WorldWideScience

Sample records for high antialcohol attitudes

  1. Embedded anti-alcohol messages on commercial television: what teenagers perceive.

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    Borzekowski, D L

    1996-11-01

    Educators and producers should take advantage of television's potential for reaching audiences with health-related messages. This paper investigates adolescents' perceptions of an anti-alcohol message embedded in commercial television programming. Over 900 8th and 9th graders from New York suburbs completed surveys measuring interest, knowledge, and credibility of either an episode of The Cosby Show or Family Matters. Both episodes had an anti-alcohol message embedded within their plots. Overall, students gave high rates of interest and credibility and received high scores for knowledge for both episodes. Girls and African-American students had higher scores, on average, for interest and credibility. White students had the highest knowledge scores. Students with different television viewing experiences did not differ in their perceptions of the episodes; however, students who had previously seen the episodes gave higher levels of interest and credibility. These data indicate that youngsters are receptive to antialcohol messages within commercial television episodes. The results also suggest that similarities and differences between a viewer and a televised character relate to differences in perception. However, much more research should be done in order to generalize these findings to other audiences, episodes, programs, and health-related messages.

  2. High School Students' Attitudes Toward Homosexuality.

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    Price, James H.

    1982-01-01

    A review of research concerning attitudes toward homosexuality and a study of 278 high school students' attitudes toward homosexuality show that males have significantly greater negative attitudes toward homosexuality. Tables display results of the study. (CJ)

  3. Reading Attitudes of Texas High School Students

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    Bussert-Webb, Kathy; Zhang, Zhidong

    2016-01-01

    Through random sampling, we surveyed 2,568 high school students throughout Texas to determine their reading attitudes vis-à-vis individual and school background variables. Sources were the Rhody reading attitude scale and public domain campus summary data; the lenses of attitude theory and social justice informed this study. Significant…

  4. Fear versus humor: the impact of sensation seeking on physiological, cognitive, and emotional responses to antialcohol abuse messages.

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    Lee, Moon J; Shin, Mija

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the differences in physiological, cognitive, and emotional responses to existing emotional antialcohol abuse advertisements (fear vs. humor appeal) between high and low sensation seekers. A 2 (Message Type) x 2 (Sensation-Seeking Tendency) x 4 (Message Repetition) mixed-model experiment with repeated measures was conducted with 71 college students. The results, based on self-reports, indicated that fear messages generated more interest and perceived danger of excessive drinking regardless of sensation-seeking tendency, whereas humorous messages were rated as more likeable than fear messages, and the difference was bigger among low sensation seekers than among high sensation seekers. One interesting finding was that for both fear and humor appeals, low sensation seekers showed greater emotional responses (greater corrugators activities and greater zygomatic activities) than high sensation seekers overall. The implications of the current study as well as suggestions for future study were discussed.

  5. Attitudes of High School Students towards Geometry

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    Esat Avcı

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research, attitudes of high school students towards geometry were investigated in terms of gender, grade, types of the field and school. Population of research includes students who were studying at high school in five distincs of Mersin in 2013-2014 academical year. Sample of research includes 935 students from twelve high schools. Attitude scale which was developed by Su-Özenir (2008 was used for data collection. For data analysis, mean, standart deviation, t test and ANOVA were used. A meaningful difference between students’ attitudes towards geometry and variance of gender and grade level wasn’t observed, on the other hand a meaningful difference according to field and school type is observed.Key Words:    Attitudes towards geometry, high school geometry lesson, attitude scale

  6. Anti-alcohol posters in Poland, 1945-1989: diverse meanings, uncertain effects.

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    Gorsky, Martin; Krajewski-Siuda, Krzysztof; Dutka, Wojciech; Berridge, Virginia

    2010-11-01

    We provide a historical study of the anti-alcohol public health poster in Poland between 1948 and 1990. Our case study illuminates public health policies under communism, with the state as the dominant force in health communication. Poland has a distinctive history of poster art, moving from a Stalinist phase of socialist realism to the diverse styles of the later Polish School. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of 213 posters establishes the major themes and differentiates community approaches, which depict the drinker as a social or political deviant, from those emphasizing individual risk. Medical issues were a minor theme, reflecting public policies geared more toward confinement than treatment. However, Polish School artists used metaphor and ambiguity, and references to the contested cultural symbolism of drink, to complicate and subvert the narrow propaganda intent. Thus, although apparently unsuccessful in restraining overall consumption, these posters offer valuable lessons for policymakers on the use of visual media in health campaigns.

  7. The Huge Reduction in Adult Male Mortality in Belarus and Russia: Is It Attributable to Anti-Alcohol Measures?

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    Pavel Grigoriev

    Full Text Available Harmful alcohol consumption has long been recognized as being the major determinant of male premature mortality in the European countries of the former USSR. Our focus here is on Belarus and Russia, two Slavic countries which continue to suffer enormously from the burden of the harmful consumption of alcohol. However, after a long period of deterioration, mortality trends in these countries have been improving over the past decade. We aim to investigate to what extent the recent declines in adult mortality in Belarus and Russia are attributable to the anti-alcohol measures introduced in these two countries in the 2000s.We rely on the detailed cause-specific mortality series for the period 1980-2013. Our analysis focuses on the male population, and considers only a limited number of causes of death which we label as being alcohol-related: accidental poisoning by alcohol, liver cirrhosis, ischemic heart diseases, stroke, transportation accidents, and other external causes. For each of these causes we computed age-standardized death rates. The life table decomposition method was used to determine the age groups and the causes of death responsible for changes in life expectancy over time.Our results do not lead us to conclude that the schedule of anti-alcohol measures corresponds to the schedule of mortality changes. The continuous reduction in adult male mortality seen in Belarus and Russia cannot be fully explained by the anti-alcohol policies implemented in these countries, although these policies likely contributed to the large mortality reductions observed in Belarus and Russia in 2005-2006 and in Belarus in 2012. Thus, the effects of these policies appear to have been modest. We argue that the anti-alcohol measures implemented in Belarus and Russia simply coincided with fluctuations in alcohol-related mortality which originated in the past. If these trends had not been underway already, these huge mortality effects would not have occurred.

  8. Slovak High School Students' Attitudes toward Computers

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    Kubiatko, Milan; Halakova, Zuzana; Nagyova, Sona; Nagy, Tibor

    2011-01-01

    The pervasive involvement of information and communication technologies and computers in our daily lives influences changes of attitude toward computers. We focused on finding these ecological effects in the differences in computer attitudes as a function of gender and age. A questionnaire with 34 Likert-type items was used in our research. The…

  9. Prior Restraint in High School: Law, Attitudes, and Practice.

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    Trager, Robert; Dickerson, Donna L.

    1980-01-01

    Reports on a survey of 474 Illinois, Indiana, and Wisconsin public high schools, designed to determine practices and attitudes regarding student publications. Notes that the results indicate that there is no consistent approach to high school journalists and no consistent attitude toward them. (GT)

  10. High School Students' Knowledge and Attitudes regarding Biotechnology Applications

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    Ozel, Murat; Erdogan, Mehmet; Usak, Muhammet; Prokop, Pavol

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate high school students' knowledge and attitudes regarding biotechnology and its various applications. In addition, whether students' knowledge and attitudes differed according to age and gender were also explored. The Biotechnology Knowledge Questionnaire (BKQ) with 16 items and the Biotechnology Attitude…

  11. Technology of Isoflavone Antialcoholism Tablets from RADIX PUERARIAE and Its Properties%葛根异黄酮解酒含片的压片工艺及其性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈义勇; 夏荣光; 赵晓联

    2012-01-01

    [目的]探讨葛根异黄酮解酒含片的压片工艺及其性能.[方法]以句容产野生葛根为原料,提取并纯化得到葛根异黄酮.以葛根异黄酮为主要成分,以麦芽糊精、木糖醇和柠檬酸为配料,优化葛根异黄酮解酒含片的压片工艺,并探讨其溶解性和分散性等性能. [结果]葛根异黄酮解酒含片制备压片工艺为:调味料与主料配比为1∶2(w/w)(其中调味料木糖醇和柠檬酸配比为1∶1(w/w);主料麦芽糊精与葛根异黄酮配比为1∶2(w/w),水分含量为4%,烘干温度为60℃;葛根异黄酮解酒含片具有较好的持水性和水溶性,温度对其溶解性、分散性影响较为明显.[结论]制得的葛根异黄酮解酒含片咀嚼感好,硬度适中,酸甜可口,符合大众消费者的口味.%[ Objective ] To study the technology of isoflavone antialcoholism tablets from RADIX PUERARIAE and its properties. [ Methods ] With wild RADIX PUERARIAE in Jurong as the raw materials, isoflavone of RADIX PUERARIAE was extracted and purified. With isoflavone of RADIX PUERARIAE as the major component, xylitol, maltodextrin and citric acid were taken as the ingredients. Technology of isoflavone antialcoholism tablets from RADIX PUERARIAE was studied; and the solubility and dispersibility were discussed. [ Result] Optimized technology of isoflavone antialcoholism tablets from RADIX PUERARIAE was as follows: the ratio of flavoring (ratio of xylitol and citric acid was 1:1) to main material (ratio of maltodextrin to isoflavone was 1:1 ) was 1 '2 (w/w ) ; the moisture content was 4% ; and drying temperature was 60 ℃. Isoflavone antialcoholism tablets from RADIX PUERARIAE had relatively high water capacity and water solubility; effects of temperature on the solubility and dispersibility were relatively significant. [ Conclusion J Isoflavone antialcoholism tablets from RADIX PUERARIAE had better chew sense, appropriate hardness, suitable acid and sweet flavor, which was consonant

  12. Antialcoholic liver activity of whey fermented by Lactobacillus casei isolated from koumiss.

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    Zhao, Z W; Pan, D D; Wu, Z; Sun, Y Y; Guo, Y X; Zeng, X Q

    2014-07-01

    Whey fermented liquid (WFL) was studied for its hepatoprotective effects by using chronic alcohol-induced mice. Whey fermented liquid, prepared by inoculating whey with 4% (vol/vol) Lactobacillus casei and then incubating at 41°C for 8h, was used to orally treat alcohol-induced mice at 3 dosages for 5 wk. Ethanol consumption significantly reduced the activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, while lowering glutathione content and increasing levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, total triglyceride, malondialdehyde, and cytochrome P450 2E1. Treatment with WFL significantly attenuated the increased levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, triglyceride, and cytochrome P450 2E1, while decreasing superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, malondialdehyde, and glutathione levels. Pathological changes in the livers of mice who had ingested alcohol were improved by the administration of WFL. These results suggest that WFL may exert a protective effect against alcoholic liver disease by increasing antioxidant activity, which supports the use of WFL as an antialcoholic liver disease treatment.

  13. Development of an Attitude Scale towards High School Physics Lessons

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    Yavas, Pervin Ünlü; Çagan, Sultan

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a Likert type attitude scale for high school students with regard to high school physics lessons. The research was carried out with high school students who were studying in Ankara. First, the opinions of 105 high school students about physics lessons were obtained and then 55 scale items were determined from…

  14. High School Football Players' Knowledge and Attitudes About Concussions.

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    Anderson, Brit L; Gittelman, Michael A; Mann, Jessica K; Cyriac, RoseAnn L; Pomerantz, Wendy J

    2016-05-01

    To assess high school (HS) football players' knowledge of concussions and to determine whether increased knowledge is correlated with better attitudes toward reporting concussion symptoms and abstaining from play. Two survey tools were used to assess athletes' knowledge and attitudes about concussions. Surveys collected information about demographics, knowledge about concussions, and attitudes about playing sports after a concussion. All athletes present completed one of the 2 surveys. A knowledge and attitude score for each survey was calculated. Frequencies and mean values were used to characterize the population; regression analysis, analysis of variance, and t tests were used to look for associations. A football camp for HS athletes in the Cincinnati area. Male HS football players from competitive football programs in the Cincinnati area. None. Scores on knowledge and attitude sections; responses to individual questions. One hundred twenty (100%) athletes were enrolled although not every athlete responded to every question. Thirty (25%) reported history of a concussion; 82 (70%) reported receiving prior concussion education. More than 75% correctly recognized all concussion symptoms that were asked, except "feeling in a fog" [n = 63 (53%)]. One hundred nine (92%) recognized a risk of serious injury if they return to play too quickly. Sixty-four (54%) athletes would report symptoms of a concussion to their coach; 62 (53%) would continue to play with a headache from an injury. There was no association between knowledge score and attitude score (P = 0.08). Despite having knowledge about the symptoms and danger of concussions, many HS football athletes in our sample did not have a positive attitude toward reporting symptoms or abstaining from play after a concussion. Physicians should be aware that young athletes may not report concussion symptoms.

  15. The High School Students' Perceptions and Attitudes toward Bioenergy

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    Özbas, Serap

    2016-01-01

    This research, which was tried with 217 high school students, was carried out to determine the perceptions and attitudes related to the usage of bioenergy. The research results showed that the students had the perception that there would be lack of food due to global warming, but bioenergy would prevent the world from global warming. Moreover,…

  16. High School Students' Attitude Toward and Use of Alcohol.

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    Pfingsten, Kae Lee

    Understanding teen attitudes toward alcohol can provide a basis for education, prevention, and treatment programs for alcohol use. This thesis examines gender, grade level, peer attitude, parental attitude, and knowledge as independent variables while alcohol questionnaire scores for Use of Alcohol and Attitude Toward Drinking were employed as…

  17. Some Pollution-Related Attitudes of High School Youth in the United States and Brazil.

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    Bluhm, Louis Herbert

    This study deals with attitudes toward pollution issues, and the potential for changes in such attitudes. Data were obtained from high school seniors in a small Illinois town which was attempting to solve a severe water pollution problem. Students' pollution attitudes were measured in a bench-mark survey. They were exposed to a speech against…

  18. Exploratory Factor Analysis Study for the Scale of High School Students' Attitudes towards Chemistry

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    Demircioglu, Gökhan; Aslan, Aysegül; Yadigaroglu, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    It is important to develop students' positive attitudes chemistry lessons in school because research has suggested that attitudes are linked with academic achievement. Therefore, how to evaluate the attitudes is an important topic in education. The purpose of this study was to develop a Likert-type scale that could measure high school students'…

  19. The Knowledge About Drugs, Attitudes Towards Them And Drug Use Rates Of High School Students

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    Fejer, Dianne; Smart, Reginald G.

    1973-01-01

    A survey of attitudes towards drugs, knowledge about them and the use of alcohol, tobacco, illicit and psychoactive drugs was conducted among 4,693 high school students. Knowledge level and permissive attitudes tended to increase with grade level. Knowledge scores also increased, but attitudes became less permissive with increasing academic…

  20. The Effect of Robotics Competitions on High School Students' Attitudes toward Science

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    Welch, Anita; Huffman, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the impact of participating in an after-school robotics competition on high school students' attitudes toward science. Specifically, this study used the Test of Science-Related Attitude to measure students' social implications of science, normality of scientists, attitude toward scientific inquiry, adoption of…

  1. Inhibition of proteasome activity, nuclear factor-KappaB translocation and cell survival by the antialcoholism drug disulfiram.

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    Lövborg, Henrik; Oberg, Fredrik; Rickardson, Linda; Gullbo, Joachim; Nygren, Peter; Larsson, Rolf

    2006-03-15

    The proteasome pathway is an important target for anticancer drug development. Here, we identify the antialcoholism drug disulfiram and its analogue pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) as inhibitors of the 26S proteasome activity in a cell-based screening assay. As expected for proteasome inhibitors, these compounds also inhibited TNF-alpha-induced nuclear factor-KappaB (NF-KappaB) translocation and were cytotoxic. Disulfiram was more cytotoxic against chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells compared to peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) at clinically achievable concentrations. Proteasome and NF-KappaB inhibition were achieved with a potency in the same range as that of the clinically used proteasome inhibitor bortezomib. Disulfiram was also able to induce accumulation of p27(Kip1) and to prolong the half-life of c-Myc, both targets for proteasome-dependent degradation. It is concluded that the previously observed antitumoral and NF-KappaB inhibiting activity of disulfiram and PDTC could be attributed to their inhibition of the 26S proteasome.

  2. Attitudes towards influenza vaccination in high socioeconomic status Turkish parents.

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    Gündüz, Suzan; Yüksel, Nüket Ciğdem; Aktoprak, Hale Bozkurt; Canbal, Metin; Kaya, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    To better understand the knowledge, attitudes, and demographic factors that influence the rate of influenza vaccination among high socioeconomic status parents. Questionnaire exploring the attitudes of parents to the influenza vaccine, and their knowledge about influenza and its vaccination, was given to parents of children from 1 through 16 years of age attending the Turgut Özal University Hospital after the 2011/12 influenza season. In the present study, 285 mothers and their children participated and 8.8% (n = 25) of children had the influenza vaccination. Between the vaccinated and nonvaccinated groups, there were statistically significantly differences for having received the recommendation of the physician, consulting with the physician, having the influenza vaccine previously, and having a chronic disease. The most common misconceptions of the parents about the vaccine were; there being no need for it, it not being useful, it having no effect, and it being harmful. Parents' knowledge about influenza and the influenza vaccine were not satisfactory. Reliable information from both health care providers during visits and the media about influenza, its severity, and the effectiveness and side effects of its vaccine should be provided.

  3. A Real-Time Structure of Attitude Algorithm for High Dynamic Bodies

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    Xingcheng Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To solve the real-time problem of attitude algorithm for high dynamic bodies, a real-time structure of attitude algorithm is developed by analyzing the conventional structure that has two stages, and a flow diagram of a real-time structure for a Matlab program is provided in detail. During the update of the attitude matrix, the real-time structure saves every element of attitude matrix in minor loop in real time and updates the next attitude matrix based on the previous matrix every subsample time. Thus, the real-time structure avoids lowering updating frequency, though the multisubsample algorithms are used. Simulation and analysis show that the real-time structure of attitude algorithm is better than the conventional structure due to short update time of attitude matrix and small drifting error, and it is more appropriate for high dynamic bodies.

  4. Underage drinkers' responses to negative-restrictive versus proactive-nonrestrictive slogans in humorous anti-alcohol abuse messages: are humorous responsible drinking campaign messages effective?

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    Lee, Moon J; Chen, Yi-Chun Yvonnes

    2013-01-01

    This study examined underage drinkers' responses to negative-restrictive versus proactive-nonrestrictive slogans in humorous anti-alcohol abuse advertisements. The authors conducted a posttest-only control group experiment with 91 teenagers and college-aged participants. For underage moderate drinkers, the negative-restrictive slogans (e.g., "Don't drink") increased participants' perceived risk of excessive drinking and increased a level of intention to change their drinking behavior. However, for underage binge drinkers, the negative-restrictive slogans lowered participants' risk perception of excessive drinking and intention to change their drinking behavior.

  5. The Determination of the Applicability of the Fishbein Model of Attitudes in Ascertaining the Attitudes Toward Science Held by High School Students.

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    Hartman, Dean DeVere

    This study was undertaken to determine the applicability of the Fishbein model of attitudes in ascertaining the attitudes toward science held by high school students. The model proposed assumed that attitudes involve both cognitive and affective components. Acceptability of the psychometric properties of an instrument developed in this…

  6. Further characterization of the GlyT-1 inhibitor Org25935: anti-alcohol, neurobehavioral, and gene expression effects.

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    Lidö, Helga Höifödt; Jonsson, Susanne; Hyytiä, Petri; Ericson, Mia; Söderpalm, Bo

    2017-05-01

    The glycine transporter-1 inhibitor Org25935 is a promising candidate in a treatment concept for alcohol use disorder targeting the glycine system. Org25935 inhibits ethanol-induced dopamine elevation in brain reward regions and reduces ethanol intake in Wistar rats. This study aimed to further characterise the compound and used ethanol consumption, behavioral measures, and gene expression as parameters to investigate the effects in Wistar rats and, as pharmacogenetic comparison, Alko-Alcohol (AA) rats. Animals were provided limited access to ethanol in a two-bottle free-choice paradigm with daily drug administration. Acute effects of Org25935 were estimated using locomotor activity and neurobehavioral status. Effects on gene expression in Wistar rats were measured with qPCR. The higher but not the lower dose of Org25935 reduced alcohol intake in Wistar rats. Unexpectedly, Org25935 reduced both ethanol and water intake and induced strong CNS-depressive effects in AA-rats (withdrawn from further studies). Neurobehavioral effects by Org25935 differed between the strains (AA-rats towards sedation). Org25935 did not affect gene expression at the mRNA level in the glycine system of Wistar rats. The data indicate a small therapeutic range for the anti-alcohol properties of Org25935, a finding that may guide further evaluations of the clinical utility of GlyT-1 inhibitors. The results point to the importance of pharmacogenetic considerations when developing drugs for alcohol-related medical concerns. Despite the lack of successful clinical outcomes, to date, the heterogeneity of drug action of Org25935 and similar agents and the unmet medical need justify further studies of glycinergic compounds in alcohol use disorder.

  7. High School Counselors' Attitudes toward the Sexuality of Students with Intellectual Disabilities

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    Parker, Latofia P.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine high school counselors' attitudes toward the sexuality of students with intellectual disabilities. One hundred and twenty-two high school counselors in Alabama were the participants for this study. Participants completed the "Attitudes towards Sexuality and Students with Intellectual Disability…

  8. Catholic High School Students' Attitudes toward Homosexuality: A Snapshot of Incoming College Freshmen

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    Maher, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    This study is a survey of incoming freshmen at a Midwestern Catholic university on their agreement with Church teachings on homosexuality. In general, females had more homo-positive attitudes than males, graduates of catholic high schools had more homo-positive attitudes than graduates from non-Catholic high schools, and graduates from…

  9. Effects of flipped instruction on the performance and attitude of high school students in mathematics

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    Remalyn Q. Casem

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the effects of flipped instruction on the performance and attitude of high school students in Mathematics. The study made use of the true experimental design, specifically the pretest-posttest control group design. There were two instruments used to gather data, the pretest-posttest which was subjected to validity and reliability tests and the Modified Fennema-Sherman Attitudes Scale. It was found out that the experimental and control groups were comparable in the pretest and posttest. Comparison on their gain scores revealed significant difference with performance of the experimental group higher than the control group. There was no significant difference on the level of attitude of the participants in the experimental group before and after the study in terms of confidence in learning mathematics, attitude toward success in mathematics, mathematics anxiety and perception of teacher's attitudes. A very weak positive relationship existed between performance and attitudes toward mathematics.

  10. The Relationship between High School Students' Attitudes and Actions toward "Slow Learners." Final Report.

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    Miller, Carol T.; Gibbs, Elizabeth D.

    The relationship between high school students' attitudes and their involvement in a peer tutoring program for slow learners was examined, on the basis of M. Fishbein's theory of reasoned action, which suggests that the best predictor of behavior is the individual's intention to perform the behavior and that intentions are functions of attitude and…

  11. High School Students' Attitudes and Experiences in EFL Classrooms Equipped with Interactive Whiteboards

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    Han, Turgay; Okatan, Semih

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine ninth grade EFL students' experiences and attitudes towards classrooms equipped with interactive whiteboards (IWB). The data were collected with a questionnaire about attitudes towards IWB use in EFL classes, and observations from three different classrooms in three different high schools. The study…

  12. Attitudes toward Peers with Physical Disabilities at High School: Applying the Integrated Threat Theory

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    Bustillos, Antonio; Silvan-Ferrero, Maria del Prado

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study attitudes toward people with disabilities from the viewpoint of the integrated threat theory of prejudice. This theory postulates that threat may cause negative attitudes toward a group and posits that such threat may come from different sources. To test this model, a study was carried out with high school…

  13. Disruptive Behaviour in Religious and Secular High Schools: Teachers' and Students' Attitudes

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    Romi, Shlomo

    2004-01-01

    This two-phase study, conducted in religious and secular high schools, investigated the attitudes of teachers and students to disruptive behaviour. The first phase examined a religious school, then applied the same research tools to a secular school. It was assumed that differences of attitude would be found, with teachers viewing disruptive…

  14. The Construction and Validation of Opium Attitude Questionnaire among Guidance and High School Students

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    Ali Mohammad Rezaee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was aimed to determine the validity and reliability of opium attitudes questionnaire. Method: 6108 of guidance school (3th grades and high school students filled the opium attitude questionnaire in all of the country. The validity of questionnaire assessed by group discrimination and confirmatory factor analysis method. Results: the results of group discrimination showed that the questions can be discriminated of past and current opium addicts and normal groups. On the basis of factor analysis results 5 factors extracted. These factors with consideration of literature review and loaded items content named: interest to consume, attitude to dangers, attitude to physiological effects, attitude to psychic effects, attitude to social effects to opium. Reliability of subscales examined by Cronbakh’s alpha. The minimum measure of reliability was 0.77 and maximum was 0.86. Altogether, the validity and reliability of questionnaire were satisfied. Conclusion: On the basis of present research results, opium attitude questionnaire is appropriate for assessing of students’ attitude to opium among guidance and high school students.

  15. High Accuracy Attitude Control of a Spacecraft Using Feedback Linearization

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-01

    and Spacecraft Body from Gyro Measurements ......... .................................. 119 D.2 An Approximation to Exact Linearization using IPSRU...31 2-4 Attitude Determination and Control System Architecture ................. 33 3-1 Exact Linearization Using Nonlinear Feedback...though basic techniques were adapted from recent references on the use of exact linearization (such as [8] and [27]), the specific control approach

  16. Anti-alcohol and anxiolytic properties of a new chemical entity, GET73

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    Antonella eLoche

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available N-[(4-trifluoromethylbenzyl]4-methoxybutyramide (GET73 is a newly synthesized compound structurally related to the clinically used, alcohol-substituting agent, gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB. The present study was designed to assess whether GET73 may share with GHB the capacity to reduce alcohol intake in rats. Additionally, the effect of treatment with GET73 on anxiety-related behaviors and cognitive tasks in rats was investigated. A series of in vitro binding assays investigated the capacity of GET73 to bind to the GHB binding site and multiple other receptors. GET73 (10-9-10-3 M failed to inhibit [3H]GHB binding at both high- and low-affinity GHB recognition sites in rat cortical membranes. GET73 displayed minimal, if any, binding at dopamine, serotonin , GABA, and glutamate receptors in membranes from different rat brain areas. Acute treatment with low-to-moderate, non-sedative doses of GET73 (5-50 mg/kg, i.g. or i.p. (a reduced alcohol intake and suppressed alcohol deprivation effect (a model of alcohol relapse in selectively bred, Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP rats, (b exerted anxiolytic effects in Sprague-Dawley (SD and sP rats exposed to the Elevated Plus Maze test, and (c tended to induce promnestic effects in SD rats exposed to a modified water version of the Hebb-Williams maze test. Although the mechanism of GET73 action is currently unknown, the results of the present study suggest that GET73 has a multifaceted pharmacological profile, including the capacity to reduce alcohol drinking and anxiety-related behaviors in rats.

  17. I Am Aware of My Inconsistencies but Can Tolerate Them: The Effect of High Quality Listening on Speakers' Attitude Ambivalence.

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    Itzchakov, Guy; Kluger, Avraham N; Castro, Dotan R

    2016-11-16

    We examined how listeners characterized by empathy and a non-judgmental approach affect speakers' attitude structure. We hypothesized that high quality listening decreases speakers' social anxiety, which in turn reduces defensive processing. This reduction in defensive processing was hypothesized to result in an awareness of contradictions (increased objective-attitude ambivalence), and decreased attitude extremity. Moreover, we hypothesized that experiencing high quality listening would enable speakers to tolerate contradictory responses, such that listening would attenuate the association between objective- and subjective-attitude ambivalence. We obtained consistent support for our hypotheses across four laboratory experiments that manipulated listening experience in different ways on a range of attitude topics. The effects of listening on objective-attitude ambivalence were stronger for higher dispositional social anxiety and initial objective-attitude ambivalence (Study 4). Overall, the results suggest that speakers' attitude structure can be changed by a heretofore unexplored interpersonal variable: merely providing high quality listening.

  18. Stigmatising attitudes towards people with mental disorders: results from a survey of Japanese high school students.

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    Yoshioka, Kumiko; Reavley, Nicola J; MacKinnon, Andrew J; Jorm, Anthony F

    2014-01-30

    The aim of the current study was to assess the stigmatising attitudes of Japanese high school students towards people with depression, social phobia and psychosis/schizophrenia. In 2011, 311 students aged 15-18 years filled out an anonymous self-report questionnaire, which included a case vignette describing either depression, schizophrenia or social phobia and two questionnaires to assess stigmatising attitudes towards people with these disorders. Exploratory Structural Equation Modelling (ESEM) was used to determine the dimensionality and loading pattern of the stigma items in the two scales, to establish dimensions of stigma and to compare levels on these dimensions between genders. Stigmatising attitudes towards people with mental disorders in young Japanese people are substantial. ESEM revealed that the structure of stigmatising attitudes in young Japanese people is comparable in personal and perceived attitude stigma, with each forming distinct dimensions and each comprising 'weak not sick' and 'dangerous/unpredictable' components. The social distance dimension of stigma was separate from other components. Stigmatising attitudes relating to dangerousness/unpredictability were the lowest for social phobia and highest for schizophrenia. Females had lower stigmatising attitudes than males. These findings echo those of Australian studies and extend them by demonstrating a similar structure of stigma in another cultural group, namely young Japanese people.

  19. High Accuracy Attitude Control System Design for Satellite with Flexible Appendages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenya Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to realize the high accuracy attitude control of satellite with flexible appendages, attitude control system consisting of the controller and structural filter was designed. When the low order vibration frequency of flexible appendages is approximating the bandwidth of attitude control system, the vibration signal will enter the control system through measurement device to bring impact on the accuracy or even the stability. In order to reduce the impact of vibration of appendages on the attitude control system, the structural filter is designed in terms of rejecting the vibration of flexible appendages. Considering the potential problem of in-orbit frequency variation of the flexible appendages, the design method for the adaptive notch filter is proposed based on the in-orbit identification technology. Finally, the simulation results are given to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed design techniques.

  20. Navigation Facility for High Accuracy Offline Trajectory and Attitude Estimation in Airborne Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Renga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on a navigation facility, relying on commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS technology, developed to generate high-accuracy attitude and trajectory measurements in postprocessing. Target performance is cm-level positioning with tenth of degree attitude accuracy. The facility is based on the concept of GPS-aided inertial navigation but comprises carrier-phase differential GPS (CDGPS processing and attitude estimation based on multiantenna GPS configurations. Expected applications of the system include: (a performance assessment of integrated navigation systems, developed for general aviation aircraft and medium size unmanned aircraft systems (UAS; (b generation of reference measurements to evaluate the flight performance of airborne sensors (e.g., radar or laser; and (c generation of reference trajectory and attitude for improving imaging quality of airborne remote sensing data. The paper describes system architecture, selected algorithms for data processing and integration, and theoretical performance evaluation. Experimental results are also presented confirming the effectiveness of the implemented approach.

  1. Using Metaphor Analysis to Explore High School Students' Attitudes towards Learning Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guner, Necdet

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the attitudes of Anatolian high school and vocational high school students towards learning mathematics were examined by using the metaphor analysis method. The study included 669 12th grade students (317 female, 352 male) of two Anatolian and two vocational high schools located in a city center in the Aegean region of Turkey. The…

  2. Inquiry-Based Laboratory Activities in Electrochemistry: High School Students' Achievements and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesen, Burcin Acar; Tarhan, Leman

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of inquiry-based laboratory activities on high school students' understanding of electrochemistry and attitudes towards chemistry and laboratory work. The participants were 62 high school students (average age 17 years) in an urban public high school in Turkey. Students were assigned to experimental (N =…

  3. Alberta High School Counsellors' Knowledge of Homosexuality and Their Attitudes toward Gay Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderson, Kevin G.; Orzeck, Tricia L.; McEwen, Scott C.

    2009-01-01

    In this study we investigated Alberta high school counsellors' knowledge about homosexuality and their attitudes toward gay males. Three questionnaires were mailed to 648 high school counselling centres; 223 individuals returned the completed questionnaires. Most counsellors attained low scores in measured homo-negativity and high scores regarding…

  4. Analysis of high school students' perception and attitude toward irradiated food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yoon Seok; Han, Eun Ok [Dept. of Education and Research, Korea Academy of Nuclear Safety, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    We chose high school students, who are expected to show significant response to education, to try to understand perception and behavior toward irradiated food, and derive evidential materials for education. High school students who had ever acquired information or received education on irradiated food, and students who had ever purchased or eaten irradiated food, tended to have aproper attitude regarding its necessity, safety, and purchase without prejudice. It is necessary to provide information and education to high school students. Additionally, exposure to the irradiated food could be helpful in changing perception and attitude toward irradiated food.

  5. Saudi high school students' attitudes and barriers toward the use of computer technologies in learning English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabti, Ahmed Abdulateef; Chaichan, Rasha Sami

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the attitudes of Saudi Arabian high school students toward the use of computer technologies in learning English. The study also discusses the possible barriers that affect and limit the actual usage of computers. Quantitative approach is applied in this research, which involved 30 Saudi Arabia students of a high school in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The respondents comprised 15 males and 15 females with ages between 16 years and 18 years. Two instruments, namely, Scale of Attitude toward Computer Technologies (SACT) and Barriers affecting Students' Attitudes and Use (BSAU) were used to collect data. The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) of Davis (1989) was utilized. The analysis of the study revealed gender differences in attitudes toward the use of computer technologies in learning English. Female students showed high and positive attitudes towards the use of computer technologies in learning English than males. Both male and female participants demonstrated high and positive perception of Usefulness and perceived Ease of Use of computer technologies in learning English. Three barriers that affected and limited the use of computer technologies in learning English were identified by the participants. These barriers are skill, equipment, and motivation. Among these barriers, skill had the highest effect, whereas motivation showed the least effect.

  6. High School Students' Attitudes Towards Spiders: A cross-cultural comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop, Pavol; Tolarovičová, Andrea; Camerik, Anne M.; Peterková, Viera

    2010-08-01

    Spiders are traditionally considered to be among the least popular of animals. Current evidence suggests that a negative attitude towards spiders could be influenced by both cultural and evolutionary pressures. Some researchers suggest that science education activities could positively influence students' perceptions of spiders. Their evidence is, however, ambivalent. Using a five-point score Likert-type questionnaire in which the items were developed in a similar way to four of Kellert's categories of attitude (scientistic, negativistic, naturalistic, and ecologistic) towards invertebrates, we compared the level of knowledge of and attitudes towards spiders of high school students from two countries, Slovakia (n = 354) and South Africa (n = 382). The students represented different cultures and followed dissimilar science education curricula. Only among the Slovakian students there was a statistically significant but low correlation between knowledge and attitude (r = 0.30). The South African students scored higher in the categories of scientistic, naturalistic, and ecologistic attitudes. Comparison of attitude towards spiders of indigenous Africans from coeducational Catholic schools revealed that South African students have greater fear of spiders than Slovakian students, supporting the biological preparedness hypothesis. This hypothesis predicts a greater fear of spiders in South Africa than in Europe since several South African spiders possess venoms that are dangerous to humans. The results of this study are discussed from science education, cultural, and evolutionary perspectives.

  7. Disordered Eating Attitudes and Their Correlates among Iranian High School Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdiyeh Hamed Behzad

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Disordered eating attitudes are contributing factors to the development of eatingdisorders. Adolescent girls are at high risk for eating diseases. In Iran, there is few data onthe subject, especially in Azarian adolescent girls, so we did this study for assessing disorderedeating attitudes and their correlates among Iranian Azarbaijani high school girls.Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 1887 high school girls were selected. Eating AttitudeTest-26 (EAT-26 and socio economical questionnaires were used. The EAT-26 score of 20or higher defined as disordered eating attitudes. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Programfor Social Sciences, by using from descriptive and analytical statistics.Results: Reliability and validity of the translated EAT-26 were 0.80, 0.76, respectively. Instudied subjects, mean (SD of EAT-26 was 11.71(8.48. Totally, 16.7% (C.I with 95%: 15.1-18.3% of students had disordered eating attitudes. About half of the participants were unhappywith their body weight and considered themselves as obese. Mean of EAT-26 washigher in this group. Groups, who intent to weight loss, were smoker, and who had age ofmenarche less than 11 years, also had higher EAT-26 scores. Parent’s literacy or job, birthorder, family size or income and house ownership had not any significant effect on EAT-26score.Conclusions: Persian version of EAT-26 has good reliability and validity for assessing disorderedeating attitudes in Azarian girl adolescents. Prevalence of disordered eating attitudesamong Azarian adolescent girls are in the range of some studies, but are less than Arabiancountries, and some European ones. In adolescent girls, body weight dissatisfaction, smokingand early menarche has important role in eating attitudes.

  8. High School and University Students' Knowledge and Attitudes regarding Biotechnology: A Turkish Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usak, Muhammet; Erdogan, Mehmet; Prokop, Pavol; Ozel, Murat

    2009-01-01

    Biotechnology has a considerable importance in Turkish biology curriculum. This study was designed to explore or indicate Turkish high school and university students' knowledge and attitudes toward biotechnology. A total number of 352 high school and 276 university students were invited to the study. The Biotechnology Knowledge Questionnaire (BKQ)…

  9. Attitudes, Values and Background of High School Journalists Compared with the Media Elite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sammye

    To compare attitudes, values, and background of high school journalists with those of the media elite (journalists already working in the media), a survey was administered to 132 public and private high school students attending the Trinity University Journalism Institute during June 5-9, 1983. These students were the editors of their newspapers,…

  10. Family Systems as Predictors of Career Attitude Maturity for Korean High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Kil; Yi, Hyun Sook

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between family systems and high school students' career development. Family adaptability and family cohesion were considered as indicators of family function, and career attitude maturity was conceptualized as a representative factor explaining adolescents' career development. A total of 634 high school…

  11. Socio-Political Influences on EFL Motivation and Attitudes: Comparative Surveys of Korean High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Young

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates Korean high school students' English learning motivation and attitudes. In this regard, the results of a 2002 study were compared with those of a 2006 study. Questionnaire data were obtained from a total of 1,037 high school students in a major city in South Korea, and the data were compared with those on the students'…

  12. Effects of a Collaborative Science Intervention on High Achieving Students' Learning Anxiety and Attitudes toward Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Zuway-R.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a collaborative science intervention on high achieving students' learning anxiety and attitudes toward science. Thirty-seven eighth-grade high achieving students (16 boys and 21 girls) were selected as an experimental group who joined a 20-week collaborative science intervention, which integrated and utilized…

  13. Research Progress of Hovenia dulcis' Antialcoholism and Liver Protection Effect%北枳棋的醒酒和保肝作用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐晖慧; 朱双良

    2012-01-01

    北枳棋(Hovenia dulcis)是治疗酒精中毒和保肝护肝的经典中药之一。近年来的研究表明:北枳犋能够延长醉酒时间并缩短因醉酒而引发的睡眠时间,加速体内酒精代谢,抑制乙醇所致的肌肉松弛,激活酒精代谢过程中重要的酶类,如乙醇脱氢酶(ADH)、乙醛脱氢酶(ALDH)、谷胱甘肽过氧化氢酶(GSH-PX)等。以酒精、四氯化碳(CCl4)、左旋半乳糖胺(D-GaIN)和脂多糖(LPS)等引发的肝损伤模型实验证明,北枳楔具有保肝作用,在一定程度上使得肝功能维持在正常的水平。本文对近年来有关北枳棋解酒保肝作用的研究进展进行了综述。%Hovenia dulcis is one of the classical chinese herbs for antialcoholism and liver protection. Recent researches showed that Ho venia dulcis could prolong ebriety time, shorten sleep time induced by intoxication, accelerate alcohol metabolism, inhibit muscle relaxation caused by ethanol, and activate important enzymes during alcohol metabolism, such as ADH, ALDH, GSHPX. Experiments on models of liver injury caused by alcohol, CC14, D GAIN, LPS and so on showed Hovenia dulcis had the liver protection effect and could maintain the liver function on the normal level to some extent. This paper reviewed recent researches on antialcoholism and liver protection effect of Hove nia dulcis.

  14. Practice habits and attitudes and behaviors concerning shoulder pain in high school competitive club swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibberd, Elizabeth E; Myers, Joseph B

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study is to describe the practice habits, injury frequency, and attitudes and behaviors concerning shoulder pain in high school-aged competitive swimmers and describe the relationship between attitudes and behaviors. Cross-sectional research design. Local swimming clubs. One hundred two swimmers, aged 13-18 years, at the top training level of their club team were included in the study. Participants were given a survey with questions regarding swimming practice and attitudes and behaviors concerning shoulder pain. Practice habits (yards/week, practice/week, dry-land and weight/week, and months swimming/year) and attitudes and behaviors concerning shoulder pain. Subjects completed an average of 6.89 ± 1.41 swimming practices/wk of 6000 to 7000 yd/practice. The majority of swimmers believe that mild and moderate shoulder pain is normal in swimming and should be tolerated to complete practice, while a majority responded that they swim with shoulder pain. Seventy-three percent of swimmers reported using pain medication to manage their shoulder pain. There was a significant correlation between attitude and behaviors of moderate and severe shoulder pain. Club swimmers have a high frequency of practices, comparable to collegiate and professional swimmers. They believe that shoulder pain is normal and should be tolerated to complete practice. The association between the swimmers' attitudes and behaviors indicates that the interventions that educate the swimmers, coaches, and parents may be effective in changing their attitudes and ultimately their behaviors, decreasing the number of athletes who train with shoulder pain.

  15. The effect of the FIRST Robotics Competition on high school students' attitudes toward science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Anita G.

    This study measured the impact of participation in the FIRST Robotics Competition on student attitude toward science using the seven attitudinal categories of the TOSRA survey. Specifically, it was anticipated that students' participating in FIRST Robotics would have a statistically significant increase in attitudes and interests in the seven categories related to attitudes toward science. It was further anticipated that gender, ethnicity, age, location of high school, and performance in science classes would be related to their views of science. A convenience sample of students from the greater Kansas City metropolitan area was used in this study. Data were colleted using the Test of Science Related Attitudes (TORSA) pre- and post-survey. Student participants completed the pre-survey in December 2006, just prior to the beginning of the six-week build season. Students completed the post-survey at the end of the build season and prior to attending regional competitions. Data was collected from students participating in FIRST Robotics and from a comparison group of students from the same school not participating in FIRST Robotics. The effect of the FIRST Robotics Competition, as evaluated in this study, did provide statistically significant outcomes in four of the seven primary areas examined: Social Implication of Science, Normality of Scientists, Attitude to Scientific Inquiry, and Adoption of Scientific Attitudes. The study did not reflect an effect on a change of attitude toward science based on gender, ethnicity, length of time associated with a team, or location of the high school. This study does offer some evidence that the FIRST Robotics Competition has an attitudinal impact on students regarding views toward science.

  16. Gender differences in high school coaches' knowledge, attitudes, and communication about the female athlete triad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroshus, Emily; Sherman, Roberta T; Thompson, Ron A; Sossin, Karen; Austin, S Bryn

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess high school coaches' knowledge, attitudes, communication, and management decisions with respect to the Female Athlete Triad and to determine whether results are patterned by coach gender. Data were obtained through an online survey of high school coaches (n = 227). Significant differences were found between male and female coaches in certain attitudes and communication behaviors related to eating and menstrual irregularity. School or district level policies may help reduce these differences and may help mitigate the health consequences for athletes related to possible differential prevention and detection of the comorbidities of the Female Athlete Triad.

  17. Surveying Turkish high school and university student attitudes and approaches to physics problem solving

    CERN Document Server

    Balta, Nuri; Singh, Chandralekha

    2016-01-01

    Student attitudes and approaches to problem solving can impact how well they learn physics. Prior research in the US using a validated Attitude and Approaches to Problem Solving (AAPS) survey suggests that there are major differences between students in introductory physics and astronomy courses and physics experts in terms of their attitudes and approaches to physics problem solving. Here we discuss the validation, administration and analysis of data for the Turkish version of the AAPS survey for high school and university students in Turkey. After the validation and administration of the Turkish version of the survey, the analysis of the data was conducted by grouping the data by grade level, school type, and gender. While there are no statistically significant differences between the averages of various groups on the survey, overall, the university students in Turkey were more expert-like than vocational high school students. On an item by item basis, there are statistically differences between the average...

  18. Relationship of constructivist learning environment to student attitudes and achievement in high school mathematics and science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dethlefs, Theresa Marie

    This study investigated the relationship of constructivist learning environment and standards-based teaching practices to student achievement and attitudes (self-efficacy, intrinsic value, and learning strategies) in Algebra and Biology. Further, these relationships were examined as a function of student gender and prior achievement. A purposive sample of 804 high school students enrolled in Biology I, Algebra I, or Advanced Algebra was selected for inclusion in this study. Although the dimensions of constructivist learning environment that contributed to predicting student achievement and attitudes varied by content area and criterion, the results of the present study generally provide strong support for a positive relationship between constructivist learning environment and student attitudes, but little support for a direct relationship to student achievement. Teacher reports of overall constructivist learning environment were not correlated with achievement or attitudes. Observer reports of constructivist learning environment were correlated with student intrinsic value and learning strategies. Student reports of constructivist learning environment were correlated with all three attitude measures. Multiple regression findings showed that neither overall constructivist learning environment nor standards-based teaching practices predicted achievement in any of the content areas. Overall constructivist learning environment and standards-based teaching practices were significant positive predictors of student intrinsic value and learning strategies in all three content areas, after controlling for student and classroom demographic variables. Overall constructivist learning environment and standards-based teaching practices were also significant positive predictors of self-efficacy in Algebra 1. In addition, standards-based teaching practices was a significant positive predictor of student self-efficacy in Biology. No specific dimensions of constructivist learning

  19. Damage of Drinking and Anti-alcohol Effect of Chinese Traditional Medicine%饮酒的危害与中药解酒之功效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺伟; 郭伶伶; 张祎; 安雅婷; 钱倩; 刘雪枫; 王涛

    2012-01-01

    Excessive drinking is harmful to the body. Alcohol and its metabolites may cause damage to liver and gastrointestinal, and result of lipid peroxides, which also made glutathione ( GSH ), superoxide dismutase ( SOD ) seriously decreased, and the content of MDA increased greatly. Some Chinese herbs which have been recorded of anti-alcohol activity for a long period with a little side effect, good compliance characters, showed a broad prospect for usage. In this research we discussed the damage mechanism caused by alcohol of drinking and the protection of Chinese herbs.%饮酒过量会对机体产生危害,乙醇及其代谢产物会对肝脏、胃肠道造成一定的损伤并产生脂质过氧化物,使机体还原型谷胱甘肽( GSH)、超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)含量显著降低,丙二醛(MDA)含量显著升高.一些中草药自古就有解酒功效的记载,中草药制剂毒副作用小、依从性好,有广阔的应用前景.本论文对饮酒造成的乙醇机体损伤机制以及中草药对乙醇损伤的保护作用进行了综述.

  20. The Attitudes of Social Programs Students in Vocational High Schools Towards the Use of Information Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emel BAHAR

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation and internalization of innovations in science and technology, business processes and education system in an easy way depend on the attitudes of individuals. In the study, it is intended to determine whether there is a relationship between the arguments such as the subject, college, department, gender, computer usage, internet access facilities of the students' enrolled in social programs of vocational high school and their attitudes towards information technology, or not. The data were obtained by applying questionnaires to 884 students studying in business administration, logistics, marketing, tourism, accounting, Office management and executive assistance programs at Çukurova, Mersin, Kırıkkale and Abant İzzet Baysal Universities. As a result of the research, statistically significant relationships were determined between the attitudes of the students of social sciences toward information technology and their subject, college, department and gender.

  1. Relationship among Family Support, Love Attitude, and Well-Being of Junior High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ho-tang; Chou, Mei-ju; Chen, Wei-hung; Tu, Chin-Tang

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to analyze the correlation between family support, love attitude, and well-being of junior high school students. After analyzing related literature, it is found that demographic variables like gender, grade, family structure, socioeconomic position have difference in perception of well-being. In addition, family support and love…

  2. Correlates of Attitudes Favorable to Racial Discrimination Among High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Bruce A.; And Others

    The behavior-specific attitude "tendency to discriminate" is distinguished from the general tendency toward negative stereotyping (prejudice). Thirteen independent variables are evaluated as predictors of this tendency. Subjects were students in a racially integrated high school in the Pacific Northwest. Among white students, the most significant…

  3. The Attitudes of Negro High School Students in Kansas City, Missouri: A Preliminary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiddmont, Norman; Levine, Daniel U.

    This report evaluates a questionnaire submitted to 529 economically disadvantaged black high school students in Kansas City, Missouri. The questionnaire was designed to assess attitudes in the following areas: value placed on education and its importance for one's future; interracial relationships, the Black Power movement, and violence; interest…

  4. The Analysis on Sport Attitudes of Students at High School Education in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalay, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    The research objective is to determine different variables on sport attitudes of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th grade high school students throughout Turkey. Data were collected using face to face survey method with students studying in 21 provinces within seven different geographical regions of Turkey. 5862 randomized students are selected throughout…

  5. The Chemistry Teaching Program for Developing the Senior High School Students' Entrepreneurial Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susianna, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to identify the characteristics and effectiveness of chemistry teaching programs that increase students' entrepreneurial attitudes, chemistry concepts understanding and creativity. The research design application refers to the R & D (Research and Development) Design. Seventy-three senior high school students…

  6. High School Students' Perceptions of and Attitudes towards Teacher Power in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutrouba, Konstantina; Baxevanou, Eleni; Koutroumpas, Athanasios

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines Greek High School students' perceptions of and attitudes towards their teachers' power, from findings produced during a questionnaire-based study conducted in the period 2010-2011, with the participation of 1076 students attending 68 schools across Greece. Greek students provided information on how their teachers exert…

  7. High School Spanish Teachers' Attitudes and Practices toward Spanish Heritage Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Brittany D.; Kuriscak, Lisa M.

    2015-01-01

    This case study uses survey data to examine the attitudes and pedagogical practices of preservice and current high school Spanish teachers toward Spanish heritage language learners (HLLs). The research questions addressed were (1) the extent to which participants were aware of the challenges facing Spanish HLLs who are enrolled in traditional…

  8. The Role of High School History Teachers on University Students' Attitudes toward History Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köse, Meliha

    2017-01-01

    This study is a qualitative case study aimed at revealing the roles of high school history teachers on university students' attitudes towards history courses. The study group consists of 30 teacher candidates studying in the department of social sciences and mathematics teaching of a faculty of education at a university in the Western Black Sea.…

  9. High School Spanish Teachers' Attitudes and Practices toward Spanish Heritage Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Brittany D.; Kuriscak, Lisa M.

