviors with the corrosion degree and strain rate for corroded bars. A modified Johnson-Cook strength model of corroded high strength steel bars under dynamic loading was proposed by taking into account the influence of corrosion degree. Comparison between the model and test results showed that proposed model properly describes the dynamic response of the corroded high strength rebars.

  6. The effects of varying resistance-training loads on intermediate- and high-velocity-specific adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, K; Bishop, P; Hunter, G; Fleisig, G

    2001-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare changes in velocity-specific adaptations in moderately resistance-trained athletes who trained with either low or high resistances. The study used tests of sport-specific skills across an intermediate- to high-velocity spectrum. Thirty NCAA Division I baseball players were randomly assigned to either a low-resistance (40-60% 1 repetition maximum [1RM]) training group or a high-resistance (70-90% 1RM) training group. Both of the training groups intended to maximallv accelerate each repetition during the concentric phase (IMCA). The 10 weeks of training consisted of 4 training sessions a week using basic core exercises. Peak force, velocity, and power were evaluated during set angle and depth jumps as well as weighted jumps using 30 and 50% 1RM. Squat 1RMs were also tested. Although no interactions for any of the jump tests were found, trends supported the hypothesis of velocity-specific training. Percentage gains suggest that the combined use of heavier training loads (70-90% 1RM) and IMCA tend to increase peak force in the lower-body leg and hip extensors. Trends also show that the combined use of lighter training loads (40-60% 1RM) and IMCA tend to increase peak power and peak velocity in the lower-body leg and hip extensors. The high-resistance group improved squats more than the low-resistance group (p training loads and IMCA to increase 1RM strength in the lower bodies of resistance-trained athletes.

  7. Does high memory load kick task-irrelevant information out of visual working memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jun; Zhou, Jifan; Xu, Haokui; Liang, Junying; Gao, Zaifeng; Shen, Mowei

    2012-04-01

    The limited capacity of visual working memory (VWM) requires the existence of an efficient information selection mechanism. While it has been shown that under low VWM load, an irrelevant simple feature can be processed, its fate under high load (e.g., six objects) remains unclear. We explored this issue by probing the "irrelevant-change distracting effect," in which the change of a stored irrelevant feature affects performance. Simple colored shapes were used as stimuli, with color as the target. Using a whole-probe method (presenting six objects in both the memory and test arrays), in Experiment 1 we found that a change to one of the six shapes led to a significant distracting effect. Using a partial-probe method (presenting the probe either at the screen center or at a location selected from the memory array), in Experiment 2 we showed the distracting effect again. These results suggest that irrelevant simple features can be stored into VWM, regardless of memory load.

  8. Load test of the 277W Building high bay roof deck and support structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCoy, R.M.

    1994-01-01

    The 277W Building high bay roof area was load tested according to the approved load-test procedure, WHC-SD-GN-TP-30015, Revision 1. The 277W Building is located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site and has the following characteristics: roof deck -- wood decking supported by 4 x 14 timber purlins; roof membrane -- tar and gravel; roof slope -- flat (<10 deg); and roof elevation -- maximum height of about 63 ft. The 227W Building was visited in March 1994 for a visual inspection. During this inspection, cracked areas were visible in the decking, but it was not possible to determine whether these cracks extended completely through the decking, which is 2-in. thick. The building was revisited in March 1994 for the purpose of writing this test report. Because the roof requires personnel access, a test was determined to be the best way to qualify the roof. The conclusions are that the roof has been qualified for 500-lb total roof load and that the ''No Roof Access'' signs can be changed to ''Roof Access Restricted'' signs

  9. Hippocampal NMDA receptors are involved in rats' spontaneous object recognition only under high memory load condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, Manami; Yamada, Kazuo; Iguchi, Natsumi; Ichitani, Yukio

    2015-10-22

    The possible involvement of hippocampal N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in spontaneous object recognition was investigated in rats under different memory load conditions. We first estimated rats' object memory span using 3-5 objects in "Different Objects Task (DOT)" in order to confirm the highest memory load condition in object recognition memory. Rats were allowed to explore a field in which 3 (3-DOT), 4 (4-DOT), or 5 (5-DOT) different objects were presented. After a delay period, they were placed again in the same field in which one of the sample objects was replaced by another object, and their object exploration behavior was analyzed. Rats could differentiate the novel object from the familiar ones in 3-DOT and 4-DOT but not in 5-DOT, suggesting that rats' object memory span was about 4. Then, we examined the effects of hippocampal AP5 infusion on performance in both 2-DOT (2 different objects were used) and 4-DOT. The drug treatment before the sample phase impaired performance only in 4-DOT. These results suggest that hippocampal NMDA receptors play a critical role in spontaneous object recognition only when the memory load is high. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Numerical simulation of thermal loading produced by shaped high power laser onto engine parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Hongwei; Li Shaoxia; Zhang Ling; Yu Gang; Zhou Liang; Tan Jiansong

    2010-01-01

    Recently a new method for simulating the thermal loading on pistons of diesel engines was reported. The spatially shaped high power laser is employed as the heat source, and some preliminary experimental and numerical work was carried out. In this paper, a further effort was made to extend this simulation method to some other important engine parts such as cylinder heads. The incident Gaussian beam was transformed into concentric multi-circular patterns of specific intensity distributions, with the aid of diffractive optical elements (DOEs). By incorporating the appropriate repetitive laser pulses, the designed transient temperature fields and thermal loadings in the engine parts could be simulated. Thermal-structural numerical models for pistons and cylinder heads were built to predict the transient temperature and thermal stress. The models were also employed to find the optimal intensity distributions of the transformed laser beam that could produce the target transient temperature fields. Comparison of experimental and numerical results demonstrated that this systematic approach is effective in simulating the thermal loading on the engine parts.

  11. High power RF performance test of an improved SiC load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, W.H.; Kim, S.H.; Park, Y.J. [Pohang Accelerator Lab., Pohang Inst. of Sceince and Technology, Pohang (KR)] [and others

    1998-11-01

    Two prototypes of SiC loads sustaining a maximum peak power of 50 MW were fabricated by Nihon Koshuha Co. in Japan. The PAL conducted the high power RF performance tests of SiC loads to verify the operation characteristics for the application to the PLS Linac. The in-situ facility for the K 12 module was used for the test, which consists of a modulator and klystron system, waveguide network, vacuum and cooling system, and RF analyzing equipment. As the test results, no breakdown appeared up to 50 MW peak power of 1 {mu}s pulse width at a repetition rate of 50 Hz. However, as the peak power increased above 20 MW at 4 {mu}s with 10 Hz, the breakdown phenomena has been observed. Analysing the test results with the current operation power level of PLS Linac, it is confirmed that the SiC loads well satisfy the criteria of the PLS Linac operation. (author)

  12. Flight Loads Prediction of High Aspect Ratio Wing Aircraft Using Multibody Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Castellani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A framework based on multibody dynamics has been developed for the static and dynamic aeroelastic analyses of flexible high aspect ratio wing aircraft subject to structural geometric nonlinearities. Multibody dynamics allows kinematic nonlinearities and nonlinear relationships in the forces definition and is an efficient and promising methodology to model high aspect ratio wings, which are known to be prone to structural nonlinear effects because of the high deflections in flight. The multibody dynamics framework developed employs quasi-steady aerodynamics strip theory and discretizes the wing as a series of rigid bodies interconnected by beam elements, representative of the stiffness distribution, which can undergo arbitrarily large displacements and rotations. The method is applied to a flexible high aspect ratio wing commercial aircraft and both trim and gust response analyses are performed in order to calculate flight loads. These results are then compared to those obtained with the standard linear aeroelastic approach provided by the Finite Element Solver Nastran. Nonlinear effects come into play mainly because of the need of taking into account the large deflections of the wing for flight loads computation and of considering the aerodynamic forces as follower forces.

  13. Nonlinear analysis of reinforced concrete structures subjected to high temperature and external load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugawara, Y.; Goto, M.; Saito, K.; Suzuki, N.; Muto, A.; Ueda, M.

    1993-01-01

    A quarter of a century has passed since the finite element method was first applied to nonlinear problems concerning reinforced concrete structures, and the reliability of the analysis at ordinary temperature has been enhanced accordingly. By contrast, few studies have tried to deal with the nonlinear behavior of reinforced concrete structures subjected to high temperature and external loads simultaneously. It is generally known that the mechanical properties of concrete and steel are affected greatly by temperature. Therefore, in order to analyze the nonlinear behavior of reinforced concrete subjected to external loads at high temperature, it is necessary to construct constitutive models of the materials reflecting the influence of temperature. In this study, constitutive models of concrete and reinforcement that can express decreases in strength and stiffness at high temperature have been developed. A two-dimensional nonlinear finite element analysis program has been developed by use of these material models. The behavior of reinforced concrete beams subjected simultaneously to high temperature and shear forces were simulated using the developed analytical method. The results of the simulation agreed well with the experimental results, evidencing the validity of the developed material models and the finite element analysis program

  14. Material Surface Damage under High Pulse Loads Typical for ELM Bursts and Disruptions in ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landman, I.S.; Pestchanyi, S.E.; Bazylev, B.N [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. for Pulsed Power and Microwave Technology; Safronov, V.M. [Troitsk Inst. for Innovation and Fusion Research (TRINITI) (Russian Federation); Garkusha, I.E. [Kharkov Inst. of Physics and Technology (KIPT) (Ukraine). Inst. of Plasma Physics

    2004-08-01

    The divertor armour material for the tokamak ITER will probably be carbon manufactured as fibre composites (CFC) and tungsten as either brush-like structures or thin plates. Disruptive pulse loads where the heat deposition Q may reach 10{sup 2} MJ/m{sup 2} on a time scale {tau} of 3 ms, or operation in the ELMy H-mode at repetitive loads with Q {approx} 3MJ/m{sup 2} and {tau}{approx}0.3 ms; deteriorate armour performance. This work surveys recent numerical and experimental investigations of erosion mechanisms at these off-normal regimes carried out at FZK, TRINITI, and IPP-Kharkov. The modelling uses the anisotropic thermomechanics code PEGASUS-3D for the simulation of CFC brittle destruction, the surface melt motion code MEMOS-1.5D for tungsten targets, and the radiation-magnetohydrodynamics code FOREV-2D for calculating the plasma impact and simulating the heat loads for the ITER regime. Experiments aimed at validating these codes are being carried out at the plasma gun facilities MK-200UG, QSPA-T, and QSPA-Kh50 which produce powerful streams of hydrogen plasma with Q=10-30MJ/m{sup 2} and {tau} = 0.03-0.5 ms. Essential results are, for CFC targets, the experiments at high heat loads and the development of a local overheating model incorporated in PEGASUS-3D, and for the tungsten targets the analysis of evaporation- and melt motion erosion on the base of MEMOS-1.5D calculations for repetitive ELMs.

  15. Material Surface Damage under High Pulse Loads Typical for ELM Bursts and Disruptions in ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landman, I. S.; Pestchanyi, S. E.; Safronov, V. M.; Bazylev, B. N.; Garkusha, I. E.

    The divertor armour material for the tokamak ITER will probably be carbon manufactured as fibre composites (CFC) and tungsten as either brush-like structures or thin plates. Disruptive pulse loads where the heat deposition Q may reach 102 MJ/m 2 on a time scale Ïä of 3 ms, or operation in the ELMy H-mode at repetitive loads with Q âe 1/4 3 MJ/m2 and Ïä âe 1/4 0.3 ms, deteriorate armour performance. This work surveys recent numerical and experimental investigations of erosion mechanisms at these off-normal regimes carried out at FZK, TRINITI, and IPP-Kharkov. The modelling uses the anisotropic thermomechanics code PEGASUS-3D for the simulation of CFC brittle destruction, the surface melt motion code MEMOS-1.5D for tungsten targets, and the radiation-magnetohydrodynamics code FOREV-2D for calculating the plasma impact and simulating the heat loads for the ITER regime. Experiments aimed at validating these codes are being carried out at the plasma gun facilities MK-200UG, QSPA-T, and QSPA-Kh50 which produce powerful streams of hydrogen plasma with Q = 10–30 MJ/m2 and Ïä = 0.03–0.5 ms. Essential results are, for CFC targets, the experiments at high heat loads and the development of a local overheating model incorporated in PEGASUS-3D, and for the tungsten targets the analysis of evaporation- and melt motion erosion on the base of MEMOS-1.5D calculations for repetitive ELMs.

  16. Load test of the 272E Building high bay roof deck and support structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCoy, R.M.

    1994-01-01

    The 272E Building high bay roof area was load tested according to the approved load-test procedure. The 272E Building is located in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site and has the following characteristics: Roof deck -- wood decking supported by 4 x 14 timber purlins; Roof membrane -- tar and gravel; Roof slope -- flat (<10 deg); and Roof elevation -- maximum height of about 63 ft. The 272 Building was visited in August 1992 for a visual inspection. During this inspection, cracked areas were visible in the decking, but it was not possible to determine whether these cracks extended completely through the decking, which is 2-in. thick. The building was revisited in March 1994 for the purpose of writing this test report. Because the roof requires personnel access, a test was determine to be the best way to qualify the roof. The pre-test briefing consisted of filling out the pre-test checklist, discussing proper lifting techniques, reviewing the fall-protection plan, reviewing the job hazards analysis, and reviewing the robot travel path. The load-test results consist of visual observations and the test engineer's conclusions. Visual observations found no adverse conditions such as large deflections or permanent deformations. No deflection measurements were recorded because the tar and gravel on roof get displaced by the robot tracks; the result is large variations in deflection measurements. The conclusions are that the roof has been qualified for 500-lb total roof load and that the ''No Roof Access'' signs can be changed to ''Roof Access Restricted'' signs

  17. Electrocortical and ocular indices of attention to fearful and neutral faces presented under high and low working memory load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNamara, Annmarie; Schmidt, Joseph; Zelinsky, Gregory J; Hajcak, Greg

    2012-12-01

    Working memory load reduces the late positive potential (LPP), consistent with the notion that functional activation of the DLPFC attenuates neural indices of sustained attention. Visual attention also modulates the LPP. In the present study, we sought to determine whether working memory load might exert its influence on ERPs by reducing fixations to arousing picture regions. We simultaneously recorded eye-tracking and EEG while participants performed a working memory task interspersed with the presentation of task-irrelevant fearful and neutral faces. As expected, fearful compared to neutral faces elicited larger N170 and LPP amplitudes; in addition, working memory load reduced the N170 and the LPP. Participants made more fixations to arousing regions of neutral faces and faces presented under high working memory load. Therefore, working memory load did not induce avoidance of arousing picture regions and visual attention cannot explain load effects on the N170 and LPP. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Release of Inattentional Blindness by High Working Memory Load: Elucidating the Relationship between Working Memory and Selective Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fockert, Jan W.; Bremner, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    An unexpected stimulus often remains unnoticed if attention is focused elsewhere. This inattentional blindness has been shown to be increased under conditions of high memory load. Here we show that increasing working memory load can also have the opposite effect of reducing inattentional blindness (i.e., improving stimulus detection) if stimulus…

  19. Drug elution from high-dose antibiotic-loaded acrylic cement: a comparative, in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, Giorgio; De Gori, Marco; Calonego, Giovanni; Della Bora, Tommaso; Caroleo, Benedetto; Galasso, Olimpio

    2014-11-01

    High-dose antibiotic-loaded acrylic cement (ALAC) is used for managing peri-prosthetic joint infections (PJIs). The marked increase in resistant high-virulence bacteria is drawing the attention of physicians toward alternative antimicrobial formulations loaded into acrylic bone cement. The aim of this in vitro study was to determine the elution kinetics of 14 different high-dose ALACs. All ALAC samples showed a burst release of antibiotics in the first hour, progressively decreasing over time, and elution curves strictly adhered to a nonlinear regression analysis formula. Among aminoglycosides, commonly seen as the most appropriate antibiotics to be loaded into the bone cement, the highest elution rate was that of tobramycin. Among the glycopeptides, a class of antibiotics that should be considered to treat PJIs because of the prevalence of aminoglycoside resistance, vancomycin showed better elution than teicoplanin. Clindamycin, which can be associated with aminoglycosides to prepare ALACs and represents a useful option against the most common pathogens responsible for PJIs, showed the highest absolute and relative elutions among all the tested formulations. A noticeable elution was also detected for colistin, an antibiotic of last resort for treating multidrug-resistant bacteria. The current study demonstrates theoretical advantages in the preparation of ALAC for some antibiotics not routinely used in the clinical setting for PJIs. The use of these antibiotics based on the infecting bacteria sensitivity may represent a useful option for physicians to eradicate PJIs. In vivo testing should be considered in the future to confirm the results of this study. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  20. Using reduced graphene oxide-Ca:CdSe nanocomposite to enhance photoelectrochemical activity of gold nanoparticles functionalized tungsten oxide for highly sensitive prostate specific antigen detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xueping; Xu, Rui; Sun, Xu; Wang, Yaoguang; Ren, Xiang; Du, Bin; Wu, Dan; Wei, Qin

    2017-10-15

    An ultrasensitive sandwich-type photoelectrochemical (PEC) immunosensor was constructed for the detection of prostate specific antigen (PSA). In this work, Au-nanoparticle-loaded tungsten oxide (WO 3 -Au) hybrid composites was applied as PEC sensing platform, while Ca ions doped CdSe equipped on the conducting framework of reduced graphene oxide (rGO-Ca:CdSe) nanocomposites were employed as the signal amplification probe. As for WO 3 -Au, massive Au nanoparticles were formed on the surface of WO 3 without any additional reducing agent, providing a novel nanocarriers for anchoring plenty of the primary antibodies due to the large specific surface area and good biocompatibility by chemical bonding between Au nanoparticles and -NH 2 of antibodies. Besides, the incorporation of the rGO and the doping of Ca ions could improve the conductivity and hinder the recombination of electron-hole pairs of CdSe nanoparticles effectively, thereby enhancing the photocurrent conversion efficiency. Based on the sandwich immunoreaction, the primary antibody was immobilized onto WO 3 -Au substrate, after the formed rGO-Ca:CdSe labels were captured onto the electrode surface via the specific antibody-antigen interaction, the photocurrent intensity could be further enhanced due to the sensitization effect. Under the optimal conditions, the proposed PEC immunosensor shows a linear relationship between photocurrent variation and the logarithm of PSA concentration in the wide range of 5pgmL -1 to 50ngmL -1 with a low detection limit of 2.6pgmL -1 (S/N=3). Moreover, it also presented good stability and acceptable specificity, indicating the potential applications in clinical diagnostics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Temperature calculations of heat loads in rotating target wheels exposed to high beam currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, John P.; Gabor, Rachel; Neubauer, Janelle

    2001-01-01

    In heavy-ion physics, high beam currents can eventually melt or destroy the target. Tightly focused beams on stationary targets of modest melting point will exhibit short lifetimes. Defocused or 'wobbled' beams are employed to enhance target survival. Rotating targets using large diameter wheels can help overcome target melting and allow for higher beam currents to be used in experiments. The purpose of the calculations in this work is to try and predict the safe maximum beam currents which produce heat loads below the melting point of the target material

  2. Self-castellation of tungsten monoblock under high heat flux loading and impact of material properties

    OpenAIRE

    Panayotis, S.; Hirai, T.; Wirtz, Marius; Barabash, V.; Durocher, A.; Escourbiac, F.; Linke, J.; Loewenhoff, Th.; Merola, M.; Pintsuk, G.; Uytdenhouwen, I.

    2017-01-01

    In the full-tungsten divertor qualification program at ITER Organization, macro-cracks, so called self-castellation were found in a fraction of tungsten monoblocks during cyclic high heat flux loading at 20MW/m2. The number of monoblocks with macro-cracks varied with the tungsten products used as armour material. In order to understand correlation between the macro-crack appearance and W properties, an activity to characterize W monoblock materials was launched at the IO. The outcome highligh...

  3. Test plan: Effects of phase separation on waste loading for high level waste glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantzen, C.M.

    2000-01-01

    As part of the Tanks Focus Area's (TFA) effort to increase waste loading for high-level waste (HLW) vitrification at various facilities in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, the occurrence of phase separation in waste glasses spanning the Savannah River Site (SRS) and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) composition ranges were studied during FY99. The type, extent, and impact of phase separation on glass durability for a series of HLW glasses, e.g., SRS-type and INEEL-type, were examined

  4. An atomic beam source for fast loading of a magneto-optical trap under high vacuum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McDowall, P.D.; Hilliard, Andrew; Grünzweig, T.

    2012-01-01

    We report on a directional atomic beam created using an alkali metal dispenser and a nozzle. By applying a high current (15 A) pulse to the dispenser at room temperature we can rapidly heat it to a temperature at which it starts dispensing, avoiding the need for preheating. The atomic beam produced...... is capable of loading 90 of a magneto-optical trap (MOT) in less than 7 s while maintaining a low vacuum pressure of 10 -11 Torr. The transverse velocity components of the atomic beam are measured to be within typical capture velocities of a rubidium MOT. Finally, we show that the atomic beam can be turned...

  5. Temperature calculations of heat loads in rotating target wheels exposed to high beam currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, J. P.; Gabor, R.; Neubauer, J.

    2000-01-01

    In heavy-ion physics, high beam currents can eventually melt or destroy the target. Tightly focused beams on stationary targets of modest melting point will exhibit short lifetimes. Defocused or wobbled beams are employed to enhance target survival. Rotating targets using large diameter wheels can help overcome target melting and allow for higher beam currents to be used in experiments. The purpose of the calculations in this work is to try and predict the safe maximum beam currents which produce heat loads below the melting point of the target material

  6. Determination of the usage factor of components after cyclic loading using high-resolution microstructural investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seibold, A.; Scheibe, A.; Assmann, H.D.

    1989-01-01

    The usage factor can be derived from the quantification of the structure changes and the allocation of the microstructural state to the fatigue curves of the component materials. Using the example of the low alloy fine grain structural steel 20 Mn Mo Ni 5 5 (annealed structure), the relationship between micro-structure and the number of load cycles is shown in the form of a calibration curve. By high resolution structural investigation, the usage factor can be determined to n = N/N B ≅ 0.5 under given vibration stress. Only a small volume sample is required for the electron microscope examination. (orig./DG) [de

  7. Next Day Subjective and Objective Recovery Indices Following Acute Low and High Training Loads in Academy Rugby Union Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R. Noon

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the sensitivity of selected subjective and objective monitoring assessments in detecting changes in group and individual responses to low and high load bouts of high intensity intermittent exercise. In a counterbalanced crossover design, Thirteen Academy Rugby Union players (mean ± SD: age: 18 ± 1 years performed a low load (15 min and a high load (90 min bout of high intensity intermittent exercise (Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test one week apart. Monitoring assessments were performed immediately prior to and 20 h following each trial. Subjective self-report Well-being Questionnaire (WQ items showed small to large deteriorations following the high load compared to low load (d = 0.4–1.5, p = 0.03–0.57. A very large increase in resting HR (HRrest (d = 2.1, p = 0.02, moderate decrease in heart rate variability (HRV indices (d = 0.7, p = 0.04 and d = 0.7, p = 0.01 for the natural logarithm of the standard deviation of R-R intervals (ln SDNN and the root square of the mean squared differences of successive R-R intervals (rMSSD, respectively and no change in countermovement jump (d = 0.0, p = 0.97 were evident following the high load compared to low load. Individual WQ responses revealed 7/9, 7/9, 6/9, 6/9, 5/9, 3/9 and 1/9 participants reported deteriorations in recovery, sleep quality, motivation, muscle soreness, fatigue, stress and appetite, respectively, following the high load compared to low load. Individual analysis indicated a negative response following the high load compared to low load in HRrest, ln SDNN and ln rMSSD for 4/6, 2/6 and 1/6 participants, respectively. Selected WQ items detected group and individual responses to high load and low load highlighting their potential utility. However, objective assessments lacked the sensitivity to detect small individual changes.

  8. High Strain Rate Deformation Mechanisms of Body Centered Cubic Material Subjected to Impact Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, William

    Low carbon steel is the most common grade of structural steel used; it has carbon content of 0.05% to 0.25% and very low content of alloying elements. It is produced in great quantities and provides material properties that are acceptable for many engineering applications, particularly in the construction industry in which low carbon steel is widely used as the strengthening phase in civil structures. The overall goal of this dissertation was to investigate the deformation response of A572 grade 50 steel when subjected to impact loading. This steel has a 0.23% by weight carbon content and has less than 2% additional alloying elements. The deformation mechanisms of this steel under shock loading conditions include both dislocation motion and twin formation. The goal of this work was achieved by performing experimental, analytical and numerical research in three integrated tasks. The first is to determine the relationship between the evolution of deformation twins and the impact pressure. Secondly, a stress criterion for twin nucleation during high strain rate loading was developed which can account for the strain history or initial dislocation density. Lastly, a method was applied for separating the effects of dislocations and twins generated by shock loading in order to determine their role in controlling the flow stress of the material. In this regard, the contents of this work have been categorically organized. First, the active mechanisms in body centered cubic (BCC) low carbon steel during shock loading have been determined as being a composed of the competing mechanisms of dislocations and deformation twins. This has been determined through a series of shock loading tests of the as-received steel. The shock loading tests were done by plate impact experiments at several impact pressures ranging from 2GPa up to 13GPa using a single stage light gas gun. A relationship between twin volume fraction and impact pressure was determined and an analytical model was

  9. Fracture Mechanisms of Zirconium Diboride Ultra-High Temperature Ceramics under Pulse Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skripnyak, Vladimir V.; Bragov, Anatolii M.; Skripnyak, Vladimir A.; Lomunov, Andrei K.; Skripnyak, Evgeniya G.; Vaganova, Irina K.

    2015-06-01

    Mechanisms of failure in ultra-high temperature ceramics (UHTC) based on zirconium diboride under pulse loading were studied experimentally by the method of SHPB and theoretically using the multiscale simulation method. The obtained experimental and numerical data are evidence of the quasi-brittle fracture character of nanostructured zirconium diboride ceramics under compression and tension at high strain rates and the room temperatures. Damage of nanostructured porous zirconium diboride -based UHTC can be formed under stress pulse amplitude below the Hugoniot elastic limit. Fracture of nanostructured ultra-high temperature ceramics under pulse and shock-wave loadings is provided by fast processes of intercrystalline brittle fracture and relatively slow processes of quasi-brittle failure via growth and coalescence of microcracks. A decrease of the shear strength can be caused by nano-voids clusters in vicinity of triple junctions between ceramic matrix grains and ultrafine-grained ceramics. This research was supported by grants from ``The Tomsk State University Academic D.I. Mendeleev Fund Program'' and also N. I. Lobachevski State University of Nizhny Novgorod (Grant of post graduate mobility).

  10. On the performance of circular concrete-filled high strength steel columns under axial loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Mahmoud El-Heweity

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a numerical study to investigate the performance of circular high-strength steel tubes filled with concrete (CFT under monotonic axial loading. A model is developed to implement the material constitutive relationships and non-linearity. Calibration against previous experimental data shows good agreement. A parametric study is then conducted using the model and compared with codes provisions. Strength and ductility of confined concrete are of primary concern. Variables considered are yield stress of steel tube and column diameter. The assessment of column performance is based on axial load carrying capacities and enhancements of both strength and ductility due to confinement. Two parameters namely strength enhancement factor (Kf and ductility index (μ are clearly defined and introduced for assessment. Results indicate that both concrete strength and ductility of CFT columns are enhanced but to different extents. The ductile behaviors are significantly evident. The increase in yield stress of steel tube has a minimal effect on concrete strength but pronounced effect on concrete ductility. However, reduction in ductility is associated with using high-tensile steel of Grade 70. The overall findings indicate that the use of high-strength tube in CFT columns is not promising. This finding may seriously be considered in seismic design.

  11. CO2–CH4 permeation in high zeolite 4A loading mixed matrix membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Adams, Ryan T.