    2015-01-01

    This case study uses survey data to examine the attitudes and pedagogical practices of preservice and current high school Spanish teachers toward Spanish heritage language learners (HLLs). The research questions addressed were (1) the extent to which participants were aware of the challenges facing Spanish HLLs who are enrolled in traditional…

  10. An Examination of University Agricultural Education Faculty Attitudes toward the Implementation of High Impact Learning Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphrey, Theresa Pesl; Odom, Summer F.; Sledd, James

    2016-01-01

    Meaningful learning is a goal across the broad field of agricultural education and high impact learning (HIL) experiences are a mechanism to facilitate that goal. The purpose of this study was to examine university agricultural education faculty attitudes toward the implementation of HIL. Faculty (n=85) from 10 agricultural education departments…

  11. Economic Thinking in China: Economic Knowledge and Attitudes of High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ruth; Shen, T. Y.

    1993-01-01

    Reports on a study of economic knowledge and attitudes of 873 upper secondary school, Chinese students. Finds that Chinese students performed better than northern California students on the Test of Economic Literacy. Concludes that the relatively high level of economic knowledge and the impact of Western economic ideas will encourage further…

  12. ESTADIUS: A High Motion "One Arcsec" Daytime Attitude Estimation System for Stratospheric Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montel, J.; Andre, Y.; Mirc, F.; Etcheto, P.; Evrard, J.; Bray, N.; Saccoccio, M.; Tomasini, L.; Perot, E.

    2015-09-01

    ESTADIUS is an autonomous, accurate and daytime attitude estimation system, for stratospheric balloons that require a high level of attitude measurement and stability. The system has been developed by CNES. ESTADIUS is based on star sensor an pyrometer data fusion within an extended Kalman filter. The star sensor is composed of a 16 MPixels visible-CCD camera and a large aperture camera lens (focal length of 135mm, aperture f/1.8, 10ºx15º field of view or FOV) which provides very accurate stars measurements due to very low pixel angular size. This also allows detecting stars against a bright sky background. The pyrometer is a 0.01º/h performance class Fiber Optic Gyroscope (FOG). The system is adapted to work down to an altitude of ~25km, even under high cinematic conditions. Key elements of ESTADIUS are: daytime conditions use (as well as night time), autonomy (automatic recognition of constellations), high angular rate robustness (a few deg/s thanks to the high performance of attitude propagation), stray-light robustness (thanks to a high performance baffle), high accuracy (<1", 1σ). Four stratospheric qualification flights were very successfully performed in 2010/2011 and 2013/2014 in Kiruna (Sweden) and Timmins (Canada). ESTADIUS will allow long stratospheric flights with a unique attitude estimation system avoiding the restriction of night/day conditions at launch. The first operational flight of ESTADIUS will be in 2015 for the PILOT scientific missions (led by IRAP and CNES in France). Further balloon missions such as CIDRE will use the system ESTADIUS is probably the first autonomous, large FOV, daytime stellar attitude measurement system. This paper details the technical features and in-flight results.

  13. Using the TOSRA to Assess High School Students' Attitudes toward Science after Competing in the FIRST Robotics Competition: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Anita G.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined high school students' attitudes toward science after participating in a robotics competition. Specifically, this study used the Test of Science Related Attitudes (TOSRA) to measure students' attitudes toward science in seven categories: Social Implications of Science, Normality of Scientists, Attitude toward Scientific Inquiry,…

  14. Reproductive Health Knowledge, Attitude and Practice among High ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study revealed that the students had high level knowledge of ... to services, carelessness, unplanned sexual intercourse and pressure from sexual partner. ... We recommend improved access to family planning information and services ...

  15. Attitudes toward Sexuality among High School Students in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Suzui, Emiko; Hiraoka, Atsuko

    2007-01-01

    I invited groups of adolescent students to whom I had given sexual education talks to e-mail me their questions. Respondents were composed of 1,267 high schoolers (512 boys and 755 girls) from 3 high schools. The survey was conducted for 9 months, between July 2003 and April 2004 and covered 169 e-mails, 87 from boys and 82 from girls. The questions reflected the respective gender traits. The boys indicated worries over physiological and psychological aspects of sex, but the bulk of their que...

  16. High-risk driving attitudes and everyday driving violations of car and racing enthusiasts in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim-Yenier, Zümrüt; Vingilis, Evelyn; Wiesenthal, David L; Mann, Robert E; Seeley, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Attitudes and individual difference variables of car and racing enthusiasts regarding high-risk behaviors of street racing and stunt driving have recently been investigated. Positive attitudes toward high-risk driving, personality variables such as driver thrill seeking, and other self-reported risky driving acts were associated with these behaviors. However, probable relationships among high-risk driving tendencies, everyday driving behaviors, and negative road safety outcomes have remained largely unexamined. This study aimed to investigate the associations among car and racing enthusiasts' high-risk driving attitudes, self-reported everyday driving violations (i.e., ordinary and aggressive violations), and self-reported negative outcomes (i.e., collisions and driving offense citations). A web-based survey was conducted with members and visitors of car club and racing websites in Ontario, Canada. Data were obtained from 366 participants. The questionnaire included 4 attitude measures-(1) attitudes toward new penalties for Ontario's Street Racers, Stunt and Aggressive Drivers Legislation; (2) attitudes toward new offenses of stunt driving under the same legislation; (3) general attitudes toward street racing and stunt driving; (4) comparison of street racing with other risky driving behaviors-self-reported driving violations (i.e., ordinary and aggressive violations); self-reported collisions and offense citations; and background and driving questions (e.g., age, driving frequency). Results revealed that attitudes toward stunt driving offenses negatively and general attitudes toward street racing and stunt driving positively predicted ordinary violations, which, in turn, predicted offense citations. Moreover, general attitudes toward street racing and stunt driving positively predicted aggressive violations, which, in turn, predicted offense citations. The findings indicate that positive high-risk driving attitudes may be transferring to driving violations in

  17. Plate Waste and Attitudes among High School Lunch Program Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Jessica; Cunningham-Sabo, Leslie; Auld, Garry

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine: (1) What foods high school students participating in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) are discarding the most? (2) How much of these foods they are discarding? and (3) What are their perceptions towards school lunch? Methods: Researchers measured plate waste at two high…

  18. Plate Waste and Attitudes among High School Lunch Program Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Jessica; Cunningham-Sabo, Leslie; Auld, Garry

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine: (1) What foods high school students participating in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) are discarding the most? (2) How much of these foods they are discarding? and (3) What are their perceptions towards school lunch? Methods: Researchers measured plate waste at two high…

  19. Saudi high school students’ attitudes and barriers toward the use of computer technologies in learning English

    OpenAIRE

    Sabti, Ahmed Abdulateef; Chaichan, Rasha Sami

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the attitudes of Saudi Arabian high school students toward the use of computer technologies in learning English. The study also discusses the possible barriers that affect and limit the actual usage of computers. Quantitative approach is applied in this research, which involved 30 Saudi Arabia students of a high school in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The respondents comprised 15 males and 15 females with ages between 16 years and 18 years. Two instruments, namely, Scale of Atti...

  20. Relationships between Post-materialistic Values and Religiousness, Attitudes towards Nationalism, and Attitudes towards Gender Roles among High School Students in the City of Split

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Sinovčić

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available According to Inglehart's modernisation theory, socio-economic growth leads to changes in values. Following a longer period of economic growth, a gradual change from materialistic to post-materialistic values is established. The main goal of this study, which is based on Inglehart's theory, was to assess the relationship between post-materialistic values on one side and religiousness, attitudes towards nationalism, and attitudes towards gender roles on the other among high school students in the city of Split. The research was conducted on a convenience sample of 427 high school students from Split (there were 269 female students and 158 male students with the average age of 17 years. The results indicated that the students from the sample had mixed materialistic and post-materialistic values. Statistically significant differences were found between male and female students in all measured variables. For this reason, analyses were conducted separately by gender. Using multiple regression analysis, it was established that the model with post-materialistic values as the outcome was statistically significant regardless of gender. Discriminative analysis additionally showed that the measured attitudes discriminated groups of students with different levels of post-materialistic values (most prominently, attitudes towards gender roles and religiousness among female students, and attitudes towards nationalism and gender roles among male students. The main finding of the study was that of a difference between male and female students in terms of measured religiousness and two sets of attitudes, as well as gender differences in the relationship between the measured religiousness and the measured attitudes on one side and post-materialistic values on the other. Higher post-materialistic values were associated with lower religiousness among female students and lower acceptance of nationalism among male students.

  1. How attitudes and beliefs about physics change from high school to faculty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon P. Bates*

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We present results of a pseudolongitudinal study of attitudes and beliefs about physics from different cohort groups ranging from final-year high school students in the UK to physics faculty (N=637, using the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS instrument. In terms of overall degree of expertlike thinking, we find little change in cohorts at different stages of their undergraduate degrees, with a flat profile of expertlike thinking across the years of an undergraduate degree. Significant differences in overall CLASS scores occur for cohorts across entry and exit points of the undergraduate program. At the entry boundary, our data for high school students provides strong evidence of a selection effect, with students who intend to major in physics at university displaying more expertlike views than those students who are merely studying the subject to final year in high school. A similar effect is suggested at the exit boundary but is not definitive.

  2. An Academic Survey Concerning High School and University Students' Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving in Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Muharrem

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to reveal differences between attitudes and approaches of students from different types of high school and the first grade of university towards problem solving in chemistry. For this purpose, the scale originally developed by Mason and Singh (2010) to measure students' attitude and approaches towards problem solving in…

  3. Undergraduate Student Attitudes and Perceptions toward Low- and High-Level Inquiry Exercise Physiology Teaching Laboratory Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henige, Kim

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to compare student attitudes toward two different science laboratory learning experiences, specifically, traditional, cookbook-style, low-inquiry level (LL) activities and a high-inquiry level (HL) investigative project. In addition, we sought to measure and compare students' science-related attitudes and…

  4. Undergraduate Student Attitudes and Perceptions toward Low- and High-Level Inquiry Exercise Physiology Teaching Laboratory Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henige, Kim

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to compare student attitudes toward two different science laboratory learning experiences, specifically, traditional, cookbook-style, low-inquiry level (LL) activities and a high-inquiry level (HL) investigative project. In addition, we sought to measure and compare students' science-related attitudes and…

  5. Surveying Turkish high school and university students’ attitudes and approaches to physics problem solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuri Balta

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Students’ attitudes and approaches to physics problem solving can impact how well they learn physics and how successful they are in solving physics problems. Prior research in the U.S. using a validated Attitude and Approaches to Problem Solving (AAPS survey suggests that there are major differences between students in introductory physics and astronomy courses and physics experts in terms of their attitudes and approaches to physics problem solving. Here we discuss the validation, administration, and analysis of data for the Turkish version of the AAPS survey for high school and university students in Turkey. After the validation and administration of the Turkish version of the survey, the analysis of the data was conducted by grouping the data by grade level, school type, and gender. While there are no statistically significant differences between the averages of various groups on the survey, overall, the university students in Turkey were more expertlike than vocational high school students. On an item by item basis, there are statistically differences between the averages of the groups on many items. For example, on average, the university students demonstrated less expertlike attitudes about the role of equations and formulas in problem solving, in solving difficult problems, and in knowing when the solution is not correct, whereas they displayed more expertlike attitudes and approaches on items related to metacognition in physics problem solving. A principal component analysis on the data yields item clusters into which the student responses on various survey items can be grouped. A comparison of the responses of the Turkish and American university students enrolled in algebra-based introductory physics courses shows that on more than half of the items, the responses of these two groups were statistically significantly different, with the U.S. students on average responding to the items in a more expertlike manner.

  6. Surveying Turkish high school and university students' attitudes and approaches to physics problem solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balta, Nuri; Mason, Andrew J.; Singh, Chandralekha

    2016-06-01

    Students' attitudes and approaches to physics problem solving can impact how well they learn physics and how successful they are in solving physics problems. Prior research in the U.S. using a validated Attitude and Approaches to Problem Solving (AAPS) survey suggests that there are major differences between students in introductory physics and astronomy courses and physics experts in terms of their attitudes and approaches to physics problem solving. Here we discuss the validation, administration, and analysis of data for the Turkish version of the AAPS survey for high school and university students in Turkey. After the validation and administration of the Turkish version of the survey, the analysis of the data was conducted by grouping the data by grade level, school type, and gender. While there are no statistically significant differences between the averages of various groups on the survey, overall, the university students in Turkey were more expertlike than vocational high school students. On an item by item basis, there are statistically differences between the averages of the groups on many items. For example, on average, the university students demonstrated less expertlike attitudes about the role of equations and formulas in problem solving, in solving difficult problems, and in knowing when the solution is not correct, whereas they displayed more expertlike attitudes and approaches on items related to metacognition in physics problem solving. A principal component analysis on the data yields item clusters into which the student responses on various survey items can be grouped. A comparison of the responses of the Turkish and American university students enrolled in algebra-based introductory physics courses shows that on more than half of the items, the responses of these two groups were statistically significantly different, with the U.S. students on average responding to the items in a more expertlike manner.

  7. AIDS awareness and attitudes among Yemeni young people living in high-risk areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Serouri, A W; Anaam, M; Al-Iryani, B; Al Deram, A; Ramaroson, S

    2010-03-01

    Despite te low rate of infection in Yemen, there are concerns about the possible spread of HIV among high-risk and vulnerable groups. A community-based study was made in 2005 of AIDS awareness and attitudes among 601 young people aged 15-24 years from low-income, high-risk neighbourhoods in Aden. Young people lacked proper information about HIV/AIDS. Although 89% had heard of AIDS, fewer (46%) could name 3 ways of transmission or 3 ways to avoid infection (28%). Misconceptions about modes of transmissions were prevalent and many young people believed that they faced little or no risk. There were intolerant attitudes towards AIDS patients. About half the young people knew that prostitution and homosexuality existed in their area.

  8. The Effects Of Grade Level, Gender, And Ethnicity On Attitude And Learning Environment In Mathematics In High School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thienhuong N. Hoang

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate different factors (grade level, gender, and ethnicity that might affect the attitudes and learning environment perceptions of high school mathematics students in Los Angeles County, California, USA. The study involved the administration of the administration of the What Is Happening In This Class? (WIHIC questionnaire and an attitude questionnaire based on the Test of Mathematics-Related Attitude (TOMRA to 600 Grades 9 and 10 mathematics students in 30 classes in one high school. Quantitative research method was used in collecting information from the sample. The quantitative data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and MANOVA. The results showed that male consistently reported slightly more positive perceptions of classroom environment and attitudes than did females. Anglo students’ scores consistently are a little higher than Hispanic students’ scores. There is strong evidence of associations between students’ attitudes and the learning environment.

  9. On the Elastic Vibration Model for High Length-Diameter Ratio Rocket with Attitude Control System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱伯立; 杨树兴

    2003-01-01

    An elastic vibration model for high length-diameter ratio spinning rocket with attitude control system which can be used for trajectory simulation is established. The basic theory of elastic dynamics and vibration dynamics were both used to set up the elastic vibration model of rocket body. In order to study the problem more conveniently, the rocket's body was simplified to be an even beam with two free ends. The model was validated by simulation results and the test data.

  10. Examining The College and High School Students` Attitudes towards Internet Use According to Different Variables

    OpenAIRE

    Kahyaoğlu, Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    The Purpose of this study is to determine the attitudes of the college and high students, who studied in the department of Primary Teacher Education and department of Computer and Instruction Technlogy Education, towards internet use in the aspect of different variabes. This study involved 665 students, who studied in the department of primary teacher education and department of computer and instruction technlogy education in Siirt University during 2010-2011 academic year. In the study was u...

  11. The relationship of high school students' attitudes towards creation and evolution with the students' worldview philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Donald David, Jr.

    This prospectus examines the relationship of high school students' attitudes toward creation and evolution with the student's worldview philosophy. Chapter 1 presents the purpose of the research, which is to discover if there is a positive correlation in the relationship of high school students' attitudes toward creation and evolution and other aspects of worldview such as politics, economics, education, religion, and social issues. Also, the study will examine the frequency and comparative magnitude of the worldviews of homeschool, public school and Christian school students. Chapter 2 surveys precedents in the literature that are appropriate to the study. The significant literature to the study begins with the analysis of the relevant theological presuppositions pertaining to the topics of creation, evolution, and worldview. The analysis then moves to the literature on the relevant educational assumptions, which include theories, philosophies and practices related to high school students' attitudes toward creation and evolution with worldviews. Chapter 3 describes the methodological design for the study. Included in the chapter are the selection and profile of the sample, the selection and development of the instruments, namely the Creationist Worldview Test developed by Steve Deckard, and the PEERS Test---a worldview opinion survey developed by the Nehemiah Institute. Finally, the step-by-step protocol used in gathering the data completes the section. Chapter 4 presents the analysis of the data developed from the responses to the Creationist Worldview Test and the PEERS Test provided by the Nehemiah Institute and by the researcher. Profiles of each of the subgroups will be provided along with comparative analysis of the profiles. Concluding the chapter are summaries of profiles and comparative analysis. Chapter 5 presents a summary of the data describes the relationship of high school students' attitudes toward creation and evolution with the student's worldview

  12. Mentoring highly aggressive children: pre-post changes in mentors' attitudes, personality, and attachment tendencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faith, Melissa A; Fiala, Samuel E; Cavell, Timothy A; Hughes, Jan N

    2011-12-01

    This study examined the degree to which mentoring highly aggressive children was associated with changes in mentors' attitudes, personality, and attachment tendencies. Participants were 102 college students who each mentored an aggressive, high-risk child across three academic semesters (spring, fall, spring). We examined pre- to post-mentoring changes in attitudes about mentoring efficacy and future parenting, Big Five personality characteristics, and attachment tendencies. Mentors also rated the impact of the mentoring relationship in their lives, and both mentors and mentees rated support of the mentoring relationship. Results indicated a statistically significant decrease over time in mentors' ratings of self-efficacy, openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, and agreeableness. These findings held even when controlling for ratings of relationship impact. However, mentors who rated the mentoring relationship as supportive tended to experience increased openness, conscientiousness, and agreeableness and less attachment-related avoidance over time. Child-rated support negatively predicted mentors' post-mentoring attitudes toward future parenting. Discussed are the potential costs of mentoring highly aggressive children and strategies that could help increase benefits to mentors.

  13. A comparison of Massachusetts and Texas high school biology teachers' attitudes towards the teaching of evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howarth, Richard T.

    Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection is considered to be the unifying theory for all life sciences (American Association for the Advancement of Science, AAAS, 1990; National Academy of Sciences, 1998; National Research Council, NRC, 1996; National Science Teachers Association, NSTA, 2010a) and as such, the biology topic has been established as a central learning standard by the National Science Education Science Standards (NSES, 2005). The purpose of this study was to compare how Massachusetts and Texas high school biology teachers' attitudes toward the teaching of evolution differ as compared to other biology topics. Texas and Massachusetts are two states that exemplify standards based education yet differ dramatically in their histories surrounding the topic of evolution. A survey was conducted among 217 Massachusetts and 139 Texas in-service high school biology teachers to help provide a sense of the phenomena surrounding biology teachers in respect to how their attitudes towards the teaching of evolution are shaped. Additionally, an open-ended question was asked to help contextualize the results of the survey between teachers of these two states. The findings in this study suggest that community appears to be a powerful persuasive message and socialization experience that shapes the development of attitudes towards evolution for some educators, especially when it is highly intertwined with religion. For biology teachers in the state of Texas, the synergistic result of this relationship has resulted in statistically significant differences in regards to attitudes towards evolution as compared to teachers in Massachusetts. These findings yield implications regarding scientific literacy, student learning, assessment, the quality of science instruction, curriculum, undergraduate biology programs, and the needs of biology teachers in terms of professional development.

  14. Grappling with the issue of homosexuality: perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs among high school students in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mucherah W

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Winnie Mucherah,1 Elizabeth Owino,2 Kaleigh McCoy,1 1Department of Educational Psychology, Ball State University, Muncie, IN, USA, 2Department of Educational Psychology, Moi University, Eldoret, Kenya Abstract: While the past decade has seen an improvement in attitudes toward homosexuality, negative attitudes are still prevalent in many parts of the world. In general, increased levels of education tend to be predictive of relatively positive attitudes toward homosexuality. However, in most sub-Saharan countries, it is still believed that people are born heterosexual and that nonheterosexuals are social deviants who should be prosecuted. One such country is Kenya, where homosexuality is illegal and attracts a fine or jail term. The purpose of this study was to examine high school students’ perceptions of homosexuality in Kenya. The participants included 1,250 high school students who completed a questionnaire on perceptions of homosexuality. The results showed that 41% claimed homosexuality is practiced in schools and 61% believed homosexuality is practiced mostly in single-sex boarding schools. Consistently, 52% believed sexual starvation to be the main cause of homosexuality. Also, 95% believed homosexuality is abnormal, 60% believed students who engage in homosexuality will not change to heterosexuality after school, 64% believed prayers can stop homosexuality, and 86% believed counseling can change students’ sexual orientation. The consequences for homosexuality included punishment (66%, suspension from school (61%, and expulsion from school (49%. Significant gender and grade differences were found. The implications of the study findings are discussed. Keywords: homosexuality, attitudes, beliefs, high school, Kenya

  15. Attitudes towards genetics: a case study among Brazilian high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massarani, Luisa; Moreira, Ildeu de Castro

    2005-04-01

    The objective of our study was to investigate young people's attitudes towards modern genetics and biotechnology. Quantitative and qualitative studies were conducted among high school students in Rio de Janeiro. These included a survey of students in nine public and private schools as well as focus groups for a complementary analysis of their attitudes and perceptions with respect to these subjects. We observe that, in general, students are relatively well informed about some of the main issues related to the applications of genetics. In their assessment of the utility, the potential risks, and the need for encouragement of the different techniques used in genetic manipulation, they were able to make clear distinctions between the different purposes of each technique. Most students believed that transgenic food could be useful and that it should be encouraged, but they were also aware that there were risks involved. Furthermore, the students were strongly supportive of the labeling of transgenic food.

  16. Attitudes of elementary, middle and high school teachers toward mainstreaming: implications for job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, E; Lombardo, V

    1987-01-01

    Little attention has been paid to the job satisfaction experienced by human services personnel, including classroom teachers. This study examines teacher's response to postal questionnaires seeking information about job satisfaction and attitudes to the mainstreaming of children with special needs. Results suggest that teachers at secondary or high school level experience lower job satisfaction than those working in middle or elementary schools. Comparison between teachers with or without experiences of mainstreaming reveals further differences between these groups with regard to their attitude toward the value of special educator involvement in the classroom; the importance of special assessments; discipline; the role of mainstreaming in enhancing peer relationships; and appreciation of school administrators' awareness of the implications of mainstreaming.

  17. Determinants of drug abuse in high school students and their related knowledge and attitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geramian, Nahid; Akhavan, Shohreh; Gharaat, Leila; Tehrani, Afsaneh Malekpour; Farajzadegan, Ziba

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the current study is to evaluate the knowledge and attitude of high school students toward addicting drugs. Thus, the interventions, which are more appropriate for this age group can be designed and applied. This cross-sectional study was carried out in 2009 in Isfahan province. The study population was high school students, who were randomly selected by multi-stage cluster sampling. The evaluation tool was an author-devised questionnaire, which was filled out by the students. The data obtained was analyzed using SPSS software, version 16. Among 6998 students who filled out the questionnaire, 50.1% were female. The mean knowledge scores were 58.7 +/- 10.3 and 57.9 +/- 10.2 for girls and boys, respectively, which were significantly different (p = 0.002). Considering the scores students obtained in attitude toward inclination to drug abuse, the most important factors in this regard were parents' divorce, familial conflicts, seeking pleasure, adolescents' curiosity, availability of the drugs, peer pressure, low levels of self-confidence, psychological disorders, and strict parents. With respect to the results obtained, promoting the knowledge and modifying the attitude of students, and increasing their self-confidence particularly in schools can play an important role in decreasing drug abuse in this age group. Moreover, policymakers should consider the strategies, which can support the family structure and reduce the harms in unstable families.

  18. Knowledge and Attitude Toward Corneal Donation Among High School Children in Northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Parul Chawla; Duggal, Mona; Jamir, Limalemla; Sharma, Drishti; Kankaria, Ankita; Sathyanath, Shreyaswi; Kaur, Rupinder; Rana, Kirtan; Ram, Jagat

    2017-05-01

    To assess the knowledge and attitude of school-going adolescents regarding corneal donation in government and private schools in an urban area of Northern India. A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted in an urban field practice area of Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh, India. A total of 365 participants of the seventh to 10th grade were enrolled from a government school and a private school. A pretested, semistructured, self-administered, bilingual (English and Hindi) questionnaire was used to assess the sociodemographic profile and knowledge and attitude related to corneal donation. Most (87%) (confidence interval, 83.1%-90.0%) participants had heard about corneal donation. Only 2% of students answered all the knowledge-related questions correctly. None knew about the national toll-free number for corneal donation. Three-fourth (72%) supported the idea of corneal donation. Of them, only 44% (confidence interval, 41.0-47.1) were willing to pledge to donate their own eyes. Fears and myths were the persistent barriers. The government and private schools differed in both knowledge and attitude, with the latter performing better. Knowledge among the selected high school children was poor. Although many supported the idea, only a few were willing to donate. We suggest that program components be evaluated from time to time. Future studies should explore the role of strengthening Information Education and Communication (IEC) activities among high school students for motivating community members to pledge to donate for corneal donation.

  19. Grappling with the issue of homosexuality: perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs among high school students in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucherah, Winnie; Owino, Elizabeth; McCoy, Kaleigh

    2016-01-01

    While the past decade has seen an improvement in attitudes toward homosexuality, negative attitudes are still prevalent in many parts of the world. In general, increased levels of education tend to be predictive of relatively positive attitudes toward homosexuality. However, in most sub-Saharan countries, it is still believed that people are born heterosexual and that nonheterosexuals are social deviants who should be prosecuted. One such country is Kenya, where homosexuality is illegal and attracts a fine or jail term. The purpose of this study was to examine high school students’ perceptions of homosexuality in Kenya. The participants included 1,250 high school students who completed a questionnaire on perceptions of homosexuality. The results showed that 41% claimed homosexuality is practiced in schools and 61% believed homosexuality is practiced mostly in single-sex boarding schools. Consistently, 52% believed sexual starvation to be the main cause of homosexuality. Also, 95% believed homosexuality is abnormal, 60% believed students who engage in homosexuality will not change to heterosexuality after school, 64% believed prayers can stop homosexuality, and 86% believed counseling can change students’ sexual orientation. The consequences for homosexuality included punishment (66%), suspension from school (61%), and expulsion from school (49%). Significant gender and grade differences were found. The implications of the study findings are discussed. PMID:27672345

  20. Grappling with the issue of homosexuality: perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs among high school students in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucherah, Winnie; Owino, Elizabeth; McCoy, Kaleigh

    2016-01-01

    While the past decade has seen an improvement in attitudes toward homosexuality, negative attitudes are still prevalent in many parts of the world. In general, increased levels of education tend to be predictive of relatively positive attitudes toward homosexuality. However, in most sub-Saharan countries, it is still believed that people are born heterosexual and that nonheterosexuals are social deviants who should be prosecuted. One such country is Kenya, where homosexuality is illegal and attracts a fine or jail term. The purpose of this study was to examine high school students' perceptions of homosexuality in Kenya. The participants included 1,250 high school students who completed a questionnaire on perceptions of homosexuality. The results showed that 41% claimed homosexuality is practiced in schools and 61% believed homosexuality is practiced mostly in single-sex boarding schools. Consistently, 52% believed sexual starvation to be the main cause of homosexuality. Also, 95% believed homosexuality is abnormal, 60% believed students who engage in homosexuality will not change to heterosexuality after school, 64% believed prayers can stop homosexuality, and 86% believed counseling can change students' sexual orientation. The consequences for homosexuality included punishment (66%), suspension from school (61%), and expulsion from school (49%). Significant gender and grade differences were found. The implications of the study findings are discussed.

  1. Three-Axis Attitude Estimation With a High-Bandwidth Angular Rate Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayard, David S.; Green, Joseph J.

    2013-01-01

    A continuing challenge for modern instrument pointing control systems is to meet the increasingly stringent pointing performance requirements imposed by emerging advanced scientific, defense, and civilian payloads. Instruments such as adaptive optics telescopes, space interferometers, and optical communications make unprecedented demands on precision pointing capabilities. A cost-effective method was developed for increasing the pointing performance for this class of NASA applications. The solution was to develop an attitude estimator that fuses star tracker and gyro measurements with a high-bandwidth angular rotation sensor (ARS). An ARS is a rate sensor whose bandwidth extends well beyond that of the gyro, typically up to 1,000 Hz or higher. The most promising ARS sensor technology is based on a magnetohydrodynamic concept, and has recently become available commercially. The key idea is that the sensor fusion of the star tracker, gyro, and ARS provides a high-bandwidth attitude estimate suitable for supporting pointing control with a fast-steering mirror or other type of tip/tilt correction for increased performance. The ARS is relatively inexpensive and can be bolted directly next to the gyro and star tracker on the spacecraft bus. The high-bandwidth attitude estimator fuses an ARS sensor with a standard three-axis suite comprised of a gyro and star tracker. The estimation architecture is based on a dual-complementary filter (DCF) structure. The DCF takes a frequency- weighted combination of the sensors such that each sensor is most heavily weighted in a frequency region where it has the lowest noise. An important property of the DCF is that it avoids the need to model disturbance torques in the filter mechanization. This is important because the disturbance torques are generally not known in applications. This property represents an advantage over the prior art because it overcomes a weakness of the Kalman filter that arises when fusing more than one rate

  2. Substance use among adolescent high school students in India: A survey of knowledge, attitude, and opinion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dechenla Tsering

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Is knowledge regarding the consequences of substance use among adolescents enough to prevent them from initiating and continuing its use, is a question that needs to be clarified further? Objective: To assess the knowledge regarding harm of use and to obtain information about attitudes among high school students. Also, to discover the opinion of substance use held by users. Materials and Methods: This was a population based cross-sectional study conducted in two high schools of West Bengal, India, among 416 students, in classes VIII, IX, and X, with no interventions. Primary outcome measurements were substance use: knowledge regarding harm, attitude, and opinion. Following this proportions and the chi-square test were used for statistical analysis. Results: Out of 416 students, 52 (12.5% used or abused any one of the substances irrespective of time and frequency in lifetime; 26 (15.1 % were among the urban students and 26 (10.7 % were among their rural counterparts. More than two-thirds (73.07% of the respondents expressed a desire to quit substance use and 57.69% had tried to stop. ′Easy availability′ and ′relief from tension′ were the most frequent reasons for continuation of substance use. Level of knowledge on harmfulness of substance use among students was very high (urban - -84.6% and rural - 61.5% and they stated media as the most frequent source of information. Users were successful in influencing their peers into taking up this habit (urban - 15.4% and rural - 26.9%. Conclusions: Inspite of being aware of the harmful effects of substance use, adolescents take up this habit. This requires comprehensive prevention and control programs in schools and the community, targeted toward adolescents and their parents and other family members. Effective measures are required to encourage shaping the attitude of school children toward self-confidence and adequacy, as also to prevent risk behavior among adolescents.

  3. A Study of Gifted High, Moderate, and Low Achievers in Their Personal Characteristics and Attitudes toward School and Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Hamour, Bashir; Al-Hmouz, Hanan

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the problem of underachievement among gifted high school students. Low achievers were compared to high and moderate achievers on their motivation, self-regulation, and attitudes toward their school and teachers. Participants were all highly able students from grades 10 and 11 in an academically selective gifted high school in…

  4. Impact of learning orientation on African American children's attitudes toward high-achieving peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marryshow, Derrick; Hurley, Eric A; Allen, Brenda A; Tyler, Kenneth M; Boykin, A Wade

    2005-01-01

    This study examined Ogbu's widely accepted thesis that African American students reject high academic achievement because they perceive its limited utility in a world where their upward mobility is constrained by racial discrimination. Boykin's psychosocial integrity model contends that Black students value high achievement but that discrepancies between their formative cultural experiences and those imposed in school lead them to reject the modes of achievement available in classrooms. Ninety Black children completed a measure of attitudes toward students who achieve via mainstream or African American cultural values. Participants rejected the mainstream achievers and embraced the African American cultural achievers. Moreover, they expected their teachers to embrace the mainstream achievers and reject those who achieved through high-verve behavior. Results suggest that Boykin's thesis is a needed refinement to Ogbu's ideas. They indicate that Black children may reject not high achievement but some of the mainstream cultural values and behaviors on which success in mainstream classrooms is made contingent.

  5. Attitudes towards Lung Cancer Screening in an Australian High-Risk Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra E. Flynn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To determine whether persons at high risk of lung cancer would participate in lung cancer screening test if available in Australia and to elicit general attitudes towards cancer screening and factors that might affect participation in a screening program. Methods. We developed a 20-item written questionnaire, based on two published telephone interview scripts, addressing attitudes towards cancer screening, perceived risk of lung cancer, and willingness to be screened for lung cancer and to undertake surgery if lung cancer were detected. The questionnaire was given to 102 current and former smokers attending the respiratory clinic and pulmonary rehabilitation programmes. Results. We gained 90 eligible responses (M:F, 69:21. Mean [SD] age was 63 [11] and smoking history was 32 [21] pack years. 95% of subjects would participate in a lung cancer screening test, and 91% of these would consider surgery if lung cancer was detected. 44% of subjects considered that they were at risk of lung cancer. This was lower in ex-smokers than in current smokers. Conclusions. There is high willingness for lung cancer screening and surgical treatment. There is underrecognition of risk among ex-smokers. This misperception could be a barrier to a successful screening or case-finding programme in Australia.

  6. Exploring Gender Differences across Elementary, Middle, and High School Students' Science and Math Attitudes and Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeGrand, Julie

    The issue of female underrespresentation in science, mathematics, engineering, and technology careers and courses has been well researched over the last several decades. However, as gender gaps in achievement close and representation becomes more equitable in certain academic domains, research has turned to social and cultural factors to explain why fewer women persist in STEM studies and careers than men. The purpose of this study was to examine gender differences in science and math attitudes and interests from elementary school, to middle school, to high school. To examine possible gender-specific shifts in students' interest and attitudes in science and math, 136 students from a suburban, public school district were surveyed at the elementary school level (N=31), middle school level (N=54), and high school level (N=51) and various constructs were used to assess the responses in accordance with expectancy-value theory. Utilizing a mixed-methods approach, a random sample of students from each grade level then participated in focus groups, and corollary themes were identified. Results from a logistical regression analysis and Mann-Whitney Test indicated that significant gender differences exist for interest, efficacy, expectancy, and value within science domains (p<.05), although these differences are not the same at each grade level or for each scientific discipline. Significant gender differences in mathematics are present only at the elementary school level.

  7. Execution of Pertinent ICT Regulations and Attitude of High School Principles in Metro Isfahan towards ICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Shahbaz

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In step with introduction of ICT in Educational system and equipping schools with computers and training teachers to use it, there is a question of why ICT application in schools is just inching ahead? It seems that the role of high school principles, their attitude as well as regulations pertinent to ICT implementation could be very effective in using computers at schools. The present investigation intends to study this. A Survey was carried using a 37 member sample randomly drawn from principles of high schools situated in the city of Isfahan that had an ICT lab. Findings indicate that principles use computer more as an office tool than a learning facilitator. Moreover, due to paucity of clear and explicit regulations governing ICT use, computer usage in schools has stumbled. This is especially so in schools where in the absence of a full time computer administrator, the existing facilities are under used. Meanwhile, principles’ attitude towards ICT was gauged as being positive

  8. Teacher and headmaster attitudes towards benchmarking and high-stakes testing in adult teaching in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Karen Bjerg

    Based on research, surveys and interviews the paper traces teacher and headmaster attitudes towards the introduction of benchmarking and high-stakes language testing introduced in the wake of a neo-liberal education policy in adult teaching for migrants in Denmark in the 2000s. The findings show...... that the majority of teachers and headmasters reject benchmarking. Meanwhile, due to both headmasters and language teachers the introduction of high stakes language testing has had an immense impact on the organization, content and quality of adult language teaching. On the one side teachers do not necessarily...... reject assessment and language tests or the fact that assessment may increase efficiency. According to the findings the introduction of high stakes testing in adult teaching on the other side has led to a range of paradoxes and negative effects such as less and diminished language competence among...

  9. High school students' scientific epistemological beliefs, self-efficacy in learning physics and attitudes toward physics: a structural equation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapucu, Serkan; Bahçivan, Eralp

    2015-05-01

    Background: There are some theoretical evidences that explain the relationships between core beliefs (i.e., epistemological beliefs) and peripheral beliefs (self-efficacy in learning) in the literature. The close relationships of such type of beliefs with attitudes are also discussed by some researchers. Constructing a model that investigates these relationships by considering theoretical and empirical evidences can empower researchers to discuss these relationships more comprehensively. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore the relationships among Turkish high school students' scientific epistemological beliefs, self-efficacy in learning physics and their attitudes toward physics. Sample: A total of 632 high school students participated in this study; however, 269 female and 229 male (a total of 498) high school students' data were used. Design and methods: Three distinct instruments that measure scientific epistemological beliefs, self-efficacy in learning physics and attitudes toward physics were combined into a unique questionnaire form and it was distributed to high school students. To explore the relationships among these variables, structural equation modeling was used. Results: The results showed that scientific epistemological belief dimensions uncovered by the nature of knowing (source and justification) significantly and positively related to both self-efficacy in learning physics and attitudes toward other important physics dimensions. Additionally, self-efficacy in learning physics significantly and positively predicted attitudes toward multiple physics dimensions (importance, comprehension and requirement). However, epistemological belief dimensions related to the nature of knowledge (certainty and development) did not have significant impact on self-efficacy in learning physics or attitudes toward physics. Conclusions: This study concludes that there are positive and significant relationships among Turkish high school students' scientific

  10. The Relationship between the Environmental Awareness, Environmental Attitude, Curiosity and Exploration in Highly Gifted Students: Structural Equation Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Saricam

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The basic purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between environmental awareness, environmental attitude, curiosity and exploration in highly gifted students with structural equation modelling. The secondary aim was to compare highly gifted and non-gifted students’ environmental awareness, environmental attitude, curiosity and exploration levels. Participants were 311 (154 highly gifted, 157 non-gifted secondary school students in Turkey who volunteered to take part in this study. All of the participants were either 13 or 14 years old, with a mean age of 13.77 years. For gathering data, Environmental Awareness Scale, Environmental Attitude Scale, Curiosity and Exploration-II were used. While analyzing the data, Pearson correlation analysis, independent samples t test, and structural equation model were used. According to the findings, highly gifted students’ environmental awareness, environmental attitude, curiosity and exploration scores were higher than non-gifted students’. Indices of Structural Equation Modelling (SEM indicated that the increase in the curiosity and exploration scores of the highly gifted children increased the environmental awareness; in this case, the environmental attitudes were affected positively.

  11. Identifying High-Risk Alcohol Users in First-Year College Students: Attitude, Intention, and Facebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pumper, Megan A; Moreno, Megan A

    2013-07-29

    It is challenging to identify older adolescents at risk for alcohol dependence. This study investigated first-year college students who scored as dependent alcohol users (DAU), and examined their alcohol use and Facebook displays. This longitudinal study recruited college students at two universities to complete a phone interview prior to college (Time 1) and one year later (Time 2). Interviews assessed lifetime and current alcohol use, and attitude (scale of 0=very negative to 6=very positive) and intention (scale of 0=not at all likely to 5=very likely) toward alcohol use. The alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT) was administered at Time 2. Facebook profiles were evaluated for the presence of references to alcohol use and intoxication/problematic drinking (I/PD) prior to and throughout the participants first year at the university. Analyses included Chi-squared tests and Wilcoxon sign rank tests. Of 315 participants in the study, a total of 21 (6.7%) of participants met criteria as a DAU at Time 2. DAUs were 54.5% female, 86.4% Caucasian, and 73.7% from University A. At Time 1 all DAUs reported lifetime alcohol use and 91.1% were current drinkers. At Time 2, 95.7% were current drinkers. At Time 1, DAU's mean attitude toward alcohol was 4.0 (SD=1.0) and mean intention was 4.0 (SD=1.4); by Time 2 attitude was 4.6 (SD=0.9), p=0.02, and intention was 4.9 (SD=0.3). At Time 1, 39.1% of DAUs displayed alcohol references on Facebook but only one referenced I/PD. By Time 2, 20 DAU profile owners (90.4%) displayed some reference to alcohol and 52.2% referenced I/PD. Findings suggest areas in which dependence could be identified early, specifically attitude towards alcohol and assessment of Facebook profiles for references to alcohol. These findings have the potential to guide future intervention efforts for this high-risk population.

  12. The association between internet addiction and disordered eating attitudes among Turkish high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpaslan, Ahmet Hamdi; Koçak, Uğur; Avci, Kadriye; Uzel Taş, Hanife

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the prevalence of disordered eating attitudes (DEAs) and internet addiction (IA) among a non-clinical sample of adolescents and to investigate the relationship between IA, DEAs, and selected socio-demographic characteristics. A total of 584 adolescents (34.8% n = 203 males and 65.2% n = 381 females) completed three instruments: the Eating Attitude Test-26 (EAT-26), the Internet Addiction Test (IAT), and a socio-demographic questionnaire. It was found that 15.2% (n = 89) of the participants have DEAs, and IA was detected in 10.1% (n = 59) of the participants. There was a statistically significant difference between the IA and non-IA groups in terms of body mass index (χ (2) = 10.31, p < 0.01). We found a significant positive correlation between the IAT and EAT-26 scores (r = 0.34, p < 0.01). The presence of DEAs, male gender, and high BMI were found to be the strongest predictor variables of IA. IA and DEAs are relatively frequent phenomena among young students in Turkey. Future studies should attempt to determine the predictive factors by identifying the causal relations between IA and DEAs.

  13. Pilot study of female high school basketball players' anterior cruciate ligament injury knowledge, attitudes, and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iversen, M D; Friden, C

    2009-08-01

    An anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention program was evaluated. One hundred and thirteen female high school varsity and junior varsity basketball players and 12 coaches participated in an 8-week educational and skills program. Demographic and injury history data were collected. At pre-intervention and at the end of season, knowledge, attitudes, and practices about ACL risk and injury prevention were assessed via questionnaires, and frequency of two-footed landings were videotaped during games. Univariate statistics described the sample. Paired t-tests evaluated the program's impact. Cronbach's alpha, correlations, and kappa statistics assessed the validity and reliability of questionnaires and video analysis. Of the 113 players, 74 completed the study. The players' mean age was 16.25 years (SD=1.07; range=14.2-18.8). Baseline knowledge score was 57.2%, practice 58.4%, and attitude 73.5%. The mean baseline knowledge score of the 12 coaches (mean age=40.8 years; SD=10.3; range=26.9-56.3) was 68.7%. Players' knowledge about ACL injury prevention improved (t=2.57; Pinjury prevention were found (t(diff)=1.88; PACL injury risk and improved player's landing skills.

  14. High school students with asthma: attitudes about school health, absenteeism, and its impact on academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenitsky-Korn, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is the most frequent reason for absence from school; it accounts for one-third of all days of missed instruction, placing students at risk for academic failure and social isolation. This study compared high school students with asthma with those without asthma, and examined the relationship of their attitudes toward school health services, absenteeism, academic achievement, and the supposition that school nurse services play an essential part in the academic process. Surveys were completed by all students who participated in the study. Twenty-eight students with asthma reported levels of illness and school nurse support in an additional survey. Data revealed that students with asthma were absent more frequently, scored lower in mathematics, and participated less in school activities than their peers without asthma. Their level of illness did not predict the number of days absent, which was negatively correlated with achievement and positively correlated with students' permissive attitudes toward absenteeism. Findings indicate that school nurse interventions were sources of physical, social, emotional, and academic support.

  15. Investigation of the Effect of Training on the Development of High School Teachers' Attitudes towards Scientific Research and Project Competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akçöltekin, Alptürk

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to develop positive attitudes in high school teachers towards scientific research and project competitions by training them in scientific research and project preparation subjects. The study group consists of 90 high school teachers. As a result of the study, a significant difference was found in favor of…

  16. The Predictors of Success in Turkish High School Placement Exams: Exam Prep Courses, Perfectionism, Parental Attitudes and Test Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basol, Gülsah; Zabun, Engin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to determine to what extent the following four variables explain K-8 students' SBS success levels; these variables being attendance to private SBS preperation courses, multidimensional perfectionism, parental attitude types, and test anxiety. SBS is a nationwide, high stake, high school placement test taken by…

  17. Gender Differences in Korean High School Students' Science Achievements and Attitudes towards Science in Three Different School Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, EunJin; Baker, Dale R.

    2013-01-01

    This study analysed the effect of high schools' gender organization on Korean tenth-grade students' science achievements, and their attitudes towards science. The high schools involved included an all-male institution, an all-female institution, and a co-educational institution. Three schools, three principals, three science teachers, and 302…

  18. The interactive impacts of high school gay-straight alliances (GSAs) on college student attitudes toward LGBT individuals: an investigation of high school characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthen, Meredith G F

    2014-01-01

    Although gay-straight alliances (GSAs) are becoming more popular in high schools across the U.S., empirical studies investigating GSAs and their impact are sparse. Utilizing a sample of college students drawn from a large Southern university (N = 805; 78% White; 61% female; average age 22), the current study investigates the ways that the presence of high school GSAs affect college student attitudes toward LGBT individuals and how these relationships may vary by high school GSA location (South vs. non-South), town type (rural/small town, suburban, large city), and high school student population size. Overall, results from the current study show that the presence of a GSA in high school is a robust positive predictor of supportive attitudes toward LGBT individuals, even when considering many control variables. Such results suggest that the presence of GSAs in high schools may have significant positive and potentially long-lasting effects on college students' attitudes toward LGBT individuals.

  19. Consumers of Mental Health Services: Their Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices About High Energy Drinks and Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoyak, Shirley A; Swarbrick, Margaret A; Nowik, Katerina; Ancheta, April; Lombardo, Anthony

    2017-04-01

    To date, whether individuals with mental illness use high energy drinks (HED) to offset their symptoms, or whether their use began after diagnosis or psychoactive drugs were prescribed is unknown. Their degree of knowledge regarding their symptoms, diagnosis, or what strategies they have used to feel better is also undetermined. A search of the literature yielded no studies about these areas or domains. The current article provides background information on caffeine and HED, with or without alcohol, and the use patterns of consumers of mental health services, as well as their attitudes and knowledge. Participants in the Network for Psychiatric Nursing Researchers, who were consumers, influenced the current study group to expand their thinking about how to address the unknown areas. Their related work and publication are described. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 55(4), 37-43.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  20. On-site storage of high level nuclear waste: attitudes and perceptions of local residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, G W; Jenkins-Smith, H C; Silva, C

    1996-06-01

    No public policy issue has been as difficult as high-level nuclear waste. Debates continue regarding Yucca Mountain as a disposal site, and-more generally-the appropriateness of geologic disposal and the need to act quickly. Previous research has focused on possible social, political, and economic consequences of a facility in Nevada. Impacts have been predicted to be potentially large and to emanate mainly from stigmatization of the region due to increased perceptions of risk. Analogous impacts from leaving waste at power plants have been either ignored or assumed to be negligible. This paper presents survey results on attitudes of residents in three counties where nuclear waste is currently stored. Topics include perceived risk, knowledge of nuclear waste and radiation, and impacts on jobs, tourism, and housing values from leaving waste on site. Results are similar to what has been reported for Nevada; the public is concerned about possible adverse effects from on-site storage of waste.

  1. Grappling with the issue of homosexuality: perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs among high school students in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Mucherah W; Owino E; McCoy K

    2016-01-01

    Winnie Mucherah,1 Elizabeth Owino,2 Kaleigh McCoy,1 1Department of Educational Psychology, Ball State University, Muncie, IN, USA, 2Department of Educational Psychology, Moi University, Eldoret, Kenya Abstract: While the past decade has seen an improvement in attitudes toward homosexuality, negative attitudes are still prevalent in many parts of the world. In general, increased levels of education tend to be predictive of relatively positive attitudes toward homosexuality. However, in most su...

  2. Effects of High-Fidelity Simulation on Physical Therapy and Nursing Students' Attitudes Toward Interprofessional Learning and Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellmon, Robert; Lefebvre, Kristin M; Ferry, Dawn

    2017-08-01

    The study purpose was to examine changes in physical therapy (PT) and nursing (RN) student attitudes toward interprofessional learning (IPL) and interprofessional collaboration (IPC) following a high-fidelity code simulation. PT (n = 42) and RN (n = 35) students, while working together to transfer a simulated patient, had to respond to a sudden and unexpected medical emergency. Pre- and postsurveys included the Interdisciplinary Education Perception Scale (IEPS), Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale (RIPLS), and Attitudes Toward Health Care Teams Scale (ATHCTS). A control group (PT, n = 41; RN, n = 33) of students were also surveyed. Statistically significant between- (p IEPS (competency and autonomy, perceived need for and perceptions of actual cooperation), the RIPLS (teamwork and collaboration, professional identity), and the ATHCTS (team value and efficiency). The IPL experience using high-fidelity simulation fostered the development of attitudes necessary for effective IPL and IPC. [J Nurs Educ. 2017;56(8):456-465.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. On attitude towards HIV/AIDS among Iranian students (case study: high school students in Shiraz City).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movahed, Majeed; Shoaa, Seddigheh

    2010-03-15

    Young people are of particular importance in state policies against AIDS. The present study investigated the attitude toward HIV/AIDS and related socio-cultural factors among 600 high school students in Shiraz, Iran. The method of sampling is a stratified one and the instrument for collecting data is a self-administrated questionnaire. In this research, attitude has three dimensions-knowledge, emotion and tendency to action. Descriptive statistics showed that students did not have enough knowledge about HIV/AIDS. The 44.3% of students had low knowledge, 36.9% moderate knowledge and only 18.8% had high knowledge. Also the results indicated that attitude for 69.8% of student has in middle level, 15.4% positive and 14.9% negative. Moreover, results suggested that loyalty to Islamic religious beliefs have an important role on attitude toward this disease. Major of study, sex, mother's occupation and use of some mass media such as books and newspapers were other main influencing factors in the students' attitude. Furthermore, this study showed that parent education, major of study, father's occupation and use of books and the Internet are the most important variables affecting on the participants' knowledge. Age, sex, parents' education, religious beliefs, use of some mass media such as TV, the internet, newspapers, satellite and books affect emotion. Finally, there is a relationship between religious beliefs, sex and major of study, use of satellite, television, radio and books with tendency to action.

  4. Undergraduate student attitudes and perceptions toward low- and high-level inquiry exercise physiology teaching laboratory experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henige, Kim

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to compare student attitudes toward two different science laboratory learning experiences, specifically, traditional, cookbook-style, low-inquiry level (LL) activities and a high-inquiry level (HL) investigative project. In addition, we sought to measure and compare students' science-related attitudes and attitudes toward science. Students participated in 5 wk of LL activities followed by a 5-wk HL project. An open-ended survey administered at the end of the semester and analyzed by a χ(2)-test revealed that 1) students enjoyed the HL project more than the LL activities, 2) high-level inquiry did not have a negative effect on student motivation in the laboratory, and 3) students perceived that they learned more about physiology principles with the LL activities. Most students liked the HL project, particularly the independence, responsibility, freedom, and personal relevance. Of the students who did not like the HL project, many reported being uncomfortable with the lack of structure and guidance. Many students gained a more positive and realistic view about scientific research, often reporting an increased respect for science. Likert scale surveys administered before and after each 5-wk period showed no significant changes in student attitudes to scientific inquiry, adoption of scientific attitudes, enjoyment of science lessons, or motivation toward science when the three time points were compared. The findings in this study have helped to provide suggestions for better implementation of HL projects in the future.

  5. Attitudes and attitude change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohner, Gerd; Dickel, Nina

    2011-01-01

    Attitudes and attitude change remain core topics of contemporary social psychology. This selective review emphasizes work published from 2005 to 2009. It addresses constructionist and stable-entity conceptualizations of attitude, the distinction between implicit and explicit measures of attitude, and implications of the foregoing for attitude change. Associative and propositional processes in attitude change are considered at a general level and in relation to evaluative conditioning. The role of bodily states and physical perceptions in attitude change is reviewed. This is followed by an integrative perspective on processing models of persuasion and the consideration of meta-cognitions in persuasion. Finally, effects of attitudes on information processing, social memory, and behavior are highlighted. Core themes cutting across the areas reviewed are attempts at integrative theorizing bringing together formerly disparate phenomena and viewpoints.

  6. Democratic Attitudes among High-School Pupils: The Role Played by Perceptions of Class Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perliger, Arie; Canetti-Nisim, Daphna; Pedahzur, Ami

    2006-01-01

    The present study shed light on the continuing debate among students of political socialisation regarding the effects of civic education on the upholding of democratic attitudes. Our major conclusion is that civic education, in and of itself, has only minor effects on democratic attitudes of pupils. Furthermore, among pupils who attended civic…

  7. Surveying Turkish High School and University Students' Attitudes and Approaches to Physics Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balta, Nuri; Mason, Andrew J.; Singh, Chandralekha

    2016-01-01

    Students' attitudes and approaches to physics problem solving can impact how well they learn physics and how successful they are in solving physics problems. Prior research in the U.S. using a validated Attitude and Approaches to Problem Solving (AAPS) survey suggests that there are major differences between students in introductory physics and…

  8. Validity of a Brief Measure of Parental Affective Attitudes in High-Risk Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Rebecca; Gardner, Frances; Dishion, Thomas J.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Wilson, Melvin N.

    2012-01-01

    The current study investigated psychometric properties of the Family Affective Attitude Rating Scale (FAARS) for assessing parents' thoughts and feelings about their child, coded from a 5-min speech sample. Parental affective attitudes derive from previous experiences of parenting and child behavior, representations of the parent-child…

  9. Attitudes and attitude change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    attitude theory. Why is this important? Attitudinal concepts can be found in every area of marketing. Concepts like ad liking, brand attitude, quality perception, product preference, perceived benefit, perceived risk, perceived value, and customer satisfaction can all be understood as particular types......, attitude objects are simply the things we like or dislike. Consumer researchers are mainly interested in attitude objects of two classes, products and services, including the attributes, issues, persons, communications, situations, and behaviours related to them. Research on consumer attitudes takes two...

  10. The Process, Dialogues, and Attitudes of Vocational Engineering High School Students in a Web Problem-Based Learning (WPBL) System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Kuo-Hung; Chang, Chi-Cheng; Lou, Shi-Jer

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to explore how high school students collaboratively solve problems in a web problem-based learning (WPBL) system in an 8-week digital logic course using discourse analysis. Employing in-depth interviews, this study also investigated the students' attitudes toward the WPBL system. The number of teaching assistants' responses had a…

  11. KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE S , AND PERCEPTIONS ABOUT HIV/AIDS IN TEENAGE STUDENTS IN A HIGH PREVA LENCE DISTRICT IN INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Gandhi Bhaskar; Kiran kumar; Geethanjali

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Teenagers form a significant portion of those infected with HIV and the number of young women getting infected with HIV/AIDS is growing rapidly. OBJECTIVES: This study was done to estimate the knowledge attitudes and risk perceptions about HIV/AIDS, in teenage high school students of Guntur. METHODS: A cross sectional study was ...

  12. The Environmental Attitudes of Turkish Senior High School Students in the Context of Postmaterialism and the New Environmental Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taskin, Ozgur

    2009-01-01

    The present study explores the environmental attitudes (EA) of senior high school students in Turkey, explains which determinant factors affect these EAs, and concludes with some suggestions for curricular reform. This study includes over nine hundred students from different school types, neighbourhoods, geographical regions, and socioeconomic…

  13. Attitudes and opposition in siting a high level nuclear waste repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoeberg, L.; Viklund, M.; Truedsson, J

    1998-09-01

    In Sweden, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) handles all issues concerning nuclear waste, including the siting process, in which the final outcome is intended to be a repository for high level nuclear waste placed deep down in bedrock. The main objective of the siting process is to find a host community fulfilling two important conditions: the safety demands have been met and agreements with the municipality can be accomplished. Only in such municipalities, so-called feasibility studies will be conducted. After conducting general studies in the whole country, SKB, in October 1992, sent letters with information about the intended feasibility studies to all Swedish municipalities. As a result, feasibility studies are or have been considered - and in some cases also been conducted - in eleven Swedish municipalities up until 1998. These are the municipalities where the attitudes and opposition towards a feasibility study, and possibly a final repository, are studied. The discussion can be divided into three main parts: Management of the siting process; Inherent `chaotic` processes and/or factors and risk perception. It is argued that two important problems could have been avoided at least partly: The citizens in many municipalities were uncertain of the relationship between a feasibility study and a final repository, and in many municipalities the citizens were afraid that the Government could overrule the municipal veto. Because of these fears, a common argument among the opponents of a feasibility study was: `to be sure of not receiving a final repository, we say no to a feasibility study`. Some inherent factors, more or less prevalent in the municipalities as well as in society in general, may also partly explain the outcome of the siting process. The municipalities in which the debate has been heated, and where public support has been more difficult to reach, share some common characteristics. Esp. in the municipalities in the north of

  14. A Course in Death Education as a Factor In Influencing Attitudes Toward Death of Juniors Enrolled in a Parochial High School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojock, Charles R.

    Examined were attitudes toward death and death education, as well as the effects of death education, among 144 Catholic students from two high schools. An Attitudes Toward Death Scale was utilized in examining several hypotheses relating to death and death education. Significant results revealed that: (1) Catholic high school students had a…

  15. The high-sweet-fat food craving among women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder: emotional response, implicit attitude and rewards sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Ju-Yu; Chang, Shun-Jen; Ko, Chih-Hung; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Cheng-Sheng; Yeh, Yi-Chun; Chen, Cheng-Chung

    2010-09-01

    This study aimed to: (1) evaluate food craving and high-sweet-fat food craving across the menstrual cycle; (2) compare the craving and explicit/implicit emotional response to different food; and (3) investigate the reward sensitivity among PMDD and control groups. The PMDD group without treatment history and control group were evaluated for food craving, emotional response to food, implicit attitude task to food, and responsiveness to reward both in luteal and follicular phases. A total of 59 women with PMDD and 60 controls had completed the study. The results revealed that both PMDD diagnosis and luteal phase were associated with higher body mass index. The high-sweet-fat food provoked higher craving, positive emotional, and positive implicit response more than other foods. The luteal phase contributed to higher food and high-sweet-fat food cravings. Besides, the PMDD women had higher reward sensitivity, emotional response, positive implicit attitude, and craving response to high-sweet-fat foods. Further, the rewarding sensitivity was associated with emotional response to high-sweet-fat food which was associated with high-sweet-fat food craving. These results would suggest emotional response and implicit attitude might play a role for high-sweet-fat food craving of PMDD. Further, PMDD women with higher reward sensitivity should be a target group of intervention for high-sweet-fat food craving.

  16. THE ATTITUDES OF HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS TOWARDS THE TEACHER’S BODY LANGUAGE COURSE: ADANA KOZAN FATİH ANATOLIAN HIGH SCHOOL CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samet GÖKÇELİ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the attitudes of the high school students towards the teacher’s body language. This study conducted on 345 students of 9 th, 10 th, 11 th and 12 th grades who are attending in Adana Kozan Fatih Anatolian High School case. Data were collected through like attitudes survey. The results of this study showed that attitudes of the students have not changed according to their sex, ages, class level, income status of parents and level of education. The survey consisting of 35 item and expressed in open-ended that the data taken solved by SPSS (15.0 package programe and frequence (f, percentage (%, aritmetic avarage (xort, standart deviation (sd, t-Test (t Anova were used in statical analyzes. The students like that teacher's gestures and facial expressions are used effective, eye contact, standing in the course to tell, used front space.

  17. A qualitative study exploring high school students' understanding of, and attitudes towards, health information and claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusack, Leila; Desha, Laura N; Del Mar, Chris B; Hoffmann, Tammy C

    2017-10-01

    Exposure to health claims, particularly in the media and social media, is pervasive, and the information conveyed is often inaccurate, incomplete or misleading. Some young people of high school ages are already making decisions about using readily available health interventions (such as sports drinks and beauty products).Although previous research has assessed adults' understanding of health claims, no research has examined this issue in young adults who are attending high school. To explore high school students' understanding of, and attitudes towards, concepts relevant to assessing health information and claims. A qualitative study involving semi-structured interviews with 27 Australian high school students. Responses were recorded, transcribed and a thematic analysis performed. Three themes emerged as follows: (i) Variability in sources of health information and claims, and general understanding of their creation and accuracy of content, (ii) The use of substitute indicators to assess health information and claims and make judgements about their trustworthiness, (iii) Uncertainty about, and literal interpretation of, the language of health claims. Despite general scepticism of health claims and admitted uncertainty of research terminology, many students were generally convinced. Students had poor understanding about how health claims are generated and tended to rely on substitute indicators, such as endorsements, when evaluating the believability of claims. School students' lack of awareness of basic health research processes and methods of assessing the accuracy of health information and claims makes them vulnerable to distorted and misleading health information. This restricts their ability to make informed health decisions - a skill that increases in importance as they become adults. © 2017 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Attitudes and attitude change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    attitude theory. Why is this important? Attitudinal concepts can be found in every area of marketing. Concepts like ad liking, brand attitude, quality perception, product preference, perceived benefit, perceived risk, perceived value, and customer satisfaction can all be understood as particular types...... of attitudes. This is the reason why a thorough understanding of attitudes is one of the most important skills a marketer can have. That same is true in related areas such as communications research: concepts like public opinion, corporate reputation, and corporate image are nothing more than particular types...

  19. Knowledge, attitude, and practice of stroke among high school students in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Lekhjung; Sharma, Nooma; Poudel, Ramesh Sharma; Bhandari, Tirtha Raj; Bhagat, Riwaz; Shrestha, Ashis; Shrestha, Shakti; Khatiwada, Dipendra; Caplan, Louis R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Baseline stroke knowledge in a targeted population is indispensable to promote the effective stroke education. We report the baseline knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of high school students with respect to stroke from Nepal. Materials and Methods: A self-structured questionnaire survey regarding KAP about stroke was conducted in high school students of 33 schools of Bharatpur, Nepal. Descriptive statistics including Chi-square test was used, and the significant variables were subjected to binary logistic regression. Results: Among 1360 participants, 71.1% had heard or read about stroke; 30.2% knew someone with stroke. 39.3% identified brain as the organ affected. Sudden onset limb/s weakness/numbness (72%) and hypertension (74%) were common warning symptom and risk factor identified. 88.9% would take stroke patients to a hospital. Almost half participants (55.5%) felt ayurvedic treatment be effective. 44.8% felt stroke as a hindrance to a happy life and 86.3% believed that family care was helpful for early recovery. Students who identified at least one risk factor were 3.924 times (P confidence interval [CI] = 1.867–8.247) or those who identified at least one warning symptom were 2.833 times (P ≤ 0.023, CI = 1.156–6.944) more likely to take stroke patients to a hospital. Conclusion: KAP of high school Nepalese students regarding stroke was satisfactory, and the students having knowledge about the risk factors and warning symptoms were more likely to take stroke patients to a hospital. However, a few misconceptions persisted. PMID:27695228

  20. Identifying the Attitudes and Traits of Teachers with an At-Risk Student Population in a Multi-Cultural Urban High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Raymond L.; Goodvin, Sherry; Niles, Rae

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To identify the attitudes and traits of teachers with an at-risk student population in a multi-cultural urban high school. Design/methodology/approach: A research team consisting of doctoral students and their faculty advisor used an appreciative inquiry model to identify attitudes and traits of teachers who supported effective teaching…

  1. The Impact of Engineering Integrated Science (EIS) Curricula on First-Year Technical High School Students' Attitudes toward Science and Perceptions of Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Younkyeong; Lee, Sun-Ju; Paik, Seoung-Hey

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated how engineering integrated science (EIS) curricula affect first-year technical high school students' attitudes toward science and perceptions of engineering. The effect of the EIS participation period on students' attitudes toward science was also investigated via experimental study design. Two engineering integrated…

  2. Utilizing STEM experiential learning to influence attitudes, skills, and knowledge in urban high school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Considine, Shannon L.

    This qualitative research study focused on the influence of experiential learning on urban students' performance in science classes. It also explored how experiential learning influenced the development of urban students' independent innovation skills and ability to explore topics in greater depth as required by STEM education. The experiential learning method that was investigated in this study was an Explore College program, which was a program created by a college in the same city as the urban high school that the student participants attended. This program was created with the intent to boost college readiness and aspirations among high-achieving, low-income students in urban schools. The student participants were asked eleven open-ended questions regarding their experience in the Explore College program; they were asked to reflect on the influence that participating that program had on their academic performance in science and on their perspective of science education. The teacher participants were asked ten open-ended questions regarding their opinion of whether student participation in this program influenced their performance in the classroom and in the development of their independent innovation skills. This study detailed the influence that experiential learning had on student academic performance and perspective of science education. Utilizing this type of education will improve student achievement, attitudes towards education and academic success. The completion of the study proved that experiential learning does in fact influence student performance in science, can influence students' perspective of science, and does indeed influence the development of independent innovation skills which are crucial in STEM education.

  3. Cost-effective improvements of a rotating platform by integration of a high-accuracy inclinometer and encoders for attitude evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Chenyang; He, Shengyang; Bu, Changgen; Hu, Peida

    2017-01-01

    Attitude heading reference systems (AHRSs) based on micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) inertial sensors are widely used because of their low cost, light weight, and low power. However, low-cost AHRSs suffer from large inertial sensor errors. Therefore, experimental performance evaluation of MEMS-based AHRSs after system implementation is necessary. High-accuracy turntables can be used to verify the performance of MEMS-based AHRSs indoors, but they are expensive and unsuitable for outdoor tests. This study developed a low-cost two-axis rotating platform for indoor and outdoor attitude determination. A high-accuracy inclinometer and encoders were integrated into the platform to improve the achievable attitude test accuracy. An attitude error compensation method was proposed to calibrate the initial attitude errors caused by the movements and misalignment angles of the platform. The proposed attitude error determination method was examined through rotating experiments, which showed that the standard deviations of the pitch and roll errors were 0.050° and 0.090°, respectively. The pitch and roll errors both decreased to 0.024° when the proposed attitude error determination method was used. This decrease validates the effectiveness of the compensation method. Experimental results demonstrated that the integration of the inclinometer and encoders improved the performance of the low-cost, two-axis, rotating platform in terms of attitude accuracy.

  4. Impact of an Intuitive Eating Education Program on High School Students' Eating Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Nicole; Joram, Elana; Matvienko, Oksana; Woolf, Suzanne; Knesting, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: There is a growing need for school-based nutritional educational programs that promote healthy eating attitudes without increasing an unhealthy focus on restrictive eating or promoting a poor body image. Research suggests that "intuitive eating" ("IE") approaches, which encourage individuals to focus on internal body…

  5. The Impact of Parental Attitudes on Problem Solving Skills in High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tösten, Rasim; Han, Bünyamin; Anik, Sabri

    2017-01-01

    Problem solving skill is one of the important skills which are expected to be gained during the educational programs. In the development of children's skills and shaping the behaviors, parental attitudes are believed to be effective. That means problem-solving skills and behavioral characteristics of individuals are closely related. From that…

  6. Language Attitudes in Galicia: Using the Matched-Guise Test among High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loureiro-Rodriguez, Veronica; Boggess, May M.; Goldsmith, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents' attitudes towards standard Galician, non-standard Galician and Spanish are examined in this study using a matched-guise test. Results show that adolescents perceive standard and non-standard Galician differently and that different values are attached to the three linguistic varieties investigated. Our findings confirm that certain…

  7. Family Interaction Patterns, Career Planning Attitudes, and Vocational Identity of High School Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargrove, Byron K.; Inman, Arpana G.; Crane, Randy L.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine how perceptions of family interaction patterns as defined along three dimensions of family environment (quality of family relationships, family goal-orientations, and degree of organization and control within the family system) predict vocational identity and career planning attitudes among male and…

  8. The Attitudes of the High School Students of Hail, Saudi Arabia towards the Current Educational Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasawneh, Kholoud Ahmed Saleem

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the attitudes of public secondary school students in the State of Hail towards the modern educational concepts, and what are the differences between them. It has been used in the study descriptive analytical method. The study was conducted on a sample of 400 male and female students, chosen randomly according to the…

  9. Development and Validation of an Instrument for Assessing Attitudes of High School Students about Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugulu, Ilker

    2015-01-01

    Recycling and its applications are growing significantly due to the great potential for solving a range of environmental problems in society. Nevertheless, there are currently very few instruments that can provide valid and reliable data on students' attitudes toward recycling. In this regard, this article focuses on the development and validation…

  10. Teachers', Students' and Parents' Attitudes towards Disruptive Behaviour Problems in High School: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romi, Shlomo; Freund, Mira

    1999-01-01

    Explores the attitudes of students, teachers, and parents toward students' disruptive behavior as part of school discipline. Finds that teachers agreed on the severity of most disruptive behavior problems, while parents and students disagreed among themselves. Indicates that parents and students should be involved with discipline-related policies.…

  11. High School Students' Attitudes towards Spiders: A Cross-Cultural Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop, Pavol; Tolarovicova, Andrea; Camerik, Anne M.; Peterkova, Viera

    2010-01-01

    Spiders are traditionally considered to be among the least popular of animals. Current evidence suggests that a negative attitude towards spiders could be influenced by both cultural and evolutionary pressures. Some researchers suggest that science education activities could positively influence students' perceptions of spiders. Their evidence is,…

  12. The Effect of the BalloonSat Project on Middle and High School Students' Attitude toward Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhage, L. Paul

    2012-01-01

    This study measured the effect of completing a BalloonSat project on student attitude toward science. Seven categories of student attitudes toward science were measured using the Test of Science Relate Attitudes survey (TOSRA). The research anticipated that the BalloonSat project would have similar effects on student attitudes as found in robotics…

  13. An Exploration of High School (12 17 Year Old) Students' Understandings of, and Attitudes Towards Biotechnology Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Vaille

    2007-03-01

    The products of modern biotechnology processes such as genetic engineering, DNA testing and cloning will increasingly impact on society. It is essential that young people have a well-developed scientific understanding of biotechnology and associated processes so that they are able to contribute to public debate and make informed personal decisions. The aim of this study was to examine the development of understandings and attitudes about biotechnology processes as students progress through high school. In a cross-sectional case study, data was obtained from student interviews and written surveys of students aged 12 to 17 years. The results indicate that students' ability to provide a generally accepted definition and examples of biotechnology, cloning and genetically modified foods was relatively poor amongst 12 13 year old students but improved in older students. Most students approved of the use of biotechnology processes involving micro-organisms, plants and humans and disapproved of the use of animals. Overall, 12 13 year old students' attitudes were less favourable than older students regardless of the context. An awareness of the development and range of students' understandings and attitudes may lead to a more appropriate use of biotechnology curriculum materials and thus improved biotechnology education in schools.

  14. The effect of GK-12 graduate fellow interactions on high school student attitudes toward science and career path

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytle, Rachel Renee

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of biology graduate student interactions on high school student attitudes toward science and career choice. Through the National Science Foundation GK-12 program at Middle Tennessee State University, Graduate Fellows (GFs) partnered with a science teacher (PT) ten hours a week during the school year to serve as a scientist-in-residence, engage students in inquiry-based laboratory experiences, and mentor research projects. A multi-method design compared PT classes with and without a GF using the Student Attitude Inventory- II (SAI-II), interviews, and student artifacts. Although small positive differences were present in GF classes, repeated measures MANOVA found no significant differences between SAI-II categories. Both groups decreased in STEM career interest; however, student interviews with GF classes conveyed increased understanding of the scientific process and a desire to continue practicing science. Although GF classes actively participated in documented STEM experiences, this study supports the challenges in changing student attitude about science and increased pursuance of STEM careers.

  15. The Interrelationship of Science Experiences, Beliefs, Attitudes, and Self-Efficacy: A Case Study of a Pre-Service Teacher with Positive Science Attitude and High Science Teaching Self-Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Kazempour

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative case study aimed to focus on the experiences and subsequent science and science teaching beliefs, attitudes, and self-efficacy of an elementary pre-service teacher, Heather, with extremely positive attitude and high self-efficacy. For this particular population of pre-service teachers, possessing a high science teaching self-efficacy alone is not sufficient to assume reform-based beliefs and teaching practices. This study was unique in that it concurrently explored the relationship between attitude, beliefs, and self-efficacy before and after the course. Initially, Heather’s attitude and self-efficacy with respect to science and science teaching were closely interrelated and a product of her own intrinsic interest in science and her unique K-12 experiences. Her beliefs appeared to have been shaped by both her actual science experiences and what she had witnessed in the classrooms. Heather’s course experiences shaped her post beliefs about science and science teaching, which consequently altered her attitude and confidence.

  16. The Quality and Attitude of High School Teachers of Economics in Japan: An Explanation of Sample Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadayoshi Asano

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Students’ economic literacy depends on the contents they learn in school as well as at home. It also depends on teachers’ ability to teach and explain economic concepts and principles in the way students can understand them. But, it is very doubtful whether all the high school teachers of civics who teach economics have excellent knowledge and good teaching skill in economics. Because the authors know that only a few civics teachers in Japan had studied economics as a major subject when they were undergraduate students.In order to prove these facts, the authors conducted a nationwide survey using a questionnaire concerning personal attributes, attitude toward economic issues, and thinking about economy and economics of high school teachers of civics in Japan in 2009. 1,574 samples were collected out of around 14,000 civics teachers from every prefecture in Japan, and their answers were turned into data set for analysis. These samples proved to have high external validity representing their population, and results of analysis may reveal the characteristics of Japanese high school teachers of civics teaching economics.Findings of our survey will help improve the quality of economic education in Japan, especially the quality and attitude of economics teachers in high school.

  17. The effects of co-teaching on student test performance and attitudes towards science in high school biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Virginia Scott

    Reform efforts in response to the inclusion of students with disabilities into general education classrooms have become necessary to shift students' placements into the science classroom. An investigation into the effects of co-teaching in high school biology classrooms was conducted to explore the impact of two models of co-teaching on biology students' achievement and their attitudes towards science. Quantitative data were collected using a diagnostic exam, student chapter test scores, and the Scientific Attitude Inventory II (SAI II) (Moore & Foy, 1997). Additionally, qualitative data were collected from student and teacher interviews, as well as reflections recorded by the general education participating teacher. The study occurred at a predominantly African-American high school in an Alabama city school with approximately 700 students. The population for the study was composed of 62 high school biology students, with 18 of those students placed inclusively in the biology classroom as a result of No Child Left Behind legislation. The participating teachers consisted of one general education biology teacher and one highly qualified, science special education teacher. Twelve students, along with the special education participating teacher, were interviewed and provided qualitative data after completion of the study. The general education teacher provided teacher reflection responses to contribute qualitatively on the impact of co-teaching in high school biology. Quantitative data analysis was performed using descriptive statistics, ANOVA, and paired samples t tests analyses. ANOVA results revealed that there were no changes in student test scores of achievement due to the models of instruction implemented. The implementation of no co-teaching, station teaching, and the one-teaching, one-drifting co-teaching models of instruction did not result in significant changes in students' achievement. Furthermore, paired samples t tests revealed no change in students

  18. [Research and application: scale of knowledge, attitude, and behavior of lifestyle intervention in a diabetes high-risk population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W J

    2016-07-06

    There is a large population at high risk for diabetes in China, and there has been a dramatic increase in the incidence of diabetes in the country over the past 30 years. Interventions targeting the individual risk factors of diabetes can effectively prevent diabetes; these include factors such as an unhealthy diet, lack of physical activity, overweight, and obesity, among others. Evaluation of related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors before and after intervention using appropriate scales can measure population demands and the effectiveness of interventions. Scientificity and practicability are basic requirements of scale development. The theoretical basis and measuring items of a scale should be consistent with the theory of behavior change and should measure the content of interventions in a standardized and detailed manner to produce good validity, reliability, and acceptability. The scale of knowledge, attitude, and behavior of lifestyle intervention in a diabetes high-risk population is a tool for demand evaluation and effect evaluation of lifestyle intervention that has good validity and reliability. Established by the National Center for Chronic and Noncommunicable Disease Control and Prevention, its use can help to decrease the Chinese population at high risk for diabetes through targeted and scientifically sound lifestyle interventions. Future development of intervention evaluation scales for useing in high-risk populations should consider new factors and characteristics of the different populations, to develop new scales and modify or simplify existing ones, as well as to extend the measurement dimensions to barriers and supporting environment for behaviors change.

  19. Rural parents' vaccination-related attitudes and intention to vaccinate middle and high school children against influenza following educational influenza vaccination intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Sales, Jessica M.; Painter, Julia E.; PAZOL, Karen; Gargano, Lisa M.; Orenstein, Walter; Hughes, James M.; Ralph J. DiClemente

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study examined changes in parental influenza vaccination attitudes and intentions after participating in school-based educational influenza vaccination intervention. Methods: Participants were drawn from three counties participating in a school-based influenza vaccination intervention in rural Georgia (baseline N=324; follow-up N=327). Data were collected pre- and post-intervention from phone surveys with parents’ with children attending middle- and high-school. Attitudes, bel...

  20. Eating disorder behaviors and attitudes in Japanese adolescent girls and boys in high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Yoshikatsu; Noma, Shun'ichi; Nin, Kazuko; Teramukai, Satoshi; Wonderlich, Stephen A

    2015-12-15

    To investigate eating disorder behaviors and attitudes in adolescents, we administered the eating disorder examination questionnaire (EDE-Q) to Japanese adolescent girls and boys. The EDE-Q global scores in Japanese girls and boys, respectively, were significantly lower than those in girls and boys in previous studies. Objective binge eating episodes and extreme dietary restriction were the common behaviors, whereas self-induced vomiting and the misuse of laxatives were uncommon. Differences in the EDE-Q data between Japanese adolescents and adolescents in previous studies from Western countries suggest that there may be certain cultural differences in eating disorder psychopathology in adolescents.

  1. Suicide Ideation Associations with Attitudes toward Suicide, Quality of Life, and Attitudes toward Death and Dying among Chinese, Korean, Thai, and Vietnamese High School Seniors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Noy S.; Jantaraweragul, Sudgasame; Kanungsukkasem, Vijit; Li, Kaigang; Jones, Megan R.; Huang, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Suicide of an individual could leave devastating consequences for family, friends, relatives, and society. Suicide could be considered a serious concern and issue to public health, especially among adolescents. The purpose of the study was to examine associations of suicide ideation with attitudes toward suicide (ATS), quality of life (QOL), and…

  2. An alcohol message beneath the surface of ER: how implicit memory influences viewers' health attitudes and intentions using entertainment-education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyongseok; Lee, Mina; Macias, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    While previous research on entertainment-education has assessed its effectiveness, primarily at the conscious level (e.g., free recall and self-reported change in knowledge), few studies have explored its effect on viewers' implicit knowledge. To fill this gap, this study examined the mechanism through which viewers form implicit memory of short health messages inserted in a primetime TV show and its preconscious effects on viewers' health attitudes and intentions. An experiment was conducted using a 3-group (health message: present vs. absent vs. control), posttest-only design with additional planned analyses of differences by subject variables (past experience and involvement). Overall, findings supported the hypothesized effects of implicit memory of a brief antialcohol message embedded in an ER episode on college students' attitudes and intentions against binge drinking. Results showed that participants who were exposed to the health message reported less positive attitudes toward binge drinking and lower intentions to binge drink, compared with those who were not exposed; the causal relations among viewers' implicit memory, attitudes, and intentions were also validated. Results also showed that individuals' past experience and involvement moderated the effects of the health message on attitudes and intentions. Theoretical explanations and practical implications are discussed.

  3. Gender differences in Korean high school students’ science achievements and attitudes towards science in three different school settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EunJin Bang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study analysed the effect of high schools' gender organization on Korean tenth-grade students’ science achievements, and their attitudes towards science. The high schools involved included an all-male institution, an all-female institution, and a co-educational institution. Three schools, three principals, three science teachers, and 302 tenthgrade students from their respective school types responded to an initial survey, and eleven academically outstanding students were subsequently interviewed. Also, the students’ pencil and paper tests—which included second semester midterms, and final exams containing their general science test scoreswere collected from each school. The questionnaire responses and the transcribed interview sections were analysed using One-Way ANOVA, followed by Post Hoc analysis, constant comparison, and content analysis. Results indicated that the male and female students from the co-ed school had significantly higher science achievement and positive attitudes towards science. Interview transcripts of the selected students from the all-male, the all-female, and the co-ed schools confirmed the findings. Later discussion addresses the improvement of the Korean science curriculum, of learning environments, of the teachers’ and students' roles in the classroom, and of education policies.

  4. Perception of, attitudes toward, and knowledge of epilepsy among teachers and high school and college students in Sicily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccheri, Teresa; Quattropani, Maria C

    2015-12-01

    The study was aimed at investigating perception of, attitudes toward, and knowledge of epilepsy among college students of the University of Messina in Sicily (Italy), high school students, and teachers from Sicily in order to structure health educational programs to remediate inadequate knowledge and stigma about epilepsy. Participants in this study consisted of 932 subjects (571 males, 361 females) aged between 13 and 63 years old (M 21.75 ± 8.7): 571 college students aged between 18 and 35 years old (M 21.54 ± 2.59), 62 teachers aged between 38 and 63 years old (M 51.18 ± 6.27), and 299 high school students aged between 13 and 19 years old (M 16.05 ± 1.67). Measures were two anonymous questionnaires to collect sociodemographic information and to assess knowledge of, attitudes toward, and perception of epilepsy. Analyses were performed with descriptive statistical analysis (mean, standard deviation, frequency counts, and percentages) and Mann-Whitney U-test nonparametric for two independent samples. This study provides general information about psychosocial aspects of epilepsy in Sicily which provides the basis for further studies and the development of interventions to eliminate prejudices against persons with epilepsy and related myths.

  5. Development and Testing of a High-Precision Position and Attitude Measuring System for a Space Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanenya, Nikolay; Paciotti, Gabriel; Forzani, Eugenio; Blecha, Luc

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a high-precision optical metrology system - a unique ground test equipment which was designed and implemented for simultaneous precise contactless measurements of 6 degrees-of-freedom (3 translational + 3 rotational) of a space mechanism end-effector [1] in a thermally controlled ISO 5 clean environment. The developed contactless method reconstructs both position and attitude of the specimen from three cross-sections measured by 2D distance sensors [2]. The cleanliness is preserved by the hermetic test chamber filled with high purity nitrogen. The specimen's temperature is controlled by the thermostat [7]. The developed method excludes errors caused by the thermal deformations and manufacturing inaccuracies of the test jig. Tests and simulations show that the measurement accuracy of an object absolute position is of 20 micron in in-plane measurement (XY) and about 50 micron out of plane (Z). The typical absolute attitude is determined with an accuracy better than 3 arcmin in rotation around X and Y and better than 10 arcmin in Z. The metrology system is able to determine relative position and movement with an accuracy one order of magnitude lower than the absolute accuracy. Typical relative displacement measurement accuracies are better than 1 micron in X and Y and about 2 micron in Z. Finally, the relative rotation can be measured with accuracy better than 20 arcsec in any direction.

  6. Perception, Attitude and Instructional Preferences on Physics in High School Students: An Exploration in an International Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Mini; Gafoor, Abdul

    Questionnaire survey explored perception, attitude and instructional preferences with respect to gender and nationality in high school students of India and USA, a sample of 1101 Indian and 458 US students. Descriptive Statistics techniques were adopted for analysis. Male and female students in USA were at the high and low ends of the spectrum, respectively, in perception and attitude. Preference on instructional strategies was found to be independent of nationality, exposed strategies, opting science, class size and facilities. Responses from both countries indicate preference for an integrated instructional strategy that has strong teacher involvement in a student-centered framework. A thoughtful and properly designed instructional strategy could provide sufficient elements in modifying students' epistemological beliefs. Understanding the nature and process of physics along with a better learning outcome is usually not possible by administering student-centered or teacher-centered strategies alone in their purest form. This study provides adequate support in obtaining two equally significant but contrasting goals in Physics Education Research, to gain conceptual development with increased interest and attainment in learners, through integration.

  7. Fast converging with high accuracy estimates of satellite attitude and orbit based on magnetometer augmented with gyro, star sensor and GPS via extended Kalman filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer Mekky Ahmed Habib

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The primary goal of this work is to extend the work done in, Tamer (2009, to provide high accuracy satellite attitude and orbit estimates needed for imaging purposes and also before execution of spacecraft orbital maneuvers for the next Egyptian scientific satellite. The problem of coarse satellite attitude and orbit estimation based on magnetometer measurements has been treated in the literature. The current research expands the field of application from coarse and slow converging estimates to accurate and fast converging attitude and orbit estimates within 0.1°, and 10 m for attitude angles and spacecraft location respectively (1-σ. The magnetometer is used for both spacecraft attitude and orbit estimation, aided with gyro to provide angular velocity measurements, star sensor to provide attitude quaternion, and GPS receiver to provide spacecraft location. The spacecraft under consideration is subject to solar radiation pressure forces and moments, aerodynamics forces and moments, earth’s oblateness till the fourth order (i.e. J4, gravity gradient moments, and residual magnetic dipole moments. The estimation algorithm developed is powerful enough to converge quickly (actually within 10 s despite very large initial estimation errors with sufficiently high accuracy estimates.

  8. A Three-Lesson Teaching Unit Significantly Increases High School Students’ Knowledge about Epilepsy and Positively Influences Their Attitude towards This Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Uwe K.; Gesslbauer, Lisa; Fink, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy is not a regular topic in many countries’ schools. Thus many people harbor misconceptions about people suffering from this disease. It was our aim to a) examine what grade ten students know and believe about epilepsy, and b) to develop and test a teaching unit to improve their knowledge and attitude. The test group comprised eight grade ten classes from six different Austrian high schools (54 girls and 51 boys aged 14–17), the control group (no intervention) five grade ten classes from the same schools (26 girls and 37 boys aged 14–17). The teaching unit consisted of three 45-min lessons using different methods and material. Changes in knowledge about and attitude towards epilepsy as a result of the intervention were psychometrically assessed in a pre-test intervention post-test design (along with a follow-up assessment two months after the intervention) by means of a questionnaire capturing different facets of epilepsy-related knowledge and attitude. Across all knowledge/attitude domains, students of the test group had a significantly improved knowledge about and a more positive attitude towards epilepsy and people suffering from it after the teaching unit. However, starting levels were different between the five knowledge/attitude domains tested. Medical background knowledge was lowest and consequently associated with the highest increase after the intervention. This study shows that epilepsy-related knowledge of many grade ten high school students is fragmentary and that some harbor beliefs and attitudes which require improvement. Our comprehensive but concise teaching unit significantly increased knowledge about epilepsy and positively influenced attitude towards individuals with epilepsy. Thus we recommend implementing this unit into regular school curricula. PMID:26919557

  9. A Three-Lesson Teaching Unit Significantly Increases High School Students' Knowledge about Epilepsy and Positively Influences Their Attitude towards This Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Uwe K; Gesslbauer, Lisa; Fink, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy is not a regular topic in many countries' schools. Thus many people harbor misconceptions about people suffering from this disease. It was our aim to a) examine what grade ten students know and believe about epilepsy, and b) to develop and test a teaching unit to improve their knowledge and attitude. The test group comprised eight grade ten classes from six different Austrian high schools (54 girls and 51 boys aged 14-17), the control group (no intervention) five grade ten classes from the same schools (26 girls and 37 boys aged 14-17). The teaching unit consisted of three 45-min lessons using different methods and material. Changes in knowledge about and attitude towards epilepsy as a result of the intervention were psychometrically assessed in a pre-test intervention post-test design (along with a follow-up assessment two months after the intervention) by means of a questionnaire capturing different facets of epilepsy-related knowledge and attitude. Across all knowledge/attitude domains, students of the test group had a significantly improved knowledge about and a more positive attitude towards epilepsy and people suffering from it after the teaching unit. However, starting levels were different between the five knowledge/attitude domains tested. Medical background knowledge was lowest and consequently associated with the highest increase after the intervention. This study shows that epilepsy-related knowledge of many grade ten high school students is fragmentary and that some harbor beliefs and attitudes which require improvement. Our comprehensive but concise teaching unit significantly increased knowledge about epilepsy and positively influenced attitude towards individuals with epilepsy. Thus we recommend implementing this unit into regular school curricula.

  10. Language Learners' Acculturation Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafieyan, Vahid; Orang, Maryam; Bijami, Maryam; Nejad, Maryam Sharafi; Eng, Lin Siew

    2014-01-01

    Learning a language involves knowledge of both linguistic competence and cultural competence. Optimal development of linguistic competence and cultural competence, however, requires a high level of acculturation attitude toward the target language culture. To this end, the present study explored the acculturation attitudes of 70 Iranian…

  11. Attitudes of high school students regarding intimate relationships and gender norms in New Providence, The Bahamas

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    Nicolls, Donna

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the attitudes and actions on relationships with the opposite sex of 1,002 Grade 10 and Grade 12 students in New Providence. Girls were more likely than boys to use aggressive behaviours in teen relationships. Some of the behaviours noted in teen relationships informed expectations of marital relationships, such as restricted access to friends of the opposite sex. The students endorsed a number of sex-related stereotypes, such as a man being the head of the household. Both male and female students indicated that it was acceptable for men to control their wives. Participation in aggressive and controlling behaviours by teens points to the need to educate students about how to develop more respectful relationships.

  12. Attitude Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Lauren C; Krosnick, Jon A

    2017-01-03

    Attitude strength has been the focus of a huge volume of research in psychology and related sciences for decades. The insights offered by this literature have tremendous value for understanding attitude functioning and structure and for the effective application of the attitude concept in applied settings. This is the first Annual Review of Psychology article on the topic, and it offers a review of theory and evidence regarding one of the most researched strength-related attitude features: attitude importance. Personal importance is attached to an attitude when the attitude is perceived to be relevant to self-interest, social identification with reference groups or reference individuals, and values. Attaching personal importance to an attitude causes crystallizing of attitudes (via enhanced resistance to change), effortful gathering and processing of relevant information, accumulation of a large store of well-organized relevant information in long-term memory, enhanced attitude extremity and accessibility, enhanced attitude impact on the regulation of interpersonal attraction, energizing of emotional reactions, and enhanced impact of attitudes on behavioral intentions and action. Thus, important attitudes are real and consequential psychological forces, and their study offers opportunities for addressing behavioral change.

  13. Forced sex, rape and sexual exploitation: attitudes and experiences of high school students in South Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulumeoderhwa, Maroyi; Harris, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on fieldwork carried out in 2011 with the aim of investigating the attitudes and reported behaviour of Congolese high school students concerning sexual relationships. A total of 56 boys and girls aged 16-20 from two urban and two rural high schools in South Kivu Province took part in focus groups, and 40 of these were subsequently interviewed individually. The majority of boys felt that they were entitled to sex from their girlfriends and that if persuasion was unsuccessful, the use of force was legitimate; this, in their minds, did not constitute rape. Girls, on the other hand, were clear that such forced sex was rape. However it may be understood, rape was perceived as having increased in recent years and was explained by weak legal systems, pornography and provocative dressing by girls. Boys were angry at the competition from older, often married, men who were able to provide monetary and other incentives to the girls.

  14. The Iranian female high school students' attitude towards people with HIV/AIDS: a cross-sectional study

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    Shoja Mohammadali M

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS has become an important public health hazard in Iran. It is believed that AIDS-related knowledge does not necessarily translate into behavior modification. Hence, it has been suggested that culturally appropriate educational campaigns should be implemented to obtain satisfactory outcomes. Here, we evaluated the female high school students' attitude towards HIV/AIDS in Tabriz, Iran to assess the cultural needs for the related educational programs and to discover sources of information about AIDS. Results Anonymous, self-administered questionnaires were filled by the young female students. Among 300 students, 91% agreed that being an HIV carrier should not be an obstacle to obtaining education and employment. Moreover, 72.5% of the students declared that the community should be informed of HIV-positive people. In addition, one-tenth declared that they would feel extremely uncomfortable towards their HIV infected classmate. In addition, only 16% of the students stated that they would continue to shop at HIV infected grocer's store. The mass media and the experts were the major source and the most reliable source of information about AIDS, respectively. Conclusion Tabrizian female students have overall negative attitudes towards HIV/AIDS. HIV/AIDS related educational campaigns should target the students, society and the families with emphasizing the leading roles of health staff.

  15. High-School Teachers' Beliefs about Effort and Their Attitudes toward Struggling and Smart Students in a Confucian Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shun-Wen; Fwu, Bih-Jen; Wei, Chih-Fen; Wang, Hsiou-Huai

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies conducted in Western societies showed that instructors' beliefs about intellectual ability affected their attitudes toward students. However, in many East Asian societies influenced by Confucian culture, teachers not only hold beliefs of ability but also two kinds of beliefs about effort: obligation-oriented belief (i.e., believing that effort-making is a student's role obligation) and improvement-oriented belief (i.e., believing that effort can conquer the limitations of one's ability). This study aimed to investigate the relationships between teachers' effort beliefs and their attitudes toward favoritism, praise, and expectations toward struggling and smart students. The participants were 151 Taiwanese high-school teachers. Results of Structure Equation Modeling showed that (1) teachers' obligation-oriented belief about effort was positively correlated with their favoritism, praise, short-term and long-term expectations of struggling students, but negatively correlated with their favoritism and praise of smart students, (2) teachers' improvement-orientated belief about effort was negatively correlated with their short-term expectation of smart students and favoritism of struggling students, but positively correlated with their praise of smart students, and (3) the entity theory of intelligence was negatively correlated with favoritism and praise of struggling students, but positively correlated with favoritism of smart students. The theoretical and cultural implications are discussed.

  16. An investigation of the attitudes, anxieties and self-efficacy beliefs towards mathematics lessons high school students’ in terms of gender, types of school, and students’ grades

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    N. İzzet Kurbanoğlu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been an increasing recognition that mathematics anxiety plays an important role in students’ learning of mathematics and thus, mathematics anxiety has gained heightened awareness by mathematics educators as an important factor in the teaching of mathematics (Bursal & Paznokas, 2006; Thomas & Higbee, 1999; McLeod, 1988; Singh, Granville, & Dika, 2002; Sloan, Daane, & Geisen, 2002; Vinson, 2001; Zettle & Raines, 2000. Math anxiety defined by Richardson & Suinn (1972 as a “feelings of tension and anxiety that interfere with the manipulation of numbers and the solving of mathematical problems in a wide variety of ordinary life and academic situations”. Research demonstrated that the physiological, cognitive, and behavioral consequences of math anxiety may impair life functioning. For example, students who have math anxiety exhibit physiological reactivity to numeric stimuli and have faulty beliefs and negative attitudes regarding their problem solving abilities. These students also may avoid environment and careers that require utilization of math skills, and will sacrifice accuracy for speed when performing numeric tasks (Ashcraft & Kirk, 2001. Purpose and significanceThe purpose of this research is to examine whether there is a significant difference between the attitudes, anxieties, and self-efficacy beliefs towards mathematics lessons high school students’ in terms of gender, types of school and students’ grades. It is very important to reveal relationships between attitudes towards mathematics lessons, anxieties towards mathematics lessons and self-efficacy beliefs to develop high school students’ positive attitudes towards mathematics lessons.MethodsIn this study, descriptive research method was conducted. A total of 418 students, from three different school types participated in the study. The schools are Anatolian High School, Vocational High School and Public High School. Three scales were implemented

  17. Resistance test of high-speed ship by means of attitude control method. Part 2; Shisei seigyo hoshiki ni yoru kosokutei no teiko shiken. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashida, S. [Nagasaki Institute of Applied Science, Nagasaki (Japan)

    1996-04-10

    The previous paper has proposed a resistance test method by controlling the attitude of a high-speed model ship using a personal computer without making a data base. For this method, the fluid force acting on the hull of model ship is measured, to change its attitude based on the measurement, and then, the fluid force is measured again, to change the attitude again. The traveling attitude is created by repeating this, to measure the force acting on the hull. Since the attitude is changed by calculating using the fluid force measured, various factors can be considered in the calculation process. For example, a test with an arbitrary displacement in an arbitrary position of center of gravity can be conducted in spite of actual displacement and position of center of gravity of the model ship. A test for a high-speed ship was conducted through this method, to obtain nearly satisfactory results compared with a usual resistance test. Occasionally, a lot of repetitions were required to satisfy the balancing condition of the force. In this study, the improvement of testing efficiency has been planned by modifying the analyzing program. 5 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Case study teaching in high school biology: Effects on academic achievement, problem solving skills, teamwork skills, and science attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skolnick, Ronald

    The purpose of this study was to examine the constructivist-based " case study teaching methodology" in High School Biology classes, specifically investigating the effect this methodology had on Academic Achievement, Science Attitudes, Problem Solving Skills, and Teamwork Skills. The effect of Teacher Beliefs toward constructivist learning environments was also explored and investigated, using a quantitative measure (the Constructivist Learning Environment Survey, or CLES). A quasi-experimental design used eleven classes, five teachers, and two hundred fifty two high school biology students over two separate, consecutive quarters of a school year. Two researcher-made instruments measured Academic Achievement after each study quarter. T-Tests were used to compare the Experimental Group (Case Study Teaching Methodology) to the Control Group (Traditional Teaching) during each study quarter. Otis-Lennon School Ability Test (OLSAT) scores were used as a covariate for ANCOVA tests. Case Study Teaching Methodology had a statistically significant improvement on Academic Achievement during the first study quarter, but not the second quarter. Case Study Teaching Methodology had a statistically significant improvement on four of seven Science Attitudes, Problem Solving Skills, and Teamwork Skills during the second quarter of the study. This study is significant in that it addresses a knowledge gap regarding the effects of the constructivist-based case study teaching methodology on secondary science education. The theoretical implications of this study are meaningful: empirical evidence is added to the growing knowledge base regarding the benefits of constructivist theory. The practical implications are equally meaningful: case study teaching methodology is supported as an effective application of constructivist theory in the secondary science classroom.

  19. The influence of patient's consciousness regarding high blood pressure and patient's attitude in face of disease controlling medicine intake

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    Maria Aparecida A Moura Strelec

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the relation between blood pressure control and the following: the Morisky-Green test, the patient's consciousness regarding high blood pressure, the patient's attitude in face of medicine intake, the patient's attendance at medical consultations, and the subjective physician's judgment. METHODS: We studied 130 hypertensive patients with the following characteristics: 73% females, 60±11 years, 58% married, 70% white, 45% retired, 45% with incomplete elementary schooling, 64% had a familial income of 1 to 3 minimum wages, body mass index of 30±7 kg/m², consciousness regarding the disease for a mean period of 11±9.5 years, and mean treatment duration of 8 ±7 years. RESULTS: Only 35% of the hypertensive individuals had blood pressure under control and a longer duration of treatment (10±7 vs 7±6.5 years; P<0.05. The retiree predominated. The result of the Morisky-Green test did not relate to blood pressure control. In evaluating the attitude in face of medicine intake, the controlled patients achieved significantly higher scores than did the noncontrolled patients (8±1.9 vs 7 ±2, P<0.05. The hypertensive patients had higher levels of consciousness regarding their disease and its treatment, and most (70% patients attended 3 or 4 medical consultations, which did not influence blood pressure control. The physicians attributed significantly higher scores regarding adherence to treatment to controlled patients (6±0.8 vs 5±1.2; P<0.05. CONCLUSION: Consciousness regarding the disease, the Morisky-Green test, and attendance to medical consultations did not influence blood pressure control.

  20. Attitudes toward direct-to-consumer advertisements and online genetic testing among high-risk women participating in a hereditary cancer clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Giselle K; Cruess, Dean G; Cruess, Stacy; Brewer, Molly; Stroop, Jennifer; Schwartz, Robin; Greenstein, Robert

    2011-07-01

    Genetic testing for the breast cancer genes 1/2 (BRCA 1/2) has helped women determine their risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer. As interest in genetic testing has grown, companies have created strategies to disseminate information about testing, including direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) and online genetic testing. This study examined attitudes toward DTCA and online testing for BRCA among 84 women at a high-risk clinic as well as additional factors that may be associated with these attitudes, such as personal and familial cancer history, cancer worry and risk perception, and history with genetic testing/counseling. Results showed that the majority of the women held favorable attitudes toward DTCA for BRCA testing but did not support online testing. Factors such as familial ovarian cancer, cancer worry, and satisfaction with genetic counseling/testing were associated with positive attitudes toward DTCA, whereas personal breast cancer history was related to negative attitudes. The findings suggest that women may view DTCA as informational but rely on physicians for help in their decision to undergo testing, and also suggest that cancer history may affect women's acceptance of DTCA and genetic testing.