    2011-02-01

    Mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) with low particle loadings have been shown to improve the properties of pure polymers for many gas separations. Comparatively few reports have been made for high particle loading (≥50vol.%) MMMs. In this work, CO2-CH4 feeds were used to study the potential of 50vol.% zeolite 4A-poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) MMMs for natural gas separations. A low CO2 partial pressure mixed feed probed MMM performance below the plasticization pressure of PVAc and a high CO2 partial pressure mixed feed probed MMM performance at industrially relevant conditions above the plasticization pressure.Under both mixed feed conditions at 35°C, substantial improvements in overall separation performance were observed. At low CO2 partial pressures, CO2 permeability roughly doubled with a nearly 50% increase in selectivity versus pure PVAc under the same conditions. For the high CO2 partial pressure feed, CO2 permeability remained effectively unchanged with a 63% increase in selectivity versus pure PVAc. Surprisingly, the performance of these PVAc based MMMs approached the properties of current " upper bound" polymers. Overall, this work shows that significantly improved performance MMMs can be made with traditional techniques from a low cost, low performance polymer without costly adhesion promoters. © 2010.

  12. CO2–CH4 permeation in high zeolite 4A loading mixed matrix membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Adams, Ryan T.; Lee, Jong Suk; Bae, Tae-Hyun; Ward, Jason K.; Johnson, J.R.; Jones, Christopher W.; Nair, Sankar; Koros, William J.

    2011-01-01

    Mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) with low particle loadings have been shown to improve the properties of pure polymers for many gas separations. Comparatively few reports have been made for high particle loading (≥50vol.%) MMMs. In this work, CO2-CH4 feeds were used to study the potential of 50vol.% zeolite 4A-poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) MMMs for natural gas separations. A low CO2 partial pressure mixed feed probed MMM performance below the plasticization pressure of PVAc and a high CO2 partial pressure mixed feed probed MMM performance at industrially relevant conditions above the plasticization pressure.Under both mixed feed conditions at 35°C, substantial improvements in overall separation performance were observed. At low CO2 partial pressures, CO2 permeability roughly doubled with a nearly 50% increase in selectivity versus pure PVAc under the same conditions. For the high CO2 partial pressure feed, CO2 permeability remained effectively unchanged with a 63% increase in selectivity versus pure PVAc. Surprisingly, the performance of these PVAc based MMMs approached the properties of current " upper bound" polymers. Overall, this work shows that significantly improved performance MMMs can be made with traditional techniques from a low cost, low performance polymer without costly adhesion promoters. © 2010.

  13. Screen Printing of Highly Loaded Silver Inks on Plastic Substrates Using Silicon Stencils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Woo Jin; Lim, Sooman; Ahn, Bok Yeop; Lewis, Jennifer A; Frisbie, C Daniel; Francis, Lorraine F

    2015-06-17

    Screen printing is a potential technique for mass-production of printed electronics; however, improvement in printing resolution is needed for high integration and performance. In this study, screen printing of highly loaded silver ink (77 wt %) on polyimide films is studied using fine-scale silicon stencils with openings ranging from 5 to 50 μm wide. This approach enables printing of high-resolution silver lines with widths as small as 22 μm. The printed silver lines on polyimide exhibit good electrical properties with a resistivity of 5.5×10(-6) Ω cm and excellent bending tolerance for bending radii greater than 5 mm (tensile strains less than 0.75%).

  14. Waveguide-loaded silica fibers for coupling to high-index micro-resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latawiec, P.; Burek, M. J.; Venkataraman, V.; Lončar, M.

    2016-01-01

    Tapered silica fibers are often used to rapidly probe the optical properties of micro-resonators. However, their low refractive index precludes phase-matching when coupling to high-index micro-resonators, reducing efficiency. Here, we demonstrate efficient optical coupling from tapered fibers to high-index micro-resonators by loading the fibers with an ancillary adiabatic waveguide-coupler fabricated via angled-etching. We demonstrate greatly enhanced coupling to a silicon multimode micro-resonator when compared to coupling via the bare fiber only. Signatures of resonator optical bistability are observed at high powers. This scheme can be applied to resonators of any size and material, increasing the functional scope of fiber coupling.

  15. Effect of high pressure pasteurization on bacterial load and bioactivity of Echinacea purpurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiu-Min; Hu, Chun; Raghubeer, Errol; Kitts, David D

    2010-09-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) technology was applied to organic Echinacea purpurea (E. purpurea) roots and flowers to determine the feasibility of using this technology for cold herb pasteurization, to produce microbiologically safe and shelf-stable products for the natural health products (NHPs) industry. HHP significantly (P pasteurization process treatment to reduce microbial-contamination load while not adversely altering chemical and bioactive function of active constituents present in organic E. purpurea. Our study reports for the first time, the effectiveness of using high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) technology pressure to pasteurize E. purpurea root and flower, and the comparative retention of bioactive phytochemicals. Therefore, this technique can be used in food and natural health product industries to produce high-quality, microbiologically safe, and shelf-stable products.

  16. Evolution of the fracture process zone in high-strength concrete under different loading rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cámara M.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available For cementitious materials, the inelastic zone around a crack tip is termed as fracture process zone (FPZ and dominated by complicated mechanism, such as microcracking, crack deflection, bridging, crack face friction, crack tip blunting by voids, crack branching, and so on. Due to the length of the FPZ is related with the characteristic length of the cementitious materials, the size, extent and location of the FPZ has been the object of countless research efforts for several decades. For instance, Cedolin et al. [1] have used an optical method based on the moiré interferometry to determine FPZ in concrete. Castro-Montero et al. [2] have applied the method of holographic interferometry to mortar to study the extension of the FPZ. The advantage of the interferometry method is that the complete FPZ can be directly observed on the surface of the sample. Swartz et al. [3] has adopted the dye penetration technique to illustrate the changing patterns observed as the crack progress from the tensile side to the compression side of the beam. Moreover, acoustic emission (AE is also an experimental technique well suited for monitoring fracture process. Haidar et al. [4] and Maji et al. [5] have studied the relation between acoustic emission characteristics and the properties of the FPZ. Compared with the extensive research on properties of the FPZ under quasi-static loading conditions, much less information is available on its dynamic characterization, especially for high-strength concrete (HSC. This paper presents the very recent results of an experimental program aimed at disclosing the loading rate effect on the size and velocity of the (FPZ in HSC. Eighteen three-point bending specimens were conducted under a wide range of loading rates from from 10-4 mm/s to 103 mm/s using either a servo-hydraulic machine or a self-designed drop-weight impact device. The beam dimensions were 100 mm 100 mm in cross section, and 420 mm in length. The initial notch

  17. Natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Christopher J; Ros, Vera I D; Stevenson, Brian; Sniegowski, Paul D; Brisson, Dustin

    2013-01-01

    The hypothesis that evolvability - the capacity to evolve by natural selection - is itself the object of natural selection is highly intriguing but remains controversial due in large part to a paucity of direct experimental evidence. The antigenic variation mechanisms of microbial pathogens provide an experimentally tractable system to test whether natural selection has favored mechanisms that increase evolvability. Many antigenic variation systems consist of paralogous unexpressed 'cassettes' that recombine into an expression site to rapidly alter the expressed protein. Importantly, the magnitude of antigenic change is a function of the genetic diversity among the unexpressed cassettes. Thus, evidence that selection favors among-cassette diversity is direct evidence that natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability. We used the Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, as a model to test the prediction that natural selection favors amino acid diversity among unexpressed vls cassettes and thereby promotes evolvability in a primary surface antigen, VlsE. The hypothesis that diversity among vls cassettes is favored by natural selection was supported in each B. burgdorferi strain analyzed using both classical (dN/dS ratios) and Bayesian population genetic analyses of genetic sequence data. This hypothesis was also supported by the conservation of highly mutable tandem-repeat structures across B. burgdorferi strains despite a near complete absence of sequence conservation. Diversification among vls cassettes due to natural selection and mutable repeat structures promotes long-term antigenic evolvability of VlsE. These findings provide a direct demonstration that molecular mechanisms that enhance evolvability of surface antigens are an evolutionary adaptation. The molecular evolutionary processes identified here can serve as a model for the evolution of antigenic evolvability in many pathogens which utilize similar strategies to establish chronic infections.

  18. Natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Graves

    Full Text Available The hypothesis that evolvability - the capacity to evolve by natural selection - is itself the object of natural selection is highly intriguing but remains controversial due in large part to a paucity of direct experimental evidence. The antigenic variation mechanisms of microbial pathogens provide an experimentally tractable system to test whether natural selection has favored mechanisms that increase evolvability. Many antigenic variation systems consist of paralogous unexpressed 'cassettes' that recombine into an expression site to rapidly alter the expressed protein. Importantly, the magnitude of antigenic change is a function of the genetic diversity among the unexpressed cassettes. Thus, evidence that selection favors among-cassette diversity is direct evidence that natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability. We used the Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, as a model to test the prediction that natural selection favors amino acid diversity among unexpressed vls cassettes and thereby promotes evolvability in a primary surface antigen, VlsE. The hypothesis that diversity among vls cassettes is favored by natural selection was supported in each B. burgdorferi strain analyzed using both classical (dN/dS ratios and Bayesian population genetic analyses of genetic sequence data. This hypothesis was also supported by the conservation of highly mutable tandem-repeat structures across B. burgdorferi strains despite a near complete absence of sequence conservation. Diversification among vls cassettes due to natural selection and mutable repeat structures promotes long-term antigenic evolvability of VlsE. These findings provide a direct demonstration that molecular mechanisms that enhance evolvability of surface antigens are an evolutionary adaptation. The molecular evolutionary processes identified here can serve as a model for the evolution of antigenic evolvability in many pathogens which utilize similar strategies to establish

  19. Ceramic Near-Net Shaped Processing Using Highly-Loaded Aqueous Suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueschhoff, Lisa

    Ceramic materials offer great advantages over their metal counterparts, due to their lower density, higher hardness and wear resistance, and higher melting temperatures. However, the use of ceramics in applications where their properties would offer tremendous advantages are often limited due to the difficulty of forming them into complex and near-net shaped parts. Methods that have been developed to injection-mold or cast ceramics into more complicated shapes often use significant volume fractions of a carrier (often greater than 35 vol.% polymer), elevated temperature processing, or less-than-environmentally friendly chemicals where a complex chemical synthesis reaction must be timed perfectly for the approach to work. Furthermore, the continuing maturation of additive manufacturing methods requires a new approach for flowing/placing ceramic powders into useful designs. This thesis addresses the limitations of the current ceramic forming approaches by developing highly-stabilized and therefore high solids loading ceramic suspensions, with the requisite rheology for a variety of complex and near-net shaped forming techniques. Silicon nitride was chosen as a material of focus due to its high fracture toughness compared to other ceramic materials. Designing ceramic suspensions that are flowable at room temperature greatly simplifies processing as neither heating nor cooling are required during forming. Highly-loaded suspensions (>40 vol.%) are desired because all formed ceramic bodies have to be sintered to remove pores. Finally, using aqueous-based suspensions reduces any detrimental effect on the environment and tooling. The preparation of highly-loaded suspensions requires the development of a suitable dispersant through which particle-particle interactions are controlled. However, silicon nitride is difficult to stabilize in water due to complex surface and solution chemistry. In this study, aqueous silicon nitride suspensions up to 45 vol.% solids loading were

  20. Parametric studies on containment thermal hydraulic loads during high pressure melt ejection in a BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silde, A.; Lindholm, I. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    The containment thermal hydraulic loads during high pressure melt ejection in a Nordic BWR are studied parametrically with the CONTAIN and the MELCOR codes. The work is part of the Nordic RAK-2 project. The containment analyses were divided into two categories according to composition of the discharged debris: metallic and oxidic debris cases. In the base case with highly metallic debris, all sources from the reactor coolant system to the containment were based on the MELCOR/BH calculation. In the base case with the oxidic debris, the source data was specified assuming that {approx} 15% of the whole core material inventory and 34,000 kg of saturated water was discharged from the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) during 30 seconds. In this case, the debris consisted mostly of oxides. The highest predicted containment pressure peaks were about 8.5 bar. In the scenarios with highly metallic debris source, very high gas temperature of about 1900 K was predicted in the pedestal, and about 1400 K in the upper drywell. The calculations with metallic debris were sensititive to model parameters, like the particle size and the parameters, which control the chemical reaction kinetics. In the scenarios with oxidic debris source, the predicted pressure peaks were comparable to the cases with the metallic debris source. The maximum gas temperatures (about 450-500 K) in the containment were, however, significantly lower than in the respective metallic debris case. The temperatures were also insensitive to parametric variations. In addition, one analysis was performed with the MELCOR code for benchmarking of the MELCOR capabilities against the more detailed CONTAIN code. The calculations showed that leak tightness of the containment penetrations could be jeopardized due to high temperature loads, if a high pressure melt ejection occurred during a severe accident. Another consequence would be an early containment venting. (au). 28 refs.

  1. Tuning down the hedonic brain: Cognitive load reduces neural responses to high-calorie food pictures in the nucleus accumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dillen, Lotte F; van Steenbergen, Henk

    2018-06-01

    The present research examined whether cognitive load modulates the neural processing of appetitive, high-calorie food stimuli. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, participants quickly categorized high-calorie and low-calorie food pictures versus object pictures as edible or inedible while they concurrently performed a digit-span task that varied between low and high cognitive load (memorizing six digits vs. one digit). In line with predictions, the digit-span task engaged the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) when cognitive load was high compared to low. Moreover, exposure to high-calorie compared to low-calorie food pictures led to increased activation in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), but only when cognitive load was low and not when it was high. In addition, connectivity analyses showed that load altered the functional coupling between NAcc and right DLPFC during presentation of the high-calorie versus low-calorie food pictures. Together, these findings indicate that loading the cognitive system moderates hedonic brain responses to high-calorie food pictures via interactions between NAcc and DLPFC. Our findings are consistent with the putative cognitive nature of food motivation. Implications for future research are discussed.

  2. Development of Houttuynia cordata Extract-Loaded Solid Lipid Nanoparticles for Oral Delivery: High Drug Loading Efficiency and Controlled Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Heon Kim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Houttuynia cordata (H. cordata has been used for diuresis and detoxification in folk medicine as well as a herbal medicine with antiviral and antibacterial activities. H. cordata extract-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (H-SLNs were prepared with various concentration of poloxamer 188 or poloxamer 407 by a hot homogenization and ultrasonication method. H-SLNs dispersion was freeze-dried with or without trehalose as a cryoprotectant. The physicochemical characteristics of H-SLNs were evaluated by dynamic laser scattering (DLS, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Additionally, the in vitro release and in vitro cytotoxicity of H-SLNs were measured. Encapsulation efficiencies of H-SLNs (as quercitrin were 92.9–95.9%. The SEM images of H-SLNs showed that H-SLNs have a spherical morphology. DSC and FT-IR showed that there were no interactions between ingredients. The increased extent of particle size of freeze-dried H-SLNs with trehalose was significantly lower than that of H-SLNs without trehalose. H-SLNs provided sustained release of quercitrin from H. cordata extracts. Cell viability of Caco-2 cells was over 70% according to the concentration of various formulation. Therefore, it was suggested that SLNs could be good carrier for administering H. cordata extracts.

  3. Formulation and Optimization of Multiparticulate Drug Delivery System Approach for High Drug Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Neha; Mehta, Tejal; Gohel, Mukesh

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the present work was to develop and optimize multiparticulate formulation viz. pellets of naproxen by employing QbD and risk assessment approach. Mixture design with extreme vertices was applied to the formulation with high loading of drug (about 90%) and extrusion-spheronization as a process for manufacturing pellets. Independent variables chosen were level of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC)-X 1 , polyvinylpyrrolidone K-90 (PVP K-90)-X 2 , croscarmellose sodium (CCS)-X 3 , and polacrilin potassium (PP)-X 4 . Dependent variables considered were disintegration time (DT)-Y 1 , sphericity-Y 2 , and percent drug release-Y 3 . The formulation was optimized based on the batches generated by MiniTab 17 software. The batch with maximum composite desirability (0.98) proved to be optimum. From the evaluation of design batches, it was observed that, even in low variation, the excipients affect the pelletization property of the blend and also the final drug release. In conclusion, pellets with high drug loading can be effectively manufactured and optimized systematically using QbD approach.

  4. High-solids loading enzymatic hydrolysis of waste papers for biofuel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lei; Templer, Richard; Murphy, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Waste papers have great potential as a feedstock for bioethanol production. ► A wet blending step would significantly enhance enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency. ► High-solids loading saccharification was performed successfully on waste papers. ► Saccharification data were from four types of paper and two enzyme alternatives. ► Enzymatic hydrolysis kinetic models were validated by experimental data. -- Abstract: Waste papers (newspaper, office paper, magazines and cardboard in this study) with 50–73% (w/w oven dry weight) carbohydrate contents have considerable potential as raw materials for bioethanol production. A particle size reduction step of wet blending prior to enzymatic hydrolysis of newspaper was found to increase the glucan conversion efficiency by up to 10%. High-solids loading hydrolysis at 15% (w/w) of four types of paper using two enzyme alternatives, Celluclast 1.5L supplemented with Novozyme 188 and Cellic Ctec 1 (Novozymes A/S, Demark), at various enzyme concentrations were successfully performed in a lab-scale overhead-stirred reactor. This work has identified the relative saccharification performance for the four types of paper and shows office paper and cardboard to be more suitable for producing bioethanol than newspaper or magazine paper. The experimental data were also very well described by a modified, simple three parameter glucan and xylan hydrolysis model. These findings provide the possibility for incorporating this validated kinetic model into process designs required for commercial scale bioethanol production from waste paper resources.

  5. 3D printing of high drug loaded dosage forms using thermoplastic polyurethanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraete, G; Samaro, A; Grymonpré, W; Vanhoorne, V; Van Snick, B; Boone, M N; Hellemans, T; Van Hoorebeke, L; Remon, J P; Vervaet, C

    2018-01-30

    It was the aim of this study to develop high drug loaded (>30%, w/w), thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU)-based dosage forms via fused deposition modelling (FDM). Model drugs with different particle size and aqueous solubility were pre-processed in combination with diverse TPU grades via hot melt extrusion (HME) into filaments with a diameter of 1.75 ± 0.05 mm. Subsequently, TPU-based filaments which featured acceptable quality attributes (i.e. consistent filament diameter, smooth surface morphology and good mechanical properties) were printed into tablets. The sustained release potential of the 3D printed dosage forms was tested in vitro. Moreover, the impact of printing parameters on the in vitro drug release was investigated. TPU-based filaments could be loaded with 60% (w/w) fine drug powder without observing severe shark skinning or inconsistent filament diameter. During 3D printing experiments, HME filaments based on hard TPU grades were successfully converted into personalized dosage forms containing a high concentration of crystalline drug (up to 60%, w/w). In vitro release kinetics were mainly affected by the matrix composition and tablet infill degree. Therefore, this study clearly demonstrated that TPU-based FDM feedstock material offers a lot of formulation freedom for the development of personalized dosage forms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Full-sized plates irradiation with high UMo fuel loading. Final results of IRIS 1 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huet, F.; Marelle, V.; Noirot, J.; Sacristan, P.; Lemoine, P.

    2003-01-01

    As a part of the French UMo Group qualification program, IRIS 1 experiment contained full-sized plates with high uranium loading in the meat of 8 g.cm -3 . The fuel particles consisted of 7 and 9 wt% Mo-uranium alloys ground powders. The plate were irradiated at OSIRIS reactor in IRIS device up to 67.5% peak burnup within the range of 136 W.cm - '2 for the heat flux and 72 deg. C for the cladding temperature. After each reactor cycle the plates thickness were measured. The results show no swelling behaviour differences versus burnup between UMo7 and UMo9 plates. The maximum plate swelling for peak burnup location remains lower than 6%. The wide set of PIE has shown that, within the studied irradiation conditions, the interaction product have a global formulation of '(U-Mo)Al -7 ' and that there is no aluminium dissolution in UMo particles. IRIS1 experiment, as the first step of the UMo fuel qualification for research reactor, has established the good behaviour of UMo7 and UMo9 high uranium loading full-sized plate within the tested conditions. (author)

  7. Core-shell nanocarriers with high paclitaxel loading for passive and active targeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhu; Lv, Yaqi; Cao, Hui; Yao, Jing; Zhou, Jianping; He, Wei; Yin, Lifang

    2016-06-01

    Rapid blood clearance and premature burst release are inherent drawbacks of conventional nanoparticles, resulting in poor tumor selectivity. iRGD peptide is widely recognized as an efficient cell membrane penetration peptide homing to αVβ3 integrins. Herein, core-shell nanocapsules (NCs) and iRGD-modified NCs (iRGD-NCs) with high drug payload for paclitaxel (PTX) were prepared to enhance the antitumor activities of chemotherapy agents with poor water solubility. Improved in vitro and in vivo tumor targeting and penetration were observed with NCs and iRGD-NCs; the latter exhibited better antitumor activity because iRGD enhanced the accumulation and penetration of NCs in tumors. The NCs were cytocompatible, histocompatible, and non-toxic to other healthy tissues. The endocytosis of NCs was mediated by lipid rafts in an energy-dependent manner, leading to better cytotoxicity of PTX against cancer cells. In contrast with commercial product, PTX-loaded NCs (PTX-NCs) increased area under concentration-time curve (AUC) by about 4-fold, prolonged mean resident time (MRT) by more than 8-fold and reduced the elimination rate constant by greater than 68-fold. In conclusion, the present nanocarriers with high drug-loading capacity represent an efficient tumor-targeting drug delivery system with promising potential for cancer therapy.

  8. Activation of Antigen-Specific CD8(+) T Cells by Poly-DL-Lactide/Glycolide (PLGA) Nanoparticle-Primed Gr-1(high) Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wen-Hui; Yang, Ya-Wun

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the induction of antigen-specific T cell activation and cell cycle modulation by a poly-DL-lactide/glycolide (PLGA) nanoparticle (NP)-primed CD11b(+)Gr-1(high) subset isolated from mouse bone marrow. PLGA NPs containing the ovalbumin (OVA) antigen were prepared using the double emulsion and solvent evaporation method, and protein release rate and cell viability were determined. The Lin2(¯)CD11b(+)Gr-1(high)Ly6c(low) (Gr-1(high)) subset was sorted from the bone marrow of C57BL/6 J mice by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and co-cultured with OT-I CD8(+) splenic T cells. Proliferation of OT-I CD8(+) T cells was monitored, and cell cycles were determined by 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling. Treatment of Gr-1(high) cells with PLGA/OVA NPs upregulated expression of the SIINFEKL-H2K(b) complex in the context of MHC I. Co-cultures of OT-I CD8(+) T cells with the PLGA/OVA NP-primed Gr-1(high) cells induced the proliferation of T cells in vitro and modulated cell division and morphology. Treatment of Gr-1(high) cells with PLGA/OVA NPs also induced cell apoptosis and necrosis. This study demonstrated the function of PLGA/OVA NPs in the activation of OT-I CD8(+) T cells and the capability of cross-presentation via the Gr-1(high) polymorphonuclear subset from mouse bone marrow.

  9. High-Uranium-Loaded U3O8-Al fuel element development program. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, M.M.

    1993-01-01

    The High-Uranium-Loaded U 3 O 8 -Al Fuel Element Development Program supports Argonne National Laboratory efforts to develop high-uranium-density research and test reactor fuel to accommodate use of low-uranium enrichment. The goal is to fuel most research and test reactors with uranium of less than 20% enrichment for the purpose of lowering the potential for diversion of highly-enriched material for nonpeaceful usages. The specific objective of the program is to develop the technological and engineering data base for U 3 O 8 -Al plate-type fuel elements of maximal uranium content to the point of vendor qualification for full scale fabrication on a production basis. A program and management plan that details the organization, supporting objectives, schedule, and budget is in place and preparation for fuel and irradiation studies is under way. The current programming envisions a program of about four years duration for an estimated cost of about two million dollars. During the decades of the fifties and sixties, developments at Oak Ridge National Laboratory led to the use of U 3 O 8 -Al plate-type fuel elements in the High Flux Isotope Reactor, Oak Ridge Research Reactor, Puerto Rico Nuclear Center Reactor, and the High Flux Beam Reactor. Most of the developmental information however applies only up to a uranium concentration of about 55 wt % (about 35 vol % U 3 O 8 ). The technical issues that must be addressed to further increase the uranium loading beyond 55 wt % U involve plate fabrication phenomena of voids and dogboning, fuel behavior under long irradiation, and potential for the thermite reaction between U 3 O 8 and aluminum

  10. Expression of H5 hemagglutinin vaccine antigen in common duckweed (Lemna minor) protects against H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza virus challenge in immunized chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertran, Kateri; Thomas, Colleen; Guo, Xuan; Bublot, Michel; Pritchard, Nikki; Regan, Jeffrey T; Cox, Kevin M; Gasdaska, John R; Dickey, Lynn F; Kapczynski, Darrell R; Swayne, David E

    2015-07-09

    A synthetic hemagglutinin (HA) gene from the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus A/chicken/Indonesia/7/2003 (H5N1) (Indo/03) was expressed in aquatic plant Lemna minor (rLemna-HA). In Experiment 1, efficacy of rLemna-HA was tested on birds immunized with 0.2μg or 2.3 μg HA and challenged with 10(6) mean chicken embryo infectious doses (EID50) of homologous virus strain. Both dosages of rLemna-HA conferred clinical protection and dramatically reduced viral shedding. Almost all the birds immunized with either dosage of rLemna-HA elicited HA antibody titers against Indo/03 antigen, suggesting an association between levels of anti-Indo/03 antibodies and protection. In Experiment 2, efficacy of rLemna-HA was tested on birds immunized with 0.9 μg or 2.2 μg HA and challenged with 10(6) EID50 of heterologous H5N1 virus strains A/chicken/Vietnam/NCVD-421/2010 (VN/10) or A/chicken/West Java/PWT-WIJ/2006 (PWT/06). Birds challenged with VN/10 exhibited 100% survival regardless of immunization dosage, while birds challenged with PWT/06 had 50% and 30% mortality at 0.9 μg HA and 2.2 μg HA, respectively. For each challenge virus, viral shedding titers from 2.2 μg HA vaccinated birds were significantly lower than those from 0.9μg HA vaccinated birds, and titers from both immunized groups were in turn significantly lower than those from sham vaccinated birds. Even if immunized birds elicited HA titers against the vaccine antigen Indo/03, only the groups challenged with VN/10 developed humoral immunity against the challenge antigen. None (rLemna-HA 0.9 μg HA) and 40% (rLemna-HA 2.2 μg HA) of the immunized birds challenged with PWT/06 elicited pre-challenge antibody titers, respectively. In conclusion, Lemna-expressed HA demonstrated complete protective immunity against homologous challenge and suboptimal protection against heterologous challenge, the latter being similar to results from inactivated whole virus vaccines. Transgenic duckweed-derived HA could be a

  11. Hybrid Robust Control Law with Disturbance Observer for High-Frequency Response Electro-Hydraulic Servo Loading System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqing Sheng

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Addressing the simulating issue of the helicopter-manipulating booster aerodynamic load with high-frequency dynamic load superimposed on a large static load, this paper studies the design of the robust controller for the electro-hydraulic loading system to realize the simulation of this kind of load. Firstly, the equivalent linear model of the electro-hydraulic loading system under assumed parameter uncertainty is established. Then, a hybrid control scheme is proposed for the loading system. This control scheme consists of a constant velocity feed-forward compensator, a robust inner loop compensator based on disturbance observer and a robust outer loop feedback controller. The constant velocity compensator eliminates most of the extraneous force at first, and then the double-loop cascade composition control strategy is employed to design the compensated system. The disturbance observer–based inner loop compensator further restrains the disturbances including the remaining extraneous force, and makes the actual plant tracking a nominal model approximately in a certain frequency range. The robust outer loop controller achieves the desired force-tracking performance, and guarantees system robustness in the high frequency region. The optimized low-pass filter Q(s is designed by using the H∞ mixed sensitivity optimization method. The simulation results show that the proposed hybrid control scheme and controller can effectively suppress the extraneous force and improve the robustness of the electro-hydraulic loading system.

  12. Load management strategy for Particle-In-Cell simulations in high energy particle acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, A., E-mail: beck@llr.in2p3.fr [Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, École polytechnique, CNRS-IN2P3, Palaiseau 91128 (France); Frederiksen, J.T. [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 17, 2100 København Ø (Denmark); Dérouillat, J. [CEA, Maison de La Simulation, 91400 Saclay (France)

    2016-09-01

    In the wake of the intense effort made for the experimental CILEX project, numerical simulation campaigns have been carried out in order to finalize the design of the facility and to identify optimal laser and plasma parameters. These simulations bring, of course, important insight into the fundamental physics at play. As a by-product, they also characterize the quality of our theoretical and numerical models. In this paper, we compare the results given by different codes and point out algorithmic limitations both in terms of physical accuracy and computational performances. These limitations are illustrated in the context of electron laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA). The main limitation we identify in state-of-the-art Particle-In-Cell (PIC) codes is computational load imbalance. We propose an innovative algorithm to deal with this specific issue as well as milestones towards a modern, accurate high-performance PIC code for high energy particle acceleration.