  1. The Effect of Performance Assessment-Driven Instruction on the Attitude and Achievement of Senior High School Students in Mathematics in Cape Coast Metropolis, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arhin, Ato Kwamina

    2015-01-01

    The study was a quasi-experimental research project conducted to investigate the effect of performance assessment-driven instructions on the attitude and achievement in mathematics of senior high school students in Ghana at Ghana National College in Cape Coast. Two Form 1 science classes were used for the study and were assigned as experimental…

  2. The Relationship of Organizational Corruption with Organizational Culture, Attitude towards Work and Work Ethics: A Search on Turkish High School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balci, Ali; Ozdemir, Murat; Apaydin, Cigdem; Ozen, Fatmanur

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyse organizational corruption and to determine its level of relation to attitude towards work, work ethics and organizational culture. The data in study have been collected from 441 public high school teachers employed in the central districts of Ankara in the school year of 2008-2009. Data have been collected…

  3. The Relationship of Organizational Corruption with Organizational Culture, Attitude towards Work and Work Ethics: A Search on Turkish High School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balci, Ali; Ozdemir, Murat; Apaydin, Cigdem; Ozen, Fatmanur

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyse organizational corruption and to determine its level of relation to attitude towards work, work ethics and organizational culture. The data in study have been collected from 441 public high school teachers employed in the central districts of Ankara in the school year of 2008-2009. Data have been collected…

  4. The Role of Knowledge, Social Norms, and Attitudes toward Organic Products and Shopping Behavior: Survey Results from High School Students in Vienna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotschi, Elisabeth; Vogel, Stefan; Lindenthal, Thomas; Larcher, Manuela

    2010-01-01

    In 2005 a survey was used to investigate social norms and attitudes of Viennese high school students (14-20 years, n = 340) toward organic products. Young people, who already participate in household decisions and consume organic products, have not yet been recognized sufficiently in research. The Theory of Reasoned Action and discriminant…

  5. Effectiveness of a School-Based Yoga Program on Adolescent Mental Health, Stress Coping Strategies, and Attitudes toward Violence: Findings from a High-Risk Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Jennifer L.; Bose, Bidyut; Schrobenhauser-Clonan, Alex

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of a universal yoga-based social-emotional wellness promotion program, Transformative Life Skills, on indicators of adolescent emotional distress, prosocial behavior, and attitudes toward violence in a high-risk sample. Participants included 49 students attending an alternative education school in an…

  6. The Role of Knowledge, Social Norms, and Attitudes toward Organic Products and Shopping Behavior: Survey Results from High School Students in Vienna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotschi, Elisabeth; Vogel, Stefan; Lindenthal, Thomas; Larcher, Manuela

    2010-01-01

    In 2005 a survey was used to investigate social norms and attitudes of Viennese high school students (14-20 years, n = 340) toward organic products. Young people, who already participate in household decisions and consume organic products, have not yet been recognized sufficiently in research. The Theory of Reasoned Action and discriminant…

  7. The Effects of Earth Science Textbook Contents on High School Students' Knowledge of, Attitude toward, and Behavior of Energy Saving and Carbon Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yu-Long; Chou, Ying-Chyi; Yen, Hsin-Yi; Chen, Shr-Jya

    2017-01-01

    As science textbooks are considered as one of the major source of climate change information of students, this study aims to examine the differences in energy saving and carbon reduction knowledge, attitude, and behavior between two groups of Taiwan's high school students using earth science textbooks of two different publishers. Some items of…

  8. Effects of a Recruitment Workshop on Selected Urban High School Students' Self-Efficacy and Attitudes toward Agriculture as a Subject, College Major, and Career

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraze, Lacee Brianne; Wingenbach, Gary; Rutherford, Tracy; Wolfskill, Lawrence A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if selected high school students' participation in a summer agricultural communications workshop affected their self-efficacy and attitudes toward agriculture as a subject, college major, and/or as a career. Data were gathered from an accessible population (N = 145), from which a purposive sample (n = 94)…

  9. Effectiveness of a School-Based Yoga Program on Adolescent Mental Health, Stress Coping Strategies, and Attitudes toward Violence: Findings from a High-Risk Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Jennifer L.; Bose, Bidyut; Schrobenhauser-Clonan, Alex

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of a universal yoga-based social-emotional wellness promotion program, Transformative Life Skills, on indicators of adolescent emotional distress, prosocial behavior, and attitudes toward violence in a high-risk sample. Participants included 49 students attending an alternative education school in an…

  10. [Development of the scale of knowledge, attitude, and behavior of lifestyle intervention in a diabetes high-risk population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W J; Dong, J

    2016-07-06

    To establish a scale of knowledge, attitude, and behavior of lifestyle interventions among a population at high risk of diabetes with good cultural adaptability, validity, and reliability. The original item pool was formed based on a literature review, group discussions, and interviews with experts. We used the Delphi method to determine core items of the scale (30 cases in the first round and 26 cases in the second round, respectively). We invited 30 experts from clinical medicine, nursing, preventive medicine, health education, and community diabetes prevention and control to completed expert consultation tables. For each item, experts were asked to provide an importance score, the judgment basis, and a familiarity score. We analyzed the positive coefficient, authoritative coefficient, degree of concentration, and harmonious coefficient, to determine the selected items. Using face-to-face questionnaire surveys, 31 participants at high risk of diabetes were selected for the pilot study. We analyzed understanding of the scale's content and presentation and corrected the scale based on the analysis. We received 26 and 23 inquiry forms, respectively, in two rounds of consultation. Responses rates of the two rounds were 87% and 88%. The scores of authoritative coefficients were 0.79 ± 0.14 and 0.87 ± 0.10. The score of total scale in the first consultation was 4.32±0.25, the coefficient of variation was 0.06, and the coefficient of concordance was 0.163; in the second consultation, these were 4.58±0.21, 0.05, 0.150, respectively. In the first consultation, 22 experts proposed amendments and made suggestions, a rate of 85% (22/26). After the second round, 30 items were included in the final scale. In the pilot study, 13 males and 18 females with high risk of diabetes were interviewed. Average age of the population was (62.24 ± 10.23) years. The time to complete the survey was (9.35 ± 2.71) minutes. After the pilot study was completed, the order of the items was

  11. A comparison of the effects of social constructivist and traditional approaches to teaching on students' attitude and achievement in high school chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latchman, Pooran

    2000-10-01

    Current views of the nature of knowledge and of learning suggest that instructional approaches in science education pay closer attention to how students learn rather than on teaching. This study examined the use of approaches to teaching science based on two contrasting perspectives in learning, social constructivist and traditional, and the effects they have on students' attitudes and achievement. Four categories of attitudes were measured using the Upper Secondary Attitude Questionnaire: Attitude towards school, towards the importance of science, towards science as a career, and towards science as a subject in school. Achievement was measured by average class grades and also with a researcher/teacher constructed 30-item test that involved three sub-scales of items based on knowledge, and applications involving near-transfer and far-transfer of concepts. The sample consisted of 202 students in nine intact classrooms in chemistry at a large high school in Miami, Florida, and involved two teachers. Results were analyzed using a two-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) with a pretest in attitude as the covariate for attitudes and prior achievement as the covariate for achievement. A comparison of the adjusted mean scores was made between the two groups and between females and males. With constructivist-based teaching, students showed more favorable attitude towards science as a subject, obtained significantly higher scores in class achievement, total achievement and achievement on the knowledge sub-scale of the knowledge and application test. Students in the traditional group showed more favorable attitude towards school. Females showed significantly more positive attitude towards the importance of science and obtained significantly higher scores in class achievement. No significant interaction effects were obtained for method of instruction by gender. This study lends some support to the view that constructivist-based approaches to teaching science is a viable

  12. Recruit for Attitude, Train for Skills: Creating High Performing Leadership Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodall, Janet

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on research investigating the factors which impact on the recruitment and support of high performing leadership teams, funded by the National College. The research involved a comprehensive literature review and case studies of nine English schools. The results show that four themes emerged in relation to high performing teams:…

  13. Middle and High School Science Teachers' Attitudes toward Nanotechnology and Intention to Implement it in Science Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghattas, Nadira I.

    This study was designed to determine the relationship between attitudes toward nanotechnology and the intention of implementing it in science classrooms; to detect the relationship between attitudes and other influential factors (knowledge and self-confidence, professional development, professional context, personal research experience, and personal practice of bringing nanotechnology in science classrooms); to highlight the salient attitudes of science teachers toward nanotechnology and implementing its related content, materials, and activities in science classrooms; and to identify the salient factors that would facilitate the process of integrating nanotechnology in science classrooms. Science Teachers' Attitudes toward Nanotechnology (STAT-N) survey and semi-structured interview were both used to collect data. Correlation was conducted to explore the relationship between attitudes and intention, and between attitudes and the above mentioned factors. The grounded theory approach was applied to identify science teachers' salient attitudes toward nanotechnology and implementing it in science classrooms, and to determine the facilitators that would help with the process of implementing nanotechnology in science classrooms. Regression analysis was also used to identify the facilitators that would help science teachers with integrating nanotechnology in science classrooms. Statistical analyses revealed a statistically significant relationship between attitudes and intention, p research experience, and personal practice of bringing nanotechnology in science classrooms), p research were statistically significant factors in predicting and teachers' intention of implementing nanotechnology in science classrooms. Professional development (PD) factor was the best predictor (beta = .32) among other factors. Qualitative results unfolded that attitudes toward nanotechnology and its implementation in science classrooms are influenced by personal perspectives and by inhibiting

  14. Teaching image-processing concepts in junior high school: boys' and girls' achievements and attitudes towards technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Moshe; Asad, Khaled

    2012-04-01

    Background : This research focused on the development, implementation and evaluation of a course on image-processing principles aimed at middle-school students. Purpose : The overarching purpose of the study was that of integrating the learning of subjects in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM), and linking the learning of these subjects to the children's world and to the digital culture characterizing society today. Sample : The participants were 60 junior high-school students (9th grade). Design and method : Data collection included observations in the classes, administering an attitude questionnaire before and after the course, giving an achievement exam and analyzing the students' final projects. Results and conclusions : The findings indicated that boys' and girls' achievements were similar throughout the course, and all managed to handle the mathematical knowledge without any particular difficulties. Learners' motivation to engage in the subject was high in the project-based learning part of the course in which they dealt, for instance, with editing their own pictures and experimenting with a facial recognition method. However, the students were less interested in learning the theory at the beginning of the course. The course increased the girls', more than the boys', interest in learning scientific-technological subjects in school, and the gender gap in this regard was bridged.

  15. Smoking behaviour predicts tobacco control attitudes in a high smoking prevalence hospital: A cross-sectional study in a Portuguese teaching hospital prior to the national smoking ban

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguiar Pedro

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have investigated attitudes to and compliance with smoking bans, but few have been conducted in healthcare settings and none in such a setting in Portugal. Portugal is of particular interest because the current ban is not in line with World Health Organization recommendations for a "100% smoke-free" policy. In November 2007, a Portuguese teaching-hospital surveyed smoking behaviour and tobacco control (TC attitudes before the national ban came into force in January 2008. Methods Questionnaire-based cross-sectional study, including all eligible staff. Sample: 52.9% of the 1, 112 staff; mean age 38.3 ± 9.9 years; 65.9% females. Smoking behaviour and TC attitudes and beliefs were the main outcomes. Bivariable analyses were conducted using chi-squared and MacNemar tests to compare categorical variables and Mann-Whitney tests to compare medians. Multilogistic regression (MLR was performed to identify factors associated with smoking status and TC attitudes. Results Smoking prevalence was 40.5% (95% CI: 33.6-47.4 in males, 23.5% (95% CI: 19.2-27.8 in females (p Conclusions Smoking prevalence was high, especially among the lower socio-economic groups. The findings showed a very high level of support for smoking bans, despite the pro-smoking environment. Most staff reported passive behaviour, despite high SHS exposure. This and the high smoking prevalence may contribute to low compliance with the ban and low participation on smoking cessation activities. Smoking behaviour had greater influence in TC attitudes than health professionals' education. Our study is the first in Portugal to identify potential predictors of non-compliance with the partial smoking ban, further emphasising the need for a 100% smoke-free policy, effective enforcement and public health education to ensure compliance and promote social norm change.

  16. An investigation of the attitudes, anxieties and self-efficacy beliefs towards mathematics lessons high school students’ in terms of gender, types of school, and students’ grades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Izzet Kurbanoglu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to explore relationships between high school students’ attitudes towards mathematics lessons, anxieties towards mathematics lessons and self-efficacy beliefs in terms of gender, types of school and students’ grades. In this study, the data were gathered by “Attitudes Towards Mathematics Scale” (Aşkar, 1986 and by “Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale” which was adapted to Turkish by Akın, Kurbanoğlu and Takunyacı (2009. Besides, in order to determine students’ self-efficacy beliefs were determined by self-efficacy, sub-scale of “Motivation Scale” which was adapted to Turkish by Büyüköztürk, Akgün, Özkahveci, & Demirel (2004. The sample of this study consisted of 418 students who attended from three different high schools. The study was conducted during the fall semester of academic year 2009-2010. ANOVA and t-Test were employed to analyze the hypotheses of research. It was observed in the findings of the study that there are no statistically significant differences between students’ gender and scores of attitudes towards mathematics lessons, anxieties towards mathematics lessons and self-efficacy beliefs. But there are statistically significant differences between students’ types of school and students’ grades and scores of attitudes towards mathematics lessons, anxieties towards mathematics lessons and self-efficacy beliefs.    

  17. Association between attitudes towards Internet usage and health practices in high-school students in 2 schools in Turkey: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, N; Aşti, T; Kaya, I; Yaylaci, S; Kaya, H; Turan, N; Aydin, G Özdemir

    2017-02-01

    Excessive usage of the Internet can negatively affect health and health practices especially among youth. To examine the issue among Turkish students, this study determined the association between high-school students' attitudes towards Internet usage and their health behaviour. The sample (n = 2043) was randomly drawn from all students at two high schools in Turkey: one in Anatolia and one (a vocational school) in Istanbul. Data were collected using the Structured Questionnaire, Attitude Scale towards Internet Usage (ASTIU) and Adolescent Lifestyle Profile (ALP). The mean age of the students was 16.3 years, 77.7% were male and 96.9% used the Internet; mean duration of Internet use was 18.8 h/week. Female students had more positive attitudes towards Internet usage. Mean scores for ASTIU and ALP were 72.58 (SD 17.64) and 111.34 (SD 16.61) respectively, which were average levels. There was a statistically significant but weak overall negative correlation between adolescents' attitudes towards Internet usage and their health behaviour. Our results concur with studies in different cultures which suggest some negative effects, of heavy Internet use.

  18. Factors Influencing High School Students' Science Enrollments Patterns: Academic Abilities, Parental Influences, and Attitudes toward Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Ghada A.; Voss, Burton E.

    This study was designed, using a path analytic model, to assess the relative impact of different factors on science concentration decisions made by grade 10 high school students (N=237). Included in the model were selected demographic and socioeconomic factors, academic abilities factors (including logical thinking), indicators of home and school…

  19. Thoughts, Attitudes, and Feelings of HIV-Positive MSM Associated with High Transmission-Risk Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinta, Matthew D.; Murphy, Jessie L.; Paul, Jay P.; Schwarcz, Sandra K.; Dilley, James W.

    2012-01-01

    This study presents survey data collected from a sample of HIV-positive men (N = 182) who had high transmission-risk sex, defined as unprotected anal intercourse with a man whose HIV-status was negative or unknown, in the previous 6 months. Despite the tremendous changes in HIV treatment and their impact on people living with HIV, little recent…

  20. Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids: Prevalence, Knowledge, and Attitudes in Junior and Senior High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luetkemeier, Maurie J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Reports a survey of junior and senior high school students that investigated the prevalence of anabolic-androgenic steroid use and examined gender, sports participation, and illicit drug use. Results indicated the prevalence of steroid use was 3.3%. Steroid use was greater for males, users of other drugs, and strength trainers. (SM)

  1. Sexual Attitudes and Knowledge of High-Functioning Adolescents and Adults with Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ousley, Opal Y.; Mesibov, Gary B.

    1991-01-01

    Interviews with 21 high-functioning adults with autism and 20 mildly to moderately mentally retarded adults without autism indicated that the mentally retarded group had more sexual experiences, with no intergroup differences in sexual knowledge or interest. Intelligence quotient was positively correlated with knowledge scores and males had…

  2. Attitudes of Superintendents of Ohio Comprehensive High Schools toward Adult Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Larry E.; Krill, Thomas L.

    1985-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the knowledge of superintendents of Ohio comprehensive high schools toward adult vocational agricultural education. A summary of the demographic data revealed that 63 percent of the superintendents administered programs of adult vocational agriculture. Concepts on the survey with which superintendents agreed and…

  3. Beyond Conferences: Attitudes of High School Administrators toward Parental Involvement in One Small Midwestern State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd-Smith, Laura; Baron, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The importance of parental involvement for students of all ages has been documented by researchers and acknowledged by practitioners. Although many earlier studies have contended that there is a positive association between parental involvement and school performance at the middle and high school levels, administrators in the field are aware that…

  4. High School Students' Attitudes toward Islam and Muslims: Can a Social Studies Course Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepper, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Despite 9/11, the seemingly endless Israeli-Palestinian conflict, the possibility of Iran developing nuclear weapons capabilities, and the Arab Spring and its aftermath, the social studies curricula of high schools throughout the nation generally put little emphasis on the Middle East and Islam as the foundation for understanding vital issues that…

  5. 3Dwheel: 3-axis low-noise, high-bandwidth attitude actuation from a single momentum wheel using magnetic bearings.

    OpenAIRE

    Seddon, Jon; Pechev, Alexandre

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a new concept for attitude actuation for small satellites that uses active magnetic bearings to support and tilt a spinning rotor to provide 3-axis attitude control of the satellite using a single actuator. A controlled 3D motion in the spinning rotor provides a conventional torque output about the momentum axis and a gyroscopic torque output about any direction in the plane normal to the spinning axis. Therefore, a single tilting momentum-wheel can generate torque along t...

  6. Unpacking attitude certainty: attitude clarity and attitude correctness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrocelli, John V; Tormala, Zakary L; Rucker, Derek D

    2007-01-01

    Attitude certainty has been the subject of considerable attention in the attitudes and persuasion literature. The present research identifies 2 aspects of attitude certainty and provides evidence for the distinctness of the constructs. Specifically, it is proposed that attitude certainty can be conceptualized, and empirically separated, in terms of attitude clarity (the subjective sense that one knows what one's attitude is) and attitude correctness (the subjective sense that one's attitude is correct or valid). Experiment 1 uses factor analysis and correlational data to provide evidence for viewing attitude clarity and attitude correctness as separate constructs. Experiments 2 and 3 demonstrate that attitude clarity and attitude correctness can have distinct antecedents (repeated expression and consensus feedback, respectively). Experiment 4 reveals that these constructs each play an independent role in persuasion and resistance situations. As clarity and correctness increase, attitudes become more resistant to counterattitudinal persuasive messages. These findings are discussed in relation to the existing attitude strength literature. 2007 APA, all rights reserved

  7. The Effect of Educational Intervention on Knowledge, Attitude and Performance of High School Girl Students about AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nooshin Peyman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS is one of the most complex problems of health in the world. Since young population and mostly students are one of main groups at risk, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of educational intervention on knowledge, attitude and performance of high school students about AIDS. Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted on 60 girls selected randomly from two public schools and they divided into two control and intervention groups. Research tool was a researcher-made questionnaire including two parts (demographic questions and specialized questions about AIDS. Firstly, a pretest was held, then 3 educational sessions were held on AIDS, its’ transmission and prevention ways by lecture, ask and answer, and educational pamphlet. Students took posttests immediately after educational intervention and two months later. Data were analyzed by statistical tests including chi-square test, paired t test, independent t, and Rapid Manager and using SPSS 13.   Results: Mean score of participants' knowledge about HIV was 16.8±3.8 before intervention; it increased to 24.4±3.1 immediately, and 24.5±3.1 two months after intervention (P

  8. The Attitudes of High School Teachers towards Contemporary Educational Approaches and Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Ozcan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examined whether there were differences between private, state and foundation high schools in North Cyprus in the application of contemporary educational approaches and theories. Qualitative approach was used to collect data from three different discussion groups in three different locations. Open coding methods were used to analyse the semi structured discussion recordings. Results regarding the application and practice of contemporary educational approaches and theories in the schools showed some similarities as well as differences. However, constructivist approach was seen to be given greater importance only in the private school while foundations and state schools neither applied nor practiced this approach.

  9. Gambling behaviors and attitudes in adolescent high-school students: Relationships with problem-gambling severity and smoking status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Andrea H; Franco, Christine A; Hoff, Rani A; Pilver, Corey E; Steinberg, Marvin A; Rugle, Loreen; Wampler, Jeremy; Cavallo, Dana A; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Potenza, Marc N

    2015-06-01

    Smoking is associated with more severe/extensive gambling in adults. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between smoking and gambling in adolescents. Analyses utilized survey data from 1591 Connecticut high-school students. Adolescents were classified by gambling (Low-Risk Gambling [LRG], At Risk/Problem Gambling [ARPG]) and smoking (current smoker, non-smoker). The main effects of smoking and the smoking-by-gambling interactions were examined for gambling behaviors (e.g., type, location), and gambling attitudes. Data were analyzed using chi-square and logistic regression; the latter controlled for gender, race/ethnicity, grade, and family structure. For APRG adolescents, smoking was associated with greater online, school, and casino gambling; gambling due to anxiety and pressure; greater time spent gambling; early gambling onset; perceived parental approval of gambling; and decreased importance of measures to prevent teen gambling. For LRG adolescents, smoking was associated with non-strategic gambling (e.g., lottery gambling); school gambling; gambling in response to anxiety; gambling for financial reasons; greater time spent gambling; and decreased importance of measures to prevent teen gambling. Stronger relationships were found between smoking and casino gambling, gambling due to pressure, earlier onset of gambling, and parental perceptions of gambling for ARPG versus LRG adolescents. Smoking is associated with more extensive gambling for both low- and high-risk adolescent gamblers. Smoking may be a marker of more severe gambling behaviors in adolescents and important to consider in gambling prevention and intervention efforts with youth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE S , AND PERCEPTIONS ABOUT HIV/AIDS IN TEENAGE STUDENTS IN A HIGH PREVA LENCE DISTRICT IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gandhi Bhaskar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Teenagers form a significant portion of those infected with HIV and the number of young women getting infected with HIV/AIDS is growing rapidly. OBJECTIVES: This study was done to estimate the knowledge attitudes and risk perceptions about HIV/AIDS, in teenage high school students of Guntur. METHODS: A cross sectional study was carried out. For data analysis, simple percentage was applied. For finding gender differences, “Chi square test for independence” was used. RESULTS: More than half (61.1% were unaware that treatment is available for HIV. More than one third (41.6%, of students preferred to discontinue friendship if their friend contracts HIV. Two thirds, (66.66% of the students were unaware that HIV can be transmitted by tattooing /skin piercing. About one third (31% were unaware that using disposable syringes can help prevent HIV transmission. Girls (77.5% were less aware that HIV can be transmitted through sexual intercourse than boys (93.2%, (p value =0.019. More girls (28.5% were lacking in the awareness that condoms can help in prevention of HIV transmission than boys (5.1% (p value =0.0008.More girls (24.5% were unaware that safe blood transfusion practices can help in prevention of HIV than boys (5.1%, (p value =0.0114. Also more girls (42.8% were unaware that using disposable syringes can help in prevention of HIV transmission than boys (20.3%, (p value =0.0037. CONCLUSION: There were significant gaps in knowledge about HIV among teenage high school students and comparatively girls were less aware than boys. HIV/AIDS knowledge should be improved by school education programmes

  11. Doping Attitudes and Covariates of Potential Doping Behaviour in High-Level Team-Sport Athletes; Gender Specific Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Sekulic, Enver Tahiraj, Milan Zvan, Natasa Zenic, Ognjen Uljevic, Blaz Lesnik

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Team sports are rarely studied with regard to doping behaviour and doping-related factors regardless of their global popularity. This study aimed to investigate doping factors and covariates of potential doping behaviour in high-level team-sport athletes. The subjects were 457 high-performing, national- and international-level athletes (21.9 ± 3.4 years of age; 179 females involved in volleyball (n = 77, soccer (n = 163, basketball (n = 114 and handball (n = 103. Previously validated self-administered questionnaires aimed at evidencing sport factors, doping-related factors, knowledge on sport nutrition and doping, and attitudes to performance enhancement were used. The results indicated a higher doping likelihood in male athletes, with a significant gender difference for basketball and handball. In males, a higher doping likelihood is found for athletes who had achieved better results at junior-age level, those who regularly consume dietary supplements, and who perceive their sport as being contaminated by doping. A higher sport achievement at senior-age level is protective against potential doping behaviour in males. In females, a higher likelihood of doping is evidenced in those athletes involved in binge drinking, while a lower tendency for doping is evidenced in female athletes who possess better knowledge on sport nutrition. Knowledge about doping is very low and thus education about doping is urgently needed. An improvement of knowledge on sport nutrition might be a potentially effective method for reducing the tendency for doping in females. Future studies should consider other approaches and theories, such as theory of planned behaviour and/or social-cognitive theory, in studying the problem of doping behaviour in team-sports.

  12. Evaluation of Cigarette Smoking Attitudes and Behaviors among Students of a State High School in İstanbul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ülkü Aka Aktürk

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to evaluate smoking habits of students, reasons of smoking and students’ level of knowledge on the adverse effects of smoking in a state high school in İstanbul. Methods: A 15-item questionnaire was administered to the students attending a state high school in İstanbul to evaluate their attitudes and behaviors towards cigarette smoking. The questionnaire was completed by each class of students at the same class period under the supervision of their teachers. Results: The questionnaire was completed by 415 students at the respective school. While 349 students (84% never smoke, 66 (15.9% students were either current smokers or quitters. Fifty five of the students (13.2% were active smokers. When we looked at the reasons of smoking, they reported that 63.6% smoked cigarettes because their friends did; 47.2% smoked cigarettes due to exam-related stress; and 40% smoked cigarettes due to family problems. The rate of smoking friends in the smoker group was significantly higher than in the non-smoker group (p=0.0001. A logistic regression analysis showed that having smoking friends was associated with an 8-fold increase in the risk of smoking compared to having no smoking friends. Conclusion: The most common reasons of smoking at the school were friends who were smokers, exam-related stress and family problems. Having friends who smoke was associated with an 8-fold increase in the risk of smoking. We believe that counselling services’ close engagement with family problems of students and exam-related stress issues and helping them to cope with these problems may prevent their vulnerability to toxic substances.

  13. Gambling behaviors and attitudes in adolescent high-school students: Relationships with problem-gambling severity and smoking status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Andrea H.; Franco, Christine A.; Hoff, Rani A.; Pilver, Corey E.; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen; Wampler, Jeremy; Cavallo, Dana A.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Potenza, Marc N.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Smoking is associated with more severe/extensive gambling in adults. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between smoking and gambling in adolescents. Methods Analyses utilized survey data from 1,591 Connecticut high-school students. Adolescents were classified by gambling (Low-Risk Gambling [LRG], At Risk/Problem Gambling [ARPG]) and smoking (current smoker, non-smoker). The main effects of smoking and the smoking-by-gambling interactions were examined for gambling behaviors (e.g., type, location), and gambling attitudes. Data were analyzed using chi-square and logistic regression; the latter controlled for gender, race/ethnicity, grade, and family structure. Results For APRG adolescents, smoking was associated with greater online, school, and casino gambling; gambling due to anxiety and pressure; greater time spent gambling; early gambling onset; perceived parental approval of gambling; and decreased importance of measures to prevent teen gambling. For LRG adolescents, smoking was associated with non-strategic gambling (e.g., lottery gambling); school gambling; gambling in response to anxiety; gambling for financial reasons; greater time spent gambling; and decreased importance of measures to prevent teen gambling. Stronger relationships were found between smoking and casino gambling, gambling due to pressure, earlier onset of gambling, and parental perceptions of gambling for ARPG versus LRG adolescents. Discussion Smoking is associated with more extensive gambling for both low- and high-risk adolescent gamblers. Conclusion Smoking may be a marker of more severe gambling behaviors in adolescents and important to consider in gambling prevention and intervention efforts with youth. PMID:25959617

  14. Attitudes of Parents and Health Care Workers to Major Surgery for High-Risk Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Hugh Simon; Sit, Tony; Chau, Chi Lok; Tam, Yuk Him; Cheung, Hon Ming; Wong, Samuel Po Shing; Ng, Pak Cheung

    2016-10-01

    To assess preferences of health care workers (HCWs) and parents of term and preterm infants to adverse health outcomes, and how perceived surgical mortality influences decision-making. A total of 536 participants (157 HCWs, 201 parents of term infants, and 178 parents of preterm infants) were recruited to take part in a structured interview. Preferences related to treatment of a critically ill preterm infant with necrotizing enterocolitis were measured by health state rank permutation analysis and pivotal risk analysis. Between-group and subgroup comparisons were performed. HCWs rank adverse health states less favorably than parents of preterm infants, consistently ranking 2 of the most adverse health states worse than death. Pivotal risk values of HCWs for all health states were consistently the lowest of the 3 groups. High operative mortality was associated uniformly with reduction in pivotal risks for all groups both in favorable and adverse health states. Subgroup analyses revealed significant discrepancies in preferences between fathers and mothers as well as doctors and nurses. Regular religious practice was significantly associated with increased pivotal risks in parental subgroups. As discrepancies in health state preferences existed between subgroups (ie, doctors vs nurses, mothers vs fathers) and perceived operative mortality consistently biased parental and HCW health state preferences, we recommend that HCWs should first identify differences regarding patient management before interviewing the parents together. HCWs should be aware of inadvertently biasing parents when discussing the risks and outcomes of surgery in conjunction with the overall long-term prognosis of the underlying condition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Social and Ecological Factors Influencing Attitudes Toward the Application of High-Intensity Prescribed Burns to Restore Fire Adapted Grassland Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Toledo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fire suppression in grassland systems that are adapted to episodic fire has contributed to the recruitment of woody species in grasslands worldwide. Even though the ecology of restoring these fire prone systems back to grassland states is becoming clearer, a major hurdle to the reintroduction of historic fires at a landscape scale is its social acceptability. Despite the growing body of literature on the social aspects of fire, an understanding of the human dimensions of applying high-intensity prescribed burns in grassland and savanna systems is lacking. We used structural equation modeling to examine how landowners' attitudes toward high-intensity prescribed burns are affected by previous experience with burning, perceptions of brush encroachment, land condition, proximity constraints, risk orientation, fire management knowledge and skill, access to fire management equipment, and subjective norms. Our results suggest that experience, risk taking orientation, and especially social norms, i.e., perceived support from others, when implementing prescribed burns play an important role in determining the attitudes of landowners toward the use of high-intensity prescribed burns. Concern over lack of skill, knowledge, and insufficient resources have a moderately negative effect on these attitudes. Our results highlight the importance of targeted engagement strategies to address risk perceptions, subjective norms, and landowner's concerns. With these concerns allayed, it is possible to increase the adoption of high-intensity prescribed burns that lead to landscape-scale grassland restoration and conservation.

  16. A mixed-age science collaborative between elementary and high school physics students: A study of attitude toward school science and inquiry skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blain, Mary Perron

    Grade three students had significant improvements in inquiry ability and attitude toward school science as a function of their participation in mixed-age dyads completing inquiry-based science experiments with a high school physics partner. The social interaction between the 'more capable other' (Vygotsky, 1978) with the grade three student in the mixed-age problem solving team indicates a contributing factor in this improvement. This study employed a quasi-experimental design with intact groups of non-random assignment. The non-parametric Wilcoxon test (p = 0.025) was used to analyze scores for each academic achievement group for significant differences pre- and post-collaborative in "Inquiry" skill and "Attitude" toward school science scores. Three grade three classrooms from one elementary school and one high school physics class from the same school district were involved in the study. The high school physics class teamed with one intact grade three class as the mixed-age dyad performing the "hands-on" experiments (treatment). The two grade three classes teamed as same-age peer dyads (comparison group) to perform the same experiments on the same day. Using methods patterned after the way scientists investigate their world, the dyads performed experiments considered for future grade three national assessments (NAEP, 1994), i.e. "Which paper towel holds the most water?"; "Which magnet is stronger?"; "Which type of sugar, cubed or loose, dissolves best in warm water?" Trained raters scored the written lab reports using standardized scoring guides and characteristic benchmark responses to determine the "Inquiry" skill score for each subject. The "Attitude" toward school science score for each subject was determined from the Likert scale survey, Individual and Group Attitudes Toward Science and the open-ended Sentence Completion Test (SCT) (Piburn & Sidlick, 1992). Three raters scored the SCT survey for each subject. This study showed that for a grade three student

  17. Confirmation of gravitationally induced attitude drift of spinning satellite Ajisai with Graz high repetition rate SLR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharski, Daniel; Kirchner, Georg; Otsubo, Toshimichi; Lim, Hyung-Chul; Bennett, James; Koidl, Franz; Kim, Young-Rok; Hwang, Joo-Yeon

    2016-02-01

    The high repetition rate Satellite Laser Ranging system Graz delivers the millimeter precision range measurements to the corner cube reflector panels of Ajisai. The analysis of 4599 passes measured from October 2003 until November 2014 reveals the secular precession and nutation of Ajisai spin axis due to the gravitational forces as predicted by Kubo (1987) with the periods of 35.6 years and 116.5 days respectively. The observed precession cone is oriented at RA = 88.9°, Dec = -88.85° (J2000) and has a radius of 1.08°. The radius of the nutation cone increases from 1.32° to 1.57° over the 11 years of the measurements. We also detect a draconitic wobbling of Ajisai orientation due to the 'motion' of the Sun about the satellite's orbit. The observed spin period of Ajisai increases exponentially over the investigated time span according to the trend function: T = 1.492277·exp(0.0148388·Y) [s], where Y is in years since launch (1986.6133), RMS = 0.412 ms. The physical simulation model fitted to the observed spin parameters proves a very low interaction between Ajisai and the Earth's magnetic field, what assures that the satellite's angular momentum vector will remain in the vicinity of the south celestial pole for the coming decades. The developed empirical model of the spin axis orientation can improve the accuracy of the range determination between the ground SLR systems and the satellite's center-of-mass (Kucharski et al., 2015) and enable the accurate attitude prediction of Ajisai for the laser time-transfer experiments (Kunimori et al., 1992).

  18. Postmaterialism, new environmental paradigm and ecocentric approach: A qualitative and quantitative study of environmental attitudes of Turkish senior high school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taskin, Ozgur

    The present study aims to elucidate the determinant factors that affect environmental attitudes (EA) of senior high school students in Turkey and the origins of these EAs. Over nine hundred students from different school types, neighborhoods, geographical regions, social-economic backgrounds participated in the questionnaire based surveys which are called the New Environmental Paradigm (NEP) and the General Attitudes and Perceptions (GAP), and twenty of those students were interviewed as well. Survey results show that EAs of students vary depending on school type, gender, parents' education levels and professions, and household income. Normal public high school students, females, lower-middle class students, students with well educated parents in white collar professions, and student with liberal parents have more pro-environmental attitudes than the others. With regard to school type, students from public technical high school (vocational school), almost all of which are based on single-sex education, have scored the lowest on both surveys which are the NEP and the GAP. The results from the qualitative portion are as follows: Students' perceptions about the environment and related issues are limited to their local habitat. Although the mean scores of students on both surveys do not differ to a statistically significant extent depending on geographical regions, interviews show that participants from different regions have distinct priorities, which range from poverty to sea pollution. Even though students' first priority in their lives is education, education is perceived as a mechanism to achieve a more prosperous life rather than an end in itself. Almost all interview participants agree on the importance of education in shaping EAs. Interestingly, some interviewees (four out of ten males) also comment that a man's sense of his own masculinity can be threatened when confronted by another man to change his attitude towards the environment.

  19. Possible relationships between literacy-based instructional coaching and effects on high school teachers' self-efficacy and attitudes toward teaching reading in the content areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Jessica Lynn

    Grounded in the Theory of Self-Efficacy and the Theory of Reasoned Action, this quantitative, correlational study examined if participation in literacy-based instructional coaching (one-on-one, small group) predicted both high school teachers' self-efficacy as measured by the Teachers' Sense of Efficacy Scale and teachers' attitudes toward teaching reading in the content areas measured by the Scale to Measure Attitudes Toward Teaching Reading in Content Classrooms. This study utilized a convenience sample of content teachers from three high schools in Northeastern Pennsylvania participating in a literacy coaching initiative. The volunteer sample of teachers completed the Likert-type questionnaires. The study used hierarchical regression analysis to determine values for each block of the regression models. The study correlated instances of literacy-based instructional coaching (one-on-one, small group) with the scores on the SMATTRCC and the TSES to examine predictive validity. Gender, years of experience, and content area were control variables in this study. The results of the first model indicated that there was a significant relationship between the number of coaching instances and attitudes toward teaching reading in the content area with participation in instructional coaching accounting for 9.6% of the variance in scores on the SMATTRCC. The results of the second model indicated that there was a significant relationship between the number of coaching instances and teachers' self-efficacy with participation in instructional coaching accounting for 6.1% of the variance in scores on the TSES.

  20. Negative attitude of highly educated parents and health care workers towards future vaccinations in the Dutch childhood vaccination program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hak, E; Schönbeck, Y; De Melker, H; Van Essen, G A; Sanders, E A M

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether further expansion of the Dutch childhood vaccination program with other vaccines will be accepted and whom should be targeted in educational strategies. AIM: To determine attitudes of parents towards possible future vaccinations for their children and the behavioura

  1. Negative attitude of highly educated parents and health care workers towards future vaccinations in the Dutch childhood vaccination program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hak, E; Schönbeck, Y; De Melker, H; Van Essen, G A; Sanders, E A M

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether further expansion of the Dutch childhood vaccination program with other vaccines will be accepted and whom should be targeted in educational strategies. AIM: To determine attitudes of parents towards possible future vaccinations for their children and the

  2. High School Students' Scientific Epistemological Beliefs, Self-Efficacy in Learning Physics and Attitudes toward Physics: A Structural Equation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapucu, Serkan; Bahçivan, Eralp

    2015-01-01

    Background: There are some theoretical evidences that explain the relationships between core beliefs (i.e., epistemological beliefs) and peripheral beliefs (self-efficacy in learning) in the literature. The close relationships of such type of beliefs with attitudes are also discussed by some researchers. Constructing a model that investigates…

  3. Young People's Attitude toward Education as a Factor in Improving the Effectiveness of Training Highly Qualified Cadres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubok, Iu. A.; Chuprov, V. I.

    2013-01-01

    Research shows that in contemporary Russian society there is an increasingly acute contradiction between society's need for the training of professional cadres who are able to meet modern standards, and young people's attitudes toward education. Resolving this contradiction will require both changes in the system of education in Russia…

  4. Study of the Effectiveness of Multi-Cultural Education on the Attitude towards National Integration of High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perveen, Shaheen

    2014-01-01

    The present endeavour enables the students to gain information and knowledge about different sub-cultures as well as to develop positive attitude towards national integration. A country lives and thrives in its cultural heritage. Culture is a treasure to be preserved, perpetuated and promoted. Today's students will be the future nation builders.…

  5. Young People's Attitude toward Education as a Factor in Improving the Effectiveness of Training Highly Qualified Cadres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubok, Iu. A.; Chuprov, V. I.

    2013-01-01

    Research shows that in contemporary Russian society there is an increasingly acute contradiction between society's need for the training of professional cadres who are able to meet modern standards, and young people's attitudes toward education. Resolving this contradiction will require both changes in the system of education in Russia and changes…

  6. Doping Attitudes and Covariates of Potential Doping Behaviour in High-Level Team-Sport Athletes; Gender Specific Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekulic, Damir; Tahiraj, Enver; Zvan, Milan; Zenic, Natasa; Uljevic, Ognjen; Lesnik, Blaz

    2016-01-01

    Team sports are rarely studied with regard to doping behaviour and doping-related factors regardless of their global popularity. This study aimed to investigate doping factors and covariates of potential doping behaviour in high-level team-sport athletes. The subjects were 457 high-performing, national- and international-level athletes (21.9 ± 3.4 years of age; 179 females) involved in volleyball (n = 77), soccer (n = 163), basketball (n = 114) and handball (n = 103). Previously validated self-administered questionnaires aimed at evidencing sport factors, doping-related factors, knowledge on sport nutrition and doping, and attitudes to performance enhancement were used. The results indicated a higher doping likelihood in male athletes, with a significant gender difference for basketball and handball. In males, a higher doping likelihood is found for athletes who had achieved better results at junior-age level, those who regularly consume dietary supplements, and who perceive their sport as being contaminated by doping. A higher sport achievement at senior-age level is protective against potential doping behaviour in males. In females, a higher likelihood of doping is evidenced in those athletes involved in binge drinking, while a lower tendency for doping is evidenced in female athletes who possess better knowledge on sport nutrition. Knowledge about doping is very low and thus education about doping is urgently needed. An improvement of knowledge on sport nutrition might be a potentially effective method for reducing the tendency for doping in females. Future studies should consider other approaches and theories, such as theory of planned behaviour and/or social-cognitive theory, in studying the problem of doping behaviour in team-sports. Key points The doping knowledge among Kosovar team-sport athletes is very low and systematic anti-doping education is urgently needed. The highest risk of doping behaviour in males is found for those athletes who had been

  7. Attitudes and beliefs among high- and low-risk population groups towards β-thalassemia prevention: a cross-sectional descriptive study from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Swati; Singh, Rajnish Kumar; Lakkakula, Bhaskar V K S; Vadlamudi, Raghavendra Rao

    2017-07-01

    β-thalassemia is an autosomal recessive blood disorder caused by gene mutations that affect all aspects of β-globin production. In majority of Asian countries including India, the frequency of β-thalassemia is closely intertwined with social, cultural, and religious issues of the respective country. Several national level screening programs imparted education regarding β-thalassemia, but follow-up evaluation revealed that education was not effective. It has been hypothesized that the beliefs and attitudes, carrier screening, and education among "high risk communities" will have far-reaching implications towards β-thalassemia prevention in the country. The present study is aimed to investigate attitudes, intention, and behavior of β-thalassemia high- and low-risk ethnic groups towards carrier screening and education. A structured questionnaire on knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding β-thalassemia was administered on 926 individuals belong to Arora, a high-risk ethnic group for β-thalassemia (347 rural (AR) and 202 urban (AU)) and 377 cosmopolitan commoners (CC) aged above 18 years of both sexes. To understand the relationship between various questions, Pearson's correlation test and factor analysis was performed. The responses were further categorized into the theory of planned behavior (TPB) constructs with the measures of the main constructs reported as a mean. Various dimensions of knowledge, attitude, and practice reveal that the urban groups (AU and CC) are better aware of the disease "β-thalassemia" than the rural group (AR) who witness suffering at close quarters. The AR group is more positive for preventive measures than the urban groups. Significant correlations and factor analysis show "intentions" for premarital and prenatal screening highly loaded as outcome behaviors. The Ajzen's "Theory of planned behavior" support that the "intention" and "perceived behavior control" are better predictors of "outcome behavior" compared to "attitude

  8. Restricting Advertisements for High-Fat, High-Sugar Foods during Children's Television Programs: Attitudes in a US Population-Based Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripicchio, Gina; Heo, Moonseong; Diewald, Lisa; Noar, Seth M; Dooley, Rachel; Pietrobelli, Angelo; Burger, Kyle S; Faith, Myles S

    2016-04-01

    Children in the United States (US) are frequently exposed to advertisements for high-fat, high-sugar (HFHS) foods, which is linked to greater demand for and consumption of those foods. Restricting advertisements for HFHS foods may be a viable obesity prevention strategy-however, public support for policy change is unclear. A secondary analysis of the 2012 Annenberg National Health Communication Survey was conducted. Respondents (N = 1838) were 53.2% female, mean age 50.0 ± 16.5 years. Race/ethnic composition was 76.8% white, 7.4% black, 9.2% Hispanic, and 6.6% other. The percentage of respondents supporting and opposing the regulation was calculated and logistic regression models identified predictors of support. Potential predictors included sociodemographic variables, attitudes towards other health regulations (e.g., smoking bans in public places), and various health behaviors (e.g., fruit and vegetable intake). A total of 56.3% of respondents supported or strongly supported advertisement restrictions, while only 8.2% strongly opposed. Approximately 20% had no opinion. Greatest support was found among respondents who supported smoking bans in public settings (OR = 4.3), who supported banning trans fats in restaurants (OR = 1.7), and who were older (OR = 1.7). The US adult population appears to have an appetite for restricting HFHS advertising to children, with more than half the populace supporting such a policy in 2012. This may be an opportune time to implement and rigorously evaluate such childhood obesity prevention strategies.

  9. Negative Attitudes, Network and Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; la Cour, Lisbeth; Larsen, Birthe

    to an ambiguous impact. Empirically, we consider immigrants’ high school attendance. On the macro-level, we confirm a signficant negative correlation between negative attitudes towards immigrants and high school attendance and a positive impact of networking on high school attendance. On the individual level, we...... use Danish register data to find a signficant positive correlation between negative attitudes towards immigrants and high school attendance and find a positive impact of networking on high school attendance. In both the macro and the micro-econometric analysis we run the same regressions for natives......We consider the impact of negative attitudes against immigrants and immigration on educational choice in a search and wage bargaining model including networking. We consider two cases in terms of the importance of negative attitudes againts immigrants for high and low educated individuals and find...

  10. Individual Attitudes Towards Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäkel, Ina Charlotte; Smolka, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Using the 2007 wave of the Pew Global Attitudes Project, this paper finds statistically significant and economically large Stolper-Samuelson effects in individuals’ preference formation towards trade policy. High-skilled individuals are substantially more pro-trade than low-skilled individuals...

  11. Ambiguity attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trautmann, Stefan; van de Kuilen, Gijs; Keren, Gideon; Wu, George

    2015-01-01

    This chapter reviews the experimental literature on ambiguity attitudes, focusing on three topics. First, it considers various approaches to operationalize ambiguity in experiments. Second, the chapter reviews basic findings in the field regarding the prevalence of ambiguity aversion and ambiguity s

  12. Affect and Cognition in Attitude Formation toward Familiar and Unfamiliar Attitude Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Giesen, Roxanne I.

    2015-01-01

    At large attitudes are built on earlier experience with the attitude object. If earlier experiences are not available, as is the case for unfamiliar attitude objects such as new technologies, no stored evaluations exist. Yet, people are still somehow able to construct attitudes on the spot. Depending on the familiarity of the attitude object, attitudes may find their basis more in affect or cognition. The current paper investigates differences in reliance on affect or cognition in attitude formation toward familiar and unfamiliar realistic attitude objects. In addition, individual differences in reliance on affect (high faith in intuition) or cognition (high need for cognition) are taken into account. In an experimental survey among Dutch consumers (N = 1870), we show that, for unfamiliar realistic attitude objects, people rely more on affect than cognition. For familiar attitude objects where both affective and cognitive evaluations are available, high need for cognition leads to more reliance on cognition, and high faith in intuition leads to more reliance on affect, reflecting the influence of individually preferred thinking style. For people with high need for cognition, cognition has a higher influence on overall attitude for both familiar and unfamiliar realistic attitude objects. On the other hand, affect is important for people with high faith in intuition for both familiar and unfamiliar attitude objects and for people with low faith in intuition for unfamiliar attitude objects; this shows that preferred thinking style is less influential for unfamiliar objects. By comparing attitude formation for familiar and unfamiliar realistic attitude objects, this research contributes to understanding situations in which affect or cognition is the better predictor of overall attitudes. PMID:26517876

  13. Affect and Cognition in Attitude Formation toward Familiar and Unfamiliar Attitude Objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Giesen, Roxanne I; Fischer, Arnout R H; van Dijk, Heleen; van Trijp, Hans C M

    2015-01-01

    At large attitudes are built on earlier experience with the attitude object. If earlier experiences are not available, as is the case for unfamiliar attitude objects such as new technologies, no stored evaluations exist. Yet, people are still somehow able to construct attitudes on the spot. Depending on the familiarity of the attitude object, attitudes may find their basis more in affect or cognition. The current paper investigates differences in reliance on affect or cognition in attitude formation toward familiar and unfamiliar realistic attitude objects. In addition, individual differences in reliance on affect (high faith in intuition) or cognition (high need for cognition) are taken into account. In an experimental survey among Dutch consumers (N = 1870), we show that, for unfamiliar realistic attitude objects, people rely more on affect than cognition. For familiar attitude objects where both affective and cognitive evaluations are available, high need for cognition leads to more reliance on cognition, and high faith in intuition leads to more reliance on affect, reflecting the influence of individually preferred thinking style. For people with high need for cognition, cognition has a higher influence on overall attitude for both familiar and unfamiliar realistic attitude objects. On the other hand, affect is important for people with high faith in intuition for both familiar and unfamiliar attitude objects and for people with low faith in intuition for unfamiliar attitude objects; this shows that preferred thinking style is less influential for unfamiliar objects. By comparing attitude formation for familiar and unfamiliar realistic attitude objects, this research contributes to understanding situations in which affect or cognition is the better predictor of overall attitudes.

  14. Pedestrian self-reported use of smart phones: Positive attitudes and high exposure influence intentions to cross the road while distracted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon, Alexia; Oviedo-Trespalacios, Oscar; Matthews, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Pedestrian crashes are an important issue globally as pedestrians are a highly vulnerable road user group, accounting for approximately 35% of road deaths worldwide each year. In highly motorised countries, pedestrian distraction by hand held technological devices appears to be an increasing factor in such crashes. An online survey (N=363) was conducted to 1) obtain prevalence information regarding the extent to which people cross the road while simultaneously using mobile phones for potentially distracting activities; 2) identify whether younger adult pedestrians are more exposed to/at risk of injury due to this cause than older adults; and 3) explore whether the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) might provide insight into the factors influencing the target behaviours. Self-reported frequency of using a smart phone for three levels of distraction (visual and cognitive-texting/internet; cognitive only- voice calls; audio only-listening to music) while crossing the road was collected. Results indicated that about 20% of the sample had high exposure to smart phone use while crossing, especially 18-30year olds who were significantly more likely than other age groups to report frequent exposure. TPB constructs of Attitude, Subjective Norm, and Perceived Behavioural Control significantly predicted intentions to use a smart phone while crossing the road, accounting for 62% of variance in Intentions for the entire sample, and 54% of the variance for 18-30year olds. Additional variables of Mobile Phone Involvement and Group Norms provided an additional significant 6% of the variance explained for both groups. Attitude was by far the strongest predictor for both the whole sample and for 18-30year olds, accounting for 38% and 41% explained variance, respectively. This suggests that pedestrians with positive attitudes towards using their smart phones while crossing the road have stronger intentions to do so. Moreover, high exposure was associated with stronger intentions to

  15. [Validity, reliability, and acceptability of the scale of knowledge, attitude, and behavior of lifestyle intervention in a diabetes high-risk population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W J; Dong, J; Ren, Z P; Chen, B; He, W; Li, W D; Hao, Z W

    2016-07-06

    To evaluate the validity, reliability, and acceptability of the scale of knowledge, attitude, and behavior of lifestyle intervention in a diabetes high-risk population (HILKAB), and provide scientific evidence for its usage. By convenient sampling, we selected 406 individuals at high risk for diabetes for survey using the HILKAB. Pearson correlation coefficient, factor analysis, independent sampling, and t-test for high- and low-score groups were used to evaluate the content validity, construct validity, and discriminant validity of the scale. Reliability of the scale was evaluated by internal consistency, which included Cronbach's α coefficient, θ coefficient, Ω coefficient, and split-half reliability. Scale acceptability was evaluated by acceptance rate and completion time of the survey. In this study, 366 questionnaires (90.1%) was qnalified and the completion time was (8.62±2.79) minutes. Scores for knowledge, attitude, and behavior were 10.60±3.73, 26.56±3.58, 17.09±9.74, respectively. The scale had good face validity and content validity. The correlation coefficient of items and the dimension to which they belong was between 0.25 and 0.97, and the correlation coefficient of three dimensions and the entire scale was between 0.64 and 0.91, all with Pscale extracted eight common factors. The cumulative variance contribution rate was 65.23%, thereby reaching the 50% approved standard. Of 30 items there were 29 items with factor loadings ≥0.40, indicating the scale had good construct validity. For the high-score group, scores for knowledge, attitude, and behavior dimensions were 13.89±2.55, 29.56± 2.46, 28.05 ± 2.93, respectively, which were higher than those for the low-score group (7.67 ± 2.78, 23.89 ± 3.35, 6.25 ± 3.13); t-values were 55.14, 119.40, 95.29, respectively, with Pscale consisted of three dimensions: knowledge, attitude, and behavior. The Cronbach's α coefficient was between 0.84 and 0.92, the θ coefficient was between 0.85 and 0

  16. The effects of video-based and activity-based instruction on high school students' knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral intentions related to seat belt use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Tudor Griffith, III

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of video-based science instruction and accompanying activity-based instruction on the knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral intentions of high school students' use of seat belts. Secondarily, the purpose was to determine order effects and interactions between the two treatments used in the study: video-based instruction and hands-on activity-based instruction. The study used Ajzen and Fishbein's theory of reasoned action to investigate the factors influencing high school students' behavioral intentions regarding seat belt use. This study used a pretest-posttest-posttest treatment design. Data were collected on 194 students in high school introductory biology and chemistry classes in Gainesville, Florida. Ten intact high school science classes (eight treatment and two control) took pretests and posttests measuring physics knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral intentions toward seat belt use prior to and after participating in the two treatments. The treatment group students participated in at least 500 minutes of instructional time divided among five lessons over 10 instructional days. All participants were pretested on physics knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral intentions toward seat belt use prior to two treatments. Treatment A was defined as participating in one 50-minute video-based instructional lesson. Treatment B was defined as participating in four hands-on science activities regarding crash-related physics concepts. Cronbach's coefficient alpha was used for analysis of the researcher-designed instruments, and ANOVA was used to analyze the data. The results of the analyses (p < .004) revealed that students who participated in either treatment showed significant differences in knowledge gains on 75% of the test items. The sequence of treatments did not produce significant differences in groups' posttest 2 knowledge mean scores. Combining the treatments resulted in higher mean knowledge scores than either

  17. Platform attitude data acquisition system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Afzulpurkar, S.

    A system for automatic acquisition of underwater platform attitude data has been designed, developed and tested in the laboratory. This is a micro controller based system interfacing dual axis inclinometer, high-resolution digital compass...