  13. Estimated environmental loads of alpha-amylase from transgenic high-amylase maize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolt, Jeffrey D. [Department of Agronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Biosafety Institute for Genetically Modified Agricultural Products, 164 Seed Science, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Karaman, Sule [Biosafety Institute for Genetically Modified Agricultural Products, 164 Seed Science, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)

    2007-11-15

    Environmental exposure of plants bioengineered to improve efficiencies of biofuel production is an important consideration for their adoption. High-amylase maize genetically engineered to produce thermostable alpha-amylase in seed endosperm is currently in development, and its successful adoption will entail >1000 km{sup 2} of annual production in the USA. Environmental exposure of thermostable amylase will occur in production fields from preharvest and harvest dropped grain, with minor additional contributions from stover and root biomass. Mass loadings of thermostable alpha-amylase are projected to be 16 kg km{sup -2} and represent a potential source of increased alpha-amylase activity in receiving soils. An understanding of the degradation, persistence, accumulation, and activity of thermostable alpha-amylase introduced from transgenic high-amylase maize will be necessary in order to effectively manage transgenic crop systems intended or biofeedstock production. (author)

  14. The cryogenic cooling program in high-heat-load optics at the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, C.S.

    1993-07-01

    This paper describes some of the aspects of the cryogenic optics program at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). A liquid-nitrogen-cooled, high-vacuum, double crystal monochromator is being fabricated at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). A pumping system capable of delivering a variable flow rate of up to 10 gallons per minute of pressurized liquid nitrogen and removing 5 kilowatts of x-ray power is also being constructed. This specialized pumping system and monochromator will be used to test the viability of cryogenically cooled, high-heat-load synchrotron optics. It has been determined that heat transfer enhancement will be required for optics used with APS insertion devices. An analysis of a porous-matrix-enhanced monochromator crystal is presented. For the particular case investigated, a heat transfer enhancement factor of 5 to 6 was calculated

  15. Active Boundary Layer Control on a Highly Loaded Turbine Exit Case Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Kurz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A highly loaded turbine exit guide vane with active boundary layer control was investigated experimentally in the High Speed Cascade Wind Tunnel at the University of the German Federal Armed Forces, Munich. The experiments include profile Mach number distributions, wake traverse measurements as well as boundary layer investigations with a flattened Pitot probe. Active boundary layer control by fluidic oscillators was applied to achieve improved performance in the low Reynolds number regime. Low solidity, which can be applied to reduce the number of blades, increases the risk of flow separation resulting in increased total pressure losses. Active boundary layer control is supposed to overcome these negative effects. The experiments show that active boundary layer control by fluidic oscillators is an appropriate way to suppress massive open separation bubbles in the low Reynolds number regime.

  16. Self-castellation of tungsten monoblock under high heat flux loading and impact of material properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Panayotis

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In the full-tungsten divertor qualification program at ITER Organization, macro-cracks, so called self-castellation were found in a fraction of tungsten monoblocks during cyclic high heat flux loading at 20MW/m2. The number of monoblocks with macro-cracks varied with the tungsten products used as armour material. In order to understand correlation between the macro-crack appearance and W properties, an activity to characterize W monoblock materials was launched at the IO. The outcome highlighted that the higher the recrystallization resistance, the lower the number of cracks detected during high heat flux tests. Thermo-mechanical finite element modelling demonstrated that the maximum surface temperature ranges from 1800 °C to 2200 °C and in this range recrystallization of tungsten occurred. Furthermore, it indicated that loss of strength due to recrystallization is responsible for the development of macro-cracks in the tungsten monoblock.

  17. High power testing oa ANL X-band dielectric-loaded accelerating structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power, J. G.; Gai, W.; Jing, C.; Konecny, R.; Gold, S. H.; Kinkead, A. K.

    2002-01-01

    In the second phase of a program to develop a compact accelerator based on a dielectric-loaded accelerating structure, we have conducted high power tests on a traveling-wave and a standing-wave prototype. Indications are that the traveling-wave structure achieved an accelerating gradient of 3-5 MV/m before the input coupling window failed, while the standing wave structure was poorly matched at high power due to contamination of copper residue on its coupling window. To solve both of these problems, a new method for coupling RF into the structures has been developed. The new couplers and the rest of the modular structure are currently under construction and will be tested at the Naval Research Laboratory shortly

  18. BAGHEERA: A new experimental facility at CEA / Valduc for actinides studies under high dynamic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, G.; Llorca, F.; Lanier, G.; Lamalle, S.; Beaulieu, J.; Antoine, P.; Martinuzzi, P.

    2006-08-01

    This paper is a technical presentation about a new experimental facility recently developed at CEA/Valduc, BAGHEERA, a French acronym for “Hopkinson And High Speed Experiments Glove Box”. This facility is used since mid-2003 to characterize the physical and mechanical behaviour of actinides under high dynamic loadings. For this purpose, four basic experimental devices are confined inside a single glove box: a 50 mm bore diameter single stage light gas gun, two compression and torsion split Hopkinson bars (SHPB and TSHB respectively) and a Taylor test device (TTD). Design and technical data on the experimental equipment are addressed, with a particular emphasis on the gas gun specific features due to actinide applications.

  19. Experimental and numerical study of plastic shear instability under high-speed loading conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokovikov, Mikhail; Chudinov, Vasiliy; Bilalov, Dmitry; Oborin, Vladimir; Uvarov, Sergey; Plekhov, Oleg; Terekhina, Alena; Naimark, Oleg

    2014-01-01

    The behavior of specimens dynamically loaded during the split Hopkinson (Kolsky) bar tests in a regime close to simple shear conditions was studied. The lateral surface of the specimens was investigated in a real-time mode with the aid of a high-speed infra-red camera CEDIP Silver 450M. The temperature field distribution obtained at different time made it possible to trace the evolution of plastic strain localization. The process of target perforation involving plug formation and ejection was examined using a high-speed infra-red camera and a VISAR velocity measurement system. The microstructure of tested specimens was analyzed using an optical interferometer-profilometer and a scanning electron microscope. The development of plastic shear instability regions has been simulated numerically

  20. Cost optimization of load carrying thin-walled precast high performance concrete sandwich panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hodicky, Kamil; Hansen, Sanne; Hulin, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    and HPCSP’s geometrical parameters as well as on material cost function in the HPCSP design. Cost functions are presented for High Performance Concrete (HPC), insulation layer, reinforcement and include labour-related costs. The present study reports the economic data corresponding to specific manufacturing......The paper describes a procedure to find the structurally and thermally efficient design of load-carrying thin-walled precast High Performance Concrete Sandwich Panels (HPCSP) with an optimal economical solution. A systematic optimization approach is based on the selection of material’s performances....... The solution of the optimization problem is performed in the computer package software Matlab® with SQPlab package and integrates the processes of HPCSP design, quantity take-off and cost estimation. The proposed optimization process outcomes in complex HPCSP design proposals to achieve minimum cost of HPCSP....

  1. ITER-W monoblocks under high pulse number transient heat loads at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loewenhoff, Th.; Linke, J.; Pintsuk, G.; Pitts, R.A.; Riccardi, B.

    2015-01-01

    In the context of using a full-tungsten (W) divertor for ITER, thermal shock resistance has become even more important as an issue that may potentially influence the long term performance. To address this issue a unique series of experiments has been performed on ITER-W monoblock mock ups in three EU high heat flux facilities: GLADIS (neutral beam), JUDITH 2 (electron beam) and Magnum-PSI (plasma beam). This paper discusses the JUDITH 2 experiments. Two different base temperatures, 1200 °C and 1500 °C, were chosen superimposed by ∼18,000/100,000 transient events (Δt = 0.48 ms) of 0.2 and 0.6 GW/m 2 . Results showed a stronger surface deterioration at higher base temperature, quantified by an increase in roughening. This is intensified if the same test is done after preloading (exposure to high temperature without transients), especially at higher base temperature when the material recrystallizes

  2. High Pt Loading on Polydopamine Functionalized Graphene as a High Performance Cathode Electrocatalyst for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monireh Faraji

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Morphology and size of platinum nanoparticles are a crucial factor in improving their catalytic activity and stability. Here, we firstly report the synthesis of high loading Pt nanoparticles on polydopamine reduced Graphene. The loading concentration of Pt (nanoparticles NPs on Graphene can be adjusted in the range of 60-70%.With the insertion of polydopamine between Graphene oxide sheets, stacking of Graphene can be effectively prevented, promoting diffusion of oxygen molecules through the Graphene sheets and enhancing the oxygen reduction reaction electrocatalytic activity. Compared to commercial catalysts (i.e., state-of-the-art Pt/C catalyst the as synthesized Pt supported polydopamine grafted reduced graphite oxide (Pt@PDA-rGO hybrid displays very high oxygen reduction reaction catalytic activities. We propose a unique 2D profile of the polydopamine-rGO role as a barrier preventing leaching of Pt into the electrolyte. The fabricated electrodes were evaluated with electrochemical techniques for oxygen reduction reaction and the obtained results were further verified by the transmission electron microscopy micrographs on the microstructure of the integrated pt@PDA-rGO structures. It has been revealed that the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technique can provide more explicit information than polarization curves on the performance dependence on charge-transfer and mass transport processes at different overpotential regions.

  3. Loading and transport of high-active waste (HAW) with the TN85 flask in 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rys, Michael; Horn, Thomas; Graf, Wilhelm; Bonface, Jean-Michael

    2009-01-01

    As a part of the operation of nuclear power plants, it is essential to safely manage the radioactive waste. With new developments in science and technology, it is a dynamic process to adapt procedures, equipment and flasks to be used in the future. This is a task for specialists - a task for GNS Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH and for TN International. Until 1994 reprocessing of spent fuel from German nuclear power plants was mandatory for the Utilities (EVU) in Germany. Basis for the reprocessing was the German Atomic Act. The German Utilities concluded contracts on reprocessing with Compagnie Generale des Matieres Nucleaires (COGEMA, now AREVA NC) in France and British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL, now INS) in England. The total amount to be reprocessed comes to 5309 t HM contracted to AREVA NC and 768 t HM contracted to INS. The waste generated from reprocessing - or an equivalent amount of radioactive material - has to be returned to the country of origin. In 1979 already an exchange of notes took place between the German and the French government with the obligation of both sides to enable and support the return of reprocessing residues or equivalents. The return of high-active waste (HAW) from France has started in 1996 with the first attribution of 28 glass canisters (one flask) to German Utilities by AREVA NC. Until 2007, 75 flasks loaded with vitrified residue (VR) canisters have been transported to Gorleben. For these transports CASTOR registered HAW 20/28 CG flasks have been used. This presentation will give some background information about the last HAW transport in 2008 with the new flask generation of the type TN85. It will also describe the assembly of the new flask, the preparation of the flask for the loading campaign as well as the loading procedure. (orig.)

  4. Loading and transport of high-active waste (HAW) with the TN85 flask in 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rys, Michael; Horn, Thomas; Graf, Wilhelm [GNS Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH (Germany); Bonface, Jean-Michael [TN International, Montigny-le-Bretonneux (France)

    2009-07-01

    As a part of the operation of nuclear power plants, it is essential to safely manage the radioactive waste. With new developments in science and technology, it is a dynamic process to adapt procedures, equipment and flasks to be used in the future. This is a task for specialists - a task for GNS Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH and for TN International. Until 1994 reprocessing of spent fuel from German nuclear power plants was mandatory for the Utilities (EVU) in Germany. Basis for the reprocessing was the German Atomic Act. The German Utilities concluded contracts on reprocessing with Compagnie Generale des Matieres Nucleaires (COGEMA, now AREVA NC) in France and British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL, now INS) in England. The total amount to be reprocessed comes to 5309 t HM contracted to AREVA NC and 768 t HM contracted to INS. The waste generated from reprocessing - or an equivalent amount of radioactive material - has to be returned to the country of origin. In 1979 already an exchange of notes took place between the German and the French government with the obligation of both sides to enable and support the return of reprocessing residues or equivalents. The return of high-active waste (HAW) from France has started in 1996 with the first attribution of 28 glass canisters (one flask) to German Utilities by AREVA NC. Until 2007, 75 flasks loaded with vitrified residue (VR) canisters have been transported to Gorleben. For these transports CASTOR {sup registered} HAW 20/28 CG flasks have been used. This presentation will give some background information about the last HAW transport in 2008 with the new flask generation of the type TN85. It will also describe the assembly of the new flask, the preparation of the flask for the loading campaign as well as the loading procedure. (orig.)

  5. Analysis of Unsteady Tip and Endwall Heat Transfer in a Highly Loaded Transonic Turbine Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyam, Vikram; Ameri, Ali; Chen, Jen-Ping

    2010-01-01

    In a previous study, vane-rotor shock interactions and heat transfer on the rotor blade of a highly loaded transonic turbine stage were simulated. The geometry consists of a high pressure turbine vane and downstream rotor blade. This study focuses on the physics of flow and heat transfer in the rotor tip, casing and hub regions. The simulation was performed using the Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) code MSU-TURBO. A low Reynolds number k-epsilon model was utilized to model turbulence. The rotor blade in question has a tip gap height of 2.1 percent of the blade height. The Reynolds number of the flow is approximately 3x10(exp 6) per meter. Unsteadiness was observed at the tip surface that results in intermittent "hot spots". It is demonstrated that unsteadiness in the tip gap is governed by inviscid effects due to high speed flow and is not strongly dependent on pressure ratio across the tip gap contrary to published observations that have primarily dealt with subsonic tip flows. The high relative Mach numbers in the tip gap lead to a choking of the leakage flow that translates to a relative attenuation of losses at higher loading. The efficacy of new tip geometry is discussed to minimize heat flux at the tip while maintaining choked conditions. In addition, an explanation is provided that shows the mechanism behind the rise in stagnation temperature on the casing to values above the absolute total temperature at the inlet. It is concluded that even in steady mode, work transfer to the near tip fluid occurs due to relative shearing by the casing. This is believed to be the first such explanation of the work transfer phenomenon in the open literature. The difference in pattern between steady and time-averaged heat flux at the hub is also explained.

  6. Behaviour of candidate materials for fusion applications under high surface heat loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolt, H.; Nickel, H.; Kuroda, T.; Miyahara, A.

    1988-07-01

    High heat fluxes to in-vessel components of nuclear fusion devices (tokamaks) during normal operation and abnormal operation conditions are one of the governing issues in the selection of a plasma facing material and the design of first wall components. Their failure under high heat loads during service can severely influence the further operability of the entire fusion device. In order to determine the response of candidate materials to high heat fluxes an experimental program was carried out using the 10 MW Neutral Beam Injection Test Stand of the Institute for Plasma Physics of Nagoya University. Metal samples, 13 different fine grain graphites, carbon - carbon composites, and pyrolytic carbon samples were subjected to heat loads between 16 and 117 MW/m 2 and pulse durations of 50 to 950 ms. Afterwards the resulting structural changes as well as threshold values for the occurance of material damage were determined. The main damage observed on carbon materials was cracking in the case of graphites and pyrolytic carbon and erosion in the case of graphites and carbon - carbon composites. Processes leading to such damage were discussed and described in form of models. Parallel to these laboratory experiments numerical analyses of the response of graphite materials to high heat fluxes were carried out. The results are in general agreement with the experimentally determined values. In order to verify the results from experiments and numerical analyses, graphite test limiters were exposed to about 900 discharges in the JIPP T-IIU tokamak. These proof tests fully confirmed the results obtained. (orig.) [de

  7. Polyamidoamine dendrimer-based binders for high-loading lithium–sulfur battery cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Nandasiri, Manjula I.; Lv, Dongping; Schwarz, Ashleigh M.; Darsell, Jens T.; Henderson, Wesley A.; Tomalia, Donald A.; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Xiao, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries are regarded as one of the most promising candidates for next generation energy storage systems because of their ultra high theoretical specific energy. To realize the practical application of Li-S batteries, however, a high S active material loading is essential (>70 wt% in the carbon-sulfur (C-S) composite cathode and >2 mg cm-2 in the electrode). A critical challenge to achieving this high capacity in practical electrodes is the dissolution of the longer lithium polysulfide reaction intermediates in the electrolyte (resulting in loss of active material from the cathode and contamination of the anode due to the polysulfide shuttle mechanism). The binder material used for the cathode is therefore crucial as this is a key determinant of the bonding interactions between the active material (S) and electronic conducting support (C), as well as the maintenance of intimate contact between the electrode materials and current collector. The battery performance can thus be directly correlated with the choice of binder, but this has received only minimal attention in the relevant Li-S battery published literature. Here, we investigated the application of polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers as functional binders in Li-S batteries—a class of materials which has been unexplored for electrode design. By using dendrimers, it is demonstrated that high S loadings (>4 mg cm-2) can be easily achieved using "standard" (not specifically tailored) materials and simple processing methods. An exceptional electrochemical cycling performance was obtained (as compared to cathodes with conventional linear polymeric binders such as carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR)) with >100 cycles and 85-98% capacity retention, thus demonstrating the significant utility of this new binder architecture which exhibits critical physicochemical properties and flexible nanoscale design parameters (CNDP's).

  8. Electrocatalytic performance of fuel cell reactions at low catalyst loading and high mass transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalitis, Christopher M; Kramer, Denis; Kucernak, Anthony R

    2013-03-28

    An alternative approach to the rotating disk electrode (RDE) for characterising fuel cell electrocatalysts is presented. The approach combines high mass transport with a flat, uniform, and homogeneous catalyst deposition process, well suited for studying intrinsic catalyst properties at realistic operating conditions of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC). Uniform catalyst layers were produced with loadings as low as 0.16 μgPt cm(-2) and thicknesses as low as 200 nm. Such ultra thin catalyst layers are considered advantageous to minimize internal resistances and mass transport limitations. Geometric current densities as high as 5.7 A cm(-2)Geo were experimentally achieved at a loading of 10.15 μgPt cm(-2) for the hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR) at room temperature, which is three orders of magnitude higher than current densities achievable with the RDE. Modelling of the associated diffusion field suggests that such high performance is enabled by fast lateral diffusion within the electrode. The electrodes operate over a wide potential range with insignificant mass transport losses, allowing the study of the ORR at high overpotentials. Electrodes produced a specific current density of 31 ± 9 mA cm(-2)Spec at a potential of 0.65 V vs. RHE for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and 600 ± 60 mA cm(-2)Spec for the peak potential of the HOR. The mass activity of a commercial 60 wt% Pt/C catalyst towards the ORR was found to exceed a range of literature PEFC mass activities across the entire potential range. The HOR also revealed fine structure in the limiting current range and an asymptotic current decay for potentials above 0.36 V. These characteristics are not visible with techniques limited by mass transport in aqueous media such as the RDE.

  9. High Working Memory Load Increases Intracortical Inhibition in Primary Motor Cortex and Diminishes the Motor Affordance Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Scott M; Itthipuripat, Sirawaj; Aron, Adam R

    2016-05-18

    Motor affordances occur when the visual properties of an object elicit behaviorally relevant motor representations. Typically, motor affordances only produce subtle effects on response time or on motor activity indexed by neuroimaging/neuroelectrophysiology, but sometimes they can trigger action itself. This is apparent in "utilization behavior," where individuals with frontal cortex damage inappropriately grasp affording objects. This raises the possibility that, in healthy-functioning individuals, frontal cortex helps ensure that irrelevant affordance provocations remain below the threshold for actual movement. In Experiment 1, we tested this "frontal control" hypothesis by "loading" the frontal cortex with an effortful working memory (WM) task (which ostensibly consumes frontal resources) and examined whether this increased EEG measures of motor affordances to irrelevant affording objects. Under low WM load, there were typical motor affordance signatures: an event-related desynchronization in the mu frequency and an increased P300 amplitude for affording (vs nonaffording) objects over centroparietal electrodes. Contrary to our prediction, however, these affordance measures were diminished under high WM load. In Experiment 2, we tested competing mechanisms responsible for the diminished affordance in Experiment 1. We used paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation over primary motor cortex to measure long-interval cortical inhibition. We found greater long-interval cortical inhibition for high versus low load both before and after the affording object, suggesting that a tonic inhibition state in primary motor cortex could prevent the affordance from provoking the motor system. Overall, our results suggest that a high WM load "sets" the motor system into a suppressed state that mitigates motor affordances. Is an irrelevant motor affordance more likely to be triggered when you are under low or high cognitive load? We examined this using physiological measures

  10. Understanding original antigenic sin in influenza with a dynamical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Keyao

    2011-01-01

    Original antigenic sin is the phenomenon in which prior exposure to an antigen leads to a subsequent suboptimal immune response to a related antigen. Immune memory normally allows for an improved and rapid response to antigens previously seen and is the mechanism by which vaccination works. I here develop a dynamical system model of the mechanism of original antigenic sin in influenza, clarifying and explaining the detailed spin-glass treatment of original antigenic sin. The dynamical system describes the viral load, the quantities of healthy and infected epithelial cells, the concentrations of naïve and memory antibodies, and the affinities of naïve and memory antibodies. I give explicit correspondences between the microscopic variables of the spin-glass model and those of the present dynamical system model. The dynamical system model reproduces the phenomenon of original antigenic sin and describes how a competition between different types of B cells compromises the overall effect of immune response. I illustrate the competition between the naïve and the memory antibodies as a function of the antigenic distance between the initial and subsequent antigens. The suboptimal immune response caused by original antigenic sin is observed when the host is exposed to an antigen which has intermediate antigenic distance to a second antigen previously recognized by the host's immune system.

  11. High strain fatigue behaviour of a high-temperature, low-alloyed forging steel subject to a servicelike loading history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloos, K.H.; Granacher, J.; Rieth, P.

    1979-01-01

    A test plan was developed for selected cases of service-like long-time high strain load of a heated surface of massive components, which includes service-like anisothermic high strain tests with pressure-strain in the start-up phase and pull-strain in the shutdown phase, comparable isothermal tests at the highest cycle temperature, and finally tests with 'packaged' high strain and creep strain periods, which should enable long-time-tests with only short use of the large-scale high-strain-test-technique. The tests started on the melts of the high-temperature steel 28 Cr Mo NiV 4 9 have reached a longest tests time of nearly 1000 at a maximum temperature of 525 0 C. On the basis of there results, the carrying-out of 'packaged' long-time high strain tests with short creep strain periods seem to be a good way of determining the long-time high-strain behaviour of this steel under service-like strain cycles. (orig./RW) 891 RW/orig.- 892 RKD [de

  12. Experimental investigation and analysis of damage evolution in concrete under high-cyclic fatigue loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiele, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is the fatigue behavior of concrete under high-cycle compressive loadings. Current knowledge about fatigue behavior of concrete is still incomplete. This concerns especially the process of fatigue which is preceding the fatigue failure. The leak of knowledge about fatigue behavior is opposed to the steady growing importance of this topic within the practice in civil engineering. Therefore, within this thesis a systematic and comprehensive investigation of the process of fatigue itself was done. This contributes to the better understanding of the progression of damage and the corresponding processes within the material. The experimental investigation consisted mainly of experiments with constant amplitude loadings in compression with cylindrical specimen made of normal strength concrete. Two differed load levels were used which resulted in numbers of cycles to failure of 10 6 and 10 7 as well as 10 3 and 10 4 . The experiments were done in combination with different types of nondestructive and destructive testing methods like strain measuring, deformation of surface, ultrasonic signals, acoustic emissions, optical microscopy and also scattering electron microscopy. To access some parameters of influence in relation to the fatigue behavior additional creep tests and also several tests with different scales of specimen were done. The fatigue process of concrete is determined as an evolution of damage that starts from the beginning of the loading process. This evolution has manifold and different influences on the different material properties of concrete. In this relation a major finding was that fatigue related damage leads to a transformation of the complete stress-strain-relationship. This relationship is also subjected to an evolution process. Due to the authors observations it could not be determined that the investigated changes in macroscopic material behavior are caused by a development of micro cracks within the material

  13. Single Additive Enables 3D Printing of Highly Loaded Iron Oxide Suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodaei, Amin; Akhlaghi, Omid; Khani, Navid; Aytas, Tunahan; Sezer, Dilek; Tatli, Buse; Menceloglu, Yusuf Z; Koc, Bahattin; Akbulut, Ozge

    2018-03-21

    A single additive, a grafted copolymer, is designed to ensure the stability of suspensions of highly loaded iron oxide nanoparticles (IOPs) and to facilitate three-dimensional (3D) printing of these suspensions in the filament form. This poly (ethylene glycol)-grafted copolymer of N-[3(dimethylamino)propyl]methacrylamide and acrylic acid harnesses both electrostatic and steric repulsion to realize an optimum formulation for 3D printing. When used at 1.15 wt % (by the weight of IOPs), the suspension attains ∼81 wt % solid loading-96% of the theoretical limit as calculated by the Krieger-Dougherty equation. Rectangular, thick-walled toroidal, and thin-walled toroidal magnetic cores and a porous lattice structure are fabricated to demonstrate the utilization of this suspension as an ink for 3D printing. The electrical and magnetic properties of the magnetic cores are characterized through impedance spectroscopy (IS) and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), respectively. The IS indicates the possibility of utilizing wire-wound 3D printed cores as the inductive coils. The VSM verifies that the magnetic properties of IOPs before and after the ink formulation are kept almost unchanged because of the low dosage of the additive. This particle-targeted approach for the formulation of 3D printing inks allows embodiment of a fully aqueous system with utmost target material content.

  14. Recent results on high thermal energy load testing of beryllium for ITER first wall application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupriyanov, I. B.; Roedig, M.; Nikolaev, G. N.; Kurbatova, L. A.; Linke, J.; Gervash, A. A.; Giniyatulin, R. N.; Podkovyrov, V. L.; Muzichenko, A. D.; Khimchenko, L.

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, progress in the high heat flux (HHF) qualification testing of TGP-56FW beryllium grade for ITER first wall applications is presented. Two actively cooled Be/CuCrZr brazing mock-ups were tested under complex thermal loading conditions in the electron beam facility JUDITH-1 (step 1: vertical displacement event test at 40 MJ m-2, 0.3 s, 1 shot; step 2: disruption tests at 3 MJ m-2, 1 shot, Δt=5 ms; step 3: repetitive fatigue test at 80 MW m-2, 1000 shots, Δt=25 ms). After testing, metallographic investigations on the microstructure and crack morphology were carried out. The results of these studies of Be tiles are reported and discussed. The overall results of TGP-56FW grade qualification testing have demonstrated the reliable performance capability of TGP-56FW for application as the armor of the ITER first wall. In addition, the results of first experiments with TGP-56FW and S-65C beryllium grades in the QSPA-Be plasma gun facility are also reported. In these experiments, beryllium tiles (80×80×10 mm3) were tested in a hydrogen plasma stream (5 cm in diameter) with pulse duration 0.5 ms and heat loads of 0.5-2 MJ m-2. Experiments were performed at room temperature. The evolution of the surface microstructure and mass loss of beryllium exposed to up to 100 shots is presented.

  15. Recent results on high thermal energy load testing of beryllium for ITER first wall application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupriyanov, I B; Nikolaev, G N; Kurbatova, L A; Roedig, M; Linke, J; Gervash, A A; Giniyatulin, R N; Podkovyrov, V L; Muzichenko, A D; Khimchenko, L

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, progress in the high heat flux (HHF) qualification testing of TGP-56FW beryllium grade for ITER first wall applications is presented. Two actively cooled Be/CuCrZr brazing mock-ups were tested under complex thermal loading conditions in the electron beam facility JUDITH-1 (step 1: vertical displacement event test at 40 MJ m - 2, 0.3 s, 1 shot; step 2: disruption tests at 3 MJ m - 2, 1 shot, Δt=5 ms; step 3: repetitive fatigue test at 80 MW m - 2, 1000 shots, Δt=25 ms). After testing, metallographic investigations on the microstructure and crack morphology were carried out. The results of these studies of Be tiles are reported and discussed. The overall results of TGP-56FW grade qualification testing have demonstrated the reliable performance capability of TGP-56FW for application as the armor of the ITER first wall. In addition, the results of first experiments with TGP-56FW and S-65C beryllium grades in the QSPA-Be plasma gun facility are also reported. In these experiments, beryllium tiles (80×80×10 mm 3 ) were tested in a hydrogen plasma stream (5 cm in diameter) with pulse duration 0.5 ms and heat loads of 0.5-2 MJ m - 2. Experiments were performed at room temperature. The evolution of the surface microstructure and mass loss of beryllium exposed to up to 100 shots is presented.

  16. A Study of a Load Cell Based High Speed Weighting Method for a Potato Sorter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jong Hoon

    2002-02-01

    Potatoes, together with tangerines, are one of the major agricultural products in Jeju, and the production account for more than 30 % of the domestic production. Recently some kinds of sorting machine for potatoes are available, but they are not extensively used because their performance is not satisfactory and/or they are very expensive. This paper presents a load cell based high speed weighting method for sorting the potatoes. This method is based on the fact that the linear momentum of a potato is proportional to the mass of it. To test the performance of the weighting system, we developed load cell based automatic sorting system for potatoes. The system does not adopt an additional mechanism for weighting the potato such as a cup conveyer. It uses normal flat conveyers themselves so that the cost for maintenance and establishment will be lower than other system. Through sets of experiments, the developed weighting system was proved to be very reliable, and its performance is good enough to use as a practical sorting system

  17. EFFECTS OF SLOTTED BLADING ON SECONDARY FLOW IN HIGHLY LOADED COMPRESSOR CASCADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAMZI MDOUKI

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available With the aim to increase allowable blade loadings and enlarge stable operating range in highly loaded compressor, this work is carried out in order to explore the potential of passive control via slotted bladings in linear cascade configurations under both design and stall conditions. Through an extensive 2D-numerical study, the effects of location, width and slope of slots were analysed and the best configuration was identified. Based on the optimal slot, the 3D aerodynamic performances of cascade were studied and the influence of slotted blading to control endwall flow was investigated. Both 2D and 3D calculations are performed on steady RANS solver with standard k-epsilon turbulence model and low Mach number regime. The total loss coefficient, turning angle and flow visualizations on the blade and end-wall surfaces are adopted to describe the different configurations. The obtained results show, for 2D situation, that a maximum of 28.3% reduction in loss coefficient had been reached and the flow turning was increased with approximately 5°. Concerning 3D flow fields the slots marked their benefit at large incoming flow angles which delays the separation on both end wall and blade suction surface at mid span. However, at design conditions, the slotted blades are not able to control secondary flows near the wall and so, lose their potential.

  18. Strength resistance of reinforced concrete elements of high-rise buildings under dynamic loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berlinov Mikhail

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method for calculating reinforced concrete constructions of high-rise buildings under dynamic loads from wind, seismic, transport and equipment based on the initial assumptions of the modern phenomenological theory of a nonlinearly deformable elastic-creeping body is proposed. In the article examined the influence of reinforcement on the work of concrete in the conditions of triaxial stress-strain state, based on the compatibility of the deformation of concrete and reinforcement. Mathematical phenomenological equations have been obtained that make it possible to calculate the reinforced concrete elements working without and with cracks. A method for linearizing of these equations based on integral estimates is proposed, which provides the fixation of the vibro-creep processes in the considered period of time. Application of such a technique using the finite-difference method, step method and successive approximations will allow to find a numerical solution of the problem. Such an approach in the design of reinforced concrete constructions will allow not only more fully to take into account the real conditions of their work, revealing additional reserves of load capacity, but also to open additional opportunities for analysis and forecasting their functioning at various stages of operation.

  19. High platinum utilization in ultra-low Pt loaded PEM fuel cell cathodes prepared by electrospraying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, S.; Garcia-Ybarra, P.L.; Castillo, J.L. [Dept. Fisica Matematica y de Fluidos, Facultad de Ciencias, UNED, Senda del Rey 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    Cathode electrodes for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) with ultra-low platinum loadings as low as 0.012 mg{sub Pt}cm{sup -2} have been prepared by the electrospray method. The electrosprayed layers have nanostructured fractal morphologies with dendrites formed by clusters (about 100 nm diameter) of a few single catalyst particles rendering a large exposure surface of the catalyst. Optimization of the control parameters affecting this morphology has allowed us to overcome the state of the art for efficient electrodes prepared by electrospraying. Thus, using these cathodes in membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs), a high platinum utilization in the range 8-10 kW g{sup -1} was obtained for the fuel cell operating at 40 C and atmospheric pressure. Moreover, a platinum utilization of 20 kW g{sup -1} was attained under more suitable operating conditions (70 C and 3.4 bar over-pressure). These results substantially improve the performances achieved previously with other low platinum loading electrodes prepared by electrospraying. (author)

  20. Corner Separation Control by Boundary Layer Suction Applied to a Highly Loaded Axial Compressor Cascade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangwei Liu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Control of corner separation has attracted much interest due to its improvement of performance and energy utilization in turbomachinery. Numerical studies have been performed under both design and off-design flow conditions to investigate the effects of boundary layer suction (BLS on corner separation in a highly loaded compressor cascade. Two new BLS slot configurations are proposed and a total of five suction slot configurations were studied and compared. Averaged static pressure rise, exit loss coefficient, passage blockage and flow turning angle have been given and compared systematically over a range of operation incidence angles. Distributions of significant loss removal, blade loading, exit deviation and total pressure loss at 3 degree and 7 degree incidence have also been studied. Under the same suction mass flows of 0.7% of the inlet mass flows, the pitchwise suction slot on the endwall shows a better optimal performance over the whole operation incidence among single suction slots. By using of the new proposed compound slot configuration with one spanwise slot on the blade suction side and one pitchwise slot on the endwall, the maximum reduction of total pressure loss at 7 degree incidence can be 39.4%.

  1. Strength resistance of reinforced concrete elements of high-rise buildings under dynamic loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlinov, Mikhail

    2018-03-01

    A new method for calculating reinforced concrete constructions of high-rise buildings under dynamic loads from wind, seismic, transport and equipment based on the initial assumptions of the modern phenomenological theory of a nonlinearly deformable elastic-creeping body is proposed. In the article examined the influence of reinforcement on the work of concrete in the conditions of triaxial stress-strain state, based on the compatibility of the deformation of concrete and reinforcement. Mathematical phenomenological equations have been obtained that make it possible to calculate the reinforced concrete elements working without and with cracks. A method for linearizing of these equations based on integral estimates is proposed, which provides the fixation of the vibro-creep processes in the considered period of time. Application of such a technique using the finite-difference method, step method and successive approximations will allow to find a numerical solution of the problem. Such an approach in the design of reinforced concrete constructions will allow not only more fully to take into account the real conditions of their work, revealing additional reserves of load capacity, but also to open additional opportunities for analysis and forecasting their functioning at various stages of operation.

  2. Heat transfer issues in high-heat-load synchrotron x-ray beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khounsary, A.M.; Mills, D.M.

    1994-09-01

    In this paper, a short description of the synchrotron radiation x-ray sources and the associated power loads is given, followed by a brief description of typical synchrotron components and their heat load. It is emphasized that the design goals for most of these components is to limit (a) temperature, (b) stresses, or (c) strains in the system. Each design calls for a different geometry, material selection, and cooling scheme. Cooling schemes that have been utilized so far are primarily single phase and include simple macrochannel cooling, microchannel cooling, contact cooling, pin-post cooling, porous-flow cooling, jet cooling, etc. Water, liquid metals, and various cryogenic coolants have been used. Because the trend in x-ray beam development is towards brighter (i.e., more powerful) beams and assuming that no radical changes in the design of x-ray generating machines occurs in the next few years, it is fair to state that the utilization of various effective cooling schemes and, in particular, two-phase flow (e.g., subcooled boiling) warrants further investigation. This, however, requires a thorough examination of stability and reliability of two-phase flows for high-heat-flux components operating in ultrahigh vacuum with stringent reliability requirements

  3. Transient behavior of high-interaction MHD generator following external loading faults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Motoo

    1983-01-01

    Transient behavior consequent to external loading faults is studied numerically on four configurations of high-interaction MHD generators-subsonic Faraday, supersonic Faraday, subsonic diagonal and supersonic diagonal, to provide a variable data base to serve in selecting the type of large-scale MHD generator. Time-dependent one-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations are solved with the 1969 MacCormack method, in combination with the Maxwell equations and the generalized Ohm's law. An artificial viscosity term is added to the Navier-Stokes equations to maintain numerical stability. It is shown that, with both supersonic and subsonic flows, the Faraday generator is liable to sustain more harmful effect from short than from open faults of the external loading circuit. For large-scale diagonal types, on the other hand, open faults are more dangerous. With subsonic flow, a shock wave propagating upstream is induced by short fault in the Faraday, and by open fault in the diagonal-type generator. In the case of supersonic flow, propagation upstream of the disturbance is completely obstructed. Larger electrical stress is foreseen for Faraday than for diagonal configuration. (author)

  4. Blood stage malaria vaccine eliciting high antigen-specific antibody concentrations confers no protection to young children in Western Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhards R Ogutu

    Full Text Available The antigen, falciparum malaria protein 1 (FMP1, represents the 42-kDa C-terminal fragment of merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP-1 of the 3D7 clone of P. falciparum. Formulated with AS02 (a proprietary Adjuvant System, it constitutes the FMP1/AS02 candidate malaria vaccine. We evaluated this vaccine's safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy in African children.A randomised, double-blind, Phase IIb, comparator-controlled trial.The trial was conducted in 13 field stations of one mile radii within Kombewa Division, Nyanza Province, Western Kenya, an area of holoendemic transmission of P. falciparum. We enrolled 400 children aged 12-47 months in general good health.Children were randomised in a 1ratio1 fashion to receive either FMP1/AS02 (50 microg or Rabipur(R rabies vaccine. Vaccinations were administered on a 0, 1, and 2 month schedule. The primary study endpoint was time to first clinical episode of P. falciparum malaria (temperature >/=37.5 degrees C with asexual parasitaemia of >/=50,000 parasites/microL of blood occurring between 14 days and six months after a third dose. Case detection was both active and passive. Safety and immunogenicity were evaluated for eight months after first immunisations; vaccine efficacy (VE was measured over a six-month period following third vaccinations.374 of 400 children received all three doses and completed six months of follow-up. FMP1/AS02 had a good safety profile and was well-tolerated but more reactogenic than the comparator. Geometric mean anti-MSP-1(42 antibody concentrations increased from1.3 microg/mL to 27.3 microg/mL in the FMP1/AS02 recipients, but were unchanged in controls. 97 children in the FMP1/AS02 group and 98 controls had a primary endpoint episode. Overall VE was 5.1% (95% CI: -26% to +28%; p-value = 0.7.FMP1/AS02 is not a promising candidate for further development as a monovalent malaria vaccine. Future MSP-1(42 vaccine development should focus on other formulations and antigen constructs

  5. Deteksi Antigen pada Kriptokokosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robiatul Adawiyah

    2014-12-01

    , laboratory and radiologicalexaminations. Laboratory examinations performed by morphological identification, serology and PCR. Morphological examination with India ink is positive when the number of fungi is around 10 10  cells/ml. Cultur examination is performed in Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA and niger sheed agar (NSA medium, fungi grows in 5-7 days. Antigen and antibody detection could be performed on body fluid and do not take a long time. Detection of Cr. neoformans antibody can not show positive result in acute infection, IgA still positive after 1-2 years of healing phase and IgG can be persistent. The immunocompromised person showed very complex result and inconsistent in determining the diagnosis. Polysaccharides are the most instrumental component in Cr. neoformans virulence. The component of Polysaccharide especially glucuronoxylomannan is the most important marker in thediagnosis of cryptococcosis. Antigen detection of Cr. neoformans can show positive result in acute/chronic infection, high sensitivity and specificity. Polysaccharides can be detected from 10 ng/ ml of body fluid, so in minimal level of antigen we still can diagnose cryptococcosis.Keywords: Cr. neoformans, glucuronoxylomannan, antigen

  6. Electrochemical immunoassay for the prostate specific antigen using a reduced graphene oxide functionalized with a high molecular-weight silk peptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yanying; Qu, Ying; Li, Chunya; Wu, Kangbing; Liu, Guishen; Hou, Xiaodong; Huang, Yina; Wu, Wangze

    2015-01-01

    High molecular-weight silk peptide (SP) was used to functionalize the surface of nanosheets of reduced graphene oxide (rGO). The SP-rGO nanocomposite was then mixed with mouse anti-human prostate specific antigen monoclonal antibody (anti-PSA) and coated onto a glassy carbon electrode to fabricate an immunosensor. By using the hexacyanoferrate redox system as electroactive probe, the immunosensor was characterized by voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The peak current, measured at the potential of 0.24 V (vs. SCE), is distinctly reduced after binding prostate specific antigen (PSA). Response (measured by differential pulse voltammetry) is linearly related to PSA concentration in the range from 0.1 to 5.0 ng · mL −1 and from 5.0 to 80.0 ng∙mL −1 , and the detection limit is 53 pg∙mL −1 (at an SNR of 3). The immunosensor was successfully applied to the determination of PSA in clinical serum samples, and the results were found to agree well with those obtained with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. (author)

  7. Fatigue History and in-situ Loading Studies of the overload Effect Using High Resolution X-ray Strain Profiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croft, M.; Jisrawi, N.; Zhong, Z.; Holtz, R.; Sadananda, K.; Skaritka, J.; Tsakalakos, T.

    2007-01-01

    High-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiments are used to perform local crack plane strain profiling of 4140 steel compact tension specimens fatigued at constant amplitude, subjected to a single overload cycle, then fatigued some more at constant amplitude. X-ray strain profiling results on a series of samples employing in-situ load cycling are correlated with the crack growth rate (da/dN) providing insight into the da/dN retardation known as the 'overload effect'. Immediately after the overload, the strain under maximum load is greatly reduced but the range of strain, between zero and maximum load, remains unchanged compared to the pre-overload values. At the point of maximum retardation, it is the strain range that is greatly reduced while the maximum-load strain has begun to recover to the pre-overload value. For a sample that has recovered to approximately half of the original da/dN value following the overload, the strain at maximum load is fully recovered while the strain range, though partially recovered, is still substantially reduced. The dominance of the strain range in the overload effect is clearly indicated. Subject to some assumptions, strong quantitative support for a crack growth rate driving force of the suggested form [(K max ) -p (ΔK) p ] γ is found. A dramatic nonlinear load dependence in the spatial distribution of the strain at maximum retardation is also demonstrated: at low load the response is dominantly at the overload position; whereas at high loads it is dominantly at the crack tip position. This transfer of load response away from the crack tip to the overload position appears fundamental to the overload effect for high R-ratio fatigue as studied here

  8. A Short-Term and High-Resolution System Load Forecasting Approach Using Support Vector Regression with Hybrid Parameters Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Huaiguang [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-25

    This work proposes an approach for distribution system load forecasting, which aims to provide highly accurate short-term load forecasting with high resolution utilizing a support vector regression (SVR) based forecaster and a two-step hybrid parameters optimization method. Specifically, because the load profiles in distribution systems contain abrupt deviations, a data normalization is designed as the pretreatment for the collected historical load data. Then an SVR model is trained by the load data to forecast the future load. For better performance of SVR, a two-step hybrid optimization algorithm is proposed to determine the best parameters. In the first step of the hybrid optimization algorithm, a designed grid traverse algorithm (GTA) is used to narrow the parameters searching area from a global to local space. In the second step, based on the result of the GTA, particle swarm optimization (PSO) is used to determine the best parameters in the local parameter space. After the best parameters are determined, the SVR model is used to forecast the short-term load deviation in the distribution system.

  9. Plasma PCSK9 concentrations during an oral fat load and after short term high-fat, high-fat high-protein and high-fructose diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cariou Bertrand

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background PCSK9 (Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin Kexin type 9 is a circulating protein that promotes hypercholesterolemia by decreasing hepatic LDL receptor protein. Under non interventional conditions, its expression is driven by sterol response element binding protein 2 (SREBP2 and follows a diurnal rhythm synchronous with cholesterol synthesis. Plasma PCSK9 is associated to LDL-C and to a lesser extent plasma triglycerides and insulin resistance. We aimed to verify the effect on plasma PCSK9 concentrations of dietary interventions that affect these parameters. Methods We performed nutritional interventions in young healthy male volunteers and offspring of type 2 diabetic (OffT2D patients that are more prone to develop insulin resistance, including: i acute post-prandial hyperlipidemic challenge (n=10, ii 4 days of high-fat (HF or high-fat/high-protein (HFHP (n=10, iii 7 (HFruc1, n=16 or 6 (HFruc2, n=9 days of hypercaloric high-fructose diets. An acute oral fat load was also performed in two patients bearing the R104C-V114A loss-of-function (LOF PCSK9 mutation. Plasma PCSK9 concentrations were measured by ELISA. For the HFruc1 study, intrahepatocellular (IHCL and intramyocellular lipids were measured by 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Hepatic and whole-body insulin sensitivity was assessed with a two-step hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (0.3 and 1.0 mU.kg-1.min-1. Findings HF and HFHP short-term diets, as well as an acute hyperlipidemic oral load, did not significantly change PCSK9 concentrations. In addition, post-prandial plasma triglyceride excursion was not altered in two carriers of PCSK9 LOF mutation compared with non carriers. In contrast, hypercaloric 7-day HFruc1 diet increased plasma PCSK9 concentrations by 28% (p=0.05 in healthy volunteers and by 34% (p=0.001 in OffT2D patients. In another independent study, 6-day HFruc2 diet increased plasma PCSK9 levels by 93% (p Conclusions Plasma PCSK9 concentrations vary

  10. Dosimetric advancement of high-dose-rate after-loading 192Ir source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shuxu; Li Wenhua; Xu Hairong

    2004-01-01

    High-dose-rate (HDR) 192 Ir source is a nuclide commonly used in the brachytherapy system. The basic dosimetry data of the near source area is usually measured by pin ion chambers or TLD techniques, but these methods have a lower spatial resolution than Electron spin resonance (ESR) dosimetry which has a spatial resolution of 156 μm, and the Monte Carlo photon transport simulations are taken as the golden standard of those measures. The precision in two-dimensional dose distribution measured by GafChromic film is reported to be 1.0%. In vivo dosimetry using TLD during HDR intracavitary after-loading brachytherapy is a good predictor of late rectal complications. The accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) Fricke-gel dosimetry for three-dimensional dose distribution is about 2.5% with a spatial resolution of 1.56 mm. The optical computed tomography polymer gel dosimetry has a unique advance than MRI gel dosimetry

  11. Deformation mechanism in graphene nanoplatelet reinforced tantalum carbide using high load in situ indentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Cheng; Boesl, Benjamin [Plasma Forming Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33174 (United States); Silvestroni, Laura; Sciti, Diletta [Institute of Science and Technology for Ceramics (ISTEC), CNR-ISTEC, Via Granarolo 64, 48018 Faenza (Italy); Agarwal, Arvind, E-mail: agarwala@fiu.edu [Plasma Forming Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33174 (United States)

    2016-09-30

    High load in-situ indentation testing with real time SEM imaging was carried out on spark plasma sintered graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) reinforced TaC composites. The prime goal of this study was to understand the deformation behavior and the reinforcing mechanisms of GNPs. The results suggest that addition of GNPs had significant effect on dissipating indentation energy and confining the overall damage area to a localized region of TaC. The average crack length reduced by 26% whereas total damage area shrunk by 85% in TaC-5 vol% GNP sample as compared to pure TaC. TEM analysis concluded that well dispersed GNPs result in a strong and clean interface between TaC and GNP with trace amount of amorphous layer that leads to improved energy dissipation mechanism.

  12. Crack Growth Behavior in the Threshold Region for High Cycle Fatigue Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, R. G.; Zanganeh, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a research program conducted to improve the understanding of fatigue crack growth rate behavior in the threshold growth rate region and to answer a question on the validity of threshold region test data. The validity question relates to the view held by some experimentalists that using the ASTM load shedding test method does not produce valid threshold test results and material properties. The question involves the fanning behavior observed in threshold region of da/dN plots for some materials in which the low R-ratio data fans out from the high R-ratio data. This fanning behavior or elevation of threshold values in the low R-ratio tests is generally assumed to be caused by an increase in crack closure in the low R-ratio tests. Also, the increase in crack closure is assumed by some experimentalists to result from using the ASTM load shedding test procedure. The belief is that this procedure induces load history effects which cause remote closure from plasticity and/or roughness changes in the surface morphology. However, experimental studies performed by the authors have shown that the increase in crack closure is a result of extensive crack tip bifurcations that can occur in some materials, particularly in aluminum alloys, when the crack tip cyclic yield zone size becomes less than the grain size of the alloy. This behavior is related to the high stacking fault energy (SFE) property of aluminum alloys which results in easier slip characteristics. Therefore, the fanning behavior which occurs in aluminum alloys is a function of intrinsic dislocation property of the alloy, and therefore, the fanned data does represent the true threshold properties of the material. However, for the corrosion sensitive steel alloys tested in laboratory air, the occurrence of fanning results from fretting corrosion at the crack tips, and these results should not be considered to be representative of valid threshold properties because the fanning is

  13. Enhancing tablet disintegration characteristics of a highly water-soluble high-drug-loading formulation by granulation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Preetanshu; Levins, Christopher; Pafiakis, Steve; Zacour, Brian; Bindra, Dilbir S; Trinh, Jade; Buckley, David; Gour, Shruti; Sharif, Shasad; Stamato, Howard

    2018-07-01

    The objective of this study was to improve the disintegration and dissolution characteristics of a highly water-soluble tablet matrix by altering the manufacturing process. A high disintegration time along with high dependence of the disintegration time on tablet hardness was observed for a high drug loading (70% w/w) API when formulated using a high-shear wet granulation (HSWG) process. Keeping the formulation composition mostly constant, a fluid-bed granulation (FBG) process was explored as an alternate granulation method using a 2 (4-1) fractional factorial design with two center points. FBG batches (10 batches) were manufactured using varying disingtegrant amount, spray rate, inlet temperature (T) and atomization air pressure. The resultant final blend particle size was affected significantly by spray rate (p = .0009), inlet T (p = .0062), atomization air pressure (p = .0134) and the interaction effect between inlet T*spray rate (p = .0241). The compactibility of the final blend was affected significantly by disintegrant amount (p disintegration times than the HSWG batches, and mercury intrusion porosimetry data revealed that this was caused by the higher internal pore structure of tablets manufactured using the FBG batches.

  14. Dynamic Behavior of AA2519-T8 Aluminum Alloy Under High Strain Rate Loading in Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olasumboye, A. T.; Owolabi, G. M.; Odeshi, A. G.; Yilmaz, N.; Zeytinci, A.

    2018-02-01

    In this study, the effects of strain rate on the dynamic behavior, microstructure evolution and hence, failure of the AA2519-T8 aluminum alloy were investigated under compression at strain rates ranging from 1000 to 3500 s-1. Cylindrical specimens of dimensions 3.3 mm × 3.3 mm (L/D = 1) were tested using the split-Hopkinson pressure bar integrated with a digital image correlation system. The microstructure of the alloy was assessed using optical and scanning electron microscopes. Results showed that the dynamic yield strength of the alloy is strain rate dependent, with the maximum yield strength attained by the material being 500 MPa. The peak flow stress of 562 MPa was attained by the material at 3500 s-1. The alloy also showed a significant rate of strain hardening that is typical of other Al-Cu alloys; the rate of strain hardening, however, decreased with increase in strain rate. It was determined that the strain rate sensitivity coefficient of the alloy within the range of high strain rates used in this study is approximately 0.05 at 0.12 plastic strain; a more significant value than what was reported in literature under quasi-static loading. Micrographs obtained showed potential sites for the evolution of adiabatic shear band at 3500 s-1, with a characteristic circular-shaped surface profile comprising partially dissolved second phase particles in the continuous phase across the incident plane of the deformed specimen. The regions surrounding the site showed little or no change in the size of particles. However, the constituent coarse particles were observed as agglomerations of fractured pieces, thus having a shape factor different from those contained in the as-received alloy. Since the investigated alloy is a choice material for military application where it can be exposed to massive deformation at high strain rates, this study provides information on its microstructural and mechanical responses to such extreme loading condition.

  15. Protein growth factors loaded highly porous chitosan scaffold: A comparison of bone healing properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nandi, Samit K., E-mail: samitnandi1967@gmail.com [Department of Veterinary Surgery and Radiology, West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences, Kolkata (India); Kundu, Biswanath, E-mail: biswa_kundu@rediffmail.com [Bioceramics and Coating Division, CSIR—Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, Kolkata (India); Basu, Debabrata [Bioceramics and Coating Division, CSIR—Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, Kolkata (India)

    2013-04-01

    Present study aimed to investigate and compare effectiveness of porous chitosan alone and in combination with insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) in bone healing. Highly porous (85 ± 2%) with wide distribution of macroporous (70–900 μm) chitosan scaffolds were fabricated as bone substitutes by employing a simple liquid hardening method using 2% (w/v) chitosan suspension. IGF-1 and BMP-2 were infiltrated using vacuum infiltration with freeze drying method. Adsorption efficiency was found to be 87 ± 2 and 90 ± 2% for BMP-2 and IGF-1 respectively. After thorough material characterization (pore details, FTIR and SEM), samples were used for subsequent in vivo animal trial. Eighteen rabbit models were used to evaluate and compare control (chitosan) (group A), chitosan with IGF-1 (group B) and chitosan with BMP-2 (group C) in the repair of critical size bone defect in tibia. Radiologically, there was evidence of radiodensity in defect area from 60th day (initiated on 30th day) in groups B and C as compared to group A and attaining nearly bony density in most of the part at day 90. Histological results depicted well developed osteoblastic proliferation around haversian canal along with proliferating fibroblast, vascularization and reticular network which was more pronounced in group B followed by groups C and A. Fluorochrome labeling and SEM studies in all groups showed similar outcome. Hence, porous chitosan alone and in combination with growth factors (GFs) can be successfully used for bone defect healing with slight advantage of IGF-1 in chitosan samples. - Highlights: ► Fabrication and characterization of porous chitosan with or without IGF-1 and BMP-2 ► Highly porous growth factor loaded chitosan studied in animal subjects for 3 months ► Parameters studied: histopathology, radiology and fluorochrome labeling ► IGF-1 loaded porous chitosan found to be very effective for bone defect healing.

  16. Protein growth factors loaded highly porous chitosan scaffold: A comparison of bone healing properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandi, Samit K.; Kundu, Biswanath; Basu, Debabrata

    2013-01-01

    Present study aimed to investigate and compare effectiveness of porous chitosan alone and in combination with insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) in bone healing. Highly porous (85 ± 2%) with wide distribution of macroporous (70–900 μm) chitosan scaffolds were fabricated as bone substitutes by employing a simple liquid hardening method using 2% (w/v) chitosan suspension. IGF-1 and BMP-2 were infiltrated using vacuum infiltration with freeze drying method. Adsorption efficiency was found to be 87 ± 2 and 90 ± 2% for BMP-2 and IGF-1 respectively. After thorough material characterization (pore details, FTIR and SEM), samples were used for subsequent in vivo animal trial. Eighteen rabbit models were used to evaluate and compare control (chitosan) (group A), chitosan with IGF-1 (group B) and chitosan with BMP-2 (group C) in the repair of critical size bone defect in tibia. Radiologically, there was evidence of radiodensity in defect area from 60th day (initiated on 30th day) in groups B and C as compared to group A and attaining nearly bony density in most of the part at day 90. Histological results depicted well developed osteoblastic proliferation around haversian canal along with proliferating fibroblast, vascularization and reticular network which was more pronounced in group B followed by groups C and A. Fluorochrome labeling and SEM studies in all groups showed similar outcome. Hence, porous chitosan alone and in combination with growth factors (GFs) can be successfully used for bone defect healing with slight advantage of IGF-1 in chitosan samples. - Highlights: ► Fabrication and characterization of porous chitosan with or without IGF-1 and BMP-2 ► Highly porous growth factor loaded chitosan studied in animal subjects for 3 months ► Parameters studied: histopathology, radiology and fluorochrome labeling ► IGF-1 loaded porous chitosan found to be very effective for bone defect healing

  17. Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation of Lactic Acid from Empty Fruit Bunch at High Solids Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nursia Hassan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The production of value-added chemicals from the bioconversion of lignocellulose biomass has been considered a promising venture. In this study, microwave, alkali-pretreated empty fruit bunch (EFB was used as the substrate, utilizing pelletized filamentous Rhizopus oryzae NRRL 395 and cellulolytic enzymes for lactic acid production in a fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF process. Insoluble solids generally do not affect the SSF process until a certain concentration is exceeded. To achieve a high lactic acid concentration in the broth, a high solids loading was required to allow a higher rate of glucose conversion. However, the results revealed a decrease in the final lactic acid yield when running SSF at a massive insoluble solids level. High osmotic pressure in the medium led to poor cellular performance and caused the Rhizopus oryzae pellets to break down, affecting the lactic acid production. To improve the process performance, a fed-batch operation mode was used. The fed-batch operation was shown to facilitate higher lactic acid yield, compared with the SSF batch mode. Enzyme feeding, as well as substrate feeding, was also investigated as a means of enabling a higher dry matter content, with a high glucose conversion in SSF of cellulose-rich EFB.