  18. Children's attitudes toward interaction with an unfamiliar peer with complex communication needs: comparing high- and low-technology devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dada, Shakila; Horn, Tenille; Samuels, Alecia; Schlosser, Ralf W

    2016-12-01

    This study examined the attitudes of children with typical development towards an unfamiliar peer with complex communication needs using augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems. Specifically, the study aimed to compare attitudes when the peer used mobile technology (i.e., iPad(©)(1) ) with an AAC-specific application (Proloquo2Go™ (2) ) versus a low-technology communication board. A within-group crossover design was utilized involving 78 children. Half of the participants (i.e., Group 1) viewed Video 1 of an unfamiliar peer with complex communication needs in a scripted communication interaction using an iPad with Proloquo2Go followed by Video 2 of the same interaction using a communication board. The other half of the participants (Group 2) viewed these videos in the reverse sequence. The Communication Aid/Device Attitudinal Questionnaire (CADAQ) was completed after watching each video. Results indicated that both groups were more positive towards Video 1 (iPad with Prologuo2Go) on certain dimensions of the CADAQ. The results are discussed and recommendations for future research provided.

  19. HIV-infected Female Sex Workers High Risk Behavior and Attitude Changes in Kaiyuan City, Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Guo Wei; WANG Ning; HSI Jenny H; LIU Hui Xin; SU Ying Ying; WANG Jun Jie; BAI Jun; WANG Gui Xiang; WANG Hai Bo; DONG Rui Ling

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the attitude and sexual behavior status and change among HIV positive female workers in entertainment sites in Kaiyuan city, Yunnan province, China. The key information should be applied in the integrated intervention program in future. Methods A cohort survey among HIV positive female workers was conducted during 12 months, between 2010 and 2012. All the risk sexual behavior and attitude were collected for assessment for the potential secondary transmission to sexual partners. Results Of 99 HIV positive women who sell sex in Kaiyuan city, 99 participated in the survey at baseline, 80, 80, 75, and 75 at 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month follow-ups. The percentage of participants who reported consistently used condoms in the last one month ranged between 94.5%and 95.5%. The client volume in the last one month, income per sex and age group were significant related with non-insistent condom use with their clients. Conclusion It was suggested that integrated intervention program package should include 100 percent condom use promotion for the HIV positive FSW with all sexual partners, and also, include socially support involved.

  20. 浅谈情感态度与高中英语教学%Emotional attitudes and English teaching in high school

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈文智

    2013-01-01

      《英语课程标准》中的情感态度指兴趣、动机、自信、和合作精神等影响学生学习过程和学习效果的相关因素。本文试图从二语习得角度,研究积极态度和消极态度对高中生英语学习的不同影响,从而在高中英语教学方面获得一些新启示。%According to the English Curriculum Standard, the emotional attitude refers to the interest, motivation, confidence, cooperation spirit and other relevant factors which influence the learning process and learning effects of the students. This paper attempts to make a study from the perspective of the second language acquisition on the different influences both the positive attitude and the negative one exert on the English learning of the high school students so as to obtain some new inspiration in teaching high school English .

  1. Exposure to Spousal Violence in the Family, Attitudes and Dating Violence Perpetration Among High School Students in Port-au-Prince.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Anastasia J

    2016-09-01

    This study examined the associations of exposure to spousal violence in the family and personal and peer attitudes with dating violence (DV) perpetration among high school students in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Participants were 342 high school students in Grades 10 to 12 who stated that they had ever been on a date. Multiple linear regression methods were used to examine correlates of the scale of DV perpetration. Findings showed that personal acceptance of DV mediated the association between exposure to wife-perpetrated and husband-perpetrated spousal violence in the family and DV perpetration for girls. Boys who were exposed to husband-perpetrated spousal violence in the family had significantly higher levels of psychological DV perpetration than those who were not. Contrary to expectations, exposure to wife-perpetrated spousal violence in the family was negatively associated with psychological and physical/sexual DV perpetration by boys, after controlling for other factors. Overall, perceived peer tolerance of DV was more strongly associated with DV perpetration than personal tolerance of DV, and was the only significant correlate of psychological DV perpetration for girls. Perceived peer attitudes also moderated the association between boys' exposure to spousal violence in the family and DV perpetration. Implications for future research and policy are discussed.

  2. 高精度动态水平姿态传感器系统设计%The System Design for High-precision Dynamic Level Attitude Sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谈林霞; 张福学

    2011-01-01

    The level attitude detection plays an important role in the control and measurement fields.The realtime high-precision dynamic level attitude detections of the carries are the actual demands of the technical market and a challenge of the research work.Thus a high-precision level attitude dynamic detection sensor system has been designed.It is a combination of micro-machined inclinometers,micro-machined gyroscopes and the signal processing circuits.The proposed scheme uses the gyroscope to compensate the various acceleration interference brought about by the carrier in traveling,thus the high-precision dynamic level attitude detection of the traveling carrier can be realized.The overall scheme design of the system,the hardware design of its components such as the power conversion,the pre-processing of sensing signals,analog-to-digital conversion,the signal processing and the system output as well as the software design method have been presented in this paper.A sensor system was assembled and tested after the system design was carried out.The results showed that the system design was able to meet the real-time high-precision demand of the level attitude detection of the moving carriers.%水平姿态检测在控制、测量领域发挥着重要作用.实现高精度实时动态检测载体水平姿态既是科技市场的实际需求更是科研工作的挑战,因此设计了高精度动态水平姿态传感器.它主要由微机械倾角传感器、微机械陀螺及其信号处理电路组成,以陀螺来补偿载体行进中带来的各种线加速度干扰,实现移动载体的水平姿态高精度检测.以高精度与实时动态检测为核心,介绍了该系统的总体方案设计,电源转换、敏感信号预处理与模数转换、信号处理及输出的硬件设计和软件处理基本方法,并在设计完成后组装调试.系统测试表明该水平姿态检测系统设计取得预期效果,满足高精度实时动态检测载体水平姿态的设计需求.

  3. Negative Attitudes, Network and Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; la Cour, Lisbeth; Larsen, Birthe

    , the impact of negative attitudes and networking taking into account that these parameters may influence high and uneducated workers as well as immigrants and natives differently, creating different incentives to acquire education for the two ethnic groups. Using rich Danish administrative data, this paper......This paper explores potential explanations behind the educational gap between young natives and immigrants using two measures, negative attitudes towards immigrants and networking, which may influence natives and immigrants differently. The paper considers, both theoretically and empirically...... finds evidence that greater negative attitudes increase incentives for males to acquire education and that networking also increases immigrant education....

  4. Negative Attitudes, Network and Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; la Cour, Lisbeth; Larsen, Birthe;

    This paper explores potential explanations behind the educational gap between young natives and immigrants using two measures, negative attitudes towards immigrants and networking, which may influence natives and immigrants differently. The paper considers, both theoretically and empirically......, the impact of negative attitudes and networking taking into account that these parameters may influence high and uneducated workers as well as immigrants and natives differently, creating different incentives to acquire education for the two ethnic groups. Using rich Danish administrative data, this paper...... finds evidence that greater negative attitudes increase incentives for males to acquire education and that networking also increases immigrant education....

  5. A model of scientific attitudes assessment by observation in physics learning based scientific approach: case study of dynamic fluid topic in high school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusliana Ekawati, Elvin

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to produce a model of scientific attitude assessment in terms of the observations for physics learning based scientific approach (case study of dynamic fluid topic in high school). Development of instruments in this study adaptation of the Plomp model, the procedure includes the initial investigation, design, construction, testing, evaluation and revision. The test is done in Surakarta, so that the data obtained are analyzed using Aiken formula to determine the validity of the content of the instrument, Cronbach’s alpha to determine the reliability of the instrument, and construct validity using confirmatory factor analysis with LISREL 8.50 program. The results of this research were conceptual models, instruments and guidelines on scientific attitudes assessment by observation. The construct assessment instruments include components of curiosity, objectivity, suspended judgment, open-mindedness, honesty and perseverance. The construct validity of instruments has been qualified (rated load factor > 0.3). The reliability of the model is quite good with the Alpha value 0.899 (> 0.7). The test showed that the model fits the theoretical models are supported by empirical data, namely p-value 0.315 (≥ 0.05), RMSEA 0.027 (≤ 0.08)

  6. Attitudes towards Immigration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinesen, Peter Thisted; Klemmensen, Robert; Nørgaard, Asbjørn Sonne

    2016-01-01

    immigration: scoring higher on this trait implies a greater willingness to admit immigrants. Moreover, individuals react differently to economic threat depending on their score on the traits Agreeableness and Conscientiousness. Specifically, individuals scoring low on Agreeableness and individuals scoring...... high on Conscientiousness are more sensitive to the skill level of immigrants. The results imply that personality is important for attitudes toward immigration, and in the conclusion, we further discuss how the observed conditional and unconditional effects of personality make sense theoretically....

  7. College Bound: Americans' Attitudes about Paying for College. A Survey of Families with College-Bound High School Students on the Value of a College Education and Its Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallup & Robinson, Inc. Princeton, NJ.

    This study examined several aspects of family viewpoints regarding the financing of higher education. Data were collected via a telephone survey of 800 parents of college bound high school students and 300 college bound high school juniors and seniors. The survey examined attitudes in such areas as: the relative importance of financing college…

  8. Attitudes, social representations and social attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Farr, Robert, M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper plays the role of the devil's advocate in relation to Colin Fraser's paper "attitudes, social representations and widespread beliefs". It argues for the alternative perspective which Colin identifies that social representations and social attitudes are epistemologically incompatible theories.

  9. European attitudes to water pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anne Kejser

    2016-01-01

    Efficient use of the water resource requires internalization of all costs in the price of water, including environmental and resource costs. However, water resource management tends to be highly political and increasing water prices are a sensitive and complicated policy matter. Hence......, there is a need for increased understanding of the implementation process and the attitudes towards implementation among the general public. This paper explores the spatial heterogeneity in the public attitude towards internalizing environmental and resource costs in the price of water across the EU regions....... Within an extensive spatial dataset constructed for the purpose, we estimate the effect of individual information levels and affordability concerns on the attitude towards environmental water pricing. Information about water problems is found to have a significant and positive effect on attitudes...

  10. Acceptance sensory of milk Ultra High Temperature and consumer attitudes of packaging of different brands of the product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlice Salete Bonacina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate the sensory acceptance of different brands of whole UHT milk; identify and quantify the importance of attributes of the packaging and labeling of milk in the purchase attitude of consumers excure six different brands of whole UHT milk were collect, which were submitted to the acceptance test, using a hybrid hedonic scale of 9 cm. The data were submitted to ANOVA using the Statistical Software 6.0. The packaging and labeling of different brands of milk, were used for application of the focus group technique. From the results, we found that there was no difference (p > 0.05 between the brands of UHT milk, in relation to sensory acceptance. It was also possible to verify the influence frequency of the milk consumption of acceptance of the product, characterized by three clusters of consumers. From the focus group sessions it was found that 61.1% of participants observe the packaging and labeling milk at the time of purchase. However, 38.9% argued that they are faithful consumers excure to a determined brand. As regards the existence of quality certification seals, it was found that 72.2% of participants do not observe the existence of these certifications when buying milk. In addition, 77.8% have not changed their spending habits in relation to milk brand. It is concluded that the milk consumption frequency, influence on sensorial acceptance, and some consumers are unaware of the risk that the tamper carried out in milk can cause to their health.

  11. Effectiveness of Educational Intervention Based on Peer Education on Knowledge, Attitude and Behavioral Intention Related to HIV/AIDS in the High School Female Students in the Region 14 of Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tohid Babazadeh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: AIDS is a health problem worldwide, especially in developing countries. Therefore, the aim of this study was the survey of the effectiveness of educational intervention based on peer education on knowledge, attitude and behavioral intention related to HIV/AIDS in high school female students in region 14 of Tehran, Iran. Materials and Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 330 female students were selected by multistage random sampling from 18 schools. For data collection, a reliable and valid questionnaire was used. Before the intervention, pretest were taken from both intervention and control groups and required information about knowledge, attitude and behavioral intention about HIV preventive behaviors were obtained for the design and implementation of intervention. Then, the educational intervention was implemented and after three months, the questionnaires were completed again to measure the impact of intervention. SPSS 21 statistical software and statistical tests of independent t, paired t, chi-squared, Pearson’s correlation and linear regression analysis were used for data analysis. The level of significance was considered P < 0.05. Results: After the training, significant changes in the mean scores of knowledge, attitude and behavior was observed in the intervention group (P < 0.001. Age with attitude and behavioral intention with knowledge and attitude had direct significant correlations. Knowledge and attitude were able to predict 41% of changes in behavioral intention. Conclusions: The findings of current study showed that the use of peer education can be effective in educational interventions to increase knowledge and to improve attitude and behavioral intention about HIV preventive behaviors.

  12. Stigmatizing attitudes and low levels of knowledge but high willingness to participate in HIV management: A community-based survey of pharmacies in Pune, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Amita

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization (WHO recommends that the role of pharmacists in low-income settings be expanded to address the increasing complexity of HIV antiretroviral (ARV and co-infection drug regimens. However, in many such settings including in India, many pharmacists and pharmacy workers are often neither well trained nor aware of the intricacies of HIV treatment. The aims of our study were; to determine the availability of ARVs, provision of ARVs, knowledge about ARVs, attitudes towards HIV-infected persons and self-perceived need for training among community-based pharmacies in an urban area of India. Methods We performed a survey of randomly selected, community-based pharmacies located in Pune, India, in 2004-2005 to determine the availability of ARVs at these pharmacies, how they were providing ARVs and their self-perceived need for training. We also assessed knowledge, attitudes and perceptions on HIV and ARVs and factors associated with stocking ARVs. Results Of 207 pharmacies included in the survey, 200 (96.6% were single, private establishments. Seventy-three (35.3% pharmacies stocked ARVs and 38 (18.4% ordered ARVs upon request. The reported median number of ARV pills that patients bought at one time was 30, a two week supply of ARVs (range: 3-240 pills. Six (2.9% pharmacy respondents reported selling non-allopathic medicines (i.e. Ayurvedic, homeopathy for HIV. Ninety (44.2% pharmacy respondents knew that ARVs cannot cure HIV, with those stocking ARVs being more likely to respond correctly (60.3% vs. 34.8%, p = 0.001. Respondents of pharmacies which stocked ARVs were also more likely to believe it was a professional obligation to provide medications to HIV-infected persons (91.8% vs. 78.8%, p = 0.007 but they were also more likely to believe that HIV-infected persons are unable to adhere to their medicines (79.5% vs. 40.9%, p Conclusion There is a high willingness to participate in HIV management among

  13. Teachers' attitudes and beliefs about homosexuality

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez i Testor, Carles; Behar Algranti, Júlia; Davins, M.; Conde Sala, Josep Lluís; Castillo, J.A.; Salamero, Manel; Alomar, E; Segarra, S

    2010-01-01

    Schools play a key role in transmitting attitudes towards sexual diversity. Many studies stress the importance of teachers" and other professionals" attitudes towards gay men and/or lesbian women. This study evaluates attitudes and prejudices toward homosexuality in a sample of 254 elementary and high school teachers in Barcelona and its surrounding area. The results obtained using a scale of overt and subtle prejudice and a scale of perceived discrepancy of values indicate that discrepancy b...

  14. What Motivates High-School Students to Pursue STEM Careers? The Influence of Public Attitudes towards Science and Technology in Comparative Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seong Won

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the degree of association between students' STEM occupational expectations and between-country differences in public attitudes toward science and technology (S&T). This study focuses on public attitudes among two different populations: students and adults. Three-level Hierarchical Generalised Linear Models are employed to…

  15. Public attitudes and beliefs about genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condit, Celeste M

    2010-01-01

    The existing research base on public attitudes about genetics shows that people's attitudes vary according to the specific technologies and purposes to which genetic knowledge is applied. Genetic testing is viewed highly favorably, genetically modified food is viewed with ambivalence, and cloning is viewed negatively. Attitudes are favorable for uses that maintain a perceived natural order and unfavorable for uses that are perceived to change it. Public concerns about control of genetic information and eugenics are evident, but their strength and relevance to policy preference are unclear. The pattern of attitudes can be explained by theories of attitude formation, and the existing base of information can be deepened and given more explanatory and predictive power by integrating future research into the various traditions that theorize attitude formation.

  16. Issue involvement and low-versus high-power style as related to attitude change in sex-role egalitarianism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, Abraham (Bram); Blanton, H; Schuurman, M.K.; Siero, F.W.

    2005-01-01

    In a pretest-posttest design, subscribers to women's magazines were mailed a high- versus low-power message arguing a radical feminist view. Uninvolved women changed their opinions more after the high-power-style message, and involved women more after the low-power-style message.

  17. Issue involvement and low-versus high-power style as related to attitude change in sex-role egalitarianism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, Abraham (Bram); Blanton, H; Schuurman, M.K.; Siero, F.W.

    2005-01-01

    In a pretest-posttest design, subscribers to women's magazines were mailed a high- versus low-power message arguing a radical feminist view. Uninvolved women changed their opinions more after the high-power-style message, and involved women more after the low-power-style message.

  18. How emotional media reports influence attitude formation and change: the interplay of attitude base, attitude certainty and persuasion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryffel, F.A.; Wirz, D.S.; Kühne, R.; Wirth, W.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the influence of an emotionally arousing writing style on attitude formation and change. It has been proposed that different writing styles induce attitudes based on either affect or cognition and with either high or low certainty. Previous work indicates that the interplay of th

  19. How emotional media reports influence attitude formation and change: the interplay of attitude base, attitude certainty and persuasion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryffel, F.A.; Wirz, D.S.; Kühne, R.; Wirth, W.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the influence of an emotionally arousing writing style on attitude formation and change. It has been proposed that different writing styles induce attitudes based on either affect or cognition and with either high or low certainty. Previous work indicates that the interplay of th

  20. Knowledge, Attitude, Frequency and Level of Consumption Regarding Non-alcoholic Carbonated Soft Drinks among Students from Two High Schools in Hanoi, Vietnam in 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Thanh Ha

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This article aims to describe the knowledge, attitude, frequency and level of consumption regarding non-alcoholic carbonated soft drinks (NCSD among students from two high schools in Hanoi. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey including a semi-quantitative food frequency were conducted with 620 students from two high schools, one in the urban area and the other in the rural area of Hanoi city. Results: Data on knowledge of health risk associated with the consumption of NCSD showed neagtive results (only 11.9% of the students were able to identify all the contents of NCSD correctly, and 2.7% knew all eight health risks due to consumption of NCSD. Besides, 31.4% of all students did not have the intention to quit NCSD despite being aware of health risks associated with the consumption of NCSD. Students who reported consuming NCSD within one month prior to the study constituted 83.1%, and those who consumed NCSD 1–2 times/week accounted for the highest proportion, being 21.3%. On average, each student consumed 2,094 ml NCSD within one month prior to the study. Suburban students and male students consumed more than urban and female ones, respectively (p < 0.01. Recommendations: Students should be equipped with information about NCSD related health risks and encouraged to consume less NCSD.

  1. Impact of a School-Based Sexual Abuse Prevention Education Program on the Knowledge and Attitude of High School Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunfowokan, Adesola A.; Fajemilehin, Reuben B.

    2012-01-01

    Sexual abuse has been considered a public health issue because of the various health implications resulting from it. The school nurse has a responsibility in assisting the high school girl to prevent victimization. This study adopted a quasi-experimental design in which a sexual abuse prevention education package was developed and used to educate…

  2. Educational Web-Based Intervention for High School Students to Increase Knowledge and Promote Positive Attitudes toward Organ Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinokur, Amiram D.; Merion, Robert M.; Couper, Mick P.; Jones, Eleanor G.; Dong, Yihui

    2006-01-01

    A sample of 490 high school students from 81 schools in Michigan participated in an experiment in which they were randomly assigned to either a control or an experimental Web site. The experimental Web site provided exposure to educational material about the process of organ donation and organ transplantation. The control Web site provided…

  3. Impact of a School-Based Sexual Abuse Prevention Education Program on the Knowledge and Attitude of High School Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunfowokan, Adesola A.; Fajemilehin, Reuben B.

    2012-01-01

    Sexual abuse has been considered a public health issue because of the various health implications resulting from it. The school nurse has a responsibility in assisting the high school girl to prevent victimization. This study adopted a quasi-experimental design in which a sexual abuse prevention education package was developed and used to educate…

  4. A Small-Scale Survey of the Views and Attitudes of Junior High School Teachers in China toward Geographical Fieldwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Daihu; Wang, Ziying; Xu, Di; Deng, Zhenzhen

    2014-01-01

    Although geographical fieldwork can be viewed as an integral component of geographical education, it fell out of favor in Chinese secondary schools in the recent past. However, the new junior high school geography standards established in 2001 stress the importance of conducting geographical fieldwork for students' learning of geography. Now…

  5. Magnetometer/yawsonde integrated attitude measurement for high spin rate projectiles%高转速弹丸磁强计/太阳方位角传感器组合测姿方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马国梁

    2013-01-01

    为解决高转速弹丸的姿态测量问题,研究了磁强计/太阳方位角传感器的组合测姿方法.建立了三轴磁强计和太阳方位角传感器的测量方程,给出了三轴磁强计新的姿态解算方法并研究了解的存在性问题.采用一种解析算法求解磁强计/太阳方位角传感器非线性测量方程组,避免了采用数值算法的收敛性问题.最后通过仿真研究表明磁强计/太阳方位角传感器组合测姿方法能达到较高的测量精度.研究结果为高转速弹丸的姿态测量提供了有效的解决方法.%To solve the problem of attitude measurement for high spin rate projectiles, the magnetometer/yawsonde integrated attitude determination method is studied. The measurement equations of tri-axis magnetometer and yawsonde are established. A novel attitude algorithms for tri-axis magnetometer is provided and the existence of solutions is investigated. The magnetometer/ yawsonde nonlinear measurement equations are solved using an analytical algorithm so as to avoid the convergence of a numerical method. Simulation results show that magnetometer/yawsonde integrated attitude determination can achieve high accuracy. The research results provide an effective method for attitude measurement of high spin rate projectiles.

  6. A low-noise, high-bandwidth magnetically-levitated momentum-wheel for 3-axis attitude control from a single wheel

    OpenAIRE

    Seddon, Jon; Pechev, Alexandre

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a new concept for attitude actuation for small satellites that uses active magnetic bearings to support and tilt a spinning rotor to provide 3-axis attitude control of the satellite using a single actuator. A controlled 3D motion in the spinning rotor provides a conventional torque output about the momentum axis and a gyroscopic torque output about any direction in the plane normal to the spinning axis. Therefore, a single tilting momentum-wheel can generate torque along t...

  7. An assessment of health-care students' attitudes toward patients with or at high risk for HIV: implications for education and cultural competency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Harry; Earnshaw, Valerie A; Wickersham, Jeffrey A; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Desai, Mayur M; John, Jacob; Altice, Frederick L

    2014-01-01

    Stigma perpetuated by health-care providers has been found to be a barrier to care for vulnerable populations, including HIV-infected, people who inject drugs (PWIDs), and men who have sex with men (MSM) in multiple clinical contexts and remains unexamined among professional health-care students in Malaysia. This cross-sectional, anonymous, and Internet-based survey assessed the attitudes of medical and dental students toward HIV-infected, PWID, and MSM patients. Survey invitation was emailed to 3191 students at 8 professional schools; 1296 (40.6%) responded and scored their attitudes toward these patient groups using a feeling thermometer, indicating their attitudes on a sliding scale from 0 (most negative) to 100 (most positive). Compared to general patients (mean = 76.50), the mean scores for HIV-infected (mean = 54.04; p patients were significantly lower and significantly different between each group comparison. Within group differences, most notably religion, ethnicity, and personally knowing someone from these populations were associated with significant differences in attitudes. No differences were noted between pre-clinical and clinical year of training. Health-care students represent the next generation of clinicians who will be responsible for future HIV prevention and treatment efforts. Our findings suggest alarmingly negative attitudes toward these patients, especially MSM, necessitating prompt and effective interventions designed to ameliorate the negative attitudes of health-care students toward vulnerable populations, specifically HIV-infected, PWID, and MSM patients in Malaysia.

  8. The Status of Hispanic American Students in Science: Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Constance L.; Rakow, Steven J.

    1985-01-01

    Examines attitudes toward science classes and teachers; science as a career; and value of science among elementary, junior and senior high Hispanic students in participating National Assessment of Educational Progress schools over three years. Compares attitudes of White and Black students. Results show increase in positive attitudes of minority…

  9. Physician's knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding seasonal influenza, pandemic influenza, and highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) virus infections of humans in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiri, Amalya; Iuliano, A Danielle; Wahyuningrum, Yunita; Praptiningsih, Catharina Y; Lafond, Kathryn E; Storms, Aaron D; Samaan, Gina; Ariawan, Iwan; Soeharno, Nugroho; Kreslake, Jennifer M; Storey, J Douglas; Uyeki, Timothy M

    2017-01-01

    Indonesia has reported highest number of fatal human cases of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A (H5N1) virus infection worldwide since 2005. There are limited data available on seasonal and pandemic influenza in Indonesia. During 2012, we conducted a survey of clinicians in two districts in western Java, Indonesia, to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of clinical diagnosis, testing, and treatment of patients with seasonal influenza, pandemic influenza, or HPAI H5N1 virus infections. Overall, a very low percentage of physician participants reported ever diagnosing hospitalized patients with seasonal, pandemic, or HPAI H5N1 influenza. Use of influenza testing was low in outpatients and hospitalized patients, and use of antiviral treatment was very low for clinically diagnosed influenza patients. Further research is needed to explore health system barriers for influenza diagnostic testing and availability of antivirals for treatment of influenza in Indonesia. © 2016 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Attitudes Toward Same-Sex Marriage: The Case of Scandinavia

    OpenAIRE

    Jakobsson, Niklas; Kotsadam, Andreas; Jakobsson, Siri Støre

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the variables that explain attitudes toward same-sex marriage. Using recently collected Scandinavian data (from Norway and Sweden) with a high response rate, this study shows that gender, regular participation in religious activities, political ideology, education, whether the respondent lived in the capital city, and attitudes toward gender equality were important for attitudes toward same-sex marriage. Age and income were not important for attitudes ...

  11. Bullen Reading Attitude Measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullen, Gertrude F.

    The Bullen Reading Attitude Measure (BRAM) is an instrument that was developed to serve as a diagnostic aid in assessing reading attitudes of elementary school children in grades one through six. The objectives of the test are to measure the subject's attitude toward reading at home or school, visiting the library, owning and buying books,…

  12. Attitude Fusion Techniques for Spacecraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnø, Jonas Bækby

    Spacecraft platform instability constitutes one of the most significant limiting factors in hyperacuity pointing and tracking applications, yet the demand for accurate, timely and reliable attitude information is ever increasing. The PhD research project described within this dissertation has...... served to investigate the solution space for augmenting the DTU μASC stellar reference sensor with a miniature Inertial Reference Unit (IRU), thereby obtaining improved bandwidth, accuracy and overall operational robustness of the fused instrument. Present day attitude determination requirements are met...... of the instrument, and affecting operations during agile and complex spacecraft attitude maneuvers. As such, there exists a theoretical foundation for augmenting the high frequency performance of the μASC instrument, by harnessing the complementary nature of optical stellar reference and inertial sensor technology...

  13. Changing Adolescent Attitudes toward Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Timothy W.; St. Louis, Kenneth O.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Live oral or recorded video presentations on stuttering were delivered to high school students in order to determine the extent to which their attitudes toward stuttering could be improved. Methods: A classroom teacher administered the "Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Stuttering" ("POSHA-S") to two health classes before and…

  14. Changing Adolescent Attitudes toward Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Timothy W.; St. Louis, Kenneth O.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Live oral or recorded video presentations on stuttering were delivered to high school students in order to determine the extent to which their attitudes toward stuttering could be improved. Methods: A classroom teacher administered the "Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Stuttering" ("POSHA-S") to two health classes before and…

  15. Evidence that attitude accessibility augments the relationship between speeding attitudes and speeding behavior: a test of the MODE model in the context of driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Mark A; Lee, Emme; Robertson, Jamie S; Innes, Rhona

    2015-01-01

    According to the MODE model of attitude-to-behavior processes, attitude accessibility augments attitude-behavior correspondence, reflecting an automatic influence of attitudes on behavior. We therefore tested whether attitude accessibility moderates the attitude-behavior relationship in a context that is governed by characteristically automatic behavior, namely driving. In study 1 (correlational design), participants (N=130) completed online questionnaire measures of the valences and accessibilities of their attitudes towards speeding. Two weeks later, online questionnaire measures of subsequent speeding behavior were obtained. Attitude valence was a significantly better predictor of behavior at high (mean+1SD) versus low (mean-1SD) levels of attitude accessibility. In study 2 (experimental design), attitude accessibility was manipulated with a repeated attitude expression task. Immediately after the manipulation, participants (N=122) completed online questionnaire measures of attitude valence and accessibility, and two weeks later, subsequent speeding behavior. Increased attitude accessibility in the experimental (versus control) condition generated an increase in attitude-behavior correspondence. The findings are consistent with the MODE model's proposition that attitudes can exert an automatic influence on behavior. Interventions to reduce speeding could usefully increase the accessibility of anti-speeding attitudes and reduce the accessibility of pro-speeding attitudes.

  16. Alcohol Use, Stigmatizing/Discriminatory Attitudes, and HIV High-Risk Sexual Behaviors among Men Who Have Sex with Men in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meizhen Liao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This research was conducted to assess the correlates of alcohol consumption and HIV/AIDS-related stigmatizing and discriminatory attitudes among men who have sex with men (MSM in Shandong province, China. Methods. A cross-sectional survey provided demographics, sexual behaviors, illicit drug use, alcohol consumptions, and service utilization. Results. Of 1,230 participants, 82.8% were single, 85.7% aged 3 times per week in the past six months. The average total score of stigmatizing and discriminatory attitude was 37.4 ± 4.4. More frequent episodes of alcohol use were independently associated with higher levels of HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination, unprotected anal sex, bisexual identity, multiple male sex partners, drug use, and lower levels of education. Expressing higher levels of HIV/AIDS-related stigmatizing and discriminatory attitudes was independently associated with alcohol use, unprotected male anal sex, bisexuals, more male sex partners, commercial sex with men, and non-receipt of peer education in the past year. Conclusion. HIV/AIDS-related stigmatizing and discriminatory attitudes are common and associated with alcohol use and unprotected sex among MSM. The finding highlights the needs to develop programs that would reduce HIV/AIDS-related stigmatizing and discriminatory attitudes and strengthen alcohol use prevention and risk reduction initiatives among MSM.

  17. Awareness of Implicit Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Adam; Judd, Charles M.; Hirsh, Holen K.; Blair, Irene V.

    2013-01-01

    Research on implicit attitudes has raised questions about how well people know their own attitudes. Most research on this question has focused on the correspondence between measures of implicit attitudes and measures of explicit attitudes, with low correspondence interpreted as showing that people have little awareness of their implicit attitudes. We took a different approach and directly asked participants to predict their results on upcoming IAT measures of implicit attitudes toward five different social groups. We found that participants were surprisingly accurate in their predictions. Across four studies, predictions were accurate regardless of whether implicit attitudes were described as true attitudes or culturally learned associations (Studies 1 and 2), regardless of whether predictions were made as specific response patterns (Study 1) or as conceptual responses (Studies 2–4), and regardless of how much experience or explanation participants received before making their predictions (Study 4). Study 3 further suggested that participants’ predictions reflected unique insight into their own implicit responses, beyond intuitions about how people in general might respond. Prediction accuracy occurred despite generally low correspondence between implicit and explicit measures of attitudes, as found in prior research. All together, the research findings cast doubt on the belief that attitudes or evaluations measured by the IAT necessarily reflect unconscious attitudes. PMID:24294868

  18. 弹载高冲击一体化子母弹子弹飞行姿态测量系统%The Integrative High Impact Embed Bullet Flying Attitude Detection System of Some Shrapnel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文丰; 任勇峰; 王强

    2012-01-01

    为了测试获取子母弹爆炸抛撒后的子弹飞行姿态,采用基于MEMS惯性测量组合与动态存储测试技术相结合的方法来测试子母弹子弹的飞行姿态,对系统的组成、工作原理和主要关键技术的实现途径进行了详细的介绍.系统以MEMS三维角速度和三维加速度的惯性测量组合为姿态敏感元件,一体化的子母弹子弹飞行姿态测量记录器主要由FLASH存储器、FPGA为中心控制器及多通道高速12位模数转换器等组成.记录器具有多通道、低功耗、体积小、大容量、高精度及嵌入子弹内部随子弹飞行测量等优点.系统试验结果表明:该系统能够准确获取子弹从抛撒到中靶的整个过程的姿态数据.%For getting the bullet attitude of some shrapnel after it is dispersed, the method based on MEMS IMU and the dynamic storage test technology is integrated for testing the bullet attitude of shrapnel. The principle of operation, the system composition and major critical implements is provided. The attitude sense organ is three axis angular velocity transducer and three axis accelerometer, the integrative bullet attitude of some shrapnel recorder is composed by flash memory, FPGA ( the center controller) and multi-channel high speed 12 bit ADC, etc. The merits of the recorder are multi-channel, low power dissipation, small in size but high storage capacity, high-precision and can be embed the bullet flying with it for real attitude detecting. The system test result of the flight test proves that the integrated system can get the flight attitude data, which is the bullet from firing to hitting the target.

  19. Girls' Attitudes Toward Violence as Related to TV Exposure , Family Attitudes, and Social Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Joseph R.; Greenberg, Bradley S.

    A previous study (EM 009 547) found that the most favorable attitudes of boys toward aggression existed when there was high exposure to television (TV) violence, ambiguous family attitudes toward aggression, or low socio-economic status. This study sought to examine the same three variables with respect to girls. Subjects, who were 404 fourth…

  20. Affect and cognition in attitude formation towards familiar and unfamiliar attitude objects: the case of nanotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giesen, van R.I.

    2015-01-01

    Together, the chapters in this thesis show that although the default is to rely on affect, in attitude formation toward unfamiliar attitude objects, people are able to draw on cognitive inferences provided that there are enough cues available (e.g. product context, high Need for Cognition, or being

  1. Affect and cognition in attitude formation towards familiar and unfamiliar attitude objects: the case of nanotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giesen, van R.I.

    2015-01-01

    Together, the chapters in this thesis show that although the default is to rely on affect, in attitude formation toward unfamiliar attitude objects, people are able to draw on cognitive inferences provided that there are enough cues available (e.g. product context, high Need for Cognition, or being

  2. Insights into the Diversity of Attitudes Concerning Evolution and Creation: A Multidimensional Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konneman, Christiane; Asshoff, Roman; Hammann, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to describe high school students' attitudes concerning evolution and creation, with a focus on (1) attitudes toward evolutionary theory, (2) attitudes toward the Biblical accounts of creation, (3) creationist beliefs, and (4) scientistic beliefs. Latent class analyses revealed seven attitude profiles in a sample of…

  3. Explicit and implicit measures of teacher attitudes toward science and technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denessen, E.J.P.G.; Vos, N.W.; Damen, T.; Koch, S.; Louws, M.L.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    In this chapter, teacher attitudes towards science and technology and the way these attitudes can be accessed in empirical research are discussed. The study of teacher attitudes towards science and technology is highly relevant, since teacher attitudes seem strong predictors of the quality of their

  4. A painful reminder: the role of level and salience of attitude importance in cognitive dissonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starzyk, Katherine B; Fabrigar, Leandre R; Soryal, Ashley S; Fanning, Jessie J

    2009-01-01

    In his seminal book, L. Festinger (1957) emphasized the role of attitude importance in cognitive dissonance. This study (N = 308) explored whether people's use of dissonance reduction strategies differs as a function of level of attitude importance and whether the personal importance of an attitude is salient. Results showed that level and salience of attitude importance interacted to affect high-choice (HC) participants' tendency to use attitude change and trivialization to reduce dissonance. When HC participants were not reminded of the personal importance of their attitude (i.e., it was not salient), they changed their attitudes equally irrespective of attitude importance, but engaged in greater trivialization with increasing levels of importance. In contrast, when attitude importance was salient, HC participants changed their attitudes less with increasing attitude importance and showed no evidence of trivializing under any level of importance.

  5. [Effects of attitude formation, persuasive message, and source expertise on attitude change: an examination based on the Elaboration Likelihood Model and the Attitude Formation Theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, M; Saito, K; Wakabayashi, M

    1990-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how attitude change is generated by the recipient's degree of attitude formation, evaluative-emotional elements contained in the persuasive messages, and source expertise as a peripheral cue in the persuasion context. Hypotheses based on the Attitude Formation Theory of Mizuhara (1982) and the Elaboration Likelihood Model of Petty and Cacioppo (1981, 1986) were examined. Eighty undergraduate students served as subjects in the experiment, the first stage of which involving manipulating the degree of attitude formation with respect to nuclear power development. Then, the experimenter presented persuasive messages with varying combinations of evaluative-emotional elements from a source with either high or low expertise on the subject. Results revealed a significant interaction effect on attitude change among attitude formation, persuasive message and the expertise of the message source. That is, high attitude formation subjects resisted evaluative-emotional persuasion from the high expertise source while low attitude formation subjects changed their attitude when exposed to the same persuasive message from a low expertise source. Results exceeded initial predictions based on the Attitude Formation Theory and the Elaboration Likelihood Model.

  6. Relationship between Leadership Styles of High School Teachers, Principals, and Assistant Principals and Their Attitudes toward School Wide Positive Behavior and Support Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampton-Holmes, Geneva Cosweler

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if seventh through twelfth grade educators' attitudes towards School-Wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS) are affected based on their gender, years of experience, school discipline policy, leadership style, and knowledge of SWPBS. Through an online survey, an analysis of the leadership style and…

  7. Lateral Attitude Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Tina; Dickel, Nina; Liersch, Benjamin; Rees, Jonas; Süssenbach, Philipp; Bohner, Gerd

    2015-08-01

    The authors propose a framework distinguishing two types of lateral attitude change (LAC): (a) generalization effects, where attitude change toward a focal object transfers to related objects, and (b) displacement effects, where only related attitudes change but the focal attitude does not change. They bring together examples of LAC from various domains of research, outline the conditions and underlying processes of each type of LAC, and develop a theoretical framework that enables researchers to study LAC more systematically in the future. Compared with established theories of attitude change, the LAC framework focuses on lateral instead of focal attitude change and encompasses both generalization and displacement. Novel predictions and designs for studying LAC are presented.

  8. The Effect of Cooperative Learning Model Script and Think-Pair-Share to Critical Thinking Skills, Social Attitude and Learning Outcomes Cognitive Biology of multiethnic High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didimus Tanah Boleng

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pengaruh Model Pembelajaran Cooperative Script dan Think-Pair-Share terhadap Keterampilan Berpikir Kritis, Sikap Sosial, dan Hasil Belajar Kognitif Biologi Siswa SMA Multietnis   Abstract: Biological learning process with multiethnic students requires a learning models which allow students to work independently, to work together in small groups, and to share with other groups. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of learning models, ethnicity, and the interaction of learning model and ethnic on critical thinking skills, social attitudes, and cognitive achievement. This quasi experimental study was conducted in 11th grade of Natural Science Class Highschool students with six ethnicaly and Junior Highschool National score groups consisted of 132 samples. The results of Covarian Analysis showed that the learning models significantly affected the social attitudes and increased the critical thinking skills and cognitive achievement. Ethnicity significantly affected the social attitudes and cognitive achievement. Interaction of learning models and ethnicity significantly affected students social attitudes. Key Words: cooperative script, think-pair-share, critical thinking skills, social attitudes, biology cognitive achievement, multiethnic students Abstrak: Pengelolaan proses pembelajaran biologi pada siswa multietnis memerlukan model pembelajaran yang memungkinkan siswa bekerja mandiri, bekerja sama dalam kelompok kecil, dan berbagi dengan kelompok lain. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui pengaruh model pembelajaran, etnis, serta interaksi model pembelajaran dan etnis terhadap keterampilan berpikir kritis, sikap sosial, dan hasil belajar kognitif biologi siswa. Penelitian eksperimen semu ini dilakukan di kelas XI IPA SMA dengan sampel sebanyak 132 orang siswa terbagi dalam enam kelas yang homogen berdasarkan etnis dan nilai ujian nasional SMP siswa. Hasil analisis data dengan menggunakan Analisis Kovarian menunjukkan bahwa model

  9. Attitude measurements and determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foliard, J.

    Satellite attitude determination using an inertial reference system is explained. The utility of being able to determine attitude is outlined. Construction of an attitude matrix from the Euler and Cardan angles of the satellite-Earth system is illustrated. Static and dynamic analysis methods are shown. The sensors employed when using the Sun, Earth's magnetic field, the Earth, and the stars as reference direction are described.

  10. Cockpit management attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmreich, R L

    1984-10-01

    Distinctions are drawn between personality traits and attitudes. The stability of the personality and the malleability of attitudes are stressed. These concepts are related to pilot performance, especially in the areas of crew coordination and cockpit resource management. Airline pilots were administered a Cockpit Management Attitudes questionnaire; empirical data from that survey are reported and implications of the data for training in crew coordination are discussed.

  11. Autonomous Attitude Determination and Control System for the Ørsted Satellite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Thomas; Wisniewski, Rafal; Blanke, M.

    1996-01-01

    The Ørsted Satellite mission imposes comparatively high requirements on autonomy of the attitude control system.......The Ørsted Satellite mission imposes comparatively high requirements on autonomy of the attitude control system....

  12. Determine the Effectiveness of Learning of Coping Strategies with Irrational Beliefs Based on the Theory of Rational-Emotional Alice on Attitudes to Communicate Before Married Female High School Students in Yazd- Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Forat Yazdi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This research was done with the objective of "Determine the effectiveness of learning coping strategies with Irrational Beliefs based on the theory of rational-emotional Alice on students’ attitude toward premarital relations in Yazd city". Materials and Methods In this semi experimental research 60 female students of Yazd-Iran, selected by using of Cochran’s formula and divided in two groups of control (30 persons and experiment (30 persons randomly. Learning of coping strategies with Irrational beliefs based on the theory of rational-emotional Alice during the 8 sessions of 90 minutes was conducted on experiment group, and the control group did not training; then post-test was conducted in two groups. Also, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA used in order to data analysis in descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. Results The adjusted mean attitude scores of the relationship with the opposite sex in control group, on the pre-test and post-test was 51.27+12.16, 50.30+14.46 and in experimental group was 69.53+8.91, 43.63+10.96 respectively. The result Alice rational-emotional treatment method is effective on attitude to relationship before marriage of high school girls (P

  13. PARENTAL ATTITUDES TOWARDS VOCATIONAL EDUCATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elizabeth

    This paper looked at one aspect of societal attitudes towards vocational education by conducting a survey ... services in Nigeria. Key Words: Parental Attitude, Vocational Education, Counselling, skill .... Some were 4 scale attitude questions ...

  14. Epistemics and attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranav Anand

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the distribution of epistemic modals in attitude contexts in three Romance languages, as well as their potential interaction with mood selection. We show that epistemics can appear in complements of attitudes of acceptance (Stalnaker 1984, but not desideratives or directives; in addition, emotive doxastics (hope, fear and dubitatives (doubt permit epistemic possibility modals, but not their necessity counterparts. We argue that the embedding differences across attitudes indicate that epistemics are sensitive to the type of attitude an attitude predicate reports. We show that this sensitivity can be derived by adopting two types of proposals from the literature on epistemic modality and on attitude verbs: First, we assume that epistemics do not target knowledge uniformly, but rather quantify over an information state determined by the content of the embedding attitude (Hacquard 2006, 2010, Yalcin 2007. In turn, we adopt a fundamental split in the semantics of attitude verbs between ‘representational’ and ‘non-representational’ attitudes (Bolinger 1968: representational attitudes quantify over an information state (e.g., a set of beliefs for believe, which, we argue, epistemic modals can be anaphoric to. Non-representational attitudes do not quantify over an information state; instead, they combine with their complement via a comparison with contextually-provided alternatives using a logic of preference (cf. Bolinger 1968, Stalnaker 1984, Farkas 1985, Heim 1992, Villalta 2000, 2008. Finally, we argue that emotive doxastics and dubitatives have a hybrid semantics, which combines a representational component (responsible for licensing epistemic possibility modals, and a preference component (responsible for disallowing epistemic necessity modals. http://dx.doi.org/10.3765/sp.6.8 BibTeX info

  15. Religious attitude scale: scale development and validation

    OpenAIRE

    Üzeyir Ok

    2011-01-01

    In this paper a scale of religious attitude (in an Islamic tradition) was constructed and its metric properties were introduced on the basis of its tests on two different samples (ns=930 and 388) of university students. It was found that the scale, which was named as Ok-Religious Attitude Scale, recorded high alpha scores (.81 and .91). Both explanatory and confirmatory factor analyses confirm that the scale with its four subscales (cognitive, emotional, behavioural and relational) form an id...

  16. A Raspberry Pi-Based Attitude Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreejith, A. G.; Mathew, Joice; Sarpotdar, Mayuresh; Mohan, Rekhesh; Nayak, Akshata; Safonova, Margarita; Murthy, Jayant

    We have developed a lightweight low-cost attitude sensor, based on a Raspberry Pi, built with readily available commercial components. It can be used in experiments where weight and power are constrained, such as in high-altitude lightweight balloon flights. This attitude sensor will be used as a major building block in a closed-loop control system with driver motors to stabilize and point cameras and telescopes for astronomical observations from a balloon-borne payload.

  17. A Raspberry Pi-Based Attitude Sensor

    CERN Document Server

    Sreejith, A G; Sarpotdar, Mayuresh; Mohan, Rekhesh; Nayak, Akshata; Safonova, Margarita; Murthy, Jayant

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a lightweight low-cost attitude sensor, based on a Raspberry Pi, built with readily available commercial components. It can be used in experiments where weight and power are constrained, such as in high- altitude lightweight balloon flights. This attitude sensor will be used as a major building block in a closed-loop control system with driver motors to stabilize and point cameras and telescopes for astronomical observations from a balloon-borne payload.

  18. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of contraception by HIV positive women followed in a Cameroon region with high illiteracy rate: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkwabong, Elie; Minda, Véronique; Fomulu, Joseph Nelson

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practices of contraception by HIV positive women. This cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in the Maroua Regional Hospital (Cameroon) from September 1(st), 2012 to February 28(th), 2013. All HIV positive women aged between 15 and 49 years who were received in the HIV clinic were recruited. The variables recorded included maternal age, number of living children, marital status, religion, the educational level, and the use of antiretroviral treatment (HAART), the knowledge, attitude and practice of contraception. Analyses were done using SPSS 18.0. Fisher exact test was used for comparison. The level of significance was P illiteracy rate. Therefore, all contraceptive methods should be made available to these women. Towards these women and their partner(s), more emphasis should be made on the systematic condom use even when using other contraceptive methods (dual protection).

  19. Asymmetrical international attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oudenhoven, JP; Askevis-Leherpeux, F; Hannover, B; Jaarsma, R; Dardenne, B

    2002-01-01

    In general, attitudes towards nations have a fair amount of reciprocity: nations either like each other are relatively indifferent to each other or dislike each other Sometimes, however international attitudes are asymmetrical. In this study, we use social identity theory in order to explain asymmet

  20. Pornography and Attitude Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Douglas H.; Wehmer, Gerald

    1971-01-01

    The results indicate that a voluntary three hour exposure to erotic pictures, some of which have been defined as being legally obscene," does not lead to a change in a person's attitudes toward such materials or in attitudes toward their censorship. (Author)

  1. Attitude measurement: Judging the emotional intensity of likert-type science attitude statements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrigley, Robert L.; Koballa, Thomas R., Jr.

    Emotional intensity, that readiness of a teacher to respond favorably or unfavorably toward such psychological objects as science or the teaching of science, is the quality that distinguishes the attitude concept from other related psychological concepts. It would seem, then, that valid attitude statements, if they are to reflect the definition of attitude, would evoke emotional intensity, responses in both a favorable and unfavorable direction by a group of teachers on each item on a science attitude scale. Science educators who design or modify science attitude scales should continue using item-total correlations and other quantitative techniques to test for emotional intensity, but qualitative judgments are necessary, too. In addition, the frequency distribution of data generated by each statement should be examined for skewness and high percentages of neutral responses, both of which can impair the emotional intensity of an item.