  18. Evaluation of Dynamic Load Factors for a High-Speed Railway Truss Arch Bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Youliang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on dynamic impact of high-speed trains on long-span bridges are important for the design and evaluation of high-speed railway bridges. The use of the dynamic load factor (DLF to account for the impact effect has been widely accepted in bridge engineering. Although the field monitoring studies are the most dependable way to study the actual DLF of the bridge, according to previous studies there are few field monitoring data on high-speed railway truss arch bridges. This paper presents an evaluation of DLF based on field monitoring and finite element simulation of Nanjing DaShengGuan Bridge, which is a high-speed railway truss arch bridge with the longest span throughout the world. The DLFs in different members of steel truss arch are measured using monitoring data and simulated using finite element model, respectively. The effects of lane position, number of train carriages, and speed of trains on DLF are further investigated. By using the accumulative probability function of the Generalized Extreme Value Distribution, the probability distribution model of DLF is proposed, based on which the standard value of DLF within 50-year return period is evaluated and compared with different bridge design codes.

  19. Micro/nano composited tungsten material and its high thermal loading behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Jinglian, E-mail: fjl@csu.edu.cn; Han, Yong; Li, Pengfei; Sun, Zhiyu; Zhou, Qiang

    2014-12-15

    Tungsten (W) is considered as promising candidate material for plasma facing components (PFCs) in future fusion reactors attributing to its many excellent properties. Current commercial pure tungsten material in accordance with the ITER specification can well fulfil the performance requirements, however, it has defects such as coarse grains, high ductile–brittle transition temperature (DBTT) and relatively low recrystallization temperature compared with its using temperature, which cannot meet the harsh wall loading requirement of future fusion reactor. Grain refinement has been reported to be effective in improving the thermophysical and mechanical properties of W. In this work, rare earth oxide (Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}/La{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and carbides (TiC/ZrC) were used as dispersion phases to refine W grains, and micro/nano composite technology with a process of “sol gel – heterogeneous precipitation – spray drying – hydrogen reduction – ordinary consolidation sintering” was invented to introduce these second-phase particles uniformly dispersed into W grains and grain-boundaries. Via this technology, fine-grain W materials with near-full density and relatively high mechanical properties compared with traditional pure W material were manufactured. Preliminary transient high-heat flux tests were performed to evaluate the thermal response under plasma disruption conditions, and the results show that the W materials prepared by micro/nano composite technology can endure high-heat flux of 200 MW/m{sup 2} (5 ms)

  20. Bagheera: A new experimental facility at Cea / Valduc for actinides studies under high dynamic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, G.; Llorca, F.; Lanier, G.; Lamalle, S.; Beaulieu, J.; Antoine, P.; Martinuzzi, P.

    2006-01-01

    This paper is a technical presentation about a new experimental facility recently developed at CEA/Valduc, BAGHEERA, a French acronym for 'Hopkinson And High Speed Experiments Glove Box'. This facility is used since mid-2003 to characterize the physical and mechanical behaviour of actinides under high dynamic loadings. For this purpose, four basic experimental devices are confined inside a single 10 m long, 3 m high and 1.5 m large glove box: a 50 mm bore diameter single stage light gas gun, two compression and torsion split Hopkinson bars (SHPB and TSHB respectively) and a Taylor test device (TTD). A unique highly automated system drives all devices. The overall architecture of the facility takes into account the useful ability to carry out symmetrical and reverse experiments with the gas gun, that is actinide to actinide impact and actinide to inert material impact. Design and technical data on the experimental equipment are addressed, with a particular emphasis on the gas gun specific features due to actinide applications

  1. Progress of High Heat Flux Component Manufacture and Heat Load Experiments in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, X.; Lian, Y.; Xu, Z.; Chen, J.; Chen, L.; Wang, Q.; Duan, X., E-mail: xliu@swip.ac.cn [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengu (China); Luo, G. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Yan, Q. [University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing (China)

    2012-09-15

    Full text: High heat flux components for first wall and divertor are the key subassembly of the present fusion experiment apparatus and fusion reactors in the future. It is requested the metallurgical bonding among the plasma facing materials (PFMs), heat sink and support materials. As to PFMs, ITER grade vacuum hot pressed beryllium CN-G01 was developed in China and has been accepted as the reference material of ITER first wall. Additionally pure tungsten and tungsten alloys, as well as chemical vapor deposition (CVD) W coating are being developed for the aims of ITER divertor application and the demand of domestic fusion devices, and significant progress has been achieved. For plasma facing components (PFCs), high heat flux components used for divertor chamber are being studied according to the development program of the fusion experiment reactor of China. Two reference joining techniques of W/Cu mockups for ITER divertor chamber are being developed, one is mono-block structure by pure copper casting of tungsten surface following by hot iso-static press (HIP), and another is flat structure by brazing. The critical acceptance criteria of high heat flux components are their high heat load performance. A 60 kW Electron-beam Material testing Scenario (EMS-60) has been constructed at Southwestern Institute of Physics (SWIP),which adopts an electron beam welding gun with maximum energy of 150 keV and 150 x 150 mm{sup 2} scanning area by maximum frame rate of 30 kHz. Furthermore, an Engineering Mockup testing Scenario (EMS-400) facility with 400 kW electron-beam melting gun is under construction and will be available by the end of this year. After that, China will have the comprehensive capability of high heat load evaluation from PFMs and small-scale mockups to engineering full scale PFCs. A brazed W/CuCrZr mockup with 25 x 25 x 40 mm{sup 3} in dimension was tested at EMS-60. The heating and cooling time are 10 seconds and 15 seconds, respectively. The experiment

  2. Chemoselective ligation and antigen vectorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gras-Masse, H

    2001-01-01

    The interest in cocktail-lipopeptide vaccines has now been confirmed by phase I clinical trials: highly diversified B-, T-helper or cytotoxic T-cell epitopes can be combined with a lipophilic vector for the induction of B- and T-cell responses of predetermined specificity. With the goal of producing an improved vaccine that should ideally induce a multispecific response in non-selected populations, increasing the diversity of the immunizing mixture represents one of the most obvious strategies.The selective delivery of antigens to professional antigen-presenting cells represents another promising approach for the improvement of vaccine efficacy. In this context, the mannose-receptor represents an attractive entry point for the targeting to dendritic cells of antigens linked to clustered glycosides or glycomimetics. In all cases, highly complex but fully characterized molecules must be produced. To develop a modular and flexible strategy which could be generally applicable to a large set of peptide antigens, we elected to explore the potentialities of chemoselective ligation methods. The hydrazone bond was found particularly reliable and fully compatible with sulphide ligation. Hydrazone/thioether orthogonal ligation systems could be developed to account for the nature of the antigens and the solubility of the vector systems. Copyright 2001 The International Association for Biologicals.

  3. Drug-resistant colon cancer cells produce high carcinoembryonic antigen and might not be cancer-initiating cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hsin-chung; Ling, Qing-Dong; Yu, Wan-Chun; Hung, Chunh-Ming; Kao, Ta-Chun; Huang, Yi-Wei; Higuchi, Akon

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We evaluated the higher levels of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) secreted by the LoVo human colon carcinoma cells in a medium containing anticancer drugs. Drug-resistant LoVo cells were analyzed by subcutaneously xenotransplanting them into mice. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the drug-resistant cells isolated in this study were cancer-initiating cells, known also as cancer stem cells (CSCs). Methods The production of CEA was investigated in LoVo cells that were cultured with 0–10 mM of anticancer drugs, and we evaluated the increase in CEA production by the LoVo cells that were stimulated by anticancer drug treatment. The expression of several CSC markers in LoVo cells treated with anticancer drugs was also evaluated. Following anticancer drug treatment, LoVo cells were injected subcutaneously into the flanks of severe combined immunodeficiency mice in order to evaluate the CSC fraction. Results Production of CEA by LoVo cells was stimulated by the addition of anticancer drugs. Drug-resistant LoVo cells expressed lower levels of CSC markers, and LoVo cells treated with any of the anticancer drugs tested did not generate tumors within 8 weeks from when the cells were injected subcutaneously into severe combined immunodeficiency mice. These results suggest that the drug-resistant LoVo cells have a smaller population of CSCs than the untreated LoVo cells. Conclusion Production of CEA by LoVo cells can be stimulated by the addition of anticancer drugs. The drug-resistant subpopulation of LoVo colon cancer cells could stimulate the production of CEA, but these cells did not act as CSCs in in vivo tumor generation experiments. PMID:23818760

  4. Aptamer and 5-fluorouracil dual-loading Ag2S quantum dots used as a sensitive label-free probe for near-infrared photoluminescence turn-on detection of CA125 antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hui; Gui, Rijun; Gong, Jun; Huang, Wenxue

    2017-06-15

    In this article, Ag 2 S quantum dots (QDs) were prepared by a facile aqueous synthesis method, using thiourea as a new sulfur precursor. Based on electrostatic interactions, 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu) was combined with the aptamer of CA125 antigen to fabricate aptamer/5-Fu complex. The surface of as-prepared Ag 2 S QDs was modified with polyethylenimine, followed by combination with the aptamer/5-Fu complex to form Ag 2 S QDs/aptamer/5-Fu hybrids. During the combination of Ag 2 S QDs with aptamer/5-Fu complex, near-infrared (NIR) photoluminescence (PL) of QDs (peaked at 850nm) was markedly reduced under excitation at 625nm, attributed to photo-induced electron transfer from QDs to 5-Fu. However, the addition of CA125 induced obvious NIR PL recovery, which was ascribed to the strong binding affinity of CA125 with its aptamer, and the separation of aptamer/5-Fu complex from the surface of QDs. Hence, the Ag 2 S QDs/aptamer/5-Fu hybrids were developed as a novel NIR PL turn-on probe of CA125. In the concentration range of [CA125] from 0.1 to 10 6 ngmL -1 , there were a good linear relationship between NIR PL intensities of Ag 2 S QDs and Log[CA125], and a low limit of detection of 0.07ngmL -1 . Experimental results revealed the highly selective and sensitive NIR PL responses of this probe to CA125, over other potential interferences. In real human body fluids, this probe also exhibited superior analytical performance, together with high detection recoveries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Novel Acoustic Loading of a Mass Spectrometer: Toward Next-Generation High-Throughput MS Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Ian; Stearns, Rick; Pringle, Steven; Wingfield, Jonathan; Datwani, Sammy; Hall, Eric; Ghislain, Luke; Majlof, Lars; Bachman, Martin

    2016-02-01

    High-throughput, direct measurement of substrate-to-product conversion by label-free detection, without the need for engineered substrates or secondary assays, could be considered the "holy grail" of drug discovery screening. Mass spectrometry (MS) has the potential to be part of this ultimate screening solution, but is constrained by the limitations of existing MS sample introduction modes that cannot meet the throughput requirements of high-throughput screening (HTS). Here we report data from a prototype system (Echo-MS) that uses acoustic droplet ejection (ADE) to transfer femtoliter-scale droplets in a rapid, precise, and accurate fashion directly into the MS. The acoustic source can load samples into the MS from a microtiter plate at a rate of up to three samples per second. The resulting MS signal displays a very sharp attack profile and ions are detected within 50 ms of activation of the acoustic transducer. Additionally, we show that the system is capable of generating multiply charged ion species from simple peptides and large proteins. The combination of high speed and low sample volume has significant potential within not only drug discovery, but also other areas of the industry. © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  6. Mitigation of divertor heat loads by strike point sweeping in high power JET discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silburn, S. A.; Matthews, G. F.; Challis, C. D.; Frigione, D.; Graves, J. P.; Mantsinen, M. J.; Belonohy, E.; Hobirk, J.; Iglesias, D.; Keeling, D. L.; King, D.; Kirov, K.; Lennholm, M.; Lomas, P. J.; Moradi, S.; Sips, A. C. C.; Tsalas, M.; Contributors, JET

    2017-12-01

    Deliberate periodic movement (sweeping) of the high heat flux divertor strike lines in tokamak plasmas can be used to manage the heat fluxes experienced by exhaust handling plasma facing components, by spreading the heat loads over a larger surface area. Sweeping has recently been adopted as a routine part of the main high performance plasma configurations used on JET, and has enabled pulses with 30 MW plasma heating power and 10 MW radiation to run for 5 s without overheating the divertor tiles. We present analysis of the effectiveness of sweeping for divertor temperature control on JET, using infrared camera data and comparison with a simple 2D heat diffusion model. Around 50% reduction in tile temperature rise is obtained with 5.4 cm sweeping compared to the un-swept case, and the temperature reduction is found to scale slower than linearly with sweeping amplitude in both experiments and modelling. Compatibility of sweeping with high fusion performance is demonstrated, and effects of sweeping on the edge-localised mode behaviour of the plasma are reported and discussed. The prospects of using sweeping in future JET experiments with up to 40 MW heating power are investigated using a model validated against existing experimental data.

  7. Mitigation of divertor heat loads by strike point sweeping in high power JET discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silburn, S A; Matthews, G F; Challis, C D; Belonohy, E; Iglesias, D; Keeling, D L; King, D; Kirov, K; Lomas, P J; Frigione, D; Graves, J P; Mantsinen, M J; Hobirk, J; Lennholm, M; Moradi, S; Sips, A C C; Tsalas, M

    2017-01-01

    Deliberate periodic movement (sweeping) of the high heat flux divertor strike lines in tokamak plasmas can be used to manage the heat fluxes experienced by exhaust handling plasma facing components, by spreading the heat loads over a larger surface area. Sweeping has recently been adopted as a routine part of the main high performance plasma configurations used on JET, and has enabled pulses with 30 MW plasma heating power and 10 MW radiation to run for 5 s without overheating the divertor tiles. We present analysis of the effectiveness of sweeping for divertor temperature control on JET, using infrared camera data and comparison with a simple 2D heat diffusion model. Around 50% reduction in tile temperature rise is obtained with 5.4 cm sweeping compared to the un-swept case, and the temperature reduction is found to scale slower than linearly with sweeping amplitude in both experiments and modelling. Compatibility of sweeping with high fusion performance is demonstrated, and effects of sweeping on the edge-localised mode behaviour of the plasma are reported and discussed. The prospects of using sweeping in future JET experiments with up to 40 MW heating power are investigated using a model validated against existing experimental data. (paper)

  8. The adequacy of methods used for the approval of high burnup core loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnenburg, H.G.

    2002-01-01

    New fuel assembly designs and new core loading strategies are foreseen by most utilities, optimising the use of nuclear fuel in nuclear power plants. Increasing the burn-up to high values above 50 MWd/kg affects the fuel and cladding conditions, which could have safety relevant consequences. It is the task of the safety authorities to assess the impact of these changes with respect to compliance with safety regulations. Usually this assessment is based on code analyses which contain models developed at a time when the burn-up was significantly lower. Because the high burn-up is accompanied with the development of new phenomena like the rim effect on fuel pellets, the codes' models need to be revised for the representation of these new phenomena. The objective of this paper is to present a review of the knowledge base of the fuel phenomena under high-burn-up conditions as seen from safety aspects. The safety relevant fuel rod phenomena will be discussed. It will further provide an assessment of the limitations of the methodologies so far applied in the context of LOCA and RIA transients. The recently started research activities in Germany to improve the methodologies will be presented. (author)

  9. Liposome-Based Adjuvants for Subunit Vaccines: Formulation Strategies for Subunit Antigens and Immunostimulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Signe Tandrup Schmidt

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of subunit vaccines has become very attractive in recent years due to their superior safety profiles as compared to traditional vaccines based on live attenuated or whole inactivated pathogens, and there is an unmet medical need for improved vaccines and vaccines against pathogens for which no effective vaccines exist. The subunit vaccine technology exploits pathogen subunits as antigens, e.g., recombinant proteins or synthetic peptides, allowing for highly specific immune responses against the pathogens. However, such antigens are usually not sufficiently immunogenic to induce protective immunity, and they are often combined with adjuvants to ensure robust immune responses. Adjuvants are capable of enhancing and/or modulating immune responses by exposing antigens to antigen-presenting cells (APCs concomitantly with conferring immune activation signals. Few adjuvant systems have been licensed for use in human vaccines, and they mainly stimulate humoral immunity. Thus, there is an unmet demand for the development of safe and efficient adjuvant systems that can also stimulate cell-mediated immunity (CMI. Adjuvants constitute a heterogeneous group of compounds, which can broadly be classified into delivery systems or immunostimulators. Liposomes are versatile delivery systems for antigens, and they can carefully be customized towards desired immune profiles by combining them with immunostimulators and optimizing their composition, physicochemical properties and antigen-loading mode. Immunostimulators represent highly diverse classes of molecules, e.g., lipids, nucleic acids, proteins and peptides, and they are ligands for pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs, which are differentially expressed on APC subsets. Different formulation strategies might thus be required for incorporation of immunostimulators and antigens, respectively, into liposomes, and the choice of immunostimulator should ideally be based on knowledge regarding the

  10. A molecular and antigenic survey of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus isolates from smallholder duck farms in Central Java, Indonesia during 2007-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junaidi Akhmad

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indonesia is one of the countries most severely affected by H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI virus in terms of poultry and human health. However, there is little information on the diversity of H5N1 viruses circulating in backyard farms, where chickens and ducks often intermingle. In this study, H5N1 virus infection occurring in 96 smallholder duck farms in central Java, Indonesia from 2007-2008 was investigated and the molecular and antigenic characteristics of H5N1 viruses isolated from these farms were analysed. Results All 84 characterised viruses belonged to H5N1 clade 2.1 with three virus sublineages being identified: clade 2.1.1 (1, clade 2.1.3 (80, and IDN/6/05-like viruses (3 that did not belong to any of the present clades. All three clades were found in ducks, while only clade 2.1.3 was isolated from chickens. There were no significant amino acid mutations of the hemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA sites of the viruses, including the receptor binding, glycosylation, antigenic and catalytic sites and NA inhibitor targets. All the viruses had polybasic amino acids at the HA cleavage site. No evidence of major antigenic variants was detected. Based on the HA gene, identical virus variants could be found on different farms across the study sites and multiple genetic variants could be isolated from HPAI outbreaks simultaneously or at different time points from single farms. HPAI virus was isolated from both ducks and chickens; however, the proportion of surviving duck cases was considerably higher than in chickens. Conclusions The 2.1.3 clade was the most common lineage found in this study. All the viruses had sequence characteristic of HPAI, but negligible variations in other recognized amino acids at the HA and NA proteins which determine virus phenotypes. Multiple genetic variants appeared to be circulating simultaneously within poultry communities. The high proportion of live duck cases compared to

  11. A molecular and antigenic survey of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus isolates from smallholder duck farms in Central Java, Indonesia during 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibawa, Hendra; Henning, Joerg; Wong, Frank; Selleck, Paul; Junaidi, Akhmad; Bingham, John; Daniels, Peter; Meers, Joanne

    2011-09-07

    Indonesia is one of the countries most severely affected by H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus in terms of poultry and human health. However, there is little information on the diversity of H5N1 viruses circulating in backyard farms, where chickens and ducks often intermingle. In this study, H5N1 virus infection occurring in 96 smallholder duck farms in central Java, Indonesia from 2007-2008 was investigated and the molecular and antigenic characteristics of H5N1 viruses isolated from these farms were analysed. All 84 characterised viruses belonged to H5N1 clade 2.1 with three virus sublineages being identified: clade 2.1.1 (1), clade 2.1.3 (80), and IDN/6/05-like viruses (3) that did not belong to any of the present clades. All three clades were found in ducks, while only clade 2.1.3 was isolated from chickens. There were no significant amino acid mutations of the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) sites of the viruses, including the receptor binding, glycosylation, antigenic and catalytic sites and NA inhibitor targets. All the viruses had polybasic amino acids at the HA cleavage site. No evidence of major antigenic variants was detected. Based on the HA gene, identical virus variants could be found on different farms across the study sites and multiple genetic variants could be isolated from HPAI outbreaks simultaneously or at different time points from single farms. HPAI virus was isolated from both ducks and chickens; however, the proportion of surviving duck cases was considerably higher than in chickens. The 2.1.3 clade was the most common lineage found in this study. All the viruses had sequence characteristic of HPAI, but negligible variations in other recognized amino acids at the HA and NA proteins which determine virus phenotypes. Multiple genetic variants appeared to be circulating simultaneously within poultry communities. The high proportion of live duck cases compared to chickens over the study period suggests that ducks are

  12. High-dose-rate stereotactic body radiation therapy for postradiation therapy locally recurrent prostatic carcinoma: Preliminary prostate-specific antigen response, disease-free survival, and toxicity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Donald B; Wurzer, James; Shirazi, Reza; Bridge, Stephen S; Law, Jonathan; Mardirossian, George

    2015-01-01

    Patients with locally recurrent adenocarcinoma of the prostate following radiation therapy (RT) present a challenging problem. We prospectively evaluated the use of "high-dose-rate-like" prostate stereotactic body RT (SBRT) salvage for this circumstance, evaluating prostate-specific antigen response, disease-free survival, and toxicity. Between February 2009 and March 2014, 29 patients with biopsy-proven recurrent locally prostate cancer >2 years post-RT were treated. Median prior RT dose was 73.8 Gy and median interval to SBRT salvage was 88 months. Median recurrence Gleason score was 7 (79% was ≥7). Pre-existing RT toxicity >grade 1 was a reason for exclusion. Magnetic resonance imaging-defined prostate volume including any suspected extraprostatic extension, comprising the planning target volume. A total of 34 Gy/5 fractions was given, delivering a heterogeneous, high-dose-rate-like dose-escalation pattern. Toxicities were assessed using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0, criteria. Twenty-nine treated patients had a median 24-month follow-up (range, 3-60 months). A median pre-SBRT salvage baseline prostate-specific antigen level of 3.1 ng/mL decreased to 0.65 ng/mL and 0.16 ng/mL at 1 and 2 years, respectively. Actuarial 2-year biochemical disease-free survival measured 82%, with no local failures. Toxicity >grade 1 was limited to the genitourinary domain, with 18% grade 2 or higher and 7% grade 3 or higher. No gastrointestinal toxicity >grade 1 occurred. Two-year disease-free survival is encouraging, and the prostate-specific antigen response kinetic appears comparable with that seen in de novo patients treated with SBRT, albeit still a preliminary finding. Grade ≥2 genitourinary toxicity was occasionally seen with no obvious predictive factor. Noting that our only brachytherapy case was 1 of the 2 cases with ≥grade 3 genitourinary toxicity, caution is recommended treating these patients. SBRT salvage of post-RT local recurrence

  13. Clinical Diagnostic Utility of IP-10 and LAM Antigen Levels for the Diagnosis of Tuberculous Pleural Effusions in a High Burden Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dheda, Keertan; Van-Zyl Smit, Richard N.; Sechi, Leonardo A.; Badri, Motasim; Meldau, Richard; Symons, Gregory; Khalfey, Hoosein; Carr, Igshaan; Maredza, Alice; Dawson, Rodney; Wainright, Helen; Whitelaw, Andrew; Bateman, Eric D.; Zumla, Alimuddin

    2009-01-01

    Background Current tools for the diagnosis of tuberculosis pleural effusions are sub-optimal. Data about the value of new diagnostic technologies are limited, particularly, in high burden settings. Preliminary case control studies have identified IFN-γ-inducible-10kDa protein (IP-10) as a promising diagnostic marker; however, its diagnostic utility in a day-to-day clinical setting is unclear. Detection of LAM antigen has not previously been evaluated in pleural fluid. Methods We investigated the comparative diagnostic utility of established (adenosine deaminase [ADA]), more recent (standardized nucleic-acid-amplification-test [NAAT]) and newer technologies (a standardized LAM mycobacterial antigen-detection assay and IP-10 levels) for the evaluation of pleural effusions in 78 consecutively recruited South African tuberculosis suspects. All consenting participants underwent pleural biopsy unless contra-indicated or refused. The reference standard comprised culture positivity for M. tuberculosis or histology suggestive of tuberculosis. Principal Findings Of 74 evaluable subjects 48, 7 and 19 had definite, probable and non-TB, respectively. IP-10 levels were significantly higher in TB vs non-TB participants (p<0.0001). The respective outcomes [sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV %] for the different diagnostic modalities were: ADA at the 30 IU/L cut-point [96; 69; 90; 85], NAAT [6; 93; 67; 28], IP-10 at the 28,170 pg/ml ROC-derived cut-point [80; 82; 91; 64], and IP-10 at the 4035 pg/ml cut-point [100; 53; 83; 100]. Thus IP-10, using the ROC-derived cut-point, missed ∼20% of TB cases and mis-diagnosed ∼20% of non-TB cases. By contrast, when a lower cut-point was used a negative test excluded TB. The NAAT had a poor sensitivity but high specificity. LAM antigen-detection was not diagnostically useful. Conclusion Although IP-10, like ADA, has sub-optimal specificity, it may be a clinically useful rule-out test for tuberculous pleural effusions. Larger multi

  14. Virus-like particle production with yeast: ultrastructural and immunocytochemical insights into Pichia pastoris producing high levels of the Hepatitis B surface antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Ahmad

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A protective immune response against Hepatitis B infection can be obtained through the administration of a single viral polypeptide, the Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg. Thus, the Hepatitis B vaccine is generated through the utilization of recombinant DNA technology, preferentially by using yeast-based expression systems. However, the polypeptide needs to assemble into spherical particles, so-called virus-like particles (VLPs, to elicit the required protective immune response. So far, no clear evidence has been presented showing whether HBsAg assembles in vivo inside the yeast cell into VLPs or later in vitro during down-stream processing and purification. Results High level production of HBsAg was carried out with recombinant Pichia pastoris using the methanol inducible AOX1 expression system. The recombinant vaccine was isolated in form of VLPs after several down-stream steps from detergent-treated cell lysates. Search for the intracellular localization of the antigen using electron microscopic studies in combination with immunogold labeling revealed the presence of HBsAg in an extended endoplasmic reticulum where it was found to assemble into defined multi-layered, lamellar structures. The distance between two layers was determined as ~6 nm indicating that these lamellas represent monolayers of well-ordered HBsAg subunits. We did not find any evidence for the presence of VLPs within the endoplasmic reticulum or other parts of the yeast cell. Conclusions It is concluded that high level production and intrinsic slow HBsAg VLP assembly kinetics are leading to retention and accumulation of the antigen in the endoplasmic reticulum where it assembles at least partly into defined lamellar structures. Further transport of HBsAg to the Golgi apparatus is impaired thus leading to secretory pathway disfunction and the formation of an extended endoplasmic reticulum which bulges into irregular cloud-shaped formations. As VLPs were

  15. Identification of Low- and High-Impact Hemagglutinin Amino Acid Substitutions That Drive Antigenic Drift of Influenza A(H1N1 Viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William T Harvey

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Determining phenotype from genetic data is a fundamental challenge. Identification of emerging antigenic variants among circulating influenza viruses is critical to the vaccine virus selection process, with vaccine effectiveness maximized when constituents are antigenically similar to circulating viruses. Hemagglutination inhibition (HI assay data are commonly used to assess influenza antigenicity. Here, sequence and 3-D structural information of hemagglutinin (HA glycoproteins were analyzed together with corresponding HI assay data for former seasonal influenza A(H1N1 virus isolates (1997-2009 and reference viruses. The models developed identify and quantify the impact of eighteen amino acid substitutions on the antigenicity of HA, two of which were responsible for major transitions in antigenic phenotype. We used reverse genetics to demonstrate the causal effect on antigenicity for a subset of these substitutions. Information on the impact of substitutions allowed us to predict antigenic phenotypes of emerging viruses directly from HA gene sequence data and accuracy was doubled by including all substitutions causing antigenic changes over a model incorporating only the substitutions with the largest impact. The ability to quantify the phenotypic impact of specific amino acid substitutions should help refine emerging techniques that predict the evolution of virus populations from one year to the next, leading to stronger theoretical foundations for selection of candidate vaccine viruses. These techniques have great potential to be extended to other antigenically variable pathogens.

  16. Identification of Low- and High-Impact Hemagglutinin Amino Acid Substitutions That Drive Antigenic Drift of Influenza A(H1N1) Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, William T.; Benton, Donald J.; Gregory, Victoria; Hall, James P. J.; Daniels, Rodney S.; Bedford, Trevor; Haydon, Daniel T.; Hay, Alan J.; McCauley, John W.; Reeve, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Determining phenotype from genetic data is a fundamental challenge. Identification of emerging antigenic variants among circulating influenza viruses is critical to the vaccine virus selection process, with vaccine effectiveness maximized when constituents are antigenically similar to circulating viruses. Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay data are commonly used to assess influenza antigenicity. Here, sequence and 3-D structural information of hemagglutinin (HA) glycoproteins were analyzed together with corresponding HI assay data for former seasonal influenza A(H1N1) virus isolates (1997–2009) and reference viruses. The models developed identify and quantify the impact of eighteen amino acid substitutions on the antigenicity of HA, two of which were responsible for major transitions in antigenic phenotype. We used reverse genetics to demonstrate the causal effect on antigenicity for a subset of these substitutions. Information on the impact of substitutions allowed us to predict antigenic phenotypes of emerging viruses directly from HA gene sequence data and accuracy was doubled by including all substitutions causing antigenic changes over a model incorporating only the substitutions with the largest impact. The ability to quantify the phenotypic impact of specific amino acid substitutions should help refine emerging techniques that predict the evolution of virus populations from one year to the next, leading to stronger theoretical foundations for selection of candidate vaccine viruses. These techniques have great potential to be extended to other antigenically variable pathogens. PMID:27057693

  17. Creep-fatigue of High Temperature Materials for VHTR: Effect of Cyclic Loading and Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celine Cabet; L. Carroll; R. Wright; R. Madland

    2011-05-01

    Alloy 617 is the one of the leading candidate materials for Intermediate Heat eXchangers (IHX) of a Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR). System start-ups and shut-downs as well as power transients will produce low cycle fatigue (LCF) loadings of components. Furthermore, the anticipated IHX operating temperature, up to 950°C, is in the range of creep so that creep-fatigue interaction, which can significantly increase the fatigue crack growth, may be one of the primary IHX damage modes. To address the needs for Alloy 617 codification and licensing, a significant creep-fatigue testing program is underway at Idaho National Laboratory. Strain controlled LCF tests including hold times up to 1800s at maximum tensile strain were conducted at total strain range of 0.3% and 0.6% in air at 950°C. Creep-fatigue testing was also performed in a simulated VHTR impure helium coolant for selected experimental conditions. The creep-fatigue tests resulted in failure times up to 1000 hrs. Fatigue resistance was significantly decreased when a hold time was added at peak stress and when the total strain was increased. The fracture mode also changed from transgranular to intergranular with introduction of a tensile hold. Changes in the microstructure were methodically characterized. A combined effect of temperature, cyclic and static loading and environment was evidenced in the targeted operating conditions of the IHX. This paper This paper reviews the data previously published by Carroll and co-workers in references 10 and 11 focusing on the role of inelastic strain accumulation and of oxidation in the initiation and propagation of surface fatigue cracks.

  18. Metasurface Reflector (MSR Loading for High Performance Small Microstrip Antenna Design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Rezwanul Ahsan

    Full Text Available A meander stripline feed multiband microstrip antenna loaded with metasurface reflector (MSR structure has been designed, analyzed and constructed that offers the wireless communication services for UHF/microwave RFID and WLAN/WiMAX applications. The proposed MSR assimilated antenna comprises planar straight forward design of circular shaped radiator with horizontal slots on it and 2D metasurface formed by the periodic square metallic element that resembles the behavior of metamaterials. A custom made high dielectric bio-plastic substrate (εr = 15 is used for fabricating the prototype of the MSR embedded planar monopole antenna. The details of the design progress through numerical simulations and experimental results are presented and discussed accordingly. The measured impedance bandwidth, radiation patterns and gain of the proposed MSR integrated antenna are compared with the obtained results from numerical simulation, and a good compliance can be observed between them. The investigation shows that utilization of MSR structure has significantly broadened the -10 dB impedance bandwidth than the conventional patch antenna: from 540 to 632 MHz (17%, 467 to 606 MHz (29% and 758 MHz to 1062 MHz (40% for three distinct operating bands centered at 0.9, 3.5 and 5.5 GHz. Additionally, due to the assimilation of MSR, the overall realized gains have been upgraded to a higher value of 3.62 dBi, 6.09 dBi and 8.6 dBi for lower, middle and upper frequency band respectively. The measured radiation patterns, impedance bandwidths (S11<-10 dB and gains from the MSR loaded antenna prototype exhibit reasonable characteristics that can satisfy the requirements of UHF/microwave (5.8 GHz RFID, WiMAX (3.5/5.5 GHz and WLAN (5.2/5.8 GHz applications.

  19. Shock Isolation Elements Testing for High Input Loadings. Volume II. Foam Shock Isolation Elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHOCK ABSORBERS ), (*GUIDED MISSILE SILOS, SHOCK ABSORBERS ), (*EXPANDED PLASTICS, (*SHOCK(MECHANICS), REDUCTION), TEST METHODS, SHOCK WAVES, STRAIN(MECHANICS), LOADS(FORCES), MATHEMATICAL MODELS, NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS, HARDENING.

  20. Operating experience with high beam currents and transient beam loading in the SLC damping rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minty, M.G.; Akre, R.; Krejcik, P.; Siemann, R.H.

    1995-01-01

    During the 1994 SLC run the nominal operating intensity in the damping rings was raised from 3.5 x 10 10 to greater than 4 x 10 10 particles per bunch (ppb). Stricter regulation of rf system parameters was required to maintain stability of the rf system and particle beam. Improvements were made in the feedback loops which control the cavity amplitude and loading angles. Compensation for beam loading was also required to prevent klystron saturation during repetition rate changes. To minimize the effects of transient loading on the rf system, the gain of the direct rf feedback loop and the loading angles were optimized

  1. Harnessing Dendritic Cells for Tumor Antigen Presentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nierkens, Stefan [Department of Tumor Immunology, Nijmegen Centre for Molecular Life Sciences, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Geert Grooteplein 28, Nijmegen 6525 GA (Netherlands); Janssen, Edith M., E-mail: edith.janssen@cchmc.org [Division of Molecular Immunology, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Research Foundation, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, 3333 Burnet Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45229 (United States)

    2011-04-26

    Dendritic cells (DC) are professional antigen presenting cells that are crucial for the induction of anti-tumor T cell responses. As a consequence, research has focused on the harnessing of DCs for therapeutic interventions. Although current strategies employing ex vivo-generated and tumor-antigen loaded DCs have been proven feasible, there are still many obstacles to overcome in order to improve clinical trial successes and offset the cost and complexity of customized cell therapy. This review focuses on one of these obstacles and a pivotal step for the priming of tumor-specific CD8{sup +} and CD4{sup +} T cells; the in vitro loading of DCs with tumor antigens.

  2. Conversion of Type III penumococcal polysaccharide low responders to high responders by immunization with a thymus-dependent form of antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braley-Mullen, H.; Sharp, G.C.

    1974-01-01

    C57BL/Ks mice immunized with 0.6 μg Type III pneumococcal polysaccharide (S3) or with 10 9 S3 conjugated sheep erythrocytes (S3-SRBC) produced 5 to 7 times fewer S3-specific plaque-forming cells than similarly immunized BALB/c mice. However, when mice were primed with the SRBC carrier prior to challenge with S3-SRBC the low responder C57BL/Ks mice responded as well as the high-responder BALBc strain. The cell activated by the carrier priming was shown to be a thymus-derived (T) cell and the antibody produced by primed mice was mercaptoethanol sensitive (presumably IgM). Nonspecific T cell activation by unrelated antigens did not enhance C57BL/Ks responses to the same degree as specific carrier priming. These findings are discussed in relation to the possible cellular basis for genetic control of the S3 immune response

  3. High throughput testing of the SV40 Large T antigen binding to cellular p53 identifies putative drugs for the treatment of SV40-related cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbone, Michele; Rudzinski, Jennifer; Bocchetta, Maurizio

    2003-01-01

    SV40 has been linked to some human malignancies, and the evidence that this virus plays a causative role in mesothelioma and brain tumors is mounting. The major SV40 oncoprotein is the Large tumor antigen (Tag). A key Tag transforming activity is connected to its capability to bind and inactivate cellular p53. In this study we developed an effective, high throughput, ELISA-based method to study Tag-p53 interaction in vitro. This assay allowed us to screen a chemical library and to identify a chemical inhibitor of the Tag binding to p53. We propose that our in vitro assay is a useful method to identify molecules that may be used as therapeutic agents for the treatment of SV40-related human cancers

  4. Optimization of waste loading in high-level glass in the presence of uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoza, M.; Fann, G.I.; Hopkins, D.F.

    1995-02-01

    Hanford high-level liquid waste will be converted into a glass form for long-term storage. The glass must meet certain constraints on its composition and properties in order to have desired properties for processing (e.g., electrical conductivity, viscosity, and liquidus temperature) and acceptable durability for long-term storage. The Optimal Waste Loading (OWL) models, based on rigorous mathematical optimization techniques, have been developed to minimize the number of glass logs required and determine glass-former compositions that will produce a glass meeting all relevant constraints. There is considerable uncertainty in many of the models and data relevant to the formulation of high-level glass. In this paper, we discuss how we handle uncertainty in the glass property models and in the high-level waste composition to the vitrification process. Glass property constraints used in optimization are inequalities that relate glass property models obtained by regression analysis of experimental data to numerical limits on property values. Therefore, these constraints are subject to uncertainty. The sampling distributions of the regression models are used to describe the uncertainties associated with the constraints. The optimization then accounts for these uncertainties by requiring the constraints to be satisfied within specified confidence limits. The uncertainty in waste composition is handled using stochastic optimization. Given means and standard deviations of component masses in the high-level waste stream, distributions of possible values for each component are generated. A series of optimization runs is performed; the distribution of each waste component is sampled for each run. The resultant distribution of solutions is then statistically summarized. The ability of OWL models to handle these forms of uncertainty make them very useful tools in designing and evaluating high-level waste glasses formulations

  5. Nitrogen removal in shallow groundwater below three arable land systems in a high nitrogen loading region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, X.; Zhou, W.

    2017-12-01

    The Taihu Lake region (TLR) is one of the most intensive agricultural regions with high nitrogen (N) loading in eastern China. Large inputs of synthetic N fertilizer have led to a series of environmental problems including eutrophication of surface waters, nitrate (NO3-) pollution of groundwater. To fully evaluate the risk of NO3- on groundwater environments, it is necessary to know the natural NO3- removal ability. In this study, denitrification capacity was assessed for two years through measuring the concentration of different N species (NO3-, NH4+, TN, excess N2 and dissolved N2O) in groundwater below three typical agricultural land-use types in the TLR. The results suggested that the conversion of paddy field (PF) to vineyard (VY) and vegetable (VF) significantly increased the groundwater NO3-N concentration, but denitrification consumed 76%, 83% and 65% of the groundwater NO3-N in VY, VF and PF, respectively. Because of the low O2 and high DOC concentrations in groundwater, denitrification activity was high in the study sites, resulting in high excess N2 accumulation in groundwater, and the concentration even exceeded the total active N in the deep layer. The large amounts of excess N2 observed in the VY and VF over all the sample times indicated that considerable N was stored as gaseous N2 in groundwater and should not be ignored in balancing N budgets in aquifers where denitrification is high. Our results also demonstrated that the indirect N2O emission factor (EF5-g) in VY (0.0052)and VF (0.0057)was significantly higher than PF (0.0011)as well as higher than the IPCC default values (0.0025. In view of the increasing trend of paddy fields being converted to uplands combined with the low GWT in the TLR, we thus concluded that the risk of NO3- contamination in groundwater and indirect N2O emission will intensify below arable land.

  6. Effects of Radiation and a High Iron Load on Bone Mineral Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, E.; Morgan, J. L. L.; Zwart, S. R.; Gonzales, E.; Camp, K.; Smith, S. M.; Bloomfield, S. A.

    2012-01-01

    Astronauts on long duration space flight missions to the moon or mars are exposed to radiation and have increase iron (Fe) stores, both of which can independently induce oxidative stress and may exacerbate bone mass loss and strength. We hypothesize a high Fe diet and a fractionated gamma radiation exposure would increase oxidative stress and lower bone mass. Three mo-old, SD rats (n=32) were randomized to receive an adequate Fe diet (45 mg Fe/kg diet) or a high Fe diet (650 mg Fe/kg diet) for 4 wks and either a cumulative 3 Gy dose (fractionated 8 x 0.375 Gy) of gamma radiation (Cs-137) or sham exposure starting on day 14. Elisa kit assessed serum catalase, clinical analyzer assessed serum Fe status and ex vivo pQCT scans measured bone parameters in the proximal/midshaft tibia and femoral neck. Mechanical strength was assessed by 3-pt bending and femoral neck test. There is a significant decrease in trabecular bone mineral density (BMD) from radiation (p less than 0.05) and a trend in diet (p=0.05) at the proximal tibia. There is a significant interaction in cortical BMD from the combined treatments at the midshaft tibia (p less than 0.05). There is a trending decrease in total BMD from diet (p=0.07) at the femoral neck. In addition, high serum Fe was correlated to low trabecular BMD (p less than 0.05) and high serum catalase was correlated to low BMD at all 3 bone sites (p less than 0.05). There was no difference in the max load of the tibia or femoral neck. Radiation and a high iron diet increases iron status and catalase in the serum and decreases BMD.

  7. Boron Carbide: Stabilization of Highly-Loaded Aqueous Suspensions, Pressureless Sintering, and Room Temperature Injection Molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Cano, Andres

    Boron carbide (B4C) is the third hardest material after diamond and cubic boron nitride. It's unique combination of properties makes B4C a highly valuable material. With hardness values around 35 MPa, a high melting point, 2450°C, density of 2.52 g/cm3, and high chemical inertness, boron carbide is used in severe wear components, like cutting tools and sandblasting nozzles, nuclear reactors' control rots, and finally and most common application, armor. Production of complex-shaped ceramic component is complex and represents many challenges. Present research presents a new and novel approach to produce complex-shaped B4C components. Proposed approach allows forming to be done at room temperatures and under very low forming pressures. Additives and binder concentrations are kept as low as possible, around 5Vol%, while ceramics loadings are maximized above 50Vol%. Given that proposed approach uses water as the main solvent, pieces drying is simple and environmentally safe. Optimized formulation allows rheological properties to be tailored and adjust to multiple processing approaches, including, injection molding, casting, and additive manufacturing. Boron carbide samples then were pressureless sintered. Due to the high covalent character of boron carbide, multiples sintering aids and techniques have been proposed in order to achieve high levels of densification. However, is not possible to define a clear sintering methodology based on literature. Thus, present research developed a comprehensive study on the effect of multiple sintering aids on the densification of boron carbide when pressureless sintered. Relative densities above 90% were achieved with values above 30MPa in hardness. Current research allows extending the uses and application of boron carbide, and other ceramic systems, by providing a new approach to produce complex-shaped components with competitive properties.

  8. Drug-resistant colon cancer cells produce high carcinoembryonic antigen and might not be cancer-initiating cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee HC

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Hsin-chung Lee,1,2 Qing-Dong Ling,1,3 Wan-Chun Yu,4 Chunh-Ming Hung,4 Ta-Chun Kao,4 Yi-Wei Huang,4 Akon Higuchi3–51Graduate Institute of Systems Biology and Bioinformatics, National Central University, Jhongli, Taoyuan, 2Department of Surgery, Cathay General Hospital, Da'an District, Taipei, 3Cathay Medical Research Institute, Cathay General Hospital, Hsi-Chi City, Taipei, 4Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli, Taoyuan, Taiwan; 5Department of Reproduction, National Research Institute for Child Health and Development, Okura, Tokyo, JapanPurpose: We evaluated the higher levels of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA secreted by the LoVo human colon carcinoma cells in a medium containing anticancer drugs. Drug-resistant LoVo cells were analyzed by subcutaneously xenotransplanting them into mice. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the drug-resistant cells isolated in this study were cancer-initiating cells, known also as cancer stem cells (CSCs.Methods: The production of CEA was investigated in LoVo cells that were cultured with 0–10 mM of anticancer drugs, and we evaluated the increase in CEA production by the LoVo cells that were stimulated by anticancer drug treatment. The expression of several CSC markers in LoVo cells treated with anticancer drugs was also evaluated. Following anticancer drug treatment, LoVo cells were injected subcutaneously into the flanks of severe combined immunodeficiency mice in order to evaluate the CSC fraction.Results: Production of CEA by LoVo cells was stimulated by the addition of anticancer drugs. Drug-resistant LoVo cells expressed lower levels of CSC markers, and LoVo cells treated with any of the anticancer drugs tested did not generate tumors within 8 weeks from when the cells were injected subcutaneously into severe combined immunodeficiency mice. These results suggest that the drug-resistant LoVo cells have a smaller population of CSCs than the

  9. Ultra-deep sequencing reveals high prevalence and broad structural diversity of hepatitis B surface antigen mutations in a global population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gencay, Mikael; Hübner, Kirsten; Gohl, Peter; Seffner, Anja; Weizenegger, Michael; Neofytos, Dionysios; Batrla, Richard; Woeste, Andreas; Kim, Hyon-Suk; Westergaard, Gaston; Reinsch, Christine; Brill, Eva; Thu Thuy, Pham Thi; Hoang, Bui Huu; Sonderup, Mark; Spearman, C Wendy; Pabinger, Stephan; Gautier, Jérémie; Brancaccio, Giuseppina; Fasano, Massimo; Santantonio, Teresa; Gaeta, Giovanni B; Nauck, Markus; Kaminski, Wolfgang E

    2017-01-01

    The diversity of the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) has a significant impact on the performance of diagnostic screening tests and the clinical outcome of hepatitis B infection. Neutralizing or diagnostic antibodies against the HBsAg are directed towards its highly conserved major hydrophilic region (MHR), in particular towards its "a" determinant subdomain. Here, we explored, on a global scale, the genetic diversity of the HBsAg MHR in a large, multi-ethnic cohort of randomly selected subjects with HBV infection from four continents. A total of 1553 HBsAg positive blood samples of subjects originating from 20 different countries across Africa, America, Asia and central Europe were characterized for amino acid variation in the MHR. Using highly sensitive ultra-deep sequencing, we found 72.8% of the successfully sequenced subjects (n = 1391) demonstrated amino acid sequence variation in the HBsAg MHR. This indicates that the global variation frequency in the HBsAg MHR is threefold higher than previously reported. The majority of the amino acid mutations were found in the HBV genotypes B (28.9%) and C (25.4%). Collectively, we identified 345 distinct amino acid mutations in the MHR. Among these, we report 62 previously unknown mutations, which extends the worldwide pool of currently known HBsAg MHR mutations by 22%. Importantly, topological analysis identified the "a" determinant upstream flanking region as the structurally most diverse subdomain of the HBsAg MHR. The highest prevalence of "a" determinant region mutations was observed in subjects from Asia, followed by the African, American and European cohorts, respectively. Finally, we found that more than half (59.3%) of all HBV subjects investigated carried multiple MHR mutations. Together, this worldwide ultra-deep sequencing based genotyping study reveals that the global prevalence and structural complexity of variation in the hepatitis B surface antigen have, to date, been significantly underappreciated.

  10. Absorbing coatings for high power millimeter-wave devices and matched loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bin, W., E-mail: wbin@ifp.cnr.it [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, EURATOM-ENEA/CNR Association, Milano (Italy); Bruschi, A.; Cirant, S. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, EURATOM-ENEA/CNR Association, Milano (Italy); Muzzini, V. [Istituto di Biologia Agro-ambientale e Forestale, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Area di Ricerca di Roma 1, Monterotondo, Rome (Italy); Simonetto, A.; Spinicchia, N. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, EURATOM-ENEA/CNR Association, Milano (Italy); Angella, G. [Istituto per l’Energetica e le Interfasi, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Milano (Italy); Dell’Era, F. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, EURATOM-ENEA/CNR Association, Milano (Italy); Gantenbein, G.; Leonhardt, W. [Institut für Hochleistungsimpuls-und Mikrowellentechnik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Association EURATOM-KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany); Nardone, A. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, EURATOM-ENEA/CNR Association, Milano (Italy); Samartsev, A.; Schmid, M. [Institut für Hochleistungsimpuls-und Mikrowellentechnik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Association EURATOM-KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► An overview of the activity at IFP-CNR concerning the absorbing coatings is presented. ► The application of the absorbing ceramics to the IFP-CNR matched loads is described. ► B{sub 4}C is presented as a promising material for power absorption in the EC frequency range. ► The most important high power validation tests performed on coatings are described. ► Some results from simulations of the absorption capability of a double layer coating are shown. -- Abstract: In the electron cyclotron frequency range the handling of high power is critical. In some cases an unpredictable amount of stray radiation can reach some components or accumulate in localized regions, with risk of damages caused by thermal overloads, and any uncontrolled reflection represents a danger for the sources. A possibility to mitigate the problem consists in covering some regions exposed to radiation with absorbers. Enhanced absorption of stray radiation lowers requirements on active protection systems in microwave diagnostics. The released heat can be extracted by dedicated cooling systems. The chromium oxide (Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}), largely tested at IFP-CNR, has been routinely used as internal coating for matched loads. The performances of a variable thickness coating has been tested at high power at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), with a 140 GHz gyrotron of the W7-X ECRH system and an averaged power density absorbed at the coating surface higher than 1 MW/m{sup 2} for 3 min. Also boron carbide (B{sub 4}C) has been tested at low power and patented as a millimeter-wave absorber. In the paper, the results of some tests performed on these coatings are given, together with some simulations of the absorption capability based on low power measurements on samples. Finally, some calculations are presented for a coating obtained combining together Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} and B{sub 4}C.

  11. Protamine-based nanoparticles as new antigen delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Aramundiz, José Vicente; Peleteiro Olmedo, Mercedes; González-Fernández, África; Alonso Fernández, María José; Csaba, Noemi Stefánia

    2015-11-01

    The use of biodegradable nanoparticles as antigen delivery vehicles is an attractive approach to overcome the problems associated with the use of Alum-based classical adjuvants. Herein we report, the design and development of protamine-based nanoparticles as novel antigen delivery systems, using recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen as a model viral antigen. The nanoparticles, composed of protamine and a polysaccharide (hyaluronic acid or alginate), were obtained using a mild ionic cross-linking technique. The size and surface charge of the nanoparticles could be modulated by adjusting the ratio of the components. Prototypes with optimal physicochemical characteristics and satisfactory colloidal stability were selected for the assessment of their antigen loading capacity, antigen stability during storage and in vitro and in vivo proof-of-concept studies. In vitro studies showed that antigen-loaded nanoparticles induced the secretion of cytokines by macrophages more efficiently than the antigen in solution, thus indicating a potential adjuvant effect of the nanoparticles. Finally, in vivo studies showed the capacity of these systems to trigger efficient immune responses against the hepatitis B antigen following intramuscular administration, suggesting the potential interest of protamine-polysaccharide nanoparticles as antigen delivery systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Phase change based cooling for high burst mode heat loads with temperature regulation above the phase change temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States of America as represented by the United States Department of Energy

    2009-12-15

    An apparatus and method for transferring thermal energy from a heat load is disclosed. In particular, use of a phase change material and specific flow designs enables cooling with temperature regulation well above the fusion temperature of the phase change material for medium and high heat loads from devices operated intermittently (in burst mode). Exemplary heat loads include burst mode lasers and laser diodes, flight avionics, and high power space instruments. Thermal energy is transferred from the heat load to liquid phase change material from a phase change material reservoir. The liquid phase change material is split into two flows. Thermal energy is transferred from the first flow via a phase change material heat sink. The second flow bypasses the phase change material heat sink and joins with liquid phase change material exiting from the phase change material heat sink. The combined liquid phase change material is returned to the liquid phase change material reservoir. The ratio of bypass flow to flow into the phase change material heat sink can be varied to adjust the temperature of the liquid phase change material returned to the liquid phase change material reservoir. Varying the flowrate and temperature of the liquid phase change material presented to the heat load determines the magnitude of thermal energy transferred from the heat load.

  13. Low level perceptual, not attentional, processes modulate distractor interference in high perceptual load displays: evidence from neglect/extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mevorach, Carmel; Tsal, Yehoshua; Humphreys, Glyn W

    2014-01-10

    According to perceptual load theory (Lavie, 2005) distractor interference is determined by the availability of attentional resources. If target processing does not exhaust resources (with low perceptual load) distractor processing will take place resulting in interference with a primary task; however, when target processing uses-up attentional capacity (with high perceptual load) interference can be avoided. An alternative account (Tsal and Benoni, 2010a) suggests that perceptual load effects can be based on distractor dilution by the mere presence of additional neutral items in high-load displays so that the effect is not driven by the amount of attention resources required for target processing. Here we tested whether patients with unilateral neglect or extinction would show dilution effects from neutral items in their contralesional (neglected/extinguished) field, even though these items do not impose increased perceptual load on the target and at the same time attract reduced attentional resources compared to stimuli in the ipsilesional field. Thus, such items do not affect the amount of attention resources available for distractor processing. We found that contralesional neutral elements can eliminate distractor interference as strongly as centrally presented ones in neglect/extinction patients, despite contralesional items being less well attended. The data are consistent with an account in terms of perceptual dilution of distracters rather than available resources for distractor processing. We conclude that distractor dilution can underlie the elimination of distractor interference in visual displays.

  14. Low level perceptual, not attentional, processes modulate distractor interference in high perceptual Load displays: evidence from neglect/extinction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmel eMevorach

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available According to perceptual load theory (Lavie, 2005 distractor interference is determined by the availability of attentional resources. If target processing does not exhaust resources (with low perceptual load distractor processing will take place resulting in interference with a primary task; however when target processing uses-up attentional capacity (with high perceptual load interference can be avoided. An alternative account (Tsal & Benoni, 2010 suggests that perceptual load effects can be based on distractor dilution by the mere presence of additional neutral items in high load displays so that the effect is not driven by the amount of attention resources required for target processing. Here we tested whether patients with unilateral neglect or extinction would show dilution effects from neutral items in their contralesional (neglected/extinguished field, even though these items do not impose increased perceptual load on the target and at the same time attract reduced attentional resources compared to stimuli in the ipsilesional field. Thus, such items do not affect the amount of attention resources available for distractor processing. We found that contralesional neutral elements can eliminate distractor interference as strongly as centrally presented ones in neglect/extinction patients, despite contralesional items being less well attended. The data are consistent with an account in terms of perceptual dilution of distracters rather than available resources for distractor processing. We conclude that distractor dilution can underlie the elimination of distractor interference in visual displays.

  15. The characterization of secondary lithium-ion battery degradation when operating complex, ultra-high power pulsed loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Derek N.