  2. Attitudes and persuasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crano, William D; Prislin, Radmila

    2006-01-01

    Study of attitudes and persuasion remains a defining characteristic of contemporary social psychology. This review outlines recent advances, with emphasis on the relevance of today's work for perennial issues. We reiterate the distinction between attitude formation and change, and show its relevance for persuasion. Single- and dual-process models are discussed, as are current views on dissonance theory. Majority and minority influence are scrutinized, with special emphasis on integrative theoretical innovations. Attitude strength is considered, and its relevance to ambivalence and resistance documented. Affect, mood, and emotion effects are reviewed, especially as they pertain to fear arousal and (un)certainty. Finally, we discuss attitude-behavior consistency, perhaps the reason for our interest in attitudes in the first place, with emphasis on self-interest and the theory of planned behavior. Our review reflects the dynamism and the reach of the area, and suggests a sure and sometimes rapid accumulation of knowledge and understanding.

  3. 初中生英语阅读现状与英语阅读态度研究%A Study on English Reading and Reading Attitudes among Chinese Junior High School Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓天

    2012-01-01

    对我国某中学初中生英语阅读现状和英语阅读态度的问卷调查显示:初中生英语阅读基本立足课本,以提高阅读成绩为目标。初中生普遍对英语阅读持积极态度,其中工具趋向态度最强,但阅读的积极性随年级的递增呈下降趋势。具体到阅读态度五个维度间的相互关系,初中生情感趋向态度与融入趋向态度、工具趋向态度和评价趋向态度成正相关,与社会趋向态度呈负相关。其中,情感趋向态度与融入趋向态度成较强的正相关。基于此,为使学生对英语阅读长期保持积极的态度,英语教师要为学生推荐他们感兴趣的课外英语读物;同时,转变英语阅读教学理念,设计多种多样检验阅读效果的活动,从而充分发挥英语阅读在英语学习中的重要作用。%A survey on English reading and reading attitudes was conducted among junior high school students in a Chinese middle school. The results indicated that junior high school students primarily selected English textbooks as their reading materials and set improving reading performances in exams as their reading purpose. In general, students held positive attitudes towards reading, with attitudes related to instrumental orientation the strongest, but their interest in reading declined as they progressed through grades. As for the relationship among the five dimensiorks of reading attitudes, attitudes related to affective orientation were negatively correlated to attitudes related to sodal orientation, but positively correlated to the other three dimensions, with the correlation between affective and integrative orientation the most significant. Based oi1 the results of the study, it is highly recommended that more appealing reading resources should be provided so that students can sustain positive reading attitudes in a long run. And teachers should also readjust their teaching concept, develop various activities to

  4. Attitude determination for balloon-borne experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Gandilo, N N; Amiri, M; Angile, F E; Benton, S J; Bock, J J; Bond, J R; Bryan, S A; Chiang, H C; Contaldi, C R; Crill, B P; Devlin, M J; Dober, B; Dore, O P; Farhang, M; Filippini, J P; Fissel, L M; Fraisse, A A; Fukui, Y; Galitzki, N; Gambrel, A E; Golwala, S; Gudmundsson, J E; Halpern, M; Hasselfield, M; Hilton, G C; Holmes, W A; Hristov, V V; Irwin, K D; Jones, W C; Kermish, Z D; Klein, J; Korotkov, A L; Kuo, C L; MacTavish, C J; Mason, P V; Matthews, T G; Megerian, K G; Moncelsi, L; Morford, T A; Mroczkowski, T K; Nagy, J M; Netterfield, C B; Novak, G; Nutter, D; O'Brient, R; Pascale, E; Poidevin, F; Rahlin, A S; Reintsema, C D; Ruhl, J E; Runyan, M C; Savini, G; Scott, D; Shariff, J A; Soler, J D; Thomas, N E; Trangsrud, A; Truch, M D; Tucker, C E; Tucker, G S; Tucker, R S; Turner, A D; Ward-Thompson, D; Weber, A C; Wiebe, D V; Young, E Y

    2014-01-01

    An attitude determination system for balloon-borne experiments is presented. The system provides pointing information in azimuth and elevation for instruments flying on stratospheric balloons over Antarctica. In-flight attitude is given by the real-time combination of readings from star cameras, a magnetometer, sun sensors, GPS, gyroscopes, tilt sensors and an elevation encoder. Post-flight attitude reconstruction is determined from star camera solutions, interpolated by the gyroscopes using an extended Kalman Filter. The multi-sensor system was employed by the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry (BLASTPol), an experiment that measures polarized thermal emission from interstellar dust clouds. A similar system was designed for the upcoming flight of SPIDER, a Cosmic Microwave Background polarization experiment. The pointing requirements for these experiments are discussed, as well as the challenges in designing attitude reconstruction systems for high altitude balloon flights. ...

  5. Impact of Cooperative Business Management Curriculum on Secondary Student Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Gregory; Duffield, Stacy K.

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined the effect a curriculum about cooperative businesses had on high school student attitudes toward these businesses. Cognitive, affective, and behavioral dimensions were measured before and after participating in the curriculum. Older high school students increased their attitudes toward cooperatives more than did younger…

  6. Attitude extremity, consensus and diagnosticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pligt, J.; Ester, P.; van der Linden, J.

    1983-01-01

    Studied the effects of attitude extremity on perceived consensus and willingness to ascribe trait terms to others with either pro- or antinuclear attitudes. 611 Ss rated their attitudes toward nuclear energy on a 5-point scale. Results show that attitude extremity affected consensus estimates. Trait

  7. Information and Attitudes toward Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafer, Marilyn; Narcus, Margery

    1979-01-01

    Examined effects of two movies, Like Other People and The Music Box, on attitudes as measured by the Attitudes toward Disabled Persons scale. Results indicated more negative attitudes were induced in pretested participants by Like Other People at initial post-test; however, more favorable attitudes were exhibited by participants six weeks later.…

  8. How inconsistency between attitude and behavior persists through cultural transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiguchi, Takuya; Nakamaru, Mayuko

    2011-02-21

    Individuals tend to conform their behavior to that of the majority. Consequently, an individual's behavior is not always consistent with his or her attitude, and such inconsistency sometimes causes mental distress. Understanding the mechanism of sustaining inconsistency between attitude and behavior is a challenging problem from the viewpoint of evolutionary theory. We constructed an evolutionary game theory model in which each player has an attitude and behavior toward a single social norm, and the players' attitudes and behaviors are affected by three types of cultural transmission: vertical, oblique, and horizontal. We assumed that strategy is a combination of attitude and behavior and that the process of learning or transmitting the social norm depends on the life stage of each player. Adults play a coordination game in which players whose behaviors match those of the majority obtain a high payoff, which is diminished by any inconsistency between attitude and behavior. The adults' strategies are passed to newborns via vertical transmission, and the frequency of a newborn's replication of strategy is proportional to the corresponding adult's payoff. Newborns imitate behaviors of unrelated adults via oblique transmission. Juveniles change their attitudes or behaviors by observing other juveniles' behaviors or inferring other juveniles' attitudes (horizontal transmission). We conclude that the key factor for sustaining inconsistency between attitude and behavior is the ability of players to infer and imitate others' attitudes, and that oblique transmission promotes inconsistency.

  9. Attitudes of the selfless

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zettler, Ingo; Hilbig, B.E.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research on political orientations, which can be understood as one's left- versus right-wing attitude, has shown that some personality factors yield explanatory power. In the current work, we consider the role of altruism - a personality construct which does not exclusively map onto one...... of the broad personality dimensions typically studied. Altruism was predicted to relate to left-wing attitudes due to an overlap regarding concerns for social equality, and a discrepancy between well-known attributes of right-wingers and altruistic individuals, respectively. Moreover, altruism was expected...... association between altruism and left-wing attitudes, and altruism was found to account for substantial variance in political orientation after controlling for the HEXACO factors of personality. We conclude that altruism is an important construct which deserves attention whenever political attitudes or other...

  10. Spacecraft Attitude Determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Thomas

    This thesis describes the development of an attitude determination system for spacecraft based only on magnetic field measurements. The need for such system is motivated by the increased demands for inexpensive, lightweight solutions for small spacecraft. These spacecraft demands full attitude...... determination based on simple, reliable sensors. Meeting these objectives with a single vector magnetometer is difficult and requires temporal fusion of data in order to avoid local observability problems. In order to guaranteed globally nonsingular solutions, quaternions are generally the preferred attitude...... is a detailed study of the influence of approximations in the modeling of the system. The quantitative effects of errors in the process and noise statistics are discussed in detail. The third contribution is the introduction of these methods to the attitude determination on-board the Ørsted satellite...

  11. Variable Attitude Test Stand

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Variable Attitude Test Stand designed and built for testing of the V-22 tilt rotor aircraft propulsion system, is used to evaluate the effect of aircraft flight...

  12. Attitudes Towards Immigration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Munch, Jakob Roland; Schroll, Sanne

    In this paper, we re-examine the role of economic self-interest in shaping people’s attitudes towards immigration, using data from the European Social Survey 2002/2003. Compared to the existing literature, there are two main contributions of the present paper. First, we develop a more powerful test...... of the hypothesis that a positive relationship between education and attitudes towards immigration reflects economic self-interest in the labour market. Second, we develop an alternative and more direct test of whether economic self-interest matters for people’s attitudes towards immigration. We find that while...... the "original" relationship between education and attitudes found in the literature is unlikely to reflect economic self-interest, there is considerable evidence of economic self-interest when using the more direct test...

  13. Attitudes Towards Immigration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Roland Munch, Jakob; Schroll, Sanne

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we re-examine the role of economic self-interest in shaping people's attitudes towards immigration, using data from the European Social Survey 2002/2003. Compared to the existing literature, there are two main contributions of the present paper. First, we develop a more powerful test...... of the hypothesis that a positive relationship between education and attitudes towards immigration reflects economic self-interest in the labour market. Second, we develop an alternativeand more direct test of whether economic self-interest mattersfor people's attitudes towards immigration. We find that whilethe...... "original" relationship between education and attitudes found in the literature is unlikely to reflect economic self-interest, there is considerable evidence of economic self-interest when using the more directtest....

  14. Attitudes Towards Immigration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Munch, Jakob Roland; Schroll, Sanne

    In this paper, we re-examine the role of economic self-interest in shaping people’s attitudes towards immigration, using data from the European Social Survey 2002/2003. Compared to the existing literature, there are two main contributions of the present paper. First, we develop a more powerful test...... of the hypothesis that a positive relationship between education and attitudes towards immigration reflects economic self-interest in the labour market. Second, we develop an alternative and more direct test of whether economic self-interest matters for people’s attitudes towards immigration. We find that while...... the "original" relationship between education and attitudes found in the literature is unlikely to reflect economic self-interest, there is considerable evidence of economic self-interest when using the more direct test...

  15. Factoring attitudes towards armed conflict risk into selection of protected areas for conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammill, E.; Tulloch, A.I.T.; Possingham, H.P.

    2016-01-01

    The high incidence of armed conflicts in biodiverse regions poses significant challenges in achieving international conservation targets. Because attitudes towards risk vary, we assessed different strategies for protected area planning that reflected alternative attitudes towards the risk of arme...

  16. Swedish students' attitudes toward abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindell, M E; Olsson, H M

    1993-01-01

    The Swedish abortion legislation of 1975 gave women the right to make a decision about abortion before the end of the 18th week of pregnancy. The number of abortions is rising in Sweden as a chosen method of birth control. The attitudes of students toward abortion were studied in 1986-1987. A questionnaire containing items on how sex education is taught, the anatomy and physiology of reproduction, contraceptives, sexually transmitted diseases, and legal abortion was answered by 421 high school students. Results pertaining to the students' attitudes toward abortion are reported. Two thirds of the students believed that the decision about an abortion should be made by the man and woman together. Nearly all respondents believed that abortion should not be considered a method of birth control. These results may be considered a guide for interventions to prevent the need for abortion. One fourth of all pregnancies in Sweden terminate in abortion. The students in the present study thought of abortion as a solution. Authors studying samples with different cultural backgrounds have reported similar attitudes.

  17. E-Psychology: Consumers' Attitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordanova, Malina; Vasileva, Lidia; Rasheva, Maximka; Bojinova, Rumiana

    Securing psychological supervision, consultations and help during long lasting flights is vital condition for success. That's why, knowing in details consumers (clients) attitude toward virtual psychology services is essential. Knowledge gained during nowadays studies on Earth will definitely help in the preparation for the future. The presentation focuses on results of a longitudinal survey assessing clients' attitudes toward e-psychology service. The first part of the survey was performed in spring 2006, while the second - in 2008. The study is part of an ongoing project OHN 1514/2005, funded by National Science Fund, Bulgaria. Project's strategic goal is to develop and offer a virtual high quality psychological service to people from remotes areas that have no contact with licensed psychologist. The project enables experts to communicate directly with clients and perform remote consultations, supervision, etc. The objective of this presentation is to report changes and trends in clients' attitude towards innovative virtual psychology care. Both parts of the survey involved men and women between 19 and 70 year, who defend various opinions on the application of virtual technologies for healthcare. The sample is stratifies for age, gender, education level.

  18. Attitudes towards documentary soundstracks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Have, Iben

    2010-01-01

    . By listening to different voices - primarily from four focus group interviews - the article will discuss attitudes towards musical soundtracks in documentaries, attitudes being negotiated between emotional immersion and critical reflection, with the concept of manipulation as an underlying theme. In the end......, the article will argue for the need for an acoustemological approach (Feld, 1996) to study the epistemological potential of sound in audiovisual media....

  19. Attitudes towards immigration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Munch, Jakob Roland; Skaksen, Jan Rose

    2008-01-01

    Using the European Social Survey 2002/3, we develop a new test of whether economic self-interest influences people's attitudes towards immigration, exploiting that people have widely different perceptions of the consequences of immigration......Using the European Social Survey 2002/3, we develop a new test of whether economic self-interest influences people's attitudes towards immigration, exploiting that people have widely different perceptions of the consequences of immigration...

  20. The Effects of Perceived Parental Behaviors, Attitudes, and Substance-Use on Adolescent Attitudes toward and Intent To Use Psychoactive Substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichman, Meir; Kefir, Ester

    2000-01-01

    Examines how adolescents perceive the role of parents influencing their decision to use psychoactive substances. Perceived parental rejection, acceptance, and attitudes significantly differentiated between adolescents who reported favorable attitudes toward and high intent to use substances, and those who expressed less favorable attitudes. The…

  1. On the relationship between the indirectly measured attitude towards beer and beer consumption: the role of attitude accessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descheemaeker, Mathilde; Spruyt, Adriaan; Hermans, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Although some studies have demonstrated that the indirectly measured attitude towards alcohol is related to alcohol use, this relationship has not always been confirmed. In the current study, we attempted to shed light on this issue by investigating whether the predictive validity of an indirect attitude measure is dependent upon attitude accessibility. In a sample of 88 students, the picture-picture naming task, an adaptation of the affective priming paradigm, was used to measure the automatically activated attitude towards beer. Attitude accessibility was measured using a speeded evaluative categorization task. Behavioral measures were the amount of beer poured and drunk during a bogus taste test and the choice between a bottle of beer or water at the end of the experiment. In line with our hypothesis, the indirectly measured attitude towards beer predicted behavior during the taste test only when it was highly accessible. In contrast, this attitude was related to choice behavior irrespective of attitude accessibility. This study confirms that indirect attitude measures can be valuable predictors of alcohol-related behavior, but that it is sometimes necessary to take attitude accessibility into account.

  2. Attitudes toward same-sex marriage: the case of Scandinavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsson, Niklas; Kotsadam, Andreas; Jakobsson, Siri Støre

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the variables that explain attitudes toward same-sex marriage. Using recently collected Scandinavian data (from Norway and Sweden) with a high response rate, this study shows that gender, regular participation in religious activities, political ideology, education, whether the respondent lived in the capital city, and attitudes toward gender equality were important for attitudes toward same-sex marriage. Age and income were not important for attitudes toward same-sex marriage. Although both Norwegians and Swedes clearly favor same-sex marriage, Swedes are significantly more positive than Norwegians.

  3. Adolescents' Attitudes toward the Death Penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David; Maggioncalda-Aretz, Maria; Stark, Scott Hunter

    1997-01-01

    Examines whether high school (n=142) and college students (n=112) favored the death penalty for certain criminal acts. Findings indicate that high school students rated more criminal acts as meriting the death penalty. Gender and personality were not found to be associated with attitudes toward the death penalty. (RJM)

  4. Breastfeeding Attitudes of Pregnant Women and Some Factors Which Effect the Breastfeeding Attitude

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    This research is carried out as analitical to determine the breastfeeding attitudes of pregnant women who applied Hacettepe University Hospital Gynecologic and Obstetric Department during the month of December 2001 and some factors effecting breastfeeding attitude. Most of the women who taken the research was between 25-29 age group and graduated high school and university. About 39.8% of the pregnant women was in the period of first pregnancy. 96.1% of pregnant women who delivered live ...

  5. Robust high-precision attitude control for flexible spacecraft with improved mixed H2/H∞ control strategy under poles assignment constraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuang; Ye, Dong; Shi, Keke; Sun, Zhaowei

    2017-07-01

    A novel improved mixed H2/H∞ control technique combined with poles assignment theory is presented to achieve attitude stabilization and vibration suppression simultaneously for flexible spacecraft in this paper. The flexible spacecraft dynamics system is described and transformed into corresponding state space form. Based on linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) scheme and poles assignment theory, the improved mixed H2/H∞ controller does not restrict the equivalence of the two Lyapunov variables involved in H2 and H∞ performance, which can reduce conservatives compared with traditional mixed H2/H∞ controller. Moreover, it can eliminate the coupling of Lyapunov matrix variables and system matrices by introducing slack variable that provides additional degree of freedom. Several simulations are performed to demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed method in this paper.

  6. Survey on sexual behavior and AIDS knowledge and attitude among high school students%北京西城区高中生性行为及艾滋病相关知识态度状况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张世伟; 高仙; 甄媛; 李鑫; 李玉红

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解北京市西城区高中生性行为及艾滋病相关知识态度状况,为学校开展艾滋病和性健康教育活动提供依据.方法 使用中国疾病预防控制中心儿少/学校中心编制的问卷,对以简单随机法抽取的西城区5所高中共976名学生进行艾滋病知识态度、性行为等调查.结果 高中生性行为和被迫性行为报告率分别为6.3%和1.2%,男生高于女生(P值均<0.01),职业高中学生高于普通高中和重点高中学生(P值均<0.01).学生对艾滋病病原体的知晓率为73.2%,重点高中学生高于普通高中和职业高中学生(P<0.01).部分学生对待艾滋病患者或病毒感染者持负面态度.结论 应积极开展学校性行为和艾滋病预防健康教育,促进学生预防艾滋病知识水平的提高及正确态度和技能的形成,减少危险行为.%Objective To survey and analyze the situation of sexual behavior and AIDS knowledge and attitude among high school students, and to provide evidence for developing AIDS and sexual health education. Methods A risk behaviors questionnaire survey was conducted among 976 students selected from 5 high schools in Beijing Xicheng district. The contents included students' basic status, AIDS knowledge, attitude, sexual behavior and so on. Results The reporting rates of sexual behaviors and forced sexual behaviors was respectively 6.3% and 1.2% , the rates of male students was higher than that of female students (P <0. 01) , and the rates of vocational high schools was higher than the students from common high schools and key high schools! P< 0.01). Awareness rate of AIDS knowledge was 73.2% , that of key high schools was higher than that of common high schools and vocational high schools (P<0. 01). Some students held negative attitude toward AIDS patients or HIV infectors. Conclusion School education of sexual behavior and AIDS should be taken to improve knowledge, right attitude and skills of AIDS prevention

  7. Nurses’ attitudes towards self-harm: a literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karman, P.; Kool, Nienke; Poslawsky, I.E.; Meijel, Berno van

    2014-01-01

    Self-harm is a growing health problem. Nurses in a variety of healthcare settings play a central role in the care of people who self-harm. Their professional attitudes towards these people are essential for high-quality care. This review aims to develop insight into nurses’ attitudes towards self-ha

  8. The Impact of School Political Systems on Student Political Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Devon J.; Barr, Robert D.

    1978-01-01

    Describes a study of the effects of student participation in school policy-making upon student attitudes. Data were collected from students in a comprehensive high school and a small alternative school within the comprehensive school. Students in the alternative school participated more in policy-making and also showed more positive attitudes.…

  9. Upper Secondary School Pupils' Attitudes towards Natural Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akarsu, Bayram; Kariper, Afsin

    2013-01-01

    Students' attitudes towards natural science constitute an important area in science education as fewer students are interested in natural science and they do not choose corresponding science disciplines in postsecondary education. The current study reports preliminary results of a survey on high school students' interests and attitudes towards…

  10. Nurses' attitudes to sexuality in caring for cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cort, E

    The attitudes of hospice nurses towards psychosexual issues in palliative care were surveyed. Sexuality was acknowledged to be both important and relevant in hospice nursing. A high level of awareness of sexual and relationship issues was apparent, reflecting broadly liberal attitudes.

  11. Measuring Attitudes Toward Inclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Kunz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The considerable worldwide demand for an inclusive education system has driven Switzerland to reconsider the approach of segregated schooling for children with Special Educational Needs (SEN. Recently, an agreement was signed among the states with the intention to adopt a more inclusive practice in school. There is evidence suggesting that an inclusive practice established at policy level is not enough, as many times it becomes teacher’s effort to translate the policies in classroom setting. The effectiveness of inclusive practices can be tightly related to the attitude of teachers, parents and students to inclusion of children with SEN in mainstreaming classes. Attitude towards inclusion is an observable construct but it presents difficulties in terms of measurement. For this purpose, in order to evaluate the attitude to inclusion of teachers, parents and students, an American Scale, the 11-items Parent Attitude to Inclusion (Palmer et al., 1998a, 1998b, 2001 and the version for teachers (Stanley, Grimbeek, Bryer, Beamisch, 2003; Bryer, Grimbeek, Beamish, Stanley, 2004, has been slightly modified and translated into German language. The resulting scales have been used to collect data in Switzerland in two regions. Results show that the German version of the scale can be potentially used for reliable measurement of attitudes toward inclusion in German speaking countries.

  12. Parenting attitudes of addict mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellisch, D K; Steinberg, M R

    1980-08-01

    Parenting attitudes of female heroin addicts were investigated in a single factor design which compared addict mothers, addict non-mothers, nonaddict mothers, and nonaddict nonmothers. A principal components factor analysis was performed on the PARI and used as the dependent measure. A factor labeled "authoritarian overinvolvement" emerged which significantly differentiated between groups. Further, the effects of mothering and addiction proved to be additive such that addict mothers were extremely high on this scale. This result was discussed in terms of the parental home environment of addict women.

  13. Nature and operation of attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajzen, I

    2001-01-01

    This survey of attitude theory and research published between 1996 and 1999 covers the conceptualization of attitude, attitude formation and activation, attitude structure and function, and the attitude-behavior relation. Research regarding the expectancy-value model of attitude is considered, as are the roles of accessible beliefs and affective versus cognitive processes in the formation of attitudes. The survey reviews research on attitude strength and its antecedents and consequences, and covers progress made on the assessment of attitudinal ambivalence and its effects. Also considered is research on automatic attitude activation, attitude functions, and the relation of attitudes to broader values. A large number of studies dealt with the relation between attitudes and behavior. Research revealing additional moderators of this relation is reviewed, as are theory and research on the link between intentions and actions. Most work in this context was devoted to issues raised by the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior. The present review highlights the nature of perceived behavioral control, the relative importance of attitudes and subjective norms, the utility of adding more predictors, and the roles of prior behavior and habit.

  14. Attitude pointing enhancement for combined energy and attitude control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varatharajoo, Renuganth; Tech Wooi, Choo; Mailah, Musa

    2011-06-01

    This paper extends the previous works that appeared in Acta Astronautica. An approach that incorporates the Active Force Control (AFC) technique into a conventional Proportional-Derivative (PD) controller is proposed for a 50 kg small satellite. Numerical treatments are performed to validate the effectiveness of AFC. The attitude control capability of the combined energy and attitude control system (CEACS) is expected to improve. The result shows an important attitude pointing enhancement for the CEACS attitude control task.

  15. Attitudes towards poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Derdziuk

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Poverty, perceived as a lack of basic consumer goods, gives rise to a whole range of outcomes which affect not only the material dimension of human existence, but also influence social relations and references to spiritual values. Attitudes which could be associated with involuntary and unacceptable poverty include: doubt in the Divine Providence, bitterness, jealousy and envy, blaming others, lack of gratitude and in perceiving good, laziness, lack of initiative, escalating demands, gluttony and greed as well as meanness. However, joy, peace, freedom and solidarity with the poor, as well as work and enterprise, are symptoms of evangelical attitudes of the poor in spirit. Attitudes to poverty point to a wide range of human behaviours towards possessions and in effect, reveal an individual’s sense of value.

  16. AIRSHIP ATTITUDE TRACKING SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-liang; SHAN Xue-xiong

    2006-01-01

    The attitude tracking control problem for an airship with parameter uncertainties and external disturbances was considered in this paper. The mathematical model of the airship attitude is a multi-input/multi-output uncertain nonlinear system. Based on the characteristics of this system, a design method of robust output tracking controllers was adopted based on the upper-bounds of the uncertainties. Using the input/output feedback linearization approach and Liapunov method, a control law was designed, which guarantees that the system output exponentially tracks the given desired output. The controller is easy to compute and complement. Simulation results show that, in the closed-loop system, precise attitude control is accomplished in spite of the uncertainties and external disturbances in the system.

  17. Love attitudes and attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Brenlla

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Love styles described by Lee are Eros (passionate love, Ludus (game-pla- ying love, Storge (friendship love, Mania (possessive, dependent love, Pragma (logical, “shopping list” love and Agape (all-giving, selfless love. Based on those types, Hendrick and Hendrick developed a 42-ítem rating questionnaire with 7 items measuring each love style (Love Attitudes Scale. Beside, inform about frequency in love relationships and attachment style. The purpose of this study was analyze the reliability and factor structure of the Love Attitudes Scale and to investigate the association between love attitudes and the attachment style. The results (N=280 participants indicate adequate internal consistency (alfa = 0,73. The items were intercorrelated and factored. The best solution extracted six factors using varimax rotation and all six factors accounted 41% of the total variance. Secure attachment was related positively to eros. 

  18. Knowledge of, attitudes toward, and preventive practices relating to cholera and oral cholera vaccine among urban high-risk groups: findings of a cross-sectional study in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In endemic countries such as Bangladesh, consequences of cholera place an enormous financial and social burden on patients and their families. Cholera vaccines not only provide health benefits to susceptible populations but also have effects on the earning capabilities and financial stability of the family. Community-based research and evaluations are necessary to understand perceptions about and practices of the community relating to cholera and oral cholera vaccines. This may help identify the ways in which such vaccines may be successfully introduced, and other preventive measures can be implemented. The present study assessed the knowledge of, attitudes toward, and preventive practices relating to cholera and oral cholera vaccine among an urban population residing in a high cholera-prone setting in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in an area of high cholera prevalence in 15 randomly-selected clusters in Mirpur, Dhaka city. A study team collected data through a survey and in-depth interviews during December 2010–February 2011. Results Of 2,830 families included in the final analysis, 23% could recognize cholera as acute watery diarrhea and 16% had ever heard of oral cholera vaccine. About 54% of the respondents had poor knowledge about cholera-related issues while 97% had a positive attitude toward cholera and oral cholera vaccine. One-third showed poor practice relating to the prevention of cholera. The findings showed a significant (p cholera were the significant predictors to having poor knowledge. Conclusions The findings suggest the strengthening of health education activities to improve knowledge on cholera, its prevention and treatment and information on cholera vaccination among high-risk populations. The data also underscore the potential of mass cholera vaccination to prevent and control cholera. PMID:23509860

  19. Attitudes towards recreational hunting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamborg, Christian; Jensen, Frank Søndergaard

    2017-01-01

    What is the attitude of the general public towards hunting? As a recreational activity, hunting stands apart from other forms of outdoor recreation like birdwatching in that it involves the pursuit and killing of wild animals. Today, it is in a tight spot. It has been criticized from animal ethics......, hunting organized as a group hunt, and single day leases of hunting grounds. Respondents with a “mutualist” wildlife value orientation had the most negative attitude towards hunting (39%), “distanced” respondents were the most indifferent (44%), and “utilitarians” were the most positive (61%). Assessing...

  20. Attitudes towards documentary soundstracks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Have, Iben

    2010-01-01

    Musical experience is often related to an emotional and imaginative engagement of the listener. Discourses of journalistic documentaries relate primarily to inferential knowledge systems in which the uses of background music as a communicative device become an object of epistemological critique....... By listening to different voices - primarily from four focus group interviews - the article will discuss attitudes towards musical soundtracks in documentaries, attitudes being negotiated between emotional immersion and critical reflection, with the concept of manipulation as an underlying theme. In the end......, the article will argue for the need for an acoustemological approach (Feld, 1996) to study the epistemological potential of sound in audiovisual media....

  1. Combinators for Paraconsistent Attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Jørgen

    2001-01-01

    In order to analyse the semantics of natural language sentences a translation into a partial type logic using lexical and logical combinators is presented. The sentences cover a fragment of English with propositional attitudes like knowledge, belief and assertion. A combinator is a closed term...... used for embedded sentences expressing propositional attitudes, thereby allowing for inconsistency without explosion (also called paraconsistency), and is based on a few key equalities for the connectives giving four truth values (truth, falsehood, and undefinedness with negative and positive polarity...

  2. Attitudes of children and adolescents toward persons who are deaf, blind, paralyzed or intellectually disabled

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laat, S. de; Freriksen, E.; Vervloed, M.P.J.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to explore Dutch students' attitudes toward deaf, blind, paralyzed or intellectually disabled persons and to determine whether age, self-esteem, gender, religion and familiarity with a disabled person have a significant effect on these attitudes. The attitudes of 200 high school and

  3. Attitudes of Children and Adolescents toward Persons Who Are Deaf, Blind, Paralyzed or Intellectually Disabled

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Laat, Stijn; Freriksen, Ellen; Vervloed, Mathijs P. J.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to explore Dutch students' attitudes toward deaf, blind, paralyzed or intellectually disabled persons and to determine whether age, self-esteem, gender, religion and familiarity with a disabled person have a significant effect on these attitudes. The attitudes of 200 high school and 144 university students were determined with two…

  4. Gender Differences in Computer-Related Attitudes and Behavior: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Bernard E., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    A meta-analysis of studies of gender differences in computer attitudes and behavior found that males exhibited greater sex-role stereotyping of computers, higher computer self-efficacy, and more positive attitudes toward computers than females. Most differences in attitudes and behavior were small, with the largest found in high school students.…

  5. Students' Attitudes and Motivation for Learning English at Dokuz Eylul University School of Foreign Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Kadim

    2014-01-01

    Attitudes and motivation are two of the key factors in second language learning since positive attitudes and high levels of motivation are considered as the predictors of a successful learning process. This study aims to reveal the relation between university preparatory students' attitudes towards learning English and their language learning…

  6. Embedded Mathematics in Chemistry: A Case Study of Students' Attitudes and Mastery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preininger, Anita M.

    2017-01-01

    There are many factors that shape students' attitudes toward science, technology, engineering and mathematics. This exploratory study of high school students examined the effect of enriching chemistry with math on chemistry students' attitudes toward math and careers involving math. To measure student attitudes, a survey was administered before…

  7. Embedded Mathematics in Chemistry: A Case Study of Students' Attitudes and Mastery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preininger, Anita M.

    2017-01-01

    There are many factors that shape students' attitudes toward science, technology, engineering and mathematics. This exploratory study of high school students examined the effect of enriching chemistry with math on chemistry students' attitudes toward math and careers involving math. To measure student attitudes, a survey was administered before…

  8. Students' Attitudes and Motivation for Learning English at Dokuz Eylul University School of Foreign Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Kadim

    2014-01-01

    Attitudes and motivation are two of the key factors in second language learning since positive attitudes and high levels of motivation are considered as the predictors of a successful learning process. This study aims to reveal the relation between university preparatory students' attitudes towards learning English and their language learning…

  9. ENTREPRENEURIAL ATTITUDES AND INTENTIONS AMONG ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UDS-CAPTURED

    ... people. The psychological literature suggests that attitude and intention .... Within the field of psychology, attitudes refer to relatively fixed patterns in people's thoughts, feelings, and ..... entrepreneurial careers, suggesting that other environmental and social learning experiences ... The Research instrument and variables.

  10. The Effectiveness Of High Levels Of Knowledge Regarding Hiv/Aids In Reducing Discriminatory Attitudes And Behaviour Towards Hiv-Infected People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pirie

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this study was to assess whether there is a relationship between increasing levels of knowledge about HIV/AIDS and perceptions of discriminatory attitudes and behaviour towards people with HIV/AIDS. Employees (3662 from a large accounting firm were exposed to a survey and a response rate of 41% or 1532 was received. The secondary objective of the study was to determine whether there were any statistically significant differences in the mean difference of knowledge scores of groups created in terms of the different biographical variables. ANOVA’S (to determine the significance of differences between the means, t-tests (two groups only and F-statistics were used for the analysis. Given the large sample size an F-test is not conclusive and the effect of the difference in sample size needs to be taken into account. For this reason it was also necessary to look at the Partial Eta Squared. Results indicate that respondents are generally knowledgeable about the prevention and transmission of HIV/AIDS and that respondents’ level of knowledge correlates negatively with discriminatory practices.

  11. Knowledge and Attitude of Nursing Students toward Electroconvulsive Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Nitasha; Ghai, Sandhya; Grover, Sandeep

    2017-01-01

    Background: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is one of the commonly used treatment modalities for patients with severe mental disorders. However, acceptance of ECT by the patient and relatives often depends on how the health-care professionals themselves present the treatment modality to the patients and their relatives. There is a lack of information about the knowledge and attitude toward ECT among health professionals. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the knowledge about and attitude toward ECT among nursing students. Methodology: Knowledge of and attitudes toward ECT among nursing students were assessed using ECT knowledge and attitude questionnaires. Results: The study included 183 nursing students. Majority (n = 62; 60.8%) of the participants obtained information about ECT from media (movies, television, print media, etc.). None of the students had full knowledge about ECT. Although a significant proportion of students had knowledge about the ECT procedure and consent procedure, majority of them had poor knowledge about the effectiveness, mechanism of action, indications, and side effects of ECT. Negative attitudes were also highly prevalent, with more than two-thirds of the participants having negative attitudes toward ECT on more than half of the attitude items of the scale. Total knowledge score positively correlated with total attitude score, suggesting that higher knowledge was associated with more positive attitude. Conclusions: Although nursing students have knowledge about basic ECT procedure and consent, they lack knowledge about the effectiveness, mechanism of action, indications, and side effects of ECT. Negative attitude toward ECT is also highly prevalent among nursing students. Accordingly, there is a need to improve the knowledge and address the negative attitude of nursing students, which may ultimately lead to better acceptance of the treatment. PMID:28936064

  12. An Aerial Image Mosaic Method Based on UAV Position and Attitude Information

    OpenAIRE

    CHENG Zhenggang; Zhang, Li

    2016-01-01

    As the existing methods for aerial image mosaic take high computational, a fast and effective algorithm based on the position and attitude information of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) is proposed. Firstly, the coordinates and attitude angles of UAV can be obtained by airborne GPS and inertial measurement unit (IMU), and each aerial image has a corresponding position and attitude information. The homography matrix between two aerial images with the positions and attitude information can be ca...

  13. Protean and bounderyless career attitudes: relationships with subjective and objective career success

    OpenAIRE

    Volmer, Judith; Spurk, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    "The protean and boundaryless career attitudes have gained special attention during the past years. A protean career attitude implies that a person strives towards a developmental progression and self-fulfillment; a boundaryless career attitude is characterized by a high physical and/or psychological mobility. The aim of the present paper is twofold: First, we want to empirically investigate the relationship between protean and boundaryless career attitudes and subjective (i.e., career satisf...

  14. Wages, Amenities and Negative Attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waisman, Gisela; Larsen, Birthe

    We exploit the regional variation in negative attitudes towards immigrants to Sweden in order to analyse the consequences of the attitudes on immigrants welfare. We find that attitudes towards immigrants are of importance: they both affect their labour market outcomes and their quality of life. We...... interpret the negative effect on wages as evidence of labour market discrimination. We estimate the welfare effects of negative attitudes, through their wage and local amenities, for immigrants with different levels of skills, origin, gender and age....

  15. Cultural transmission of civic attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Miles-Touya, Daniel; Rossi, Máximo

    2016-01-01

    In this empirical paper we attempt to measure the separate influence on civic engagement of educational attainment and cultural transmission of civic attitudes. Unlike most of the previous empirical works on this issue, we are able to approximate the cultural transmission of civic attitudes. We observe that civic returns to education are overstated when the transmission of civic attitudes is ignored. Moreover, the transmission of civic attitudes significantly enhances civic involvement and re...

  16. Attitudes of psychiatry residents toward mental illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejović-Milovančević Milica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Attitudes of lay people and physicians towards mentally ill patients are frequently highly biased. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in attitudes of psychiatry and internal medicine residents toward mental illness and to establish the relationship between their attitudes and their personal characteristics. Material and methods. The sample consisted of 45 psychiatry and 36 internal medicine residents. The attitudes toward mental illness were assessed using Opinions about Mental Illness Questionnaire (OMI and personality traits were examined using the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ. Results. Our findings showed that in regard to internal medicine residents, psychiatry residents do not consider mentally ill patients to be inferior and dangerous. Psychiatry residents have a benevolent attitude toward the mentally ill. Personality traits of psychiatry residents were not related to their opinions about mental illness. Discussion. The results suggest that there is a need to develop strategies that would bring about changes in the curriculum of training programs for medical residents, including proper training in mental health issues. Such strategies should help in destigmatization of persons with mental disorders and increase the competence of physicians to deal with mentally ill. .

  17. Medical students′ attitude toward suicide attempters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresh Nebhinani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Majority of health professionals have unfavorable attitudes toward the patients presenting with self-harm, which further compromises their therapeutic endeavors and outcomes. Objectives: This study was aimed to assess the medical students' attitudes toward suicide attempters. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a tertiary care medical institute of Haryana, a Northern state of India. Two hundred and five final year medical students were recruited through total enumeration method. “Suicide Opinion Questionnaire” was administered to assess their attitudes toward suicide attempters. Results: Only minority had previous exposure of managing any suicidal patient and attended suicide prevention programs. Majority agreed for suicide attempters being lonely and depressed. Nearly half of the students reported small family, disturbed interpersonal relationship, weak personality, self-punishment approach, cultural inhibitions in emotional expression, national instability, and disbelief in afterlife, as a major push to attempt suicide. Compared to boys, girls reported the greater contribution of weak personality and self-destructive behaviors and lesser contribution of family disturbances and religious convictions as suicide triggers. They held favorable attitude for only one-third of the attitudinal statement, and they were uncertain for two-third of the attitudinal statements. Conclusions: Such a high proportion of uncertain responses imply toward lack of awareness and clinical expertise for managing suicide attempters. It also signifies the urgent need for enhancing their educational and clinical exposure, to improve their attitudes toward patients presenting with self-harm.

  18. Teachers' attitudes and beliefs about homosexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Testor, Carles; Behar, Julia; Davins, Montse; Conde Sala, José Luís; Castillo, José A; Salamero, Manel; Alomar, Elisabeth; Segarra, Sabina

    2010-05-01

    Schools play a key role in transmitting attitudes towards sexual diversity. Many studies stress the importance of teachers' and other professionals' attitudes towards gay men and/or lesbian women. This study evaluates attitudes and prejudices toward homosexuality in a sample of 254 elementary and high school teachers in Barcelona and its surrounding area. The results obtained using a scale of overt and subtle prejudice and a scale of perceived discrepancy of values indicate that discrepancy between likely behavior and personal values was significantly greater in women, those who hold religious beliefs, churchgoers and people without any gay or lesbian acquaintances. Approximately 88% of the teachers showed no type of prejudiced attitudes towards gay men and lesbian women. The experience of proximity to gay men and/or lesbian women reduces not only the discrepancy between personal values and likely behavior but also the presence of homophobic prejudice. It would be advisable to expand specific teacher training in the subject of sexual diversity in order to reduce prejudicial attitudes, thus fostering non-stereotyped knowledge of homosexuality.

  19. Children's Attitudes toward the Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantz, Richard K.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    A study measured children's attitudes toward and knowledge of older people in American society. Findings indicate that children have little general knowledge of the elderly and very complex, mixed attitudes toward older persons. Ways are suggested in which schools can inculcate positive attitudes toward all people, including the elderly.…

  20. Visualizing disaster attitudes resulting from terrorist activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Halimahtun M; Helander, Martin G; Hood, Nilwan A

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze people's attitudes to disasters by investigating how people feel, behave and think during disasters. We focused on disasters induced by humans, such as terrorist attacks. Two types of textual information were collected - from Internet blogs and from research papers. The analysis enabled forecasting of attitudes for the design of proactive disaster advisory scheme. Text was analyzed using a text mining tool, Leximancer. The outcome of this analysis revealed core themes and concepts in the text concerning people's attitudes. The themes and concepts were sorted into three broad categories: Affect, Behaviour, and Cognition (ABC), and the data was visualized in semantic maps. The maps reveal several knowledge pathways of ABC for developing attitudinal ontologies, which describe the relations between affect, behaviour and cognition, and the sequence in which they develop. Clearly, terrorist attacks induced trauma and people became highly vulnerable.

  1. Verbal ability, argument order, and attitude formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mindaugas Mozuraitis

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The current study explored the interaction of verbal ability and presentation order on readers’ attitude formation when presented with two-sided arguments. Participants read arguments for and against compulsory voting and genetic engineering, and attitudes were assessed before and after reading the passages. Participants’ verbal ability was measured combining vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension skill. Results suggested that low verbal-ability participants were more persuaded by the most recent set of arguments whereas high verbal-ability participants formed attitudes independent of presentation order. Contrary to previous literature, individual differences in the personality trait, need for cognition, did not interact with presentation order. The results suggest that verbal ability is an important moderator of the effect of presentation order when formulating opinions from complex prose.

  2. Moderation of a parent-based intervention on transitions in drinking: examining the role of normative perceptions and attitudes among high- and low-risk first-year college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Michael J; Hultgren, Brittney; Varvil-Weld, Lindsey; Mallett, Kimberly A; Turrisi, Rob; Abar, Caitlin C

    2013-09-01

    Parent-based interventions (PBIs) are an effective strategy to reduce problematic drinking among first-year college students. The current study examined the extent to which student-based characteristics, derived from the Theory of Planned Behavior, moderated 3 PBI conditions: (i) prior to college matriculation (PCM); (ii) PCM with a booster during the fall semester; and (iii) after college matriculation. The moderator variables included injunctive and descriptive peer norms about alcohol use and attitudes toward alcohol use. Using data from a randomized control trial delivered to 1,900 incoming college students, we examined differential treatment effects within 4 types of baseline student drinkers: (i) nondrinkers; (ii) weekend light drinkers (WLD); (iii) weekend heavy episodic drinkers; and (iv) heavy drinkers. The outcome variable was based on the transitions in drinking that occurred between the summer prior to college enrollment and the end of the first fall semester and distinguished between students who transitioned to 1 of the 2 risky drinking classes. The results indicated that injunctive norms (but not descriptive norms or attitudes) moderated the differential effects of the PBI with strongest effects for students whose parents received the booster. Differential effects also depended on baseline drinking class and were most pronounced among WLDs who were deemed "high-risk" in terms of injunctive peer norms. Parental influence can remain strong for young adults who are transitioning to college environments, even among students with relatively high peer influence to drink alcohol. Thus, the PBI represents an effective tool to prevent escalation of alcohol use during the first year of college, when risk is highest and patterns of alcohol use are established. Copyright © 2013 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  3. Ethnic Attitudes of Hungarian Students in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, Bob; Obenchain, Kathryn M.; Oikonomidoy, Eleni

    2012-01-01

    Participants in this study were ethnic Hungarian secondary students attending high schools in Romania in which Hungarian was the primary language of instruction. Attitudes of participants toward ethnic and cultural groups were measured using a variation of the Bogardus (1933) Scale of Social Distance. Results were consistent with predictions based…

  4. College Students' Attitudes regarding Infant Feeding Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomba, Anne K.; Chang, Yunhee; Knight, Kathy B.; Tidwell, Diane K.; Wachter, Kathy; Endo, Seiji; West, Charles K.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the attitudes of college students toward various infant feeding practices using a questionnaire created by the authors on the basis of a review of the literature. Five hundred ten students enrolled at the University of Mississippi took part in the study. Findings indicated that respondents believed both high school and…

  5. Incidental mood state before dissonance induction affects attitude change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinie, Marie-Amélie; Almecija, Yves; Ros, Christine; Gil, Sandrine

    2017-01-01

    The way that incidental affect impacts attitude change brought about by controlled processes has so far been examined when the incidental affective state is generated after dissonance state induction. We therefore investigated attitude change when the incidental mood occurs prior to dissonance state induction. We expected a negative mood to induce systematic processing, and a positive mood to induce heuristic processing. Given that both systematic processing and attitude change are cognitively costly, we expected participants who experienced the dissonance state in a negative mood to have insufficient resources to allocate to attitude change. In our experiment, after mood induction (negative, neutral or positive), participants were divided into low-dissonance and high-dissonance groups. They then wrote a counterattitudinal essay. Analysis of their attitudes towards the essay topic indicated that attitude change did not occur in the negative incidental mood condition. Moreover, written productivity-one indicator of cognitive resource allocation-varied according to the type of incidental mood, and only predicted attitude change in the high-dissonance group. Our results suggest that incidental mood before dissonance induction influences the style of information processing and, by so doing, affects the extent of attitude change.

  6. Analysis of dentists' attitudes towards risks in oral radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svenson, B; Söderfeldt, B; Gröndahl, H G

    1996-06-01

    To develop a method of measuring dentists' attitudes towards radiation hazards and to describe their prevalence among Swedish general dental practitioners. A questionnaire was mailed to 2000 randomly selected dentists listed in the register of the Swedish Dental Society, with a response rate of 69.3%. An index for measurements of attitudes towards radiation hazards was constructed. Those dentists who showed high concern at radiation hazards also restricted their use of X-ray examinations. Years in practice and attendance at extended (one-week) courses in oral radiology both had significant associations with risk attitude. Inexperienced dentists showed less concern for radiation hazards compared with those more experienced and were less scrupulous in their choice of radiographic procedures. Gender, working alone, in the public dental health services or in private practice had no significant association with attitude. Dentists who considered regulations laid down by the Swedish National Institute of Radiation Protection as wholly adequate had a high care attitude. It is possible to study the relationship between attitudes and clinical behaviour by postal survey. Experience and continuing education affect dentists' attitudes towards risk and these attitudes in turn influence their clinical behaviour.

  7. Optimal magnetic attitude control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Markley, F.L.

    1999-01-01

    because control torques can only be generated perpendicular to the local geomagnetic field vector. This has been a serious obstacle for using magnetorquer based control for three-axis stabilization of a low earth orbit satellite. The problem of controlling the spacecraft attitude using only magnetic...

  8. Improving Attitudes Toward Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Stephanie J.; Trent, Jane A.

    This report describes a program for improving students' attitudes toward reading. The targeted population consisted of second and third grade students in a growing middle class community. The problem of the lack of interest in reading and the poor quality of classroom work were evident in parent and student surveys, and teacher observations.…

  9. Attitude and position tracking

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Candy, LP

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available velocity data separately in a suitable frame. In this chapter we make the case for using bivectors as the attitude tracking method of choice since several features make their performance and flexibility superior to that of DCMs, Euler angles or even rotors...

  10. Attitude Formation Through Exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. Jones

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Little experimental research has investigated how attitudes are formed via direct personal experience within risky environments. This report summarizes the development of Treasure Island (TI, an attitude learning paradigm based on BeanFest. Two studies are reported: The first designed to compare the outcomes of TI with BeanFest; the second to show how a manipulation of risk predictability would affect attitude learning within the paradigm. Study 1 demonstrated sampling and learning asymmetries similar to those seen in BeanFest, although the magnitude of these asymmetries was attenuated by the opportunity for participants to landmark decisions. The manipulation of risk predictability in Study 2 led participants to seemingly form a less accurate representation of the underlying pay-off contingencies; however, a significant negative learning asymmetry did persist. The findings of this research (a identify TI as a versatile paradigm for the investigation of attitude learning within risky environments and (b confirm the robust nature of the negative learning asymmetry in contingent-learning settings; but (c assert that care should be taken when generalizing the findings of BeanFest to ostensibly more variable contexts.

  11. Attitude toward Visionary Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesourd, Sandra J.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Formulates descriptive research findings into a utilitarian tool for principal leadership development programs. An instrument measuring attitude toward a (visionary) leadership ideal was developed, administered, and analyzed. Previous research findings were summarized. Results showed that the instrument would help assess individual acceptance of…

  12. High-performance Work System and Employee Attitudes:A Perspective of Social Exchange%高绩效工作系统与员工态度:一个社会交换视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗仁涛; 周文霞; 李天柱

    2013-01-01

    以领导成员交换为中介变量,以互动公平为调节变量,将员工态度分解为工作满意度、组织承诺和组织信任3个维度,通过对中国32家企业的人力资源负责人和201名下属员工调研形成配对数据,运用多层回归分析方法,探讨领导成员交换和互动公平在高绩效工作系统与员工态度之间的作用。研究结果表明,人力资源经理评价的高绩效工作系统对员工态度有积极的影响;领导成员交换部分中介高绩效工作系统对员工态度的正向影响;互动公平调节高绩效工作系统与领导成员交换的正向关系,即与低互动公平感相比,高互动公平感的员工高绩效工作系统对领导成员交换的影响更大;互动公平调节领导成员交换对高绩效工作系统与组织信任关系的完全中介作用,即与低互动公平感相比,高互动公平感的员工领导成员交换对高绩效工作系统与组织信任关系的中介作用更强。%Taking leader-member exchange ( LMX) as the mediating variable and interactional justice as the moderating variable , the study decomposes employee attitudes into three dimensions , i.e., job satisfaction, organizational commitment and organiza-tional trust.On the basis of matching data from 201 employees and 32 human resource managers (HR managers) in 32 Chinese enterprises , we employ multi-regression analysis to explore the relationship among LMX , interactional justice and employee atti-tudes in high-performance work systems (HPWSs).The results indicate that:①HPWSs evaluated by HR managers positively af-fect employee attitudes;②LMX partially mediates the positive influence of HPWSs on employee attitudes;③interactional justice moderates the positive relationship between HPWSs and LMX , which means for employees with high interactional justice compa-ring with employees with low interactional justice , HPWSs exert greater effects on LMX; and

  13. Attitudes of medical students toward communication skills learning in Western Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alotaibi, Fawaz S; Alsaeedi, Abdullah

    2016-07-01

    To explore medical students' attitudes towards communication skills learning in Western Saudi Arabia and to examine impact of socio-demographic variables on the attitudes towards learning these skills.   In this cross-sectional study, sample of medical students were recruited from Taif University, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the second semester (January-May 2014). Participants were all year 2 (197 students) and year 5 (151 students). The study utilize the Communication Skills Attitude Scale (CSAS) to measure students' attitudes toward communication skills learning. The response rate was 93.9%.  The study showed that Taif medical students hold highly positive attitudes towards learning communication skills. Positive attitude score (PAS) was significantly higher in level 5 students, older age group.   Significant positive attitude toward learning communication skills clearly observed in target group. Students with more positive attitudes towards communication skills learning tended to be higher level and older age.