    The US Navy is actively developing all electric fleets, raising serious questions about what is required of onboard power supplies in order to properly power the ship's electrical systems. This is especially relevant when choosing a viable power source to drive high power propulsion and electric weapon systems in addition to the conventional loads deployed aboard these types of vessels. Especially when high pulsed power loads are supplied, the issue of maintaining power quality becomes important and increasingly complex. Conventionally, a vessel's electrical power is generated using gas turbine or diesel driven motor-generator sets that are very inefficient when they are used outside of their most efficient load condition. What this means is that if the generator is not being utilized continuously at its most efficient load capacity, the quality of the output power may also be effected and fall outside of the acceptable power quality limits imposed through military standards. As a solution to this potential problem, the Navy has proposed using electrochemical storage devices since they are able to buffer conventional generators when the load is operating below the generator's most efficient power level or able to efficiently augment a generator when the load is operating in excess of the generator's most efficient power rating. Specifically, the US Navy is interested in using commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) lithium-ion batteries within an intelligently controlled energy storage module that could act as either a prime power supply for on-board pulsed power systems or as a backup generator to other shipboard power systems. Due to the unique load profile of high-rate pulsed power systems, the implementation of lithium-ion batteries within these complex systems requires them to be operated at very high rates and the effects these things have on cell degradation has been an area of focus. There is very little published research into the effects that high power transient

  16. A High-Purity Alumina for Use in Studies of Shock Loaded Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacina, David; Neel, Christopher

    2017-06-01

    We report the results of plate impact experiments on a potential new ``standard'' material, Coorstek Plasmapure-UC (99.9% purity) polycrystalline alumina, for use in non-conduction, impact environment, shock loading studies. This work was motivated by a desire to find a 99.9% purity alumina to replace the now unavailable Coors Vistal (99.9%) alumina, as it was hoped the Hugoniot elastic limit (HEL) of the new standard would match the 9-11 GPa value of Vistal. Shock response data, including the HEL, Hugoniot particle velocities, Hugoniot shock velocities, stress vs volume, and release wave speeds, was obtained up to 14 GPa. This data will be compared with Hugoniot curve data for other high purity alumina to contrast differences in the shock response, and is intended to be useful in impedance matching calculations. We will show that the HEL of Plasmapure-UC alumina is 5.5 GPa and speculate on causes for this lower than expected value. We will also explore why the elastic-plastic response for Plasmapure-UC alumina differs from what has been observed from other high purity alumina. The final result of this work is to recommend a well-characterized, lower purity alumina (Coorstek AD-995) as a potential new ``standard'' material.

  17. Application of CCG Sensors to a High-Temperature Structure Subjected to Thermo-Mechanical Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Xie

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a simple methodology to perform a high temperature coupled thermo-mechanical test using ultra-high temperature ceramic material specimens (UHTCs, which are equipped with chemical composition gratings sensors (CCGs. The methodology also considers the presence of coupled loading within the response provided by the CCG sensors. The theoretical strain of the UHTCs specimens calculated with this technique shows a maximum relative error of 2.15% between the analytical and experimental data. To further verify the validity of the results from the tests, a Finite Element (FE model has been developed to simulate the temperature, stress and strain fields within the UHTC structure equipped with the CCG. The results show that the compressive stress exceeds the material strength at the bonding area, and this originates a failure by fracture of the supporting structure in the hot environment. The results related to the strain fields show that the relative error with the experimental data decrease with an increase of temperature. The relative error is less than 15% when the temperature is higher than 200 °C, and only 6.71% at 695 °C.

  18. Novel load responsive multilayer insulation with high in-atmosphere and on-orbit thermal performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, S.; Kopelove, A.; Mills, G. L.

    2012-04-01

    Aerospace cryogenic systems require lightweight, high performance thermal insulation to preserve cryopropellants both pre-launch and on-orbit. Current technologies have difficulty meeting all requirements, and advances in insulation would benefit cryogenic upper stage launch vehicles, LH2 fueled aircraft and ground vehicles, and provide capabilities for sub-cooled cryogens for space-borne instruments and orbital fuel depots. This paper reports the further development of load responsive multilayer insulation (LRMLI) that has a lightweight integrated vacuum shell and provides high thermal performance both in-air and on-orbit. LRMLI is being developed by Quest Product Development and Ball Aerospace under NASA contract, with prototypes designed, built, installed and successfully tested. A 3-layer LRMLI blanket (0.63 cm thick, 77 K cold, 295 K hot) had a measured heat leak of 6.6 W/m2 in vacuum and 40.6 W/m2 in air at one atmosphere. In-air LRMLI has an 18× advantage over Spray On Foam Insulation (SOFI) in heat leak per thickness and a 16× advantage over aerogel. On-orbit LRMLI has a 78× lower heat leak than SOFI per thickness and 6× lower heat leak than aerogel. The Phase II development of LRMLI is reported with a modular, flexible, thin vacuum shell and improved on-orbit performance. Structural and thermal analysis and testing results are presented. LRMLI mass and thermal performance is compared to SOFI, aerogel and MLI over SOFI.

  19. Facile and scalable fabrication of polymer-ceramic composite electrolyte with high ceramic loadings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandian, Amaresh Samuthira; Chen, X. Chelsea; Chen, Jihua; Lokitz, Bradley S.; Ruther, Rose E.; Yang, Guang; Lou, Kun; Nanda, Jagjit; Delnick, Frank M.; Dudney, Nancy J.

    2018-06-01

    Solid state electrolytes are a promising alternative to flammable liquid electrolytes for high-energy lithium battery applications. In this work polymer-ceramic composite electrolyte membrane with high ceramic loading (greater than 60 vol%) is fabricated using a model polymer electrolyte poly(ethylene oxide) + lithium trifluoromethane sulfonate and a lithium-conducting ceramic powder. The effects of processing methods, choice of plasticizer and varying composition on ionic conductivity of the composite electrolyte are thoroughly investigated. The physical, structural and thermal properties of the composites are exhaustively characterized. We demonstrate that aqueous spray coating followed by hot pressing is a scalable and inexpensive technique to obtain composite membranes that are amazingly dense and uniform. The ionic conductivity of composites fabricated using this protocol is at least one order of magnitude higher than those made by dry milling and solution casting. The introduction of tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether further increases the ionic conductivity. The composite electrolyte's interfacial compatibility with metallic lithium and good cyclability is verified by constructing lithium symmetrical cells. A remarkable Li+ transference number of 0.79 is discovered for the composite electrolyte.

  20. Comparison study of inelastic analyses for high temperature structure subjected to cyclic creep loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. B.; Lee, H. Y.; Lee, J. H.

    2002-01-01

    It is necessary to develop a reliable numerical analysis method to simulate the plasticity and creep behavior of LMR high temperature structures. Since general purpose finite element analysis codes such as ABAQUS and ANSYS provide various models for plastic hardening and creep equation of Norton's power law, it is possible to perform the separate iscoplasticity analysis. In this study, the high temperature structural analysis program(NONSTA-VP) implementing Chaboche's unified visco plasticity equation into ABAQUS has been developed and the viscoplastic response of the 316 SS plate having a circular hole subjected to a cyclic creep loading has been analyzed. The results among the separate visco plasticity analyses and the unified visco plasticity analysis using NONSTA-VP have been compared and the results from NONSTA-VP shows remarkable responses of stress relaxation and creep behavior during hold time compared to those from separate visco plasticity analyses. Also, it is anticipated to reduce the conservatism arising from using elastic approach for creep-fatigue damage analysis since the stress range and the strain range from the unified visco plasticity analysis has been greatly reduced compared to those from separate visco plasticity analyses and elastic analysis

  1. Characterization of ITER tungsten qualification mock-ups exposed to high cyclic thermal loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pintsuk, Gerald, E-mail: g.pintsuk@fz-juelich.de [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Bednarek, Maja; Gavila, Pierre [Fusion for Energy, E-08019 Barcelona (Spain); Gerzoskovitz, Stefan [Plansee SE, Innovation Services, 6600 Reutte (Austria); Linke, Jochen [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Lorenzetto, Patrick; Riccardi, Bruno [Fusion for Energy, E-08019 Barcelona (Spain); Escourbiac, Frederic [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 Saint Paul lez Durance (France)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Mechanical deformation of CuCrZr in case a thermal barrier layer has been formed due to impurity content in the cooling water. • Crack formation at the W/Cu interface starting at the block edge. • Porosity formation in the pure Cu interlayer. • Microstructural changes in tungsten down to the W/Cu interface, which indicates also high temperatures for the pure Cu interlayer. • Macrocrack formation in tungsten which is assumed to be ductile at the initiation point and brittle when proceeding toward the cooling tube. - Abstract: High heat flux tested small-scale tungsten monoblock mock-ups (5000 cycles at 10 MW/m{sup 2} and up to 1000 cycles at 20 MW/m{sup 2}) manufactured by Plansee and Ansaldo were characterized by metallographic means. Therein, the macrocrack formation and propagation in tungsten, its recrystallization behavior and the surface response to different heat load facilities were investigated. Furthermore, debonding at the W/Cu interface, void formation in the soft copper interlayer and microcrack formation at the inner surface of the CuCrZr cooling tube were found.

  2. Demonstration of sulfur solubility determinations in high waste loading, low-activity waste glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-04-25

    A method recommended by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for sulfate solubility determinations in simulated low-activity waste glasses was demonstrated using three compositions from a recent Hanford high waste loading glass study. Sodium and sulfate concentrations in the glasses increased after each re-melting step. Visual observations of the glasses during the re-melting process reflected the changes in composition. The measured compositions showed that the glasses met the targeted values. The amount of SO3 retained in the glasses after washing was relatively high, ranging from 1.6 to 2.6 weight percent (wt %). Measured SnO2 concentrations were notably low in all of the study glasses. The composition of the wash solutions should be measured in future work to determine whether SnO2 is present with the excess sulfate washed from the glass. Increases in batch size and the amount of sodium sulfate added did not have a measureable impact on the amount of sulfate retained in the glass, although this was tested for only a single glass composition. A batch size of 250 g and a sodium sulfate addition targeting 7 wt %, as recommended by PNNL, will be used in future experiments.

  3. High and increasing Oxa-51 DNA load predict mortality in Acinetobacter baumannii bacteremia: implication for pathogenesis and evaluation of therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chung Chuang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While quantification of viral loads has been successfully employed in clinical medicine and has provided valuable insights and useful markers for several viral diseases, the potential of measuring bacterial DNA load to predict outcome or monitor therapeutic responses remains largely unexplored. We tested this possibility by investigating bacterial loads in Acinetobacter baumannii bacteremia, a rapidly increasing nosocomial infection characterized by high mortality, drug resistance, multiple and complicated risk factors, all of which urged the need of good markers to evaluate therapeutics. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We established a quantitative real-time PCR assay based on an A. baumannii-specific gene, Oxa-51, and conducted a prospective study to examine A. baumannii loads in 318 sequential blood samples from 51 adults patients (17 survivors, 34 nonsurvivors with culture-proven A. baumannii bacteremia in the intensive care units. Oxa-51 DNA loads were significantly higher in the nonsurvivors than survivors on day 1, 2 and 3 (P=0.03, 0.001 and 0.006, respectively. Compared with survivors, nonsurvivors had higher maximum Oxa-51 DNA load and a trend of increase from day 0 to day 3 (P<0.001, which together with Pitt bacteremia score were independent predictors for mortality by multivariate analysis (P=0.014 and 0.016, for maximum Oxa-51 DNA and change of Oxa-51 DNA, respectively. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed significantly different survival curves in patients with different maximum Oxa-51 DNA and change of Oxa-51 DNA from day 0 to day 3. CONCLUSIONS: High Oxa-51 DNA load and its initial increase could predict mortality. Moreover, monitoring Oxa-51 DNA load in blood may provide direct parameters for evaluating new regimens against A. baumannii in future clinical studies.

  4. Francis-99: Transient CFD simulation of load changes and turbine shutdown in a model sized high-head Francis turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mössinger, Peter; Jester-Zürker, Roland; Jung, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    With increasing requirements for hydropower plant operation due to intermittent renewable energy sources like wind and solar, numerical simulations of transient operations in hydraulic turbo machines become more important. As a continuation of the work performed for the first workshop which covered three steady operating conditions, in the present paper load changes and a shutdown procedure are investigated. The findings of previous studies are used to create a 360° model and compare measurements with simulation results for the operating points part load, high load and best efficiency. A mesh motion procedure is introduced, allowing to represent moving guide vanes for load changes from best efficiency to part load and high load. Additionally an automated re-mesh procedure is added for turbine shutdown to ensure reliable mesh quality during guide vane closing. All three transient operations are compared to PIV velocity measurements in the draft tube and pressure signals in the vaneless space. Simulation results of axial velocity distributions for all three steady operation points, during both load changes and for the shutdown correlated well with the measurement. An offset at vaneless space pressure is found to be a result of guide vane corrections for the simulation to ensure similar velocity fields. Short-time Fourier transformation indicating increasing amplitudes and frequencies at speed-no load conditions. Further studies will discuss the already measured start-up procedure and investigate the necessity to consider the hydraulic system dynamics upstream of the turbine by means of a 1D3D coupling between the 3D flow field and a 1D system model. (paper)

  5. Francis-99: Transient CFD simulation of load changes and turbine shutdown in a model sized high-head Francis turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mössinger, Peter; Jester-Zürker, Roland; Jung, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    With increasing requirements for hydropower plant operation due to intermittent renewable energy sources like wind and solar, numerical simulations of transient operations in hydraulic turbo machines become more important. As a continuation of the work performed for the first workshop which covered three steady operating conditions, in the present paper load changes and a shutdown procedure are investigated. The findings of previous studies are used to create a 360° model and compare measurements with simulation results for the operating points part load, high load and best efficiency. A mesh motion procedure is introduced, allowing to represent moving guide vanes for load changes from best efficiency to part load and high load. Additionally an automated re-mesh procedure is added for turbine shutdown to ensure reliable mesh quality during guide vane closing. All three transient operations are compared to PIV velocity measurements in the draft tube and pressure signals in the vaneless space. Simulation results of axial velocity distributions for all three steady operation points, during both load changes and for the shutdown correlated well with the measurement. An offset at vaneless space pressure is found to be a result of guide vane corrections for the simulation to ensure similar velocity fields. Short-time Fourier transformation indicating increasing amplitudes and frequencies at speed-no load conditions. Further studies will discuss the already measured start-up procedure and investigate the necessity to consider the hydraulic system dynamics upstream of the turbine by means of a 1D3D coupling between the 3D flow field and a 1D system model.

  6. Human genetic studies in areas of high natural radiation VI. Genetical load and ethnic group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freire-Maia, A [Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas e Biologicas de Botucatu (Brazil). Departamento de Genetica

    1974-01-01

    The load of mutations disclosed by inbreeding, according to the ethnic group of the parents, has been analyzed in our data. Besides the total of the population, a sample with no alien ancestrals has also been analyzed. Genetic load has been studied for absortions, still births, pos-natal mortality, total mortality, anomalies, total mortality + anomalies, and abnormalities in general.

  7. Human genetic studies in areas of high natural radiation VI. Genetical load and ethnic group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freire-Maia, A.

    1974-01-01

    The load of mutations disclosed by inbreeding, according to the ethnic group of the parents, has been analyzed in our data. Besides the total of the population, a sample with no alien ancestrals has also been analyzed. Genetic load has been studied for absortions, still births, pos-natal mortality, total mortality, anomalies, total mortality + anomalies, and abnormalities in general [pt

  8. Manufacture of highly loaded silica-supported cobalt Fischer–Tropsch catalysts from a metal organic framework

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Xiaohui

    2017-11-16

    The development of synthetic protocols for the preparation of highly loaded metal nanoparticle-supported catalysts has received a great deal of attention over the last few decades. Independently controlling metal loading, nanoparticle size, distribution, and accessibility has proven challenging because of the clear interdependence between these crucial performance parameters. Here we present a stepwise methodology that, making use of a cobalt-containing metal organic framework as hard template (ZIF-67), allows addressing this long-standing challenge. Condensation of silica in the Co-metal organic framework pore space followed by pyrolysis and subsequent calcination of these composites renders highly loaded cobalt nanocomposites (~ 50 wt.% Co), with cobalt oxide reducibility in the order of 80% and a good particle dispersion, that exhibit high activity, C5 + selectivity and stability in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis.

  9. High voltage dc-dc converter with dynamic voltage regulation and decoupling during load-generated arcs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimer, Daniel W.; Lange, Arnold C.

    1995-01-01

    A high-power power supply produces a controllable, constant high voltage output under varying and arcing loads. The power supply includes a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module, and a current sensor for sensing output current. The power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle and circuitry is provided for sensing incipient arc currents at the output of the power supply to simultaneously decouple the power supply circuitry from the arcing load. The power supply includes a plurality of discrete switching type dc--dc converter modules.

  10. High voltage dc--dc converter with dynamic voltage regulation and decoupling during load-generated arcs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimer, D.W.; Lange, A.C.

    1995-05-23

    A high-power power supply produces a controllable, constant high voltage output under varying and arcing loads. The power supply includes a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module, and a current sensor for sensing output current. The power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle and circuitry is provided for sensing incipient arc currents at the output of the power supply to simultaneously decouple the power supply circuitry from the arcing load. The power supply includes a plurality of discrete switching type dc--dc converter modules. 5 Figs.

  11. Tribological Evaluation of Candidate Gear Materials Operating Under Light Loads in Highly Humid Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellacorte, Christopher; Thomas, Fransua; Leak, Olivia Ann

    2015-01-01

    A series of pin-on-disk sliding wear tests were undertaken to identify candidate materials for a pair of lightly loaded timing gears operating under highly humid conditions. The target application involves water purification and thus precludes the use of oil, grease and potentially toxic solid lubricants. The baseline sliding pair is austenitic stainless steel operating against a carbon filled polyimide. The test load and sliding speed (4.9 N, 2.7 m/s) were chosen to represent average contact conditions of the meshing gear teeth. In addition to the baseline materials, the hard superelastic NiTiNOL 60 (60NiTi) was slid against itself, against the baseline polyimide, and against 60NiTi onto which a commercially deposited dry film lubricant (DFL) was applied. The alternate materials were evaluated as potential replacements to achieve a longer wear life and improved dimensional stability for the timing gear application. An attempt was also made to provide solid lubrication to self-mated 60NiTi by rubbing the polyimide against the disk wear track outside the primary 60NiTi-60NiTi contact, a method named stick or transfer-film lubrication. The selected test conditions gave repeatable friction and wear data and smooth sliding surfaces for the baseline materials similar to those in the target application. Friction and wear for self-mated stainless steel were high and erratic. Self-mated 60NiTi gave acceptably low friction (approx. 0.2) and modest wear but the sliding surfaces were rough and potentially unsuitable for the gear application. Tests in which 60NiTi pins were slid against DFL coated 60NiTi and DFL coated stainless steel gave low friction and long wear life. The use of stick lubrication via the secondary polyimide pin provided effective transfer film lubrication to self-mated 60NiTi tribological specimens. Using this approach, friction levels were equal or lower than the baseline polyimide-stainless combination and wear was higher but within data scatter observed

  12. Usefulness of in-house obtained recombinant proteins Yop of Yersinia enterocolitica as highly specific antigens in ELISA and recom-dot performed in the serodiagnosis of yersiniosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastawicki, Waldemar; Smietafiska, Karolina; Chrost, Anna; Wolkowicz, Tomasz; Rokosz-Chudziak, Natalia

    Proper analysis of the human immune response is crucial in the laboratory diagnosis of many bacterial infections-The current serological diagnosis of yersiniosis often is carried out using ELISA with native antigens. However, recombinant proteins increase the specificity of the serological assays, particularly in patients with chronic, non- specific infections. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the usefulness of in-house obtained recombinant proteins Yop of Yersinia enterocolitica as highly specific antigens in ELISA and recom-dot performed in the serodiagnosis of yersiniosis. Recombinant YopD, YopB, YopE and V-Ag proteins of Y enterocolitica were expressing in E. coli BL21 (DE3) using the pET-30 Ek/LIC expression vector (Novagen). Purification was accomplished by immobilized metal (Ni2) affinity column chromatography (His-trap). The proteins were used as antigens in standard ELISA and recom-dot assay, which was performed on nitrocellulose strips. The study population, used for characterization of the humoral immune response to the recombinant proteins, consisted of 74 patients suspected for Y enterocolitica infection and 41 clinically healthy blood donors. Some of the results obtained by ELISA and recom-dot were compared with results obtained by commercial western-blot Yersinia (Virotech). In the group of patients suspected for yersiniosis in clinical investigation the most positive results were obtained in ELISA with the recombinant protein YopD (IgA respectively 25 (42.4%), IgG 41 (69.5%), IgM 24 (40.7%). The percentage ofpositive results in the group of blood donors did not exceed 10.0% in IgG and 5.0% in IgA/IgM classes of immunoglobulin. The results obtained in the recom-dot assay showed that among 74 tested serum samples obtained from individuals suspected of yersiniosis the most common IgA, IgG and IgM antibodies were found for recombinant protein YopD (respectively IgG in 60.8%, IgA in 37.8% and IgM in 33.8% of serum samples). IgG antibodies to

  13. Natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graves, C.J.; Ros, V.I.D.; Stevenson, B.; Sniegowski, P.D.; Brisson, D.

    2013-01-01

    The hypothesis that evolvability - the capacity to evolve by natural selection - is itself the object of natural selection is highly intriguing but remains controversial due in large part to a paucity of direct experimental evidence. The antigenic variation mechanisms of microbial pathogens provide

  14. The effects of loaded and unloaded high-velocity resistance training on functional fitness among community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Jordan M; Gray, Michelle; Binns, Ashley

    2015-11-01

    Physical function declines up to 4% per year after the age of 65. High-velocity training is important for maintaining muscular power and ultimately, physical function; however, whether performing high-velocity training without external resistance increases functional fitness among older adults remains unclear. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate loaded and unloaded high-velocity training on lower body muscular power and functional fitness in older adults. Fifty-seven community-dwelling older adults (n = 16 males, n = 41 females) participated in this study. Inclusion criteria comprised ≥65 years of age, ≥24 on the Mini-mental state examination and no falls within past year. Two groups completed a 20-week high-velocity training intervention. The non-weighted group (UNLOAD, n = 27) performed the protocol without external load while the intervention group (LOAD, n = 30) used external loads via exercise machines. Functional fitness was assessed using the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), Senior Fitness Test (SFT), hand-grip and lower body power measures. Multivariate ANOVA revealed that both groups had significant improvements for average (17.21%) and peak (9.26%) lower body power, along with the SFT arm curl (16.94%), chair stand (20.10%) and 8 ft. up-and-go (15.67%). Improvements were also noticed for SPPB 8 ft. walk (25.21%). However, improvements for all functional fitness measures were independent of training group. Unloaded high-velocity training increased functional fitness and power the same as loaded training. The ability of high-velocity movements to elicit gains in functional fitness without external loads may help health professionals develop fitness programs when time/space is limiting factor. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Conservation in gene encoding Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen Rv2660 and a high predicted population coverage of H56 multistage vaccine in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Martinez, Angy P; Ong, Edison; Zhang, Lixin; Marrs, Carl F; He, Yongqun; Yang, Zhenhua

    2017-11-01

    H56/AERAS-456+IC31 (H56), composed of two early secretion proteins, Ag85B and ESAT-6, and a latency associated protein, Rv2660, and the IC31 Intercell adjuvant, is a new fusion subunit vaccine candidate designed to induce immunity against both new infection and reactivation of latent tuberculosis infection. Efficacy of subunit vaccines may be affected by the diversity of vaccine antigens among clinical strains and the extent of recognition by the diverse HLA molecules in the recipient population. Although a previous study showed the conservative nature of Ag85B- and ESAT-6-encoding genes, genetic diversity of Rv2660c that encodes RV2660 is largely unknown. The population coverage of H56 as a whole yet remains to be assessed. The present study was conducted to address these important knowledge gaps. DNA sequence analysis of Rv2660c found no variation among 83 of the 84 investigated clinical strains belonging to four genetic lineages. H56 was predicted to have as high as 99.6% population coverage in the South Africa population using the Immune Epitope Database (IEDB) Population Coverage Tool. Further comparison of H56 population coverage between South African Blacks and Caucasians based on the phenotypic frequencies of binding MHC Class I and Class II supertype alleles found that all of the nine MHC-I and six of eight MHC-II human leukocyte antigen (HLA) supertype alleles analyzed were significantly differentially expressed between the two subpopulations. This finding suggests the presence of race-specific functional binding motifs of MHC-I and MHC-II HLA alleles, which, in turn, highlights the importance of including diverse populations in vaccine clinical evaluation. In conclusion, H56 vaccine is predicted to have a promising population coverage in South Africa; this study demonstrates the utility of integrating comparative genomics and bioinformatics in bridging animal and clinical studies of novel TB vaccines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Risk factors and long-term outcomes of pediatric liver transplant recipients with chronic high Epstein-Barr virus loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamei, Hideya; Ito, Yoshinori; Kawada, Junichi; Ogiso, Satoshi; Onishi, Yasuharu; Komagome, Masahiko; Kurata, Nobuhiko; Ogura, Yasuhiro

    2018-04-20

    Serial monitoring of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reveals that certain pediatric liver transplant (LT) recipients exhibit high EBV loads for long periods. We investigated the incidence and risk factors of chronic high EBV (CHEBV) loads (continuous EBV DNA >10 000 IU/mL of whole blood for ≥6 months) and long-term outcomes. This single center, retrospective observational study investigated pediatric LT recipients who survived ≥6 months. We quantitated EBV DNA weekly during hospitalization and subsequently every 4 or 6 weeks at the outpatient clinic. Tacrolimus was maintained at a low trough level (5000 IU/mL). Thirty-one of 77 LT recipients developed CHEBV. Univariate analysis revealed that age 35 minutes, graft-to-recipient weight ratio (GRWR) >2.7%, and preoperative EBV seronegativity were significantly associated with the development of CHEBV loads. Multivariate analysis identified significant associations of CHEBV with WIT >35 minutes, GRWR >2.7%, and preoperative seronegative. None of the recipients developed post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder. Survival rates of patients with and without CHEBV loads were not significantly different. A significant number of pediatric LT recipients developed CHEBV loads. Long WIT, high GRWR, and preoperative EBV seronegativity were significantly associated with the development of CHEBV loads. Although the long-term outcomes of patients with or without CHEBV loads were not significantly different, further studies of more subjects are warranted. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Finite element based design optimization of WENDELSTEIN 7-X divertor components under high heat flux loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plankensteiner, A.; Leuprecht, A.; Schedler, B.; Scheiber, K.-H.; Greuner, H.

    2007-01-01

    In the divertor of the nuclear fusion experiment WENDELSTEIN 7-X (W7-X) plasma facing high heat flux target elements have to withstand severe loading conditions. The thermally induced mechanical stressing turns out to be most critical with respect to lifetime predictions of the target elements. Therefore, different design variants of those CFC flat tile armoured high heat flux components have been analysed via the finite element package ABAQUS aiming at derivation of an optimized component design under high heat flux conditions. The investigated design variants comprise also promising alterations in the cooling channel design and castellation of the CFC flat tiles which, however, from a system integration and manufacturing standpoint of view, respectively, are evaluated to be critical. Therefore, the numerical study as presented here mainly comprises a reference variant that is comparatively studied with a variant incorporating a bi-layer-type AMC-Cu/OF-Cu interlayer at the CFC/Cu-interface. The thermo-mechanical material characteristics are accounted for in the finite element models with elastic-plastic properties being assigned to the metallic sections CuCrZr, AMC-Cu and OF-Cu, respectively, and orthotropic nonlinear-elastic properties being used for the CFC sections. The calculated temporal and spatial evolution of temperatures, stresses, and strains for the individual design variants are evaluated with special attention being paid to stress measures, plastic strains, and damage parameters indicating the risk of failure of CFC and the CFC/Cu-interface, respectively. This way the finite element analysis allows to numerically derive an optimized design variant within the framework of expected operating conditions in W7-X

  18. Lateral Load-Resisting System Using Mass Timber Panel for High-Rise Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyong Chen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available As global interest in using engineered wood products in tall buildings intensifies due to the “green” credential of wood, it is expected that more tall wood buildings will be designed and constructed in the coming years. This, however, brings new challenges to the designers. One of the major challenges is how to design lateral load-resisting systems (LLRSs with sufficient stiffness, strength, and ductility to resist strong wind and earthquakes. In this study, an LLRS using mass timber panel on a stiff podium was developed for high-rise buildings in accordance with capacity-based design principle. The LLRS comprises eight shear walls with a core in the center of the building, which was constructed with structural composite lumber and connected with dowel-type connections and wood–steel composite system. The main energy dissipating mechanism of the LLRS was detailed to be located at the panel-to-panel interface. This LLRS was implemented in the design of a hypothetical 20-storey building. A finite element (FE model of the building was developed using general-purpose FE software, ABAQUS. The wind-induced and seismic response of the building model was investigated by performing linear static and non-linear dynamic analyses. The analysis results showed that the proposed LLRS using mass timber was suitable for high-rise buildings. This study provided a valuable insight into the structural performance of LLRS constructed with mass timber panels as a viable option to steel and concrete for high-rise buildings.

  19. Lowering the platinum loading of high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells with acid doped polybenzimidazole membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez, Santiago Martin; Li, Qingfeng; Jensen, Jens Oluf

    2015-01-01

    Membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) with ultra-low Pt loading electrodes were prepared for high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (HT-PEMFCs) based on acid doped polybenzimidazole. With no electrode binders or ionomers, the triple phase boundary of the catalyst layer was establ......Membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) with ultra-low Pt loading electrodes were prepared for high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (HT-PEMFCs) based on acid doped polybenzimidazole. With no electrode binders or ionomers, the triple phase boundary of the catalyst layer...

  20. Disseminated HIV-Associated Kaposi’s Sarcoma With High CD4 Cell Count And Low Viral Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Pereira Anjos

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Kaposi’s sarcoma is considered an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-defining illness and is caused by human herpesvirus 8. It has been associated with patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV who have CD4 T lymphocytes <200 cells/uL and high viral loads. We report a case of a 23-year old woman infected with HIV-1 and receiving antiretroviral treatment since diagnosis, with high CD4 cell count and low viral load that presented with disseminated Kaposi’s sarcoma. Clinicians should be aware of the occurrence of Kaposi’s sarcoma despite robust CD4 cell counts.

  1. Two-Stage Crystallizer Design for High Loading of Poorly Water-Soluble Pharmaceuticals in Porous Silica Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leia Dwyer

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available While porous silica supports have been previously studied as carriers for nanocrystalline forms of poorly water-soluble active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs, increasing the loading of API in these matrices is of great importance if these carriers are to be used in drug formulations. A dual-stage mixed-suspension, mixed-product removal (MSMPR crystallizer was designed in which the poorly soluble API fenofibrate was loaded into the porous matrices of pore sizes 35 nm–300 nm in the first stage, and then fed to a second stage in which the crystals were further grown in the pores. This resulted in high loadings of over 50 wt % while still producing nanocrystals confined to the pores without the formation of bulk-sized crystals on the surface of the porous silica. The principle was extended to another highly insoluble API, griseofulvin, to improve its loading in porous silica in a benchtop procedure. This work demonstrates a multi-step crystallization principle API in porous silica matrices with loadings high enough to produce final dosage forms of these poorly water-soluble APIs.

  2. Dry coating of micronized API powders for improved dissolution of directly compacted tablets with high drug loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xi; Ghoroi, Chinmay; Davé, Rajesh

    2013-02-14

    Motivated by our recent study showing improved flow and dissolution rate of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) powders (20 μm) produced via simultaneous micronization and surface modification through continuous fluid energy milling (FEM) process, the performance of blends and direct compacted tablets with high drug loading is examined. Performance of 50 μm API powders dry coated without micronization is also considered for comparison. Blends of micronized, non-micronized, dry coated or uncoated API powders at 30, 60 and 70% drug loading, are examined. The results show that the blends containing dry coated API powders, even micronized ones, have excellent flowability and high bulk density compared to the blends containing uncoated API, which are required for direct compaction. As the drug loading increases, the difference between dry coated and uncoated blends is more pronounced, as seen in the proposed bulk density-FFC phase map. Dry coating led to improved tablet compactibility profiles, corresponding with the improvements in blend compressibility. The most significant advantage is in tablet dissolution where for all drug loadings, the t(80) for the tablets with dry coated APIs was well under 5 min, indicating that this approach can produce nearly instant release direct compacted tablets at high drug loadings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of humidity and particle hygroscopicity on the mass loading capacity of high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, A.; Biswas, P.; Monson, P.R.; Novick, V.J.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of humidity, particle hygroscopicity, and size on the mass loading capacity of glass fiber high efficiency particulate air filters was studied. Above the deliquescent point, the pressure drop across the filter increased nonlinearly with areal loading density (mass collected/filtration area) of a NaCl aerosol, thus significantly reducing the mass loading capacity of the filter compared to dry hygroscopic or nonhygroscopic particle mass loadings. The specific cake resistance K 2 was computed for different test conditions and used as a measure of the mass loading capacity. K 2 was found to decrease with increasing humidity for nonhygroscopic aluminum oxide particles and for hygroscopic NaCl particles (at humidities below the deliquescent point). It is postulated that an increase in humidity leads to the formation of a more open particulate cake which lowers the pressure drop for a given mass loading. A formula for predicting K 2 for lognormally distributed aerosols (parameters obtained from impactor data) was derived. The resistance factor, R, calculated using this formula was compared to the theoretical R calculated using the Rudnick-Happel expression. For the nonhygroscopic aluminum oxide, the agreement was good but for the hygroscopic sodium chloride, due to large variation in the cake porosity estimates, the agreement was poor. 17 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  4. Immunological Characterization of Whole Tumour Lysate-Loaded Dendritic Cells for Cancer Immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottobrini, Luisa; Biasin, Mara; Borelli, Manuela; Lucignani, Giovanni; Trabattoni, Daria; Clerici, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dendritic cells play a key role as initiators of T-cell responses, and even if tumour antigen-loaded dendritic cells can induce anti-tumour responses, their efficacy has been questioned, suggesting a need to enhance immunization strategies. Matherials & Methods We focused on the characterization of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells pulsed with whole tumour lysate (TAA-DC), as a source of known and unknown antigens, in a mouse model of breast cancer (MMTV-Ras). Dendritic cells were evaluated for antigen uptake and for the expression of MHC class I/II and costimulatory molecules and markers associated with maturation. Results Results showed that antigen-loaded dendritic cells are characterized by a phenotypically semi-mature/mature profile and by the upregulation of genes involved in antigen presentation and T-cell priming. Activated dendritic cells stimulated T-cell proliferation and induced the production of high concentrations of IL-12p70 and IFN-γ but only low levels of IL-10, indicating their ability to elicit a TH1-immune response. Furthermore, administration of Antigen loaded-Dendritic Cells in MMTV-Ras mice evoked a strong anti-tumour response in vivo as demonstrated by a general activation of immunocompetent cells and the release of TH1 cytokines. Conclusion Data herein could be useful in the design of antitumoral DC-based therapies, showing a specific activation of immune system against breast cancer. PMID:26795765

  5. Involuntary autobiographical memories are relatively more often reported during high cognitive load tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzykowski, Krystian; Niedźwieńska, Agnieszka

    2018-01-01

    Recent studies on involuntary autobiographical memories (IAMs) in daily life have shown that they are most frequently reported during daily routines (e.g. while ironing). Such studies have suggested that reporting IAMs may be influenced by the level of the ongoing task demands and availability of cognitive resources. In two studies, we investigated the effects of cognitive load on reporting IAMs. To examine the presumed cognitive load dependency of IAMs, we utilised an often-employed experimental paradigm (Schlagman & Kvavilashvili, 2008) to elicit IAMs under conditions that differed in cognitive load. When performing a vigilance task, participants had to interrupt the task each time they experienced any spontaneous mental contents and write them down. We manipulated the level of cognitive load by either instructing (cognitive load group) or not instructing (control group) participants to perform an additional demanding task. We compared the groups on the number of IAMs and other mental contents (non-IAM contents) recorded, as well as on the frequency of IAMs that was calculated as a proportion of IAMs in all mental contents reported by the participant. We expected that if reporting IAMs depends on the level of cognitive demands, then we should observe lower frequency of IAMs in the cognitive load group compared to the control group. Consistently across studies, we observed a lower number of IAMs and non-IAM contents in the cognitive load group. However, IAMs unexpectedly constituted a higher percentage of all mental contents when participants were cognitively loaded. Further implications of the cognitive load effects for IAMs research and experimental methodology are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Performance of a constructed wetland treating intensive shrimp aquaculture wastewater under high hydraulic loading rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Y.-F.; Jing, S.-R.; Lee, D.-Y.; Chang, Y.-F.; Chen, Y.-M.; Shih, K.-C.

    2005-01-01

    A water treatment unit, mainly consisting of free water surface (FWS) and subsurface flow (SF) constructed wetland cells, was integrated into a commercial-scale recirculating aquaculture system for intensive shrimp culture. This study investigated performance of the treatment wetlands for controlling water quality. The results showed that the FWS-SF cells effectively removed total suspended solids (55-66%), 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (37-54%), total ammonia (64-66%) and nitrite (83-94%) from the recirculating water under high hydraulic loading rates (1.57-1.95 m/day). This led to a water quality that was suitable for shrimp culture and effluent that always satisfied the discharge standards. The area ratios of wetlands to culture tank being demonstrated (0.43) and calculated (0.096) in this study were both significantly lower than the reported values. Accordingly, a constructed wetland was technically and economically feasible for managing water quality of an intensive aquaculture system. - A constructed wetland was found to be technically and economically feasible for managing water quality of an intensive recirculating aquaculture system

  7. High temperature testing - a contribution to alloy development, alloy qualification and simulation of component Loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholz, A.; Schwienheer, M.; Mueller, F.; Linn, S.; Schein, M.; Walther, C.; Berger, C.

    2007-01-01

    In parallel to continued developments of steam and gas turbines as well as traffic engineering machines on the one hand, and marginal conditions like low specific fuel consumption and sufficient environment-friendliness on the other hand, the aim of improving the degree of efficiency by augmenting process parameters such as temperature and pressure is being followed. These efforts impact especially components of thermic machines and facilities subject to high thermal and mechanic exposure. Still largely unexplored is the interaction between microstructure characteristics determined through chemical composition, production processes and heat treatment, changes in the microstructure due to multiaxial load and the time-dependent deformation and stability resulting hereof. With regard to this background, improved methods of material properties determination, their modelling and transfer on the component enable to optimize wall thicknesses and degrees of efficiency. In the course of evaluation of static and cyclic material properties carried out also on faulty specimens, uncertainties occur which can originate from the testing process and analysis, as well as being influenced by the material itself and its process of production. Altogether, the demand for reliable determination of material properties and methods of scatterband treatment and their mathematical-statistical evaluation is in business. For simulation, consistent material datasets that describe the complex interaction between temperature, period of exposure and type of exposure are needed. Summarizing, the tasks dealt with qualify the entire process from production to the operational behaviour of components. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [de

  8. High microbial loads found in minimally-processed sliced mushrooms from Italian market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyang Jiang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available There is an increased consumer interest in minimally processed vegetables that has led to the development of products, such as pre-cut sliced mushrooms. Few data are available on the hygienic condition and the presence of foodborne pathogens in such products. Therefore, the current study aimed to evaluate the safety and hygienic characteristics of both ready-to-eat and ready-to-cook, pre-cut sliced mushrooms obtained from a local Italian market. For the evaluation of the hygienic condition, the aerobic mesophilic bacteria, aerobic psychrotrophic bacteria and Escherichia coli enumerations were performed. Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes and Campylobacter spp. were considered in the assessment of the foodborne pathogens. High microbial loads were detected, including counts higher than 5 log CFU/g for E. coli and 6 log CFU/g for the other bacteria counts considered, but no pathogens were found. Ready-to-eat and ready-to-cook products differed only for aerobic mesophilic counts (7.87 and 8.26 log CFU/g, respectively, P=0.003. Strategies to enhance the hygienic level of the mushrooms, particularly the ready-to-eat products, are needed.

  9. Surface morphology changes of tungsten exposed to high heat loading with mixed hydrogen/helium beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greuner, H.; Maier, H.; Balden, M.; Böswirth, B.; Elgeti, S.; Schmid, K.; Schwarz-Selinger, T.

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the surface morphology modification of W samples observed after simultaneous heat and particle loading using a mixed H/He particle beam with a He concentration of 1 at.%. The applied heat flux of 10 MW/m 2 is representative for the normal operation of the divertor of DEMO or a power plant. The long pulse high heat flux experiments on actively water-cooled W samples were performed in the GLADIS facility at surface temperatures between 600 °C and 2000 °C. This allows together with the applied total fluences between 1 × 10 24 m −2 and 1 × 10 26 m −2 the temperature- and fluence dependent study of the growing nano-structures. We analyse in detail the surface modifications up to a depth of several μm by scanning electron microscopy combined with focussed ion beam preparation. The hydrogen and helium release of the samples is analysed by long term thermal desorption spectroscopy and compared with the prediction of a diffusion trapping model

  10. Flaw assessment guide for high-temperature reactor components subject to creep-fatigue loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainsworth, R.A.; Takahashi, Y.

    1990-10-01

    A high-temperature flaw assessment procedure is described. This procedure is a result of a collaborative effort between Electric Power Research Institute in the United States, Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry in Japan, and Nuclear Electric plc in the United Kingdom. The procedure addresses preexisting defects subject to creep-fatigue loading conditions. Laws employed to calculate the crack growth per cycle are defined in terms of fracture mechanics parameters and constants related to the component material. The crack-growth laws can be integrated to calculate the remaining life of a component or to predict the amount of crack extension in a given period. Fatigue and creep crack growth per cycle are calculated separately, and the total crack extension is taken as the simple sum of the two contributions. An interaction between the two propagation modes is accounted for in the material properties in the separate calculations. In producing the procedure, limitations of the approach have been identified. 25 refs., 1 fig

  11. Amplitude-to-code converter for photomultipliers operating at high loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkhangel'skij, B.V.; Evgrafov, G.N.; Pishchal'nikov, Yu.M.; Shuvalov, R.S.

    1982-01-01

    An 11-bit amplitude-to-code converter intended for the analysis of photomultiplier pulses under high loadings is described. To decrease the volume of digit electronics in the converter an analog memory on capacities is envisaged. A well-known bridge circuit with diodes on the main carriers is selected as a gating circuit. The gate control is realized by a switching circuit on fast-response transistors with boundary frequency of 1.2-1.5 GHz. The converter main characteristics are given, namely, maximum output signal amplitude equal to -1.5 V, minimum pulse selection duration of 10 ns, maximum number of counts at Usub(input)=-1.0 V and tsub(selection)=50 ns amounting to 1400, integral nonlinearity of +-0.1%, conversion temperature instability of 0.2%/deg C in the temperature range of (+10-+40) deg C, maximum time of data storage equal to 300 ms, conversion coefficient instability of 0.42 counts, number of channels in a unit CAMAC block equal to 12

  12. High microbial loads found in minimally-processed sliced mushrooms from Italian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Haiyang; Miraglia, Dino; Ranucci, David; Donnini, Domizia; Roila, Rossana; Branciari, Raffaella; Li, Cheng

    2018-03-31

    There is an increased consumer interest in minimally processed vegetables that has led to the development of products, such as pre-cut sliced mushrooms. Few data are available on the hygienic condition and the presence of foodborne pathogens in such products. Therefore, the current study aimed to evaluate the safety and hygienic characteristics of both ready-to-eat and ready-to-cook, pre-cut sliced mushrooms obtained from a local Italian market. For the evaluation of the hygienic condition, the aerobic mesophilic bacteria, aerobic psychrotrophic bacteria and Escherichia coli enumerations were performed. Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes and Campylobacter spp. were considered in the assessment of the foodborne pathogens. High microbial loads were detected, including counts higher than 5 log CFU/g for E. coli and 6 log CFU/g for the other bacteria counts considered, but no pathogens were found. Ready-to-eat and ready-to-cook products differed only for aerobic mesophilic counts (7.87 and 8.26 log CFU/g, respectively, P=0.003). Strategies to enhance the hygienic level of the mushrooms, particularly the ready-to-eat products, are needed.

  13. Highly Zeolite-Loaded Polyvinyl Alcohol Composite Membranes for Alkaline Fuel-Cell Electrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Ya Hsu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Having a secure and stable energy supply is a top priority for the global community. Fuel-cell technology is recognized as a promising electrical energy generation system for the twenty-first century. Polyvinyl alcohol/zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (PVA/ZIF-8 composite membranes were successfully prepared in this work from direct ZIF-8 suspension solution (0–45.4 wt % and PVA mixing to prevent filler aggregation for direct methanol alkaline fuel cells (DMAFCs. The ZIF-8 fillers were chosen for the appropriate cavity size as a screening aid to allow water and suppress methanol transport. Increased ionic conductivities and suppressed methanol permeabilities were achieved for the PVA/40.5% ZIF-8 composites, compared to other samples. A high power density of 173.2 mW cm−2 was achieved using a KOH-doped PVA/40.5% ZIF-8 membrane in a DMAFC at 60 °C with 1–2 mg cm−2 catalyst loads. As the filler content was raised beyond 45.4 wt %, adverse effects resulted and the DMAFC performance (144.9 mW cm−2 was not improved further. Therefore, the optimal ZIF-8 content was approximately 40.5 wt % in the polymeric matrix. The specific power output was higher (58 mW mg−1 than most membranes reported in the literature (3–18 mW mg−1.

  14. Biosyngas Fischer. Tropsch conversion by high Fe loaded supported catalysts prepared with ultrasound and microwave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirola, C.; Di Fronzo, A.; Boffito, D.C.; Bianchi, C. [Milano Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica; Di Michele, A. [Perugia Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica

    2012-07-01

    Catalysts with iron high loading of 30 wt%, promoted with K (2.0 wt%) and Cu (3.75 wt%), have been synthesized according to three different methods: (1) the traditional impregnation method (TR); (2) Ultrasound (US) assisted TR method; (3) Microwave (MW) assisted TR method. All the samples have been fully characterized by BET, ICP/OES, XRPD, TG-DTA, FT-IR, TPR, SEM and TEM and tested in a laboratory pilot plant for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis working at 220 C and 20 bar. The results of the catalysts characterization indicated that the morphology of the samples strongly depends on the method of preparation. The best FTS results in term of C{sub 2+} yield (41%) has been obtained using MW with a good value of the selectivity towards heavy hydrocarbons, while in term of CO conversion (58%), using US. The samples prepared with non-traditional methods show FTS better results, probably due to a more wide and uniform distribution of Fe in the medium during the synthesis phase. (orig.)

  15. Bracing of the Reconstructed and Osteoarthritic Knee during High Dynamic Load Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Harvi F; Crossley, Kay M; Collins, Natalie J; Ackland, David C

    2017-06-01

    Lateral compartment osteoarthritis accompanied by abnormal knee biomechanics is frequently reported in individuals with knee osteoarthritis after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in knee biomechanics produced by an adjusted and unadjusted varus knee brace during high dynamic loading activities in individuals with lateral knee osteoarthritis after ACLR and valgus malalignment. Nineteen participants who had undergone ACLR 5 to 20 yr previously and had symptomatic and radiographic lateral knee osteoarthritis with valgus malalignment were assessed. Quantitative motion analysis experiments were conducted during hopping, stair ascent, and descent under three test conditions: (i) no brace, (ii) unadjusted brace with sagittal plane support and neutral frontal plane alignment, and (iii) adjusted brace with sagittal plane support and varus realignment (valgus to neutral). Sagittal, frontal, and transverse plane knee kinematics, external joint moment, and angular impulse data were calculated. Relative to an unbraced knee, braced conditions significantly increased knee flexion and adduction angles during hopping (P = 0.003 and P = 0.005; respectively), stair ascent (P = 0.003 and P stair ascent (P = 0.008) and flexion moments during stair descent (P = 0.006). There were no significant differences between the adjusted and the unadjusted brace conditions (P > 0.05). A knee brace, with or without varus alignment, can modulate knee kinematics and external joint moments during hopping, stairs ascent, and descent in individuals with predominant lateral knee osteoarthritis after ACLR. Longer-term use of a brace may have implications in slowing osteoarthritis progression.

  16. Enhancing pesticide degradation using indigenous microorganisms isolated under high pesticide load in bioremediation systems with vermicomposts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo Diaz, Jean Manuel; Delgado-Moreno, Laura; Núñez, Rafael; Nogales, Rogelio; Romero, Esperanza

    2016-08-01

    In biobed bioremediation systems (BBSs) with vermicomposts exposed to a high load of pesticides, 6 bacteria and 4 fungus strains were isolated, identified, and investigated to enhance the removal of pesticides. Three different mixtures of BBSs composed of vermicomposts made from greenhouse (GM), olive-mill (OM) and winery (WM) wastes were contaminated, inoculated, and incubated for one month (GMI, OMI and WMI). The inoculums maintenance was evaluated by DGGE and Q-PCR. Pesticides were monitored by HPLC-DAD. The highest bacterial and fungal abundance was observed in WMI and OMI respectively. In WMI, the consortia improved the removal of tebuconazole, metalaxyl, and oxyfluorfen by 1.6-, 3.8-, and 7.7-fold, respectively. The dissipation of oxyfluorfen was also accelerated in OMI, with less than 30% remaining after 30d. One metabolite for metalaxyl and 4 for oxyfluorfen were identified by GC-MS. The isolates could be suitable to improve the efficiency of bioremediation systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Results of radiation therapy for uterine cervical cancer using high dose rate remote after loading system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Nemoto, Kenji

    2003-01-01

    In Japan, radiotherapy with high dose rate remote after loading system (HDR-RALS) for intracavitary brachytherapy is the standard treatment for more than 30 years. This report showed the usefulness of HDR-RALS for uterine cervical cancer. From 1980 through 1999, 442 patients with uterine cervical cancers (stage I: 66, stage II: 161, stage III: 165, stage IV: 50) were treated. Radiotherapy was performed both external teletherapy and HDR-RALS. Overall survival rate at 5 years was 60.2%. The 5-year actuarial incidence of all complications was 16.4%. The 5-year actuarial incidence of all complications in cases treated with the sum doses of whole pelvic irradiation (without central shield) and RALS up to 49 Gy, 50 to 59 Gy or larger doses were 7.5%, 11.0% and 25.2%, respectively. Radiation therapy using HDR-RALS was very effective. While the dose of whole pelvic irradiation was increased, the actuarial incidence of all complications was increased. (author)

  18. Flow performance of highly loaded axial fan with bowed rotor blades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, L; Liu, X J; Yang, A L; Dai, R

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a partial bowed rotor blade was proposed for a newly designed high loaded axial fan. The blade was positively bowed 30 degrees from hub to 30 percent spanwise position. Flows of radial blade and bowed blade fans were numerically compared for various operation conditions. Results show that the fan's performance is improved. At the designed condition with flow coefficient of 0.52, the efficiency of the bowed blade fan is increased 1.44% and the static pressure rise is increased 11%. Comparing the flow structures, it can be found that the separated flow in the bowed fan is reduced and confined within 20 percent span, which is less than the 35 percent in the radial fan. It means that the bowed blade generates negative blade force and counteracts partial centrifugal force. It is alleviates the radial movements of boundary layers in fan's hub region. Flow losses due to 3D mixing are reduced in the rotor. Inlet flow to downstream stator is also improved

  19. Flow performance of highly loaded axial fan with bowed rotor blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L.; Liu, X. J.; Yang, A. L.; Dai, R.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, a partial bowed rotor blade was proposed for a newly designed high loaded axial fan. The blade was positively bowed 30 degrees from hub to 30 percent spanwise position. Flows of radial blade and bowed blade fans were numerically compared for various operation conditions. Results show that the fan's performance is improved. At the designed condition with flow coefficient of 0.52, the efficiency of the bowed blade fan is increased 1.44% and the static pressure rise is increased 11%. Comparing the flow structures, it can be found that the separated flow in the bowed fan is reduced and confined within 20 percent span, which is less than the 35 percent in the radial fan. It means that the bowed blade generates negative blade force and counteracts partial centrifugal force. It is alleviates the radial movements of boundary layers in fan's hub region. Flow losses due to 3D mixing are reduced in the rotor. Inlet flow to downstream stator is also improved.

  20. Influence of track surface on the equine superficial digital flexor tendon loading in two horses at high speed trot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crevier-Denoix, N; Pourcelot, P; Ravary, B; Robin, D; Falala, S; Uzel, S; Grison, A C; Valette, J P; Denoix, J M; Chateau, H

    2009-03-01

    Although track surfaces are a risk factor of tendon injuries, their effects on tendon loading at high speed are unknown. Using a noninvasive ultrasonic technique, it is now possible to evaluate the forces in the superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) in exercise conditions. To compare the effects of an all-weather waxed track (W) vs. a crushed sand track (S), on the SDFT loading in the trotter horse at high speed. Two trotter horses were equipped with the ultrasonic device (1 MHz ultrasonic probe, fixed on the palmar metacarpal area of the right forelimb). For each trial, data acquisition was made at 400 Hz and 10 consecutive strides were analysed. In each session, the 2 track surfaces were tested in a straight line. The speed was imposed at 10 m/s and recorded. The right forelimb was also equipped with a dynamometric horseshoe and skin markers. The horse was filmed with a high-speed camera (600 Hz); all recordings were synchronised. Statistical differences were tested using the GLM procedure (SAS; P < 0.05). Maximal tendon force was significantly lower on W compared with S. In addition to maximal force peaks around mid-stance, earlier peaks were observed, more pronounced on S than on W, at about 13% (horse 2) and 30% (both horses) of the stance phase. Comparison with kinematic data revealed that these early peaks were accompanied by plateaux in the fetlock angle-time chart. For high tendon forces, the tendon maximal loading rate was significantly lower on W than on S. CONCLUSIONS AND POTENTIAL CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The all-weather waxed track appears to induce a lesser and more gradual SDFT loading than crushed sand. The SDFT loading pattern at high speed trot suggests proximal interphalangeal joint movements during limb loading.

  1. High efficient multifunctional Ag_3PO_4 loaded hydroxyapatite nanowires for water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yaling; Zhou, Hangyu; Zhu, Genxing; Shao, Changyu; Pan, Haihua; Xu, Xurong; Tang, Ruikang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The multifunctional Ag_3PO_4 loaded hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanowires were synthesized via a facile in-situ precipitation method. • By optimizing the initial concentration of AgNO_3, the well-distributed Ag_3PO_4/HAP composites could be achieved. • The Ag_3PO_4/HAP composites showed excellent photocatalytic performance for the decomposition of dyes under visible light irradiation. • The maximum absorption capacity of the Ag_3PO_4/HAP composites for Pb(II) was 250 mg/g, approximately three times as that of pure HAP. • The Ag_3PO_4/HAP composites also exhibited excellent antibacterial activities even at relative low concentrations. - Abstract: Organic, inorganic, and biological pollutants are typical water contaminants and they seriously affect water quality. In this study, we suggested that a novel multifunctional Ag_3PO_4 loaded hydroxyapatite (HAP) material can remove the typical pollutants from water. The Ag_3PO_4/HAP composites were synthesized facilely via in-situ precipitation of Ag_3PO_4 on the pre-existing HAP nanowires. By optimizing the composition of Ag_3PO_4 and HAP, the material could achieve an optimal photocatalytic activity to decompose rhodamine B (RhB), methyl orange (MO) and methylene blue (MB) under visible light irradiations with enhanced pH stability. Besides, the adsorption of Pb(II) on the Ag_3PO_4/HAP reached a maximum capacity of 250 mg/g and this value was approximately three times as that of pure HAP. Furthermore, the composite material exhibited excellent antibacterial activities towards gram-negative bacterium (Escherichia coli) and gram-positive bacterium (Stphylococcus aureus). The results highlighted the cooperative effect between Ag_3PO_4 and hydroxyapatite (HAP). The simultaneous removals of dyes, toxic metal ions, and bacteria with a high efficiency followed an easy approach for the purification of contaminated water via the rationally designed material, in which the Ag_3PO_4/HAP composite might be developed

  2. Automated detection of cracks on the faying surface within high-load transfer bolted speciments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheatley, Gregory; Kollgaard, Jeffrey R.

    2003-07-01

    Boeing is currently conducting evaluation testing of the Comparative Vacuum Monitoring (CVMTM) system offered by Structural Monitoring Systems, Ltd (SMS). Initial testing has been conducted by SMS, with further test lab validations to be performed at Boeing in Seattle. Testing has been conducted on dog bone type specimens that have been cut at the center line. A notch was cut at one of the bolt holes and a CVM sensor installed on both sides of the plate. The doublers were added and a single line of