  14. Income, Amenities and Negative Attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waisman, Gisela; Larsen, Birthe

    2016-01-01

    ’ quality of life, they also affect their income. We estimate the utility effects of negative attitudes for refugees with different levels of education and gender. We also analyse how the size of the refugees’ networks relate to their quality of life and income as well as how negative attitudes towards......We exploit the regional variation in negative attitudes towards immigrants to Sweden in order to analyse the consequences of negative attitudes on refugees’ utility from labour income and amenities. We find that attitudes towards immigrants are important: while they affect mainly the refugees...

  15. Multidimensional Attitudes of Emergency Medicine Residents Toward Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresita M. Hogan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The demands of our rapidly expanding older population strain many emergency departments (EDs, and older patients experience disproportionately high adverse health outcomes. Trainee attitude is key in improving care for older adults. There is negligible knowledge of baseline emergency medicine (EM resident attitudes regarding elder patients. Awareness of baseline attitudes can serve to better structure training for improved care of older adults. The objective of the study is to identify baseline EM resident attitudes toward older adults using a validated attitude scale and multidimensional analysis. Methods: Six EM residencies participated in a voluntary anonymous survey delivered in summer and fall 2009. We used factor analysis using the principal components method and Varimax rotation, to analyze attitude interdependence, translating the 21 survey questions into 6 independent dimensions. We adapted this survey from a validated instrument by the addition of 7 EM-specific questions to measures attitudes relevant to emergency care of elders and the training of EM residents in the geriatric competencies. Scoring was performed on a 5-point Likert scale. We compared factor scores using student t and ANOVA. Results: 173 EM residents participated showing an overall positive attitude toward older adults, with a factor score of 3.79 (3.0 being a neutral score. Attitudes trended to more negative in successive post-graduate year (PGY levels. Conclusion: EM residents demonstrate an overall positive attitude towards the care of older adults. We noted a longitudinal hardening of attitude in social values, which are more negative in successive PGY-year levels. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(4:511–517.

  16. Expressed attitudes of adolescents toward marriage and family life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Paige D; Specter, Gerald; Martin, Don; Martin, Maggie

    2003-01-01

    In the U.S., modifications in family structure and in attitudes concerning marriage and family life have been numerous. Areas such as sexual behavior and alternative living arrangements have become highly varied and nontraditional compared to past generations. This study examined the attitudes of adolescents toward aspects of marriage and family life. The majority of adolescents expressed negative attitudes toward divorce and viewed marriage as a lifelong commitment. While only about a third of the adolescents expressed positive attitudes toward premarital sex, a majority indicated they would engage in sexual intercourse before marriage, or already have. Interestingly, about half of the adolescents held positive attitudes toward cohabitation. Lastly, the adolescents demonstrated a growing acceptance of premarital counseling and psychoeducational interventions regarding marriage and family life.

  17. Computer, electrical and electronic engineering students' attitude towards cooperative learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halis Altun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to adapt the Cooperative Learning Attitude Scale into Turkish and determine engineering students’attitudes towards the cooperative learning. The study is based on the descriptive scanning model. The study group consistsof 466 engineering students. The validity of the scale is confirmed through exploration factor analysis and item discriminativepower methods. On these data descriptive statistics and t, Anova and Scheffe tests have been employed (p<0, 05. Thefindings show that the adapted scale is valid and reliable in determining the level of cooperative learning attitudes of theengineering students in Turkish cultural environment. Moreover, the level of the attitude towards the cooperative learningfor engineering students is found to be high and does not show any meaningful difference across the gender and engineeringdisciplines. On the other hand, the level of the attitudes shows a meaningful difference across the grade levels in engineeringeducation.

  18. Attitudes and dating aggression: a cognitive dissonance approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Julie A; Slep, Amy M Smith

    2004-12-01

    This study examined the association between attitudes about dating aggression and select dating aggressive behaviors (verbal aggression and jealous behavior) in high school students. Our hypothesis, derived from cognitive dissonance theory, was that discrepancies between self-reported attitudes and aggressive behavior at Time 1 (i.e., putative cognitive dissonance) would predict decreases in aggression between Time 1 and Time 2 beyond what would be predicted by change in attitudes over the same period. Results indicated that cognitive dissonance (as indexed by the discrepancy between attitudes and behavior) was generally a significant predictor of behavior change, providing significant improvement in prediction of behavior over attitude change alone. We discuss the implications of these findings for prevention efforts and directions for future research in this area.

  19. An Alcohol Attitude Scale for Teen-Agers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabi, Mohammad R.; Veenker, C. Harold

    1986-01-01

    About 700 Indiana high school students were administered a scale designed to measure the affective, cognitive, and conative components of teenagers' attitudes toward the use of alcohol. Findings are discussed. (Author/MT)

  20. Knowledge and Attitude Regarding Blood Donation in Rural Puducherry, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umakant G Shidam, Subitha Lakshminarayanan, Suman Saurabh, Gautam Roy

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Though the awareness regarding blood donation was high, the practice of voluntary blood donation was remarkably low. Education and motivation through various media is recommended to eliminate misbelieves and to reinforce positive attitudes towards blood donation."

  1. Knowledge and attitudes of infection prevention and control among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge and attitudes of infection prevention and control among health ... Background: Health Sciences students are exposed early to hospitals and to ... There was no significant difference in scores between sexes or location of the high ...

  2. 我国高校高水平运动员训练态度影响因素调查分析%Investigation and Analysis on Affecting Factors of the Training Attitude of High Level Athletes in Colleges and Universities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王朝阳

    2014-01-01

    According to Icek Ajzen's "the theory of planned behavior", to write by oneself Questionnaire of Training Attitude and the Cause of High Level Athletes in Colleges, and analyze the factors that influences training attitude of the high level athletes in universities and colleges through the questionnaire. The results show:high level college athletes factors that influence the training attitude are as follows: school factors, coaches factors, social factors and family factors. Drinking and love friends affect training attitude of high level athletes in Colleges and universities is significant.%根据Icek Ajzen的“计划行为理论”,自编《高校高水平运动员训练态度及成因调查问卷》,并通过该问卷对影响我国高校高水平运动员训练态度的因素进行分析。结果显示:高校高水平运动员认为影响其训练态度的因素依次为:学校因素、教练因素、社会因素和家庭因素。生活因素中是否饮酒和恋爱朋友对高校高水平运动员训练态度影响具有显著性。

  3. Consumers’ attitudes towards green food in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrea, Toula; Grunert, Klaus G; Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios

    Green food is perceived by Chinese consumers as environmentally friendly and safe to consume. Through a Value-Attitude model, the paper examines the degree to which attitudes towards green food is determined by consumers’ values and their general attitudes towards environment and technology....... The link between collectivism, attitudes towards environment and attitudes towards green food is the strongest one. Collectivism also influences attitudes towards technology, which in turn influence attitudes towards green food. However, the lack of significant relationship between individualism...

  4. Consumers’ attitudes towards green food in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrea, Toula; Grunert, Klaus G; Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios

    Green food is perceived by Chinese consumers as environmentally friendly and safe to consume. Through a Value-Attitude model, the paper examines the degree to which attitudes towards green food is determined by consumers’ values and their general attitudes towards environment and technology....... The link between collectivism, attitudes towards environment and attitudes towards green food is the strongest one. Collectivism also influences attitudes towards technology, which in turn influence attitudes towards green food. However, the lack of significant relationship between individualism...

  5. Literary Fiction Influences Attitudes Toward Animal Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Małecki, Wojciech; Pawłowski, Bogusław; Sorokowski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Literary fiction has been credited with considerable power to improve attitudes toward outgroups. It was even argued that it has been an important factor behind the global decline of violence against various minorities in the last centuries. Could it also help to reduce the human-inflicted suffering of animals? To test this, we studied the attitude toward animal welfare of n = 921 (experimental group) people of both sexes who read a short fragment of an unpublished novel with a motif of the physical abuse of an animal. The control group (n = 912) read a fragment of a similar length but not related to animals. After reading the text all subjects filled out an on-line questionnaire with seven items (camouflaged among many others items) measuring attitudes toward animal welfare. The questionnaire included also demographical questions, such as whether the subject keeps pets. We found that in comparison with the control group, the experimental group was significantly more concerned about animal welfare. This result indicates that literary fiction can influence attitudes toward other species. It is also worth noting that our study is characterized by a high level of ecological validity, i.e. a relatively high extent to which its results can be generalized (or extended) to real-world settings. Due to its specific design, which involved the cooperation of a bestselling author and his publisher, the study approximated the typical conditions in which people read fiction in a remarkably accurate way. Finally, our research has potential practical implications for promoting animal welfare.

  6. If You Speak Spanish They'll Think You're a German: Attitudes toward Language Choice in Multilingual Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, Kristine; Hopper, Robert

    1983-01-01

    Examines the language switching event as a revelation of the language attitudes of the communicators. Findings show that language choice decisions are often highly emotional, and attitudes toward language switching seem to cluster around national and linguistic stereotypes. (EKN)

  7. Inferring attitudes from mindwandering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critcher, Clayton R; Gilovich, Thomas

    2010-09-01

    Self-perception theory posits that people understand their own attitudes and preferences much as they understand others', by interpreting the meaning of their behavior in light of the context in which it occurs. Four studies tested whether people also rely on unobservable "behavior," their mindwandering, when making such inferences. It is proposed here that people rely on the content of their mindwandering to decide whether it reflects boredom with an ongoing task or a reverie's irresistible pull. Having the mind wander to positive events, to concurrent as opposed to past activities, and to many events rather than just one tends to be attributed to boredom and therefore leads to perceived dissatisfaction with an ongoing task. Participants appeared to rely spontaneously on the content of their wandering minds as a cue to their attitudes, but not when an alternative cause for their mindwandering was made salient.

  8. Values, inter-attitudinal structure, and attitude change: value accessibility can increase a related attitude's resistance to change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenship, Kevin L; Wegener, Duane T; Murray, Renee A

    2015-12-01

    Accessibility is one of the most basic structural properties of an attitude and an important factor to consider in attitude strength. Despite its importance, relatively little work has examined the role of attitude accessibility in an inter-attitudinal context, particularly as it relates to the strength of related attitudes in the network. The present research examines accessibility as a property of one attitude (toward an abstract goal or end-state, that is, a value) that might influence the strength of a different but related attitude (toward a social policy conceptually related to the value). In Study 1, a highly accessible evaluative component of a value increased resistance to change of attitudes and behavioral intentions toward a social policy related to that value. Similarly, a manipulation of value accessibility (Studies 2 and 3) led to increased resistance of attitudes and behavioral intentions toward a social policy related to that value. Implications for the role of accessibility in inter-attitudinal strength are discussed. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  9. Sexual Attitude and Behavior Among High Vocational School Students in Chengdu%成都市高职高专学生性相关态度行为估计分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘林夕; 石晓晗; 吴谦; 黄进; 张建新

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the sexual related attitudes and premarital sexual behaviors among high vocational school students in Chengdu.Methods Within 2010-2011,692 students in 4 high vocational schools in urban area of Chengdu were conducted with self-administered questionnaire.Results A proportion of 98.21% of the subjects considered that premarital sex did exist in their schools; 17.63% reported premarital sex,and males (30%) was higher than that of female (16.67%) ; 77.24% of the responders overestimated the percentage of other students' premarital sex.The percentage of serf-reported premarital sex in overestimation group (14.39%) was higher than that in non-overestimation group (4.13%) ; 41.6% held the view of nonsupport to premarital sex; 83.2% denied multiple sexual partners,and 66.3% denied male homosexual behavior.Female responders tended to hold disapproval attitude on most sexual issues than male responders,except on male homosexual behavior.Conclusion High vocational school students hold a comparatively open attitude towards sex,and their self-reported premarital sex percentage is comparatively high.Interventions targeted to correct the students' miscalculation on premarital sex percentage might be helpful to reduce premarital sex.%目的 探究成都市高职高专学生性相关态度、婚前性行为及对其他同学婚前性行为比例的估计.方法 于2010-2011年对成都市四所高职高专学校692名学生进行自填式问卷调查,对调查结果进行比较分析.结果 98.21%的调查对象认为其学校里存在婚前性行为现象;17.63%承认自己发生过婚前性行为,男性发生比例高于女性;77.24%的应答者对同校同学的婚前性行为发生比例存在过高估计;过高估计组的婚前性行为发生比例高;41.6%的应答者不支持婚前性行为,83.2%不支持多性伴行为,66.3%不支持男男性行为;除男男性行为问题,女性在大多数性相关问

  10. Attitudes towards e-learning amongst dental students at the universities in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumini, G; Spalj, S; Mavrinac, M; Biočina-Lukenda, D; Strujić, M; Brumini, M

    2014-02-01

    To develop and test the psychometric characteristics of a questionnaire that measures attitudes towards e-learning, as well as to study attitudes about e-learning and to identify variables related to those attitudes amongst dental students. The study was conducted from November 2010 to December 2011 at all three Croatian dental schools. A questionnaire entitled 'Attitude Towards e-Learning' consisting of 12 questions about socio-demographic data and 22 statements about attitude towards e-learning was self-administered by 386 students. Factorial analysis and Cronbach's alpha were used to test the psychometric characteristics of the questionnaire. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify variables related to attitudes towards e-learning. Factorial analysis confirmed two factors: positive attitude and negative attitude, which interpret 58% of the total variance and had good internal consistency of α = 0.852 and 0.668, respectively. The average score of positive attitude was 42 ± 6, indicating a highly positive attitude towards e-learning. The average score of negative attitude was 27 ± 6, indicating minor negative attitude. Higher age and study year, usage of the Internet in education, more frequent usage of Facebook and more attendance of e-courses demonstrated a significant influence on positive attitude towards e-learning (R(2)  = 0.304; P attitude (R(2)  = 0.268; P attitudes towards e-learning. Teachers should adopt strategies to change negative attitudes by introducing more e-learning courses in lower study years and should encourage students to use the Internet in their education and communication with teachers and colleagues. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Feeling conflicted and seeking information: when ambivalence enhances and diminishes selective exposure to attitude-consistent information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicki, Vanessa; Wegener, Duane T; Clark, Jason K; Fabrigar, Leandre R; Smith, Steven M; Durso, Geoffrey R O

    2013-06-01

    To date, little research has examined the impact of attitudinal ambivalence on attitude-congruent selective exposure. Past research would suggest that strong/univalent rather than weak/ambivalent attitudes should be more predictive of proattitudinal information seeking. Although ambivalent attitude structure might weaken the attitude's effect on seeking proattitudinal information, we believe that conflicted attitudes might also motivate attitude-congruent selective exposure because proattitudinal information should be effective in reducing ambivalence. Two studies provide evidence that the effects of ambivalence on information choices depend on amount of issue knowledge. That is, ambivalence motivates attitude-consistent exposure when issue knowledge is relatively low because less familiar information is perceived to be effective at reducing ambivalence. Conversely, when knowledge is relatively high, more unambivalent (univalent) attitudes predicted attitude-consistent information seeking.

  12. The quality improvement attitude survey: Development and preliminary psychometric characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunagan, Pamela B

    2017-08-22

    To report the development of a tool to measure nurse's attitudes about quality improvement in their practice setting and to examine preliminary psychometric characteristics of the Quality Improvement Nursing Attitude Scale. Human factors such as nursing attitudes of complacency have been identified as root causes of sentinel events. Attitudes of nurses concerning use of Quality and Safety Education for nurse's competencies can be most challenging to teach and to change. No tool has been developed measuring attitudes of nurses concerning their role in quality improvement. A descriptive study design with preliminary psychometric evaluation was used to examine the preliminary psychometric characteristics of the Quality Improvement Nursing Attitude Scale. Registered bedside clinical nurses comprised the sample for the study (n = 57). Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics and Cronbach's alpha reliability. Total score and individual item statistics were evaluated. Two open-ended items were used to collect statements about nurses' feelings regarding their experience in quality improvement efforts. Strong support for the internal consistency reliability and face validity of the Quality Improvement Nursing Attitude Scale was found. Total scale scores were high indicating nurse participants valued Quality and Safety Education for Nurse competencies in practice. However, item-level statistics indicated nurses felt powerless when other nurses deviate from care standards. Additionally, the sample indicated they did not consistently report patient safety issues and did not have a feeling of value in efforts to improve care. Findings suggested organisational culture fosters nurses' reporting safety issues and feeling valued in efforts to improve care. Participants' narrative comments and item analysis revealed the need to generate new items for the Quality Improvement Nursing Attitude Scale focused on nurses' perception of their importance in quality and

  13. A quantitative examination of public school student attitudes toward science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuchman, Matthew

    There is a deficit of male and female students entering the fields of math and science, and the need for highly educated individuals in these areas is expected to increase. While various factors may play a role in creating this deficit, there is a lack of research on one factor, that of student attitudes toward science. The theories of social aspects, how children learn and how teachers teach provided the framework for an examination of public school student attitudes toward science. The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a significant difference in attitudes toward science in Grades 4-12 based on gender and grade level. Using a quantitative one-shot case study preexperimental design, the study described the relationships in student attitudes toward science and how those relationships change with grade and gender. This study investigated the relationship in attitudes toward science in different grade levels, the relationship in male and female attitudes toward science in different grade levels, and the difference in attitudes toward science between male and female students. The Kruskal-Wallis test and the nonparametric independent samples test for gender differences were performed to examine grade level, gender, and attitudes toward science. The convenience sample of 1,008 students was drawn from a population of approximately 1,200 students enrolled in Grades 4 through 12 in a rural, public school district in the northeastern United States. The data analysis revealed no difference in male attitudes toward science, but did reveal a significant difference in female attitudes toward science between different grade levels, (H(8) = 32.773, p career options for underrepresented groups.

  14. Attitude to Non-Violence Scale: Validity and Practical Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven, Rhonda G; Seaton, Marjorie; Yeung, Alexander S

    2015-06-16

    This study used recent advances in attitude and self-perception research to develop an Attitude to Non-Violence Scale (ANVS). Participants were students from six high schools in Australia (N = 727). Confirmatory factor analysis using within-construct and between-construct validation approaches found two positive attitude sub-scales: Cognitive (proactive understanding) and Affective (do not endorse violence), both showing convergent and discriminant validity. Scale equivalence tests found that the sub-scales were applicable to boys and girls and to junior and senior grades. Structural equation modeling found that boys had less supportive attitudes to non-violence cognitively, whereas female students in senior secondary classes had less positive attitudes to non-violence affectively. The ANVS can be easily administered to assess youth's non-violence attitudes, which may direct interventions focusing on boys' cognitive aspects while maintaining girls' positive affective attitudes toward non-violence as they mature. The positively framed instrument is suitable for education settings especially in high-risk locations where violence is prevalent. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Who owns implicit attitudes? Testing a metacognitive perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Erin; Payne, B Keith; Loersch, Chris; Lei, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Metacognitive inferences about ownership for one's implicit attitudes have the power to turn implicit bias into explicit prejudice. In Study 1, participants were assigned to construe their implicit attitudes toward gay men as belonging to themselves (owned) or as unrelated to the self (disowned). Construing one's implicit responses as owned led to greater implicit-explicit attitude correspondence. In Study 2, we measured ownership for implicit attitudes as well as self-esteem. We predicted that ownership inferences would dictate explicit attitudes to the degree that people had positive views of the self. Indeed, higher ownership for implicit bias was associated with greater implicit-explicit attitude correspondence, and this effect was driven by participants high in self-esteem. Finally, in Study 3, we manipulated inferences of ownership and measured self-esteem. Metacognitions of ownership affected implicit-explicit attitude correspondence but only among those with relatively high self-esteem. We conclude that subjective inferences about implicit bias affect explicit prejudice. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  16. Nursing student attitudes toward statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Lizy; Aktan, Nadine M

    2014-04-01

    Nursing is guided by evidence-based practice. To understand and apply research to practice, nurses must be knowledgeable in statistics; therefore, it is crucial to promote a positive attitude toward statistics among nursing students. The purpose of this quantitative cross-sectional study was to assess differences in attitudes toward statistics among undergraduate nursing, graduate nursing, and undergraduate non-nursing students. The Survey of Attitudes Toward Statistics Scale-36 (SATS-36) was used to measure student attitudes, with higher scores denoting more positive attitudes. The convenience sample was composed of 175 students from a public university in the northeastern United States. Statistically significant relationships were found among some of the key demographic variables. Graduate nursing students had a significantly lower score on the SATS-36, compared with baccalaureate nursing and non-nursing students. Therefore, an innovative nursing curriculum that incorporates knowledge of student attitudes and key demographic variables may result in favorable outcomes.

  17. Attitudes towards chemistry among engineering students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivo Delgado, Carlos J.

    The attitudes towards chemistry of the engineering students enrolled in an introductory course at the Polytechnic University of Puerto Rico were explored (n = 115). A mixed methodology was used in an exploratory-oriented research approach. The first stage consisted of the administration of a Likert scale attitudinal survey which was validated during the study's design process. The survey allowed collecting information about the participant's attitudes towards their personal opinion, their perspectives about peer's or relatives' opinion, relevant aspects of the discipline, and difficulty-increasing factors in the chemistry course. The scale internal reliability was measured in a pilot study with a convenience simple, obtaining an acceptable coefficient (Cronbach alpha = 0.731). Survey results evidenced a mainly neutral attitude towards the chemistry course, not highly negative or highly positive, in contrast with other studies in this field. On the other hand, the normality hypothesis was tested for the scores obtained by participants in the survey. Although the pilot study sample had an approximately normal distribution, the scores in obtained by the participants in the survey failed the normality test criteria. The second stage of the study was accomplished using a case study. Among the survey participants, some students were invited to in-depth interviews to elucidate the reasons why they have certain attitudes towards chemistry. Study time, instructor, motivation, term of study, and course schedule are the factors that interviewees agreed as contributors to success or failure in the chemistry course. Interview's participants emphasized that study time is determinant to pass the class. This methodological approach, quantitative followed by qualitative, was useful in describing the attitudes towards chemistry among university students of engineering.

  18. Breastfeeding attitudes of Finnish parents during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietilä Anna-Maija

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breastfeeding attitudes are known to influence infant feeding but little information exists on the prenatal breastfeeding attitudes of parents. The purpose of this study was to describe Finnish parents' prenatal breastfeeding attitudes and their relationships with demographic characteristics. Methods The electronic Breastfeeding Knowledge, Attitude and Confidence scale was developed and 172 people (123 mothers, 49 fathers completed the study. The data were analysed using factor analysis and nonparametric methods. Results Breastfeeding was regarded as important, but 54% of the respondents wanted both parents to feed the newborn. The mean rank values of breastfeeding attitudes differed significantly when parity, gender, education, age, breastfeeding history and level of breastfeeding knowledge were considered. The respondents who were expecting their first child, were 18-26 years old or had vocational qualifications or moderate breastfeeding knowledge had more negative feelings and were more worried about breastfeeding than respondents who had at least one child, had a higher vocational diploma or academic degree or had high levels of breastfeeding knowledge. Respondents with high levels of breastfeeding knowledge did not appear concerned about equality in feeding. Conclusions Both mothers and fathers found breastfeeding important. A father's eagerness to participate in their newborn's life should be included in prenatal breastfeeding counselling and ways in which to support breastfeeding discussed. Relevant information about breastfeeding should focus on the parents who are expecting their first child, those who are young, those with low levels of education or those who have gaps in breastfeeding knowledge, so that fears and negative views can be resolved.

  19. International Space Station Attitude Motion Associated With Flywheel Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roithmayr, Carlos M.

    1999-01-01

    Flywheels can exert torque that alters the Station's attitude motion, either intentionally or unintentionally. A design is presented for a once planned experiment to contribute torque for Station attitude control, while storing or discharging energy. Two contingencies are studied: the abrupt stop of one rotor while another rotor continues to spin at high speed, and energy storage performed with one rotor instead of a counter rotating pair. Finally, the possible advantages to attitude control offered by a system of ninety-six flywheels are discussed.

  20. Star trackers for attitude determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liebe, Carl Christian

    1995-01-01

    One problem comes to all spacecrafts using vector information. That is the problem of determining the attitude. This paper describes how the area of attitude determination instruments has evolved from simple pointing devices into the latest technology, which determines the attitude by utilizing...... a CCD camera and a powerful microcomputer. The instruments are called star trackers and they are capable of determining the attitude with an accuracy better than 1 arcsecond. The concept of the star tracker is explained. The obtainable accuracy is calculated, the numbers of stars to be included...

  1. Portuguese adolescents' attitudes toward sexual minorities: transphobia, homophobia, and gender role beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Pedro Alexandre; Davies, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that negative attitudes toward lesbians and gay men are common and widespread in Western societies. However, few studies have addressed attitudes toward transgender individuals. In addition, although research has shown that homophobic harassment and bullying is highly common among adolescents, little is known about adolescent's attitudes toward sexual minorities. This study aimed to fill these gaps in knowledge, by investigating adolescents' attitudes toward transgender individuals and possible attitudinal correlates of those attitudes. Participants (N = 188; 62 males and 126 females) were recruited in high schools in Lisbon, Portugal. Age ranged from 15 to 19 years (M = 17; SD = .96). Participants completed a questionnaire booklet measuring attitudes toward transgender individuals, lesbians, and gay men, and gender role beliefs. Results revealed that attitudes toward transgender individuals were significantly correlated with all attitude measures. Specifically, it was revealed that those participants who endorsed negative attitudes toward transgender individuals were also endorsing of negative attitudes toward lesbians and gay men and tended to adhere to traditional gender roles. A significant gender effect was found with males being more negative toward sexual minorities than females, but these negative attitudes were more extreme toward gay men than toward lesbian women. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  2. The Relationship between School Leaders' Perceptions of High Involvement Model Characteristics in Their Organizations and Their Attitudes towards the Use of the Change Toolkit to Facilitate Organizational Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Mary T.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there was a relationship between school leaders' perceptions regarding High Involvement Model variables as components of their organizations, including power, knowledge, information, leadership, instructional guidance, rewards, and resources, and the leaders' ability to successfully use the IBM…

  3. Results of Using the Take-Away Technique on Students' Achievements and Attitudes in High School Physics and Physical Science Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carifio, James; Doherty, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The Take-away Technique was used in High School Physics and Physical Science courses for the unit on Newtonian mechanics in a teacher (6) by grade level (4) partially crossed design (N = 272). All classes received the same IE instructional treatment. The experimental group (classrooms) did a short Take-away after each class summarizing the key…

  4. Using Large Data to Analyze the Effect of Learning Attitude for Cooperative Learning between the High Achievement Students and the Low Achievement Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia-Ling, Hsu; Ya-Fung, Chang

    2017-01-01

    This study is to investigate the effect of the cooperation learning between the high achievement students and the low achievement students. Nowadays, the influences of the flipped classroom are all over the world in the secondary school education. Therefore, the cooperative learning becomes hot teaching strategies again. However, the learning…

  5. Investigation on sexual knowledge and attitude among high school students in Dandong City of Liaoning Province%辽宁省丹东市高中学生性知识和性态度认知调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋玉堂; 崔士民; 蔡冬业; 解鸿鹏

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解辽宁省丹东市高中学生性知识掌握情况及性态度特点,分析其影响因素,为今后在高中学生中有针对性地开展性健康教育提供参考依据.方法 采用整群随机抽样的方法,抽取本市12所高中4011名高中学生进行有关性知识、性态度的问卷调查.结果 高中学生的性知识总体平均知晓率较低(51.07%);在获取性知识的主要渠道中,网络和同学或朋友已居前两位(37.93%),老师和家长居末位(分别占5.95%和4.52%);性态度及相关行为方面,55.71%的学生选择"赞同和可以理解高中生恋爱",谈过恋爱的学生为29.54%;高中生对婚前性行为持包容态度,选择可以和理解占73.29%,发生性行为的学生占4.07%,男生(5.84%)高于女生(2.21%).高中生最希望获取性知识的渠道主要是老师(37.60%)、同学或朋友(18.97%)、网络(18.79%);高中学生最想知道性知识主要是性心理知识(31.98%)、性生理知识(29.44%)、避孕知识(24.92%);对学校和家长开展性知识教育满意者仅占25.37%和16.05%.结论 高中学生对性知识了解仍有不足,性态度较开放,性知识和性态度均存在一定偏差,而学校和家庭性健康教育相对滞后.要对学生采取有针对性的教育方法,在高中学生中加强性健康教育非常重要.%Objective To understand the characteristics of high school students on the sexual knowledge and attitudes through analyzing those impacting factors, reference and evidence can be provided for the future sexual health education among high school students. Methods A cluster random sampling method was applied in selecting the questionnaires on sexual knowledge and attitude among 4011 students from 12 schools. Results The average awareness rate was low (51.07%); among the main channels in acquiring knowledge, from internet and classmates or friends rank second ( 37. 93% ) , teachers and parents stood at the end (5. 95% and 4. 52% ) ; on sexual attitudes and

  6. Attitudes of university precalculus students toward mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhateeb, Haitham M; Mji, Andile

    2005-04-01

    To investigate the attitudes of 200 university students (83% freshmen) toward mathematics, a questionnaire was administered to report on their attitudes toward mathematics. Analysis indicated that students studying precalculus had a somewhat positive attitude toward mathematics.

  7. Classroom Racial Balance and Students' Interracial Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koslin, Sandra; And Others

    1972-01-01

    Relationships between classroom racial balance and third graders' interracial attitudes were analyzed. Interracial attitudes were more favorable in balanced than in unbalanced classes. Results suggest that classroom racial balance is strongly related to students' interracial attitudes. (Author)

  8. [Attitudes and behavior for reproductive health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-Martínez, A M; Martinez-Sanchez, C; Perez-Segura, J

    1993-05-01

    Educational interventions represent an alternative for the reproductive well-being. The objective of this investigation was to identify in a mexican community, attitudes and behaviors related to reproductive health, with the goal of implementing a specific health education program. The study population consisted of women between 12 and 44 years old, living in non-residential areas of the Delegation Miguel Hidalgo, D.F. Variables of interest were analyzed only in women with parity (n = 300). Data were collected through interview. The mean age was 31 +/- 8 years. 93.3% were married or in consensual union. 63% had elementary, junior high or prevocational studies. 89% answered that would visit the doctor before considering a pregnancy (junior high+, p < .05), 99% would seek prenatal care if they were pregnant, and 92.7% would have a hospital delivery (parity < or = 3, p < .003). 69.5% had a preconceptional visit before their last pregnancy and 89.9% received prenatal care (junior high+, p < .008). 92.5% had only hospital deliveries (< or = 30 years, p < .05, junior high+, p < .0001, primigravida p < .002, with institutionalized medical services, p < .001), 1.7% had only out-of-hospital deliveries, and 5.8% both. Agreement between attitudes and behaviors are presented. An educational program consisting of confirmation and support to positive attitudes, values and beliefs, and reinforcement to decision making, will result in a final behavior: early assistance to medical care.

  9. Does attitude hinder or help selecting evaluation questions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Shams

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Positive attitude leads to a more successfully implementation of a change. We investigated the effect of attitudes of stakeholders toward a program on their prioritization of the program components for selecting the key question of a theory-driven evaluation with concept mapping method. Materials and Methods: During a brainstorming session, stated statements defined the program components. Then they were sorted and rated regarding the importance and feasibility of them. In addition, the attitudes of participants were assessed by a 30 items questionnaire extracted from a pool named as "50 reasons not to change." We determined and compared the consensus points of participants both with and without of considering their attitudes toward the program. Results: The participants were divided into two groups of high (45% - above the mean and low (55% - below the mean attitude. Brainstorming discussions generated a pool of almost 120 statements which were subsequently refined to 44 statements. Matching the rating scores between two attitude groups yielded a consensus at a higher priority than the other method. Conclusion: In the concept mapping procedure, it is crucial to reach the consensus with respect to the participants′ attitude, rather than the similarity of mean scores of feasibility and importance.

  10. Secondary School Mathematics Teachers' Attitude in Teaching Mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulugeta Atnafu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine Addis Ababa secondary school mathematics teachers’ attitude in teaching mathematics. 148 mathematics teachers were selected using cluster sampling from Addis Ababa administration region. The study used survey method of data collection and it includes both quantitative and qualitative research methods. From the independent t-test, ANOVA, tukey test and regression analysis, some of the results obtained were: the majority of the secondary school mathematics teachers do not possess positive attitude in teaching mathematics; the most challenge area that affect the attitude in teaching mathematics was motivation in teaching mathematics; no significant differences in all variables with respect to sex and service year; the medium age of mathematics teachers were found to have significantly the most successful in teaching mathematics than young and old mathematics teachers; the master mathematics teachers were found to have significantly the highest and the diploma mathematics teachers were found to have the least attitude, confidence and anxiety of teaching mathematics;the relatively high salary of the mathematics teachers were found to have significantly the highest attitude in teaching mathematics and the average salary of the mathematics teachers were found to have significantly the highest anxiety in teaching mathematics. All the variables sex, age, education, service year and salary of the mathematics teachers were significantly contributing to the equation for predicting mathematics teachers’ attitude and only education was significantly contributing to the equation for predicting mathematics teachers’ attitude in teaching mathematics.

  11. Ship Attitude Prediction Based on Input Delay Neural Network and Measurements of Gyroscopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yunlong; N. Soltani, Mohsen; Hussain, Dil muhammed Akbar

    2017-01-01

    Due to the uncertainty and random nature of ocean waves, the accurate prediction of ship attitude is hard to be achieved, especially in high sea states. A ship attitude prediction method using Input Delay Neural Network (IDNN) is proposed in this paper. One of the advantages of this method is tha.......12 deg and 0.26 deg, respectively, when the prediction time is 2 sec. This precision is high enough for most attitude stabilization control systems....

  12. The Effects of Elaboration on the Strength of Doping-Related Attitudes: Resistance to Change and Behavioral Intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horcajo, Javier; Luttrell, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    This experiment analyzed whether attitudes toward the legalization of several doping behaviors would resist change and predict behavioral intentions when they were initially formed through thoughtful (i.e., high elaboration) versus nonthoughtful (i.e., low elaboration) processes. Participants were randomly assigned first to a persuasive message either against or in favor of the legalization, which they read with relatively high or low degrees of deliberative thinking. Attitudes and intentions regarding legalization were assessed following that message. Next, each participant received a second message that was opposed to the first one, serving as an attack against the attitude that participants had just formed. Finally, attitudes were again assessed. As hypothesized, participants showed greater attitude-consistent intentions when they formed their initial attitudes through thoughtful (vs. nonthoughtful) consideration of the first message. Moreover, the second message resulted in greater resistance to attitude change when participants formed their initial attitudes through thoughtful (vs. nonthoughtful) processes.

  13. Comparative validity of the chinese versions of the bulimic inventory test edinburgh and eating attitudes test for DSM-IV eating disorders among high school dance and nondance students in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Mei-Chih Meg; Fang, David; Lee, Ming-Been

    2014-01-01

    To compare the validity of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) and the Bulimic Investigatory Test Edinburgh (BITE) as screening tools for eating disorders (EDs), and to identify a new threshold for each questionnaire to detect ED cases among dance and nondance students. Dance students enrolled in high schools with gifted dance programs and nondance students randomly chosen from the same or nearby schools were invited to participate in a 2-phase ED survey. Participants completed the EAT and BITE questionnaires in the first phase. All participants who screened positive and 10% of the participants who screened negative were interviewed blindly using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders Patient Edition. The BITE had better accuracy than the EAT in detecting ED in general among both dance and non-dance students. BITE scores of 19 and 16 were the optimal cutoff values for determining ED among dance and nondance students, respectively. The optimal cutoff value for the EAT to diagnose an ED was 19 for dance students and 12 for nondance students. Both questionnaires showed higher sensitivity and lower specificity in dance students than nondance students at the same cutoff points. The BITE had better diagnostic performance than the EAT in this nonclinical population, although its ability to detect restrictive behaviors is likely as limited as that of the EAT. Plausible explanations for these results and limitations of this study are discussed in the text. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Cockpit resource management: exploring the attitude-performance linkage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmreich, R L; Foushee, H C; Benson, R; Russini, W

    1986-12-01

    Measured attitudes regarding cockpit management were contrasted for pilots whose line flying performance was independently evaluated by Check Airmen as above or below average. A highly significant discriminant function was obtained indicating that these attitudes are significant predictors of behavior. The performance of 95.7% of the pilots was correctly classified by the analysis. Implications of the results for cockpit resource management training and pilot selection are discussed.

  15. Cockpit resource management - Exploring the attitude-performance linkage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmreich, R. L.; Foushee, H. C.; Benson, R.; Russini, W.

    1985-01-01

    Measured attitudes regarding cockpit management were contrasted for pilots whose line flying performance was independently evaluated by check airmen as above or below average. A highly significant discriminant function was obtained indicating that these attitudes are significant predictors of behavior. The performance of 95.7 percent of the pilots was correctly classified by the analysis. Implications of the results for cockpit resource management training and pilot selection are discussed.

  16. Attitudes of cynicism, fear and acceptance with the organizational change in a group of executives in Lima (Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Saravia Vergara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes, exploratory level, validation of questionnaire to measure attitudes toward organizational change proposed by the Rabelo, Ros and Torres. The study led to 23 executives in Lima, obtained high levels of reliability and validity for each of the three-dimensional model of attitudes toward organizational change proposed by the authors: "attitudes of cynicism", "attitudes of fear" and "attitudes acceptance" to organizational change. However, factor analysis of each of the three dimensions of the model identified three sub-dimensions, identifying three different groups in each dimension. Results also show that attitudes of acceptance prevail and very closely, attitudes of fear to organizational change. On a lesser extent occurs cynicism reactions. On the other hand, the cluster analysis was able to identify four executive profiles according to their behavior or attitude in organizational change: On the other hand, the cluster analysis was able to identify four executive profiles according to their behavior or attitude in organizational change: a group of executives having a harmonic pattern of cognitions and affections, with high rates of acceptance and few negative attitudes of cynicism and fears; another group of executives who have clarity and coherence of attitudes, with low levels of acceptance and many negative attitudes of fear and cynicism; and a third group of executives having a divergent pattern of attitudes.

  17. Christian attitude in business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J M Vorster

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The beginning of the twenty-first century faces new challenges in the field of business ethics.� Totally new macro-ethical challenges have arisen and they have already inspired constant ethical reflection. Two major developments in the field of economics paved the way for this new interest in business ethics: the total dominance of the market driven economy and economic globalization. This article investigates the ethical challenges posed by this new environment from a Christian ethical perspective. Firstly norms are formulated flowing from the paradigm of Christian attitude as a manifestation of the attitude of Christ. These are love, stewardship, self-denial and obedience to God. These norms are then applied to the following modern-day issues in the field of business ethics: the challenge of globalization, respect for basic human rights, remuneration, the corporation as a moral model, the need for self-evaluation, political responsibility and environmental concern. In conclusion I attempt to define the role of Christians and Christian churches in transforming corporations into moral agents.

  18. Promoting Single-Parent Family Children's Attitudes toward Science and Science Performance through Extracurricular Science Intervention in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Zuway-R.; Lin, Huann-shyang; Lawrenz, Frances

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of extracurricular science intervention in promoting students' science learning performance and attitudes toward science. The Junior High School Student Questionnaire (JSSQ) was used to measure attitudes toward science, sexist attitudes and perceptions of the classroom learning environment. Twenty-eight eighth…

  19. Creativity, Religiosity, and Political Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zysberg, Leehu; Schenk, Tal

    2013-01-01

    Although theoretically proposed in the literature, the direct associations between political attitudes, religion, and creativity have been scarcely explored. A convenience sample of 123 adults working in Israel filled out questionnaires assessing political-social attitudes, religiosity, and background factors (e.g., age, gender, education, and…

  20. Orion Project: Alternate Attitude Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Hernandez, A.; Miller, Stephen W.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the study done on alternate attitudes for the Orion project's crew exploration vehicle. The analysis focused on the thermal performance of the vehicle with the alternate attitudes. The pressure vessel heater power, other vehicle heaters and radiator sink temperatures were included in the analysis.

  1. Hybrid spacecraft attitude control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renuganth Varatharajoo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid subsystem design could be an attractive approach for futurespacecraft to cope with their demands. The idea of combining theconventional Attitude Control System and the Electrical Power System ispresented in this article. The Combined Energy and Attitude ControlSystem (CEACS consisting of a double counter rotating flywheel assemblyis investigated for small satellites in this article. Another hybrid systemincorporating the conventional Attitude Control System into the ThermalControl System forming the Combined Attitude and Thermal ControlSystem (CATCS consisting of a "fluid wheel" and permanent magnets isalso investigated for small satellites herein. The governing equationsdescribing both these novel hybrid subsystems are presented and theironboard architectures are numerically tested. Both the investigated novelhybrid spacecraft subsystems comply with the reference missionrequirements.The hybrid subsystem design could be an attractive approach for futurespacecraft to cope with their demands. The idea of combining theconventional Attitude Control System and the Electrical Power System ispresented in this article. The Combined Energy and Attitude ControlSystem (CEACS consisting of a double counter rotating flywheel assemblyis investigated for small satellites in this article. Another hybrid systemincorporating the conventional Attitude Control System into the ThermalControl System forming the Combined Attitude and Thermal ControlSystem (CATCS consisting of a "fluid wheel" and permanent magnets isalso investigated for small satellites herein. The governing equationsdescribing both these novel hybrid subsystems are presented and theironboard architectures are numerically tested. Both the investigated novelhybrid spacecraft subsystems comply with the reference missionrequirements.

  2. Creativity, Religiosity, and Political Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zysberg, Leehu; Schenk, Tal

    2013-01-01

    Although theoretically proposed in the literature, the direct associations between political attitudes, religion, and creativity have been scarcely explored. A convenience sample of 123 adults working in Israel filled out questionnaires assessing political-social attitudes, religiosity, and background factors (e.g., age, gender, education, and…

  3. Measuring Attitudes toward Management Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorn, Gerald; Dubin, Samuel S.

    The attitudes of managers toward continuing education management development programs were analyzed, using the Fishbein technique; by this approach, the beliefs people have and their evaluation of these beliefs are measured separately. The evaluation of a belief is multiplied by its strength to get the direction of the attitude. A questionnaire,…

  4. Czech Student Attitudes towards Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiatko, Milan; Janko, Tomas; Mrazkova, Katerina

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates 540 Czech lower secondary students' attitudes towards geography. It examined the general influence of gender and grade level on attitudes towards geography with an emphasis on four specific areas in particular: geography as a school subject; geography and the environment; the importance of geography; and the relevance of…

  5. Attitudes to animal euthanasia do not correlate with acceptance of human euthanasia or suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, U; Kinnison, T; May, S A

    2012-08-18

    Several reasons have been suggested for the elevated risk of suicide experienced by those in the veterinary profession. The current study aimed to investigate possible links between veterinarians' attitudes to 'convenience' or non-justified animal euthanasia and attitudes towards human euthanasia and suicide. Veterinary students and graduates had a negative attitude towards convenience animal euthanasia, but their attitudes changed over time (pre-clinical studies, clinical studies and recently graduated). A greater tolerance to euthanasia was displayed in the later years of study and post qualification - primarily by males. Attitudes towards both human euthanasia and suicide, however, remained stable over time and indicated on average a neutral stance. No correlations were found between attitudes to convenience euthanasia and either human euthanasia or suicide, suggesting a tolerance to convenience euthanasia of animals does not lead to desensitisation in valuing human life and a changed attitude to human euthanasia or suicide, or vice versa. Attitudes to human euthanasia and suicide were predictably correlated, perhaps suggesting an overarching attitude towards control over human death. The results of the current study throw into question the argument that it is the changes in attitudes to animal life that affect veterinarian's attitudes to human life and contribute to the high suicide rate.

  6. Ew, that's icky: Assessing children's attitudes towards the insects of Connecticut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Faith Jean-Ellen

    This study investigated children's attitudes towards insects, focusing on how attitudes change from fascination to repulsion as the children age. This study involved 127 elementary students (grades 4-6) and 139 high school students (grades 9-12) from New Haven public schools. Students were administered Likert type surveys to evaluate their attitudes after viewing photos of 8 common insects of Connecticut; the butterfly, ladybug, dragonfly, ant, moth, cricket, beetle, and fly. Scores from elementary school students were compared with high school students to determine if attitudes towards insects became less favorable as the children age. The results were also analyzed to determine if attitudinal changes were consistent between girls and boys. It was found that elementary school students did not hold more negative attitudes than high school students, but girls did hold more negative attitudes towards insects than boys.

  7. The Gaia Attitude Star Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, R. L.

    2016-04-01

    We describe the Attitude Star Catalog produced for the Gaia mission. This catalog is being used by Gaia for the first on-ground attitude reconstruction. Originally it was simply a subset of the Initial Gaia Source List but this subset did not meet the isolation requirements and it contained a significant number of double entries. As a result during the commissioning phase of Gaia a new generation of this catalog, that better fulfills the attitude reconstruction requirements, was requested. Here we describe the production and properties of this new Attitude Star Catalog. The Attitude Star Catalog was made by combining 7 all sky catalogs and selecting entries based on magnitude, isolation and astrometric precision criteria. The catalog has 8173331 entries with estimates of the positions at 2000, proper motions and magnitudes (Gaia G, Gaia Grvs, red RF & blue BJ) in the magnitude range 7.0 publically available from the CDS Strasbourg and the IGSL web-site.

  8. Design Considerations for Attitude State Awareness and Prevention of Entry into Unusual Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Kyle K. E.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Arthur, Jarvis J.; Nicholas, Stephanie N.; Kiggins, Daniel; Verstynen, Harry; Hubbs, Clay; Wilkerson, James

    2017-01-01

    Loss of control - inflight (LOC-I) has historically represented the largest category of commercial aviation fatal accidents. A review of the worldwide transport airplane accidents (2001-2010) evinced that loss of attitude or energy state awareness was responsible for a large majority of the LOC-I events. A Commercial Aviation Safety Team (CAST) study of 18 worldwide loss-of-control accidents and incidents determined that flight crew loss of attitude awareness or energy state awareness due to lack of external visual reference cues was a significant causal factor in 17 of the 18 reviewed flights. CAST recommended that "Virtual Day-Visual Meteorological Condition" (Virtual Day-VMC) displays be developed to provide the visual cues necessary to prevent loss-of-control resulting from flight crew spatial disorientation and loss of energy state awareness. Synthetic vision or equivalent systems (SVS) were identified for a design "safety enhancement" (SE-200). Part of this SE involves the conduct of research for developing minimum aviation system performance standards (MASPS) for these flight deck display technologies to aid flight crew attitude and energy state awareness similar to that of a virtual day-VMC-like environment. This paper will describe a novel experimental approach to evaluating a flight crew's ability to maintain attitude awareness and to prevent entry into unusual attitudes across several SVS optical flow design considerations. Flight crews were subjected to compound-event scenarios designed to elicit channelized attention and startle/surprise within the crew. These high-fidelity scenarios, designed from real-world events, enable evaluation of the efficacy of SVS at improving flight crew attitude awareness to reduce the occurrence of LOC-I incidents in commercial flight operations.

  9. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Fall Prevention among Elderly People with Moderate or High Risk of Fall in Community%社区中危以上跌倒风险老年人知信行调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张毅; 江长缨

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the current status of the KAP (knowledge, attitude and practice) of fall prevention among elderly people with moderate or high risk of fall in community. Methods Fall risk assessment was implemented among 100 people with moderate or high risk of fall, aged 65 years or above, in South-dock Community Health Service Center, Pudong New Area, Shanghai were selected and completed a self-designed questionnaire on KAP of fall prevention. Results The sample scored 22.21± 4.62 in knowledge, with a total awareness rate of 53.8%; 10.23±2.71 in attitude, with a scoring percentage of 68.2%; 19.34±3.39 in practice, with a scoring percentage of 64.5%. The KAP of fall prevention had negative correlations with risk factors of fall in their living environment among elderly people (all P<0.001). Conclusion Elderly people with moderate or high risk of fall in community present poor KAP of fall prevention. It is suggested that high-quality health education by community health workers should be provided for elderly people with risk to improve their KAP of fall prevention, eventually, decrease the rate of fall in elderly people.%目的:分析社区中危以上跌倒风险老年人跌倒预防知信行现状。方法对上海市南码头街道某居委≥65岁老年人进行跌倒风险评估,从中选取100名中危以上跌倒风险的老年人,采用自编社区老年人跌倒预防知信行问卷进行调查。结果社区中危以上跌倒风险老年人跌倒预防知识得分为(22.21±4.62)分,总知晓率为53.8%;信念得分为(10.23±2.71)分,得分率为68.2%;行为得分为(19.34±3.39)分,得分率为64.5%。社区老年人跌倒预防知信行与老年人跌倒家居环境危险因素评分呈负相关(均 P<0.001)。结论社区中危以上跌倒风险老年人跌倒预防知识、信念、行为较差,社区医护人员应有针对性地实施健康教育,提高其跌倒预防知识知晓率,促进跌倒预

  10. IDENTIFICATION OF GYRO DRIFTS UNDER THREE AXIS ATTITUDE COUPLING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Optical gyros and star sensors are primary measurement hardware in an attitude control system with high accuracy.The drifts of the optical gyros, however, make an unfavorable impact on the accuracy of the attitude control system.In order for compensations to be provided, this paper presents a least-square method to identify the optical gyro drifts by using flight attitude data from the star sensors and the optical gyros.Equations for identification are formulated by quaternion.Integration of the identification equations and the data from the star sensors are utilized to form a least-square index, in which lower sampling frequency of the star sensors than that of the optical gyros is dealt with effectively.An iterative identification algorithm is presented to minimize the index.Identification procedure under three-axis attitude coupling is illustrated .Simulation results show the effectiveness of the method presented.Proper sample size and sampling frequency are also recommended.

  11. Gender Differences in Attitudes Toward Science and Technology Among Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhale, Anu A.; Rabe-Hemp, Cara; Woeste, Lori; Machina, Kenton

    2015-08-01

    In the USA, women have consistently been proportionally underrepresented in science and technology (S&T). In these disciplines, as students move from high schools to colleges to graduate programs, qualified women drop out at higher rates than do men, resulting in a striking loss of talented students. Attitude toward a discipline is one of the major factors in students' choice of majors. As a result, attitudes toward S&T are issues with longstanding attention and interest in education research. Retention of female students in S&T majors remains a major concern. The purpose of the study was to investigate attitudes toward S&T including attitudes toward female participation in S&T, among S&T majors, and examine differences by gender and class standing. Such an investigation would provide deeper insights to help devise strategies to retain women in S&T majors.

  12. Attitude determination for three-axis stabilized geostationary meteorological satellite image navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yaguang; Wang, Zhigang

    2005-11-01

    To achieve the high accuracy of attitude determination for three-axis stabilized geostationary meteorological satellite image navigation, a new approach combined gyro with star trackers is proposed, and a real-time algorithm for attitude estimation is designed. This algorithm begins with a prediction for angular rate model errors induced by gyro drifting error, and ends with the extended Kalman filtering (EKF) for attitude estimation of three-axis. A Matlab-based time domain simulation model is developed to evaluate the attitude determination performance. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm has characteristics of high accuracy, rapid convergence and strong robustness.

  13. Neuroanatomy Predicts Individual Risk Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilaie-Dotan, Sharon; Tymula, Agnieszka; Cooper, Nicole; Kable, Joseph W.; Glimcher, Paul W.

    2014-01-01

    Over the course of the last decade a multitude of studies have investigated the relationship between neural activations and individual human decision-making. Here we asked whether the anatomical features of individual human brains could be used to predict the fundamental preferences of human choosers. To that end, we quantified the risk attitudes of human decision-makers using standard economic tools and quantified the gray matter cortical volume in all brain areas using standard neurobiological tools. Our whole-brain analysis revealed that the gray matter volume of a region in the right posterior parietal cortex was significantly predictive of individual risk attitudes. Participants with higher gray matter volume in this region exhibited less risk aversion. To test the robustness of this finding we examined a second group of participants and used econometric tools to test the ex ante hypothesis that gray matter volume in this area predicts individual risk attitudes. Our finding was confirmed in this second group. Our results, while being silent about causal relationships, identify what might be considered the first stable biomarker for financial risk-attitude. If these results, gathered in a population of midlife northeast American adults, hold in the general population, they will provide constraints on the possible neural mechanisms underlying risk attitudes. The results will also provide a simple measurement of risk attitudes that could be easily extracted from abundance of existing medical brain scans, and could potentially provide a characteristic distribution of these attitudes for policy makers. PMID:25209279

  14. Formal semantics for propositional attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Vanderveken

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary logic is confined to a few paradigmatic attitudes such as belief, knowledge, desire and intention. My purpose is to present a general model-theoretical semantics of propositional attitudes of any cognitive or volitive mode. In my view, one can recursively define the set of all psychological modes of attitudes. As Descartes anticipated, the two primitive modes are those of belief and desire. Complex modes are obtained by adding to primitive modes special cognitive and volitive ways or special propositional content or preparatory conditions. According to standard logic of attitudes (Hintikka, human agents are either perfectly rational or totally irrational. I will proceed to a finer analysis of propositional attitudes that accounts for our imperfect but minimal rationality. For that purpose I will use a non standard predicative logic according to which propositions with the same truth conditions can have different cognitive values and I will explicate subjective in addition to objective possibilities. Next I will enumerate valid laws of my general logic of propositional attitudes. At the end I will state principles according to which minimally rational agents dynamically revise attitudes of any mode.

  15. Attributional biases about the origins of attitudes: externality, emotionality, and rationality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenworthy, Jared B; Miller, Norman

    2002-05-01

    Pilot work and 3 studies investigated the ways people explain the origins of attitudes. Study I examined the use of 3 dimensions (externality, rationality, emotionality) to explain the origin of people's own, in-group, and out-group attitudes. Attributions for own attitudes were the least externally and emotionally based and the most rationally based. By comparison with the out-group, less externality, less emotionality, and more rationality also were attributed to in-group attitudes. Studies 2 and 3 examined the effects of intergroup threat on attributions for in- and out-group attitude positions. Under high threat, more externality and emotionality but less rationality were attributed to out-group attitudes than under low threat. Intergroup differentiation mediated the difference between out-group attributions under high and low threat.

  16. Children's Intergroup Relations and Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigler, Rebecca S; Rohrbach, John M; Sanchez, Kiara L

    2016-01-01

    The existence of warm, intimate, supportive, and egalitarian relationships between members of differing social outgroups is likely, at the societal level, to facilitate cooperation and cohesion, and at the individual level, to promote positive social, educational, and occupational outcomes. The developmental pathway from intergroup contact to intergroup attitudes as it operates among children is not, however, well understood. In our chapter, we review and integrate selected social and developmental science related to intergroup relations and attitudes with the goal of proposing a conceptual model of the pathway from intergroup contact to positive intergroup attitudes among youth.

  17. Correlates of College Students' Attitudes toward Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahn, Changhwan; And Others

    This study describes the development of the Attitude Toward Grades (ATG) survey instrument, a brief internally consistent measure of college student attitude toward grades and reports on selected behavioral correlates of that attitude. An initial item pool of approximately 50 attitude statements was created and the Thurstone equal appearing…

  18. The primary relevance of subconsciously offered attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Tore

    2015-01-01

    ) and subconsciously (covertly) offered attitudes – because subconsciously offered attitudes appear to be a driving force in linguistic variation and change in a way that consciously offered attitudes are not. The argument is based on evidence from empirical investigations of attitudes and use in the ‘...

  19. Demographic Group Differences in Adolescents' Time Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andretta, James R.; Worrell, Frank C.; Mello, Zena R.; Dixson, Dante D.; Baik, Sharon H.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we examined demographic differences in time attitudes in a sample of 293 adolescents. Time attitudes were measured using the Adolescent Time Attitude Scale (Mello & Worrell, 2007; Worrell, Mello, & Buhl, 2011), which assesses positive and negative attitudes toward the past, the present, and the future. Generally, African…

  20. Estimation of attitude sensor timetag biases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlak, J.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents an extended Kalman filter for estimating attitude sensor timing errors. Spacecraft attitude is determined by finding the mean rotation from a set of reference vectors in inertial space to the corresponding observed vectors in the body frame. Any timing errors in the observations can lead to attitude errors if either the spacecraft is rotating or the reference vectors themselves vary with time. The state vector here consists of the attitude quaternion, timetag biases, and, optionally, gyro drift rate biases. The filter models the timetags as random walk processes: their expectation values propagate as constants and white noise contributes to their covariance. Thus, this filter is applicable to cases where the true timing errors are constant or slowly varying. The observability of the state vector is studied first through an examination of the algebraic observability condition and then through several examples with simulated star tracker timing errors. The examples use both simulated and actual flight data from the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE). The flight data come from times when EUVE had a constant rotation rate, while the simulated data feature large angle attitude maneuvers. The tests include cases with timetag errors on one or two sensors, both constant and time-varying, and with and without gyro bias errors. Due to EUVE's sensor geometry, the observability of the state vector is severely limited when the spacecraft rotation rate is constant. In the absence of attitude maneuvers, the state elements are highly correlated, and the state estimate is unreliable. The estimates are particularly sensitive to filter mistuning in this case. The EUVE geometry, though, is a degenerate case having coplanar sensors and rotation vector. Observability is much improved and the filter performs well when the rate is either varying or noncoplanar with the sensors, as during a slew. Even with bad geometry and constant rates, if gyro biases are

  1. Assessing Attitude towards Religion: The Astley-Francis Scale of Attitude towards Theistic Faith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astley, Jeff; Francis, Leslie J.; Robbins, Mandy

    2012-01-01

    This study builds on the research tradition modelled by the Francis Scale of Attitude towards Christianity, the Katz-Francis Scale of Attitude towards Judaism, the Sahin-Francis Scale of Attitude towards Islam and the Santosh-Francis Scale of Attitude towards Hinduism to propose a generic instrument concerned with attitudes towards theistic faith.…

  2. Assessing Attitude towards Religion: The Astley-Francis Scale of Attitude towards Theistic Faith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astley, Jeff; Francis, Leslie J.; Robbins, Mandy

    2012-01-01

    This study builds on the research tradition modelled by the Francis Scale of Attitude towards Christianity, the Katz-Francis Scale of Attitude towards Judaism, the Sahin-Francis Scale of Attitude towards Islam and the Santosh-Francis Scale of Attitude towards Hinduism to propose a generic instrument concerned with attitudes towards theistic faith.…

  3. Parents' Attitudes toward Mathematics and the Influence on Their Students' Attitudes toward Mathematics: A Quantitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr-Schroeder, Margaret J.; Jackson, Christa; Cavalcanti, Maureen; Jong, Cindy; Schroeder, D. Craig; Speler, Lydia G.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate parents' attitudes toward mathematics, their students' attitude toward mathematics, and the influence of the parents' attitude on the students' attitude toward mathematics. Data analyses revealed statistically significant positive correlations between parents' and students' attitudes toward mathematics.…

  4. The effects of ego states on democratic attitudes: Nursing students’ opinions of nursing faculty members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayla Keçeci

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this descriptive study is to identify the ego states in the Transactional Analysis Approach for evaluating the interpersonal communication process, as well as the views of the nursing students regarding the democratic attitudes of their instructors. Consequently, the faculty members had democratic attitudes and there was a very high direct correlation between the Nurturing Parent ego state and democratic attitude.

  5. Exploring heterosexual women's anti-lesbian attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Wayne W

    2006-01-01

    Previous research on attitudes toward gays has mostly focused on heterosexuals' attitudes toward gay men, with little research specifically directed at anti-lesbian attitudes. Using a sample of 269 undergraduate heterosexual women, the present study tested two feminist propositions: Anti-lesbian attitudes would be associated with (1) conservative beliefs regarding the female gender-role and (2) attitudes toward men that support the differential status of women and men in the patriarchy. Findings based on a series of multiple regression analyses support these propositions across three components of anti-lesbian attitudes (contact apprehension, morality beliefs, and stereotypic beliefs). Directions for future research on anti-lesbian attitudes are discussed.

  6. Populism vs. elitism: social consensus and social status as bases of attitude certainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prislin, Radmila; Shaffer, Emily; Crowder, Marisa

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of social consensus and social status on attitude certainty that is conceptualized multi-dimensionally as perceived clarity and correctness of one's attitude. In a mock opinion exchange about a social issue, participants were either supported (high consensus) or opposed (low consensus) by most of the confederates. They were informed that their opinion (high status) or their opponents' opinion (low status) had the alleged psychological significance indicative of future success. Post-experimental attitude clarity was significantly greater when attitudinal position was associated with high rather than low status. Attitude correctness was interactively affected by social status and social consensus. Supporting the compensatory effect hypothesis, attitude correctness was comparable across the levels of social consensus as long as they were associated with high status, and across the levels of social status as long as they were associated with high social consensus.

  7. An Attitude Modelling Method Based on the Inherent Frequency of a Satellite Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, F.; Tang, X.; Xie, J.; Yan, C.

    2017-05-01

    The accuracy of attitude determination plays a key role in the improvement of surveying and mapping accuracy for high-resolution remote-sensing satellites, and it is a bottleneck in large-scale satellite topographical mapping. As the on-board energy is constrained and the performance of an attitude-measurement device is limited, the attitude acquired is discretely sampled with a settled time interval. The larger the interval, the easier the data transmission, and the more deviation the attitude data will have. Meanwhile, several kinds of jitter frequencies have been detected in satellite platforms. This paper presents a novel attitude modelling (AttModel) method that sufficiently considers the discrete and periodic characteristics, and the attitude model built is continuous and consists of several inherent waves of different frequencies. The process of modelling includes two steps: (a) frequency detection, which uses raw gyroscope data within a period of time to detect the attitude frequencies (as the gyroscope data can actually reflect continuous, very small changes of the satellite platform), and (b) attitude modelling , which processes the attitude data that was filtered by extended Kalman filtering based on general polynomial and trigonometric polynomials, and these trigonometric polynomials are rebuilt by those frequencies detected in the first part of the modelling process. Finally, one experiment designed for verifying the effectiveness of the presented method shows that the AttModel method can reach a slightly better pointing accuracy without ground-control points than traditional attitude-interpolation methods.

  8. Attitude development in designers' education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Doorn, E.; Moes, N.; Fain, N.

    Modern academic design and engineering education adopted the issues and goals of holistic development of design competence. Holistic design competence is a combination of generic capacities: capability, knowledge, skill, experience and attitude. All capacities should be addressed in academic educati

  9. Entrepreneurial Attitudes among Potential Entrepreneurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhtar Ali (Corresponding author

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article explores entrepreneurial attitudes among potential entrepreneurs in Pakistan. Multi-stage sampling maximized representation. Four hundred and eighty masters of business administration (MBA students (potential entrepreneurs from six public sector Pakistani universities returned completed questionnaires. Three factors emerged: entrepreneurial acceptability, entrepreneurial intentions and personal factors. Moreover, the perceptions of the potential entrepreneurs on locus of control, self efficacy, subjective norms and instrumental readiness were also analyzed. The majority of students showed generally positive attitudes towards entrepreneurship at all six universities. Overall there was a significant difference between negative and positive attitudes (negative mean 184, positive mean 284. There was also some impact of demographic variables, such as university, parental income and profession. Both genders exhibited similar attitudes at most of the sample institutions. The implications for practice and policy are discussed.

  10. Changing Student Attitudes about Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trent, Linda M.

    1993-01-01

    Troubled by students' attitudes toward disabled children, a Florida elementary school principal asked special education teachers to brainstorm some awareness activities. The resulting program, Handicapped Awareness through Stimulation (HATS), had four objectives: sensitizing students, providing interaction opportunities, developing empathy, and…

  11. Students' attitudes towards learning statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghulami, Hassan Rahnaward; Hamid, Mohd Rashid Ab; Zakaria, Roslinazairimah

    2015-05-01

    Positive attitude towards learning is vital in order to master the core content of the subject matters under study. This is unexceptional in learning statistics course especially at the university level. Therefore, this study investigates the students' attitude towards learning statistics. Six variables or constructs have been identified such as affect, cognitive competence, value, difficulty, interest, and effort. The instrument used for the study is questionnaire that was adopted and adapted from the reliable instrument of Survey of Attitudes towards Statistics(SATS©). This study is conducted to engineering undergraduate students in one of the university in the East Coast of Malaysia. The respondents consist of students who were taking the applied statistics course from different faculties. The results are analysed in terms of descriptive analysis and it contributes to the descriptive understanding of students' attitude towards the teaching and learning process of statistics.

  12. Leadership Style: Attitudes and Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersey, Paul; Blanchard, Kenneth H.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses significant differences between the Grid and Situational leadership styles. Examines the difference between attitudes and behaviors, gives examples, and explores the relationship between self-perception and leadership style. (CT)

  13. Student Attitudes Toward Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare-Mustin, Rachel T.; Garvine, Richard

    1974-01-01

    Inquiry into the initial attitudes toward mental illness of students taking an abnormal psychology class indicates students' concerns and preconceptions and provides a basis for shaping the course to respond to student needs. (JH)

  14. Attitude development in designers' education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Doorn, E.; Moes, N.; Fain, N.

    Modern academic design and engineering education adopted the issues and goals of holistic development of design competence. Holistic design competence is a combination of generic capacities: capability, knowledge, skill, experience and attitude. All capacities should be addressed in academic educati

  15. College Student Attitudes Toward Marijuana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amo, Michael F.; Bittner, John R.

    1970-01-01

    Questionnaire attempts to determine attitudes in effort to learn how students perceive danger, or lack of it, in the use of marihuana. Tabulated responses are presented, and while no conclusions are drawn several interpretations are suggested. (Author/CJ)

  16. Cultural transmission of civic attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles-Touya, Daniel; Rossi, Máximo

    2016-01-01

    In this empirical paper we attempt to measure the separate influence on civic engagement of educational attainment and cultural transmission of civic attitudes. Unlike most of the previous empirical works on this issue, we are able to approximate the cultural transmission of civic attitudes. We observe that civic returns to education are overstated when the transmission of civic attitudes is ignored. Moreover, the transmission of civic attitudes significantly enhances civic involvement and reinforces civic returns to education. Our findings are in line with the proposals of civic virtue theorists or grass movements who suggest that citizenship education should be included in the compulsory school curricula since, if not, families or local communities will only transmit their particular view of the world.

  17. Neuroticism and attitudes toward action in 19 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Molly E; Hepler, Justin; Li, Hong; Albarracín, Dolores

    2015-06-01

    Although individuals scoring high on Neuroticism tend to avoid taking action when faced with challenges, Neuroticism is also characterized by impulsivity. To explore cognitive biases related to this costly behavior pattern, we tested whether individuals who rated themselves as higher in Neuroticism would evaluate the general concepts of action and inaction as, respectively, more negative and positive. We further investigated whether anxiety and depression would mediate and individualism-collectivism would moderate these relations in a large international sample. Participants (N = 3,827 college students; 69% female) from 19 countries completed surveys measuring Neuroticism, attitudes toward action and inaction, depression, anxiety, and individualism-collectivism. Hierarchical linear models tested the above predictions. Neuroticism negatively correlated with attitudes toward action and positively correlated with attitudes toward inaction. Furthermore, anxiety was primarily responsible for emotionally unstable individuals' less positive attitudes toward action, and individuals who endorsed more collectivistic than individualistic beliefs showed a stronger negative association between Neuroticism and attitudes toward action. Researchers and practitioners interested in understanding and remediating the negative consequences of Neuroticism should pay greater attention to attitudes toward action and inaction, particularly focusing on their links with anxiety and individualism-collectivism.

  18. Mentor and protege attitudes towards the science mentoring program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios Jimenez, Noemaris

    The purpose of this study was to examine mentor and protege attitudes towards the science mentoring program. This study focused on the attitudes that proteges and mentors participating in the Puerto Rico Statewide Systemic Initiative (PRSSI) have towards the PRSSI mentoring program and the mentoring relationship. The data was gathered from a questionnaire for mentors and beginning teachers designed by Reiman and Edelfelt in 1990. It was used to measure the mentor and protege attitudes towards the science mentoring program by three variables: mentor-protege relationship, professional development, and supportive school climate. Data were collected from 56 science teachers (proteges) and 21 mentors from fourteen (14) junior high schools. Descriptive statistics were used to indicate both proteges and mentor attitudes towards the science mentoring program. T-tests were conducted to establish if there was a statistically significant difference between protege and mentor attitudes. In conclusion, the attitudes of mentors and proteges in regard to mentor-protege relationship, professional development, and supportive school climate were similar.

  19. Attitudes of Consumers Towards the Green Plastic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Elnecave Kruter

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The demands regarding sustainable production and consumption are growing increasingly, the market is opening doors for companies to innovate in products and processes that present themselves as a solution to social and environmental problems facing society today. To this end, in 2010, a Brazilian company began producing the "green" polyethylene, or green plastic, which differs from conventional polyethylene because it is produced from the ethanol from cane sugar and not from naphtha oil. Because it is a new product on the market and little known, this study aims to understand consumer attitudes towards green plastic. Environmental concerns, ecologically conscious consumer behavior, purchase intention and previous knowledge of green plastic were also assessed. Were conducted initially in-depth interviews, which helped quantitative stage, an online survey, applied to a sample of 300 individuals. Results indicate that surveyed consumers have positive attitudes towards green plastic and intention to purchase products made ​​with this material. Despite exhibiting a high degree of environmental awareness, they show only moderate attitudes in relation to sustainable consumption in practice. We can conclude that there is still much to be done by companies and society so that a greater degree of maturity and respect for the environment can be achieved.

  20. Attitudes of teenagers towards sexuality

    OpenAIRE

    Anes, Eugénia; Sousa, Filomena; Fernandes, Adília; Mata, Maria Augusta; Sousa, Marta

    2016-01-01

    The area of sexuality is seen as very relevant at any stage of life, but with speciic characteristics in adolescence. Attitudes, behaviors, beliefs and values related to sexuality in the life cycle stage, are factors that can inluence the health of adolescents, affecting the integrity of the various levels of functionality. To know the attitudes of teenagers towards sexuality and analyze its relationship with gender and religion. It is a study of quantitative approach, obser...

  1. Attitudes of teenagers towards sexuality

    OpenAIRE

    Anes, Eugénia; Sousa, Filomena; Fernandes, Adília; Mata, Maria Augusta; Sousa, Marta

    2016-01-01

    The area of sexuality is seen as very relevant at any stage of life, but with speciic characteristics in adolescence. Attitudes, behaviors, beliefs and values related to sexuality in the life cycle stage, are factors that can inluence the health of adolescents, affecting the integrity of the various levels of functionality. To know the attitudes of teenagers towards sexuality and analyze its relationship with gender and religion. It is a study of quantitative approach, obser...

  2. Correlation between family interaction and adolescents’ attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozana Petani

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the family on the individual is very powerful and life-long. The family differs from other factors because the individual spends the most time in the family environment. In his family the child makes his first steps, utters the first words, starts gaining knowledge, learns his first value, forms attitudes and forms the foundation for the later development as a complete personality. Parents are the first and most responsible educators of their child, and upbringing is the most important and probably the hardest task of every parent. The period of adolescence is very important in every person’s life, especially because of the process of separation and individuation. This is a transitional period from childhood to maturity with the greatest dynamics in the development of the individual. In this period adolescents change and mature. They are able to make independent decisions. Relationships with their parents play an important role in shaping their behavior. The paper observes the family through family interaction, which consists of the following dimensions: satisfaction with their own families, acceptance and rejection by the mother and father. The aim of this study was to examine whether dimensions of parental behavior and satisfaction with their own families, perceived by adolescents, are associated with adolescents’ attitudes to some aspects of family life. The study was conducted on 862 students of the final year of high school, of whom 385 were male and 477 female. The results showed a statistically significant correlation between the assessed family interaction dimensions and adolescents’ attitudes to family life, with the exception of the attitude to work. The results obtained can be used in organizing programs focusing on preparation of young people for parental and marital roles and strengthening the skills required later in their family lives for constructive solving of the problems they will encounter.

  3. The power of change: interpersonal attraction as a function of attitude similarity and attitude alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Chelsea A; Davis, Jody L; Green, Jeffrey D

    2013-01-01

    Does attitude alignment predict attraction? Would you like a stranger more who shifts her/his attitudes to more closely align with yours? In pairs, participants (N = 77) discussed social issues about which they disagreed and received false feedback on whether the partner engaged in attitude alignment (shifted her/his attitudes toward the participant's attitude) following discussion. Participants also received false feedback about the proportion of similarity to the partner on a set of issues (i.e., 25%, 50%, or 75%). Participants reported greater attraction to partners who engaged in attitude alignment and who were more similar. Moreover, similarity and attitude alignment interacted. Similarity predicted attraction when attitude alignment did not occur, but did not predict attraction when attitude alignment did occur. Finally, partner attitude alignment led to participant attitude alignment, and perceived reasoning ability mediated the attitude alignment-attraction relationship.

  4. I feel like I know you: sharing negative attitudes of others promotes feelings of familiarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Jonathan R; Bosson, Jennifer K

    2011-04-01

    Holding similar negative-versus positive-attitudes toward a third party has been shown to predict increased closeness to a stranger. Here, the authors examined whether this effect is mediated by the heightened feelings of familiarity engendered by shared negative attitudes. In Study 1, participants who shared with a (bogus) stranger a negative attitude of a professor subsequently reported knowing more about the stranger than those who shared a positive attitude, but only when they did not feel strongly about the attitude. In Study 2, a familiarity manipulation produced high levels of closeness among participants who believed they had a lot of information about a stranger. Among those who believed they knew little about the stranger, closeness was facilitated by sharing a weakly held, negative attitude of a professor. Discussion considers the relevance of these findings to the interpersonal attraction literature.

  5. Students attitude towards calculus subject: A case-study using structural equation modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awang, Noorehan; Hamid, Nur Nadiah Abd.

    2015-10-01

    This study was designed to assess the attitude of Bumiputera students towards mathematics. The instrument used to measure the attitude was Test of Mathematics Related Attitude (TOMRA). This test measures students' attitudes in four criteria: normality of mathematics (N), attitudes towards mathematics inquiry (I), adoption of mathematics attitude (A) and enjoyment of mathematics lessons (E). The target population of this study was all computer science and quantitative science students who enrolled in a Calculus subject at UiTM Negeri Sembilan. Confirmatory Factor Analysis was carried out and the inter-relationship among the four criteria was analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling. The students scored high in E, moderately in A and relatively low in N and I.

  6. The Scientific Attitudes of Students Major In Science in the New Teacher Education Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjorie P. Lacap

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study determined the scientific attitudes of the students major in science using descriptive method of research. Data were gathered from 153 science major students using scientific attitude scale as the main data gathering instrument. Science major students are mostly females with majority of second year students. Biology has the most number of enrolment. Majority of the respondents have low income. The level of scientific attitudes of science major students is high in terms of openmindedness, aversion to superstitions, curiosity and objectivity while moderate in terms of suspended judgment and rationality. The academic performances of the science major students were mostly satisfactory. There is no significant difference between the scientific attitudes of science major students when grouped according to gender, fields of specialization and family income. There is a significant difference between the scientific attitudes of science major students when grouped according to year level. Similarly, academic performance is significantly related to scientific attitudes.

  7. Linking Prenatal Androgens to Gender-Related Attitudes, Identity, and Activities: Evidence From Girls With Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endendijk, Joyce J; Beltz, Adriene M; McHale, Susan M; Bryk, Kristina; Berenbaum, Sheri A

    2016-10-01

    Key questions for developmentalists concern the origins of gender attitudes and their implications for behavior. We examined whether prenatal androgen exposure was related to gender attitudes, and whether and how the links between attitudes and gendered activity interest and participation were mediated by gender identity and moderated by hormones. Gender attitudes (i.e., gender-role attitudes and attitudes about being a girl), gender identity, and gender-typed activities were reported by 54 girls aged 10-13 years varying in degree of prenatal androgen exposure, including 40 girls with classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (C-CAH) exposed to high prenatal androgens and 14 girls with non-classical (NC) CAH exposed to low, female-typical, prenatal androgens. Both girls with C-CAH and NC-CAH reported positive attitudes about being a girl and egalitarian gender attitudes, consistent with their female-typical gender identity. In contrast, girls with C-CAH had more male-typed activity interest and participation than girls with NC-CAH. Gender attitudes were linked to activities in both groups, with gender identity mediating the links. Specifically, gender-role attitudes and positive attitudes about being a girl were associated with feminine gender identity, which in turn was associated with decreased male-typed activity interests and participation, and increased female-typed activity interests. Our results are consistent with schema theories, with attitudes more closely associated with gender identity than with prenatal androgens.

  8. An investigation of students’ attitudes to the ICT-based ELT classroom

    OpenAIRE

    RAHMAN, Mizanoor; Shrestha, Prithvi; Khalid, Iftekhar

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the attitude of students towards the ICT-enabled classroom. In a study of 113 high school students, an attitude scale was constructed and administered. The findings indicate a significant difference in the attitudes of Grade 9 students, who were found to be more in favour of and happier with ICT-based than normal classrooms on all of the tested items. No change was detected in these attitudes in relation to the type of school in which the participants s...

  9. Using cognitive dissonance to enhance faculty members' attitudes toward teaching online courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2006-10-01

    Adopting a reward strategy for inducing college faculty to teach online courses is expected to cause a positive shift of their attitudes. Based upon dissonance theory, a smaller reward will lead to greater attitude change, and this effect will be more pronounced in individualists. The results of an experimental study showed that individualist teachers exhibited greater attitude change under low reward than under high reward, but the reward effect was not prominent in collectivist teachers. Implications for enhancing college teachers' attitudes toward teaching online courses are discussed.

  10. The effects of matching instructional strategy with selected student characteristics on ninth grade physical science students' attitudes and achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trout, John S.; Crawley, Frank E.

    The study investigated the benefits of a matching model of instruction for students enrolled in ninth grade physical science classes in one high school in a small, urban school district. Based on social learning theory, three independent variables were identified for purposes of matching: need level, cognitive style, and locus of control; attitude and achievement outcomes served as the dependent variables. Results of separate analyses of covariance revealed that attitude toward science in general improved with matching, but achievement, attitude toward physical science, attitude toward instruction, and attitude toward the teacher did not improve. Recommendations for subsequent matching experiments are discussed in light of the findings in this investigation.

  11. Modelling Local Attitudes to Protected Areas in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Bragagnolo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During a time of intensifying competition for land, Protected Areas (PAs are coming under increasing pressure to justify their status. Positive local attitudes to a PA are a potentially important component of any such justification, especially in the developing world where human pressure on natural resources is often high. However, despite numerous studies our understanding of what drives positive attitudes to PAs is still exceedingly limited. Here, we review the literature on local attitudes towards PAs in developing countries. Our survey reveals a highly fragmented research area where studies typically lack an explicit conceptual basis, and where there is wide variation in choice of statistical approach, explanatory and response variables, and incorporation of contextual information. Nevertheless, there is a relatively high degree of concordance between studies, with certain variables showing strong associations with attitudes. We recommend that PA attitude researchers in developing countries adopt a more rigorous model building approach based on a clear conceptual framework and drawing on the extensive empirical literature. Such an approach would improve the quality of research, increase comparability, and provide a stronger basis to support conservation decision-making.

  12. Attitudes toward prostitution: Is it an ideological issue?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Expósito

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Prostitution has been the subject of intense debate in all societies and cultures though to varying degrees of public acceptance or rejection. The choice of legal approach to deal with this issue (i.e., legalization or prohibition may be influenced by ideological factors. The primary aim of this study was to assess, in a sample of 620 individuals drawn from general population, the legal stances towards prostitution, and attitudes and beliefs regarding the underlying motives and behaviour of men who resort to prostitution. Moreover, the effects of sexist attitudes and beliefs and the legal stance towards prostitution on victim-blaming in cases of physical or sexual assault to prostitutes were assessed. The results reveal significant differences in legal stance towards prostitution in relation to attitudes and beliefs concerning the underlying motives and behaviour of men who procure the services of a prostitute. In other words, a high score in prohibition was associated to hostile attitudes and belief regarding the behaviour of men who resort to prostitution whereas a high score in legalization predicted benevolent attitudes and beliefs towards these men. Furthermore, the results show that a high degree of hostile sexism and the legal stance of prohibition predicted victim-blaming in physical or sexual assault to prostitutes.

  13. Reviving Campbell's paradigm for attitude research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Florian G; Byrka, Katarzyna; Hartig, Terry

    2010-11-01

    Because people often say one thing and do another, social psychologists have abandoned the idea of a simple or axiomatic connection between attitude and behavior. Nearly 50 years ago, however, Donald Campbell proposed that the root of the seeming inconsistency between attitude and behavior lies in disregard of behavioral costs. According to Campbell, attitude- behavior gaps are empirical chimeras. Verbal claims and other overt behaviors regarding an attitude object all arise from one "behavioral disposition." In this article, the authors present the constituents of and evidence for a paradigm for attitude research that describes individual behavior as a function of a person's attitude level and the costs of the specific behavior involved. In the authors' version of Campbell's paradigm, they propose a formal and thus axiomatic rather than causal relationship between an attitude and its corresponding performances. The authors draw implications of their proposal for mainstream attitude theory, empirical research, and applications concerning attitudes.

  14. Trends in attitudes toward people living with HIV, homophobia, and HIV transmission knowledge in Quebec, Canada (1996, 2002, and 2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrien, Alix; Beaulieu, Marianne; Leaune, Viviane; Perron, Michèle; Dassa, Clément

    2013-01-01

    People living with HIV (PWHIV) face negative attitudes that isolate and discourage them from accessing services. Understanding negative attitudes and the social environment can lead to more effective health promotion strategies and programs. However, a scale to measure attitudes has been lacking. We developed and validated attitudes toward PWHIV Scale to examine trends in attitudes toward PWHIV in Quebec in 1996, 2002, and 2010. We also examined the relationship between negative attitudes toward PWHIV, homophobia, and knowledge about HIV transmission. The scale included 16 items and had a five-factor structure: F1 (fear of being infected), F2 (fear of contact with PWHIV), F3 (prejudicial beliefs toward groups at high risk of HIV), F4 (tolerance regarding sexual mores and behaviors), and F5 (social support for PWHIV). The validity and reliability of the scale were assessed and found to be high. Overall, Quebecers had positive attitudes toward PWHIV, with more negative attitudes observed in subgroups defined as male, ≥50 years of age, homophobia, and below-average knowledge about HIV transmission. Scores were stable between 1996 and 2002, and increased in 2010. Negative attitudes were correlated with higher levels of homophobia and lesser knowledge about HIV transmission. The lowest scores for each factor were observed in the same subgroups that had low overall scores on the Attitudes Scale. The findings from this study can be used to intensify interventions that promote compassion for PWHIV, address attitudes toward homosexuality, and encourage greater knowledge about the transmission of HIV in these subgroups.

  15. English Learning Achievement and EFL Learners' Cheating Attitudes and Cheating Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Mehrak; Goli, Atefeh

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current study was investigating the role of achievement in learning English as a foreign language in EFL learners' cheating attitudes and cheating behaviors. Eight hundred junior high-school students were selected based on random cluster sampling and participated in the study. Their attitudes towards academic dishonesty and their…

  16. Male Attitudes Toward Women's Rights as a Function of Their Level of Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Thomas W.

    The purpose of this research was to study the effects of men's attitudes toward the principles of the women's liberation movement as a function of their own self-esteem. The author hypothesizes that males found to have high levels of self esteem will have favorable and positive attitudes toward women's liberation while men with low levels of self…

  17. A Survey on Weifang Teachers' Attitudes toward Teaching Chinese Folk Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ruochen; Leung, Bo Wah

    2017-01-01

    In mainland China, the implementation of the junior secondary school's music curriculum is highly dependent on music teachers' attitudes towards music and music education. This study investigated the possible relationship between teachers' attitudes towards teaching Chinese folk music and their music teaching practice in junior secondary schools…

  18. Investigating Students' Test Anxiety and Attitude toward Foreign Language Learning in Secondary School in Ilam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliakbari, Mohammad; Gheitasi, Mojtaba

    2016-01-01

    This study tried to examine the level of anxiety of Iranian high school students in English language exams and their attitudes towards English language learning. Further, relationship between these two variables and the differences between test anxiety and attitude in different genders and majors of study were addressed. Westside Test Anxiety…

  19. Attacking the Personal Fable: Role-Play and Its Effect on Teen Attitudes toward Sexual Abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltz, Eli; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examines role playing as a tool for changing teenagers' attitudes about sex behavior and the consequences of teen pregnancy. A sample of 267 ninth-grade students attending a high-risk urban school participated. Role playing and watching videos of friends' role playing significantly increased favorable attitudes toward abstinence in girls but not…

  20. Great Expectations: Students' Educational Attitudes upon the Transition to Post-Secondary Vocational Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elffers, Louise; Oort, Frans J.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we examine students' educational attitudes upon the transition to Dutch senior vocational education (SVE), a transition associated with high dropout rates in the first year. Prior studies have identified differences in educational attitudes between sociodemographic groups. However, the mechanisms underlying those differences remain…

  1. The Change of Attitude to the Profession of University Graduates and Young Specialists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarsenova, Assel Berikovna; Sadyrova, Mansya Sapargalievna; Montayev, Ardak Bazarbekovich; Imanbekova, Bibigul Iliyasovna

    2016-01-01

    The article studies the problem of attitude change towards the profession of university graduates and young specialists in Kazakhstan. The attitude to profession and professional motivation of students is considered as a form of human opportunities in the field of labor relations which is shaped only as a result of study in high education…

  2. Influence of an Environmental Studies Course on Attitudes of Undergraduates at an Engineering University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Shih-Yun; Jackson, Nancy L.

    2014-01-01

    Studies suggest that at engineering universities, where the percentage of males and engineering majors is high, pro-environmental attitudes are likely to be weak and may not change. The 15-item New Ecological Paradigm (NEP) scale was used to measure differences in student attitudes before and after an environmental studies course. Results revealed…

  3. Young People's Attitudes toward the World of Work in Three Canadian Labour Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Maurice C.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined attitudes of 923 high school students from 3 economic settings toward work in 3 Canadian labor markets. Found significant differences for both group and gender on the variables attitude toward training for new technology, belief in work, and job security. For self-efficacy and locus of control, significant gender differences were found.…

  4. Implicit Attitudes toward Children May Be Unrelated to Child Abuse Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risser, Heather J.; Skowronski, John J.; Crouch, Julie L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore whether adults possess implicit attitudes toward children and whether those attitudes are especially negative among respondents who are high in child physical abuse (CPA) risk. Methods: The present study used an implicit evaluative priming procedure. In this procedure, participants were instructed to make decisions about the…

  5. Great expectations: students' educational attitudes upon the transition to post-secondary vocational education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elffers, L.; Oort, F.J.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we examine students’ educational attitudes upon the transition to Dutch senior vocational education (SVE), a transition associated with high dropout rates in the first year. Prior studies have identified differences in educational attitudes between sociodemographic groups. However, th

  6. Performance Information, Blame Avoidance, and Politicians’ Attitudes to Spending and Reform: Evidence From an Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Poul Aaes; Bækgaard, Martin

    2015-01-01

    information on politicians’ attitudes to spending and reform. To isolate the causal effect of performance information, we conducted a randomized survey experiment among 844 Danish city councilors. Information treatments showing high and low performance had a positive effect on attitudes to spending, whereas...

  7. Fearless Improvisation: A Pilot Study to Analyze String Students' Confidence, Anxiety, and Attitude toward Learning Improvisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the confidence, anxiety, and attitude of novice string student improvisers. A form of the Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Attitudes Scales, as modified for improvisation by Wehr-Flowers, was given to middle school and high school string students (N = 121) after their participation in a 4-month improvisation…

  8. The dynamics of CRM attitude change: Attitude stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorich, Steven E.

    1993-01-01

    Special training seminars in cockpit resource management (CRM) are designed to enhance crew effectiveness in multicrew air-transport cockpits. In terms of CRM, crew effectiveness is defined by teamwork rather than technical proficiency. These seminars are designed to promote factual learning, alter aviator attitudes, and motivate aviators to make use of what they have learned. However, measures of attitude change resulting from CRM seminars have been the most common seminar evaluation technique. The current investigation explores a broader range of attitude change parameters with specific emphasis on the stability of change between recurrent visits to the training center. This allows for a comparison of training program strengths in terms of seminar ability to effect lasting change.

  9. Attitudes toward Mathematics: Relationships to Mathematics Achievement, Gender, Mathematics Course-taking Plans, and Career Interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorndike-Christ, Tracy

    The relationship of attitudes toward mathematics to mathematics performance, gender, mathematics course-taking plans, and career interests were investigated. Students enrolled in public middle and high school mathematics courses (722 male, 794 female) served as subjects. The Fennema-Sherman Math Attitude scales were used to measure attitudes…

  10. Attitudes toward Dating Violence among Jewish and Arab Youth in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherer, Moshe

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to assess the attitudes toward dating violence among Jewish and Arab male and female adolescents in Israel. The random sample consisted of 1,357 participants from among 9th to 12th grade pupils enrolled in eight Arab and eight Jewish junior and senior high schools. The study assessed attitudes toward…

  11. Technology as enabler for empowerment in distributed teams - a field study on leadership attitudes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bayerl, P.S.; Lauche, K.

    2009-01-01

    In this field study on distributed teams we examined the impact of communication media on attitudes towards empowerment and integration of remote subgroups. Using Q-methodology, interviews and questionnaires we compared attitudes of team members and managers in low and high media-rich environments.

  12. BD2/GPS四频高精度接收机在远望号船姿测量中的应用%Attitude Measurement with High-Precision Dual-System Quad-Frequency BD2/GPS Receiver in Yuanwang Surveying Ship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周健; 毛刚; 赵李健; 王珏

    2012-01-01

    With the gradual improvement of the construction of Beidou satellite navigation system and the rapid spread of the Beidou application, BD2/GPS positioning terminal equipment has been widely used in various fields. The attitude measurement with high-precision dual-system quad-frequency BD2/GPS receiver in the o-cean-going surveying ship was described, and the attitude determination accuracy with the traditional single GPS receiver was compared, the analysis of the Beidou satellite system's role in attitude measurement and the advantages was made.%随着我国北斗卫星导航系统建设的逐步完善以及北斗应用的迅速推广,BD2/GPS定位终端设备已经开始广泛地应用于各个领域中.介绍了BD2/GPS双系统四频高精度接收机在远望号测量船船姿测量中的应用;并与传统的单一GPS接收机的测姿精度进行比对,分析北斗卫星导航系统在姿态测量中的作用与优势.

  13. 上海市高中生自杀态度及自杀意念水平研究%Suicide attitude and suicide ideation among Shanghai senior high school students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻彦; 彭宁宁

    2012-01-01

    Objective To know the suicide attitude and suicide ideation and the risk factors among Shanghai senior high school students. Methods Questionnaire surveys were conducted among 1 695 students by using ASLEC ( Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Check List) , EMBU (Egma Minnen av Bardndosnauppforstran) and BDI ( Beck Depression Inventory). Results About 41. 18% students were slight depression, 19.17% were moderate and 13. 75% were severe depression. There were no statistical significant difference between genders and regions. The stress of adolescent life events, mother' s severe punishment, father' s over protection were risk factors ( OR values were 1.10, 1.08 and 1.12 respectively) , while the family emotion warmth(OR = 0.94) and achievement( OR= 1.38) were protect factors. Conclusion To improve the psychological health of adolescents,it should emphasize on three facets which are individual, school and family.%目的 了解上海市高中生对自杀态度的取向以及其自杀意念的水平,为提高青少年心理健康提供依据.方法 采用青少年生活事件量表、父母教养方式评价量表及Beck抑郁问卷,对上海市1 695名高中生进行调查,由学生自评后统一回收问卷并进行评分.结果 41.18%的学生轻度抑郁,19.17%的学生中度抑郁,13.75%的学生重度抑郁,不同性别和地区的抑郁程度差异无统计学意义.在自杀意念影响因素中,青少年生活事件总应激量、母亲的惩罚严厉、父亲的过度保护均为危险因素,0R值分别为1.10,1.08,1.12;而家庭的情感温暖,学习成绩好是保护因素,0R值分别为0.94和1.38.结论 应采用综合性措施从个人、学校和家庭三方面共同努力,提高青少年心理健康水平.

  14. Comparison of ENVISAT's Attitude Simulation and Real Optical and SLR Observations in order to Refine the Satellite Attitude Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silha, J.; Schildknecht, T.; Pittet, J.; Bodenmann, D.; Kanzler, R.; Karrang, P.; Krag, H.

    2016-09-01

    The Astronomic Institute of the University of Bern (AIUB) in cooperation with other three partners is involved in an ESA study dedicated to the attitude determination of large spacecraft and upper stages. Two major goals are defined. First is the long term prediction of tumbling rates (e.g. 10 years) for selected targets for the future Active Debris Removal (ADR) missions. Second goal is the attitude state determination in case of contingencies, when a short response time is required between the observations themselves and the attitude determination. One of the project consortium partners, Hypersonic Technology Goettingen (HTG), is developing a highly modular software tool ιOTA to perform short- (days) to long-term (years) propagations of the orbit and the attitude motion of spacecraft in space. Furthermore, ιOTA's post-processing modules will generate synthetic measurements, e.g. light curves, SLR residuals and Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR) images that can be compared with the real measurements. In our work we will present the first attempt to compare real measurements with synthetic measurements in order to estimate the attitude state of tumbling satellite ENVISAT from observations performed by AIUB. We will shortly discuss the ESA project and ιOTA software tool. We will present AIUB's ENVISAT attitude state determined from the SLR ranges acquired by the Zimmerwald SLR station. This state was used as the initial conditions within the ιOTA software. Consequently the attitude of satellite was predicted by using ιOTA and compared with the real SLR residuals, as well with the high frame-rate light curves acquired by the Zimmerwald 1-m telescope.

  15. The effects of dysphoria and personality on negative self-referent attitudes and perceptions of the attitudes of others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshai, Shadi; Prentice, Jennifer L; Swan, Jennifer L; Dobson, Keith S

    2015-01-01

    The cognitive model of depression posits that depressed individuals harbor more dysfunctional self-referent attitudes, but little is known about how depressed individuals perceive the attitudes and perceptions of others in their social arena. This study examined whether dysphoric individuals perceive others to hold equally negative attitudes about themselves, and whether such perceptions depend on sociotropic (i.e., highly invested in social approval and relationship success) and autonomous (i.e., highly invested in vocational or academic achievement and goal attainment) personality styles. A sample of undergraduate students (N = 197) was recruited, and after the assessment of their depression symptoms and personality style, participants read vignettes that described negative scenarios, and imagined that these scenarios occurred to themselves or the general university student. After reading each vignette, participants also rated their agreement with a number of statements that assessed dysfunctional attitudes. Results indicated that elevated dysphoria (i.e., showing signs of depression) scores were positively associated with dysfunctional self-referent attitudes. Further, moderational analyses examining the interaction of sociotropy and dysphoria did not support the hypothesis that individuals higher on dysphoria and sociotropy were less likely to perceive others as harboring negative attitudes about themselves in comparison to those with elevated dysphoria and lower levels of sociotropy. Last, individuals showing elevated dysphoria and higher scores on subdomains of autonomy were more likely to perceive others as exhibiting negative attitudes about themselves than those with low levels of the trait. These findings, their implications, and strengths and limitations of the current investigation are further discussed.

  16. A hipertensão arterial sob o olhar de uma população carente: estudo exploratório a partir dos conhecimentos, atitudes e práticas High blood pressure from the perspective of a low-income population: an exploratory study of knowledge, attitudes, and practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Theophilo Lima

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho investiga conhecimentos, atitudes e comportamentos para hipertensão arterial entre adultos de uma comunidade de baixa renda, situada em Caucaia, Ceará, Brasil, e as razões que norteiam as suas atitudes com relação aos fatores de risco comportamentais ­ tabagismo, hábito de ingerir bebidas alcoólicas, ingestão de sal e gorduras na dieta e a prática de exercícios físicos. Foram entrevistadas 228 pessoas, utilizando um questionário estruturado e feitos 13 grupos focais de discussão para aprofundar as atitudes manifestadas. Os achados revelam que as razões norteadoras dos comportamentos e atitudes investigadas estão ligadas a emoções, a questões sociais e econômicas. As mudanças comportamentais representam o abandono de alguns prazeres para pessoas que lutam para sobreviver em condições de vida de pobreza. Viver em situação de pobreza interfere nas possibilidades de mudança de comportamentos.Knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to high blood pressure among adults in a low-income community in Caucaia, Ceará, Brazil, as well as factors influencing their attitudes toward behavioral risk factors (smoking, alcohol consumption, salt and fat consumption, and lack of physical exercise were studied. A total of 228 individuals were interviewed using a structured interview protocol. Thirteen focus groups provided a more in-depth analysis of attitudes. According to the findings, the reasons behind behaviors and attitudes are linked to emotions and socioeconomic issues. Behavioral changes involve giving up certain pleasures, for people who are struggling to survive in living conditions imposed by poverty. Living in poverty interferes with the possibility of behavioral change.

  17. Social attitudes and regional inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinko Muštra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available As the budgets of the European Union (EU become tighter, the questions about the effectiveness of EU’s expenditure, especially the most important parts such as Cohesion policy, are hotly debated. The aim of this paper is to examine whether the presence of social attitudes may influence the effectiveness of EU budget expenditure, measured by the level of regional inequalities. The analysis starts by focusing on individuals’ attitudes towards income from their own effort and income which is derived from other people’s effort, having in mind that individual actions depend on their attitudes. The next step establishes the link between the income from other people’s effort with the re-distributive dimension of the EU budget, considering that different attitudes among individuals in the EU could lead to significant differences in effectiveness of this redistributive policy among European regions and, consequently, diverse regional inequalities. Empirical research uses data for 27 EU countries observed over two waves of European Value Surveys: 1999-2000 (Wave 1 and 2008–2009 (Wave 2. The results indicate a significant role of social attitudes for regional inequalities, which raises the question of the appropriateness of simplification and uniform regional policy instruments in solving EU regional problems.

  18. Intimate Relationships and Attitudes Toward Celebrities

    OpenAIRE

    Lynn E. McCutcheon; Gillen, Meghan M.; Blaine L. Browne; Michael P. Murtagh; Brian Collisson

    2016-01-01

    Previous research indicates that persons who self-report a high level of preoccupation with celebrities tend to have lower levels of well-being. We administered the “Romantic Partner Conflict Scale”, the “Love Attitudes Scale”, the soulmate subscale from the “Relationship Theories Questionnaire”, and the anxiety subscale from the “Experiences in Close Relationships Scale” to 330 students from four universities to see how well scores on these measures would predict scores on each of the three ...

  19. Estimating the yaw-attitude of BDS IGSO and MEO satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xiaolei; Ge, Maorong; Lou, Yidong; Shi, Chuang; Wickert, Jens; Schuh, Harald

    2015-10-01

    Precise knowledge and consistent modeling of the yaw-attitude of GNSS satellites are essential for high-precision data processing and applications. As the exact attitude control mechanism for the satellites of the BeiDou Satellite Navigation System (BDS) is not yet released, the reverse kinematic precise point positioning (PPP) method was applied in our study. However, we confirm that the recent precise orbit determination (POD) processing for GPS satellites could not provide suitable products for estimating BDS attitude using the reverse PPP because of the special attitude control switching between the nominal and the orbit-normal mode. In our study, we propose a modified processing schema for studying the attitude behavior of the BDS satellites. In this approach, the observations of the satellites during and after attitude switch are excluded in the POD processing, so that the estimates, which are needed in the reverse PPP, are not contaminated by the inaccurate initial attitude mode. The modified process is validated by experimental data sets and the attitude yaw-angles of the BDS IGSO and MEO satellites are estimated with an accuracy of better than . Furthermore, the results confirm that the switch is executed when the Sun elevation is about and the actual orientation is very close to its target one. Based on the estimated yaw-angles, a preliminary attitude switch model was established and reintroduced into the POD, yielding to a substantial improvement in the orbit overlap RMS.

  20. Improving medical student attitudes toward older patients through a "council of elders" and reflective writing experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westmoreland, Glenda R; Counsell, Steven R; Sennour, Youcef; Schubert, Cathy C; Frank, Kathryn I; Wu, Jingwei; Frankel, Richard M; Litzelman, Debra K; Bogdewic, Stephen P; Inui, Thomas S

    2009-02-01

    In an effort to reduce "agism" which is prevalent among medical trainees, a new geriatrics educational experience for medical students aimed at improving attitudes toward older patients was developed. Each 90-minute Older Adult Session included four components: initial reflective writing exercise; introduction to the session; 75-minute dialogue with the "Council of Elders," a group of active, "well" older adults; and final reflective writing exercise. The new session was provided to 237 first- and second-year medical students during the 2006/07 academic year at Indiana University School of Medicine. Session evaluation included comparing scores on the 14-item Geriatrics Attitude Scale administered before and after the session, identifying attitude changes in the reflective writing exercises, and a student satisfaction survey. Student responses on the Geriatrics Attitude Scale after the session were significantly improved in seven of 14 items, demonstrating better attitudes toward being with and listening to older people and caring for older patients. Analysis of the reflective writings revealed changing of negative to positive or reinforced positive attitudes in 27% of medical students, with attitudes not discernable in the remaining 73% (except one student, in whom positive attitudes changed to negative). Learner satisfaction with the Older Adult Session was high, with 98% agreeing that the session had a positive effect on insight into the care of older adults. A Council of Elders coupled with a reflective writing exercise is a promising new approach to improving attitudes of medical students toward their geriatric patients.